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Sample records for disease-induced salivary biomarker

  1. Salivary biomarkers for dental caries.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiaoli; Jiang, Shan; Koh, David; Hsu, Chin-Ying Stephen

    2016-02-01

    As a highly prevalent multifactorial disease, dental caries afflicts a large proportion of the world's population. As teeth are constantly bathed in saliva, the constituents and properties of this oral fluid play an essential role in the occurrence and progression of dental caries. Various inorganic (water and electrolytes) and organic (proteins and peptides) components may protect teeth from dental caries. This occurs via several functions, such as clearance of food debris and sugar, aggregation and elimination of microorganisms, buffering actions to neutralize acid, maintaining supersaturation with respect to tooth mineral, participation in formation of the acquired pellicle and antimicrobial defense. Modest evidence is available on the associations between dental caries and several salivary parameters, including flow rate, buffering capacity and abundance of mutans streptococci. Despite some controversial findings, the main body of the literature supports an elevated caries prevalence and/or incidence among people with a pathologically low saliva flow rate, compromised buffering capacity and early colonization or high titer of mutans streptococci in saliva. The evidence remains weak and/or inconsistent on the association between dental caries and other saliva parameters, such as other possible cariogenic species (Lactobacillus spp., Streptococcus sanguis group, Streptococcus salivarius, Actinomyces spp. and Candida albicans), diversity of saliva microbiomes, inorganic and organic constituents (electrolytes, immunoglobulins, other proteins and peptides) and some functional properties (sugar clearance rate, etc.). The complex interactions between salivary components and functions suggest that saliva has to be considered in its entirety to account for its total effects on teeth. PMID:26662487

  2. Salivary Biomarkers in Pediatric Metabolic Disease Research.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Mor-Li; Goodson, J Max; Barake, Roula; Alsmadi, Osama; Al-Mutawa, Sabiha; Ariga, Jitendra; Soparkar, Pramod; Behbehani, Jawad; Behbehani, Kazem

    2016-03-01

    The increasing prevalence of childhood obesity and obesity-related metabolic disorders is now considered a global pandemic. The main goal of the pediatric obesity research community is to identify children who are at risk of becoming obese before their body mass index rises above age norms. To do so, we must identify biomarkers of metabolic health and immunometabolism that can be used for large-scale screening and diagnosis initiatives among at-risk children. Because blood sampling is often unacceptable to both parents and children when there is no direct benefit to the child, as in a community-based research study, there is a clear need for a low-risk, non-invasive sampling strategy. Salivary analysis is now well recognized as a likely candidate for this purpose. In this review, we discuss the physiologic role of saliva and its strengths and limitations as a fluid for biomarker discovery, obesity screening, metabolic disease diagnosis, and response monitoring after interventions. We also describe the current state of the salivary biomarker field as it pertains to metabolic research, with a special emphasis on studies conducted in children and adolescents. Finally, we look forward to technological developments, such as salivary "omics" and point of service diagnostic devices, which have the potential to accelerate the pace of research and discovery in this vitally important field. PMID:27116847

  3. Metabolic Disease Risk in Children by Salivary Biomarker Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Goodson, J. Max; Kantarci, Alpdogan; Hartman, Mor-Li; Denis, Gerald V.; Stephens, Danielle; Hasturk, Hatice; Yaskell, Tina; Vargas, Jorel; Wang, Xiaoshan; Cugini, Maryann; Barake, Roula; Alsmadi, Osama; Al-Mutawa, Sabiha; Ariga, Jitendra; Soparkar, Pramod; Behbehani, Jawad; Behbehani, Kazem; Welty, Francine

    2014-01-01

    Objective The study of obesity-related metabolic syndrome or Type 2 diabetes (T2D) in children is particularly difficult because of fear of needles. We tested a non-invasive approach to study inflammatory parameters in an at-risk population of children to provide proof-of-principle for future investigations of vulnerable subjects. Design and Methods We evaluated metabolic differences in 744, 11-year old children selected from underweight, normal healthy weight, overweight and obese categories by analyzing fasting saliva samples for 20 biomarkers. Saliva supernatants were obtained following centrifugation and used for analyses. Results Salivary C-reactive protein (CRP) was 6 times higher, salivary insulin and leptin were 3 times higher, and adiponectin was 30% lower in obese children compared to healthy normal weight children (all P<0.0001). Categorical analysis suggested that there might be three types of obesity in children. Distinctly inflammatory characteristics appeared in 76% of obese children while in 13%, salivary insulin was high but not associated with inflammatory mediators. The remaining 11% of obese children had high insulin and reduced adiponectin. Forty percent of the non-obese children were found in groups which, based on biomarker characteristics, may be at risk for becoming obese. Conclusions Significantly altered levels of salivary biomarkers in obese children from a high-risk population, suggest the potential for developing non-invasive screening procedures to identify T2D-vulnerable individuals and a means to test preventative strategies. PMID:24915044

  4. Identification of salivary metabolomic biomarkers for oral cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Shigeo; Sugimoto, Masahiro; Kitabatake, Kenichiro; Sugano, Ayako; Nakamura, Marina; Kaneko, Miku; Ota, Sana; Hiwatari, Kana; Enomoto, Ayame; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Tomita, Masaru; Iino, Mitsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore salivary metabolite biomarkers by profiling both saliva and tumor tissue samples for oral cancer screening. Paired tumor and control tissues were obtained from oral cancer patients and whole unstimulated saliva samples were collected from patients and healthy controls. The comprehensive metabolomic analysis for profiling hydrophilic metabolites was conducted using capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry. In total, 85 and 45 metabolites showed significant differences between tumor and matched control samples, and between salivary samples from oral cancer and controls, respectively (P < 0.05 correlated by false discovery rate); 17 metabolites showed consistent differences in both saliva and tissue-based comparisons. Of these, a combination of only two biomarkers yielded a high area under receiver operating characteristic curves (0.827; 95% confidence interval, 0.726-0.928, P < 0.0001) for discriminating oral cancers from controls. Various validation tests confirmed its high generalization ability. The demonstrated approach, integrating both saliva and tumor tissue metabolomics, helps eliminate pseudo-molecules that are coincidentally different between oral cancers and controls. These combined salivary metabolites could be the basis of a clinically feasible method of non-invasive oral cancer screening. PMID:27539254

  5. Identification of salivary metabolomic biomarkers for oral cancer screening

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Shigeo; Sugimoto, Masahiro; Kitabatake, Kenichiro; Sugano, Ayako; Nakamura, Marina; Kaneko, Miku; Ota, Sana; Hiwatari, Kana; Enomoto, Ayame; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Tomita, Masaru; Iino, Mitsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore salivary metabolite biomarkers by profiling both saliva and tumor tissue samples for oral cancer screening. Paired tumor and control tissues were obtained from oral cancer patients and whole unstimulated saliva samples were collected from patients and healthy controls. The comprehensive metabolomic analysis for profiling hydrophilic metabolites was conducted using capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry. In total, 85 and 45 metabolites showed significant differences between tumor and matched control samples, and between salivary samples from oral cancer and controls, respectively (P < 0.05 correlated by false discovery rate); 17 metabolites showed consistent differences in both saliva and tissue-based comparisons. Of these, a combination of only two biomarkers yielded a high area under receiver operating characteristic curves (0.827; 95% confidence interval, 0.726–0.928, P < 0.0001) for discriminating oral cancers from controls. Various validation tests confirmed its high generalization ability. The demonstrated approach, integrating both saliva and tumor tissue metabolomics, helps eliminate pseudo-molecules that are coincidentally different between oral cancers and controls. These combined salivary metabolites could be the basis of a clinically feasible method of non-invasive oral cancer screening. PMID:27539254

  6. Salivary Biomarkers in the Control of Mosquito-Borne Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Doucoure, Souleymane; Drame, Papa Makhtar

    2015-01-01

    Vector control remains the most effective measure to prevent the transmission of mosquito-borne diseases. However, the classical entomo-parasitological methods used to evaluate the human exposure to mosquito bites and the effectiveness of control strategies are indirect, labor intensive, and lack sensitivity in low exposure/transmission areas. Therefore, they are limited in their accuracy and widespread use. Studying the human antibody response against the mosquito salivary proteins has provided new biomarkers for a direct and accurate evaluation of the human exposure to mosquito bites, at community and individual levels. In this review, we discuss the development, applications and limits of these biomarkers applied to Aedes- and Anopheles-borne diseases. PMID:26593952

  7. Role of Pancreatic Cancer-derived Exosomes in Salivary Biomarker Development*

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Chang; Kim, Yong; Chia, David; Spielmann, Nadine; Eibl, Guido; Elashoff, David; Wei, Fang; Lin, Yi-Ling; Moro, Aune; Grogan, Tristan; Chiang, Samantha; Feinstein, Eric; Schafer, Christopher; Farrell, James; Wong, David T. W.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that discriminatory salivary biomarkers can be readily detected upon the development of systemic diseases such as pancreatic cancer, breast cancer, lung cancer, and ovarian cancer. However, the utility of salivary biomarkers for the detection of systemic diseases has been undermined due to the absence of the biological and mechanistic rationale as to why distal diseases from the oral cavity would lead to the development of discriminatory biomarkers in saliva. Here, we examine the hypothesis that pancreatic tumor-derived exosomes are mechanistically involved in the development of pancreatic cancer-discriminatory salivary transcriptomic biomarkers. We first developed a pancreatic cancer mouse model that yielded discriminatory salivary biomarkers by implanting the mouse pancreatic cancer cell line Panc02 into the pancreas of the syngeneic host C57BL/6. The role of pancreatic cancer-derived exosomes in the development of discriminatory salivary biomarkers was then tested by engineering a Panc02 cell line that is suppressed for exosome biogenesis, implanting into the C56BL/6 mouse, and examining whether the discriminatory salivary biomarker profile was ablated or disrupted. Suppression of exosome biogenesis results in the ablation of discriminatory salivary biomarker development. This study supports that tumor-derived exosomes provide a mechanism in the development of discriminatory biomarkers in saliva and distal systemic diseases. PMID:23880764

  8. Salivary Biomarkers of Periodontal Disease in Response to Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Sexton, William Michael; Lin, Yushun; Kryscio, Richard J.; Dawson, Dolphus R.; Ebersole, Jeffrey L.; Miller, Craig S.

    2011-01-01

    Background Salivary biomarkers of periodontitis were assessed longitudinally to determine response to therapy. Methods A 6-month case-controlled study of adults with chronic periodontitis was performed, with 33 participants receiving oral hygiene instructions (OHI) alone and 35 with scaling and root planing (SRP) combined with OHI. Saliva samples collected at week 0, 16 and 28 were analyzed for interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-8, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α, matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8), osteoprotegerin (OPG) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF)-α. Clinical measures of periodontal disease were recorded at each visit. Results All parameters of periodontal health improved significantly in both groups by week 16 (p<0.0001) with the SRP group demonstrating greater benefit at week 16 and 28. Baseline OPG and TNF-α levels changed significantly at both follow-up visits (p<0.03), regardless of treatment group. IL-1β and MMP-8 levels decreased significantly from baseline (p≤0.04) in the SRP group only. OPG, MMP-8 and MIP-1α were significantly reduced in responders compared with non-responders (p=0.04, 0.01, 0.05 respectively). In receiver operating characteristic analyses, MMP-8 produced the highest area under the curve (≥ 0.7; p=0.01). Conclusion Salivary levels of IL-1β, MMP-8, OPG and MIP-1α reflected disease severity and response to therapy suggesting their potential utility for monitoring periodontal disease status. PMID:21480939

  9. Salivary biomarkers: toward future clinical and diagnostic utilities.

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, Janice M; Schafer, Christopher A; Schafer, Jason J; Farrell, James J; Paster, Bruce J; Wong, David T W

    2013-10-01

    The pursuit of timely, cost-effective, accurate, and noninvasive diagnostic methodologies is an endeavor of urgency among clinicians and scientists alike. Detecting pathologies at their earliest stages can significantly affect patient discomfort, prognosis, therapeutic intervention, survival rates, and recurrence. Diagnosis and monitoring often require painful invasive procedures such as biopsies and repeated blood draws, adding undue stress to an already unpleasant experience. The discovery of saliva-based microbial, immunologic, and molecular biomarkers offers unique opportunities to bypass these measures by utilizing oral fluids to evaluate the condition of both healthy and diseased individuals. Here we discuss saliva and its significance as a source of indicators for local, systemic, and infectious disorders. We highlight contemporary innovations and explore recent discoveries that deem saliva a mediator of the body's physiological condition. Additionally, we examine the current state of salivary diagnostics and its associated technologies, future aspirations, and potential as the preferred route of disease detection, monitoring, and prognosis. PMID:24092855

  10. Salivary Biomarkers: Toward Future Clinical and Diagnostic Utilities

    PubMed Central

    Yoshizawa, Janice M.; Schafer, Christopher A.; Schafer, Jason J.; Farrell, James J.; Paster, Bruce J.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The pursuit of timely, cost-effective, accurate, and noninvasive diagnostic methodologies is an endeavor of urgency among clinicians and scientists alike. Detecting pathologies at their earliest stages can significantly affect patient discomfort, prognosis, therapeutic intervention, survival rates, and recurrence. Diagnosis and monitoring often require painful invasive procedures such as biopsies and repeated blood draws, adding undue stress to an already unpleasant experience. The discovery of saliva-based microbial, immunologic, and molecular biomarkers offers unique opportunities to bypass these measures by utilizing oral fluids to evaluate the condition of both healthy and diseased individuals. Here we discuss saliva and its significance as a source of indicators for local, systemic, and infectious disorders. We highlight contemporary innovations and explore recent discoveries that deem saliva a mediator of the body's physiological condition. Additionally, we examine the current state of salivary diagnostics and its associated technologies, future aspirations, and potential as the preferred route of disease detection, monitoring, and prognosis. PMID:24092855

  11. Salivary Heparanase Level Is a Potential Biomarker to Diagnose and Prognose the Malignant Salivary Gland Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin; Liu, Yang; Zhu, Shengrong; Gong, Zhongjian

    2015-01-01

    Background Upregulation of heparanase has been reported in an increasing number of human cancer tissues. However, the level of salivary heparanase and its clinical significance in patients with salivary gland tumors remain unclear. Methods Salivary heparanase levels in patients with salivary gland tumors were detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and the clinical significance was evaluated by analyzing the correlations among salivary heparanase levels, clinicopathological parameters, and clinical outcomes. Results The levels of salivary heparanase were significantly higher in patients with malignant salivary gland tumors than in benign tumors and normal controls (P<0.0001). High salivary heparanase levels were positively correlated with increased lymph node metastasis (P = 0.0235) and poorer tumor node metastasis stage (TNM) (P = 0.0183). Survival analyses revealed that high salivary heparanase levels were associated with worse overall survival (P = 0.0023) and disease-free survival (DFS) (P = 0.0025). Conclusions The study shows that salivary heparanase levels, as detected by the ELISAs, can be used to diagnose and provide an accurate prognosis for malignant salivary gland tumors. Salivary heparanase level was an independent predictor in patients with malignant salivary gland tumors. PMID:26569485

  12. Personalized medicine: an update of salivary biomarkers for periodontal diseases.

    PubMed

    Korte, Dina L; Kinney, Janet

    2016-02-01

    This article provides an up-to-date review of the more robust salivary biomarkers, as well as of panels of combinatorial markers and periodontal pathogens, that reveal high sensitivity and specificity for enhancing clinical decision-making in periodontal disease progression, risk and diagnosis. Periodontal diseases are complex and require an inflammatory response to bacterial pathogens in a susceptible host to stimulate tissue destruction. When used alone, traditional clinical assessments provide a diagnosis of periodontitis only after the biologic onset of the disease process, and are unable to substantiate disease activity or future risk. New technologies are becoming available that are capable of measuring combinations of inflammatory cytokines and proteinases for rapid chair-side testing. Utilizing saliva to identify and measure specific phenotypes and host-derived mediators will allow highly individualized diagnosis, prognosis and treatments for periodontal diseases. This personalized medicine approach will strengthen the power of the clinical oral examination and medical history assessments, providing patients with evidence-based, targeted risk care. PMID:26662480

  13. A Pilot Proteomic Analysis of Salivary Biomarkers in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Ngounou Wetie, Armand G; Wormwood, Kelly L; Russell, Stefanie; Ryan, Jeanne P; Darie, Costel C; Woods, Alisa G

    2015-06-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) prevalence is increasing, with current estimates at 1/68-1/50 individuals diagnosed with an ASD. Diagnosis is based on behavioral assessments. Early diagnosis and intervention is known to greatly improve functional outcomes in people with ASD. Diagnosis, treatment monitoring and prognosis of ASD symptoms could be facilitated with biomarkers to complement behavioral assessments. Mass spectrometry (MS) based proteomics may help reveal biomarkers for ASD. In this pilot study, we have analyzed the salivary proteome in individuals with ASD compared to neurotypical control subjects, using MS-based proteomics. Our goal is to optimize methods for salivary proteomic biomarker discovery and to identify initial putative biomarkers in people with ASDs. The salivary proteome is virtually unstudied in ASD, and saliva could provide an easily accessible biomaterial for analysis. Using nano liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, we found statistically significant differences in several salivary proteins, including elevated prolactin-inducible protein, lactotransferrin, Ig kappa chain C region, Ig gamma-1 chain C region, Ig lambda-2 chain C regions, neutrophil elastase, polymeric immunoglobulin receptor and deleted in malignant brain tumors 1. Our results indicate that this is an effective method for identification of salivary protein biomarkers, support the concept that immune system and gastrointestinal disturbances may be present in individuals with ASDs and point toward the need for larger studies in behaviorally-characterized individuals. PMID:25626423

  14. Salivary Nitric Oxide, a Biomarker for Stress and Anxiety?

    PubMed Central

    Al-Smadi, Ahmed Mohammad; Ashour, Ala Fawzi; Al-Awaida, Wajdy

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate if salivary nitrate correlates to the daily psychological stress and anxiety in a group of human subjects. Methods The convenient sample recruitment method was employed; data from seventy three subjects were analyzed. The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A) inventories were used to determine stress and anxiety scores respectively. Salivary nitric oxide was measured through nitrate (NOx) levels using the Griess reaction method. Results Although stress and anxiety were correlated. No significant correlation exists between salivary nitrate and daily psychological stress and anxiety in the study's participants. Conclusion While all previous studies focused NOx levels in acute stress models. This is the first study to investigate the correlation between salivary nitrates and daily psychological stress and anxiety. Although stress and anxiety were correlated, there is no correlation between salivary nitrates and daily psychological stress and anxiety. Further studies are required to investigate this correlation using other biological samples such as plasma. PMID:27247597

  15. Literature-Based Discovery of Salivary Biomarkers for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Mythily; Blackburn, Corinne; Mohamed, Mohamed; Sivagami, AV; Blum, Janice

    2015-01-01

    The alarming increase in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) underscores the need for efficient screening and preventive strategies. Select protein biomarker profiles emerge over time during T2DM development. Periodic evaluation of these markers will increase the predictive ability of diabetes risk scores. Noninvasive methods for frequent measurements of biomarkers are increasingly being investigated. Application of salivary diagnostics has gained importance with the establishment of significant similarities between the salivary and serum proteomes. The objective of this study is to identify T2DM-specific salivary biomarkers by literature-based discovery. A serial interrogation of the PubMed database was performed using MeSH terms of specific T2DM pathological processes in primary and secondary iterations to compile cohorts of T2DM-specific serum markers. Subsequent search consisted of mining for the identified serum markers in human saliva. More than 60% of T2DM-associated serum proteins have been measured in saliva. Nearly half of these proteins have been reported in diabetic saliva. Measurements of salivary lipids and oxidative stress markers that can exhibit correlated saliva plasma ratio could constitute reliable factors for T2DM risk assessment. We conclude that a high percentage of T2DM-associated serum proteins can be measured in saliva, which offers an attractive and economical strategy for T2DM screening. PMID:26005324

  16. Salivary and Urinary Total Antioxidant Capacity as Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Peluso, Ilaria; Raguzzini, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC) is a biomarker often used in order to investigate oxidative stress in many pathological conditions. Saliva and urine can be collected noninvasively and represent attractive diagnostic fluids for detecting biomarkers of various pathological conditions. The reviewed case-control and intervention studies that measured salivary or urinary TAC revealed that diseases, antioxidant foods, or supplements and age, gender, and lifestyle factors influenced salivary or urinary TAC. Salivary and urinary TAC were particularly affected by oral or renal status, respectively, as well as by infection; therefore these factors must be taken into account in both case-control and intervention studies. Furthermore, some considerations on sample collection and normalization strategies could be made. In particular, unstimulated saliva could be the better approach to measure salivary TAC, whereas 24 h or spontaneous urine collection should be chosen on the basis of the study outcome and of the creatinine clearance. Finally, the uric acid-independent TAC could be the better approach to evaluate red-ox status of body, in particular after nutritional interventions and in diseases associated with hyperuricaemia. PMID:26966611

  17. Salivary and Urinary Total Antioxidant Capacity as Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Humans.

    PubMed

    Peluso, Ilaria; Raguzzini, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC) is a biomarker often used in order to investigate oxidative stress in many pathological conditions. Saliva and urine can be collected noninvasively and represent attractive diagnostic fluids for detecting biomarkers of various pathological conditions. The reviewed case-control and intervention studies that measured salivary or urinary TAC revealed that diseases, antioxidant foods, or supplements and age, gender, and lifestyle factors influenced salivary or urinary TAC. Salivary and urinary TAC were particularly affected by oral or renal status, respectively, as well as by infection; therefore these factors must be taken into account in both case-control and intervention studies. Furthermore, some considerations on sample collection and normalization strategies could be made. In particular, unstimulated saliva could be the better approach to measure salivary TAC, whereas 24 h or spontaneous urine collection should be chosen on the basis of the study outcome and of the creatinine clearance. Finally, the uric acid-independent TAC could be the better approach to evaluate red-ox status of body, in particular after nutritional interventions and in diseases associated with hyperuricaemia. PMID:26966611

  18. Continuous Metabolic Syndrome Scores for Children Using Salivary Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Ping; Goodson, J. Max; Hartman, Mor-Li; Hasturk, Hatice; Yaskell, Tina; Vargas, Jorel; Cugini, Maryann; Barake, Roula; Alsmadi, Osama; Al-Mutawa, Sabiha; Ariga, Jitendra; Soparkar, Pramod; Behbehani, Jawad; Behbehani, Kazem; Welty, Francine

    2015-01-01

    Background Binary definitions of the metabolic syndrome based on the presence of a particular number of individual risk factors are limited, particularly in the pediatric population. To address this limitation, we aimed at constructing composite and continuous metabolic syndrome scores (cmetS) to represent an overall measure of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a large cohort of metabolically at-risk children, focusing on the use of the usual clinical parameters (waist circumference (WC) and systolic blood pressure (SBP), supplemented with two salivary surrogate variables (glucose and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC). Two different approaches used to create the scores were evaluated in comparison. Methods Data from 8,112 Kuwaiti children (10.00 ± 0.67 years) were used to construct two cmetS for each subject. The first cmetS (cmetS-Z) was created by summing standardized residuals of each variable regressed on age and gender; and the second cmetS (cmetS-PCA) was defined as the first principal component from gender-specific principal component analysis based on the four variables. Results There was a graded relationship between both scores and the number of adverse risk factors. The areas under the curve using cmetS-Z and cmetS-PCA as predictors for severe metabolic syndrome (defined as the presence of ≥3 metabolic risk factors) were 0.935 and 0.912, respectively. cmetS-Z was positively associated with WC, SBP, and glucose, but inversely associated with HDLC. Except for the lack of association with glucose, cmetS-PCA was similar to cmetS-Z in boys, but had minimum loading on HDLC in girls. Analysis using quantile regression showed an inverse association of fitness level with cmetS-PCA (p = 0.001 for boys; p = 0.002 for girls), and comparison of cmetS-Z and cmetS-PCA suggested that WC and SBP were main contributory components. Significant alterations in the relationship between cmetS and salivary adipocytokines were demonstrated in overweight and obese

  19. Computational prediction of human salivary proteins from blood circulation and application to diagnostic biomarker identification.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiaxin; Liang, Yanchun; Wang, Yan; Cui, Juan; Liu, Ming; Du, Wei; Xu, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Proteins can move from blood circulation into salivary glands through active transportation, passive diffusion or ultrafiltration, some of which are then released into saliva and hence can potentially serve as biomarkers for diseases if accurately identified. We present a novel computational method for predicting salivary proteins that come from circulation. The basis for the prediction is a set of physiochemical and sequence features we found to be discerning between human proteins known to be movable from circulation to saliva and proteins deemed to be not in saliva. A classifier was trained based on these features using a support-vector machine to predict protein secretion into saliva. The classifier achieved 88.56% average recall and 90.76% average precision in 10-fold cross-validation on the training data, indicating that the selected features are informative. Considering the possibility that our negative training data may not be highly reliable (i.e., proteins predicted to be not in saliva), we have also trained a ranking method, aiming to rank the known salivary proteins from circulation as the highest among the proteins in the general background, based on the same features. This prediction capability can be used to predict potential biomarker proteins for specific human diseases when coupled with the information of differentially expressed proteins in diseased versus healthy control tissues and a prediction capability for blood-secretory proteins. Using such integrated information, we predicted 31 candidate biomarker proteins in saliva for breast cancer. PMID:24324552

  20. Targeted salivary biomarkers for discrimination of periodontal health and disease(s)

    PubMed Central

    Ebersole, Jeffrey L.; Nagarajan, Radhakrishnan; Akers, David; Miller, Craig S.

    2015-01-01

    Generally, clinical parameters are used in dental practice for periodontal disease, yet several drawbacks exist with the clinical standards for addressing the needs of the public at large in determining the current status/progression of the disease, and requiring a significant amount of damage before these parameters can document disease. Therefore, a quick, easy and reliable method of assessing and monitoring periodontal disease should provide important diagnostic information that improves and speeds treatment decisions and moves the field closer to individualized point-of-care diagnostics. Objective: This report provides results for a saliva-based diagnostic approach for periodontal health and disease based upon the abundance of salivary analytes coincident with disease, and the significant progress already made in the identification of discriminatory salivary biomarkers of periodontitis. Methods: We evaluated biomarkers representing various phases of periodontitis initiation and progression (IL-1ß, IL-6, MMP-8, MIP-1α) in whole saliva from 209 subjects categorized with periodontal health, gingivitis, and periodontitis. Results: Evaluation of the salivary analytes demonstrated utility for individual biomarkers to differentiate periodontitis from health. Inclusion of gingivitis patients into the analyses provided a more robust basis to estimate the value of each of these analytes. Various clinical and statistical approaches showed that pairs or panels of the analytes were able to increase the sensitivity and specificity for the identification of disease. Conclusions: Salivary concentrations of IL-1ß, IL-6, MMP-8, MIP-1α alone and in combination are able to distinguish health from gingivitis and periodontitis. The data clearly demonstrated a heterogeneity in response profiles of these analytes that supports the need for refinement of the standard clinical classifications if we are to move toward precision/personalized dentistry for the twenty-first century

  1. Dysbiosis of Salivary Microbiota in Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Its Association With Oral Immunological Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Said, Heba S.; Suda, Wataru; Nakagome, Shigeki; Chinen, Hiroshi; Oshima, Kenshiro; Kim, Sangwan; Kimura, Ryosuke; Iraha, Atsushi; Ishida, Hajime; Fujita, Jiro; Mano, Shuhei; Morita, Hidetoshi; Dohi, Taeko; Oota, Hiroki; Hattori, Masahira

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of microbiota in various biological and environmental samples under a variety of conditions has recently become more practical due to remarkable advances in next-generation sequencing. Changes leading to specific biological states including some of the more complex diseases can now be characterized with relative ease. It is known that gut microbiota is involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), mainly Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, exhibiting symptoms in the gastrointestinal tract. Recent studies also showed increased frequency of oral manifestations among IBD patients, indicating aberrations in the oral microbiota. Based on these observations, we analyzed the composition of salivary microbiota of 35 IBD patients by 454 pyrosequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene and compared it with that of 24 healthy controls (HCs). The results showed that Bacteroidetes was significantly increased with a concurrent decrease in Proteobacteria in the salivary microbiota of IBD patients. The dominant genera, Streptococcus, Prevotella, Neisseria, Haemophilus, Veillonella, and Gemella, were found to largely contribute to dysbiosis (dysbacteriosis) observed in the salivary microbiota of IBD patients. Analysis of immunological biomarkers in the saliva of IBD patients showed elevated levels of many inflammatory cytokines and immunoglobulin A, and a lower lysozyme level. A strong correlation was shown between lysozyme and IL-1β levels and the relative abundance of Streptococcus, Prevotella, Haemophilus and Veillonella. Our data demonstrate that dysbiosis of salivary microbiota is associated with inflammatory responses in IBD patients, suggesting that it is possibly linked to dysbiosis of their gut microbiota. PMID:24013298

  2. Dysbiosis of salivary microbiota in inflammatory bowel disease and its association with oral immunological biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Said, Heba S; Suda, Wataru; Nakagome, Shigeki; Chinen, Hiroshi; Oshima, Kenshiro; Kim, Sangwan; Kimura, Ryosuke; Iraha, Atsushi; Ishida, Hajime; Fujita, Jiro; Mano, Shuhei; Morita, Hidetoshi; Dohi, Taeko; Oota, Hiroki; Hattori, Masahira

    2014-02-01

    Analysis of microbiota in various biological and environmental samples under a variety of conditions has recently become more practical due to remarkable advances in next-generation sequencing. Changes leading to specific biological states including some of the more complex diseases can now be characterized with relative ease. It is known that gut microbiota is involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), mainly Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, exhibiting symptoms in the gastrointestinal tract. Recent studies also showed increased frequency of oral manifestations among IBD patients, indicating aberrations in the oral microbiota. Based on these observations, we analyzed the composition of salivary microbiota of 35 IBD patients by 454 pyrosequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene and compared it with that of 24 healthy controls (HCs). The results showed that Bacteroidetes was significantly increased with a concurrent decrease in Proteobacteria in the salivary microbiota of IBD patients. The dominant genera, Streptococcus, Prevotella, Neisseria, Haemophilus, Veillonella, and Gemella, were found to largely contribute to dysbiosis (dysbacteriosis) observed in the salivary microbiota of IBD patients. Analysis of immunological biomarkers in the saliva of IBD patients showed elevated levels of many inflammatory cytokines and immunoglobulin A, and a lower lysozyme level. A strong correlation was shown between lysozyme and IL-1β levels and the relative abundance of Streptococcus, Prevotella, Haemophilus and Veillonella. Our data demonstrate that dysbiosis of salivary microbiota is associated with inflammatory responses in IBD patients, suggesting that it is possibly linked to dysbiosis of their gut microbiota. PMID:24013298

  3. Salivary α-amylase levels as a biomarker of experienced fear

    PubMed Central

    Bibas, David; Adolphs, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    We recently reported data related to emotions collected in conjunction with a museum exhibit on emotion (Goose Bumps!—The Science of Fear).1 In this addendum, we present additional data collected as part of that study. We collected two commonly measured indices of emotional arousal, salivary cortisol and α-amylase, before and after participants had gone through a realistic fear challenge course as part of the exhibit. We found that α-amylase, but not cortisol, showed a highly specific increase only for those participants who endorsed both emotional arousal and negative valence. By contrast, the fear-inducing course resulted in high arousal but positive valence in some participants; in these, no increased α-amylase was measured. We conclude that salivary α-amylase is a promising biomarker for fearful experiences, and suggest that it is important to pay attention to positively valenced arousal that may be induced by fearful stimuli in a laboratory setting. PMID:21331229

  4. Salivary biomarkers for detection of oral squamous cell carcinoma – current state and recent advances

    PubMed Central

    Yakob, Maha; Fuentes, Laurel; Wang, Marilene B.; Abemayor, Elliot; Wong, David T.W.

    2014-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common malignant neoplasm of the oral cavity. Detection of OSCC is currently based on thorough clinical oral examination combined with biopsy for histological analysis. Most cases of OSCC are not detected until the cancer has developed into advanced stages; thus, a reliable early stage diagnostic marker is needed. This literature review presents an overview of the status of current advances in salivary diagnostics for OSCC. Though many protein and mRNA salivary biomarkers have been identified that can detect OSCC with high sensitivity and specificity, the most discernable findings occur with the use of multiple markers. Studies that incorporate proteomic, transcriptomic, and potentially additional “omics”, including methylomics, need to be initiated to bring technology to clinical applications and allow the best use of saliva in diagnosing OSCC. PMID:24883261

  5. Incorporating Salivary Biomarkers into Nursing Research: An Overview and Review of Best Practices

    PubMed Central

    Granger, Douglas A.; Johnson, Sara B.; Szanton, Sarah L.; Out, Dorothée; Schumann, Lynette Lau

    2014-01-01

    Analytes and biomarkers present in saliva may provide insight into individual differences in environmental chemical exposures, variation in reproductive hormones, therapeutic and illegal substance use, changes in stress-related physiology, and the immunologic footprints of infectious disease. The wealth of information provided by salivary analytes has the potential to enrich biobehavioral nursing research by enabling researchers to measure these individual differences in the clinic as well as in patients' and participants' everyday social worlds. In this paper we provide a roadmap for researchers new to this area who would like to learn more about integrating salivary biospecimens into the next generation of health research. In addition, we highlight best practices and strategies to avoid common pitfalls for researchers already engaged in this field. PMID:22593229

  6. Assessment of Anopheles salivary antigens as individual exposure biomarkers to species-specific malaria vector bites

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Malaria transmission occurs during the blood feeding of infected anopheline mosquitoes concomitant with a saliva injection into the vertebrate host. In sub-Saharan Africa, most malaria transmission is due to Anopheles funestus s.s and to Anopheles gambiae s.l. (mainly Anopheles gambiae s.s. and Anopheles arabiensis). Several studies have demonstrated that the immune response against salivary antigens could be used to evaluate individual exposure to mosquito bites. The aim of this study was to assess the use of secreted salivary proteins as specific biomarkers of exposure to An. gambiae and/or An. funestus bites. Methods For this purpose, salivary gland proteins 6 (SG6) and 5′nucleotidases (5′nuc) from An. gambiae (gSG6 and g-5′nuc) and An. funestus (fSG6 and f-5′nuc) were selected and produced in recombinant form. The specificity of the IgG response against these salivary proteins was tested using an ELISA with sera from individuals living in three Senegalese villages (NDiop, n = 50; Dielmo, n = 38; and Diama, n = 46) that had been exposed to distinct densities and proportions of the Anopheles species. Individuals who had not been exposed to these tropical mosquitoes were used as controls (Marseille, n = 45). Results The IgG responses against SG6 recombinant proteins from these two Anopheles species and against g-5′nucleotidase from An. gambiae, were significantly higher in Senegalese individuals compared with controls who were not exposed to specific Anopheles species. Conversely, an association was observed between the level of An. funestus exposure and the serological immune response levels against the f-5′nucleotidase protein. Conclusion This study revealed an Anopheles salivary antigenic protein that could be considered to be a promising antigenic marker to distinguish malaria vector exposure at the species level. The epidemiological interest of such species-specific antigenic markers is discussed. PMID:23276246

  7. Data from human salivary proteome – A resource of potential biomarkers for oral cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sivadasan, Priya; Kumar Gupta, Manoj; Sathe, Gajanan J.; Balakrishnan, Lavanya; Palit, Priyanka; Gowda, Harsha; Suresh, Amritha; Abraham Kuriakose, Moni; Sirdeshmukh, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    Salivary proteins are an important source for developing marker-based assays for oral cancers. To get an insight into the proteins present in human saliva, we applied multiple strategies involving affinity-based depletion of abundant proteins, fractionation of the resulting proteins or their tryptic peptides followed by LC–MS/MS analysis, using high resolution mass spectrometry. By integrating the protein identifications observed by us with those from similar workflows employed in earlier investigations, we compiled an updated salivary proteome. We have mapped the salivary proteome to the published data on differentially expressed proteins from oral cancer tissues and also for their secretory features using prediction tools, SignalP 4.1, TMHMM 2c and Exocarta. Proteotypic peptides for the subset of proteins implicated in oral cancer and mapped to any two of the prediction tools for secretory potential have been listed. The data here are related to the research article “Human saliva proteome – a resource of potential biomarkers for oral cancer” in the Journal of Proteomics [1]. PMID:26217819

  8. Evaluation of stress in final-year Saudi dental students using salivary cortisol as a biomarker.

    PubMed

    Pani, Sharat Chandra; Al Askar, Alaa M; Al Mohrij, Sara I; Al Ohali, Tagreed A

    2011-03-01

    The aims of this study were to identify the perceived sources of stress in final-year dental students studying in a private dental school in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, using a modified dental environmental stress (DES) scale and to correlate these findings, at various times in the semester, with the level of acute stress measured with salivary cortisol as a biomarker. A total of forty final-year students were administered a modified DES questionnaire consisting of twenty-five questions to determine the perceived causes of stress. Salivary cortisol levels during the first week of the semester, the final week of clinical training, and one hour before the final didactic examination were assessed. Baseline cortisol levels were significantly lower than the cortisol levels in the clinic, and both these values were significantly lower than the salivary cortisol levels before the examination (p<0.001). Comparison of cortisol levels to the perceived sources of stress and demographic data collected showed that certain discrepancies may exist between the perceived and actual stress felt by dental students at different times in the academic semester. PMID:21368262

  9. Using Salivary Nitrite and Nitrate Levels as a Biomarker for Drug-Induced Gingival Overgrowth

    PubMed Central

    Sukuroglu, Erkan; Güncü, Güliz N.; Kilinc, Kamer; Caglayan, Feriha

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Drug-induced gingival overgrowth has a multifactorial nature and the pathogenesis is still uncertain. It has been suggested that Nitric Oxide (NO) might play a role in the pathogenesis of drug-induced gingival overgrowth due to the contribution of NO to immune response and matrix degradation. NO levels in biological fluids have been used as a diagnostic biomarker in many diseases. The aim of this study is to determine whether NO levels in plasma, saliva, and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) can serve as a potential biomarker for the evaluation of drug-induced gingival overgrowth risk. Materials and Methods: A total of 104 patients, receiving cyclosporine A (n = 35), phenytoin (n = 25), nifedipine (n = 26), or diltiazem (n = 18) participated in the study. The amount of gingival overgrowth was evaluated with two indices and was given as percentage. Periodontal clinical parameters including plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), gingival bleeding time index (GBTI), and probing depth (PD) were also assessed. Saliva, GCF, and plasma samples were obtained from each participants. Nitrite and nitrate levels in saliva, GCF, and plasma were analyzed by Griess reagent. Results: Salivary nitrite and nitrate levels in responders were significantly higher than those in non-responders in only phenytoin group (p < 0.05). Nitrite and nitrate levels of gingival crevicular fluid and plasma did not significantly differ between responders and non-responders in all study groups (p > 0.05). Salivary nitrite levels exhibited a significant correlation with PD, GBTI, severity of gingival overgrowth (%GO), and GCF volume (p < 0.05). Additionally, a strong positive correlation was detected between saliva and plasma nitrate levels (p < 0.005). However, both nitrite and nitrate levels in GCF and plasma demonstrated no significant correlation with clinical parameters, GO severity, and GCF volume (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Salivary nitrite and nitrate levels could be used as periodontal disease

  10. Diagnostic capability of salivary biomarkers in the assessment of head and neck cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Eliete Neves Silva; Acevedo, Ana Carolina; Leite, André Ferreira; Gozal, David; Chardin, Hélène; De Luca Canto, Graziela

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the diagnostic value of salivary biological markers in the diagnosis of head and neck carcinoma. Studies were gathered by searching Cochrane, EMBASE, LILACS, MEDLINE, and PubMed. The references were also crosschecked and a partial grey literature search was undertaken using Google Scholar. The methodology of selected studies was evaluated using the 14-item Quality Assessment Tool for Diagnostic Accuracy Studies. After a two-step selection process, 15 articles were identified and subjected to qualitative and quantitative analyses. The studies were homogeneous, and all had high methodological quality. Combined biomarkers demonstrated better accuracy with higher sensitivity and specificity than those tested individually. Furthermore, the salivary biomarkers reviewed predicted the early stages of head and neck carcinoma better than the advanced stages. A restricted set of five single biomarkers (interleukin-8, choline, pipecolinic acid, l-phenylalanine, and S-carboxymethyl-l-cysteine) as well as combined biomarkers demonstrated excellent diagnostic test accuracy. The present systematic review confirms the potential value of a selected set of salivary biomarkers as diagnostic tools for head and neck carcinoma. PMID:26170140

  11. MicroRNA Expression Profiles as Biomarkers of Minor Salivary Gland Inflammation and Dysfunction in Sjögren's Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Alevizos, Ilias; Alexander, Stefanie; Turner, R. James; Illei, Gabor G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective MicroRNA reflect physiologic and pathologic processes and may be used as biomarkers of concurrent pathophysiologic events in complex settings such as autoimmune diseases. We generated microRNA microarray profiles from the minor salivary glands of control subjects without Sjögren's syndrome (SS) and patients with SS who had low-grade or high-grade inflammation and impaired or normal saliva production, to identify microRNA patterns specific to salivary gland inflammation or dysfunction. Methods MicroRNA expression profiles were generated by Agilent microRNA arrays. We developed a novel method for data normalization by identifying housekeeping microRNA. MicroRNA profiles were compared by unsupervised mathematical methods to test how well they distinguish between control subjects and various subsets of patients with SS. Several bioinformatics methods were used to predict the messenger RNA targets of the differentially expressed microRNA. Results MicroRNA expression patterns accurately distinguished salivary glands from control subjects and patients with SS who had low-degree or high-degree inflammation. Using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, we validated 2 microRNA as markers of inflammation in an independent cohort. Comparing microRNA from patients with preserved or low salivary flow identified a set of differentially expressed microRNA, most of which were up-regulated in the group with decreased salivary gland function, suggesting that the targets of microRNA may have a protective effect on epithelial cells. The predicted biologic targets of microRNA associated with inflammation or salivary gland dysfunction identified both overlapping and distinct biologic pathways and processes. Conclusion Distinct microRNA expression patterns are associated with salivary gland inflammation and dysfunction in patients with SS, and microRNA represent a novel group of potential biomarkers. PMID:21280008

  12. Unhealthy Phenotype as Indicated by Salivary Biomarkers: Glucose, Insulin, VEGF-A, and IL-12p70 in Obese Kuwaiti Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Hartman, Mor-Li; Goodson, J. Max; Shi, Ping; Vargas, Jorel; Yaskell, Tina; Stephens, Danielle; Cugini, Maryann; Hasturk, Hatice; Barake, Roula; Alsmadi, Osama; Al-Mutawa, Sabiha; Ariga, Jitendra; Soparkar, Pramod; Behbehani, Jawad; Behbehani, Kazem; Welty, Francine

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Here, we investigated the relationships between obesity and the salivary concentrations of insulin, glucose, and 20 metabolic biomarkers in Kuwaiti adolescents. Previously, we have shown that certain salivary metabolic markers can act as surrogates for blood concentrations. Methods. Salivary samples of whole saliva were collected from 8,317 adolescents. Salivary glucose concentration was measured by a high-sensitivity glucose oxidase method implemented on a robotic chemical analyzer. The concentration of salivary insulin and 20 other metabolic biomarkers was assayed in 744 randomly selected saliva samples by multiplexed bead-based immunoassay. Results. Obesity was seen in 26.5% of the adolescents. Salivary insulin predicting hyperinsulinemia occurred in 4.3% of normal-weight adolescents, 8.3% of overweight adolescents, and 25.7% of obese adolescents (p < 0.0001). Salivary glucose predicting hyperglycemia was found in only 3% of obese children and was not predictive (p = 0.89). Elevated salivary glucose and insulin occurring together was associated with elevated vascular endothelial growth factor and reduced salivary interleukin-12. Conclusion. Considering the surrogate nature of salivary insulin and glucose, this study suggests that elevated insulin may be a dominant sign of metabolic disease in adolescent populations. It also appears that a proangiogenic environment may accompany elevated glucose in obese adolescents. PMID:27069678

  13. Salivary MicroRNAs as Promising Biomarkers for Detection of Esophageal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xuchao; Li, Dongfeng; Huang, Jian; Yang, Cuiqin; Zhang, Pingyong; Qin, Yuxuan; Duan, Yifan; Gong, Bo; Li, Zijun

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Tissue microRNAs (miRNAs) can detect cancers and predict prognosis. Several recent studies reported that tissue, plasma, and saliva miRNAs share similar expression profiles. In this study, we investigated the discriminatory power of salivary miRNAs (including whole saliva and saliva supernatant) for detection of esophageal cancer. Materials and Methods By Agilent microarray, six deregulated miRNAs from whole saliva samples from seven patients with esophageal cancer and three healthy controls were selected. The six selected miRNAs were subjected to validation of their expression levels by RT-qPCR using both whole saliva and saliva supernatant samples from an independent set of 39 patients with esophageal cancer and 19 healthy controls. Results Six miRNAs (miR-10b*, miR-144, miR-21, miR-451, miR-486-5p, and miR-634) were identified as targets by Agilent microarray. After validation by RT-qPCR, miR-10b*, miR-144, and miR-451 in whole saliva and miR-10b*, miR-144, miR-21, and miR-451 in saliva supernatant were significantly upregulated in patients, with sensitivities of 89.7, 92.3, 84.6, 79.5, 43.6, 89.7, and 51.3% and specificities of 57.9, 47.4, 57.9%, 57.9, 89.5, 47.4, and 84.2%, respectively. Conclusions We found distinctive miRNAs for esophageal cancer in both whole saliva and saliva supernatant. These miRNAs possess discriminatory power for detection of esophageal cancer. Because saliva collection is noninvasive and convenient, salivary miRNAs show great promise as biomarkers for detection of esophageal cancer in areas at high risk. PMID:23560033

  14. Salivary cortisol as a biomarker to explore the role of maternal stress in early childhood caries.

    PubMed

    Pani, Sharat Chandra; Abuthuraya, Deena; Alshammery, Hadia M; Alshammery, Dalal; Alshehri, Hind

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To compare salivary cortisol levels of children with ECC and their mothers with those of caries free children from a similar sociodemographic cohort. Design. Sixty-four college-educated, working mothers from middle income families with no history of anxiety disorders and their first born children aged between 48 and 71 months were included in the study. Salivary cortisol levels were analyzed using electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunoassay. Statistical Analyses. Significance of difference between the cortisol levels of children with ECC and control children and of their mothers was analyzed using the Student's t- test. The intraclass correlation coefficient was used to measure the significance of correlation of cortisol levels between the mother and the child with logistic regression to explore possible associations. Results. Mothers of children with ECC had significantly higher levels of salivary cortisol (P < 0.05) than mothers of caries free children. The salivary cortisol levels of children with ECC were significantly higher than caries free children (P < 0.0001). A significant correlation existed between the salivary cortisol level of the mother and that of the child (P < 0.0001). Conclusion. While salivary cortisol levels of the child seem to have a direct impact on the incidence of ECC, maternal stress seems to have an indirect effect. PMID:23781246

  15. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Malaria Vector Control Measures in Urban Settings of Dakar by a Specific Anopheles Salivary Biomarker

    PubMed Central

    Drame, Papa Makhtar; Diallo, Abdoulaye; Poinsignon, Anne; Boussari, Olayide; Dos Santos, Stephanie; Machault, Vanessa; Lalou, Richard; Cornelie, Sylvie; LeHesran, Jean-Yves; Remoue, Franck

    2013-01-01

    Standard entomological methods for evaluating the impact of vector control lack sensitivity in low-malaria-risk areas. The detection of human IgG specific to Anopheles gSG6-P1 salivary antigen reflects a direct measure of human–vector contact. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of a range of vector control measures (VCMs) in urban settings by using this biomarker approach. The study was conducted from October to December 2008 on 2,774 residents of 45 districts of urban Dakar. IgG responses to gSG6-P1 and the use of malaria VCMs highly varied between districts. At the district level, specific IgG levels significantly increased with age and decreased with season and with VCM use. The use of insecticide-treated nets, by drastically reducing specific IgG levels, was by far the most efficient VCM regardless of age, season or exposure level to mosquito bites. The use of spray bombs was also associated with a significant reduction of specific IgG levels, whereas the use of mosquito coils or electric fans/air conditioning did not show a significant effect. Human IgG response to gSG6-P1 as biomarker of vector exposure represents a reliable alternative for accurately assessing the effectiveness of malaria VCM in low-malaria-risk areas. This biomarker tool could be especially relevant for malaria control monitoring and surveillance programmes in low-exposure/low-transmission settings. PMID:23840448

  16. Salivary Biomarker Levels and Diurnal Variation: Associations with Medications Prescribed to Control Children's Problem Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hibel, Leah C.; Granger, Douglas A.; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred

    2007-01-01

    This study examined associations between medications prescribed to control children's problem behaviors and levels of, and diurnal variation in, salivary cortisol (C), testosterone (T), and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). Saliva was collected in the morning, midday, and afternoon from 432 children ages 6-13 years. Relative to a no-medication…

  17. Salivary and serum biomarkers for the study of side effects of aripiprazole coprescribed with mirtazapine in rats

    PubMed Central

    Bogdan, Maria; Silosi, Isabela; Surlin, Petra; Tica, Andrei Adrian; Tica, Oana Sorina; Balseanu, Tudor-Adrian; Rauten, Anne-Marie; Camen, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the co-administration of aripiprazole and mirtazapine could determine weight gain and lipid metabolism disorders in Wistar rats, compared to the same side effects produced by mirtazapine alone, and the risk of hepatotoxicity due to the combination of the two substances. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP/FABP1) and repulsive guidance molecule C/hemojuvelin (RGM-C/HJV) levels were determined in serum and in saliva. Also, serum levels for total cholesterol (TC), low and high-density lipoprotein (LDL, HDL), triglycerides (TG), aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT) and alanine amino transferase (ALAT) were assessed. We found positive and statistically significant correlations between serum and salivary levels of TNF-α, L-FABP/FABP1 and RGM-C/HJV. Mirtazapine determined significantly differences of TNF-α and L-FABP serum levels; final body weight; TC and LDL levels, leading to higher concentrations than its association with aripiprazole. Although not statistically significant, mirtazapine group experienced higher values for salivary levels of TNF-α, TG and ASAT, and lower values for HDL, compared to aripiprazole + mirtazapine group. The results suggest that aripiprazole might improve some of the disturbances caused by mirtazapine, and that the two drugs combination cause no additional alterations in liver function. Also, the findings indicate that TNF-α, L-FABP/FABP1 and RGM-C/HJV levels can be helpful as biomarkers for metabolic disturbances and impaired function of hepatocytes, and that their salivary determination can replace serum determination. PMID:26221370

  18. Salivary and serum biomarkers for the study of side effects of aripiprazole coprescribed with mirtazapine in rats.

    PubMed

    Bogdan, Maria; Silosi, Isabela; Surlin, Petra; Tica, Andrei Adrian; Tica, Oana Sorina; Balseanu, Tudor-Adrian; Rauten, Anne-Marie; Camen, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the co-administration of aripiprazole and mirtazapine could determine weight gain and lipid metabolism disorders in Wistar rats, compared to the same side effects produced by mirtazapine alone, and the risk of hepatotoxicity due to the combination of the two substances. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP/FABP1) and repulsive guidance molecule C/hemojuvelin (RGM-C/HJV) levels were determined in serum and in saliva. Also, serum levels for total cholesterol (TC), low and high-density lipoprotein (LDL, HDL), triglycerides (TG), aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT) and alanine amino transferase (ALAT) were assessed. We found positive and statistically significant correlations between serum and salivary levels of TNF-α, L-FABP/FABP1 and RGM-C/HJV. Mirtazapine determined significantly differences of TNF-α and L-FABP serum levels; final body weight; TC and LDL levels, leading to higher concentrations than its association with aripiprazole. Although not statistically significant, mirtazapine group experienced higher values for salivary levels of TNF-α, TG and ASAT, and lower values for HDL, compared to aripiprazole + mirtazapine group. The results suggest that aripiprazole might improve some of the disturbances caused by mirtazapine, and that the two drugs combination cause no additional alterations in liver function. Also, the findings indicate that TNF-α, L-FABP/FABP1 and RGM-C/HJV levels can be helpful as biomarkers for metabolic disturbances and impaired function of hepatocytes, and that their salivary determination can replace serum determination. PMID:26221370

  19. Salivary cortisol: a possible biomarker in evaluating stress and effects of interventions in young foster children?

    PubMed

    van Andel, Hans W H; Jansen, Lucres M C; Grietens, Hans; Knorth, Erik J; van der Gaag, Rutger Jan

    2014-01-01

    Young foster children undergo an early separation from their caregiver(s) and often experience severe stress before placement. However, a considerable part of the children do not show apparent signs of distress, making it difficult for the foster carer to be aware of the amount of stress in their foster child. Potential evidence for using salivary cortisol levels as a dimension to evaluate the amount of stress in young foster children is reviewed. Moreover, the applicability of salivary cortisol in the evaluation of stress-reducing interventions for young foster children is discussed. A systematic review was performed using the databases Medline, Psychinfo, Embase, Ebscohost, and Academic Search Premier. Nine studies were traced in which salivary cortisol was used to measure stress in children placed in family foster care or in adoptive families. Stress in general but also neglect, early loss of a caregiver, a younger age at first placement, and a higher number of placements were associated with an altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function in foster children. Moreover, four studies on the effect of stress-reducing interventions on HPA-axis functioning of young foster children were found. These studies suggest that caregiver-based interventions can actually help to normalize the HPA-axis function in foster children, and that such changes co-occur with improved behavioral functioning. Although the results from the papers discussed in this review suggest that diurnal cortisol with a wake up and a bedtime measurement may be a relevant tool to evaluate stress in young foster children, this cannot yet be concluded from the present studies, because statistical data from the studies on foster care and adoption in this review were not robust and researchers used different methods to collect the salivary cortisol. Still, it is noteworthy that all studies did find the same pattern of reduced levels in relation to chronic stress (caused by maltreatment and

  20. Estimation of Salivary and Serum Biomarkers in Diabetic and Non Diabetic Patients - A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Ladgotra, Amit; Raj, Seetharamaiah Sunder

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Blood is the gold standard body fluid for diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus (DM) but saliva offers an alternative to serum as a biological fluid for diagnostic purposes because it contains serum constituents. Aim The study was conducted to estimate and compare serum and salivary glucose, amylase, proteins, calcium and phosphorus levels in DM and healthy subjects and to evaluate whether saliva can be used as a diagnostic fluid in DM patients. Materials and Methods Study consisted of 120 subjects from OPD of Surendera Dental College, Sriganganagar, Rajasthan, India. The study groups were divided into Group I-60 DM patients (Type I & II) and Group II-60 healthy subjects. The saliva and serum samples were collected from each subject and levels of different biochemical parameters were estimated. Results Mean serum level of glucose (211.50 ± 43.82), amylase (79.86 ± 16.23), total proteins (6.65 ± 0.84), calcium (7.17 ± 0.91) and phosphorus (3.68±0.65) as observed in Group I while in Group II, glucose (88.81±11.29), amylase (77.67±14.88), total proteins (6.35±0.76), calcium (7.52±0.97) and phosphorus (3.96 ± 0.91) were noted. Mean salivary level of glucose (14.10±6.99), amylase (1671.42±569.86), total proteins (1.33±1.11), calcium (10.06±2.76) and phosphorus (13.75±4.45) as observed in Group I while in Group II, glucose (5.87± 2.42), amylase (1397.59 ±415.97), total proteins (1.36±0.81), calcium (7.73±2.78) and phosphorus (8.39 ± 1.95) were noted. On comparing values in saliva and serum, among two groups, an insignificant difference (p>0.005) was found between few of them. Conclusion Values regarding blood and salivary biochemical parameters were distinctly different between two groups suggesting salivary parameters can be used as a diagnostic alternative to blood parameters for diabetes mellitus. PMID:27504412

  1. Salivary Biomarker Responses to Two Final Matches in Women's Professional Football.

    PubMed

    Maya, Javiera; Marquez, Pablo; Peñailillo, Luis; Contreras-Ferrat, Ariel; Deldicque, Louise; Zbinden-Foncea, Hermann

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the link between salivary concentrations of cortisol, testosterone, immunoglobulin A (IgA) and the rate of perceived exertion (RPE) as a measure of internal load after two final matches played 3 days apart by professional women football players. Saliva samples were taken before and after the two matches (M1, M2). RPE was used to monitor the exercise intensity after each match. Testosterone concentrations increased after each match (M1: +42%, p = 0.002; M2: +50%, p < 0.001) while cortisol increased only after M1 (+116%, p < 0.001). The testosterone-to-cortisol ratio decreased only after M1 (-32.4%, p < 0.001). IgA concentration did not change after any match. Testosterone concentrations were correlated with IgA concentrations after each match (M1: R = 0.59, p = 0.008; M2: R=0.51, p = 0.02). RPE was correlated with cortisol concentrations after M1 (R = 0.57; p = 0.01), but not after M2 (R = 0.38; p = 0.07). All these results suggest that salivary cortisol and testosterone concentrations increase especially after the first match of a final, without affecting IgA levels. We speculate that increased testosterone concentration in women after football matches may play a protecting role against immune suppression usually observed after intense exercise. Key pointsIn our sample space, IgA concentrations did not change for teams even, before and after separated match. Suggesting that salivary IgA determinations after physical activities remain under debate.Testosterone concentrations were the only one hormone showing a consequent increase in both matches after physical activity carrying.The T/C ratio decrease only after M1 according with a higher cortisol level reach after M1 get-together, suggesting a differential impact over anxiety-associated team performance. So M2 play gives a more stable psychological state. PMID:27274677

  2. Salivary Biomarker Responses to Two Final Matches in Women’s Professional Football

    PubMed Central

    Maya, Javiera; Marquez, Pablo; Peñailillo, Luis; Contreras-Ferrat, Ariel; Deldicque, Louise; Zbinden-Foncea, Hermann

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the link between salivary concentrations of cortisol, testosterone, immunoglobulin A (IgA) and the rate of perceived exertion (RPE) as a measure of internal load after two final matches played 3 days apart by professional women football players. Saliva samples were taken before and after the two matches (M1, M2). RPE was used to monitor the exercise intensity after each match. Testosterone concentrations increased after each match (M1: +42%, p = 0.002; M2: +50%, p < 0.001) while cortisol increased only after M1 (+116%, p < 0.001). The testosterone-to-cortisol ratio decreased only after M1 (-32.4%, p < 0.001). IgA concentration did not change after any match. Testosterone concentrations were correlated with IgA concentrations after each match (M1: R = 0.59, p = 0.008; M2: R=0.51, p = 0.02). RPE was correlated with cortisol concentrations after M1 (R = 0.57; p = 0.01), but not after M2 (R = 0.38; p = 0.07). All these results suggest that salivary cortisol and testosterone concentrations increase especially after the first match of a final, without affecting IgA levels. We speculate that increased testosterone concentration in women after football matches may play a protecting role against immune suppression usually observed after intense exercise. Key points In our sample space, IgA concentrations did not change for teams even, before and after separated match. Suggesting that salivary IgA determinations after physical activities remain under debate. Testosterone concentrations were the only one hormone showing a consequent increase in both matches after physical activity carrying. The T/C ratio decrease only after M1 according with a higher cortisol level reach after M1 get-together, suggesting a differential impact over anxiety-associated team performance. So M2 play gives a more stable psychological state. PMID:27274677

  3. Human antibody response to Aedes albopictus salivary proteins: a potential biomarker to evaluate the efficacy of vector control in an area of Chikungunya and Dengue Virus transmission.

    PubMed

    Doucoure, Souleymane; Mouchet, François; Cornelie, Sylvie; Drame, Papa Makhtar; D'Ortenzio, Eric; DeHecq, Jean Sébastien; Remoue, Franck

    2014-01-01

    Aedes borne viruses represent public health problems in southern countries and threat to emerge in the developed world. Their control is currently based on vector population control. Much effort is being devoted to develop new tools to control such arbovirus. Recent findings suggest that the evaluation of human antibody (Ab) response to arthropod salivary proteins is relevant to measuring the level of human exposure to mosquito bites. Using an immunoepidemiological approach, the present study aimed to assess the usefulness of the salivary biomarker for measuring the efficacy of Ae. albopictus control strategies in La Reunion urban area. The antisaliva Ab response of adult humans exposed to Ae. albopictus was evaluated before and after vector control measures. Our results showed a significant correlation between antisaliva Ab response and the level of exposure to vectors bites. The decrease of Ae. albopictus density has been detected by this biomarker two weeks after the implementation of control measures, suggesting its potential usefulness for evaluating control strategies in a short time period. The identification of species specific salivary proteins/peptides should improve the use of this biomarker. PMID:24822216

  4. Salivary Proteomic and Genomic Biomarkers for Primary Sjögren’s Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Shen; Wang, Jianghua; Meijer, Jiska; Ieong, Sonya; Xie, Yongming; Yu, Tianwei; Zhou, Hui; Henry, Sharon; Vissink, Arjan; Pijpe, Justin; Kallenberg, Cees; Elashoff, David; Loo, Joseph A.; Wong, David T.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To identify a panel of protein and messenger RNA (mRNA) biomarkers in human whole saliva (WS) that may be used in the detection of primary Sjögren’s syndrome (SS). Methods Mass spectrometry and expression microarray profiling were used to identify candidate protein and mRNA biomarkers of primary SS in WS samples. Validation of the discovered mRNA and protein biomarkers was also demonstrated using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting techniques. Results Sixteen WS proteins were found to be down-regulated and 25 WS proteins were found to be up-regulated in primary SS patients compared with matched healthy control subjects. These proteins reflected the damage of glandular cells and inflammation of the oral cavity system in patients with primary SS. In addition, 16 WS peptides (10 up-regulated and 6 down-regulated in primary SS) were found at significantly different levels (P <0.05) in primary SS patients and controls. Using stringent criteria (3-fold change; P <0.0005), 27 mRNA in saliva samples were found to be significantly up-regulated in the primary SS patients. Strikingly, 19 of 27 genes that were found to be overex-pressed were interferon-inducible or were related to lymphocyte filtration and antigen presentation known to be involved in the pathogenesis of primary SS. Conclusion Our preliminary study has indicated that WS from patients with primary SS contains molecular signatures that reflect damaged glandular cells and an activated immune response in this autoimmune disease. These candidate proteomic and genomic biomarkers may improve the clinical detection of primary SS once they have been further validated. We also found that WS contains more informative proteins, peptides, and mRNA, as compared with gland-specific saliva, that can be used in generating candidate biomarkers for the detection of primary SS. PMID:17968930

  5. Salivary and serum procalcitonin and C-reactive protein as biomarkers of periodontitis in United States veterans with osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Redman, R S; Kerr, G S; Payne, J B; Mikuls, T R; Huang, J; Sayles, H R; Becker, K L; Nylén, E S

    2016-01-01

    Serum procalcitonin (ProCT) is elevated in response to bacterial infections, whereas high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) is a nonspecific inflammatory marker that is increased by excess adipose tissue. We examined the efficacy of ProCT and hsCRP as biomarkers of periodontitis in the saliva and serum of patients with arthritis, which is characterized by variable levels of systemic inflammation that potentially can confound the interpretation of inflammatory biomarkers. Blood and unstimulated whole saliva were collected from 33 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and 50 with osteoarthritis (OA). Periodontal status was assessed by full mouth examination and patients were categorized as having no/mild, moderate or severe periodontitis by standard parameters. Salivary and serum ProCT and hsCRP concentrations were compared. BMI, diabetes, anti-inflammatory medications and smoking status were ascertained from the patient records. Differences between OA and RA in proportionate numbers of patients were compared for race, gender, diabetes, adiposity and smoking status. Serum ProCT was significantly higher in arthritis patients with moderate to severe and severe periodontitis compared with no/mild periodontitis patients. There were no significant differences in salivary ProCT or salivary or serum hsCRP in RA patients related to periodontitis category. Most of the OA and RA patients were middle aged or older, 28.9% were diabetic, 78.3% were overweight or obese, and slightly more than half were either current or past smokers. The OA and RA groups differed by race, but not gender; blacks and males were predominant in both groups. The OA and RA groups did not differ in terms of controlled or uncontrolled diabetes, smoking status or BMI. The RA patients had been prescribed more anti-inflammatory medication than the OA patients. Our results demonstrate that circulating ProCT is a more discriminative biomarker for periodontitis than serum hsCRP in patients with

  6. Oxidative DNA damage and repair in children exposed to low levels of arsenic in utero and during early childhood: Application of salivary and urinary biomarkers

    SciTech Connect

    Hinhumpatch, Pantip; Navasumrit, Panida; Chaisatra, Krittinee; Promvijit, Jeerawan; Mahidol, Chulabhorn; Ruchirawat, Mathuros

    2013-12-15

    The present study aimed to assess arsenic exposure and its effect on oxidative DNA damage and repair in young children exposed in utero and continued to live in arsenic-contaminated areas. To address the need for biological specimens that can be acquired with minimal discomfort to children, we used non-invasive urinary and salivary-based assays for assessing arsenic exposure and early biological effects that have potentially serious health implications. Levels of arsenic in nails showed the greatest magnitude of difference between exposed and control groups, followed by arsenic concentrations in saliva and urine. Arsenic levels in saliva showed significant positive correlations with other biomarkers of arsenic exposure, including arsenic accumulation in nails (r = 0.56, P < 0.001) and arsenic concentration in urine (r = 0.50, P < 0.05). Exposed children had a significant reduction in arsenic methylation capacity indicated by decreased primary methylation index and secondary methylation index in both urine and saliva samples. Levels of salivary 8-OHdG in exposed children were significantly higher (∼ 4-fold, P < 0.01), whereas levels of urinary 8-OHdG excretion and salivary hOGG1 expression were significantly lower in exposed children (∼ 3-fold, P < 0.05), suggesting a defect in hOGG1 that resulted in ineffective cleavage of 8-OHdG. Multiple regression analysis results showed that levels of inorganic arsenic (iAs) in saliva and urine had a significant positive association with salivary 8-OHdG and a significant negative association with salivary hOGG1 expression. - Highlights: • The effects of arsenic exposure in utero and through early childhood were studied. • Arsenic-exposed children had a reduction in arsenic methylation capacity. • Exposed children had more DNA damage, observed as elevated salivary 8-OHdG. • Lower salivary hOGG1 in exposed children indicated impairment of 8-OHdG repair. • Salivary and urinary 8-OHdG levels were discordant.

  7. Utility and cutoff value of hair nicotine as a biomarker of long-term tobacco smoke exposure, compared to salivary cotinine.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sungroul; Apelberg, Benjamin J; Avila-Tang, Erika; Hepp, Lisa; Yun, Dongmin; Samet, Jonathan M; Breysse, Patrick N

    2014-08-01

    While hair samples are easier to collect and less expensive to store and transport than biological fluids, and hair nicotine characterizes tobacco exposure over a longer time period than blood or urine cotinine, information on its utility, compared with salivary cotinine, is still limited. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 289 participants (107 active smokers, 105 passive smokers with self-reported secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure, and 77 non-smokers with no SHS exposure) in Baltimore (Maryland, USA). A subset of the study participants (n = 52) were followed longitudinally over a two-month interval.  Median baseline hair nicotine concentrations for active, passive and non-smokers were 16.2, 0.36, and 0.23 ng/mg, respectively, while those for salivary cotinine were 181.0, 0.27, and 0.27 ng/mL, respectively. Hair nicotine concentrations for 10% of passive or non-smokers were higher than the 25th percentile value for active smokers while all corresponding salivary cotinine concentrations for them were lower than the value for active smokers. This study showed that hair nicotine concentration values could be used to distinguish active or heavy passive adult smokers from non-SHS exposed non-smokers. Our results indicate that hair nicotine is a useful biomarker for the assessment of long-term exposure to tobacco smoke. PMID:25153466

  8. gSG6-P1 salivary biomarker discriminates micro-geographical heterogeneity of human exposure to Anopheles bites in low and seasonal malaria areas

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Over the past decade, a sharp decline of malaria burden has been observed in several countries. Consequently, the conventional entomological methods have become insufficiently sensitive and probably under-estimate micro-geographical heterogeneity of exposure and subsequent risk of malaria transmission. In this study, we investigated whether the human antibody (Ab) response to Anopheles salivary gSG6-P1 peptide, known as a biomarker of Anopheles exposure, could be a sensitive and reliable tool for discriminating human exposure to Anopheles bites in area of low and seasonal malaria transmission. Methods A multi-disciplinary survey was performed in Northern Senegal where An. gambiae s.l. is the main malaria vector. Human IgG Ab response to gSG6-P1 salivary peptide was compared according to the season and villages in children from five villages in the middle Senegal River valley, known as a low malaria transmission area. Results IgG levels to gSG6-P1 varied considerably according to the villages, discriminating the heterogeneity of Anopheles exposure between villages. Significant increase of IgG levels to gSG6-P1 was observed during the peak of exposure to Anopheles bites, and decreased immediately after the end of the exposure season. In addition, differences in the season-dependent specific IgG levels between villages were observed after the implementation of Long-Lasting Insecticidal Nets by The National Malaria Control Program in this area. Conclusion The gSG6-P1 salivary peptide seems to be a reliable tool to discriminate the micro-geographical heterogeneity of human exposure to Anopheles bites in areas of very low and seasonal malaria transmission. A biomarker such as this could also be used to monitor and evaluate the possible heterogeneous effectiveness of operational vector control programs in low-exposure areas. PMID:23497646

  9. Gross Cystic Disease Fluid Protein-15(GCDFP-15)/Prolactin-Inducible Protein (PIP) as Functional Salivary Biomarker for Primary Sjögren’s Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, A; Martini, D; Sernissi, F; Giacomelli, C; Pepe, P; Rossi, C; Riveros, PP; Mosca, M; Alevizos, I; Baldini, C

    2013-01-01

    Background Gross cystic disease fluid protein-15(GCDFP-15)/prolactin-inducible protein (PIP) is a secretory acinar glycoprotein of 14 KDa which we have recently described as significantly lower in salivary samples of patients with primary Sjögren’s syndrome (pSS) in comparison to healthy volunteers by proteomic analysis. Aims of the study (1) to validate our previous data on the decrease of GCDFP-15/PIP protein in a larger number of subjects with pSS (2) to integrate the proteomic results with complementary immunoassays in order better clarify the pathophysiological relevance of GCDFP-15/PIP in pSS exocrinopathy (3) to assess both the glandular expression of the GCDFP-15/PIP and the levels of glandular GCDFP-15/PIP mRNA in the patients’ minor salivary gland (MSG) biopsies in order to verify whether the observed reduction of GCDFP-15/PIP in saliva may be related to a decrease in the protein production. Patients and methods A total of 123 salivary samples from patients affected by pSS, no-SS sicca syndrome and sex- age-matched healthy volunteers were analyzed by different proteomic techniques (SELDI-TOF-MS, 2DE, MALDI-TOF-MS). The expression of GCDFP-15/PIP was then validated by western blot analysis. Real Time PCR and immunohistochemistry for GCDFP-15/PIP in the minor salivary glands (MSG) biopsies were then carried out. Results By using complementary proteomic analysis we found that a putative peak of 16547 m/z was among the best independent biomarkers for pSS able to discriminate between patients and healthy controls with a sensitivity of 96 % and a specificity of 70%, with a global cross validated error of 29%. We identified the peak as the GCDFP-15/PIP protein and verified that the intensity of GCDFP-15/PIP was significantly lower in pSS patients when compared to both no-SS sicca subjects and healthy controls (p<0.0001). GCDFP-15/PIP expression also correlated with both the salivary flow rate (r=0.312, p=0.023) and MSG biopsies focus score (r=−0.377, p=0

  10. Antibody responses of domestic animals to salivary antigens of Triatoma infestans as biomarkers for low-level infestation of triatomines

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Alexandra; Sternberg, Jeremy M.; Johnston, Valerie; Medrano-Mercado, Nora; Anderson, Jennifer M.; Hume, Jen C.C.; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Schaub, Günter A.; Billingsley, Peter F.

    2009-01-01

    Hematophagous arthropods such as Triatoma infestans, the vector of Trypanosoma cruzi, elicit host-immune responses during feeding. Characterization of antibody responses to salivary antigens offers the potential to develop immunologically based monitoring techniques for exposure to re-emergent triatomine bug populations in peridomestic animals. IgG-antibody responses to the salivary antigens of T. infestans have been detected in chickens as soon as 2 days after the first exposure to five adult bugs. Chickens and guinea pigs regularly exposed to this number of triatomines showed a significantly lower anti-saliva antibody titre than animals exposed to 25 adults and fifth instars of four different T. infestans strains originating from Bolivia and from Northern Chile. Highly immunogenic salivary antigens of 14 and 21 kDa were recognised by all chicken sera and of 79 kDa by all guinea pig sera. Cross-reactivity studies using saliva or salivary gland extracts from different hematophagous species, e.g. different triatomines, bed bugs, mosquitoes, sand flies and ticks, as well as chicken sera exposed to triatomines and mosquitoes, demonstrated that the 14 and 21 kDa salivary antigens were only found in triatomines. Sera from peridomestic chickens and guinea pigs in sites of known T. infestans challenge in Bolivia also recognised the 14 and 21 kDa antigens. These represent promising epidemiological markers for the detection of small numbers of feeding bugs and hence may be a new tool for vector surveillance in Chagas disease control programs. PMID:19248784

  11. Association of potential salivary biomarkers with diabetic retinopathy and its severity in type-2 diabetes mellitus: a proteomic analysis by mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Subrayan, Visvaraja

    2016-01-01

    Aim/hypothesis: The aim of our study was to characterize the human salivary proteome and determine the changes in protein expression in two different stages of diabetic retinopathy with type-2 diabetes mellitus: (1) with non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) and (2) with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). Type-2 diabetes mellitus without diabetic retinopathy (XDR) was designated as control. Method: In this study, 45 saliva samples were collected (15 samples from XDR control group, 15 samples from NPDR disease group and 15 samples from PDR disease group). Salivary proteins were extracted, reduced, alkylated, trypsin digested and labeled with an isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) before being analyzed by an Orbitrap fusion tribrid mass spectrometer. Protein annotation, fold change calculation and statistical analysis were interrogated by Proteome Discoverer. Biological pathway analysis was performed by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifiers PXD003723–PX003725. Results: A total of 315 proteins were identified from the salivary proteome and 119 proteins were found to be differentially expressed. The differentially expressed proteins from the NPDR disease group and the PDR disease group were assigned to respective canonical pathways indicating increased Liver X receptor/Retinoid X receptor (LXR/RXR) activation, Farnesoid X receptor/Retinoid X receptor (FXR/RXR) activation, acute phase response signaling, sucrose degradation V and regulation of actin-based motility by Rho in the PDR disease group compared to the NPDR disease group. Conclusions/Interpretation: Progression from non-proliferative to proliferative retinopathy in type-2 diabetic patients is a complex multi-mechanism and systemic process. Furthermore, saliva was shown to be a feasible alternative sample source for diabetic retinopathy biomarkers. PMID:27280065

  12. Determination of the lactate threshold by means of salivary biomarkers: chromogranin A as novel marker of exercise intensity.

