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Autoinflammatory Diseases  


... new category of diseases that are different from autoimmune diseases. However, autoimmune and autoinflammatory diseases share common characteristics ... mistake and signals the body to destroy them. Autoimmune disease. A disease that results when the immune system ...


Ribbing disease.  


Ribbing disease is a rare sclerosing dysplasia that involves long tubular bones, especially the tibia and femur. It occurs after puberty and is reported to be more common in women. In this article we describe how Ribbing disease can be differentiated from diseases like Engelmann-Camurati disease, van Buchem disease, Erdheim-Chester disease, osteoid osteoma, chronic osteomyelitis, stress fracture, etc. PMID:20351994

Mukkada, Philson J; Franklin, Teenu; Rajeswaran, Rangasami; Joseph, Santhosh



Ribbing disease  

PubMed Central

Ribbing disease is a rare sclerosing dysplasia that involves long tubular bones, especially the tibia and femur. It occurs after puberty and is reported to be more common in women. In this article we describe how Ribbing disease can be differentiated from diseases like Engelmann-Camurati disease, van Buchem disease, Erdheim-Chester disease, osteoid osteoma, chronic osteomyelitis, stress fracture, etc. PMID:20351994

Mukkada, Philson J; Franklin, Teenu; Rajeswaran, Rangasami; Joseph, Santhosh



Farber's Disease  


... a group of inherited metabolic disorders called lipid storage diseases, in which excess amounts of lipids (oils, ... Institutes of Health (NIH), conducts research about lipid storage diseases such as Farber’s disease in laboratories at ...


Graves' Disease  


... and other potentially harmful foreign substances. But in autoimmune diseases, the immune system attacks the body’s own cells ... will be affected is difficult. People with other autoimmune diseases have an increased chance of developing Graves’ disease. ...


Crohn's Disease  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... women are affected equally. Crohn's disease affects small children, too. The most common symptoms of Crohn's Disease ... an abnormally low number of red blood cells. Children with Crohn's disease may have impaired growth and ...


Infectious Diseases  


Infectious diseases kill more people worldwide than any other single cause. Infectious diseases are caused by germs. Germs are tiny living ... to live NIH: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases


Kennedy's Disease  


... Kennedy's Disease? Kennedy's disease is an inherited motor neuron disease that affects males. It is one of a group of disorders called lower motor neuron disorders (which involve disruptions in the transmission of ...


Heart Disease  


... chest pain, heart attacks, and strokes . What Is Heart Disease? The heart is the center of the ... burst blood vessel. Continue How Do You Get Heart Disease? Heart disease isn't contagious — you can' ...


Heart Diseases  


... you're like most people, you think that heart disease is a problem for others. But heart disease is the number one killer in the ... of disability. There are many different forms of heart disease. The most common cause of heart disease ...


Pick disease  


... in behavior Failure to show emotional warmth, concern, empathy, sympathy Inappropriate mood Not caring about events or ... disease. Medicines may help manage mood swings. Sometimes, patients with Pick disease take the same medicines used ...


Fifth disease  


... human parvovirus B19. It often affects preschoolers or school-age children during the spring. The disease spreads through the ... sickle cell anemia Fifth disease can cause severe anemia , which will need medical treatment.


Fungal Diseases  


... and what we are doing about fungal diseases… Fungal Resources and Training for Healthcare Professionals Print page Contact Us: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 1600 Clifton Rd Atlanta, GA 30333 ...


Lyme Disease  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... nodes. They divide and multiply and produce harmful substances called toxins. Lyme disease is not contagious. . Symptoms ... nodes. They divide and multiply and produce harmful substances called toxins. Lyme disease can also affect the ...


Legionnaires' Disease  


... Disease Sources Investigation Protocol Outbreak Response What is Legionella? Exposure and Transmission Disease Symptoms Incidence and Risk ... form of pneumonia. More than 43 species of Legionella have been identified and more than 20 linked ...


Celiac Disease  


... immune disease in which people can't eat gluten because it will damage their small intestine. If you have celiac disease and eat foods with gluten, your immune system responds by damaging the small ...


Celiac Disease  


... problems in your small intestine when you eat gluten, a protein found in wheat, rye, and barley. Gluten is poison to people who have celiac disease. What does gluten do to people who have celiac disease? In ...


Wildlife Diseases  

E-print Network

Some wildlife diseases can be transmitted to humans. This leaflet explains the causes and symptoms of rabies, giardiasis, bubonic plague, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Lyme disease, tularemia, leptospirosis and histoplasmosis....

Texas Wildlife Services



Krabbe disease  


... age) Unexplained fevers Vision loss that leads to blindness Vomiting Late-onset Krabbe disease: Vision problems may ... damages the central nervous system . It can cause: Blindness Deafness Severe problems with muscle tone The disease ...


Hirschsprung's disease  


... blockage. The bowel and abdomen swell as a result. Hirschsprung's disease causes about 25% of all newborn intestinal blockages. It occurs five times more often in males than in females. Hirschsprung's disease is sometimes linked to other inherited ...


Hirschsprung Disease  


... Disease Hirschsprung (say "HERSH-sproong") disease affects the large intestine (colon) of newborns, babies, and toddlers. The condition — ... and treated as early as possible. Causes The large intestine moves digested material through the gut by a ...


Behcet's Disease  


... other diseases of the digestive tract, such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease, careful evaluation is essential to ... is put directly on the affected body part. Ulcerative colitis. Inflammation of the colon. Symptoms include stomach pain ...


Reportable diseases  


... Botulism Brucellosis Chancroid Chickenpox Chlamydia trachomatis Cholera Coccidioidomycosis Cryptosporidiosis Cyclosporiasis Diphtheria Giardiasis Gonorrhea Haemophilus influenza, invasive disease ...


Prostate Diseases  


Aging & Health A to Z Prostate Diseases Basic Facts & Information What are Prostate Diseases? The prostate—one of the components of a man's sex organs—is a ... out anything serious. The Most Common Types of Prostate Diseases Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) Prostatitis Prostate cancer ...


Redefining Disease?  

Microsoft Academic Search

How will developments in genetic knowledge affect the classification of disease? Leaders in genetics have suggested that knowledge of the role of genes in dis- ease can determine nosology. Diseases might be defined by genotype, thus avoiding the limitations of more empirical approaches to categorization. Other commentators cau- tion against disease definitions that are detached from the look and feel

Fiona Alice Miller; Megan E. Begbie; Mita Giacomini; Catherine Ahern; Erin A. Harvey



[Schindler disease/Kanzaki disease].  


Schindler disease and Kanzaki disease are caused by a deficient lysosomal enzyme, alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (E.C. Two German children were first reported in 1987 and other two Dutch children were recently reported in 1993. These children were very similar clinically and characterized by maked neuroaxonal dystrophy of an infantile onset. This disease (type 1) was named Schindler disease. On the other hand, an adult patient with profuse angiokeratoma corporis diffusum but minimum involvement in nervous system was reported in 1987 from Japan. This disease (type 2) was named Kanzaki disease (Mckusick catalog No. 104170). Molecular analyses of these diseases revealed one each point mutation in the encoding gene. Clinical, ultrastructural and molecular studies of these disease were described. PMID:8577046

Kanzaki, T



Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) Coronary heart disease  

E-print Network

1 Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) · Coronary heart disease · Cerebrovascular disease · Peripheral arterial disease · Rheuma7c heart disease · Congenital heart disease · Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism Atherosclerosis CVD is caused by damage caused

Dever, Jennifer A.


Lyme Disease  

PubMed Central

Synopsis Lyme disease, caused by spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, is the most common vector-borne disease in the United States. The clinical presentation varies depending on the stage of the illness: early disease includes erthyma migrans, early disseminated disease includes multiple erythema migrans, meningitis, cranial nerve palsies and carditis; late disease is primarily arthritis. The symptoms and signs of infection resolve in the vast majority of patients after appropriate treatment with antimicrobials for from 2-4 weeks. Serologic testing should be used judiciously as it often results in misdiagnosis when performed on blood from patients with a low prior probability of disease and those with non-specific symptoms such as fatigue or arthralgia without signs of infection. PMID:20513553

Murray, Thomas S.; Shapiro, Eugene D.



Kawasaki disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Kawasaki disease is an acute vasculitis of childhood, complicated by coronary artery aneurysms in up to 25% of affected children.\\u000a High-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) administered in the acute phase of Kawasaki disease leads to a fivefold reduction\\u000a in the prevalence of coronary aneurysms. When fever persists, a second IVIG infusion should be administered. Rescue therapies\\u000a for IVIG-resistant Kawasaki disease

Jane W. Newburger; David R. Fulton



Borna disease.  

PubMed Central

Borna disease virus, a newly classified nonsegmented negative-strand RNA virus with international distribution, infects a broad range of warm-blooded animals from birds to primates. Infection causes movement and behavioral disturbances reminiscent of some neuropsychiatric syndromes. The virus has not been clearly linked to any human disease; however, an association between infection with the virus and selected neuropsychiatric disorders has been suggested. We reviewed recent advances in Borna disease virus research, focusing on evidence of infection in humans. PMID:9204293

Hatalski, C. G.; Lewis, A. J.; Lipkin, W. I.



