Science.gov

Sample records for disease-induced salivary biomarker

  1. Salivary biomarkers for dental caries.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiaoli; Jiang, Shan; Koh, David; Hsu, Chin-Ying Stephen

    2016-02-01

    As a highly prevalent multifactorial disease, dental caries afflicts a large proportion of the world's population. As teeth are constantly bathed in saliva, the constituents and properties of this oral fluid play an essential role in the occurrence and progression of dental caries. Various inorganic (water and electrolytes) and organic (proteins and peptides) components may protect teeth from dental caries. This occurs via several functions, such as clearance of food debris and sugar, aggregation and elimination of microorganisms, buffering actions to neutralize acid, maintaining supersaturation with respect to tooth mineral, participation in formation of the acquired pellicle and antimicrobial defense. Modest evidence is available on the associations between dental caries and several salivary parameters, including flow rate, buffering capacity and abundance of mutans streptococci. Despite some controversial findings, the main body of the literature supports an elevated caries prevalence and/or incidence among people with a pathologically low saliva flow rate, compromised buffering capacity and early colonization or high titer of mutans streptococci in saliva. The evidence remains weak and/or inconsistent on the association between dental caries and other saliva parameters, such as other possible cariogenic species (Lactobacillus spp., Streptococcus sanguis group, Streptococcus salivarius, Actinomyces spp. and Candida albicans), diversity of saliva microbiomes, inorganic and organic constituents (electrolytes, immunoglobulins, other proteins and peptides) and some functional properties (sugar clearance rate, etc.). The complex interactions between salivary components and functions suggest that saliva has to be considered in its entirety to account for its total effects on teeth. PMID:26662487

  2. Salivary Biomarkers in Pediatric Metabolic Disease Research.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Mor-Li; Goodson, J Max; Barake, Roula; Alsmadi, Osama; Al-Mutawa, Sabiha; Ariga, Jitendra; Soparkar, Pramod; Behbehani, Jawad; Behbehani, Kazem

    2016-03-01

    The increasing prevalence of childhood obesity and obesity-related metabolic disorders is now considered a global pandemic. The main goal of the pediatric obesity research community is to identify children who are at risk of becoming obese before their body mass index rises above age norms. To do so, we must identify biomarkers of metabolic health and immunometabolism that can be used for large-scale screening and diagnosis initiatives among at-risk children. Because blood sampling is often unacceptable to both parents and children when there is no direct benefit to the child, as in a community-based research study, there is a clear need for a low-risk, non-invasive sampling strategy. Salivary analysis is now well recognized as a likely candidate for this purpose. In this review, we discuss the physiologic role of saliva and its strengths and limitations as a fluid for biomarker discovery, obesity screening, metabolic disease diagnosis, and response monitoring after interventions. We also describe the current state of the salivary biomarker field as it pertains to metabolic research, with a special emphasis on studies conducted in children and adolescents. Finally, we look forward to technological developments, such as salivary "omics" and point of service diagnostic devices, which have the potential to accelerate the pace of research and discovery in this vitally important field. PMID:27116847

  3. Metabolic Disease Risk in Children by Salivary Biomarker Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Goodson, J. Max; Kantarci, Alpdogan; Hartman, Mor-Li; Denis, Gerald V.; Stephens, Danielle; Hasturk, Hatice; Yaskell, Tina; Vargas, Jorel; Wang, Xiaoshan; Cugini, Maryann; Barake, Roula; Alsmadi, Osama; Al-Mutawa, Sabiha; Ariga, Jitendra; Soparkar, Pramod; Behbehani, Jawad; Behbehani, Kazem; Welty, Francine

    2014-01-01

    Objective The study of obesity-related metabolic syndrome or Type 2 diabetes (T2D) in children is particularly difficult because of fear of needles. We tested a non-invasive approach to study inflammatory parameters in an at-risk population of children to provide proof-of-principle for future investigations of vulnerable subjects. Design and Methods We evaluated metabolic differences in 744, 11-year old children selected from underweight, normal healthy weight, overweight and obese categories by analyzing fasting saliva samples for 20 biomarkers. Saliva supernatants were obtained following centrifugation and used for analyses. Results Salivary C-reactive protein (CRP) was 6 times higher, salivary insulin and leptin were 3 times higher, and adiponectin was 30% lower in obese children compared to healthy normal weight children (all P<0.0001). Categorical analysis suggested that there might be three types of obesity in children. Distinctly inflammatory characteristics appeared in 76% of obese children while in 13%, salivary insulin was high but not associated with inflammatory mediators. The remaining 11% of obese children had high insulin and reduced adiponectin. Forty percent of the non-obese children were found in groups which, based on biomarker characteristics, may be at risk for becoming obese. Conclusions Significantly altered levels of salivary biomarkers in obese children from a high-risk population, suggest the potential for developing non-invasive screening procedures to identify T2D-vulnerable individuals and a means to test preventative strategies. PMID:24915044

  4. Identification of salivary metabolomic biomarkers for oral cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Shigeo; Sugimoto, Masahiro; Kitabatake, Kenichiro; Sugano, Ayako; Nakamura, Marina; Kaneko, Miku; Ota, Sana; Hiwatari, Kana; Enomoto, Ayame; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Tomita, Masaru; Iino, Mitsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore salivary metabolite biomarkers by profiling both saliva and tumor tissue samples for oral cancer screening. Paired tumor and control tissues were obtained from oral cancer patients and whole unstimulated saliva samples were collected from patients and healthy controls. The comprehensive metabolomic analysis for profiling hydrophilic metabolites was conducted using capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry. In total, 85 and 45 metabolites showed significant differences between tumor and matched control samples, and between salivary samples from oral cancer and controls, respectively (P < 0.05 correlated by false discovery rate); 17 metabolites showed consistent differences in both saliva and tissue-based comparisons. Of these, a combination of only two biomarkers yielded a high area under receiver operating characteristic curves (0.827; 95% confidence interval, 0.726-0.928, P < 0.0001) for discriminating oral cancers from controls. Various validation tests confirmed its high generalization ability. The demonstrated approach, integrating both saliva and tumor tissue metabolomics, helps eliminate pseudo-molecules that are coincidentally different between oral cancers and controls. These combined salivary metabolites could be the basis of a clinically feasible method of non-invasive oral cancer screening. PMID:27539254

  5. Identification of salivary metabolomic biomarkers for oral cancer screening

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Shigeo; Sugimoto, Masahiro; Kitabatake, Kenichiro; Sugano, Ayako; Nakamura, Marina; Kaneko, Miku; Ota, Sana; Hiwatari, Kana; Enomoto, Ayame; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Tomita, Masaru; Iino, Mitsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore salivary metabolite biomarkers by profiling both saliva and tumor tissue samples for oral cancer screening. Paired tumor and control tissues were obtained from oral cancer patients and whole unstimulated saliva samples were collected from patients and healthy controls. The comprehensive metabolomic analysis for profiling hydrophilic metabolites was conducted using capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry. In total, 85 and 45 metabolites showed significant differences between tumor and matched control samples, and between salivary samples from oral cancer and controls, respectively (P < 0.05 correlated by false discovery rate); 17 metabolites showed consistent differences in both saliva and tissue-based comparisons. Of these, a combination of only two biomarkers yielded a high area under receiver operating characteristic curves (0.827; 95% confidence interval, 0.726–0.928, P < 0.0001) for discriminating oral cancers from controls. Various validation tests confirmed its high generalization ability. The demonstrated approach, integrating both saliva and tumor tissue metabolomics, helps eliminate pseudo-molecules that are coincidentally different between oral cancers and controls. These combined salivary metabolites could be the basis of a clinically feasible method of non-invasive oral cancer screening. PMID:27539254

  6. Salivary Biomarkers in the Control of Mosquito-Borne Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Doucoure, Souleymane; Drame, Papa Makhtar

    2015-01-01

    Vector control remains the most effective measure to prevent the transmission of mosquito-borne diseases. However, the classical entomo-parasitological methods used to evaluate the human exposure to mosquito bites and the effectiveness of control strategies are indirect, labor intensive, and lack sensitivity in low exposure/transmission areas. Therefore, they are limited in their accuracy and widespread use. Studying the human antibody response against the mosquito salivary proteins has provided new biomarkers for a direct and accurate evaluation of the human exposure to mosquito bites, at community and individual levels. In this review, we discuss the development, applications and limits of these biomarkers applied to Aedes- and Anopheles-borne diseases. PMID:26593952

  7. Role of Pancreatic Cancer-derived Exosomes in Salivary Biomarker Development*

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Chang; Kim, Yong; Chia, David; Spielmann, Nadine; Eibl, Guido; Elashoff, David; Wei, Fang; Lin, Yi-Ling; Moro, Aune; Grogan, Tristan; Chiang, Samantha; Feinstein, Eric; Schafer, Christopher; Farrell, James; Wong, David T. W.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that discriminatory salivary biomarkers can be readily detected upon the development of systemic diseases such as pancreatic cancer, breast cancer, lung cancer, and ovarian cancer. However, the utility of salivary biomarkers for the detection of systemic diseases has been undermined due to the absence of the biological and mechanistic rationale as to why distal diseases from the oral cavity would lead to the development of discriminatory biomarkers in saliva. Here, we examine the hypothesis that pancreatic tumor-derived exosomes are mechanistically involved in the development of pancreatic cancer-discriminatory salivary transcriptomic biomarkers. We first developed a pancreatic cancer mouse model that yielded discriminatory salivary biomarkers by implanting the mouse pancreatic cancer cell line Panc02 into the pancreas of the syngeneic host C57BL/6. The role of pancreatic cancer-derived exosomes in the development of discriminatory salivary biomarkers was then tested by engineering a Panc02 cell line that is suppressed for exosome biogenesis, implanting into the C56BL/6 mouse, and examining whether the discriminatory salivary biomarker profile was ablated or disrupted. Suppression of exosome biogenesis results in the ablation of discriminatory salivary biomarker development. This study supports that tumor-derived exosomes provide a mechanism in the development of discriminatory biomarkers in saliva and distal systemic diseases. PMID:23880764

  8. Salivary Biomarkers of Periodontal Disease in Response to Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Sexton, William Michael; Lin, Yushun; Kryscio, Richard J.; Dawson, Dolphus R.; Ebersole, Jeffrey L.; Miller, Craig S.

    2011-01-01

    Background Salivary biomarkers of periodontitis were assessed longitudinally to determine response to therapy. Methods A 6-month case-controlled study of adults with chronic periodontitis was performed, with 33 participants receiving oral hygiene instructions (OHI) alone and 35 with scaling and root planing (SRP) combined with OHI. Saliva samples collected at week 0, 16 and 28 were analyzed for interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-8, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α, matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8), osteoprotegerin (OPG) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF)-α. Clinical measures of periodontal disease were recorded at each visit. Results All parameters of periodontal health improved significantly in both groups by week 16 (p<0.0001) with the SRP group demonstrating greater benefit at week 16 and 28. Baseline OPG and TNF-α levels changed significantly at both follow-up visits (p<0.03), regardless of treatment group. IL-1β and MMP-8 levels decreased significantly from baseline (p≤0.04) in the SRP group only. OPG, MMP-8 and MIP-1α were significantly reduced in responders compared with non-responders (p=0.04, 0.01, 0.05 respectively). In receiver operating characteristic analyses, MMP-8 produced the highest area under the curve (≥ 0.7; p=0.01). Conclusion Salivary levels of IL-1β, MMP-8, OPG and MIP-1α reflected disease severity and response to therapy suggesting their potential utility for monitoring periodontal disease status. PMID:21480939

  9. Salivary biomarkers: toward future clinical and diagnostic utilities.

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, Janice M; Schafer, Christopher A; Schafer, Jason J; Farrell, James J; Paster, Bruce J; Wong, David T W

    2013-10-01

    The pursuit of timely, cost-effective, accurate, and noninvasive diagnostic methodologies is an endeavor of urgency among clinicians and scientists alike. Detecting pathologies at their earliest stages can significantly affect patient discomfort, prognosis, therapeutic intervention, survival rates, and recurrence. Diagnosis and monitoring often require painful invasive procedures such as biopsies and repeated blood draws, adding undue stress to an already unpleasant experience. The discovery of saliva-based microbial, immunologic, and molecular biomarkers offers unique opportunities to bypass these measures by utilizing oral fluids to evaluate the condition of both healthy and diseased individuals. Here we discuss saliva and its significance as a source of indicators for local, systemic, and infectious disorders. We highlight contemporary innovations and explore recent discoveries that deem saliva a mediator of the body's physiological condition. Additionally, we examine the current state of salivary diagnostics and its associated technologies, future aspirations, and potential as the preferred route of disease detection, monitoring, and prognosis. PMID:24092855

  10. Salivary Biomarkers: Toward Future Clinical and Diagnostic Utilities

    PubMed Central

    Yoshizawa, Janice M.; Schafer, Christopher A.; Schafer, Jason J.; Farrell, James J.; Paster, Bruce J.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The pursuit of timely, cost-effective, accurate, and noninvasive diagnostic methodologies is an endeavor of urgency among clinicians and scientists alike. Detecting pathologies at their earliest stages can significantly affect patient discomfort, prognosis, therapeutic intervention, survival rates, and recurrence. Diagnosis and monitoring often require painful invasive procedures such as biopsies and repeated blood draws, adding undue stress to an already unpleasant experience. The discovery of saliva-based microbial, immunologic, and molecular biomarkers offers unique opportunities to bypass these measures by utilizing oral fluids to evaluate the condition of both healthy and diseased individuals. Here we discuss saliva and its significance as a source of indicators for local, systemic, and infectious disorders. We highlight contemporary innovations and explore recent discoveries that deem saliva a mediator of the body's physiological condition. Additionally, we examine the current state of salivary diagnostics and its associated technologies, future aspirations, and potential as the preferred route of disease detection, monitoring, and prognosis. PMID:24092855

  11. Salivary Heparanase Level Is a Potential Biomarker to Diagnose and Prognose the Malignant Salivary Gland Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin; Liu, Yang; Zhu, Shengrong; Gong, Zhongjian

    2015-01-01

    Background Upregulation of heparanase has been reported in an increasing number of human cancer tissues. However, the level of salivary heparanase and its clinical significance in patients with salivary gland tumors remain unclear. Methods Salivary heparanase levels in patients with salivary gland tumors were detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and the clinical significance was evaluated by analyzing the correlations among salivary heparanase levels, clinicopathological parameters, and clinical outcomes. Results The levels of salivary heparanase were significantly higher in patients with malignant salivary gland tumors than in benign tumors and normal controls (P<0.0001). High salivary heparanase levels were positively correlated with increased lymph node metastasis (P = 0.0235) and poorer tumor node metastasis stage (TNM) (P = 0.0183). Survival analyses revealed that high salivary heparanase levels were associated with worse overall survival (P = 0.0023) and disease-free survival (DFS) (P = 0.0025). Conclusions The study shows that salivary heparanase levels, as detected by the ELISAs, can be used to diagnose and provide an accurate prognosis for malignant salivary gland tumors. Salivary heparanase level was an independent predictor in patients with malignant salivary gland tumors. PMID:26569485

  12. Personalized medicine: an update of salivary biomarkers for periodontal diseases.

    PubMed

    Korte, Dina L; Kinney, Janet

    2016-02-01

    This article provides an up-to-date review of the more robust salivary biomarkers, as well as of panels of combinatorial markers and periodontal pathogens, that reveal high sensitivity and specificity for enhancing clinical decision-making in periodontal disease progression, risk and diagnosis. Periodontal diseases are complex and require an inflammatory response to bacterial pathogens in a susceptible host to stimulate tissue destruction. When used alone, traditional clinical assessments provide a diagnosis of periodontitis only after the biologic onset of the disease process, and are unable to substantiate disease activity or future risk. New technologies are becoming available that are capable of measuring combinations of inflammatory cytokines and proteinases for rapid chair-side testing. Utilizing saliva to identify and measure specific phenotypes and host-derived mediators will allow highly individualized diagnosis, prognosis and treatments for periodontal diseases. This personalized medicine approach will strengthen the power of the clinical oral examination and medical history assessments, providing patients with evidence-based, targeted risk care. PMID:26662480

  13. A Pilot Proteomic Analysis of Salivary Biomarkers in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Ngounou Wetie, Armand G; Wormwood, Kelly L; Russell, Stefanie; Ryan, Jeanne P; Darie, Costel C; Woods, Alisa G

    2015-06-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) prevalence is increasing, with current estimates at 1/68-1/50 individuals diagnosed with an ASD. Diagnosis is based on behavioral assessments. Early diagnosis and intervention is known to greatly improve functional outcomes in people with ASD. Diagnosis, treatment monitoring and prognosis of ASD symptoms could be facilitated with biomarkers to complement behavioral assessments. Mass spectrometry (MS) based proteomics may help reveal biomarkers for ASD. In this pilot study, we have analyzed the salivary proteome in individuals with ASD compared to neurotypical control subjects, using MS-based proteomics. Our goal is to optimize methods for salivary proteomic biomarker discovery and to identify initial putative biomarkers in people with ASDs. The salivary proteome is virtually unstudied in ASD, and saliva could provide an easily accessible biomaterial for analysis. Using nano liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, we found statistically significant differences in several salivary proteins, including elevated prolactin-inducible protein, lactotransferrin, Ig kappa chain C region, Ig gamma-1 chain C region, Ig lambda-2 chain C regions, neutrophil elastase, polymeric immunoglobulin receptor and deleted in malignant brain tumors 1. Our results indicate that this is an effective method for identification of salivary protein biomarkers, support the concept that immune system and gastrointestinal disturbances may be present in individuals with ASDs and point toward the need for larger studies in behaviorally-characterized individuals. PMID:25626423

  14. Salivary Nitric Oxide, a Biomarker for Stress and Anxiety?

    PubMed Central

    Al-Smadi, Ahmed Mohammad; Ashour, Ala Fawzi; Al-Awaida, Wajdy

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate if salivary nitrate correlates to the daily psychological stress and anxiety in a group of human subjects. Methods The convenient sample recruitment method was employed; data from seventy three subjects were analyzed. The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A) inventories were used to determine stress and anxiety scores respectively. Salivary nitric oxide was measured through nitrate (NOx) levels using the Griess reaction method. Results Although stress and anxiety were correlated. No significant correlation exists between salivary nitrate and daily psychological stress and anxiety in the study's participants. Conclusion While all previous studies focused NOx levels in acute stress models. This is the first study to investigate the correlation between salivary nitrates and daily psychological stress and anxiety. Although stress and anxiety were correlated, there is no correlation between salivary nitrates and daily psychological stress and anxiety. Further studies are required to investigate this correlation using other biological samples such as plasma. PMID:27247597

  15. Literature-Based Discovery of Salivary Biomarkers for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Mythily; Blackburn, Corinne; Mohamed, Mohamed; Sivagami, AV; Blum, Janice

    2015-01-01

    The alarming increase in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) underscores the need for efficient screening and preventive strategies. Select protein biomarker profiles emerge over time during T2DM development. Periodic evaluation of these markers will increase the predictive ability of diabetes risk scores. Noninvasive methods for frequent measurements of biomarkers are increasingly being investigated. Application of salivary diagnostics has gained importance with the establishment of significant similarities between the salivary and serum proteomes. The objective of this study is to identify T2DM-specific salivary biomarkers by literature-based discovery. A serial interrogation of the PubMed database was performed using MeSH terms of specific T2DM pathological processes in primary and secondary iterations to compile cohorts of T2DM-specific serum markers. Subsequent search consisted of mining for the identified serum markers in human saliva. More than 60% of T2DM-associated serum proteins have been measured in saliva. Nearly half of these proteins have been reported in diabetic saliva. Measurements of salivary lipids and oxidative stress markers that can exhibit correlated saliva plasma ratio could constitute reliable factors for T2DM risk assessment. We conclude that a high percentage of T2DM-associated serum proteins can be measured in saliva, which offers an attractive and economical strategy for T2DM screening. PMID:26005324

  16. Salivary and Urinary Total Antioxidant Capacity as Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Peluso, Ilaria; Raguzzini, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC) is a biomarker often used in order to investigate oxidative stress in many pathological conditions. Saliva and urine can be collected noninvasively and represent attractive diagnostic fluids for detecting biomarkers of various pathological conditions. The reviewed case-control and intervention studies that measured salivary or urinary TAC revealed that diseases, antioxidant foods, or supplements and age, gender, and lifestyle factors influenced salivary or urinary TAC. Salivary and urinary TAC were particularly affected by oral or renal status, respectively, as well as by infection; therefore these factors must be taken into account in both case-control and intervention studies. Furthermore, some considerations on sample collection and normalization strategies could be made. In particular, unstimulated saliva could be the better approach to measure salivary TAC, whereas 24 h or spontaneous urine collection should be chosen on the basis of the study outcome and of the creatinine clearance. Finally, the uric acid-independent TAC could be the better approach to evaluate red-ox status of body, in particular after nutritional interventions and in diseases associated with hyperuricaemia. PMID:26966611

  17. Salivary and Urinary Total Antioxidant Capacity as Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Humans.

    PubMed

    Peluso, Ilaria; Raguzzini, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC) is a biomarker often used in order to investigate oxidative stress in many pathological conditions. Saliva and urine can be collected noninvasively and represent attractive diagnostic fluids for detecting biomarkers of various pathological conditions. The reviewed case-control and intervention studies that measured salivary or urinary TAC revealed that diseases, antioxidant foods, or supplements and age, gender, and lifestyle factors influenced salivary or urinary TAC. Salivary and urinary TAC were particularly affected by oral or renal status, respectively, as well as by infection; therefore these factors must be taken into account in both case-control and intervention studies. Furthermore, some considerations on sample collection and normalization strategies could be made. In particular, unstimulated saliva could be the better approach to measure salivary TAC, whereas 24 h or spontaneous urine collection should be chosen on the basis of the study outcome and of the creatinine clearance. Finally, the uric acid-independent TAC could be the better approach to evaluate red-ox status of body, in particular after nutritional interventions and in diseases associated with hyperuricaemia. PMID:26966611

  18. Continuous Metabolic Syndrome Scores for Children Using Salivary Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Ping; Goodson, J. Max; Hartman, Mor-Li; Hasturk, Hatice; Yaskell, Tina; Vargas, Jorel; Cugini, Maryann; Barake, Roula; Alsmadi, Osama; Al-Mutawa, Sabiha; Ariga, Jitendra; Soparkar, Pramod; Behbehani, Jawad; Behbehani, Kazem; Welty, Francine

    2015-01-01

    Background Binary definitions of the metabolic syndrome based on the presence of a particular number of individual risk factors are limited, particularly in the pediatric population. To address this limitation, we aimed at constructing composite and continuous metabolic syndrome scores (cmetS) to represent an overall measure of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a large cohort of metabolically at-risk children, focusing on the use of the usual clinical parameters (waist circumference (WC) and systolic blood pressure (SBP), supplemented with two salivary surrogate variables (glucose and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC). Two different approaches used to create the scores were evaluated in comparison. Methods Data from 8,112 Kuwaiti children (10.00 ± 0.67 years) were used to construct two cmetS for each subject. The first cmetS (cmetS-Z) was created by summing standardized residuals of each variable regressed on age and gender; and the second cmetS (cmetS-PCA) was defined as the first principal component from gender-specific principal component analysis based on the four variables. Results There was a graded relationship between both scores and the number of adverse risk factors. The areas under the curve using cmetS-Z and cmetS-PCA as predictors for severe metabolic syndrome (defined as the presence of ≥3 metabolic risk factors) were 0.935 and 0.912, respectively. cmetS-Z was positively associated with WC, SBP, and glucose, but inversely associated with HDLC. Except for the lack of association with glucose, cmetS-PCA was similar to cmetS-Z in boys, but had minimum loading on HDLC in girls. Analysis using quantile regression showed an inverse association of fitness level with cmetS-PCA (p = 0.001 for boys; p = 0.002 for girls), and comparison of cmetS-Z and cmetS-PCA suggested that WC and SBP were main contributory components. Significant alterations in the relationship between cmetS and salivary adipocytokines were demonstrated in overweight and obese

  19. Computational prediction of human salivary proteins from blood circulation and application to diagnostic biomarker identification.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiaxin; Liang, Yanchun; Wang, Yan; Cui, Juan; Liu, Ming; Du, Wei; Xu, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Proteins can move from blood circulation into salivary glands through active transportation, passive diffusion or ultrafiltration, some of which are then released into saliva and hence can potentially serve as biomarkers for diseases if accurately identified. We present a novel computational method for predicting salivary proteins that come from circulation. The basis for the prediction is a set of physiochemical and sequence features we found to be discerning between human proteins known to be movable from circulation to saliva and proteins deemed to be not in saliva. A classifier was trained based on these features using a support-vector machine to predict protein secretion into saliva. The classifier achieved 88.56% average recall and 90.76% average precision in 10-fold cross-validation on the training data, indicating that the selected features are informative. Considering the possibility that our negative training data may not be highly reliable (i.e., proteins predicted to be not in saliva), we have also trained a ranking method, aiming to rank the known salivary proteins from circulation as the highest among the proteins in the general background, based on the same features. This prediction capability can be used to predict potential biomarker proteins for specific human diseases when coupled with the information of differentially expressed proteins in diseased versus healthy control tissues and a prediction capability for blood-secretory proteins. Using such integrated information, we predicted 31 candidate biomarker proteins in saliva for breast cancer. PMID:24324552

  20. Targeted salivary biomarkers for discrimination of periodontal health and disease(s)

    PubMed Central

    Ebersole, Jeffrey L.; Nagarajan, Radhakrishnan; Akers, David; Miller, Craig S.

    2015-01-01

    Generally, clinical parameters are used in dental practice for periodontal disease, yet several drawbacks exist with the clinical standards for addressing the needs of the public at large in determining the current status/progression of the disease, and requiring a significant amount of damage before these parameters can document disease. Therefore, a quick, easy and reliable method of assessing and monitoring periodontal disease should provide important diagnostic information that improves and speeds treatment decisions and moves the field closer to individualized point-of-care diagnostics. Objective: This report provides results for a saliva-based diagnostic approach for periodontal health and disease based upon the abundance of salivary analytes coincident with disease, and the significant progress already made in the identification of discriminatory salivary biomarkers of periodontitis. Methods: We evaluated biomarkers representing various phases of periodontitis initiation and progression (IL-1ß, IL-6, MMP-8, MIP-1α) in whole saliva from 209 subjects categorized with periodontal health, gingivitis, and periodontitis. Results: Evaluation of the salivary analytes demonstrated utility for individual biomarkers to differentiate periodontitis from health. Inclusion of gingivitis patients into the analyses provided a more robust basis to estimate the value of each of these analytes. Various clinical and statistical approaches showed that pairs or panels of the analytes were able to increase the sensitivity and specificity for the identification of disease. Conclusions: Salivary concentrations of IL-1ß, IL-6, MMP-8, MIP-1α alone and in combination are able to distinguish health from gingivitis and periodontitis. The data clearly demonstrated a heterogeneity in response profiles of these analytes that supports the need for refinement of the standard clinical classifications if we are to move toward precision/personalized dentistry for the twenty-first century

  1. Dysbiosis of Salivary Microbiota in Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Its Association With Oral Immunological Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Said, Heba S.; Suda, Wataru; Nakagome, Shigeki; Chinen, Hiroshi; Oshima, Kenshiro; Kim, Sangwan; Kimura, Ryosuke; Iraha, Atsushi; Ishida, Hajime; Fujita, Jiro; Mano, Shuhei; Morita, Hidetoshi; Dohi, Taeko; Oota, Hiroki; Hattori, Masahira

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of microbiota in various biological and environmental samples under a variety of conditions has recently become more practical due to remarkable advances in next-generation sequencing. Changes leading to specific biological states including some of the more complex diseases can now be characterized with relative ease. It is known that gut microbiota is involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), mainly Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, exhibiting symptoms in the gastrointestinal tract. Recent studies also showed increased frequency of oral manifestations among IBD patients, indicating aberrations in the oral microbiota. Based on these observations, we analyzed the composition of salivary microbiota of 35 IBD patients by 454 pyrosequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene and compared it with that of 24 healthy controls (HCs). The results showed that Bacteroidetes was significantly increased with a concurrent decrease in Proteobacteria in the salivary microbiota of IBD patients. The dominant genera, Streptococcus, Prevotella, Neisseria, Haemophilus, Veillonella, and Gemella, were found to largely contribute to dysbiosis (dysbacteriosis) observed in the salivary microbiota of IBD patients. Analysis of immunological biomarkers in the saliva of IBD patients showed elevated levels of many inflammatory cytokines and immunoglobulin A, and a lower lysozyme level. A strong correlation was shown between lysozyme and IL-1β levels and the relative abundance of Streptococcus, Prevotella, Haemophilus and Veillonella. Our data demonstrate that dysbiosis of salivary microbiota is associated with inflammatory responses in IBD patients, suggesting that it is possibly linked to dysbiosis of their gut microbiota. PMID:24013298

  2. Dysbiosis of salivary microbiota in inflammatory bowel disease and its association with oral immunological biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Said, Heba S; Suda, Wataru; Nakagome, Shigeki; Chinen, Hiroshi; Oshima, Kenshiro; Kim, Sangwan; Kimura, Ryosuke; Iraha, Atsushi; Ishida, Hajime; Fujita, Jiro; Mano, Shuhei; Morita, Hidetoshi; Dohi, Taeko; Oota, Hiroki; Hattori, Masahira

    2014-02-01

    Analysis of microbiota in various biological and environmental samples under a variety of conditions has recently become more practical due to remarkable advances in next-generation sequencing. Changes leading to specific biological states including some of the more complex diseases can now be characterized with relative ease. It is known that gut microbiota is involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), mainly Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, exhibiting symptoms in the gastrointestinal tract. Recent studies also showed increased frequency of oral manifestations among IBD patients, indicating aberrations in the oral microbiota. Based on these observations, we analyzed the composition of salivary microbiota of 35 IBD patients by 454 pyrosequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene and compared it with that of 24 healthy controls (HCs). The results showed that Bacteroidetes was significantly increased with a concurrent decrease in Proteobacteria in the salivary microbiota of IBD patients. The dominant genera, Streptococcus, Prevotella, Neisseria, Haemophilus, Veillonella, and Gemella, were found to largely contribute to dysbiosis (dysbacteriosis) observed in the salivary microbiota of IBD patients. Analysis of immunological biomarkers in the saliva of IBD patients showed elevated levels of many inflammatory cytokines and immunoglobulin A, and a lower lysozyme level. A strong correlation was shown between lysozyme and IL-1β levels and the relative abundance of Streptococcus, Prevotella, Haemophilus and Veillonella. Our data demonstrate that dysbiosis of salivary microbiota is associated with inflammatory responses in IBD patients, suggesting that it is possibly linked to dysbiosis of their gut microbiota. PMID:24013298

  3. Salivary biomarkers for detection of oral squamous cell carcinoma – current state and recent advances

    PubMed Central

    Yakob, Maha; Fuentes, Laurel; Wang, Marilene B.; Abemayor, Elliot; Wong, David T.W.

    2014-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common malignant neoplasm of the oral cavity. Detection of OSCC is currently based on thorough clinical oral examination combined with biopsy for histological analysis. Most cases of OSCC are not detected until the cancer has developed into advanced stages; thus, a reliable early stage diagnostic marker is needed. This literature review presents an overview of the status of current advances in salivary diagnostics for OSCC. Though many protein and mRNA salivary biomarkers have been identified that can detect OSCC with high sensitivity and specificity, the most discernable findings occur with the use of multiple markers. Studies that incorporate proteomic, transcriptomic, and potentially additional “omics”, including methylomics, need to be initiated to bring technology to clinical applications and allow the best use of saliva in diagnosing OSCC. PMID:24883261

  4. Salivary α-amylase levels as a biomarker of experienced fear

    PubMed Central

    Bibas, David; Adolphs, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    We recently reported data related to emotions collected in conjunction with a museum exhibit on emotion (Goose Bumps!—The Science of Fear).1 In this addendum, we present additional data collected as part of that study. We collected two commonly measured indices of emotional arousal, salivary cortisol and α-amylase, before and after participants had gone through a realistic fear challenge course as part of the exhibit. We found that α-amylase, but not cortisol, showed a highly specific increase only for those participants who endorsed both emotional arousal and negative valence. By contrast, the fear-inducing course resulted in high arousal but positive valence in some participants; in these, no increased α-amylase was measured. We conclude that salivary α-amylase is a promising biomarker for fearful experiences, and suggest that it is important to pay attention to positively valenced arousal that may be induced by fearful stimuli in a laboratory setting. PMID:21331229

  5. Incorporating Salivary Biomarkers into Nursing Research: An Overview and Review of Best Practices

    PubMed Central

    Granger, Douglas A.; Johnson, Sara B.; Szanton, Sarah L.; Out, Dorothée; Schumann, Lynette Lau

    2014-01-01

    Analytes and biomarkers present in saliva may provide insight into individual differences in environmental chemical exposures, variation in reproductive hormones, therapeutic and illegal substance use, changes in stress-related physiology, and the immunologic footprints of infectious disease. The wealth of information provided by salivary analytes has the potential to enrich biobehavioral nursing research by enabling researchers to measure these individual differences in the clinic as well as in patients' and participants' everyday social worlds. In this paper we provide a roadmap for researchers new to this area who would like to learn more about integrating salivary biospecimens into the next generation of health research. In addition, we highlight best practices and strategies to avoid common pitfalls for researchers already engaged in this field. PMID:22593229

  6. Assessment of Anopheles salivary antigens as individual exposure biomarkers to species-specific malaria vector bites

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Malaria transmission occurs during the blood feeding of infected anopheline mosquitoes concomitant with a saliva injection into the vertebrate host. In sub-Saharan Africa, most malaria transmission is due to Anopheles funestus s.s and to Anopheles gambiae s.l. (mainly Anopheles gambiae s.s. and Anopheles arabiensis). Several studies have demonstrated that the immune response against salivary antigens could be used to evaluate individual exposure to mosquito bites. The aim of this study was to assess the use of secreted salivary proteins as specific biomarkers of exposure to An. gambiae and/or An. funestus bites. Methods For this purpose, salivary gland proteins 6 (SG6) and 5′nucleotidases (5′nuc) from An. gambiae (gSG6 and g-5′nuc) and An. funestus (fSG6 and f-5′nuc) were selected and produced in recombinant form. The specificity of the IgG response against these salivary proteins was tested using an ELISA with sera from individuals living in three Senegalese villages (NDiop, n = 50; Dielmo, n = 38; and Diama, n = 46) that had been exposed to distinct densities and proportions of the Anopheles species. Individuals who had not been exposed to these tropical mosquitoes were used as controls (Marseille, n = 45). Results The IgG responses against SG6 recombinant proteins from these two Anopheles species and against g-5′nucleotidase from An. gambiae, were significantly higher in Senegalese individuals compared with controls who were not exposed to specific Anopheles species. Conversely, an association was observed between the level of An. funestus exposure and the serological immune response levels against the f-5′nucleotidase protein. Conclusion This study revealed an Anopheles salivary antigenic protein that could be considered to be a promising antigenic marker to distinguish malaria vector exposure at the species level. The epidemiological interest of such species-specific antigenic markers is discussed. PMID:23276246

  7. Data from human salivary proteome – A resource of potential biomarkers for oral cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sivadasan, Priya; Kumar Gupta, Manoj; Sathe, Gajanan J.; Balakrishnan, Lavanya; Palit, Priyanka; Gowda, Harsha; Suresh, Amritha; Abraham Kuriakose, Moni; Sirdeshmukh, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    Salivary proteins are an important source for developing marker-based assays for oral cancers. To get an insight into the proteins present in human saliva, we applied multiple strategies involving affinity-based depletion of abundant proteins, fractionation of the resulting proteins or their tryptic peptides followed by LC–MS/MS analysis, using high resolution mass spectrometry. By integrating the protein identifications observed by us with those from similar workflows employed in earlier investigations, we compiled an updated salivary proteome. We have mapped the salivary proteome to the published data on differentially expressed proteins from oral cancer tissues and also for their secretory features using prediction tools, SignalP 4.1, TMHMM 2c and Exocarta. Proteotypic peptides for the subset of proteins implicated in oral cancer and mapped to any two of the prediction tools for secretory potential have been listed. The data here are related to the research article “Human saliva proteome – a resource of potential biomarkers for oral cancer” in the Journal of Proteomics [1]. PMID:26217819

  8. Evaluation of stress in final-year Saudi dental students using salivary cortisol as a biomarker.

    PubMed

    Pani, Sharat Chandra; Al Askar, Alaa M; Al Mohrij, Sara I; Al Ohali, Tagreed A

    2011-03-01

    The aims of this study were to identify the perceived sources of stress in final-year dental students studying in a private dental school in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, using a modified dental environmental stress (DES) scale and to correlate these findings, at various times in the semester, with the level of acute stress measured with salivary cortisol as a biomarker. A total of forty final-year students were administered a modified DES questionnaire consisting of twenty-five questions to determine the perceived causes of stress. Salivary cortisol levels during the first week of the semester, the final week of clinical training, and one hour before the final didactic examination were assessed. Baseline cortisol levels were significantly lower than the cortisol levels in the clinic, and both these values were significantly lower than the salivary cortisol levels before the examination (p<0.001). Comparison of cortisol levels to the perceived sources of stress and demographic data collected showed that certain discrepancies may exist between the perceived and actual stress felt by dental students at different times in the academic semester. PMID:21368262