    PubMed

    Bocanegra, Olga L; Diaz, Miguel M; Teixeira, Renata R; Soares, Silvio S; Espindola, Foued S

    2012-09-01

    This study examined intra-individual variations in salivary lactate (sLac), alpha-amylase (sAA) and chromogranin A (sCgA) with reference to the accumulation of blood lactate (bLac) during incremental maximal exercise in swimmers. Samples of blood and saliva were collected simultaneously from 12 male professional athletes during an incremental test that consisted of eight series of 100 m in front crawl with increasing velocity (0.03 m s(-1) each) and 70-s intervals. The concentration of blood and salivary lactate was determined by an electro-enzymatic assay, whereas sAA and CgA were analysed by Western blotting. Inflection points in the concentration of bLAc, sLac, sAA and CgA were found in all subjects. The accumulation of lactate in saliva followed the same pattern observed in blood with a high correlation between the two (r = 0.91). Similar results were observed between the dynamics of sAA (r = 0.81) and sCgA (r = 0.82) in relation to bLac. These findings support the usefulness of saliva for the determination of the lactate threshold and provide the first demonstration of sCgA as a novel marker of exercise intensity in well-trained men. PMID:22227853

  13. Wound Healing and Mucosal Immunity During Short Mars Analog Environment Mission: Salivary Biomarkers and Its Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Balwant; Kaur, Jasdeep; Foing, Bernard. H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Wound healing in an extreme environment with micro-gravity is not well characterized, despite the likelihood that the increasing use of manned spaceflight as a research and commercial enterprise raises the probability of traumatic injury in this state. Hence, this study was conducted to determine the impact of the isolated environment of the Mars Desert Research Station on mucosal immunity and wound healing. Materials and Methods: Two punch biopsy wounds were placed on the hard palate of two crewmembers. The first wound was made during summer vacation, whereas the second was placed on the contra-lateral side 3 days before the Mars analog mission began. Thus, each crewmember served as his/her own control. Two independent methods were used to assess healing. A ten-item perceived stress scale, salivary cortisol, Immunoglobulin A, IgG and IgM were measured. Results: There were significant differences in the proportion of the wound size healed between vacation and the mission. Salivary IgA, IgM, IgG and cortisol levels showed significant differences between vacation and mission. Conclusion: These data suggest that stress can have significant consequences for wound healing. The effects of stress on wound repair could have important clinical implications, including for recovery from surgery. PMID:25610211

  14. The physiology of salivary secretion.

    PubMed

    Proctor, Gordon B

    2016-02-01

    Saliva in the mouth is a biofluid produced mainly by three pairs of major salivary glands--the submandibular, parotid and sublingual glands--along with secretions from many minor submucosal salivary glands. Salivary gland secretion is a nerve-mediated reflex and the volume of saliva secreted is dependent on the intensity and type of taste and on chemosensory, masticatory or tactile stimulation. Long periods of low (resting or unstimulated) flow are broken by short periods of high flow, which is stimulated by taste and mastication. The nerve-mediated salivary reflex is modulated by nerve signals from other centers in the central nervous system, which is most obvious as hyposalivation at times of anxiety. An example of other neurohormonal influences on the salivary reflex is the circadian rhythm, which affects salivary flow and ionic composition. Cholinergic parasympathetic and adrenergic sympathetic autonomic nerves evoke salivary secretion, signaling through muscarinic M3 and adrenoceptors on salivary acinar cells and leading to secretion of fluid and salivary proteins. Saliva gland acinar cells are chloride and sodium secreting, and the isotonic fluid produced is rendered hypotonic by salivary gland duct cells as it flows to the mouth. The major proteins present in saliva are secreted by salivary glands, creating viscoelasticity and enabling the coating of oral surfaces with saliva. Salivary films are essential for maintaining oral health and regulating the oral microbiome. Saliva in the mouth contains a range of validated and potential disease biomarkers derived from epithelial cells, neutrophils, the microbiome, gingival crevicular fluid and serum. For example, cortisol levels are used in the assessment of stress, matrix metalloproteinases-8 and -9 appear to be promising markers of caries and periodontal disease, and a panel of mRNA and proteins has been proposed as a marker of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Understanding the mechanisms by which components enter

  15. Salivary Glands

    MedlinePlus

    ... salivary gland tumors usually show up as painless enlargements of these glands. Tumors rarely involve more than ... otolaryngologist-head and neck surgeon should check these enlargements. Malignant tumors of the major salivary glands can ...

  16. Associations among Inflammatory Biomarkers in the Circulating, Plasmatic, Salivary and Intraluminal Anatomical Compartments in Apparently Healthy Preschool Children from the Western Highlands of Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    Soto-Méndez, María José; Romero-Abal, María Eugenia; Aguilera, Concepción María; Rico, María Cruz; Solomons, Noel W.; Schümann, Klaus; Gil, Angel

    2015-01-01

    Background Undernutrition and inflammation are related in many ways; for instance, non-hygienic environments are associated with both poor growth and immunostimulation in children. Objective To describe any existing interaction among different inflammation biomarkers measured in the distinct anatomical compartments of whole blood, feces, plasma and saliva. Methods In this descriptive, cross-sectional study, samples of whole blood, feces, plasma and saliva were collected on the 8th and last week of observation among 87 attendees (42 girls and 45 boys) of 3 daycare centers offering a common 40-day rotating menu in Guatemala’s Western Highlands. Analyses included white blood cell count (WBC), fecal calprotectin, and plasmatic and salivary cytokines including IL-1B, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and TNF-α. Associations were assessed using Spearman rank-order and goodness-of-fit correlations, as indicated, followed by backwards-elimination multiple regression analyses to determine predictor variables for IL-10 in both anatomical compartments. Results Of a total of 66 cross-tabulations in the Spearman hemi-matrix, 22 (33%) were significantly associated. All 10 paired associations among the salivary cytokines had a significant r value, whereas 7 of 10 possible associations among plasma cytokines were significant. Associations across anatomical compartments, however, were rarely significant. IL-10 in both biological fluids were higher than corresponding reference values. When a multiple regression model was run in order to determine independent predictors for IL-10 in each anatomical compartment separately, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α emerged as predictors in plasma (r2 = 0.514) and IL-1B, IL-8 and TNF-α remained as independent predictors in saliva (r2 = 0.762). Significant cross-interactions were seen with WBC, but not with fecal calprotectin. Conclusion Interactions ranged from robust within the same anatomical compartment to limited to nil across distinct anatomical compartments. The

  17. Salivary gland tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancers Salivary duct stones Salivary gland infections Dehydration Sarcoidosis Sjögren syndrome The most common type of salivary ... Cancer Cirrhosis Salivary duct stones Salivary gland infections Sarcoidosis Tumor Update Date 10/30/2015 Updated by: ...

  18. Diagnostic Potential of Novel Salivary Host Biomarkers as Candidates for the Immunological Diagnosis of Tuberculosis Disease and Monitoring of Tuberculosis Treatment Response

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Ruschca; Maasdorp, Elizna; Malherbe, Stephanus; Loxton, Andre G.; Stanley, Kim; van der Spuy, Gian; Walzl, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    Background There is an urgent need for new tools for the early diagnosis of TB disease and monitoring of the response to treatment, especially in resource-constrained settings. We investigated the usefulness of host markers detected in saliva as candidate biomarkers for the immunological diagnosis of TB disease and monitoring of treatment response. Methods We prospectively collected saliva samples from 51 individuals that presented with signs and symptoms suggestive of TB disease at a health centre in Cape Town, South Africa, prior to the establishment of a clinical diagnosis. Patients were later classified as having TB disease or other respiratory disease (ORD), using a combination of clinical, radiological and laboratory findings. We evaluated the concentrations of 69 host markers in saliva samples using a multiplex cytokine platform, and assessed the diagnostic potentials of these markers by receiver operator characteristics (ROC) curve analysis, and general discriminant analysis. Results Out of the 51 study participants, 18 (35.4%) were diagnosed with TB disease and 12 (23.5%) were HIV infected. Only two of the 69 host markers that were evaluated (IL-16 and IL-23) diagnosed TB disease individually with area under the ROC curve ≥0.70. A five-marker biosignature comprising of IL-1β, IL-23, ECM-1, HCC1 and fibrinogen diagnosed TB disease with a sensitivity of 88.9% (95% CI,76.7–99.9%) and specificity of 89.7% (95% CI, 60.4–96.6%) after leave-one-out cross validation, regardless of HIV infection status. Eight-marker biosignatures performed with a sensitivity of 100% (95% CI, 83.2–100%) and specificity of 95% (95% CI, 68.1–99.9%) in the absence of HIV infection. Furthermore, the concentrations of 11 of the markers changed during treatment, indicating that they may be useful in monitoring of TB treatment response. Conclusion We have identified novel salivary biosignatures which may be useful in the diagnosis of TB disease and monitoring of the response to

  19. Oral vs. salivary diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, Joana; Corby, Patricia M.; Barber, Cheryl A.; Abrams, William R.; Malamud, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    The field of "salivary diagnostics" includes studies utilizing samples obtained from a variety of sources within the oral cavity. These samples include; whole unstimulated saliva, stimulated whole saliva, duct saliva collected directly from the parotid, submandibular/sublingual glands or minor salivary glands, swabs of the buccal mucosa, tongue or tonsils, and gingival crevicular fluid. Many publications state "we collected saliva from subjects" without fully describing the process or source of the oral fluid. Factors that need to be documented in any study include the time of day of the collection, the method used to stimulate and collect the fluid, and how much fluid is being collected and for how long. The handling of the oral fluid during and post-collection is also critical and may include addition of protease or nuclease inhibitors, centrifugation, and cold or frozen storage prior to assay. In an effort to create a standard protocol for determining a biomarker's origin we carried out a pilot study collecting oral fluid from 5 different sites in the mouth and monitoring the concentrations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines detected using MesoScaleDiscovery (MSD) electrochemiluminesence assays. Our data suggested that 3 of the cytokines are primarily derived from the submandibular gland, while 7 of the cytokines come from a source other than the major salivary glands such as the minor salivary glands or cells in the oral mucosae. Here we review the literature on monitoring biomarkers in oral samples and stress the need for determining the blood/saliva ratio when a quantitative determination is needed and suggest that the term oral diagnostic be used if the source of an analyte in the oral cavity is unknown.

  20. Salivary duct stones

    MedlinePlus

    ... glands. Salivary duct stones are a type of salivary gland disorder. ... 83. Jackson NM, Mitchell JL, Walvekar RR. Inflammatory disorders of the salivary glands. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund LJ, et ...

  1. Current developments in salivary diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Foley, Joseph D; Bailey, Alison L; Campell, Charles L; Humphries, Roger L; Christodoulides, Nicolaos; Floriano, Pierre N; Simmons, Glennon; Bhagwandin, Bryon; Jacobson, James W; Redding, Spencer W; Ebersole, Jeffrey L; McDevitt, John T

    2010-01-01

    Salivary diagnostics is an emerging field that has progressed through several important developments in the past decade, including the publication of the human salivary proteome and the infusion of federal funds to integrate nanotechnologies and microfluidic engineering concepts into developing compact point-of-care devices for rapid analysis of this secretion. In this article, we discuss some of these developments and their relevance to the prognosis, diagnosis and management of periodontitis, as an oral target, and cardiovascular disease, as a systemic example for the potential of these biodiagnostics. Our findings suggest that several biomarkers are associated with distinct biological stages of these diseases and demonstrate promise as practical biomarkers in identifying and managing periodontal disease, and acute myocardial infarction. The majority of these studies have progressed through biomarker discovery, with the identified molecules requiring more robust clinical studies to enable substantive validation for disease diagnosis. It is predicted that with continued advances in this field the use of a combination of biomarkers in multiplex panels is likely to yield accurate screening tools for these diagnoses in the near future. PMID:20387312

  2. Current developments in salivary diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Miller, Craig S; Foley, Joseph D; Bailey, Alison L; Campell, Charles L; Humphries, Roger L; Christodoulides, Nicolaos; Floriano, Pierre N; Simmons, Glennon; Bhagwandin, Bryon; Jacobson, James W; Redding, Spencer W; Ebersole, Jeffrey L; McDevitt, John T

    2010-02-01

    Salivary diagnostics is an emerging field that has progressed through several important developments in the past decade, including the publication of the human salivary proteome and the infusion of federal funds to integrate nanotechnologies and microfluidic engineering concepts into developing compact point-of-care devices for rapid analysis of this secretion. In this article, we discuss some of these developments and their relevance to the prognosis, diagnosis and management of periodontitis, as an oral target, and cardiovascular disease, as a systemic example for the potential of these biodiagnostics. Our findings suggest that several biomarkers are associated with distinct biological stages of these diseases and demonstrate promise as practical biomarkers in identifying and managing periodontal disease, and acute myocardial infarction. The majority of these studies have progressed through biomarker discovery, with the identified molecules requiring more robust clinical studies to enable substantive validation for disease diagnosis. It is predicted that with continued advances in this field the use of a combination of biomarkers in multiplex panels is likely to yield accurate screening tools for these diagnoses in the near future. PMID:20387312

  3. Salivary Gland Secretion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorman, H. L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Describes materials and procedures for an experiment utilizing a live dog to demonstrate: (1) physiology of the salivary gland; (2) parasympathetic control of the salivary gland; (3) influence of varying salivary flow rates on sodium and potassium ions, osmolarity and pH; and (4) salivary secretion as an active process. (DS)

  4. Salivary gland biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Biopsy - salivary gland ... You have several pairs of salivary glands that drain into your mouth: A major pair in front of the ears (parotid glands) Another major pair beneath your jaw (submandibular ...

  5. Salivary Gland Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Your salivary glands make saliva - sometimes called spit - and empty it into your mouth through openings called ducts. Saliva makes your ... antibodies that can kill germs. Problems with salivary glands can cause the glands to become irritated and ...

  6. Serum and salivary cardiac analytes in acute myocardial infarction related to oral health status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebersole, Jeffrey L.; Kryscio, Richard J.; Campbell, Charles; Kinane, Denis F.; McDevitt, John T.; Christodoulides, Nicolaos; Floriano, Pierre N.; Miller, Craig S.

    2014-06-01

    With the advent of an increased emphasis on the potential to utilize biomarkers in saliva for systemic diseases, the issue of existing oral disease is an important consideration that could adversely affect the interpretation of diagnostic results obtained from saliva. We addressed the question does a patient's oral inflammation status confound biomarker levels used in diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The results demonstrated that multiple serum biomarkers and a few salivary biomarkers reflected the cardiac event. Importantly, oral health of the individual had minimal impact on the validity of the serum or salivary biomarker effectiveness.

  7. Salivary Markers for Periodontal and General Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Podzimek, Stepan; Vondrackova, Lucie; Duskova, Jana; Janatova, Tatjana; Broukal, Zdenek

    2016-01-01

    The determination of biomarkers in saliva is becoming an important part of laboratory diagnostics and the prediction of not only periodontal, but also other tissue and organ diseases. Biomarkers in saliva (e.g., enzymes, protein markers, or oxidative stress markers) can be used for activity determination and for periodontal disease prognosis. Saliva also contains many markers which can predict the risk of certain diseases (e.g., diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular, oncology, endocrinology, and psychiatric diseases). The study of salivary components proteomics clearly shows the relationship of periodontal diseases and diseases of distant systems, organs, or tissues. PMID:27143814

  8. Salivary Gland Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... contains antibodies that can kill germs. Salivary gland cancer is a type of head and neck cancer. It is rare. It may not cause any ... pain in your face Doctors diagnose salivary gland cancer using a physical exam, imaging tests, and a ...

  9. Pediatric Salivary Gland Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Ord, Robert A; Carlson, Eric R

    2016-02-01

    Pediatric malignant salivary gland tumors are extremely rare. The percentage of malignant tumors is higher than that seen in adults, although the outcomes in terms of survival are better in pediatric patients. The mainstay of treatment is surgical excision with negative margins. This article reviews current concepts in demographics, etiology, management, and outcomes of malignant salivary tumors in children. PMID:26614703

  10. Microgravity alters the expression of salivary proteins.

    PubMed

    Mednieks, Maija; Khatri, Aditi; Rubenstein, Renee; Burleson, Joseph A; Hand, Arthur R

    2014-06-01

    Spaceflight provides a unique opportunity to study how physiologic responses are influenced by the external environment. Microgravity has been shown to alter the function of a number of tissues and organ systems. Very little, however, is known about how microgravity affects the oral cavity. The rodent model is useful for study in that their salivary gland morphology and physiology is similar to that of humans. Useful also is the fact that saliva, a product of the salivary glands with a major role in maintaining oral health, can be easily collected in humans whereas the glands can be studied in experimental animals. Our working hypothesis is that expression of secretory proteins in saliva will respond to microgravity and will be indicative of the nature of physiologic reactions to travel in space. This study was designed to determine which components of the salivary proteome are altered in mice flown on the US space shuttle missions and to determine if a subset with predictive value can be identified using microscopy and biochemistry methods. The results showed that the expression of secretory proteins associated with beta-adrenergic hormone regulated responses and mediated via the cyclic AMP pathway was significantly altered, whereas that of a number of unrelated proteins was not. The findings are potentially applicable to designing a biochemical test system whereby specific salivary proteins can be biomarkers for stress associated with travel in space and eventually for monitoring responses to conditions on earth. PMID:24984624

  11. Benign Pediatric Salivary Gland Lesions.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Eric R; Ord, Robert A

    2016-02-01

    Salivary gland lesions are rare in pediatric patients. In addition, the types of salivary gland tumors are different in their distribution in specific sites in the major and minor salivary glands in children compared with adults. This article reviews benign neoplastic and nonneoplastic salivary gland disorders in pediatric patients to help clinicians to develop an orderly differential diagnosis that will lead to expedient treatment of pediatric patients with salivary gland lesions. PMID:26614702

  12. Salivary gland infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... salivary duct stones Poor cleanliness in the mouth ( oral hygiene ) Low amounts of water in the body, most ... home to help with recovery include: Practice good oral hygiene. Brush your teeth and floss well at least ...

  13. Salivary Stress-Related Responses in Tinnitus: A Preliminary Study in Young Male Subjects with Tinnitus

    PubMed Central

    Alsalman, Ola A.; Tucker, Denise; Vanneste, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This preliminary study examined if baseline measures of stress-related biomarkers as measured by salivary secretions of specific autonomic [measured by salivary α-amylase (sAA)], endocrine (measured by salivary cortisol), and immune (measured by salivary neopterin) responses are greater in male subjects with tinnitus in response to an induced-stress task. Method: Twenty male subjects with no significant hearing loss, 10 with tinnitus, and 10 without tinnitus were enrolled in this study.Salivary secretions were collected before and after the induced stress task at four different time intervals. Results: sAA levels were lower in the tinnitus group in comparison to subjects without tinnitus, suggesting impaired sympathetic activity in the subjects with tinnitus although these levels remained stable throughout the stress experiment.While no significant effects could be obtained for salivary cortisol or neopterin, salivary neopterin levels were trending toward significance over all measurements. Behavioral measures of stress were found to correlate negatively with measures of sAA and salivary neopterin. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest impaired stress-related sAA mechanisms in male subjects with tinnitus, as evidenced by the different stress reactions induced in the endocrine system (as measured by salivary cortisol) and the immune system (as measured by salivary neopterin). PMID:27489534

  14. Salivary Alterations in Rats with Experimental Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Ana Carolina; Bergamaschi, Cassia Toledo; de Souza, Douglas Nesadal; Nogueira, Fernando Neves

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to analyze changes in saliva composition and salivary secretion process of rats with chronic kidney disease induced by 5/6 nephrectomy to set the foundation for salivary studies related to CKD. Methods CKD was induced in Wistar rats via 5/6 nephrectomy. Blood and saliva samples were collected from Control, Sham and CKD groups at 8 and 12 weeks after the surgery. Salivation was stimulated via intraperitoneal injections of pilocarpine (1.0 mg/Kg body weight) or isoproterenol (5.0 mg/Kg body weight). Saliva was collected and immediately stored at -80°C until analysis. The salivary flow rate, total protein, amylase and peroxidase activities, and urea concentrations were measured. The blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine concentrations were also evaluated. Results Increases in BUN and serum creatinine concentrations were observed in the CKD groups. Amylase activity was significantly reduced in response to both stimuli in the CKD groups at 8 weeks and increased in the CKD groups at 12 weeks in response to isoproterenol stimulus. The peroxidase activities of the CKD groups were significantly reduced in response to isoproterenol stimulation and were increased at 12 weeks in response to pilocarpine stimulation. Salivary urea was significantly increased in the CKD groups at 8 weeks in response to the isoproterenol stimuli and at 12 weeks in response to both salivary agonists. Conclusions The pattern of alterations observed in this experimental model is similar to those observed in patients and clearly demonstrates the viability of 5/6 nephrectomy as an experimental model in future studies to understand the alterations in salivary compositions and in salivary glands that are elicited by CKD. PMID:26859883

  15. Caveolin-1 overexpression in benign and malignant salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Jaafari-Ashkavandi, Zohreh; Ashraf, Mohammad Javad; Nazhvani, Ali Dehghani; Azizi, Zahra

    2016-02-01

    Caveolin-1, a tyrosine-phosphorylated protein, is supposed to have different regulatory roles as promoter or suppressor in many human cancers. However, no published study concerned its expression in benign and malignant salivary gland tumors. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the expression of Cav-1 in the most common benign and malignant salivary gland tumors and evaluate its correlation with proliferation activity. In this cross-sectional retrospective study, immunohistochemical expression of caveolin-1 and Ki67 were evaluated in 49 samples, including 11 normal salivary glands, 15 cases of pleomorphic adenoma (PA), 13 adenoid cystic carcinomas (AdCC), and 10 mucoepidermoid carcinomas (MEC). The expression of Cav-1 was seen in 18 % of normal salivary glands and 85 % of tumors. The immunoreaction in the tumors was significantly higher than normal tissues (P = 0.001), but the difference between benign and malignant tumors was not significant (P = 0.07). Expression of Cav-1 was correlated with Ki67 labeling index in PAs, but not in malignant tumors. Cav-1 expression was not in association with tumor size and stage. Overexpression of Cav-1 was found in salivary gland tumors in comparison with normal tissues, but no significant difference was observed between benign and malignant tumors. Cav-1 was inversely correlated with proliferation in PA. Therefore, this marker may participate in tumorigenesis of salivary gland tumors and may be a potential biomarker for cancer treatments. PMID:26323261

  16. Salivary Mucin 19 Glycoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Culp, David J.; Robinson, Bently; Cash, Melanie N.; Bhattacharyya, Indraneel; Stewart, Carol; Cuadra-Saenz, Giancarlo

    2015-01-01

    Saliva functions in innate immunity of the oral cavity, protecting against demineralization of teeth (i.e. dental caries), a highly prevalent infectious disease associated with Streptococcus mutans, a pathogen also linked to endocarditis and atheromatous plaques. Gel-forming mucins are a major constituent of saliva. Because Muc19 is the dominant salivary gel-forming mucin in mice, we studied Muc19−/− mice for changes in innate immune functions of saliva in interactions with S. mutans. When challenged with S. mutans and a cariogenic diet, total smooth and sulcal surface lesions are more than 2- and 1.6-fold higher in Muc19−/− mice compared with wild type, whereas the severity of lesions are up to 6- and 10-fold higher, respectively. Furthermore, the oral microbiota of Muc19−/− mice display higher levels of indigenous streptococci. Results emphasize the importance of a single salivary constituent in the innate immune functions of saliva. In vitro studies of S. mutans and Muc19 interactions (i.e. adherence, aggregation, and biofilm formation) demonstrate Muc19 poorly aggregates S. mutans. Nonetheless, aggregation is enhanced upon adding Muc19 to saliva from Muc19−/− mice, indicating Muc19 assists in bacterial clearance through formation of heterotypic complexes with salivary constituents that bind S. mutans, thus representing a novel innate immune function for salivary gel-forming mucins. In humans, expression of salivary MUC19 is unclear. We find MUC19 transcripts in salivary glands of seven subjects and demonstrate MUC19 glycoproteins in glandular mucous cells and saliva. Similarities and differences between mice and humans in the expression and functions of salivary gel-forming mucins are discussed. PMID:25512380

  17. What Is Salivary Gland Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... are many types of salivary gland adenocarcinomas. Acinic cell carcinoma: Most acinic cell carcinomas start in the ... cancer can develop in the salivary glands. Squamous cell carcinoma: This cancer occurs mainly in older men. ...

  18. Salivary Gland Cancers: Biology and Systemic Therapy.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Gaurav; Mehdi, Syed A; Ganti, Apar Kishor

    2015-10-01

    Salivary gland tumors are a relatively rare and heterogeneous group of tumors with variable pathologic and phenotypic characteristics. The lack of clinical outcomes data and randomized controlled trials pertaining to them makes it difficult to formulate definitive treatment protocols that could help with making decisions regarding choice of therapy. Most studies involving systemic chemotherapy have not shown promising patient outcome results. With recent advances in molecular technology, however, it is now possible to identify specific genetic alterations and biomarkers as possible targets for therapeutic purposes. For example, in mucoepidermoid carcinomas, one of the most common types of malignant salivary gland tumors, a commonly seen genetic translocation [t(11;19)(q21;p13), which involves the CRTC1 and MAML2 genes] has been found to be associated with improved survival, making it a possible prognostic marker. Also, this translocation gives rise to a fusion protein that appears to render tumors highly sensitive to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibition. However, the results of phase II trials of EGFR inhibitors-as well as other targeted agents--in salivary gland tumors have been disappointing: there has been some disease stabilization but no objective responses. There remains a need for well-designed prospective clinical studies to improve management of these tumors. PMID:26470903

  19. Salivary Acetylcholinesterase Activity Is Increased in Parkinson's Disease: A Potential Marker of Parasympathetic Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Fedorova, Tatyana; Knudsen, Cindy Soendersoe; Mouridsen, Kim; Nexo, Ebba; Borghammer, Per

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Decreased salivary flow and xerostomia are frequent findings in Parkinson's disease (PD), possibly caused by alterations in the parasympathetic tonus. Here we explore salivary acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity as a potential biomarker in PD. Methods. We measured salivary flow, AChE activity, and total protein concentration in 30 PD patients and 49 healthy controls. We also performed exploratory correlation analyses with disease duration, motor symptom severity, autonomic complaints, and other nonmotor symptoms. Results. PD patients displayed significantly decreased salivary flow rate, significantly increased salivary AChE activity, and total protein concentration. Importantly, the AChE activity/total protein ratio was significantly increased in PD patients, suggesting that increased AChE activity cannot be explained solely by upconcentration of saliva. The Unified PD Rating Scale (UPDRS) score displayed significant correlation with total salivary protein (P = 0.002) and near-significant correlation with salivary flow (P = 0.07). Color vision test scores were also significantly correlated with AChE activity (P = 0.04) and total protein levels (P = 0.002). Conclusion. Salivary AChE activity is increased in PD patients compared to healthy controls. Future studies are needed to elucidate whether this parameter reflects the extent of neuronal damage and parasympathetic denervation in the salivary glands of PD patients. PMID:25767737

  20. Salivary gland emergencies.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Matthew A; Turturro, Michael A

    2013-05-01

    Salivary gland disorders are uncommon in the emergency department setting. Given the vast differential that spans infectious, autoimmune, neoplastic, and metabolic processes, they can pose a diagnostic challenge even to skilled clinicians. There is a paucity of evidence-based data regarding the management of these disorders with frequent incongruence between specific sources. Although by no means exhaustive or absolute, this article reconciles existing literature and serves as a concise and informative guide to salivary gland disorders encountered by the emergency care practitioner. PMID:23601484

  1. Radionuclide salivary gland imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Mishkin, F.S.

    1981-10-01

    Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific.

  2. Trastuzumab in Treating Patients With Metastatic or Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-02-27

    High-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Salivary Gland Acinic Cell Tumor; Salivary Gland Adenocarcinoma; Salivary Gland Poorly Differentiated Carcinoma; Stage IVA Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVB Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVC Salivary Gland Cancer

  3. Direct disease-inducing effects of menthol through the eyes of tobacco companies

    PubMed Central

    Salgado, M Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Objective Menthol is an important additive in most tobacco products and is an identifying characteristic of many brands. We assessed tobacco companies' research on direct disease-inducing effects of menthol and menthol cigarettes. Methods A search was conducted among documents included in the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library. Relevant documents addressed subject areas such as pharmacology, short-term and long-term effects and biomarkers of smoking exposure. Results The documents contain little internal industry research on the disease-inducing effects of menthol. Most information in the tobacco industry documents are reviews of the published biomedical literature, from which the companies concluded that menthol did not have any direct disease-inducing effects. Evidence that contradicted this conclusion was downplayed. Except for one study, there was no evidence of the companies following up on positive findings in the literature with their own studies. In one case, results were presented at a public scientific meeting concluding that ‘There were no effects from addition of menthol to test or reference cigarettes’, when a company's internal pathology analysis contradicted this statement. Conclusion The available industry documents suggest that tobacco companies conducted little research on the potential disease-inducing effects of menthol and did not pursue studies that suggested adverse effects. PMID:21504931

  4. The ambiguous salivary myoepithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Rao, Roopa S; Patil, Shankargouda; Amrutha, N; Sanketh, Ds; Agarwal, Anveeta

    2014-01-01

    Salivary gland neoplasms present with a diverse histological pattern which is mainly because of the presence of specialized myoepithelial cells (MECs). These are contractile epithelial cells with smooth muscle like properties. They have been also noticed in mammary glands, lacrimal glands, prostate gland, and the sweat glands and have varied functions. MECs play an important role in the histogenesis of many salivary gland tumors. Knowledge of MECs leads to a better understanding of the histological diversity of salivary gland neoplasms. This article reviews the physiology, histology, identification and role of these cells in salivary gland pathology. PMID:25576124

  5. Salivary alpha amylase and salivary cortisol response to fluid consumption in exercising athletes.

    PubMed

    Backes, T P; Horvath, P J; Kazial, K A

    2015-11-01

    The objective of the study was to examine salivary biomarker response to fluid consumption in exercising athletes. Exercise induces stress on the body and salivary alpha amylase (sAA) and salivary cortisol are useful biomarkers for activity in the sympathoadrenal medullary system and the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis which are involved in the stress response. Fifteen college students were given 150 ml and 500 ml of water on different days and blinded to fluid condition. The exercise protocol was identical for both fluid conditions using absolute exercise intensities ranging from moderate to high. Saliva was collected prior to exercise, post moderate and post high intensities and analyzed by Salimetrics assays. Exercise was significant for sAA with values different between pre-exercise (85 ± 10 U · ml(-1)) and high intensity (284 ± 30 U · ml(-1)) as well as between moderate intensity (204 ± 32 U · ml(-1)) and high intensity. There was no difference in sAA values between fluid conditions at either intensity. Exercise intensity and fluid condition were each significant for cortisol. Cortisol values were different between pre-exercise (0.30 ± 0.03 ug · dL(-1)) and high intensity (0.45 ± 0.05 ug · dL(-1)) as well as between moderate intensity (0.33 ± 0.04 ug · dL(-1)) and high intensity. Moderate exercise intensity cortisol was lower in the 500 ml condition (0.33 ± 0.03 ug · dL(-1)) compared with the 150 ml condition (0.38 ± 0.03 ug · dL(-1)). This altered physiological response due to fluid consumption could influence sport performance and should be considered. In addition, future sport and exercise studies should control for fluid consumption. PMID:26681828

  6. Salivary alpha amylase and salivary cortisol response to fluid consumption in exercising athletes

    PubMed Central

    Horvath, PJ; Kazial, KA

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to examine salivary biomarker response to fluid consumption in exercising athletes. Exercise induces stress on the body and salivary alpha amylase (sAA) and salivary cortisol are useful biomarkers for activity in the sympathoadrenal medullary system and the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis which are involved in the stress response. Fifteen college students were given 150 ml and 500 ml of water on different days and blinded to fluid condition. The exercise protocol was identical for both fluid conditions using absolute exercise intensities ranging from moderate to high. Saliva was collected prior to exercise, post moderate and post high intensities and analyzed by Salimetrics assays. Exercise was significant for sAA with values different between pre-exercise (85 ± 10 U · ml−1) and high intensity (284 ± 30 U · ml−1) as well as between moderate intensity (204 ± 32 U · ml−1) and high intensity. There was no difference in sAA values between fluid conditions at either intensity. Exercise intensity and fluid condition were each significant for cortisol. Cortisol values were different between pre-exercise (0.30 ± 0.03 ug · dL−1) and high intensity (0.45 ± 0.05 ug · dL−1) as well as between moderate intensity (0.33 ± 0.04 ug · dL−1) and high intensity. Moderate exercise intensity cortisol was lower in the 500 ml condition (0.33 ± 0.03 ug · dL−1) compared with the 150 ml condition (0.38 ± 0.03 ug · dL−1). This altered physiological response due to fluid consumption could influence sport performance and should be considered. In addition, future sport and exercise studies should control for fluid consumption. PMID:26681828

  7. Salivary gland diseases in children

    PubMed Central

    Iro, Heinrich; Zenk, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Salivary gland diseases in children are rare, apart from viral-induced diseases. Nevertheless, it is essential for the otolaryngologist to recognize these uncommon findings in children and adolescents and to diagnose and initiate the proper treatment. The present work provides an overview of the entire spectrum of congenital and acquired diseases of the salivary glands in childhood and adolescence. The current literature was reviewed and the results discussed and summarized. Besides congenital diseases of the salivary glands in children, the main etiologies of viral and bacterial infections, autoimmune diseases and tumors of the salivary glands were considered. In addition to the known facts, new developments in diagnostics, imaging and therapy, including sialendoscopy in obstructive diseases and chronic recurrent juvenile sialadenitis were taken into account. In addition, systemic causes of salivary gland swelling and the treatment of sialorrhoea were discussed. Although salivary gland diseases in children are usually included in the pathology of the adult, they differ in their incidence and some­times in their symptoms. Clinical diagnostics and especially the surgical treatment are influenced by a stringent indications and a less invasive strategy. Due to the rarity of tumors of the salivary glands in children, it is recommended to treat them in a specialized center with greater surgical experience. Altogether the knowledge of the differential diagnoses in salivary gland diseases in children is important for otolaryngologists, to indicate the proper therapeutic approach. PMID:25587366

  8. Dasatinib in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Malignant Salivary Gland Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-26

    High-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Low-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Salivary Gland Acinic Cell Tumor; Salivary Gland Adenocarcinoma; Salivary Gland Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Anaplastic Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Malignant Mixed Cell Type Tumor; Salivary Gland Poorly Differentiated Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Salivary Gland Cancer

  9. High correlation between salivary cortisol awakening response and the psychometric profiles of healthy children

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cortisol awakening response (CAR) as an indicator of psychological stress and related physical and psychiatric diseases has attracted growing attention from researchers. Although CAR changes have been investigated extensively in children with behavioral and psychiatric disorders, the association between CAR and conventional psychometric scales for healthy children has not been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between salivary CAR and subscales of Profiles of Mood States (POMS), a self-assessment questionnaire widely used to evaluate the temporal emotional states of healthy children. Findings This study included 18 healthy girls aged 13–16 years. Saliva was collected immediately on awakening, 30 min and 60 min after waking, and then at 2-hour intervals from 9 am to 5 pm. The current mood state, including depression, anxiety, fatigue, and other psychometric profiles were assessed using POMS. The magnitude of salivary CAR and the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) for diurnal salivary cortisol were compared with the profiles. There were significant positive correlations between the magnitude of CAR and the POMS subscales for "Depression-Dejection", "Tension-Anxiety", "Fatigue", and "Confusion". No correlation was found between the AUC salivary cortisol level and the psychometric profiles. Conclusions Salivary CAR was associated with various mood states of healthy female children but diurnal salivary cortisol AUC was not. Salivary CAR may be a biomarker of the physical and mental condition of healthy female children. PMID:24625309

  10. Temporal Stability of the Salivary Microbiota in Oral Health

    PubMed Central

    Belstrøm, Daniel; Holmstrup, Palle; Bardow, Allan; Kokaras, Alexis; Fiehn, Nils-Erik; Paster, Bruce J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Saliva is a biological fluid suitable for biomarker analysis, and differences in the salivary microbiota in oral health and disease have been reported. For such comparative analyses, time of sampling is critical since the bacterial composition may vary throughout the day, i.e., diurnal variation. The purpose of this study is to compare the salivary microbiome over time to determine the optimal time for sampling. Design Stimulated saliva samples were collected from 5 orally healthy individuals in 4 h intervals for 24 h, and collection was repeated 7 days later (number of samples per person, n = 12, total number of samples, n = 60). Salivary microbiota was analyzed using the Human Oral Microbe Identification using Next Generation Sequencing (HOMINGS), and statistical analysis was performed using the Kruskal-Wallis test with Benjamini-Hochberg’s correction for multiple comparisons, cluster analysis, principal component analysis and correspondence analysis. Results From a total of 60 saliva samples, 477 probe targets were collectively identified with a mean number of probes per sample of 207 (range: 153–307). Little or no variation in microbial profiles within subjects was observed over time. Conclusions Although there was considerable variation between subjects, microbial profiles within subjects were stable throughout a 24 hour period and after 1 week. Since there is little or no evidence of diurnal variation of the salivary microbiome, time of sampling of saliva is not critical for perturbation or other microbial studies. PMID:26799067

  11. Salivary Antimicrobial Peptides in Early Detection of Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Güncü, Güliz N.; Yilmaz, Dogukan; Könönen, Eija; Gürsoy, Ulvi K.

    2015-01-01

    In the pathogenesis of periodontitis, an infection-induced inflammatory disease of the tooth-supporting tissues, there is a complex interaction between the subgingival microbiota and host tissues. A periodontal diagnostic tool for detecting the initiation and progression of the disease, monitoring the response to therapy, or measuring the degree of susceptibility to future disease progression has been of interest for a long time. The value of various enzymes, proteins, and immunoglobulins, which are abundant constituents of saliva, as potential biomarkers has been recognized and extensively investigated for periodontal diseases. Gingival defensins and cathelicidins are small cationic antimicrobial peptides that play an important role in innate immune response. However, their applicability as salivary biomarkers is still under debate. The present review focuses on proteomic biomarkers and antimicrobial peptides, in particular, to be used at early phases of periodontitis. PMID:26734583

  12. Salivary Duct Cyst: Histo-pathologic Correlation

    PubMed Central

    Vinayachandran, Divya; Sankarapandian, Sathasivasubramanian

    2013-01-01

    Non-neoplastic cysts of the salivary glands are uncommon and represent 2-5% of all salivary gland lesions. They are mainly mucoceles or salivary duct cysts. Unlike a mucocele, which is surrounded by granulation tissue, the salivary duct cyst is lined by epithelium. Salivary duct cysts are more common in the oral minor salivary glands and rarely occur in the major salivary glands, show a marked predilection for the superficial lobe of the parotid, and represent 10% of all salivary gland cysts. Neoplastic differentiation of the lining of the salivary duct cyst has been reported. We report a case of a salivary duct cyst of the left parotid gland, with a review of radiographic and histopathologic features. PMID:23878772

  13. Salivary Duct Cyst: Histo-pathologic Correlation.

    PubMed

    Vinayachandran, Divya; Sankarapandian, Sathasivasubramanian

    2013-01-01

    Non-neoplastic cysts of the salivary glands are uncommon and represent 2-5% of all salivary gland lesions. They are mainly mucoceles or salivary duct cysts. Unlike a mucocele, which is surrounded by granulation tissue, the salivary duct cyst is lined by epithelium. Salivary duct cysts are more common in the oral minor salivary glands and rarely occur in the major salivary glands, show a marked predilection for the superficial lobe of the parotid, and represent 10% of all salivary gland cysts. Neoplastic differentiation of the lining of the salivary duct cyst has been reported. We report a case of a salivary duct cyst of the left parotid gland, with a review of radiographic and histopathologic features. PMID:23878772

  14. Molecular Diversity between Salivary Proteins from New World and Old World Sand Flies with Emphasis on Bichromomyia olmeca, the Sand Fly Vector of Leishmania mexicana in Mesoamerica

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Shannon; Pasos-Pinto, Silvia; Sanchez, Laura; Rasouli, Manoochehr; B. Guimaraes-Costa, Anderson; Aslan, Hamide; Francischetti, Ivo M. B.; Oliveira, Fabiano; Becker, Ingeborg; Kamhawi, Shaden; Ribeiro, Jose M. C.; Jochim, Ryan C.; Valenzuela, Jesus G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Sand fly saliva has been shown to have proteins with potent biological activities, salivary proteins that can be used as biomarkers of vector exposure, and salivary proteins that are candidate vaccines against different forms of leishmaniasis. Sand fly salivary gland transcriptomic approach has contributed significantly to the identification and characterization of many of these salivary proteins from important Leishmania vectors; however, sand fly vectors in some regions of the world are still neglected, as Bichromomyia olmeca (formerly known as Lutzomyia olmeca olmeca), a proven vector of Leishmania mexicana in Mexico and Central America. Despite the importance of this vector in transmitting Leishmania parasite in Mesoamerica there is no information on the repertoire of B. olmeca salivary proteins and their relationship to salivary proteins from other sand fly species. Methods and Findings A cDNA library of the salivary glands of wild-caught B. olmeca was constructed, sequenced, and analyzed. We identified transcripts encoding for novel salivary proteins from this sand fly species and performed a comparative analysis between B. olmeca salivary proteins and those from other sand fly species. With this new information we present an updated catalog of the salivary proteins specific to New World sand flies and salivary proteins common to all sand fly species. We also report in this work the anti-Factor Xa activity of Lofaxin, a salivary anticoagulant protein present in this sand fly species. Conclusions This study provides information on the first transcriptome of a sand fly from Mesoamerica and adds information to the limited repertoire of salivary transcriptomes from the Americas. This comparative analysis also shows a fast degree of evolution in salivary proteins from New World sand flies as compared with Old World sand flies. PMID:27409591

  15. Salivary Gland Cancer Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Adams, April; Warner, Kristy; Nör, Jacques E.

    2013-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests the existence of a tumorigenic population of cancer cells that demonstrate stem cell-like properties such as self-renewal and multipotency. These cells, termed cancer stem cells (CSC), are able to both initiate and maintain tumor formation and progression. Studies have shown that CSC are resistant to traditional chemotherapy treatments preventing complete eradication of the tumor cell population. Following treatment, CSC are able to re-initiate tumor growth leading to patient relapse. Salivary gland cancers are relatively rare but constitute a highly significant public health issue due to the lack of effective treatments. In particular, patients with mucoepidermoid carcinoma or adenoid cystic carcinoma, the two most common salivary malignancies, have low long-term survival rates due to the lack of response to current therapies. Considering the role of CSC in resistance to therapy in other tumor types, it is possible that this unique sub-population of cells is involved in resistance of salivary gland tumors to treatment. Characterization of CSC can lead to better understanding of the pathobiology of salivary gland malignancies as well as to the development of more effective therapies. Here, we make a brief overview of the state-of-the-science in salivary gland cancer, and discuss possible implications of the cancer stem cell hypothesis to the treatment of salivary gland malignancies. PMID:23810400

  16. Salivary glands - "an unisex organ'?

    PubMed

    Konttinen, Y T; Stegaev, V; Mackiewicz, Z; Porola, P; Hänninen, A; Szodoray, P

    2010-10-01

    Usually no distinction is made between female and male salivary glands although cyclic changes of and ⁄ or differences in serum and salivary sex steroid concentrations characterize women and men. Moreover, sexual dimorphism is well recognized in salivary glands of rodents.Salivary glands contain estrogen and androgen receptors and are, according to modern high throughput technologies,subjected to gender differences not explainable by gene dose effects by the X chromosome alone. Because sex steroids are lipophilic, it is often thought that approximately 10% of them passively diffuse from plasma to saliva. Indeed, saliva can find use as sample material in sports medicine, pediatrics, veterinary medicine and behavioral sciences. Last but not least, humans and other primates are unique in that they have a reticular zone in their adrenal cortex, which produces dehydroepiandrosterone and androstendione pro-hormones. These are processed in peripheral tissues, not only in female breast and uterus and male prostate, but also in salivary glands by an intracrine enzymatic machinery to active 17b-estradiol,dihydrotestosterone and others, to satisfy and buffer against a constantly changing needs caused by circadian,menstrual, pregnancy and chronobiological hormonal changes in the systemic circulation. Female dominance of Sjögren's syndrome and certain forms of salivary gland cancer probably reflect these gender-based differences. PMID:20412448

  17. BIOMARKERS DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This database was developed by assembling and evaluating the literature relevant to human biomarkers. It catalogues and evaluates the usefulness of biomarkers of exposure, susceptibility and effect which may be relevant for a longitudinal cohort study. In addition to describing ...

  18. Novel possibilities in the study of the salivary proteomic profile using SELDI-TOF/MS technology

    PubMed Central

    ARDITO, FATIMA; PERRONE, DONATELLA; COCCHI, ROBERTO; LO RUSSO, LUCIO; DE LILLO, ALFREDO; GIANNATEMPO, GIOVANNI; LO MUZIO, LORENZO

    2016-01-01

    There is currently an increasing interest in exploring human saliva to identify salivary diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers, since the collection of saliva is rapid, non-invasive and stress-free. Diagnostic tests on saliva are common and cost-effective, particularly for patients who need to monitor their hormone levels or the effectiveness of undergoing therapies. Furthermore, salivary diagnostics is ideal for surveillance studies and in situations where fast results and inexpensive technologies are required. The most important constituents of saliva are proteins, the expression levels of which may be modified due to variations of the cellular conditions. Therefore, the different profile of proteins detected in saliva, including their absence, presence or altered levels, is a potential biomarker of certain physiological and/or pathological conditions. A promising novel approach to study saliva is the global analysis of salivary proteins using proteomic techniques. In the present study, surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight/mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF/MS), one of the most recent proteomic tools for the identification of novel biomarkers, is reviewed. In addition, the possible use of this technique in salivary proteomic studies is discussed, since SELDI technology combines the precision of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-TOF/MS proteomic analysis and the high-throughput nature of protein array analysis. PMID:26998108

  19. General Information about Salivary Gland Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Salivary Gland Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Salivary Gland Cancer Go to Health Professional ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  20. Salivary Immunosuppressive Cytokines IL-10 and IL-13 Are Significantly Elevated in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Patients.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Salman; Ahmed, Syed Shoaib; Ali, Asad; Khan, Faiza Akhter; Zulfiqar, Gulraiz; Iqbal, Javed; Khan, Ayyaz Ali; Shoaib, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is considered to be one of the most fatal diseases worldwide, owing to its late diagnosis and lack of availability of established reliable biomarkers. The aim of this study was to highlight the significance of immunosuppressive cytokines as potential biomarkers in OSCC. Whole unstimulated saliva was collected from each individual (30 OSCC patients and 33 age- and gender-matched healthy controls). Immunosuppressive cytokines, including IL-4, IL-10, IL-13, and IL-1RA, were evaluated in each sample using Luminex multianalyte profiling (xMAP) technology on BioPlex instrument. Our results showed that all the studied salivary cytokines were raised in OSCC patients as compared to controls, where IL-10 and IL-13 salivary levels showed statistically significant difference (p = .004 and p = .010, respectively). Mean levels of salivary cytokines in three histologically defined OSCC categories, compared employing one-way ANOVA, showed that salivary levels of IL-1RA were highest in patients having poorly differentiated OSCC tumors as compared to those having moderately and well-differentiated tumors (p = .000 and p = .002, respectively). Among OSCC individuals, duration of smokeless tobacco correlated positively with IL-1RA (p = .036). We conclude that salivary levels of immunosuppressive cytokines, IL-4, IL-10, IL-13, and IL-1RA, could prove to be potential biomarkers of OSCC and can be further investigated as markers of early detection and disease progression. PMID:26046681

  1. [Salivary gland tumors in children].

    PubMed

    Thariat, Juliette; Vedrine, Pierre-Olivier; Orbach, Daniel; Marcy, Pierre-Yves; Badoual, Cécile; Butori, Catherine; Teissier, Natacha; Toussaint, Bruno; Castillo, Laurent

    2011-07-01

    Salivary gland tumors in children are rare: they correspond to 8-10% of head and neck pediatric tumors. Clinicians of all disciplines should be aware of this diagnosis in front of non-inflammatory mass of the parotid or in the territory of other salivary glands. In children, 50% of salivary gland tumors are malignant which contrasts with a 10-25% risk in adults. Epithelial tumors are the most common, mucoepidermoïd carcinomas of the parotid in particular. Surgery is the treatment of choice in epithelial tumors. Adjuvant radiotherapy may be indicated in case of unfavorable prognostic factors but must be balanced with the risk of radiation-induced growth defects and secondary cancer. The role of chemotherapy is limited in these tumors, but should be discussed in case of an inoperable or metastatic lesion. PMID:21690035

  2. Identification of salivary antigenic markers discriminating host exposition between two European ticks: Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Dermacentor reticulatus.

    PubMed

    Vu Hai, Vinh; Almeras, Lionel; Audebert, Stephane; Pophillat, Matthieu; Boulanger, Nathalie; Parola, Philippe; Raoult, Didier; Pages, Frederic

    2013-01-01

    To succeed blood meal, ticks inject salivary proteins to mammalian hosts, eliciting an antibody response against these foreign antigens. Although this immune response has been proposed as a surrogate marker of exposure to tick bites, identification of the corresponding antigens remains elusive. For this aim, a comparison by immunoblots of the kinetic IgG responses to protein salivary gland extracts from two European tick species, Rhipicephalus sanguineus or Dermacentor reticulatus, in rabbits was performed. A singularity in the immune patterns was observed according to rabbit exposure status and depending on the antigen source. Six and five bands were found specifically associated to R. sanguineus and to D. reticulatus exposures, respectively. The identity of these salivary antigenic proteins was determined using an original immunoproteomic approach. The utilization of these tick salivary proteins as biomarker candidates to discriminate R. sanguineus and/or D. reticulatus tick exposure or to develop anti-tick vaccines is discussed. PMID:23040662

  3. Recent advances in salivary cancer diagnostics enabled by biosensors and bioelectronics.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Saswat; Saadat, Darius; Kwon, Ohjin; Lee, Yongkuk; Choi, Woon-Seop; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Yeo, Woon-Hong

    2016-07-15

    There is a high demand for a non-invasive, rapid, and highly accurate tool for disease diagnostics. Recently, saliva based diagnostics for the detection of specific biomarkers has drawn significant attention since the sample extraction is simple, cost-effective, and precise. Compared to blood, saliva contains a similar variety of DNA, RNA, proteins, metabolites, and microbiota that can be compiled into a multiplex of cancer detection markers. The salivary diagnostic method holds great potential for early-stage cancer diagnostics without any complicated and expensive procedures. Here, we review various cancer biomarkers in saliva and compare the biomarkers efficacy with traditional diagnostics and state-of-the-art bioelectronics. We summarize biomarkers in four major groups: genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics/microbiota. Representative bioelectronic systems for each group are summarized based on various stages of a cancer. Systematic study of oxidative stress establishes the relationship between macromolecules and cancer biomarkers in saliva. We also introduce the most recent examples of salivary diagnostic electronics based on nanotechnologies that can offer rapid, yet highly accurate detection of biomarkers. A concluding section highlights areas of opportunity in the further development and applications of these technologies. PMID:26946257

  4. Characterization of the salivary microbiome in patients with pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Pedro J.; Fletcher, Erin M.; Gibbons, Sean M.; Bouvet, Michael; Doran, Kelly S.

    2015-01-01

    Clinical manifestations of pancreatic cancer often do not occur until the cancer has undergone metastasis, resulting in a very low survival rate. In this study, we investigated whether salivary bacterial profiles might provide useful biomarkers for early detection of pancreatic cancer. Using high-throughput sequencing of bacterial small subunit ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) gene, we characterized the salivary microbiota of patients with pancreatic cancer and compared them to healthy patients and patients with other diseases, including pancreatic disease, non-pancreatic digestive disease/cancer and non-digestive disease/cancer. A total of 146 patients were enrolled at the UCSD Moores Cancer Center where saliva and demographic data were collected from each patient. Of these, we analyzed the salivary microbiome of 108 patients: 8 had been diagnosed with pancreatic cancer, 78 with other diseases and 22 were classified as non-diseased (healthy) controls. Bacterial 16S rRNA sequences were amplified directly from salivary DNA extractions and subjected to high-throughput sequencing (HTS). Several bacterial genera differed in abundance in patients with pancreatic cancer. We found a significantly higher ratio of Leptotrichia to Porphyromonas in the saliva of patients with pancreatic cancer than in the saliva of healthy patients or those with other disease (Kruskal–Wallis Test; P < 0.001). Leptotrichia abundances were confirmed using real-time qPCR with Leptotrichia specific primers. Similar to previous studies, we found lower relative abundances of Neisseria and Aggregatibacter in the saliva of pancreatic cancer patients, though these results were not significant at the P < 0.05 level (K–W Test; P = 0.07 and P = 0.09 respectively). However, the relative abundances of other previously identified bacterial biomarkers, e.g., Streptococcus mitis and Granulicatella adiacens, were not significantly different in the saliva of pancreatic cancer patients. Overall, this study supports

  5. Follicular lymphoma of the submandibular salivary gland

    PubMed Central

    Shashidara, R.; Prasad, Priyanka R.; Jaishankar; Joseph, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Lymphomas are neoplastic diseases of lymph nodes. Lymphoma of the salivary gland is rare accounting for less than 5% of lymphomas overall. Furthermore, lymphomas arising in the submandibular gland are reported to comprise 916% of all salivary gland lymphomas. Among lymphomas originating from salivary glands, the ratio of follicular lymphoma is very low. They can also be seen in the lymph nodes of the salivary glands which is an uncommon presentation. Here, we present a case follicular lymphoma which presented as a salivary gland tumour. PMID:25364171

  6. [Salivary stones: aetiology, composition and treatment].

    PubMed

    Kraaij, S; Brand, H S; Karagozoglu, K H; Forouzanfar, T; Veerman, E C I

    2014-11-01

    Salivary stones or sialoliths, are calcified concrements which are most frequently located in the submandibular glands and their ducts. Their size and weight show considerable variation. The aetiology is unknown. It has been suggested that salivary stones could be related to an altered saliva composition, the anatomy of the ducts of the salivary gland and/or the fusion of microsialoliths. Salivary stones consist mainly of anorganic material such as hydroxyapatite, whitlockite and calciumphosphate, but they also contain organic components such as proteins and lipids. Treatment can consist of salivary gland massage combined with an acid diet, ultrasonic pulverisation, and surgical or sialendoscopical removal. PMID:26188478

  7. Salivary gland diseases: infections, sialolithiasis and mucoceles.

    PubMed

    Delli, Konstantina; Spijkervet, Fred K L; Vissink, Arjan

    2014-01-01

    The three most frequently diagnosed salivary gland diseases are salivary gland infections, sialolithiasis and mucoceles. Salivary gland infections are usually of bacterial or viral etiology and can be divided into acute and chronic types. Occasionally they can result from obstruction of the salivary duct, an autoimmmune disease or cancer therapy. Infections can occur in all types of salivary glands and are observed at all ages. Sialolithiasis is characterized by the development of calcified structures in the salivary glands, especially in the submandibular gland. Sialoliths are generally attributed to retention of saliva and are usually accompanied by swelling and pain when a salivary stimulus is applied. Mucoceles can be differentiated into mucus extravasation phenomenon or mucus escape reaction, mucus retention cysts and ranulas. They result from extravasation of saliva into the surrounding soft tissues or from retention of saliva within the duct. PMID:24862601

  8. Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Factors Request Permissions Print to PDF Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 08/ ... anything that increases a person’s chance of developing cancer. Although risk factors often influence the development of cancer, most do ...

  9. Salivary amylase and stress during stressful environment: three Mars analog mission crews study.

    PubMed

    Rai, Balwant; Kaur, Jasdeep; Foing, Bernard H

    2012-06-14

    After the establishment of the space age physicians, human factors engineers, neurologist and psychologists and their special attention to work on people's capability to meet up the physical, psychological, neuroscience and interpersonal strains of working in space, it has been regarded as an issue that seeks urgent consideration. Not study was conducted on effect of simulated Mars analog environment on stress and salivary amylase. So, this study aimed to confirm whether salivary amylase is act as stress biomarker in crew members who took part in Mars analog mission in an isolated and stressful environment. The 18 crew members were selected who took part in Mars Analog Research Station, Utah. Salivary amylase was measured using a biosensor of salivary amylase monitor and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory score at pre-extravehicular activity, post-extravehicular activity and on before mission. The state and trait anxiety scores at pre-extravehicular activity for each commander were elevated as compared to after extravehicular activity. There were significant differences in the state and trait anxiety scores between before extravehicular activity and after extravehicular activity of Commander and other members, also there were significant differences in values of before-extravehicular activity between commanders and other members. There were significant differences in values of salivary amylase at before extravehicular activity and after extravehicular activity between commander group and other members. There was significant correlation between salivary amylase and state and trait anxiety scores in all groups. Measuring salivary amylase level could be useful for stress assessment of crew members and population working in a stressful and isolated environment. PMID:22554904

  10. Salivary Myeloperoxidase, Assessed by 3,3'-Diaminobenzidine Colorimetry, Can Differentiate Periodontal Patients from Nonperiodontal Subjects.

    PubMed

    Klangprapan, Supaporn; Chaiyarit, Ponlatham; Hormdee, Doosadee; Kampichai, Amonrujee; Khampitak, Tueanjit; Daduang, Jureerut; Tavichakorntrakool, Ratree; Panijpan, Bhinyo; Boonsiri, Patcharee

    2016-01-01

    Periodontal diseases, which result from inflammation of tooth supporting tissues, are highly prevalent worldwide. Myeloperoxidase (MPO), from certain white blood cells in saliva, is a biomarker for inflammation. We report our study on the salivary MPO activity and its association with severity of periodontal diseases among Thai patients. Periodontally healthy subjects (n = 11) and gingivitis (n = 32) and periodontitis patients (n = 19) were enrolled. Assessments of clinically periodontal parameters were reported as percentages for gingival bleeding index (GI) and bleeding on probing (BOP), whereas pocket depth (PD) and clinical attachment loss (CAL) were measured in millimeters and then made to index scores. Salivary MPO activity was measured by colorimetry using 3,3'-diaminobenzidine as substrate. The results showed that salivary MPO activity in periodontitis patients was significantly higher than in healthy subjects (p = 0.003) and higher than in gingivitis patients (p = 0.059). No difference was found between gingivitis and healthy groups (p = 0.181). Significant correlations were observed (p < 0.01) between salivary MPO activity and GI (r = 0.632, p < 0.001), BOP (r = 0.599, p < 0.001), PD (r = 0.179, p = 0.164), and CAL (r = 0.357, p = 0.004) index scores. Sensitivity (94.12%), specificity (54.55%), and positive (90.57%) and negative (66.67%) predictive values indicate that salivary MPO activity has potential use as a screening marker for oral health of the Thai community. PMID:27274868

  11. Salivary Cytoprotective Proteins in Inflammation and Resolution during Experimental Gingivitis—A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Aboodi, Guy M.; Sima, Corneliu; Moffa, Eduardo B.; Crosara, Karla T. B.; Xiao, Yizhi; Siqueira, Walter L.; Glogauer, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The protective mechanisms that maintain periodontal homeostasis in gingivitis and prevent periodontal tissue destruction are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to identify changes in the salivary proteome during experimental gingivitis. Study design: We used oral neutrophil quantification and whole saliva (WS) proteomics to assess changes that occur in the inflammatory and resolution phases of gingivitis in healthy individuals. Oral neutrophils and WS samples were collected and clinical parameters measured on days 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35. Results: Increased oral neutrophil recruitment and salivary cytoprotective proteins increased progressively during inflammation and decreased in resolution. Oral neutrophil numbers in gingival inflammation and resolution correlated moderately with salivary β-globin, thioredoxin, and albumin and strongly with collagen alpha-1 and G-protein coupled receptor 98. Conclusions: Our results indicate that changes in salivary cytoprotective proteins in gingivitis are associated with a similar trend in oral neutrophil recruitment and clinical parameters. Clinical relevance: We found moderate to strong correlations between oral neutrophil numbers and levels of several salivary cytoprotective proteins both in the development of the inflammation and in the resolution of gingivitis. Our proteomics approach identified and relatively quantified specific cytoprotective proteins in this pilot study of experimental gingivitis; however, future and more comprehensive studies are needed to clearly identify and validate those protein biomarkers when gingivitis is active. PMID:26779447

  12. Salivary Markers of Inflammation in Response to Acute Stress

    PubMed Central

    Slavish, Danica C.; Graham-Engeland, Jennifer E.; Smyth, Joshua M.; Engeland, Christopher G.

    2014-01-01

    There is burgeoning interest in the ability to detect inflammatory markers in response to stress within naturally occurring social contexts and/or across multiple time points per day within individuals. Salivary collection is a less invasive process than current methods of blood collection and enables intensive naturalistic methodologies, such as those involving extensive repeated measures per day over time. Yet the reliability and validity of saliva-based to blood-based inflammatory biomarkers in response to stress remains unclear. We review and synthesize the published studies that have examined salivary markers of inflammation following exposure to an acute laboratory stressor. Results from each study are reviewed by analyte (IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12, CRP) and stress type (social-cognitive and exercise-physical), after which methodological issues and limitations are addressed. Although the literature is limited, several inflammatory markers (including IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6) have been reliably determined from saliva and have increased significantly in response to stress across multiple studies, with effect sizes ranging from very small to very large. Although CRP from saliva has been associated with CRP in circulating blood more consistently than other biomarkers have been associated with their counterparts in blood, evidence demonstrating it reliably responds to acute stress is absent. Although the current literature is presently too limited to allow broad assertion that inflammatory biomarkers determined from saliva are valuable for examining acute stress responses, this review suggests that specific targets may be valid and highlights specific areas of need for future research. PMID:25205395

  13. Salivary Cortisol, Salivary Alpha Amylase, and the Dental Anxiety Scale

    PubMed Central

    Sadi, Hana; Finkelman, Matthew; Rosenberg, Morton

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between dental anxiety, salivary cortisol, and salivary alpha amylase (sAA) levels. Furthermore, the aim was to look into individual differences such as age, race, gender, any existing pain, or traumatic dental experience and their effect on dental anxiety. This study followed a cross-sectional design and included a convenience sample of 46. Every patient was asked to complete the Dental Anxiety Scale (DAS) and a basic demographic/dental history questionnaire. A saliva sample, utilizing the method of passive drooling, was then collected in 2-mL cryovials. Samples were analyzed for salivary cortisol and sAA levels by Salimetrics. Significant associations were observed between DAS scores and presence of pain and history of traumatic dental experience. However, no significant correlations were observed between DAS, cortisol, and sAA levels. Our study reconfirms that dental anxiety is associated with presence of pain and a history of traumatic dental experience. On the other hand, our study was the first to our knowledge to test the correlation between the DAS and sAA; nevertheless, our results failed to show any significant correlation between dental anxiety, cortisol, and sAA levels. PMID:23763559

  14. Parotid salivary duct stenosis following caudal maxillectomy.

    PubMed

    Mestrinho, Lisa A; Faísca, Pedro B; Niza, Maria M R E

    2014-01-01

    Parotid salivary duct dilation was diagnosed in a 9-year-old male dog. The dog had undergone caudal maxillectomy on the ipsilateral side 2-years prior to presentation. Treatment consisted of parotid salivary duct excision and superficial parotidectomy that lead to the resolution of clinical signs. Transient facial neuropraxia was observed immediately after surgery and resolved spontaneously after 2-weeks. Parotid salivary duct dilation should be considered as a chronic postoperative complication following caudal maxillectomy. PMID:24902412

  15. Differences in Salivary Flow Level, Xerostomia, and Flavor Alteration in Mexican HIV Patients Who Did or Did Not Receive Antiretroviral Therapy.

    PubMed

    López-Verdín, Sandra; Andrade-Villanueva, Jaime; Zamora-Perez, Ana Lourdes; Bologna-Molina, Ronell; Cervantes-Cabrera, José Justino; Molina-Frechero, Nelly

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Objective and subjective alterations related to salivary flow have been reported in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and these alterations are associated with the introduction of antiretroviral therapy. The aim of the current study was to discern whether these alterations are disease induced or secondary to drug therapy. Objective. The objective was to determine the relationships between low salivary flow, xerostomia, and flavor alterations in HIV patients who did or did not receive antiretroviral therapy. Materials and Methods. In this cross-sectional study, HIV patients were divided into two groups based on whether they had received antiretroviral therapy. Those patients with a previous diagnosis of any salivary gland disease were excluded. A survey was used to assess subjective variables, and colorimetry and salivary flow rates were measured using the Schirmer global test. Results. A total of 293 patients were included. The therapy group showed a significantly lower average salivary flow than did the group without therapy, and we observed that the flow rate tended to decrease after one year of therapy. The results were not conclusive, despite significant differences in xerostomia and flavor alteration between the groups. Conclusion. The study results suggest that antiretroviral therapy can cause cumulative damage that affects the amount of salivary flow. PMID:24455222

  16. Differences in Salivary Flow Level, Xerostomia, and Flavor Alteration in Mexican HIV Patients Who Did or Did Not Receive Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    López-Verdín, Sandra; Andrade-Villanueva, Jaime; Zamora-Perez, Ana Lourdes; Bologna-Molina, Ronell; Cervantes-Cabrera, José Justino

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Objective and subjective alterations related to salivary flow have been reported in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and these alterations are associated with the introduction of antiretroviral therapy. The aim of the current study was to discern whether these alterations are disease induced or secondary to drug therapy. Objective. The objective was to determine the relationships between low salivary flow, xerostomia, and flavor alterations in HIV patients who did or did not receive antiretroviral therapy. Materials and Methods. In this cross-sectional study, HIV patients were divided into two groups based on whether they had received antiretroviral therapy. Those patients with a previous diagnosis of any salivary gland disease were excluded. A survey was used to assess subjective variables, and colorimetry and salivary flow rates were measured using the Schirmer global test. Results. A total of 293 patients were included. The therapy group showed a significantly lower average salivary flow than did the group without therapy, and we observed that the flow rate tended to decrease after one year of therapy. The results were not conclusive, despite significant differences in xerostomia and flavor alteration between the groups. Conclusion. The study results suggest that antiretroviral therapy can cause cumulative damage that affects the amount of salivary flow. PMID:24455222

  17. Estimation of restraint stress in rats using salivary amylase activity.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Tetsuya; Takimura, Ryo; Yamaguchi, Masaki; Ichinose, Mitsuyuki

    2012-09-01

    The rat is an ideal model animal for studying physical and psychological stresses. Recent human studies have shown that salivary amylase activity is a useful biomarker of stress in our social life. To estimate the usefulness of amylase activity as a biomarker of stress in rats, we analyzed changes in physiological parameters including amylase activity and anatomical variables, which were induced by a mild restraint of paws (10 min, 3 times/week, 9 weeks). The quantities of food and water intake and excretion amount of the stress rats were smaller than those of the control rats during the experimental period (5-13 weeks). The body weight of the stress rats decreased compared with that of the control rats. Moreover, the enlargement of the adrenal gland was confirmed in the stress rats, indicating that the mild restraint caused a chronic stress response. The amylase activities of the stress rats were significantly greater than those of the control rats at 5 weeks of age. However, the amylase activity of the stress rats decreased compared with that of the control rats after 6 weeks of age. These results indicate that amylase activity is increased by acute stress and reduced by chronic stress, which is caused by repeated restraint stress. In conclusion, amylase activity is a useful biomarker of acute and chronic stresses in rats. PMID:22753135

  18. Comparison of Promoter Hypermethylation Pattern in Salivary Rinses Collected with and without an Exfoliating Brush from Patients with HNSCC

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wenyue; Zaboli, David; Liu, Yan; Arnaoutakis, Demetri; Khan, Tanbir; Wang, Hao; Koch, Wayne; Khan, Zubair; Califano, Joseph A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Salivary rinses have been recently proposed as a valuable resource for the development of epigenetic biomarkers for detection and monitoring of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Both salivary rinses collected with and without an exfoliating brush from patients with HNSCC are used in detection of promoter hypermethylation, yet their correlation of promoter hypermethylation has not been evaluated. This study was to evaluate the concordance of promoter hypermethylation between salivary rinses collected with and without an exfoliating brush from patients with HNSCC. Methodolgy 57 paired salivary rinses collected with or without an exfoliating brush from identical HNSCC patients were evaluated for promoter hypermethylation status using Quantitative Methylation-Specific PCR. Target tumor suppressor gene promoter regions were selected based on our previous studies describing a panel for HNSCC screening and surveillance, including P16, CCNA1, DCC, TIMP3, MGMT, DAPK and MINT31. Principal Findings In salivary rinses collected with and without brush, frequent methylation was detected in P16 (8.8% vs. 5.2%), CCNA1 (26.3% vs. 22.8%), DCC (33.3% vs. 29.8%), TIMP3 (31.6% vs. 36.8%), MGMT (29.8% vs. 38.6%), DAPK (14.0% vs. 19.2%), and MINT31 (10.5% vs. 8.8%). Spearman's rank correlation coefficient showed a positive correlation between salivary rinses collected with and without brush for P16 (ρ = 0.79), CCNA1 (ρ = 0.61), DCC (ρ = 0.58), TIMP3 (ρ = 0.10), MGMT (ρ = 0.70), DAPK (ρ = 0.51) and MINT31 (ρ = 0.72) (P<0.01). The percent agreement of promoter methylation between salivary rinses with brush and without brush were 96.5% for P16, 82.5% for CCNA1, 78.9% for DCC, 59.7% for TIMP3, 84.2% for MGMT, 84.2% for DAPK, and 94.7% for MINT31. Conclusions Our study demonstrated strong correlations of gene promoter hypermethylation between salivary rinses collected with and without an exfoliating brush. Salivary rinse collection

  19. Salivary duct carcinoma of parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Kinnera, Vijay Sreedhar Babu; Mandyam, Kumaraswamy Reddy; Chowhan, Amit Kumar; Nandyala, Rukmangadha; Bobbidi, Venkata Phaneendra; Vutukuru, Venkatarami Reddy

    2009-07-01

    A 40-year old male presented with rapidly growing swelling in the right parotid region. Based on the fine needle aspiration cytology report of adenocarcinoma not otherwise specified, superficial parotidectomy was performed, which showed the features of salivary duct carcinoma by histopathological examination. The smears were reviewed to identify the potential pitfalls in the cytological diagnosis of salivary duct carcinoma. PMID:21887008

  20. Salivary duct carcinoma of parotid gland

    PubMed Central

    Kinnera, Vijay Sreedhar Babu; Mandyam, Kumaraswamy Reddy; Chowhan, Amit Kumar; Nandyala, Rukmangadha; Bobbidi, Venkata Phaneendra; Vutukuru, Venkatarami Reddy

    2009-01-01

    A 40-year old male presented with rapidly growing swelling in the right parotid region. Based on the fine needle aspiration cytology report of adenocarcinoma not otherwise specified, superficial parotidectomy was performed, which showed the features of salivary duct carcinoma by histopathological examination. The smears were reviewed to identify the potential pitfalls in the cytological diagnosis of salivary duct carcinoma. PMID:21887008

  1. Exercise upregulates salivary amylase in humans (Review).

    PubMed

    Koibuchi, Eri; Suzuki, Yoshio

    2014-04-01

    The secretion of salivary α-amylase is influenced by adrenergic regulation of the sympathetic nervous system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis; thus, exercise affects the levels of salivary α-amylase. Granger et al published a review in 2007 that focused attention on salivary α-amylase. In addition, a portable system for monitoring salivary α-amylase activity was launched in Japan at the end of 2005. The correlation between exercise and salivary α-amylase has since been extensively investigated. The present review summarizes relevant studies published in the English and Japanese literature after 2006. A search of the PubMed and CiNii databases identified 54 articles, from which 15 original articles were selected. The findings described in these publications indicate that exercise consistently increases mean salivary α-amylase activities and concentrations, particularly at an intensity of >70% VO2max in healthy young individuals. Thus, these studies have confirmed that salivary α-amylase levels markedly increase in response to physical stress. Salivary α-amylase levels may therefore serve as an effective indicator in the non-invasive assessment of physical stress. PMID:24669232

  2. Non-neoplastic salivary gland diseases.

    PubMed

    Arduino, P G; Carrozzo, M; Pentenero, M; Bertolusso, G; Gandolfo, S

    2006-05-01

    A wide range of non neoplastic disorders can affect the salivary glands, although the more common are: mumps, acute suppurative sialadenitis, Sjögren's syndrome and drug-induced xerostomia. Salivary dysfunction is not a normal consequence of old age, and can be due to systemic diseases, medications or head and neck radiotherapy. Diagnosis of salivary disorders begins with a careful medical history, followed by a cautious examination. While complaints of xerostomia may be indicative of a salivary gland disorder, salivary diseases can present without symptoms. Therefore, routine examination of salivary function must be part of any head, neck, and oral examination. Health-care professionals can play a vital role in identifying patients at risk for developing salivary dysfunction, and should provide appropriate preventive and interventive techniques that will help to preserving a person's health, function, and quality of life. The present work provides an overview of most of the non neoplastic disorders of the salivary glands, in which the general presentation, pathology, and treatments are discussed. PMID:16688102

  3. Lapatinib in Treating Patients With Recurrent and/or Metastatic Adenoid Cystic Cancer or Other Salivary Gland Cancers

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-10-10

    High-grade Salivary Gland Carcinoma; High-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Low-grade Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Low-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Recurrent Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Salivary Gland Acinic Cell Tumor; Salivary Gland Adenocarcinoma; Salivary Gland Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Malignant Mixed Cell Type Tumor

  4. Evaluation of response to restraint stress by salivary corticosterone levels in adult male mice

    PubMed Central

    NOHARA, Masakatsu; TOHEI, Atsushi; SATO, Takumi; AMAO, Hiromi

    2016-01-01

    Saliva as a sampling method is a low invasive technique for the detection of physiologically active substances, as opposed to sampling the plasma or serum. In this study, we obtained glucocorticoids transferred from the blood to the saliva from mice treated with 2.0 mg/kg via an intraperitoneal injection of cortisol. Next, to evaluate the effect of restraint stress using mouse saliva—collected under anesthesia by mixed anesthetic agents—we measured plasma and salivary corticosterone levels at 60 min after restraint stress. Moreover, to evaluate salivary corticosterone response to stress in the same individual mouse, an adequate recovery period (1, 3 and 7 days) after anesthesia was examined. The results demonstrate that exogenous cortisol was detected in the saliva and the plasma, in mice treated with cortisol. Restraint stress significantly increased corticosterone levels in both the plasma and saliva (P<0.001). Monitoring the results of individual mice showed that restraint stress significantly increased salivary corticosterone levels in all three groups (1-, 3- and 7-day recovery). However, the statistical evidence of corticosterone increase is stronger in the 7-day recovery group (P<0.001) than in the others (P<0.05). These results suggest that the corticosterone levels in saliva reflect its levels in the plasma, and salivary corticosterone is a useful, less-invasive biomarker of physical stress in mice. The present study may contribute to concepts of Reduction and Refinement of the three Rs in small animal experiments. PMID:26852731

  5. Stress evaluation in adult patients with atopic dermatitis using salivary cortisol.

    PubMed

    Mizawa, Megumi; Yamaguchi, Masaki; Ueda, Chieko; Makino, Teruhiko; Shimizu, Tadamichi

    2013-01-01

    The symptoms of atopic dermatitis (AD) are often aggravated by stress, and AD can also lead to psychological stress due to social isolation and discrimination. The salivary cortisol level reflects psychological stress, and it is a good index to assess chronic stress. In this study, we measured the salivary cortisol levels in patients with AD (n = 30) and compared them with those of healthy control subjects (n = 42). AD patients were also evaluated for general disease severity using the Scoring Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) index. The serum levels of TARC, total IgE, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and peripheral blood eosinophil counts were measured by laboratory tests. The Skindex-16 was used as a skin disease-specific, quality of life measure, instrument. The results showed that the saliva cortisol level was significantly higher in AD patients compared to healthy subjects (P < 0.01). The salivary cortisol level was significantly correlated with the SCORAD index (r = 0.42, P < 0.05) while the serum TARC and LDH levels were positively correlated with the SCORAD index. However, no statistically significant correlations were observed between the salivary cortisol level and Skindex-16. These results suggest that the saliva cortisol level is therefore a useful biomarker to evaluate the stress in AD patients. PMID:23971022