Gaucher disease  


Symptoms vary, but may include: Bone pain and fractures Cognitive impairment Easy bruising Enlarged spleen ( splenomegaly ) Enlarged liver ( hepatomegaly ) Fatigue Heart valve problems Lung disease Seizures Severe swelling ( ...


Chagas disease  


... immigration, the disease also affects people in the United States. Risk factors for Chagas disease include: Living in a hut where reduvid bugs live in the walls Living in Central or South America Poverty Receiving a blood transfusion from a person who ...


Disease proteomics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sequencing of the human genome and that of numerous pathogens has opened the door for proteomics by providing a sequence-based framework for mining proteomes. As a result, there is intense interest in applying proteomics to foster a better understanding of disease processes, develop new biomarkers for diagnosis and early detection of disease, and accelerate drug development. This interest creates

Sam Hanash



Fabry's Disease  


... system. Fabry disease is one of several lipid storage disorders and the only X-linked lipid storage disease. Since the gene that is altered is ... eye manifestations, especially cloudiness of the cornea. Lipid storage may lead to impaired arterial circulation and increased ...


Menkes Disease  


... Publications Menkes Disease: Overview Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Menkes disease is a genetic disorder that affects how copper moves through the body. It is characterized by sparse, kinky hair; failure to gain weight and grow at the expected rate; and deterioration ...


Alzheimer's Disease  


... different medicines your doctor may prescribe to treat Alzheimer’s disease symptoms are listed below. It’s important to remember that ... treatments? Drugs don’t always help relieve the symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease. Non-drug treatments for a person who has ...



PubMed Central

A recent study has used whole-exome sequencing, an ‘extreme trait’ design and imaging genetics to identify coding variants associated with hippocampal volume loss in Alzheimer disease. The research highlights the utility of next-generation sequencing and association studies involving quantitative traits for discovery of disease-related variants in neurodegeneration. PMID:23857046

Apostolova, Liana G.



Gaucher's disease  

PubMed Central

Gaucher's disease (GD) is the most common amongst the various disorders classified under the lysosomal storage disorders. GD is a model for applications of molecular medicine to clinical delineation, diagnosis, and treatment. The multiorgan and varied presentation of the disease makes it a challenge to diagnose GD early. The advent of enzyme replacement therapy in the early 1990s changed the management, and survival, of patients with GD. In addition to this, development of substrate reduction, pharmacological chaperone, and gene therapies has broadened the horizon for this rare disease. However, in resource-poor countries like ours, optimal management is still a distant dream. PMID:21897894

Bohra, Vijay; Nair, Velu



Celiac disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a Individuals with celiac disease present with a wide array of symptoms and signs. Celiac disease can result in substantial\\u000a injury to the small intestine, deleterious effects on other organ systems, and an overall doubling of mortality. The role\\u000a of the gastroenterologist is primarily to make the diagnosis and then to ensure that patients with celiac disease receive

Ahmad S. Abdulkarim; Joseph A. Murray



Peyronie's Disease  


... likely to develop Peyronie’s disease. Connective Tissue and Autoimmune Disorders Men who have certain connective tissue and autoimmune disorders may have a higher chance of developing Peyronie’s ...


Diarrhoeal Disease  


... be prevented through safe drinking-water and adequate sanitation and hygiene. Globally, there are nearly 1.7 ... diarrhoea, including safe drinking-water, use of improved sanitation and hand washing with soap can reduce disease ...


Tickborne Diseases  


... the early 1970s, has since spread to every state except Hawaii. One of the newest tickborne diseases to be identified in the United States is called Southern tick-associated rash illness (STARI). ...


Pneumococcal Disease  


... browser settings and turn JavaScript on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Pneumococcal Disease Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Streptococcus Pneumoniae Streptococcus ...


Alexander Disease  


... progressive and often fatal disease. The destruction of white matter is accompanied by the formation of Rosenthal fibers, which are abnormal clumps of protein that accumulate in non-neuronal cells of the brain called astrocytes. Rosenthal ...


Graves disease  


... is called hyperthyroidism. (An underactive thyroid leads to hypothyroidism .) Graves disease is the most common cause of ... radioactive iodine usually will cause an underactive thyroid (hypothyroidism). Without getting the correct dosage of thyroid hormone ...


Celiac Disease  


... evaluating drug treatments for refractory celiac disease. The Gluten-free Diet A gluten-free diet means not ... gluten free” on product labels. [ Top ] The Gluten-free Diet: Some Examples In 2006, the American ...


Celiac Disease  


... problems for people with celiac disease. What Is Gluten? Gluten is the common term for a group ... ingredients) yogurts with wheat starch Back Continue Finding Gluten-Free Foods and Ingredients Most grocery stores carry ...


Vascular Diseases  


... affects the heart and blood vessels, such as diabetes or high cholesterol Smoking Obesity Losing weight, eating healthy foods, being active and not smoking can help vascular disease. Other treatments include medicines and surgery.


Behcet's Disease  


... rash is sometimes called “folliculitis”. Skin lesions called erythema nodosum: red, tender nodules that usually occur on ... sometimes on the face, neck, or arms. Unlike erythema nodosum associated with other diseases (which heal without ...


Alzheimer Disease  


... the person medicine for other problems, such as depression (sad feelings that last a long time). Unfortunately the medicines that the doctors have can't cure Alzheimer disease; they just help slow down the ...


Crohn disease  

PubMed Central

Crohn disease (CD) is a chronic and debilitating inflammatory condition of the gastrointestinal tract.1 Prevalence in western populations is 100–150/100,000 and somewhat higher in Ashkenazi Jews. Peak incidence is in early adult life, although any age can be affected and a majority of affected individuals progress to relapsing and chronic disease. Medical treatments rely significantly on empirical corticosteroid therapy and immunosuppression, and intestinal resectional surgery is frequently required. Thus, 80% of patients with CD come to surgery for refractory disease or complications. It is hoped that an improved understanding of pathogenic mechanisms, for example by studying the genetic basis of CD and other forms of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), will lead to improved therapies and possibly preventative strategies in individuals identified as being at risk. PMID:20729636

Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S.; Rioux, John D.; Mizoguchi, Atsushi; Saitoh, Tatsuya; Huett, Alan; Darfeuille-Michaud, Arlette; Wileman, Tom; Mizushima, Noboru; Carding, Simon; Akira, Shizuo; Parkes, Miles; Xavier, Ramnik J.



Celiac Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Celiac disease is induced by the ingestion of gluten, which is derived from wheat, barley, and rye. The gluten protein is enriched in glutamine and proline and is poor- ly digested in the human upper gastrointestinal tract. The term \\

Peter H. R. Green; Christophe Cellier



Leigh's Disease  


... This progressive disorder begins in infants between the ages of three months and two years. Rarely, it occurs in teenagers and adults. Leigh's disease can be caused by mutations in mitochondrial DNA or by deficiencies of an ...


Pompe Disease  


... affected. Researchers have identified up to 300 different mutations in the GAA gene that cause the symptoms of Pompe disease, which can vary widely in terms of age of onset and severity. The severity of the ...


Stargardt Disease  


... and Other Retinal Diseases: Talk to the Expert Videos View All VISIONS 2013 Attendee Videos Seeing Tomorrow ... CALENDAR "); jQuery("#block-views-videos-block h2").html(" VIDEOS "); jQuery("#block-block-19 h2").html(" OUR BLOG - ...


Buerger's Disease  


... Disease often include claudication (pain induced by insufficient blood flow during exercise) in the feet and/or hands, ... the affected regions. An angiogram demonstrating lack of blood flow to vessels of the hand ( figure below ). This ...


Graves' Disease  


... Graves' disease can cause the following symptoms: Nervousness Insomnia Emotional swings Sweating Hand tremor Palpitations Unexplained weight ... medication such as propanolol (Inderal). For anxiety and insomnia, your doctor may prescribe diazepam (Valium), lorazepam (Ativan) ...


Diverticular Disease  


... yoo-ler) disease affects the lining of your large intestine. It is caused by small pouches (called diverticula) ... usually form in the last part of the large intestine (called the colon). The most common types of ...


Gaucher Disease  


... common of the inherited metabolic disorder known as lipid storage diseases. Lipids are fatty materials that include oils, fatty acids, ... research to find ways to treat and prevent lipid storage disorders. This research includes clinical studies by ...


Crohn's Disease  


... the GI tract, called inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Ulcerative colitis and microscopic colitis are the other common IBDs. Read more in Ulcerative Colitis and Microscopic Colitis: Collagenous Colitis and Lymphocytic Colitis ...


Parkinson's Disease  


... cells make and use a brain chemical called dopamine (say: DOH-puh-meen) to send messages to ... coordinate body movements. When someone has Parkinson's disease, dopamine levels are low. So, the body doesn't ...


Parkinson's disease  


Nerve cells use a brain chemical called dopamine to help control muscle movement. With Parkinson's disease, the brains cells that make dopamine slowly die. Without dopamine, the cells that control movement ...