  9. Using Salivary Nitrite and Nitrate Levels as a Biomarker for Drug-Induced Gingival Overgrowth

    PubMed Central

    Sukuroglu, Erkan; Güncü, Güliz N.; Kilinc, Kamer; Caglayan, Feriha

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Drug-induced gingival overgrowth has a multifactorial nature and the pathogenesis is still uncertain. It has been suggested that Nitric Oxide (NO) might play a role in the pathogenesis of drug-induced gingival overgrowth due to the contribution of NO to immune response and matrix degradation. NO levels in biological fluids have been used as a diagnostic biomarker in many diseases. The aim of this study is to determine whether NO levels in plasma, saliva, and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) can serve as a potential biomarker for the evaluation of drug-induced gingival overgrowth risk. Materials and Methods: A total of 104 patients, receiving cyclosporine A (n = 35), phenytoin (n = 25), nifedipine (n = 26), or diltiazem (n = 18) participated in the study. The amount of gingival overgrowth was evaluated with two indices and was given as percentage. Periodontal clinical parameters including plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), gingival bleeding time index (GBTI), and probing depth (PD) were also assessed. Saliva, GCF, and plasma samples were obtained from each participants. Nitrite and nitrate levels in saliva, GCF, and plasma were analyzed by Griess reagent. Results: Salivary nitrite and nitrate levels in responders were significantly higher than those in non-responders in only phenytoin group (p < 0.05). Nitrite and nitrate levels of gingival crevicular fluid and plasma did not significantly differ between responders and non-responders in all study groups (p > 0.05). Salivary nitrite levels exhibited a significant correlation with PD, GBTI, severity of gingival overgrowth (%GO), and GCF volume (p < 0.05). Additionally, a strong positive correlation was detected between saliva and plasma nitrate levels (p < 0.005). However, both nitrite and nitrate levels in GCF and plasma demonstrated no significant correlation with clinical parameters, GO severity, and GCF volume (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Salivary nitrite and nitrate levels could be used as periodontal disease

  10. Diagnostic capability of salivary biomarkers in the assessment of head and neck cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Eliete Neves Silva; Acevedo, Ana Carolina; Leite, André Ferreira; Gozal, David; Chardin, Hélène; De Luca Canto, Graziela

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the diagnostic value of salivary biological markers in the diagnosis of head and neck carcinoma. Studies were gathered by searching Cochrane, EMBASE, LILACS, MEDLINE, and PubMed. The references were also crosschecked and a partial grey literature search was undertaken using Google Scholar. The methodology of selected studies was evaluated using the 14-item Quality Assessment Tool for Diagnostic Accuracy Studies. After a two-step selection process, 15 articles were identified and subjected to qualitative and quantitative analyses. The studies were homogeneous, and all had high methodological quality. Combined biomarkers demonstrated better accuracy with higher sensitivity and specificity than those tested individually. Furthermore, the salivary biomarkers reviewed predicted the early stages of head and neck carcinoma better than the advanced stages. A restricted set of five single biomarkers (interleukin-8, choline, pipecolinic acid, l-phenylalanine, and S-carboxymethyl-l-cysteine) as well as combined biomarkers demonstrated excellent diagnostic test accuracy. The present systematic review confirms the potential value of a selected set of salivary biomarkers as diagnostic tools for head and neck carcinoma. PMID:26170140

  11. MicroRNA Expression Profiles as Biomarkers of Minor Salivary Gland Inflammation and Dysfunction in Sjögren's Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Alevizos, Ilias; Alexander, Stefanie; Turner, R. James; Illei, Gabor G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective MicroRNA reflect physiologic and pathologic processes and may be used as biomarkers of concurrent pathophysiologic events in complex settings such as autoimmune diseases. We generated microRNA microarray profiles from the minor salivary glands of control subjects without Sjögren's syndrome (SS) and patients with SS who had low-grade or high-grade inflammation and impaired or normal saliva production, to identify microRNA patterns specific to salivary gland inflammation or dysfunction. Methods MicroRNA expression profiles were generated by Agilent microRNA arrays. We developed a novel method for data normalization by identifying housekeeping microRNA. MicroRNA profiles were compared by unsupervised mathematical methods to test how well they distinguish between control subjects and various subsets of patients with SS. Several bioinformatics methods were used to predict the messenger RNA targets of the differentially expressed microRNA. Results MicroRNA expression patterns accurately distinguished salivary glands from control subjects and patients with SS who had low-degree or high-degree inflammation. Using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, we validated 2 microRNA as markers of inflammation in an independent cohort. Comparing microRNA from patients with preserved or low salivary flow identified a set of differentially expressed microRNA, most of which were up-regulated in the group with decreased salivary gland function, suggesting that the targets of microRNA may have a protective effect on epithelial cells. The predicted biologic targets of microRNA associated with inflammation or salivary gland dysfunction identified both overlapping and distinct biologic pathways and processes. Conclusion Distinct microRNA expression patterns are associated with salivary gland inflammation and dysfunction in patients with SS, and microRNA represent a novel group of potential biomarkers. PMID:21280008

  12. Unhealthy Phenotype as Indicated by Salivary Biomarkers: Glucose, Insulin, VEGF-A, and IL-12p70 in Obese Kuwaiti Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Hartman, Mor-Li; Goodson, J. Max; Shi, Ping; Vargas, Jorel; Yaskell, Tina; Stephens, Danielle; Cugini, Maryann; Hasturk, Hatice; Barake, Roula; Alsmadi, Osama; Al-Mutawa, Sabiha; Ariga, Jitendra; Soparkar, Pramod; Behbehani, Jawad; Behbehani, Kazem; Welty, Francine

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Here, we investigated the relationships between obesity and the salivary concentrations of insulin, glucose, and 20 metabolic biomarkers in Kuwaiti adolescents. Previously, we have shown that certain salivary metabolic markers can act as surrogates for blood concentrations. Methods. Salivary samples of whole saliva were collected from 8,317 adolescents. Salivary glucose concentration was measured by a high-sensitivity glucose oxidase method implemented on a robotic chemical analyzer. The concentration of salivary insulin and 20 other metabolic biomarkers was assayed in 744 randomly selected saliva samples by multiplexed bead-based immunoassay. Results. Obesity was seen in 26.5% of the adolescents. Salivary insulin predicting hyperinsulinemia occurred in 4.3% of normal-weight adolescents, 8.3% of overweight adolescents, and 25.7% of obese adolescents (p < 0.0001). Salivary glucose predicting hyperglycemia was found in only 3% of obese children and was not predictive (p = 0.89). Elevated salivary glucose and insulin occurring together was associated with elevated vascular endothelial growth factor and reduced salivary interleukin-12. Conclusion. Considering the surrogate nature of salivary insulin and glucose, this study suggests that elevated insulin may be a dominant sign of metabolic disease in adolescent populations. It also appears that a proangiogenic environment may accompany elevated glucose in obese adolescents. PMID:27069678

  13. Salivary MicroRNAs as Promising Biomarkers for Detection of Esophageal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xuchao; Li, Dongfeng; Huang, Jian; Yang, Cuiqin; Zhang, Pingyong; Qin, Yuxuan; Duan, Yifan; Gong, Bo; Li, Zijun

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Tissue microRNAs (miRNAs) can detect cancers and predict prognosis. Several recent studies reported that tissue, plasma, and saliva miRNAs share similar expression profiles. In this study, we investigated the discriminatory power of salivary miRNAs (including whole saliva and saliva supernatant) for detection of esophageal cancer. Materials and Methods By Agilent microarray, six deregulated miRNAs from whole saliva samples from seven patients with esophageal cancer and three healthy controls were selected. The six selected miRNAs were subjected to validation of their expression levels by RT-qPCR using both whole saliva and saliva supernatant samples from an independent set of 39 patients with esophageal cancer and 19 healthy controls. Results Six miRNAs (miR-10b*, miR-144, miR-21, miR-451, miR-486-5p, and miR-634) were identified as targets by Agilent microarray. After validation by RT-qPCR, miR-10b*, miR-144, and miR-451 in whole saliva and miR-10b*, miR-144, miR-21, and miR-451 in saliva supernatant were significantly upregulated in patients, with sensitivities of 89.7, 92.3, 84.6, 79.5, 43.6, 89.7, and 51.3% and specificities of 57.9, 47.4, 57.9%, 57.9, 89.5, 47.4, and 84.2%, respectively. Conclusions We found distinctive miRNAs for esophageal cancer in both whole saliva and saliva supernatant. These miRNAs possess discriminatory power for detection of esophageal cancer. Because saliva collection is noninvasive and convenient, salivary miRNAs show great promise as biomarkers for detection of esophageal cancer in areas at high risk. PMID:23560033

  14. Salivary cortisol as a biomarker to explore the role of maternal stress in early childhood caries.

    PubMed

    Pani, Sharat Chandra; Abuthuraya, Deena; Alshammery, Hadia M; Alshammery, Dalal; Alshehri, Hind

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To compare salivary cortisol levels of children with ECC and their mothers with those of caries free children from a similar sociodemographic cohort. Design. Sixty-four college-educated, working mothers from middle income families with no history of anxiety disorders and their first born children aged between 48 and 71 months were included in the study. Salivary cortisol levels were analyzed using electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunoassay. Statistical Analyses. Significance of difference between the cortisol levels of children with ECC and control children and of their mothers was analyzed using the Student's t- test. The intraclass correlation coefficient was used to measure the significance of correlation of cortisol levels between the mother and the child with logistic regression to explore possible associations. Results. Mothers of children with ECC had significantly higher levels of salivary cortisol (P < 0.05) than mothers of caries free children. The salivary cortisol levels of children with ECC were significantly higher than caries free children (P < 0.0001). A significant correlation existed between the salivary cortisol level of the mother and that of the child (P < 0.0001). Conclusion. While salivary cortisol levels of the child seem to have a direct impact on the incidence of ECC, maternal stress seems to have an indirect effect. PMID:23781246

  15. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Malaria Vector Control Measures in Urban Settings of Dakar by a Specific Anopheles Salivary Biomarker

    PubMed Central

    Drame, Papa Makhtar; Diallo, Abdoulaye; Poinsignon, Anne; Boussari, Olayide; Dos Santos, Stephanie; Machault, Vanessa; Lalou, Richard; Cornelie, Sylvie; LeHesran, Jean-Yves; Remoue, Franck

    2013-01-01

    Standard entomological methods for evaluating the impact of vector control lack sensitivity in low-malaria-risk areas. The detection of human IgG specific to Anopheles gSG6-P1 salivary antigen reflects a direct measure of human–vector contact. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of a range of vector control measures (VCMs) in urban settings by using this biomarker approach. The study was conducted from October to December 2008 on 2,774 residents of 45 districts of urban Dakar. IgG responses to gSG6-P1 and the use of malaria VCMs highly varied between districts. At the district level, specific IgG levels significantly increased with age and decreased with season and with VCM use. The use of insecticide-treated nets, by drastically reducing specific IgG levels, was by far the most efficient VCM regardless of age, season or exposure level to mosquito bites. The use of spray bombs was also associated with a significant reduction of specific IgG levels, whereas the use of mosquito coils or electric fans/air conditioning did not show a significant effect. Human IgG response to gSG6-P1 as biomarker of vector exposure represents a reliable alternative for accurately assessing the effectiveness of malaria VCM in low-malaria-risk areas. This biomarker tool could be especially relevant for malaria control monitoring and surveillance programmes in low-exposure/low-transmission settings. PMID:23840448

  16. Salivary Biomarker Levels and Diurnal Variation: Associations with Medications Prescribed to Control Children's Problem Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hibel, Leah C.; Granger, Douglas A.; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred

    2007-01-01

    This study examined associations between medications prescribed to control children's problem behaviors and levels of, and diurnal variation in, salivary cortisol (C), testosterone (T), and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). Saliva was collected in the morning, midday, and afternoon from 432 children ages 6-13 years. Relative to a no-medication…

  17. Salivary and serum biomarkers for the study of side effects of aripiprazole coprescribed with mirtazapine in rats

    PubMed Central

    Bogdan, Maria; Silosi, Isabela; Surlin, Petra; Tica, Andrei Adrian; Tica, Oana Sorina; Balseanu, Tudor-Adrian; Rauten, Anne-Marie; Camen, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the co-administration of aripiprazole and mirtazapine could determine weight gain and lipid metabolism disorders in Wistar rats, compared to the same side effects produced by mirtazapine alone, and the risk of hepatotoxicity due to the combination of the two substances. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP/FABP1) and repulsive guidance molecule C/hemojuvelin (RGM-C/HJV) levels were determined in serum and in saliva. Also, serum levels for total cholesterol (TC), low and high-density lipoprotein (LDL, HDL), triglycerides (TG), aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT) and alanine amino transferase (ALAT) were assessed. We found positive and statistically significant correlations between serum and salivary levels of TNF-α, L-FABP/FABP1 and RGM-C/HJV. Mirtazapine determined significantly differences of TNF-α and L-FABP serum levels; final body weight; TC and LDL levels, leading to higher concentrations than its association with aripiprazole. Although not statistically significant, mirtazapine group experienced higher values for salivary levels of TNF-α, TG and ASAT, and lower values for HDL, compared to aripiprazole + mirtazapine group. The results suggest that aripiprazole might improve some of the disturbances caused by mirtazapine, and that the two drugs combination cause no additional alterations in liver function. Also, the findings indicate that TNF-α, L-FABP/FABP1 and RGM-C/HJV levels can be helpful as biomarkers for metabolic disturbances and impaired function of hepatocytes, and that their salivary determination can replace serum determination. PMID:26221370

  18. Salivary and serum biomarkers for the study of side effects of aripiprazole coprescribed with mirtazapine in rats.

    PubMed

    Bogdan, Maria; Silosi, Isabela; Surlin, Petra; Tica, Andrei Adrian; Tica, Oana Sorina; Balseanu, Tudor-Adrian; Rauten, Anne-Marie; Camen, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the co-administration of aripiprazole and mirtazapine could determine weight gain and lipid metabolism disorders in Wistar rats, compared to the same side effects produced by mirtazapine alone, and the risk of hepatotoxicity due to the combination of the two substances. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP/FABP1) and repulsive guidance molecule C/hemojuvelin (RGM-C/HJV) levels were determined in serum and in saliva. Also, serum levels for total cholesterol (TC), low and high-density lipoprotein (LDL, HDL), triglycerides (TG), aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT) and alanine amino transferase (ALAT) were assessed. We found positive and statistically significant correlations between serum and salivary levels of TNF-α, L-FABP/FABP1 and RGM-C/HJV. Mirtazapine determined significantly differences of TNF-α and L-FABP serum levels; final body weight; TC and LDL levels, leading to higher concentrations than its association with aripiprazole. Although not statistically significant, mirtazapine group experienced higher values for salivary levels of TNF-α, TG and ASAT, and lower values for HDL, compared to aripiprazole + mirtazapine group. The results suggest that aripiprazole might improve some of the disturbances caused by mirtazapine, and that the two drugs combination cause no additional alterations in liver function. Also, the findings indicate that TNF-α, L-FABP/FABP1 and RGM-C/HJV levels can be helpful as biomarkers for metabolic disturbances and impaired function of hepatocytes, and that their salivary determination can replace serum determination. PMID:26221370

  19. Salivary cortisol: a possible biomarker in evaluating stress and effects of interventions in young foster children?

    PubMed

    van Andel, Hans W H; Jansen, Lucres M C; Grietens, Hans; Knorth, Erik J; van der Gaag, Rutger Jan

    2014-01-01

    Young foster children undergo an early separation from their caregiver(s) and often experience severe stress before placement. However, a considerable part of the children do not show apparent signs of distress, making it difficult for the foster carer to be aware of the amount of stress in their foster child. Potential evidence for using salivary cortisol levels as a dimension to evaluate the amount of stress in young foster children is reviewed. Moreover, the applicability of salivary cortisol in the evaluation of stress-reducing interventions for young foster children is discussed. A systematic review was performed using the databases Medline, Psychinfo, Embase, Ebscohost, and Academic Search Premier. Nine studies were traced in which salivary cortisol was used to measure stress in children placed in family foster care or in adoptive families. Stress in general but also neglect, early loss of a caregiver, a younger age at first placement, and a higher number of placements were associated with an altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function in foster children. Moreover, four studies on the effect of stress-reducing interventions on HPA-axis functioning of young foster children were found. These studies suggest that caregiver-based interventions can actually help to normalize the HPA-axis function in foster children, and that such changes co-occur with improved behavioral functioning. Although the results from the papers discussed in this review suggest that diurnal cortisol with a wake up and a bedtime measurement may be a relevant tool to evaluate stress in young foster children, this cannot yet be concluded from the present studies, because statistical data from the studies on foster care and adoption in this review were not robust and researchers used different methods to collect the salivary cortisol. Still, it is noteworthy that all studies did find the same pattern of reduced levels in relation to chronic stress (caused by maltreatment and

  20. Estimation of Salivary and Serum Biomarkers in Diabetic and Non Diabetic Patients - A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Ladgotra, Amit; Raj, Seetharamaiah Sunder

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Blood is the gold standard body fluid for diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus (DM) but saliva offers an alternative to serum as a biological fluid for diagnostic purposes because it contains serum constituents. Aim The study was conducted to estimate and compare serum and salivary glucose, amylase, proteins, calcium and phosphorus levels in DM and healthy subjects and to evaluate whether saliva can be used as a diagnostic fluid in DM patients. Materials and Methods Study consisted of 120 subjects from OPD of Surendera Dental College, Sriganganagar, Rajasthan, India. The study groups were divided into Group I-60 DM patients (Type I & II) and Group II-60 healthy subjects. The saliva and serum samples were collected from each subject and levels of different biochemical parameters were estimated. Results Mean serum level of glucose (211.50 ± 43.82), amylase (79.86 ± 16.23), total proteins (6.65 ± 0.84), calcium (7.17 ± 0.91) and phosphorus (3.68±0.65) as observed in Group I while in Group II, glucose (88.81±11.29), amylase (77.67±14.88), total proteins (6.35±0.76), calcium (7.52±0.97) and phosphorus (3.96 ± 0.91) were noted. Mean salivary level of glucose (14.10±6.99), amylase (1671.42±569.86), total proteins (1.33±1.11), calcium (10.06±2.76) and phosphorus (13.75±4.45) as observed in Group I while in Group II, glucose (5.87± 2.42), amylase (1397.59 ±415.97), total proteins (1.36±0.81), calcium (7.73±2.78) and phosphorus (8.39 ± 1.95) were noted. On comparing values in saliva and serum, among two groups, an insignificant difference (p>0.005) was found between few of them. Conclusion Values regarding blood and salivary biochemical parameters were distinctly different between two groups suggesting salivary parameters can be used as a diagnostic alternative to blood parameters for diabetes mellitus. PMID:27504412

  1. Salivary Biomarker Responses to Two Final Matches in Women's Professional Football.

    PubMed

    Maya, Javiera; Marquez, Pablo; Peñailillo, Luis; Contreras-Ferrat, Ariel; Deldicque, Louise; Zbinden-Foncea, Hermann

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the link between salivary concentrations of cortisol, testosterone, immunoglobulin A (IgA) and the rate of perceived exertion (RPE) as a measure of internal load after two final matches played 3 days apart by professional women football players. Saliva samples were taken before and after the two matches (M1, M2). RPE was used to monitor the exercise intensity after each match. Testosterone concentrations increased after each match (M1: +42%, p = 0.002; M2: +50%, p < 0.001) while cortisol increased only after M1 (+116%, p < 0.001). The testosterone-to-cortisol ratio decreased only after M1 (-32.4%, p < 0.001). IgA concentration did not change after any match. Testosterone concentrations were correlated with IgA concentrations after each match (M1: R = 0.59, p = 0.008; M2: R=0.51, p = 0.02). RPE was correlated with cortisol concentrations after M1 (R = 0.57; p = 0.01), but not after M2 (R = 0.38; p = 0.07). All these results suggest that salivary cortisol and testosterone concentrations increase especially after the first match of a final, without affecting IgA levels. We speculate that increased testosterone concentration in women after football matches may play a protecting role against immune suppression usually observed after intense exercise. Key pointsIn our sample space, IgA concentrations did not change for teams even, before and after separated match. Suggesting that salivary IgA determinations after physical activities remain under debate.Testosterone concentrations were the only one hormone showing a consequent increase in both matches after physical activity carrying.The T/C ratio decrease only after M1 according with a higher cortisol level reach after M1 get-together, suggesting a differential impact over anxiety-associated team performance. So M2 play gives a more stable psychological state. PMID:27274677

  2. Salivary Biomarker Responses to Two Final Matches in Women’s Professional Football

    PubMed Central

    Maya, Javiera; Marquez, Pablo; Peñailillo, Luis; Contreras-Ferrat, Ariel; Deldicque, Louise; Zbinden-Foncea, Hermann

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the link between salivary concentrations of cortisol, testosterone, immunoglobulin A (IgA) and the rate of perceived exertion (RPE) as a measure of internal load after two final matches played 3 days apart by professional women football players. Saliva samples were taken before and after the two matches (M1, M2). RPE was used to monitor the exercise intensity after each match. Testosterone concentrations increased after each match (M1: +42%, p = 0.002; M2: +50%, p < 0.001) while cortisol increased only after M1 (+116%, p < 0.001). The testosterone-to-cortisol ratio decreased only after M1 (-32.4%, p < 0.001). IgA concentration did not change after any match. Testosterone concentrations were correlated with IgA concentrations after each match (M1: R = 0.59, p = 0.008; M2: R=0.51, p = 0.02). RPE was correlated with cortisol concentrations after M1 (R = 0.57; p = 0.01), but not after M2 (R = 0.38; p = 0.07). All these results suggest that salivary cortisol and testosterone concentrations increase especially after the first match of a final, without affecting IgA levels. We speculate that increased testosterone concentration in women after football matches may play a protecting role against immune suppression usually observed after intense exercise. Key points In our sample space, IgA concentrations did not change for teams even, before and after separated match. Suggesting that salivary IgA determinations after physical activities remain under debate. Testosterone concentrations were the only one hormone showing a consequent increase in both matches after physical activity carrying. The T/C ratio decrease only after M1 according with a higher cortisol level reach after M1 get-together, suggesting a differential impact over anxiety-associated team performance. So M2 play gives a more stable psychological state. PMID:27274677

  3. Human antibody response to Aedes albopictus salivary proteins: a potential biomarker to evaluate the efficacy of vector control in an area of Chikungunya and Dengue Virus transmission.

    PubMed

    Doucoure, Souleymane; Mouchet, François; Cornelie, Sylvie; Drame, Papa Makhtar; D'Ortenzio, Eric; DeHecq, Jean Sébastien; Remoue, Franck

    2014-01-01

    Aedes borne viruses represent public health problems in southern countries and threat to emerge in the developed world. Their control is currently based on vector population control. Much effort is being devoted to develop new tools to control such arbovirus. Recent findings suggest that the evaluation of human antibody (Ab) response to arthropod salivary proteins is relevant to measuring the level of human exposure to mosquito bites. Using an immunoepidemiological approach, the present study aimed to assess the usefulness of the salivary biomarker for measuring the efficacy of Ae. albopictus control strategies in La Reunion urban area. The antisaliva Ab response of adult humans exposed to Ae. albopictus was evaluated before and after vector control measures. Our results showed a significant correlation between antisaliva Ab response and the level of exposure to vectors bites. The decrease of Ae. albopictus density has been detected by this biomarker two weeks after the implementation of control measures, suggesting its potential usefulness for evaluating control strategies in a short time period. The identification of species specific salivary proteins/peptides should improve the use of this biomarker. PMID:24822216

  4. Salivary Proteomic and Genomic Biomarkers for Primary Sjögren’s Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Shen; Wang, Jianghua; Meijer, Jiska; Ieong, Sonya; Xie, Yongming; Yu, Tianwei; Zhou, Hui; Henry, Sharon; Vissink, Arjan; Pijpe, Justin; Kallenberg, Cees; Elashoff, David; Loo, Joseph A.; Wong, David T.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To identify a panel of protein and messenger RNA (mRNA) biomarkers in human whole saliva (WS) that may be used in the detection of primary Sjögren’s syndrome (SS). Methods Mass spectrometry and expression microarray profiling were used to identify candidate protein and mRNA biomarkers of primary SS in WS samples. Validation of the discovered mRNA and protein biomarkers was also demonstrated using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting techniques. Results Sixteen WS proteins were found to be down-regulated and 25 WS proteins were found to be up-regulated in primary SS patients compared with matched healthy control subjects. These proteins reflected the damage of glandular cells and inflammation of the oral cavity system in patients with primary SS. In addition, 16 WS peptides (10 up-regulated and 6 down-regulated in primary SS) were found at significantly different levels (P <0.05) in primary SS patients and controls. Using stringent criteria (3-fold change; P <0.0005), 27 mRNA in saliva samples were found to be significantly up-regulated in the primary SS patients. Strikingly, 19 of 27 genes that were found to be overex-pressed were interferon-inducible or were related to lymphocyte filtration and antigen presentation known to be involved in the pathogenesis of primary SS. Conclusion Our preliminary study has indicated that WS from patients with primary SS contains molecular signatures that reflect damaged glandular cells and an activated immune response in this autoimmune disease. These candidate proteomic and genomic biomarkers may improve the clinical detection of primary SS once they have been further validated. We also found that WS contains more informative proteins, peptides, and mRNA, as compared with gland-specific saliva, that can be used in generating candidate biomarkers for the detection of primary SS. PMID:17968930

  5. Salivary and serum procalcitonin and C-reactive protein as biomarkers of periodontitis in United States veterans with osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Redman, R S; Kerr, G S; Payne, J B; Mikuls, T R; Huang, J; Sayles, H R; Becker, K L; Nylén, E S

    2016-01-01

    Serum procalcitonin (ProCT) is elevated in response to bacterial infections, whereas high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) is a nonspecific inflammatory marker that is increased by excess adipose tissue. We examined the efficacy of ProCT and hsCRP as biomarkers of periodontitis in the saliva and serum of patients with arthritis, which is characterized by variable levels of systemic inflammation that potentially can confound the interpretation of inflammatory biomarkers. Blood and unstimulated whole saliva were collected from 33 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and 50 with osteoarthritis (OA). Periodontal status was assessed by full mouth examination and patients were categorized as having no/mild, moderate or severe periodontitis by standard parameters. Salivary and serum ProCT and hsCRP concentrations were compared. BMI, diabetes, anti-inflammatory medications and smoking status were ascertained from the patient records. Differences between OA and RA in proportionate numbers of patients were compared for race, gender, diabetes, adiposity and smoking status. Serum ProCT was significantly higher in arthritis patients with moderate to severe and severe periodontitis compared with no/mild periodontitis patients. There were no significant differences in salivary ProCT or salivary or serum hsCRP in RA patients related to periodontitis category. Most of the OA and RA patients were middle aged or older, 28.9% were diabetic, 78.3% were overweight or obese, and slightly more than half were either current or past smokers. The OA and RA groups differed by race, but not gender; blacks and males were predominant in both groups. The OA and RA groups did not differ in terms of controlled or uncontrolled diabetes, smoking status or BMI. The RA patients had been prescribed more anti-inflammatory medication than the OA patients. Our results demonstrate that circulating ProCT is a more discriminative biomarker for periodontitis than serum hsCRP in patients with

  6. Oxidative DNA damage and repair in children exposed to low levels of arsenic in utero and during early childhood: Application of salivary and urinary biomarkers

    SciTech Connect

    Hinhumpatch, Pantip; Navasumrit, Panida; Chaisatra, Krittinee; Promvijit, Jeerawan; Mahidol, Chulabhorn; Ruchirawat, Mathuros

    2013-12-15

    The present study aimed to assess arsenic exposure and its effect on oxidative DNA damage and repair in young children exposed in utero and continued to live in arsenic-contaminated areas. To address the need for biological specimens that can be acquired with minimal discomfort to children, we used non-invasive urinary and salivary-based assays for assessing arsenic exposure and early biological effects that have potentially serious health implications. Levels of arsenic in nails showed the greatest magnitude of difference between exposed and control groups, followed by arsenic concentrations in saliva and urine. Arsenic levels in saliva showed significant positive correlations with other biomarkers of arsenic exposure, including arsenic accumulation in nails (r = 0.56, P < 0.001) and arsenic concentration in urine (r = 0.50, P < 0.05). Exposed children had a significant reduction in arsenic methylation capacity indicated by decreased primary methylation index and secondary methylation index in both urine and saliva samples. Levels of salivary 8-OHdG in exposed children were significantly higher (∼ 4-fold, P < 0.01), whereas levels of urinary 8-OHdG excretion and salivary hOGG1 expression were significantly lower in exposed children (∼ 3-fold, P < 0.05), suggesting a defect in hOGG1 that resulted in ineffective cleavage of 8-OHdG. Multiple regression analysis results showed that levels of inorganic arsenic (iAs) in saliva and urine had a significant positive association with salivary 8-OHdG and a significant negative association with salivary hOGG1 expression. - Highlights: • The effects of arsenic exposure in utero and through early childhood were studied. • Arsenic-exposed children had a reduction in arsenic methylation capacity. • Exposed children had more DNA damage, observed as elevated salivary 8-OHdG. • Lower salivary hOGG1 in exposed children indicated impairment of 8-OHdG repair. • Salivary and urinary 8-OHdG levels were discordant.

  7. Utility and cutoff value of hair nicotine as a biomarker of long-term tobacco smoke exposure, compared to salivary cotinine.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sungroul; Apelberg, Benjamin J; Avila-Tang, Erika; Hepp, Lisa; Yun, Dongmin; Samet, Jonathan M; Breysse, Patrick N

    2014-08-01

    While hair samples are easier to collect and less expensive to store and transport than biological fluids, and hair nicotine characterizes tobacco exposure over a longer time period than blood or urine cotinine, information on its utility, compared with salivary cotinine, is still limited. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 289 participants (107 active smokers, 105 passive smokers with self-reported secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure, and 77 non-smokers with no SHS exposure) in Baltimore (Maryland, USA). A subset of the study participants (n = 52) were followed longitudinally over a two-month interval.  Median baseline hair nicotine concentrations for active, passive and non-smokers were 16.2, 0.36, and 0.23 ng/mg, respectively, while those for salivary cotinine were 181.0, 0.27, and 0.27 ng/mL, respectively. Hair nicotine concentrations for 10% of passive or non-smokers were higher than the 25th percentile value for active smokers while all corresponding salivary cotinine concentrations for them were lower than the value for active smokers. This study showed that hair nicotine concentration values could be used to distinguish active or heavy passive adult smokers from non-SHS exposed non-smokers. Our results indicate that hair nicotine is a useful biomarker for the assessment of long-term exposure to tobacco smoke. PMID:25153466

  8. gSG6-P1 salivary biomarker discriminates micro-geographical heterogeneity of human exposure to Anopheles bites in low and seasonal malaria areas

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Over the past decade, a sharp decline of malaria burden has been observed in several countries. Consequently, the conventional entomological methods have become insufficiently sensitive and probably under-estimate micro-geographical heterogeneity of exposure and subsequent risk of malaria transmission. In this study, we investigated whether the human antibody (Ab) response to Anopheles salivary gSG6-P1 peptide, known as a biomarker of Anopheles exposure, could be a sensitive and reliable tool for discriminating human exposure to Anopheles bites in area of low and seasonal malaria transmission. Methods A multi-disciplinary survey was performed in Northern Senegal where An. gambiae s.l. is the main malaria vector. Human IgG Ab response to gSG6-P1 salivary peptide was compared according to the season and villages in children from five villages in the middle Senegal River valley, known as a low malaria transmission area. Results IgG levels to gSG6-P1 varied considerably according to the villages, discriminating the heterogeneity of Anopheles exposure between villages. Significant increase of IgG levels to gSG6-P1 was observed during the peak of exposure to Anopheles bites, and decreased immediately after the end of the exposure season. In addition, differences in the season-dependent specific IgG levels between villages were observed after the implementation of Long-Lasting Insecticidal Nets by The National Malaria Control Program in this area. Conclusion The gSG6-P1 salivary peptide seems to be a reliable tool to discriminate the micro-geographical heterogeneity of human exposure to Anopheles bites in areas of very low and seasonal malaria transmission. A biomarker such as this could also be used to monitor and evaluate the possible heterogeneous effectiveness of operational vector control programs in low-exposure areas. PMID:23497646

  9. Gross Cystic Disease Fluid Protein-15(GCDFP-15)/Prolactin-Inducible Protein (PIP) as Functional Salivary Biomarker for Primary Sjögren’s Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, A; Martini, D; Sernissi, F; Giacomelli, C; Pepe, P; Rossi, C; Riveros, PP; Mosca, M; Alevizos, I; Baldini, C

    2013-01-01

    Background Gross cystic disease fluid protein-15(GCDFP-15)/prolactin-inducible protein (PIP) is a secretory acinar glycoprotein of 14 KDa which we have recently described as significantly lower in salivary samples of patients with primary Sjögren’s syndrome (pSS) in comparison to healthy volunteers by proteomic analysis. Aims of the study (1) to validate our previous data on the decrease of GCDFP-15/PIP protein in a larger number of subjects with pSS (2) to integrate the proteomic results with complementary immunoassays in order better clarify the pathophysiological relevance of GCDFP-15/PIP in pSS exocrinopathy (3) to assess both the glandular expression of the GCDFP-15/PIP and the levels of glandular GCDFP-15/PIP mRNA in the patients’ minor salivary gland (MSG) biopsies in order to verify whether the observed reduction of GCDFP-15/PIP in saliva may be related to a decrease in the protein production. Patients and methods A total of 123 salivary samples from patients affected by pSS, no-SS sicca syndrome and sex- age-matched healthy volunteers were analyzed by different proteomic techniques (SELDI-TOF-MS, 2DE, MALDI-TOF-MS). The expression of GCDFP-15/PIP was then validated by western blot analysis. Real Time PCR and immunohistochemistry for GCDFP-15/PIP in the minor salivary glands (MSG) biopsies were then carried out. Results By using complementary proteomic analysis we found that a putative peak of 16547 m/z was among the best independent biomarkers for pSS able to discriminate between patients and healthy controls with a sensitivity of 96 % and a specificity of 70%, with a global cross validated error of 29%. We identified the peak as the GCDFP-15/PIP protein and verified that the intensity of GCDFP-15/PIP was significantly lower in pSS patients when compared to both no-SS sicca subjects and healthy controls (p<0.0001). GCDFP-15/PIP expression also correlated with both the salivary flow rate (r=0.312, p=0.023) and MSG biopsies focus score (r=−0.377, p=0

  10. Antibody responses of domestic animals to salivary antigens of Triatoma infestans as biomarkers for low-level infestation of triatomines

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Alexandra; Sternberg, Jeremy M.; Johnston, Valerie; Medrano-Mercado, Nora; Anderson, Jennifer M.; Hume, Jen C.C.; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Schaub, Günter A.; Billingsley, Peter F.

    2009-01-01

    Hematophagous arthropods such as Triatoma infestans, the vector of Trypanosoma cruzi, elicit host-immune responses during feeding. Characterization of antibody responses to salivary antigens offers the potential to develop immunologically based monitoring techniques for exposure to re-emergent triatomine bug populations in peridomestic animals. IgG-antibody responses to the salivary antigens of T. infestans have been detected in chickens as soon as 2 days after the first exposure to five adult bugs. Chickens and guinea pigs regularly exposed to this number of triatomines showed a significantly lower anti-saliva antibody titre than animals exposed to 25 adults and fifth instars of four different T. infestans strains originating from Bolivia and from Northern Chile. Highly immunogenic salivary antigens of 14 and 21 kDa were recognised by all chicken sera and of 79 kDa by all guinea pig sera. Cross-reactivity studies using saliva or salivary gland extracts from different hematophagous species, e.g. different triatomines, bed bugs, mosquitoes, sand flies and ticks, as well as chicken sera exposed to triatomines and mosquitoes, demonstrated that the 14 and 21 kDa salivary antigens were only found in triatomines. Sera from peridomestic chickens and guinea pigs in sites of known T. infestans challenge in Bolivia also recognised the 14 and 21 kDa antigens. These represent promising epidemiological markers for the detection of small numbers of feeding bugs and hence may be a new tool for vector surveillance in Chagas disease control programs. PMID:19248784

  11. Association of potential salivary biomarkers with diabetic retinopathy and its severity in type-2 diabetes mellitus: a proteomic analysis by mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Subrayan, Visvaraja

    2016-01-01

    Aim/hypothesis: The aim of our study was to characterize the human salivary proteome and determine the changes in protein expression in two different stages of diabetic retinopathy with type-2 diabetes mellitus: (1) with non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) and (2) with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). Type-2 diabetes mellitus without diabetic retinopathy (XDR) was designated as control. Method: In this study, 45 saliva samples were collected (15 samples from XDR control group, 15 samples from NPDR disease group and 15 samples from PDR disease group). Salivary proteins were extracted, reduced, alkylated, trypsin digested and labeled with an isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) before being analyzed by an Orbitrap fusion tribrid mass spectrometer. Protein annotation, fold change calculation and statistical analysis were interrogated by Proteome Discoverer. Biological pathway analysis was performed by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifiers PXD003723–PX003725. Results: A total of 315 proteins were identified from the salivary proteome and 119 proteins were found to be differentially expressed. The differentially expressed proteins from the NPDR disease group and the PDR disease group were assigned to respective canonical pathways indicating increased Liver X receptor/Retinoid X receptor (LXR/RXR) activation, Farnesoid X receptor/Retinoid X receptor (FXR/RXR) activation, acute phase response signaling, sucrose degradation V and regulation of actin-based motility by Rho in the PDR disease group compared to the NPDR disease group. Conclusions/Interpretation: Progression from non-proliferative to proliferative retinopathy in type-2 diabetic patients is a complex multi-mechanism and systemic process. Furthermore, saliva was shown to be a feasible alternative sample source for diabetic retinopathy biomarkers. PMID:27280065

  12. Wound Healing and Mucosal Immunity During Short Mars Analog Environment Mission: Salivary Biomarkers and Its Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Balwant; Kaur, Jasdeep; Foing, Bernard. H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Wound healing in an extreme environment with micro-gravity is not well characterized, despite the likelihood that the increasing use of manned spaceflight as a research and commercial enterprise raises the probability of traumatic injury in this state. Hence, this study was conducted to determine the impact of the isolated environment of the Mars Desert Research Station on mucosal immunity and wound healing. Materials and Methods: Two punch biopsy wounds were placed on the hard palate of two crewmembers. The first wound was made during summer vacation, whereas the second was placed on the contra-lateral side 3 days before the Mars analog mission began. Thus, each crewmember served as his/her own control. Two independent methods were used to assess healing. A ten-item perceived stress scale, salivary cortisol, Immunoglobulin A, IgG and IgM were measured. Results: There were significant differences in the proportion of the wound size healed between vacation and the mission. Salivary IgA, IgM, IgG and cortisol levels showed significant differences between vacation and mission. Conclusion: These data suggest that stress can have significant consequences for wound healing. The effects of stress on wound repair could have important clinical implications, including for recovery from surgery. PMID:25610211

  13. Determination of the lactate threshold by means of salivary biomarkers: chromogranin A as novel marker of exercise intensity.