  6. Stress Evaluation in Adult Patients with Atopic Dermatitis Using Salivary Cortisol

    PubMed Central

    Mizawa, Megumi; Ueda, Chieko; Makino, Teruhiko

    2013-01-01

    The symptoms of atopic dermatitis (AD) are often aggravated by stress, and AD can also lead to psychological stress due to social isolation and discrimination. The salivary cortisol level reflects psychological stress, and it is a good index to assess chronic stress. In this study, we measured the salivary cortisol levels in patients with AD (n = 30) and compared them with those of healthy control subjects (n = 42). AD patients were also evaluated for general disease severity using the Scoring Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) index. The serum levels of TARC, total IgE, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and peripheral blood eosinophil counts were measured by laboratory tests. The Skindex-16 was used as a skin disease-specific, quality of life measure, instrument. The results showed that the saliva cortisol level was significantly higher in AD patients compared to healthy subjects (P < 0.01). The salivary cortisol level was significantly correlated with the SCORAD index (r = 0.42, P < 0.05) while the serum TARC and LDH levels were positively correlated with the SCORAD index. However, no statistically significant correlations were observed between the salivary cortisol level and Skindex-16. These results suggest that the saliva cortisol level is therefore a useful biomarker to evaluate the stress in AD patients. PMID:23971022

  7. Investigation of The Association between Salivary Procalcitonin Concentration and Chronic Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Yousefimanesh, Hojatollah; Robati, Maryam; Malekzadeh, Hossein; Jahangirnezhad, Mahmoud; Ghafourian Boroujerdnia, Mehri; Azadi, Khadijeh

    2015-01-01

    Objective Chronic periodontitis is the most common form of periodontal disease. Chang- es in biomarkers seem to be associated with the disease progression. Procalcitonin (PCT) is one of these biomarkers that are altered during infection. This study was established to investigate the relationship between periodontitis as an infectious disease and salivary PCT. Materials and Methods This case-control study was performed on 30 patients with gen- eralized chronic periodontitis and 30 health individuals as control group who were referred to Dental School, Jundishapur University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran at Feb to Apr 2014. The saliva samples were collected and analyzed by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Data analysis was performed using t test with the SPSS (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) version 13. Results In both groups, age and sex distribution values were not significantly differ- ent. The concentrations of salivary PCT in controls and patients ranged from 0.081 pg/ mL to 0.109 pg/mL and from 0.078 pg/mL to 0.114 pg/mL, respectively. The statistically significant differences between the two groups were not observed (P=0.17). Conclusion It seems that salivary PCT concentration is not affected by disease progres- sion. Therefore, PCT is not a valuable marker for the existence of periodontal disease. PMID:26464829

  8. A study into salivary-based measurement of human stress subjected to Ellestad stress test protocol.

    PubMed

    Lee, Y K; Za'aba, A; Madzhi, N K; Ahmad, A

    2009-01-01

    Previous works on the effects of salivary alpha amylase in respond to various stressors report encouraging findings on it being a good indicator of stress. Ellestad protocol is a clinical procedure to screen for coronary artery disease by introducing exercise induced physical stress. If a salivary based biomarker profile in accordance to a stress test protocol could be established, the critical stress state which disable rational decision making could be ascertained in a standardized procedure. This technique would serve to aid human resource management in times of critical events such as rescue, firefighting or even military, that would potentially prevent unnecessary sacrifice of human lives. In this pilot study with five healthy volunteers performing the Ellestad protocol treadmill, a measurement profile with physiologic and salivary based biomarker is obtained. It is found that the alpha amylase levels or the changes in it as workload changes from resting-walking-running at ease-exhaustive running, is relatively more significant in reflecting the stress state than heart rate and blood pressure. Moreover, it is strongly associated with mood state with correlation coefficient of 0.8 and significance of 0.01. PMID:19964239

  9. Imaging Biomarkers or Biomarker Imaging?

    PubMed Central

    Mitterhauser, Markus; Wadsak, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Since biomarker imaging is traditionally understood as imaging of molecular probes, we highly recommend to avoid any confusion with the previously defined term “imaging biomarkers” and, therefore, only use “molecular probe imaging (MPI)” in that context. Molecular probes (MPs) comprise all kinds of molecules administered to an organism which inherently carry a signalling moiety. This review highlights the basic concepts and differences of molecular probe imaging using specific biomarkers. In particular, PET radiopharmaceuticals are discussed in more detail. Specific radiochemical and radiopharmacological aspects as well as some legal issues are presented. PMID:24967536

  10. Adherence of oral streptococci to salivary glycoproteins.

    PubMed Central

    Murray, P A; Prakobphol, A; Lee, T; Hoover, C I; Fisher, S J

    1992-01-01

    We used an overlay method to study the ability of human salivary glycoproteins to serve as receptors for several strains of streptococci that colonize the oral cavity. Parotid and submandibular-sublingual salivas were collected as ductal secretions, separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and transferred to nitrocellulose membranes. The resulting blots were overlaid with [35S]methionine-labeled bacteria, and salivary components to which the bacteria bound were detected by autoradiography. Potential glycoprotein receptors were identified for 8 of the 16 strains tested. In three cases (Streptococcus sanguis 72-40 and 804 and Streptococcus sobrinus OMZ176), highly specific interactions with a single salivary component were detected. Removal of sialic acid residues from the low-molecular-weight salivary mucin prevented adherence of one of these strains (S. sanguis 72-40), suggesting that this saccharide either mediates binding or is a critical component of the receptor site. In the remaining five strains (Streptococcus gordonii G9B and 10558, S. sanguis 10556, and Streptococcus oralis 10557 and 72-41), interactions with multiple salivary components, including the low-molecular-weight salivary mucin, highly glycosylated proline-rich glycoproteins, and alpha-amylase, were detected. These results suggest that some oral streptococci can bind specifically to certain of the salivary glycoproteins. The interactions identified may play an important role in governing bacterial adherence and clearance within the oral cavity. Images PMID:1729194

  11. Porcine salivary analysis by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis in 3 models of acute stress: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes-Rubio, María; Cerón, José J.; de Torre, Carlos; Escribano, Damián; Gutiérrez, Ana M.; Tecles, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to study changes in the salivary proteome of healthy pigs in stressful situations to identify any potential new salivary biomarker of stress. Three groups of animals were subjected to 3 stress models: snaring restraint followed by simulated sampling of vena cava blood; brief transport by road; and restriction of movement in a digestibility cage. Saliva was obtained from each animal before and 15 and 30 min after the induction of stress. The samples from the animals that showed the greatest increase in salivary cortisol concentration were pooled and run on 2-dimensional gels. Coomassie Brilliant Blue R-250 was used for spot detection and mass spectrometry for spot identification. Statistical analyses showed that 2 proteins had significant differences in expression before and after the induction of stress. These proteins were identified as odorant-binding protein and fragments of albumin. Further studies will be necessary to confirm the value of using these proteins as salivary biomarkers of stress in pigs. PMID:24688174

  12. Malignant lymphomas involving the salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Colby, T V; Dorfman, R F

    1979-01-01

    Malignant lymphomas involving the salivary glands are probably more common than has been previously recognized. They must be differentiated from the benign lymphoepithelial lesion, although there may be an association between the two. The entire histologic spectrum of malignant lymphomas found at other sites can be seen in the salivary gland. In this study of 59 patients with lymphoma affecting the salivary gland, a large percentage were found to have disseminated disease. We recommend the same rigorous clinical evaluation and staging procedures as used in patients who present with primary lymph node involvement. PMID:583554

  13. Implication of haematophagous arthropod salivary proteins in host-vector interactions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The saliva of haematophagous arthropods contains an array of anti-haemostatic, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory molecules that contribute to the success of the blood meal. The saliva of haematophagous arthropods is also involved in the transmission and the establishment of pathogens in the host and in allergic responses. This survey provides a comprehensive overview of the pharmacological activity and immunogenic properties of the main salivary proteins characterised in various haematophagous arthropod species. The potential biological and epidemiological applications of these immunogenic salivary molecules will be discussed with an emphasis on their use as biomarkers of exposure to haematophagous arthropod bites or vaccine candidates that are liable to improve host protection against vector-borne diseases. PMID:21951834

  14. The relationship between the level of salivary alpha amylase activity and pain severity in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis

    PubMed Central

    Shahriari, Shahriar; Goodarzi, Mohammad Taghi; Moghimbeigi, Abbas; Jazaeri, Mina; Babaei, Parisa

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Assessment of dental pain severity is very challenging in dentistry. Previous studies have suggested that elevated salivary alpha amylase may contribute to increased physical stresses. There is a close association between salivary alpha amylase and plasma norepinephrine under stressful physical conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between pain severity and salivary alpha amylase levels in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. Materials and Methods Thirty-six patients (20 females and 16 males) with severe tooth pain due to symptomatic irreversible pulpitis were selected. The visual analogue scale (VAS) score was used to assess the pain severity in each patient. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected, and the level of alpha amylase activity was assessed by the spectrophotometric method. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 13. Results The level of alpha amylase was significantly increased in the saliva in association with pain severity assessed by VAS. The salivary alpha amylase was also elevated with increased age and in males. Conclusions There was a significant correlation between the VAS pain scale and salivary alpha amylase level, which indicates this biomarker may be a good index for the objective assessment of pain intensity. PMID:24010080

  15. Salivary Myeloperoxidase, Assessed by 3,3′-Diaminobenzidine Colorimetry, Can Differentiate Periodontal Patients from Nonperiodontal Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Klangprapan, Supaporn; Chaiyarit, Ponlatham; Hormdee, Doosadee; Kampichai, Amonrujee; Khampitak, Tueanjit; Daduang, Jureerut; Tavichakorntrakool, Ratree; Panijpan, Bhinyo; Boonsiri, Patcharee

    2016-01-01

    Periodontal diseases, which result from inflammation of tooth supporting tissues, are highly prevalent worldwide. Myeloperoxidase (MPO), from certain white blood cells in saliva, is a biomarker for inflammation. We report our study on the salivary MPO activity and its association with severity of periodontal diseases among Thai patients. Periodontally healthy subjects (n = 11) and gingivitis (n = 32) and periodontitis patients (n = 19) were enrolled. Assessments of clinically periodontal parameters were reported as percentages for gingival bleeding index (GI) and bleeding on probing (BOP), whereas pocket depth (PD) and clinical attachment loss (CAL) were measured in millimeters and then made to index scores. Salivary MPO activity was measured by colorimetry using 3,3′-diaminobenzidine as substrate. The results showed that salivary MPO activity in periodontitis patients was significantly higher than in healthy subjects (p = 0.003) and higher than in gingivitis patients (p = 0.059). No difference was found between gingivitis and healthy groups (p = 0.181). Significant correlations were observed (p < 0.01) between salivary MPO activity and GI (r = 0.632, p < 0.001), BOP (r = 0.599, p < 0.001), PD (r = 0.179, p = 0.164), and CAL (r = 0.357, p = 0.004) index scores. Sensitivity (94.12%), specificity (54.55%), and positive (90.57%) and negative (66.67%) predictive values indicate that salivary MPO activity has potential use as a screening marker for oral health of the Thai community. PMID:27274868

  16. A Study of the Variation in the Salivary Peptide Profiles of Young Healthy Adults Acquired Using MALDI-TOF MS

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Henk; Imangaliyev, Sultan; Tsivtsivadze, Evgeni; van der Weijden, Fridus; de Jong, Ad; Paauw, Armand; Crielaard, Wim; Keijser, Bart; Veerman, Enno

    2016-01-01

    A cross-sectional observational study was conducted to evaluate the inter-individual variation in the MALDI-TOF MS peptide profiles of unstimulated whole saliva in a population of 268 systemically healthy adults aged 18–30 yr (150 males and 118 females) with no apparent caries lesions or periodontal disease. Using Spectral Clustering, four subgroups of individuals were identified within the study population. These subgroups were delimited by the pattern of variation in 9 peaks detected in the 2–15 kDa m/z range. An Unsupervised Feature Selection algorithm showed that P-C peptide, a 44 residue-long salivary acidic proline-rich protein, and three of its fragments (Fr. 1–25, Fr. 15–35 and Fr. 15–44) play a central role in delimiting the subgroups. Significant differences were found in the salivary biochemistry of the subgroups with regard to lysozyme and chitinase, two enzymes that are part of the salivary innate defense system (p < 0.001). These results suggest that MALDI-TOF MS salivary peptide profiles may relate information on the underlying state of the oral ecosystem and may provide a useful reference for salivary disease biomarker discovery studies. PMID:27258023

  17. Salivary carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme VI

    PubMed Central

    Kivelä, Jyrki; Parkkila, Seppo; Parkkila, Anna-Kaisa; Leinonen, Jukka; Rajaniemi, Hannu

    1999-01-01

    The carbonic anhydrases (CAs) participate in the maintenance of pH homeostasis in various tissues and biological fluids of the human body by catalysing the reversible reaction CO2+ H2O ⇌ HCO3−+ H+ (Davenport & Fisher, 1938; Davenport, 1939; Maren, 1967). Carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme VI (CA VI) is the only secretory isoenzyme of the mammalian CA gene family. It is exclusively expressed in the serous acinar cells of the parotid and submandibular glands, from where it is secreted into the saliva. In this review, we will discuss recent advances in research focused on the physiological role of salivary CA VI in the oral cavity and upper alimentary canal. PMID:10523402

  18. Salivary proteomics: A new adjuvant approach to the early diagnosis of familial juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Abrão, Aline Lauria P; Falcao, Denise Pinheiro; de Amorim, Rivadávio Fernandes Batista; Bezerra, Ana Cristina B; Pombeiro, Gilson Augusto N M; Guimarães, Luciano Junqueira; Fregni, Felipe; Silva, Luciano Paulino; da Mota, Licia Maria Henrique

    2016-04-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic multisystemic disease characterized by autoimmune inflammatory disturbance. Pleomorphic manifestations are present and a potentially progressive and debilitating course can be detected. SLE rarely manifests before age 5, and its onset peaks is around puberty. Although clinical manifestations, immunological alterations and treatment do not differ between juvenile and adult SLE, children tend to present with a more aggressive disease course than adults. Hence, autoimmune rheumatic diseases are the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in pediatric populations. Blood serum analysis plays an especially important role in the detection and monitoring of autoantibodies in SLE. However, since blood sampling is an uncomfortable procedure, especially in children, novel less invasive techniques and approaches are of utmost importance to evaluate pediatric subjects. In this regard, saliva samples have several advantages, such as: easy access, fast collection, painless and riskless procedure. Saliva has antimicrobial, immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties, as well as several other relevant features. The whole saliva is a complex mixture of major and minor salivary gland secretion, gingival crevicular fluid, transudates plasma protein, keratinocyte products and oral microbiota. This biological fluid reflects the physiological state of the body, including the emotional condition, and endocrine, nutritional and metabolic changes. Therefore, salivary proteomics is becoming increasingly used for the early diagnosis of several diseases such as breast cancer, oral cancer, Sjögren's syndrome, diffuse systemic sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, among others. Considering the detection of some potential markers related to SLE in serum and urine, this study aims to conduct an initial evaluation of the possible presence of such biomarkers in saliva. Furthermore, it is expected to track down new salivary proteins that could be

  19. Salivary cortisol results obtainable within minutes of sample collection correspond with traditional immunoassays

    PubMed Central

    Shirtcliff, E.A.; Buck, R.L.; Laughlin, M.; Hart, T.; Cole, C.R.; Slowey, P.D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Cortisol is frequently assayed as a stress-responsive biomarker which changes over the course of minutes to meet the demands of an individual’s social context. Salivary cortisol is often utilized as a non-invasive sampling methodology which possesses important health implications. A critical barrier to psychobiological research involving salivary cortisol is a time-delay of days to months before cortisol results are obtained via immunoassay, long after the individual is no longer proximate to the social context in which they provided the sample. The current study was designed to address this critical barrier through creation of a lateral flow technology (LFT) cortisol device capable of measuring salivary cortisol within minutes of sample collection. LFT is frequently used within commercial point-of-care settings to obtain rapid answers to the presence/absence of a biomarker. The present study extends LFT into the research domain by presenting performance characteristics of a quantitative LFT which measures salivary cortisol within 20 minutes of sample collection. Methods Saliva samples on N=29 adults (15 males) were obtained in the morning and afternoon using Passive Drool and then the Super•SAL™ Extra Collection Device (hereafter Super•SAL™) and later assayed with LFT and a commercially available enzyme-immunoassay. Findings Results show LFT correlated well with these collection methods (R=.872 with Super•SAL™; R=.739 with Passive Drool, p-values<.0001) and at comparable levels to correspondence of Super•SAL™ with Passive Drool (R=.798, p<.0001) which were measured with the same assay. Implications These results open up an exciting new possibility to integrate this technological advance into stress research, including knowing and potentially changing the individual’s social context in a time-sensitive manner. Methodological improvements such as this have the possibility of refining conceptual models of stress reactivity and regulation

  20. Molecular signature of salivary gland tumors: potential use as diagnostic and prognostic marker.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Felipe Paiva; Sena Filho, Marcondes; Altemani, Albina; Speight, Paul M; Vargas, Pablo Agustin

    2016-02-01

    Salivary gland tumors are a highly heterogeneous group of lesions with diverse microscopic appearances and variable clinical behavior. The use of clinical and histological parameters to predict patient prognosis and survival rates has been of limited utility, and the search for new biomarkers that could not only aid in a better understanding of their pathogenesis but also be reliable auxiliaries for prognostic determination and useful diagnostic tools has been performed in the last decades with very exciting results. Hence, gene rearrangements such as CRTC1-MAML2 in mucoepidermoid carcinomas have shown excellent specificity, and more than that, it has been strongly correlated with low-grade tumors and consequently with an increased survival rate and better prognosis of patients affected by neoplasms carrying this translocation. Moreover, MYB-NFIB and EWSR1-ATF1 gene fusions were shown to be specifically found in cases of adenoid cystic carcinomas and hyalinizing clear cell carcinomas, respectively, in the context of salivary gland tumors, becoming reliable diagnostic tools for these entities and potential therapeutic targets for future therapeutic protocols. Finally, the identification of ETV6-NTRK3 in cases previously diagnosed as uncommon acinic cell carcinomas, cystadenocarcinomas, and adenocarcinomas not otherwise specified led to the characterization of a completely new and now widely accepted entity, including, therefore, mammary analogue secretory carcinoma in the list of well-recognized salivary gland carcinomas. Thus, further molecular investigations of salivary gland tumors are warranted, and the recognition of other genetic abnormalities can lead to the acknowledgment of new entities and the acquirement of reliable biomarkers. PMID:25990369

  1. [Radiotherapy of carcinoma of the salivary glands].

    PubMed

    Servagi-Vernat, S; Tochet, F

    2016-09-01

    Indication, doses, and technique of radiotherapy for salivary glands carcinoma are presented, and the contribution of neutrons and carbon ions. The recommendations for delineation of the target volumes and organs at risk are detailed. PMID:27521038

  2. The Relationship between Plasma and Salivary NOx

    PubMed Central

    Clodfelter, William H.; Basu, Swati; Bolden, Crystal; Dos Santos, Patricia C.; King, S. Bruce; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B.

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have shown that fasting plasma nitrite (NO2−) is an indicator of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity while plasma nitrate (NO3−) or the sum of NO2− and NO3− (NOx) do not reflect NOS function. Plasma NO2− can also be elevated through dietary NO3− where the NO3− is partially reduced to NO2− by oral bacteria and enters the plasma through the digestive system. NO3− is taken up from plasma by salivary glands and the cycle repeats itself. Thus, one may propose that salivary NO2− is an indicator of plasma NO2− and consequently of NO production. Many brands of nitric oxide (NO) saliva test strips have been developed that suggest that their product is indicative of circulatory NO availability. However, data supporting a relationship between salivary and plasma NO2− or NO bioavailability is lacking. Here we have measured basal salivary and plasma NO2− and NO3− to determine if any correlation exists between these in 13 adult volunteers. We found no significant correlation between basal salivary and plasma NO2−. Also no correlation exists between salivary NO3− and plasma NO2−. However, we did see a correlation between salivary NO3− and plasma NO3−, and between salivary NO2− and plasma NO3−. In a separate study, we compared the efficiency of salivary NO3− reduction with the efficacy of increasing plasma NO3− and NO2− after drinking beet juice, a high NO3−-containing beverage, in 10 adult volunteers. No significant correlation was observed between the ex vivo salivary reduction of NO3− to NO2− and plasma increases in NO3− or NO2−. These results suggest that measures of salivary NO3−, NO2− or NOx are not good indicators of endothelial function. In addition, the efficiency of saliva to reduce NO3− to NO2− ex-vivo does not demonstrate one’s ability to increase plasma NO2− following consumption of dietary NO3−. PMID:25910583

  3. Salivary bone turnover markers in healthy pre- and postmenopausal women: daily and seasonal rhythm.

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, Gretel G; Gonzales Chaves, Macarena M S; Fajardo, Maria A; Ponce, Graciela M; Toyos, Gloria I; Lifshitz, Fima; Friedman, Silvia M; Zeni, Susana N

    2012-04-01

    No studies had investigated circadian and circannual rhythms of bone biomarkers in whole saliva. We evaluated the salivary daily and seasonal rhythm of carboxy-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) and bone alkaline phosphatase (b-ALP). Forty clinical and oral healthy ambulatory pre- and postmenopausal women from two southern Argentine cities: Comodoro Rivadavia (latitude 45º S) and Ushuaia (latitude 54º S) were included in the study. CTX levels were evaluated in serum, urine, and saliva, and b-ALP levels were measured in serum and saliva. In both groups of women, salivary CTX showed a maximum percentage of change early in the morning (80%) and a minimum in the late afternoon (45%), similarly to the pattern observed in urinary samples. No daily rhythm was observed in serum or salivary b-ALP. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D levels decreased in winter vs. summer (p < 0.01) without differences between the two studied groups. Conversely, parathormone reached higher levels in winter (p < 0.05) which induced a slight non-significant increment in salivary CTX and b-ALP levels. The results showed that, as in serum and urinary samples, salivary CTX exhibits daily and a slight seasonal rhythmicity. Whole non-stimulated saliva is a useful tool to detect several oral and systemic diseases because it has important advantages compared to serum and urinary samples. Then, it may also be a promising sample to test changes in bone metabolism contributing to diagnose and to monitor the therapy of several metabolic bone diseases. PMID:21431857

  4. Interactions between developing nerves and salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, João N; Hoffman, Matthew P

    2013-01-01

    Our aim is to provide a summary of the field of salivary gland development and regeneration from the perspective of what is known about the function of nerves during these processes. The primary function of adult salivary glands is to produce and secrete saliva. Neuronal control of adult salivary gland function has been a focus of research ever since Pavlov's seminal experiments on salivation in dogs. Less is known about salivary gland innervation during development and how the developing nerves influence gland organogenesis and regeneration. Here, we will review what is known about the communication between the autonomic nervous system and the epithelium of the salivary glands during organogenesis. An important emerging theme is the instructive role of the nervous system on the epithelial stem/progenitor cells during development as well as regeneration after damage. We will provide a brief overview of the neuroanatomy of the salivary glands and discuss recent literature that begins to integrate neurobiology with epithelial organogenesis, which may provide paradigms for exploring these interactions in other organ systems. PMID:23974175

  5. An update: salivary hormones and physical exercise.

    PubMed

    Gatti, R; De Palo, E F

    2011-04-01

    Saliva contains cells and compounds, of local and non-local oral origin, namely inorganic, organic non-protein, protein/polypeptide, and lipid molecules. Moreover, some hormones, commonly assayed in plasma, such as steroids, are detectable in oral fluid and peptide/protein, and non-steroid hormones have been investigated. The sports practice environment and athletes' availability, together with hormone molecule characteristics in saliva and physical exercise behavior effects, confirm this body fluid as an alternative to serum. This review focuses on the relation between salivary steroids and psycho-physiological stress and underlines how the measurement of salivary cortisol provides an approach of self-report psychological indicator and anxiety change in relation to exercise performance. The correlation between salivary and plasma steroid hormone (cortisol, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)) levels, observed during exercise, has been considered, underlining how the type, duration, and intensity of the exercise influence the salivary steroid concentrations in the same way as serum-level variations. Training conditions have been considered in relation to the salivary hormonal response. This review focuses on studies related to salivary hormone measurements, mainly steroids, in physical exercise. Saliva use in physical disciplines, as a real alternative to serum, could be a future perspective. PMID:21129038

  6. Endocannabinoids Measurement in Human Saliva as Potential Biomarker of Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Tabarin, Antoine; Clark, Samantha; Leste-Lasserre, Thierry; Marsicano, Giovanni; Piazza, Pier Vincenzo; Cota, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    /Significance Endocannabinoids and N-acylethanolamines are quantifiable in saliva and their levels correlate with obesity but not with feeding status. Body weight loss significantly decreases salivary AEA, which might represent a useful biomarker in obesity. PMID:22860123

  7. Indications for Salivary Gland Radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Thomson, David J; Slevin, Nick J; Mendenhall, William M

    2016-01-01

    There is an established role for post-operative radiotherapy in the treatment of benign and malignant salivary gland tumours. For benign disease, the addition of radiotherapy improves local tumour control in cases with incomplete excision, involved surgical margins or multi-focal disease recurrence. After capsule rupture or spillage alone, surveillance should usually be advised. For malignant disease, post-operative radiotherapy is recommended for an advanced tumour stage, high-grade tumour, perineural or lympho-vascular invasion, close or positive resection margins, extra-parotid extension or lymph node involvement. The main benefit is increased loco-regional tumour control, although this may translate into a modest improvement in survival. The possible late side effects of parotid bed irradiation include skin changes, chronic otitis externa, sensorineural hearing loss, osteoradionecrosis and secondary malignancy. Severe complications are rare, but patients should be counselled carefully about the risks. Primary radiotherapy is unlikely to be curative and is reserved to cases in which resection would cause unacceptable functional or cosmetic morbidity or would likely result in subtotal resection (R2) or to patients with distant metastases to gain local tumour control. There are provisional data on the use of charged particle radiotherapy in this setting. Some patients may benefit from synchronous chemotherapy with radiotherapy, but this group is not defined, and data from comparative prospective studies are required before routine clinical use of this treatment. PMID:27093301

  8. What's New in Salivary Gland Cancer Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topic Additional resources for salivary gland cancer What’s new in salivary gland cancer research and treatment? Medical ... they hope to use this information to develop new treatments that work better and cause fewer side ...

  9. Effects of radiation on parotid salivary function

    SciTech Connect

    Marks, J.E.; Davis, C.C.; Gottsman, V.L.

    1981-08-01

    Postoperative electron beam irradiation of patients with parotid cancer has been used regularly at the Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology to spare the opposite parotid and to preserve salivary function. Only anecdotal reports of amount of radiation required to ablate salivary function exist. To establish a dose-response curve for the human parotid, selective measurements of right and left parotid salivary flow were done for 15 age-matched control patients whose parotids were not irradiated, 17 patients who had both parotids irradiated, and 12 whose parotids were irradiated by unilateral electron beam technique. Point calculations of absorbed dose 1 cm below the surface were done for all 88 parotids and correlated with stimulated parotid salivary flow, pH, and secretory IgA (SIgA). Increasing doses of radiation resulted in progressive reduction of parotid salivary flow, pH, and SIgA. The technique, dosimetry, and clinical application of unilateral electron beam irradiation to spare the opposite parotid will be discussed.

  10. Salivary Microbiota Associated with Immunoglobulin A Nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Piccolo, Maria; De Angelis, Maria; Lauriero, Gabriella; Montemurno, Eustacchio; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Gesualdo, Loreto; Gobbetti, Marco

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed at investigating the salivary microbiota of 28 patients affected by immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN). Fourteen healthy volunteers (HC) were used as control. Compared to HC, the number of some cultivable bacteria groups (e.g., total anaerobes) significantly (P < 0.05) decreased in the salivary samples of IgAN patients. Total bacteria from salivary samples of IgAN patients and HC subjects were analyzed by pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene. Paired t test showed no significant (P > 0.05) differences of alpha-diversity parameters (OTU, ACE, Chao1, and Shannon index) between the salivary samples of HC and IgAN patients. The difference for the community structure was further analyzed using three phylogeny-based beta-diversity measures. Compared to HC, the ratio between Firmicutes/Proteobacteria markedly decreased in IgAN patients. Gemella haemolysins, Granulicatella adiacens, and Veillonella parvula were positively associated (P < 0.05) with HC. Within the phylum Bacteroidetes, Prevotella species (Prevotella nigrescens, Prevotella intermedia, Prevotella pallens, and Prevotella salivae) were the highest in HC. The only exception was for Prevotella aurantiaca. Compared to HC, the percentage of abundance of some species, belonging to Pasteurellaceae family (e.g., Haemophylus parainfluenzae), increased in IgAN patients. Fusobacteriaceae (Fusobacterium) and Corynebacterium sp. also differed between the salivary samples of HC and IgAN patients. PMID:25763757

  11. Salivary proteins of Russian wheat aphid (Hempitera: Aphididae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salivary secretions play critical roles in aphid – host plant interactions and are responsible for damage associated with aphid feeding. The objectives of this study were to evaluate aspects of salivation and the salivary constituents of Diuraphis noxia (Hemiptera: Aphididae). Salivary proteins we...

  12. Salivary gland calculi – contemporary methods of imaging

    PubMed Central

    Rzymska-Grala, Iwona; Stopa, Zygmunt; Grala, Bartłomiej; Gołębiowski, Marek; Wanyura, Hubert; Zuchowska, Anna; Sawicka, Monika; Zmorzyński, Michał

    2010-01-01

    Summary Sialolithiasis is the most common disorder of major salivary glands. The main site of salivary stones’ formation is submandibular gland, followed by parotid and sublingual gland. The aim of this article was to present current diagnostic imaging modalities carried out in patients suspected with salivary stones on the basis of own material and review of literature. Current diagnostic imaging tools used in the imaging of salivary stones were described and illustrated in this paper. These are: conventional radiography, sialography, ultrasonography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance sialography and sialoendoscopy. Digital subtraction sialography and ultrasonography are the methods of choice in the imaging of salivary gland calculi. Although sialography is a very old diagnostic method, still it is the best diagnostic tool in the imaging of subtle anatomy of salivary gland duct system. Digital subtraction sialography can show the exact location of salivary stone and enables imaging of salivary ducts’ pathology (e.g. stenoses), which is especially important when sialoendoscopy is planned. Sialography is also used as the treatment method, i.e. interventional sialography. Nonenhanced computed tomography is recommended when multiple and tiny salivary stones are suspected. Magnetic resonance imaging is the evolving alternative diagnostic method. In this diagnostic modality there is no need for salivary ducts’ cannulation and administration of contrast material. Thus magnetic resonance sialography can also be carried out in the acute sialoadenitis. In the future, sialoendoscopy may become one of the main diagnostic and treatment procedures for salivary duct disorders, especially in salivary stone cases. PMID:22802788

  13. Salivary FOXP2 expression and oral feeding success in premature infants

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Emily; Maki, Monika; Maron, Jill

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study is to determine whether salivary FOXP2 gene expression levels at the initiation of oral feeding attempts are predictive of oral feeding success in the premature newborn. In this prospective study, saliva samples from 21 premature infants (13 males; birth gestational age [GA]: 30–34 wk) were collected around the initiation of oral feeding trials. Total RNA was extracted and underwent reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction amplification for FOXP2. Oral feeding success was denoted by the days required to attain full oral feeds. A linear regression model, controlling for sex, birth GA, and weight at salivary collection, revealed that FOXP2 expression was significantly associated with oral feeding success (P = 0.002). The higher the expression level of FOXP2, the shorter the duration to feed. Salivary FOXP2 expression levels are significantly associated with oral feeding success in the preterm infant. FOXP2 may serve as a novel and informative biomarker to noninvasively assess infant feeding skills to reduce morbidities and length of stay. PMID:27148579

  14. Genetic alterations in salivary gland cancers.

    PubMed

    Yin, Linda X; Ha, Patrick K

    2016-06-15

    Salivary gland cancers are an incredibly heterogeneous group of tumors that include 24 histologically distinct tumor types. The use of new genetic methods has paved the way for promising advancements in our understanding of the molecular biology underlying each type of tumor. The objective of this review was to highlight common oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, and cytogenetic and epigenetic changes associated with the most common tumor types: mucoepidermoid carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, salivary duct carcinoma, mammary analogue secretory carcinoma, hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma, carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma, and acinic cell carcinoma. Recent insights into the pathogenesis of each cancer subtype have helped better define and classify these tumors. Further research in salivary gland cancers should focus on determining the key genes involved in the tumorigenesis of each distinct malignancy and identifying individualized chemotherapies directed at these targets. Cancer 2016;122:1822-31. © 2016 American Cancer Society. PMID:26928905

  15. Measures of biomarker dependence using a copula-based multivariate epsilon–skew–normal family of distributions

    PubMed Central

    Hutson, Alan D.; Wilding, Gregory E.; Mashtare, Terry L.; Vexler, Albert

    2016-01-01

    In this note we develop a new multivariate copula model based on epsilon–skew–normal marginal densities for the purpose of examining biomarker dependency structures. We illustrate the flexibility and utility of this model via a variety of graphical tools and a data analysis example pertaining to salivary biomarker. The multivariate normal model is a sub-model of the multivariate epsilon–skew–normal distribution. PMID:26917861

  16. Salivary glands and human selection: a hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Shields, E D; Mann, R W

    1996-01-01

    Stafne static bone defect (SSBD) of the mandible is the only described destructive bone lesion that is highly localized, nonprogressive, but nonhealing. This common defect in male is found in the region of the major salivary glands that produce a cornucopia of biologically active factors. We describe rare phenocopies caused by mandibular immobility that hold the gland in a constant position thus implicating a localized chronic "leak" of an osteoclast induction factor from the major salivary glands as the pathologic agent. This finding suggests that increased salivary gland size could simulate immobility by apposing the gland to bone, thus allowing the "leaked" factor's gradient to have an effect. In one step, the putative genetic enlargement of a critical gland that produces many factors important for survival, a broad biological vista would be available to the massive potential for both positive and negative selection. Positive selection was identified by observing a correlation between the prevalence of enhanced androgen-induced enlarge salivary glands (SSBD) as a marker, with a great preponderance of males) and the conjectured resulting increased production of immunoreactive factors, with pole-to-equator isotherm and broad ranged infection clines. Negative selection was observed among the slave ancestors of African Americans for a potential embryonic homeotic mutation causing larger salivary glands in both sexes (decreased prevalence of SSBD, with an equal sex ratio). The decreased production of saliva and electrolytes diminished the salt and water depletive effects of severe diarrhea and vomiting induced by enteric diseases, which killed many slaves. Data presented suggests that SSBD is a polymorphism and a marker of selection processes that cause variation in size, or structure, of the major salivary glands. PMID:8773904

  17. On the mechanism of salivary gland radiosensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Konings, Antonius W.T. . E-mail: a.w.t.konings@med.rug.nl; Coppes, Rob P.; Vissink, Arjan

    2005-07-15

    Purpose: To contribute to the understanding of the enigmatic radiosensitivity of the salivary glands by analysis of appropriate literature, especially with respect to mechanisms of action of early radiation damage, and to supply information on the possibilities of amelioration of radiation damage to the salivary glands after radiotherapy of head-and-neck cancer. Methods and Materials: Selected published data on the mechanism of salivary gland radiosensitivity and radioprotection were studied and analyzed. Results: From a classical point of view, the salivary glands should not respond as rapidly to radiation as they appear to do. Next to the suggestion of massive apoptosis, the leakage of granules and subsequent lysis of acinar cells was suggested to be responsible for the acute radiation-induced function loss of the salivary glands. The main problem with these hypotheses is that recently performed assays show no cell loss during the first days after irradiation, while saliva flow is dramatically diminished. The water secretion is selectively hampered during the first days after single-dose irradiation. Literature is discussed that shows that the compromised cells suffer selective radiation damage to the plasma membrane, disturbing signal transduction primarily affecting watery secretion. Although the cellular composition of the submandibular gland and the parotid gland are different, the damage response is very alike. The acute radiation-induced function loss in both salivary glands can be ameliorated by prophylactic treatment with specific receptor agonists. Conclusions: The most probable mechanism of action, explaining the enigmatic high radiosensitivity for early effects, is selective radiation damage to the plasma membrane of the secretory cells, disturbing muscarinic receptor stimulated watery secretion. Later damage is mainly due to classical mitotic cell death of progenitor cells, leading to a hampered replacement capacity of the gland for secretory cells

  18. Salivary gland tumors: a diagnostic dilemma!

    PubMed

    Peravali, Ranjit Kumar; Bhat, H Hari Kishore; Upadya, Varsha H; Agarwal, Anmol; Naag, Sushma

    2015-03-01

    Salivary gland tumors generate considerable interest because of their heterogeneous and variable histology, grade of malignancy, and clinical behavior. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is considered the first diagnostic modality for salivary neoplasms due to its ready availability and ease of performance. However it cannot always be relied upon in isolation, and should be used in conjunction with other investigations like incisional biopsy. We present two cases, which highlight the drawbacks of relying on FNAC alone, which resulted in misdiagnosis of adenoid cystic carcinoma as pleomorphic adenoma. PMID:25848154

  19. Comparative evaluation of salivary soluble CD44 levels in periodontal health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Sumeet; Narayanswamy, Savitha; Ramesh, Alampalli Viswanathamurthy

    2014-01-01

    Context: Inflammation, immunoactivation, and malignant diseases are associated with increased plasma levels of soluble CD44 (sCD44). Serum sCD44 has been recognized as a diagnostic marker in smoking-induced diseases. Aim: (1) To assess the levels of salivary sCD44 in periodontal health and disease. (2) To compare the levels of salivary sCD44 in smokers and nonsmokers. (3) To assess if salivary sCD44 levels could be used as a diagnostic marker for periodontitis. Setting and Design: A total of 60 patients were divided into three groups viz. Group A - healthy, Group B - aggressive periodontitis and Group C - chronic periodontitis (Subdivided into C1 - chronic periodontitis smokers and C2 - chronic periodontitis nonsmokers). Materials and Methods: The plaque index, gingival index (GI), probing depth and clinical attachment level; along with the radiographs were recorded. The saliva sample collected at baseline was stored at −80°C. The sCD44 levels were analyzed using ELISA. Statistical Analysis Used: ANOVA test and Mann–Whitney's test was used to compare readings between all the groups and Pearson correlation was calculated for CD44 and all the clinical parameters in each group. Results: Highest mean sCD44 was recorded in Group C2 followed by Group C1. The GI was positively correlated with CD44 levels in chronic periodontitis group. Contrary to previous reports nonsmokers subjects had higher CD44 levels as compared to smoker. Conclusion: Soluble CD44 levels were positively correlated with periodontal disease. Thus, salivary sCD44 could be considered as a one of the biomarker for periodontitis that is, aggressive and chronic periodontitis. PMID:25624630

  20. On the relationship between the rate of salivary flow and salivary fluoride clearance.

    PubMed

    Duckworth, Ralph M; Jones, S

    2015-01-01

    The amount of fluoride retained in the mouth following the application of dentifrices, mouthwashes, etc. may be important in determining their anticaries efficacy. In this study we investigated the relationship between the salivary flow rate and salivary fluoride clearance. Ten adults tested six mouthrinses, consisting of aqueous sodium fluoride solutions (0.013, 0.026 mol/l) with and without added sodium chloride (1.28 mol/l) or sucrose (0.44 mol/l), in a randomised order. Prior to each test, subjects swallowed, rinsed for 2 min with 2 ml water and then expectorated into a preweighed container to obtain a measure of initial saliva flow rate. Next, the procedure was repeated using one of the test rinses. Finally, samples of unstimulated whole saliva were collected for up to 3 h after each mouthrinse application and analysed for fluoride. Salivary fluoride concentrations were significantly lower after application of mouthrinses that contained either sucrose or NaCl, both of which compounds markedly enhanced salivary flow, than after the use of corresponding mouthrinses without any additive. Area under the salivary fluoride clearance curve (AUC) values were inversely correlated with salivary flow rate on an individual basis (p < 0.01). The observed behaviour could not be completely attributed to treatment dilution by saliva at the time of application. PMID:25634162

  1. Salivary PYY: A Putative Bypass to Satiety

    PubMed Central

    Gorbatyuk, Oleg; La Sala, Michael; Duncan, David; Aslanidi, George; Campbell-Thompson, Martha; Zhang, Lei; Herzog, Herbert; Voutetakis, Antonis; Baum, Bruce J.; Zolotukhin, Sergei

    2011-01-01

    Peptide YY3-36 is a satiation hormone released postprandially into the bloodstream from L-endocrine cells in the gut epithelia. In the current report, we demonstrate PYY3-36 is also present in murine as well as in human saliva. In mice, salivary PYY3-36 derives from plasma and is also synthesized in the taste cells in taste buds of the tongue. Moreover, the cognate receptor Y2R is abundantly expressed in the basal layer of the progenitor cells of the tongue epithelia and von Ebner's gland. The acute augmentation of salivary PYY3-36 induced stronger satiation as demonstrated in feeding behavioral studies. The effect is mediated through the activation of the specific Y2 receptor expressed in the lingual epithelial cells. In a long-term study involving diet-induced obese (DIO) mice, a sustained increase in PYY3-36 was achieved using viral vector-mediated gene delivery targeting salivary glands. The chronic increase in salivary PYY3-36 resulted in a significant long-term reduction in food intake (FI) and body weight (BW). Thus this study provides evidence for new functions of the previously characterized gut peptide PYY3-36 suggesting a potential simple and efficient alternative therapeutic approach for the treatment of obesity. PMID:22028819

  2. Polygalacturonase isozymes in Lygus hesperus Salivary Glands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The feeding strategy of mirids has been referred to as “lacerate or macerate and flush feeding” which supports high rates of food intake. In other words, plant bugs digest the plant tissue extra-orally, producing a liquefied brew rich in simple nutrient molecules. The insect's salivary polygalacturo...

  3. Facile preparation of salivary extracellular vesicles for cancer proteomics.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yan; Xia, Zhijun; Shang, Zhi; Sun, Kaibo; Niu, Xiaomin; Qian, Liqiang; Fan, Liu-Yin; Cao, Cheng-Xi; Xiao, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane surrounded structures released by cells, which have been increasingly recognized as mediators of intercellular communication. Recent reports indicate that EVs participate in important biological processes and could serve as potential source for cancer biomarkers. As an attractive EVs source with merit of non-invasiveness, human saliva is a unique medium for clinical diagnostics. Thus, we proposed a facile approach to prepare salivary extracellular vesicles (SEVs). Affinity chromatography column combined with filter system (ACCF) was developed to efficiently remove the high abundant proteins and viscous interferences of saliva. Protein profiling in the SEVs obtained by this strategy was compared with conventional centrifugation method, which demonstrated that about 70% more SEVs proteins could be revealed. To explore its utility for cancer proteomics, we analyzed the proteome of SEVs in lung cancer patients and normal controls. Shotgun proteomic analysis illustrated that 113 and 95 proteins have been identified in cancer group and control group, respectively. Among those 63 proteins that have been consistently discovered only in cancer group, 12 proteins are lung cancer related. Our results demonstrated that SEVs prepared through the developed strategy are valuable samples for proteomics and could serve as a promising liquid biopsy for cancer. PMID:27091080

  4. Facile preparation of salivary extracellular vesicles for cancer proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yan; Xia, Zhijun; Shang, Zhi; Sun, Kaibo; Niu, Xiaomin; Qian, Liqiang; Fan, Liu-Yin; Cao, Cheng-Xi; Xiao, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane surrounded structures released by cells, which have been increasingly recognized as mediators of intercellular communication. Recent reports indicate that EVs participate in important biological processes and could serve as potential source for cancer biomarkers. As an attractive EVs source with merit of non-invasiveness, human saliva is a unique medium for clinical diagnostics. Thus, we proposed a facile approach to prepare salivary extracellular vesicles (SEVs). Affinity chromatography column combined with filter system (ACCF) was developed to efficiently remove the high abundant proteins and viscous interferences of saliva. Protein profiling in the SEVs obtained by this strategy was compared with conventional centrifugation method, which demonstrated that about 70% more SEVs proteins could be revealed. To explore its utility for cancer proteomics, we analyzed the proteome of SEVs in lung cancer patients and normal controls. Shotgun proteomic analysis illustrated that 113 and 95 proteins have been identified in cancer group and control group, respectively. Among those 63 proteins that have been consistently discovered only in cancer group, 12 proteins are lung cancer related. Our results demonstrated that SEVs prepared through the developed strategy are valuable samples for proteomics and could serve as a promising liquid biopsy for cancer. PMID:27091080

  5. Facile preparation of salivary extracellular vesicles for cancer proteomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yan; Xia, Zhijun; Shang, Zhi; Sun, Kaibo; Niu, Xiaomin; Qian, Liqiang; Fan, Liu-Yin; Cao, Cheng-Xi; Xiao, Hua

    2016-04-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane surrounded structures released by cells, which have been increasingly recognized as mediators of intercellular communication. Recent reports indicate that EVs participate in important biological processes and could serve as potential source for cancer biomarkers. As an attractive EVs source with merit of non-invasiveness, human saliva is a unique medium for clinical diagnostics. Thus, we proposed a facile approach to prepare salivary extracellular vesicles (SEVs). Affinity chromatography column combined with filter system (ACCF) was developed to efficiently remove the high abundant proteins and viscous interferences of saliva. Protein profiling in the SEVs obtained by this strategy was compared with conventional centrifugation method, which demonstrated that about 70% more SEVs proteins could be revealed. To explore its utility for cancer proteomics, we analyzed the proteome of SEVs in lung cancer patients and normal controls. Shotgun proteomic analysis illustrated that 113 and 95 proteins have been identified in cancer group and control group, respectively. Among those 63 proteins that have been consistently discovered only in cancer group, 12 proteins are lung cancer related. Our results demonstrated that SEVs prepared through the developed strategy are valuable samples for proteomics and could serve as a promising liquid biopsy for cancer.

  6. Human antibody responses to the Anopheles salivary gSG6-P1 peptide: a novel tool for evaluating the efficacy of ITNs in malaria vector control.

    PubMed

    Drame, Papa Makhtar; Poinsignon, Anne; Besnard, Patrick; Cornelie, Sylvie; Le Mire, Jacques; Toto, Jean-Claude; Foumane, Vincent; Dos-Santos, Maria Adelaide; Sembène, Mbacké; Fortes, Filomeno; Simondon, Francois; Carnevale, Pierre; Remoue, Franck

    2010-01-01

    To optimize malaria control, WHO has prioritised the need for new indicators to evaluate the efficacy of malaria vector control strategies. The gSG6-P1 peptide from gSG6 protein of Anopheles gambiae salivary glands was previously designed as a specific salivary sequence of malaria vector species. It was shown that the quantification of human antibody (Ab) responses to Anopheles salivary proteins in general and especially to the gSG6-P1 peptide was a pertinent biomarker of human exposure to Anopheles. The present objective was to validate this indicator in the evaluation of the efficacy of Insecticide Treated Nets (ITNs). A longitudinal evaluation, including parasitological, entomological and immunological assessments, was conducted on children and adults from a malaria-endemic area before and after the introduction of ITNs. Significant decrease of anti-gSG6-P1 IgG response was observed just after the efficient ITNs use. Interestingly, specific IgG Ab level was especially pertinent to evaluate a short-time period of ITNs efficacy and at individual level. However, specific IgG rose back up within four months as correct ITN use waned. IgG responses to one salivary peptide could constitute a reliable biomarker for the evaluation of ITN efficacy, at short- and long-term use, and provide a valuable tool in malaria vector control based on a real measurement of human-vector contact. PMID:21179476

  7. Human Antibody Responses to the Anopheles Salivary gSG6-P1 Peptide: A Novel Tool for Evaluating the Efficacy of ITNs in Malaria Vector Control

    PubMed Central

    Drame, Papa Makhtar; Poinsignon, Anne; Besnard, Patrick; Cornelie, Sylvie; Le Mire, Jacques; Toto, Jean-Claude; Foumane, Vincent; Dos-Santos, Maria Adelaide; Sembène, Mbacké; Fortes, Filomeno; Simondon, Francois; Carnevale, Pierre; Remoue, Franck

    2010-01-01

    To optimize malaria control, WHO has prioritised the need for new indicators to evaluate the efficacy of malaria vector control strategies. The gSG6-P1 peptide from gSG6 protein of Anopheles gambiae salivary glands was previously designed as a specific salivary sequence of malaria vector species. It was shown that the quantification of human antibody (Ab) responses to Anopheles salivary proteins in general and especially to the gSG6-P1 peptide was a pertinent biomarker of human exposure to Anopheles. The present objective was to validate this indicator in the evaluation of the efficacy of Insecticide Treated Nets (ITNs). A longitudinal evaluation, including parasitological, entomological and immunological assessments, was conducted on children and adults from a malaria-endemic area before and after the introduction of ITNs. Significant decrease of anti-gSG6-P1 IgG response was observed just after the efficient ITNs use. Interestingly, specific IgG Ab level was especially pertinent to evaluate a short-time period of ITNs efficacy and at individual level. However, specific IgG rose back up within four months as correct ITN use waned. IgG responses to one salivary peptide could constitute a reliable biomarker for the evaluation of ITN efficacy, at short- and long-term use, and provide a valuable tool in malaria vector control based on a real measurement of human-vector contact. PMID:21179476

  8. Biomarkers associated with obstructive sleep apnea: A scoping review.

    PubMed

    Canto, Graziela De Luca; Pachêco-Pereira, Camila; Aydinoz, Secil; Major, Paul W; Flores-Mir, Carlos; Gozal, David

    2015-10-01

    The overall validity of biomarkers in the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) remains unclear. We conducted a scoping review to provide assessments of biomarkers characteristics in the context of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and to identify gaps in the literature. A scoping review of studies in humans without age restriction that evaluated the potential diagnostic value of biological markers (blood, exhaled breath condensate, salivary, and urinary) in the OSA diagnosis was undertaken. Retained articles were those focused on the identification of biomarkers in subjects with OSA, the latter being confirmed with a full overnight or home-based polysomnography (PSG). Search strategies for six different databases were developed. The methodology of selected studies was classified using an adaptation of the evidence quality criteria from the American Academy of Pediatrics. Additionally the biomarkers were classified according to their potential clinical application. We identified 572 relevant studies, of which 117 met the inclusion criteria. Eighty-two studies were conducted in adults, 34 studies involved children, and one study had a sample composed of both adults and children. Most of the studies evaluated blood biomarkers. Potential diagnostic biomarkers were found in nine pediatric studies and in 58 adults studies. Only nine studies reported sensitivity and specificity, which varied substantially from 43% to 100%, and from 45% to 100%, respectively. Studies in adults have focused on the investigation of IL-6, TNF-α and hsCRP. There was no specific biomarker that was tested by a majority of authors in pediatric studies, and combinatorial urine biomarker approaches have shown preliminary promising results. In adults IL-6 and IL-10 seem to have a favorable potential to become a good biomarker to identify OSA. PMID:25645128

  9. Mistakes in ultrasound examination of salivary glands

    PubMed Central

    Jakubowski, Wiesław

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonography is the first imaging method applied in the case of diseases of the salivary glands. The article discusses basic mistakes that can be made during an ultrasound examination of these structures. The reasons for these mistakes may be examiner-dependent or may be beyond their control. The latter may include, inter alia, difficult conditions during examination (technical or patient-related), similarity of ultrasound images in different diseases, the lack of clinical and laboratory data as well as the lack of results of other examinations, their insufficient number or incorrectness. Doctor-related mistakes include: the lack of knowledge of normal anatomy, characteristics of ultrasound images in various salivary gland diseases and statistical incidence of diseases, but also attaching excessive importance to such statistical data. The complex anatomical structures of the floor of the oral cavity may be mistaken for benign or malignant tumors. Fragments of correct anatomical structures (bones, arterial wall fibrosis, air bubbles in the mouth) can be wrongly interpreted as deposits in the salivary gland or in its excretory duct. Correct lymph nodes in the parotid glands may be treated as pathologic structures. Lesions not being a simple cyst, e.g. lymphoma, benign or malignant tumors of the salivary glands or metastatic lymph nodes, can be mistaken for one. The image of disseminated focal changes, both anechoic and solid, is not pathognomonic for specific diseases in the salivary glands. However, in part, it occurs typically and requires an extended differential diagnosis. Small focal changes and infiltrative lesions pose a diagnostic problem because their etiology cannot be safely suggested on the basis of an ultrasound examination itself. The safest approach is to refer patients with abnormal focal changes for an ultrasoundguided fine-needle aspiration biopsy. PMID:27446603

  10. Mistakes in ultrasound examination of salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Białek, Ewa J; Jakubowski, Wiesław

    2016-06-01

    Ultrasonography is the first imaging method applied in the case of diseases of the salivary glands. The article discusses basic mistakes that can be made during an ultrasound examination of these structures. The reasons for these mistakes may be examiner-dependent or may be beyond their control. The latter may include, inter alia, difficult conditions during examination (technical or patient-related), similarity of ultrasound images in different diseases, the lack of clinical and laboratory data as well as the lack of results of other examinations, their insufficient number or incorrectness. Doctor-related mistakes include: the lack of knowledge of normal anatomy, characteristics of ultrasound images in various salivary gland diseases and statistical incidence of diseases, but also attaching excessive importance to such statistical data. The complex anatomical structures of the floor of the oral cavity may be mistaken for benign or malignant tumors. Fragments of correct anatomical structures (bones, arterial wall fibrosis, air bubbles in the mouth) can be wrongly interpreted as deposits in the salivary gland or in its excretory duct. Correct lymph nodes in the parotid glands may be treated as pathologic structures. Lesions not being a simple cyst, e.g. lymphoma, benign or malignant tumors of the salivary glands or metastatic lymph nodes, can be mistaken for one. The image of disseminated focal changes, both anechoic and solid, is not pathognomonic for specific diseases in the salivary glands. However, in part, it occurs typically and requires an extended differential diagnosis. Small focal changes and infiltrative lesions pose a diagnostic problem because their etiology cannot be safely suggested on the basis of an ultrasound examination itself. The safest approach is to refer patients with abnormal focal changes for an ultrasoundguided fine-needle aspiration biopsy. PMID:27446603

  11. Modern management of obstructive salivary diseases

    PubMed Central

    Capaccio, P; Torretta, S; Ottaviani, F; Sambataro, G; Pignataro, L

    2007-01-01

    Summary Over the last fifteen years, increasing public demand for minimally-invasive surgery and recent technological advances have led to the development of a number of conservative options for the therapeutic management of obstructive salivary disorders such as calculi and duct stenosis. These include extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy, sialoendoscopy, laser intra-corporeal lithotripsy, interventional radiology, the video-assisted conservative surgical removal of parotid and sub-mandibular calculi and botulinum toxin therapy. Each of these techniques may be used as a single therapeutic modality or in combination with one or more of the above-mentioned options, usually in day case or one-day case under local or general anaesthesia. The multi-modal approach is completely successful in about 80% of patients and reduces the need for gland removal in 3%, thus justifying the combination of, albeit, time-consuming and relatively expensive techniques as part of the modern and functional management of salivary calculi. With regard to the management of salivary duct anomalies, such as strictures and kinkings, interventional radiology with fluoroscopically controlled balloon ductoplasty seems to be the most suitable technique despite the use of radiation. Operative sialoendoscopy alone is the best therapeutic option for all mobile intra-luminal causes of obstruction, such as microliths, mucous plugs or foreign bodies, or for the local treatment of inflammatory conditions such as recurrent chronic parotitis or autoimmune salivary disorders. Finally, in the case of failure of one of the above techniques and regardless of the cause of obstruction, botulinum toxin injection into the parenchyma of the salivary glands using colour Doppler ultrasonographic monitoring should be considered before deciding on surgical gland removal. PMID:17957846

  12. Salivary oxytocin concentrations in response to running, sexual self-stimulation, breastfeeding and the TSST: The Regensburg Oxytocin Challenge (ROC) study.

    PubMed

    Jong, Trynke R de; Menon, Rohit; Bludau, Anna; Grund, Thomas; Biermeier, Verena; Klampfl, Stefanie M; Jurek, Benjamin; Bosch, Oliver J; Hellhammer, Juliane; Neumann, Inga D

    2015-12-01

    Intranasal oxytocin (OXT) application is emerging as a potential treatment for socio-emotional disorders associated with abnormalities in OXT system (re-) activity. The crucial identification of patients with such abnormalities could be streamlined by the assessment of basal and stimulus-induced OXT concentrations in saliva, using a simple, stress-free sampling procedure (i.e. an OXT challenge test). We therefore established the Regensburg Oxytocin Challenge (ROC) test to further validate salivary OXT concentrations as a practical, reliable and sensitive biomarker. OXT concentrations were quantified by radioimmunoassay in samples collected at home by healthy adult male and female volunteers before and after running ("Run") or sexual self-stimulation ("Sex"). In lactating women, salivary OXT concentrations were quantified before, during and after breastfeeding. Salivary OXT along with salivary cortisol and heart rate were monitored in healthy adult participants undergoing the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). The home-based "Run" and "Sex" challenges as well as the laboratory-based TSST caused quantifiable, rapid, and consistent increases in salivary OXT (approximately 2.5-fold after 10-15min), which were similar for men and women. Breastfeeding did not result in measurably increased salivary OXT levels, probably because the short pulses of OXT release characteristic for lactation were missed. Taken together, ROC tests reliably assess the responsiveness of the OXT system (i.e., the increase in salivary OXT concentrations as compared to basal levels) to challenges such as "Run" and "Sex" at home or psychosocial stress (TSST) in the laboratory. Further studies with larger sample numbers are essentially needed in order to reveal individual differences in ROC test outcomes depending on, for example, genetic or environmental factors. PMID:26385109

  13. Regulation and formation of the Drosophila salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Andrew, D J

    1998-04-15

    The homeotic gene, Sex combs reduced (Scr), is a master regulator of Drosophila salivary gland formation. Embryos in which Scr function is missing do not form salivary glands, and embryos in which SCR protein is expressed everywhere form extra salivary glands. However, other known proteins, including the homeotic protein Abdominal-B, the unusual zinc finger protein Teashirt, and the secreted signaling molecule Decapentaplegic (a TGF-beta family member), limit the recruitment of SCR-expressing cells to salivary glands. To learn the molecular details of how salivary gland gene expression is controlled and as a first step toward understanding how the SCR transcription factor controls salivary gland morphogenesis, we screened for genes expressed in the developing salivary gland. Among our best candidates for potential direct downstream targets of SCR in the salivary gland are the genes trachealess (trh), dCREB-A, jalapeño, and Semaphorin II (SemaII). Our genetic studies suggest distinct and important roles for each of these genes in salivary gland morphogenesis. Current work includes studying the molecular interactions between SCR and these downstream target genes and asking how target genes coordinate their activities to effect the cell biological changes required to build functional salivary glands. PMID:9599294

  14. Evaluation of Salivary Levels of Pyridinoline Cross Linked Carboxyterminal Telopeptide of Type I Collagen (ICTP) in Periodontal Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Debasish; Gopalakrishnan, Sivaram; Arun, K.V.; Kumar, Tirunveli Saravanan Subu; Devanathan, Santosh

    2015-01-01

    Background Traditional parameters (Pocket depth, bleeding on probing, clinical attachment loss, radiographic findings) have been used for a long time for the assessment of periodontal disease conditions. However, these parameters only indicate towards the periodontal damage that has already taken place but do not give any idea regarding the current status of the periodontal health or disease. Hence, the present study is aimed at evaluating the concentration of the bone biomarker ICTP in saliva, which can give a better real time assessment of periodontal health and disease. Materials and Methods Forty three patients were selected and divided into three groups based on the recorded clinical parameters of probing pocket depth, attachment loss and bleeding on probing. Group I (Healthy, n = 11), Group II (Gingivitis, n = 17), Group III (Periodontitis. n = 15). Salivary samples were collected before scaling and root planning to avoid contamination by blood. ICTP levels were evaluated in the salivary samples by using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Statistical analysis used Kruskal Wallis test was used to compare the mean ICTP level of the three groups. Results ICTP was detected in all the samples. Highest mean ICTP concentrations in saliva were obtained for group III (periodontitis group) and the lowest mean ICTP concentrations were seen in group I (healthy group). This suggests that the level of ICTP in saliva increases proportionally from periodontal health to diseased conditions (gingivitis & periodontitis). Conclusion There is a substantial increase in the salivary concentration of ICTP in chronic periodontitis patients than in gingivitis and healthy patients. Salivary ICTP levels were the maximum in chronic periodontitis patients followed by gingivitis patients and the least in healthy individuals. ICTP may be considered as a biomarker in periodontal disease progression. PMID:26501013

  15. Salivary gland acinar cells regenerate functional glandular structures in modified hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Swati

    cells were identified in cultured cells from dispersed tissue. Biomarker studies with the salivary enzyme, alpha-amylase, and tight junction proteins, such as zonula occludens-1 and E-cadherin, confirmed the phenotype of these cells. Strong staining for laminin and perlecan/HSPG2 were noted in basement membranes and perlecan also was secreted and organized by cultured acinar populations, which formed lobular structures that mimicked intact glands when cultured on Matrigel(TM) or a bioactive peptide derived from domain IV of perlecan (PlnDIV). On either matrix, large acini-like lobular structures grew and formed connections between the lobes. alpha-Amylase secretion was confirmed by staining and activity assay. Biomarkers including tight junction protein E-cadherin and water channel protein, aquaporin 5 (AQP5) found in tissue, were expressed in cultured acinar cells. Cells cultured on Matrigel(TM) or PlnDIV peptide organized stress fibers and activated focal adhesion kinase (FAK). HA, a natural polysaccharide and a major component of the ECM, can be used to generate soft and pliable hydrogels. A culture system consisting of HA hydrogel and PlnDIV peptide was used to generate a 2.5D culture system. Acinar cells cultured on these hydrogels self-assembled into lobular structures and expressed tight junction components such as ZO-1. Acini-like structures were stained for the presence of alpha-amylase. Live/dead staining revealed the presence of apoptotic cells in the center of the acini-like structures, indicative of lumen formation. The functionality of these acini-like structures was studied by stimulating them with neurotransmitters to enhance their fluid and protein production. Acini-like structures treated with norepinephrine and isoproterenol showed increased granule formation as observed by phase contrast microscopy and alpha-amylase staining in the structures. Lobular structures on hydrogels were treated with acetylcholine to increase fluid production. The increase

  16. BIOMARKERS OF REPRODUCTIVE TOXICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Identification and verification of anatomical, endocrine, cellular and molecular biomarkers is crucial for successful clinical diagnosis and treatment of toxicity and disease, as well as basic toxicological, epidemiological and other research. Various in situ biomarkers of repro...

  17. Biomarkers in Computational Toxicology

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biomarkers are a means to evaluate chemical exposure and/or the subsequent impacts on toxicity pathways that lead to adverse health outcomes. Computational toxicology can integrate biomarker data with knowledge of exposure, chemistry, biology, pharmacokinetics, toxicology, and e...

  18. Relationship between Salivary Alkaline Phosphatase Enzyme Activity and The Concentrations of Salivary Calcium and Phosphate Ions

    PubMed Central

    Jazaeri, Mina; Malekzadeh, Hosein; Abdolsamadi, Hamidreza; Rezaei-Soufi, Loghman; Samami, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Although salivary alkaline phosphatase (ALP) can balance deand remineralization processes of enamel, there is no evidence regarding its effects on the concentrations of calcium and phosphate in saliva. The present study aims to determine the relationship between salivary ALP activity and the concentrations of calcium and phosphate in saliva. In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated salivary markers in 120 males, ages 19 to 44 years. All participants provided 5 mL of unstimulated whole saliva and the level of enzyme activity as well as calcium and phosphate concentrations were measured using a colorimetric method. Data were gathered and analyzed by statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) 13.00 using Pearson correlation test. A p value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. The mean age of participants in the present study was 32.95 ± 8.09 years. The mean pH of saliva was 6.65 ± 0.62. Salivary parameters included average ALP activity (5.04 ± 1.866 U/dL), calcium (4.77 ± 0.877 mg/dL) and phosphate (10.38 ± 2.301 mg/dL). Pearson correlation test showed no significant relationship between ALP activity and calcium and phosphate concentrations in saliva (p>0.05). According to the results of the present study, there was no significant relation between salivary ALP activity and calcium and phosphate concentrations in saliva. However, further research is highly recommended. PMID:25870846

  19. Relationship between Salivary Alkaline Phosphatase Enzyme Activity and The Concentrations of Salivary Calcium and Phosphate Ions.

    PubMed

    Jazaeri, Mina; Malekzadeh, Hosein; Abdolsamadi, Hamidreza; Rezaei-Soufi, Loghman; Samami, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Although salivary alkaline phosphatase (ALP) can balance deand remineralization processes of enamel, there is no evidence regarding its effects on the concentrations of calcium and phosphate in saliva. The present study aims to determine the relationship between salivary ALP activity and the concentrations of calcium and phosphate in saliva. In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated salivary markers in 120 males, ages 19 to 44 years. All participants provided 5 mL of unstimulated whole saliva and the level of enzyme activity as well as calcium and phosphate concentrations were measured using a colorimetric method. Data were gathered and analyzed by statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) 13.00 using Pearson correlation test. A p value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. The mean age of participants in the present study was 32.95 ± 8.09 years. The mean pH of saliva was 6.65 ± 0.62. Salivary parameters included average ALP activity (5.04 ± 1.866 U/dL), calcium (4.77 ± 0.877 mg/dL) and phosphate (10.38 ± 2.301 mg/dL). Pearson correlation test showed no significant relationship between ALP activity and calcium and phosphate concentrations in saliva (p>0.05). According to the results of the present study, there was no significant relation between salivary ALP activity and calcium and phosphate concentrations in saliva. However, further research is highly recommended. PMID:25870846

  20. Salivary Cortisone Reflects Cortisol Exposure Under Physiological Conditions and After Hydrocortisone.

    PubMed

    Debono, Miguel; Harrison, Robert F; Whitaker, Martin J; Eckland, David; Arlt, Wiebke; Keevil, Brian G; Ross, Richard J

    2016-04-01

    In this study we tested the use of salivary cortisol and cortisone as alternatives to serum cortisol. Salivary cortisol is often undetectable and contaminated by hydrocortisone. Salivary cortisone strongly reflects serum cortisol. PMID:26812690

  1. Salivary lysozyme in smoking alcohol dependent persons.

    PubMed

    Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Zalewska-Szajda, Beata; Zalewska, Anna; Waszkiewicz, Magdalena; Szajda, Slawomir Dariusz; Repka, Bernadeta; Szulc, Agata; Kepka, Alina; Minarowska, Alina; Ladny, Jerzy Robert; Zwierz, Krzysztof

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of chronic alcohol intoxication and smoking on the concentration and output of salivary lysozyme. Thirty seven men participated in the study, including 17 male smoking alcohol-dependent patients after chronic alcohol intoxication (AS), and 20 control non-smoking male social drinkers (CNS) with no history of alcohol abuse or smoking. The level of lysozyme was assessed by the radial immunodiffusion method. Significantly lower lysozyme output in the AS group compared to the CNS group was found. Moreover, gingival index was significantly higher in AS than in the CNS group. It appeared that the reduced salivary lysozyme output was more likely the result of ethanol action than smoking. In conclusion, persons addicted to alcohol and nicotine have a poorer periodontal status than non-smoking social drinkers, which may partially be due to the diminished protective effects of lysozyme present in the saliva. PMID:23264227

  2. Current trends in salivary gland tight junctions.

    PubMed

    Baker, Olga J

    2016-01-01

    Tight junctions form a continuous intercellular barrier between epithelial cells that is required to separate tissue spaces and regulate selective movement of solutes across the epithelium. They are composed of strands containing integral membrane proteins (e.g., claudins, occludin and tricellulin, junctional adhesion molecules and the coxsackie adenovirus receptor). These proteins are anchored to the cytoskeleton via scaffolding proteins such as ZO-1 and ZO-2. In salivary glands, tight junctions are involved in polarized saliva secretion and barrier maintenance between the extracellular environment and the glandular lumen. This review seeks to provide an overview of what is currently known, as well as the major questions and future research directions, regarding tight junction expression, organization and function within salivary glands. PMID:27583188

  3. Implantable Three-Dimensional Salivary Spheroid Assemblies Demonstrate Fluid and Protein Secretory Responses to Neurotransmitters

    PubMed Central

    Pradhan-Bhatt, Swati; Harrington, Daniel A.; Duncan, Randall L.; Jia, Xinqiao; Witt, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    Radiation treatment in patients with head and neck tumors commonly results in hyposalivation and xerostomia due to the loss of fluid-secreting salivary acinar cells. Patients develop susceptibility to oral infections, dental caries, impaired speech and swallowing, reducing the quality of life. Clinical management is largely unsatisfactory. The development of a tissue-engineered, implantable salivary gland will greatly benefit patients suffering from xerostomia. This report compares the ability of a 2.5-dimensional (2.5D) and a three-dimensional (3D) hyaluronic acid (HA)-based culture system to support functional salivary units capable of producing fluid and phenotypic proteins. Parotid cells seeded on 2.5D, as well as those encapsulated in 3D HA hydrogels, self-assembled into acini-like structures and expressed functional neurotransmitter receptors. Structures in 3D hydrogels merged to form organized 50 μm spheroids that could be maintained in culture for over 100 days and merged to form structures over 500 μm in size. Treatment of acini-like structures with the β-adrenergic agonists norepinephrine or isoproterenol increased granule production and α-amylase staining in treated structures, demonstrating regain of protein secretion. Upon treatment with the M3 muscarinic agonist acetylcholine, acini-like structures activated the fluid production pathway by increasing intracellular calcium levels. The increase in intracellular calcium seen in structures in the 3D hydrogel culture system was more robust and prolonged than that in 2.5D. To compare the long-term survival and retention of acini-like structures in vivo, cell-seeded 2.5D and 3D hydrogels were implanted into an athymic rat model. Cells in 2.5D failed to maintain organized acini-like structures and dispersed in the surrounding tissue. Encapsulated cells in 3D retained their spheroid structure and structural integrity, along with the salivary biomarkers and maintained viability for over 3 weeks in vivo

  4. [Clinical and histopathologic study of salivary mucoceles].

    PubMed

    Kang, S K; Kim, K S

    1989-11-01

    Mucoceles are commonly occurring lesions of the oral mucous membrane and the most common lesion involving minor salivary tissue. The incidence of mucoceles is understandable since accessary salivary gland tissue is widely distributed throughout the oral mucous membrane and trauma to the mucosa, which causes their formation, occurs frequently. But only a few studies have been reported that describe its detailed features. This is a retrospective study on the salivary mucoceles in the oral mucous membrane and based on clinical chart, biopsy request and photomicroscopic finding of 112 patients treated by Dept. of Oral Surgery in Seoul National University Hospital, during the period of last 10 years. The results were as following. 1. The age range of the 112 patients was 2 to 60 years, with a peak incidence in the second decade and a gradual decline thereafter. Of the 112 patients, 49 (44%) were males and 63 (56%) were females, the male-to-female ratio being 1:1.29. 2. The majority of these lesions were located on the lower lip but occurred with lesser frequently on the buccal mucosa, floor of the mouth, tongue, retromolar region, upper lip. 3. Of the 112 patients, 107 (95%) were treated by excision and only 5 were treated by marsupialization. 18 of 112 cases had recurrence and the recurrence rate in this study was 16%. 4. Only 3 of the 112 cases revealed an epithelial lining. This incidence indicates that the mucus-extravasation by the damage of excretory duct rather than the ductal dilatation by mucus-retention may play a critical role in the production of these lesions. 5. In 81 cases (72.3%) minor salivary gland were included in the excision biopsy, specimen. Changes observed in the glandular tissue were atrophy and infiltration of chronic inflammatory cell, but the secretory function of gland was thought to be normal in most cases because the changes were mild. PMID:2489621

  5. Quality of Life after Salivary Gland Surgery.

    PubMed

    Wax, Mark K; Talmi, Yoav P

    2016-01-01

    Quality of life (QoL) has been recognized as an important endpoint in addition to disease-related and global survival. It is particularly important for patients with salivary gland neoplastic disease. For patients who are undergoing benign salivary gland tumor surgery, cosmetic and functional outcomes are extremely important, as these patients' psychological well-being and ability to function in society can be severely impacted. The following issues related to surgical treatment are discussed: incision, loss of local tissue sensation, development of Frey's syndrome, facial nerve function, and cosmesis. Improvements in the placement of the incision combined with additional minimally invasive procedures have improved QoL. The ultimate goal of benign parotid neoplastic surgery is complete tumor excision while avoiding cosmetic and functional damage, which includes preservation of the function of the facial nerve and its branches; this is the key to maintaining preoperative levels of QoL. There are many measures available to improve cosmesis that have minimal morbidity and that, when used, can provide significant improvements in patient outcomes. The treatment of malignant salivary gland neoplasms is primarily directed at treating the malignancy. When surgical treatment affects important neighboring structures, such as the lingual or hypoglossal nerves, as in submandibular/sublingual cancer, there is a tremendous effect on QoL if postoperative dysfunction of these structures results. Often, this treatment involves using ancillary surgical procedures, such as neck dissection, or nonsurgical treatment, such as radiation therapy. The effect of such multi-modality treatment on QoL is significant. The treatment of underlying salivary disease is often overshadowed by these adjunctive treatments. PMID:27092786

  6. Salivary gland malignant neoplasms: treatment and prognosis

    SciTech Connect

    Borthne, A.; Kjellevold, K.; Kaalhus, O.; Vermund, H.

    1986-05-01

    A retrospective analysis of 183 patients with malignant salivary gland tumors treated between 1955 and 1978 is presented. The analysis showed that radiation therapy lowered the recurrence rates after surgery and controlled approximately one-third of the inoperable tumors. A dose-response relationship exists and the data suggest that the radiation dose should not be less than that corresponding to a CRE-value of 1950 reu (70 Gy/7 weeks). Histology, location and clinical stage are important prognostic factors.