Coeliac Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coeliac disease (c.d.) is an inflammatory disorder of the small intestine that affects > 0.5% of Western, Middle Eastern and North African populations. Disease manifestations range from asymptomatic to severe malabsorption, autoimmune disorders and (intestinal) lymphoma. A strict gluten-free diet is usually curative, but elderly patients can develop refractory c.d. or intestinal T cell lymphoma. c.d. shares immunological features with

Detlef Schuppan; Yvonne Junkler



Celiac Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Celiac disease, also known as celiac sprue or gluten-sensitive enteropathy, is a chronic disorder that is readily recognized\\u000a when it presents in its classical form with diarrhea, bloating, flatulence, weight loss and evidence of malabsorption. However,\\u000a non-gastrointestinal GI and non-specific GI manifestations are currently the more common presentations of this disease. Withdrawal\\u000a of gluten from the diet results in a

Sheila E. Crowe


Lentil Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fungal diseases of lentils are the most important biological constraint to productivity. Ascochyta lentis (ascochyta blight) and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lentis (fusarium wilt) are the major fungal pathogens that can cause severe losses in most lentil growing regions of the world.\\u000a Fungal diseases such as botrytis grey mould (Botrytis fabae and B. cinerea), rust (Uromyces viciae-fabae), stemphylium blight (Stemphylium

Paul Taylor; Kurt Lindbeck; Weidong Chen; Rebecca Ford


Chronic Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and human immunodeficiency virus infection are three separate entities,\\u000a each has causal and non-causal risk factors that are common in the stage 5 chronic kidney disease population. The medical\\u000a nutrition therapies are similar, which emphasize adequate protein and energy intakes, fluid control, and possibly carbohydrate\\u000a and fat modifications. Each patient requires an individualized evaluation, taking

Sharon R. Schatz


Lyme Disease  

PubMed Central

Lyme borreliosis is an infectious disease caused by the tick-transmitted spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. To date, the only known endemic focus of Lyme disease in Canada is Long Point, Ont. A national case definition for surveillance purposes, consensus statement regarding laboratory diagnosis, and treatment guidelines have recently been developed in an attempt to standardize the approach to surveillance, diagnosis, and management of Lyme borreliosis in Canada. PMID:21221399

Burdge, David R.; O'Hanlon, David



Ménière Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computerized PubMed search of MEDLINE 1966-May 2005 was performed. The terms “Meniere disease” and “gentamicin” were exploded,\\u000a and the resulting articles were combined. The terms “intratympanic” and “transtympanic” were entered as text words as the\\u000a search term “intratympanic OR transtympanic,” and the results were combined with the Ménière disease\\/gentamicin articles.\\u000a The resulting 136 articles were limited to the English

Iee-Ching Wu Anderson; John P. Carey; Walter Kutz; William H. Slattery


Whipple's disease  

PubMed Central

Whipple's disease is a systemic bacterial infection and the common though not invariable manifestations are diarrhoea, weight loss, abdominal pain, and arthralgia. Arthritis or arthralgia may be the only presenting symptom, predating other manifestations by years. Virtually all organs in the body may be affected, with protean clinical manifestations. Various immunological abnormalities, some of which may be epiphenomena, are described. The causative organism is Tropheryma whippelii.?The disease is uncommon though lethal if not treated. Recent data suggest the disease occurs in an older age group than previously described. The characteristic histopathological features are found most often in the small intestine. These are variable villous atrophy and distension of the normal villous architecture by an infiltrate of foamy macrophages with a coarsely granular cytoplasm, which stain a brilliant magenta colour with PAS. These pathognomonic PAS positive macrophages may also be present in the peripheral and mesenteric lymph nodes and various other organs. The histological differential diagnoses include histoplasmosis and Mycobacterium avium-intercellulare complex.?The clinical diagnosis of Whipple's disease may be elusive, especially if gastrointestinal symptoms are not present. A unique sign of CNS involvement, if present, is oculofacial-skeletal myorhythmia or oculomasticatory myorhythmia, both diagnostic of Whipple's disease. A small bowel biopsy is often diagnostic, though in about 30% of patients no abnormality is present. In patients with only CNS involvement, a stereotactic brain biopsy can be done under local anaesthetic. A recent important diagnostic test is polymerase chain reaction of the 16S ribosomal RNA of Tropheryma whippelii.?Whipple's disease is potentially fatal but responds dramatically to antibiotic treatment. In this review the current recommended treatments are presented. The response to treatment should be monitored closely, as relapses are common. CNS involvement requires more vigorous treatment because there is a high rate of recurrence after apparently successful treatment.???Keywords: Whipple's disease; Tropheryma whippelii PMID:11085766

Ratnaike, R.



[Allergic diseases as environmental diseases].  


Respiratory allergic diseases belong to atopic diseases. Their prevalence has steadily increased over the past decades. Recently, a plateau effect seems to occur. This increased prevalence should be related to environmental changes. However, "classical" aerocontaminants, such as aero-allergens and air pollutants cannot account for such a drastic increase in prevalence. Change in diet can account for biological changes but the relation to allergic diseases seems questionable. Use of contraceptive pills and caesarean section had been put forward as hypotheses but their implication seems unlikely. Among the classical risk factors, 2 only should remain in the primary prevention of atopic diseases, namely, prolonged breast feeding and avoiding passive smoking. The major input of epidemiological research over the past decades lies in the "hygienic hypothesis" and the protective effect of early exposure to farm animals and raw cow milk. Progress to come in this field should lie in a better knowledge of in utero exposure on the foetal immune system. PMID:17717941

Charpin, Denis



Fabry's disease.  


Fabry's disease is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by abnormalities in the GLA gene, which leads to a deficiency in ?-galactosidase A. The abnormal accumulation of glycosphingolipids, primarily globotriaosylceramide, manifests as serious and progressive impairment of renal and cardiac functions. In addition, patients experience pain, gastrointestinal disturbance, transient ischemic attacks and strokes. Disease presentation in female heterozygotes may be as severe as in males although women may also remain asymptomatic. This review covers all basic aspects of the disease such as epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentation by systems, diagnosis, management, prevention, and repercussions on quality of life. With the development of enzyme replacement therapy in the past few years, early initiation of treatment was found to be key for reduction of disease burden in major affected organs with improvement in neuropathic pain, decreased cardiac mass and stabilization of renal function, gastrointestinal symptoms, and hearing. This review aims to raise the awareness of the signs and symptoms of Fabry's disease as well as to provide guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment. PMID:25106696

El-Abassi, Rima; Singhal, Divya; England, John D



Celiac disease.  


On the basis of strong evidence, gastrointestinal symptoms and failure to thrive are classic presentations of celiac disease, but atypical, nongastrointestinal symptoms are also extremely common, particularly in the older child and adolescent. (3)(4)(8). On the basis of some research evidence and consensus, guidelines recommend celiac testing in symptomatic children with typical and atypical symptoms and consideration of testing in those with associated conditions and first-degree relatives of those with celiac disease. (3)(9). On the basis of strong research evidence, measurement of tTG IgA and total serum IgA level has been reported to be the most cost-effective and accurate means of serologic testing for celiac disease and is the test of choice unless the child is younger than 2 years or IgA deficient. (9). On the basis of strong research evidence, children with elevated titers of celiac antibodies or strong clinical suspicion for celiac disease should be referred to a gastroenterologist for upper endoscopy and biopsy. Until this procedure is performed, the child should continue on a diet with ingestion of gluten. (3)(9). On the basis of strong research evidence, all those with a confirmed diagnosis of celiac disease should follow a strict gluten-free diet for life, with avoidance of all foods that contain wheat, barley, and rye ingredients. (3)(4). Referral to a health care professional with specialized knowledge of celiac disease and the gluten-free diet is critical because of the numerous ways, often hidden, in which gluten may be present in the diet and environment. PMID:25274968

Ediger, Tracy R; Hill, Ivor D



Hansen's disease: a vanishing disease?  


The introduction, implementation, successes and failures of multidrug therapy (MDT) in all Hansen's disease endemic countries are discussed in this paper. The high efficacy of leprosy treatment with MDT and the global reduction of prevalence led the World Health Organization, in 1991, to establish the goal of elimination of Hansen's disease (less than 1 patient per 10,000 inhabitants) to be accomplished by the year 2000. Brazil, Nepal and East Timor are among the few countries that didn't reach the elimination goal by the year 2000 or even 2005. The implications of these aspects are highlighted in this paper. Current data from endemic and previously endemic countries that carry a regular leprosy control programme show that the important fall in prevalence was not followed by the reduction of the incidence. This means that transmission of Mycobacterium leprae is still an issue. It is reasonable to conclude that we are still far from the most important goal of Hansen's disease control: the interruption of transmission and reduction of incidence. It is necessary to emphasize to health managers the need of keeping Hansen's disease control activities to better develop control programmes in the future. The recent international proposal to interrupt the transmission of leprosy by the year 2020 seems to unrealistic and it is discussed in this paper. The possibility of epidemiological impact related to the human immunodeficiency virus/Hansen's disease coinfection is also considered. PMID:23283447

Talhari, Sinésio; Grossi, Maria Aparecida de Faria; Oliveira, Maria Leide W D R de; Gontijo, Bernardo; Talhari, Carolina; Penna, Gerson Oliveira



Celiac disease.  