    PubMed

    Bocanegra, Olga L; Diaz, Miguel M; Teixeira, Renata R; Soares, Silvio S; Espindola, Foued S

    2012-09-01

    This study examined intra-individual variations in salivary lactate (sLac), alpha-amylase (sAA) and chromogranin A (sCgA) with reference to the accumulation of blood lactate (bLac) during incremental maximal exercise in swimmers. Samples of blood and saliva were collected simultaneously from 12 male professional athletes during an incremental test that consisted of eight series of 100 m in front crawl with increasing velocity (0.03 m s(-1) each) and 70-s intervals. The concentration of blood and salivary lactate was determined by an electro-enzymatic assay, whereas sAA and CgA were analysed by Western blotting. Inflection points in the concentration of bLAc, sLac, sAA and CgA were found in all subjects. The accumulation of lactate in saliva followed the same pattern observed in blood with a high correlation between the two (r = 0.91). Similar results were observed between the dynamics of sAA (r = 0.81) and sCgA (r = 0.82) in relation to bLac. These findings support the usefulness of saliva for the determination of the lactate threshold and provide the first demonstration of sCgA as a novel marker of exercise intensity in well-trained men. PMID:22227853

  14. The physiology of salivary secretion.

    PubMed

    Proctor, Gordon B

    2016-02-01

    Saliva in the mouth is a biofluid produced mainly by three pairs of major salivary glands--the submandibular, parotid and sublingual glands--along with secretions from many minor submucosal salivary glands. Salivary gland secretion is a nerve-mediated reflex and the volume of saliva secreted is dependent on the intensity and type of taste and on chemosensory, masticatory or tactile stimulation. Long periods of low (resting or unstimulated) flow are broken by short periods of high flow, which is stimulated by taste and mastication. The nerve-mediated salivary reflex is modulated by nerve signals from other centers in the central nervous system, which is most obvious as hyposalivation at times of anxiety. An example of other neurohormonal influences on the salivary reflex is the circadian rhythm, which affects salivary flow and ionic composition. Cholinergic parasympathetic and adrenergic sympathetic autonomic nerves evoke salivary secretion, signaling through muscarinic M3 and adrenoceptors on salivary acinar cells and leading to secretion of fluid and salivary proteins. Saliva gland acinar cells are chloride and sodium secreting, and the isotonic fluid produced is rendered hypotonic by salivary gland duct cells as it flows to the mouth. The major proteins present in saliva are secreted by salivary glands, creating viscoelasticity and enabling the coating of oral surfaces with saliva. Salivary films are essential for maintaining oral health and regulating the oral microbiome. Saliva in the mouth contains a range of validated and potential disease biomarkers derived from epithelial cells, neutrophils, the microbiome, gingival crevicular fluid and serum. For example, cortisol levels are used in the assessment of stress, matrix metalloproteinases-8 and -9 appear to be promising markers of caries and periodontal disease, and a panel of mRNA and proteins has been proposed as a marker of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Understanding the mechanisms by which components enter

  15. Salivary Glands

    MedlinePlus

    ... salivary gland tumors usually show up as painless enlargements of these glands. Tumors rarely involve more than ... otolaryngologist-head and neck surgeon should check these enlargements. Malignant tumors of the major salivary glands can ...

  16. Associations among Inflammatory Biomarkers in the Circulating, Plasmatic, Salivary and Intraluminal Anatomical Compartments in Apparently Healthy Preschool Children from the Western Highlands of Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    Soto-Méndez, María José; Romero-Abal, María Eugenia; Aguilera, Concepción María; Rico, María Cruz; Solomons, Noel W.; Schümann, Klaus; Gil, Angel

    2015-01-01

    Background Undernutrition and inflammation are related in many ways; for instance, non-hygienic environments are associated with both poor growth and immunostimulation in children. Objective To describe any existing interaction among different inflammation biomarkers measured in the distinct anatomical compartments of whole blood, feces, plasma and saliva. Methods In this descriptive, cross-sectional study, samples of whole blood, feces, plasma and saliva were collected on the 8th and last week of observation among 87 attendees (42 girls and 45 boys) of 3 daycare centers offering a common 40-day rotating menu in Guatemala’s Western Highlands. Analyses included white blood cell count (WBC), fecal calprotectin, and plasmatic and salivary cytokines including IL-1B, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and TNF-α. Associations were assessed using Spearman rank-order and goodness-of-fit correlations, as indicated, followed by backwards-elimination multiple regression analyses to determine predictor variables for IL-10 in both anatomical compartments. Results Of a total of 66 cross-tabulations in the Spearman hemi-matrix, 22 (33%) were significantly associated. All 10 paired associations among the salivary cytokines had a significant r value, whereas 7 of 10 possible associations among plasma cytokines were significant. Associations across anatomical compartments, however, were rarely significant. IL-10 in both biological fluids were higher than corresponding reference values. When a multiple regression model was run in order to determine independent predictors for IL-10 in each anatomical compartment separately, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α emerged as predictors in plasma (r2 = 0.514) and IL-1B, IL-8 and TNF-α remained as independent predictors in saliva (r2 = 0.762). Significant cross-interactions were seen with WBC, but not with fecal calprotectin. Conclusion Interactions ranged from robust within the same anatomical compartment to limited to nil across distinct anatomical compartments. The

  17. Salivary gland tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancers Salivary duct stones Salivary gland infections Dehydration Sarcoidosis Sjögren syndrome The most common type of salivary ... Cancer Cirrhosis Salivary duct stones Salivary gland infections Sarcoidosis Tumor Update Date 10/30/2015 Updated by: ...

  18. Diagnostic Potential of Novel Salivary Host Biomarkers as Candidates for the Immunological Diagnosis of Tuberculosis Disease and Monitoring of Tuberculosis Treatment Response

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Ruschca; Maasdorp, Elizna; Malherbe, Stephanus; Loxton, Andre G.; Stanley, Kim; van der Spuy, Gian; Walzl, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    Background There is an urgent need for new tools for the early diagnosis of TB disease and monitoring of the response to treatment, especially in resource-constrained settings. We investigated the usefulness of host markers detected in saliva as candidate biomarkers for the immunological diagnosis of TB disease and monitoring of treatment response. Methods We prospectively collected saliva samples from 51 individuals that presented with signs and symptoms suggestive of TB disease at a health centre in Cape Town, South Africa, prior to the establishment of a clinical diagnosis. Patients were later classified as having TB disease or other respiratory disease (ORD), using a combination of clinical, radiological and laboratory findings. We evaluated the concentrations of 69 host markers in saliva samples using a multiplex cytokine platform, and assessed the diagnostic potentials of these markers by receiver operator characteristics (ROC) curve analysis, and general discriminant analysis. Results Out of the 51 study participants, 18 (35.4%) were diagnosed with TB disease and 12 (23.5%) were HIV infected. Only two of the 69 host markers that were evaluated (IL-16 and IL-23) diagnosed TB disease individually with area under the ROC curve ≥0.70. A five-marker biosignature comprising of IL-1β, IL-23, ECM-1, HCC1 and fibrinogen diagnosed TB disease with a sensitivity of 88.9% (95% CI,76.7–99.9%) and specificity of 89.7% (95% CI, 60.4–96.6%) after leave-one-out cross validation, regardless of HIV infection status. Eight-marker biosignatures performed with a sensitivity of 100% (95% CI, 83.2–100%) and specificity of 95% (95% CI, 68.1–99.9%) in the absence of HIV infection. Furthermore, the concentrations of 11 of the markers changed during treatment, indicating that they may be useful in monitoring of TB treatment response. Conclusion We have identified novel salivary biosignatures which may be useful in the diagnosis of TB disease and monitoring of the response to

  19. Oral vs. salivary diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, Joana; Corby, Patricia M.; Barber, Cheryl A.; Abrams, William R.; Malamud, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    The field of "salivary diagnostics" includes studies utilizing samples obtained from a variety of sources within the oral cavity. These samples include; whole unstimulated saliva, stimulated whole saliva, duct saliva collected directly from the parotid, submandibular/sublingual glands or minor salivary glands, swabs of the buccal mucosa, tongue or tonsils, and gingival crevicular fluid. Many publications state "we collected saliva from subjects" without fully describing the process or source of the oral fluid. Factors that need to be documented in any study include the time of day of the collection, the method used to stimulate and collect the fluid, and how much fluid is being collected and for how long. The handling of the oral fluid during and post-collection is also critical and may include addition of protease or nuclease inhibitors, centrifugation, and cold or frozen storage prior to assay. In an effort to create a standard protocol for determining a biomarker's origin we carried out a pilot study collecting oral fluid from 5 different sites in the mouth and monitoring the concentrations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines detected using MesoScaleDiscovery (MSD) electrochemiluminesence assays. Our data suggested that 3 of the cytokines are primarily derived from the submandibular gland, while 7 of the cytokines come from a source other than the major salivary glands such as the minor salivary glands or cells in the oral mucosae. Here we review the literature on monitoring biomarkers in oral samples and stress the need for determining the blood/saliva ratio when a quantitative determination is needed and suggest that the term oral diagnostic be used if the source of an analyte in the oral cavity is unknown.

  20. Salivary duct stones

    MedlinePlus

    ... glands. Salivary duct stones are a type of salivary gland disorder. ... 83. Jackson NM, Mitchell JL, Walvekar RR. Inflammatory disorders of the salivary glands. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund LJ, et ...

  1. Current developments in salivary diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Foley, Joseph D; Bailey, Alison L; Campell, Charles L; Humphries, Roger L; Christodoulides, Nicolaos; Floriano, Pierre N; Simmons, Glennon; Bhagwandin, Bryon; Jacobson, James W; Redding, Spencer W; Ebersole, Jeffrey L; McDevitt, John T

    2010-01-01

    Salivary diagnostics is an emerging field that has progressed through several important developments in the past decade, including the publication of the human salivary proteome and the infusion of federal funds to integrate nanotechnologies and microfluidic engineering concepts into developing compact point-of-care devices for rapid analysis of this secretion. In this article, we discuss some of these developments and their relevance to the prognosis, diagnosis and management of periodontitis, as an oral target, and cardiovascular disease, as a systemic example for the potential of these biodiagnostics. Our findings suggest that several biomarkers are associated with distinct biological stages of these diseases and demonstrate promise as practical biomarkers in identifying and managing periodontal disease, and acute myocardial infarction. The majority of these studies have progressed through biomarker discovery, with the identified molecules requiring more robust clinical studies to enable substantive validation for disease diagnosis. It is predicted that with continued advances in this field the use of a combination of biomarkers in multiplex panels is likely to yield accurate screening tools for these diagnoses in the near future. PMID:20387312

  2. Current developments in salivary diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Miller, Craig S; Foley, Joseph D; Bailey, Alison L; Campell, Charles L; Humphries, Roger L; Christodoulides, Nicolaos; Floriano, Pierre N; Simmons, Glennon; Bhagwandin, Bryon; Jacobson, James W; Redding, Spencer W; Ebersole, Jeffrey L; McDevitt, John T

    2010-02-01

    Salivary diagnostics is an emerging field that has progressed through several important developments in the past decade, including the publication of the human salivary proteome and the infusion of federal funds to integrate nanotechnologies and microfluidic engineering concepts into developing compact point-of-care devices for rapid analysis of this secretion. In this article, we discuss some of these developments and their relevance to the prognosis, diagnosis and management of periodontitis, as an oral target, and cardiovascular disease, as a systemic example for the potential of these biodiagnostics. Our findings suggest that several biomarkers are associated with distinct biological stages of these diseases and demonstrate promise as practical biomarkers in identifying and managing periodontal disease, and acute myocardial infarction. The majority of these studies have progressed through biomarker discovery, with the identified molecules requiring more robust clinical studies to enable substantive validation for disease diagnosis. It is predicted that with continued advances in this field the use of a combination of biomarkers in multiplex panels is likely to yield accurate screening tools for these diagnoses in the near future. PMID:20387312

  3. Salivary Gland Secretion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorman, H. L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Describes materials and procedures for an experiment utilizing a live dog to demonstrate: (1) physiology of the salivary gland; (2) parasympathetic control of the salivary gland; (3) influence of varying salivary flow rates on sodium and potassium ions, osmolarity and pH; and (4) salivary secretion as an active process. (DS)

  4. Salivary gland biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Biopsy - salivary gland ... You have several pairs of salivary glands that drain into your mouth: A major pair in front of the ears (parotid glands) Another major pair beneath your jaw (submandibular ...

  5. Salivary Gland Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Your salivary glands make saliva - sometimes called spit - and empty it into your mouth through openings called ducts. Saliva makes your ... antibodies that can kill germs. Problems with salivary glands can cause the glands to become irritated and ...

  6. Serum and salivary cardiac analytes in acute myocardial infarction related to oral health status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebersole, Jeffrey L.; Kryscio, Richard J.; Campbell, Charles; Kinane, Denis F.; McDevitt, John T.; Christodoulides, Nicolaos; Floriano, Pierre N.; Miller, Craig S.

    2014-06-01

    With the advent of an increased emphasis on the potential to utilize biomarkers in saliva for systemic diseases, the issue of existing oral disease is an important consideration that could adversely affect the interpretation of diagnostic results obtained from saliva. We addressed the question does a patient's oral inflammation status confound biomarker levels used in diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The results demonstrated that multiple serum biomarkers and a few salivary biomarkers reflected the cardiac event. Importantly, oral health of the individual had minimal impact on the validity of the serum or salivary biomarker effectiveness.

  7. Salivary Markers for Periodontal and General Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Podzimek, Stepan; Vondrackova, Lucie; Duskova, Jana; Janatova, Tatjana; Broukal, Zdenek

    2016-01-01

    The determination of biomarkers in saliva is becoming an important part of laboratory diagnostics and the prediction of not only periodontal, but also other tissue and organ diseases. Biomarkers in saliva (e.g., enzymes, protein markers, or oxidative stress markers) can be used for activity determination and for periodontal disease prognosis. Saliva also contains many markers which can predict the risk of certain diseases (e.g., diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular, oncology, endocrinology, and psychiatric diseases). The study of salivary components proteomics clearly shows the relationship of periodontal diseases and diseases of distant systems, organs, or tissues. PMID:27143814

  8. Salivary Gland Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... contains antibodies that can kill germs. Salivary gland cancer is a type of head and neck cancer. It is rare. It may not cause any ... pain in your face Doctors diagnose salivary gland cancer using a physical exam, imaging tests, and a ...

  9. Pediatric Salivary Gland Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Ord, Robert A; Carlson, Eric R

    2016-02-01

    Pediatric malignant salivary gland tumors are extremely rare. The percentage of malignant tumors is higher than that seen in adults, although the outcomes in terms of survival are better in pediatric patients. The mainstay of treatment is surgical excision with negative margins. This article reviews current concepts in demographics, etiology, management, and outcomes of malignant salivary tumors in children. PMID:26614703

  10. Microgravity alters the expression of salivary proteins.

    PubMed

    Mednieks, Maija; Khatri, Aditi; Rubenstein, Renee; Burleson, Joseph A; Hand, Arthur R

    2014-06-01

    Spaceflight provides a unique opportunity to study how physiologic responses are influenced by the external environment. Microgravity has been shown to alter the function of a number of tissues and organ systems. Very little, however, is known about how microgravity affects the oral cavity. The rodent model is useful for study in that their salivary gland morphology and physiology is similar to that of humans. Useful also is the fact that saliva, a product of the salivary glands with a major role in maintaining oral health, can be easily collected in humans whereas the glands can be studied in experimental animals. Our working hypothesis is that expression of secretory proteins in saliva will respond to microgravity and will be indicative of the nature of physiologic reactions to travel in space. This study was designed to determine which components of the salivary proteome are altered in mice flown on the US space shuttle missions and to determine if a subset with predictive value can be identified using microscopy and biochemistry methods. The results showed that the expression of secretory proteins associated with beta-adrenergic hormone regulated responses and mediated via the cyclic AMP pathway was significantly altered, whereas that of a number of unrelated proteins was not. The findings are potentially applicable to designing a biochemical test system whereby specific salivary proteins can be biomarkers for stress associated with travel in space and eventually for monitoring responses to conditions on earth. PMID:24984624

  11. Benign Pediatric Salivary Gland Lesions.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Eric R; Ord, Robert A

    2016-02-01

    Salivary gland lesions are rare in pediatric patients. In addition, the types of salivary gland tumors are different in their distribution in specific sites in the major and minor salivary glands in children compared with adults. This article reviews benign neoplastic and nonneoplastic salivary gland disorders in pediatric patients to help clinicians to develop an orderly differential diagnosis that will lead to expedient treatment of pediatric patients with salivary gland lesions. PMID:26614702

  12. Salivary gland infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... salivary duct stones Poor cleanliness in the mouth ( oral hygiene ) Low amounts of water in the body, most ... home to help with recovery include: Practice good oral hygiene. Brush your teeth and floss well at least ...

  13. Salivary Stress-Related Responses in Tinnitus: A Preliminary Study in Young Male Subjects with Tinnitus

    PubMed Central

    Alsalman, Ola A.; Tucker, Denise; Vanneste, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This preliminary study examined if baseline measures of stress-related biomarkers as measured by salivary secretions of specific autonomic [measured by salivary α-amylase (sAA)], endocrine (measured by salivary cortisol), and immune (measured by salivary neopterin) responses are greater in male subjects with tinnitus in response to an induced-stress task. Method: Twenty male subjects with no significant hearing loss, 10 with tinnitus, and 10 without tinnitus were enrolled in this study.Salivary secretions were collected before and after the induced stress task at four different time intervals. Results: sAA levels were lower in the tinnitus group in comparison to subjects without tinnitus, suggesting impaired sympathetic activity in the subjects with tinnitus although these levels remained stable throughout the stress experiment.While no significant effects could be obtained for salivary cortisol or neopterin, salivary neopterin levels were trending toward significance over all measurements. Behavioral measures of stress were found to correlate negatively with measures of sAA and salivary neopterin. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest impaired stress-related sAA mechanisms in male subjects with tinnitus, as evidenced by the different stress reactions induced in the endocrine system (as measured by salivary cortisol) and the immune system (as measured by salivary neopterin). PMID:27489534

  14. Salivary Alterations in Rats with Experimental Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Ana Carolina; Bergamaschi, Cassia Toledo; de Souza, Douglas Nesadal; Nogueira, Fernando Neves

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to analyze changes in saliva composition and salivary secretion process of rats with chronic kidney disease induced by 5/6 nephrectomy to set the foundation for salivary studies related to CKD. Methods CKD was induced in Wistar rats via 5/6 nephrectomy. Blood and saliva samples were collected from Control, Sham and CKD groups at 8 and 12 weeks after the surgery. Salivation was stimulated via intraperitoneal injections of pilocarpine (1.0 mg/Kg body weight) or isoproterenol (5.0 mg/Kg body weight). Saliva was collected and immediately stored at -80°C until analysis. The salivary flow rate, total protein, amylase and peroxidase activities, and urea concentrations were measured. The blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine concentrations were also evaluated. Results Increases in BUN and serum creatinine concentrations were observed in the CKD groups. Amylase activity was significantly reduced in response to both stimuli in the CKD groups at 8 weeks and increased in the CKD groups at 12 weeks in response to isoproterenol stimulus. The peroxidase activities of the CKD groups were significantly reduced in response to isoproterenol stimulation and were increased at 12 weeks in response to pilocarpine stimulation. Salivary urea was significantly increased in the CKD groups at 8 weeks in response to the isoproterenol stimuli and at 12 weeks in response to both salivary agonists. Conclusions The pattern of alterations observed in this experimental model is similar to those observed in patients and clearly demonstrates the viability of 5/6 nephrectomy as an experimental model in future studies to understand the alterations in salivary compositions and in salivary glands that are elicited by CKD. PMID:26859883

  15. Caveolin-1 overexpression in benign and malignant salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Jaafari-Ashkavandi, Zohreh; Ashraf, Mohammad Javad; Nazhvani, Ali Dehghani; Azizi, Zahra

    2016-02-01

    Caveolin-1, a tyrosine-phosphorylated protein, is supposed to have different regulatory roles as promoter or suppressor in many human cancers. However, no published study concerned its expression in benign and malignant salivary gland tumors. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the expression of Cav-1 in the most common benign and malignant salivary gland tumors and evaluate its correlation with proliferation activity. In this cross-sectional retrospective study, immunohistochemical expression of caveolin-1 and Ki67 were evaluated in 49 samples, including 11 normal salivary glands, 15 cases of pleomorphic adenoma (PA), 13 adenoid cystic carcinomas (AdCC), and 10 mucoepidermoid carcinomas (MEC). The expression of Cav-1 was seen in 18 % of normal salivary glands and 85 % of tumors. The immunoreaction in the tumors was significantly higher than normal tissues (P = 0.001), but the difference between benign and malignant tumors was not significant (P = 0.07). Expression of Cav-1 was correlated with Ki67 labeling index in PAs, but not in malignant tumors. Cav-1 expression was not in association with tumor size and stage. Overexpression of Cav-1 was found in salivary gland tumors in comparison with normal tissues, but no significant difference was observed between benign and malignant tumors. Cav-1 was inversely correlated with proliferation in PA. Therefore, this marker may participate in tumorigenesis of salivary gland tumors and may be a potential biomarker for cancer treatments. PMID:26323261

  16. Salivary Mucin 19 Glycoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Culp, David J.; Robinson, Bently; Cash, Melanie N.; Bhattacharyya, Indraneel; Stewart, Carol; Cuadra-Saenz, Giancarlo

    2015-01-01

    Saliva functions in innate immunity of the oral cavity, protecting against demineralization of teeth (i.e. dental caries), a highly prevalent infectious disease associated with Streptococcus mutans, a pathogen also linked to endocarditis and atheromatous plaques. Gel-forming mucins are a major constituent of saliva. Because Muc19 is the dominant salivary gel-forming mucin in mice, we studied Muc19−/− mice for changes in innate immune functions of saliva in interactions with S. mutans. When challenged with S. mutans and a cariogenic diet, total smooth and sulcal surface lesions are more than 2- and 1.6-fold higher in Muc19−/− mice compared with wild type, whereas the severity of lesions are up to 6- and 10-fold higher, respectively. Furthermore, the oral microbiota of Muc19−/− mice display higher levels of indigenous streptococci. Results emphasize the importance of a single salivary constituent in the innate immune functions of saliva. In vitro studies of S. mutans and Muc19 interactions (i.e. adherence, aggregation, and biofilm formation) demonstrate Muc19 poorly aggregates S. mutans. Nonetheless, aggregation is enhanced upon adding Muc19 to saliva from Muc19−/− mice, indicating Muc19 assists in bacterial clearance through formation of heterotypic complexes with salivary constituents that bind S. mutans, thus representing a novel innate immune function for salivary gel-forming mucins. In humans, expression of salivary MUC19 is unclear. We find MUC19 transcripts in salivary glands of seven subjects and demonstrate MUC19 glycoproteins in glandular mucous cells and saliva. Similarities and differences between mice and humans in the expression and functions of salivary gel-forming mucins are discussed. PMID:25512380

  17. What Is Salivary Gland Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... are many types of salivary gland adenocarcinomas. Acinic cell carcinoma: Most acinic cell carcinomas start in the ... cancer can develop in the salivary glands. Squamous cell carcinoma: This cancer occurs mainly in older men. ...

  18. Salivary Gland Cancers: Biology and Systemic Therapy.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Gaurav; Mehdi, Syed A; Ganti, Apar Kishor

    2015-10-01

    Salivary gland tumors are a relatively rare and heterogeneous group of tumors with variable pathologic and phenotypic characteristics. The lack of clinical outcomes data and randomized controlled trials pertaining to them makes it difficult to formulate definitive treatment protocols that could help with making decisions regarding choice of therapy. Most studies involving systemic chemotherapy have not shown promising patient outcome results. With recent advances in molecular technology, however, it is now possible to identify specific genetic alterations and biomarkers as possible targets for therapeutic purposes. For example, in mucoepidermoid carcinomas, one of the most common types of malignant salivary gland tumors, a commonly seen genetic translocation [t(11;19)(q21;p13), which involves the CRTC1 and MAML2 genes] has been found to be associated with improved survival, making it a possible prognostic marker. Also, this translocation gives rise to a fusion protein that appears to render tumors highly sensitive to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibition. However, the results of phase II trials of EGFR inhibitors-as well as other targeted agents--in salivary gland tumors have been disappointing: there has been some disease stabilization but no objective responses. There remains a need for well-designed prospective clinical studies to improve management of these tumors. PMID:26470903

  19. Salivary Acetylcholinesterase Activity Is Increased in Parkinson's Disease: A Potential Marker of Parasympathetic Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Fedorova, Tatyana; Knudsen, Cindy Soendersoe; Mouridsen, Kim; Nexo, Ebba; Borghammer, Per

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Decreased salivary flow and xerostomia are frequent findings in Parkinson's disease (PD), possibly caused by alterations in the parasympathetic tonus. Here we explore salivary acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity as a potential biomarker in PD. Methods. We measured salivary flow, AChE activity, and total protein concentration in 30 PD patients and 49 healthy controls. We also performed exploratory correlation analyses with disease duration, motor symptom severity, autonomic complaints, and other nonmotor symptoms. Results. PD patients displayed significantly decreased salivary flow rate, significantly increased salivary AChE activity, and total protein concentration. Importantly, the AChE activity/total protein ratio was significantly increased in PD patients, suggesting that increased AChE activity cannot be explained solely by upconcentration of saliva. The Unified PD Rating Scale (UPDRS) score displayed significant correlation with total salivary protein (P = 0.002) and near-significant correlation with salivary flow (P = 0.07). Color vision test scores were also significantly correlated with AChE activity (P = 0.04) and total protein levels (P = 0.002). Conclusion. Salivary AChE activity is increased in PD patients compared to healthy controls. Future studies are needed to elucidate whether this parameter reflects the extent of neuronal damage and parasympathetic denervation in the salivary glands of PD patients. PMID:25767737

  20. Salivary gland emergencies.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Matthew A; Turturro, Michael A

    2013-05-01

    Salivary gland disorders are uncommon in the emergency department setting. Given the vast differential that spans infectious, autoimmune, neoplastic, and metabolic processes, they can pose a diagnostic challenge even to skilled clinicians. There is a paucity of evidence-based data regarding the management of these disorders with frequent incongruence between specific sources. Although by no means exhaustive or absolute, this article reconciles existing literature and serves as a concise and informative guide to salivary gland disorders encountered by the emergency care practitioner. PMID:23601484

  1. Radionuclide salivary gland imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Mishkin, F.S.

    1981-10-01

    Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific.

  2. Trastuzumab in Treating Patients With Metastatic or Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-02-27

    High-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Salivary Gland Acinic Cell Tumor; Salivary Gland Adenocarcinoma; Salivary Gland Poorly Differentiated Carcinoma; Stage IVA Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVB Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVC Salivary Gland Cancer

  3. Direct disease-inducing effects of menthol through the eyes of tobacco companies

    PubMed Central

    Salgado, M Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Objective Menthol is an important additive in most tobacco products and is an identifying characteristic of many brands. We assessed tobacco companies' research on direct disease-inducing effects of menthol and menthol cigarettes. Methods A search was conducted among documents included in the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library. Relevant documents addressed subject areas such as pharmacology, short-term and long-term effects and biomarkers of smoking exposure. Results The documents contain little internal industry research on the disease-inducing effects of menthol. Most information in the tobacco industry documents are reviews of the published biomedical literature, from which the companies concluded that menthol did not have any direct disease-inducing effects. Evidence that contradicted this conclusion was downplayed. Except for one study, there was no evidence of the companies following up on positive findings in the literature with their own studies. In one case, results were presented at a public scientific meeting concluding that ‘There were no effects from addition of menthol to test or reference cigarettes’, when a company's internal pathology analysis contradicted this statement. Conclusion The available industry documents suggest that tobacco companies conducted little research on the potential disease-inducing effects of menthol and did not pursue studies that suggested adverse effects. PMID:21504931

  4. The ambiguous salivary myoepithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Rao, Roopa S; Patil, Shankargouda; Amrutha, N; Sanketh, Ds; Agarwal, Anveeta

    2014-01-01

    Salivary gland neoplasms present with a diverse histological pattern which is mainly because of the presence of specialized myoepithelial cells (MECs). These are contractile epithelial cells with smooth muscle like properties. They have been also noticed in mammary glands, lacrimal glands, prostate gland, and the sweat glands and have varied functions. MECs play an important role in the histogenesis of many salivary gland tumors. Knowledge of MECs leads to a better understanding of the histological diversity of salivary gland neoplasms. This article reviews the physiology, histology, identification and role of these cells in salivary gland pathology. PMID:25576124

  5. Salivary alpha amylase and salivary cortisol response to fluid consumption in exercising athletes.

    PubMed

    Backes, T P; Horvath, P J; Kazial, K A

    2015-11-01

    The objective of the study was to examine salivary biomarker response to fluid consumption in exercising athletes. Exercise induces stress on the body and salivary alpha amylase (sAA) and salivary cortisol are useful biomarkers for activity in the sympathoadrenal medullary system and the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis which are involved in the stress response. Fifteen college students were given 150 ml and 500 ml of water on different days and blinded to fluid condition. The exercise protocol was identical for both fluid conditions using absolute exercise intensities ranging from moderate to high. Saliva was collected prior to exercise, post moderate and post high intensities and analyzed by Salimetrics assays. Exercise was significant for sAA with values different between pre-exercise (85 ± 10 U · ml(-1)) and high intensity (284 ± 30 U · ml(-1)) as well as between moderate intensity (204 ± 32 U · ml(-1)) and high intensity. There was no difference in sAA values between fluid conditions at either intensity. Exercise intensity and fluid condition were each significant for cortisol. Cortisol values were different between pre-exercise (0.30 ± 0.03 ug · dL(-1)) and high intensity (0.45 ± 0.05 ug · dL(-1)) as well as between moderate intensity (0.33 ± 0.04 ug · dL(-1)) and high intensity. Moderate exercise intensity cortisol was lower in the 500 ml condition (0.33 ± 0.03 ug · dL(-1)) compared with the 150 ml condition (0.38 ± 0.03 ug · dL(-1)). This altered physiological response due to fluid consumption could influence sport performance and should be considered. In addition, future sport and exercise studies should control for fluid consumption. PMID:26681828

  6. Salivary alpha amylase and salivary cortisol response to fluid consumption in exercising athletes

    PubMed Central

    Horvath, PJ; Kazial, KA

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to examine salivary biomarker response to fluid consumption in exercising athletes. Exercise induces stress on the body and salivary alpha amylase (sAA) and salivary cortisol are useful biomarkers for activity in the sympathoadrenal medullary system and the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis which are involved in the stress response. Fifteen college students were given 150 ml and 500 ml of water on different days and blinded to fluid condition. The exercise protocol was identical for both fluid conditions using absolute exercise intensities ranging from moderate to high. Saliva was collected prior to exercise, post moderate and post high intensities and analyzed by Salimetrics assays. Exercise was significant for sAA with values different between pre-exercise (85 ± 10 U · ml−1) and high intensity (284 ± 30 U · ml−1) as well as between moderate intensity (204 ± 32 U · ml−1) and high intensity. There was no difference in sAA values between fluid conditions at either intensity. Exercise intensity and fluid condition were each significant for cortisol. Cortisol values were different between pre-exercise (0.30 ± 0.03 ug · dL−1) and high intensity (0.45 ± 0.05 ug · dL−1) as well as between moderate intensity (0.33 ± 0.04 ug · dL−1) and high intensity. Moderate exercise intensity cortisol was lower in the 500 ml condition (0.33 ± 0.03 ug · dL−1) compared with the 150 ml condition (0.38 ± 0.03 ug · dL−1). This altered physiological response due to fluid consumption could influence sport performance and should be considered. In addition, future sport and exercise studies should control for fluid consumption. PMID:26681828

  7. Salivary gland diseases in children

    PubMed Central

    Iro, Heinrich; Zenk, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Salivary gland diseases in children are rare, apart from viral-induced diseases. Nevertheless, it is essential for the otolaryngologist to recognize these uncommon findings in children and adolescents and to diagnose and initiate the proper treatment. The present work provides an overview of the entire spectrum of congenital and acquired diseases of the salivary glands in childhood and adolescence. The current literature was reviewed and the results discussed and summarized. Besides congenital diseases of the salivary glands in children, the main etiologies of viral and bacterial infections, autoimmune diseases and tumors of the salivary glands were considered. In addition to the known facts, new developments in diagnostics, imaging and therapy, including sialendoscopy in obstructive diseases and chronic recurrent juvenile sialadenitis were taken into account. In addition, systemic causes of salivary gland swelling and the treatment of sialorrhoea were discussed. Although salivary gland diseases in children are usually included in the pathology of the adult, they differ in their incidence and some­times in their symptoms. Clinical diagnostics and especially the surgical treatment are influenced by a stringent indications and a less invasive strategy. Due to the rarity of tumors of the salivary glands in children, it is recommended to treat them in a specialized center with greater surgical experience. Altogether the knowledge of the differential diagnoses in salivary gland diseases in children is important for otolaryngologists, to indicate the proper therapeutic approach. PMID:25587366

  8. Dasatinib in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Malignant Salivary Gland Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-26

    High-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Low-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Salivary Gland Acinic Cell Tumor; Salivary Gland Adenocarcinoma; Salivary Gland Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Anaplastic Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Malignant Mixed Cell Type Tumor; Salivary Gland Poorly Differentiated Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Salivary Gland Cancer

  9. High correlation between salivary cortisol awakening response and the psychometric profiles of healthy children

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cortisol awakening response (CAR) as an indicator of psychological stress and related physical and psychiatric diseases has attracted growing attention from researchers. Although CAR changes have been investigated extensively in children with behavioral and psychiatric disorders, the association between CAR and conventional psychometric scales for healthy children has not been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between salivary CAR and subscales of Profiles of Mood States (POMS), a self-assessment questionnaire widely used to evaluate the temporal emotional states of healthy children. Findings This study included 18 healthy girls aged 13–16 years. Saliva was collected immediately on awakening, 30 min and 60 min after waking, and then at 2-hour intervals from 9 am to 5 pm. The current mood state, including depression, anxiety, fatigue, and other psychometric profiles were assessed using POMS. The magnitude of salivary CAR and the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) for diurnal salivary cortisol were compared with the profiles. There were significant positive correlations between the magnitude of CAR and the POMS subscales for "Depression-Dejection", "Tension-Anxiety", "Fatigue", and "Confusion". No correlation was found between the AUC salivary cortisol level and the psychometric profiles. Conclusions Salivary CAR was associated with various mood states of healthy female children but diurnal salivary cortisol AUC was not. Salivary CAR may be a biomarker of the physical and mental condition of healthy female children. PMID:24625309

  10. Temporal Stability of the Salivary Microbiota in Oral Health

    PubMed Central

    Belstrøm, Daniel; Holmstrup, Palle; Bardow, Allan; Kokaras, Alexis; Fiehn, Nils-Erik; Paster, Bruce J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Saliva is a biological fluid suitable for biomarker analysis, and differences in the salivary microbiota in oral health and disease have been reported. For such comparative analyses, time of sampling is critical since the bacterial composition may vary throughout the day, i.e., diurnal variation. The purpose of this study is to compare the salivary microbiome over time to determine the optimal time for sampling. Design Stimulated saliva samples were collected from 5 orally healthy individuals in 4 h intervals for 24 h, and collection was repeated 7 days later (number of samples per person, n = 12, total number of samples, n = 60). Salivary microbiota was analyzed using the Human Oral Microbe Identification using Next Generation Sequencing (HOMINGS), and statistical analysis was performed using the Kruskal-Wallis test with Benjamini-Hochberg’s correction for multiple comparisons, cluster analysis, principal component analysis and correspondence analysis. Results From a total of 60 saliva samples, 477 probe targets were collectively identified with a mean number of probes per sample of 207 (range: 153–307). Little or no variation in microbial profiles within subjects was observed over time. Conclusions Although there was considerable variation between subjects, microbial profiles within subjects were stable throughout a 24 hour period and after 1 week. Since there is little or no evidence of diurnal variation of the salivary microbiome, time of sampling of saliva is not critical for perturbation or other microbial studies. PMID:26799067

  11. Salivary Antimicrobial Peptides in Early Detection of Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Güncü, Güliz N.; Yilmaz, Dogukan; Könönen, Eija; Gürsoy, Ulvi K.