  7. Interstitial lung disease induced by alectinib (CH5424802/RO5424802).

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Satoshi; Yoshioka, Hiroshige; Arita, Machiko; Sakai, Takahiro; Sone, Naoyuki; Nishiyama, Akihiro; Niwa, Takashi; Hotta, Machiko; Tanaka, Tomohiro; Ishida, Tadashi

    2015-02-01

    A 75-year-old woman with anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-rearranged Stage IV lung adenocarcinoma was administered the selective anaplastic lymphoma kinase inhibitor, alectinib, as a third-line treatment in a Phase 1-2 study. On the 102nd day, chest computed tomography showed diffuse ground glass opacities. Laboratory data revealed high serum levels of KL-6, SP-D and lactate dehydrogenase without any clinical symptoms. There was no evidence of infection. Marked lymphocytosis was seen in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid analysis, and transbronchial lung biopsy showed mild thickening of alveolar septa and lymphocyte infiltration. Interstitial lung disease was judged to be related to alectinib based on improvements in imaging findings and serum biomarkers after discontinuation of alectinib. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of alectinib-induced interstitial lung disease. Alectinib is a promising drug for ALK-rearranged non-small cell lung cancer. Clinical trials of this selective anaplastic lymphoma kinase inhibitor will facilitate the meticulous elucidation of its long-term safety profile. PMID:25398579

  8. Optical approach to the salivary pellicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Jae Ho; Krasieva, Tatiana; Tang, Shuo; Ahn, Yehchan; Kim, Chang Soo; Vu, Diana; Chen, Zhongping; Wilder-Smith, Petra

    2009-07-01

    The salivary pellicle plays an important role in oral physiology, yet noninvasive in situ characterization and mapping of this layer remains elusive. The goal of this study is to develop an optical approach for the real-time, noninvasive mapping and characterization of salivary pellicles using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and optical coherence microscopy (OCM). The long-term goals are to improve diagnostic capabilities in the oral cavity, gain a better understanding of physiological and pathological processes related to the oral hard tissues, and monitor treatment responses. A salivary pellicle is incubated on small enamel cubes using human whole saliva. OCT and OCM imaging occurs at 0, 10, 30, 60 min, and 24 h. For some imaging, spherical gold nanoparticles (15 nm) are added to determine whether this would increase the optical signal from the pellicle. Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) provides the baseline information. In the saliva-incubated samples, a surface signal from the developing pellicle is visible in OCT images. Pellicle ``islands'' form, which increase in complexity over time until they merge to form a continuous layer over the enamel surface. Noninvasive, in situ time-based pellicle formation on the enamel surface is visualized and characterized using optical imaging.

  9. Salivary abnormalities in Prader-Willi Syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, S.; Poshva, C.

    1994-09-01

    Although abnormal saliva is a well documented finding in PWS, little is known about the saliva in these individuals. We have recently undertaken a study to characterize the salivary composition from PW patients and to see if there is any correlation with their underlying molecular diagnosis (deletion vs. disomy). We have collected whole saliva on 3 patients; 2 had normal high-resolution karyotype analysis (Cases 1 & 3) and 1 had a deletion of 15q11q13 (Case 3). For all parameters, Case 3`s values were notably different from those of his unaffected sibling. The salivary flow rates and concentrations for all 3 PW patients are similar and are significantly different from normal controls (mean {plus_minus} SE) (p<0.05). Although this data is from only 3 PW patients, it provides valuable information. First, decreased flow appears to be due to an effect of PWS and not medications since Cases 2 & 3 are not on any medications. Second, decreased flow appears to be present in younger as well as older individuals. Third, deviations from normal in the salivary composition are evident. It is possible that these alterations are concentration effects relative to a decrease in flow rate. We are currently obtaining saliva from more PW individuals to see if these alterations are present in all PW patients and whether they can be applied as a screening test.

  10. Aquaporins in Salivary Glands: From Basic Research to Clinical Applications.

    PubMed

    Delporte, Christine; Bryla, Angélic; Perret, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Salivary glands are involved in saliva secretion that ensures proper oral health. Aquaporins are expressed in salivary glands and play a major role in saliva secretion. This review will provide an overview of the salivary gland morphology and physiology of saliva secretion, and focus on the expression, subcellular localization and role of aquaporins under physiological and pathophysiological conditions, as well as clinical applications involving aquaporins. This review is highlighting expression and localization of aquaporins in human, rat and mouse, the most studied species and is pointing out possible difference between major salivary glands, i.e., parotid, submandibular and sublingual glands. PMID:26828482

  11. Non-neoplastic salivary gland lesions: a 15-year study.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Harsh; Tahlan, Anita; Mundi, Irneet; Punia, R P S; Dass, Arjun

    2011-08-01

    The spectrum of salivary gland lesions is wide and the relative incidence of neoplastic versus non-neoplastic lesions is variable in different studies. A series of non-neoplastic salivary gland lesions is reviewed to analyze their spectrum and their relative frequency. This is a retrospective study of salivary gland excisions and biopsies received in our department from January 1994 to December 2008. Routine hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections of all the salivary gland excisions and biopsies received were analyzed. Of the 393 salivary gland excisions and biopsies received, 216 cases were reported as non-neoplastic (55%) and formed our study group; 177 (45%) were neoplastic. Non-neoplastic lesions were more frequent in major salivary glands (65.7%) and submandibular gland was the most commonly involved (66.2%). Lip was the most frequent site (81.7%) for minor salivary gland lesions. Inflammation was the predominant pathological finding (49.5%), of which non-specific chronic sialadenitis constituted the majority (86.9%). Sialolithiasis was present in 22 cases (20.6%); all of these cases were of non-specific chronic sialadenitis. Cysts were second in frequency (36.6%), of which mucocele was the most common (54.5%). There were 5.6% cases of benign lympho-epithelial lesions, while normal salivary gland tissue was seen in 6.5% cases. Non-neoplastic salivary gland diseases are more common than neoplastic diseases and have a wide disease spectrum. PMID:21170719

  12. Aquaporins in Salivary Glands: From Basic Research to Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Delporte, Christine; Bryla, Angélic; Perret, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Salivary glands are involved in saliva secretion that ensures proper oral health. Aquaporins are expressed in salivary glands and play a major role in saliva secretion. This review will provide an overview of the salivary gland morphology and physiology of saliva secretion, and focus on the expression, subcellular localization and role of aquaporins under physiological and pathophysiological conditions, as well as clinical applications involving aquaporins. This review is highlighting expression and localization of aquaporins in human, rat and mouse, the most studied species and is pointing out possible difference between major salivary glands, i.e., parotid, submandibular and sublingual glands. PMID:26828482

  13. The relationship between pulp calcifications and salivary gland calcifications

    PubMed Central

    Kaswan, Sumita; Maheshwari, Sneha; Rahman, Farzan; Khandelwal, Suneet

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Pulp stones are discrete calcified bodies found in the dental pulp. Sialolithasis is the most common salivary gland disease. The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship between the pulp stones and salivary gland stones. Material and Methods: 196 patients were randomly selected from the out patient department for the study. The periapical radiographs for all patients were evaluated for the presence or absence of the narrowing of dental pulp chambers and pulp canals. The intra oral occlusal radiographs were also evaluated to determine the presence or absence of salivary stones. The results were compared and analyzed using the Chi-square test (p<0.001). Results: Salivary gland calcifications were detected in 5 patients. 191 patients had pulp narrowing and 118 patients had pulp stones. There was no statistical correlation between pulp narrowing and salivary stones (p>0.001) and also between pulp stones and salivary gland stones (p>0.001). Conclusions: However, the incidental findings of salivary gland stones on intra oral occlusal radiographs can provide useful information in the early diagnosis of the condition, but in the present study no significant relationship was found between the presence of pulp stones and salivary gland stones. Key words:Pulp stone, salivary gland stone, periapical radiograph, occlusal radiograph. PMID:25674311

  14. Anaerobic Threshold and Salivary α-amylase during Incremental Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Akizuki, Kazunori; Yazaki, Syouichirou; Echizenya, Yuki; Ohashi, Yukari

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to clarify the validity of salivary α-amylase as a method of quickly estimating anaerobic threshold and to establish the relationship between salivary α-amylase and double-product breakpoint in order to create a way to adjust exercise intensity to a safe and effective range. [Subjects and Methods] Eleven healthy young adults performed an incremental exercise test using a cycle ergometer. During the incremental exercise test, oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, and ventilatory equivalent were measured using a breath-by-breath gas analyzer. Systolic blood pressure and heart rate were measured to calculate the double product, from which double-product breakpoint was determined. Salivary α-amylase was measured to calculate the salivary threshold. [Results] One-way ANOVA revealed no significant differences among workloads at the anaerobic threshold, double-product breakpoint, and salivary threshold. Significant correlations were found between anaerobic threshold and salivary threshold and between anaerobic threshold and double-product breakpoint. [Conclusion] As a method for estimating anaerobic threshold, salivary threshold was as good as or better than determination of double-product breakpoint because the correlation between anaerobic threshold and salivary threshold was higher than the correlation between anaerobic threshold and double-product breakpoint. Therefore, salivary threshold is a useful index of anaerobic threshold during an incremental workload. PMID:25140097

  15. Cancer biomarkers - current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Anant Narayan; Mathur, Rohit; Farooque, Abdullah; Verma, Amit; Dwarakanath, B S

    2010-08-01

    In the recent years, knowledge about cancer biomarkers has increased tremendously providing great opportunities for improving the management of cancer patients by enhancing the efficiency of detection and efficacy of treatment. Recent technological advancement has enabled the examination of many potential biomarkers and renewed interest in developing new biomarkers. Biomarkers of cancer could include a broad range of biochemical entities, such as nucleic acids, proteins, sugars, lipids, and small metabolites, cytogenetic and cytokinetic parameters as well as whole tumour cells found in the body fluid. A comprehensive understanding of the relevance of each biomarker will be very important not only for diagnosing the disease reliably, but also help in the choice of multiple therapeutic alternatives currently available that is likely to benefit the patients. This review provides a brief account on various biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutic purposes, which include markers already in clinical practice as well as various upcoming biomarkers. PMID:20716813

  16. Biomarkers in saliva for the detection of oral squamous cell carcinoma and their potential use for early diagnosis: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Gualtero, Diego F; Suarez Castillo, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the capacity of salivary biomarkers in the early diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Study design A systematic review of the literature was performed based on the English titles listed in the PubMed, EBSCO, Cochrane, Science Direct, ISI web Science and SciELO databases using the following search descriptors: Oral cancer, diagnosis, biomarkers, saliva and oral squamous cell carcinoma. Abstracts and full-text articles were assessed independently by two reviewers. International checklists for assessment of methodological quality were used. Levels of evidence and grades of recommendation through the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) template were recognized. The units of analysis were identified through a reference matrix. Results Through the research strategy and after application of different filters and considering choosing criteria, six studies were obtained for analysis. Salivary biomarkers for oral cancer most frequently found were mRNA and proteins for IL-8, CD44, MMP-1 and MMP-3. New peptide-biomarkers such as Cyfra 21-1 and ZNF510 were found. ZNF 510 was the only biomarker which increased in the population with tumour stage T1 + T2 and T3 + T4. Only one study showed a sensitivity and specificity of 96% when the biomarker ZNF 510 is employed to discriminate early and late tumour stages. Conclusions There is no sufficient scientific evidence to support the capacity of the identified salivary biomarkers for the early diagnosis of oral cancer (sub-clinical stages of the pathogenic period before cancer phenotypes are manifested). Salivary biomarkers, however, may be employed to discriminate between healthy and cancer patients. PMID:26577643

  17. Investigation on laser induced salivary stone fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sroka, Ronald; Pongratz, Thomas; Eder, Matthias; Domes, Mona; Vogeser, Michael; Johnson, Thorsten; Siedeck, Vanessa; Schroetzlmair, Florian; Zengel, Pamela

    2014-03-01

    Objective: It was the objective of this in-vitro study to investigate photon-based techniques for identifying the composition and fragmentation of salivary stones using a Ho:YAG laser. Materials and Method: Salivary stones (n=47) extracted from patients with clinical symptoms of sialolithiasis were examined in-vitro. After extraction, the stones were kept in Ringers solution until size and volume measurements could be performed. Thereafter, dual-energy CT scans (DECT) were performed to classify the composition of the stones. Subsequently, fluorescence measurements were performed by taking images under blue light excitation as well as by fluorescence spectroscopy, measuring excitation-emission-matrixes (EEM). Further investigation to identify the exact composition of the stone was performed by Raman spectroscopy and FTIR spectroscopy of stone fragments and debris. Fragmentation was performed in an aquarium set-up equipped with a mesh (hole: 1.5mm) using a Ho:YAG-laser to deliver laser pulses of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5J/pulse at a frequency of 3Hz through a 200μm-fibre to the stone surface. The collected data were analyzed and fragmentation rates were calculated. Finally, correlation between stone composition and fragmentation was performed. Results: Blue light fluorescence excitation resulted in either fluorescence in the green spectral region or in a combination of green and red fluorescence emission. EEM-measurement showed the corresponding spectra. Raman spectroscopy showed a mixture of carbonate apatite and keratin. DECT results in evidence of calcium containing components. FTIR-spectroscopy results showed that carbonate apatite is the main component. Fragmentation experiment showed a dependency on the energy per pulse applied if the evaluation implies the ratio of fragmented weight to pulse, while the ratio fragmented weight to energy remains about constant for the three laser parameter used. Conclusion: The composition of salivary stones could be determined using

  18. Intimate Partner Violence Exposure, Salivary Cortisol, and Childhood Asthma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bair-Merritt, Megan H.; Johnson, Sara B.; Okelo, Sande; Page, Gayle

    2012-01-01

    Parents were given supplies to collect 3 child salivary cortisol samples (awakening, 30-min after awakening, bedtime) at home on a typical day, and return them via mail. Medical records also were abstracted. Results: Fifty-three percent (n = 29) returned child salivary samples. Families who returned samples typically returned them within 2 weeks,…

  19. Clinical and ultrasonographic characteristics of salivary mucoceles in 13 dogs.

    PubMed

    Torad, Faisal A; Hassan, Elham A

    2013-01-01

    Salivary mucocele is one of the causes of submandibular swelling in dogs and is due to a collection of mucoid saliva that has leaked from a damaged salivary gland. The purpose of this case series report was to describe the clinical and ultrasonographic characteristics of confirmed salivary mucoceles in 13 dogs admitted to the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine at Cairo University. The final diagnosis of salivary mucocele was based on aspirate cytology for all dogs and additional surgical excision for seven dogs. For dogs admitted from 2 weeks to 1 month from the onset of clinical signs, the cervical mucocele appeared as a round echogenic structure with a large volume of central anechoic content. The wall was a clearly identified hyperechoic structure surrounding the gland. For dogs admitted between 1 to 2 months from the onset of clinical signs, the volume of anechoic material appeared less than that seen in the acute cases. The overall appearance of the salivary mucocele was heterogenous. For dogs admitted after 2 months from the onset of clinical signs, the salivary mucocele appeared grainy or mottled, with a heterogenous appearance and a further decrease in anechoic content. For one dog that presented after 3 months from the onset of clinical signs, the salivary mucocele was hard on palpation and appeared hyperechoic with distal acoustic shadowing. Findings from this study indicated that ultrasonographic characteristics of salivary mucoceles in dogs vary depending on the chronological stage of the disease. PMID:23442204

  20. Nondestructive biomarkers in ecotoxicology.

    PubMed Central

    Fossi, M C

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this article is to attempt a concise review of the state of the art of the nondestructive biomarkers approach in vertebrates, establishing a consensus on the most useful and sensitive nondestructive biomarker techniques, and proposing research priorities for the development and validation of this promising methodology. The following topics are discussed: the advantages of the use of nondestructive strategies in biomonitoring programs and the research fields in which nondestructive biomarkers can be applied; the biological materials suitable for nondestructive biomarkers and residue analysis in vertebrates; which biomarkers lend themselves to noninvasive techniques; and the validation and implementation strategy of the nondestructive biomarker approach. Examples of applications of this methodology in the hazard assessment of endangered species are also presented. Images Figure 1. C PMID:7713034

  1. Circulating glioma biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Kros, Johan M.; Mustafa, Dana M.; Dekker, Lennard J.M.; Sillevis Smitt, Peter A.E.; Luider, Theo M.; Zheng, Ping-Pin

    2015-01-01

    Validated biomarkers for patients suffering from gliomas are urgently needed for standardizing measurements of the effects of treatment in daily clinical practice and trials. Circulating body fluids offer easily accessible sources for such markers. This review highlights various categories of tumor-associated circulating biomarkers identified in blood and cerebrospinal fluid of glioma patients, including circulating tumor cells, exosomes, nucleic acids, proteins, and oncometabolites. The validation and potential clinical utility of these biomarkers is briefly discussed. Although many candidate circulating protein biomarkers were reported, none of these have reached the required validation to be introduced for clinical practice. Recent developments in tracing circulating tumor cells and their derivatives as exosomes and circulating nuclear acids may become more successful in providing useful biomarkers. It is to be expected that current technical developments will contribute to the finding and validation of circulating biomarkers. PMID:25253418

  2. Cortisol, salivary alpha-amylase and children's perceptions of their social networks.

    PubMed

    Ponzi, Davide; Muehlenbein, Michael P; Geary, David C; Flinn, Mark V

    2016-04-01

    In recent years there has been a growing interest in the use of social network analysis in biobehavioral research. Despite the well-established importance of social relationships in influencing human behavior and health, little is known about how children's perception of their immediate social relationships correlates with biological parameters of stress. In this study we explore the association between two measures of children's personal social networks, perceived network size and perceived network density, with two biomarkers of stress, cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase. Forty children (mean age = 8.30, min age = 5, and max age = 12) were interviewed to collect information about their friendships and three samples of saliva were collected. Our results show that children characterized by a lower pre-interview cortisol concentration and a lower salivary alpha-amylase reactivity to the interview reported the highest density of friendships. We discuss this result in light of the multisystem approach to the study of children's behavioral outcomes, emphasizing that future work of this kind is needed in order to understand the cognitive and biological mechanisms underlying children's and adolescents' social perceptual biases. PMID:25919481

  3. Comparison of Salivary TIMP-1 Levels in Periodontally Involved and Healthy Controls and the Response to Nonsurgical Periodontal Therapy.

    PubMed

    Fenol, Angel; Peter, Maya Rajan; Perayil, Jayachandran; Vyloppillil, Rajesh; Bhaskar, Anuradha

    2014-01-01

    Background. Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory condition affecting the supporting structures of the dentition. Periodontal destruction is an outcome of the imbalance between matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs). We wanted to prove the hypothesis that salivary TIPM-1 level will vary in different people. A decrease in TIMP-1 level could make them more susceptible to periodontitis whereas a normal level could prevent increased tissue destruction thereby inhibiting the progression from gingivitis to periodontitis. This could probably pave the way for TIPM-1 to be a specific salivary biomarker and serve as a useful diagnostic and therapeutic tool in periodontitis. Methods. Whole unstimulated saliva of 2 ml was collected from twenty-five periodontally healthy and twenty-seven systemically healthy subjects with periodontitis. Clinical parameters recorded at baseline and reevaluated after four weeks in subjects with periodontitis following nonsurgical periodontal therapy were gingival index (GI), oral hygiene index-Simplified (OHI-S), probing pocket depth, and clinical attachment level (CAL). Salivary TIMP-1 levels in both were analyzed using a commercially available ELISA kit. PMID:26464855

  4. Comparison of Salivary TIMP-1 Levels in Periodontally Involved and Healthy Controls and the Response to Nonsurgical Periodontal Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Fenol, Angel; Peter, Maya Rajan; Perayil, Jayachandran; Vyloppillil, Rajesh; Bhaskar, Anuradha

    2014-01-01

    Background. Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory condition affecting the supporting structures of the dentition. Periodontal destruction is an outcome of the imbalance between matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs). We wanted to prove the hypothesis that salivary TIPM-1 level will vary in different people. A decrease in TIMP-1 level could make them more susceptible to periodontitis whereas a normal level could prevent increased tissue destruction thereby inhibiting the progression from gingivitis to periodontitis. This could probably pave the way for TIPM-1 to be a specific salivary biomarker and serve as a useful diagnostic and therapeutic tool in periodontitis. Methods. Whole unstimulated saliva of 2 ml was collected from twenty-five periodontally healthy and twenty-seven systemically healthy subjects with periodontitis. Clinical parameters recorded at baseline and reevaluated after four weeks in subjects with periodontitis following nonsurgical periodontal therapy were gingival index (GI), oral hygiene index-Simplified (OHI-S), probing pocket depth, and clinical attachment level (CAL). Salivary TIMP-1 levels in both were analyzed using a commercially available ELISA kit. PMID:26464855

  5. Estimation and Comparison of Salivary Calcium, Phosphorous, Alkaline Phosphatase and pH Levels in Periodontal Health and Disease: A Cross-sectional Biochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Rufi Murad; Suragimath, Girish; Zope, Sameer

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In oral diagnostics there is a great challenge to determine biomarkers for screening and evaluating the disease activity. Biomarkers can also serve as a useful tool to measure the efficacy of the therapy. Aim To evaluate and compare the levels of salivary calcium, phosphorous, alkaline phosphatase and pH levels in periodontally healthy subjects and patients with gingivitis and periodontitis. Materials and Methods The present study consisted of 150 subjects aged between 20-45 years who were divided into three groups; periodontally healthy, gingivitis and chronic periodontitis. Prior to the clinical examination the demographic details, relevant information of the subject, gingival index, plaque index, Oral Hygiene Index (OHI) and pH were recorded. Biochemical assay of saliva i.e., inorganic calcium, phosphorous and alkaline phosphatase were estimated by colorimetric method. ANOVA and Tukey’s test were applied for statistical analysis. Results The mean levels of biomarkers studied were; inorganic calcium (12.55μg/dl), phosphorous (14.50μg/dl), alkaline phosphatase (49.62μg/dl) and pH (11.65). There was a gradual increase in these levels as the condition progressed from health to gingivitis or periodontitis which was statistically significant at p<0.001. Conclusion Based on these results, it can be concluded that, the biomarkers like salivary calcium, phosphorous, alkaline phosphatase and pH can be considered for evaluating the diagnosis and prognosis of periodontal tissues in disease and health.

  6. Pupil and Salivary Indicators of Autonomic Dysfunction in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Christa J.; Colombo, John; Unruh, Kathryn E.

    2013-01-01

    Dysregulated tonic pupil size has been reported in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Among the possible sources of this dysregulation are disruptions in the feedback loop between norepinephrine (NE) and hypothalamic systems. In the current study, we examined afternoon levels of salivary alpha-amylase (sAA, a putative correlate of NE) and cortisol (used to assess stress-based responses) in two independent samples of children with ASD. We found a larger pupil size and lower sAA levels in ASD, compared to typical and clinical age-matched controls. This was substantiated at the individual level, as sAA levels were strongly correlated with tonic pupil size. Relatively little diurnal variation in sAA taken in the home environment in the ASD group was also observed, while typical controls showed a significant linear increase throughout the day. Results are discussed in terms of potential early biomarkers and the elucidation of underlying neural dysfunction in ASD. PMID:22644965

  7. Salivary epithelial cells: an unassuming target site for gene therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Paola; Rowzee, Anne M.; Zheng, Changyu; Adriaansen, Janik; Baum, Bruce J.

    2010-01-01

    Salivary glands are classical exocrine glands whose external secretions result in the production of saliva. However, in addition to the secretion of exocrine proteins, salivary epithelial cells are also capable of secreting proteins internally, into the bloodstream. This brief review examines the potential for using salivary epithelial cells as a target site for in situ gene transfer, with an ultimate goal of producing therapeutic proteins for treating both systemic and upper gastrointestinal tract disorders. The review discusses the protein secretory pathways reported to be present in salivary epithelial cells, the viral gene transfer vectors shown useful for transducing these cells, model transgenic secretory proteins examined, and some clinical conditions that might benefit from such salivary gland gene transfer. PMID:20219693

  8. Solid blue dot tumour: minor salivary gland acinic cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bavle, Radhika M; Makarla, Soumya; Nadaf, Afreen; Narasimhamurthy, Srinath

    2014-01-01

    Acinic cell adenocarcinoma (ACC) is a low-grade malignant salivary neoplasm that constitutes approximately 17% of all primary salivary gland malignancies. In the head and neck region, the parotid gland is the predominant site of origin and ACC is usually more frequent in women than men. Previous radiation exposure and familial predisposition are some of the risk factors for ACC. ACCs rarely involve minor salivary glands constituting only 13–17% of all minor salivary gland tumours. Generally, a slowly enlarging mass lesion in the tail of the parotid gland is the most frequent presentation. ACC has a significant tendency to recur, metastasise and may have an aggressive evolution. Therefore, a long-term follow-up is mandatory after treatment. Here we report the case of a woman in her 60s with an ACC in association with the labial minor salivary gland, presenting in the post-treatment period of squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue. PMID:24928927

  9. Salivary secretion and connective tissue disease in man.

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, R W; Bhoola, K D; Rasker, J J; Jayson, M I

    1985-01-01

    Parotid and submandibular gland secretions collected from patients with rheumatoid arthritis or systemic sclerosis have been analysed and the results compared with those obtained from a matched group of healthy individuals. Flow rates were measured and the saliva samples assayed for amylase, kallikrein, protein, and salivary IgA concentration. The results showed that only patients with rheumatoid arthritis had a reduced salivary flow, especially parotid flow, with a significantly increased concentration of salivary IgA in both parotid and submandibular saliva. Patients with systemic sclerosis did not show significantly altered salivary flow rates, but there was a marked depletion of salivary IgA content in both parotid and submandibular saliva. Neither disease states appeared to alter the kallikrein or amylase content of saliva. The possible clinical value of these findings is discussed. Images PMID:2578776

  10. Genomic landscape of salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Kato, Shumei; Elkin, Sheryl K; Schwaederle, Maria; Tomson, Brett N; Helsten, Teresa; Carter, Jennifer L; Kurzrock, Razelle

    2015-09-22

    Effective treatment options for advanced salivary gland tumors are lacking. To better understand these tumors, we report their genomic landscape. We studied the molecular aberrations in 117 patients with salivary gland tumors that were, on physician request, tested in a Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) laboratory (Foundation Medicine, Cambridge, MA) using next-generation sequencing (182 or 236 genes), and analyzed by N-of-One, Inc. (Lexington, MA). There were 354 total aberrations, with 240 distinct aberrations identified in this patient population. Only 10 individuals (8.5%) had a molecular portfolio that was identical to any other patient (with four different portfolios amongst the ten patients). The most common abnormalities involved the TP53 gene (36/117 [30.8% of patients]), cyclin pathway (CCND1, CDK4/6 or CDKN2A/B) (31/117 [26.5%]) and PI3K pathway (PIK3CA, PIK3R1, PTEN or AKT1/3) (28/117 [23.9%]). In multivariate analysis, statistically significant co-existing aberrations were observed as follows: TP53 and ERBB2 (p = 0.01), cyclin pathway and MDM2 (p = 0.03), and PI3K pathway and HRAS (p = 0.0001). We were able to identify possible cognate targeted therapies in most of the patients (107/117 [91.5%]), including FDA-approved drugs in 80/117 [68.4%]. In conclusion, salivary gland tumors were characterized by multiple distinct aberrations that mostly differed from patient to patient. Significant associations between aberrations in TP53 and ERBB2, the cyclin pathway and MDM2, and HRAS and the PI3K pathway were identified. Most patients had actionable alterations. These results provide a framework for tailored combinations of matched therapies. PMID:26247885

  11. Genomic landscape of salivary gland tumors

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Shumei; Elkin, Sheryl K.; Schwaederle, Maria; Tomson, Brett N.; Helsten, Teresa; Carter, Jennifer L.; Kurzrock, Razelle

    2015-01-01

    Effective treatment options for advanced salivary gland tumors are lacking. To better understand these tumors, we report their genomic landscape. We studied the molecular aberrations in 117 patients with salivary gland tumors that were, on physician request, tested in a Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) laboratory (Foundation Medicine, Cambridge, MA) using next-generation sequencing (182 or 236 genes), and analyzed by N-of-One, Inc. (Lexington, MA). There were 354 total aberrations, with 240 distinct aberrations identified in this patient population. Only 10 individuals (8.5%) had a molecular portfolio that was identical to any other patient (with four different portfolios amongst the ten patients). The most common abnormalities involved the TP53 gene (36/117 [30.8% of patients]), cyclin pathway (CCND1, CDK4/6 or CDKN2A/B) (31/117 [26.5%]) and PI3K pathway (PIK3CA, PIK3R1, PTEN or AKT1/3) (28/117 [23.9%]). In multivariate analysis, statistically significant co-existing aberrations were observed as follows: TP53 and ERBB2 (p = 0.01), cyclin pathway and MDM2 (p = 0.03), and PI3K pathway and HRAS (p = 0.0001). We were able to identify possible cognate targeted therapies in most of the patients (107/117 [91.5%]), including FDA-approved drugs in 80/117 [68.4%]. In conclusion, salivary gland tumors were characterized by multiple distinct aberrations that mostly differed from patient to patient. Significant associations between aberrations in TP53 and ERBB2, the cyclin pathway and MDM2, and HRAS and the PI3K pathway were identified. Most patients had actionable alterations. These results provide a framework for tailored combinations of matched therapies. PMID:26247885

  12. Salivary gland acinar cells regenerate functional glandular structures in modified hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Swati

    cells were identified in cultured cells from dispersed tissue. Biomarker studies with the salivary enzyme, alpha-amylase, and tight junction proteins, such as zonula occludens-1 and E-cadherin, confirmed the phenotype of these cells. Strong staining for laminin and perlecan/HSPG2 were noted in basement membranes and perlecan also was secreted and organized by cultured acinar populations, which formed lobular structures that mimicked intact glands when cultured on Matrigel(TM) or a bioactive peptide derived from domain IV of perlecan (PlnDIV). On either matrix, large acini-like lobular structures grew and formed connections between the lobes. alpha-Amylase secretion was confirmed by staining and activity assay. Biomarkers including tight junction protein E-cadherin and water channel protein, aquaporin 5 (AQP5) found in tissue, were expressed in cultured acinar cells. Cells cultured on Matrigel(TM) or PlnDIV peptide organized stress fibers and activated focal adhesion kinase (FAK). HA, a natural polysaccharide and a major component of the ECM, can be used to generate soft and pliable hydrogels. A culture system consisting of HA hydrogel and PlnDIV peptide was used to generate a 2.5D culture system. Acinar cells cultured on these hydrogels self-assembled into lobular structures and expressed tight junction components such as ZO-1. Acini-like structures were stained for the presence of alpha-amylase. Live/dead staining revealed the presence of apoptotic cells in the center of the acini-like structures, indicative of lumen formation. The functionality of these acini-like structures was studied by stimulating them with neurotransmitters to enhance their fluid and protein production. Acini-like structures treated with norepinephrine and isoproterenol showed increased granule formation as observed by phase contrast microscopy and alpha-amylase staining in the structures. Lobular structures on hydrogels were treated with acetylcholine to increase fluid production. The increase

  13. Complete agenesis of major salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Berta, E; Bettega, G; Jouk, P S; Billy, G; Nugues, F; Morand, B

    2013-10-01

    A 4 year-old female patient was treated for persistent right-sided dacryocystitis and xerostomia. MRI was performed to screen for a dry syndrome; which resulted in the diagnosis of agenesis of the parotid and submandibular glands as well as lacrimal duct malformation. An MRI of each parent was normal. The mother's history revealed 4 days of pyrexia during the 8th week of amenorrhea. This was an isolated case, with no family history, characterized by a febrile episode during pregnancy at the period of main salivary gland genesis. Epigenetic mechanisms could be implicated. PMID:23993206

  14. Quantitative Analysis of Human Salivary Gland-Derived Intact Proteome Using Top-Down Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Si; Brown, Joseph N.; Tolic, Nikola; Meng, Da; Liu, Xiaowen; Zhang, Haizhen; Zhao, Rui; Moore, Ronald J.; Pevzner, Pavel A.; Smith, Richard D.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana

    2014-05-31

    There are several notable challenges inherent to fully characterizing the entirety of the human saliva proteome using bottom-up approaches, including polymorphic isoforms, post-translational modifications, unique splice variants, deletions, and truncations. To address these challenges, we have developed a top-down based liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) approach, which cataloged 20 major human salivary proteins with a total of 83 proteoforms, containing a broad range of post-translational modifications. Among these proteins, several previously reported disease biomarker proteins were identified at the intact protein level, such as beta-2 microglobulin (B2M). In addition, intact glycosylated proteoforms of several saliva proteins were also characterized, including intact N-glycosylated protein prolactin inducible protein (PIP) and O-glycosylated acidic protein rich protein (aPRP). These characterized proteoforms constitute an intact saliva proteoform database, which was used for quantitative comparison of intact salivary proteoforms among six healthy individuals. Human parotid (PS) and submandibular/sublingual gland (SMSL) secretion samples (2 μg of protein each) from six healthy individuals were compared using RPLC coupled with the 12T FTICR mass spectrometer. Significantly different protein and PTM patterns were resolved with high reproducibility between PS and SMSL glands. The results from this study provide further insight into the potential mechanisms of PTM pathways in oral glandular secretion, expanding our knowledge of this complex yet easily accessible fluid. Intact protein LC-MS approach presented herein can potentially be applied for rapid and accurate identification of biomarkers from only a few microliters of human glandular saliva.

  15. Characterization of the In Vitro Kinetic Interaction of Chlorpyrifos-Oxon with Rat Salivary Cholinesterase: A Potential Biomonitoring Matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Kousba, Ahmed A. ); Poet, Torka S. ); Timchalk, Charles

    2003-02-12

    Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is a commonly used organophosphate insecticide (OP). The primary mechanism of action for CPF involves the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) by the active metabolite, CPF-oxon, with subsequent accumulation of acetylcholine (ACh) resulting in a wide range of neutotoxicity. CPF-oxon, can likewise inhibit other non-target cholinesterases (ChE) such as butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE), which represents a detoxification mechanism and a potential biomarker of exposure/response. Biological monitoring for OPs has focused on measuring parent chemical or metabolite in blood and urine or blood ChE inhibition. Salivary biomonitoring has recently been explored as a practical method for examination of chemical exposure; however, there are a limited number of studies exploring its use for OPs. To evaluate the use of salivary ChE as a biological monitor for OP exposure, the current study characterized salivary ChE activity in Sprague-Dawley rats through its comparison with brain and plasma ChE using BW284C51 and iso-OMPA as selective inhibitors of AChE and BuChE, respectively. The study also estimated the kinetic constants describing BuChE interaction with CPF-oxon. A modified Ellman assay in conjunction with pharmacodynamic (PD) modeling was used to characterize the in vitro titration of diluted rat salivary ChE enzyme with CPF-oxon. The results indicated that, more than 95% of rat salivary ChE activity was associated with BuChE activity, total BuChE active site concentration was 0.0012 0.00013 nmol/ml saliva, reactivation rate constant (Kr) was 0.068 0.008 h-1 and inhibitory (Ki) rate constant of 8.825 and 9.80 nM-1h-1 determined experimentally and using model optimization respectively. These study results would be helpful for further evaluating the potential utility of salivary ChE as a practical tool for biological monitor of OP exposures.

  16. The salivary proteome profile in patients affected by SAPHO syndrome characterized by a top-down RP-HPLC-ESI-MS platform.

    PubMed

    Sanna, Monica; Firinu, Davide; Manconi, Paolo Emilio; Pisanu, Maria; Murgia, Giuseppe; Piras, Valentina; Castagnola, Massimo; Messana, Irene; del Giacco, Stefano Renato; Cabras, Tiziana

    2015-06-01

    SAPHO syndrome is a rare and often unrecognized disease with prominent inflammatory cutaneous and articular symptoms characterized by musculoskeletal manifestations (synovitis, hyperostosis, osteomyelitis) associated with dermatological conditions (severe acne and pustulosis). The acidic soluble fraction of whole saliva from 10 adult women affected by SAPHO syndrome and from a group of 28 healthy women was analysed by RP-HPLC-ESI-MS with the aim of discovering salivary biomarkers of the disorder. The levels of the oral proteins and peptides were correlated with clinical data. The following proteins showed a significant decreased concentration in saliva of SAPHO subjects with respect to controls: cystatin S1 and SN, histatins, the major acidic PRPs, P-C and P-B peptides. The cystatin SN abundance lowered according to the disease duration and histatins showed positive correlations with the C reactive protein. Statistical analysis performed excluding one patient with a different pattern of salivary proteins/peptides highlighted a positive relationship between cystatin S1, histatins 3, histatin 5, and the neutrophil count. Moreover, histatin 3 correlated positively with the total white cell count and negatively with the erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Levels and frequency of S100A12 protein showed a trend to increase in SAPHO patients. The high expression of this pro-inflammatory protein is probably related to the inflammatory response and to the altered neutrophil responses to functional stimuli that characterize SAPHO syndrome suggesting a possible application as a salivary biomarker. PMID:25671558

  17. Changes in the salivary protein profile of morbidly obese women either previously subjected to bariatric surgery or not.

    PubMed

    Lamy, Elsa; Simões, Carla; Rodrigues, Lénia; Costa, Ana Rodrigues; Vitorino, Rui; Amado, Francisco; Antunes, Célia; do Carmo, Isabel

    2015-12-01

    Saliva is a non-invasive source of biomarkers useful in the study of physiological mechanisms. Moreover, this fluid has diverse functions, among which food perception and ingestion, making it particularly suitable for the study of obesity. The aims of this study were to assess changes in salivary proteome among morbidly obese women, with a view to provide information about mechanisms potentially related to the development of obesity, and to evaluate whether these changes persist after weight loss. Mixed saliva samples from morbidly obese women (N = 18) who had been either subjected (group O-BS) or not (group O) to bariatric surgery and women with normal weight (N = 14; group C) were compared for protein profiles, alpha-amylase abundance and enzymatic activity, and carbonic anhydrase (CA) VI abundance. Differences in salivary obese profiles were observed for 23 different spots. Zinc-alpha-2 glycoprotein-containing spots showed higher abundance in group O only, whereas cystatin S-containing spots presented higher abundance in the two groups of obese subjects. Most of the spots identified as salivary amylase were present at lower levels in group O-BS. With regard to the amylase enzymatic activity, increases were observed for group O and decreases for group O-BS. One interesting finding was the high correlation between levels of CA VI and body mass index in group O, which was not observed for groups O-BS or C. The differences between groups, mainly regarding salivary proteins involved in taste sensitivity and metabolism, point to the potential of using saliva in the study of obesity development. PMID:26399515

  18. Glycoprofiling of the Human Salivary Proteome

    PubMed Central

    Sondej, Melissa; Denny, Patricia A.; Xie, Yongming; Ramachandran, Prasanna; Si, Yan; Takashima, Jona; Shi, Wenyuan; Wong, David T.; Loo, Joseph A.; Denny, Paul C.

    2009-01-01

    Glycosylation is important for a number of biological processes and is perhaps the most abundant and complicated of the known post-translational modifications found on proteins. This work combines two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and lectin blotting to map the salivary glycome, and mass spectrometry to identity the proteins that are associated with the glycome map. A panel of 15 lectins that recognize six sugar-specific categories was used to visualize the type and extent of glycosylation in saliva from two healthy male individuals. Lectin blots were compared to 2-D gels stained either with Sypro Ruby (protein stain) or Pro-Q Emerald 488 (glycoprotein stain). Each lectin shows a distinct pattern, even those belonging to the same sugar-specific category. In addition, the glycosylation profiles generated from the lectin blots show that most of the salivary proteins are glycosylated and that the pattern is more widespread than is demonstrated by the glycoprotein stained gel. Finally, the co-reactivity between two lectins was measured to determine the glycan structures that are most and least often associated with one another along with the population variation of the lectin reactivity for 66 individuals. PMID:20161393

  19. Biomarkers present in asphaltenes

    SciTech Connect

    Philp, R.P.

    1985-01-01

    The significance and distribution of biomarkers in sediments, source rocks and crude oils are well documented in the literature. Little attention has been directed towards the biomarkers that are present in the asphaltene fractions of crude oils and source rock extracts. Asphaltene fractions by definition are insoluble in certain solvents and consist of high molecular components which makes them difficult to analyze by techniques commonly used to characterize the soluble extracts. Asphaltenes are ideally suited for analysis by microscale pyrolysis techniques (py) combined with gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Utilization of the multiple ion detection technique in conjunction with the py-GC-MS analyses permits the distribution of the steranes, triterpanes and other biomarker produced by pyrolysis of the asphaltenes to be easily determined. It is proposed in this paper to discuss the pyrolysis of asphaltene from a variety of source rocks and analysis of the biomarkers, released by the pyrolysis. These biomarkers distributions can be used to obtain information on source and maturity of the organic matter in a similar manner to using the soluble biomarkers. It is proposed to discuss the asphaltene biomarker distributions and also to speculate as to why certain biomarkers are present only in the extracts and asphaltenes and not produced by pyrolysis of the kerogens.

  20. Biomarkers in Autism

    PubMed Central

    Goldani, Andre A. S.; Downs, Susan R.; Widjaja, Felicia; Lawton, Brittany; Hendren, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are complex, heterogeneous disorders caused by an interaction between genetic vulnerability and environmental factors. In an effort to better target the underlying roots of ASD for diagnosis and treatment, efforts to identify reliable biomarkers in genetics, neuroimaging, gene expression, and measures of the body’s metabolism are growing. For this article, we review the published studies of potential biomarkers in autism and conclude that while there is increasing promise of finding biomarkers that can help us target treatment, there are none with enough evidence to support routine clinical use unless medical illness is suspected. Promising biomarkers include those for mitochondrial function, oxidative stress, and immune function. Genetic clusters are also suggesting the potential for useful biomarkers. PMID:25161627

  1. Comparison of Salivary and Serum Glucose Levels in Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, Simarpreet Virk; Bansal, Himanta; Sharma, Deepti

    2014-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus is a noncommunicable disease with a rising prevalence worldwide and in developing countries. The most commonly used diagnostic biofluid for detection of glucose levels is blood, but sample collection is an invasive and painful procedure. Thus, there arises a need for a noninvasive and painless technique to detect glucose levels. Aims and Objectives: The objectives of the present study were to estimate the glucose levels of saliva, to assess if any significant correlation existed between the serum and salivary glucose levels, and to correlate salivary glucose levels with regard to duration of diabetes, age, and gender. In the present study, serum and salivary glucose levels of 200 subjects (100 diabetic subjects and 100 nondiabetic subjects) were estimated by glucose oxidase method. Glycosylated hemoglobin levels were also measured in randomly selected 40 diabetic subjects. Results: The findings of present study revealed a significant correlation between salivary and serum glucose levels in both diabetic and nondiabetic subjects. No significant relationship was observed between salivary glucose levels and gender or age in both diabetics and nondiabetics and between salivary glucose levels and duration of diabetes in diabetics. Conclusion: On the basis of the findings, it was concluded that salivary glucose levels could serve as a potentially noninvasive adjunct to monitor glycemic control in diabetic patients. PMID:25294888

  2. The Effect of Capsaicin on Salivary Gland Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Shin, Yong-Hwan; Kim, Jin Man; Park, Kyungpyo

    2016-01-01

    Capsaicin (trans-8-methyl-N-vanilyl-6-nonenamide) is a unique alkaloid isolated from hot chili peppers of the capsicum family. Capsaicin is an agonist of transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1), which is expressed in nociceptive sensory neurons and a range of secretory epithelia, including salivary glands. Capsaicin has analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties in sensory neurons. Recently, increasing evidence has indicated that capsaicin also affects saliva secretion and inflammation in salivary glands. Applying capsaicin increases salivary secretion in human and animal models. Capsaicin appears to increase salivation mainly by modulating the paracellular pathway in salivary glands. Capsaicin activates TRPV1, which modulates the permeability of tight junctions (TJ) by regulating the expression and function of putative intercellular adhesion molecules in an ERK (extracelluar signal-regulated kinase) -dependent manner. Capsaicin also improved dysfunction in transplanted salivary glands. Aside from the secretory effects of capsaicin, it has anti-inflammatory effects in salivary glands. The anti-inflammatory effect of capsaicin is, however, not mediated by TRPV1, but by inhibition of the NF-κB pathway. In conclusion, capsaicin might be a potential drug for alleviating dry mouth symptoms and inflammation of salivary glands. PMID:27347918

  3. MTA1 Expression in Benign and Malignant Salivary gland Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Andisheh-Tadbir, Azadeh; Dehghani-Nazhvani, Ali; Ashraf, Mohammad Javad; Khademi, Bijan; Mirhadi, Hosein; Torabi-Ardekani, Shima

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Salivary gland tumors (SGTs) are important parts of human neoplasms. The most common SGT is pleomorphic adenoma and the most common malignant SGTs are mucoepidermoid carcinoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC). Metastasis-associated genes 1 (MTA1), a member of the nucleosome remodeling and histone deacetylation complex, is one newly discovered gene which recruits histone deacetylation, causing ATP-dependent chromosome remodeling, and regulating transcription. MTA1 had been shown to be overexpressed in malignant tumors with the enhancement of invasion and metastasis. Materials and Methods: Fifty-six samples of salivary gland tumors from the Khalili Hospital archive, including 20 cases of pleomorphic adenoma, 17 cases of mucoepidermoid carcinoma, 19 cases of ACC, and 23 cases of normal salivary gland tissues were chosen for immunohistochemical analysis of MTA1. Results: MTA1 expression in the malignant tumors was significantly higher than that in pleomorphic adenoma (P<0.001), and higher in pleomorphic adenoma than the normal salivary glands(P< 0.001). In total, 69.6% of normal salivary gland tissues showed MTA1, but all cases of salivary gland tumors were positive for MTA1. High nuclear expression of MTA1 was detected in 83.3% (30/36) of the malignant salivary gland tumors and 45% (9/20) of pleomorphic adenoma, while low MTA1 expression was seen in all of the normal salivary gland tissues. No statistically significant correlation was found between MTA1 protein expression and any clinicopathological features (P>0.05). Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate that MTA1 was significantly overexpressed in malignant salivary gland neoplasm in comparison to a lower level in benign pleomorphic adenoma, suggesting that MTA1 protein might be involved in carcinogenesis. PMID:26878004

  4. Transcriptomic Analysis of the Salivary Glands of an Invasive Whitefly

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yun-Lin; Li, Jun-Min; Li, Meng; Luan, Jun-Bo; Ye, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Liu, Shu-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Background Some species of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci complex cause tremendous losses to crops worldwide through feeding directly and virus transmission indirectly. The primary salivary glands of whiteflies are critical for their feeding and virus transmission. However, partly due to their tiny size, research on whitefly salivary glands is limited and our knowledge on these glands is scarce. Methodology/Principal Findings We sequenced the transcriptome of the primary salivary glands of the Mediterranean species of B. tabaci complex using an effective cDNA amplification method in combination with short read sequencing (Illumina). In a single run, we obtained 13,615 unigenes. The quantity of the unigenes obtained from the salivary glands of the whitefly is at least four folds of the salivary gland genes from other plant-sucking insects. To reveal the functions of the primary glands, sequence similarity search and comparisons with the whole transcriptome of the whitefly were performed. The results demonstrated that the genes related to metabolism and transport were significantly enriched in the primary salivary glands. Furthermore, we found that a number of highly expressed genes in the salivary glands might be involved in secretory protein processing, secretion and virus transmission. To identify potential proteins of whitefly saliva, the translated unigenes were put into secretory protein prediction. Finally, 295 genes were predicted to encode secretory proteins and some of them might play important roles in whitefly feeding. Conclusions/Significance: The combined method of cDNA amplification, Illumina sequencing and de novo assembly is suitable for transcriptomic analysis of tiny organs in insects. Through analysis of the transcriptome, genomic features of the primary salivary glands were dissected and biologically important proteins, especially secreted proteins, were predicted. Our findings provide substantial sequence information for the primary salivary glands

  5. Maspin as a Tumour Suppressor in Salivary Gland Tumour

    PubMed Central

    Ashok, Nipun; Sheirawan, Mohammad Kinan; Altamimi, Mohammed Alsakran; Alenzi, Faris; Azzeghaiby, Saleh Nasser; Baroudi, Kusai; Nassani, Mohammad Zakaria

    2014-01-01

    Maspin is a protein that belongs to serin protease inhibitor (serpin) superfamily. The purpose of this study was to review the literature concerning the expression of maspin in salivary gland tumours. A literature search was done using MEDLINE, accessed via the National Library of Medicine PubMed interface. Statistical analysis was not done because only seven studies were available in literature, the collected data were different and the results could not be compared. Expression of maspin was down regulated in more aggressive salivary gland tumours. Maspin may function as a tumour suppressor in salivary gland tumours. PMID:25654053

  6. Neutron therapy for salivary and thyroid gland cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gribova, O. V.; Musabaeva, L. I.; Choynzonov, E. L.; Lisin, V. A.; Novikov, V. A.

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the results of the combined modality treatment and radiation therapy using 6.3 MeV fast neutrons for salivary gland cancer and prognostically unfavorable thyroid gland cancer. The study group comprised 127 patients with salivary gland cancer and 46 patients with thyroid gland cancer, who received neutron therapy alone and in combination with surgery. The results obtained demonstrated that the combined modality treatment including fast neutron therapy led to encouraging local control in patients with salivary and thyroid gland cancers.

  7. Mucocele: An unusual presentation of the minor salivary gland lesion.

    PubMed

    Senthilkumar, B; Mahabob, M Nazargi

    2012-08-01

    A mucocele is a benign, mucus-containing cystic lesion of the minor salivary gland. This type of lesion is most commonly referred to as mucocele. The more common is a mucus extravasation cyst; the other is a mucus retention cyst. Other three clinical variants are: Superficial mucocele that is located directly under the mucosa, classic variant located in the upper submucosa, and deep mucocele located in the lower cornium. Mucocele occurs either due to rupture of salivary gland duct or by blockade of salivary gland duct. The common site of occurrence of mucocele is lower lip followed by tongue, floor of mouth (ranula), and the buccal mucosa. PMID:23066247

  8. Implications of salivary protein binding to commensal and pathogenic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Heo, Seok-Mo; Ruhl, Stefan; Scannapieco, Frank A.

    2013-01-01

    An important function of salivary proteins is to interact with microorganisms that enter the oral cavity. For some microbes, these interactions promote microbial colonization. For others, these interactions are deleterious and result in the elimination of the microbe from the mouth, This paper reviews recent studies of the interaction of salivary proteins with two model bacteria; the commensal species Streptococcus gordonii, and the facultative pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. These organisms selectively interact with a variety of salivary proteins to influence important functions such as bacterial adhesion to surfaces, evasion of host defense, bacterial nutrition and metabolism and gene expression. PMID:24707190

  9. A benign salivary gland tumor of minor salivary gland mimicking an epithelial malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Vandana; Wadhwan, Vijay; Aggarwal, Pooja; Sharma, Preeti; Reddy, Munish

    2015-01-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma (PA) is the most common benign tumor of major or minor salivary glands. Microscopically, PA exhibits a great diversity of morphological aspects. Here, we present an unusual case of PA with extensive squamous metaplasia and keratin-filled cysts in the left retromolar region of a 50-year-old edentulous person whose microscopic finding may represent a diagnostic dilemma for pathologists. PMID:26097365

  10. Biomarkers in sepsis.

    PubMed

    Walley, Keith R

    2013-10-01

    There is much enthusiasm and interest in sepsis biomarkers, particularly because sepsis is a highly lethal condition, its diagnosis is challenging, and even simple treatment with antibiotics has led to serious adverse consequences such as emergence of resistant pathogens. Yet development of a sepsis biomarker requires many more steps than simply finding an association between a particular molecule and a clinical state or outcome. Demonstration of improvement of therapeutic practice using receiver-operating characteristic and other analyses is important. Validation in independent, prospective and, preferably, multicenter trials is essential. Many promising candidate sepsis biomarkers have recently been proposed. While procalcitonin (PCT) is currently the most studied sepsis biomarker, evidence of potential value has been found for a wide array of blood biomarkers including proteins, mRNA expression in whole blood or leukocytes, micro-RNAs (miRNA), pathogen and host DNA, pathogen and host genetic variants and metabolomic panels, and even in the novel use of currently available clinical data. While the most common early reports link putative sepsis biomarker levels to severity of illness and outcome (prognostic), this is not anticipated to be their primary use. More important is the distinction between infection and noninfectious inflammatory responses (diagnostic) and the use of sepsis biomarkers to direct therapy (predictive). PMID:23975686

  11. Can Biomarkers Differentiate Pain and No Pain Subgroups of Nonverbal Children with Cerebral Palsy? A Preliminary Investigation Based on Noninvasive Saliva Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Symons, Frank J.; ElGhazi, Issam; Reilly, Brian G.; Barney, Chantel C.; Hanson, Leah; Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Angela; Armitage, Ian M.; Wilcox, George L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Assessing and treating pain in nonverbal children with developmental disabilities are a clinical challenge. Current assessment approaches rely on clinical impression and behavioral rating scales completed by proxy report. Given the growing health relevance of the salivary metabolome, we undertook a translational-oriented feasibility study using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and neuropeptide/cytokine/hormone detection to compare a set of salivary biomarkers relevant to nociception. Design Within-group observational design. Setting Tertiary pediatric rehabilitation hospital. Subjects Ten nonverbal pediatric patients with cerebral palsy with and without pain. Methods Unstimulated (passively collected) saliva was collected using oral swabs followed by perchloric acid extraction and analyzed on a Bruker Avance 700 MHz NMR spectrometer. We also measured salivary levels of several cytokines, chemokines, hormones, and neuropeptides. Results Partial least squares discriminant analysis showed separation of those children with/without pain for a number of different biomarkers. The majority of the salivary metabolite, neuropeptide, cytokine, and hormone levels were higher in children with pain vs no pain. Conclusions The ease of collection and noninvasive manner in which the samples were collected and analyzed support the possibility of the regular predictive use of this novel biomarker-monitoring method in clinical practice. PMID:25234580

  12. Metabolic products as biomarkers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Melancon, M.J.; Alscher, R.; Benson, W.; Kruzynski, G.; Lee, R.F.; Sikka, H.C.; Spies, R.B.

    1992-01-01

    Ideally, endogenous biomarkers would indicate both exposure and environmental effects of toxic chemicals; however, such comprehensive biochemical and physiological indices are currently being developed and, at the present time, are unavailable for use in environmental monitoring programs. Continued work is required to validate the use of biochemical and physiological stress indices as useful components of monitoring programs. Of the compounds discussed only phytochelatins and porphyrins are currently in biomarkers in a useful state; however, glutathione,metallothioneins, stress ethylene, and polyamines are promising as biomarkers in environmental monitoring.

  13. Biomarkers in Severe Asthma.

    PubMed

    Wan, Xiao Chloe; Woodruff, Prescott G

    2016-08-01

    Biomarkers have been critical for studies of disease pathogenesis and the development of new therapies in severe asthma. In particular, biomarkers of type 2 inflammation have proven valuable for endotyping and targeting new biological agents. Because of these successes in understanding and marking type 2 inflammation, lack of knowledge regarding non-type 2 inflammatory mechanisms in asthma will soon be the major obstacle to the development of new treatments and management strategies in severe asthma. Biomarkers can play a role in these investigations as well by providing insight into the underlying biology in human studies of patients with severe asthma. PMID:27401625

  14. SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE RATS ARE SUSCEPTIBLE TO AIRWAY DISEASE INDUCED BY SULFUR DIOXIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rodent models of chronic pulmonary diseases induced by sulfur dioxide (SO2), elastase or tobacco smoke have limited utility because of their lack of chronicity of inflammation, and they demonstrate limited sensitivity to a given experimental manipulation. We hypothesized that dis...

  15. Salivary Matrix Metalloproteinase-8 and -9 and Myeloperoxidase in Relation to Coronary Heart and Periodontal Diseases: A Subgroup Report from the PAROKRANK Study (Periodontitis and Its Relation to Coronary Artery Disease)

    PubMed Central

    Rathnayake, Nilminie; Gustafsson, Anders; Norhammar, Anna; Kjellström, Barbro; Klinge, Björn; Rydén, Lars; Tervahartiala, Taina; Sorsa, Timo

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) -8, -9 and myeloperoxidase (MPO) are inflammatory mediators. The potential associations between MMP-8, -9, MPO and their abilities to reflect cardiovascular risk remains to be evaluated in saliva. The objective of this study was to investigate the levels and associations of salivary MMP-8, -9, MPO and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 in myocardial infarction (MI) patients and controls with or without periodontitis. Materials and Methods 200 patients with a first MI admitted to coronary care units in Sweden from May 2010 to December 2011 and 200 controls matched for age, gender, residential area and without previous MI were included. Dental examination and saliva sample collection was performed 6-10 weeks after the MI in patients and at baseline in controls. The biomarkers MMP -8, -9, MPO and TIMP-1 were analyzed by time-resolved immunofluorescence assay (IFMA), Western blot and Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA). Results After compensation for gingivitis, gingival pockets and smoking, the mean salivary levels of MMP-8 (543 vs 440 ng/mL, p = 0.003) and MPO (1899 vs 1637 ng/mL, p = 0.02) were higher in non-MI subjects compared to MI patients. MMP-8, -9 and MPO correlated positively with clinical signs of gingival/periodontal inflammation while TIMP-1 correlated mainly negatively with these signs. The levels of latent and active forms of MMP-8 did not differ between the MI and non-MI groups. Additionally, MMP-8, MPO levels and MMP-8/TIMP-1 ratio were significantly higher in men compared to women with MI. Conclusions This study shows that salivary levels of the analyzed biomarkers are associated with periodontal status. However, these biomarkers could not differentiate between patients with or without a MI. These findings illustrate the importance to consider the influence of oral conditions when analyzing levels of inflammatory salivary biomarkers. PMID:26132583

  16. Salivary Cortisol Levels: The Importance of Clown Doctors to Reduce Stress

    PubMed Central

    Saliba, Flávia G.; Adiwardana, Natanael S.; Uehara, Eliane U.; Silvestre, Renata N.; Leite, Victor V.; Faleiros, Francisca T.V.; Padovani, Flávia H.P.; De Gobbi, Juliana I.F.

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to correlate entertainment of clown-doctors (CD) activities on hospitalized children and aphysiological bio-marker. For this purpose we collected saliva samples and verified children satisfaction with these activities by using a visual analog scale (VAS). Children from 6 to 7 years-old, with diagnosis of any acute pathology, interned in the Pediatric Ward of the Botucatu Medical School Hospital (São Paulo, Brazil) were interviewed. Two groups were taken into consideration: lunchCD and dinnerCD. The following protocol was applied in each group (lunch and dinner): collection of the first saliva sample and presentation of VAS prior to CD activities, followed by collection of a second saliva sample and another VAS assessment after CD activities. The salivary cortisol was reduced in both groups comparing the first saliva sample. The satisfaction of the intervention was evident for lunchCD. The CD intervention is effective in decreasing an important physiological biomarker of stress factor, cortisol, in hospitalized children, been effective for the healing process. PMID:27114816

  17. Salivary Cortisol Levels: The Importance of Clown Doctors to Reduce Stress.

    PubMed

    Saliba, Flávia G; Adiwardana, Natanael S; Uehara, Eliane U; Silvestre, Renata N; Leite, Victor V; Faleiros, Francisca T V; Padovani, Flávia H P; De Gobbi, Juliana I F

    2016-03-31

    This study was designed to correlate entertainment of clown-doctors (CD) activities on hospitalized children and aphysiological bio-marker. For this purpose we collected saliva samples and verified children satisfaction with these activities by using a visual analog scale (VAS). Children from 6 to 7 years-old, with diagnosis of any acute pathology, interned in the Pediatric Ward of the Botucatu Medical School Hospital (São Paulo, Brazil) were interviewed. Two groups were taken into consideration: lunchCD and dinnerCD. The following protocol was applied in each group (lunch and dinner): collection of the first saliva sample and presentation of VAS prior to CD activities, followed by collection of a second saliva sample and another VAS assessment after CD activities. The salivary cortisol was reduced in both groups comparing the first saliva sample. The satisfaction of the intervention was evident for lunchCD. The CD intervention is effective in decreasing an important physiological biomarker of stress factor, cortisol, in hospitalized children, been effective for the healing process. PMID:27114816

  18. Psychological distress and salivary secretory immunity.

    PubMed

    Engeland, C G; Hugo, F N; Hilgert, J B; Nascimento, G G; Junges, R; Lim, H-J; Marucha, P T; Bosch, J A

    2016-02-01

    Stress-induced impairments of mucosal immunity may increase susceptibility to infectious diseases. The present study investigated the association of perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and loneliness with salivary levels of secretory immunoglobulin A (S-IgA), the subclasses S-IgA1, S-IgA2, and their transporter molecule Secretory Component (SC). S-IgA/SC, IgA1/SC and IgA2/SC ratios were calculated to assess the differential effects of stress on immunoglobulin transport versus availability. This study involved 113 university students, in part selected on high scores on the UCLA Loneliness Scale and/or the Beck Depression Inventory. Stress levels were assessed using the Perceived Stress Scale. Unstimulated saliva was collected and analysed for total S-IgA and its subclasses, as well as SC and total salivary protein. Multiple linear regression analyses, adjusted for gender, age, health behaviours, and concentration effects (total protein) revealed that higher perceived stress was associated with lower levels of IgA1 but not IgA2. Perceived stress, loneliness and depressive symptoms were all associated with lower IgA1/SC ratios. Surprisingly, higher SC levels were associated with loneliness and depressive symptoms, indicative of enhanced transport activity, which explained a lower IgA1/SC ratio (loneliness and depression) and IgA2/SC ratio (depression). This is the first study to investigate the effects of protracted psychological stress across S-IgA subclasses and its transporter SC. Psychological stress was negatively associated with secretory immunity, specifically IgA1. The lower immunoglobulin/transporter ratio that was associated with higher loneliness and depression suggested a relative immunoglobulin depletion, whereby availability was not keeping up with enhanced transport demand. PMID:26318411

  19. Salivary cortisol levels in athletes and nonathletes: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Cevada, T; Vasques, P E; Moraes, H; Deslandes, A

    2014-12-01

    High performance athletes are constantly facing different situations involving stress. Salivary cortisol has been used as a physiological measure to verify high performance athlete and mental health, in spite of research that has shown that comparisons between cortisol levels in athletes and nonathletes are inconclusive. The purpose of this study was to review articles that investigated salivary cortisol levels at rest in high performance athletes in comparison to physically active or sedentary nonathlete individuals. PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, SciELO, LILACS, and Scopus databases were searched for studies on salivary cortisol in athletes and the size effect was calculated. Although 3 articles reported higher salivary cortisol levels in female athletes compared to a control group, the results showed homogeneity among baseline groups or groups in resting conditions, suggesting a lack of discriminative capacity. These results should be interpreted with caution, due to the presence of substantial methodological bias. PMID:25230328

  20. Biomaterials-based strategies for salivary gland tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Tugba; Fowler, Eric W; Hao, Ying; Ravikrishnan, Anitha; Harrington, Daniel A; Witt, Robert L; Farach-Carson, Mary C; Pradhan-Bhatt, Swati; Jia, Xinqiao

    2016-04-01

    The salivary gland is a complex, secretory tissue that produces saliva and maintains oral homeostasis. Radiation induced salivary gland atrophy, manifested as "dry mouth" or xerostomia, poses a significant clinical challenge. Tissue engineering recently has emerged as an alternative, long-term treatment strategy for xerostomia. In this review, we summarize recent efforts towards the development of functional and implantable salivary glands utilizing designed polymeric substrates or synthetic matrices/scaffolds. Although the in vitro engineering of a complex implantable salivary gland is technically challenging, opportunities exist for multidisciplinary teams to assemble implantable and secretory tissue modules by combining stem/progenitor cells found in the adult glands with biomimetic and cell-instructive materials. PMID:26878077

  1. Salivary Gland Biopsy Shows Promise to Helping to Diagnose Parkinson's

    MedlinePlus

    ... Parkinson's HelpLine Learn More Science News Salivary Gland Biopsy Shows Promise to Helping to Diagnose Parkinson’s - Mar ... team performed a procedure called a needle core biopsy of the submandibular glands in 15 people who ...

  2. Environmental and Genetic Contributors to Salivary Testosterone Levels in Infants

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Kai; Yu, Yang; Ahn, Mihye; Zhu, Hongtu; Zou, Fei; Gilmore, John H.; Knickmeyer, Rebecca C.

    2014-01-01

    Transient activation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis in early infancy plays an important role in male genital development and sexual differentiation of the brain, but factors contributing to individual variation in testosterone levels during this period are poorly understood. We measured salivary testosterone levels in 222 infants (119 males, 103 females, 108 singletons, 114 twins) between 2.70 and 4.80 months of age. We tested 16 major demographic and medical history variables for effects on inter-individual variation in salivary testosterone. Using the subset of twins, we estimated genetic and environmental contributions to salivary testosterone levels. Finally, we tested single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within ±5 kb of genes involved in testosterone synthesis, transport, signaling, and metabolism for associations with salivary testosterone using univariate tests and random forest (RF) analysis. We report an association between 5 min APGAR scores and salivary testosterone levels in males. Twin modeling indicated that individual variability in testosterone levels was primarily explained by environmental factors. Regarding genetic variation, univariate tests did not reveal any variants significantly associated with salivary testosterone after adjusting for false discovery rate. The top hit in males was rs10923844, an SNP of unknown function located downstream of HSD3B1 and HSD3B2. The top hits in females were two SNPs located upstream of ESR1 (rs3407085 and rs2295190). RF analysis, which reflects joint and conditional effects of multiple variants, indicated that genes involved in regulation of reproductive function, particularly LHCGR, are related to salivary testosterone levels in male infants, as are genes involved in cholesterol production, transport, and removal, while genes involved in estrogen signaling are related to salivary testosterone levels in female infants. PMID:25400620

  3. In Vitro Identification of Histatin 5 Salivary Complexes.

    PubMed

    Moffa, Eduardo B; Machado, Maria A A M; Mussi, Maria C M; Xiao, Yizhi; Garrido, Saulo S; Giampaolo, Eunice T; Siqueira, Walter L

    2015-01-01

    With recent progress in the analysis of the salivary proteome, the number of salivary proteins identified has increased dramatically. However, the physiological functions of many of the newly discovered proteins remain unclear. Closely related to the study of a protein's function is the identification of its interaction partners. Although in saliva some proteins may act primarily as single monomeric units, a significant percentage of all salivary proteins, if not the majority, appear to act in complexes with partners to execute their diverse functions. Coimmunoprecipitation (Co-IP) and pull-down assays were used to identify the heterotypic complexes between histatin 5, a potent natural antifungal protein, and other salivary proteins in saliva. Classical protein-protein interaction methods in combination with high-throughput mass spectrometric techniques were carried out. Co-IP using protein G magnetic Sepharose TM beads suspension was able to capture salivary complexes formed between histatin 5 and its salivary protein partners. Pull-down assay was used to confirm histatin 5 protein partners. A total of 52 different proteins were identified to interact with histatin 5. The present study used proteomic approaches in conjunction with classical biochemical methods to investigate protein-protein interaction in human saliva. Our study demonstrated that when histatin 5 is complexed with salivary amylase, one of the 52 proteins identified as a histatin 5 partner, the antifungal activity of histatin 5 is reduced. We expected that our proteomic approach could serve as a basis for future studies on the mechanism and structural-characterization of those salivary protein interactions to understand their clinical significance. PMID:26544073

  4. Increased Salivary Nitrite and Nitrate Excretion in Rats with Cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Mahmoodi, Somayeh; Rahmatollahi, Mahdieh; Shahsavari, Fatemeh; Shafaroodi, Hamed; Grayesh-Nejad, Siyavash; Dehpour, Ahmad R

    2015-11-01

    Increased nitric oxide (NO) formation is mechanistically linked to pathophysiology of the extrahepatic complications of cirrhosis. NO is formed by either enzymatic or non-enzymatic pathways. Enzymatic production is catalyzed by NO synthase (NOS) while entero-salivary circulation of nitrate and nitrite is linked to non-enzymatic formation of NO under acidic pH in the stomach. There is no data on salivary excretion of nitrate and nitrite in cirrhosis. This study was aimed to investigate salivary levels of nitrate and nitrite in a rat model of biliary cirrhosis. Cirrhosis was induced by bile duct ligation (BDL). Four weeks after the operation, submandibular ducts of anesthetized BDL and control rats were cannulated with polyethylene microtube for saliva collection. Assessment of pH, nitrite and nitrate levels was performed in our research. We also investigated NOS expression by real time RT-PCR to estimate eNOS, nNOS and iNOS mRNA levels in the submandibular glands. Salivary pH was significantly lower in BDL rats in comparison to control animals. We also observed a statistically significant increase in salivary levels of nitrite as well as nitrate in BDL rats while there was no elevation in the mRNA expression of nNOS, eNOS, and iNOS in submandibular glands of cirrhotic groups. This indicates that an increased salivary level of nitrite/nitrate is less likely to be linked to increased enzymatic production of NO in the salivary epithelium. It appears that nitrate/nitrite can be transported from the blood stream by submandibular glands and excreted into saliva as entero-salivary circulation, and this mechanism may have been exaggerated during cirrhosis. PMID:26786986

  5. Gingival salivary gland choristoma. Report of a case.

    PubMed

    Moskow, B S; Baden, E

    1986-08-01

    A unique example of a gingival salivary gland choristoma together with a gingival cyst is described in a human autopsy specimen of periodontal tissues. A choristoma is a tumor-like growth which is derived from primordial cells which have been displaced from their original tissue or organ. Only 6 other examples of the gingival salivary gland choristoma have been described in the world literature. PMID:3463576

  6. In Vitro Identification of Histatin 5 Salivary Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Moffa, Eduardo B.; Machado, Maria A. A. M.; Mussi, Maria C. M.; Xiao, Yizhi; Garrido, Saulo S.; Giampaolo, Eunice T.; Siqueira, Walter L.

    2015-01-01

    With recent progress in the analysis of the salivary proteome, the number of salivary proteins identified has increased dramatically. However, the physiological functions of many of the newly discovered proteins remain unclear. Closely related to the study of a protein’s function is the identification of its interaction partners. Although in saliva some proteins may act primarily as single monomeric units, a significant percentage of all salivary proteins, if not the majority, appear to act in complexes with partners to execute their diverse functions. Coimmunoprecipitation (Co-IP) and pull-down assays were used to identify the heterotypic complexes between histatin 5, a potent natural antifungal protein, and other salivary proteins in saliva. Classical protein–protein interaction methods in combination with high-throughput mass spectrometric techniques were carried out. Co-IP using protein G magnetic Sepharose TM beads suspension was able to capture salivary complexes formed between histatin 5 and its salivary protein partners. Pull-down assay was used to confirm histatin 5 protein partners. A total of 52 different proteins were identified to interact with histatin 5. The present study used proteomic approaches in conjunction with classical biochemical methods to investigate protein–protein interaction in human saliva. Our study demonstrated that when histatin 5 is complexed with salivary amylase, one of the 52 proteins identified as a histatin 5 partner, the antifungal activity of histatin 5 is reduced. We expected that our proteomic approach could serve as a basis for future studies on the mechanism and structural-characterization of those salivary protein interactions to understand their clinical significance. PMID:26544073

  7. Salivary glands: a new player in phosphorus metabolism.

    PubMed

    Savica, Vincenzo; Calò, Lorenzo A; Santoro, Domenico; Monardo, Paolo; Santoro, Giuseppe; Muraca, Ugo; Davis, Paul A; Bellinghieri, Guido

    2011-01-01

    In uremic patients, hyperphosphatemia is associated with cardiovascular calcification and increased cardiovascular mortality. Despite the use of phosphate binders and dietary phosphate limitation in addition to dialysis, only 50% of dialysis patients achieve recommended serum phosphate levels. The identification of other approaches for serum phosphorus reduction is therefore necessary. We have approached this issue by taking into account the relationships between serum phosphate, kidney function, and saliva. Saliva was chosen because the anatomy and/or physiology of acini, the secretive units of salivary glands, shares similarities with that of the renal tubules. Salivary fluid contains electrolytes including phosphate that, when related with the amount of salivary secretion per day, raises the interest in identifying another possible approach for phosphorus removal in uremic patients. This article reports studies from our laboratory in the last 3 to 4 years, which have demonstrated a hyperphosphoric salivary content in patients with chronic renal failure and those with end-stage renal disease under chronic dialysis that, in patients with chronic renal failure, linearly correlates with serum phosphate in patients with chronic renal failure and negatively with GFR. The ingestion of the saliva and later its absorption in the intestinal tract starts a vicious circle between salivary phosphate secretion and fasting phosphate absorption, thereby worsening hyperphosphatemia. Therefore, salivary phosphate binding could be a useful approach to serum phosphate level reduction in dialysis patients. The reduction of salivary phosphate with the salivary phosphate binder, chitosan-loaded chewing gum, chewed during fasting periods, as an add-on to phosphate binders could lead to a better control of hyperphosphatemia, as demonstrated in our study, which confirms the importance of this approach. PMID:21195917

  8. Biomarker time out.

    PubMed

    Petzold, Axel; Bowser, Robert; Calabresi, Paolo; Zetterberg, Henrik; Uitdehaag, Bernard M J

    2014-10-01

    The advancement of knowledge relies on scientific investigations. The timing between asking a question and data collection defines if a study is prospective or retrospective. Prospective studies look forward from a point in time, are less prone to bias and are considered superior to retrospective studies. This conceptual framework conflicts with the nature of biomarker research. New candidate biomarkers are discovered in a retrospective manner. There are neither resources nor time for prospective testing in all cases. Relevant sources for bias are not covered. Ethical questions arise through the time penalty of an overly dogmatic concept. The timing of sample collection can be separated from testing biomarkers. Therefore the moment of formulating a hypothesis may be after sample collection was completed. A conceptual framework permissive to asking research questions without the obligation to bow to the human concept of calendar time would simplify biomarker research, but will require new safeguards against bias. PMID:24557857

  9. Lymphoid organisation in labial salivary gland biopsies is a possible predictor for the development of malignant lymphoma in primary Sjögren's syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Theander, Elke; Vasaitis, Lilian; Baecklund, Eva; Nordmark, Gunnel; Warfvinge, Gunnar; Liedholm, Rolf; Brokstad, Karl; Jonsson, Roland; Jonsson, Malin V

    2011-01-01

    Objective The development of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) confers a high risk of mortality in primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) patients, but the sensitivity and specificity of proposed lymphoma predictors are insufficient for practical use. The performance of lymphoid organisation in the form of germinal centre (GC)-like lesions was evaluated in labial salivary gland biopsies taken at pSS diagnosis as a potential lymphoma-predicting biomarker. Methods Labial salivary gland tissue biopsies available from two Swedish pSS research cohorts (n=175) were re-evaluated by light microscopy in a blind study in order to identify GC-like structures as a sign of ectopic lymphoid tissue formation and organisation. A linkage study was performed with the Swedish Cancer Registry for lymphoma identification. The risk of developing NHL in GC-positive patients in comparison with GC-negative patients was evaluated using Kaplan–Meier statistics and log-rank test. Associations between GC-like structures and clinical and/or laboratory disease markers were also determined using χ2 or Fisher's exact tests. Results At diagnosis, 25% of pSS patients had GC-like structures in their salivary glands. Seven of the 175 patients studied (14% GC+ and 0.8% GC−) developed NHL during 1855 patient-years at risk, with a median onset of 7 years following the initial diagnostic salivary gland biopsy. Six of the seven patients had GC-like structures at diagnosis; the remaining patient was GC negative at the time of diagnosis (p=0.001). Conclusions The detection of GC-like structures by light microscopy in pSS diagnostic salivary biopsies is proposed as a highly predictive and easy-to-obtain marker for NHL development. This allows for risk stratification of patients and the possibility to initiate preventive B-cell-directed therapy. PMID:21715359

  10. Detection of inflammatory biomarkers in saliva and urine: Potential in diagnosis, prevention, and treatment for chronic diseases.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Sahdeo; Tyagi, Amit K; Aggarwal, Bharat B

    2016-04-01

    Inflammation is a part of the complex biological response of inflammatory cells to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, irritants, or damaged cells. This inflammation has been linked to several chronic diseases including cancer, atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and multiple sclerosis. Major biomarkers of inflammation include tumor necrosis factor, interleukins (IL)-1, IL-6, IL-8, chemokines, cyclooxygenase, 5-lipooxygenase, and C-reactive protein, all of which are regulated by the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB. Although examining inflammatory biomarkers in blood is a standard practice, its identification in saliva and/or urine is more convenient and non-invasive. In this review, we aim to (1) discuss the detection of these inflammatory biomarkers in urine and saliva; (2) advantages of using salivary and urinary inflammatory biomarkers over blood, while also weighing on the challenges and/or limitations of their use; (3) examine their role(s) in connection with diagnosis, prevention, treatment, and drug development for several chronic diseases with inflammatory consequences, including cancer; and (4) explore the use of innovative salivary and urine based biosensor strategies that may permit the testing of biomarkers quickly, reliably, and cost-effectively, in a decentralized setting. PMID:27013544

  11. Biomarkers in ALH84001???

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treiman, Allen H.