Celiac disease, with a prevalence around 1% of the general population, is the most common genetically-induced food intolerance in the world. Triggered by the ingestion of gluten in genetically predisposed individuals, this enteropathy may appear at any age, and is characterized by a wide variety of clinical signs and symptoms. Among them, gastrointestinal presentations include chronic diarrhea, abdominal pain, weight loss or failure to thrive in children; but extra-intestinal manifestations are also common, and actually appear to be on the rise. They include a large variety of ailments, such as dermatitis Herpetiformis, anemia, short stature, osteoporosis, arthritis, neurologic problems, unexplained elevation of transaminases, and even female infertility. For the clinician interested in oral diseases, celiac disease can lead to delayed tooth eruption, dental enamel hypoplasia, recurrent oral aphthae. Diagnosing celiac disease requires therefore a high degree of suspicion followed by a very sensitive screening test: serum levels of the autoantibody anti-tissue transglutaminase. A positive subject will then be confirmed by an intestinal biopsy, and will then be put on a strict gluten-free diet, that in most cases will bring a marked improvement of symptoms. Newer forms of treatment which in the future will probably be available to the non-responsive patients are currently being actively pursued. PMID:23496382

Rivera, E; Assiri, A; Guandalini, S



Omenn's disease.  

PubMed Central

The importance of accurate pathological diagnosis is emphasised in the case of a newborn infant who presented with alopecia, a generalised erythrodermatous skin eruption, and hepatosplenomegaly. She subsequently developed generalised lymphadenopathy and recurrent septicaemia and died aged 2 months. The histological findings of widespread lymphocytic, histiocytic, and eosinophilic tissue infiltration, associated with thymic hypoplasia, were consistent with autosomal recessive Omenn's disease. PMID:1835343

Dyke, M P; Marlow, N; Berry, P J



Parkinson's Disease  


... the arms, legs and trunk Slowness of movement Poor balance and coordination As symptoms get worse, people with the disease may have trouble walking, talking, or doing simple tasks. They may also have problems such as depression, sleep problems, or trouble chewing, swallowing, or speaking. There ...


Menetrier's Disease.  


Menetrier's disease is a rare acquired disorder of the fundus and body of the stomach (ie, oxyntic mucosa) characterized by giant hyperplastic folds, protein-losing gastropathy, hypoalbuminemia, increased mucus secretion, and hypochlorhydria. Recent research implicates overproduction of transforming growth factor-alpha with increased signaling of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in the pathogenesis. Activation of the EGFR, a transmembrane receptor with tyrosine kinase activity, triggers a cascade of downstream, intracellular signaling pathways that leads to expansion of the proliferative compartment within the isthmus of the oxyntic gland. The diagnosis of Menetrier's disease is based upon characteristic histologic changes, including foveolar hyperplasia, cystic dilation of pits, and reduced numbers of parietal and chief cells. The best treatment for Menetrier's disease is not clear. It seems reasonable to test and treat for cytomegalovirus and Helicobacter pylori, as 1) in children, evidence exists that the disease may be due to cytomegalovirus infection in up to one third of patients; and 2) in adults, there are anecdotal reports of resolution upon H. pylori eradication. More recently, therapies targeting increased signaling of the EGFR have shown promise, including somatostatin analogues and monoclonal antibodies (eg, cetuximab) directed against the EGFR. In refractory cases, gastrectomy is curative. PMID:18321437

Toubia, Nagib; Schubert, Mitchell L



Castleman disease.  


Castleman and Towne described a disease presenting as a mediastinal mass resembling thymoma. It is also known as "giant lymph node hyperplasia", "lymph node hamartoma", "angiofollicular mediastinal lymph node hyperplasia", and "angiomatous lymphoid hyperplasia". The pathogenesis is unknown, but the bulk of evidence points toward faulty immune regulation, resulting in excessive B-lymphocyte and plasma-cell proliferation in lymphatic tissue. In addition to the mediastinal presentation, extrathoracic involvement in the neck, axilla, mesentery, pelvis, pancreas, adrenal gland, and retroperitoneum also have been described. There are 2 major pathologic variations of Castleman disease: (1) hyaline-vascular variant, the most frequent, characterized by small hyaline-vascular follicles and capillary proliferation; and (2) the plasma-cell variant, in which large lymphoid follicles are separated by sheets of plasma cells. The hyaline-vascular cases usually are largely asymptomatic, whereas the less common plasma-cell variant may present with fever, anemia, weight loss, and night sweats, along with polyclonal hypergamma-globulinemia. Castleman disease is a rare lymphoproliferative disorders. Few cases have been described world widely. In this article we reviewed the classification, pathogenesis, pathology, radiological features and up to date treatment with special emphasis on the role of viral stimulation, recent therapeutic modalities and the HIV-associated disease. PMID:23071471

Saeed-Abdul-Rahman, Ibrahiem; Al-Amri, Ali M



Smelling Diseases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We all use our noses to make quick judgments from time to time -- whether it's checking to see if the milk's still good, or if a shirt needs to go in the wash. Now, doctors are developing a kind of sniff test to screen for diseases. Find out more in this Science Update.

Science Update;



Dent's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dent's disease is a renal tubular disorder characterized by manifestations of proximal tubule dysfunction, including low-molecular-weight proteinuria, hypercalciuria, nephrolithiasis, nephrocalcinosis, and progressive renal failure. These features are generally found in males only, and may be present in early childhood, whereas female carriers may show a milder phenotype. Prevalence is unknown; the disorder has been reported in around 250 families to

Olivier Devuyst; Rajesh V. Thakker



Coronary heart disease  


Heart disease, Coronary heart disease, Coronary artery disease; Arteriosclerotic heart disease; CHD; CAD ... Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of death in the United States for men and women. Coronary ...


Diabetic Heart Disease  


... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Diabetic Heart Disease? The term "diabetic heart disease" (DHD) refers ... Kidney Diseases' Introduction to Diabetes Web page. What Heart Diseases Are Involved in Diabetic Heart Disease? DHD ...


Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)  


... Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) - CDC Fact Sheet Untreated sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) can cause pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), a ... plain language for individuals with general questions about sexually transmitted diseases. What is PID? Pelvic inflammatory disease is an ...


Fabry disease  

PubMed Central

Fabry disease (FD) is a progressive, X-linked inherited disorder of glycosphingolipid metabolism due to deficient or absent lysosomal ?-galactosidase A activity. FD is pan-ethnic and the reported annual incidence of 1 in 100,000 may underestimate the true prevalence of the disease. Classically affected hemizygous males, with no residual ?-galactosidase A activity may display all the characteristic neurological (pain), cutaneous (angiokeratoma), renal (proteinuria, kidney failure), cardiovascular (cardiomyopathy, arrhythmia), cochleo-vestibular and cerebrovascular (transient ischemic attacks, strokes) signs of the disease while heterozygous females have symptoms ranging from very mild to severe. Deficient activity of lysosomal ?-galactosidase A results in progressive accumulation of globotriaosylceramide within lysosomes, believed to trigger a cascade of cellular events. Demonstration of marked ?-galactosidase A deficiency is the definitive method for the diagnosis of hemizygous males. Enzyme analysis may occasionnally help to detect heterozygotes but is often inconclusive due to random X-chromosomal inactivation so that molecular testing (genotyping) of females is mandatory. In childhood, other possible causes of pain such as rheumatoid arthritis and 'growing pains' must be ruled out. In adulthood, multiple sclerosis is sometimes considered. Prenatal diagnosis, available by determination of enzyme activity or DNA testing in chorionic villi or cultured amniotic cells is, for ethical reasons, only considered in male fetuses. Pre-implantation diagnosis is possible. The existence of atypical variants and the availability of a specific therapy singularly complicate genetic counseling. A disease-specific therapeutic option - enzyme replacement therapy using recombinant human ?-galactosidase A - has been recently introduced and its long term outcome is currently still being investigated. Conventional management consists of pain relief with analgesic drugs, nephroprotection (angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptors blockers) and antiarrhythmic agents, whereas dialysis or renal transplantation are available for patients experiencing end-stage renal failure. With age, progressive damage to vital organ systems develops and at some point, organs may start to fail in functioning. End-stage renal disease and life-threatening cardiovascular or cerebrovascular complications limit life-expectancy of untreated males and females with reductions of 20 and 10 years, respectively, as compared to the general population. While there is increasing evidence that long-term enzyme therapy can halt disease progression, the importance of adjunctive therapies should be emphasized and the possibility of developing an oral therapy drives research forward into active site specific chaperones. PMID:21092187



Hirschprung's disease.  

PubMed Central

Current evidence on the pathogenesis of Hirschprung's disease, then, favours the 'abnormal microenvironment' hypothesis wherein the developing and migrating normal neural crest cells confront a segmentally abnormal and hostile microenvironment in the colon. This hypothesis would account both for the congenital absence of ganglion cells in the wall of colon and also for the range of enteric neuronal abnormalities encountered including neuronal dysplasia, hypoganglionosis, and zonal aganglionosis. The abnormal constitution of the mesenchymal and basement membrane extracellular matrix in the affected segment of colon is presumably genetically determined and further understanding of the pathogenesis of this disorder will emerge as molecular geneticists characterise the specific genes and gene products associated with Hirschprung's disease. Advances in this field should permit gene probes to be developed to facilitate prenatal and postnatal diagnosis. PMID:8660047

Sullivan, P B



Morgellons disease?  