    2015-01-01

    In the pathogenesis of periodontitis, an infection-induced inflammatory disease of the tooth-supporting tissues, there is a complex interaction between the subgingival microbiota and host tissues. A periodontal diagnostic tool for detecting the initiation and progression of the disease, monitoring the response to therapy, or measuring the degree of susceptibility to future disease progression has been of interest for a long time. The value of various enzymes, proteins, and immunoglobulins, which are abundant constituents of saliva, as potential biomarkers has been recognized and extensively investigated for periodontal diseases. Gingival defensins and cathelicidins are small cationic antimicrobial peptides that play an important role in innate immune response. However, their applicability as salivary biomarkers is still under debate. The present review focuses on proteomic biomarkers and antimicrobial peptides, in particular, to be used at early phases of periodontitis. PMID:26734583

  12. Salivary Duct Cyst: Histo-pathologic Correlation.

    PubMed

    Vinayachandran, Divya; Sankarapandian, Sathasivasubramanian

    2013-01-01

    Non-neoplastic cysts of the salivary glands are uncommon and represent 2-5% of all salivary gland lesions. They are mainly mucoceles or salivary duct cysts. Unlike a mucocele, which is surrounded by granulation tissue, the salivary duct cyst is lined by epithelium. Salivary duct cysts are more common in the oral minor salivary glands and rarely occur in the major salivary glands, show a marked predilection for the superficial lobe of the parotid, and represent 10% of all salivary gland cysts. Neoplastic differentiation of the lining of the salivary duct cyst has been reported. We report a case of a salivary duct cyst of the left parotid gland, with a review of radiographic and histopathologic features. PMID:23878772

  13. Salivary Duct Cyst: Histo-pathologic Correlation

    PubMed Central

    Vinayachandran, Divya; Sankarapandian, Sathasivasubramanian

    2013-01-01

    Non-neoplastic cysts of the salivary glands are uncommon and represent 2-5% of all salivary gland lesions. They are mainly mucoceles or salivary duct cysts. Unlike a mucocele, which is surrounded by granulation tissue, the salivary duct cyst is lined by epithelium. Salivary duct cysts are more common in the oral minor salivary glands and rarely occur in the major salivary glands, show a marked predilection for the superficial lobe of the parotid, and represent 10% of all salivary gland cysts. Neoplastic differentiation of the lining of the salivary duct cyst has been reported. We report a case of a salivary duct cyst of the left parotid gland, with a review of radiographic and histopathologic features. PMID:23878772

  14. Molecular Diversity between Salivary Proteins from New World and Old World Sand Flies with Emphasis on Bichromomyia olmeca, the Sand Fly Vector of Leishmania mexicana in Mesoamerica

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Shannon; Pasos-Pinto, Silvia; Sanchez, Laura; Rasouli, Manoochehr; B. Guimaraes-Costa, Anderson; Aslan, Hamide; Francischetti, Ivo M. B.; Oliveira, Fabiano; Becker, Ingeborg; Kamhawi, Shaden; Ribeiro, Jose M. C.; Jochim, Ryan C.; Valenzuela, Jesus G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Sand fly saliva has been shown to have proteins with potent biological activities, salivary proteins that can be used as biomarkers of vector exposure, and salivary proteins that are candidate vaccines against different forms of leishmaniasis. Sand fly salivary gland transcriptomic approach has contributed significantly to the identification and characterization of many of these salivary proteins from important Leishmania vectors; however, sand fly vectors in some regions of the world are still neglected, as Bichromomyia olmeca (formerly known as Lutzomyia olmeca olmeca), a proven vector of Leishmania mexicana in Mexico and Central America. Despite the importance of this vector in transmitting Leishmania parasite in Mesoamerica there is no information on the repertoire of B. olmeca salivary proteins and their relationship to salivary proteins from other sand fly species. Methods and Findings A cDNA library of the salivary glands of wild-caught B. olmeca was constructed, sequenced, and analyzed. We identified transcripts encoding for novel salivary proteins from this sand fly species and performed a comparative analysis between B. olmeca salivary proteins and those from other sand fly species. With this new information we present an updated catalog of the salivary proteins specific to New World sand flies and salivary proteins common to all sand fly species. We also report in this work the anti-Factor Xa activity of Lofaxin, a salivary anticoagulant protein present in this sand fly species. Conclusions This study provides information on the first transcriptome of a sand fly from Mesoamerica and adds information to the limited repertoire of salivary transcriptomes from the Americas. This comparative analysis also shows a fast degree of evolution in salivary proteins from New World sand flies as compared with Old World sand flies. PMID:27409591

  15. Salivary Gland Cancer Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Adams, April; Warner, Kristy; Nör, Jacques E.

    2013-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests the existence of a tumorigenic population of cancer cells that demonstrate stem cell-like properties such as self-renewal and multipotency. These cells, termed cancer stem cells (CSC), are able to both initiate and maintain tumor formation and progression. Studies have shown that CSC are resistant to traditional chemotherapy treatments preventing complete eradication of the tumor cell population. Following treatment, CSC are able to re-initiate tumor growth leading to patient relapse. Salivary gland cancers are relatively rare but constitute a highly significant public health issue due to the lack of effective treatments. In particular, patients with mucoepidermoid carcinoma or adenoid cystic carcinoma, the two most common salivary malignancies, have low long-term survival rates due to the lack of response to current therapies. Considering the role of CSC in resistance to therapy in other tumor types, it is possible that this unique sub-population of cells is involved in resistance of salivary gland tumors to treatment. Characterization of CSC can lead to better understanding of the pathobiology of salivary gland malignancies as well as to the development of more effective therapies. Here, we make a brief overview of the state-of-the-science in salivary gland cancer, and discuss possible implications of the cancer stem cell hypothesis to the treatment of salivary gland malignancies. PMID:23810400

  16. Salivary glands - "an unisex organ'?

    PubMed

    Konttinen, Y T; Stegaev, V; Mackiewicz, Z; Porola, P; Hänninen, A; Szodoray, P

    2010-10-01

    Usually no distinction is made between female and male salivary glands although cyclic changes of and ⁄ or differences in serum and salivary sex steroid concentrations characterize women and men. Moreover, sexual dimorphism is well recognized in salivary glands of rodents.Salivary glands contain estrogen and androgen receptors and are, according to modern high throughput technologies,subjected to gender differences not explainable by gene dose effects by the X chromosome alone. Because sex steroids are lipophilic, it is often thought that approximately 10% of them passively diffuse from plasma to saliva. Indeed, saliva can find use as sample material in sports medicine, pediatrics, veterinary medicine and behavioral sciences. Last but not least, humans and other primates are unique in that they have a reticular zone in their adrenal cortex, which produces dehydroepiandrosterone and androstendione pro-hormones. These are processed in peripheral tissues, not only in female breast and uterus and male prostate, but also in salivary glands by an intracrine enzymatic machinery to active 17b-estradiol,dihydrotestosterone and others, to satisfy and buffer against a constantly changing needs caused by circadian,menstrual, pregnancy and chronobiological hormonal changes in the systemic circulation. Female dominance of Sjögren's syndrome and certain forms of salivary gland cancer probably reflect these gender-based differences. PMID:20412448

  17. BIOMARKERS DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This database was developed by assembling and evaluating the literature relevant to human biomarkers. It catalogues and evaluates the usefulness of biomarkers of exposure, susceptibility and effect which may be relevant for a longitudinal cohort study. In addition to describing ...

  18. Novel possibilities in the study of the salivary proteomic profile using SELDI-TOF/MS technology

    PubMed Central

    ARDITO, FATIMA; PERRONE, DONATELLA; COCCHI, ROBERTO; LO RUSSO, LUCIO; DE LILLO, ALFREDO; GIANNATEMPO, GIOVANNI; LO MUZIO, LORENZO

    2016-01-01

    There is currently an increasing interest in exploring human saliva to identify salivary diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers, since the collection of saliva is rapid, non-invasive and stress-free. Diagnostic tests on saliva are common and cost-effective, particularly for patients who need to monitor their hormone levels or the effectiveness of undergoing therapies. Furthermore, salivary diagnostics is ideal for surveillance studies and in situations where fast results and inexpensive technologies are required. The most important constituents of saliva are proteins, the expression levels of which may be modified due to variations of the cellular conditions. Therefore, the different profile of proteins detected in saliva, including their absence, presence or altered levels, is a potential biomarker of certain physiological and/or pathological conditions. A promising novel approach to study saliva is the global analysis of salivary proteins using proteomic techniques. In the present study, surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight/mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF/MS), one of the most recent proteomic tools for the identification of novel biomarkers, is reviewed. In addition, the possible use of this technique in salivary proteomic studies is discussed, since SELDI technology combines the precision of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-TOF/MS proteomic analysis and the high-throughput nature of protein array analysis. PMID:26998108

  19. General Information about Salivary Gland Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Salivary Gland Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Salivary Gland Cancer Go to Health Professional ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  20. Salivary Immunosuppressive Cytokines IL-10 and IL-13 Are Significantly Elevated in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Patients.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Salman; Ahmed, Syed Shoaib; Ali, Asad; Khan, Faiza Akhter; Zulfiqar, Gulraiz; Iqbal, Javed; Khan, Ayyaz Ali; Shoaib, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is considered to be one of the most fatal diseases worldwide, owing to its late diagnosis and lack of availability of established reliable biomarkers. The aim of this study was to highlight the significance of immunosuppressive cytokines as potential biomarkers in OSCC. Whole unstimulated saliva was collected from each individual (30 OSCC patients and 33 age- and gender-matched healthy controls). Immunosuppressive cytokines, including IL-4, IL-10, IL-13, and IL-1RA, were evaluated in each sample using Luminex multianalyte profiling (xMAP) technology on BioPlex instrument. Our results showed that all the studied salivary cytokines were raised in OSCC patients as compared to controls, where IL-10 and IL-13 salivary levels showed statistically significant difference (p = .004 and p = .010, respectively). Mean levels of salivary cytokines in three histologically defined OSCC categories, compared employing one-way ANOVA, showed that salivary levels of IL-1RA were highest in patients having poorly differentiated OSCC tumors as compared to those having moderately and well-differentiated tumors (p = .000 and p = .002, respectively). Among OSCC individuals, duration of smokeless tobacco correlated positively with IL-1RA (p = .036). We conclude that salivary levels of immunosuppressive cytokines, IL-4, IL-10, IL-13, and IL-1RA, could prove to be potential biomarkers of OSCC and can be further investigated as markers of early detection and disease progression. PMID:26046681

  1. [Salivary gland tumors in children].

    PubMed

    Thariat, Juliette; Vedrine, Pierre-Olivier; Orbach, Daniel; Marcy, Pierre-Yves; Badoual, Cécile; Butori, Catherine; Teissier, Natacha; Toussaint, Bruno; Castillo, Laurent

    2011-07-01

    Salivary gland tumors in children are rare: they correspond to 8-10% of head and neck pediatric tumors. Clinicians of all disciplines should be aware of this diagnosis in front of non-inflammatory mass of the parotid or in the territory of other salivary glands. In children, 50% of salivary gland tumors are malignant which contrasts with a 10-25% risk in adults. Epithelial tumors are the most common, mucoepidermoïd carcinomas of the parotid in particular. Surgery is the treatment of choice in epithelial tumors. Adjuvant radiotherapy may be indicated in case of unfavorable prognostic factors but must be balanced with the risk of radiation-induced growth defects and secondary cancer. The role of chemotherapy is limited in these tumors, but should be discussed in case of an inoperable or metastatic lesion. PMID:21690035

  2. Identification of salivary antigenic markers discriminating host exposition between two European ticks: Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Dermacentor reticulatus.

    PubMed

    Vu Hai, Vinh; Almeras, Lionel; Audebert, Stephane; Pophillat, Matthieu; Boulanger, Nathalie; Parola, Philippe; Raoult, Didier; Pages, Frederic

    2013-01-01

    To succeed blood meal, ticks inject salivary proteins to mammalian hosts, eliciting an antibody response against these foreign antigens. Although this immune response has been proposed as a surrogate marker of exposure to tick bites, identification of the corresponding antigens remains elusive. For this aim, a comparison by immunoblots of the kinetic IgG responses to protein salivary gland extracts from two European tick species, Rhipicephalus sanguineus or Dermacentor reticulatus, in rabbits was performed. A singularity in the immune patterns was observed according to rabbit exposure status and depending on the antigen source. Six and five bands were found specifically associated to R. sanguineus and to D. reticulatus exposures, respectively. The identity of these salivary antigenic proteins was determined using an original immunoproteomic approach. The utilization of these tick salivary proteins as biomarker candidates to discriminate R. sanguineus and/or D. reticulatus tick exposure or to develop anti-tick vaccines is discussed. PMID:23040662

  3. Recent advances in salivary cancer diagnostics enabled by biosensors and bioelectronics.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Saswat; Saadat, Darius; Kwon, Ohjin; Lee, Yongkuk; Choi, Woon-Seop; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Yeo, Woon-Hong

    2016-07-15

    There is a high demand for a non-invasive, rapid, and highly accurate tool for disease diagnostics. Recently, saliva based diagnostics for the detection of specific biomarkers has drawn significant attention since the sample extraction is simple, cost-effective, and precise. Compared to blood, saliva contains a similar variety of DNA, RNA, proteins, metabolites, and microbiota that can be compiled into a multiplex of cancer detection markers. The salivary diagnostic method holds great potential for early-stage cancer diagnostics without any complicated and expensive procedures. Here, we review various cancer biomarkers in saliva and compare the biomarkers efficacy with traditional diagnostics and state-of-the-art bioelectronics. We summarize biomarkers in four major groups: genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics/microbiota. Representative bioelectronic systems for each group are summarized based on various stages of a cancer. Systematic study of oxidative stress establishes the relationship between macromolecules and cancer biomarkers in saliva. We also introduce the most recent examples of salivary diagnostic electronics based on nanotechnologies that can offer rapid, yet highly accurate detection of biomarkers. A concluding section highlights areas of opportunity in the further development and applications of these technologies. PMID:26946257

  4. Characterization of the salivary microbiome in patients with pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Pedro J.; Fletcher, Erin M.; Gibbons, Sean M.; Bouvet, Michael; Doran, Kelly S.

    2015-01-01

    Clinical manifestations of pancreatic cancer often do not occur until the cancer has undergone metastasis, resulting in a very low survival rate. In this study, we investigated whether salivary bacterial profiles might provide useful biomarkers for early detection of pancreatic cancer. Using high-throughput sequencing of bacterial small subunit ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) gene, we characterized the salivary microbiota of patients with pancreatic cancer and compared them to healthy patients and patients with other diseases, including pancreatic disease, non-pancreatic digestive disease/cancer and non-digestive disease/cancer. A total of 146 patients were enrolled at the UCSD Moores Cancer Center where saliva and demographic data were collected from each patient. Of these, we analyzed the salivary microbiome of 108 patients: 8 had been diagnosed with pancreatic cancer, 78 with other diseases and 22 were classified as non-diseased (healthy) controls. Bacterial 16S rRNA sequences were amplified directly from salivary DNA extractions and subjected to high-throughput sequencing (HTS). Several bacterial genera differed in abundance in patients with pancreatic cancer. We found a significantly higher ratio of Leptotrichia to Porphyromonas in the saliva of patients with pancreatic cancer than in the saliva of healthy patients or those with other disease (Kruskal–Wallis Test; P < 0.001). Leptotrichia abundances were confirmed using real-time qPCR with Leptotrichia specific primers. Similar to previous studies, we found lower relative abundances of Neisseria and Aggregatibacter in the saliva of pancreatic cancer patients, though these results were not significant at the P < 0.05 level (K–W Test; P = 0.07 and P = 0.09 respectively). However, the relative abundances of other previously identified bacterial biomarkers, e.g., Streptococcus mitis and Granulicatella adiacens, were not significantly different in the saliva of pancreatic cancer patients. Overall, this study supports

  5. Follicular lymphoma of the submandibular salivary gland

    PubMed Central

    Shashidara, R.; Prasad, Priyanka R.; Jaishankar; Joseph, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Lymphomas are neoplastic diseases of lymph nodes. Lymphoma of the salivary gland is rare accounting for less than 5% of lymphomas overall. Furthermore, lymphomas arising in the submandibular gland are reported to comprise 916% of all salivary gland lymphomas. Among lymphomas originating from salivary glands, the ratio of follicular lymphoma is very low. They can also be seen in the lymph nodes of the salivary glands which is an uncommon presentation. Here, we present a case follicular lymphoma which presented as a salivary gland tumour. PMID:25364171

  6. [Salivary stones: aetiology, composition and treatment].

    PubMed

    Kraaij, S; Brand, H S; Karagozoglu, K H; Forouzanfar, T; Veerman, E C I

    2014-11-01

    Salivary stones or sialoliths, are calcified concrements which are most frequently located in the submandibular glands and their ducts. Their size and weight show considerable variation. The aetiology is unknown. It has been suggested that salivary stones could be related to an altered saliva composition, the anatomy of the ducts of the salivary gland and/or the fusion of microsialoliths. Salivary stones consist mainly of anorganic material such as hydroxyapatite, whitlockite and calciumphosphate, but they also contain organic components such as proteins and lipids. Treatment can consist of salivary gland massage combined with an acid diet, ultrasonic pulverisation, and surgical or sialendoscopical removal. PMID:26188478

  7. Salivary gland diseases: infections, sialolithiasis and mucoceles.

    PubMed

    Delli, Konstantina; Spijkervet, Fred K L; Vissink, Arjan

    2014-01-01

    The three most frequently diagnosed salivary gland diseases are salivary gland infections, sialolithiasis and mucoceles. Salivary gland infections are usually of bacterial or viral etiology and can be divided into acute and chronic types. Occasionally they can result from obstruction of the salivary duct, an autoimmmune disease or cancer therapy. Infections can occur in all types of salivary glands and are observed at all ages. Sialolithiasis is characterized by the development of calcified structures in the salivary glands, especially in the submandibular gland. Sialoliths are generally attributed to retention of saliva and are usually accompanied by swelling and pain when a salivary stimulus is applied. Mucoceles can be differentiated into mucus extravasation phenomenon or mucus escape reaction, mucus retention cysts and ranulas. They result from extravasation of saliva into the surrounding soft tissues or from retention of saliva within the duct. PMID:24862601

  8. Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Factors Request Permissions Print to PDF Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 08/ ... anything that increases a person’s chance of developing cancer. Although risk factors often influence the development of cancer, most do ...

  9. Salivary amylase and stress during stressful environment: three Mars analog mission crews study.

    PubMed

    Rai, Balwant; Kaur, Jasdeep; Foing, Bernard H

    2012-06-14

    After the establishment of the space age physicians, human factors engineers, neurologist and psychologists and their special attention to work on people's capability to meet up the physical, psychological, neuroscience and interpersonal strains of working in space, it has been regarded as an issue that seeks urgent consideration. Not study was conducted on effect of simulated Mars analog environment on stress and salivary amylase. So, this study aimed to confirm whether salivary amylase is act as stress biomarker in crew members who took part in Mars analog mission in an isolated and stressful environment. The 18 crew members were selected who took part in Mars Analog Research Station, Utah. Salivary amylase was measured using a biosensor of salivary amylase monitor and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory score at pre-extravehicular activity, post-extravehicular activity and on before mission. The state and trait anxiety scores at pre-extravehicular activity for each commander were elevated as compared to after extravehicular activity. There were significant differences in the state and trait anxiety scores between before extravehicular activity and after extravehicular activity of Commander and other members, also there were significant differences in values of before-extravehicular activity between commanders and other members. There were significant differences in values of salivary amylase at before extravehicular activity and after extravehicular activity between commander group and other members. There was significant correlation between salivary amylase and state and trait anxiety scores in all groups. Measuring salivary amylase level could be useful for stress assessment of crew members and population working in a stressful and isolated environment. PMID:22554904

  10. Salivary Myeloperoxidase, Assessed by 3,3'-Diaminobenzidine Colorimetry, Can Differentiate Periodontal Patients from Nonperiodontal Subjects.

    PubMed

    Klangprapan, Supaporn; Chaiyarit, Ponlatham; Hormdee, Doosadee; Kampichai, Amonrujee; Khampitak, Tueanjit; Daduang, Jureerut; Tavichakorntrakool, Ratree; Panijpan, Bhinyo; Boonsiri, Patcharee

    2016-01-01

    Periodontal diseases, which result from inflammation of tooth supporting tissues, are highly prevalent worldwide. Myeloperoxidase (MPO), from certain white blood cells in saliva, is a biomarker for inflammation. We report our study on the salivary MPO activity and its association with severity of periodontal diseases among Thai patients. Periodontally healthy subjects (n = 11) and gingivitis (n = 32) and periodontitis patients (n = 19) were enrolled. Assessments of clinically periodontal parameters were reported as percentages for gingival bleeding index (GI) and bleeding on probing (BOP), whereas pocket depth (PD) and clinical attachment loss (CAL) were measured in millimeters and then made to index scores. Salivary MPO activity was measured by colorimetry using 3,3'-diaminobenzidine as substrate. The results showed that salivary MPO activity in periodontitis patients was significantly higher than in healthy subjects (p = 0.003) and higher than in gingivitis patients (p = 0.059). No difference was found between gingivitis and healthy groups (p = 0.181). Significant correlations were observed (p < 0.01) between salivary MPO activity and GI (r = 0.632, p < 0.001), BOP (r = 0.599, p < 0.001), PD (r = 0.179, p = 0.164), and CAL (r = 0.357, p = 0.004) index scores. Sensitivity (94.12%), specificity (54.55%), and positive (90.57%) and negative (66.67%) predictive values indicate that salivary MPO activity has potential use as a screening marker for oral health of the Thai community. PMID:27274868

  11. Salivary Cytoprotective Proteins in Inflammation and Resolution during Experimental Gingivitis—A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Aboodi, Guy M.; Sima, Corneliu; Moffa, Eduardo B.; Crosara, Karla T. B.; Xiao, Yizhi; Siqueira, Walter L.; Glogauer, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The protective mechanisms that maintain periodontal homeostasis in gingivitis and prevent periodontal tissue destruction are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to identify changes in the salivary proteome during experimental gingivitis. Study design: We used oral neutrophil quantification and whole saliva (WS) proteomics to assess changes that occur in the inflammatory and resolution phases of gingivitis in healthy individuals. Oral neutrophils and WS samples were collected and clinical parameters measured on days 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35. Results: Increased oral neutrophil recruitment and salivary cytoprotective proteins increased progressively during inflammation and decreased in resolution. Oral neutrophil numbers in gingival inflammation and resolution correlated moderately with salivary β-globin, thioredoxin, and albumin and strongly with collagen alpha-1 and G-protein coupled receptor 98. Conclusions: Our results indicate that changes in salivary cytoprotective proteins in gingivitis are associated with a similar trend in oral neutrophil recruitment and clinical parameters. Clinical relevance: We found moderate to strong correlations between oral neutrophil numbers and levels of several salivary cytoprotective proteins both in the development of the inflammation and in the resolution of gingivitis. Our proteomics approach identified and relatively quantified specific cytoprotective proteins in this pilot study of experimental gingivitis; however, future and more comprehensive studies are needed to clearly identify and validate those protein biomarkers when gingivitis is active. PMID:26779447

  12. Salivary Markers of Inflammation in Response to Acute Stress

    PubMed Central

    Slavish, Danica C.; Graham-Engeland, Jennifer E.; Smyth, Joshua M.; Engeland, Christopher G.

    2014-01-01

    There is burgeoning interest in the ability to detect inflammatory markers in response to stress within naturally occurring social contexts and/or across multiple time points per day within individuals. Salivary collection is a less invasive process than current methods of blood collection and enables intensive naturalistic methodologies, such as those involving extensive repeated measures per day over time. Yet the reliability and validity of saliva-based to blood-based inflammatory biomarkers in response to stress remains unclear. We review and synthesize the published studies that have examined salivary markers of inflammation following exposure to an acute laboratory stressor. Results from each study are reviewed by analyte (IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12, CRP) and stress type (social-cognitive and exercise-physical), after which methodological issues and limitations are addressed. Although the literature is limited, several inflammatory markers (including IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6) have been reliably determined from saliva and have increased significantly in response to stress across multiple studies, with effect sizes ranging from very small to very large. Although CRP from saliva has been associated with CRP in circulating blood more consistently than other biomarkers have been associated with their counterparts in blood, evidence demonstrating it reliably responds to acute stress is absent. Although the current literature is presently too limited to allow broad assertion that inflammatory biomarkers determined from saliva are valuable for examining acute stress responses, this review suggests that specific targets may be valid and highlights specific areas of need for future research. PMID:25205395

  13. Salivary Cortisol, Salivary Alpha Amylase, and the Dental Anxiety Scale

    PubMed Central

    Sadi, Hana; Finkelman, Matthew; Rosenberg, Morton

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between dental anxiety, salivary cortisol, and salivary alpha amylase (sAA) levels. Furthermore, the aim was to look into individual differences such as age, race, gender, any existing pain, or traumatic dental experience and their effect on dental anxiety. This study followed a cross-sectional design and included a convenience sample of 46. Every patient was asked to complete the Dental Anxiety Scale (DAS) and a basic demographic/dental history questionnaire. A saliva sample, utilizing the method of passive drooling, was then collected in 2-mL cryovials. Samples were analyzed for salivary cortisol and sAA levels by Salimetrics. Significant associations were observed between DAS scores and presence of pain and history of traumatic dental experience. However, no significant correlations were observed between DAS, cortisol, and sAA levels. Our study reconfirms that dental anxiety is associated with presence of pain and a history of traumatic dental experience. On the other hand, our study was the first to our knowledge to test the correlation between the DAS and sAA; nevertheless, our results failed to show any significant correlation between dental anxiety, cortisol, and sAA levels. PMID:23763559

  14. Parotid salivary duct stenosis following caudal maxillectomy.

    PubMed

    Mestrinho, Lisa A; Faísca, Pedro B; Niza, Maria M R E

    2014-01-01

    Parotid salivary duct dilation was diagnosed in a 9-year-old male dog. The dog had undergone caudal maxillectomy on the ipsilateral side 2-years prior to presentation. Treatment consisted of parotid salivary duct excision and superficial parotidectomy that lead to the resolution of clinical signs. Transient facial neuropraxia was observed immediately after surgery and resolved spontaneously after 2-weeks. Parotid salivary duct dilation should be considered as a chronic postoperative complication following caudal maxillectomy. PMID:24902412

  15. Differences in Salivary Flow Level, Xerostomia, and Flavor Alteration in Mexican HIV Patients Who Did or Did Not Receive Antiretroviral Therapy.

    PubMed

    López-Verdín, Sandra; Andrade-Villanueva, Jaime; Zamora-Perez, Ana Lourdes; Bologna-Molina, Ronell; Cervantes-Cabrera, José Justino; Molina-Frechero, Nelly

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Objective and subjective alterations related to salivary flow have been reported in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and these alterations are associated with the introduction of antiretroviral therapy. The aim of the current study was to discern whether these alterations are disease induced or secondary to drug therapy. Objective. The objective was to determine the relationships between low salivary flow, xerostomia, and flavor alterations in HIV patients who did or did not receive antiretroviral therapy. Materials and Methods. In this cross-sectional study, HIV patients were divided into two groups based on whether they had received antiretroviral therapy. Those patients with a previous diagnosis of any salivary gland disease were excluded. A survey was used to assess subjective variables, and colorimetry and salivary flow rates were measured using the Schirmer global test. Results. A total of 293 patients were included. The therapy group showed a significantly lower average salivary flow than did the group without therapy, and we observed that the flow rate tended to decrease after one year of therapy. The results were not conclusive, despite significant differences in xerostomia and flavor alteration between the groups. Conclusion. The study results suggest that antiretroviral therapy can cause cumulative damage that affects the amount of salivary flow. PMID:24455222

  16. Differences in Salivary Flow Level, Xerostomia, and Flavor Alteration in Mexican HIV Patients Who Did or Did Not Receive Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    López-Verdín, Sandra; Andrade-Villanueva, Jaime; Zamora-Perez, Ana Lourdes; Bologna-Molina, Ronell; Cervantes-Cabrera, José Justino

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Objective and subjective alterations related to salivary flow have been reported in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and these alterations are associated with the introduction of antiretroviral therapy. The aim of the current study was to discern whether these alterations are disease induced or secondary to drug therapy. Objective. The objective was to determine the relationships between low salivary flow, xerostomia, and flavor alterations in HIV patients who did or did not receive antiretroviral therapy. Materials and Methods. In this cross-sectional study, HIV patients were divided into two groups based on whether they had received antiretroviral therapy. Those patients with a previous diagnosis of any salivary gland disease were excluded. A survey was used to assess subjective variables, and colorimetry and salivary flow rates were measured using the Schirmer global test. Results. A total of 293 patients were included. The therapy group showed a significantly lower average salivary flow than did the group without therapy, and we observed that the flow rate tended to decrease after one year of therapy. The results were not conclusive, despite significant differences in xerostomia and flavor alteration between the groups. Conclusion. The study results suggest that antiretroviral therapy can cause cumulative damage that affects the amount of salivary flow. PMID:24455222

  17. Estimation of restraint stress in rats using salivary amylase activity.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Tetsuya; Takimura, Ryo; Yamaguchi, Masaki; Ichinose, Mitsuyuki

    2012-09-01

    The rat is an ideal model animal for studying physical and psychological stresses. Recent human studies have shown that salivary amylase activity is a useful biomarker of stress in our social life. To estimate the usefulness of amylase activity as a biomarker of stress in rats, we analyzed changes in physiological parameters including amylase activity and anatomical variables, which were induced by a mild restraint of paws (10 min, 3 times/week, 9 weeks). The quantities of food and water intake and excretion amount of the stress rats were smaller than those of the control rats during the experimental period (5-13 weeks). The body weight of the stress rats decreased compared with that of the control rats. Moreover, the enlargement of the adrenal gland was confirmed in the stress rats, indicating that the mild restraint caused a chronic stress response. The amylase activities of the stress rats were significantly greater than those of the control rats at 5 weeks of age. However, the amylase activity of the stress rats decreased compared with that of the control rats after 6 weeks of age. These results indicate that amylase activity is increased by acute stress and reduced by chronic stress, which is caused by repeated restraint stress. In conclusion, amylase activity is a useful biomarker of acute and chronic stresses in rats. PMID:22753135

  18. Comparison of Promoter Hypermethylation Pattern in Salivary Rinses Collected with and without an Exfoliating Brush from Patients with HNSCC

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wenyue; Zaboli, David; Liu, Yan; Arnaoutakis, Demetri; Khan, Tanbir; Wang, Hao; Koch, Wayne; Khan, Zubair; Califano, Joseph A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Salivary rinses have been recently proposed as a valuable resource for the development of epigenetic biomarkers for detection and monitoring of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Both salivary rinses collected with and without an exfoliating brush from patients with HNSCC are used in detection of promoter hypermethylation, yet their correlation of promoter hypermethylation has not been evaluated. This study was to evaluate the concordance of promoter hypermethylation between salivary rinses collected with and without an exfoliating brush from patients with HNSCC. Methodolgy 57 paired salivary rinses collected with or without an exfoliating brush from identical HNSCC patients were evaluated for promoter hypermethylation status using Quantitative Methylation-Specific PCR. Target tumor suppressor gene promoter regions were selected based on our previous studies describing a panel for HNSCC screening and surveillance, including P16, CCNA1, DCC, TIMP3, MGMT, DAPK and MINT31. Principal Findings In salivary rinses collected with and without brush, frequent methylation was detected in P16 (8.8% vs. 5.2%), CCNA1 (26.3% vs. 22.8%), DCC (33.3% vs. 29.8%), TIMP3 (31.6% vs. 36.8%), MGMT (29.8% vs. 38.6%), DAPK (14.0% vs. 19.2%), and MINT31 (10.5% vs. 8.8%). Spearman's rank correlation coefficient showed a positive correlation between salivary rinses collected with and without brush for P16 (ρ = 0.79), CCNA1 (ρ = 0.61), DCC (ρ = 0.58), TIMP3 (ρ = 0.10), MGMT (ρ = 0.70), DAPK (ρ = 0.51) and MINT31 (ρ = 0.72) (P<0.01). The percent agreement of promoter methylation between salivary rinses with brush and without brush were 96.5% for P16, 82.5% for CCNA1, 78.9% for DCC, 59.7% for TIMP3, 84.2% for MGMT, 84.2% for DAPK, and 94.7% for MINT31. Conclusions Our study demonstrated strong correlations of gene promoter hypermethylation between salivary rinses collected with and without an exfoliating brush. Salivary rinse collection

  19. Exercise upregulates salivary amylase in humans (Review).

    PubMed

    Koibuchi, Eri; Suzuki, Yoshio

    2014-04-01

    The secretion of salivary α-amylase is influenced by adrenergic regulation of the sympathetic nervous system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis; thus, exercise affects the levels of salivary α-amylase. Granger et al published a review in 2007 that focused attention on salivary α-amylase. In addition, a portable system for monitoring salivary α-amylase activity was launched in Japan at the end of 2005. The correlation between exercise and salivary α-amylase has since been extensively investigated. The present review summarizes relevant studies published in the English and Japanese literature after 2006. A search of the PubMed and CiNii databases identified 54 articles, from which 15 original articles were selected. The findings described in these publications indicate that exercise consistently increases mean salivary α-amylase activities and concentrations, particularly at an intensity of >70% VO2max in healthy young individuals. Thus, these studies have confirmed that salivary α-amylase levels markedly increase in response to physical stress. Salivary α-amylase levels may therefore serve as an effective indicator in the non-invasive assessment of physical stress. PMID:24669232

  20. Non-neoplastic salivary gland diseases.

    PubMed

    Arduino, P G; Carrozzo, M; Pentenero, M; Bertolusso, G; Gandolfo, S

    2006-05-01

    A wide range of non neoplastic disorders can affect the salivary glands, although the more common are: mumps, acute suppurative sialadenitis, Sjögren's syndrome and drug-induced xerostomia. Salivary dysfunction is not a normal consequence of old age, and can be due to systemic diseases, medications or head and neck radiotherapy. Diagnosis of salivary disorders begins with a careful medical history, followed by a cautious examination. While complaints of xerostomia may be indicative of a salivary gland disorder, salivary diseases can present without symptoms. Therefore, routine examination of salivary function must be part of any head, neck, and oral examination. Health-care professionals can play a vital role in identifying patients at risk for developing salivary dysfunction, and should provide appropriate preventive and interventive techniques that will help to preserving a person's health, function, and quality of life. The present work provides an overview of most of the non neoplastic disorders of the salivary glands, in which the general presentation, pathology, and treatments are discussed. PMID:16688102

  1. Salivary duct carcinoma of parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Kinnera, Vijay Sreedhar Babu; Mandyam, Kumaraswamy Reddy; Chowhan, Amit Kumar; Nandyala, Rukmangadha; Bobbidi, Venkata Phaneendra; Vutukuru, Venkatarami Reddy

    2009-07-01

    A 40-year old male presented with rapidly growing swelling in the right parotid region. Based on the fine needle aspiration cytology report of adenocarcinoma not otherwise specified, superficial parotidectomy was performed, which showed the features of salivary duct carcinoma by histopathological examination. The smears were reviewed to identify the potential pitfalls in the cytological diagnosis of salivary duct carcinoma. PMID:21887008

  2. Salivary duct carcinoma of parotid gland

    PubMed Central

    Kinnera, Vijay Sreedhar Babu; Mandyam, Kumaraswamy Reddy; Chowhan, Amit Kumar; Nandyala, Rukmangadha; Bobbidi, Venkata Phaneendra; Vutukuru, Venkatarami Reddy

    2009-01-01

    A 40-year old male presented with rapidly growing swelling in the right parotid region. Based on the fine needle aspiration cytology report of adenocarcinoma not otherwise specified, superficial parotidectomy was performed, which showed the features of salivary duct carcinoma by histopathological examination. The smears were reviewed to identify the potential pitfalls in the cytological diagnosis of salivary duct carcinoma. PMID:21887008

  3. Lapatinib in Treating Patients With Recurrent and/or Metastatic Adenoid Cystic Cancer or Other Salivary Gland Cancers

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-10-10

    High-grade Salivary Gland Carcinoma; High-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Low-grade Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Low-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Recurrent Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Salivary Gland Acinic Cell Tumor; Salivary Gland Adenocarcinoma; Salivary Gland Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Malignant Mixed Cell Type Tumor

  4. Stress evaluation in adult patients with atopic dermatitis using salivary cortisol.

    PubMed

    Mizawa, Megumi; Yamaguchi, Masaki; Ueda, Chieko; Makino, Teruhiko; Shimizu, Tadamichi

    2013-01-01

    The symptoms of atopic dermatitis (AD) are often aggravated by stress, and AD can also lead to psychological stress due to social isolation and discrimination. The salivary cortisol level reflects psychological stress, and it is a good index to assess chronic stress. In this study, we measured the salivary cortisol levels in patients with AD (n = 30) and compared them with those of healthy control subjects (n = 42). AD patients were also evaluated for general disease severity using the Scoring Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) index. The serum levels of TARC, total IgE, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and peripheral blood eosinophil counts were measured by laboratory tests. The Skindex-16 was used as a skin disease-specific, quality of life measure, instrument. The results showed that the saliva cortisol level was significantly higher in AD patients compared to healthy subjects (P < 0.01). The salivary cortisol level was significantly correlated with the SCORAD index (r = 0.42, P < 0.05) while the serum TARC and LDH levels were positively correlated with the SCORAD index. However, no statistically significant correlations were observed between the salivary cortisol level and Skindex-16. These results suggest that the saliva cortisol level is therefore a useful biomarker to evaluate the stress in AD patients. PMID:23971022

  5. Stress Evaluation in Adult Patients with Atopic Dermatitis Using Salivary Cortisol

    PubMed Central

    Mizawa, Megumi; Ueda, Chieko; Makino, Teruhiko

    2013-01-01

    The symptoms of atopic dermatitis (AD) are often aggravated by stress, and AD can also lead to psychological stress due to social isolation and discrimination. The salivary cortisol level reflects psychological stress, and it is a good index to assess chronic stress. In this study, we measured the salivary cortisol levels in patients with AD (n = 30) and compared them with those of healthy control subjects (n = 42). AD patients were also evaluated for general disease severity using the Scoring Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) index. The serum levels of TARC, total IgE, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and peripheral blood eosinophil counts were measured by laboratory tests. The Skindex-16 was used as a skin disease-specific, quality of life measure, instrument. The results showed that the saliva cortisol level was significantly higher in AD patients compared to healthy subjects (P < 0.01). The salivary cortisol level was significantly correlated with the SCORAD index (r = 0.42, P < 0.05) while the serum TARC and LDH levels were positively correlated with the SCORAD index. However, no statistically significant correlations were observed between the salivary cortisol level and Skindex-16. These results suggest that the saliva cortisol level is therefore a useful biomarker to evaluate the stress in AD patients. PMID:23971022