    1999-01-01

    D. McKay and colleagues suggested that four sets of features in ALH84001 were biomarkers, signs of an ancient martian biota that once inhabited the meteorite. Subsequent work has not validated their hypothesis; each suggested biomarker has been found to be ambiguous or immaterial. Nor has their hypothesis been disproved. Rather, it is now one of many hypotheses about the alteration of ALH84001. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  12. Salivary hypofunction: an update on aetiology, diagnosis and therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Jamil; Figueiredo, Maria Antonia Zancanaro; Cherubini, Karen; Salum, Fernanda Gonçalves

    2015-02-01

    Saliva is of paramount importance for the maintenance of oral and general homeostasis. Salivary hypofunction predispose patients to disorders such as dysgeusia, pain and burning mouth, caries and other oral infectious diseases, dysphagia and dysphonia. The aim of this study was to provide an update on the aetiology, diagnostic methods and therapeutic strategies for the management of hyposalivation and xerostomia. The present paper describes subjective and objective methods for the diagnosis of salivary dysfunctions; moreover a number of drugs, and systemic disorders associated with decreased salivary flow rate are listed. We also focused on the underlying mechanisms to radiotherapy-induced salivary damage. Therapeutics for hyposalivation and xerostomia were discussed and classified as preventive, symptomatic, topical and systemic stimulants, disease-modifying agents, and regenerative. New therapeutic modalities have been studied and involve stem cells transplantation, with special attention to regeneration of damage caused by ionizing radiation to the salivary glands. More studies in this area are needed to provide new perspectives in the treatment of patients with salivary dysfunctions. PMID:25463902

  13. Incidence and prevalence of salivary gland tumours in Valparaiso, Chile

    PubMed Central

    Araya, Juan; Martinez, René; Niklander, Sven; Marshall, Maureen

    2015-01-01

    Background To determine the incidence and prevalence of salivary gland tumours in the province of Valparaíso, Chile. Material and Methods Retrospective review of salivary gland tumours diagnosed between the years 2000 and 2011 from four local pathology services. Information on demographics and histopathology were retrieved from the medical records. Results The study sample consisted of 279 salivary gland tumours. Prevalence and incidence rates per 100.000 persons were 15.4 and 2.51, respectively. Most of the neoplasms corresponded to benign tumours (70.3%). The most affected gland was the parotid gland. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common benign tumour (53.8%) and mucoepidermoid carcinoma was the most common malignant tumour (7.2%). Conclusions Salivary gland tumours are uncommon neoplasms that usually arise in the parotid gland. Pleomorphic adenoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma were the most common benign and malignant tumours reported in this series. Key words:Salivary gland tumours, benign tumours, malignant tumours, salivary glands neoplasms, cancer, neoplasia. PMID:26034925

  14. Minor salivary gland carcinoma: a review of 35 cases.

    PubMed

    Haymerle, Georg; Schneider, Sven; Harris, Luke; Häupl, Theresia; Schopper, Christian; Pammer, Johannes; Grasl, Matthaeus Ch; Erovic, Boban M

    2016-09-01

    Minor salivary gland carcinomas represent a heterogeneous group of tumors with broad variation in clinical appearance and histopathology. Clinical data of patients with small salivary gland malignancies were collected from the medical records. Tissue microarray was constructed to determine the expression pattern of 24 proteins in 35 patients with minor salivary gland carcinomas. The choice of markers was based on involvement in neoangiogenesis, cell-to-cell contact, cell-cycle regulation and carcinogenesis. Protein expression data were correlated to patients' clinical data. Overexpression of patched (p = 0.046) and Smo (p = 0.032) was linked to a better overall survival and Glutathione S-transferase π overexpression was linked to prolonged disease-free survival (p = 0.005). Cox-1 (p = 0.035) and VEGFR2 (p = 0.009) were significantly linked to decreased survival for recurrent disease. Bcl-x (84 %), β-catenin (87 %) and Cox-2 (87 %) were significantly overexpressed in minor salivary gland carcinomas. We have shown that Smo resulted in a better overall survival, whereas Gstπ in improved disease-free survival. VEGFR2 was a prognostic factor for survival after recurrence in patients with minor salivary gland carcinomas. Cyclooxygenase inhibitors and anti-Wnt-1 antibodies might be a potential therapeutic option in an adjuvant setting or for patients with unresectable tumors of the minor salivary glands. PMID:26498950

  15. Salivary Secretory Disorders, Inducing Drugs, and Clinical Management

    PubMed Central

    Miranda-Rius, Jaume; Brunet-Llobet, Lluís; Lahor-Soler, Eduard; Farré, Magí

    2015-01-01

    Background: Salivary secretory disorders can be the result of a wide range of factors. Their prevalence and negative effects on the patient's quality of life oblige the clinician to confront the issue. Aim: To review the salivary secretory disorders, inducing drugs and their clinical management. Methods: In this article, a literature search of these dysfunctions was conducted with the assistance of a research librarian in the MEDLINE/PubMed Database. Results: Xerostomia, or dry mouth syndrome, can be caused by medication, systemic diseases such as Sjögren's Syndrome, glandular pathologies, and radiotherapy of the head and neck. Treatment of dry mouth is aimed at both minimizing its symptoms and preventing oral complications with the employment of sialogogues and topical acting substances. Sialorrhea and drooling, are mainly due to medication or neurological systemic disease. There are various therapeutic, pharmacologic, and surgical alternatives for its management. The pharmacology of most of the substances employed for the treatment of salivary disorders is well-known. Nevertheless, in some cases a significant improvement in salivary function has not been observed after their administration. Conclusion: At present, there are numerous frequently prescribed drugs whose unwanted effects include some kind of salivary disorder. In addition, the differing pathologic mechanisms, and the great variety of existing treatments hinder the clinical management of these patients. The authors have designed an algorithm to facilitate the decision making process when physicians, oral surgeons, or dentists face these salivary dysfunctions. PMID:26516310

  16. Classical conditioning of activities of salivary neurones in the cockroach.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Hidehiro; Mizunami, Makoto

    2006-02-01

    Secretion of saliva to aid swallowing and digestion is a basic physiological function found in many vertebrates and invertebrates. For mammals, classical conditioning of salivation in dogs was reported by Pavlov a century ago. However, conditioning of salivation or of related neural activities in non-mammalian species has not been reported. In many species of insects, salivation is regulated by salivary neurones. In this study, we found that salivary neurones of the cockroach Periplaneta americana exhibited a strong response to sucrose solution applied to the mouth and a weak response to odours applied to an antenna, and we studied the effect of conditioning on the activities of salivary neurones. After three sets of differential conditioning trials in which an odour was presented just before the presentation of sucrose solution and the other odour was presented alone, the response of salivary neurones to sucrose-associated odour significantly increased but that to the odour presented alone was unchanged. Backward pairing trials in which an odour was presented after the presentation of sucrose solution were not effective in achieving conditioning. Our study of the change in the level of saliva secretion in response to electrical stimulation of salivary neurones suggested that the magnitude of increase in odour response of salivary neurones by conditioning is sufficient to lead to an increased level of salivation. This study suggests classical conditioning of salivation in an insect. PMID:16449569

  17. Clock Genes Show Circadian Rhythms in Salivary Glands

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, L.; Seon, Y.J.; McHugh, J.; Papagerakis, S.; Papagerakis, P.

    2012-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are endogenous self-sustained oscillations with 24-hour periods that regulate diverse physiological and metabolic processes through complex gene regulation by “clock” transcription factors. The oral cavity is bathed by saliva, and its amount and content are modified within regular daily intervals. The clock mechanisms that control salivary production remain unclear. Our objective was to evaluate the expression and periodicity of clock genes in salivary glands. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemistry were performed to show circadian mRNA and protein expression and localization of key clock genes (Bmal1, Clock, Per1, and Per2), ion and aqua channel genes (Ae2a, Car2, and Aqp5), and salivary gland markers. Clock gene mRNAs and clock proteins were found differentially expressed in the serous acini and duct cells of all major salivary glands. The expression levels of clock genes and Aqp5 showed regular oscillatory patterns under both light/dark and complete-dark conditions. Bmla1 overexpression resulted in increased Aqp5 expression levels. Analysis of our data suggests that salivary glands have a peripheral clock mechanism that functions both in normal light/dark conditions and in the absence of light. This finding may increase our understanding of the control mechanisms of salivary content and flow. PMID:22699207

  18. Fractionation of salivary micelle-like structures by gel chromatography.

    PubMed

    Rykke, M; Young, A; Devold, T; Smistad, G; Rölla, G

    1997-10-01

    Globular structures have been demonstrated in human parotid saliva by transmission electron microscopy and photon correlation spectroscopy. The aim of this study was to fractionate these salivary globular structures for analytical and preparative purposes using a gel-filtration material capable of separating spherical particles up to 300-400 nm in diameter. Freshly obtained parotid saliva was applied to a Sephacryl S-1000 column. Peak fractions were collected and prepared for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) or for amino acid analysis. Bovine milk was included as the casein micelles by TEM appear to be similar to the salivary aggregates and their elution profiles are known. The salivary globular structures were eluted in one major peak. TEM of negatively stained samples from the peak fractions demonstrated globular protein aggregates consistent with the salivary structures in parotid saliva. Amino acid analysis showed characteristic amino acid profiles with unusual high levels of proline, 40-45%. The casein micelles were eluted in one major peak and separated from the whey proteins. This study indicates that the salivary globular structures can be isolated by gel chromatography. The amino acid analysis indicates that proline-rich proteins may be an important fraction of the salivary globular structures. PMID:9395115

  19. Metabolic Imaging Biomarkers of Postradiotherapy Xerostomia

    SciTech Connect

    Cannon, Blake; Schwartz, David L.; Dong Lei

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: Xerostomia is a major complication of head and neck radiotherapy (RT). Available xerostomia measures remain flawed. [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose-labeled positron emission tomography-computed tomography (FDG-PET-CT) is routinely used for staging and response assessment of head and neck cancer. We investigated quantitative measurement of parotid gland FDG uptake as a potential biomarker for post-RT xerostomia. Methods and Materials: Ninety-eight locally advanced head and neck cancer patients receiving definitive RT underwent baseline and post-RT FDG-PET-CT on a prospective imaging trial. A separate validation cohort of 14 patients underwent identical imaging while prospectively enrolled in a second trial collecting sialometry and patient-reported outcomes. Radiation dose and pre- and post-RT standard uptake values (SUVs) for all voxels contained within parotid gland ROI were deformably registered. Results: Average whole-gland or voxel-by-voxel models incorporating parotid D{sub Met} (defined as the pretreatment parotid SUV weighted by dose) accurately predicted posttreatment changes in parotid FDG uptake (e.g., fractional parotid SUV). Fractional loss of parotid FDG uptake closely paralleled early parotid toxicity defined by posttreatment salivary output (p < 0.01) and Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer xerostomia scores (p < 0.01). Conclusions: In this pilot series, loss of parotid FDG uptake was strongly associated with acute clinical post-RT parotid toxicity. D{sub Met} may potentially be used to guide function-sparing treatment planning. Prospective validation of FDG-PET-CT as a convenient, quantifiable imaging biomarker of parotid function is warranted and ongoing.

  20. Biomarkers for antipsychotic therapies.

    PubMed

    Pich, Emilio Merlo; Vargas, Gabriel; Domenici, Enrico

    2012-01-01

    Molecular biomarkers for antipsychotic treatments have been conceptually linked to the measurements of dopamine functions, mostly D(2) receptor occupancy, either by imaging using selective PET/SPECT radioactive tracers or by assessing plasma prolactin levels. A quest for novel biomarkers was recently proposed by various academic, health service, and industrial institutions driven by the need for better treatments of psychoses. In this review we conceptualize biomarkers within the Translational Medicine paradigm whose goal was to provide support to critical decision-making in drug discovery. At first we focused on biomarkers as outcome measure of clinical studies by searching into the database clinicaltrial.gov. The results were somewhat disappointing, showing that out of 1,659 antipsychotic trials only 18 used a biomarker as an outcome measure. Several of these trials targeted plasma lipids as sentinel marker for metabolic adverse effects associated with the use of atypical antipsychotics, while only few studies were aimed to new disease specific biological markers. As an example of a mechanistic biomarker, we described the work done to progress the novel class of glycine transporter inhibitors as putative treatment for negative symptoms of schizophrenia. We also review how large-scale multiplex biological assays were applied to samples from tissues of psychiatric patients, so to learn from changes of numerous analytes (metabolic products, lipids, proteins, RNA transcripts) about the substrates involved in the disease. We concluded that a stringent implementation of these techniques could contribute to the endophenotypic characterization of patients, helping in the identification of key biomarkers to drive personalized medicine and new treatment development. PMID:23129338

  1. Biomarkers and heart disease.

    PubMed

    Sun, R-R; Lu, L; Liu, M; Cao, Y; Li, X-C; Liu, H; Wang, J; Zhang, P-Y

    2014-10-01

    Heart failure (HF) results from the impaired ability of heart to fill or pump out blood. HF is a common health problem with a multitude of causes and affects ~30 million people worldwide. Since ageing is a major risk factor for HF and as several treatment options are currently available to prolong the patients' survival, the number of affected patients is expected to grow. Even though traditional methods of assessment have been in use for managing HF, these are limited by time consuming and costly subjective interpretation and also by their invasive nature. Comparatively, biomarkers offer an objective and biologically relevant information that in conjunction with the patients' clinical findings provides optimal picture regarding the status of the HF patient and thus helps in diagnosis and prognosis. The current gold standard biomarkers for the diagnosis and prognosis of HF are B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and N-terminal proBNP (NT-proBNP). Additional novel biomarkers (e.g., mid-regional pro atrial natriuretic peptide (MR-proANP), mid-regional pro adrenomedullin (MR-proADM), troponins, soluble ST2 (sST2), growth differentiation factor (GDF)-15 and galectin-3) can potentially identify different pathophysiological processes such as myocardial insult, inflammation and remodeling as the causes for the development and progression of HF. Different biomarkers of HF not only reflect the underlying mechanisms/pathways of HF and also its progression and also point specific therapy options. A multi-biomarker approach for personalized medical care is not too far fetched and such approach can greatly enhance diagnosis, prognostication, and therapy guidance for HF. In this review we describe the current status of HF biomarkers in clinical use and in laboratory research and the efforts aimed at the identification of novel biomarkers for HF. PMID:25339488

  2. Screening and Functional Analyses of Nilaparvata lugens Salivary Proteome.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hai-Jian; Liu, Cheng-Wen; Huang, Xiao-Hui; Zhou, Xiang; Zhuo, Ji-Chong; Zhang, Chuan-Xi; Bao, Yan-Yuan

    2016-06-01

    Most phloem-feeding insects secrete gelling and watery saliva during the feeding process. However, the functions of salivary proteins are poorly understood. In this study, our purpose was to reveal the components and functions of saliva in a rice sap-sucking insect pest, Nilaparvata lugens. The accomplishment of the whole genome and transcriptome sequencing in N. lugens would be helpful for elucidating the gene information and expression specificity of the salivary proteins. In this study, we have, for the first time, identified the abundant protein components from gelling and watery saliva in a monophagous sap-sucking insect species through shotgun proteomic detection combined with the genomic and transcriptomic analysis. Eight unknown secreted proteins were limited to N. lugens, indicating species-specific saliva components. A group of annexin-like proteins first identified in the secreted saliva displayed different domain structure and expression specificity with typical insect annexins. Nineteen genes encoding five annexin-like proteins, six salivaps (salivary glands-specific proteins with unknown function), seven putative enzymes, and a mucin-like protein showed salivary gland-specific expression pattern, suggesting their importance in the physiological mechanisms of salivary gland and saliva in this insect species. RNA interference revealed that salivap-3 is a key protein factor in forming the salivary sheath, while annexin-like5 and carbonic anhydrase are indispensable for N. lugens survival. These novel findings will greatly help to clarify the detailed functions of salivary proteins in the physiological process of N. lugens and elucidate the interaction mechanisms between N. lugens and the rice plant, which could provide important targets for the future management of rice pests. PMID:27142481

  3. Secretion of salivary statherin is compromised in uncontrolled diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Izumi, Masahiro; Zhang, Bin-Xian; Dean, David D.; Lin, Alan L.; Saunders, Michèle J.; Hazuda, Helen P.; Yeh, Chih-Ko

    2015-01-01

    Background Statherin is an important salivary protein for maintaining oral health. The purpose of the current study was to determine if differences in statherin levels exist between diabetic and healthy subjects. Methods A total of 48 diabetic and healthy controls were randomly selected from a community-based database. Diabetic subjects (n = 24) had fasting glucose levels > 180 mg/dL, while controls (n = 24) had levels < 110 mg/dL. Parotid saliva (PS) and sublingual/submandibular saliva (SS) were collected and salivary flow rates determined. Salivary statherin levels were determined by densitometry of Western blots. Blood hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and total protein in saliva were also obtained. Results SS, but not PS, salivary flow rate and total protein in diabetics were significantly less than those in healthy controls (p = 0.021 & p < 0.001 respectively). Correlation analysis revealed the existence of a negative correlation between PS statherin levels and HbA1c (p = 0.012) and fasting glucose (p = 0.021) levels, while no such correlation was found for SS statherin levels. When statherin levels were normalized to total salivary protein, the proportion of PS statherin, but not SS statherin, in diabetics was significantly less than that in controls (p = 0.032). In contrast, the amount of statherin secretion in SS, but not PS, was significantly decreased in diabetics compared to controls (p = 0.016). Conclusions and general significance The results show that synthesis and secretion of statherin is reduced in diabetics and this reduction is salivary gland specific. As compromised salivary statherin secretion leads to increased oral health risk, this study indicates that routine oral health assessment of these patients is warranted. PMID:25793156

  4. Biomacromolecule conjugated nanofiber scaffold for salivary gland tissue engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayarathanam, Kavitha

    Xerostomia or dry mouth, resulting from loss of salivary gland secretion can be alleviated by tissue engineering approaches to restore glandular cell function. Engineering an artificial salivary gland structure requires closely mimicking the natural environment, both physically and functionally, to promote epithelial cell proliferation, monolayer formation and apico-basal polarization. While the physical structure of the salivary gland extracellular matrix (ECM) can be reconstructed using biocompatible nanofiber scaffolds, the chemical signals from ECM macromolecules are equally involved in the gland morphogenesis. In these glands, Hyaluronic acid (HA), a biomacromolecule that is a major component of the ECM, plays a crucial role in recruiting growth factors to improve cell viability and growth in these glands. Another molecule of interest that improved salivary epithelial cell viability and apico-basal differentiation is laminin, a major protein found in the basement membrane. We hypothesize that these biomacromolecules, when conjugated nanofiber scaffolds, will provide the essential chemical signals that promote cell viability, proliferation, polarity in the salivary cell line of interest. These morphological changes will in turn promote the secretory function (salivary production). The nanofiber scaffold consisting of poly(lactic-co-glycolic)acid is conjugated with HA using a polyethylene glycol (PEG) diamine crosslinker. This conjugation was confirmed using fluorescence spectrometry, water contact angle test and immunocytochemistry analysis using confocal microscopy. The effect of HA in promoting cell survival in-vitro was established with MTT assay using SIMS (mouse submandibular immortalized ductal SIMS cells) cells. The effect of HA in improving the apico - basal polarity of SIMS cells will be assessed. Chemical modification of synthetic nanopolymeric scaffolds with ECM molecules e.g., HA, laminin are the next step towards developing "smart scaffolds", that

  5. Comparison of Serum and Salivary Antioxidants in Patients with Temporomandibular Joint Disorders and Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Lawaf, Shirin; Tabarestani, Tohid

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Temporomandibular dysfunction (TMD) is a group of disorders in the facial region and temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Biomarkers are assumed to play a role in pain and early detection of destruction. The aim of this study was to compare the saliva and serum antioxidant levels in patients with TMD and healthy subjects. Materials and Methods: This case-control study was conducted on 28 TMD patients without pain, 28 TMD patients with pain and 28 healthy controls. The total antioxidant capacity of saliva and serum of patients was measured. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tamhane’s test. Results: The mean (±SD) total antioxidant capacity of serum (plasma TAC) was 0.8900 (±0.11627) mmol/L in TMD patients with pain, 1.2717 (±0.18711) mmol/L in TMD patients without pain and 1.7500(±0.18711) mmol/L in the control group. Based on ANOVA, the difference in this regard among the three groups was statistically significant (P=0.000). The mean salivary TAC was 1.34 (±0.06721) mmol/L in TMD patients with pain, 1.42 (±0.16677) mmol/L in TMD patients without pain and 1.35 (±0.11627) mmol/L in the control group. The difference in this respect among the three groups was not significant (P>0.05). Conclusion: The mean plasma TAC in TMD patients with/without pain was significantly lower than that in the control group but no significant difference was detected in salivary TAC among the three groups. PMID:26622281

  6. Mass spectrometry for biomarker development

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Chaochao; Liu, Tao; Baker, Erin Shammel; Rodland, Karin D.; Smith, Richard D.

    2015-06-19

    Biomarkers potentially play a crucial role in early disease diagnosis, prognosis and targeted therapy. In the past decade, mass spectrometry based proteomics has become increasingly important in biomarker development due to large advances in technology and associated methods. This chapter mainly focuses on the application of broad (e.g. shotgun) proteomics in biomarker discovery and the utility of targeted proteomics in biomarker verification and validation. A range of mass spectrometry methodologies are discussed emphasizing their efficacy in the different stages in biomarker development, with a particular emphasis on blood biomarker development.

  7. Osteoradionecrosis in patients with salivary gland malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, J Rhet; Xu, Li; Sturgis, Erich M.; Mohamed, Abdallah S. R.; Hofstede, Theresa M.; Chambers, Mark S.; Lai, Stephen Y.; Fuller, Clifton David; Beadle, Beth; Gunn, G. Brandon; Hutcheson, Katherine A.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE The present study was undertaken to evaluate osteoradionecrosis (ORN) in patients with salivary gland malignancies (SGM) after treatment with radiation therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS The medical records of 172 patients treated with radiation therapy for SGM during a 12-year period (August 2001 to November 2013) were reviewed. Incidence, time to event, staging and management of ORN were analyzed. RESULTS Of the 172 patients, 7 patients (4%) developed ORN (median latency: 19 months, range: 4–72 months). Of those 7 patients, 4 required major surgery, 1 required hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO), one required minor debridement, and one required conservative management. Total prescribed radiation dose varied from 50 Gy (1 case) to 70 Gy (1 case) among those patients who developed ORN, and radiotherapy was delivered postoperatively after osseous resection in 4 of 7 cases. Three of the 7 cases of ORN occurred after traumatic injury to the bone. Of the 7 patients who developed ORN, 3 had SGM of the major glands, 3 had other sites of the oral cavity, and 1 had a sinonasal location. CONCLUSION While the rate of ORN after radiotherapy for SGM was somewhat lower (4%) than previously published data on patients with squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck treated with radiation therapy (8% to 14%), ORN necessitating major surgery remains a rare, but clinically significant, possible late effect of radiotherapy in SGM survivors. Location is very important, with all cases that developed ORN having primary disease arising in the oral cavity. PMID:27208837

  8. Salivary Gland Neoplasms in Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Patrick J; Eisele, David W

    2016-01-01

    Salivary gland neoplasms (SGNs) in children are uncommon. Epithelial SGNs (ESGNs) comprise the majority (95%), with the remaining being mesenchymal SGNs (MeSGNs). Pleomorphic adenoma is the most frequently encountered benign neoplasm, mucoepidermoid carcinoma is the most frequent malignant ESGN, and rhabdomyosarcoma is the most frequent malignant MeSGN. ESGN presents in the second decade, whereas MeSGN presents in the first and second decades. Swelling without pain or neurological signs is the main presentation of both benign and malignant neoplasms. Making an accurate preoperative histological diagnosis is important, so a needle biopsy or a perioperative frozen section is useful when there is doubt about the disease status of the patient; the excised tumour margin is also important. Surgical excision should aim to achieve clear margin excision in benign and malignant ESGNs, minimising the need for adjuvant radiotherapy and maximising the long-term likelihood of patient cure. Benign ESGNs are uncommon, and excision is curative, whereas malignant ESGN and MeSGN should be managed by a multidisciplinary paediatric oncology team. PMID:27093697

  9. Is salivary gland function altered in noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and obesity-insulin resistance?

    PubMed

    Ittichaicharoen, Jitjiroj; Chattipakorn, Nipon; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C

    2016-04-01

    Salivary gland dysfunction in several systemic diseases has been shown to decrease the quality of life in patients. In non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), inadequate salivary gland function has been evidenced to closely associate with this abnormal glycemic control condition. Although several studies demonstrated that NIDDM has a positive correlation with impaired salivary gland function, including decreased salivary flow rate, some studies demonstrated contradictory findings. Moreover, the changes of the salivary gland function in pre-diabetic stage known as insulin resistance are still unclear. The aim of this review is to comprehensively summarize the current evidence from in vitro, in vivo and clinical studies regarding the relationship between NIDDM and salivary gland function, as well as the correlation between obesity and salivary gland function. Consistent findings as well as controversial reports and the mechanistic insights regarding the effect of NIDDM and obesity-insulin resistance on salivary gland function are also presented and discussed. PMID:26774185

  10. On comparing heterogeneity across biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Steininger, Robert J.; Rajaram, Satwik; Girard, Luc; Minna, John D.; Wu, Lani F.; Altschuler, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    Microscopy reveals complex patterns of cellular heterogeneity that can be biologically informative. However, a limitation of microscopy is that only a small number of biomarkers can typically be monitored simultaneously. Thus, a natural question is whether additional biomarkers provide a deeper characterization of the distribution of cellular states in a population. How much information about a cell’s phenotypic state in one biomarker is gained by knowing its state in another biomarker? Here, we describe a framework for comparing phenotypic states across biomarkers. Our approach overcomes the current limitation of microscopy by not requiring co-staining biomarkers on the same cells; instead we require staining of biomarkers (possibly separately) on a common collection of phenotypically diverse cell lines. We evaluate our approach on two image datasets: 33 oncogenically diverse lung cancer cell lines stained with 7 biomarkers, and 49 less diverse subclones of one lung cancer cell line stained with 12 biomarkers. We first validate our method by comparing it to the “gold standard” of co-staining. We then apply our approach to all pairs of biomarkers and use it to identify biomarkers that yield similar patterns of heterogeneity. The results presented in this work suggest that many biomarkers provide redundant information about heterogeneity. Thus, our approach provides a practical guide for selecting independently informative biomarkers and, more generally, will yield insights into both the connectivity of biological networks and the complexity of the state space of biological systems. PMID:25425168

  11. Biomarkers for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Schiffer, Eric

    2007-12-01

    Novel biomarkers for prostate cancer (PCa) are currently being assessed for utility in PCa diagnosis. This article aims to provide concise information on the current findings that impact prostate cancer research. Results of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for single biomarkers, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assays for DNA/RNA markers will be reviewed in addition to high-throughput proteomic profiling of PCa specimens. The advantages/disadvantages of tissue, blood, urine or seminal plasma as sources for potential biomarkers are discussed emphasizing the consequences for PCa diagnosis. In summary, the majority of promising marker candidates available today needs further validation. Some of the identified markers have the potential to yield novel prognostic tools for PCa, provide novel insights into its pathophysiology, and contribute to the establishment of novel treatment strategies. PMID:17690889

  12. Lamins as cancer biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Foster, Clare R; Przyborski, Stefan A; Wilson, Robert G; Hutchison, Christopher J

    2010-02-01

    Lamins are multifunctional proteins that are often aberrantly expressed or localized in tumours. Here, we endeavour to assess their uses as cancer biomarkers: to diagnose tumours, analyse cancer characteristics and predict patient survival. It appears that the nature of lamin function in cancer is very complex. Lamin expression can be variable between and even within cancer subtypes, which limits their uses as diagnostic biomarkers. Expression of A-type lamins is a marker of differentiated tumour cells and has been shown to be a marker of good or poor patient survival depending on tumour subtype. Further research into the functions of lamins in cancer cells and the mechanisms that determine its patterns of expression may provide more potential uses of lamins as cancer biomarkers. PMID:20074078

  13. Surgical Management of Minor Salivary Gland Neoplasms of the Palate

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Brian A.; Burkey, Brian B.; Netterville, James L.; Butcher, R. Brent; Amedee, Ronald G.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Minor salivary gland tumors are uncommon, accounting for up to 15% of salivary gland neoplasms. We describe our experience with both benign and malignant tumors of the palatal minor salivary glands, focusing on the extent of resection and options for defect reconstruction. Study Design: Retrospective review of medical records. Results: From 1994 to 2002, 37 patients with primary neoplasms originating in the palatal minor salivary glands were treated at a single institution. Patients ranged in age from the second to the seventh decades, with a female preponderance. Twenty-four percent of the lesions were benign. The most common malignant tumor encountered was low grade polymorphous adenocarcinoma, followed by mucoepidermoid carcinoma, and adenoid cystic carcinoma. The extent of surgical resection was dictated by tumor pathology and evidence of perineural spread, and defects were reconstructed with a variety of techniques. Postoperative complications included velopharyngeal insufficiency, flap fistulization or loss, and trismus. After 1 month to 8 years of follow-up, 1 patient has died with regional and systemic metastases. Conclusions: Neoplasms of the minor salivary glands in the palate may be excised, with limits dictated by tumor histopathology and perineural invasion. Improved functional results may be achieved by immediately reconstructing the defects with rotational flaps, reserving free flaps for more extensive defects of the maxilla and infratemporal fossa. PMID:21603498

  14. Gastric metastasis from salivary duct carcinoma mimicking primary gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Kanefumi; Takeno, Shinsuke; Nimura, Satoshi; Sugiyama, Yoshikazu; Sueta, Takayuki; Maki, Kenji; Kayashima, Yoshiyuki; Shiwaku, Hironari; Kato, Daisuke; Hashimoto, Tatsuya; Sasaki, Takamitsu; Yamashita, Yuichi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction We present a very rare case of gastric metastasis mimicking primary gastric cancer in a patient who had undergone surgery for salivary duct carcinoma. Presentation of case A 67-year-old man had been diagnosed as having right parotid cancer and had undergone a right parotidectomy and lymph node dissection. The histological diagnosis was salivary duct carcinoma. One year after the surgery, a positron emission tomography–computed tomography scan using fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) revealed an abnormal uptake of FDG in the left cervical, mediastinal, paraaortic, and cardiac lymph nodes; stomach; and pancreas. On gastroduodenoscopy, there was a huge, easily bleeding ulcer mimicking primary gastric cancer at the upper body of the stomach. Biopsy revealed poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. Therefore, we were unable to differentiate between the primary gastric cancer and the metastatic tumor using gastroduodenoscopy and biopsy. Because of the uncontrollable bleeding from the gastric cancer, we performed an emergency palliative total gastrectomy. On histological examination, the gastric lesion was found to be metastatic carcinoma originating from the salivary duct carcinoma. Discussion In the presented case, we could not diagnose the gastric metastasis originating from the salivary duct carcinoma even by endoscopic biopsy. This is because the histological appearance of salivary duct carcinoma is similar to that of high-grade adenocarcinoma, thus, resembling primary gastric cancer. Conclusion When we perform endoscopic examination of patients with malignant neoplasias, a possibility of metastatic gastric cancer should be taken into consideration. PMID:27085106

  15. Salivary gland dysfunction markers in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients

    PubMed Central

    Aitken-Saavedra, Juan; Rojas-Alcayaga, Gonzalo; Maturana-Ramírez, Andrea; Escobar-Álvarez, Alejandro; Cortes-Coloma, Andrea; Reyes-Rojas, Montserrat; Viera -Sapiain, Valentina; Villablanca-Martínez, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease of the carbohydrate metabolism that, when not rigorously controlled, compromises systemic and organ integrity, thereby causing renal diseases, blindness, neuropathy, arteriosclerosis, infections, and glandular dysfunction, including the salivary glands. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the qualitative and quantitative parameters of salivary alteration, which are indicators of salivary gland dysfunction, and the level of metabolic control of type 2 diabetes patients. Material and Methods A convenience sample of 74 voluntary patients with type 2 DM was selected, each of whom donated a sample of unstimulated saliva. Salivary parameters such as salivary flow rate, protein concentration, pH, and xerostomia were studied. Results There is a positive relationship between the level of metabolic control measured with HbA1 and the protein concentration in saliva (Spearman rho = 0.329 and p = 0.004). The same assay showed an inverse correlation between HbA1 and pH (Spearman rho = -0.225 and p = 0.05). Conclusions The protein concentration in saliva and, to a lesser extent, the pH may be useful as glandular dysfunction indicators in DM2 patients. Key words:Saliva, type 2 diabetes mellitus, pH, protein concentration, xerostomia. PMID:26535097

  16. Systems analysis of salivary gland development and disease

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Melinda; Yamada, Kenneth M.; Musselmann, Kurt

    2012-01-01

    Branching morphogenesis is a crucial developmental process in which vertebrate organs generate extensive epithelial surface area while retaining a compact size. In the vertebrate submandibular salivary gland, branching morphogenesis is crucial for generation of the large surface area necessary to produce sufficient saliva. However, in many salivary gland diseases, saliva-producing acinar cells are destroyed, resulting in dry mouth and secondary health conditions. Systems-based approaches can provide insights into understanding salivary gland development, function, and disease. The traditional approach to understanding these processes is identification of molecular signals using reductionist approaches; we review current progress with such methods in understanding salivary gland development. Taking a more global approach, multiple groups are currently profiling the transcriptome, the proteome, and other “omes” in both developing mouse tissues and in human patient samples. Computational methods have been successful in deciphering large data sets, and mathematical models are starting to make predictions regarding the contribution of molecules to the physical processes of morphogenesis and of cellular function. A challenge for the future will be to establish comprehensive, publicly accessible salivary gland databases spanning the full range of genes and proteins; plans are underway to provide these resources to researchers in centralized repositories. The greatest challenge for the future will be to develop realistic models that integrate multiple types of data to both describe and predict embryonic development and human disease. PMID:20890964

  17. Salivary conditioning with antennal gustatory unconditioned stimulus in an insect.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Hidehiro; Sato, Chihiro; Kuramochi, Tomokazu; Nishino, Hiroshi; Mizunami, Makoto

    2008-07-01

    Classical conditioning of olfactory conditioning stimulus (CS) with gustatory unconditioned stimulus (US) in insects has been used as a pertinent model for elucidation of neural mechanisms underlying learning and memory. However, a conditioning system in which stable intracellular recordings from brain neurons are feasibly obtained while monitoring the conditioning effect has remained to be established. Recently, we found classical conditioning of salivation in cockroaches Periplaneta americana, in which an odor was associated with sucrose solution applied to the mouth, and this conditioning could be monitored by activities of salivary neurons. Application of gustatory US to the mouth, however, leads to feeding movement accompanying a movement of the brain that prevents stable recordings from brain neurons. Here we investigated whether a gustatory stimulus presented to an antenna could serve as an effective US for producing salivary conditioning. Presentation of sucrose or sodium chloride solution to an antenna induced salivation and also increased activities of salivary neurons. A single pairing trial of an odor with antennal presentation of sucrose or sodium chloride solution produced conditioning of salivation or of activities of salivary neurons. Five pairing trials led to a conditioning effect that lasted for one day. Water or tactile stimulus presented to an antenna was not effective for producing conditioning. The results demonstrate that gustatory US presented to an antenna is as effective as that presented to the mouth for producing salivary conditioning. This conditioning system provides a useful model for studying the neural basis of learning at the level of singly identifiable neurons. PMID:18467133

  18. Aging and secretory reserve capacity of major salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Ghezzi, E M; Ship, J A

    2003-10-01

    A loss of acinar cells occurs with aging, while salivary production remains age-stable in healthy adults. It is hypothesized that a secretory reserve exists to preserve function despite a loss of acinar cells in normal aging. The purpose of this double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study was to determine age-related differences in salivary response to an anti-sialogogue (glycopyrrolate). Thirty-six healthy subjects (18 young--20-38 yrs; 18 older--60-77 yrs) received 4.0 microg/kg i.v. glycopyrrolate. Parotid and submandibular/sublingual saliva samples and xerostomia questionnaire responses were collected. Variables calculated for each subject were: times to initial and maximum suppression and xerostomic complaint; time to recovery; and durations of suppression and complaint. Salivary function was more adversely affected in older persons. There were no consistent age-associated questionnaire response differences. These findings suggest that salivary gland output is more adversely affected by an anti-sialogogue in healthy older vs. younger adults, supporting the secretory reserve hypothesis of salivary function. PMID:14514768

  19. Salivary Sialic Acid Levels in Smokeless Tobacco Users

    PubMed Central

    Farhad Mollashahi, Leila; Honarmand, Marieh; Nakhaee, Alireza; Mollashahi, Ghasem

    2016-01-01

    Background Smokeless tobacco chewing is one of the known risk factors for oral cancer. It is consumed widely by residents of southeastern Iran. Objectives In this study, salivary free and total sialic acid, and total protein were compared in paan consumers and non-consumers. Patients and Methods In this cross-sectional study, unstimulated saliva of 94 subjects (44 paan consumers and 50 non-consumers) who were referred to the oral medicine department of the dentistry school of Zahedan were collected. Salivary free and total sialic acid, and total protein concentration were measured by standard biochemical methods, and the obtained data were analyzed using SPSS 20 through the non-parametric Mann-Whitney test. Results The concentration of salivary free sialic acid (23.21 ± 18.98 mg/L) was significantly increased in paan consumers. The concentration of salivary Total sialic acid (TSA) (39.57 ± 26.58 mg/L) and total protein (0.77 ± 0.81 mg/mL) showed increases in paan consumers, however, the results were not statistically significant. Conclusions Salivary free and total sialic acid, and total protein were higher in the paan consumers compared to non-consumers. Due to the carcinogenic effect of smokeless tobacco, measurement of these parameters in saliva may be useful in early detection of oral cancer. PMID:27622172

  20. Biomarkers of xenobiotic exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Brewster, M.A.

    1988-07-01

    Direct measurement of xenobiotic (foreign) chemicals is not always feasible as an exposure assessment,--owing to rapid metabolism, sequestration into fatty tissues, or lack of suitable assay methods. Furthermore, suspect exposures often involve complex mixtures of organics. In these circumstances, indirect biomarkers of exposure can be most helpful. This paper reviews four urinary parameters that hold promise as biomarkers of exposure in occupational and environmental settings: glucaric acid (end-product of the glucuronidation pathway), thioethers (end-product of glutathione reaction with electrophilic or alkylating agents), porphyrin pattern (altered with disruption in heme biosynthesis), and the Ames mutagenicity test. 112 references.

  1. Smoking and perceived stress in relation to short salivary telomere length among caregivers of children with disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaoli; Velez, Juan Carlos; Barbosa, Clarita; Pepper, Micah; Andrade, Asterio; Stoner, Lee; De Vivo, Immaculata; Gelaye, Bizu; Williams, Michelle A.

    2014-01-01

    Telomere length (TL), the length of repeated DNA sequence that forms protective caps at the end of chromosomes, has emerged as a novel biomarker of cell aging and oxidative stress. There is increasing research exploring the associations of smoking and perceived stress with TL, and the results are inconsistent. This study aimed to examine whether smoking and perceived stress were associated with shortened salivary TL among primary caregivers of children with disabilities. Using a quantitative polymerase chain reaction method, salivary TL was assessed among 89 caregivers aged 19–69 years (87% were women) who took care of disabled children in the Patagonia Region, Chile. Interviewer-administered questionnaires were used to collect information on sociodemographic and lifestyle behaviors. The 14-item Perceived Stress Scale was used to assess perceived stress. Mean relative TL was 0.92 (standard error=0.03). Smokers had age-adjusted mean TL that was 0.07 units lower (beta=−0.07, standard error=0.03; p=0.012) than non-smokers. Smokers were 2.17 times more likely to have shorter TL (<0.73, the lowest quartile of TL) than non-smokers (odds ratio =3.17; 95% confidence interval=1.05–9.52) with adjustment for age and perceived stress. Caregivers with higher perceived stress were 2.13 times more likely to have shorter TL (odds ratio=3.13; 95% confidence interval=1.03–9.55) than caregivers with lower perceived stress after adjustment for age and smoking. This study provides the first evidence of strong associations between smoking and perceived stress and shortened salivary TL among caregivers of children with disabilities. Larger studies with detailed information on smoking status are warranted to confirm our findings. PMID:25256607

  2. Biomarkers in Barrett's esophagus.

    PubMed

    Reid, Brian J; Blount, Patricia L; Rabinovitch, Peter S

    2003-04-01

    This article provides a framework for clinicians who are attempting the difficult task of interpreting the Barrett's biomarker literature with the goal of improving care for their patients. Although many articles. including more that 60 proposed biomarkers, have been published on this subject, only a few describe phase 3 and 4 studies that are of interest to the clinical gastroenterologist (Table 1). For year, dysplasia grade has been the sole means of risk stratification for patients with BE, and it likely will continue to be used in the foreseeable future. The current authors believe that dysplasia classification can be valuable using the team management approach and quality controls described previously. Significant problems, however, have emerged in phase 2 through 4 studies of dysplasia that make it imperative for the Barrett's field to incorporate additional biomarkers as they are validated. These problems include poor reproducibility of dysplasia interpretations, poor predictive value for negative, indefinite, and low-grade dysplasia, and inconsistent results for HGD in different centers, all of which makes it virtually impossible to develop national guidelines for surveillance. Some studies have even suggested that endoscopic biopsy surveillance using dysplasia may not be worthwhile. Currently, flow cytometric tetraploidy and aneuploidy have progressed furthest in biomarker validation (see Table 1). With proper handling, endoscopic biopsy specimens can be shipped to reference laboratories that have the instruments, computer analytic methods, and expertise to reproducibly detect tetraploidy and aneuploidy. The results of phase 4 studies indicate that flow cytometry appears to be useful in detecting a subset of patients who do not have HGD and yet have an increased risk of progression to cancer that cannot be identified by dysplasia grade. For many reasons, the authors anticipate that the number of validated biomarkers will increase substantially in the

  3. Industry perspectives on biomarker qualification.

    PubMed

    Lavezzari, G; Womack, A W

    2016-02-01

    Biomarkers have the potential to expedite drug development, increase patient safety, and optimize clinical response. Yet few have achieved regulatory qualification. A survey was conducted to clarify industry's perspective on biomarker qualification and identify the most promising biomarkers for drug development. The results across toxicities/clinical areas highlight challenges in regulatory qualification, although early prioritization and alignment on an evidentiary standard framework are key factors in facilitating biomarker development and qualification. PMID:26378777

  4. Reduction in Salivary α-amylase Levels following a Mind-Body Intervention in Cancer Survivors - an Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Lipschitz, David L.; Kuhn, Renee; Kinney, Anita Y.; Donaldson, Gary W.; Nakamura, Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    Objective The main aim of this exploratory study was to assess whether salivary α-amylase (sAA) and salivary cortisol levels would be positively modulated by sleep-focused mind-body interventions in female and male cancer survivors. Methods We conducted a randomized controlled trial in which 57 cancer survivors with self-reported sleep disturbance received either a Sleep Hygiene Education (SHE; n=18) control, or one of two experimental mind-body interventions, namely, Mind-Body Bridging (MBB; n=19) or Mindfulness Meditation (MM; n=20). Interventions were three sessions each conducted once per week for three consecutive weeks. Saliva cortisol and sAA were measured at baseline and one week after the last session. Participants also completed a sleep scale at the same time points when saliva was collected for biomarker measurement. Results Our study revealed that at post-study assessment, mean sAA levels upon awakening (“Waking” sample) declined in MBB compared with that of SHE. Mean Waking cortisol levels did not differ among treatment groups but declined slightly in SHE. Self-reported sleep improved across the three interventions at Post-assessment, with largest improvements in the MBB intervention. Conclusion In this exploratory study, sleep focused mind-body intervention (MBB) attenuated Waking sAA levels, suggesting positive influences of a mind-body intervention on sympathetic activity in cancer survivors with sleep disturbance. PMID:23375640

  5. Detection of Salivary IgA Antibodies Against the HlyE Antigen as a Diagnosis of Typhoid Fever

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Kai Ling; Redhuan, Nur Eliyana Mohd; Balaram, Prabha; Phua, Kia Kien

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The Salmonella typhi (S. typhi) haemolysin E protein (HlyE) has been shown to be a sensitive and specific antigen for the detection of typhoid fever through the detection of anti-HlyE antibodies in sera. Saliva can also be a useful diagnostic fluid as it also contains antibodies against bacterial pathogens. Aim This study aims to evaluate the potential detection of salivary anti-HlyE antibodies as a diagnosis of typhoid fever. Materials and Methods Saliva was collected from acute typhoid patients (n=16) who presented at Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia with prolonged fever of more than five days and were positive for S. Typhi blood culture. Saliva was also collected from convalescent typhoid patients (n=11), patients with other febrile fevers (n=15), and from healthy individuals (n=25). An ELISA was developed to detect the presence of IgA antibodies against HlyE in the saliva of typhoid patients. Results The acute typhoid group had a higher mean absorbance value of 1.496 compared to the convalescent typhoid (0.538), other febrile fevers (0.678), and healthy individuals (0.457) group. Conclusion This study demonstrated the utility of salivary anti-HlyE IgA antibody as a biomarker for the diagnosis of typhoid fever. Follow-up studies with a larger sample size will allow the optimization of the sensitivity and specificity of the assay. This non-invasive method can be useful for mass screening programs. PMID:27504289

  6. Carcinoma-Associated Fibroblasts Lead the Invasion of Salivary Gland Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma Cells by Creating an Invasive Track

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiao; Jia, Zhuqiang; Kong, Jing; Zhang, Fuyin; Fang, Shimeng; Li, Xiaojie; Li, Wuwei; Yang, Xuesong; Luo, Yong; Lin, Bingcheng; Liu, Tingjiao

    2016-01-01

    Carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are critical in determining tumor invasion and metastasis. However the role of CAFs in the invasion of salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is poorly understood. In this study, we isolated primary CAFs from two ACC patients. ACC-derived CAFs expressed typical CAF biomarkers and showed increased migration and invasion activity. Conditioned medium collected from CAFs significantly promoted ACC cell migration and invasion. Co-culture of CAFs with ACC cells in a microfluidic device further revealed that CAFs localized at the invasion front and ACC cells followed the track behind the CAFs. Interfering of both matrix metalloproteinase and CXCL12/CXCR4 pathway inhibited ACC invasion promoted by CAFs. Overall, our study demonstrates that ACC-derived CAFs exhibit the most important defining feature of CAFs by promoting cancer invasion. In addition to secretion of soluble factors, CAFs also lead ACC invasion by creating an invasive track in the ECM. PMID:26954362

  7. Salivary Stone Pneumatic Lithotripsy in a Live Porcine Model.

    PubMed

    Walvekar, Rohan R; Hoffman, Henry T; Kolenda, Jack; Hernandez, Stephen

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of endoscopic fragmentation and removal of artificial calculi in a live porcine model employing intracorporeal pneumatic lithotripsy. In this experimental study, 7 submandibular ducts were accessed and artificial calculi placed. A salivary pneumatic lithotripter probe was inserted through an interventional sialendoscope to fragment the calculi. A salivary duct catheter was then used to flush stone fragments, followed by endoscopy to assess complete fragmentation and ductal trauma. Ultimately, 7 artificial stones (3-10 mm, 4F/5F) were successfully fragmented without causing significant endoluminal trauma. Number of pulses for adequate stone fragmentation averaged 20 (range, 5-31). In all cases, stone fragments were successfully flushed out with the salivary duct catheter. Postprocedure endoscopy confirmed ductal integrity in all 7 ducts. While more studies are needed, this preliminary animal model demonstrates efficacy of endoscopic pneumatic lithotripsy for the management of sialolithiasis. PMID:27048662

  8. Radiotherapy Dose-Volume Effects on Salivary Gland Function

    SciTech Connect

    Deasy, Joseph O.; Moiseenko, Vitali; Marks, Lawrence; Chao, K.S. Clifford; Nam, Jiho; Eisbruch, Avraham

    2010-03-01

    Publications relating parotid dose-volume characteristics to radiotherapy-induced salivary toxicity were reviewed. Late salivary dysfunction has been correlated to the mean parotid gland dose, with recovery occurring with time. Severe xerostomia (defined as long-term salivary function of <25% of baseline) is usually avoided if at least one parotid gland is spared to a mean dose of less than {approx}20 Gy or if both glands are spared to less than {approx}25 Gy (mean dose). For complex, partial-volume RT patterns (e.g., intensity-modulated radiotherapy), each parotid mean dose should be kept as low as possible, consistent with the desired clinical target volume coverage. A lower parotid mean dose usually results in better function. Submandibular gland sparing also significantly decreases the risk of xerostomia. The currently available predictive models are imprecise, and additional study is required to identify more accurate models of xerostomia risk.

  9. Radiotherapy Dose-Volume Effects on Salivary Gland Function

    PubMed Central

    Deasy, Joseph O.; Moiseenko, Vitali; Marks, Lawrence; Chao, K. S. Clifford; Nam, Jiho; Eilsbruch, Avraham

    2013-01-01

    Publications relating parotid dose-volume characteristics to radiotherapy-induced salivary toxicity were reviewed. Late salivary dysfunction has been correlated to the mean parotid gland dose, with recovery occurring with time. Severe xerostomia (defined as long-term salivary function of <25% of baseline) is usually avoided if at least one parotid gland is spared to a mean dose of less than ≈20 Gy or if both glands are spared to less than ≈25 Gy (mean dose). For complex, partial-volume RT patterns (e.g., intensity-modulated radiotherapy), each parotid mean dose should be kept as low as possible, consistent with the desired clinical target volume coverage. A lower parotid mean dose usually results in better function. Submandibular gland sparing also significantly decreases the risk of xerostomia. The currently available predictive models are imprecise, and additional study is required to identify more accurate models of xerostomia risk. PMID:20171519

  10. Biomarkers of cell senescence

    DOEpatents

    Dimri, G.P.; Campisi, J.; Peacocke, M.

    1998-08-18

    The present invention provides a biomarker system for the in vivo and in vitro assessment of cell senescence. In the method of the present invention, {beta}-galactosidase activity is utilized as a means by which cell senescence may be assessed either in vitro cell cultures or in vivo. 1 fig.

  11. Biomarkers of cell senescence

    DOEpatents

    Dirmi, G.P.; Campisi, J.; Peacocke, M.

    1996-02-13

    The present invention provides a biomarker system for the in vivo and in vitro assessment of cell senescence. In the method of the present invention, {beta}-galactosidase activity is utilized as a means by which cell senescence may be assessed either in in vitro cell cultures or in vivo. 1 fig.

  12. Biomarkers of apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Ward, T H; Cummings, J; Dean, E; Greystoke, A; Hou, J M; Backen, A; Ranson, M; Dive, C

    2008-01-01

    Within the era of molecularly targeted anticancer agents, it has become increasingly important to provide proof of mechanism as early on as possible in the drug development cycle, especially in the clinic. Selective activation of apoptosis is often cited as one of the major goals of cancer chemotherapy. Thus, the present minireview focuses on a discussion of the pros and cons of a variety of methodological approaches to detect different components of the apoptotic cascade as potential biomarkers of programmed cell death. The bulk of the discussion centres on serological assays utilising the technique of ELISA, since here there is an obvious advantage of sampling multiple time points. Potential biomarkers of apoptosis including circulating tumour cells, cytokeratins and DNA nucleosomes are discussed at length. However, accepting that a single biomarker may not have the power to predict proof of concept and patient outcome, it is clear that in the future more emphasis will be placed on technologies that can analyse panels of biomarkers in small volumes of samples. To this end the increased throughput afforded by multiplex ELISA technologies is discussed. PMID:19238626

  13. Biomarkers of cell senescence

    DOEpatents

    Dirmi, Goberdhan P.; Campisi, Judith; Peacocke, Monica

    1996-01-01

    The present invention provides a biomarker system for the in vivo and in vitro assessment of cell senescence. In the method of the present invention, .beta.-galactosidase activity is utilized as a means by which cell senescence may be assessed either in in vitro cell cultures or in vivo.

  14. Biomarkers of cell senescence

    DOEpatents

    Dimri, Goberdhan P.; Campisi, Judith; Peacocke, Monica

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a biomarker system for the in vivo and in vitro assessment of cell senescence. In the method of the present invention, .beta.-galactosidase activity is utilized as a means by which cell senescence may be assessed either in vitro cell cultures or in vivo.

  15. Cimetidine induces apoptosis of human salivary gland tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Masakatsu; Tanaka, Shin; Suzuki, Seiji; Kusama, Kaoru; Kaneko, Tadayoshi; Sakashita, Hideaki

    2007-03-01

    It has been reported that cimetidine, a histamine type-2 receptor (H2R) antagonist, inhibits the growth of glandular tumors such as colorectal cancer. However, its effects against salivary gland tumors are still unknown. We demonstrated previously that human salivary gland tumor (HSG) cells spontaneously express the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and also that HSG cell proliferation could be controlled via a homophilic (NCAM-NCAM) binding mechanism and that NCAM may be associated with perineural invasion by malignant salivary gland tumors. In the present study, we investigated the effects of cimetidine via the expression of NCAM on tumor growth and perineural/neural invasion in salivary gland tumor cells. Expression of both NCAM mRNA and protein was found to decrease in a dose-dependent manner upon treatment with cimetidine for 24 h. The MTT assay and confocal laser microscopy clearly showed that HSG cells underwent apoptosis after treatment with cimetidine. Activation of caspases 3, 7, 8 and 9 was observed in HSG cells after cimetidine treatment, thus confirming that the apoptosis was induced by the activated caspases. Apaf-1 activity was also detected in HSG cells in a dose-dependent manner after treatment with cimetidine. We also found that the cimetidine-mediated down-regulation of NCAM expression in HSG cells did not occur via blocking of the histamine receptor, even though H2R expression was observed on HSG cells, as two other H2R antagonists, famotidine and ranitidine, did not show similar effects. We demonstrated for the first time that cimetidine can induce significant apoptosis of salivary gland tumor cells, which express NCAM, at least in part by down-regulation of NCAM expression on the cells. These findings suggest that the growth, development and perineural/neural invasion of salivary gland tumor cells can be blocked by cimetidine administration through down-regulation of NCAM expression, as well as induction of apoptosis. PMID:17273750

  16. Analysis of the salivary gland transcriptome of Frankliniella occidentalis.

    PubMed

    Stafford-Banks, Candice A; Rotenberg, Dorith; Johnson, Brian R; Whitfield, Anna E; Ullman, Diane E

    2014-01-01

    Saliva is known to play a crucial role in insect feeding behavior and virus transmission. Currently, little is known about the salivary glands and saliva of thrips, despite the fact that Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (the western flower thrips) is a serious pest due to its destructive feeding, wide host range, and transmission of tospoviruses. As a first step towards characterizing thrips salivary gland functions, we sequenced the transcriptome of the primary salivary glands of F. occidentalis using short read sequencing (Illumina) technology. A de novo-assembled transcriptome revealed 31,392 high quality contigs with an average size of 605 bp. A total of 12,166 contigs had significant BLASTx or tBLASTx hits (E≤1.0E-6) to known proteins, whereas a high percentage (61.24%) of contigs had no apparent protein or nucleotide hits. Comparison of the F. occidentalis salivary gland transcriptome (sialotranscriptome) against a published F. occidentalis full body transcriptome assembled from Roche-454 reads revealed several contigs with putative annotations associated with salivary gland functions. KEGG pathway analysis of the sialotranscriptome revealed that the majority (18 out of the top 20 predicted KEGG pathways) of the salivary gland contig sequences match proteins involved in metabolism. We identified several genes likely to be involved in detoxification and inhibition of plant defense responses including aldehyde dehydrogenase, metalloprotease, glucose oxidase, glucose dehydrogenase, and regucalcin. We also identified several genes that may play a role in the extra-oral digestion of plant structural tissues including β-glucosidase and pectin lyase; and the extra-oral digestion of sugars, including α-amylase, maltase, sucrase, and α-glucosidase. This is the first analysis of a sialotranscriptome for any Thysanopteran species and it provides a foundational tool to further our understanding of how thrips interact with their plant hosts and the viruses they

  17. Analysis of the Salivary Gland Transcriptome of Frankliniella occidentalis

    PubMed Central

    Stafford-Banks, Candice A.; Rotenberg, Dorith; Johnson, Brian R.; Whitfield, Anna E.; Ullman, Diane E.

    2014-01-01

    Saliva is known to play a crucial role in insect feeding behavior and virus transmission. Currently, little is known about the salivary glands and saliva of thrips, despite the fact that Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (the western flower thrips) is a serious pest due to its destructive feeding, wide host range, and transmission of tospoviruses. As a first step towards characterizing thrips salivary gland functions, we sequenced the transcriptome of the primary salivary glands of F. occidentalis using short read sequencing (Illumina) technology. A de novo-assembled transcriptome revealed 31,392 high quality contigs with an average size of 605 bp. A total of 12,166 contigs had significant BLASTx or tBLASTx hits (E≤1.0E−6) to known proteins, whereas a high percentage (61.24%) of contigs had no apparent protein or nucleotide hits. Comparison of the F. occidentalis salivary gland transcriptome (sialotranscriptome) against a published F. occidentalis full body transcriptome assembled from Roche-454 reads revealed several contigs with putative annotations associated with salivary gland functions. KEGG pathway analysis of the sialotranscriptome revealed that the majority (18 out of the top 20 predicted KEGG pathways) of the salivary gland contig sequences match proteins involved in metabolism. We identified several genes likely to be involved in detoxification and inhibition of plant defense responses including aldehyde dehydrogenase, metalloprotease, glucose oxidase, glucose dehydrogenase, and regucalcin. We also identified several genes that may play a role in the extra-oral digestion of plant structural tissues including β-glucosidase and pectin lyase; and the extra-oral digestion of sugars, including α-amylase, maltase, sucrase, and α-glucosidase. This is the first analysis of a sialotranscriptome for any Thysanopteran species and it provides a foundational tool to further our understanding of how thrips interact with their plant hosts and the viruses

  18. Inflammatory Cytokines Interleukin-1β and Tumour Necrosis Factor-α - Novel Biomarkers for the Detection of Periodontal Diseases: a Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Francisco Isaac Fernandes; Aragão, Maria Gerusa Brito; Barbosa, Francisco Cesar Barroso; Bezerra, Mirna Marques; de Paulo Teixeira Pinto, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives The article aims to discuss the IL-1β and TNF-α potential use as salivary biomarkers of periodontal diseases pathogenesis and progression. Material and Methods This literature review has been registered in PROSPERO database with following number: CRD42016035729. Data investigation was performed on PubMed database as the main source of studies. The following search terms were used: “salivary biomarkers”, “periodontal diseases”, “TNF-alpha”, “Interleukin-1 beta”. Clinical trials and animal experimental models of periodontal disease were included in the discussion. In regards to inclusive dates, published studies from January 2006 to December 2015 were considered in this review along with the mentioned inclusion criteria. Results IL-1β and TNF-α salivary levels increased in diseased groups, they were associated with onset and disease severity, and their levels reduced in response to periodontal therapy. IL-1β and TNF-α could be promising biomarkers in the detection of periodontal diseases. Conclusions The use of a salivary cytokine-based diagnosis appears to be a screening method capable of diagnosing periodontal diseases in an early fashion, establishing an era of individualized clinical decisions. PMID:27489606

  19. Asthma outcomes: Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Szefler, Stanley J.; Wenzel, Sally; Brown, Robert; Erzurum, Serpil C.; Fahy, John V.; Hamilton, Robert G.; Hunt, John F.; Kita, Hirohito; Liu, Andrew H.; Panettieri, Reynold A.; Schleimer, Robert P.; Minnicozzi, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Background Measurement of biomarkers has been incorporated within clinical research studies of asthma to characterize the population and associate the disease with environmental and therapeutic effects. Objective National Institutes of Health institutes and federal agencies convened an expert group to propose which biomarkers should be assessed as standardized asthma outcomes in future clinical research studies. Methods We conducted a comprehensive search of the literature to identify studies that developed and/or tested asthma biomarkers. We identified biomarkers relevant to the underlying disease process progression and response to treatment. We classified the biomarkers as either core (required in future studies), supplemental (used according to study aims and standardized), or emerging (requiring validation and standardization). This work was discussed at an National Institutes of Health–organized workshop convened in March 2010 and finalized in September 2011. Results Ten measures were identified; only 1, multiallergen screening to define atopy, is recommended as a core asthma outcome. Complete blood counts to measure total eosinophils, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (Feno), sputum eosinophils, urinary leukotrienes, and total and allergen-specific IgE are recommended as supplemental measures. Measurement of sputum polymorphonuclear leukocytes and other analytes, cortisol measures, airway imaging, breath markers, and system-wide studies (eg, genomics, proteomics) are considered as emerging outcome measures. Conclusion The working group participants propose the use of multiallergen screening in all asthma clinical trials to characterize study populations with respect to atopic status. Blood, sputum, and urine specimens should be stored in biobanks, and standard procedures should be developed to harmonize sample collection for clinical trial biorepositories. PMID:22386512

  20. Salivary and urine theophylline levels in management of childhood asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Goldsworthy, S J; Kemp, M; Warner, J O

    1981-01-01

    It is not possible to predict the plasma theophylline levels that can be achieved using slow-release aminophylline based on body weight or surface area. Improvement in FEV1 is directly related to increasing serum theophylline level, justifying the need for measuring levels in order to optimize therapy. As repeated venesection in children is unpleasant we have studied a simple method using saliva. Simultaneous blood and salivary theophylline levels correlated sufficiently well for salivary levels to be used for monitoring purposes. Urine levels did not correlate as well, but could be used for checking compliance. PMID:7252957

  1. Radionuclide salivary imaging usefulness in a private otolaryngology practice

    SciTech Connect

    Schall, G.L.; Smith, R.R.; Barsocchini, L.M.

    1981-01-01

    Radionuclide salivary gland scans were performed on 44 patients using sodium pertechnetate Tc 99m. The accuracy of the scans and their usefulness in the clinical treatment of the patients were reviewed. The scan provided helpful information in 31 of 38 cases in which adequate follow-up data were available, although it proved diagnostic in only six patients. It was particularly useful in the evaluation of primary salivary gland neoplasms, acute and chronic sialadenitis, and sialolithiasis, as well as in the differential diagnosis of xerostomia. The value of this procedure in the elucidation of a variety of morphologic and functional diseases of these glands warrants its greater application in private otolaryngologic practices.

  2. Effect of chronic training on heart rate variability, salivary IgA and salivary alpha-amylase in elite swimmers with a disability.

    PubMed

    Edmonds, Rohan; Burkett, Brendan; Leicht, Anthony; McKean, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to a) determine the heart rate variability (HRV) and saliva markers of immunity (salivary immunoglobulin A; sIgA) and stress (salivary alpha-amylase; sAA) responses to chronic training in elite swimmers with a disability; and b) identify the relationships between HRV, sIgA, sAA and training volume. Eight members of a high performance Paralympic swimming program were monitored for their weekly resting HRV, sIgA and sAA levels in the 14 weeks leading up to a major international competition. The 14 week training program included aerobic, anaerobic, power and speed, and taper training phases, while also incorporating two swimming step tests and two swimming competitions. Specific time (root mean square of the successive differences; RMSSD) and frequency (high frequency normalized units [HFnu]) domain measures, along with non-linear indices (standard deviation of instantaneous RR variability; SD1 and short term fractal scaling exponent; α1) of HRV were used for all analyses with effects examined using magnitude-based inferences. Relationships between HRV and saliva markers were identified by Spearman rank rho (ρ) correlation coefficients. Compared with week 1, SD1 was very likely lower (96/4/0, ES = -2.21), while sAA was very likely elevated (100/0/0, ES = 2.32) at the beginning of week 7 for all athletes. The training program did not alter HRV or saliva whereas competition did. There were also no apparent differences observed for HRV, sIgA and sAA between each of the training phases during the 14 week swimming program. Correlations were observed between sAA and SD1 (ρ = -0.212, p<0.05), along with sAA and mean HR (ρ = 0.309, p<0.05). These results show that high level national competition influences depresses HRV (SD1) and increases saliva biomarkers of stress (sAA). It appears that a well-managed and periodised swimming program can maintain these indices within normal baseline levels. The study also highlighted the parasympathetic

  3. Effect of Chronic Training on Heart Rate Variability, Salivary IgA and Salivary Alpha-Amylase in Elite Swimmers with a Disability

    PubMed Central

    Edmonds, Rohan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to a) determine the heart rate variability (HRV) and saliva markers of immunity (salivary immunoglobulin A; sIgA) and stress (salivary alpha-amylase; sAA) responses to chronic training in elite swimmers with a disability; and b) identify the relationships between HRV, sIgA, sAA and training volume. Eight members of a high performance Paralympic swimming program were monitored for their weekly resting HRV, sIgA and sAA levels in the 14 weeks leading up to a major international competition. The 14 week training program included aerobic, anaerobic, power and speed, and taper training phases, while also incorporating two swimming step tests and two swimming competitions. Specific time (root mean square of the successive differences; RMSSD) and frequency (high frequency normalized units [HFnu]) domain measures, along with non-linear indices (standard deviation of instantaneous RR variability; SD1 and short term fractal scaling exponent; α1) of HRV were used for all analyses with effects examined using magnitude-based inferences. Relationships between HRV and saliva markers were identified by Spearman rank rho (ρ) correlation coefficients. Compared with week 1, SD1 was very likely lower (96/4/0, ES = -2.21), while sAA was very likely elevated (100/0/0, ES = 2.32) at the beginning of week 7 for all athletes. The training program did not alter HRV or saliva whereas competition did. There were also no apparent differences observed for HRV, sIgA and sAA between each of the training phases during the 14 week swimming program. Correlations were observed between sAA and SD1 (ρ = -0.212, p<0.05), along with sAA and mean HR (ρ = 0.309, p<0.05). These results show that high level national competition influences depresses HRV (SD1) and increases saliva biomarkers of stress (sAA). It appears that a well-managed and periodised swimming program can maintain these indices within normal baseline levels. The study also highlighted the parasympathetic

  4. Be ready at any time: postprandial synthesis of salivary proteins in salivary gland cells of the haematophagous leech Hirudo verbana.

    PubMed

    Lemke, Sarah; Müller, Christian; Hildebrandt, Jan-Peter

    2016-04-15

    Sanguivorous leeches are ectoparasites having access to body fluids of potential hosts only infrequently. During feeding, salivary proteins are released from unicellular salivary glands into the wound. These substances, among them anti-coagulants, anti-inflammatory or anti-microbial agents, allow these animals proper feeding and long-term storage of host blood in their crops for several months. Using histological, protein biochemical and molecular techniques, we investigated whether synthesis of salivary proteins and refilling of salivary gland cells occur immediately after feeding or later when stored nutrients in the crop are getting scarce. The results of the histological analyses showed that gland cell area was significantly smaller right after feeding when compared with those in unfed animals. This parameter recovered quickly and reached the control level at 1 week after feeding. 2D gel electrophoresis and analysis of the abundance of individual proteins in extracts of leech tissues revealed that a subset of proteins that had been present in extracts of unfed animals virtually disappeared during feeding, but re-appeared within 1 week of feeding (most probably secretory proteins) while another subset did not change during the experimental period (most probably housekeeping proteins). Semi-quantitative PCR analysis of hirudin cDNA prepared from leech RNA samples revealed that the amount of hirudin transcripts increased immediately after feeding, peaked at 5 days after feeding and declined to control values thereafter. Our results indicate that bloodsucking leeches synthesize salivary proteins and refill their salivary gland cell reservoirs within a week of a blood meal to be prepared for another feeding opportunity. PMID:27103675

  5. Assessment of Salivary Gland Function Using Salivary Scintigraphy in Pre and Post Radioactive Iodine Therapy in Diagnosed Thyroid Carcinoma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Badam, Raj Kumar; Suram, Jyotsna; Babu, Dara Balaji Gandhi; Marshal, Rahul; Bontha, Sharath Chandra; Lavanya, Reddy; Kanth, Sudheer

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Thyroid carcinoma represents less than 1% of all cancers. The first line of treatment for thyroid cancer is partial/total thyroidectomy. High-dose Iodine131 therapy using Iodine radioisotopes is commonly used in patients with well differentiated thyroid carcinoma after total thyroidectomy. In this process, the non-thyroidal tissues, such as, salivary gland, stomach and breast tissues also take up radioactive iodine. Salivary gland scintigraphy is widely accepted as a sensitive and valid method for evaluation of salivary gland dysfunction after Radioactive Iodine131 Therapy (RIT). Aim To assess and compare the salivary flow rates, relative uptake and ejection fractions in parotid and submandibular glands just before and one month after Iodine131 therapy. Materials and Methods The study was conducted on 24 patients diagnosed with well differentiated thyroid carcinoma who underwent partial/total thyroidectomy and were due for radioactive iodine therapy. These patients were divided into two groups based on the lesion based dosimetry (Group A: 60-100Gy; Group B: 100-150Gy). Salivary gland assessment was done by salivary gland scintigraphy before and after RIT. Statistical Analysis The data collected was tabulated and statistically analysed using SPSS software version16 using paired t-test and individual sample t-test. Results A statistically significant difference in the uptake percent and ejection fraction percent in the parotid and submandibular glands before RIT and one month after RIT was observed in the study. Conclusion We inferred from the study that there was an overall decrease in uptake percent and ejection fraction percent one month post RIT in both parotid and submandibular glands. Also, a statistically significant difference was noted in the uptake and ejection fraction percent between Group A and Group B concluding the fact that the damage is dose related. PMID:26894178

  6. Biomarker Modeling of Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Jack, Clifford R; Holtzman, David M

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a slowly progressing disorder in which pathophysiological abnormalities, detectable in vivo by biomarkers, precede overt clinical symptoms by many years to decades. Five AD biomarkers are sufficiently validated to have been incorporated into clinical diagnostic criteria and commonly used in therapeutic trials. Current AD biomarkers fall into 2 categories: biomarkers of amyloid-β plaques and of tau-related neurodegeneration. Three of the 5 are imaging measures and two are cerebrospinal fluid analytes. AD biomarkers do not evolve in an identical manner but rather in a sequential but temporally overlapping manner. Models of the temporal evolution of AD biomarkers can take the form of plots of biomarker severity (degree of abnormality) vs. time. In this review we discuss several time-dependent models of AD which take into consideration varying age of onset (early vs. late) and the influence of aging and co-occurring brain pathologies that commonly arise in the elderly. PMID:24360540

  7. Pain-related stress in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit and salivary cortisol reactivity to socio-emotional stress in 3-month-old very preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Provenzi, Livio; Giusti, Lorenzo; Fumagalli, Monica; Tasca, Hilarj; Ciceri, Francesca; Menozzi, Giorgia; Mosca, Fabio; Morandi, Francesco; Borgatti, Renato; Montirosso, Rosario

    2016-10-01

    Very preterm (VPT) infants are hospitalized in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) and exposed to varying levels of skin-breaking procedures (pain-related stress), even in absence of severe clinical conditions. Repeated and prolonged pain exposure may alter hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity in VPT infants. During the post-discharge period, altered HPA axis reactivity has been documented in response to non-social stressors, using salivary cortisol as a biomarker. However, little is known about the effects of NICU pain-related stress on subsequent HPA axis reactivity to socio-emotional stress in infants. We examined the relationship between pain-related stress in NICU and HPA axis reactivity (i.e., salivary cortisol reactivity) to an age-appropriate socio-emotional condition in 37 healthy VPT infants compared to 53 full-term (FT) controls. The number of skin-breaking procedures was obtained across NICU stay for VPT infants. At 3 months (corrected age for prematurity), all infants participated in the maternal Face-to-Face Still-Face (FFSF) procedure, in order to assess HPA axis reactivity to socio-emotional stress (i.e., maternal unresponsiveness). VPT infants exhibited a blunted salivary cortisol reactivity, which was associated with the amount of skin-breaking procedures during NICU: greater pain-related stress predicted lower salivary cortisol reactivity, adjusting for neonatal confounders. These findings further advance our knowledge of how early exposure to pain-related stress in NICU contributes to the programming of an altered HPA axis reactivity to socio-emotional stress in 3-month-old VPT infants, even in the absence of major perinatal complications. PMID:27428089

  8. Human herpesvirus 6 and 7 are biomarkers for fatigue, which distinguish between physiological fatigue and pathological fatigue.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Ryo; Kobayashi, Nobuyuki; Suzuki, Go; Kuratsune, Hirohiko; Shimada, Kazuya; Oka, Naomi; Takahashi, Mayumi; Yamadera, Wataru; Iwashita, Masayuki; Tokuno, Shinichi; Nibuya, Masashi; Tanichi, Masaaki; Mukai, Yasuo; Mitani, Keiji; Kondo, Kazuhiro; Ito, Hiroshi; Nakayama, Kazuhiko

    2016-09-01

    Fatigue reduces productivity and is a risk factor for lifestyle diseases and mental disorders. Everyone experiences physiological fatigue and recovers with rest. Pathological fatigue, however, greatly reduces quality of life and requires therapeutic interventions. It is therefore necessary to distinguish between the two but there has been no biomarker for this. We report on the measurement of salivary human herpesvirus (HHV-) 6 and HHV-7 as biomarkers for quantifying physiological fatigue. They increased with military training and work and rapidly decreased with rest. Our results suggested that macrophage activation and differentiation were necessary for virus reactivation. However, HHV-6 and HHV-7 did not increase in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and major depressive disorder (MDD), which are thought to cause pathological fatigue. Thus, HHV-6 and HHV-7 would be useful biomarkers for distinguishing between physiological and pathological fatigue. Our findings suggest a fundamentally new approach to evaluating fatigue and preventing fatigue-related diseases. PMID:27396623

  9. Biomarkers for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Behne, Tara; Copur, M. Sitki

    2012-01-01

    The hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors and carries a poor survival rate. The management of patients at risk for developing HCC remains challenging. Increased understanding of cancer biology and technological advances have enabled identification of a multitude of pathological, genetic, and molecular events that drive hepatocarcinogenesis leading to discovery of numerous potential biomarkers in this disease. They are currently being aggressively evaluated to establish their value in early diagnosis, optimization of therapy, reducing the emergence of new tumors, and preventing the recurrence after surgical resection or liver transplantation. These markers not only help in prediction of prognosis or recurrence but may also assist in deciding appropriate modality of therapy and may represent novel potential targets for therapeutic interventions. In this paper, a summary of most relevant available data from published papers reporting various tissue and serum biomarkers involved in hepatocellular carcinoma was presented. PMID:22655201

  10. Biomarkers for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Behne, Tara; Copur, M Sitki

    2012-01-01

    The hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors and carries a poor survival rate. The management of patients at risk for developing HCC remains challenging. Increased understanding of cancer biology and technological advances have enabled identification of a multitude of pathological, genetic, and molecular events that drive hepatocarcinogenesis leading to discovery of numerous potential biomarkers in this disease. They are currently being aggressively evaluated to establish their value in early diagnosis, optimization of therapy, reducing the emergence of new tumors, and preventing the recurrence after surgical resection or liver transplantation. These markers not only help in prediction of prognosis or recurrence but may also assist in deciding appropriate modality of therapy and may represent novel potential targets for therapeutic interventions. In this paper, a summary of most relevant available data from published papers reporting various tissue and serum biomarkers involved in hepatocellular carcinoma was presented. PMID:22655201

  11. Genetic biomarkers of depression

    PubMed Central

    Tamatam, Anand; Khanum, Farhath; Bawa, Amarinder Singh

    2012-01-01

    Depression is a term that has been used to describe a variety of ailments, ranging from minor to incapacitating. Clinically significant depression, termed as major depression, is a serious condition characterized not only by depressed mood but also by a cluster of somatic, cognitive, and motivational symptoms. Significant research efforts are aimed to understand the neurobiological as well as psychiatric disorders, and the evaluation of treatment of these disorders is still based solely on the assessment of symptoms. In order to identify the biological markers for depression, we have focused on gathering information on different factors responsible for depression including stress, genetic variations, neurotransmitters, and cytokines and chemokines previously suggested to be involved in the pathophysiology of depression. The present review illustrates the potential of biomarker profiling for psychiatric disorders, when conducted in large collections. The review highlighted the biomarker signatures for depression, warranting further investigation. PMID:22754217

  12. Imaging biomarkers in tauopathies.

    PubMed

    Dani, Melanie; Edison, Paul; Brooks, David J

    2016-01-01

    Abnormally aggregated tau protein is central to the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal dementia variants, progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration and chronic traumatic encephalopathy. The post-mortem cortical density of hyperphosphorylated tau tangles correlates with pre-morbid cognitive dysfunction and neuron loss. Selective PET ligands including [18F]THK5117, [18F]THK5351, [18F]AV1451 (T807) and [11C]PBB3 now provide in vivo imaging information about the timing and distribution of tau in the early phases of neurodegenerative diseases. They are potential imaging biomarkers for both supporting diagnosis and tracking disease progression. Here, we discuss the challenges posed in developing selective tau ligands as biomarkers, their state of development and the new clinical information that has been revealed. PMID:26299160

  13. Tear biomarkers for keratoconus.

    PubMed

    Nishtala, Krishnatej; Pahuja, Natasha; Shetty, Rohit; Nuijts, Rudy M M A; Ghosh, Arkasubhra

    2016-01-01

    Keratoconus is a progressive corneal thinning, ectatic condition, which affects vision. Recent advances in corneal topography measurements has helped advance proper diagnosis of this condition and increased research and clinical interests in the disease etiopathogenesis. Considerable progress has been achieved in understanding the progression of the disease and tear fluid has played a major role in the progress. This review discusses the importance of tear fluid as a source of biomarker for keratoconus and how advances in technology have helped map the complexity of tears and thereby molecular readouts of the disease. Expanding knowledge of the tear proteome, lipidome and metabolome opened up new avenues to study keratoconus and to identify probable prognostic or diagnostic biomarkers for the disease. A multidimensional approach of analyzing tear fluid of patients layering on proteomics, lipidomics and metabolomics is necessary in effectively decoding keratoconus and thereby identifying targets for its treatment. PMID:27493978

  14. [Salivary duct carcinoma--a clinicopathological analysis of five cases].