Morgellons disease, a pattern of dermatologic symptoms very similar, if not identical, to those of delusions of parasitosis, was first described many centuries ago, but has recently been given much attention on the internet and in the mass media. The present authors present a history of Morgellons disease, in addition to which they discuss the potential benefit of using this diagnostic term as a means of building trust and rapport with patients to maximize treatment benefit. The present authors also suggest "meeting the patient halfway" and creating a therapeutic alliance when providing dermatologic treatment by taking their cutaneous symptoms seriously enough to provide both topical ointments as well as antipsychotic medications, which can be therapeutic in these patients. PMID:18318880

Accordino, Robert E; Engler, Danielle; Ginsburg, Iona H; Koo, John



Gaucher disease.  


A 14 months old boy of consanguineous parent presented with hepatosplenomegaly with delayed mile stones of development. He is till unable to walk. He was moderately anemic. Moderately wasted and stunted. Neurological examination was normal except subnormal intelligence. This subnormal intelligence and delayed milestone possibly may be due to secondary effect of growth retardation. Musculo-skeletal system examination revealed no abnormality. Diagnosis was supported by typical bone involvement in X-ray film (Thin cortex in Limb bone) and Gaucher cell in the splenic aspiration. There are three sub-types Type I: Non neuropathic form. Type II: Acute neuropathic form. Type III: Chronic neuropathic form. However, some cases do not fit precisely into one of these categories. All forms of Gaucher disease are autosomal recessively inherited. So, this patient more or less correlates with Gaucher disease type I. Treatment option for type I and III include medicine and enzyme replacement therapy, which is usually very effective. PMID:21804517

Ali, M A; Saleh, F M; Das, K; Latif, T



Thyroid disease  

SciTech Connect

Presenting a multidisciplinary approach to the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disease, this volume provides a comprehensive picture of current thyroid medicine and surgery. The book integrates the perspectives of the many disciplines that deal with the clinical manifestations of thyroid disorders. Adding to the clinical usefulness of the book is the state-of-the-art coverage of many recent developments in thyroidology, including the use of highly sensitive two-site TSH immunoradionetric measurements to diagnose thyroid activity; thyroglobulin assays in thyroid cancer and other diseases; new diagnostic applications of MRI and CT; treatment with radionuclides and chemotherapy; new developments in thyroid immunology, pathology, and management of hyperthyroidism; suppressive treatment with thyroid hormone; and management of Graves' ophthalmopathy. The book also covers all aspects of thyroid surgery, including surgical treatment of hyperthyroidism; papillary, follicular, and other carcinomas; thyroidectomy; and prevention and management of complications.

Falk, S.



Kawasaki Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Kawasaki disease (KD) is more common in Japanese population and those of Japanese descent. Incidence is higher in males than\\u000a females. Etiology of KD continues to be unclear, there is evidence supporting both genetic and environmental factors. Diagnosis\\u000a of KD is made when there is fever of at least 5 days duration, plus bilateral, nonpurulent conjunctivitis, polymorphous skin\\u000a rash, mucous

Rami Kharouf; Daniel E. Felten


Stargardt Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

When the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette (ABC) transporter gene, ABCA4 (originally named ABCR), was cloned and characterized in 1997 as the causal gene for autosomal recessive Stargardt disease (arSTGD or STGD1) (1) it seemed as if just another missing link was added to the extensive table of genetic determinants of rare monogenic retinal\\u000a dystrophies. Now, 9 yr later, the ABCA4

Rando Allikmets


Huntington's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Huntington’s disease (HD) is a familial and rare inherited neurological disorder with a prevalence of 5–8 cases per 100,000\\u000a worldwide. This makes HD the most common inherited neurodegenerative disorder (Fahn, 2005). HD is passed from parent to child\\u000a in autosomal dominant fashion. Each child of an HD parent has a 50% chance of inheriting HD. Both sexes are affected equally.

Seymour Gendelman; Howard E. Gendelman; Tsuneya Ikezu


Ledderhose Disease  

PubMed Central

Plantar fibromatosis, or Ledderhose disease, is a rare hyperproliferative disorder of the plantar aponeurosis. It may occur at any age with the greatest prevalence at middle age and beyond. This disorder is more common in men than woman and it is sometimes associated with other forms of fibromatosis. A 28-year-old Brazilian woman with a six-year history of painless bilateral plantar nodules is described in this article. PMID:20877526

Fausto de Souza, Dominique; Micaelo, Lilian; Cuzzi, Tullia



Plant Disease Lesson: Lesion nematode disease  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This plant disease lesson on Lesion nematode disease (caused by Pratylenchus) includes information on symptoms and signs, pathogen biology, disease cycle and epidemiology, disease management, and the significance of the disease. Selected references are listed and a glossary is also available for use with this resource.

Eric L. Davis (North Carolina State University;); An E. MacGuidwin (University of Wisconsin;)



Plant Disease Lesson: Soybean cyst nematode disease  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This plant disease lesson on Soybean cyst nematode disease (caused by Heterodera glycines) includes information on symptoms and signs, pathogen biology, disease cycle and epidemiology, disease management, and the significance of the disease. Selected references are listed and a glossary is also available for use with this resource.

Eric L. Davis (North Carolina State University;); Gregory L. Tylka (Iowa State University;)



Plant Disease Lesson: Rhizoctonia Diseases of Turfgrass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This plant disease lesson on Rhizoctonia diseases of turfgrass (caused by the fungi Rhizoctonia species) includes information on symptoms and signs, pathogen biology, disease cycle and epidemiology, disease management, and the significance of the disease. Selected references are listed and a glossary is also available for use with this resource.

Lane P. Tredway (University of Georgia, Athens;); Lee L. Burpee (University of Georgia, Griffin;)



Plant Disease Lesson: Dutch elm disease  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This plant disease lesson on Dutch elm disease (caused by the fungus Ophiostoma ulmi) includes information on symptoms and signs, pathogen biology, disease cycle and epidemiology, disease management, and the significance of the disease. Selected references are listed and a glossary is also available for use with this resource.

Cleora J. D'Arcy (University of Illinois;)



Rice Diseases.  

E-print Network

for different disease-causing organisms. Sclerotia of Rhizoctonia solani (the fungus that causes sheath blight) survive an average of 12 to 18 months in the soil. Kernel smut fungus spores (Neouossia horrida) can remain alive more than 10 years. As a result... chart (table 1) for specific recommendations. SOUTHERN BLIGHT (fungus - Sclerotium ro lIs ii) Southern blight can attack rice in the one- to three leaf stage and may kill large numbers of plants when weather is warm and moist. A white cottony mold...

Jones, Roger K.



Disease modification in Parkinson's disease.  


Parkinson's disease (PD) is an age-related, progressive, multisystem neurodegenerative disorder resulting in significant morbidity and mortality, as well as a growing social and financial burden in an aging population. The hallmark of PD is loss of dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta, leading to bradykinesia, rigidity and tremor. Current pharmacological treatment is therefore centred upon dopamine replacement to alleviate symptoms. However, two major problems complicate this approach: (i) motor symptoms continue to progress, requiring increasing doses of medication, which result in both short-term adverse effects and intermediate- to long-term motor complications; (ii) dopamine replacement does little to treat non-dopaminergic motor and non-motor symptoms, which are an important source of morbidity, including dementia, sleep disturbances, depression, orthostatic hypotension, and postural instability leading to falls. It is critical, therefore, to develop a broader and more fundamental therapeutic approach to PD, and major research efforts have focused upon developing neuroprotective interventions. Despite many encouraging preclinical data suggesting the possibility of addressing the underlying pathophysiology by slowing cell loss, efforts to translate this into the clinical realm have largely proved disappointing in the past. Barriers to finding neuroprotective or disease-modifying drugs in PD include a lack of validated biomarkers of progression, which hampers clinical trial design and interpretation; difficulties separating symptomatic and neuroprotective effects of candidate neuroprotective therapies; and possibly fundamental flaws in some of the basic preclinical models and testing. However, three recent clinical trials have used a novel delayed-start design in an attempt to overcome some of these roadblocks. While not examining markers of cell loss and function, which would determine neuroprotective effects, this trial design pragmatically tests whether earlier versus later intervention is beneficial. If positive (i.e. if an earlier intervention proves more effective), this demonstrates disease modification, which could result from neuroprotection or from other mechanisms. This strategy therefore provides a first step towards supporting neuroprotection in PD. Of the three delayed-start design clinical trials, two have investigated early versus later start of rasagiline, a specific irreversible monoamine oxidase B inhibitor. Each trial has supported, although not proven, disease-modifying effects. A third delayed-start-design clinical trial examining potential disease-modifying effects of pramipexole has unfortunately reportedly been negative according to preliminary presentations. The suggestion that rasagiline is disease modifying is made all the more compelling by in vitro and PD animal-model studies in which rasagiline was shown to have neuroprotective effects. In this review, we examine efforts to demonstrate neuroprotection in PD to date, describe ongoing neuroprotection trials, and critically discuss the results of the most recent delayed-start clinical trials that test possible disease-modifying activities of rasagiline and pramipexole in PD. PMID:21812497

Henchcliffe, Claire; Severt, W Lawrence



Alzheimer's disease.  


Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease with well-defined pathophysiological mechanisms, mostly affecting medial temporal lobe and associative neocortical structures. Neuritic plaques and neurofibrillary tangles represent the pathological hallmarks of AD, and are respectively related to the accumulation of the amyloid-beta peptide (A?) in brain tissues, and to cytoskeletal changes that arise from the hyperphosphorylation of microtubule-associated Tau protein in neurons. According to the amyloid hypothesis of AD, the overproduction of A? is a consequence of the disruption of homeostatic processes that regulate the proteolytic cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). Genetic, age-related and environmental factors contribute to a metabolic shift favoring the amyloidogenic processing of APP in detriment of the physiological, secretory pathway. A? peptides are generated by the successive cleavage of APP by beta-secretase (BACE-1) and gamma-secretase, which has been recently characterized as part of the presenilin complex. Among several beta-amyloid isoforms that bear subtle differences depending on the number of C-terminal amino acids, A? (1-42) plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of AD. The neurotoxic potential of the A? peptide results from its biochemical properties that favor aggregation into insoluble oligomers and protofibrils. These further originate fibrillary A? species that accumulate into senile and neuritic plaques. These processes, along with a reduction of A? clearance from the brain, leads to the extracellular accumulation of A?, and the subsequent activation of neurotoxic cascades that ultimately lead to cytoskeletal changes, neuronal dysfunction and cellular death. Intracerebral amyloidosis develops in AD patients in an age-dependent manner, but recent evidence indicate that it may be observed in some subjects as early as in the third or fourth decades of life, with increasing magnitude in late middle age, and highest estimates in old age. According to recent propositions, three clinical phases of Alzheimer's disease may be defined: (i) pre-symptomatic (or pre-clinical) AD, which may last for several years or decades until the overproduction and accumulation of A? in the brain reaches a critical level that triggers the amyloid cascade; (ii) pre-dementia phase of AD (compatible with the definition of progressive, amnestic mild cognitive impairment), in which early-stage pathology is present, ranging from mild neuronal dystrophy to early-stage Braak pathology, and may last for several years according to individual resilience and brain reserve; (iii) clinically defined dementia phase of AD, in which cognitive and functional impairment is severe enough to surmount the dementia threshold; at this stage there is significant accumulation of neuritic plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in affected brain areas, bearing relationship with the magnitude of global impairment. New technologies based on structural and functional neuroimaging, and on the biochemical analysis of cerebrospinal fluid may depict correlates of intracerebral amyloidosis in individuals with mild, pre-dementia symptoms. These methods are commonly referred to as AD-related biomarkers, and the combination of clinical and biological information yields good diagnostic accuracy to identify individuals at high risk of AD. In other words, the characterization of pathogenic A? by means of biochemical analysis of biological fluids or by molecular neuroimaging are presented as diagnostic tools to help identify AD cases at the earliest stages of the disease process. The relevance of this early diagnosis of AD relies on the hypothesis that pharmacological interventions with disease-modifying compounds are more likely to produce clinically relevant benefits if started early enough in the continuum towards dementia. Therapies targeting the modification of amyloid-related cascades may be viewed as promising strategies to attenuate or even to prevent dementia. Therefore, the cumulative knowledge on the pathogenesis of

De-Paula, Vanessa J; Radanovic, Marcia; Diniz, Breno S; Forlenza, Orestes V



Lyme Disease Transmission  


... Veterinarians Tool kit Lyme disease quiz Lyme disease transmission The Lyme disease bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi , is spread ... treatment. There are no reports of Lyme disease transmission from breast milk. Although no cases of Lyme ...


Learning about Parkinson's Disease  


... of Biological Chemistry , June 9, 2011 Learning About Parkinson's Disease What do we know about heredity and ... Disease What do we know about heredity and Parkinson's disease? Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurological condition ...


Parkinson's Disease Dementia  


Parkinson's Disease Dementia Tweet Parkinson's disease dementia is an impairment in thinking and reasoning that eventually affects ... disease. About Symptoms Diagnosis Causes & risks Treatments About Parkinson's disease dementia The brain changes caused by Parkinson's ...


Depression and Parkinson's Disease  


... see the NIMH booklet on Depression . What is Parkinson's disease? Parkinson's disease is a chronic disorder that ... or prevent Parkinson's disease. How are depression and Parkinson's disease linked? For people with depression and Parkinson's ...


Pregnancy and Thyroid Disease  


... every 500 pregnancies. 1 Graves’ disease is an autoimmune disorder. Normally, the immune system protects people from infection ... gland. Like Graves’ disease, Hashimoto’s disease is an autoimmune disorder. In Hashimoto’s disease, the immune system attacks the ...


Lipid Storage Diseases  


NINDS Lipid Storage Diseases Information Page Condensed from Lipid Storage Diseases Fact Sheet Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) ... Organizations Additional resources from MedlinePlus What are Lipid Storage Diseases? Lipid storage diseases are a group of ...


Acid Lipase Disease  


... Acid Lipase Disease Information Page Synonym(s): Cholesterol Ester Storage Disease, Wolman’s Disease Table of Contents (click to ... include waxes, oils, and cholesterol. Two rare lipid storage diseases are caused by the deficiency of the ...


Learning about Your Disease  


... your disease Email this page Print this page Learning about your disease Learn more about common diseases ... may be a treatment option for you. Tweet Learning about your disease Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) Acute ...


Lyme Disease Data  


... Veterinarians Tool kit Lyme disease quiz Lyme Disease Data Fast Facts In 2013, 95% of confirmed Lyme ... U.S., 2012 Interactive Lyme Disease Map Lyme Disease Data File To facilitate the public health and research ...


Interstitial Lung Diseases  


Interstitial lung disease is the name for a large group of diseases that inflame or scar the lungs. The inflammation ... air is responsible for some types of interstitial lung diseases. Specific types include Black lung disease among coal ...


Alzheimer's Disease Antimicrobial Peptides  

E-print Network

Keywords Alzheimer's Disease Antimicrobial Peptides Proteomics Posttranslational Modifications collaborations. Current international collaborations focus on Alzheimer's disease (Tau and A), molecular mechanisms of cell aging (glycation, oxidation) and related diseases (diabetes, Alzheimer's disease) as well

Schüler, Axel


Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease  


... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease? Childhood interstitial (in-ter-STISH-al) lung disease, or ... doctors better understand these diseases. Rate This Content: Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease Clinical Trials Clinical trials are ...


Learning about Crohn's Disease  


... Dietary Treatment of Crohn's Disease Immune Regulation in Ulcerative Colitis or Crohn's Disease Current NHGRI Clinical Studies Search ... to finding the cure for Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis: A Parent's Guide [ ...


Poorly Responsive Celiac Disease  


... Sources of Gluten . Microscopic Colitis, Crohn’s Disease and Ulcerative Colitis People with celiac disease have an increased incidence ... colitis and inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis). Microscopic colitis is an inflammation of the colon, ...


Mitochondrial disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a •Mitochondrial diseases are disorders of energy metabolism that include defects of pyruvate metabolism, Krebs cycle, respiratory\\u000a chain (RC), and fatty acid oxidation (FAO).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a •Treatment of pyruvate metabolism, Krebs cycle, and RC disorders is, in general, disappointing. Therapeutic approaches consist\\u000a of electron acceptors, enzyme activators, vitamins, coenzymes, free-radical scavengers, dietary measures, and supportive therapy.\\u000a These treatment assumptions

Roser Pons; Darryl C. De Vivo



Autoinflammatory diseases.  


Autoinflammatory diseases (AIDs) are illnesses caused by primary dysfunction of the innate immune system. Proteins that are mutated in AIDs mediate the regulation of NFkappaB activation, cell apoptosis, and IL-1beta secretion through cross-regulated and sometimes common signaling pathways. AIDs include a broad number of monogenic [e.g., familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS), mevalonate kinase deficiency (MKD), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-receptor-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS)] and multifactorial (e.g., Behçet's syndrome) disorders. These conditions are characterized by recurrent attacks of fever, abdominal pain, arthritis, and cutaneous signs; these symptoms sometimes overlap, obscuring diagnosis. Distinguishing signs and the use of specific functional tests where available (e.g., in MKD) are helpful. However, some patients remain hard to manage despite the advent of new genetic tests and/or due to lack of effective treatment. PMID:19028365

Touitou, Isabelle; Koné-Paut, Isabelle



Alzheimer's disease: strategies for disease modification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alzheimer's disease is the largest unmet medical need in neurology. Current drugs improve symptoms, but do not have profound disease-modifying effects. However, in recent years, several approaches aimed at inhibiting disease progression have advanced to clinical trials. Among these, strategies targeting the production and clearance of the amyloid-? peptide — a cardinal feature of Alzheimer's disease that is thought to

Martin Citron



Takotsubo disease.  