  6. Evaluation of response to restraint stress by salivary corticosterone levels in adult male mice

    PubMed Central

    NOHARA, Masakatsu; TOHEI, Atsushi; SATO, Takumi; AMAO, Hiromi

    2016-01-01

    Saliva as a sampling method is a low invasive technique for the detection of physiologically active substances, as opposed to sampling the plasma or serum. In this study, we obtained glucocorticoids transferred from the blood to the saliva from mice treated with 2.0 mg/kg via an intraperitoneal injection of cortisol. Next, to evaluate the effect of restraint stress using mouse saliva—collected under anesthesia by mixed anesthetic agents—we measured plasma and salivary corticosterone levels at 60 min after restraint stress. Moreover, to evaluate salivary corticosterone response to stress in the same individual mouse, an adequate recovery period (1, 3 and 7 days) after anesthesia was examined. The results demonstrate that exogenous cortisol was detected in the saliva and the plasma, in mice treated with cortisol. Restraint stress significantly increased corticosterone levels in both the plasma and saliva (P<0.001). Monitoring the results of individual mice showed that restraint stress significantly increased salivary corticosterone levels in all three groups (1-, 3- and 7-day recovery). However, the statistical evidence of corticosterone increase is stronger in the 7-day recovery group (P<0.001) than in the others (P<0.05). These results suggest that the corticosterone levels in saliva reflect its levels in the plasma, and salivary corticosterone is a useful, less-invasive biomarker of physical stress in mice. The present study may contribute to concepts of Reduction and Refinement of the three Rs in small animal experiments. PMID:26852731

  7. Investigation of The Association between Salivary Procalcitonin Concentration and Chronic Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Yousefimanesh, Hojatollah; Robati, Maryam; Malekzadeh, Hossein; Jahangirnezhad, Mahmoud; Ghafourian Boroujerdnia, Mehri; Azadi, Khadijeh

    2015-01-01

    Objective Chronic periodontitis is the most common form of periodontal disease. Chang- es in biomarkers seem to be associated with the disease progression. Procalcitonin (PCT) is one of these biomarkers that are altered during infection. This study was established to investigate the relationship between periodontitis as an infectious disease and salivary PCT. Materials and Methods This case-control study was performed on 30 patients with gen- eralized chronic periodontitis and 30 health individuals as control group who were referred to Dental School, Jundishapur University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran at Feb to Apr 2014. The saliva samples were collected and analyzed by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Data analysis was performed using t test with the SPSS (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) version 13. Results In both groups, age and sex distribution values were not significantly differ- ent. The concentrations of salivary PCT in controls and patients ranged from 0.081 pg/ mL to 0.109 pg/mL and from 0.078 pg/mL to 0.114 pg/mL, respectively. The statistically significant differences between the two groups were not observed (P=0.17). Conclusion It seems that salivary PCT concentration is not affected by disease progres- sion. Therefore, PCT is not a valuable marker for the existence of periodontal disease. PMID:26464829

  8. A study into salivary-based measurement of human stress subjected to Ellestad stress test protocol.

    PubMed

    Lee, Y K; Za'aba, A; Madzhi, N K; Ahmad, A

    2009-01-01

    Previous works on the effects of salivary alpha amylase in respond to various stressors report encouraging findings on it being a good indicator of stress. Ellestad protocol is a clinical procedure to screen for coronary artery disease by introducing exercise induced physical stress. If a salivary based biomarker profile in accordance to a stress test protocol could be established, the critical stress state which disable rational decision making could be ascertained in a standardized procedure. This technique would serve to aid human resource management in times of critical events such as rescue, firefighting or even military, that would potentially prevent unnecessary sacrifice of human lives. In this pilot study with five healthy volunteers performing the Ellestad protocol treadmill, a measurement profile with physiologic and salivary based biomarker is obtained. It is found that the alpha amylase levels or the changes in it as workload changes from resting-walking-running at ease-exhaustive running, is relatively more significant in reflecting the stress state than heart rate and blood pressure. Moreover, it is strongly associated with mood state with correlation coefficient of 0.8 and significance of 0.01. PMID:19964239

  9. Imaging Biomarkers or Biomarker Imaging?

    PubMed Central

    Mitterhauser, Markus; Wadsak, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Since biomarker imaging is traditionally understood as imaging of molecular probes, we highly recommend to avoid any confusion with the previously defined term “imaging biomarkers” and, therefore, only use “molecular probe imaging (MPI)” in that context. Molecular probes (MPs) comprise all kinds of molecules administered to an organism which inherently carry a signalling moiety. This review highlights the basic concepts and differences of molecular probe imaging using specific biomarkers. In particular, PET radiopharmaceuticals are discussed in more detail. Specific radiochemical and radiopharmacological aspects as well as some legal issues are presented. PMID:24967536

  10. Adherence of oral streptococci to salivary glycoproteins.

    PubMed Central

    Murray, P A; Prakobphol, A; Lee, T; Hoover, C I; Fisher, S J

    1992-01-01

    We used an overlay method to study the ability of human salivary glycoproteins to serve as receptors for several strains of streptococci that colonize the oral cavity. Parotid and submandibular-sublingual salivas were collected as ductal secretions, separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and transferred to nitrocellulose membranes. The resulting blots were overlaid with [35S]methionine-labeled bacteria, and salivary components to which the bacteria bound were detected by autoradiography. Potential glycoprotein receptors were identified for 8 of the 16 strains tested. In three cases (Streptococcus sanguis 72-40 and 804 and Streptococcus sobrinus OMZ176), highly specific interactions with a single salivary component were detected. Removal of sialic acid residues from the low-molecular-weight salivary mucin prevented adherence of one of these strains (S. sanguis 72-40), suggesting that this saccharide either mediates binding or is a critical component of the receptor site. In the remaining five strains (Streptococcus gordonii G9B and 10558, S. sanguis 10556, and Streptococcus oralis 10557 and 72-41), interactions with multiple salivary components, including the low-molecular-weight salivary mucin, highly glycosylated proline-rich glycoproteins, and alpha-amylase, were detected. These results suggest that some oral streptococci can bind specifically to certain of the salivary glycoproteins. The interactions identified may play an important role in governing bacterial adherence and clearance within the oral cavity. Images PMID:1729194

  11. Porcine salivary analysis by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis in 3 models of acute stress: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes-Rubio, María; Cerón, José J.; de Torre, Carlos; Escribano, Damián; Gutiérrez, Ana M.; Tecles, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to study changes in the salivary proteome of healthy pigs in stressful situations to identify any potential new salivary biomarker of stress. Three groups of animals were subjected to 3 stress models: snaring restraint followed by simulated sampling of vena cava blood; brief transport by road; and restriction of movement in a digestibility cage. Saliva was obtained from each animal before and 15 and 30 min after the induction of stress. The samples from the animals that showed the greatest increase in salivary cortisol concentration were pooled and run on 2-dimensional gels. Coomassie Brilliant Blue R-250 was used for spot detection and mass spectrometry for spot identification. Statistical analyses showed that 2 proteins had significant differences in expression before and after the induction of stress. These proteins were identified as odorant-binding protein and fragments of albumin. Further studies will be necessary to confirm the value of using these proteins as salivary biomarkers of stress in pigs. PMID:24688174

  12. Malignant lymphomas involving the salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Colby, T V; Dorfman, R F

    1979-01-01

    Malignant lymphomas involving the salivary glands are probably more common than has been previously recognized. They must be differentiated from the benign lymphoepithelial lesion, although there may be an association between the two. The entire histologic spectrum of malignant lymphomas found at other sites can be seen in the salivary gland. In this study of 59 patients with lymphoma affecting the salivary gland, a large percentage were found to have disseminated disease. We recommend the same rigorous clinical evaluation and staging procedures as used in patients who present with primary lymph node involvement. PMID:583554

  13. Implication of haematophagous arthropod salivary proteins in host-vector interactions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The saliva of haematophagous arthropods contains an array of anti-haemostatic, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory molecules that contribute to the success of the blood meal. The saliva of haematophagous arthropods is also involved in the transmission and the establishment of pathogens in the host and in allergic responses. This survey provides a comprehensive overview of the pharmacological activity and immunogenic properties of the main salivary proteins characterised in various haematophagous arthropod species. The potential biological and epidemiological applications of these immunogenic salivary molecules will be discussed with an emphasis on their use as biomarkers of exposure to haematophagous arthropod bites or vaccine candidates that are liable to improve host protection against vector-borne diseases. PMID:21951834

  14. The relationship between the level of salivary alpha amylase activity and pain severity in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis

    PubMed Central

    Shahriari, Shahriar; Goodarzi, Mohammad Taghi; Moghimbeigi, Abbas; Jazaeri, Mina; Babaei, Parisa

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Assessment of dental pain severity is very challenging in dentistry. Previous studies have suggested that elevated salivary alpha amylase may contribute to increased physical stresses. There is a close association between salivary alpha amylase and plasma norepinephrine under stressful physical conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between pain severity and salivary alpha amylase levels in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. Materials and Methods Thirty-six patients (20 females and 16 males) with severe tooth pain due to symptomatic irreversible pulpitis were selected. The visual analogue scale (VAS) score was used to assess the pain severity in each patient. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected, and the level of alpha amylase activity was assessed by the spectrophotometric method. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 13. Results The level of alpha amylase was significantly increased in the saliva in association with pain severity assessed by VAS. The salivary alpha amylase was also elevated with increased age and in males. Conclusions There was a significant correlation between the VAS pain scale and salivary alpha amylase level, which indicates this biomarker may be a good index for the objective assessment of pain intensity. PMID:24010080

  15. Salivary Myeloperoxidase, Assessed by 3,3′-Diaminobenzidine Colorimetry, Can Differentiate Periodontal Patients from Nonperiodontal Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Klangprapan, Supaporn; Chaiyarit, Ponlatham; Hormdee, Doosadee; Kampichai, Amonrujee; Khampitak, Tueanjit; Daduang, Jureerut; Tavichakorntrakool, Ratree; Panijpan, Bhinyo; Boonsiri, Patcharee

    2016-01-01

    Periodontal diseases, which result from inflammation of tooth supporting tissues, are highly prevalent worldwide. Myeloperoxidase (MPO), from certain white blood cells in saliva, is a biomarker for inflammation. We report our study on the salivary MPO activity and its association with severity of periodontal diseases among Thai patients. Periodontally healthy subjects (n = 11) and gingivitis (n = 32) and periodontitis patients (n = 19) were enrolled. Assessments of clinically periodontal parameters were reported as percentages for gingival bleeding index (GI) and bleeding on probing (BOP), whereas pocket depth (PD) and clinical attachment loss (CAL) were measured in millimeters and then made to index scores. Salivary MPO activity was measured by colorimetry using 3,3′-diaminobenzidine as substrate. The results showed that salivary MPO activity in periodontitis patients was significantly higher than in healthy subjects (p = 0.003) and higher than in gingivitis patients (p = 0.059). No difference was found between gingivitis and healthy groups (p = 0.181). Significant correlations were observed (p < 0.01) between salivary MPO activity and GI (r = 0.632, p < 0.001), BOP (r = 0.599, p < 0.001), PD (r = 0.179, p = 0.164), and CAL (r = 0.357, p = 0.004) index scores. Sensitivity (94.12%), specificity (54.55%), and positive (90.57%) and negative (66.67%) predictive values indicate that salivary MPO activity has potential use as a screening marker for oral health of the Thai community. PMID:27274868

  16. A Study of the Variation in the Salivary Peptide Profiles of Young Healthy Adults Acquired Using MALDI-TOF MS

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Henk; Imangaliyev, Sultan; Tsivtsivadze, Evgeni; van der Weijden, Fridus; de Jong, Ad; Paauw, Armand; Crielaard, Wim; Keijser, Bart; Veerman, Enno

    2016-01-01

    A cross-sectional observational study was conducted to evaluate the inter-individual variation in the MALDI-TOF MS peptide profiles of unstimulated whole saliva in a population of 268 systemically healthy adults aged 18–30 yr (150 males and 118 females) with no apparent caries lesions or periodontal disease. Using Spectral Clustering, four subgroups of individuals were identified within the study population. These subgroups were delimited by the pattern of variation in 9 peaks detected in the 2–15 kDa m/z range. An Unsupervised Feature Selection algorithm showed that P-C peptide, a 44 residue-long salivary acidic proline-rich protein, and three of its fragments (Fr. 1–25, Fr. 15–35 and Fr. 15–44) play a central role in delimiting the subgroups. Significant differences were found in the salivary biochemistry of the subgroups with regard to lysozyme and chitinase, two enzymes that are part of the salivary innate defense system (p < 0.001). These results suggest that MALDI-TOF MS salivary peptide profiles may relate information on the underlying state of the oral ecosystem and may provide a useful reference for salivary disease biomarker discovery studies. PMID:27258023

  17. Salivary carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme VI

    PubMed Central

    Kivelä, Jyrki; Parkkila, Seppo; Parkkila, Anna-Kaisa; Leinonen, Jukka; Rajaniemi, Hannu

    1999-01-01

    The carbonic anhydrases (CAs) participate in the maintenance of pH homeostasis in various tissues and biological fluids of the human body by catalysing the reversible reaction CO2+ H2O ⇌ HCO3−+ H+ (Davenport & Fisher, 1938; Davenport, 1939; Maren, 1967). Carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme VI (CA VI) is the only secretory isoenzyme of the mammalian CA gene family. It is exclusively expressed in the serous acinar cells of the parotid and submandibular glands, from where it is secreted into the saliva. In this review, we will discuss recent advances in research focused on the physiological role of salivary CA VI in the oral cavity and upper alimentary canal. PMID:10523402

  18. Salivary cortisol results obtainable within minutes of sample collection correspond with traditional immunoassays

    PubMed Central

    Shirtcliff, E.A.; Buck, R.L.; Laughlin, M.; Hart, T.; Cole, C.R.; Slowey, P.D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Cortisol is frequently assayed as a stress-responsive biomarker which changes over the course of minutes to meet the demands of an individual’s social context. Salivary cortisol is often utilized as a non-invasive sampling methodology which possesses important health implications. A critical barrier to psychobiological research involving salivary cortisol is a time-delay of days to months before cortisol results are obtained via immunoassay, long after the individual is no longer proximate to the social context in which they provided the sample. The current study was designed to address this critical barrier through creation of a lateral flow technology (LFT) cortisol device capable of measuring salivary cortisol within minutes of sample collection. LFT is frequently used within commercial point-of-care settings to obtain rapid answers to the presence/absence of a biomarker. The present study extends LFT into the research domain by presenting performance characteristics of a quantitative LFT which measures salivary cortisol within 20 minutes of sample collection. Methods Saliva samples on N=29 adults (15 males) were obtained in the morning and afternoon using Passive Drool and then the Super•SAL™ Extra Collection Device (hereafter Super•SAL™) and later assayed with LFT and a commercially available enzyme-immunoassay. Findings Results show LFT correlated well with these collection methods (R=.872 with Super•SAL™; R=.739 with Passive Drool, p-values<.0001) and at comparable levels to correspondence of Super•SAL™ with Passive Drool (R=.798, p<.0001) which were measured with the same assay. Implications These results open up an exciting new possibility to integrate this technological advance into stress research, including knowing and potentially changing the individual’s social context in a time-sensitive manner. Methodological improvements such as this have the possibility of refining conceptual models of stress reactivity and regulation

  19. Salivary proteomics: A new adjuvant approach to the early diagnosis of familial juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Abrão, Aline Lauria P; Falcao, Denise Pinheiro; de Amorim, Rivadávio Fernandes Batista; Bezerra, Ana Cristina B; Pombeiro, Gilson Augusto N M; Guimarães, Luciano Junqueira; Fregni, Felipe; Silva, Luciano Paulino; da Mota, Licia Maria Henrique

    2016-04-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic multisystemic disease characterized by autoimmune inflammatory disturbance. Pleomorphic manifestations are present and a potentially progressive and debilitating course can be detected. SLE rarely manifests before age 5, and its onset peaks is around puberty. Although clinical manifestations, immunological alterations and treatment do not differ between juvenile and adult SLE, children tend to present with a more aggressive disease course than adults. Hence, autoimmune rheumatic diseases are the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in pediatric populations. Blood serum analysis plays an especially important role in the detection and monitoring of autoantibodies in SLE. However, since blood sampling is an uncomfortable procedure, especially in children, novel less invasive techniques and approaches are of utmost importance to evaluate pediatric subjects. In this regard, saliva samples have several advantages, such as: easy access, fast collection, painless and riskless procedure. Saliva has antimicrobial, immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties, as well as several other relevant features. The whole saliva is a complex mixture of major and minor salivary gland secretion, gingival crevicular fluid, transudates plasma protein, keratinocyte products and oral microbiota. This biological fluid reflects the physiological state of the body, including the emotional condition, and endocrine, nutritional and metabolic changes. Therefore, salivary proteomics is becoming increasingly used for the early diagnosis of several diseases such as breast cancer, oral cancer, Sjögren's syndrome, diffuse systemic sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, among others. Considering the detection of some potential markers related to SLE in serum and urine, this study aims to conduct an initial evaluation of the possible presence of such biomarkers in saliva. Furthermore, it is expected to track down new salivary proteins that could be

  20. Molecular signature of salivary gland tumors: potential use as diagnostic and prognostic marker.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Felipe Paiva; Sena Filho, Marcondes; Altemani, Albina; Speight, Paul M; Vargas, Pablo Agustin

    2016-02-01

    Salivary gland tumors are a highly heterogeneous group of lesions with diverse microscopic appearances and variable clinical behavior. The use of clinical and histological parameters to predict patient prognosis and survival rates has been of limited utility, and the search for new biomarkers that could not only aid in a better understanding of their pathogenesis but also be reliable auxiliaries for prognostic determination and useful diagnostic tools has been performed in the last decades with very exciting results. Hence, gene rearrangements such as CRTC1-MAML2 in mucoepidermoid carcinomas have shown excellent specificity, and more than that, it has been strongly correlated with low-grade tumors and consequently with an increased survival rate and better prognosis of patients affected by neoplasms carrying this translocation. Moreover, MYB-NFIB and EWSR1-ATF1 gene fusions were shown to be specifically found in cases of adenoid cystic carcinomas and hyalinizing clear cell carcinomas, respectively, in the context of salivary gland tumors, becoming reliable diagnostic tools for these entities and potential therapeutic targets for future therapeutic protocols. Finally, the identification of ETV6-NTRK3 in cases previously diagnosed as uncommon acinic cell carcinomas, cystadenocarcinomas, and adenocarcinomas not otherwise specified led to the characterization of a completely new and now widely accepted entity, including, therefore, mammary analogue secretory carcinoma in the list of well-recognized salivary gland carcinomas. Thus, further molecular investigations of salivary gland tumors are warranted, and the recognition of other genetic abnormalities can lead to the acknowledgment of new entities and the acquirement of reliable biomarkers. PMID:25990369

  1. [Radiotherapy of carcinoma of the salivary glands].

    PubMed

    Servagi-Vernat, S; Tochet, F

    2016-09-01

    Indication, doses, and technique of radiotherapy for salivary glands carcinoma are presented, and the contribution of neutrons and carbon ions. The recommendations for delineation of the target volumes and organs at risk are detailed. PMID:27521038

  2. The Relationship between Plasma and Salivary NOx

    PubMed Central

    Clodfelter, William H.; Basu, Swati; Bolden, Crystal; Dos Santos, Patricia C.; King, S. Bruce; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B.

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have shown that fasting plasma nitrite (NO2−) is an indicator of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity while plasma nitrate (NO3−) or the sum of NO2− and NO3− (NOx) do not reflect NOS function. Plasma NO2− can also be elevated through dietary NO3− where the NO3− is partially reduced to NO2− by oral bacteria and enters the plasma through the digestive system. NO3− is taken up from plasma by salivary glands and the cycle repeats itself. Thus, one may propose that salivary NO2− is an indicator of plasma NO2− and consequently of NO production. Many brands of nitric oxide (NO) saliva test strips have been developed that suggest that their product is indicative of circulatory NO availability. However, data supporting a relationship between salivary and plasma NO2− or NO bioavailability is lacking. Here we have measured basal salivary and plasma NO2− and NO3− to determine if any correlation exists between these in 13 adult volunteers. We found no significant correlation between basal salivary and plasma NO2−. Also no correlation exists between salivary NO3− and plasma NO2−. However, we did see a correlation between salivary NO3− and plasma NO3−, and between salivary NO2− and plasma NO3−. In a separate study, we compared the efficiency of salivary NO3− reduction with the efficacy of increasing plasma NO3− and NO2− after drinking beet juice, a high NO3−-containing beverage, in 10 adult volunteers. No significant correlation was observed between the ex vivo salivary reduction of NO3− to NO2− and plasma increases in NO3− or NO2−. These results suggest that measures of salivary NO3−, NO2− or NOx are not good indicators of endothelial function. In addition, the efficiency of saliva to reduce NO3− to NO2− ex-vivo does not demonstrate one’s ability to increase plasma NO2− following consumption of dietary NO3−. PMID:25910583

  3. Salivary bone turnover markers in healthy pre- and postmenopausal women: daily and seasonal rhythm.

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, Gretel G; Gonzales Chaves, Macarena M S; Fajardo, Maria A; Ponce, Graciela M; Toyos, Gloria I; Lifshitz, Fima; Friedman, Silvia M; Zeni, Susana N

    2012-04-01

    No studies had investigated circadian and circannual rhythms of bone biomarkers in whole saliva. We evaluated the salivary daily and seasonal rhythm of carboxy-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) and bone alkaline phosphatase (b-ALP). Forty clinical and oral healthy ambulatory pre- and postmenopausal women from two southern Argentine cities: Comodoro Rivadavia (latitude 45º S) and Ushuaia (latitude 54º S) were included in the study. CTX levels were evaluated in serum, urine, and saliva, and b-ALP levels were measured in serum and saliva. In both groups of women, salivary CTX showed a maximum percentage of change early in the morning (80%) and a minimum in the late afternoon (45%), similarly to the pattern observed in urinary samples. No daily rhythm was observed in serum or salivary b-ALP. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D levels decreased in winter vs. summer (p < 0.01) without differences between the two studied groups. Conversely, parathormone reached higher levels in winter (p < 0.05) which induced a slight non-significant increment in salivary CTX and b-ALP levels. The results showed that, as in serum and urinary samples, salivary CTX exhibits daily and a slight seasonal rhythmicity. Whole non-stimulated saliva is a useful tool to detect several oral and systemic diseases because it has important advantages compared to serum and urinary samples. Then, it may also be a promising sample to test changes in bone metabolism contributing to diagnose and to monitor the therapy of several metabolic bone diseases. PMID:21431857

  4. An update: salivary hormones and physical exercise.

    PubMed

    Gatti, R; De Palo, E F

    2011-04-01

    Saliva contains cells and compounds, of local and non-local oral origin, namely inorganic, organic non-protein, protein/polypeptide, and lipid molecules. Moreover, some hormones, commonly assayed in plasma, such as steroids, are detectable in oral fluid and peptide/protein, and non-steroid hormones have been investigated. The sports practice environment and athletes' availability, together with hormone molecule characteristics in saliva and physical exercise behavior effects, confirm this body fluid as an alternative to serum. This review focuses on the relation between salivary steroids and psycho-physiological stress and underlines how the measurement of salivary cortisol provides an approach of self-report psychological indicator and anxiety change in relation to exercise performance. The correlation between salivary and plasma steroid hormone (cortisol, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)) levels, observed during exercise, has been considered, underlining how the type, duration, and intensity of the exercise influence the salivary steroid concentrations in the same way as serum-level variations. Training conditions have been considered in relation to the salivary hormonal response. This review focuses on studies related to salivary hormone measurements, mainly steroids, in physical exercise. Saliva use in physical disciplines, as a real alternative to serum, could be a future perspective. PMID:21129038

  5. Interactions between developing nerves and salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, João N; Hoffman, Matthew P

    2013-01-01

    Our aim is to provide a summary of the field of salivary gland development and regeneration from the perspective of what is known about the function of nerves during these processes. The primary function of adult salivary glands is to produce and secrete saliva. Neuronal control of adult salivary gland function has been a focus of research ever since Pavlov's seminal experiments on salivation in dogs. Less is known about salivary gland innervation during development and how the developing nerves influence gland organogenesis and regeneration. Here, we will review what is known about the communication between the autonomic nervous system and the epithelium of the salivary glands during organogenesis. An important emerging theme is the instructive role of the nervous system on the epithelial stem/progenitor cells during development as well as regeneration after damage. We will provide a brief overview of the neuroanatomy of the salivary glands and discuss recent literature that begins to integrate neurobiology with epithelial organogenesis, which may provide paradigms for exploring these interactions in other organ systems. PMID:23974175

  6. Endocannabinoids Measurement in Human Saliva as Potential Biomarker of Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Tabarin, Antoine; Clark, Samantha; Leste-Lasserre, Thierry; Marsicano, Giovanni; Piazza, Pier Vincenzo; Cota, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    /Significance Endocannabinoids and N-acylethanolamines are quantifiable in saliva and their levels correlate with obesity but not with feeding status. Body weight loss significantly decreases salivary AEA, which might represent a useful biomarker in obesity. PMID:22860123

  7. Indications for Salivary Gland Radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Thomson, David J; Slevin, Nick J; Mendenhall, William M

    2016-01-01

    There is an established role for post-operative radiotherapy in the treatment of benign and malignant salivary gland tumours. For benign disease, the addition of radiotherapy improves local tumour control in cases with incomplete excision, involved surgical margins or multi-focal disease recurrence. After capsule rupture or spillage alone, surveillance should usually be advised. For malignant disease, post-operative radiotherapy is recommended for an advanced tumour stage, high-grade tumour, perineural or lympho-vascular invasion, close or positive resection margins, extra-parotid extension or lymph node involvement. The main benefit is increased loco-regional tumour control, although this may translate into a modest improvement in survival. The possible late side effects of parotid bed irradiation include skin changes, chronic otitis externa, sensorineural hearing loss, osteoradionecrosis and secondary malignancy. Severe complications are rare, but patients should be counselled carefully about the risks. Primary radiotherapy is unlikely to be curative and is reserved to cases in which resection would cause unacceptable functional or cosmetic morbidity or would likely result in subtotal resection (R2) or to patients with distant metastases to gain local tumour control. There are provisional data on the use of charged particle radiotherapy in this setting. Some patients may benefit from synchronous chemotherapy with radiotherapy, but this group is not defined, and data from comparative prospective studies are required before routine clinical use of this treatment. PMID:27093301

  8. What's New in Salivary Gland Cancer Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topic Additional resources for salivary gland cancer What’s new in salivary gland cancer research and treatment? Medical ... they hope to use this information to develop new treatments that work better and cause fewer side ...

  9. Effects of radiation on parotid salivary function

    SciTech Connect

    Marks, J.E.; Davis, C.C.; Gottsman, V.L.

    1981-08-01

    Postoperative electron beam irradiation of patients with parotid cancer has been used regularly at the Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology to spare the opposite parotid and to preserve salivary function. Only anecdotal reports of amount of radiation required to ablate salivary function exist. To establish a dose-response curve for the human parotid, selective measurements of right and left parotid salivary flow were done for 15 age-matched control patients whose parotids were not irradiated, 17 patients who had both parotids irradiated, and 12 whose parotids were irradiated by unilateral electron beam technique. Point calculations of absorbed dose 1 cm below the surface were done for all 88 parotids and correlated with stimulated parotid salivary flow, pH, and secretory IgA (SIgA). Increasing doses of radiation resulted in progressive reduction of parotid salivary flow, pH, and SIgA. The technique, dosimetry, and clinical application of unilateral electron beam irradiation to spare the opposite parotid will be discussed.

  10. Salivary Microbiota Associated with Immunoglobulin A Nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Piccolo, Maria; De Angelis, Maria; Lauriero, Gabriella; Montemurno, Eustacchio; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Gesualdo, Loreto; Gobbetti, Marco

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed at investigating the salivary microbiota of 28 patients affected by immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN). Fourteen healthy volunteers (HC) were used as control. Compared to HC, the number of some cultivable bacteria groups (e.g., total anaerobes) significantly (P < 0.05) decreased in the salivary samples of IgAN patients. Total bacteria from salivary samples of IgAN patients and HC subjects were analyzed by pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene. Paired t test showed no significant (P > 0.05) differences of alpha-diversity parameters (OTU, ACE, Chao1, and Shannon index) between the salivary samples of HC and IgAN patients. The difference for the community structure was further analyzed using three phylogeny-based beta-diversity measures. Compared to HC, the ratio between Firmicutes/Proteobacteria markedly decreased in IgAN patients. Gemella haemolysins, Granulicatella adiacens, and Veillonella parvula were positively associated (P < 0.05) with HC. Within the phylum Bacteroidetes, Prevotella species (Prevotella nigrescens, Prevotella intermedia, Prevotella pallens, and Prevotella salivae) were the highest in HC. The only exception was for Prevotella aurantiaca. Compared to HC, the percentage of abundance of some species, belonging to Pasteurellaceae family (e.g., Haemophylus parainfluenzae), increased in IgAN patients. Fusobacteriaceae (Fusobacterium) and Corynebacterium sp. also differed between the salivary samples of HC and IgAN patients. PMID:25763757

  11. Salivary gland calculi – contemporary methods of imaging

    PubMed Central

    Rzymska-Grala, Iwona; Stopa, Zygmunt; Grala, Bartłomiej; Gołębiowski, Marek; Wanyura, Hubert; Zuchowska, Anna; Sawicka, Monika; Zmorzyński, Michał

    2010-01-01

    Summary Sialolithiasis is the most common disorder of major salivary glands. The main site of salivary stones’ formation is submandibular gland, followed by parotid and sublingual gland. The aim of this article was to present current diagnostic imaging modalities carried out in patients suspected with salivary stones on the basis of own material and review of literature. Current diagnostic imaging tools used in the imaging of salivary stones were described and illustrated in this paper. These are: conventional radiography, sialography, ultrasonography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance sialography and sialoendoscopy. Digital subtraction sialography and ultrasonography are the methods of choice in the imaging of salivary gland calculi. Although sialography is a very old diagnostic method, still it is the best diagnostic tool in the imaging of subtle anatomy of salivary gland duct system. Digital subtraction sialography can show the exact location of salivary stone and enables imaging of salivary ducts’ pathology (e.g. stenoses), which is especially important when sialoendoscopy is planned. Sialography is also used as the treatment method, i.e. interventional sialography. Nonenhanced computed tomography is recommended when multiple and tiny salivary stones are suspected. Magnetic resonance imaging is the evolving alternative diagnostic method. In this diagnostic modality there is no need for salivary ducts’ cannulation and administration of contrast material. Thus magnetic resonance sialography can also be carried out in the acute sialoadenitis. In the future, sialoendoscopy may become one of the main diagnostic and treatment procedures for salivary duct disorders, especially in salivary stone cases. PMID:22802788

  12. Salivary proteins of Russian wheat aphid (Hempitera: Aphididae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salivary secretions play critical roles in aphid – host plant interactions and are responsible for damage associated with aphid feeding. The objectives of this study were to evaluate aspects of salivation and the salivary constituents of Diuraphis noxia (Hemiptera: Aphididae). Salivary proteins we...

  13. Salivary FOXP2 expression and oral feeding success in premature infants

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Emily; Maki, Monika; Maron, Jill

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study is to determine whether salivary FOXP2 gene expression levels at the initiation of oral feeding attempts are predictive of oral feeding success in the premature newborn. In this prospective study, saliva samples from 21 premature infants (13 males; birth gestational age [GA]: 30–34 wk) were collected around the initiation of oral feeding trials. Total RNA was extracted and underwent reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction amplification for FOXP2. Oral feeding success was denoted by the days required to attain full oral feeds. A linear regression model, controlling for sex, birth GA, and weight at salivary collection, revealed that FOXP2 expression was significantly associated with oral feeding success (P = 0.002). The higher the expression level of FOXP2, the shorter the duration to feed. Salivary FOXP2 expression levels are significantly associated with oral feeding success in the preterm infant. FOXP2 may serve as a novel and informative biomarker to noninvasively assess infant feeding skills to reduce morbidities and length of stay. PMID:27148579

  14. Genetic alterations in salivary gland cancers.

    PubMed

    Yin, Linda X; Ha, Patrick K

    2016-06-15

    Salivary gland cancers are an incredibly heterogeneous group of tumors that include 24 histologically distinct tumor types. The use of new genetic methods has paved the way for promising advancements in our understanding of the molecular biology underlying each type of tumor. The objective of this review was to highlight common oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, and cytogenetic and epigenetic changes associated with the most common tumor types: mucoepidermoid carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, salivary duct carcinoma, mammary analogue secretory carcinoma, hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma, carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma, and acinic cell carcinoma. Recent insights into the pathogenesis of each cancer subtype have helped better define and classify these tumors. Further research in salivary gland cancers should focus on determining the key genes involved in the tumorigenesis of each distinct malignancy and identifying individualized chemotherapies directed at these targets. Cancer 2016;122:1822-31. © 2016 American Cancer Society. PMID:26928905

  15. Measures of biomarker dependence using a copula-based multivariate epsilon–skew–normal family of distributions

    PubMed Central

    Hutson, Alan D.; Wilding, Gregory E.; Mashtare, Terry L.; Vexler, Albert

    2016-01-01

    In this note we develop a new multivariate copula model based on epsilon–skew–normal marginal densities for the purpose of examining biomarker dependency structures. We illustrate the flexibility and utility of this model via a variety of graphical tools and a data analysis example pertaining to salivary biomarker. The multivariate normal model is a sub-model of the multivariate epsilon–skew–normal distribution. PMID:26917861

  16. On the mechanism of salivary gland radiosensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Konings, Antonius W.T. . E-mail: a.w.t.konings@med.rug.nl; Coppes, Rob P.; Vissink, Arjan

    2005-07-15

    Purpose: To contribute to the understanding of the enigmatic radiosensitivity of the salivary glands by analysis of appropriate literature, especially with respect to mechanisms of action of early radiation damage, and to supply information on the possibilities of amelioration of radiation damage to the salivary glands after radiotherapy of head-and-neck cancer. Methods and Materials: Selected published data on the mechanism of salivary gland radiosensitivity and radioprotection were studied and analyzed. Results: From a classical point of view, the salivary glands should not respond as rapidly to radiation as they appear to do. Next to the suggestion of massive apoptosis, the leakage of granules and subsequent lysis of acinar cells was suggested to be responsible for the acute radiation-induced function loss of the salivary glands. The main problem with these hypotheses is that recently performed assays show no cell loss during the first days after irradiation, while saliva flow is dramatically diminished. The water secretion is selectively hampered during the first days after single-dose irradiation. Literature is discussed that shows that the compromised cells suffer selective radiation damage to the plasma membrane, disturbing signal transduction primarily affecting watery secretion. Although the cellular composition of the submandibular gland and the parotid gland are different, the damage response is very alike. The acute radiation-induced function loss in both salivary glands can be ameliorated by prophylactic treatment with specific receptor agonists. Conclusions: The most probable mechanism of action, explaining the enigmatic high radiosensitivity for early effects, is selective radiation damage to the plasma membrane of the secretory cells, disturbing muscarinic receptor stimulated watery secretion. Later damage is mainly due to classical mitotic cell death of progenitor cells, leading to a hampered replacement capacity of the gland for secretory cells

  17. Salivary glands and human selection: a hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Shields, E D; Mann, R W

    1996-01-01

    Stafne static bone defect (SSBD) of the mandible is the only described destructive bone lesion that is highly localized, nonprogressive, but nonhealing. This common defect in male is found in the region of the major salivary glands that produce a cornucopia of biologically active factors. We describe rare phenocopies caused by mandibular immobility that hold the gland in a constant position thus implicating a localized chronic "leak" of an osteoclast induction factor from the major salivary glands as the pathologic agent. This finding suggests that increased salivary gland size could simulate immobility by apposing the gland to bone, thus allowing the "leaked" factor's gradient to have an effect. In one step, the putative genetic enlargement of a critical gland that produces many factors important for survival, a broad biological vista would be available to the massive potential for both positive and negative selection. Positive selection was identified by observing a correlation between the prevalence of enhanced androgen-induced enlarge salivary glands (SSBD) as a marker, with a great preponderance of males) and the conjectured resulting increased production of immunoreactive factors, with pole-to-equator isotherm and broad ranged infection clines. Negative selection was observed among the slave ancestors of African Americans for a potential embryonic homeotic mutation causing larger salivary glands in both sexes (decreased prevalence of SSBD, with an equal sex ratio). The decreased production of saliva and electrolytes diminished the salt and water depletive effects of severe diarrhea and vomiting induced by enteric diseases, which killed many slaves. Data presented suggests that SSBD is a polymorphism and a marker of selection processes that cause variation in size, or structure, of the major salivary glands. PMID:8773904

  18. Salivary gland tumors: a diagnostic dilemma!

    PubMed

    Peravali, Ranjit Kumar; Bhat, H Hari Kishore; Upadya, Varsha H; Agarwal, Anmol; Naag, Sushma

    2015-03-01

    Salivary gland tumors generate considerable interest because of their heterogeneous and variable histology, grade of malignancy, and clinical behavior. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is considered the first diagnostic modality for salivary neoplasms due to its ready availability and ease of performance. However it cannot always be relied upon in isolation, and should be used in conjunction with other investigations like incisional biopsy. We present two cases, which highlight the drawbacks of relying on FNAC alone, which resulted in misdiagnosis of adenoid cystic carcinoma as pleomorphic adenoma. PMID:25848154

  19. Comparative evaluation of salivary soluble CD44 levels in periodontal health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Sumeet; Narayanswamy, Savitha; Ramesh, Alampalli Viswanathamurthy

    2014-01-01

    Context: Inflammation, immunoactivation, and malignant diseases are associated with increased plasma levels of soluble CD44 (sCD44). Serum sCD44 has been recognized as a diagnostic marker in smoking-induced diseases. Aim: (1) To assess the levels of salivary sCD44 in periodontal health and disease. (2) To compare the levels of salivary sCD44 in smokers and nonsmokers. (3) To assess if salivary sCD44 levels could be used as a diagnostic marker for periodontitis. Setting and Design: A total of 60 patients were divided into three groups viz. Group A - healthy, Group B - aggressive periodontitis and Group C - chronic periodontitis (Subdivided into C1 - chronic periodontitis smokers and C2 - chronic periodontitis nonsmokers). Materials and Methods: The plaque index, gingival index (GI), probing depth and clinical attachment level; along with the radiographs were recorded. The saliva sample collected at baseline was stored at −80°C. The sCD44 levels were analyzed using ELISA. Statistical Analysis Used: ANOVA test and Mann–Whitney's test was used to compare readings between all the groups and Pearson correlation was calculated for CD44 and all the clinical parameters in each group. Results: Highest mean sCD44 was recorded in Group C2 followed by Group C1. The GI was positively correlated with CD44 levels in chronic periodontitis group. Contrary to previous reports nonsmokers subjects had higher CD44 levels as compared to smoker. Conclusion: Soluble CD44 levels were positively correlated with periodontal disease. Thus, salivary sCD44 could be considered as a one of the biomarker for periodontitis that is, aggressive and chronic periodontitis. PMID:25624630

  20. On the relationship between the rate of salivary flow and salivary fluoride clearance.

    PubMed

    Duckworth, Ralph M; Jones, S

    2015-01-01

    The amount of fluoride retained in the mouth following the application of dentifrices, mouthwashes, etc. may be important in determining their anticaries efficacy. In this study we investigated the relationship between the salivary flow rate and salivary fluoride clearance. Ten adults tested six mouthrinses, consisting of aqueous sodium fluoride solutions (0.013, 0.026 mol/l) with and without added sodium chloride (1.28 mol/l) or sucrose (0.44 mol/l), in a randomised order. Prior to each test, subjects swallowed, rinsed for 2 min with 2 ml water and then expectorated into a preweighed container to obtain a measure of initial saliva flow rate. Next, the procedure was repeated using one of the test rinses. Finally, samples of unstimulated whole saliva were collected for up to 3 h after each mouthrinse application and analysed for fluoride. Salivary fluoride concentrations were significantly lower after application of mouthrinses that contained either sucrose or NaCl, both of which compounds markedly enhanced salivary flow, than after the use of corresponding mouthrinses without any additive. Area under the salivary fluoride clearance curve (AUC) values were inversely correlated with salivary flow rate on an individual basis (p < 0.01). The observed behaviour could not be completely attributed to treatment dilution by saliva at the time of application. PMID:25634162

  1. Salivary PYY: A Putative Bypass to Satiety

    PubMed Central

    Gorbatyuk, Oleg; La Sala, Michael; Duncan, David; Aslanidi, George; Campbell-Thompson, Martha; Zhang, Lei; Herzog, Herbert; Voutetakis, Antonis; Baum, Bruce J.; Zolotukhin, Sergei

    2011-01-01

    Peptide YY3-36 is a satiation hormone released postprandially into the bloodstream from L-endocrine cells in the gut epithelia. In the current report, we demonstrate PYY3-36 is also present in murine as well as in human saliva. In mice, salivary PYY3-36 derives from plasma and is also synthesized in the taste cells in taste buds of the tongue. Moreover, the cognate receptor Y2R is abundantly expressed in the basal layer of the progenitor cells of the tongue epithelia and von Ebner's gland. The acute augmentation of salivary PYY3-36 induced stronger satiation as demonstrated in feeding behavioral studies. The effect is mediated through the activation of the specific Y2 receptor expressed in the lingual epithelial cells. In a long-term study involving diet-induced obese (DIO) mice, a sustained increase in PYY3-36 was achieved using viral vector-mediated gene delivery targeting salivary glands. The chronic increase in salivary PYY3-36 resulted in a significant long-term reduction in food intake (FI) and body weight (BW). Thus this study provides evidence for new functions of the previously characterized gut peptide PYY3-36 suggesting a potential simple and efficient alternative therapeutic approach for the treatment of obesity. PMID:22028819

  2. Polygalacturonase isozymes in Lygus hesperus Salivary Glands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The feeding strategy of mirids has been referred to as “lacerate or macerate and flush feeding” which supports high rates of food intake. In other words, plant bugs digest the plant tissue extra-orally, producing a liquefied brew rich in simple nutrient molecules. The insect's salivary polygalacturo...