    PubMed

    Bień, Stanisław; Sygut, Jacek; Kopczyński, Janusz; Postuła, Sylwia; Ziółkowska, Magdalena

    2007-01-01

    The 5 cases of salivary duct carcinoma (SDC); very rare, but distinct group of highly malignant salivary gland tumor are presented, and difficulties with pathological and clinical diagnosis is discussed. The SDC developed in single cases in parotid salivary gland, submandibular salivary and in mucosa of maxillary sinus, pyriform fossa and oral cavity (check). In 3 cases the second malignant tumor was present--synchronously (SDC + pleomorphic adenoma in parotid gland; SDC + squamous cell carcinoma in hypopharynx) or metachroneously (squamous cell carcinoma of upper lip followed by SDC). In one case the high levels of PSA suggesting of metastases from unknown primary within the prostate gland, or PSA expression related to SDC was observed. The four patients received radical treatment - surgical resection followed by radiotherapy; in one case only palliative treatment was applied, due to patient's poor general condition and high advancement of the primary disease. The observation ranged from 10 to 77 months (average time--31 months). The one patient died 13 months after diagnosis and palliative treatment. The three patients are alive with distant metastases to the lung and bones (77, 38 and 18 months after primary treatment was completed). Only one patient with 10 months observation after treatment is living without symptoms of recurrence or metastases. PMID:17605416

  15. Reactivity of human salivary proteins families toward food polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Soares, Susana; Vitorino, Rui; Osório, Hugo; Fernandes, Ana; Venâncio, Armando; Mateus, Nuno; Amado, Francisco; de Freitas, Victor

    2011-05-25

    Tannins are well-known food polyphenols that interact with proteins, namely, salivary proteins. This interaction is an important factor in relation to their bioavailability and is considered the basis of several important properties of tannins, namely, the development of astringency. It has been generally accepted that astringency is due to the tannin-induced complexation and/or precipitation of salivary proline-rich proteins (PRPs) in the oral cavity. However, this complexation is thought to provide protection against dietary tannins. Neverthless, there is no concrete evidence and agreement about which PRP families (acidic, basic, and glycosylated) are responsible for the interaction with condensed tannins. In the present work, human saliva was isolated, and the proteins existing in saliva were characterized by chromatographic and proteomic approaches (HPLC-DAD, ESI-MS, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and MALDI-TOF). These approaches were also adapted to study the affinity of the different families of salivary proteins to condensed tannins by the interaction of saliva with grape seed procyanidins. The results obtained when all the main families of salivary proteins are present in a competitive assay, like in the oral cavity, demonstrate that condensed tannins interact first with acidic PRPs and statherin and thereafter with histatins, glycosylated PRPs, and bPRPs. PMID:21417408

  16. Standards for the assessment of salivary glands – an update

    PubMed Central

    Ochal-Choińska, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    The paper is an update of 2011 Standards for Ultrasound Assessment of Salivary Glands, which were developed by the Polish Ultrasound Society. We have described current ultrasound technical requirements, assessment and measurement techniques as well as guidelines for ultrasound description. We have also discussed an ultrasound image of normal salivary glands as well as the most important pathologies, such as inflammation, sialosis, collagenosis, injuries and proliferative processes, with particular emphasis on lesions indicating high risk of malignancy. In acute bacterial inflammation, the salivary glands appear as hypoechoic, enlarged or normal-sized, with increased parenchymal flow. The echogenicity is significantly increased in viral infections. Degenerative lesions may be seen in chronic inflammations. Hyperechoic deposits with acoustic shadowing can be visualized in lithiasis. Parenchymal fibrosis is a dominant feature of sialosis. Sjögren syndrome produces different pictures of salivary gland parenchymal lesions at different stages of the disease. Pleomorphic adenomas are usually hypoechoic, well-defined and polycyclic in most cases. Warthin tumor usually presents as a hypoechoic, oval-shaped lesion with anechoic cystic spaces. Malignancies are characterized by blurred outlines, irregular shape, usually heterogeneous echogenicity and pathological neovascularization. The accompanying metastatic lesions are another indicator of malignancy, however, final diagnosis should be based on biopsy findings. PMID:27446602

  17. Immunosensor with Fluid Control Mechanism for Salivary Cortisol Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Masaki; Matsuda, Yohei; Sasaki, Shohei; Sasaki, Makoto; Kadoma, Yoshihiro; Imai, Yoshikatsu; Niwa, Daisuke; Shetty, Vivek

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to demonstrate a new design for a cortisol immunosensor for the noninvasive and quantitative analysis of salivary cortisol. We propose a cortisol immunosensor with a fluid control mechanism which has both a vertical flow and a lateral flow. The detected current resulting from a competitive reaction between the sample cortisol and a glucose oxidase (GOD)-labeled cortisol conjugate was found to be inversely related to the concentration of cortisol in the sample solution. A calibration curve using the relative detected current showed an R2 = 0.98 and CV = 14% for a range of standard cortisol solutions corresponding to the concentrations of native salivary cortisol (0.1 – 10 ng/ml). The measurement could be accomplished within 35 minutes and the cortisol immunosensor could be reused. These results show promise for realizing an on-site and easy-to-use biosensor for cortisol. Used for evaluation of human salivary cortisol levels, the cortisol immunosensor measurement corresponded closely with commercially available ELISA method (R2 = 0.92). Our results indicate the promise of the new cortisol immunosensor for noninvasive, point-of care measurement of human salivary cortisol levels. PMID:22939507

  18. Salivary transcriptome of the North American medicinal leech, Macrobdella decora.

    PubMed

    Min, Gi-Sik; Sarkar, Indra Neil; Siddall, Mark E

    2010-12-01

    A variety of bioactive proteins from medicinal leeches, like species of Hirudo , have been characterized and evaluated for their potential therapeutic biomedical properties. However, there has not previously been a comprehensive attempt to fully characterize the salivary transcriptome of a medicinal leech that would allow a clearer understanding of the suite of polypeptides employed by these sanguivorous annelids and provide insights regarding their evolutionary origins. An Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) library-based analysis of the salivary transcriptome of the North American medicinal leech, Macrobdella decora, reveals a complex cocktail of anticoagulants and other bioactive secreted proteins not previously known to exist in a single leech. Transcripts were identified that correspond to each of saratin, bdellin, destabilase, hirudin, decorsin, endoglucoronidase, antistatin, and eglin, as well as to other previously uncharacterized predicted serine protease inhibitors, lectoxin-like c-type lectins, ficolin, disintegrins and histidine-rich proteins. This work provides a lens into the richness of bioactive polypeptides that are associated with sanguivory. In the context of a well-characterized molecular phylogeny of leeches, the results allow for preliminary evaluation of the relative evolutionary origins and historical conservation of leech salivary components. The goal of identifying evolutionarily significant residues associated with biomedically significant phenomena implies continued insights from a broader sampling of blood-feeding leech salivary transcriptomes. PMID:21158638

  19. Mitochondrial Mutations in Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Salivary Glands

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Marietta; Smith, Ian M.; Califano, Joseph A.; El-Naggar, Adel K.; Ha, Patrick K.

    2009-01-01

    Background The MitoChip v2.0 resequencing array is an array-based technique allowing for accurate and complete sequencing of the mitochondrial genome. No studies have investigated mitochondrial mutation in salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinomas. Methodology The entire mitochondrial genome of 22 salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACC) of salivary glands and matched leukocyte DNA was sequenced to determine the frequency and distribution of mitochondrial mutations in ACC tumors. Principal Findings Seventeen of 22 ACCs (77%) carried mitochondrial mutations, ranging in number from 1 to 37 mutations. A disproportionate number of mutations occurred in the D-loop. Twelve of 17 tumors (70.6%) carried mutations resulting in amino acid changes of translated proteins. Nine of 17 tumors (52.9%) with a mutation carried an amino acid changing mutation in the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase (NADH) complex. Conclusions/Significance Mitochondrial mutation is frequent in salivary ACCs. The high incidence of amino acid changing mutations implicates alterations in aerobic respiration in ACC carcinogenesis. D-loop mutations are of unclear significance, but may be associated with alterations in transcription or replication. PMID:20041111

  20. Standards for the assessment of salivary glands - an update.

    PubMed

    Zajkowski, Piotr; Ochal-Choińska, Aleksandra

    2016-06-01

    The paper is an update of 2011 Standards for Ultrasound Assessment of Salivary Glands, which were developed by the Polish Ultrasound Society. We have described current ultrasound technical requirements, assessment and measurement techniques as well as guidelines for ultrasound description. We have also discussed an ultrasound image of normal salivary glands as well as the most important pathologies, such as inflammation, sialosis, collagenosis, injuries and proliferative processes, with particular emphasis on lesions indicating high risk of malignancy. In acute bacterial inflammation, the salivary glands appear as hypoechoic, enlarged or normal-sized, with increased parenchymal flow. The echogenicity is significantly increased in viral infections. Degenerative lesions may be seen in chronic inflammations. Hyperechoic deposits with acoustic shadowing can be visualized in lithiasis. Parenchymal fibrosis is a dominant feature of sialosis. Sjögren syndrome produces different pictures of salivary gland parenchymal lesions at different stages of the disease. Pleomorphic adenomas are usually hypoechoic, well-defined and polycyclic in most cases. Warthin tumor usually presents as a hypoechoic, oval-shaped lesion with anechoic cystic spaces. Malignancies are characterized by blurred outlines, irregular shape, usually heterogeneous echogenicity and pathological neovascularization. The accompanying metastatic lesions are another indicator of malignancy, however, final diagnosis should be based on biopsy findings. PMID:27446602

  1. Salivary Metabolite Fingerprint of Type 1 Diabetes in Young Children.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Livia Roberta Piedade; Martins, Carla; Fidalgo, Tatiana Kelly Silva; Freitas-Fernandes, Liana Bastos; de Oliveira Torres, Rafaela; Soares, Aline Laignier; Almeida, Fabio C L; Valente, Ana Paula; de Souza, Ivete Pomarico Ribeiro

    2016-08-01

    Metabolomics is an important tool for the evaluation of the human condition, in both health or disease. This study analyzed the salivary components of type I diabetic children (DM1) under six years of age, to assess oral health related to diabetes control, as well as metabolite profiling using NMR. Partial least squared discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was used to compare healthy (HG) and uncontrolled DM1 subjects that demonstrated a separation between the groups with classificatory performance of ACC = 0.80, R(2) = 0.92, Q(2) = 0.02 and for DM1 children with glycemia >200 mg/dL of ACC = 0.74, R(2) = 0.91, Q(2) = 0.06. The metabolites that mostly contributed to the distinction between the groups in the loading factor were acetate, n-acetyl-sugar, lactate, and sugar. The univariate analysis showed a decreased salivary concentration of succinic acid and increased levels of lactate, acetate, and sucrose in uncontrolled and DM1 children with glycemia >200 mg/dL. The present study demonstrates that the salivary profile of DM1 differs from that of HG children. It appears that diabetes status control has an important effect on the salivary composition. PMID:27306956

  2. Simvastatin attenuates radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction in mice

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Liping; Yang, Xi; Chen, Jiayan; Ge, Xiaolin; Qin, Qin; Zhu, Hongcheng; Zhang, Chi; Sun, Xinchen

    2016-01-01

    Objective Statins are widely used lipid-lowering drugs, which have pleiotropic effects, such as anti-inflammation, and vascular protection. In our study, we investigated the radioprotective potential of simvastatin (SIM) in a murine model of radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction. Design Ninety-six Institute of Cancer Research mice were randomly divided into four groups: solvent + sham irradiation (IR) (Group I), SIM + sham IR (Group II), IR + solvent (Group III), and IR + SIM (Group IV). SIM (10 mg/kg body weight, three times per week) was administered intraperitoneally 1 week prior to IR through to the end of the experiment. Saliva and submandibular gland tissues were obtained for biochemical, morphological (hematoxylin and eosin staining and Masson’s trichrome), and Western blot analysis at 8 hours, 24 hours, and 4 weeks after head and neck IR. Results IR caused a significant reduction of salivary secretion and amylase activity but elevation of malondialdehyde. SIM remitted the reduction of saliva secretion and restored salivary amylase activity. The protective benefits of SIM may be attributed to scavenging malondialdehyde, remitting collagen deposition, and reducing and delaying the elevation of transforming growth factor β1 expression induced by radiation. Conclusion SIM may be clinically useful to alleviate side effects of radiotherapy on salivary gland. PMID:27471375

  3. Biomarkers of Selenium Status

    PubMed Central

    Combs, Gerald F.

    2015-01-01

    The essential trace element, selenium (Se), has multiple biological activities, which depend on the level of Se intake. Relatively low Se intakes determine the expression of selenoenzymes in which it serves as an essential constituent. Higher intakes have been shown to have anti-tumorigenic potential; and very high Se intakes can produce adverse effects. This hierarchy of biological activities calls for biomarkers informative at different levels of Se exposure. Some Se-biomarkers, such as the selenoproteins and particularly GPX3 and SEPP1, provide information about function directly and are of value in identifying nutritional Se deficiency and tracking responses of deficient individuals to Se-treatment. They are useful under conditions of Se intake within the range of regulated selenoprotein expression, e.g., for humans <55 μg/day and for animals <20 μg/kg diet. Other Se-biomarkers provide information indirectly through inferences based on Se levels of foods, tissues, urine or feces. They can indicate the likelihood of deficiency or adverse effects, but they do not provide direct evidence of either condition. Their value is in providing information about Se status over a wide range of Se intake, particularly from food forms. There is need for additional Se biomarkers particularly for assessing Se status in non-deficient individuals for whom the prospects of cancer risk reduction and adverse effects risk are the primary health considerations. This would include determining whether supranutritional intakes of Se may be required for maximal selenoprotein expression in immune surveillance cells. It would also include developing methods to determine low molecular weight Se-metabolites, i.e., selenoamino acids and methylated Se-metabolites, which to date have not been detectable in biological specimens. Recent analytical advances using tandem liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry suggest prospects for detecting these metabolites. PMID:25835046

  4. Characterization of the serological biomarkers associated with Sjögren’s syndrome in patients with recalcitrant dry eye disease

    PubMed Central

    Matossian, Cynthia; Micucci, Joan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose was to characterize the biomarkers associated with Sjögren’s syndrome (SS) identified in the serological samples of patients with recalcitrant dry eye disease; additionally, the modalities utilized in the treatment of dry eye disease were evaluated for subsets of patients with and without SS. Patients and methods Data for this retrospective, single-center, pilot study were based on a chart review of 48 sequential patients with recalcitrant dry eye who were evaluated for SS via serological analysis. Data presented include the presence of the autoantibodies identified through the serological biomarker analysis and identification of the concurrent dry eye treatment modalities. Results Eleven out of 48 patients (23%) tested positive for biomarkers associated with SS. Autoantibodies for salivary protein-1, parotid secretory protein 1, and carbonic anhydrase VI, markers associated with the early development of SS, were detected in 91% (ten out of eleven) of the patients who tested positive for SS, whereas 27% (three out of eleven) of patients tested positive for the traditional SS markers, SS-A and/or SS-B. Common treatment modalities utilized in SS patients included omega-3 supplements (82%), topical cyclosporine (74%), and artificial tear solutions (64%), as compared to omega-3 supplements (80%), hot-mask therapy (77%), and artificial tear solutions (77%), in SS-negative patients. Conclusion Evaluation for salivary protein-1, parotid secretory protein 1, and carbonic anhydrase VI biomarkers allows for identification of a subset of patients with biomarkers associated with SS that may not be identified through the traditional assessments (SS-A/SS-B). Earlier recognition of SS biomarkers allows for a confirmatory diagnosis and appropriate management of this systemic, progressive condition. PMID:27499612

  5. Quantitative PCR analysis of salivary pathogen burden in periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Salminen, Aino; Kopra, K. A. Elisa; Hyvärinen, Kati; Paju, Susanna; Mäntylä, Päivi; Buhlin, Kåre; Nieminen, Markku S.; Sinisalo, Juha; Pussinen, Pirkko J.

    2015-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate the value of salivary concentrations of four major periodontal pathogens and their combination in diagnostics of periodontitis. The Parogene study included 462 dentate subjects (mean age 62.9 ± 9.2 years) with coronary artery disease (CAD) diagnosis who underwent an extensive clinical and radiographic oral examination. Salivary levels of four major periodontal bacteria were measured by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Median salivary concentrations of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, and Prevotella intermedia, as well as the sum of the concentrations of the four bacteria, were higher in subjects with moderate to severe periodontitis compared to subjects with no to mild periodontitis. Median salivary Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans concentrations did not differ significantly between the subjects with no to mild periodontitis and subjects with moderate to severe periodontitis. In logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, gender, diabetes, and the number of teeth and implants, high salivary concentrations of P. gingivalis, T. forsythia, and P. intermedia were significantly associated with moderate to severe periodontitis. When looking at different clinical and radiographic parameters of periodontitis, high concentrations of P. gingivalis and T. forsythia were significantly associated with the number of 4–5 mm periodontal pockets, ≥6 mm pockets, and alveolar bone loss (ABL). High level of T. forsythia was associated also with bleeding on probing (BOP). The combination of the four bacteria, i.e., the bacterial burden index, was associated with moderate to severe periodontitis with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.40 (95% CI 1.39–4.13). When A. actinomycetemcomitans was excluded from the combination of the bacteria, the OR was improved to 2.61 (95% CI 1.51–4.52). The highest OR 3.59 (95% CI 1.94–6.63) was achieved when P. intermedia was further excluded from the combination and only the levels of P. gingivalis and

  6. Analysis of Candida albicans adhesion to salivary mucin.

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, M P; Haidaris, C G

    1993-01-01

    Clearance of Candida albicans from the oral cavity is thought to be mediated via specific receptor-ligand interactions between salivary constituents and the fungus. Since surfaces in the oral cavity are normally coated with a saliva-derived pellicle, specific interactions between salivary constituents and C. albicans may also contribute to adhesion of C. albicans to the oral mucosa and dental prostheses. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify salivary constituents to which C. albicans is capable of binding. A solid-phase overlay assay was used in which electrophoretically separated rat and human salivary constituents bound to membrane filters were incubated with radiolabelled C. albicans cells. C. albicans adhered to a single salivary component from each host. Correlation of cell-binding activity with specific monoclonal antibody (MAb)-binding activity indicated that the constituent bound by C. albicans in human saliva was low-molecular-weight mucin (MG2) and that in rat saliva was rat submandibular gland (RSMG) mucin. Further studies showed an identical cell hybridization signal and MAb colocalization by using RSMG ductal saliva and an aqueous RSMG extract in the solid-phase overlay assay. Analysis of cell binding to the aqueous extract of RSMG fractionated by anion-exchange chromatography demonstrated that C. albicans binding was restricted to an acidic subfraction of the RSMG extract, which also bound the RSMG mucin-specific MAb. The Candida-binding fraction contained predominantly RSMG mucin glycoprotein and also a noncovalently associated, chloroform-extractable material. Furthermore, we identified two strains of C. albicans which differed severalfold in the ability to bind RSMG mucin in the overlay assay. These results suggest that C. albicans binds to only a specific subfraction of RSMG mucin and that the two C. albicans strains tested differ in the ability to bind RSMG mucin subfractions. Images PMID:8478083

  7. Epidemiological and histopathological patterns of salivary gland tumors in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Sando, Zacharie; Fokouo, Jean Valentin; Mebada, Arlette Onomo; Djomou, François; NDjolo, Alexis; Oyono, Jean Louis Essame

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Tumors of salivary glands are rare. According to Johns and Goldsmith in 1989, their annual incidence is less than 1/100000 without noteworthy geographical gap. But other authors suggest that their distribution may vary according to the race and geographical location. In Cameroon, existing studies give incomplete data. Hence, we underwent this study in order to draw the general profile of salivary gland tumors in Cameroon. Methods A retrospective study was carried out on the period spanning from January 2000 to December 2010 (11 years). It was done in nine Pathology services of different hospitals in Yaoundé, Douala and Bamenda. We consulted the archive registers of those services, retaining any patient with salivary gland tumor, whatever the histological type or location. Information gathered was the year of diagnosis, the service, the age and sex, the site of the tumor (gland) the histological type and the benign/ malignant character. Results We recruited a total of 275 files. Women were 56% (154/275) and men 44% (121/275) of the sample. Fifty eight tumors were malignant (21.9%) while 217 were benign (78.1%). The overall mean age was 37.44 years, with extremes between 1 and 84 years. Pleomorphic adenoma (60.36%) was the most common benign tumor. Adenoid cystic carcinoma (31%), mucoepidermoid carcinoma (22.4%) and adenocarcinoma (19%) were the most common malignant tumors. Palate (66.7%), cheek (30%) and lips (3.3%) were the sites were the minor salivary glands were mostly involved. Conclusion The differences with western world authors suggest a geographical variability of salivary gland tumors. PMID:27217890

  8. Titratable acidity of beverages influences salivary pH recovery.

    PubMed

    Tenuta, Livia Maria Andaló; Fernández, Constanza Estefany; Brandão, Ana Carolina Siqueira; Cury, Jaime Aparecido

    2015-01-01

    A low pH and a high titratable acidity of juices and cola-based beverages are relevant factors that contribute to dental erosion, but the relative importance of these properties to maintain salivary pH at demineralizing levels for long periods of time after drinking is unknown. In this crossover study conducted in vivo, orange juice, a cola-based soft drink, and a 10% sucrose solution (negative control) were tested. These drinks differ in terms of their pH (3.5 ± 0.04, 2.5 ± 0.05, and 5.9 ± 0.1, respectively) and titratable acidity (3.17 ± 0.06, 0.57 ± 0.04 and < 0.005 mmols OH- to reach pH 5.5, respectively). Eight volunteers with a normal salivary flow rate and buffering capacity kept 15 mL of each beverage in their mouth for 10 s, expectorated it, and their saliva was collected after 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 s. The salivary pH, determined using a mini pH electrode, returned to the baseline value at 30 s after expectoration of the cola-based soft drink, but only at 90 s after expectoration of the orange juice. The salivary pH increased to greater than 5.5 at 15 s after expectoration of the cola drink and at 30 s after expectoration of the orange juice. These findings suggest that the titratable acidity of a beverage influences salivary pH values after drinking acidic beverages more than the beverage pH. PMID:25715032

  9. Biomarkers in Diabetic Retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Alicia J; Joglekar, Mugdha V; Hardikar, Anandwardhan A; Keech, Anthony C; O'Neal, David N; Januszewski, Andrzej S

    2015-01-01

    There is a global diabetes epidemic correlating with an increase in obesity. This coincidence may lead to a rise in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes. There is also an as yet unexplained increase in the incidence of type 1 diabetes, which is not related to adiposity. Whilst improved diabetes care has substantially improved diabetes outcomes, the disease remains a common cause of working age adult-onset blindness. Diabetic retinopathy is the most frequently occurring complication of diabetes; it is greatly feared by many diabetes patients. There are multiple risk factors and markers for the onset and progression of diabetic retinopathy, yet residual risk remains. Screening for diabetic retinopathy is recommended to facilitate early detection and treatment. Common biomarkers of diabetic retinopathy and its risk in clinical practice today relate to the visualization of the retinal vasculature and measures of glycemia, lipids, blood pressure, body weight, smoking, and pregnancy status. Greater knowledge of novel biomarkers and mediators of diabetic retinopathy, such as those related to inflammation and angiogenesis, has contributed to the development of additional therapeutics, in particular for late-stage retinopathy, including intra-ocular corticosteroids and intravitreal vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors ('anti-VEGFs') agents. Unfortunately, in spite of a range of treatments (including laser photocoagulation, intraocular steroids, and anti-VEGF agents, and more recently oral fenofibrate, a PPAR-alpha agonist lipid-lowering drug), many patients with diabetic retinopathy do not respond well to current therapeutics. Therefore, more effective treatments for diabetic retinopathy are necessary. New analytical techniques, in particular those related to molecular markers, are accelerating progress in diabetic retinopathy research. Given the increasing incidence and prevalence of diabetes, and the limited capacity of healthcare systems to screen and treat

  10. Cancer biomarker discovery and validation

    PubMed Central

    Goossens, Nicolas; Nakagawa, Shigeki; Sun, Xiaochen; Hoshida, Yujin

    2015-01-01

    With the emergence of genomic profiling technologies and selective molecular targeted therapies, biomarkers play an increasingly important role in the clinical management of cancer patients. Single gene/protein or multi-gene “signature”-based assays have been introduced to measure specific molecular pathway deregulations that guide therapeutic decision-making as predictive biomarkers. Genome-based prognostic biomarkers are also available for several cancer types for potential incorporation into clinical prognostic staging systems or practice guidelines. However, there is still a large gap between initial biomarker discovery studies and their clinical translation due to the challenges in the process of cancer biomarker development. In this review we summarize the steps of biomarker development, highlight key issues in successful validation and implementation, and overview representative examples in the oncology field. We also discuss regulatory issues and future perspectives in the era of big data analysis and precision medicine. PMID:26213686

  11. Early diagnosis of complex diseases by molecular biomarkers, network biomarkers, and dynamical network biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui; Wang, Xiangdong; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Chen, Luonan

    2014-05-01

    Many studies have been carried out for early diagnosis of complex diseases by finding accurate and robust biomarkers specific to respective diseases. In particular, recent rapid advance of high-throughput technologies provides unprecedented rich information to characterize various disease genotypes and phenotypes in a global and also dynamical manner, which significantly accelerates the study of biomarkers from both theoretical and clinical perspectives. Traditionally, molecular biomarkers that distinguish disease samples from normal samples are widely adopted in clinical practices due to their ease of data measurement. However, many of them suffer from low coverage and high false-positive rates or high false-negative rates, which seriously limit their further clinical applications. To overcome those difficulties, network biomarkers (or module biomarkers) attract much attention and also achieve better performance because a network (or subnetwork) is considered to be a more robust form to characterize diseases than individual molecules. But, both molecular biomarkers and network biomarkers mainly distinguish disease samples from normal samples, and they generally cannot ensure to identify predisease samples due to their static nature, thereby lacking ability to early diagnosis. Based on nonlinear dynamical theory and complex network theory, a new concept of dynamical network biomarkers (DNBs, or a dynamical network of biomarkers) has been developed, which is different from traditional static approaches, and the DNB is able to distinguish a predisease state from normal and disease states by even a small number of samples, and therefore has great potential to achieve "real" early diagnosis of complex diseases. In this paper, we comprehensively review the recent advances and developments on molecular biomarkers, network biomarkers, and DNBs in particular, focusing on the biomarkers for early diagnosis of complex diseases considering a small number of samples and high

  12. Different Wnt signals act through the Frizzled and RYK receptors during Drosophila salivary gland migration.

    PubMed

    Harris, Katherine E; Beckendorf, Steven K

    2007-06-01

    Guided cell migration is necessary for the proper function and development of many tissues, one of which is the Drosophila embryonic salivary gland. Here we show that two distinct Wnt signaling pathways regulate salivary gland migration. Early in migration, the salivary gland responds to a WNT4-Frizzled signal for proper positioning within the embryo. Disruption of this signal, through mutations in Wnt4, frizzled or frizzled 2, results in misguided salivary glands that curve ventrally. Furthermore, disruption of downstream components of the canonical Wnt pathway, such as dishevelled or Tcf, also results in ventrally curved salivary glands. Analysis of a second Wnt signal, which acts through the atypical Wnt receptor Derailed, indicates a requirement for Wnt5 signaling late in salivary gland migration. WNT5 is expressed in the central nervous system and acts as a repulsive signal, needed to keep the migrating salivary gland on course. The receptor for WNT5, Derailed, is expressed in the actively migrating tip of the salivary glands. In embryos mutant for derailed or Wnt5, salivary gland migration is disrupted; the tip of the gland migrates abnormally toward the central nervous system. Our results suggest that both the Wnt4-frizzled pathway and a separate Wnt5-derailed pathway are needed for proper salivary gland migration. PMID:17507403

  13. Biomarker Identification Using Text Mining

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui; Liu, Chunmei

    2012-01-01

    Identifying molecular biomarkers has become one of the important tasks for scientists to assess the different phenotypic states of cells or organisms correlated to the genotypes of diseases from large-scale biological data. In this paper, we proposed a text-mining-based method to discover biomarkers from PubMed. First, we construct a database based on a dictionary, and then we used a finite state machine to identify the biomarkers. Our method of text mining provides a highly reliable approach to discover the biomarkers in the PubMed database. PMID:23197989

  14. Biomarkers in Prostate Cancer Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Mukesh; Patel, Payal; Verma, Mudit

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the etiology of a disease such as prostate cancer may help in identifying populations at high risk, timely intervention of the disease, and proper treatment. Biomarkers, along with exposure history and clinical data, are useful tools to achieve these goals. Individual risk and population incidence of prostate cancer result from the intervention of genetic susceptibility and exposure. Biochemical, epigenetic, genetic, and imaging biomarkers are used to identify people at high risk for developing prostate cancer. In cancer epidemiology, epigenetic biomarkers offer advantages over other types of biomarkers because they are expressed against a person's genetic background and environmental exposure, and because abnormal events occur early in cancer development, which includes several epigenetic alterations in cancer cells. This article describes different biomarkers that have potential use in studying the epidemiology of prostate cancer. We also discuss the characteristics of an ideal biomarker for prostate cancer, and technologies utilized for biomarker assays. Among epigenetic biomarkers, most reports indicate GSTP1 hypermethylation as the diagnostic marker for prostate cancer; however, NKX2-5, CLSTN1, SPOCK2, SLC16A12, DPYS, and NSE1 also have been reported to be regulated by methylation mechanisms in prostate cancer. Current challenges in utilization of biomarkers in prostate cancer diagnosis and epidemiologic studies and potential solutions also are discussed. PMID:24213111

  15. Chiral Biomarkers in Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2010-01-01

    The chirality of organic molecules with the asymmetric location of group radicals was discovered in 1848 by Louis Pasteur during his investigations of the rotation of the plane of polarization of light by crystals of sodium ammonium paratartrate. It is well established that the amino acids in proteins are exclusively Levorotary (L-aminos) and the sugars in DNA and RNA are Dextrorotary (D-sugars). This phenomenon of homochirality of biological polymers is a fundamental property of all life known on Earth. Furthermore, abiotic production mechanisms typically yield recemic mixtures (i.e. equal amounts of the two enantiomers). When amino acids were first detected in carbonaceous meteorites, it was concluded that they were racemates. This conclusion was taken as evidence that they were extraterrestrial and produced by abiologically. Subsequent studies by numerous researchers have revealed that many of the amino acids in carbonaceous meteorites exhibit a significant L-excess. The observed chirality is much greater than that produced by any currently known abiotic processes (e.g. Linearly polarized light from neutron stars; Circularly polarized ultraviolet light from faint stars; optically active quartz powders; inclusion polymerization in clay minerals; Vester-Ulbricht hypothesis of parity violations, etc.). This paper compares the measured chirality detected in the amino acids of carbonaceous meteorites with the effect of these diverse abiotic processes. IT is concluded that the levels observed are inconsistent with post-arrival biological contamination or with any of the currently known abiotic production mechanisms. However, they are consistent with ancient biological processes on the meteorite parent body. This paper will consider these chiral biomarkers in view of the detection of possible microfossils found in the Orgueil and Murchison carbonaceous meteorites. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) data obtained on these morphological biomarkers will be

  16. Biomarkers in Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yim, Eun-Kyoung; Park, Jong-Sup

    2006-01-01

    Cervical cancer, a potentially preventable disease, remains the second most common malignancy in women worldwide. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the single most important etiological agent in cervical cancer, contributing to neoplastic progression through the action of viral oncoproteins, mainly E6 and E7. Cervical screening programs using Pap smear testing have dramatically improved cervical cancer incidence and reduced deaths, but cervical cancer still remains a global health burden. The biomarker discovery for accurate detection and diagnosis of cervical carcinoma and its malignant precursors (collectively referred to as high-grade cervical disease) represents one of the current challenges in clinical medicine and cytopathology. PMID:19690652

  17. Human Salivary Gland Stem Cells Functionally Restore Radiation Damaged Salivary Glands.

    PubMed

    Pringle, Sarah; Maimets, Martti; van der Zwaag, Marianne; Stokman, Monique A; van Gosliga, Djoke; Zwart, Erik; Witjes, Max J H; de Haan, Gerald; van Os, Ronald; Coppes, Rob P

    2016-03-01

    Adult stem cells are often touted as therapeutic agents in the regenerative medicine field, however data detailing both the engraftment and functional capabilities of solid tissue derived human adult epithelial stem cells is scarce. Here we show the isolation of adult human salivary gland (SG) stem/progenitor cells and demonstrate at the single cell level in vitro self-renewal and differentiation into multilineage organoids. We also show in vivo functionality, long-term engraftment, and functional restoration in a xenotransplantation model. Indeed, transplanted human salisphere-derived cells restored saliva production and greatly improved the regenerative potential of irradiated SGs. Further selection for c-Kit expression enriched for cells with enhanced regenerative potencies. Interestingly, interaction of transplanted cells with the recipient SG may also be involved in functional recovery. Thus, we show for the first time that salispheres cultured from human SGs contain stem/progenitor cells capable of self-renewal and differentiation and rescue of saliva production. Our study underpins the therapeutic promise of salisphere cell therapy for the treatment of xerostomia. PMID:26887347

  18. The presence in salivary secretions of Glossina morsitans of stages of Trypanosoma (Trypanozoon) brucei other than those occurring in the salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Otieno, L H

    1978-01-01

    Using the bat wing membrane technique to study salivary secretions of Glossina morsitans infected with Trypanosoma (Trypanozoon) brucei, it was shown that flies extrude infected salivary secretions as early as day six after an infective blood meal. The non-salivary-gland stages of T. (T.) brucei were extruded intermittently and flies infected with such trypanosomes were not all destined to develop metacyclic infections. Once the salivary glands were involved, the trypanosomes appeared in the secretions each time the flies were tested. Some of the flies with gut infections, but no demonstrable salivary gland involvement, transmitted T. brucei to mice and it is suggested that these infections were intiated by some of the proventricular trypanosomes secreted with saliva. PMID:569915

  19. STRESS PROTEINS: POTENTIAL AS MULTITIERED BIOMARKERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The biomarker concept involves the use of biochemical, cellular, and physiological parameters as diagnostic screening tools in environmental monitoring. lthough biomarkers have been used in a variety of contexts this article deals specifically with the application of biomarkers f...

  20. Slug silencing inhibited perineural invasion through regulation of EMMPRIN expression in human salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wu, Baolei; Wei, Jianhua; Hu, Zhiqiang; Shan, Chun; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Chenping; Yang, Xi; Yang, Xinjie; Lei, Delin

    2016-02-01

    Salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma (SACC) is the most frequent salivary gland malignancy with a unique characteristic that has been named perineural invasion (PNI). EMMPRIN is a transmembrane glycoprotein that has been demonstrated to promote PNI in SACC. Slug, one of the most effective promoters of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), has been found to be associated with PNI in SACC. The aim of the present study was to investigate the roles and relationships of Slug, EMMPRIN, and E-cadherin in the PNI process of SACC. The expression levels of Slug, EMMPRIN, and E-cadherin in 115 primary SACC cases were statistically analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Simultaneously, the SACC cell line SACC-83 was transfected with recombinant plasmids of silencing Slug (si-Slug) and/or silencing EMMPRIN (si-EMMPRIN). The functions of Slug and EMMPRIN in the EMT and PNI process were assessed by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR), western blotting, morphological observation, scratch test, migration assay, and in vitro perineural invasion assay. The immunohistochemical statistics revealed that the high expression of Slug and EMMPRIN and the low expression of E-cadherin were significantly associated with the PNI of SACC (P < 0.05). Slug expression was significantly associated with EMMPRIN expression (P < 0.05), and Slug expression and EMMPRIN expression were both significantly negatively associated with E-cadherin expression (P < 0.05). Slug and EMMPRIN silencing both significantly inhibited EMMPRIN expression but promoted E-cadherin expression in SACC-83 cells (P < 0.01). The series of in vitro assays revealed that silencing of Slug, EMMPRIN, or both induced cell morphology changes and inhibited tumor cell motility and PNI ability in SACC-83 cells (P < 0.01). These results suggested that Slug silencing could inhibit the EMT process by downregulating EMMPRIN and then upregulating E-cadherin in the PNI process of SACC. The present study indicated that Slug

  1. Two Ligands Signal Through the Drosophila PDGF/VEGF Receptor to Ensure Proper Salivary Gland Positioning

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Katherine E.; Schnittke, Nikolai; Beckendorf, Steven K.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY The Drosophila embryonic salivary gland is a migrating tissue that undergoes a stereotypic pattern of migration into the embryo. We demonstrate that the migratory path of the salivary gland requires the PDGF/VEGF pathway. The PDGF/VEGF receptor, Pvr, is strongly expressed in the salivary glands, and Pvr mutations cause abnormal ventral curving of the glands, suggesting that Pvr is involved in gland migration. Although the Pvr ligands, Pvf1 and Pvf2, have distinct expression patterns in the Drosophila embryo, mutations for either one of the ligands result in salivary gland migration defects similar to those seen in embryos that lack Pvr. Rescue experiments indicate that the PDGF/VEGF pathway functions autonomously in the salivary gland. The results of this study demonstrate that the Drosophila PDGF/VEGF pathway is essential for proper positioning of the salivary glands. PMID:17462868

  2. Prevention of irradiation-induced salivary hypofunction by rapamycin in swine parotid glands.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhao; Pang, Baoxing; Iglesias-Bartolome, Ramiro; Wu, Xiaoshan; Hu, Lei; Zhang, Chunmei; Wang, Jinsong; Gutkind, J Silvio; Wang, Songlin

    2016-04-12

    Radiotherapy is commonly used in patients with oral cavity and pharyngeal cancers, usually resulting in irreversible salivary hypofunction. Currently management of radiation damage to salivary glands still remains a great challenge. Recent studies show that activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) occurs in salivary gland lesions, making it possible to apply mTOR inhibitor for treatment. Our results indicate inhibition of mTOR by rapamycin significantly alleviated irradiation-induced salivary hypofunction by restoring 46% salivary flow rate and protecting histological structures in swine. Furthermore, rapamycin protected human submandibular gland cell line (HSG) from irradiation-induced cell depletion and loss of cell proliferation capacity. These findings lay the foundation for a new clinical application of rapamycin to prevent irradiation-induced salivary hypofunction. PMID:26958808

  3. Prevention of irradiation-induced salivary hypofunction by rapamycin in swine parotid glands

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zhao; Pang, Baoxing; Iglesias-Bartolome, Ramiro; Wu, Xiaoshan; Hu, Lei; Zhang, Chunmei; Wang, Jinsong; Silvio Gutkind, J; Wang, Songlin

    2016-01-01

    Radiotherapy is commonly used in patients with oral cavity and pharyngeal cancers, usually resulting in irreversible salivary hypofunction. Currently management of radiation damage to salivary glands still remains a great challenge. Recent studies show that activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) occurs in salivary gland lesions, making it possible to apply mTOR inhibitor for treatment. Our results indicate inhibition of mTOR by rapamycin significantly alleviated irradiation-induced salivary hypofunction by restoring 46% salivary flow rate and protecting histological structures in swine. Furthermore, rapamycin protected human submandibular gland cell line (HSG) from irradiation-induced cell depletion and loss of cell proliferation capacity. These findings lay the foundation for a new clinical application of rapamycin to prevent irradiation-induced salivary hypofunction. PMID:26958808

  4. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the parotid gland associated with salivary calculi: An unusual presentation.

    PubMed

    Shenoy, Vijendra S; Kamath, M Panduranga; Sreedharan, Suja; Suhas, S S

    2015-01-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACC) of the head and neck are relatively rare tumors, consisting of approximately 10-15% of all salivary gland neoplasms. ACC, a slow-growing aggressive malignant tumor of salivary gland commonly seen in the submandibular, sublingual, minor salivary glands is seldom found in the parotid. Calculus, the common cause of salivary gland dysfunction is usually identified in submandibular salivary gland because of its duct anatomy and physiochemical characteristic serous secretion. We report an unusual case of co-existent presentation of ACC with salivary calculi in the parotid gland which is never been reported in the literature. Co-existence of ductal calculi and ACC is rare. Presence of parotid calculus could be due to long standing ductal obstruction by the slow-growing ACC of the parotid or other possibility is that the malignancy could have developed because of chronic irritation by parotid calculi. Confirmatory studies are required to understand its mutual pathological association. PMID:26458630

  5. Biomarkers in melanoma.

    PubMed

    Griewank, Klaus G

    2016-01-01

    Malignant melanoma remains the skin cancer with the highest number of mortalities worldwide. While early diagnosis and complete surgical excision remain the best possibility for curing disease, prognosis at the stage of metastasis is still poor. Recent years have brought about considerable advances in terms of understanding the pathogenesis of melanoma and treating advanced disease. The discovery of activating BRAF mutations in around 50% of tumors has led to the introduction of targeted therapies downregulating BRAF signaling output. These have been further refined as combination therapies, which by targeting multiple targets have further improved the clinical outcome. A comparable, potentially even superior therapeutic alternative has been the introduction of immunotherapeutic approaches, including PD-1 and CTLA-4 checkpoint blockade therapies. Despite all genetic knowledge acquired in recent years, a clearly applicable prognostic signature of clinical value has not been established. General prognostic assessment of cutaneous melanoma remains based on clinical and pathological criteria (most importantly tumor thickness). The main challenges lying ahead are to establish a reliable prognostic test effectively determining which tumors will metastasize. Additionally establishing biomarkers which will allow patients to be stratified according to the most promising systemic therapy (immunotherapies and/or BRAF inhibitor therapies) is of utmost importance for patients with metastasized disease. Identifying serum biomarkers enabling disease to be monitored as well as determining tumor properties (i.e. resistance) would also be of great value. While initial results have proven promising, there remains much work to be done. PMID:27467728

  6. The salivary gland chromosomes of Anopheles pseudopunctipennis pseudopunctipennis*

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Richard H.; Kitzmiller, J. B.; Chowdaiah, B. N.

    1965-01-01

    The authors present a salivary chromosome map of Anopheles p. pseudopunctipennis, an important malaria vector in the Americas. The salivary chromosomes appear as a short metacentric X and two metacentric autosomes. The arms of chromosome 2 are of almost equal length, but the right arm of chromosome 3 is almost twice as long as the left. The metacentric X is the first to be described in the subgenus Anopheles. The banding patterns of the autosomes show many similarities to those of the North American maculipennis complex and to those of the Central American A. vestitipennis and A. neomaculipalpus. Three chromosomal aberrations, one in the X and two in the right arm of chromosome 3, occur commonly in several different populations. ImagesFIG. 3FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7 PMID:5295407

  7. Surgery for Malignant Sublingual and Minor Salivary Gland Neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Patrick J; Ferris, Robert L

    2016-01-01

    Malignant sublingual gland neoplasms are rare, early-stage neoplasms presenting as painless non-ulcerated masses in the antero-lateral floor of the mouth. The majority of patients present with advanced disease, with symptoms of pain or anaesthesia of the tongue. Malignant minor salivary gland neoplasms are more common, the majority (>80%) of which present in the oral cavity, most frequently in the palatal area, as painless masses or as obstructive symptoms in the head and neck region. The most frequent pathologies are adenoid cystic carcinoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma (>85%), with the majority presenting at an advanced stage (III/IV). Wide tumour-free surgical margin excision is the treatment of choice, followed by radiotherapy, after discussion of the multidisciplinary head and neck cancer tumour board. Improvements in survival and quality of life have been achieved since the introduction of endoscopic and robotic surgeries for many minor salivary gland malignancies. PMID:27092950

  8. The Role of Autophagy in Salivary Gland Homeostasis and Stress Responses

    PubMed Central

    Morgan-Bathke, M.; Lin, H.H.; Ann, D.K.

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is a catabolic process that has been shown to have a role in many cellular processes including the removal of excessive or damaged proteins and protein aggregates. The salivary glands play a critical role in oral health, and their secretory capacity may be critically intertwined with the autophagic process. This review describes the role of autophagy activation in normal salivary gland homeostasis and during the glandular stress responses of therapeutic radiation, ductal ligation, autoimmunity, and salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma. PMID:26092378

  9. Are gingival and periodontal conditions related to salivary gland flow rates in healthy individuals?

    PubMed

    Crow, H C; Ship, J A

    1995-11-01

    Some have suggested that gingival and periodontal health is related to salivary gland function; however, there are few data to support this hypothesis. The purpose of this study was to determine if correlations existed between major salivary gland flow rates and gingival and periodontal conditions in people of different ages. The results suggest that there is no consistent relationship between major salivary gland flow rates and gingival and periodontal conditions in healthy people. PMID:7499648

  10. Prevalence and associated survival of high-risk HPV-related adenoid cystic carcinoma of the salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Qian, Xu; Kaufmann, Andreas M; Chen, Chao; Tzamalis, Georgios; Hofmann, Veit M; Keilholz, Ulrich; Hummel, Michael; Albers, Andreas E

    2016-08-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma (SACC) is a rare malignancy, but a frequent subtype in minor and major salivary glands. The molecular alterations or biomarkers that underlie its development and progression as well as therapy outcomes are poorly characterized. The main study goal was to investigate reliable biomarkers and patient-related factors that may have impact on recurrence and long-term survival of SACC. The prevalence of human papilloma virus (HPV) in SACC was determined by HPV-DNA genotyping and p16 immunostaining. Epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR), p53 and Ki-67 expression were also evaluated. Twenty-eight (42%) of 67 patients were HPV-DNA positive. Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that SACC patients with metastases (P=0.03) had a poor overall survival (OS) and a shorter recurrence-free survival (P<0.001). Positive resection margins significantly predicted shorter recurrence-free survival (P=0.01). In the multivariate analysis, non-metastatic disease (P=0.033) and p16 positivity (P=0.005) have shown their prediction value for OS while non-metastatic disease (P=0.002), HPV positivity (P=0.041) and negative resection margin predicted a better recurrence-free survival. The present study documents for the first time the positivity for HPV infection and overexpression of certain markers (p16, Ki-67, EGFR and p53) used in diagnostics in SACC as well as characterizes clinical entities. These factors might be exploited in the future as biomarkers for its prognostic value. Using the clinical and pathological basis for predicting different outcomes could significantly facilitate SACC stratification and potentially directing treatment. PMID:27279281

  11. Calcium signalling in salivary gland physiology and dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Ambudkar, Indu S

    2016-06-01

    Studies over the past four decades have established that Ca(2+) is a critical factor in control of salivary gland function and have led to identification of the critical components of this process. The major ion transport mechanisms and ion channels that are involved in fluid secretion have also been established. The key event in activation of fluid secretion is an increase in [Ca(2+) ]i triggered by inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3 )-induced release of Ca(2+) from ER via the IP3 receptor (IP3 R). IP3 Rs determine the site of initiation and the pattern of the [Ca(2+) ]i signal in the cell. However, Ca(2+) entry into the cell is required to sustain the elevation of [Ca(2+) ]i and fluid secretion and is mediated by the store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) mechanism. Orai1, TRPC1, TRPC3 and STIM1 have been identified as critical components of SOCE in these cells. Cells finely tune the generation and amplification of [Ca(2+) ]i signals for regulation of cell function. An important emerging area is the concept that unregulated [Ca(2+) ]i signals in cells can directly cause cell damage, dysfunction and disease. Alternatively, aberrant [Ca(2+) ]i signals can also amplify and increase the rates of cell damage. Such defects in Ca(2+) signalling have been described in salivary glands in conjunction with radiation-induced loss of salivary gland function as well as in the salivary defects associated with the autoimmune exocrinopathy Sjögren's syndrome. Such defects have been associated with altered function or expression of key Ca(2+) signalling components, such as STIM proteins and TRP channels. These studies offer new avenues for examining the mechanisms underlying the disease and development of novel clinical targets and therapeutic strategies. PMID:26592972

  12. Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma in a Minor Salivary Gland in a Child

    PubMed Central

    Simsek, Sera; Cakur, Binali

    2013-01-01

    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC), one of the most common salivary gland malignancies, is rare in children. MEC mainly occurs in the parotid gland, along with minor glands being the second common site, particularly in palate. Clinical, histological, and radiological findings of palatal MEC in a 12-year-old girl are presented with three-year follow-up. Pathologic lesions must be considered in differential diagnoses of intraoral asymptomatic lesions, and their detailed inspection should be taken into consideration. PMID:23970980

  13. Lithium Induces Glycogen Accumulation in Salivary Glands of the Rat.

    PubMed

    Souza, D N; Mendes, F M; Nogueira, F N; Simões, A; Nicolau, J

    2016-02-01

    Lithium is administered for the treatment of mood and bipolar disorder. The aim of this study was to verify whether treatment with different concentrations of lithium may affect the glycogen metabolism in the salivary glands of the rats when compared with the liver. Mobilization of glycogen in salivary glands is important for the process of secretion. Two sets of experiments were carried out, that is, in the first, the rats received drinking water supplemented with LiCl (38,25 and 12 mM of LiCl for 15 days) and the second experiment was carried out by intraperitoneal injection of LiCl solution (12 mg/kg and 45 mg LiCl/kg body weight) for 3 days. The active form of glycogen phosphorylase was not affected by treatment with LiCl considering the two experiments. The active form of glycogen synthase presented higher activity in the submandibular glands of rats treated with 25 and 38 mM LiCl and in the liver, with 25 mM LiCl. Glycogen level was higher than that of control in the submandibular glands of rats receiving 38 and 12 mM LiCl, in the parotid of rats receiving 25 and 38 mM, and in the liver of rats receiving 12 mM LiCl. The absolute value of glycogen for the submandibular treated with 25 mM LiCl, and the liver treated with 38 mM LiCl, was higher than the control value, although not statistically significant for these tissues. No statistically significant difference was found in the submandibular and parotid salivary glands for protein concentration when comparing experimental and control groups. We concluded that LiCl administered to rats influences the metabolism of glycogen in salivary glands. PMID:26155966

  14. Estimation of salivary nitric oxide in oral precancer patients.

    PubMed

    Metgud, R; Anandani, C; Singh, K

    2015-05-01

    The role of nitric oxide (NO) in the initiation, promotion and progression of cancer has been the subject of speculation and conflicting reports in the literature. The high incidence of oral cancer and precancer has been linked to tobacco chewing and smoking habits; NO is considered an indicator of tobacco-related diseases. We compared salivary NO levels in oral precancer and normal patients. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected from 15 patients with oral precancer (group 1) and 15 healthy age and sex matched subjects (group 2). Salivary nitrite levels were estimated using a colorimetric method and a spectrophotometer. The salivary nitrite concentration of group 2 (median = 4.21 μg/ml) was significantly less than for group 1 (median = 12.91 μg/ml). We have added evidence concerning involvement of NO in the pathogenesis of oral cancer, but whether it is a potentially carcinogenic agent at the concentration at which it is present in oral precancer patients requires further evaluation. PMID:25831210

  15. Characterization of salivary alpha-amylase binding to Streptococcus sanguis

    SciTech Connect

    Scannapieco, F.A.; Bergey, E.J.; Reddy, M.S.; Levine, M.J. )

    1989-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the major salivary components which interact with oral bacteria and to determine the mechanism(s) responsible for their binding to the bacterial surface. Strains of Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus mutans, and Actinomyces viscosus were incubated for 2 h in freshly collected human submandibular-sublingual saliva (HSMSL) or parotid saliva (HPS), and bound salivary components were eluted with 2% sodium dodecyl sulfate. By sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western transfer, alpha-amylase was the prominent salivary component eluted from S. sanguis. Studies with {sup 125}I-labeled HSMSL or {sup 125}I-labeled HPS also demonstrated a component with an electrophoretic mobility identical to that of alpha-amylase which bound to S. sanguis. Purified alpha-amylase from human parotid saliva was radiolabeled and found to bind to strains of S. sanguis genotypes 1 and 3 and S. mitis genotype 2, but not to strains of other species of oral bacteria. Binding of ({sup 125}I)alpha-amylase to streptococci was saturable, calcium independent, and inhibitable by excess unlabeled alpha-amylases from a variety of sources, but not by secretory immunoglobulin A and the proline-rich glycoprotein from HPS. Reduced and alkylated alpha-amylase lost enzymatic and bacterial binding activities. Binding was inhibited by incubation with maltotriose, maltooligosaccharides, limit dextrins, and starch.

  16. ATP Hydrolyzing Salivary Enzymes of Caterpillars Suppress Plant Defenses

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shuang; Peiffer, Michelle; Luthe, Dawn S.; Felton, Gary W.

    2012-01-01

    The oral secretions of herbivores are important recognition cues that can be used by plants to mediate induced defenses. In this study, a degradation of adenosine-5′-triphosphate (ATP) in tomato leaves was detected after treatment with Helicoverpa zea saliva. Correspondingly, a high level of ATPase activity in saliva was detected and three ATP hydrolyzing enzymes: apyrase, ATP synthase and ATPase 13A1 were identified in salivary glands. To determine the functions of these proteins in mediating defenses, they were cloned from H. zea and expressed in Escherichia coli. By applying the purified expressed apyrase, ATP synthase or ATPase 13A1 to wounded tomato leaves, it was determined that these ATP hydrolyzing enzymes suppressed the defensive genes regulated by the jasmonic acid and ethylene pathways in tomato plant. Suppression of glandular trichome production was also observed after treatment. Blood-feeding arthropods employ 5′-nucleotidase family of apyrases to circumvent host responses and the H. zea apyrase, is also a member of this family. The comparatively high degree of sequence similarity of the H. zea salivary apyrase with mosquito apyrases suggests a broader evolutionary role for salivary apyrases than previously envisioned. PMID:22848670

  17. Rapamycin delays salivary gland atrophy following ductal ligation

    PubMed Central

    Bozorgi, S S; Proctor, G B; Carpenter, G H

    2014-01-01

    Salivary gland atrophy is a frequent consequence of head and neck cancer irradiation therapy but can potentially be regulated through the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Excretory duct ligation of the mouse submandibular gland provokes severe glandular atrophy causing activation of mTOR. This study aims to discover the effects of blocking mTOR signaling in ligation-induced atrophic salivary glands. Following 1 week of unilateral submandibular excretory duct ligation: gland weights were significantly reduced, 4E-BP1 and S6rp were activated, and tissue morphology revealed typical signs of atrophy. However, 3 days following ligation with rapamycin treatment, a selective mTOR inhibitor, gland weights were maintained, 4E-BP1 and S6rp phosphorylation was inhibited, and there were morphological signs of recovery from atrophy. However, following 5 and 7 days of ligation and rapamycin treatment, glands expressed active mTOR and showed signs of considerable atrophy. This evidence suggests that inhibition of mTOR by rapamycin delays ligation-induced atrophy of salivary glands. PMID:24675464

  18. Characterization of salivary alpha-amylase binding to Streptococcus sanguis.

    PubMed Central

    Scannapieco, F A; Bergey, E J; Reddy, M S; Levine, M J

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the major salivary components which interact with oral bacteria and to determine the mechanism(s) responsible for their binding to the bacterial surface. Strains of Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus mutans, and Actinomyces viscosus were incubated for 2 h in freshly collected human submandibular-sublingual saliva (HSMSL) or parotid saliva (HPS), and bound salivary components were eluted with 2% sodium dodecyl sulfate. By sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western transfer, alpha-amylase (EC 3.2.1.1) was the prominent salivary component eluted from S. sanguis. Studies with 125I-labeled HSMSL or 125I-labeled HPS also demonstrated a component with an electrophoretic mobility identical to that of alpha-amylase which bound to S. sanguis. Purified alpha-amylase from human parotid saliva was radiolabeled and found to bind to strains of S. sanguis genotypes 1 and 3 and S. mitis genotype 2, but not to strains of other species of oral bacteria. Binding of [125I]alpha-amylase to streptococci was saturable, calcium independent, and inhibitable by excess unlabeled alpha-amylases from a variety of sources, but not by secretory immunoglobulin A and the proline-rich glycoprotein from HPS. Reduced and alkylated alpha-amylase lost enzymatic and bacterial binding activities. Binding was inhibited by incubation with maltotriose, maltooligosaccharides, limit dextrins, and starch. Images PMID:2788139

  19. Apoptosis in Early Salivary Gland Duct Morphogenesis and Lumen Formation.

    PubMed

    Teshima, T H N; Wells, K L; Lourenço, S V; Tucker, A S

    2016-03-01

    Salivary glands are essential for the maintenance of oral health by providing lubrication and antimicrobial protection to the mucosal and tooth surfaces. Saliva is modified and delivered to the oral cavity by a complex multifunctional ductal system. During development, these ducts form as solid tubes, which undergo cavitation to create lumens. Apoptosis has been suggested to play a role in this cavitation process along with changes in cell polarity. Here, we show that apoptosis occurs from the very earliest stages of mouse salivary gland development, much earlier than previously reported. Apoptotic cells were observed in the center of the first epithelial stalk at early-stage embryonic day 12.5 (E12.5) according to both TUNEL staining and cleaved caspase 3 immunofluorescence. The presumptive lumen space was highlighted by the colocalization of a predictive lumen marker, cytokeratin 7. At E14.5, as lumens start to form throughout the glands, apoptotic expression decreased while cytokeratin 7 remained positive. In vitro inhibition of all caspases in E12.5 and E13.5 salivary glands resulted in wider ducts, as compared with the controls, and a defect in lumen formation. In contrast, no such defect in lumen formation was observed at E14.5. Our data indicate that apoptosis is involved during early stages of gland formation (E12.5 onward) and appears important for shaping the forming ducts. PMID:26628486

  20. Botulinum toxin A inhibits salivary secretion of rabbit submandibular gland.

    PubMed

    Shan, Xiao-Feng; Xu, Hui; Cai, Zhi-Gang; Wu, Li-Ling; Yu, Guang-Yan

    2013-12-01

    Botulinum toxin A (BTXA) has been used in several clinical trials to treat excessive glandular secretion; however, the precise mechanism of its action on the secretory function of salivary gland has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of BTXA on secretion of submandibular gland in rabbits and to identify its mechanism of action on the secretory function of salivary gland. At 12 weeks after injection with 5 units of BTXA, we found a significant decrease in the saliva flow from submandibular glands, while the salivary amylase concentration increased. Morphological analysis revealed reduction in the size of acinar cells with intracellular accumulation of secretory granules that coalesced to form a large ovoid structure. Expression of M3-muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M3 receptor) and aquaporin-5 (AQP5) mRNA decreased after BTXA treatment, and distribution of AQP5 in the apical membrane was reduced at 1, 2 and 4 weeks after BTXA injection. Furthermore, BTXA injection was found to induce apoptosis of acini. These results indicate that BTXA decreases the fluid secretion of submandibular glands and increases the concentration of amylase in saliva. Decreased expression of M3 receptor and AQP5, inhibition of AQP5 translocation, and cell apoptosis might involve in BTXA-reduced fluid secretion of submandibular glands. PMID:24158141

  1. Iron Binding Modulates Candidacidal Properties of Salivary Histatin 5

    PubMed Central

    Puri, S.; Li, R.; Ruszaj, D.; Tati, S.

    2015-01-01

    Salivary protein histatin 5 (Hst 5) is fungicidal toward Candida albicans, the causative agent of oropharyngeal candidiasis. However, its activity in saliva is compromised by salivary protease-mediated degradation and interaction with salivary salts. Hst 5 has also been shown to bind various metals in saliva—namely, Zn, Cu, and Ni. Surprisingly, interactions of Hst 5 with Fe have not been studied, although iron is one of the most abundant metals present in saliva. Using circular dichroism, we show that Hst 5 can bind up to 10 equivalents of iron as measured by loss of its alpha-helical secondary structure that is normally observed for it in trifluoroethylene. A significant decrease in the candidacidal ability of Hst 5 was observed upon iron binding, with increasing iron concentrations being inversely proportional to Hst 5 killing activity. Binding assays showed that the decrease in killing was likely a result of reduced binding (10-fold reduction) of Fe–Hst 5 to C. albicans cells. Protease stability analysis showed that Fe–Hst 5 was completely resistant to trypsin digestion. In contrast, zinc binding had limited effects on Hst 5 fungicidal activity or protease susceptibility. RNA sequencing results identified changes in iron uptake genes in Hst 5–treated C. albicans cells. Our findings thus suggest that consequences of Hst 5 binding iron not only affect candidacidal ability and proteolyic stability of Hst 5, but may also contribute to a novel killing mechanism involving interference with cellular iron metabolism. PMID:25365968

  2. Salivary markers of oxidative stress in oral diseases

    PubMed Central

    Tóthová, L'ubomíra; Kamodyová, Natália; Červenka, Tomáš; Celec, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Saliva is an interesting alternative diagnostic body fluid with several specific advantages over blood. These include non-invasive and easy collection and related possibility to do repeated sampling. One of the obstacles that hinders the wider use of saliva for diagnosis and monitoring of systemic diseases is its composition, which is affected by local oral status. However, this issue makes saliva very interesting for clinical biochemistry of oral diseases. Periodontitis, caries, oral precancerosis, and other local oral pathologies are associated with oxidative stress. Several markers of lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and DNA damage induced by reactive oxygen species can be measured in saliva. Clinical studies have shown an association with oral pathologies at least for some of the established salivary markers of oxidative stress. This association is currently limited to the population level and none of the widely used markers can be applied for individual diagnostics. Oxidative stress seems to be of local oral origin, but it is currently unclear whether it is caused by an overproduction of reactive oxygen species due to inflammation or by the lack of antioxidants. Interventional studies, both, in experimental animals as well as humans indicate that antioxidant treatment could prevent or slow-down the progress of periodontitis. This makes the potential clinical use of salivary markers of oxidative stress even more attractive. This review summarizes basic information on the most commonly used salivary markers of oxidative damage, antioxidant status, and carbonyl stress and the studies analyzing these markers in patients with caries or periodontitis. PMID:26539412

  3. Differential expression of salivary glycoproteins in aggressive and chronic periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    ROCHA, Daniela de Morais; ZENÓBIO, Elton Gonçalves; VAN DYKE, Thomas; SILVA, Karine Simões; COSTA, Fernando Oliveira; SOARES, Rodrigo Villamarim

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to compare the pattern of secretion and the expression of mucin glycoprotein-2 (MG2) and lactoferrin in individuals with or without periodontitis. Material and Methods Five individuals with aggressive periodontitis (APG), 5 with generalized chronic periodontitis (CPG) and 5 without periodontitis (CG) were enrolled after informed consent. Non-stimulated and stimulated submandibular and sublingual saliva was collected and samples analyzed by Western blot probed with specific antibodies. Results Stimulated and non-stimulated salivary flow rates did not differ among groups. Western blot analysis revealed that stimulation led to: an increase in MG2 expression in all groups, and to lactoferrin expression in APG and CPG. In non-stimulated saliva, CG exhibited the highest expression of both glycoproteins. In stimulated saliva, CG exhibited the highest expression of MG2, whereas APG the highest of lactoferrin. Conclusions The pattern of secretion of MG2 and lactoferrin in health and disease is complex. Although the present study analyzed samples from a limited number of participants, the reduced expression of MG2 and lactoferrin in APG and CPG under non-stimulated condition, the predominant circumstance of salivary secretion during the day, suggests that these salivary constituents may play a role in the etiopathogenesis of these diseases. PMID:22666834

  4. Efficacy of xylitol and fluoride mouthrinses on salivary mutans streptococci

    PubMed Central

    Arunakul, Malee; Thaweboon, Boonyanit; Thaweboon, Sroisiri; Asvanund, Yuwadee; Charoenchaikorn, Kesinee

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the level of salivary Mutans streptococci (MS) after rinsing with xylitol, fluoride, and a combination of xylitol and fluoride solutions, compared with distilled water. Methods Eighty healthy 8-9 years old subjects with high level of MS (> 105 CFU/mL) were equally divided into 4 groups. Subjects rinsed their mouths for 1 min with 10 mL of 0.05% (w/v) sodium fluoride (NaF), 12.5% (w/v) xylitol or 0.05% (w/v) NaF + 12.5% (w/v) xylitol 3 times daily over 10 weeks. Distilled water rinsed group served as a control. Paraffin-stimulated whole saliva samples were collected at baseline, 5 weeks, and 10 weeks after rinsing to determine the level of salivary MS by culturing on Mitis Salivarius Bacitracin agar. The statistical significance was calculated by Kruskal Wallis, Mann Whitney U, and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests at a significant level of P< 0.05. Results Significant reductions in MS count were observed in subjects using 0.05% NaF + 12.5% xylitol over other groups within 5 weeks and after 10 weeks and 12.5% xylitol alone after 10 weeks compared with baseline. Conclusions The present study provides evidence for the inhibitory effect of xylitol, used in combination with fluoride, delivered in the form of mouthrinse, on salivary MS in the group of schoolchildren. PMID:23569819

  5. Therapeutic effects of isoflavones on impaired salivary secretion

    PubMed Central

    Ryo, Koufuchi; Takahashi, Ayako; Tamaki, Yoh; Ohnishi-Kameyama, Mayumi; Inoue, Hiroko; Saito, Ichiro

    2014-01-01

    Dry mouth, which is characterized by decreased salivation, has a number of causes; the involvement of estrogen has been suggested as symptoms typically develop in middle-aged females. However, there is a lack of consensus regarding the treatment of this condition. Soy isoflavones, a subgroup of flavonoids, are abundantly found in the soy germ. They are thought to exert a number of effects by specifically binding to estrogen receptors due to their structural similarity to estrogen. Recently, soy isoflavones have been found to exert antioxidant effects, ameliorating disorders caused by reactive oxygen/free radicals. Based on these observations, the effects of soybean isoflavones on impaired salivary secretion were studied in patients with dry mouth. Soy isoflavone aglycones were administered at 25 mg per day to 15 subjects with an average age of 67.9 ± 8.0 years for 2 months, and salivary secretion was analyzed. The results showed a significant improvement based on the saliva flow rate and self-completed questionnaire, thus suggesting the usefulness of isoflavones in improving the symptoms of salivary gland hypofunction. PMID:25411521

  6. Management of obstructive salivary disorders by sialendoscopy: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Atienza, G; López-Cedrún, J L

    2015-07-01

    Our aim was to assess the effectiveness and safety of sialendoscopy as a diagnostic and therapeutic technique in the management of obstructive salivary disorders. We searched the following databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, ISI Web of Knowledge, The Cochrane Library, and the National Health Service Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (up to April 2014). References from the studies included and from review articles were scanned. A study was eligible for inclusion if it was a fully published peer-reviewed report with original data, if participants included adult patients with obstructive disease of the major salivary glands, if the outcome variables gave information about the success rates of the procedure in terms of freedom from symptoms and absence of residual obstruction, and if the paper was published in English, French, Italian, Portuguese, or Spanish. The data were extracted and summarised in tables of evidence. We report weighted pooled proportions, 95% CI, and test results for heterogeneity. The weighted pooled proportion of success rates of the obstruction's resolution was 76% (95% CI 71 to 82) for 40 studies involving 2654 patients undergoing sialendoscopy alone, and 91% (95% CI 88 to 94) for the 23 studies and 1480 procedures made with sialendoscopy and a combined surgical approach. In general, few complications were reported and the rate of sialadenectomy was low (4.6%). This systematic review suggests that sialendoscopy is effective and safe for the diagnosis and treatment of patients with obstructive salivary gland disease. PMID:25823614

  7. Cystadenocarcinoma of the salivary glands with potential lymph node metastasis.

    PubMed

    Mukaigawa, Takashi; Hayashi, Ryuichi; Miyazaki, Masakazu; Shinozaki, Takeshi; Tomioka, Toshifumi; Fujii, Satoshi

    2016-06-01

    Cystadenocarcinoma derived from the salivary gland in the head and neck region is an extremely rare malignancy. Therefore, the clinicopathological characteristics is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to clarify the clinicopathological characteristics, and present a total of four patients who were treated at the National Cancer Center Hospital East during the period between 1995 and 2012. The patients were all male, with ages ranging from 47 to 74 years old. The primary sites were the parotid glands, submandibular gland and minor salivary gland of the tongue. Within the follow-up period from 19 to 54 months, lymph node metastases were observed in three of the four patients. However, all the patients were salvaged by additional resection, including neck dissection, and remain alive to date without distant metastases. Cystadenocarcinoma is classified as a low-grade histological subtype of salivary gland tumors. Although the tumor has the potential to produce lymph node metastases, as shown in our patients, it is generally an indolent tumor with a good prognosis as compared with high-grade subtypes. This study suggests that a long-term follow up paying close attention to lymph node metastases is necessary for cystadenocarcinoma. PMID:26441367

  8. Iron binding modulates candidacidal properties of salivary histatin 5.

    PubMed

    Puri, S; Li, R; Ruszaj, D; Tati, S; Edgerton, M

    2015-01-01

    Salivary protein histatin 5 (Hst 5) is fungicidal toward Candida albicans, the causative agent of oropharyngeal candidiasis. However, its activity in saliva is compromised by salivary protease-mediated degradation and interaction with salivary salts. Hst 5 has also been shown to bind various metals in saliva-namely, Zn, Cu, and Ni. Surprisingly, interactions of Hst 5 with Fe have not been studied, although iron is one of the most abundant metals present in saliva. Using circular dichroism, we show that Hst 5 can bind up to 10 equivalents of iron as measured by loss of its alpha-helical secondary structure that is normally observed for it in trifluoroethylene. A significant decrease in the candidacidal ability of Hst 5 was observed upon iron binding, with increasing iron concentrations being inversely proportional to Hst 5 killing activity. Binding assays showed that the decrease in killing was likely a result of reduced binding (10-fold reduction) of Fe-Hst 5 to C. albicans cells. Protease stability analysis showed that Fe-Hst 5 was completely resistant to trypsin digestion. In contrast, zinc binding had limited effects on Hst 5 fungicidal activity or protease susceptibility. RNA sequencing results identified changes in iron uptake genes in Hst 5-treated C. albicans cells. Our findings thus suggest that consequences of Hst 5 binding iron not only affect candidacidal ability and proteolyic stability of Hst 5, but may also contribute to a novel killing mechanism involving interference with cellular iron metabolism. PMID:25365968

  9. Effects of season, age, sex, and housing on salivary cortisol concentrations in horses.

    PubMed

    Aurich, J; Wulf, M; Ille, N; Erber, R; von Lewinski, M; Palme, R; Aurich, C

    2015-07-01

    Analysis of salivary cortisol is increasingly used to assess stress responses in horses. Because spontaneous or experimentally induced increases in cortisol concentrations are often relatively small for stress studies, proper controls are needed. This requires an understanding of the factors affecting salivary cortisol over longer times. In this study, we have analyzed salivary cortisol concentration for 6 mo in horses (n = 94) differing in age, sex, reproductive state, and housing. Salivary cortisol followed a diurnal rhythm with the highest concentrations in the morning and a decrease throughout the day (P < 0.001). This rhythm was disrupted in individual groups on individual days; however, alterations remained within the range of diurnal changes. Comparison between months showed highest cortisol concentrations in December (P < 0.001). Cortisol concentrations increased in breeding stallions during the breeding season (P < 0.001). No differences in salivary cortisol concentrations between nonpregnant mares with and without a corpus luteum existed. In stallions, mean daily salivary cortisol and plasma testosterone concentrations were weakly correlated (r = 0.251, P < 0.01). No differences in salivary cortisol between female and male young horses and no consistent differences between horses of different age existed. Group housing and individual stabling did not affect salivary cortisol. In conclusion, salivary cortisol concentrations in horses follow a diurnal rhythm and are increased in active breeding sires. Time of the day and reproductive state of the horses are thus important for experiments that include analysis of cortisol in saliva. PMID:25700267

  10. Modes of action of local hypothalamic and skin thermal stimulation on salivary secretion in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Kanosue, K; Nakayama, T; Tanaka, H; Yanase, M; Yasuda, H

    1990-01-01

    1. In urethane or ketamine-anaesthetized rats, salivary secretion was observed when local brain sites or trunk skin were stimulated thermally or electrically. 2. Salivary secretion was facilitated by bilateral local brain warming. Sensitive sites were restricted to the preoptic area and anterior hypothalamus, but in a region distinct from a previously reported sensitive site for producing saliva-spreading behaviour. 3. Unilateral warming of the preoptic area produced greater salivary secretion from the ipsilateral submandibular/sublingual salivary glands than from the contralateral glands. Electrical stimulation of the same sites elicited salivation only from the ipsilateral glands. 4. Trunk skin, not including the scrotum, was unilaterally cooled when spontaneous salivary secretion was observed in a hot environment. Salivary secretion from both sides was equally suppressed in response to the unilateral skin cooling. 5. We conclude that efferent signals from the anterior part of the hypothalamus project dominantly to the ipsilateral salivary gland for thermally induced salivary secretion. Thermal signals from the skin of either side of the trunk, on the other hand, appear to be integrated and to affect salivary secretion bilaterally. PMID:2391658

  11. Protective effect of salivary nitrate and microbial nitrate reductase activity against caries.

    PubMed

    Doel, J J; Hector, M P; Amirtham, C V; Al-Anzan, L A; Benjamin, N; Allaker, R P

    2004-10-01

    To test the hypothesis that a combination of high salivary nitrate and high nitrate-reducing capacity are protective against dental caries, 209 children attending the Dental Institute, Barts and The London NHS Trust were examined. Salivary nitrate and nitrite levels, counts of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus spp., and caries experience were recorded. Compared with control subjects, a significant reduction in caries experience was found in patients with high salivary nitrate and high nitrate-reducing ability. Production of nitrite from salivary nitrate by commensal nitrate-reducing bacteria may limit the growth of cariogenic bacteria as a result of the production of antimicrobial oxides of nitrogen, including nitric oxide. PMID:15458501

  12. Comparison of salivary flow and candidal carriage in patients with oral submucous fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Bhavana; Chandra, Shaleen; Raj, Vineet; Gupta, Vivek

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a high-risk precancerous condition that predominantly affects Indians due to prevalent gutka chewing. Changes in the salivary flow rate and its effect on candidal carriage in patients suffering from OSMF have not been extensively explored. Aim: The aim of this study is to compare the salivary flow rate and salivary candidal carriage in OSMF patients and healthy individuals. Materials and Methods: This pilot study included a total of 30 OSMF patients and 30 healthy individuals. Salivary flow was estimated using preweighed cotton rolls placed at the openings of major salivary duct for 5 min. The cotton rolls were then removed from the oral cavity and weighed again. The difference in weight was recorded. Salivary samples were collected by the oral rinse technique and cultured on Sabouraud agar medium. The cultured yeast colonies were identified based on Gram's staining, periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) and germ tube formation. Result: There was statistically significant (P < 0.001) decreased salivary flow rate in OSMF individuals as compared to the control. Salivary flow rates constantly reduced with different grades of OSMF patients, although candidal carriage was seen in grade II and grade III OSMF patients. Conclusion: A higher incidence of Candida was observed in OSMF patients when compared to the healthy individuals. The results of our study suggest that a higher candidal carriage in grade II and grade III OSMF patients could be related to decreased salivary flow rate. PMID:26604490

  13. Imaging Biomarkers in Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Juergens, Rosalyn A.; Zukotynski, Katherine A.; Singnurkar, Amit; Snider, Denis P.; Valliant, John F.; Gulenchyn, Karen Y.