Tako-tsubo cardiomyopathy, a novel heart syndrome with peculiar variant of left ventricular dysfunction, characterized by preferential apical dyskinesis and basal hyper contractility has been described on numerous occasions especially in persons without obstructive coronary artery disease. It is considered of reversible etiology and seems to have increased predisposition in elderly, stress-ridden females. Although Tako-tsubo cardiomyopathy was described initially in patients of Japanese origin, its existence in white populations in both Europe and the US have recently been documented. Simultaneous multivessel coronary spasm of the epicardial coronary microvessels is believed to be a major contributor. However, this pathophysiologic basis for this phenomenon has not been validated universally throughout literature. Another potential mechanism of events that seems to be responsible for this phenomenon is the transient myocardial stunning associated with hypersensitivity to catecholamine. The clinical presentation usually simulates that of an acute ST- elevated myocardial infarction but the coronary angiography by definition shows no critical lesions. Patients surviving acute episode usually recover fully in few weeks. Acute onset of cardiogenic shock in a person without coronary risk factors should raise the possibility of this rare type of entity but should not withhold the acute treatment. Prognosis generally varies and has largely been good. Takotsubo though largely benign may be fatal sometimes. PMID:17721563

Nepal, M



[Osler's disease].  


Osler's disease, also known as hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) and Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome, is an autosomal dominant disorder leading to abnormal blood vessel formation in the skin, mucous membranes and often in organs, such as the lungs, liver and brain (arteriovenous malformations AVM). Various types are known. Patients may present with epistaxis. Teleangiectasia can be identified by visual inspection during physical examination of the skin or oral cavity or by endoscopy. Diagnosis is made after clinical examination and genetic testing based on the Curacao criteria. Modern imaging modalities, such as computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have become more important as they can depict the AVMs. Pulmonary AVMs can be depicted in CT imaging even without the use of a contrast agent while other locations including the central nervous system (CNS) usually require administration of contrast agents. Knowledge of possible clinical manifestations in various organs, possible complications and typical radiological presentation is mandatory to enable adequate therapy of these patients. Interventional procedures are becoming increasingly more important in the treatment of HHT patients. PMID:24276214

Ahlhelm, F; Lieb, J; Schneider, G; Müller, U; Ulmer, S



[Castleman disease].  


A 66 years female, who was since last year under astenia, arthralgias, pimply lesions in spread plates and tests showing eritrosedimentation over 100 mm, anemi, leucocitosis with neutrofilia, policlonal hypergammaglobulinemia, slight proteinuria and IgE on 900. This patient was sporadically treated with corticoids. When made the medical consult had lost 34lb., was under anorexy, as well as dyspepsia. Hemoglobyn 6.9 gr/dl, leucocytes 20000/mm3, neutrofils at 90%, proteinogram the same as former, with hypoalbuminemia. She was taking prednisona, 16 mg/day. When examined showed depress of conscience, astenia, and dermic lesions already quoted. 4 cm nonpainful right axillary adenopaty adhered to deep planes. Medulogram with increased iron, hyperegenerative. Ganglionar biopsia: linfoid hyperplasic process linked to inmune response. Toracoabdominal tomography with adenomegalia in torax and retroperitoneo. Skin biopsia: neutrofilic vasculitis. The patient suspends the 16 mg of prednisona and fever as well as generalized adenopatias come up. After laying aside other ethiologies, and understanding as Castleman Multicentric disease, it is started to supply prednisona 1 mg/kg of weight with a clinical and biochemical fast and outstanding response. After 7 months it was progressively suspended the esteroids and 60 days later, the process fall back; for that, corticoids are restarted, with a good evolution. The illness of Castleman although it is not very frequent, it should be considered as differential diagnosis in those clinical cases that are accompanied with important general commitment, linphadenopaties and respons to steroid therapy. PMID:16211996

Belletti, Gerardo A; Savio, Verónica; Minoldo, Daniel; Caminos, Susana; Yorio, Marcelo A



[Inflammatory cardiac diseases by primary extracardial diseases].  


As systemic immunological disorders, internal diseases in gastroenterology, rheumatology and infectiology can, in addition to the bowels, potentially involve the musculo-skeletal system, the immunological system and heart structures. All structures and functions of the heart can be affected. Pericarditis in lupus erythematosus and chronic inflammatory bowel disease, myocarditis in HIV infection and lyme disease are examples of cardiac manifestations of internal diseases. The pathogenetic causes can be manifold, such as direct cytotoxic effects in HIV or Borrelia burgdorferi infections, induced vasculitis and local activation of coagulation factors as in lupus erythematosus or chronic inflammatory bowel disease. Improved treatment options have led to more long-lasting courses of internal diseases, such as in infectious diseases, lupus erythematosus and chronic inflammatory bowel disease, thus cardiovascular complications such as pericarditis and myocarditis gain increasing importance as a consequence of chronic disease and therapy-related damage. PMID:17992497

Brehm, M; Rellecke, P; Strauer, B E



Alzheimer disease: An interactome of many diseases  

PubMed Central

Alzheimer Disease (AD) is an outcome as well as source of many diseases. Alzheimer is linked with many other diseases like Diabetes type 2, cholesterolemia, hypertension and many more. But how each of these diseases affecting other is still unknown to scientific community. Signaling Pathways of one disease is interlinked with other disease. But to what extent healthy brain is affected when any signaling in human body is disturbed is the question that matters. There is a need of Pathway analysis, Protein-Protein interaction (PPI) and the conserved interactome study in AD and linked diseases. It will be helpful in finding the potent drug or vaccine target in conscious manner. In the present research the Protein-Protein interaction of all the proteins involved in Alzheimer Disease is analyzed using ViSANT and osprey tools and pathway analysis further reveals the significant genes/proteins linking AD with other diseases. PMID:24753659

Rao, Balaji S.; Gupta, Krishna Kant; Karanam, Pujitha; Peruri, Anusha




EPA Science Inventory

The rare disease list includes rare diseases and conditions for which information requests have been made to the Office of Rare Diseases. A rare disease is defined as a disease or condition for which there are fewer than 200,000 affected persons alive in the United States. The Of...


Alzheimer's Disease: The Death of the Disease.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Alzheimer's disease, a form of dementia in middle-age and older adults is becoming more evident because of growing numbers of older people and better diagnosis and detection methods. Describes the behavioral and physical symptoms of the disease as well as specific suggestions for care of patients with Alzheimer's disease, including dealing with…

McBroom, Lynn W.



Parkinson disease - discharge  


Your doctor has told you that you have Parkinson disease . This disease affects the brain and leads ... have you take different medicines to treat your Parkinson disease and many of the problems that may ...


Associated Autoimmune Diseases  


... individuals with autoimmune diseases are women. In an autoimmune disorder, the cells of the immune system produce antibodies ... damage. This is not a complete listing of autoimmune diseases associated with celiac disease. Anyone who has unexplained, ...


Ebola Virus Disease  


Ebola virus disease Fact sheet N°103 Updated September 2014 Key facts Ebola virus disease (EVD), formerly ... 7 weeks after recovery from illness. Symptoms of Ebola virus disease The incubation period, that is, the ...


Leprosy (Hansen's Disease)  


... on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Leprosy (Hansen's Disease) Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area What Is Leprosy? Leprosy (Hansen’s Disease), is a chronic infectious disease that primarily ...


Heart disease and diet  


Diet - heart disease ... diet and lifestyle can reduce your risk of heart disease, heart attacks, and stroke. Conditions that lead to heart disease, including high cholesterol , high blood pressure, obesity , and ...


Plasmapheresis and Autoimmune Disease  


... the booklet in this Web page . Plasmapheresis and Autoimmune Disease Many diseases, including myasthenia gravis, Lambert-Eaton syndrome, ... tissues has been the most common approach to autoimmune disease for more than 30 years. Many new immunosuppressants ...


Types of Periodontal Disease  


Types of Periodontal Disease Gingivitis Chronic Periodontitis Aggressive Periodontitis Periodontitis Caused by Conditions of the Body Necrotizing Periodontal Diseases Periodontal disease can refer to any condition that affects the gums and ...


Coronary Microvascular Disease (MVD)  


... damaged or diseased. Coronary MVD is different from traditional coronary heart disease (CHD), also called coronary artery ... drop in estrogen levels during menopause combined with traditional heart disease risk factors. Both men and women ...


American Lyme Disease Foundation  


... A. Jacobs, M.D., Emeritus Professor, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of California - San Francisco [ Video ] Lyme Disease ... on line Find a Local Physician Knowledgeable About Infectious Diseases The best private organization-based site that can ...


Lewy Body Disease  


... be hard to diagnose, because Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease cause similar symptoms. Scientists think that Lewy body disease might be ... no cure. Treatment focuses on drugs to help symptoms. NIH: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke


Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)  


... Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) - CDC Fact Sheet Untreated sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) can cause pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), a serious ... It is a complication often caused by some STDs, like chlamydia and gonorrhea. Other infections that are ...


Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  


COPD; Chronic obstructive airways disease; Chronic obstructive lung disease; Chronic bronchitis; Emphysema; Bronchitis - chronic ... Systems Improvement. Diagnosis and Management of Chronic ... Disease (COPD). Updated March 2013. Available at: https://www. ...


Interstitial Lung Disease  


... MS Dept. of Medicine View full profile Interstitial Lung Disease (ILD): Overview Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a ... they may make informed decisions Learn more. Interstitial Lung Disease Program As a center specializing in the care ...


Heart Disease in Women  


... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Does Heart Disease Affect Women? In the United States, 1 ... about coronary MVD and broken heart syndrome. Coronary Heart Disease CHD is a disease in which plaque ( ...


Pelvic Inflammatory Disease  


... is not treated promptly. What causes PID? Two sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) — gonorrhea and chlamydia —are the main cause ... A manual examination of a woman’s reproductive organs. Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs): Diseases that are spread by sexual contact. ...