  3. Facile preparation of salivary extracellular vesicles for cancer proteomics.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yan; Xia, Zhijun; Shang, Zhi; Sun, Kaibo; Niu, Xiaomin; Qian, Liqiang; Fan, Liu-Yin; Cao, Cheng-Xi; Xiao, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane surrounded structures released by cells, which have been increasingly recognized as mediators of intercellular communication. Recent reports indicate that EVs participate in important biological processes and could serve as potential source for cancer biomarkers. As an attractive EVs source with merit of non-invasiveness, human saliva is a unique medium for clinical diagnostics. Thus, we proposed a facile approach to prepare salivary extracellular vesicles (SEVs). Affinity chromatography column combined with filter system (ACCF) was developed to efficiently remove the high abundant proteins and viscous interferences of saliva. Protein profiling in the SEVs obtained by this strategy was compared with conventional centrifugation method, which demonstrated that about 70% more SEVs proteins could be revealed. To explore its utility for cancer proteomics, we analyzed the proteome of SEVs in lung cancer patients and normal controls. Shotgun proteomic analysis illustrated that 113 and 95 proteins have been identified in cancer group and control group, respectively. Among those 63 proteins that have been consistently discovered only in cancer group, 12 proteins are lung cancer related. Our results demonstrated that SEVs prepared through the developed strategy are valuable samples for proteomics and could serve as a promising liquid biopsy for cancer. PMID:27091080

  4. Facile preparation of salivary extracellular vesicles for cancer proteomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yan; Xia, Zhijun; Shang, Zhi; Sun, Kaibo; Niu, Xiaomin; Qian, Liqiang; Fan, Liu-Yin; Cao, Cheng-Xi; Xiao, Hua

    2016-04-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane surrounded structures released by cells, which have been increasingly recognized as mediators of intercellular communication. Recent reports indicate that EVs participate in important biological processes and could serve as potential source for cancer biomarkers. As an attractive EVs source with merit of non-invasiveness, human saliva is a unique medium for clinical diagnostics. Thus, we proposed a facile approach to prepare salivary extracellular vesicles (SEVs). Affinity chromatography column combined with filter system (ACCF) was developed to efficiently remove the high abundant proteins and viscous interferences of saliva. Protein profiling in the SEVs obtained by this strategy was compared with conventional centrifugation method, which demonstrated that about 70% more SEVs proteins could be revealed. To explore its utility for cancer proteomics, we analyzed the proteome of SEVs in lung cancer patients and normal controls. Shotgun proteomic analysis illustrated that 113 and 95 proteins have been identified in cancer group and control group, respectively. Among those 63 proteins that have been consistently discovered only in cancer group, 12 proteins are lung cancer related. Our results demonstrated that SEVs prepared through the developed strategy are valuable samples for proteomics and could serve as a promising liquid biopsy for cancer.

  5. Facile preparation of salivary extracellular vesicles for cancer proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yan; Xia, Zhijun; Shang, Zhi; Sun, Kaibo; Niu, Xiaomin; Qian, Liqiang; Fan, Liu-Yin; Cao, Cheng-Xi; Xiao, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane surrounded structures released by cells, which have been increasingly recognized as mediators of intercellular communication. Recent reports indicate that EVs participate in important biological processes and could serve as potential source for cancer biomarkers. As an attractive EVs source with merit of non-invasiveness, human saliva is a unique medium for clinical diagnostics. Thus, we proposed a facile approach to prepare salivary extracellular vesicles (SEVs). Affinity chromatography column combined with filter system (ACCF) was developed to efficiently remove the high abundant proteins and viscous interferences of saliva. Protein profiling in the SEVs obtained by this strategy was compared with conventional centrifugation method, which demonstrated that about 70% more SEVs proteins could be revealed. To explore its utility for cancer proteomics, we analyzed the proteome of SEVs in lung cancer patients and normal controls. Shotgun proteomic analysis illustrated that 113 and 95 proteins have been identified in cancer group and control group, respectively. Among those 63 proteins that have been consistently discovered only in cancer group, 12 proteins are lung cancer related. Our results demonstrated that SEVs prepared through the developed strategy are valuable samples for proteomics and could serve as a promising liquid biopsy for cancer. PMID:27091080

  6. Human antibody responses to the Anopheles salivary gSG6-P1 peptide: a novel tool for evaluating the efficacy of ITNs in malaria vector control.

    PubMed

    Drame, Papa Makhtar; Poinsignon, Anne; Besnard, Patrick; Cornelie, Sylvie; Le Mire, Jacques; Toto, Jean-Claude; Foumane, Vincent; Dos-Santos, Maria Adelaide; Sembène, Mbacké; Fortes, Filomeno; Simondon, Francois; Carnevale, Pierre; Remoue, Franck

    2010-01-01

    To optimize malaria control, WHO has prioritised the need for new indicators to evaluate the efficacy of malaria vector control strategies. The gSG6-P1 peptide from gSG6 protein of Anopheles gambiae salivary glands was previously designed as a specific salivary sequence of malaria vector species. It was shown that the quantification of human antibody (Ab) responses to Anopheles salivary proteins in general and especially to the gSG6-P1 peptide was a pertinent biomarker of human exposure to Anopheles. The present objective was to validate this indicator in the evaluation of the efficacy of Insecticide Treated Nets (ITNs). A longitudinal evaluation, including parasitological, entomological and immunological assessments, was conducted on children and adults from a malaria-endemic area before and after the introduction of ITNs. Significant decrease of anti-gSG6-P1 IgG response was observed just after the efficient ITNs use. Interestingly, specific IgG Ab level was especially pertinent to evaluate a short-time period of ITNs efficacy and at individual level. However, specific IgG rose back up within four months as correct ITN use waned. IgG responses to one salivary peptide could constitute a reliable biomarker for the evaluation of ITN efficacy, at short- and long-term use, and provide a valuable tool in malaria vector control based on a real measurement of human-vector contact. PMID:21179476

  7. Human Antibody Responses to the Anopheles Salivary gSG6-P1 Peptide: A Novel Tool for Evaluating the Efficacy of ITNs in Malaria Vector Control

    PubMed Central

    Drame, Papa Makhtar; Poinsignon, Anne; Besnard, Patrick; Cornelie, Sylvie; Le Mire, Jacques; Toto, Jean-Claude; Foumane, Vincent; Dos-Santos, Maria Adelaide; Sembène, Mbacké; Fortes, Filomeno; Simondon, Francois; Carnevale, Pierre; Remoue, Franck

    2010-01-01

    To optimize malaria control, WHO has prioritised the need for new indicators to evaluate the efficacy of malaria vector control strategies. The gSG6-P1 peptide from gSG6 protein of Anopheles gambiae salivary glands was previously designed as a specific salivary sequence of malaria vector species. It was shown that the quantification of human antibody (Ab) responses to Anopheles salivary proteins in general and especially to the gSG6-P1 peptide was a pertinent biomarker of human exposure to Anopheles. The present objective was to validate this indicator in the evaluation of the efficacy of Insecticide Treated Nets (ITNs). A longitudinal evaluation, including parasitological, entomological and immunological assessments, was conducted on children and adults from a malaria-endemic area before and after the introduction of ITNs. Significant decrease of anti-gSG6-P1 IgG response was observed just after the efficient ITNs use. Interestingly, specific IgG Ab level was especially pertinent to evaluate a short-time period of ITNs efficacy and at individual level. However, specific IgG rose back up within four months as correct ITN use waned. IgG responses to one salivary peptide could constitute a reliable biomarker for the evaluation of ITN efficacy, at short- and long-term use, and provide a valuable tool in malaria vector control based on a real measurement of human-vector contact. PMID:21179476

  8. Biomarkers associated with obstructive sleep apnea: A scoping review.

    PubMed

    Canto, Graziela De Luca; Pachêco-Pereira, Camila; Aydinoz, Secil; Major, Paul W; Flores-Mir, Carlos; Gozal, David

    2015-10-01

    The overall validity of biomarkers in the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) remains unclear. We conducted a scoping review to provide assessments of biomarkers characteristics in the context of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and to identify gaps in the literature. A scoping review of studies in humans without age restriction that evaluated the potential diagnostic value of biological markers (blood, exhaled breath condensate, salivary, and urinary) in the OSA diagnosis was undertaken. Retained articles were those focused on the identification of biomarkers in subjects with OSA, the latter being confirmed with a full overnight or home-based polysomnography (PSG). Search strategies for six different databases were developed. The methodology of selected studies was classified using an adaptation of the evidence quality criteria from the American Academy of Pediatrics. Additionally the biomarkers were classified according to their potential clinical application. We identified 572 relevant studies, of which 117 met the inclusion criteria. Eighty-two studies were conducted in adults, 34 studies involved children, and one study had a sample composed of both adults and children. Most of the studies evaluated blood biomarkers. Potential diagnostic biomarkers were found in nine pediatric studies and in 58 adults studies. Only nine studies reported sensitivity and specificity, which varied substantially from 43% to 100%, and from 45% to 100%, respectively. Studies in adults have focused on the investigation of IL-6, TNF-α and hsCRP. There was no specific biomarker that was tested by a majority of authors in pediatric studies, and combinatorial urine biomarker approaches have shown preliminary promising results. In adults IL-6 and IL-10 seem to have a favorable potential to become a good biomarker to identify OSA. PMID:25645128

  9. Mistakes in ultrasound examination of salivary glands

    PubMed Central

    Jakubowski, Wiesław

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonography is the first imaging method applied in the case of diseases of the salivary glands. The article discusses basic mistakes that can be made during an ultrasound examination of these structures. The reasons for these mistakes may be examiner-dependent or may be beyond their control. The latter may include, inter alia, difficult conditions during examination (technical or patient-related), similarity of ultrasound images in different diseases, the lack of clinical and laboratory data as well as the lack of results of other examinations, their insufficient number or incorrectness. Doctor-related mistakes include: the lack of knowledge of normal anatomy, characteristics of ultrasound images in various salivary gland diseases and statistical incidence of diseases, but also attaching excessive importance to such statistical data. The complex anatomical structures of the floor of the oral cavity may be mistaken for benign or malignant tumors. Fragments of correct anatomical structures (bones, arterial wall fibrosis, air bubbles in the mouth) can be wrongly interpreted as deposits in the salivary gland or in its excretory duct. Correct lymph nodes in the parotid glands may be treated as pathologic structures. Lesions not being a simple cyst, e.g. lymphoma, benign or malignant tumors of the salivary glands or metastatic lymph nodes, can be mistaken for one. The image of disseminated focal changes, both anechoic and solid, is not pathognomonic for specific diseases in the salivary glands. However, in part, it occurs typically and requires an extended differential diagnosis. Small focal changes and infiltrative lesions pose a diagnostic problem because their etiology cannot be safely suggested on the basis of an ultrasound examination itself. The safest approach is to refer patients with abnormal focal changes for an ultrasoundguided fine-needle aspiration biopsy. PMID:27446603

  10. Mistakes in ultrasound examination of salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Białek, Ewa J; Jakubowski, Wiesław

    2016-06-01

    Ultrasonography is the first imaging method applied in the case of diseases of the salivary glands. The article discusses basic mistakes that can be made during an ultrasound examination of these structures. The reasons for these mistakes may be examiner-dependent or may be beyond their control. The latter may include, inter alia, difficult conditions during examination (technical or patient-related), similarity of ultrasound images in different diseases, the lack of clinical and laboratory data as well as the lack of results of other examinations, their insufficient number or incorrectness. Doctor-related mistakes include: the lack of knowledge of normal anatomy, characteristics of ultrasound images in various salivary gland diseases and statistical incidence of diseases, but also attaching excessive importance to such statistical data. The complex anatomical structures of the floor of the oral cavity may be mistaken for benign or malignant tumors. Fragments of correct anatomical structures (bones, arterial wall fibrosis, air bubbles in the mouth) can be wrongly interpreted as deposits in the salivary gland or in its excretory duct. Correct lymph nodes in the parotid glands may be treated as pathologic structures. Lesions not being a simple cyst, e.g. lymphoma, benign or malignant tumors of the salivary glands or metastatic lymph nodes, can be mistaken for one. The image of disseminated focal changes, both anechoic and solid, is not pathognomonic for specific diseases in the salivary glands. However, in part, it occurs typically and requires an extended differential diagnosis. Small focal changes and infiltrative lesions pose a diagnostic problem because their etiology cannot be safely suggested on the basis of an ultrasound examination itself. The safest approach is to refer patients with abnormal focal changes for an ultrasoundguided fine-needle aspiration biopsy. PMID:27446603

  11. Modern management of obstructive salivary diseases

    PubMed Central

    Capaccio, P; Torretta, S; Ottaviani, F; Sambataro, G; Pignataro, L

    2007-01-01

    Summary Over the last fifteen years, increasing public demand for minimally-invasive surgery and recent technological advances have led to the development of a number of conservative options for the therapeutic management of obstructive salivary disorders such as calculi and duct stenosis. These include extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy, sialoendoscopy, laser intra-corporeal lithotripsy, interventional radiology, the video-assisted conservative surgical removal of parotid and sub-mandibular calculi and botulinum toxin therapy. Each of these techniques may be used as a single therapeutic modality or in combination with one or more of the above-mentioned options, usually in day case or one-day case under local or general anaesthesia. The multi-modal approach is completely successful in about 80% of patients and reduces the need for gland removal in 3%, thus justifying the combination of, albeit, time-consuming and relatively expensive techniques as part of the modern and functional management of salivary calculi. With regard to the management of salivary duct anomalies, such as strictures and kinkings, interventional radiology with fluoroscopically controlled balloon ductoplasty seems to be the most suitable technique despite the use of radiation. Operative sialoendoscopy alone is the best therapeutic option for all mobile intra-luminal causes of obstruction, such as microliths, mucous plugs or foreign bodies, or for the local treatment of inflammatory conditions such as recurrent chronic parotitis or autoimmune salivary disorders. Finally, in the case of failure of one of the above techniques and regardless of the cause of obstruction, botulinum toxin injection into the parenchyma of the salivary glands using colour Doppler ultrasonographic monitoring should be considered before deciding on surgical gland removal. PMID:17957846

  12. Salivary oxytocin concentrations in response to running, sexual self-stimulation, breastfeeding and the TSST: The Regensburg Oxytocin Challenge (ROC) study.

    PubMed

    Jong, Trynke R de; Menon, Rohit; Bludau, Anna; Grund, Thomas; Biermeier, Verena; Klampfl, Stefanie M; Jurek, Benjamin; Bosch, Oliver J; Hellhammer, Juliane; Neumann, Inga D

    2015-12-01

    Intranasal oxytocin (OXT) application is emerging as a potential treatment for socio-emotional disorders associated with abnormalities in OXT system (re-) activity. The crucial identification of patients with such abnormalities could be streamlined by the assessment of basal and stimulus-induced OXT concentrations in saliva, using a simple, stress-free sampling procedure (i.e. an OXT challenge test). We therefore established the Regensburg Oxytocin Challenge (ROC) test to further validate salivary OXT concentrations as a practical, reliable and sensitive biomarker. OXT concentrations were quantified by radioimmunoassay in samples collected at home by healthy adult male and female volunteers before and after running ("Run") or sexual self-stimulation ("Sex"). In lactating women, salivary OXT concentrations were quantified before, during and after breastfeeding. Salivary OXT along with salivary cortisol and heart rate were monitored in healthy adult participants undergoing the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). The home-based "Run" and "Sex" challenges as well as the laboratory-based TSST caused quantifiable, rapid, and consistent increases in salivary OXT (approximately 2.5-fold after 10-15min), which were similar for men and women. Breastfeeding did not result in measurably increased salivary OXT levels, probably because the short pulses of OXT release characteristic for lactation were missed. Taken together, ROC tests reliably assess the responsiveness of the OXT system (i.e., the increase in salivary OXT concentrations as compared to basal levels) to challenges such as "Run" and "Sex" at home or psychosocial stress (TSST) in the laboratory. Further studies with larger sample numbers are essentially needed in order to reveal individual differences in ROC test outcomes depending on, for example, genetic or environmental factors. PMID:26385109

  13. Regulation and formation of the Drosophila salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Andrew, D J

    1998-04-15

    The homeotic gene, Sex combs reduced (Scr), is a master regulator of Drosophila salivary gland formation. Embryos in which Scr function is missing do not form salivary glands, and embryos in which SCR protein is expressed everywhere form extra salivary glands. However, other known proteins, including the homeotic protein Abdominal-B, the unusual zinc finger protein Teashirt, and the secreted signaling molecule Decapentaplegic (a TGF-beta family member), limit the recruitment of SCR-expressing cells to salivary glands. To learn the molecular details of how salivary gland gene expression is controlled and as a first step toward understanding how the SCR transcription factor controls salivary gland morphogenesis, we screened for genes expressed in the developing salivary gland. Among our best candidates for potential direct downstream targets of SCR in the salivary gland are the genes trachealess (trh), dCREB-A, jalapeño, and Semaphorin II (SemaII). Our genetic studies suggest distinct and important roles for each of these genes in salivary gland morphogenesis. Current work includes studying the molecular interactions between SCR and these downstream target genes and asking how target genes coordinate their activities to effect the cell biological changes required to build functional salivary glands. PMID:9599294

  14. Evaluation of Salivary Levels of Pyridinoline Cross Linked Carboxyterminal Telopeptide of Type I Collagen (ICTP) in Periodontal Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Debasish; Gopalakrishnan, Sivaram; Arun, K.V.; Kumar, Tirunveli Saravanan Subu; Devanathan, Santosh

    2015-01-01

    Background Traditional parameters (Pocket depth, bleeding on probing, clinical attachment loss, radiographic findings) have been used for a long time for the assessment of periodontal disease conditions. However, these parameters only indicate towards the periodontal damage that has already taken place but do not give any idea regarding the current status of the periodontal health or disease. Hence, the present study is aimed at evaluating the concentration of the bone biomarker ICTP in saliva, which can give a better real time assessment of periodontal health and disease. Materials and Methods Forty three patients were selected and divided into three groups based on the recorded clinical parameters of probing pocket depth, attachment loss and bleeding on probing. Group I (Healthy, n = 11), Group II (Gingivitis, n = 17), Group III (Periodontitis. n = 15). Salivary samples were collected before scaling and root planning to avoid contamination by blood. ICTP levels were evaluated in the salivary samples by using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Statistical analysis used Kruskal Wallis test was used to compare the mean ICTP level of the three groups. Results ICTP was detected in all the samples. Highest mean ICTP concentrations in saliva were obtained for group III (periodontitis group) and the lowest mean ICTP concentrations were seen in group I (healthy group). This suggests that the level of ICTP in saliva increases proportionally from periodontal health to diseased conditions (gingivitis & periodontitis). Conclusion There is a substantial increase in the salivary concentration of ICTP in chronic periodontitis patients than in gingivitis and healthy patients. Salivary ICTP levels were the maximum in chronic periodontitis patients followed by gingivitis patients and the least in healthy individuals. ICTP may be considered as a biomarker in periodontal disease progression. PMID:26501013

  15. Salivary gland acinar cells regenerate functional glandular structures in modified hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Swati

    cells were identified in cultured cells from dispersed tissue. Biomarker studies with the salivary enzyme, alpha-amylase, and tight junction proteins, such as zonula occludens-1 and E-cadherin, confirmed the phenotype of these cells. Strong staining for laminin and perlecan/HSPG2 were noted in basement membranes and perlecan also was secreted and organized by cultured acinar populations, which formed lobular structures that mimicked intact glands when cultured on Matrigel(TM) or a bioactive peptide derived from domain IV of perlecan (PlnDIV). On either matrix, large acini-like lobular structures grew and formed connections between the lobes. alpha-Amylase secretion was confirmed by staining and activity assay. Biomarkers including tight junction protein E-cadherin and water channel protein, aquaporin 5 (AQP5) found in tissue, were expressed in cultured acinar cells. Cells cultured on Matrigel(TM) or PlnDIV peptide organized stress fibers and activated focal adhesion kinase (FAK). HA, a natural polysaccharide and a major component of the ECM, can be used to generate soft and pliable hydrogels. A culture system consisting of HA hydrogel and PlnDIV peptide was used to generate a 2.5D culture system. Acinar cells cultured on these hydrogels self-assembled into lobular structures and expressed tight junction components such as ZO-1. Acini-like structures were stained for the presence of alpha-amylase. Live/dead staining revealed the presence of apoptotic cells in the center of the acini-like structures, indicative of lumen formation. The functionality of these acini-like structures was studied by stimulating them with neurotransmitters to enhance their fluid and protein production. Acini-like structures treated with norepinephrine and isoproterenol showed increased granule formation as observed by phase contrast microscopy and alpha-amylase staining in the structures. Lobular structures on hydrogels were treated with acetylcholine to increase fluid production. The increase

  16. Biomarkers in Computational Toxicology

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biomarkers are a means to evaluate chemical exposure and/or the subsequent impacts on toxicity pathways that lead to adverse health outcomes. Computational toxicology can integrate biomarker data with knowledge of exposure, chemistry, biology, pharmacokinetics, toxicology, and e...

  17. BIOMARKERS OF REPRODUCTIVE TOXICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Identification and verification of anatomical, endocrine, cellular and molecular biomarkers is crucial for successful clinical diagnosis and treatment of toxicity and disease, as well as basic toxicological, epidemiological and other research. Various in situ biomarkers of repro...

  18. Relationship between Salivary Alkaline Phosphatase Enzyme Activity and The Concentrations of Salivary Calcium and Phosphate Ions

    PubMed Central

    Jazaeri, Mina; Malekzadeh, Hosein; Abdolsamadi, Hamidreza; Rezaei-Soufi, Loghman; Samami, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Although salivary alkaline phosphatase (ALP) can balance deand remineralization processes of enamel, there is no evidence regarding its effects on the concentrations of calcium and phosphate in saliva. The present study aims to determine the relationship between salivary ALP activity and the concentrations of calcium and phosphate in saliva. In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated salivary markers in 120 males, ages 19 to 44 years. All participants provided 5 mL of unstimulated whole saliva and the level of enzyme activity as well as calcium and phosphate concentrations were measured using a colorimetric method. Data were gathered and analyzed by statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) 13.00 using Pearson correlation test. A p value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. The mean age of participants in the present study was 32.95 ± 8.09 years. The mean pH of saliva was 6.65 ± 0.62. Salivary parameters included average ALP activity (5.04 ± 1.866 U/dL), calcium (4.77 ± 0.877 mg/dL) and phosphate (10.38 ± 2.301 mg/dL). Pearson correlation test showed no significant relationship between ALP activity and calcium and phosphate concentrations in saliva (p>0.05). According to the results of the present study, there was no significant relation between salivary ALP activity and calcium and phosphate concentrations in saliva. However, further research is highly recommended. PMID:25870846

  19. Relationship between Salivary Alkaline Phosphatase Enzyme Activity and The Concentrations of Salivary Calcium and Phosphate Ions.

    PubMed

    Jazaeri, Mina; Malekzadeh, Hosein; Abdolsamadi, Hamidreza; Rezaei-Soufi, Loghman; Samami, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Although salivary alkaline phosphatase (ALP) can balance deand remineralization processes of enamel, there is no evidence regarding its effects on the concentrations of calcium and phosphate in saliva. The present study aims to determine the relationship between salivary ALP activity and the concentrations of calcium and phosphate in saliva. In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated salivary markers in 120 males, ages 19 to 44 years. All participants provided 5 mL of unstimulated whole saliva and the level of enzyme activity as well as calcium and phosphate concentrations were measured using a colorimetric method. Data were gathered and analyzed by statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) 13.00 using Pearson correlation test. A p value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. The mean age of participants in the present study was 32.95 ± 8.09 years. The mean pH of saliva was 6.65 ± 0.62. Salivary parameters included average ALP activity (5.04 ± 1.866 U/dL), calcium (4.77 ± 0.877 mg/dL) and phosphate (10.38 ± 2.301 mg/dL). Pearson correlation test showed no significant relationship between ALP activity and calcium and phosphate concentrations in saliva (p>0.05). According to the results of the present study, there was no significant relation between salivary ALP activity and calcium and phosphate concentrations in saliva. However, further research is highly recommended. PMID:25870846

  20. Salivary Cortisone Reflects Cortisol Exposure Under Physiological Conditions and After Hydrocortisone.

    PubMed

    Debono, Miguel; Harrison, Robert F; Whitaker, Martin J; Eckland, David; Arlt, Wiebke; Keevil, Brian G; Ross, Richard J

    2016-04-01

    In this study we tested the use of salivary cortisol and cortisone as alternatives to serum cortisol. Salivary cortisol is often undetectable and contaminated by hydrocortisone. Salivary cortisone strongly reflects serum cortisol. PMID:26812690

  1. Salivary lysozyme in smoking alcohol dependent persons.

    PubMed

    Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Zalewska-Szajda, Beata; Zalewska, Anna; Waszkiewicz, Magdalena; Szajda, Slawomir Dariusz; Repka, Bernadeta; Szulc, Agata; Kepka, Alina; Minarowska, Alina; Ladny, Jerzy Robert; Zwierz, Krzysztof

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of chronic alcohol intoxication and smoking on the concentration and output of salivary lysozyme. Thirty seven men participated in the study, including 17 male smoking alcohol-dependent patients after chronic alcohol intoxication (AS), and 20 control non-smoking male social drinkers (CNS) with no history of alcohol abuse or smoking. The level of lysozyme was assessed by the radial immunodiffusion method. Significantly lower lysozyme output in the AS group compared to the CNS group was found. Moreover, gingival index was significantly higher in AS than in the CNS group. It appeared that the reduced salivary lysozyme output was more likely the result of ethanol action than smoking. In conclusion, persons addicted to alcohol and nicotine have a poorer periodontal status than non-smoking social drinkers, which may partially be due to the diminished protective effects of lysozyme present in the saliva. PMID:23264227

  2. Current trends in salivary gland tight junctions.

    PubMed

    Baker, Olga J

    2016-01-01

    Tight junctions form a continuous intercellular barrier between epithelial cells that is required to separate tissue spaces and regulate selective movement of solutes across the epithelium. They are composed of strands containing integral membrane proteins (e.g., claudins, occludin and tricellulin, junctional adhesion molecules and the coxsackie adenovirus receptor). These proteins are anchored to the cytoskeleton via scaffolding proteins such as ZO-1 and ZO-2. In salivary glands, tight junctions are involved in polarized saliva secretion and barrier maintenance between the extracellular environment and the glandular lumen. This review seeks to provide an overview of what is currently known, as well as the major questions and future research directions, regarding tight junction expression, organization and function within salivary glands. PMID:27583188

  3. Implantable Three-Dimensional Salivary Spheroid Assemblies Demonstrate Fluid and Protein Secretory Responses to Neurotransmitters

    PubMed Central

    Pradhan-Bhatt, Swati; Harrington, Daniel A.; Duncan, Randall L.; Jia, Xinqiao; Witt, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    Radiation treatment in patients with head and neck tumors commonly results in hyposalivation and xerostomia due to the loss of fluid-secreting salivary acinar cells. Patients develop susceptibility to oral infections, dental caries, impaired speech and swallowing, reducing the quality of life. Clinical management is largely unsatisfactory. The development of a tissue-engineered, implantable salivary gland will greatly benefit patients suffering from xerostomia. This report compares the ability of a 2.5-dimensional (2.5D) and a three-dimensional (3D) hyaluronic acid (HA)-based culture system to support functional salivary units capable of producing fluid and phenotypic proteins. Parotid cells seeded on 2.5D, as well as those encapsulated in 3D HA hydrogels, self-assembled into acini-like structures and expressed functional neurotransmitter receptors. Structures in 3D hydrogels merged to form organized 50 μm spheroids that could be maintained in culture for over 100 days and merged to form structures over 500 μm in size. Treatment of acini-like structures with the β-adrenergic agonists norepinephrine or isoproterenol increased granule production and α-amylase staining in treated structures, demonstrating regain of protein secretion. Upon treatment with the M3 muscarinic agonist acetylcholine, acini-like structures activated the fluid production pathway by increasing intracellular calcium levels. The increase in intracellular calcium seen in structures in the 3D hydrogel culture system was more robust and prolonged than that in 2.5D. To compare the long-term survival and retention of acini-like structures in vivo, cell-seeded 2.5D and 3D hydrogels were implanted into an athymic rat model. Cells in 2.5D failed to maintain organized acini-like structures and dispersed in the surrounding tissue. Encapsulated cells in 3D retained their spheroid structure and structural integrity, along with the salivary biomarkers and maintained viability for over 3 weeks in vivo

  4. [Clinical and histopathologic study of salivary mucoceles].

    PubMed

    Kang, S K; Kim, K S

    1989-11-01

    Mucoceles are commonly occurring lesions of the oral mucous membrane and the most common lesion involving minor salivary tissue. The incidence of mucoceles is understandable since accessary salivary gland tissue is widely distributed throughout the oral mucous membrane and trauma to the mucosa, which causes their formation, occurs frequently. But only a few studies have been reported that describe its detailed features. This is a retrospective study on the salivary mucoceles in the oral mucous membrane and based on clinical chart, biopsy request and photomicroscopic finding of 112 patients treated by Dept. of Oral Surgery in Seoul National University Hospital, during the period of last 10 years. The results were as following. 1. The age range of the 112 patients was 2 to 60 years, with a peak incidence in the second decade and a gradual decline thereafter. Of the 112 patients, 49 (44%) were males and 63 (56%) were females, the male-to-female ratio being 1:1.29. 2. The majority of these lesions were located on the lower lip but occurred with lesser frequently on the buccal mucosa, floor of the mouth, tongue, retromolar region, upper lip. 3. Of the 112 patients, 107 (95%) were treated by excision and only 5 were treated by marsupialization. 18 of 112 cases had recurrence and the recurrence rate in this study was 16%. 4. Only 3 of the 112 cases revealed an epithelial lining. This incidence indicates that the mucus-extravasation by the damage of excretory duct rather than the ductal dilatation by mucus-retention may play a critical role in the production of these lesions. 5. In 81 cases (72.3%) minor salivary gland were included in the excision biopsy, specimen. Changes observed in the glandular tissue were atrophy and infiltration of chronic inflammatory cell, but the secretory function of gland was thought to be normal in most cases because the changes were mild. PMID:2489621

  5. Quality of Life after Salivary Gland Surgery.

    PubMed

    Wax, Mark K; Talmi, Yoav P

    2016-01-01

    Quality of life (QoL) has been recognized as an important endpoint in addition to disease-related and global survival. It is particularly important for patients with salivary gland neoplastic disease. For patients who are undergoing benign salivary gland tumor surgery, cosmetic and functional outcomes are extremely important, as these patients' psychological well-being and ability to function in society can be severely impacted. The following issues related to surgical treatment are discussed: incision, loss of local tissue sensation, development of Frey's syndrome, facial nerve function, and cosmesis. Improvements in the placement of the incision combined with additional minimally invasive procedures have improved QoL. The ultimate goal of benign parotid neoplastic surgery is complete tumor excision while avoiding cosmetic and functional damage, which includes preservation of the function of the facial nerve and its branches; this is the key to maintaining preoperative levels of QoL. There are many measures available to improve cosmesis that have minimal morbidity and that, when used, can provide significant improvements in patient outcomes. The treatment of malignant salivary gland neoplasms is primarily directed at treating the malignancy. When surgical treatment affects important neighboring structures, such as the lingual or hypoglossal nerves, as in submandibular/sublingual cancer, there is a tremendous effect on QoL if postoperative dysfunction of these structures results. Often, this treatment involves using ancillary surgical procedures, such as neck dissection, or nonsurgical treatment, such as radiation therapy. The effect of such multi-modality treatment on QoL is significant. The treatment of underlying salivary disease is often overshadowed by these adjunctive treatments. PMID:27092786

  6. Salivary gland malignant neoplasms: treatment and prognosis

    SciTech Connect

    Borthne, A.; Kjellevold, K.; Kaalhus, O.; Vermund, H.

    1986-05-01

    A retrospective analysis of 183 patients with malignant salivary gland tumors treated between 1955 and 1978 is presented. The analysis showed that radiation therapy lowered the recurrence rates after surgery and controlled approximately one-third of the inoperable tumors. A dose-response relationship exists and the data suggest that the radiation dose should not be less than that corresponding to a CRE-value of 1950 reu (70 Gy/7 weeks). Histology, location and clinical stage are important prognostic factors.

  7. Interstitial lung disease induced by alectinib (CH5424802/RO5424802).

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Satoshi; Yoshioka, Hiroshige; Arita, Machiko; Sakai, Takahiro; Sone, Naoyuki; Nishiyama, Akihiro; Niwa, Takashi; Hotta, Machiko; Tanaka, Tomohiro; Ishida, Tadashi

    2015-02-01

    A 75-year-old woman with anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-rearranged Stage IV lung adenocarcinoma was administered the selective anaplastic lymphoma kinase inhibitor, alectinib, as a third-line treatment in a Phase 1-2 study. On the 102nd day, chest computed tomography showed diffuse ground glass opacities. Laboratory data revealed high serum levels of KL-6, SP-D and lactate dehydrogenase without any clinical symptoms. There was no evidence of infection. Marked lymphocytosis was seen in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid analysis, and transbronchial lung biopsy showed mild thickening of alveolar septa and lymphocyte infiltration. Interstitial lung disease was judged to be related to alectinib based on improvements in imaging findings and serum biomarkers after discontinuation of alectinib. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of alectinib-induced interstitial lung disease. Alectinib is a promising drug for ALK-rearranged non-small cell lung cancer. Clinical trials of this selective anaplastic lymphoma kinase inhibitor will facilitate the meticulous elucidation of its long-term safety profile. PMID:25398579

  8. Optical approach to the salivary pellicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Jae Ho; Krasieva, Tatiana; Tang, Shuo; Ahn, Yehchan; Kim, Chang Soo; Vu, Diana; Chen, Zhongping; Wilder-Smith, Petra

    2009-07-01

    The salivary pellicle plays an important role in oral physiology, yet noninvasive in situ characterization and mapping of this layer remains elusive. The goal of this study is to develop an optical approach for the real-time, noninvasive mapping and characterization of salivary pellicles using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and optical coherence microscopy (OCM). The long-term goals are to improve diagnostic capabilities in the oral cavity, gain a better understanding of physiological and pathological processes related to the oral hard tissues, and monitor treatment responses. A salivary pellicle is incubated on small enamel cubes using human whole saliva. OCT and OCM imaging occurs at 0, 10, 30, 60 min, and 24 h. For some imaging, spherical gold nanoparticles (15 nm) are added to determine whether this would increase the optical signal from the pellicle. Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) provides the baseline information. In the saliva-incubated samples, a surface signal from the developing pellicle is visible in OCT images. Pellicle ``islands'' form, which increase in complexity over time until they merge to form a continuous layer over the enamel surface. Noninvasive, in situ time-based pellicle formation on the enamel surface is visualized and characterized using optical imaging.