    2016-01-01

    Immune-based therapies have been in use for decades but recent work with immune checkpoint inhibitors has now changed the landscape of cancer treatment as a whole. While these advances are encouraging, clinicians still do not have a consistent biomarker they can rely on that can accurately select patients or monitor response. Molecular imaging technology provides a noninvasive mechanism to evaluate tumors and may be an ideal candidate for these purposes. This review provides an overview of the mechanism of action of varied immunotherapies and the current strategies for monitoring patients with imaging. We then describe some of the key researches in the preclinical and clinical literature on the current uses of molecular imaging of the immune system and cancer. PMID:26949344

  14. Biomarkers for lymphoma

    DOEpatents

    Zangar, Richard C.; Varnum, Susan M.

    2014-09-02

    A biomarker, method, test kit, and diagnostic system for detecting the presence of lymphoma in a person are disclosed. The lymphoma may be Hodgkin's lymphoma or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The person may be a high-risk subject. In one embodiment, a plasma sample from a person is obtained. The level of at least one protein listed in Table S3 in the plasma sample is measured. The level of at least one protein in the plasma sample is compared with the level in a normal or healthy subject. The lymphoma is diagnosed based upon the level of the at least one protein in the plasma sample in comparison to the normal or healthy level.

  15. Salivary Composition Is Associated with Liking and Usual Nutrient Intake

    PubMed Central

    Méjean, Caroline; Morzel, Martine; Neyraud, Eric; Issanchou, Sylvie; Martin, Christophe; Bozonnet, Sophie; Urbano, Christine; Schlich, Pascal; Hercberg, Serge; Péneau, Sandrine; Feron, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Salivary flow and composition have an impact on flavor perception. However, very few studies have explored the relationship between saliva, individual liking and usual dietary intake. The aim of our study was to evaluate the association of salivary flow and composition with both a liking for fat, saltiness and sweetness and the usual nutrient intake in an adult French population. Liking for fat, saltiness, and sweetness were inferred from liking scores obtained during hedonic tests on 32 food products among 282 French adults participating in the Nutrinet-Santé Study. Before assessing liking, resting saliva was collected. Standard biochemical analyses were performed to assess specific component concentrations and enzymatic activities. Dietary data were collected using three web-based 24h records. Relationships between salivary flow and composition, sensory liking and nutrient intake were assessed using linear regression. Total antioxidant capacity was positively associated with simple carbohydrate intake (β = 31.3, 95% CI = 1.58; 60.99) and inversely related to complex carbohydrate consumption (β = -52.4, 95% CI = -87.51; -19.71). Amylolysis was positively associated with both total (β = 0.20, 95% CI = 0.01; 0.38) and simple carbohydrate intake (β = 0.21, 95% CI = 0.01; 0.39). Salivary flow was positively associated with liking for fat (β = 0.14, 95% CI = 0.03; 0.25). Proteolysis was positively associated with liking for saltiness and for fat (β = 0.31, 95% CI = 0.02; 0.59; β = 0.28, 95% CI = 0.01; 0.56, respectively). Amylolysis was inversely associated with liking for sweetness (β = -10.13, 95% CI = -19.51; -0.75). Carbonic anhydrase 6 was inversely associated with liking for saltiness (β = -46.77, 95% CI = -86.24; -7.30). Saliva does not substantially vary according to a usual diet, except for carbohydrate intake, whereas the specific association between salivary flow/composition and sensory liking suggests the influence of saliva characteristics in

  16. Reduction of VSC and salivary bacteria by a multibenefit mouthrinse.

    PubMed

    Boyd, T; Vazquez, J; Williams, M

    2008-03-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a multibenefit mouthrinse containing 0.05% cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) and 0.025% sodium fluoride in reducing volatile sulfur compound (VSC) levels and total cultivable salivary bacteria, at both 4 h and overnight. In vitro analysis of efficacy was performed using saliva-coated hydroxyapatite disc substrates first treated with the mouthrinse, then exposed to whole human saliva, followed by overnight incubation in air-tight vials. Headspace VSC was quantified by gas chromatography (GC). A clinical evaluation was conducted with 14 subjects using a crossover design. After a seven-day washout period, baseline clinical measurement of VSC was performed by GC analysis of mouth air sampled in the morning prior to eating, drinking or performing any oral hygiene. A 10 mL saline rinse was used to sample and enumerate cultivable salivary bacterial levels via serial dilution and plating. Subjects were instructed to use the treatment rinse twice daily in combination with a controlled brushing regimen. After one week the subjects returned in the morning prior to eating, drinking or performing oral hygiene to provide samples of overnight mouth air and salivary bacteria. The subjects were then immediately rinsed with the test product, and provided additional mouth air and saliva rinse samples 4 h later. A multibenefit rinse containing 0.05% CPC and 0.025% sodium fluoride was found to reduce VSC in vitro by 52%. The rinse also demonstrated a significant clinical reduction in breath VSC (p < 0.05) of 55.8% at 4 h and 23.4% overnight relative to baseline VSC levels. At both time points, the multibenefit rinse was more effective than the control; this difference was statistically significant at the overnight time point (p < 0.05). Total cultivable salivary bacteria levels were also reduced significantly (p < 0.05) at 4 h and overnight by this mouthrinse compared to baseline levels and the control. A multibenefit mouthrinse was shown to reduce in

  17. [Biomarkers: "Found in translation"].

    PubMed

    Lockhart, Brian P; Walther, Bernard

    2009-04-01

    Despite continued increase in global Pharma R & D expenditure, the number of innovative drugs obtaining market approval has declined since 1994. The pharmaceutical industry is now entering a crucial juncture where increasing rates of attrition in clinical drug development as well as increasing development timelines are impacted by external factors such as intense regulatory pricing and safety pressures, increasing sales erosion due to generics, as well as exponential increases in the costs of bringing a drug to market. Despite these difficulties, numerous opportunities exist such as multiple unmet medical needs, the increasing incidence of certain diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, cancer, diabetes and obesity due to demographic changes, as well as the emergence of evolving markets such as China, India, and Eastern Europe. Consequently, Pharma is now responding to this challenge by improving both the productivity and the innovation in its drug discovery and development pipelines. In this regard, the advent of new technologies and expertise such as genomics, proteomics, structural biology, and molecular informatics in an integrated systems biology approach also provides a powerful opportunity for Pharma to address some of these difficulties. The key features behind this new strategy imply a discovery process based on an improved understanding of the molecular mechanism of diseases and drugs, translational research that places the patient at the center of the research process, and the application of biomarkers throughout the discovery and development phases. Moreover, new paradigms are required to improve target validation and develop more predictive cellular and animal models of human pathologies, a greater capacity in informatics-based analysis, and, consequently, a greater access to the vast sources of accumulating biological data and its integrated analysis. In the present review, we will address some of these issues and in particular emphasize how the

  18. Significant Modifications of the Salivary Proteome Potentially Associated with Complications of Down Syndrome Revealed by Top-down Proteomics*

    PubMed Central

    Cabras, Tiziana; Pisano, Elisabetta; Montaldo, Caterina; Giuca, Maria Rita; Iavarone, Federica; Zampino, Giuseppe; Castagnola, Massimo; Messana, Irene

    2013-01-01

    People with Down syndrome, a frequent genetic disorder in humans, have increased risk of health problems associated with this condition. One clinical feature of Down syndrome is the increased prevalence and severity of periodontal disease in comparison with the general population. Because saliva plays an important role in maintaining oral health, in the present study the salivary proteome of Down syndrome subjects was investigated to explore modifications with respect to healthy subjects. Whole saliva of 36 Down syndrome subjects, divided in the age groups 10–17 yr and 18–50 yr, was analyzed by a top-down proteomic approach, based on the high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization–MS analysis of the intact proteins and peptides, and the qualitative and quantitative profiles were compared with sex- and age-matched control groups. The results showed the following interesting features: 1) as opposed to controls, in Down syndrome subjects the concentration of the major salivary proteins of gland origin did not increase with age; as a consequence concentration of acidic proline rich proteins and S cystatins were found significantly reduced in older Down syndrome subjects with respect to matched controls; 2) levels of the antimicrobial α-defensins 1 and 2 and histatins 3 and 5 were significantly increased in whole saliva of older Down syndrome subjects with respect to controls; 3) S100A7, S100A8, and S100A12 levels were significantly increased in whole saliva of Down syndrome subjects in comparison with controls. The increased level of S100A7 and S100A12 may be of particular interest as a biomarker of early onset Alzheimer's disease, which is frequently associated with Down syndrome. PMID:23533003

  19. Biomarker Discovery for Heterogeneous Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wallstrom, Garrick; Anderson, Karen S.; LaBaer, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    Background Modern genomic and proteomic studies reveal that many diseases are heterogeneous, comprising multiple different subtypes. The common notion that one biomarker can be predictive for all patients may need to be replaced by an understanding that each subtype has its own set of unique biomarkers, affecting how discovery studies are designed and analyzed. Methods We used Monte Carlo simulation to measure and compare the performance of eight selection methods with homogeneous and heterogeneous diseases using both single-stage and two-stage designs. We also applied the selection methods in an actual proteomic biomarker screening study of heterogeneous breast cancer cases. Results Different selection methods were optimal and more than 2-fold larger sample sizes were needed for heterogeneous diseases compared with homogeneous diseases. We also found that for larger studies, two-stage designs can achieve nearly the same statistical power as single-stage designs at significantly reduced cost. Conclusions We found that disease heterogeneity profoundly affected biomarker performance. We report sample size requirements and provide guidance on the design and analysis of biomarker discovery studies for both homogeneous and heterogeneous diseases. Impact We have shown that studies to identify biomarkers for the early detection of heterogeneous disease require different statistical selection methods and larger sample sizes than if the disease were homogeneous. These findings provide a methodological platform for biomarker discovery of heterogeneous diseases. PMID:23462916

  20. Transcriptomic and Expression Analysis of the Salivary Glands in White-Backed Planthoppers, Sogatella furcifera

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhen; An, Xing-Kui; Liu, Yu-Di; Hou, Mao-Lin

    2016-01-01

    The white-backed planthopper (WBPH), Sogatella furcifera (Horváth), is one of the serious rice pests because of its destructive feeding. The salivary glands of the WBPH play an important role in the feeding behaviour. Currently, however, very little is known about the salivary glands at the molecular level. We sequenced the salivary gland transcriptome (sialotranscripome) of adult WBPHs using the Illumina sequencing. A total of 65,595 transcripts and 51,842 unigenes were obtained from salivary glands. According to annotations against the Nr database, many of the unigenes identified were associated with the most studied enzymes in hemipteran saliva. In the present study, we identified 32 salivary protein genes from the WBPH sialotranscripome, which were categorized as those involved in sugar metabolism, detoxification, suppression of plant defense responses, immunity-related responses, general digestion, and other phytophagy processes. Tissue expression profiles analysis revealed that four of 32 salivary protein genes (multicopper oxidase 4, multicopper oxidase 6, carboxylesterase and uridine phosphorylase 1 isform X2) were primarily expressed in the salivary gland, suggesting that they played putative role in insect-rice interactions. 13 of 32 salivary protein genes were primarily expressed in gut, which might play putative role in digestive and detoxify mechanism. Development expression profiles analysis revealed that the expression level of 26 of 32 salivary protein genes had no significant difference, suggesting that they may play roles in every developmental stages of salivary gland of WBPH. The other six genes have a high expression level in the salivary gland of adult. 31 of 32 genes (except putative acetylcholinesterase 1) have no significant difference in male and female adult, suggesting that their expression level have no difference between sexes. This report analysis of the sialotranscripome for the WBPH, and the transcriptome provides a foundational

  1. Inflammatory Biomarkers of Birth Asphyxia.

    PubMed

    Chalak, Lina F

    2016-09-01

    Although therapies in addition to whole-body cooling are being developed to treat the neonate at risk for hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, we have no quickly measured serum inflammatory or neuronal biomarkers to acutely and accurately identify brain injury or to follow the efficacy of therapy. This review covers inflammatory serum biomarkers in the setting of birth asphyxia that can help assess the degree or severity of encephalopathy at birth and neurodevelopmental outcomes. These biomarkers still need to be independently validated in large cohorts before they are ready for clinical implementation in practice. PMID:27524450

  2. Serotonin biosynthesis as a predictive marker of serotonin pharmacodynamics and disease-induced dysregulation

    PubMed Central

    Welford, Richard W. D.; Vercauteren, Magali; Trébaul, Annette; Cattaneo, Christophe; Eckert, Doriane; Garzotti, Marco; Sieber, Patrick; Segrestaa, Jérôme; Studer, Rolf; Groenen, Peter M. A.; Nayler, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    The biogenic amine serotonin (5-HT) is a multi-faceted hormone that is synthesized from dietary tryptophan with the rate limiting step being catalyzed by the enzyme tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH). The therapeutic potential of peripheral 5-HT synthesis inhibitors has been demonstrated in a number of clinical and pre-clinical studies in diseases including carcinoid syndrome, lung fibrosis, ulcerative colitis and obesity. Due to the long half-life of 5-HT in blood and lung, changes in steady-state levels are slow to manifest themselves. Here, the administration of stable isotope labeled tryptophan (heavy “h-Trp”) and resultant in vivo conversion to h-5-HT is used to monitor 5-HT synthesis in rats. Dose responses for the blockade of h-5-HT appearance in blood with the TPH inhibitors L-para-chlorophenylalanine (30 and 100 mg/kg) and telotristat etiprate (6, 20 and 60 mg/kg), demonstrated that the method enables robust quantification of pharmacodynamic effects on a short time-scale, opening the possibility for rapid screening of TPH1 inhibitors in vivo. In the bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis rat model, the mechanism of lung 5-HT increase was investigated using a combination of synthesis and steady state 5-HT measurement. Elevated 5-HT synthesis measured in the injured lungs was an early predictor of disease induced increases in total 5-HT. PMID:27444653

  3. Pathobiology and subgroup specificity of disease induced by Rous associated virus 7 (RAV-7)

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, J.Y.

    1983-01-01

    When Rous associated virus 7 (RAV-7) was injected intravenously into 10-day old chicken embryos, a disease syndrome developed which was characterized by stunting, hyperlipidemia, hypothyroidism, and hyperinsulinemia. Stocks of RAV-7, a subgroup C avian leukosis virus, were obtained by end-point purification on chick embryo fibroblast cells. The size of the viral RNA was 8.2 kb and the protein banding pattern on polyacrylamide gels was typical of avian leukosis viruses. These results indicated that RAV-7 was a non-defective avian leukosis virus and no sarcoma or defective leukemia viruses were present in the RAV-7 stock. RAV-7 induced a unique disease syndrome although infection by three other subgroup C avian leukosis viruses (tdB77, tdPrC, and RAV-49) resulted in an identical lymphoblastoid infiltration of the thyroid and pancreas. An examination of disease induced by avian leukosis viruses from subgroups A, B, D, and F showed that infection by any of these subgroups did not result in the typical RAV-7 disease syndrome.

  4. Urinary Biomarkers of Brain Diseases

    PubMed Central

    An, Manxia; Gao, Youhe

    2016-01-01

    Biomarkers are the measurable changes associated with a physiological or pathophysiological process. Unlike blood, urine is not subject to homeostatic mechanisms. Therefore, greater fluctuations could occur in urine than in blood, better reflecting the changes in human body. The roadmap of urine biomarker era was proposed. Although urine analysis has been attempted for clinical diagnosis, and urine has been monitored during the progression of many diseases, particularly urinary system diseases, whether urine can reflect brain disease status remains uncertain. As some biomarkers of brain diseases can be detected in the body fluids such as cerebrospinal fluid and blood, there is a possibility that urine also contain biomarkers of brain diseases. This review summarizes the clues of brain diseases reflected in the urine proteome and metabolome. PMID:26751805

  5. A Robust Biomarker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westall, F.; Steele, A.; Toporski, J.; Walsh, M. M.; Allen, C. C.; Guidry, S.; McKay, D. S.; Gibson, E. K.; Chafetz, H. S.

    2000-01-01

    containing fossil biofilm, including the 3.5 b.y..-old carbonaceous cherts from South Africa and Australia. As a result of the unique compositional, structural and "mineralisable" properties of bacterial polymer and biofilms, we conclude that bacterial polymers and biofilms constitute a robust and reliable biomarker for life on Earth and could be a potential biomarker for extraterrestrial life.

  6. Biomarker in archaeological soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiedner, Katja; Glaser, Bruno; Schneeweiß, Jens

    2015-04-01

    The use of biomarkers in an archaeological context allow deeper insights into the understanding of anthropogenic (dark) earth formation and from an archaeological point of view, a completely new perspective on cultivation practices in the historic past. During an archaeological excavation of a Slavic settlement (10th/11th C. A.D.) in Brünkendorf (Wendland region in Northern Germany), a thick black soil (Nordic Dark Earth) was discovered that resembled the famous terra preta phenomenon. For the humid tropics, terra preta could act as model for sustainable agricultural practices and as example for long-term CO2-sequestration into terrestrial ecosystems. The question was whether this Nordic Dark Earth had similar properties and genesis as the famous Amazonian Dark Earth in order to find a model for sustainable agricultural practices and long term CO2-sequestration in temperate zones. For this purpose, a multi-analytical approach was used to characterize the sandy-textured Nordic Dark Earth in comparison to less anthropogenically influenced soils in the adjacent area in respect of ecological conditions (e.g. amino sugar), input materials (faeces) and the presence of stable soil organic matter (black carbon). Amino sugar analyses showed that Nordic Dark Earth contained higher amounts of microbial residues being dominated by soil fungi. Faecal biomarkers such as stanols and bile acids indicated animal manure from omnivores and herbivores but also human excrements. Black carbon content of about 30 Mg ha-1 in the Nordic Dark Earth was about four times higher compared to the adjacent soil and in the same order of magnitude compared to terra preta. Our data strongly suggest parallels to anthropogenic soil formation in Amazonia and in Europe by input of organic wastes, faecal material and charred organic matter. An obvious difference was that in terra preta input of human-derived faecal material dominated while in NDE human-derived faecal material played only a minor role

  7. Autocrine/paracrine dopamine in the salivary glands of the blacklegged tick Ixodes scapularis.

    PubMed

    Koči, Juraj; Simo, Ladislav; Park, Yoonseong

    2014-03-01

    Dopamine (DA) is known to be the most potent activator of tick salivary secretion, which is an essential component of successful tick feeding. We examined the quantitative changes of catecholamines using a method coupling high-pressure liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD). We also investigated the levels of catecholamines conjugated to other molecules utilising appropriate methods to hydrolyse the conjugates. Three different biological samples, salivary glands, synganglia, ovaries and haemolymph were compared, and the largest quantity of DA was detected in salivary gland extracts (up to ∼100pg/tick), supporting the hypothesis that autocrine/paracrine dopamine activates salivary secretion. Quantitative changes of catecholamines in the salivary glands over the entire blood feeding duration were examined. The amount of dopamine in the salivary glands increased until the day 5 of feeding, at which the rapid engorgement phase began. We also detected a small but significant amount of norepinephrine in the salivary glands. Interestingly, saliva collected after induction of salivary secretion by the cholinergic agonist pilocarpine contained a large amount of DA sulphate with a trace amount of DA, suggesting a potential biological role of DA sulphate in tick saliva. PMID:24503219

  8. Current cell models for bioengineering a salivary gland: a mini-review of emerging technologies

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, J; Manzella, K; Baker, OJ

    2013-01-01

    Saliva plays a major role in maintaining oral health. Patients afflicted with a decrease in saliva secretion (symptomatically, xerostomia) exhibit difficulty in chewing and swallowing foods, tooth decay, periodontal disease, and microbial infections. Despite recent improvements in treating xerostomia (e.g., saliva stimulants, saliva substitutes, and gene therapy), there is a need of more scientific advancements that can be clinically applied toward restoration of compromised salivary gland function. Here we provide a summary of the current salivary cell models that have been used to advance restorative treatments via development of an artificial salivary gland. These models represent initial steps toward clinical and translational research, to facilitate creation of clinically safe salivary glands. Further studies in salivary cell lines and primary cells are necessary to improve survival rates, cell differentiation, and secretory function. Additionally, the characterization of salivary progenitor and stem cell markers are necessary. Although these models are not fully characterized, their improvement may lead to the construction of an artificial salivary gland that is in high demand for improving the quality of life of many patients suffering from salivary secretory dysfunction. PMID:22805753

  9. Radiation-Induced Salivary Gland Dysfunction Results From p53-Dependent Apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Avila, Jennifer L.; Grundmann, Oliver; Burd, Randy; Limesand, Kirsten H.

    2009-02-01

    Purpose: Radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer causes adverse secondary side effects in the salivary glands and results in diminished quality of life for the patient. A previous in vivo study in parotid salivary glands demonstrated that targeted head-and-neck irradiation resulted in marked increases in phosphorylated p53 (serine{sup 18}) and apoptosis, which was suppressed in transgenic mice expressing a constitutively active mutant of Akt1 (myr-Akt1). Methods and Materials: Transgenic and knockout mouse models were exposed to irradiation, and p53-mediated transcription, apoptosis, and salivary gland dysfunction were analyzed. Results: The proapoptotic p53 target genes PUMA and Bax were induced in parotid salivary glands of mice at early time points after therapeutic radiation. This dose-dependent induction requires expression of p53 because no radiation-induced expression of PUMA and Bax was observed in p53-/- mice. Radiation also induced apoptosis in the parotid gland in a dose-dependent manner, which was p53 dependent. Furthermore, expression of p53 was required for the acute and chronic loss of salivary function after irradiation. In contrast, apoptosis was not induced in p53-/- mice, and their salivary function was preserved after radiation exposure. Conclusions: Apoptosis in the salivary glands after therapeutic head-and-neck irradiation is mediated by p53 and corresponds to salivary gland dysfunction in vivo.

  10. Kuttner tumour: an unusual cause of enlargement of a minor salivary gland in the lip.

    PubMed

    Paul, R; Shekar, K; Singh, M

    2010-03-01

    Kuttner tumour is benign, chronic, sclerosing sialadenitis that usually occurs in the submandibular gland and is regarded as a salivary gland neoplasm because of its clinical features. We describe a tumour arising from a minor salivary gland of the upper lip. To our knowledge, there are only two previously reported cases. PMID:19926183

  11. Do counts of salivary sheath flanges predict food consumption in herbivorous stink bugs [Hemiptera: Pentatomidae]?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For Pentatomid stink bug agricultural pests, the number of salivary sheaths and sheath flanges—the portion of the sheath visible on the exterior surface of a food item—are good predictors of the loss of crop yield or quality from stink bug feeding. As the often assumed relationship between salivary ...

  12. Unraveling dual feeding associated molecular complexity of salivary glands in the mosquito Anopheles culicifacies

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Punita; Sharma, Swati; Mishra, Ashwani Kumar; Thomas, Tina; Das De, Tanwee; Rohilla, Suman Lata; Singh, Namita; Pandey, Kailash C.; Valecha, Neena; Dixit, Rajnikant

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mosquito salivary glands are well known to facilitate meal acquisition, however the fundamental question on how adult female salivary gland manages molecular responses during sugar versus blood meal uptake remains unanswered. To investigate these responses, we analyzed a total of 58.5 million raw reads generated from two independent RNAseq libraries of the salivary glands collected from 3–4 day-old sugar and blood fed Anopheles culicifacies mosquitoes. Comprehensive functional annotation analysis of 10,931 contigs unraveled that salivary glands may encode diverse nature of proteins in response to distinct physiological feeding status. Digital gene expression analysis and PCR validation indicated that first blood meal significantly alters the molecular architecture of the salivary glands. Comparative microscopic analysis also revealed that first blood meal uptake not only causes an alteration of at least 12–22% of morphological features of the salivary glands but also results in cellular changes e.g. apoptosis, confirming together that adult female salivary glands are specialized organs to manage meal specific responses. Unraveling the underlying mechanism of mosquito salivary gene expression, controlling dual feeding associated responses may provide a new opportunity to control vector borne diseases. PMID:26163527

  13. Comparative behavioral and protein study of salivary secretions in Homalodisca spp. sharpshooters (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Cicadellinae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel brush-induced method to physically stimulate salivation was applied to the glassy-winged and smoke tree sharpshooters. This technique enabled the direct observation of salivary secretion processes, solidification of saliva and for collection of salivary secretions. For both species, brush...

  14. Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Evaluate Major Salivary Gland Function Before and After Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Dirix, Piet Keyzer, Frederik de; Vandecaveye, Vincent; Stroobants, Sigrid; Hermans, Robert; Nuyts, Sandra

    2008-08-01

    Purpose: To evaluate diffusion-weighted (DW)-MRI as a noninvasive tool to investigate major salivary gland function before and after radiotherapy (RT) for head and neck cancer (HNC). Methods and Materials: DW-MRI was performed in 8 HNC patients before and after parotid-sparing RT (mean dose to the contralateral parotid gland <26 Gy). A DW sequence was performed once at rest and then repeated continuously during salivary stimulation. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps for both parotid and submandibular glands were calculated. Findings were compared with salivary gland scintigraphy. Results: Before RT, the mean ADC value at rest was significantly lower in the parotid than in the submandibular glands. During the first 5 min of stimulation, the ADC value of the salivary glands showed a decrease, followed by a steady increase until a peak ADC, significantly higher than the baseline value, was reached after a median of 17 min. The baseline ADC value at rest was significantly higher after RT than before RT in the nonspared salivary glands but not in the spared parotid glands. In the contralateral parotid glands, the same response was seen as before RT. This pattern was completely lost in the nonspared glands. These results corresponded with remaining or loss of salivary function, respectively, as confirmed by salivary gland scintigraphy. Conclusions: Diffusion-weighted-MRI allows noninvasive evaluation of functional changes in the major salivary glands after RT and is a promising tool for investigating radiation-induced xerostomia.

  15. Unraveling dual feeding associated molecular complexity of salivary glands in the mosquito Anopheles culicifacies.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Punita; Sharma, Swati; Mishra, Ashwani Kumar; Thomas, Tina; Das De, Tanwee; Rohilla, Suman Lata; Singh, Namita; Pandey, Kailash C; Valecha, Neena; Dixit, Rajnikant

    2015-01-01

    Mosquito salivary glands are well known to facilitate meal acquisition, however the fundamental question on how adult female salivary gland manages molecular responses during sugar versus blood meal uptake remains unanswered. To investigate these responses, we analyzed a total of 58.5 million raw reads generated from two independent RNAseq libraries of the salivary glands collected from 3-4 day-old sugar and blood fed Anopheles culicifacies mosquitoes. Comprehensive functional annotation analysis of 10,931 contigs unraveled that salivary glands may encode diverse nature of proteins in response to distinct physiological feeding status. Digital gene expression analysis and PCR validation indicated that first blood meal significantly alters the molecular architecture of the salivary glands. Comparative microscopic analysis also revealed that first blood meal uptake not only causes an alteration of at least 12-22% of morphological features of the salivary glands but also results in cellular changes e.g. apoptosis, confirming together that adult female salivary glands are specialized organs to manage meal specific responses. Unraveling the underlying mechanism of mosquito salivary gene expression, controlling dual feeding associated responses may provide a new opportunity to control vector borne diseases. PMID:26163527

  16. Label-Retaining Cells in the Adult Murine Salivary Glands Possess Characteristics of Adult Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chibly, Alejandro M.; Querin, Lauren; Harris, Zoey; Limesand, Kirsten H.

    2014-01-01

    Radiotherapy is the primary treatment for patients with head and neck cancer, which account for roughly 500,000 annual cases worldwide. Dysfunction of the salivary glands and associated conditions like xerostomia and dysphagia are often developed by these patients, greatly diminishing their life quality. Current preventative and palliative care fail to deliver an improvement in the quality of life, thus accentuating the need for regenerative therapies. In this study, a model of label retaining cells (LRCs) in murine salivary glands was developed, in which LRCs demonstrated proliferative potential and possessed markers of putative salivary progenitors. Mice were labeled with 5-Ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU) at postnatal day 10 and chased for 8 weeks. Tissue sections from salivary glands obtained at the end of chase demonstrated co-localization between LRCs and the salivary progenitor markers keratin 5 and keratin 14, as well as kit mRNA, indicating that LRCs encompass a heterogeneous population of salivary progenitors. Proliferative potential of LRCs was demonstrated by a sphere assay, in which LRCs were found in primary and secondary spheres and they co-localized with the proliferation marker Ki67 throughout sphere formation. Surprisingly, LRCs were shown to be radio-resistant and evade apoptosis following radiation treatment. The clinical significance of these findings lie in the potential of this model to study the mechanisms that prevent salivary progenitors from maintaining homeostasis upon exposure to radiation, which will in turn facilitate the development of regenerative therapies for salivary gland dysfunction. PMID:25238060

  17. Computational fluid dynamics analysis of salivary flow and its effect on sialolithogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, P; Lin, Y; Lin, H; Xu, Y; Zheng, QY; Han, Y

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Sialolithiasis is a common disease caused by intraductal stones, formed by reduction in salivary flow, salivary stagnation, and metabolic events. We used computational fluid dynamics to investigate changes in salivary flow field around parotid stones of different shapes. MATERIALS AND METHODS Three-dimensional configurations of the Stensen’s duct were reconstructed from computed tomography sialographic images. Fluid dynamics modeling was used to analyze the salivary flow field around stones under unstimulated and stimulated conditions. RESULTS The majority of sialoliths were oval-shaped (59/98), followed by irregular (24/98) and round (15/98). Salivary velocity was significantly higher around streamlined stones, compared with round (P = 0.013) and oval (P = 0.025) types. Changes in salivary flow field around sialoliths were found to affect the pattern of mineral deposition in saliva. The area of low velocity around the round stone was double the size observed around the streamlined stone during the unstimulated state, whereas in the stimulated state, local vortexes were formed on the downstream side of round and oval stones. CONCLUSIONS Salivary flow field around sialoliths plays an important role in the progression of multicentric stones, and analysis of the salivary dynamics during sialolithiasis may provide deeper understandings of the condition and aid in developing successful treatment strategies. PMID:24164693

  18. Salivary gland hypertrophy viruses (SGHVs): a novel group of insect pathogenic viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salivary gland hypertrophy viruses (SGHVs) are a unique, unclassified group of entomopathogenic, double-stranded DNA viruses that have been reported from three genera of Diptera. These viruses replicate in nuclei of salivary gland cells in adult flies, inducing gland enlargement with little obvious ...

  19. Daytime Secretion of Salivary Cortisol and Alpha-Amylase in Preschool-Aged Children with Autism and Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Sharon A.; Corbett, Blythe A.; Granger, Douglas A.; Boyce, W. Thomas; Anders, Thomas F.; Tager, Ira B.

    2012-01-01

    We examined daytime salivary cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) secretion levels and variability in preschool-aged children with autism (AUT) and typically developing children (TYP). Fifty-two subjects (26 AUT and 26 TYP) were enrolled. Salivary samples were obtained at waking, midday, and bedtime on two consecutive days at three phases…

  20. Diagnostic Role of Salivary and GCF Nitrite, Nitrate and Nitric Oxide to Distinguish Healthy Periodontium from Gingivitis and Periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Poorsattar Bejeh-Mir, Arash; Parsian, Hadi; Akbari Khoram, Maryam; Ghasemi, Nafiseh; Bijani, Ali; Khosravi-Samani, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    Diagnosis of subclinical and early stage clinical periodontal dysfunction could prevent from further socioeconomic burden. The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic applicability of nitric oxide and its end-metabolites in periodontal tissue health and disease. Forty-two patients were enrolled and divided into three groups according to gingivitis (GI) and clinical attachment level (CAL) indices: a healthy group (GI<1, CAL<1), b: gingivitis (GI>1, CAL>1) and c: periodontitis (CAL>1) with 14 patients in each group. Unstimulated saliva and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) were collected. Samples were evaluated for nitrite, nitrate and total nitric oxide contents with the ELISA method. In addition, CAL, GI, plaque index (PI), decay, missing, filling (DMFT) and bleeding index (BI) scores were also recorded. Except for GCF nitrite content (P= 0.89), there was an increasing trend for measured biomarkers in both saliva and GCF (Periodontitis> gingivitis> healthy periodontium, P< 0.05). Data remained stable after simultaneous adjustment for DMFT and BI scores as confounding factors. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, cut point and p- value were as the followings: GCF nitrate (0.71, 0.11, 0.29,0.43, 4.97, P= 0.04), nitric oxide GCF ( 0.64, 0.18, 0.28, 0.5, 10.12, P= 0.04), nitrite saliva (0.93, 0.96,0.93,0.96,123.48, P< 0.001), salivary nitrate (0.93, 0.96, 0.93, 0.96, 123.6, P< 0.001), salivary nitric oxide (0.93, 0.96, 0.93, 0.96, 246.65, P <0.001). Our results revealed that NO plays an important role in the process of destruction of periodontal tissues. Within the limitation of our study, detecting NO biomarker and its end metabolites in saliva is of more value to assess the periodontal health comparing to GCF. PMID:25317400

  1. Identification of methylated genes in salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma xenografts using global demethylation and methylation microarray screening

    PubMed Central

    LING, SHIZHANG; RETTIG, ELENI M.; TAN, MARIETTA; CHANG, XIAOFEI; WANG, ZHIMING; BRAIT, MARIANA; BISHOP, JUSTIN A.; FERTIG, ELANA J.; CONSIDINE, MICHAEL; WICK, MICHAEL J.; HA, PATRICK K.

    2016-01-01

    Salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is a rare head and neck malignancy without molecular biomarkers that can be used to predict the chemotherapeutic response or prognosis of ACC. The regulation of gene expression of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) through DNA promoter methylation may play a role in the carcinogenesis of ACC. To identify differentially methylated genes in ACC, a global demethylating agent, 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (5-AZA) was utilized to unmask putative TSG silencing in ACC xenograft models in mice. Fresh xenografts were passaged, implanted in triplicate in mice that were treated with 5-AZA daily for 28 days. These xenografts were then evaluated for genome-wide DNA methylation patterns using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation27 BeadChip array. Validation of the 32 candidate genes was performed by bisulfite sequencing (BS-seq) in a separate cohort of 6 ACC primary tumors and 6 normal control salivary gland tissues. Hypermethylation was identified in the HCN2 gene promoter in all 6 control tissues, but hypomethylation was found in all 6 ACC tumor tissues. Quantitative validation of HCN2 promoter methylation level in the region detected by BS-seq was performed in a larger cohort of primary tumors (n=32) confirming significant HCN2 hypomethylation in ACCs compared with normal samples (n=10; P=0.04). HCN2 immunohistochemical staining was performed on an ACC tissue microarray. HCN2 staining intensity and H-score, but not percentage of the positively stained cells, were significantly stronger in normal tissues than those of ACC tissues. With our novel screening and sequencing methods, we identified several gene candidates that were methylated. The most significant of these genes, HCN2, was actually hypomethylated in tumors. However, promoter methylation status does not appear to be a major determinant of HCN2 expression in normal and ACC tissues. HCN2 hypomethylation is a biomarker of ACC and may play an important role in the

  2. Translational progress on tumor biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Hongwei; Zhou, Xiaolin; Lu, Yi; Xie, Liye; Chen, Qian; Keller, Evan T; Liu, Qian; Zhou, Qinghua; Zhang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    There is an urgent need to apply basic research achievements to the clinic. In particular, mechanistic studies should be developed by bench researchers, depending upon clinical demands, in order to improve the survival and quality of life of cancer patients. To date, translational medicine has been addressed in cancer biology, particularly in the identification and characterization of novel tumor biomarkers. This review focuses on the recent achievements and clinical application prospects in tumor biomarkers based on translational medicine. PMID:26557902

  3. Effort-reward imbalance at work and pre-clinical biological indices of ill-health: the case for salivary immunoglobulin A.

    PubMed

    Bathman, Lauren Marjorie; Almond, Jacinta; Hazi, Agnes; Wright, Bradley James

    2013-10-01

    Physiological indices of stress and ill-health (cortisol and salivary immunoglobulin A) were assessed to determine if they were predicted by Siegrist's effort-reward imbalance model (ERI) with an aim of identifying employees at risk of illness. Male Australian dairy farmers (N=66) completed the Perceived Stress Scale, Work related Questions II & III, Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Revised--Short and demographic questions and provided morning saliva samples (at awakening and 30 min post awakening) on a working day, which were subsequently analysed for cortisol and salivary immunoglobulin A (sIgA) concentration levels. A high percentage (45.5%) of the sample reported an imbalance between efforts and rewards in the workplace that may place them 'at risk' for ill-health. After controlling for disposition, sIgA scores were more successfully predicted by the ERI than the cortisol assessments. Although both efforts and rewards were significantly associated with sIgA, efforts were most strongly associated. The dispositional trait overcommitment, did not moderate the experience of stress on the physiologic indices. The current investigation supports the continued use of sIgA in studies that use biomarkers to assess occupational stress. ERI ratio scores >1 aligned with previous findings that suggest elevated risk of illness for these employees. PMID:23743258

  4. Can saliva testing replace blood measurements for health monitoring? Insights from a correlation study of salivary and whole blood glutathione in humans.

    PubMed

    Ngamchuea, Kamonwad; Batchelor-McAuley, Christopher; Cowen, Philip J; Williams, Clare; Gonçalves, Luís Moreira; Compton, Richard G

    2016-08-01

    The feasibility of using saliva samples as diagnostic for health status is assessed. Although blood is regularly used for this purpose, an alternative non-invasive route which yields equivalent clinical information is desirable. The non-invasive saliva testing is validated by comparing its result to that of blood examination. In this investigation, we used glutathione as a paradigmatic example of a biomarker and diagnostic auxiliary. Correlation between the levels of total unbound glutathione, reduced and oxidized, in saliva and whole blood samples from healthy individuals is evaluated. Both salivary and blood glutathione were measured using an enzymatic kinetic assay which was improved to eliminate measurement errors arising from the variation in the enzyme activity from different batches. PMID:27278110

  5. Evaluating Biomarkers in Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Karagiannis, Panagiotis; Fittall, Matthew; Karagiannis, Sophia N.

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of cutaneous melanoma has more than doubled over the last decades making it one of the fastest rising cancers worldwide. Improved awareness and early detection of malignant moles now permit earlier diagnosis aiming to decrease the likelihood of recurrence. However, it is difficult to identify those patients initially diagnosed with localized melanoma who subsequently develop metastatic disease. For this group, prognosis remains poor and clinical outcomes are variable and challenging to predict. Considerable efforts have focused on the search for novel prognostic tools, with numerous markers evaluated in the circulation and in tumor lesions. The most reliable predictors of patient outcome are the clinical and histological features of the primary tumor such as Breslow thickness, ulceration status, and mitotic rate. Elevated serum levels of the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase, likely to indicate active metastatic disease, are also routinely used to monitor patients. The emergence of novel immune and checkpoint antibody treatments for melanoma and increasing appreciation of key roles of the immune system in promoting or halting cancer progression have focused attention to immunological biomarkers. Validation of the most promising of these may have clinical applications in assisting prognosis, assessing endpoints in therapy, and monitoring responses during treatment. PMID:25667918

  6. Neuroimmune biomarkers in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Tomasik, Jakub; Rahmoune, Hassan; Guest, Paul C; Bahn, Sabine

    2016-09-01

    Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous psychiatric disorder with a broad spectrum of clinical and biological manifestations. Due to the lack of objective tests, the accurate diagnosis and selection of effective treatments for schizophrenia remains challenging. Numerous technologies have been employed in search of schizophrenia biomarkers. These studies have suggested that neuroinflammatory processes may play a role in schizophrenia pathogenesis, at least in a subgroup of patients. The evidence indicates alterations in both pro- and anti-inflammatory molecules in the central nervous system, which have also been found in peripheral tissues and may correlate with schizophrenia symptoms. In line with these findings, certain immunomodulatory interventions have shown beneficial effects on psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia patients, in particular those with distinct immune signatures. In this review, we evaluate these findings and their potential for more targeted drug interventions and the development of companion diagnostics. Although currently no validated markers exist for schizophrenia patient stratification or the prediction of treatment efficacy, we propose that utilisation of inflammatory markers for diagnostic and theranostic purposes may lead to novel therapeutic approaches and deliver more effective care for schizophrenia patients. PMID:25124519

  7. Salivary gland accumulation of meta-(/sup 131/I)iodobenzylguanidine

    SciTech Connect

    Nakajo, M.; Shapiro, B.; Sisson, J.C.; Swanson, D.P.; Beierwaltes, W.H.

    1984-01-01

    Intense uptake of m-(/sup 131/I)iodobenzylguanidine (I-131 MIBG) has been observed in the salivary glands of patients undergoing scintigraphy for the location of suspected pheochromocytomas. This uptake of radioativity was not due to free I-131 derived from the I-131 MIBG but rather to uptake of I-131 MIBG by sympathetic neuronal elements in the salivary glands. In keeping with this, administration of tricycle antidepressants reversibly blocked salivary uptake of I-131 MIBG. Furthermore, I-131 MIBG uptake was markedly diminished by the ipsilateral salivary glands in a patient with Horner's syndrome, and was bilaterally diminished in a patient with severe idiopathic sympathetic autonomic neuropathy. The salivary gland uptake of I-131 MIBG may provide a means for the study of sympathetic innervation of these organs, and thus for the study of generalized disorders of autonomic innervation.

  8. Multiscale Feature Analysis of Salivary Gland Branching Morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Baydil, Banu; Daley, William P.; Larsen, Melinda; Yener, Bülent

    2012-01-01

    Pattern formation in developing tissues involves dynamic spatio-temporal changes in cellular organization and subsequent evolution of functional adult structures. Branching morphogenesis is a developmental mechanism by which patterns are generated in many developing organs, which is controlled by underlying molecular pathways. Understanding the relationship between molecular signaling, cellular behavior and resulting morphological change requires quantification and categorization of the cellular behavior. In this study, tissue-level and cellular changes in developing salivary gland in response to disruption of ROCK-mediated signaling by are modeled by building cell-graphs to compute mathematical features capturing structural properties at multiple scales. These features were used to generate multiscale cell-graph signatures of untreated and ROCK signaling disrupted salivary gland organ explants. From confocal images of mouse submandibular salivary gland organ explants in which epithelial and mesenchymal nuclei were marked, a multiscale feature set capturing global structural properties, local structural properties, spectral, and morphological properties of the tissues was derived. Six feature selection algorithms and multiway modeling of the data was performed to identify distinct subsets of cell graph features that can uniquely classify and differentiate between different cell populations. Multiscale cell-graph analysis was most effective in classification of the tissue state. Cellular and tissue organization, as defined by a multiscale subset of cell-graph features, are both quantitatively distinct in epithelial and mesenchymal cell types both in the presence and absence of ROCK inhibitors. Whereas tensor analysis demonstrate that epithelial tissue was affected the most by inhibition of ROCK signaling, significant multiscale changes in mesenchymal tissue organization were identified with this analysis that were not identified in previous biological studies. We

  9. Ultradian rhythmicity and induced changes in salivary testosterone.

    PubMed

    Beaven, C Martyn; Ingram, John R; Gill, Nicholas D; Hopkins, Will G

    2010-09-01

    Testosterone and cortisol respond to exercise stimuli and modulate adaptation. Episodic basal secretion of these hormones may modify the responsiveness of these hormones. We sought to identify episodic steroid secretion via frequent salivary sampling and investigate any interaction between ultradian rhythmicity and induced changes in testosterone. Salivary testosterone and cortisol concentrations of seven males (age 20-40 years) were measured every 10 min between 0800 and 1600 h on three consecutive days. On either the second or third day, three interventions designed to elicit a hormonal response were randomly assigned: sprint exercise (two 30-s maximal efforts on a cycle ergometer); boxing (two 30-s maximal punching efforts); and a violent video game (10 min of player vs. player combat). On the other days subjects were inactive. Testosterone data on non-intervention days suggested pulsatile secretion with a pulse interval of 47 +/- 9 min (mean +/- SD). The sprint intervention substantially affected hormones: it elicited a small transient elevation in testosterone (by a factor of 1.21; factor 90% confidence limits x/ divided by 1.21) 10 min after exercise, and a moderate elevation in cortisol peaking 50 min post-exercise (factor 2.3; x/ divided by 2.6). The testosterone response correlated with the change in testosterone concentration in the 10 min prior to the sprint (r = 0.78; 90% CL 0.22-0.95) and with a measure of randomness in testosterone fluctuations (r = 0.83; 0.35-0.96). Thus, the salivary testosterone response to exercise may be dependent on the underlying ultradian rhythm and aspects of its regulation. This interaction may have important implications for adaptation to exercise. PMID:20512500

  10. No Detectable Hypoxia in Malignant Salivary Gland Tumors: Preliminary Results

    SciTech Connect

    Wijffels, Karien; Hoogsteen, Ilse J.; Lok, Jasper; Rijken, Paulus F.J.W.; Marres, Henri A.M.; Wilde, Peter C.M. de; Kogel, Albert J. van der; Kaanders, Johannes H.A.M.

    2009-04-01

    Purpose: Hypoxia is detected in most solid tumors and is associated with malignant progression and adverse treatment outcomes. However, the oxygenation status of malignant salivary gland tumors has not been previously studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential clinical relevance of hypoxia in this tumor type. Methods and Materials: Twelve patients scheduled for surgical resection of a salivary gland tumor were preoperatively injected with the hypoxia marker pimonidazole and the proliferation marker iododeoxyuridine. Tissue samples of the dissected tumor were immunohistochemically stained for blood vessels, pimonidazole, carbonic anhydrase-IX, glucose transporters-1 and -3 (Glut-1, Glut-3), hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha}, iododeoxyuridine, and epidermal growth factor receptor. The tissue sections were quantitatively assessed by computerized image analysis. Results: The tissue material from 8 patients was of sufficient quality for quantitative analysis. All tumors were negative for pimonidazole binding, as well as for carbonic anhydrase-IX, Glut-1, Glut-3, and hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha}. The vascular density was high, with a median value of 285 mm{sup -2} (range, 209-546). The iododeoxyuridine-labeling index varied from <0.1% to 12.2% (median, 2.2%). Epidermal growth factor receptor expression levels were mostly moderate to high. In one-half of the cases, nuclear expression of epidermal growth factor receptor was observed. Conclusion: The absence of detectable pimonidazole binding, as well as the lack of expression of hypoxia-associated proteins in all tumors, indicates that malignant salivary gland tumors are generally well oxygenated. It is unlikely that hypoxia is a relevant factor for their clinical behavior and treatment responsiveness.

  11. Tannin-binding salivary proteins in three captive rhinoceros species.

    PubMed

    Clauss, Marcus; Gehrke, Janin; Hatt, Jean-Michel; Dierenfeld, Ellen S; Flach, Edmund J; Hermes, Robert; Castell, Johanna; Streich, W Juergen; Fickel, Joerns

    2005-01-01

    Tannin-binding salivary proteins (TBSP) are considered to be counter-defences acquired in the course of evolution by animals whose natural forage contains such tannins. As tannins mostly occur in browse material but not in grasses, it is assumed that grazers do not have a need for TBSP. Whereas it has been shown in several non-ungulate species that TBSP can be induced by dietary tannins, their presence or absence in ungulates has, so far, been shown to be a species-specific characteristic independent of dietary manipulations. We investigated saliva from three rhinoceros species from zoological gardens fed comparable, conventional zoo diets. As expected, saliva from white rhinoceroses (Ceratotherum simum, grazer) had lower tannin-binding capacities than that from black rhinoceroses (Diceros bicornis, browser). Surprisingly, however, Indian rhinoceroses (Rhinoceros unicornis), commonly regarded as grazers as well, displayed the highest tannin-binding capacities of the three species investigated. It is speculated that this discrepancy might be a result of an evolutionarily recent switch to a grass-dominated diet in Indian rhinoceroses, and that the black rhinoceros, which is closer related to the white rhinoceros than the Indian species, has evolved an inducible mechanism of TBSP production. In separate trials during which the tannin content of the diets of black rhinoceroses was increased by the addition of either tannic acid or quebracho, the tannin-binding capacity of black rhinoceros saliva was increased to levels within the same range as that of Indian rhinoceroses on the conventional diets. While induction trials in white and Indian rhinoceroses remain to be performed for a full understanding of salivary anti-tannin defence in rhinoceroses, these results are the first report of an induced salivary response to increased dietary tannin levels in an ungulate species. PMID:15664314

  12. Salivary markers of kidney function - Potentials and limitations.

    PubMed

    Celec, Peter; Tóthová, Ľubomíra; Šebeková, Katarína; Podracká, Ľudmila; Boor, Peter

    2016-01-30

    Saliva can be collected non-invasively, repeatedly and without trained personnel. It is a promising diagnostic body fluid with clinical use in endocrinology and dentistry. For decades, it is known that saliva contains also urea, creatinine and other markers of renal function. Clinical studies have shown that the salivary concentrations of these markers could be useful for the assessment of kidney function without the need of blood collection. This article summarizes the clinical and experimental data on the use of saliva as a diagnostic fluid in nephrology and points out the advantages, pitfalls, technical requirements and future perspective for the use of saliva as a novel potential diagnostic biofluid. PMID:26633856

  13. Wetting the whistle: neurotropic factor improves salivary function

    PubMed Central

    Swick, Adam; Kimple, Randall J.

    2014-01-01

    Xerostomia, or dry mouth, is a common side effect of head and neck radiotherapy, Sjögren syndrome, diabetes, old age, and numerous medications. In this issue of the JCI, Xiao and colleagues identified glial cell line–derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) as a potential stimulus for salivary stem cell growth. Due to its ability to promote neuronal growth, differentiation, and survival, GDNF is currently being used in clinical trials as a treatment for Parkinson disease; therefore, the findings of Xiao and colleagues may initiate a potential treatment for the millions of patients who suffer from xerostomia each year. PMID:25036702

  14. Wetting the whistle: neurotropic factor improves salivary function.

    PubMed

    Swick, Adam; Kimple, Randall J

    2014-08-01

    Xerostomia, or dry mouth, is a common side effect of head and neck radiotherapy, Sjögren syndrome, diabetes, old age, and numerous medications. In this issue of the JCI, Xiao and colleagues identified glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) as a potential stimulus for salivary stem cell growth. Due to its ability to promote neuronal growth, differentiation, and survival, GDNF is currently being used in clinical trials as a treatment for Parkinson disease; therefore, the findings of Xiao and colleagues may initiate a potential treatment for the millions of patients who suffer from xerostomia each year. PMID:25036702

  15. Clinicopathological analysis of salivary gland carcinomas and literature review

    PubMed Central

    SHIGEISHI, HIDEO; OHTA, KOUJI; OKUI, GAKU; SEINO, SAYAKA; HASHIKATA, MIHO; YAMAMOTO, KAZUHIRO; ISHIDA, YOKO; SASAKI, KAZUKI; NARUSE, TAKAKO; RAHMAN, MOHAMMAD ZESHAAN; UETSUKI, RYO; NIMIYA, AKIKO; ONO, SHIGEHIRO; SHIMASUE, HIROSHI; HIGASHIKAWA, KOICHIRO; SUGIYAMA, MASARU; TAKECHI, MASAAKI

    2015-01-01

    Malignant salivary gland tumors are rare and exhibit a broad spectrum of phenotypic heterogeneity. The objective of this study was to investigate prognostic factors in patients with salivary gland carcinomas and review the results in light of other reports. We retrospectively reviewed 40 patients with primary salivary gland carcinomas who were diagnosed and treated at our institution between 1991 and 2014. Of the 40 tumors, 19 (47.5%) were mucoepidermoid carcinomas, 11 (27.5%) were adenoid cystic carcinomas, 7 (17.5%) were acinic cell carcinomas, 2 (5.0%) were myoepithelial carcinomas and 1 (2.5%) was a squamous cell carcinoma. Clinically positive lymph nodes were present in 4 patients (10.0%). As regards clinical stage, 15 cases (37.5%) were stage I, 13 (32.5%) were stage II, 1 (2.5%) was stage III and 11 (27.5%) were stage IVA. The majority of the patients (97.5%) were treated with surgery, of whom 25 (62.5%) received surgery alone and 14 (35.0%) underwent surgery in combination with chemotherapy or chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The median follow-up time for all the patients was 48 months. The disease-specific survival rate at 5 years was 87.1%. We identified a significant correlation between poor survival rate and histological grade (intermediate/high), tumor size (T3/T4), lymph node metastasis (node-positive) and clinical stage (III/IV) using the Kaplan-Meier method (P<0.05 for each). In addition, the Cox proportional hazards regression analysis confirmed that lymph node metastasis and tumor size were independent prognostic factors for disease-specific survival (hazard ratio = 18.7 and 15.1, respectively; P=0.023 and 0.037, respectively). Furthermore, tumor size was found to be a predictive factor regarding recurrence in the multivariate logistic regression analysis (odds ratio = 8.35; P=0.025). Our results suggest that lymph node metastasis and tumor size are significant prognostic factors for patients with salivary gland carcinomas. PMID:25469295

  16. [Rare giant salivary gland pleomorphic adenoma on the neck].

    PubMed

    Shi, Dongling; Li, Qinghuai

    2013-12-01

    The patient has found his neck mass for more than 30 years, and the neck mass has slowly growed into giant tumor. Five days ago, the neck giant mass suddenly burst, hemorrhage and overflow liquid. The giant mass with irregular in shape, surface uneven, skin highly tension and superficial venous engorgement, was seen in left lateral neck. CT scan demonstrates a mixture of solid, cystic and lobulated mass shadow within subcutaneous fat spaces of left lateral neck. Postoperative pathological examination proved that it is salivary gland pleomorphic adenoma. PMID:24620671

  17. Vasoconstriction induced by salivary gland extracts from ixodid ticks.

    PubMed

    Pekáriková, Danica; Rajská, Petra; Kazimírová, Mária; Pecháňová, Olga; Takáč, Peter; Nuttall, Patricia A

    2015-12-01

    In their quest for blood, most haematophagous parasites secrete vasodilators in their saliva to counter the host haemostatic response of vasoconstriction. Surprisingly, salivary gland extracts from adult female Dermacentor reticulatus and Rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks induced constriction in a rat femoral artery model; males induced vasoconstriction or vasodilation depending on the time of feeding. Based on comparative HPLC fractionation, the active compounds inducing vasoconstriction do not appear to be prostaglandins (which ticks normally use as vasodilators). Vasoconstriction may be unique to ixodid ticks, helping them control blood flow during their prolonged blood-feeding of up to 10 days or more. PMID:26432295

  18. Apophysomyces elegans causing acute otogenic cervicofacial zygomycosis involving salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Amit; Tyagi, Isha; Syal, Rajan; Marak, R S K; Singh, Jagdeep

    2007-08-01

    Zygomycosis is an invasive, life threatening fungal infection that usually affects immunocompromised hosts. In the head and neck region, rhino-orbito-cerebral zygomycosis is more common than the cervicofacial variety. We report the first case of otogenic cervicofacial zygomycosis caused by Apophysomyces elegans involving the salivary glands, an uncommon site of infection. The case began after a trivial trauma in a diabetic patient and despite surgical debridement and liposomal amphotericin B therapy, the patient died due to extensive involvement and metabolic/hemodynamic complications. PMID:17654273

  19. The use of laser CO2 in salivary gland diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciolfi, C.; Rocchetti, F.; Fioravanti, M.; Tenore, G.; Palaia, G.; Romeo, U.

    2016-03-01

    Salivary gland diseases can include reactive lesions, obstructive lesions, and benign tumors. All these clinical entities are slow growing. Salivary glands reactive lesions, such as mucoceles, can result from extravasation of saliva into the surrounding soft tissue or from retention of saliva within the duct. Sialolithiasis, one of the most common obstructive lesions, is generally due to calculi, which are attributed to retention of saliva. Monomorphic adenoma is a salivary gland benign tumor, which is exclusively resulted from proliferation of epithelial cells, with no alterations interesting the connective tissue. The elective therapy of these lesions is surgical excision because sometimes they can be accompained by difficulties during chewing and phonation and can interfere with prosthesis's stability. The aim of the study is to evaluate the efficacy of CO2 laser in the treatment of patients with salivary gland diseases. Three different cases - a mucocele, a scialolithiasis and a monomorphic adenoma - were treated with CO2 laser excision (CW and 4W), under local anesthesia. Two different techniques were used: circumferential incision for the adenoma, and mucosa preservation technique for mucocele and sialolithiasis. In each case final haemostasis was obtained by thermocoagulation, but suture was applied to guarantee good healing by sewing up the flaps. The patients were checked after twenty days and the healing was good. The carbon dioxide laser (CO2 laser) was one of the earliest gas laser to be developed, and is still the highest-power continuous wave laser that is currently available. In dentistry the CO2 laser produces a beam of infrared light with the principal wavelength bands centering around 9.4 and 10.6 micrometers. Laser excision can be very useful in oral surgery. In the cases presented CO2 laser offered, differently from traditional surgery, simplified surgical technique, shorter duration of operation, minimal postoperative pain, minimal scarring

  20. The oral-systemic connection: role of salivary diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malamud, Daniel

    2013-05-01

    Utilizing saliva instead of blood for diagnosis of both local and systemic health is a rapidly emerging field. Recognition of oral-systemic interrelationships for many diseases has fostered collaborations between medicine and dentistry, and many of these collaborations rely on salivary diagnostics. The oral cavity is easily accessed and contains most of the analytes present in blood. Saliva and mucosal transudate are generally utilized for oral diagnostics, but gingival crevicular fluid, buccal swabs, dental plaque and volatiles may also be useful depending on the analyte being studied. Examples of point-of-care devices capable of detecting HIV, TB, and Malaria targets are being developed and discussed in this overview.

  1. Atypical presentation of salivary mucocele: diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Nilesh, Kumar; Chandra, Jagadish

    2015-01-01

    A mucocele is a common pathological lesion involving the minor salivary glands. It usually presents as an asymptomatic small superficial swelling over the lower labial mucosa. However, uncommon variants of oral mucoceles sometimes occur. Such lesions may be difficult to diagnose due to their unusual size and atypical clinical presentation. This article describes the case of a deeply embedded large mucocele over the buccal mucosa. Ultrasonography was used to visualize the size and position of the lesion, and aspiration was used to help in the eventual diagnosis. An intraoral approach was used in the complete removal of the lesion. PMID:25574732

  2. Salivary Gland Pathology in Sjögren's Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Campos, Joana; Hillen, Maarten R; Barone, Francesca

    2016-08-01

    Primary Sjögren syndrome (pSS) can be considered a systemic autoimmune disease with a strong organ bias. The involvement of the exocrine glands is prevalent and drives the pathognomonic manifestations of dryness that define the sicca syndrome. The salivary glands also represent the hub of pSS pathology. Elements belonging to both innate and acquired immune responses have been described at this site that contribute to disease establishment and progression. The interaction between those elements and their relative contributions to the clinical manifestations and lymphoma progression largely remain to be addressed. PMID:27431349

  3. Evaluation of the effect of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on whole salivary flow rate

    PubMed Central

    Pal-Singh, Mohit; Mathur, Hemant; Astekar, Sowmya; Gulati, Pranay; Lakhani, Shruta

    2015-01-01

    Background: Saliva plays a critical role in maintaining oral homeostasis; it modulates the ecosystem through lubrication of the alimentary bolus, protection against microorganisms, buffer and repair of the oral mucosa, and helps in dental re-mineralization. Various local and systemic factors such as medications, radiation therapy, systemic conditions, etc. can lead to reduction in salivary flow. A decrease in salivary function, known as Xerostomia, increases a patient’s risk for caries and other oral infections. Palliative management of Xerostomia includes wetting agents such as ice chips, drugs and saliva substitutes. Systemic agents stimulate salivary flow but often have unfavorable side effects. Newer modalities like transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), which has fewer side effects, have been used to stimulate salivary flow. The aim of the present study was to assess and evaluate the effect of TENS on whole salivary flow rates in healthy adult subjects. Study design: A total of 80 healthy adult subjects were enrolled in the study. Unstimulated and stimulated saliva (using TENS) was collected for 5 minutes and the mean salivary flow rates were calculated. Data obtained was analyzed using the SPSS (Statistical package for social sciences) version 15. Students ‘t’ test was employed for comparative analysis. Results: Sixty-five of the 80 subjects demonstrated an increase in the salivary flow rate on application of TENS. Twelve subjects demonstrated a mild reduction in the salivary flow rates. Seven subjects experienced transient mild twitching of facial musculature as side effects. Conclusion: Significant increase in salivary flow rates was observed on application of TENS with minimal or no side effects. Key words:Stimulated saliva, whole salivary flow, TENS. PMID:25810824

  4. Skeletal muscle atrophy: disease-induced mechanisms may mask disuse atrophy.

    PubMed

    Malavaki, C J; Sakkas, G K; Mitrou, G I; Kalyva, A; Stefanidis, I; Myburgh, K H; Karatzaferi, C

    2015-12-01

    Disuse atrophy is the loss of skeletal muscle mass due to inactivity or lower than 'normal' use. It is not only a furtive component of the 'modern' sedentary lifestyle but also a part of numerous pathologies, where muscle loss is linked to disease specific and/or other toxicity factors, eventually leading to wasting (cachexia). Whether disuse-or-disease induced, muscle loss leads to weakness and metabolic comorbidities with a high societal and financial cost. This review discusses the intricate network of interacting signalling pathways including Atrogin-1/MAFbx, IGF1-Akt, myostatin, glucocorticoids, NF-kB, MAPKs and caspases that seem to regulate disuse atrophy but also share common activation patterns in other states of muscle loss such as sarcopenia or cachexia. Reactive oxygen species are also important regulators of cell signalling pathways that can accelerate proteolysis and depress protein synthesis. Exercise is an effective countermeasure and antioxidants may show some benefit. We discuss how the experimental model used can crucially affect the outcome and hence our understanding of atrophy. Timing of sampling is crucial as some signalling mechanisms reach their peak early during the atrophy process to rapidly decline thereafter, while other present high levels even weeks and months after study initiation. The importance of such differences lays in future consideration of appropriate treatment targets. Apart from attempting to correct defective genes or negate their effects, technological advances in new rational ways should aim to regulate specific gene expression at precise time points for the treatment of muscle atrophy in therapeutic protocols depending on the origin of atrophy induction. PMID:26728748

  5. An In Vitro Culture System for Long-Term Expansion of Epithelial and Mesenchymal Salivary Gland Cells: Role of TGF-β1 in Salivary Gland Epithelial and Mesenchymal Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Janebodin, Kajohnkiart; Buranaphatthana, Worakanya; Ieronimakis, Nicholas; Hays, Aislinn L.; Reyes, Morayma

    2013-01-01

    Despite a pivotal role in salivary gland development, homeostasis, and disease, the role of salivary gland mesenchyme is not well understood. In this study, we used the Col1a1-GFP mouse model to characterize the salivary gland mesenchyme in vitro and in vivo. The Col1a1-GFP transgene was exclusively expressed in the salivary gland mesenchyme. Ex vivo culture of mixed salivary gland cells in DMEM plus serum medium allowed long-term expansion of salivary gland epithelial and mesenchymal cells. The role of TGF-β1 in salivary gland development and disease is complex. Therefore, we used this in vitro culture system to study the effects of TGF-β1 on salivary gland cell differentiation. TGF-β1 induced the expression of collagen, and inhibited the formation of acini-like structures in close proximity to mesenchymal cells, which adapted a fibroblastic phenotype. In contrast, TGF-βR1 inhibition increased acini genes and fibroblast growth factors (Fgf-7 and Fgf-10), decreased collagen and induced formation of larger, mature acini-like structures. Thus, inhibition of TGF-β signaling may be beneficial for salivary gland differentiation; however, due to differential effects of TGF-β1 in salivary gland epithelial versus mesenchymal cells, selective inhibition is desirable. In conclusion, this mixed salivary gland cell culture system can be used to study epithelial-mesenchymal interactions and the effects of differentiating inducers and inhibitors. PMID:23841093

  6. Non-Invasive Screening for Alzheimer’s Disease by Sensing Salivary Sugar Using Drosophila Cells Expressing Gustatory Receptor (Gr5a) Immobilized on an Extended Gate Ion-Sensitive Field-Effect Transistor (EG-ISFET) Biosensor

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Hui-Chong; Lee, In-Kyu; Ko, Pan-Woo; Lee, Ho-Won; Huh, Jeung-Soo; Cho, Won-Ju; Lim, Jeong-Ok

    2015-01-01

    Body fluids are often used as specimens for medical diagnosis. With the advent of advanced analytical techniques in biotechnology, the diagnostic potential of saliva has been the focus of many studies. We recently reported the presence of excess salivary sugars, in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In the present study, we developed a highly sensitive, cell-based biosensor to detect trehalose levels in patient saliva. The developed biosensor relies on the overexpression of sugar sensitive gustatory receptors (Gr5a) in Drosophila cells to detect the salivary trehalose. The cell-based biosensor was built on the foundation of an improved extended gate ion-sensitive field-effect transistor (EG-ISFET). Using an EG-ISFET, instead of a traditional ion-sensitive field-effect transistor (ISFET), resulted in an increase in the sensitivity and reliability of detection. The biosensor was designed with the gate terminals segregated from the conventional ISFET device. This design allows the construction of an independent reference and sensing region for simultaneous and accurate measurements of samples from controls and patients respectively. To investigate the efficacy of the cell-based biosensor for AD screening, we collected 20 saliva samples from each of the following groups: participants diagnosed with AD, participants diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease (PD), and a control group composed of healthy individuals. We then studied the response generated from the interaction of the salivary trehalose of the saliva samples and the Gr5a in the immobilized cells on an EG-ISFET sensor. The cell-based biosensor significantly distinguished salivary sugar, trehalose of the AD group from the PD and control groups. Based on these findings, we propose that salivary trehalose, might be a potential biomarker for AD and could be detected using our cell-based EG-ISFET biosensor. The cell-based EG-ISFET biosensor provides a sensitive and direct approach for salivary sugar detection

  7. The salivary microbiome for differentiating individuals: proof of principle.

    PubMed

    Leake, Sarah L; Pagni, Marco; Falquet, Laurent; Taroni, Franco; Greub, Gilbert

    2016-06-01

    Human identification has played a prominent role in forensic science for the past two decades. Identification based on unique genetic traits is driving the field. However, this may have limitations, for instance, for twins. Moreover, high-throughput sequencing techniques are now available and may provide a high amount of data likely useful in forensic science. This study investigates the potential for bacteria found in the salivary microbiome to be used to differentiate individuals. Two different targets (16S rRNA and rpoB) were chosen to maximise coverage of the salivary microbiome and when combined, they increase the power of differentiation (identification). Paired-end Illumina high-throughput sequencing was used to analyse the bacterial composition of saliva from two different people at four different time points (t = 0 and t = 28 days and then one year later at t = 0 and t = 28 days). Five major phyla dominate the samples: Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Fusobacteria. Streptococcus, a Firmicutes, is one of the most abundant aerobic genera found in saliva and targeting Streptococcus rpoB has enabled a deeper characterisation of the different streptococci species, which cannot be differentiated using 16S rRNA alone. We have observed that samples from the same person group together regardless of time of sampling. The results indicate that it is possible to distinguish two people using the bacterial microbiota present in their saliva. PMID:27063111

  8. Xerostomia, Hyposalivation, and Salivary Flow in Diabetes Patients

    PubMed Central

    Casañas, Elisabeth; Ramírez, Lucía; de Arriba, Lorenzo; Hernández, Gonzalo

    2016-01-01

    The presence of xerostomia and hyposalivation is frequent among diabetes mellitus (DM) patients. It is not clear if the presence of xerostomia and hyposalivation is greater in DM than non-DM patients. The aims of this systematic review are (1) to compare the prevalence rates of xerostomia, (2) to evaluate the salivary flow rate, and (3) to compare the prevalence rates of hyposalivation in DM versus non-DM population. This systematic review was conducted according to the PRISMA group guidelines by performing systematic literature searches in biomedical databases from 1970 until January 18th, 2016. All studies showed higher prevalence of xerostomia in DM patients in relation to non-DM population, 12.5%–53.5% versus 0–30%. Studies that analyzed the quantity of saliva in DM population in relation to non-DM patients reported higher flow rates in non-DM than in DM patients. The variation flow rate among different studies in each group (DM/CG) is very large. Only one existing study showed higher hyposalivation prevalence in DM than non-DM patients (45% versus 2.5%). In addition, quality assessment showed the low quality of the existing studies. We recommend new studies that use more precise and current definitions concerning the determination and diagnosis of DM patients and salivary flow collection. PMID:27478847

  9. Subjective Stress, Salivary Cortisol, and Electrophysiological Responses to Psychological Stress

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Mingming; Gao, Heming; Guan, Lili; Liu, Guangyuan; Yang, Juan

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the subjective stress, salivary cortisol, and electrophysiological responses to psychological stress induced by a modified version of a mental arithmetic task. Fifteen participants were asked to estimate whether the multiplication product of two-decimal numbers was above 10 or not either with a time limit (the stress condition) or without a time limit (the control condition). The results showed that participants reported higher levels of stress, anxiety, and negative affect in the stress condition than they did in the control condition. Moreover, the salivary cortisol level continued to increase after the stress condition but exhibited a sharp decrease after the control condition. In addition, the electrophysiological data showed that the amplitude of the frontal-central N1 component was larger for the stress condition than it was for the control condition, while the amplitude of the frontal-central P2 component was larger for the control condition than it was for the stress condition. Our study suggests that the psychological stress characteristics of time pressure and social-evaluative threat caused dissociable effects on perception and on the subsequent attentional resource allocation of visual information. PMID:26925026

  10. Tick salivary secretion as a source of antihemostatics.

    PubMed

    Chmelar, Jindrich; Calvo, Eric; Pedra, Joao H F; Francischetti, Ivo M B; Kotsyfakis, Michail

    2012-07-16

    Ticks are mostly obligatory blood feeding ectoparasites that have an impact on human and animal health. In addition to direct damage due to feeding, some tick species serve as the vectors for the causative agents of several diseases, such as the spirochetes of the genus Borrelia causing Lyme disease, the virus of tick-borne encephalitis, various Rickettsial pathogens or even protozoan parasites like Babesia spp. Hard ticks are unique among bloodfeeders because of their prolonged feeding period that may last up to two weeks. During such a long period of blood uptake, the host develops a wide range of mechanisms to prevent blood loss. The arthropod ectoparasite, in turn, secretes saliva in the sites of bite that assists blood feeding. Indeed, tick saliva represents a rich source of proteins with potent pharmacologic action that target different mechanisms of coagulation, platelet aggregation and vasoconstriction. Tick adaptation to their vertebrate hosts led to the inclusion of a powerful protein armamentarium in their salivary secretion that has been investigated by high-throughput methods. The resulting knowledge can be exploited for the isolation of novel antihemostatic agents. Here we review the tick salivary antihemostatics and their characterized functions at the molecular and cellular levels. PMID:22564820

  11. Salivary Mucins Protect Surfaces from Colonization by Cariogenic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Frenkel, Erica Shapiro

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how the body's natural defenses function to protect the oral cavity from the myriad of bacteria that colonize its surfaces is an ongoing topic of research that can lead to breakthroughs in treatment and prevention. One key defense mechanism on all moist epithelial linings, such as the mouth, gastrointestinal tract, and lungs, is a layer of thick, well-hydrated mucus. The main gel-forming components of mucus are mucins, large glycoproteins that play a key role in host defense. This study focuses on elucidating the connection between MUC5B salivary mucins and dental caries, one of the most common oral diseases. Dental caries is predominantly caused by Streptococcus mutans attachment and biofilm formation on the tooth surface. Once S. mutans attaches to the tooth, it produces organic acids as metabolic by-products that dissolve tooth enamel, leading to cavity formation. We utilize CFU counts and fluorescence microscopy to quantitatively show that S. mutans attachment and biofilm formation are most robust in the presence of sucrose and that aqueous solutions of purified human MUC5B protect surfaces by acting as an antibiofouling agent in the presence of sucrose. In addition, we find that MUC5B does not alter S. mutans growth and decreases surface attachment and biofilm formation by maintaining S. mutans in the planktonic form. These insights point to the importance of salivary mucins in oral health and lead to a better understanding of how MUC5B could play a role in cavity prevention or diagnosis. PMID:25344244

  12. Recent evolution of the salivary mucin MUC7

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Duo; Pavlidis, Pavlos; Thamadilok, Supaporn; Redwood, Emilie; Fox, Sara; Blekhman, Ran; Ruhl, Stefan; Gokcumen, Omer

    2016-01-01

    Genomic structural variants constitute the majority of variable base pairs in primate genomes and affect gene function in multiple ways. While whole gene duplications and deletions are relatively well-studied, the biology of subexonic (i.e., within coding exon sequences), copy number variation remains elusive. The salivary MUC7 gene provides an opportunity for studying such variation, as it harbors copy number variable subexonic repeat sequences that encode for densely O-glycosylated domains (PTS-repeats) with microbe-binding properties. To understand the evolution of this gene, we analyzed mammalian and primate genomes within a comparative framework. Our analyses revealed that (i) MUC7 has emerged in the placental mammal ancestor and rapidly gained multiple sites for O-glycosylation; (ii) MUC7 has retained its extracellular activity in saliva in placental mammals; (iii) the anti-fungal domain of the protein was remodified under positive selection in the primate lineage; and (iv) MUC7 PTS-repeats have evolved recurrently and under adaptive constraints. Our results establish MUC7 as a major player in salivary adaptation, likely as a response to diverse pathogenic exposure in primates. On a broader scale, our study highlights variable subexonic repeats as a primary source for modular evolutionary innovation that lead to rapid functional adaptation. PMID:27558399

  13. [Toxicity and tetramine contents of salivary glands from carnivorous gastropods].