  9. Salivary abnormalities in Prader-Willi Syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, S.; Poshva, C.

    1994-09-01

    Although abnormal saliva is a well documented finding in PWS, little is known about the saliva in these individuals. We have recently undertaken a study to characterize the salivary composition from PW patients and to see if there is any correlation with their underlying molecular diagnosis (deletion vs. disomy). We have collected whole saliva on 3 patients; 2 had normal high-resolution karyotype analysis (Cases 1 & 3) and 1 had a deletion of 15q11q13 (Case 3). For all parameters, Case 3`s values were notably different from those of his unaffected sibling. The salivary flow rates and concentrations for all 3 PW patients are similar and are significantly different from normal controls (mean {plus_minus} SE) (p<0.05). Although this data is from only 3 PW patients, it provides valuable information. First, decreased flow appears to be due to an effect of PWS and not medications since Cases 2 & 3 are not on any medications. Second, decreased flow appears to be present in younger as well as older individuals. Third, deviations from normal in the salivary composition are evident. It is possible that these alterations are concentration effects relative to a decrease in flow rate. We are currently obtaining saliva from more PW individuals to see if these alterations are present in all PW patients and whether they can be applied as a screening test.

  10. Non-neoplastic salivary gland lesions: a 15-year study.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Harsh; Tahlan, Anita; Mundi, Irneet; Punia, R P S; Dass, Arjun

    2011-08-01

    The spectrum of salivary gland lesions is wide and the relative incidence of neoplastic versus non-neoplastic lesions is variable in different studies. A series of non-neoplastic salivary gland lesions is reviewed to analyze their spectrum and their relative frequency. This is a retrospective study of salivary gland excisions and biopsies received in our department from January 1994 to December 2008. Routine hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections of all the salivary gland excisions and biopsies received were analyzed. Of the 393 salivary gland excisions and biopsies received, 216 cases were reported as non-neoplastic (55%) and formed our study group; 177 (45%) were neoplastic. Non-neoplastic lesions were more frequent in major salivary glands (65.7%) and submandibular gland was the most commonly involved (66.2%). Lip was the most frequent site (81.7%) for minor salivary gland lesions. Inflammation was the predominant pathological finding (49.5%), of which non-specific chronic sialadenitis constituted the majority (86.9%). Sialolithiasis was present in 22 cases (20.6%); all of these cases were of non-specific chronic sialadenitis. Cysts were second in frequency (36.6%), of which mucocele was the most common (54.5%). There were 5.6% cases of benign lympho-epithelial lesions, while normal salivary gland tissue was seen in 6.5% cases. Non-neoplastic salivary gland diseases are more common than neoplastic diseases and have a wide disease spectrum. PMID:21170719

  11. Aquaporins in Salivary Glands: From Basic Research to Clinical Applications.

    PubMed

    Delporte, Christine; Bryla, Angélic; Perret, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Salivary glands are involved in saliva secretion that ensures proper oral health. Aquaporins are expressed in salivary glands and play a major role in saliva secretion. This review will provide an overview of the salivary gland morphology and physiology of saliva secretion, and focus on the expression, subcellular localization and role of aquaporins under physiological and pathophysiological conditions, as well as clinical applications involving aquaporins. This review is highlighting expression and localization of aquaporins in human, rat and mouse, the most studied species and is pointing out possible difference between major salivary glands, i.e., parotid, submandibular and sublingual glands. PMID:26828482

  12. Anaerobic Threshold and Salivary α-amylase during Incremental Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Akizuki, Kazunori; Yazaki, Syouichirou; Echizenya, Yuki; Ohashi, Yukari

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to clarify the validity of salivary α-amylase as a method of quickly estimating anaerobic threshold and to establish the relationship between salivary α-amylase and double-product breakpoint in order to create a way to adjust exercise intensity to a safe and effective range. [Subjects and Methods] Eleven healthy young adults performed an incremental exercise test using a cycle ergometer. During the incremental exercise test, oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, and ventilatory equivalent were measured using a breath-by-breath gas analyzer. Systolic blood pressure and heart rate were measured to calculate the double product, from which double-product breakpoint was determined. Salivary α-amylase was measured to calculate the salivary threshold. [Results] One-way ANOVA revealed no significant differences among workloads at the anaerobic threshold, double-product breakpoint, and salivary threshold. Significant correlations were found between anaerobic threshold and salivary threshold and between anaerobic threshold and double-product breakpoint. [Conclusion] As a method for estimating anaerobic threshold, salivary threshold was as good as or better than determination of double-product breakpoint because the correlation between anaerobic threshold and salivary threshold was higher than the correlation between anaerobic threshold and double-product breakpoint. Therefore, salivary threshold is a useful index of anaerobic threshold during an incremental workload. PMID:25140097

  13. Aquaporins in Salivary Glands: From Basic Research to Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Delporte, Christine; Bryla, Angélic; Perret, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Salivary glands are involved in saliva secretion that ensures proper oral health. Aquaporins are expressed in salivary glands and play a major role in saliva secretion. This review will provide an overview of the salivary gland morphology and physiology of saliva secretion, and focus on the expression, subcellular localization and role of aquaporins under physiological and pathophysiological conditions, as well as clinical applications involving aquaporins. This review is highlighting expression and localization of aquaporins in human, rat and mouse, the most studied species and is pointing out possible difference between major salivary glands, i.e., parotid, submandibular and sublingual glands. PMID:26828482

  14. The relationship between pulp calcifications and salivary gland calcifications

    PubMed Central

    Kaswan, Sumita; Maheshwari, Sneha; Rahman, Farzan; Khandelwal, Suneet

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Pulp stones are discrete calcified bodies found in the dental pulp. Sialolithasis is the most common salivary gland disease. The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship between the pulp stones and salivary gland stones. Material and Methods: 196 patients were randomly selected from the out patient department for the study. The periapical radiographs for all patients were evaluated for the presence or absence of the narrowing of dental pulp chambers and pulp canals. The intra oral occlusal radiographs were also evaluated to determine the presence or absence of salivary stones. The results were compared and analyzed using the Chi-square test (p<0.001). Results: Salivary gland calcifications were detected in 5 patients. 191 patients had pulp narrowing and 118 patients had pulp stones. There was no statistical correlation between pulp narrowing and salivary stones (p>0.001) and also between pulp stones and salivary gland stones (p>0.001). Conclusions: However, the incidental findings of salivary gland stones on intra oral occlusal radiographs can provide useful information in the early diagnosis of the condition, but in the present study no significant relationship was found between the presence of pulp stones and salivary gland stones. Key words:Pulp stone, salivary gland stone, periapical radiograph, occlusal radiograph. PMID:25674311

  15. Cancer biomarkers - current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Anant Narayan; Mathur, Rohit; Farooque, Abdullah; Verma, Amit; Dwarakanath, B S

    2010-08-01

    In the recent years, knowledge about cancer biomarkers has increased tremendously providing great opportunities for improving the management of cancer patients by enhancing the efficiency of detection and efficacy of treatment. Recent technological advancement has enabled the examination of many potential biomarkers and renewed interest in developing new biomarkers. Biomarkers of cancer could include a broad range of biochemical entities, such as nucleic acids, proteins, sugars, lipids, and small metabolites, cytogenetic and cytokinetic parameters as well as whole tumour cells found in the body fluid. A comprehensive understanding of the relevance of each biomarker will be very important not only for diagnosing the disease reliably, but also help in the choice of multiple therapeutic alternatives currently available that is likely to benefit the patients. This review provides a brief account on various biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutic purposes, which include markers already in clinical practice as well as various upcoming biomarkers. PMID:20716813

  16. Biomarkers in saliva for the detection of oral squamous cell carcinoma and their potential use for early diagnosis: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Gualtero, Diego F; Suarez Castillo, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the capacity of salivary biomarkers in the early diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Study design A systematic review of the literature was performed based on the English titles listed in the PubMed, EBSCO, Cochrane, Science Direct, ISI web Science and SciELO databases using the following search descriptors: Oral cancer, diagnosis, biomarkers, saliva and oral squamous cell carcinoma. Abstracts and full-text articles were assessed independently by two reviewers. International checklists for assessment of methodological quality were used. Levels of evidence and grades of recommendation through the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) template were recognized. The units of analysis were identified through a reference matrix. Results Through the research strategy and after application of different filters and considering choosing criteria, six studies were obtained for analysis. Salivary biomarkers for oral cancer most frequently found were mRNA and proteins for IL-8, CD44, MMP-1 and MMP-3. New peptide-biomarkers such as Cyfra 21-1 and ZNF510 were found. ZNF 510 was the only biomarker which increased in the population with tumour stage T1 + T2 and T3 + T4. Only one study showed a sensitivity and specificity of 96% when the biomarker ZNF 510 is employed to discriminate early and late tumour stages. Conclusions There is no sufficient scientific evidence to support the capacity of the identified salivary biomarkers for the early diagnosis of oral cancer (sub-clinical stages of the pathogenic period before cancer phenotypes are manifested). Salivary biomarkers, however, may be employed to discriminate between healthy and cancer patients. PMID:26577643

  17. Investigation on laser induced salivary stone fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sroka, Ronald; Pongratz, Thomas; Eder, Matthias; Domes, Mona; Vogeser, Michael; Johnson, Thorsten; Siedeck, Vanessa; Schroetzlmair, Florian; Zengel, Pamela

    2014-03-01

    Objective: It was the objective of this in-vitro study to investigate photon-based techniques for identifying the composition and fragmentation of salivary stones using a Ho:YAG laser. Materials and Method: Salivary stones (n=47) extracted from patients with clinical symptoms of sialolithiasis were examined in-vitro. After extraction, the stones were kept in Ringers solution until size and volume measurements could be performed. Thereafter, dual-energy CT scans (DECT) were performed to classify the composition of the stones. Subsequently, fluorescence measurements were performed by taking images under blue light excitation as well as by fluorescence spectroscopy, measuring excitation-emission-matrixes (EEM). Further investigation to identify the exact composition of the stone was performed by Raman spectroscopy and FTIR spectroscopy of stone fragments and debris. Fragmentation was performed in an aquarium set-up equipped with a mesh (hole: 1.5mm) using a Ho:YAG-laser to deliver laser pulses of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5J/pulse at a frequency of 3Hz through a 200μm-fibre to the stone surface. The collected data were analyzed and fragmentation rates were calculated. Finally, correlation between stone composition and fragmentation was performed. Results: Blue light fluorescence excitation resulted in either fluorescence in the green spectral region or in a combination of green and red fluorescence emission. EEM-measurement showed the corresponding spectra. Raman spectroscopy showed a mixture of carbonate apatite and keratin. DECT results in evidence of calcium containing components. FTIR-spectroscopy results showed that carbonate apatite is the main component. Fragmentation experiment showed a dependency on the energy per pulse applied if the evaluation implies the ratio of fragmented weight to pulse, while the ratio fragmented weight to energy remains about constant for the three laser parameter used. Conclusion: The composition of salivary stones could be determined using

  18. Nondestructive biomarkers in ecotoxicology.

    PubMed Central

    Fossi, M C

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this article is to attempt a concise review of the state of the art of the nondestructive biomarkers approach in vertebrates, establishing a consensus on the most useful and sensitive nondestructive biomarker techniques, and proposing research priorities for the development and validation of this promising methodology. The following topics are discussed: the advantages of the use of nondestructive strategies in biomonitoring programs and the research fields in which nondestructive biomarkers can be applied; the biological materials suitable for nondestructive biomarkers and residue analysis in vertebrates; which biomarkers lend themselves to noninvasive techniques; and the validation and implementation strategy of the nondestructive biomarker approach. Examples of applications of this methodology in the hazard assessment of endangered species are also presented. Images Figure 1. C PMID:7713034

  19. Circulating glioma biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Kros, Johan M.; Mustafa, Dana M.; Dekker, Lennard J.M.; Sillevis Smitt, Peter A.E.; Luider, Theo M.; Zheng, Ping-Pin

    2015-01-01

    Validated biomarkers for patients suffering from gliomas are urgently needed for standardizing measurements of the effects of treatment in daily clinical practice and trials. Circulating body fluids offer easily accessible sources for such markers. This review highlights various categories of tumor-associated circulating biomarkers identified in blood and cerebrospinal fluid of glioma patients, including circulating tumor cells, exosomes, nucleic acids, proteins, and oncometabolites. The validation and potential clinical utility of these biomarkers is briefly discussed. Although many candidate circulating protein biomarkers were reported, none of these have reached the required validation to be introduced for clinical practice. Recent developments in tracing circulating tumor cells and their derivatives as exosomes and circulating nuclear acids may become more successful in providing useful biomarkers. It is to be expected that current technical developments will contribute to the finding and validation of circulating biomarkers. PMID:25253418

  20. Clinical and ultrasonographic characteristics of salivary mucoceles in 13 dogs.

    PubMed

    Torad, Faisal A; Hassan, Elham A

    2013-01-01

    Salivary mucocele is one of the causes of submandibular swelling in dogs and is due to a collection of mucoid saliva that has leaked from a damaged salivary gland. The purpose of this case series report was to describe the clinical and ultrasonographic characteristics of confirmed salivary mucoceles in 13 dogs admitted to the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine at Cairo University. The final diagnosis of salivary mucocele was based on aspirate cytology for all dogs and additional surgical excision for seven dogs. For dogs admitted from 2 weeks to 1 month from the onset of clinical signs, the cervical mucocele appeared as a round echogenic structure with a large volume of central anechoic content. The wall was a clearly identified hyperechoic structure surrounding the gland. For dogs admitted between 1 to 2 months from the onset of clinical signs, the volume of anechoic material appeared less than that seen in the acute cases. The overall appearance of the salivary mucocele was heterogenous. For dogs admitted after 2 months from the onset of clinical signs, the salivary mucocele appeared grainy or mottled, with a heterogenous appearance and a further decrease in anechoic content. For one dog that presented after 3 months from the onset of clinical signs, the salivary mucocele was hard on palpation and appeared hyperechoic with distal acoustic shadowing. Findings from this study indicated that ultrasonographic characteristics of salivary mucoceles in dogs vary depending on the chronological stage of the disease. PMID:23442204

  1. Intimate Partner Violence Exposure, Salivary Cortisol, and Childhood Asthma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bair-Merritt, Megan H.; Johnson, Sara B.; Okelo, Sande; Page, Gayle

    2012-01-01

    Parents were given supplies to collect 3 child salivary cortisol samples (awakening, 30-min after awakening, bedtime) at home on a typical day, and return them via mail. Medical records also were abstracted. Results: Fifty-three percent (n = 29) returned child salivary samples. Families who returned samples typically returned them within 2 weeks,…

  2. Cortisol, salivary alpha-amylase and children's perceptions of their social networks.

    PubMed

    Ponzi, Davide; Muehlenbein, Michael P; Geary, David C; Flinn, Mark V

    2016-04-01

    In recent years there has been a growing interest in the use of social network analysis in biobehavioral research. Despite the well-established importance of social relationships in influencing human behavior and health, little is known about how children's perception of their immediate social relationships correlates with biological parameters of stress. In this study we explore the association between two measures of children's personal social networks, perceived network size and perceived network density, with two biomarkers of stress, cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase. Forty children (mean age = 8.30, min age = 5, and max age = 12) were interviewed to collect information about their friendships and three samples of saliva were collected. Our results show that children characterized by a lower pre-interview cortisol concentration and a lower salivary alpha-amylase reactivity to the interview reported the highest density of friendships. We discuss this result in light of the multisystem approach to the study of children's behavioral outcomes, emphasizing that future work of this kind is needed in order to understand the cognitive and biological mechanisms underlying children's and adolescents' social perceptual biases. PMID:25919481

  3. Comparison of Salivary TIMP-1 Levels in Periodontally Involved and Healthy Controls and the Response to Nonsurgical Periodontal Therapy.

    PubMed

    Fenol, Angel; Peter, Maya Rajan; Perayil, Jayachandran; Vyloppillil, Rajesh; Bhaskar, Anuradha

    2014-01-01

    Background. Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory condition affecting the supporting structures of the dentition. Periodontal destruction is an outcome of the imbalance between matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs). We wanted to prove the hypothesis that salivary TIPM-1 level will vary in different people. A decrease in TIMP-1 level could make them more susceptible to periodontitis whereas a normal level could prevent increased tissue destruction thereby inhibiting the progression from gingivitis to periodontitis. This could probably pave the way for TIPM-1 to be a specific salivary biomarker and serve as a useful diagnostic and therapeutic tool in periodontitis. Methods. Whole unstimulated saliva of 2 ml was collected from twenty-five periodontally healthy and twenty-seven systemically healthy subjects with periodontitis. Clinical parameters recorded at baseline and reevaluated after four weeks in subjects with periodontitis following nonsurgical periodontal therapy were gingival index (GI), oral hygiene index-Simplified (OHI-S), probing pocket depth, and clinical attachment level (CAL). Salivary TIMP-1 levels in both were analyzed using a commercially available ELISA kit. PMID:26464855

  4. Comparison of Salivary TIMP-1 Levels in Periodontally Involved and Healthy Controls and the Response to Nonsurgical Periodontal Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Fenol, Angel; Peter, Maya Rajan; Perayil, Jayachandran; Vyloppillil, Rajesh; Bhaskar, Anuradha

    2014-01-01

    Background. Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory condition affecting the supporting structures of the dentition. Periodontal destruction is an outcome of the imbalance between matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs). We wanted to prove the hypothesis that salivary TIPM-1 level will vary in different people. A decrease in TIMP-1 level could make them more susceptible to periodontitis whereas a normal level could prevent increased tissue destruction thereby inhibiting the progression from gingivitis to periodontitis. This could probably pave the way for TIPM-1 to be a specific salivary biomarker and serve as a useful diagnostic and therapeutic tool in periodontitis. Methods. Whole unstimulated saliva of 2 ml was collected from twenty-five periodontally healthy and twenty-seven systemically healthy subjects with periodontitis. Clinical parameters recorded at baseline and reevaluated after four weeks in subjects with periodontitis following nonsurgical periodontal therapy were gingival index (GI), oral hygiene index-Simplified (OHI-S), probing pocket depth, and clinical attachment level (CAL). Salivary TIMP-1 levels in both were analyzed using a commercially available ELISA kit. PMID:26464855

  5. Estimation and Comparison of Salivary Calcium, Phosphorous, Alkaline Phosphatase and pH Levels in Periodontal Health and Disease: A Cross-sectional Biochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Rufi Murad; Suragimath, Girish; Zope, Sameer

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In oral diagnostics there is a great challenge to determine biomarkers for screening and evaluating the disease activity. Biomarkers can also serve as a useful tool to measure the efficacy of the therapy. Aim To evaluate and compare the levels of salivary calcium, phosphorous, alkaline phosphatase and pH levels in periodontally healthy subjects and patients with gingivitis and periodontitis. Materials and Methods The present study consisted of 150 subjects aged between 20-45 years who were divided into three groups; periodontally healthy, gingivitis and chronic periodontitis. Prior to the clinical examination the demographic details, relevant information of the subject, gingival index, plaque index, Oral Hygiene Index (OHI) and pH were recorded. Biochemical assay of saliva i.e., inorganic calcium, phosphorous and alkaline phosphatase were estimated by colorimetric method. ANOVA and Tukey’s test were applied for statistical analysis. Results The mean levels of biomarkers studied were; inorganic calcium (12.55μg/dl), phosphorous (14.50μg/dl), alkaline phosphatase (49.62μg/dl) and pH (11.65). There was a gradual increase in these levels as the condition progressed from health to gingivitis or periodontitis which was statistically significant at p<0.001. Conclusion Based on these results, it can be concluded that, the biomarkers like salivary calcium, phosphorous, alkaline phosphatase and pH can be considered for evaluating the diagnosis and prognosis of periodontal tissues in disease and health.

  6. Pupil and Salivary Indicators of Autonomic Dysfunction in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Christa J.; Colombo, John; Unruh, Kathryn E.

    2013-01-01

    Dysregulated tonic pupil size has been reported in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Among the possible sources of this dysregulation are disruptions in the feedback loop between norepinephrine (NE) and hypothalamic systems. In the current study, we examined afternoon levels of salivary alpha-amylase (sAA, a putative correlate of NE) and cortisol (used to assess stress-based responses) in two independent samples of children with ASD. We found a larger pupil size and lower sAA levels in ASD, compared to typical and clinical age-matched controls. This was substantiated at the individual level, as sAA levels were strongly correlated with tonic pupil size. Relatively little diurnal variation in sAA taken in the home environment in the ASD group was also observed, while typical controls showed a significant linear increase throughout the day. Results are discussed in terms of potential early biomarkers and the elucidation of underlying neural dysfunction in ASD. PMID:22644965

  7. Solid blue dot tumour: minor salivary gland acinic cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bavle, Radhika M; Makarla, Soumya; Nadaf, Afreen; Narasimhamurthy, Srinath

    2014-01-01

    Acinic cell adenocarcinoma (ACC) is a low-grade malignant salivary neoplasm that constitutes approximately 17% of all primary salivary gland malignancies. In the head and neck region, the parotid gland is the predominant site of origin and ACC is usually more frequent in women than men. Previous radiation exposure and familial predisposition are some of the risk factors for ACC. ACCs rarely involve minor salivary glands constituting only 13–17% of all minor salivary gland tumours. Generally, a slowly enlarging mass lesion in the tail of the parotid gland is the most frequent presentation. ACC has a significant tendency to recur, metastasise and may have an aggressive evolution. Therefore, a long-term follow-up is mandatory after treatment. Here we report the case of a woman in her 60s with an ACC in association with the labial minor salivary gland, presenting in the post-treatment period of squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue. PMID:24928927

  8. Salivary epithelial cells: an unassuming target site for gene therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Paola; Rowzee, Anne M.; Zheng, Changyu; Adriaansen, Janik; Baum, Bruce J.

    2010-01-01

    Salivary glands are classical exocrine glands whose external secretions result in the production of saliva. However, in addition to the secretion of exocrine proteins, salivary epithelial cells are also capable of secreting proteins internally, into the bloodstream. This brief review examines the potential for using salivary epithelial cells as a target site for in situ gene transfer, with an ultimate goal of producing therapeutic proteins for treating both systemic and upper gastrointestinal tract disorders. The review discusses the protein secretory pathways reported to be present in salivary epithelial cells, the viral gene transfer vectors shown useful for transducing these cells, model transgenic secretory proteins examined, and some clinical conditions that might benefit from such salivary gland gene transfer. PMID:20219693

  9. Salivary secretion and connective tissue disease in man.

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, R W; Bhoola, K D; Rasker, J J; Jayson, M I

    1985-01-01

    Parotid and submandibular gland secretions collected from patients with rheumatoid arthritis or systemic sclerosis have been analysed and the results compared with those obtained from a matched group of healthy individuals. Flow rates were measured and the saliva samples assayed for amylase, kallikrein, protein, and salivary IgA concentration. The results showed that only patients with rheumatoid arthritis had a reduced salivary flow, especially parotid flow, with a significantly increased concentration of salivary IgA in both parotid and submandibular saliva. Patients with systemic sclerosis did not show significantly altered salivary flow rates, but there was a marked depletion of salivary IgA content in both parotid and submandibular saliva. Neither disease states appeared to alter the kallikrein or amylase content of saliva. The possible clinical value of these findings is discussed. Images PMID:2578776

  10. Genomic landscape of salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Kato, Shumei; Elkin, Sheryl K; Schwaederle, Maria; Tomson, Brett N; Helsten, Teresa; Carter, Jennifer L; Kurzrock, Razelle

    2015-09-22

    Effective treatment options for advanced salivary gland tumors are lacking. To better understand these tumors, we report their genomic landscape. We studied the molecular aberrations in 117 patients with salivary gland tumors that were, on physician request, tested in a Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) laboratory (Foundation Medicine, Cambridge, MA) using next-generation sequencing (182 or 236 genes), and analyzed by N-of-One, Inc. (Lexington, MA). There were 354 total aberrations, with 240 distinct aberrations identified in this patient population. Only 10 individuals (8.5%) had a molecular portfolio that was identical to any other patient (with four different portfolios amongst the ten patients). The most common abnormalities involved the TP53 gene (36/117 [30.8% of patients]), cyclin pathway (CCND1, CDK4/6 or CDKN2A/B) (31/117 [26.5%]) and PI3K pathway (PIK3CA, PIK3R1, PTEN or AKT1/3) (28/117 [23.9%]). In multivariate analysis, statistically significant co-existing aberrations were observed as follows: TP53 and ERBB2 (p = 0.01), cyclin pathway and MDM2 (p = 0.03), and PI3K pathway and HRAS (p = 0.0001). We were able to identify possible cognate targeted therapies in most of the patients (107/117 [91.5%]), including FDA-approved drugs in 80/117 [68.4%]. In conclusion, salivary gland tumors were characterized by multiple distinct aberrations that mostly differed from patient to patient. Significant associations between aberrations in TP53 and ERBB2, the cyclin pathway and MDM2, and HRAS and the PI3K pathway were identified. Most patients had actionable alterations. These results provide a framework for tailored combinations of matched therapies. PMID:26247885

  11. Genomic landscape of salivary gland tumors

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Shumei; Elkin, Sheryl K.; Schwaederle, Maria; Tomson, Brett N.; Helsten, Teresa; Carter, Jennifer L.; Kurzrock, Razelle

    2015-01-01

    Effective treatment options for advanced salivary gland tumors are lacking. To better understand these tumors, we report their genomic landscape. We studied the molecular aberrations in 117 patients with salivary gland tumors that were, on physician request, tested in a Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) laboratory (Foundation Medicine, Cambridge, MA) using next-generation sequencing (182 or 236 genes), and analyzed by N-of-One, Inc. (Lexington, MA). There were 354 total aberrations, with 240 distinct aberrations identified in this patient population. Only 10 individuals (8.5%) had a molecular portfolio that was identical to any other patient (with four different portfolios amongst the ten patients). The most common abnormalities involved the TP53 gene (36/117 [30.8% of patients]), cyclin pathway (CCND1, CDK4/6 or CDKN2A/B) (31/117 [26.5%]) and PI3K pathway (PIK3CA, PIK3R1, PTEN or AKT1/3) (28/117 [23.9%]). In multivariate analysis, statistically significant co-existing aberrations were observed as follows: TP53 and ERBB2 (p = 0.01), cyclin pathway and MDM2 (p = 0.03), and PI3K pathway and HRAS (p = 0.0001). We were able to identify possible cognate targeted therapies in most of the patients (107/117 [91.5%]), including FDA-approved drugs in 80/117 [68.4%]. In conclusion, salivary gland tumors were characterized by multiple distinct aberrations that mostly differed from patient to patient. Significant associations between aberrations in TP53 and ERBB2, the cyclin pathway and MDM2, and HRAS and the PI3K pathway were identified. Most patients had actionable alterations. These results provide a framework for tailored combinations of matched therapies. PMID:26247885

  12. Salivary gland acinar cells regenerate functional glandular structures in modified hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Swati

    cells were identified in cultured cells from dispersed tissue. Biomarker studies with the salivary enzyme, alpha-amylase, and tight junction proteins, such as zonula occludens-1 and E-cadherin, confirmed the phenotype of these cells. Strong staining for laminin and perlecan/HSPG2 were noted in basement membranes and perlecan also was secreted and organized by cultured acinar populations, which formed lobular structures that mimicked intact glands when cultured on Matrigel(TM) or a bioactive peptide derived from domain IV of perlecan (PlnDIV). On either matrix, large acini-like lobular structures grew and formed connections between the lobes. alpha-Amylase secretion was confirmed by staining and activity assay. Biomarkers including tight junction protein E-cadherin and water channel protein, aquaporin 5 (AQP5) found in tissue, were expressed in cultured acinar cells. Cells cultured on Matrigel(TM) or PlnDIV peptide organized stress fibers and activated focal adhesion kinase (FAK). HA, a natural polysaccharide and a major component of the ECM, can be used to generate soft and pliable hydrogels. A culture system consisting of HA hydrogel and PlnDIV peptide was used to generate a 2.5D culture system. Acinar cells cultured on these hydrogels self-assembled into lobular structures and expressed tight junction components such as ZO-1. Acini-like structures were stained for the presence of alpha-amylase. Live/dead staining revealed the presence of apoptotic cells in the center of the acini-like structures, indicative of lumen formation. The functionality of these acini-like structures was studied by stimulating them with neurotransmitters to enhance their fluid and protein production. Acini-like structures treated with norepinephrine and isoproterenol showed increased granule formation as observed by phase contrast microscopy and alpha-amylase staining in the structures. Lobular structures on hydrogels were treated with acetylcholine to increase fluid production. The increase

  13. Complete agenesis of major salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Berta, E; Bettega, G; Jouk, P S; Billy, G; Nugues, F; Morand, B

    2013-10-01

    A 4 year-old female patient was treated for persistent right-sided dacryocystitis and xerostomia. MRI was performed to screen for a dry syndrome; which resulted in the diagnosis of agenesis of the parotid and submandibular glands as well as lacrimal duct malformation. An MRI of each parent was normal. The mother's history revealed 4 days of pyrexia during the 8th week of amenorrhea. This was an isolated case, with no family history, characterized by a febrile episode during pregnancy at the period of main salivary gland genesis. Epigenetic mechanisms could be implicated. PMID:23993206

  14. Quantitative Analysis of Human Salivary Gland-Derived Intact Proteome Using Top-Down Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Si; Brown, Joseph N.; Tolic, Nikola; Meng, Da; Liu, Xiaowen; Zhang, Haizhen; Zhao, Rui; Moore, Ronald J.; Pevzner, Pavel A.; Smith, Richard D.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana

    2014-05-31

    There are several notable challenges inherent to fully characterizing the entirety of the human saliva proteome using bottom-up approaches, including polymorphic isoforms, post-translational modifications, unique splice variants, deletions, and truncations. To address these challenges, we have developed a top-down based liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) approach, which cataloged 20 major human salivary proteins with a total of 83 proteoforms, containing a broad range of post-translational modifications. Among these proteins, several previously reported disease biomarker proteins were identified at the intact protein level, such as beta-2 microglobulin (B2M). In addition, intact glycosylated proteoforms of several saliva proteins were also characterized, including intact N-glycosylated protein prolactin inducible protein (PIP) and O-glycosylated acidic protein rich protein (aPRP). These characterized proteoforms constitute an intact saliva proteoform database, which was used for quantitative comparison of intact salivary proteoforms among six healthy individuals. Human parotid (PS) and submandibular/sublingual gland (SMSL) secretion samples (2 μg of protein each) from six healthy individuals were compared using RPLC coupled with the 12T FTICR mass spectrometer. Significantly different protein and PTM patterns were resolved with high reproducibility between PS and SMSL glands. The results from this study provide further insight into the potential mechanisms of PTM pathways in oral glandular secretion, expanding our knowledge of this complex yet easily accessible fluid. Intact protein LC-MS approach presented herein can potentially be applied for rapid and accurate identification of biomarkers from only a few microliters of human glandular saliva.

  15. Characterization of the In Vitro Kinetic Interaction of Chlorpyrifos-Oxon with Rat Salivary Cholinesterase: A Potential Biomonitoring Matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Kousba, Ahmed A. ); Poet, Torka S. ); Timchalk, Charles

    2003-02-12

    Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is a commonly used organophosphate insecticide (OP). The primary mechanism of action for CPF involves the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) by the active metabolite, CPF-oxon, with subsequent accumulation of acetylcholine (ACh) resulting in a wide range of neutotoxicity. CPF-oxon, can likewise inhibit other non-target cholinesterases (ChE) such as butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE), which represents a detoxification mechanism and a potential biomarker of exposure/response. Biological monitoring for OPs has focused on measuring parent chemical or metabolite in blood and urine or blood ChE inhibition. Salivary biomonitoring has recently been explored as a practical method for examination of chemical exposure; however, there are a limited number of studies exploring its use for OPs. To evaluate the use of salivary ChE as a biological monitor for OP exposure, the current study characterized salivary ChE activity in Sprague-Dawley rats through its comparison with brain and plasma ChE using BW284C51 and iso-OMPA as selective inhibitors of AChE and BuChE, respectively. The study also estimated the kinetic constants describing BuChE interaction with CPF-oxon. A modified Ellman assay in conjunction with pharmacodynamic (PD) modeling was used to characterize the in vitro titration of diluted rat salivary ChE enzyme with CPF-oxon. The results indicated that, more than 95% of rat salivary ChE activity was associated with BuChE activity, total BuChE active site concentration was 0.0012 0.00013 nmol/ml saliva, reactivation rate constant (Kr) was 0.068 0.008 h-1 and inhibitory (Ki) rate constant of 8.825 and 9.80 nM-1h-1 determined experimentally and using model optimization respectively. These study results would be helpful for further evaluating the potential utility of salivary ChE as a practical tool for biological monitor of OP exposures.

  16. The salivary proteome profile in patients affected by SAPHO syndrome characterized by a top-down RP-HPLC-ESI-MS platform.

    PubMed

    Sanna, Monica; Firinu, Davide; Manconi, Paolo Emilio; Pisanu, Maria; Murgia, Giuseppe; Piras, Valentina; Castagnola, Massimo; Messana, Irene; del Giacco, Stefano Renato; Cabras, Tiziana

    2015-06-01

    SAPHO syndrome is a rare and often unrecognized disease with prominent inflammatory cutaneous and articular symptoms characterized by musculoskeletal manifestations (synovitis, hyperostosis, osteomyelitis) associated with dermatological conditions (severe acne and pustulosis). The acidic soluble fraction of whole saliva from 10 adult women affected by SAPHO syndrome and from a group of 28 healthy women was analysed by RP-HPLC-ESI-MS with the aim of discovering salivary biomarkers of the disorder. The levels of the oral proteins and peptides were correlated with clinical data. The following proteins showed a significant decreased concentration in saliva of SAPHO subjects with respect to controls: cystatin S1 and SN, histatins, the major acidic PRPs, P-C and P-B peptides. The cystatin SN abundance lowered according to the disease duration and histatins showed positive correlations with the C reactive protein. Statistical analysis performed excluding one patient with a different pattern of salivary proteins/peptides highlighted a positive relationship between cystatin S1, histatins 3, histatin 5, and the neutrophil count. Moreover, histatin 3 correlated positively with the total white cell count and negatively with the erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Levels and frequency of S100A12 protein showed a trend to increase in SAPHO patients. The high expression of this pro-inflammatory protein is probably related to the inflammatory response and to the altered neutrophil responses to functional stimuli that characterize SAPHO syndrome suggesting a possible application as a salivary biomarker. PMID:25671558

  17. Changes in the salivary protein profile of morbidly obese women either previously subjected to bariatric surgery or not.

    PubMed

    Lamy, Elsa; Simões, Carla; Rodrigues, Lénia; Costa, Ana Rodrigues; Vitorino, Rui; Amado, Francisco; Antunes, Célia; do Carmo, Isabel

    2015-12-01

    Saliva is a non-invasive source of biomarkers useful in the study of physiological mechanisms. Moreover, this fluid has diverse functions, among which food perception and ingestion, making it particularly suitable for the study of obesity. The aims of this study were to assess changes in salivary proteome among morbidly obese women, with a view to provide information about mechanisms potentially related to the development of obesity, and to evaluate whether these changes persist after weight loss. Mixed saliva samples from morbidly obese women (N = 18) who had been either subjected (group O-BS) or not (group O) to bariatric surgery and women with normal weight (N = 14; group C) were compared for protein profiles, alpha-amylase abundance and enzymatic activity, and carbonic anhydrase (CA) VI abundance. Differences in salivary obese profiles were observed for 23 different spots. Zinc-alpha-2 glycoprotein-containing spots showed higher abundance in group O only, whereas cystatin S-containing spots presented higher abundance in the two groups of obese subjects. Most of the spots identified as salivary amylase were present at lower levels in group O-BS. With regard to the amylase enzymatic activity, increases were observed for group O and decreases for group O-BS. One interesting finding was the high correlation between levels of CA VI and body mass index in group O, which was not observed for groups O-BS or C. The differences between groups, mainly regarding salivary proteins involved in taste sensitivity and metabolism, point to the potential of using saliva in the study of obesity development. PMID:26399515

  18. Glycoprofiling of the Human Salivary Proteome

    PubMed Central

    Sondej, Melissa; Denny, Patricia A.; Xie, Yongming; Ramachandran, Prasanna; Si, Yan; Takashima, Jona; Shi, Wenyuan; Wong, David T.; Loo, Joseph A.; Denny, Paul C.