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Yoko; Nagashima, Yuji; Shiomi, Kazuo

    2002-12-01

    Salivary glands from 29 species of marine carnivorous gastropods in nine families were examined for lethal activity against mice and tetramine content. Mouse lethality was assayed by intravenous injection of buffer extracts into mice, and was detected in 14 species. Heat-stability tests confirmed that toxins in four species were thermolabile, while those in eight species were thermostable. Based on the tetramine contents determined by the colorimetric method using methanolic extracts, the thermostable toxins in seven species (Neptunea eulimatalamellosa, N. vinosa, N. arthritica, N. bulbacea, N. intersculpta f. pribiloffensis, N. intersculpta f. frater pilsbry and Hemifusus tuba) were considered to be tetramine contained at high levels (more than 900 micrograms/g salivary gland), but that in one species (Buccinum opisthoplectum) appeared to be a low-molecular-weight compound differing from tetramine. It is interesting that one (Hemifusus tuba) of the seven species containing high amounts of tetramine belongs to the family Melongenidae, although the other six Neptunea species are members of the family Buccinidae, as expected from previous studies. PMID:12635343

  14. Tick salivary secretion as a source of antihemostatics

    PubMed Central

    Chmelar, Jindrich; Calvo, Eric; Pedra, Joao H.F.; Francischetti, Ivo M. B.; Kotsyfakis, Michail

    2012-01-01

    Ticks are mostly obligatory blood feeding ectoparasites that have an impact on human and animal health. In addition to direct damage due to feeding, some tick species serve as the vectors for the causative agents of several diseases, such as the spirochetes of the genus Borrelia causing Lyme disease, the virus of tick-borne encephalitis, various Rickettsial pathogens or even protozoan parasites like Babesia spp. Hard ticks are unique among bloodfeeders because of their prolonged feeding period that may last up to two weeks. During such a long period of blood uptake, the host develops a wide range of mechanisms to prevent blood loss. The arthropod ectoparasite, in turn, secretes saliva in the sites of bite that assists blood feeding. Indeed, tick saliva represents a rich source of proteins with potent pharmacologic action that target different mechanisms of coagulation, platelet aggregation and vasoconstriction. Tick adaptation to their vertebrate hosts led to the inclusion of a powerful protein armamentarium in their salivary secretion that has been investigated by high throughput methods. The resulting knowledge can be exploited for the isolation of novel antihemostatic agents. Here we review the tick salivary antihemostatics and their characterized functions at the molecular and cellular levels. PMID:22564820

  15. Reduction of salivary tissue factor (thromboplastin) activity by warfarin therapy.

    PubMed

    Zacharski, L R; Rosenstein, R

    1979-03-01

    The coagulant of normal human saliva has been identified as tissue factor (thromboplastin, TF) by virtue of its ability to cause rapid coagulation in plasmas deficient in first-stage coagulation factors and to activate factor x in the presence of factor VII and by virtue of the fact that its activity is expressed only in the presence of factor VII and is inhibited by an antibody to TF. The TF is related to cells and cell fragments in saliva. Salivary TF activity has been found to be significantly reduced in patients taking warfarin. The decline in TF activity during induction of warfarin anticoagulation occurs during the warfarin-induced decline in vitamin-K-dependent clotting factor activity, as judged by the prothrombin time. The decrease in TF activity is not related to a reduction in salivary cell count or total protein content or to a direct effect of warfarin on the assay. It is hypothesized that the mechanism by which warfarin inhibits TF activity may be related to the mechanism by which it inhibits expression of the activity of the vitamin-K-dependent clotting factors. Inhibition of the TF activity may be involved in the antithrombotic effect of warfarin. PMID:760859

  16. Recent evolution of the salivary mucin MUC7.

    PubMed

    Xu, Duo; Pavlidis, Pavlos; Thamadilok, Supaporn; Redwood, Emilie; Fox, Sara; Blekhman, Ran; Ruhl, Stefan; Gokcumen, Omer

    2016-01-01

    Genomic structural variants constitute the majority of variable base pairs in primate genomes and affect gene function in multiple ways. While whole gene duplications and deletions are relatively well-studied, the biology of subexonic (i.e., within coding exon sequences), copy number variation remains elusive. The salivary MUC7 gene provides an opportunity for studying such variation, as it harbors copy number variable subexonic repeat sequences that encode for densely O-glycosylated domains (PTS-repeats) with microbe-binding properties. To understand the evolution of this gene, we analyzed mammalian and primate genomes within a comparative framework. Our analyses revealed that (i) MUC7 has emerged in the placental mammal ancestor and rapidly gained multiple sites for O-glycosylation; (ii) MUC7 has retained its extracellular activity in saliva in placental mammals; (iii) the anti-fungal domain of the protein was remodified under positive selection in the primate lineage; and (iv) MUC7 PTS-repeats have evolved recurrently and under adaptive constraints. Our results establish MUC7 as a major player in salivary adaptation, likely as a response to diverse pathogenic exposure in primates. On a broader scale, our study highlights variable subexonic repeats as a primary source for modular evolutionary innovation that lead to rapid functional adaptation. PMID:27558399

  17. Elevated Salivary Alpha-Amylase Level, Association Between Depression and Disease Activity, and Stress as a Predictor of Disease Flare in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Ju-Yang; Nam, Jin-Young; Kim, Hyoun-Ah; Suh, Chang-Hee

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Psychological stress has been shown to trigger systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). However, objective evidence of symptom aggravation due to mental stress is difficult to identify. We aimed to investigate the relationship between SLE disease activity and mental stress, and the usefulness of saliva as an assessment index for stress in patients with SLE. We prospectively assessed the salivary stress hormone and disease-related biomarkers, and questionnaire data regarding stress and depression in 100 patients with SLE and 49 sex- and age-matched normal controls (NCs). Patients with SLE had higher mean salivary α-amylase levels (5.7 ± 4.6 U/mL vs 2.7 ± 2.5 U/mL, P < 0.001), anti-chromatin antibody levels (25.3 ± 22.9 U/mL vs 15.9 ± 10.9 U/mL, P < 0.001), and Beck Depression Index (BDI) scores (11.1 ± 9.2 vs 5.3 ± 5.1, P < 0.001) than NCs. However, salivary cortisol levels and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) scores did not differ between the groups. The BDI scores correlated with the SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI) scores (r = 0.253, P = 0.011) and erythrocyte sedimentation rates (r = 0.234, P = 0.019). SLE patients with the highest-quartile PSS scores had significantly increased SLEDAI scores compared to those with the lowest-quartile PSS scores after 4 to 5 months’ follow-up. Moreover, SLE patients with elevated SLEDAI scores had higher baseline PSS scores. Patients with SLE showed uncoupling of the sympathetic nervous system and hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis; higher salivary α-amylase and no different cortisol levels compared with NCs. Also, patients with SLE were more depressed, which correlated with disease activity. Furthermore, perceived stress was not correlated with disease activity; however, disease activity worsened several months later with elevated perceived stress levels. PMID:26222848

  18. Hypersaline Microbial Mat Lipid Biomarkers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahnke, Linda L.; Embaye, Tsegereda; Turk, Kendra A.; Summons, Roger E.

    2002-01-01

    Lipid biomarkers and compound specific isotopic abundances are powerful tools for studies of contemporary microbial ecosystems. Knowledge of the relationship of biomarkers to microbial physiology and community structure creates important links for understanding the nature of early organisms and paleoenvironments. Our recent work has focused on the hypersaline microbial mats in evaporation ponds at Guerrero Negro, Baja California Sur, Mexico. Specific biomarkers for diatoms, cyanobacteria, archaea, green nonsulfur (GNS), sulfate reducing, sulfur oxidizing and methanotrophic bacteria have been identified. Analyses of the ester-bound fatty acids indicate a highly diverse microbial community, dominated by photosynthetic organisms at the surface. The delta C-13 of cyanobacterial biomarkers such as the monomethylalkanes and hopanoids are consistent with the delta C-13 measured for bulk mat (-10%o), while a GNS biomarker, wax esters (WXE), suggests a more depleted delta C-13 for GNS biomass (-16%o). This isotopic relationship is different than that observed in mats at Octopus Spring, Yellowstone National Park (YSNP) where GNS appear to grow photoheterotrophic ally. WXE abundance, while relatively low, is most pronounced in an anaerobic zone just below the cyanobacterial layer. The WXE isotope composition at GN suggests that these bacteria utilize photoautotrophy incorporating dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) via the 3-hydroxypropionate pathway using H2S or H2.

  19. Biomarkers in acute heart failure.

    PubMed

    Mallick, Aditi; Januzzi, James L

    2015-06-01

    The care of patients with acutely decompensated heart failure is being reshaped by the availability and understanding of several novel and emerging heart failure biomarkers. The gold standard biomarkers in heart failure are B-type natriuretic peptide and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, which play an important role in the diagnosis, prognosis, and management of acute decompensated heart failure. Novel biomarkers that are increasingly involved in the processes of myocardial injury, neurohormonal activation, and ventricular remodeling are showing promise in improving diagnosis and prognosis among patients with acute decompensated heart failure. These include midregional proatrial natriuretic peptide, soluble ST2, galectin-3, highly-sensitive troponin, and midregional proadrenomedullin. There has also been an emergence of biomarkers for evaluation of acute decompensated heart failure that assist in the differential diagnosis of dyspnea, such as procalcitonin (for identification of acute pneumonia), as well as markers that predict complications of acute decompensated heart failure, such as renal injury markers. In this article, we will review the pathophysiology and usefulness of established and emerging biomarkers for the clinical diagnosis, prognosis, and management of acute decompensated heart failure. PMID:25911167

  20. Biomarkers in traumatic brain injury: a review.

    PubMed

    Toman, Emma; Harrisson, S; Belli, T

    2016-04-01

    Biomarkers allow physiological processes to be monitored, in both health and injury. Multiple attempts have been made to use biomarkers in traumatic brain injury (TBI). Identification of such biomarkers could allow improved understanding of the pathological processes involved in TBI, diagnosis, prognostication and development of novel therapies. This review article aims to cover both established and emerging TBI biomarkers along with their benefits and limitations. It then discusses the potential value of TBI biomarkers to military, civilian and sporting populations and the future hopes for developing a role for biomarkers in head injury management. PMID:26527607

  1. Green tea consumption after intense taekwondo training enhances salivary defense factors and antibacterial capacity.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shiuan-Pey; Li, Chia-Yang; Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Chang, Chen-Kang; Chou, Kuei-Ming; Fang, Shih-Hua

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the short-term effects of green tea consumption on selected salivary defense proteins, antibacterial capacity and anti-oxidation activity in taekwondo (TKD) athletes, following intensive training. Twenty-two TKD athletes performed a 2-hr TKD training session. After training, participants ingested green tea (T, caffeine 6 mg/kg and catechins 22 mg/kg) or an equal volume of water (W). Saliva samples were collected at three time points: before training (BT-T; BT-W), immediately after training (AT-T; AT-W), and 30 min after drinking green tea or water (Rec-T; Rec-W). Salivary total protein, immunoglobulin A (SIgA), lactoferrin, α-amylase activity, free radical scavenger activity (FRSA) and antibacterial capacity were measured. Salivary total protein, lactoferrin, SIgA concentrations and α-amylase activity increased significantly immediately after intensive TKD training. After tea drinking and 30 min rest, α-amylase activity and the ratio of α-amylase to total protein were significantly higher than before and after training. In addition, salivary antibacterial capacity was not affected by intense training, but green tea consumption after training enhanced salivary antibacterial capacity. Additionally, we observed that salivary FRSA was markedly suppressed immediately after training and quickly returned to pre-exercise values, regardless of which fluid was consumed. Our results show that green tea consumption significantly enhances the activity of α-amylase and salivary antibacterial capacity. PMID:24498143

  2. Direct radioimmunoassay (RIA) of salivary testosterone: correlation with free and total serium testosterone

    SciTech Connect

    Vittek, J.; L'Hommedieu, D.G.; Gordon, G.G.; Rappaport, S.C.; Southren, A.L.

    1985-08-26

    Simple and sensitive direct RIA for determination of salivary testosterone was developed by using RSL NOSOLVEX TM (125 1) kit produced by Radioassay System Laboratories (Carcon, California). In addition, a relationship between salivary and serum free and total testosterone concentrations was studied in randomly selected 45 healthy subjects, 5 females on oral contraceptive pills and 28 hypertensive patients on various treatment regimens. The lowest weight of testosterone detectable by the modified method was equivalent to 1 pg/ml of saliva, taking into account analytical variability. Intra- and interassay coefficients of variation were 5.09 +/- 2.7% and 8.2 +/- 5.9% respectively. Statistically significant correlations were found between salivary and serum free testosterone (r = 0.97) and salivary and serum total testosterone concentrations (r = 0.70 - 0.87). The exception to this was a group of hypertensive females in which no correlation (r = 0.14) between salivary and total serum testosterone was found. It is also of interest that, while salivary testosterone was significantly increased in subjects taking oral contraceptives and most of the hypertensive patients, the total serum testosterone concentration was in normal range. These findings suggest that the determination of salivary testosterone is a reliable method to detect changes in the concentration of available biologically active hormone in the circulation. 21 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  3. Green Tea Consumption after Intense Taekwondo Training Enhances Salivary Defense Factors and Antibacterial Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shiuan-Pey; Li, Chia-Yang; Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Chang, Chen-Kang; Chou, Kuei-Ming; Fang, Shih-Hua

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the short-term effects of green tea consumption on selected salivary defense proteins, antibacterial capacity and anti-oxidation activity in taekwondo (TKD) athletes, following intensive training. Twenty-two TKD athletes performed a 2-hr TKD training session. After training, participants ingested green tea (T, caffeine 6 mg/kg and catechins 22 mg/kg) or an equal volume of water (W). Saliva samples were collected at three time points: before training (BT-T; BT-W), immediately after training (AT-T; AT-W), and 30 min after drinking green tea or water (Rec-T; Rec-W). Salivary total protein, immunoglobulin A (SIgA), lactoferrin, α-amylase activity, free radical scavenger activity (FRSA) and antibacterial capacity were measured. Salivary total protein, lactoferrin, SIgA concentrations and α-amylase activity increased significantly immediately after intensive TKD training. After tea drinking and 30 min rest, α-amylase activity and the ratio of α-amylase to total protein were significantly higher than before and after training. In addition, salivary antibacterial capacity was not affected by intense training, but green tea consumption after training enhanced salivary antibacterial capacity. Additionally, we observed that salivary FRSA was markedly suppressed immediately after training and quickly returned to pre-exercise values, regardless of which fluid was consumed. Our results show that green tea consumption significantly enhances the activity of α-amylase and salivary antibacterial capacity. PMID:24498143

  4. Differential involvement of two cortical masticatory areas in submandibular salivary secretion in rats.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Naoto; Kobashi, Motoi; Mitoh, Yoshihiro; Fujita, Masako; Minagi, Shogo; Matsuo, Ryuji

    2014-01-16

    To evaluate the role of the masticatory area in the cerebral cortex in the masticatory-salivary reflex, we investigated submandibular salivary secretion, jaw-movement trajectory and electromyographic activity of the jaw-opener (digastric) and jaw-closer (masseter) muscles evoked by repetitive electrical stimulation of the cortical masticatory area in anesthetized rats. Rats have two cortical masticatory areas: the anterior area (A-area) in the orofacial motor cortex, and the posterior area (P-area) in the insular cortex. Our defined P-area extended more caudally than the previous reported one. P-area stimulation induced vigorous salivary secretion (about 20 µl/min) and rhythmical jaw movements (3-4 Hz) resembling masticatory movements. Salivary flow persisted even after minimizing jaw movements by curarization. A-area stimulation induced small and fast rhythmical jaw movements (6-8 Hz) resembling licking of solutions, but not salivary secretion. These findings suggest that P-area controls salivary secretion as well as mastication, and may be involved in the masticatory-salivary reflex. PMID:24309141

  5. THE SALIVARY TRANSCRIPTOME OF Anopheles gambiae (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE) LARVAE: A MICROARRAY-BASED ANALYSIS

    PubMed Central

    Neira Oviedo, M.; Ribeiro, J.M.C.; Heyland, A.; VanEkeris, L.; Moroz, T.; Linser, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    In spite of the many recent developments in the field of vector sialomics, the salivary glands of larval mosquitoes have been largely unexplored. We used whole-transcriptome microarray analysis to create a gene-expression profile of the salivary gland tissue of fourth-instar Anopheles gambiae larvae, and compare it to the gene-expression profile of a matching group of whole larvae. We identified a total of 221 probes with expression values that were (a) significantly enriched in the salivary glands, and (b) sufficiently annotated as to allow the prediction of the presence/absence of signal peptides in their corresponding gene products. Based on available annotation of the protein sequences associated with these probes, we propose that the main roles of larval salivary secretions include: (a) immune response, (b) mouthpart lubrication, (c) nutrient metabolism, and (d) xenobiotic detoxification. Other highlights of the study include the cloning of a transcript encoding a previously unknown salivary defensin (AgDef5), the confirmation of mucus secretion by the larval salivary glands, and the first report of salivary lipocalins in the Culicidae. PMID:19328852

  6. Update in salivary gland cytopathology: Recent molecular advances and diagnostic applications.

    PubMed

    Pusztaszeri, Marc P; Faquin, William C

    2015-07-01

    Salivary gland tumors (SGT) are notorious for their extraordinary diversity and for the morphological overlap that exists between many of these entities. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) has a well-established role in the evaluation of patients with a salivary gland lesion, helping to guide clinical management. However, salivary gland FNAB has several limitations and does not allow for a specific diagnosis in some cases. For these reasons, salivary gland FNAB is considered one of the most challenging areas in cytopathology. Over the last decade, new salivary gland entities have been recognized, enlarging SGT diversity and complexity even more. In addition, a subset of SGT, including common entities such as pleomorphic adenoma and uncommon new entities such as mammary analog secretory carcinoma, have been characterized cytogenetically by the presence of specific translocations. The molecular consequences of these translocations and their potential prognostic and therapeutic values are not yet well characterized. However, these translocations and their resulting fusion oncogenes and oncoproteins can be used as diagnostic clues in salivary gland FNAB material in order to overcome the limitations of cytomorphological evaluation alone. In this review, we focus on SGTs currently known to harbor translocations and fusion genes, including uncommon and recently recognized entities, and discuss their potential application to salivary gland FNAB. PMID:25613003

  7. Primary salivary duct carcinoma of the lung, mucin-rich variant.

    PubMed

    Fishbein, Gregory A; Grimes, Brandon S; Xian, Rena R; Lee, Jay M; Barjaktarevic, Igor; Xu, Haodong

    2016-01-01

    Primary salivary gland-type lung cancer is a heterogeneous group of neoplasms arising from the seromucinous glands of the respiratory tract. Histopathologically, they are identical to salivary gland neoplasms of the head and neck. While mucoepidermoid carcinoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma are overwhelmingly the most common subtypes found in the lung, reports of uncommon subtypes can be found in the literature. We report a case of a 73-year-old woman with primary lung salivary duct carcinoma, mucin-rich variant--an exceedingly rare subtype of an already rare malignant salivary-type neoplasm. One case of primary lung salivary duct carcinoma has been reported in the literature; however, the mucin-rich variant has never been described in the lung. Furthermore, the tumor in our case bears a rare BRAF G464V mutation. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a BRAF G464V mutation detected in a salivary duct carcinoma or any other salivary-type neoplasm. PMID:26527521

  8. Non-Coding RNAs in Saliva: Emerging Biomarkers for Molecular Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Majem, Blanca; Rigau, Marina; Reventós, Jaume; Wong, David T.

    2015-01-01

    Saliva is a complex body fluid that comprises secretions from the major and minor salivary glands, which are extensively supplied by blood. Therefore, molecules such as proteins, DNA, RNA, etc., present in plasma could be also present in saliva. Many studies have reported that saliva body fluid can be useful for discriminating several oral diseases, but also systemic diseases including cancer. Most of these studies revealed messenger RNA (mRNA) and proteomic biomarker signatures rather than specific non-coding RNA (ncRNA) profiles. NcRNAs are emerging as new regulators of diverse biological functions, playing an important role in oncogenesis and tumor progression. Indeed, the small size of these molecules makes them very stable in different body fluids and not as susceptible as mRNAs to degradation by ribonucleases (RNases). Therefore, the development of a non-invasive salivary test, based on ncRNAs profiles, could have a significant applicability to clinical practice, not only by reducing the cost of the health system, but also by benefitting the patient. Here, we summarize the current status and clinical implications of the ncRNAs present in human saliva as a source of biological information. PMID:25898412

  9. Quantitative Imaging Biomarkers of NAFLD

    PubMed Central

    Kinner, Sonja; Reeder, Scott B.

    2016-01-01

    Conventional imaging modalities, including ultrasonography (US), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance (MR), play an important role in the diagnosis and management of patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) by allowing noninvasive diagnosis of hepatic steatosis. However, conventional imaging modalities are limited as biomarkers of NAFLD for various reasons. Multi-parametric quantitative MRI techniques overcome many of the shortcomings of conventional imaging and allow comprehensive and objective evaluation of NAFLD. MRI can provide unconfounded biomarkers of hepatic fat, iron, and fibrosis in a single examination—a virtual biopsy has become a clinical reality. In this article, we will review the utility and limitation of conventional US, CT, and MR imaging for the diagnosis NAFLD. Recent advances in imaging biomarkers of NAFLD are also discussed with an emphasis in multi-parametric quantitative MRI. PMID:26848588

  10. Quantitative Imaging Biomarkers of NAFLD.

    PubMed

    Kinner, Sonja; Reeder, Scott B; Yokoo, Takeshi

    2016-05-01

    Conventional imaging modalities, including ultrasonography (US), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance (MR), play an important role in the diagnosis and management of patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) by allowing noninvasive diagnosis of hepatic steatosis. However, conventional imaging modalities are limited as biomarkers of NAFLD for various reasons. Multi-parametric quantitative MRI techniques overcome many of the shortcomings of conventional imaging and allow comprehensive and objective evaluation of NAFLD. MRI can provide unconfounded biomarkers of hepatic fat, iron, and fibrosis in a single examination-a virtual biopsy has become a clinical reality. In this article, we will review the utility and limitation of conventional US, CT, and MR imaging for the diagnosis NAFLD. Recent advances in imaging biomarkers of NAFLD are also discussed with an emphasis in multi-parametric quantitative MRI. PMID:26848588

  11. Human immune response to salivary proteins of wild-caught Phlebotomus papatasi.

    PubMed

    Mukbel, Rami M; Khasharmeh, Rehab H; Hijjawi, Nawal S; Khalifeh, Mohammed S; Hatmal, Ma'mon M; McDowell, Mary Ann

    2016-09-01

    Phlebotomine sand flies are the known vectors of Leishmania parasites. New approaches in vaccination against Leishmania have investigated the possibility of integrating Phlebotomus papatasi salivary proteins to enhance the immune response and protect against the transmission of the infection. The aim of the present study was to screen human immune responses to wild sand fly saliva and evaluate immunogenic salivary proteins. Blood samples were collected from donors in control and sand fly infested areas. Antibodies specific for sand fly antigens in donor plasma were probed using immunoblotting. In addition, recall proliferation capability of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was tested after sand fly salivary homogenates stimulation. The significant immunogenic salivary proteins (SPs) identified by immunoblotting were SP28, SP32, and SP36. A specific proliferative response of PBMC after stimulation with sand fly salivary homogenates was evident in donors that have antibody responses against sand fly salivary proteins. Individuals with antibody recognition to a higher number of salivary proteins (i.e., 3 or more SP bands) showed lower PBMC proliferative responses after in vitro stimulation with salivary gland homogenates (SGH) only in the sand fly infested, leishmaniasis free area. Interestingly, the presence of a humoral immune response to many SP antigens inversely correlates with a strong cell-mediated immune response (CMI). It was also noticed that some other heavily expressed antigens, in sand fly salivary homogenate, lack or have weak humoral immune reactivity in exposed individuals. Therefore, considering these antigens alone as CMI activators, without including the immunodominant humoral immune response proteins, needs future investigation. PMID:27160331

  12. Evaluation of Salivary Leptin Levels in Healthy Subjects and Patients with Advanced Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Khorsand, Afshin; Bayani, Mojtaba; Torabi, Sepehr; Kharrazifard, Mohammad Javad; Mohammadnejhad, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Leptin is a hormone-like protein produced by the adipose tissue. It plays an important role in protection of host against inflammation and infection. Some studies have reported changes in leptin levels in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF), saliva and blood serum of patients with periodontal disease compared to healthy individuals. The aim of the present study was to compare the salivary leptin levels in patients with advanced periodontitis and healthy individuals. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, the salivary samples of healthy individuals and patients with advanced periodontitis with clinical attachment loss >5mm were obtained using a standardized method and the leptin levels were measured in the salivary samples by means of ELISA. The effects of the periodontal status and sex on the salivary leptin levels of both groups were statistically analyzed by two-way ANOVA. Results: The means ± standard deviation (SD) of salivary leptin levels in healthy subjects and patients with advanced periodontitis were 34.27±6.88 and 17.87±5.89 pg/mL, respectively. Statistical analysis showed that the effect of sex on the salivary leptin levels was not significant (P=0.91), while the effect of advanced periodontitis on the salivary leptin levels was significant compared to healthy individuals (P<0.0001). Conclusions: In patients with advanced periodontitis, the salivary leptin levels were significantly lower compared to healthy individuals. Thus, assessment of salivary leptin can be done as a non-invasive and simple method to determine the susceptibility of patients to advanced periodontitis. PMID:27536322

  13. Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 Preserves Salivary Gland Function After Fractionated Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Limesand, Kirsten H.; Avila, Jennifer L.; Victory, Kerton; Chang, Hui-Hua; Shin, Yoon Joo; Grundmann, Oliver; Klein, Rob R.

    2010-10-01

    Purpose: Radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer consists of fractionated radiation treatments that cause significant damage to salivary glands leading to chronic salivary gland dysfunction with only limited prevention and treatment options currently available. This study examines the feasibility of IGF-1 in preserving salivary gland function following a fractionated radiation treatment regimen in a pre-clinical model. Methods and Materials: Mice were exposed to fractionated radiation, and salivary gland function and histological analyses of structure, apoptosis, and proliferation were evaluated. Results: In this study, we report that treatment with fractionated doses of radiation results in a significant level of apoptotic cells in FVB mice after each fraction, which is significantly decreased in transgenic mice expressing a constitutively active mutant of Akt1 (myr-Akt1). Salivary gland function is significantly reduced in FVB mice exposed to fractionated radiation; however, myr-Akt1 transgenic mice maintain salivary function under the same treatment conditions. Injection into FVB mice of recombinant insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), which activates endogenous Akt, suppressed acute apoptosis and preserved salivary gland function after fractionated doses of radiation 30 to 90 days after treatment. FVB mice exposed to fractionated radiation had significantly lower levels of proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive salivary acinar cells 90 days after treatment, which correlated with a chronic loss of function. In contrast, FVB mice injected with IGF-1 before each radiation treatment exhibited acinar cell proliferation rates similar to those of untreated controls. Conclusion: These studies suggest that activation of IGF-1-mediated pathways before head-and-neck radiation could modulate radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction and maintain glandular homeostasis.

  14. An Imaging Panorama of Salivary Gland Lesions as seen on High Resolution Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Gandage, Siddappa Gurubalappa

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Lesions of salivary gland are quite common. Clinical examination alone is not able to differentiate between them and pinpoint the exact cause. It would definitely benefit the patient as well as the doctor if they could get an idea of the exact type of lesion affecting the salivary gland. Hence, this retrospective study was undertaken to demonstrate how high resolution ultrasound imaging (HRUSG) can be useful in evaluation of salivary gland lesions. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, imaging findings in patients who underwent HRUSG of salivary glands in the past five years were compiled. Analysis of the imaging findings and clinico-pathological correlation was then performed in this descriptive study. Results: Out of the 87 patients referred for HRUSG of salivary glands in the last five years, characteristic findings were found in 53 patients. HRUSG diagnosis of Acute Inflammation was made in 19 cases, Chronic Inflammation in 13 cases and Primary Neoplastic Lesions in 11 cases, Metastatic deposits in 3 cases and Salivary Calculus in 7 cases. No obvious abnormality was seen in rest of the 34 patients. HRUSG was found to be 93.33 % sensitive and 98.07% specific for diagnosing neoplastic lesions in salivary glands. Conclusion: Patients with salivary gland pathologies may present either with clinically assessable symptoms or just with cosmetic deformities due to bulge in the salivary gland. Clinical examination alone cannot pinpoint the etiology. Sonography can satisfactorily enable visualization of the abnormality noninvasively. It not only confirms the presence or absence of pathology but also enables image guided tissue retrieval for final pathological diagnosis. PMID:25478426

  15. Smartphone-based point-of-care testing of salivary α-amylase for personal psychological measurement.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Yang, Wentao; Yang, Yuankui; Liu, Hong; Gu, Zhongze

    2015-11-01

    Here we report a smartphone-based potentiometric biosensor for point-of-care testing of salivary α-amylase (sAA), which is one of the most sensitive indices of autonomic nervous system activity, and therefore a promising non-invasive biomarker for mental health. The biosensing system includes a smartphone having a sAA-detection App, a potentiometric reader and a sensing chip with preloaded reagents. The saliva sample wicks into the reaction zone on the sensing chip so that the sAA reacts with the preloaded reagents, resulting in conversion of an electron mediator Fe(CN)6(3-) to Fe(CN)6(4-). The sensing chip is then pressed by fingers to push the reaction mixture into the detection zone for the potentiometric measurement. The potential measured by the smartphone-powered potentiometric reader is sent to the smartphone App via the USB port, and converted into sAA concentration based on a calibration curve. Using our method, sAA in real human sample is quantitatively analyzed within 5 min. The results are in good agreement with that obtained using a reference method, and correlated to psychological states of the subjects. PMID:26415134

  16. Measuring the effect of workplace health promotion interventions on "presenteeism": a potential role for biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Shelby; Loerbroks, Adrian; Terris, Darcey D

    2009-05-01

    Health promotion activities to improve employee health to reduce health care costs and increase productivity are of particular importance for organizations and society. The evaluation of employee health and health promotion programs has typically focused on absenteeism, disability and increasingly, "presenteeism", which refers to an employee's presence at work with reduced performance due to illness. Existing psychometric measures of presenteeism may be subject to the effects of recall bias as they typically rely on questionnaires. Biomarkers such as heart rate variability and salivary cortisol can provide additional objective measures of illness and stress. Combining such physiologic measures of stress with assessments of presenteeism may offer a more comprehensive way to assess workplace productivity when developing health promotion programs. PMID:19264094

  17. Biomarkers associated with checkpoint inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Manson, G; Norwood, J; Marabelle, A; Kohrt, H; Houot, R

    2016-07-01

    Checkpoint inhibitors (CPI), namely anti-CTLA4 and anti-PD1/PD-L1 antibodies, demonstrated efficacy across multiple types of cancer. However, only subgroups of patients respond to these therapies. Additionally, CPI can induce severe immune-related adverse events (irAE). Biomarkers that predict efficacy and toxicity may help define the patients who may benefit the most from these costly and potentially toxic therapies. In this study, we review the main biomarkers that have been associated with the efficacy (pharmacodynamics and clinical benefit) and the toxicity (irAE) of CPIs in patients. PMID:27122549

  18. Breast cancer and protein biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Gam, Lay-Harn

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is a healthcare concern of women worldwide. Despite procedures being available for diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of breast cancer, researchers are working intensively on the disease in order to improve the life quality of breast cancer patients. At present, there is no single treatment known to bring a definite cure for breast cancer. One of the possible solutions for combating breast cancer is through identification of reliable protein biomarkers that can be effectively used for early detection, prognosis and treatments of the cancer. Therefore, the task of identification of biomarkers for breast cancer has become the focus of many researchers worldwide. PMID:24520539

  19. Salivary duct cyst on lower lip: A rare entity and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Tandon, Ankita; Sircar, Keya; Chowdhry, Aman; Bablani, Deepika

    2014-01-01

    Mucocele forms because of salivary gland mucous extravasation or retention and is usually related to trauma in the area of the lower lips. Salivary duct cyst, however, is a type of mucous retention cyst which is almost never located on the lower lip. The aim of this paper is to report this extremely rare salivary duct cyst present on the lower lip and to critically review the literature to build important concepts that would help clinicians in the diagnosis and treatment of this pathology. PMID:25364168

  20. Salivary anti-Helicobacter pylori positivity among endoscopy patients with chronic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Feteih, R; Abdel-Salam, M; Jamjoom, H; Akbar, H

    2009-01-01

    In this study, endoscopy patients with and without chronic liver disease (CLD) were examined and tested for Helicobacter pylori infection by detecting the presence of serum and salivary anti-H. pylori antibody. The validity of these measures was compared with Campylobacter-like organism analysis (gold standard) performed on patients requiring gastric biopsy. Among 114 patients with CLD and 50 without, the commonest endoscopy diagnosis was gastritis (27.2%). Salivary H. pylori positivity was significantly associated with older age. Salivary anti-H. pylori antibody positivity showed low sensitivity (36.6%) and high specificity (75.8%) in CLD patients. PMID:20218127

  1. Salivary duct cyst on lower lip: A rare entity and literature review.

    PubMed

    Tandon, Ankita; Sircar, Keya; Chowdhry, Aman; Bablani, Deepika

    2014-09-01

    Mucocele forms because of salivary gland mucous extravasation or retention and is usually related to trauma in the area of the lower lips. Salivary duct cyst, however, is a type of mucous retention cyst which is almost never located on the lower lip. The aim of this paper is to report this extremely rare salivary duct cyst present on the lower lip and to critically review the literature to build important concepts that would help clinicians in the diagnosis and treatment of this pathology. PMID:25364168

  2. Impairment of Salivary Mucin Production Resulting in Declined Salivary Viscosity During Naproxen Administration as a Potential Link to Upper Alimentary Tract Mucosal Injury

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Cesar J; Castro-Combs, Juan; Dias, Ajoy; Alfaro, Rodrigo; Vasallo, Javier; Majewski, Marek; Jaworski, Tom; Wallner, Grzegorz; Sarosiek, Jerzy

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) contribute to the esophageal mucosal injury through its direct topical impact on the luminal aspect of the surface epithelium. Its indirect, systemic impact, however, on salivary component of the esophageal pre-epithelial barrier remains to be explored. Therefore, salivary mucin secretion and viscosity at baseline and during naproxen-placebo, as well as naproxen-rabeprazole, administration were investigated. METHODS: Twenty-one asymptomatic volunteers were included in this double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover designed study. Salivary samples were obtained in basal and pentagastrin-stimulated conditions (6 mg/kg s.c.) mimicking the food-stimulated conditions. Patients received 7 days of naproxen-placebo or naproxen-rabeprazole with a 2-week washout period in between. Salivary mucin content and viscosity were measured before and after treatment using periodic acid/Schiff's methodology and Cone/Plate Digital Viscometer, respectively. RESULTS: The rate of salivary mucin secretion in basal condition declined by 32% during administration of naproxen-placebo (11.3±1.7 vs. 16.8±3.3 mg/h). Salivary mucin secretion in pentagastrin-stimulated condition declined significantly (by 34%) during the administration of naproxen-placebo (13.6±1.5 vs. 20.7±3.0 mg/h; P<0.05). Viscosity significantly decreased after naproxen-placebo administration in basal (by 60%) and stimulated conditions (by 56%) (P<0.001). Coadministration of rabeprazole at least partly restored the naproxen-induced decline of salivary mucin in basal condition (by 8%), and pentagastrin-stimulated conditions (by 30%). CONCLUSIONS: A significant decline of salivary mucin and viscosity during administration of naproxen may at least partly explain a propensity of patients on chronic therapy with NSAIDs to the development of esophageal mucosal injury and complications. In addition the trend to restorative capacity of rabeprazole on the

  3. Parenting Stress, Salivary Biomarkers, and Ambulatory Blood Pressure: A Comparison between Mothers and Fathers of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foody, Ciara; James, Jack E.; Leader, Geraldine

    2015-01-01

    Parents of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) may experience higher levels of stress and health problems than parents of children with typical development. However, most research has focused on mothers, with emphasis on parent-reported stress and wellbeing. This study compared parenting responsibility, distress, anxiety, depression,…

  4. Parenting stress, salivary biomarkers, and ambulatory blood pressure: a comparison between mothers and fathers of children with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Foody, Ciara; James, Jack E; Leader, Geraldine

    2015-04-01

    Parents of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) may experience higher levels of stress and health problems than parents of children with typical development. However, most research has focused on mothers, with emphasis on parent-reported stress and wellbeing. This study compared parenting responsibility, distress, anxiety, depression, cortisol, alpha-amylase, and cardiovascular activity between 19 mother-father dyads of children with ASD. Mothers reported higher parenting responsibility, distress, anxiety, and depression than fathers, while fathers had higher blood pressure and heart rate variability. Mothers and fathers had lower than average morning cortisol levels, suggesting stress effects on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis. Parents of children with ASD may benefit from routine health screening (particularly adrenal and cardiovascular function) and referral for stress reduction interventions or supports. PMID:25287900

  5. Biomarkers to guide clinical therapeutics in rheumatology?

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, William H.; Mao, Rong

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review The use of biomarkers in rheumatology can help identify disease risk, improve diagnosis and prognosis, target therapy, assess response to treatment, and further our understanding of the underlying pathogenesis of disease. Here, we discuss the recent advances in biomarkers for rheumatic disorders, existing impediments to progress in this field, and the potential of biomarkers to enable precision medicine and thereby transform rheumatology. Recent findings Although significant challenges remain, progress continues to be made in biomarker discovery and development for rheumatic diseases. The use of next-generation technologies, including large-scale sequencing, proteomic technologies, metabolomic technologies, mass cytometry, and other single-cell analysis and multianalyte analysis technologies, has yielded a slew of new candidate biomarkers. Nevertheless, these biomarkers still require rigorous validation and have yet to make their way into clinical practice and therapeutic development. This review focuses on advances in the biomarker field in the last 12 months as well as the challenges that remain. Summary Better biomarkers, ideally mechanistic ones, are needed to guide clinical decision making in rheumatology. Although the use of next-generation techniques for biomarker discovery is making headway, it is imperative that the roadblocks in our search for new biomarkers are overcome to enable identification of biomarkers with greater diagnostic and predictive utility. Identification of biomarkers with robust diagnostic and predictive utility would enable precision medicine in rheumatology. PMID:26720904

  6. New Developments in Biomarkers for Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Thijs, Judith L.; van Seggelen, Wouter; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, Carla; de Bruin-Weller, Marjolein; Hijnen, DirkJan

    2015-01-01

    The application of biomarkers in medicine is evolving. Biomarkers do not only give us a better understanding of pathogenesis, but also increase treatment efficacy and safety, further enabling more precise clinical care. This paper focuses on the current use of biomarkers in atopic dermatitis, new developments and future perspectives. Biomarkers can be used for many different purposes, including the objective determination of disease severity, confirmation of clinical diagnosis, and to predict response to treatment. In atopic dermatitis, many biomarkers have been investigated as a marker for disease severity. Currently serum thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) is the superior biomarker for assessing disease severity. However, we have recently shown that the use of a panel of serum biomarkers is more suitable for assessing disease severity than an individual biomarker. In this overview, we will discuss alternative sources for biomarkers, such as saliva and capillary blood, which can increase the user friendliness of biomarkers in atopic dermatitis (AD). Both methods offer simple, non-invasive and cost effective alternatives to venous blood. This provides great translational and clinical potential. Biomarkers will play an increasingly important role in AD research and personalized medicine. The use of biomarkers will enhance the efficacy of AD treatment by facilitating the individualization of therapy targeting the patients’ specific biological signature and also by providing tools for predicting and monitoring of therapeutic response. PMID:26239250

  7. Chronic Kidney Disease Induced Intestinal Mucosal Barrier Damage Associated with Intestinal Oxidative Stress Injury

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chao; Wang, Qiang; Zhou, Chunyu; Kang, Xin; Zhao, Shuang; Liu, Shuai; Fu, Huijun; Yu, Zhen; Peng, Ai

    2016-01-01

    Background. To investigate whether intestinal mucosal barrier was damaged or not in chronic kidney disease progression and the status of oxidative stress. Methods. Rats were randomized into two groups: a control group and a uremia group. The uremia rat model was induced by 5/6 kidney resection. In postoperative weeks (POW) 4, 6, 8, and 10, eight rats were randomly selected from each group to prepare samples for assessing systemic inflammation, intestinal mucosal barrier changes, and the status of intestinal oxidative stress. Results. The uremia group presented an increase trend over time in the serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-10, serum D-lactate and diamine oxidase, and intestinal permeability, and these biomarkers were significantly higher than those in control group in POW 8 and/or 10. Chiu's scores in uremia group were also increased over time, especially in POW 8 and 10. Furthermore, the intestinal malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase levels were significantly higher in uremia group when compared with those in control group in POW 8 and/or 10. Conclusions. The advanced chronic kidney disease could induce intestinal mucosal barrier damage and further lead to systemic inflammation. The underlying mechanism may be associated with the intestinal oxidative stress injury. PMID:27493661

  8. Fatty liver disease induced by perfluorooctane sulfonate: Novel insight from transcriptome analysis.

    PubMed

    Fai Tse, William Ka; Li, Jing Woei; Kwan Tse, Anna Chung; Chan, Ting Fung; Hin Ho, Jeff Cheuk; Sun Wu, Rudolf Shiu; Chu Wong, Chris Kong; Lai, Keng Po

    2016-09-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), a hepato-toxicant and potential non-genotoxic carcinogen, was widely used in industrial and commercial products. Recent studies have revealed the ubiquitous occurrence of PFOS in the environment and in humans worldwide. The widespread contamination of PFOS in human serum raised concerns about its long-term toxic effects and its potential risks to human health. Using fatty liver mutant foie gras (fgr(-/-))/transport protein particle complex 11 (trappc11(-/-)) and PFOS-exposed wild-type zebrafish embryos as the study model, together with RNA sequencing and comparative transcriptomic analysis, we identified 499 and 1414 differential expressed genes (DEGs) in PFOS-exposed wild-type and trappc11 mutant zebrafish, respectively. Also, the gene ontology analysis on common deregulated genes was found to be associated with different metabolic processes such as the carbohydrate metabolic process, glycerol ether metabolic process, mannose biosynthetic process, de novo' (Guanosine diphosphate) GDP-l-fucose biosynthetic process, GDP-mannose metabolic process and galactose metabolic process. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis further highlighted that these deregulated gene clusters are closely related to hepatitis, inflammation, fibrosis and cirrhosis of liver cells, suggesting that PFOS can cause liver pathogenesis and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in zebrafish. The transcriptomic alterations revealed may serve as biomarkers for the hepatotoxic effect of PFOS. PMID:27289203

  9. Human herpes virus 6 and endogenous biotin in salivary glands.

    PubMed Central

    Green, M; Sviland, L; Taylor, C E; Peiris, M; McCarthy, A L; Pearson, A D; Malcolm, A J

    1992-01-01

    AIMS: To detect the presence of human herpes virus 6 (HHV6) and endogenous biotin in paraffin wax embedded and frozen salivary glands. METHODS: Two stage indirect and streptavidin-biotin immunoperoxidase techniques were used to visualise the antigens. RESULTS: HHV6 could not be shown in any of the tissues. However, considerable endogenous biotin antigenicity was detected in the glandular elements of the paraffin wax embedded material. CONCLUSIONS: Results obtained with avidin-biotin detection systems should be interpreted with caution, especially when glandular epithelium is being stained. This may apply to both immunoperoxidase and in situ hybridisation techniques. The use of an anti-biotin antibody as a standard control should be considered. Images PMID:1328329

  10. [Application of water jet ERBEJET 2 in salivary glands surgery].

    PubMed

    Gasiński, Mateusz; Modrzejewski, Maciej; Cenda, Paweł; Nazim-Zygadło, Elzbieta; Kozok, Andrzej; Dobosz, Paweł

    2009-09-01

    Anatomical location of salivary glands requires from surgeon high precision during the operation in this site. Waterjet is one of the modern tools which allows to perform "minimal invasive" operating procedure. This tool helps to separate pathological structures from healthy tissue with a stream of high pressure saline pumped to the operating area via special designed applicators. Stream of fluid is generated by double piston pummp under 1 to 80 bar pressure that can be regulated. This allows to precise remove tumors, spare nerves and vessels in glandular tissue and minimize use of electrocoagulation. Waterjet is a modern tool that can help to improve the safety of patients and comfort of surgeon's work. PMID:20564900

  11. Salivary excretion of rabies virus by healthy vampire bats.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Setien, A; Loza-Rubio, E; Salas-Rojas, M; Brisseau, N; Cliquet, F; Pastoret, P P; Rojas-Dotor, S; Tesoro, E; Kretschmer, R

    2005-06-01

    Salivary excretion of rabies virus was evaluated in 14 adult vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) intramuscularly injected with a large dose (10(6) MICLD50) of vampire rabies virus variant CASS88. Saliva samples were obtained from surviving bats every other day for 30 days, then weekly for 2 months, and finally 1 and 2 years later. Rabies virus was isolated in murine neuroblastoma cells and in randomly selected cases by PCR. Rabies virus was not detected in the saliva of any of the 11 animals that succumbed (somewhat early) to rabies challenge, nor in the control bats. In contrast, virus was detected early, and only once (days 6, 6 and 21) in each of the three animals that survived rabies challenge and remained healthy for at least 2 years after challenge. At that time even vigorous dexamethasone and cyclosporine administration failed to provoke further viral excretion. PMID:15966107

  12. Salivary excretion of rabies virus by healthy vampire bats.

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar-Setien, A.; Loza-Rubio, E.; Salas-Rojas, M.; Brisseau, N.; Cliquet, F.; Pastoret, P. P.; Rojas-Dotor, S.; Tesoro, E.; Kretschmer, R.

    2005-01-01

    Salivary excretion of rabies virus was evaluated in 14 adult vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) intramuscularly injected with a large dose (10(6) MICLD50) of vampire rabies virus variant CASS88. Saliva samples were obtained from surviving bats every other day for 30 days, then weekly for 2 months, and finally 1 and 2 years later. Rabies virus was isolated in murine neuroblastoma cells and in randomly selected cases by PCR. Rabies virus was not detected in the saliva of any of the 11 animals that succumbed (somewhat early) to rabies challenge, nor in the control bats. In contrast, virus was detected early, and only once (days 6, 6 and 21) in each of the three animals that survived rabies challenge and remained healthy for at least 2 years after challenge. At that time even vigorous dexamethasone and cyclosporine administration failed to provoke further viral excretion. PMID:15966107

  13. Dispatches from the Interface of Salivary Bioscience and Neonatal Research

    PubMed Central

    Voegtline, Kristin M.; Granger, Douglas A.

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of the interdisciplinary field of salivary bioscience has created opportunity for neonatal researchers to measure multiple components of biological systems non-invasively in oral fluids. The implications are profound and potentially high impact. From a single oral fluid specimen, information can be obtained about a vast array of biological systems (e.g., endocrine, immune, autonomic nervous system) and the genetic polymorphisms related to individual differences in their function. The purpose of this review is to describe the state of the art for investigators interested in integrating these unique measurement tools into the current and next generation of research on gonadal steroid exposure during the prenatal and neonatal developmental periods. PMID:24624119

  14. Salivary mucins in host defense and disease prevention.

    PubMed

    Frenkel, Erica Shapiro; Ribbeck, Katharina

    2015-01-01

    Mucus forms a protective coating on wet epithelial surfaces throughout the body that houses the microbiota and plays a key role in host defense. Mucins, the primary structural components of mucus that creates its viscoelastic properties, are critical components of the gel layer that protect against invading pathogens. Altered mucin production has been implicated in diseases such as ulcerative colitis, asthma, and cystic fibrosis, which highlights the importance of mucins in maintaining homeostasis. Different types of mucins exist throughout the body in various locations such as the gastrointestinal tract, lungs, and female genital tract, but this review will focus on mucins in the oral cavity. Salivary mucin structure, localization within the oral cavity, and defense mechanisms will be discussed. These concepts will then be applied to present what is known about the protective function of mucins in oral diseases such as HIV/AIDS, oral candidiasis, and dental caries. PMID:26701274

  15. Pigs expressing salivary phytase produce low-phosphorus manure.

    PubMed

    Golovan, S P; Meidinger, R G; Ajakaiye, A; Cottrill, M; Wiederkehr, M Z; Barney, D J; Plante, C; Pollard, J W; Fan, M Z; Hayes, M A; Laursen, J; Hjorth, J P; Hacker, R R; Phillips, J P; Forsberg, C W

    2001-08-01

    To address the problem of manure-based environmental pollution in the pork industry, we have developed the phytase transgenic pig. The saliva of these pigs contains the enzyme phytase, which allows the pigs to digest the phosphorus in phytate, the most abundant source of phosphorus in the pig diet. Without this enzyme, phytate phosphorus passes undigested into manure to become the single most important manure pollutant of pork production. We show here that salivary phytase provides essentially complete digestion of dietary phytate phosphorus, relieves the requirement for inorganic phosphate supplements, and reduces fecal phosphorus output by up to 75%. These pigs offer a unique biological approach to the management of phosphorus nutrition and environmental pollution in the pork industry. PMID:11479566

  16. Retinoic acid regulates embryonic development of mammalian submandibular salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Wright, Diana M; Buenger, Deanna E; Abashev, Timur M; Lindeman, Robert P; Ding, Jixiang; Sandell, Lisa L

    2015-11-01

    Organogenesis is orchestrated by cell and tissue interactions mediated by molecular signals. Identification of relevant signals, and the tissues that generate and receive them, are important goals of developmental research. Here, we demonstrate that Retinoic Acid (RA) is a critical signaling molecule important for morphogenesis of mammalian submandibular salivary glands (SMG). By examining late stage RA deficient embryos of Rdh10 mutant mice we show that SMG development requires RA in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, we find that active RA signaling occurs in SMG tissues, arising earlier than any other known marker of SMG development and persisting throughout gland morphogenesis. At the initial bud stage of development, we find RA production occurs in SMG mesenchyme, while RA signaling occurs in epithelium. We also demonstrate active RA signaling occurs in glands cultured ex vivo, and treatment with an inhibitor of RA signaling blocks growth and branching. Together these data identify RA signaling as a direct regulator of SMG organogenesis. PMID:26278034

  17. Advances in Diagnosis and Management of Salivary Gland Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Dale H.

    1984-01-01

    Salivary glands may be involved in a wide variety of diseases, which may be broadly grouped into (1) inflammatory, (2) noninflammatory, nonneoplastic and (3) neoplastic categories. Most inflammatory and noninflammatory, nonneoplastic diseases should be managed conservatively and symptomatically. The common exceptions are first-arch branchialcleft cysts and calculi. Neoplastic lesions always require resection if that is feasible. For benign tumors, simple excision with a cuff of normal tissue around it will usually suffice. The prevailing trend for treatment of malignant neoplasms is conservatism. No longer is the facial nerve routinely sacrificed. The resection done is dictated by the tumor size and the facial nerve is spared unless directly invaded. Postoperative radiation therapy is increasingly used. PMID:6328773

  18. [Salivary gland-type lung tumor: An update].

    PubMed

    Gibault, Laure; Badoual, Cécile

    2016-01-01

    "Salivary gland-type" tumors arising from the bronchi and lung are rare but not exceptional entities. They are mostly represented by malignant entities such as cystic adenoid carcinoma, mucoepidermoid carcinoma and epithelial/myoepithelial carcinoma. Benign tumors are rare, mainly encompassing pleomorphic adenomas, which are to differentiate from mucous gland adenomas, another entity arising specifically from the peri-bronchial glands. These tumours develop in the proximal bronchi and are not associated with smoke abuse. Their main treatment is surgery. It is important to differentiate them from other broncho-pulmonary tumours as they do not share the same prognosis and therapeutic. This article will review the WHO 2015 classification of these tumours as well as recent updates from the literature to help define diagnosis criteria for these uncommon entities. PMID:26774826

  19. Salivary mucins in host defense and disease prevention

    PubMed Central

    Frenkel, Erica Shapiro; Ribbeck, Katharina

    2015-01-01

    Mucus forms a protective coating on wet epithelial surfaces throughout the body that houses the microbiota and plays a key role in host defense. Mucins, the primary structural components of mucus that creates its viscoelastic properties, are critical components of the gel layer that protect against invading pathogens. Altered mucin production has been implicated in diseases such as ulcerative colitis, asthma, and cystic fibrosis, which highlights the importance of mucins in maintaining homeostasis. Different types of mucins exist throughout the body in various locations such as the gastrointestinal tract, lungs, and female genital tract, but this review will focus on mucins in the oral cavity. Salivary mucin structure, localization within the oral cavity, and defense mechanisms will be discussed. These concepts will then be applied to present what is known about the protective function of mucins in oral diseases such as HIV/AIDS, oral candidiasis, and dental caries. PMID:26701274

  20. Salivary Cortisol and Cold Pain Sensitivity in Female Twins

    PubMed Central

    Godfrey, Kathryn M; Strachan, Eric; Dansie, Elizabeth; Crofford, Leslie J; Buchwald, Dedra; Goldberg, Jack; Poeschla, Brian; Succop, Annemarie; Noonan, Carolyn; Afari, Niloofar

    2013-01-01

    Background There is a dearth of knowledge about the link between cortisol and pain sensitivity. Purpose We examined the association of salivary cortisol with indices of cold pain sensitivity in 198 female twins and explored the role of familial confounding. Methods Three-day saliva samples were collected for cortisol levels and a cold pressor test was used to collect pain ratings and time to threshold and tolerance. Linear regression modeling with generalized estimating equations examined the overall and within-pair associations. Results Lower diurnal variation of cortisol was associated with higher pain ratings at threshold (p = 0.02) and tolerance (p < 0.01). The relationship of diurnal variation with pain ratings at threshold and tolerance was minimally influenced by familial factors (i.e., genetics and common environment). Conclusions Understanding the genetic and non-genetic mechanisms underlying the link between HPA axis dysregulation and pain sensitivity may help to prevent chronic pain development and maintenance. PMID:23955075

  1. Sclerosing Polycystic Adenosis: A Rare Tumor of the Salivary Glands

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Christopher G; Fong, Justin B; Axelsson, Karen L; Gurushanthaiah, Deepak

    2016-01-01

    Case Presentation: A 74-year-old woman presented to the Head and Neck Surgery clinic with a 4-year history of a slowly growing, painful, left-sided neck mass in the tail of the parotid gland. Fine-needle aspiration suggested well-differentiated adenocarcinoma. Discussion and Results: The patient underwent a superficial parotidectomy and super-selective neck dissection (level 2). Pathology revealed a tumor consistent with sclerosing polycystic adenosis. Conclusion: Sclerosing polycystic adenosis is a rare inflammatory process that causes fibrocystic changes in the salivary gland. Apocrine-like metaplasia and epithelial atypia are common pathologic features. To our knowledge, a total of 51 cases have been described in the English-language literature. PMID:27043832

  2. BIOMARKERS OF DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this project is to examine the detectability of some chemical components of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) in human urine following controlled human diesel exposures (IRB-approved). Ultimately, and upon validation, we propose to apply these components as biomarke...

  3. Developing community friendly appropriate biomarkers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this presentation we discuss the statistical methodology used in the development of biomarkers to track disease as an outcome for nutrition or exercise interventions in community settings. Obesity and co-morbidities are of growing concern. Nutrition and physical activity interventions have been d...

  4. Toxicogenomic Biomarkers for Liver Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Kiyosawa, Naoki; Ando, Yosuke; Manabe, Sunao; Yamoto, Takashi

    2009-01-01

    Toxicogenomics (TGx) is a widely used technique in the preclinical stage of drug development to investigate the molecular mechanisms of toxicity. A number of candidate TGx biomarkers have now been identified and are utilized for both assessing and predicting toxicities. Further accumulation of novel TGx biomarkers will lead to more efficient, appropriate and cost effective drug risk assessment, reinforcing the paradigm of the conventional toxicology system with a more profound understanding of the molecular mechanisms of drug-induced toxicity. In this paper, we overview some practical strategies as well as obstacles for identifying and utilizing TGx biomarkers based on microarray analysis. Since clinical hepatotoxicity is one of the major causes of drug development attrition, the liver has been the best documented target organ for TGx studies to date, and we therefore focused on information from liver TGx studies. In this review, we summarize the current resources in the literature in regard to TGx studies of the liver, from which toxicologists could extract potential TGx biomarker gene sets for better hepatotoxicity risk assessment. PMID:22271975

  5. Metastatic Salivary Gland Tumors: A Single-Center Study Demonstrating the Feasibility and Potential Clinical Benefit of Molecular-Profiling-Guided Therapy.

    PubMed

    Popovtzer, Aron; Sarfaty, Michal; Limon, Dror; Marshack, Gideon; Perlow, Eli; Dvir, Addie; Soussan-Gutman, Lior; Stemmer, Salomon M

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the use of molecular profiling (MP) for metastatic salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma (SACC), for which there is no standard treatment. MP (Caris Molecular Intelligence) was performed on biopsy samples from all metastatic SACC patients attending a tertiary medical center between 2010 and 2013 (n = 14). Treatment was selected according to the biomarkers identified. Findings were compared with all similarly diagnosed patients treated in the same center between 1996 and 2009 (n = 9). For each patient, MP identified 1-13 biomarkers associated with clinical benefit for specific therapies (most commonly low/negative TS, low ERCC1). Eleven patients (79%) received MP-guided treatment (2 died prior to treatment initiation, 1 opted not to be treated), with complete response in 1, partial response (PR) in 3, and stable disease in 4. In the historical controls, 2 patients (22%) were treated (1 had PR). Median (range) progression-free survival in the first line after MP was 8.2 months (1.4-49.5+). Median (range) overall survival from diagnosis of metastatic disease was 31.3 (1.4-71.1+) versus 14.0 (1.5-116) months in the historical controls. In conclusion, MP expands treatment options and may improve clinical outcomes for metastatic SACC. In orphan diseases where randomized trials cannot be performed, MP could become a standard clinical tool. PMID:26448941

  6. Salivary Microbiota and Metabolome Associated with Celiac Disease

    PubMed Central

    Francavilla, Ruggiero; Ercolini, Danilo; Piccolo, Maria; Vannini, Lucia; Siragusa, Sonya; De Filippis, Francesca; De Pasquale, Ilaria; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Di Toma, Michele; Gozzi, Giorgia; Serrazanetti, Diana I.; Gobbetti, Marco

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the salivary microbiota and metabolome of 13 children with celiac disease (CD) under a gluten-free diet (treated celiac disease [T-CD]). The same number of healthy children (HC) was used as controls. The salivary microbiota was analyzed by an integrated approach using culture-dependent and -independent methods. Metabolome analysis was carried out by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry–solid-phase microextraction. Compared to HC, the number of some cultivable bacterial groups (e.g., total anaerobes) significantly (P < 0.05) differed in the saliva samples of the T-CD children. As shown by community-level catabolic profiles, the highest Shannon's diversity and substrate richness were found in HC. Pyrosequencing data showed the highest richness estimator and diversity index values for HC. Levels of Lachnospiraceae, Gemellaceae, and Streptococcus sanguinis were highest for the T-CD children. Streptococcus thermophilus levels were markedly decreased in T-CD children. The saliva of T-CD children showed the largest amount of Bacteroidetes (e.g., Porphyromonas sp., Porphyromonas endodontalis, and Prevotella nanceiensis), together with the smallest amount of Actinobacteria. T-CD children were also characterized by decreased levels of some Actinomyces species, Atopobium species, and Corynebacterium durum. Rothia mucilaginosa was the only Actinobacteria species found at the highest level in T-CD children. As shown by multivariate statistical analyses, the levels of organic volatile compounds markedly differentiated T-CD children. Some compounds (e.g., ethyl-acetate, nonanal, and 2-hexanone) were found to be associated with T-CD children. Correlations (false discovery rate [FDR], <0.05) were found between the relative abundances of bacteria and some volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The findings of this study indicated that CD is associated with oral dysbiosis that could affect the oral metabolome. PMID:24657864

  7. Salivary hormonal values from high-speed resistive exercise workouts.

    PubMed

    Caruso, John F; Lutz, Brant M; Davidson, Mark E; Wilson, Kyle; Crane, Chris S; Craig, Chrsity E; Nissen, Tim E; Mason, Melissa L; Coday, Michael A; Sheaff, Robert J; Potter, William T

    2012-03-01

    Our study purpose examined salivary hormonal responses to high-speed resistive exercise. Healthy subjects (n = 45) performed 2 elbow flexor workouts on a novel (inertial kinetic exercise; Oconomowoc, WI, USA) strength training device. Our methods included saliva sample collection at both preexercise and immediately postexercise; workouts entailed two 60-second sets separated by a 90-second rest period. The samples were analyzed in duplicate for their testosterone and cortisol concentrations ([T], [C]). Average and maximum elbow flexor torque were measured from each exercise bout; they were later analyzed with a 2(gender) × 2(workout) analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures for workout. The [T] and [C] each underwent a 2(gender) × 2(time) ANOVA with repeated measures for time. A within-subject design was used to limit error variance. Average and maximum torque each had gender (men > women; p < 0.05) effects. The [T] elicited a 2-way interaction (p < 0.05), as men incurred a significant 14% increase over time, but women's values were unchanged. Yet multivariate regression revealed that 3 predictor variables (body mass and average and maximum torques) did not account for a significant amount of variance associated with the rise in male [T]. Changes in [C] were not significant. In conclusion, changes in [T] concur with the results from other studies that showed significant elevations in male [T], despite the brevity of current workouts and the rather modest volume of muscle mass engaged. Practical applications imply that salivary assays may be a viable alternative to blood draws from athletes, yet coaches and others who may administer this treatment should know that our results may have produced greater pre-post hormonal changes if postexercise sample collection had occurred at a later time point. PMID:22310520

  8. Molecular Characterization of Tick Salivary Gland Glutaminyl Cyclase

    PubMed Central

    Adamson, Steven W.; Browning, Rebecca E.; Chao, Chien-Chung; Bateman, Robert C.; Ching, Wei-Mei; Karim, Shahid

    2013-01-01

    Glutaminyl cyclase (QC) catalyzes the cyclization of N-terminal glutamine residues into pyroglutamate. This post-translational modification extends the half-life of peptides and, in some cases, is essential in binding to their cognate receptor. Due to its potential role in the post-translational modification of tick neuropeptides, we report the molecular, biochemical and physiological characterization of salivary gland QC during the prolonged blood-feeding of the black-legged tick (Ixodes scapularis) and the gulf-coast tick (Amblyomma maculatum). QC sequences from I. scapularis and A. maculatum showed a high degree of amino acid identity to each other and other arthropods and residues critical for zinc-binding/catalysis (D159, E202, and H330) or intermediate stabilization (E201, W207, D248, D305, F325, and W329) are conserved. Analysis of QC transcriptional gene expression kinetics depicts an upregulation during the blood-meal of adult female ticks prior to fast feeding phases in both I. scapularis and A. maculatum suggesting a functional link with blood meal uptake. QC enzymatic activity was detected in saliva and extracts of tick salivary glands and midguts. Recombinant QC was shown to be catalytically active. Furthermore, knockdown of QC-transcript by RNA interference resulted in lower enzymatic activity, and small, unviable egg masses in both studied tick species as well as lower engorged tick weights for I. scapularis. These results suggest that the post-translational modification of neurotransmitters and other bioactive peptides by QC is critical to oviposition and potentially other physiological processes. Moreover, these data suggest that tick-specific QC-modified neurotransmitters/hormones or other relevant parts of this system could potentially be used as novel physiological targets for tick control. PMID:23770496

  9. Physiological role of aquaporin 5 in salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Hosoi, Kazuo

    2016-04-01

    Regarding the 13 known mammalian aquaporins (AQPs), their functions in their expressing tissues, effects of their mutation/polymorphisms in humans, and effects of knockout of their genes are summarized in this review article. The roles of AQP5, an exocrine gland-type water channel, in the salivary gland under normal and pathophysiological conditions are reviewed in detail. First, the involvement of AQP5 in water secretion from acinar cells was demonstrated by measuring volume changes of acini/acinar cells, as well as activation energy (E a) in transepithelial water movement by NMR spectrometry, and a functional linkage between AQP5 and TRPV4 was suggested. Next, involvement of the parasympathetic nervous system on the AQP5 levels in the acinar cells of the submandibular and that of a β-adrenergic agonist on those in the parotid gland are described. That is, chorda tympani denervation induces autophagy of the submandibular gland, causing AQP5 degradation/metabolism, whereas isoproterenol, a β-adrenergic agonist, causes first an increase then decrease in AQP5 levels in the parotid gland, which action is coupled with the secretory-restoration cycle of amylase-containing secretory granules. The PG also responded to endotoxin, a lipopolysaccharide that activates NF-κB and MAPK pathways. Elevated NF-κB and AP-1 (c-Fos/c-Jun) form a complex that can bind to the NF-κB-responsive element on the AQP5 promoter and thus potentially downregulate AQP5 transcription. Salivary gland pathologies and conditions involving AQP5 and possible treatments are described as well. PMID:26537593

  10. Hyaluronidase activity in the salivary glands of tabanid flies.

    PubMed

    Volfova, Vera; Tothova, Viktorie; Volf, Petr

    2016-06-01

    Tabanids are haematophagous insects that act as biological and mechanical vectors of various diseases, including viruses, bacteria and parasites. The saliva of these insects contains strong anticoagulant and vasodilatory activities as well as immunoregulatory peptides. Here we demonstrate pronounced hyaluronidase (hyase) activity in ten tabanid species of the genera Chrysops, Haematopota, Hybomitra and Tabanus. Compared to other haematophagous insects, the ability of tabanid hyases to hydrolyze hyaluronic acid (HA) is extremely high, for example the enzyme activity of Hybomitra muehlfeldi was found to be 32-fold higher than the salivary hyase activity of the sand fly Phlebotomus papatasi. Hyases of all ten tabanid species tested also cleaved chondroitin sulfate A, another glycosaminoglycan present in the extracellular matrix of vertebrates. The pH optimum of the enzyme activity was measured in eight tabanid species; the hyase of Haemopota pluvialis was the only one with optimum at pH 4.0, while in the other seven species the activity optimum was at 5.0. SDS PAGE zymography showed the monomeric character of the enzymes in all tabanid species tested. Under non-reducing conditions the activities were visible as single bands with estimated MW between 35 and 52 kDa. The very high hyaluronidase activity in tabanid saliva might be related to their aggressive biting behavior as well as to their high efficiency as mechanical vectors. As they are supposedly involved in the enlargement of feeding hematomas, hyases might contribute to the mechanical transmission of pathogens. Pathogens present in vector mouthparts are co-inoculated into the vertebrate host together with saliva and may benefit from increased tissue permeability and the immunomodulatory activity of the salivary hyase. PMID:27045753

  11. Distinctive amino acid composition profiles in salivary proteins of the tick Ixodes scapularis

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Austin L.; Friedman, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Bioinformatic analysis of the amino acid composition of proteins of the tick Ixodes scapularis showed that, in comparison to other secreted proteins, salivary proteins in general have higher frequencies of polar residues and lower frequencies of the non-polar residues leucine and valine. Computer prediction of linear B-cell epitopes showed that polar residues were associated with the presence of high-quality epitopes and that tick salivary proteins included significantly more proteins with predicted high-quality epitopes than did other secreted proteins. The results provided no evidence that salivary proteins as a whole have evolved characteristics minimizing their antigenicity to the vertebrate host. Certain salivary proteins may indeed have evolved low antigenicity, but the I. scapularis sialome include at least some apparently antigenic proteins that might be tested experimentally to determine whether they would be suitable candidates for anti-tick vaccines. PMID:22108016

  12. Evaluation of Correlation of Blood Glucose and Salivary Glucose Level in Known Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Siddharth Kumar; Padmavathi, B.N.; Rajan, S.Y.; Mamatha, G.P.; Kumar, Sandeep; Roy, Sayak; Sareen, Mohit

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Diabetes mellitus is a chronic heterogenous disease in which there is dysregulation of carbohydrates, protein and lipid metabolism; leading to elevated blood glucose levels. The present study was conducted to evaluate the correlation between blood glucose and salivary glucose levels in known diabetic patients and control group and also to evaluate salivary glucose level as a diagnostic tool in diabetic patients. Materials and Methods A total number of 250 patients were studied, out of which 212 formed the study group and 38 formed the control group. Result Among 250 patients, correlation was evaluated between blood glucose and salivary glucose values which on analysis revealed Pearson correlation of 0.073. The p-value was 0.247, which was statistically non significant. Conclusion Salivary glucose values cannot be considered as a diagnostic tool for diabetic individuals. PMID:26155553

  13. [Multivariate quantification of acupuncture and moxibustion treatment in combination with questionnaire and salivary stress markers].

    PubMed

    Matzno, Sumio; Ikeda, Chie; Watanabe, Kazuomi; Nakamura, Ryohei; Takamatsu, Hanae; Haginaka, Jun; Matsuyama, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    Pain and stress alleviation after acupuncture treatment was assessed in this study. Patients responded to a questionnaire designed to determine the amount of stress they were experiencing, and data were obtained for patient salivary amylase, cortisol, secretary IgA (s-IgA), and leptin receptor (OBRb). As a part of this study on acute pain, 6 factors were extracted from the questionnaire. The second factor (pain removal) was well correlated with salivary amylase activity in patients with cervico-omo-brachial syndrome. An evaluation of cumulative acupuncture treatments showed that salivary cortisol increased and s-IgA decreased. In addition, a decreased s-IgA level significantly correlated with chronic pain removal. The questionnaire correlated well with measurements of salivary markers suggesting that they can be taken as indices of therapeutic efficacy in acupuncture treatment. PMID:24790049

  14. Salivary gland necrosis in dogs: a retrospective study of 19 cases.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, H; Berry, W L

    1998-03-01

    Salivary gland necrosis has been described in dogs and is characterised by enlarged, hard, painful salivary glands, retching and vomiting or regurgitation. The cause has yet to be determined. A retrospective study of 19 dogs with the same clinical signs was undertaken for breed, age, gender, history and presenting signs, diagnostic evaluations and findings, treatment and outcome. An underlying association was identified in 16 of the 19 dogs. This included Spirocerca lupi infestation (seven dogs), megaoesophagus (three dogs) and oesophagitis, oesophageal diverticulum, giardiasis and suspected autoimmune sialadenitis. Almost all associated lesions involved the oesophagus. Where the associated disease was successfully treated, the salivary glands returned to normal and all clinical signs resolved. It is hypothesised that an afferent vagal reflex may be involved, and that the mechanism of disease is similar to the neural pathogenesis suggested for hypertrophic osteopathy; in this instance, the efferent targets are the salivary glands rather than the limbs. PMID:9551379

  15. Major salivary gland flow rates in young and old, generally healthy African Americans and whites.

    PubMed

    Jones, R E; Ship, J A

    1995-02-01

    Saliva is essential to maintain and preserve oral health. Previous studies of primarily white populations demonstrated that salivary gland flow rates are age-stable in healthy adults, but there are little data on African Americans of different ages. The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a relationship between age, gender, and race in unstimulated and stimulated parotid and submandibular salivary gland flow rates and to evaluate subjective responses to questions regarding salivary dysfunction. Sixty generally healthy, middle socioeconomic class African Americans and whites between the ages of 20 to 40 and 60 to 80 years were evaluated. The results indicate, in general, that objective and subjective measurements of major salivary gland flow rates are independent of age, gender, and race. Further studies are required using larger populations. These results suggest that signs and symptoms of dry mouth in the elderly regardless of race or gender should not be considered a normal sequela of aging. PMID:7897685

  16. Surgical excision of the parotid salivary gland for treatment of a traumatic mucocele in a dog.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, Kathleen M; Hardie, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    A 3 yr old spayed female mixed-breed German shepherd dog was presented with a right facial swelling that developed after fighting with another dog. A parotid salivary mucocele was diagnosed via physical examination, fine-needle aspirate, and sialography of the parotid and mandibular salivary glands. Surgical excision of the right parotid salivary gland and duct was performed along with drainage of the mucocele. Neither intraoperative nor postoperative complications occurred, and follow-up examination 4 mo later revealed no evidence of recurrence. Case outcome was considered excellent. Sialography was useful for confirming the parotid gland as the source of the mucocele. Surgical excision of the parotid salivary gland is technically challenging, but an effective treatment option for traumatic mucoceles in the dog. PMID:24659723

  17. Primary Pulmonary Salivary Gland-type Tumors: A Review and Update.

    PubMed

    Falk, Nadja; Weissferdt, Annikka; Kalhor, Neda; Moran, Cesar A

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary salivary gland-type tumors (SGT) comprise a very small proportion of primary lung neoplasms. The most common tumors among this group are mucoepidermoid carcinoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma. Contrary to the head and neck region, benign SGT such as pleomorphic adenomas are exceedingly rare in the pulmonary system. More recently, 2 additional SGT, namely hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma and salivary duct-like carcinoma were recognized as primary lung tumors expanding the spectrum of SGT that have been described to originate in the tracheobronchial system. Primary pulmonary SGT must be clinically excluded from metastatic salivary gland neoplasms as their morphology is indistinguishable from that of their salivary gland counterparts. Little is known about the clinical behavior and best treatment approach for these unusual tumors. In this review, we provide a comprehensive summary of primary pulmonary SGT with particular emphasis on morphologic characteristics and latest developments in terms of immunohistochemical and molecular techniques. PMID:26645458

  18. Biomarkers of (osteo)arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Mobasheri, Ali; Henrotin, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Arthritic diseases are a major cause of disability and morbidity, and cause an enormous burden for health and social care systems globally. Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis. The key risk factors for the development of OA are age, obesity, joint trauma or instability. Metabolic and endocrine diseases can also contribute to the pathogenesis of OA. There is accumulating evidence to suggest that OA is a whole-organ disease that is influenced by systemic mediators, inflammaging, innate immunity and the low-grade inflammation induced by metabolic syndrome. Although all joint tissues are implicated in disease progression in OA, articular cartilage has received the most attention in the context of aging, injury and disease. There is increasing emphasis on the early detection of OA as it has the capacity to target and treat the disease more effectively. Indeed it has been suggested that this is the era of “personalized prevention” for OA. However, the development of strategies for the prevention of OA require new and sensitive biomarker tools that can detect the disease in its molecular and pre-radiographic stage, before structural and functional alterations in cartilage integrity have occurred. There is also evidence to support a role for biomarkers in OA drug discovery, specifically the development of disease modifying osteoarthritis drugs. This Special Issue of Biomarkers is dedicated to recent progress in the field of OA biomarkers. The papers in this Special Issue review the current state-of-the-a