    2009-01-01

    Glycosylation is important for a number of biological processes and is perhaps the most abundant and complicated of the known post-translational modifications found on proteins. This work combines two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and lectin blotting to map the salivary glycome, and mass spectrometry to identity the proteins that are associated with the glycome map. A panel of 15 lectins that recognize six sugar-specific categories was used to visualize the type and extent of glycosylation in saliva from two healthy male individuals. Lectin blots were compared to 2-D gels stained either with Sypro Ruby (protein stain) or Pro-Q Emerald 488 (glycoprotein stain). Each lectin shows a distinct pattern, even those belonging to the same sugar-specific category. In addition, the glycosylation profiles generated from the lectin blots show that most of the salivary proteins are glycosylated and that the pattern is more widespread than is demonstrated by the glycoprotein stained gel. Finally, the co-reactivity between two lectins was measured to determine the glycan structures that are most and least often associated with one another along with the population variation of the lectin reactivity for 66 individuals. PMID:20161393

  19. Biomarkers present in asphaltenes

    SciTech Connect

    Philp, R.P.

    1985-01-01

    The significance and distribution of biomarkers in sediments, source rocks and crude oils are well documented in the literature. Little attention has been directed towards the biomarkers that are present in the asphaltene fractions of crude oils and source rock extracts. Asphaltene fractions by definition are insoluble in certain solvents and consist of high molecular components which makes them difficult to analyze by techniques commonly used to characterize the soluble extracts. Asphaltenes are ideally suited for analysis by microscale pyrolysis techniques (py) combined with gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Utilization of the multiple ion detection technique in conjunction with the py-GC-MS analyses permits the distribution of the steranes, triterpanes and other biomarker produced by pyrolysis of the asphaltenes to be easily determined. It is proposed in this paper to discuss the pyrolysis of asphaltene from a variety of source rocks and analysis of the biomarkers, released by the pyrolysis. These biomarkers distributions can be used to obtain information on source and maturity of the organic matter in a similar manner to using the soluble biomarkers. It is proposed to discuss the asphaltene biomarker distributions and also to speculate as to why certain biomarkers are present only in the extracts and asphaltenes and not produced by pyrolysis of the kerogens.

  20. Biomarkers in Autism

    PubMed Central

    Goldani, Andre A. S.; Downs, Susan R.; Widjaja, Felicia; Lawton, Brittany; Hendren, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are complex, heterogeneous disorders caused by an interaction between genetic vulnerability and environmental factors. In an effort to better target the underlying roots of ASD for diagnosis and treatment, efforts to identify reliable biomarkers in genetics, neuroimaging, gene expression, and measures of the body’s metabolism are growing. For this article, we review the published studies of potential biomarkers in autism and conclude that while there is increasing promise of finding biomarkers that can help us target treatment, there are none with enough evidence to support routine clinical use unless medical illness is suspected. Promising biomarkers include those for mitochondrial function, oxidative stress, and immune function. Genetic clusters are also suggesting the potential for useful biomarkers. PMID:25161627

  1. The Effect of Capsaicin on Salivary Gland Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Shin, Yong-Hwan; Kim, Jin Man; Park, Kyungpyo

    2016-01-01

    Capsaicin (trans-8-methyl-N-vanilyl-6-nonenamide) is a unique alkaloid isolated from hot chili peppers of the capsicum family. Capsaicin is an agonist of transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1), which is expressed in nociceptive sensory neurons and a range of secretory epithelia, including salivary glands. Capsaicin has analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties in sensory neurons. Recently, increasing evidence has indicated that capsaicin also affects saliva secretion and inflammation in salivary glands. Applying capsaicin increases salivary secretion in human and animal models. Capsaicin appears to increase salivation mainly by modulating the paracellular pathway in salivary glands. Capsaicin activates TRPV1, which modulates the permeability of tight junctions (TJ) by regulating the expression and function of putative intercellular adhesion molecules in an ERK (extracelluar signal-regulated kinase) -dependent manner. Capsaicin also improved dysfunction in transplanted salivary glands. Aside from the secretory effects of capsaicin, it has anti-inflammatory effects in salivary glands. The anti-inflammatory effect of capsaicin is, however, not mediated by TRPV1, but by inhibition of the NF-κB pathway. In conclusion, capsaicin might be a potential drug for alleviating dry mouth symptoms and inflammation of salivary glands. PMID:27347918

  2. Comparison of Salivary and Serum Glucose Levels in Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, Simarpreet Virk; Bansal, Himanta; Sharma, Deepti

    2014-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus is a noncommunicable disease with a rising prevalence worldwide and in developing countries. The most commonly used diagnostic biofluid for detection of glucose levels is blood, but sample collection is an invasive and painful procedure. Thus, there arises a need for a noninvasive and painless technique to detect glucose levels. Aims and Objectives: The objectives of the present study were to estimate the glucose levels of saliva, to assess if any significant correlation existed between the serum and salivary glucose levels, and to correlate salivary glucose levels with regard to duration of diabetes, age, and gender. In the present study, serum and salivary glucose levels of 200 subjects (100 diabetic subjects and 100 nondiabetic subjects) were estimated by glucose oxidase method. Glycosylated hemoglobin levels were also measured in randomly selected 40 diabetic subjects. Results: The findings of present study revealed a significant correlation between salivary and serum glucose levels in both diabetic and nondiabetic subjects. No significant relationship was observed between salivary glucose levels and gender or age in both diabetics and nondiabetics and between salivary glucose levels and duration of diabetes in diabetics. Conclusion: On the basis of the findings, it was concluded that salivary glucose levels could serve as a potentially noninvasive adjunct to monitor glycemic control in diabetic patients. PMID:25294888

  3. Transcriptomic Analysis of the Salivary Glands of an Invasive Whitefly

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yun-Lin; Li, Jun-Min; Li, Meng; Luan, Jun-Bo; Ye, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Liu, Shu-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Background Some species of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci complex cause tremendous losses to crops worldwide through feeding directly and virus transmission indirectly. The primary salivary glands of whiteflies are critical for their feeding and virus transmission. However, partly due to their tiny size, research on whitefly salivary glands is limited and our knowledge on these glands is scarce. Methodology/Principal Findings We sequenced the transcriptome of the primary salivary glands of the Mediterranean species of B. tabaci complex using an effective cDNA amplification method in combination with short read sequencing (Illumina). In a single run, we obtained 13,615 unigenes. The quantity of the unigenes obtained from the salivary glands of the whitefly is at least four folds of the salivary gland genes from other plant-sucking insects. To reveal the functions of the primary glands, sequence similarity search and comparisons with the whole transcriptome of the whitefly were performed. The results demonstrated that the genes related to metabolism and transport were significantly enriched in the primary salivary glands. Furthermore, we found that a number of highly expressed genes in the salivary glands might be involved in secretory protein processing, secretion and virus transmission. To identify potential proteins of whitefly saliva, the translated unigenes were put into secretory protein prediction. Finally, 295 genes were predicted to encode secretory proteins and some of them might play important roles in whitefly feeding. Conclusions/Significance: The combined method of cDNA amplification, Illumina sequencing and de novo assembly is suitable for transcriptomic analysis of tiny organs in insects. Through analysis of the transcriptome, genomic features of the primary salivary glands were dissected and biologically important proteins, especially secreted proteins, were predicted. Our findings provide substantial sequence information for the primary salivary glands

  4. MTA1 Expression in Benign and Malignant Salivary gland Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Andisheh-Tadbir, Azadeh; Dehghani-Nazhvani, Ali; Ashraf, Mohammad Javad; Khademi, Bijan; Mirhadi, Hosein; Torabi-Ardekani, Shima

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Salivary gland tumors (SGTs) are important parts of human neoplasms. The most common SGT is pleomorphic adenoma and the most common malignant SGTs are mucoepidermoid carcinoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC). Metastasis-associated genes 1 (MTA1), a member of the nucleosome remodeling and histone deacetylation complex, is one newly discovered gene which recruits histone deacetylation, causing ATP-dependent chromosome remodeling, and regulating transcription. MTA1 had been shown to be overexpressed in malignant tumors with the enhancement of invasion and metastasis. Materials and Methods: Fifty-six samples of salivary gland tumors from the Khalili Hospital archive, including 20 cases of pleomorphic adenoma, 17 cases of mucoepidermoid carcinoma, 19 cases of ACC, and 23 cases of normal salivary gland tissues were chosen for immunohistochemical analysis of MTA1. Results: MTA1 expression in the malignant tumors was significantly higher than that in pleomorphic adenoma (P<0.001), and higher in pleomorphic adenoma than the normal salivary glands(P< 0.001). In total, 69.6% of normal salivary gland tissues showed MTA1, but all cases of salivary gland tumors were positive for MTA1. High nuclear expression of MTA1 was detected in 83.3% (30/36) of the malignant salivary gland tumors and 45% (9/20) of pleomorphic adenoma, while low MTA1 expression was seen in all of the normal salivary gland tissues. No statistically significant correlation was found between MTA1 protein expression and any clinicopathological features (P>0.05). Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate that MTA1 was significantly overexpressed in malignant salivary gland neoplasm in comparison to a lower level in benign pleomorphic adenoma, suggesting that MTA1 protein might be involved in carcinogenesis. PMID:26878004

  5. Maspin as a Tumour Suppressor in Salivary Gland Tumour

    PubMed Central

    Ashok, Nipun; Sheirawan, Mohammad Kinan; Altamimi, Mohammed Alsakran; Alenzi, Faris; Azzeghaiby, Saleh Nasser; Baroudi, Kusai; Nassani, Mohammad Zakaria

    2014-01-01

    Maspin is a protein that belongs to serin protease inhibitor (serpin) superfamily. The purpose of this study was to review the literature concerning the expression of maspin in salivary gland tumours. A literature search was done using MEDLINE, accessed via the National Library of Medicine PubMed interface. Statistical analysis was not done because only seven studies were available in literature, the collected data were different and the results could not be compared. Expression of maspin was down regulated in more aggressive salivary gland tumours. Maspin may function as a tumour suppressor in salivary gland tumours. PMID:25654053

  6. Neutron therapy for salivary and thyroid gland cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gribova, O. V.; Musabaeva, L. I.; Choynzonov, E. L.; Lisin, V. A.; Novikov, V. A.

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the results of the combined modality treatment and radiation therapy using 6.3 MeV fast neutrons for salivary gland cancer and prognostically unfavorable thyroid gland cancer. The study group comprised 127 patients with salivary gland cancer and 46 patients with thyroid gland cancer, who received neutron therapy alone and in combination with surgery. The results obtained demonstrated that the combined modality treatment including fast neutron therapy led to encouraging local control in patients with salivary and thyroid gland cancers.

  7. Implications of salivary protein binding to commensal and pathogenic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Heo, Seok-Mo; Ruhl, Stefan; Scannapieco, Frank A.

    2013-01-01

    An important function of salivary proteins is to interact with microorganisms that enter the oral cavity. For some microbes, these interactions promote microbial colonization. For others, these interactions are deleterious and result in the elimination of the microbe from the mouth, This paper reviews recent studies of the interaction of salivary proteins with two model bacteria; the commensal species Streptococcus gordonii, and the facultative pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. These organisms selectively interact with a variety of salivary proteins to influence important functions such as bacterial adhesion to surfaces, evasion of host defense, bacterial nutrition and metabolism and gene expression. PMID:24707190

  8. Mucocele: An unusual presentation of the minor salivary gland lesion.

    PubMed

    Senthilkumar, B; Mahabob, M Nazargi

    2012-08-01

    A mucocele is a benign, mucus-containing cystic lesion of the minor salivary gland. This type of lesion is most commonly referred to as mucocele. The more common is a mucus extravasation cyst; the other is a mucus retention cyst. Other three clinical variants are: Superficial mucocele that is located directly under the mucosa, classic variant located in the upper submucosa, and deep mucocele located in the lower cornium. Mucocele occurs either due to rupture of salivary gland duct or by blockade of salivary gland duct. The common site of occurrence of mucocele is lower lip followed by tongue, floor of mouth (ranula), and the buccal mucosa. PMID:23066247

  9. A benign salivary gland tumor of minor salivary gland mimicking an epithelial malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Vandana; Wadhwan, Vijay; Aggarwal, Pooja; Sharma, Preeti; Reddy, Munish

    2015-01-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma (PA) is the most common benign tumor of major or minor salivary glands. Microscopically, PA exhibits a great diversity of morphological aspects. Here, we present an unusual case of PA with extensive squamous metaplasia and keratin-filled cysts in the left retromolar region of a 50-year-old edentulous person whose microscopic finding may represent a diagnostic dilemma for pathologists. PMID:26097365

  10. Biomarkers in sepsis.

    PubMed

    Walley, Keith R

    2013-10-01

    There is much enthusiasm and interest in sepsis biomarkers, particularly because sepsis is a highly lethal condition, its diagnosis is challenging, and even simple treatment with antibiotics has led to serious adverse consequences such as emergence of resistant pathogens. Yet development of a sepsis biomarker requires many more steps than simply finding an association between a particular molecule and a clinical state or outcome. Demonstration of improvement of therapeutic practice using receiver-operating characteristic and other analyses is important. Validation in independent, prospective and, preferably, multicenter trials is essential. Many promising candidate sepsis biomarkers have recently been proposed. While procalcitonin (PCT) is currently the most studied sepsis biomarker, evidence of potential value has been found for a wide array of blood biomarkers including proteins, mRNA expression in whole blood or leukocytes, micro-RNAs (miRNA), pathogen and host DNA, pathogen and host genetic variants and metabolomic panels, and even in the novel use of currently available clinical data. While the most common early reports link putative sepsis biomarker levels to severity of illness and outcome (prognostic), this is not anticipated to be their primary use. More important is the distinction between infection and noninfectious inflammatory responses (diagnostic) and the use of sepsis biomarkers to direct therapy (predictive). PMID:23975686

  11. Can Biomarkers Differentiate Pain and No Pain Subgroups of Nonverbal Children with Cerebral Palsy? A Preliminary Investigation Based on Noninvasive Saliva Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Symons, Frank J.; ElGhazi, Issam; Reilly, Brian G.; Barney, Chantel C.; Hanson, Leah; Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Angela; Armitage, Ian M.; Wilcox, George L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Assessing and treating pain in nonverbal children with developmental disabilities are a clinical challenge. Current assessment approaches rely on clinical impression and behavioral rating scales completed by proxy report. Given the growing health relevance of the salivary metabolome, we undertook a translational-oriented feasibility study using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and neuropeptide/cytokine/hormone detection to compare a set of salivary biomarkers relevant to nociception. Design Within-group observational design. Setting Tertiary pediatric rehabilitation hospital. Subjects Ten nonverbal pediatric patients with cerebral palsy with and without pain. Methods Unstimulated (passively collected) saliva was collected using oral swabs followed by perchloric acid extraction and analyzed on a Bruker Avance 700 MHz NMR spectrometer. We also measured salivary levels of several cytokines, chemokines, hormones, and neuropeptides. Results Partial least squares discriminant analysis showed separation of those children with/without pain for a number of different biomarkers. The majority of the salivary metabolite, neuropeptide, cytokine, and hormone levels were higher in children with pain vs no pain. Conclusions The ease of collection and noninvasive manner in which the samples were collected and analyzed support the possibility of the regular predictive use of this novel biomarker-monitoring method in clinical practice. PMID:25234580

  12. SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE RATS ARE SUSCEPTIBLE TO AIRWAY DISEASE INDUCED BY SULFUR DIOXIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rodent models of chronic pulmonary diseases induced by sulfur dioxide (SO2), elastase or tobacco smoke have limited utility because of their lack of chronicity of inflammation, and they demonstrate limited sensitivity to a given experimental manipulation. We hypothesized that dis...

  13. Metabolic products as biomarkers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Melancon, M.J.; Alscher, R.; Benson, W.; Kruzynski, G.; Lee, R.F.; Sikka, H.C.; Spies, R.B.

    1992-01-01

    Ideally, endogenous biomarkers would indicate both exposure and environmental effects of toxic chemicals; however, such comprehensive biochemical and physiological indices are currently being developed and, at the present time, are unavailable for use in environmental monitoring programs. Continued work is required to validate the use of biochemical and physiological stress indices as useful components of monitoring programs. Of the compounds discussed only phytochelatins and porphyrins are currently in biomarkers in a useful state; however, glutathione,metallothioneins, stress ethylene, and polyamines are promising as biomarkers in environmental monitoring.

  14. Biomarkers in Severe Asthma.

    PubMed

    Wan, Xiao Chloe; Woodruff, Prescott G

    2016-08-01

    Biomarkers have been critical for studies of disease pathogenesis and the development of new therapies in severe asthma. In particular, biomarkers of type 2 inflammation have proven valuable for endotyping and targeting new biological agents. Because of these successes in understanding and marking type 2 inflammation, lack of knowledge regarding non-type 2 inflammatory mechanisms in asthma will soon be the major obstacle to the development of new treatments and management strategies in severe asthma. Biomarkers can play a role in these investigations as well by providing insight into the underlying biology in human studies of patients with severe asthma. PMID:27401625

  15. Salivary Matrix Metalloproteinase-8 and -9 and Myeloperoxidase in Relation to Coronary Heart and Periodontal Diseases: A Subgroup Report from the PAROKRANK Study (Periodontitis and Its Relation to Coronary Artery Disease)

    PubMed Central

    Rathnayake, Nilminie; Gustafsson, Anders; Norhammar, Anna; Kjellström, Barbro; Klinge, Björn; Rydén, Lars; Tervahartiala, Taina; Sorsa, Timo

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) -8, -9 and myeloperoxidase (MPO) are inflammatory mediators. The potential associations between MMP-8, -9, MPO and their abilities to reflect cardiovascular risk remains to be evaluated in saliva. The objective of this study was to investigate the levels and associations of salivary MMP-8, -9, MPO and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 in myocardial infarction (MI) patients and controls with or without periodontitis. Materials and Methods 200 patients with a first MI admitted to coronary care units in Sweden from May 2010 to December 2011 and 200 controls matched for age, gender, residential area and without previous MI were included. Dental examination and saliva sample collection was performed 6-10 weeks after the MI in patients and at baseline in controls. The biomarkers MMP -8, -9, MPO and TIMP-1 were analyzed by time-resolved immunofluorescence assay (IFMA), Western blot and Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA). Results After compensation for gingivitis, gingival pockets and smoking, the mean salivary levels of MMP-8 (543 vs 440 ng/mL, p = 0.003) and MPO (1899 vs 1637 ng/mL, p = 0.02) were higher in non-MI subjects compared to MI patients. MMP-8, -9 and MPO correlated positively with clinical signs of gingival/periodontal inflammation while TIMP-1 correlated mainly negatively with these signs. The levels of latent and active forms of MMP-8 did not differ between the MI and non-MI groups. Additionally, MMP-8, MPO levels and MMP-8/TIMP-1 ratio were significantly higher in men compared to women with MI. Conclusions This study shows that salivary levels of the analyzed biomarkers are associated with periodontal status. However, these biomarkers could not differentiate between patients with or without a MI. These findings illustrate the importance to consider the influence of oral conditions when analyzing levels of inflammatory salivary biomarkers. PMID:26132583

  16. Salivary Cortisol Levels: The Importance of Clown Doctors to Reduce Stress

    PubMed Central

    Saliba, Flávia G.; Adiwardana, Natanael S.; Uehara, Eliane U.; Silvestre, Renata N.; Leite, Victor V.; Faleiros, Francisca T.V.; Padovani, Flávia H.P.; De Gobbi, Juliana I.F.

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to correlate entertainment of clown-doctors (CD) activities on hospitalized children and aphysiological bio-marker. For this purpose we collected saliva samples and verified children satisfaction with these activities by using a visual analog scale (VAS). Children from 6 to 7 years-old, with diagnosis of any acute pathology, interned in the Pediatric Ward of the Botucatu Medical School Hospital (São Paulo, Brazil) were interviewed. Two groups were taken into consideration: lunchCD and dinnerCD. The following protocol was applied in each group (lunch and dinner): collection of the first saliva sample and presentation of VAS prior to CD activities, followed by collection of a second saliva sample and another VAS assessment after CD activities. The salivary cortisol was reduced in both groups comparing the first saliva sample. The satisfaction of the intervention was evident for lunchCD. The CD intervention is effective in decreasing an important physiological biomarker of stress factor, cortisol, in hospitalized children, been effective for the healing process. PMID:27114816

  17. Salivary Cortisol Levels: The Importance of Clown Doctors to Reduce Stress.

    PubMed

    Saliba, Flávia G; Adiwardana, Natanael S; Uehara, Eliane U; Silvestre, Renata N; Leite, Victor V; Faleiros, Francisca T V; Padovani, Flávia H P; De Gobbi, Juliana I F

    2016-03-31

    This study was designed to correlate entertainment of clown-doctors (CD) activities on hospitalized children and aphysiological bio-marker. For this purpose we collected saliva samples and verified children satisfaction with these activities by using a visual analog scale (VAS). Children from 6 to 7 years-old, with diagnosis of any acute pathology, interned in the Pediatric Ward of the Botucatu Medical School Hospital (São Paulo, Brazil) were interviewed. Two groups were taken into consideration: lunchCD and dinnerCD. The following protocol was applied in each group (lunch and dinner): collection of the first saliva sample and presentation of VAS prior to CD activities, followed by collection of a second saliva sample and another VAS assessment after CD activities. The salivary cortisol was reduced in both groups comparing the first saliva sample. The satisfaction of the intervention was evident for lunchCD. The CD intervention is effective in decreasing an important physiological biomarker of stress factor, cortisol, in hospitalized children, been effective for the healing process. PMID:27114816

  18. Psychological distress and salivary secretory immunity.

    PubMed

    Engeland, C G; Hugo, F N; Hilgert, J B; Nascimento, G G; Junges, R; Lim, H-J; Marucha, P T; Bosch, J A

    2016-02-01

    Stress-induced impairments of mucosal immunity may increase susceptibility to infectious diseases. The present study investigated the association of perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and loneliness with salivary levels of secretory immunoglobulin A (S-IgA), the subclasses S-IgA1, S-IgA2, and their transporter molecule Secretory Component (SC). S-IgA/SC, IgA1/SC and IgA2/SC ratios were calculated to assess the differential effects of stress on immunoglobulin transport versus availability. This study involved 113 university students, in part selected on high scores on the UCLA Loneliness Scale and/or the Beck Depression Inventory. Stress levels were assessed using the Perceived Stress Scale. Unstimulated saliva was collected and analysed for total S-IgA and its subclasses, as well as SC and total salivary protein. Multiple linear regression analyses, adjusted for gender, age, health behaviours, and concentration effects (total protein) revealed that higher perceived stress was associated with lower levels of IgA1 but not IgA2. Perceived stress, loneliness and depressive symptoms were all associated with lower IgA1/SC ratios. Surprisingly, higher SC levels were associated with loneliness and depressive symptoms, indicative of enhanced transport activity, which explained a lower IgA1/SC ratio (loneliness and depression) and IgA2/SC ratio (depression). This is the first study to investigate the effects of protracted psychological stress across S-IgA subclasses and its transporter SC. Psychological stress was negatively associated with secretory immunity, specifically IgA1. The lower immunoglobulin/transporter ratio that was associated with higher loneliness and depression suggested a relative immunoglobulin depletion, whereby availability was not keeping up with enhanced transport demand. PMID:26318411

  19. Biomaterials-based strategies for salivary gland tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Tugba; Fowler, Eric W; Hao, Ying; Ravikrishnan, Anitha; Harrington, Daniel A; Witt, Robert L; Farach-Carson, Mary C; Pradhan-Bhatt, Swati; Jia, Xinqiao

    2016-04-01

    The salivary gland is a complex, secretory tissue that produces saliva and maintains oral homeostasis. Radiation induced salivary gland atrophy, manifested as "dry mouth" or xerostomia, poses a significant clinical challenge. Tissue engineering recently has emerged as an alternative, long-term treatment strategy for xerostomia. In this review, we summarize recent efforts towards the development of functional and implantable salivary glands utilizing designed polymeric substrates or synthetic matrices/scaffolds. Although the in vitro engineering of a complex implantable salivary gland is technically challenging, opportunities exist for multidisciplinary teams to assemble implantable and secretory tissue modules by combining stem/progenitor cells found in the adult glands with biomimetic and cell-instructive materials. PMID:26878077

  20. Salivary cortisol levels in athletes and nonathletes: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Cevada, T; Vasques, P E; Moraes, H; Deslandes, A

    2014-12-01

    High performance athletes are constantly facing different situations involving stress. Salivary cortisol has been used as a physiological measure to verify high performance athlete and mental health, in spite of research that has shown that comparisons between cortisol levels in athletes and nonathletes are inconclusive. The purpose of this study was to review articles that investigated salivary cortisol levels at rest in high performance athletes in comparison to physically active or sedentary nonathlete individuals. PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, SciELO, LILACS, and Scopus databases were searched for studies on salivary cortisol in athletes and the size effect was calculated. Although 3 articles reported higher salivary cortisol levels in female athletes compared to a control group, the results showed homogeneity among baseline groups or groups in resting conditions, suggesting a lack of discriminative capacity. These results should be interpreted with caution, due to the presence of substantial methodological bias. PMID:25230328

  1. Salivary Gland Biopsy Shows Promise to Helping to Diagnose Parkinson's

    MedlinePlus

    ... Parkinson's HelpLine Learn More Science News Salivary Gland Biopsy Shows Promise to Helping to Diagnose Parkinson’s - Mar ... team performed a procedure called a needle core biopsy of the submandibular glands in 15 people who ...

  2. In Vitro Identification of Histatin 5 Salivary Complexes.

    PubMed

    Moffa, Eduardo B; Machado, Maria A A M; Mussi, Maria C M; Xiao, Yizhi; Garrido, Saulo S; Giampaolo, Eunice T; Siqueira, Walter L

    2015-01-01

    With recent progress in the analysis of the salivary proteome, the number of salivary proteins identified has increased dramatically. However, the physiological functions of many of the newly discovered proteins remain unclear. Closely related to the study of a protein's function is the identification of its interaction partners. Although in saliva some proteins may act primarily as single monomeric units, a significant percentage of all salivary proteins, if not the majority, appear to act in complexes with partners to execute their diverse functions. Coimmunoprecipitation (Co-IP) and pull-down assays were used to identify the heterotypic complexes between histatin 5, a potent natural antifungal protein, and other salivary proteins in saliva. Classical protein-protein interaction methods in combination with high-throughput mass spectrometric techniques were carried out. Co-IP using protein G magnetic Sepharose TM beads suspension was able to capture salivary complexes formed between histatin 5 and its salivary protein partners. Pull-down assay was used to confirm histatin 5 protein partners. A total of 52 different proteins were identified to interact with histatin 5. The present study used proteomic approaches in conjunction with classical biochemical methods to investigate protein-protein interaction in human saliva. Our study demonstrated that when histatin 5 is complexed with salivary amylase, one of the 52 proteins identified as a histatin 5 partner, the antifungal activity of histatin 5 is reduced. We expected that our proteomic approach could serve as a basis for future studies on the mechanism and structural-characterization of those salivary protein interactions to understand their clinical significance. PMID:26544073

  3. Increased Salivary Nitrite and Nitrate Excretion in Rats with Cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Mahmoodi, Somayeh; Rahmatollahi, Mahdieh; Shahsavari, Fatemeh; Shafaroodi, Hamed; Grayesh-Nejad, Siyavash; Dehpour, Ahmad R

    2015-11-01

    Increased nitric oxide (NO) formation is mechanistically linked to pathophysiology of the extrahepatic complications of cirrhosis. NO is formed by either enzymatic or non-enzymatic pathways. Enzymatic production is catalyzed by NO synthase (NOS) while entero-salivary circulation of nitrate and nitrite is linked to non-enzymatic formation of NO under acidic pH in the stomach. There is no data on salivary excretion of nitrate and nitrite in cirrhosis. This study was aimed to investigate salivary levels of nitrate and nitrite in a rat model of biliary cirrhosis. Cirrhosis was induced by bile duct ligation (BDL). Four weeks after the operation, submandibular ducts of anesthetized BDL and control rats were cannulated with polyethylene microtube for saliva collection. Assessment of pH, nitrite and nitrate levels was performed in our research. We also investigated NOS expression by real time RT-PCR to estimate eNOS, nNOS and iNOS mRNA levels in the submandibular glands. Salivary pH was significantly lower in BDL rats in comparison to control animals. We also observed a statistically significant increase in salivary levels of nitrite as well as nitrate in BDL rats while there was no elevation in the mRNA expression of nNOS, eNOS, and iNOS in submandibular glands of cirrhotic groups. This indicates that an increased salivary level of nitrite/nitrate is less likely to be linked to increased enzymatic production of NO in the salivary epithelium. It appears that nitrate/nitrite can be transported from the blood stream by submandibular glands and excreted into saliva as entero-salivary circulation, and this mechanism may have been exaggerated during cirrhosis. PMID:26786986

  4. Gingival salivary gland choristoma. Report of a case.

    PubMed

    Moskow, B S; Baden, E

    1986-08-01

    A unique example of a gingival salivary gland choristoma together with a gingival cyst is described in a human autopsy specimen of periodontal tissues. A choristoma is a tumor-like growth which is derived from primordial cells which have been displaced from their original tissue or organ. Only 6 other examples of the gingival salivary gland choristoma have been described in the world literature. PMID:3463576

  5. In Vitro Identification of Histatin 5 Salivary Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Moffa, Eduardo B.; Machado, Maria A. A. M.; Mussi, Maria C. M.; Xiao, Yizhi; Garrido, Saulo S.; Giampaolo, Eunice T.; Siqueira, Walter L.

    2015-01-01

    With recent progress in the analysis of the salivary proteome, the number of salivary proteins identified has increased dramatically. However, the physiological functions of many of the newly discovered proteins remain unclear. Closely related to the study of a protein’s function is the identification of its interaction partners. Although in saliva some proteins may act primarily as single monomeric units, a significant percentage of all salivary proteins, if not the majority, appear to act in complexes with partners to execute their diverse functions. Coimmunoprecipitation (Co-IP) and pull-down assays were used to identify the heterotypic complexes between histatin 5, a potent natural antifungal protein, and other salivary proteins in saliva. Classical protein–protein interaction methods in combination with high-throughput mass spectrometric techniques were carried out. Co-IP using protein G magnetic Sepharose TM beads suspension was able to capture salivary complexes formed between histatin 5 and its salivary protein partners. Pull-down assay was used to confirm histatin 5 protein partners. A total of 52 different proteins were identified to interact with histatin 5. The present study used proteomic approaches in conjunction with classical biochemical methods to investigate protein–protein interaction in human saliva. Our study demonstrated that when histatin 5 is complexed with salivary amylase, one of the 52 proteins identified as a histatin 5 partner, the antifungal activity of histatin 5 is reduced. We expected that our proteomic approach could serve as a basis for future studies on the mechanism and structural-characterization of those salivary protein interactions to understand their clinical significance. PMID:26544073

  6. Environmental and Genetic Contributors to Salivary Testosterone Levels in Infants

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Kai; Yu, Yang; Ahn, Mihye; Zhu, Hongtu; Zou, Fei; Gilmore, John H.; Knickmeyer, Rebecca C.

    2014-01-01

    Transient activation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis in early infancy plays an important role in male genital development and sexual differentiation of the brain, but factors contributing to individual variation in testosterone levels during this period are poorly understood. We measured salivary testosterone levels in 222 infants (119 males, 103 females, 108 singletons, 114 twins) between 2.70 and 4.80 months of age. We tested 16 major demographic and medical history variables for effects on inter-individual variation in salivary testosterone. Using the subset of twins, we estimated genetic and environmental contributions to salivary testosterone levels. Finally, we tested single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within ±5 kb of genes involved in testosterone synthesis, transport, signaling, and metabolism for associations with salivary testosterone using univariate tests and random forest (RF) analysis. We report an association between 5 min APGAR scores and salivary testosterone levels in males. Twin modeling indicated that individual variability in testosterone levels was primarily explained by environmental factors. Regarding genetic variation, univariate tests did not reveal any variants significantly associated with salivary testosterone after adjusting for false discovery rate. The top hit in males was rs10923844, an SNP of unknown function located downstream of HSD3B1 and HSD3B2. The top hits in females were two SNPs located upstream of ESR1 (rs3407085 and rs2295190). RF analysis, which reflects joint and conditional effects of multiple variants, indicated that genes involved in regulation of reproductive function, particularly LHCGR, are related to salivary testosterone levels in male infants, as are genes involved in cholesterol production, transport, and removal, while genes involved in estrogen signaling are related to salivary testosterone levels in female infants. PMID:25400620

  7. Salivary glands: a new player in phosphorus metabolism.

    PubMed

    Savica, Vincenzo; Calò, Lorenzo A; Santoro, Domenico; Monardo, Paolo; Santoro, Giuseppe; Muraca, Ugo; Davis, Paul A; Bellinghieri, Guido

    2011-01-01

    In uremic patients, hyperphosphatemia is associated with cardiovascular calcification and increased cardiovascular mortality. Despite the use of phosphate binders and dietary phosphate limitation in addition to dialysis, only 50% of dialysis patients achieve recommended serum phosphate levels. The identification of other approaches for serum phosphorus reduction is therefore necessary. We have approached this issue by taking into account the relationships between serum phosphate, kidney function, and saliva. Saliva was chosen because the anatomy and/or physiology of acini, the secretive units of salivary glands, shares similarities with that of the renal tubules. Salivary fluid contains electrolytes including phosphate that, when related with the amount of salivary secretion per day, raises the interest in identifying another possible approach for phosphorus removal in uremic patients. This article reports studies from our laboratory in the last 3 to 4 years, which have demonstrated a hyperphosphoric salivary content in patients with chronic renal failure and those with end-stage renal disease under chronic dialysis that, in patients with chronic renal failure, linearly correlates with serum phosphate in patients with chronic renal failure and negatively with GFR. The ingestion of the saliva and later its absorption in the intestinal tract starts a vicious circle between salivary phosphate secretion and fasting phosphate absorption, thereby worsening hyperphosphatemia. Therefore, salivary phosphate binding could be a useful approach to serum phosphate level reduction in dialysis patients. The reduction of salivary phosphate with the salivary phosphate binder, chitosan-loaded chewing gum, chewed during fasting periods, as an add-on to phosphate binders could lead to a better control of hyperphosphatemia, as demonstrated in our study, which confirms the importance of this approach. PMID:21195917

  8. Biomarker time out.

    PubMed

    Petzold, Axel; Bowser, Robert; Calabresi, Paolo; Zetterberg, Henrik; Uitdehaag, Bernard M J

    2014-10-01

    The advancement of knowledge relies on scientific investigations. The timing between asking a question and data collection defines if a study is prospective or retrospective. Prospective studies look forward from a point in time, are less prone to bias and are considered superior to retrospective studies. This conceptual framework conflicts with the nature of biomarker research. New candidate biomarkers are discovered in a retrospective manner. There are neither resources nor time for prospective testing in all cases. Relevant sources for bias are not covered. Ethical questions arise through the time penalty of an overly dogmatic concept. The timing of sample collection can be separated from testing biomarkers. Therefore the moment of formulating a hypothesis may be after sample collection was completed. A conceptual framework permissive to asking research questions without the obligation to bow to the human concept of calendar time would simplify biomarker research, but will require new safeguards against bias. PMID:24557857

  9. Lymphoid organisation in labial salivary gland biopsies is a possible predictor for the development of malignant lymphoma in primary Sjögren's syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Theander, Elke; Vasaitis, Lilian; Baecklund, Eva; Nordmark, Gunnel; Warfvinge, Gunnar; Liedholm, Rolf; Brokstad, Karl; Jonsson, Roland; Jonsson, Malin V

    2011-01-01

    Objective The development of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) confers a high risk of mortality in primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) patients, but the sensitivity and specificity of proposed lymphoma predictors are insufficient for practical use. The performance of lymphoid organisation in the form of germinal centre (GC)-like lesions was evaluated in labial salivary gland biopsies taken at pSS diagnosis as a potential lymphoma-predicting biomarker. Methods Labial salivary gland tissue biopsies available from two Swedish pSS research cohorts (n=175) were re-evaluated by light microscopy in a blind study in order to identify GC-like structures as a sign of ectopic lymphoid tissue formation and organisation. A linkage study was performed with the Swedish Cancer Registry for lymphoma identification. The risk of developing NHL in GC-positive patients in comparison with GC-negative patients was evaluated using Kaplan–Meier statistics and log-rank test. Associations between GC-like structures and clinical and/or laboratory disease markers were also determined using χ2 or Fisher's exact tests. Results At diagnosis, 25% of pSS patients had GC-like structures in their salivary glands. Seven of the 175 patients studied (14% GC+ and 0.8% GC−) developed NHL during 1855 patient-years at risk, with a median onset of 7 years following the initial diagnostic salivary gland biopsy. Six of the seven patients had GC-like structures at diagnosis; the remaining patient was GC negative at the time of diagnosis (p=0.001). Conclusions The detection of GC-like structures by light microscopy in pSS diagnostic salivary biopsies is proposed as a highly predictive and easy-to-obtain marker for NHL development. This allows for risk stratification of patients and the possibility to initiate preventive B-cell-directed therapy. PMID:21715359

  10. Detection of inflammatory biomarkers in saliva and urine: Potential in diagnosis, prevention, and treatment for chronic diseases.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Sahdeo; Tyagi, Amit K; Aggarwal, Bharat B

    2016-04-01

    Inflammation is a part of the complex biological response of inflammatory cells to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, irritants, or damaged cells. This inflammation has been linked to several chronic diseases including cancer, atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and multiple sclerosis. Major biomarkers of inflammation include tumor necrosis factor, interleukins (IL)-1, IL-6, IL-8, chemokines, cyclooxygenase, 5-lipooxygenase, and C-reactive protein, all of which are regulated by the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB. Although examining inflammatory biomarkers in blood is a standard practice, its identification in saliva and/or urine is more convenient and non-invasive. In this review, we aim to (1) discuss the detection of these inflammatory biomarkers in urine and saliva; (2) advantages of using salivary and urinary inflammatory biomarkers over blood, while also weighing on the challenges and/or limitations of their use; (3) examine their role(s) in connection with diagnosis, prevention, treatment, and drug development for several chronic diseases with inflammatory consequences, including cancer; and (4) explore the use of innovative salivary and urine based biosensor strategies that may permit the testing of biomarkers quickly, reliably, and cost-effectively, in a decentralized setting. PMID:27013544