Liver in systemic disease  

PubMed Central

Potential causes of abnormal liver function tests include viral hepatitis, alcohol intake, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, autoimmune liver diseases, hereditary diseases, hepatobiliary malignancies or infection, gallstones and drug-induced liver injury. Moreover, the liver may be involved in systemic diseases that mainly affect other organs. Therefore, in patients without etiology of liver injury by screening serology and diagnostic imaging, but who have systemic diseases, the abnormal liver function test results might be caused by the systemic disease. In most of these patients, the systemic disease should be treated primarily. However, some patients with systemic disease and severe liver injury or fulminant hepatic failure require intensive treatments of the liver. PMID:18636653

Shimizu, Yukihiro



Atheroembolic renal disease  


Renal disease - atheroembolic; Cholesterol embolization syndrome; Atheroemboli - renal; Atherosclerotic disease - renal ... disorder of the arteries. It occurs when fat, cholesterol, and other substances build up in the walls ...


Autoimmune diseases in gastroenterology.  


There are several different diseases in gastroenterology with an important role of immunological mechanisms in their pathogenesis. We know autoimmune diseases with immunological reactions against liver or pancreatic tissue. In addition there are diseases like chronic inflammatory bowel diseases representing inappropriate immunological reactions followed by inflammation and tissue destruction. The research of the last decade has contributed significantly to the understanding of the pathogenesis of diseases based on immunological mechanisms and consequently to the development of novel therapeutic strategies targeting molecules. Chronic inflammatory bowel diseases, autoimmune hepatitis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, primary biliary cirrhosis, autoimmune pancreatitis, and celiac disease are the most important diseases with immunological pathogenesis in Gastroenterology. Especially in chronic inflammatory bowel diseases ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease with immunosuppressive drugs and monoclonal antibodies new preparations are used in therapy. Autoimmune pancreatitis was characterized as an own entity in the last years. Therefore, this review will focus on these diseases. PMID:22612745

Emmrich, Joerg; Jaster, Robert



Plant Disease Lesson: Blackleg  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This plant disease lesson on Blackleg (caused by Leptosphaeria maculans (teleomorph) Phoma lingam (anamorph).) includes information on symptoms and signs, pathogen biology, disease cycle and epidemiology, disease management, and the significance of the disease. Selected references are listed and a glossary is also available for use with this resource.

Gavin Ash (Charles Sturt University;)



Autoimmunity in thyroid disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The autoimmune thyroid diseases, Graves' disease and autoimmune hypothyroidism, represent the two ends of a disease spectrum where an immune response is directed against the thyroid gland. In Graves' disease, antibodies directed against the thyrotropin receptor (TSH-R) lead to the development of glandular overactivity, while in autoimmune hypothyroidism, cell-mediated and humoral thyroid injury leads to destruction of thyroid tissue and

Joanne Collins; Stephen Gough



What Causes Heart Disease?  


... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Heart Disease? Research suggests that coronary heart disease (CHD) begins with damage to the lining and ... causing coronary microvascular disease (MVD). Coronary MVD is heart disease that affects the heart's tiny arteries. The cause ...


Carotid Artery Disease  


... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Carotid Artery Disease? Carotid (ka-ROT-id) artery disease is a disease in which a waxy substance ... the United States. Other conditions, such as certain heart problems and ... or treat carotid artery disease and may reduce the risk of stroke. If ...


[Neglected tropical diseases - review].  


Neglected tropical diseases include a variety of infectious diseases. This review shortly describes the most common diseases. Those infected usually live at a low socioeconomic status and rarely have access to satisfactory health care. The neglected diseases are common and have a high burden of disease. In comparison to HIV, malaria and tuberculosis this group of diseases is in fact neglected. Certain diseases within the group are more neglected than others. Investment for research does not appear to be decided in proportion to burden of disease. Much can be gained by extermination of these diseases. The solution is to integrate improvement of living standards and battling diseases. Iceland has a role to play. PMID:22133523

Kristjansson, Julius; Gudmundsson, Sigurdur



Mycobacterial disease in patients with rheumatic disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Review focuses on the emergence of mycobacterial disease in patients undergoing treatment for rheumatic disease with four new drug classes—tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors, human interleukin (IL)-1 receptor antagonists, anti-CD20 antibodies and CD4+ T-cell costimulation modulators—collectively referred to as biologic agents. Mycobacterial disease is a major cause of severe infection in patients undergoing anti-TNF therapy. Reports are now emerging

Martin J Boeree; PN Richard Dekhuijzen; Dick van Soolingen; Jakko van Ingen



Oral Crohn's disease.  


'Crohn's disease' is an inflammatory granulomatous disease of the gastrointestinal tract with extra-intestinal manifestations. Oral lesions may precede the intestinal disease and serve as a source for histological diagnosis. We present a case of orofacial Crohn's disease where orofacial symptoms were present for about 13 years and occasional constipation was present, since 6 months. Oral examination plays an important role in early diagnosis of Crohn's disease. PMID:25364165

Padmavathi, Bn; Sharma, Smriti; Astekar, Madhusudan; Rajan, Y; Sowmya, Gv



Oral Crohn's disease  

PubMed Central

’Crohn's disease’ is an inflammatory granulomatous disease of the gastrointestinal tract with extra-intestinal manifestations. Oral lesions may precede the intestinal disease and serve as a source for histological diagnosis. We present a case of orofacial Crohn's disease where orofacial symptoms were present for about 13 years and occasional constipation was present, since 6 months. Oral examination plays an important role in early diagnosis of Crohn's disease. PMID:25364165

Padmavathi, BN; Sharma, Smriti; Astekar, Madhusudan; Rajan, Y; Sowmya, GV



Renal cystic disease  

SciTech Connect

The book begins with an overview of renal cystic disease and a presentation of simple renal cysts. Subsequent chapters cover cystic disease in association with renal neoplasms and medullary sponge kidney. The chapters addressing autosomal-dominant and autosomal-recessive polycystic kidney disease discuss and differentiate the infantile and adult forms of the disease. There are also separate discussions of medullary cystic disease, multicystic dysplastic kidney, and cysts of the renarenal sinus.

Hartman, D.S.



Epidemiology: Understanding Disease Spread  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Factors that influence disease spread throughout populations can be explored with the program Epidemiology. Both population and disease characteristics can be modeled over different time periods. The Susceptible- Infected- Recovered (SIR) model enables us to make predictions based on significant variables such as the flow of new susceptibles in to the population, transmission rates, disease deaths, and the duration of the disease. Ebola is used as a model organism and epidemiology is presented from both a microbiological and social perspective. * build epidemiological models of different diseases, design strategies for disease control, and test the effectiveness of these strategies on virtual populations

Marion Fass (Beloit College;Biology)



Lyme Disease and Pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Lyme disease is the most commonly transmitted vector-borne disease in the United States, with many regions of the country at risk. Like other spirochete-borne infections, Lyme disease progresses in stages, making diagnosis in the early stages of the illness and prompt treatment important for cure. An early diagnosis is made difficult by the less-than-ideal serologic tests and the varied clinical presentations of the disease. Although Lyme disease has been reported in pregnancy, the transmission rate to the fetus and potential harmful effects are largely unknown. This review discusses the diagnosis, clinical course, and treatment of Lyme disease with an emphasis on the pregnant patient. PMID:18476053

Cox, Susan M.



Working Memory in Mild Alzheimer's Disease and Early Parkinson's Disease  

E-print Network

Working Memory in Mild Alzheimer's Disease and Early Parkinson's Disease Elizabeth A. Kensinger of Technology Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) impair working memory (WM). It is unclear an expanding interest in how neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD

Corkin, Suzanne


Living with Kawasaki Disease  


... Tumblr. Share this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Kawasaki Disease Most children who have Kawasaki disease recover—usually within weeks of getting symptoms. Further problems are rare. Early treatment reduces the risk of ...


Women and Vascular Disease  


... Radiology Minimally Invasive Treatments Snapshots Multimedia Multimedia Archive Women and Vascular Disease Early Warning Symptom for the #1 Killer of Women Is Under-recognized Heart disease is the #1 ...


Celiac Disease Tests  


... What is being tested? Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder characterized by an inappropriate immune response to gluten, ... to help diagnose and monitor celiac disease , an autoimmune disorder caused by an inappropriate immune response to gluten, ...


Chronic Beryllium Disease  


... LS. Epidemiology of beryllium sensitizations and disease in nuclear workers. Am Rev Respir Dis 1993; 148:985- ... chronic beryllium disease. In: Rossman MD, Preuss OP, Powers MB, eds. Beryllium: Biomedical and Environmental Aspects. Baltimore: ...


Peripheral Arterial Disease  


... risk factors include older age and diseases like diabetes, high blood cholesterol, high blood pressure, heart disease, ... legs Erectile dysfunction, especially among men who have diabetes PAD can increase your risk of heart attack, ...


Genetics and Neuromuscular Diseases  


Facts About Genetics and Neuromuscular Diseases Updated December 2009 2 Genetics and Neuromuscular Diseases • ©2011 MDA Dear Friends: M ost of ... appeared. What kind of sample is needed for genetic testing? Usually, only a blood sample is needed, ...


Hemochromatosis: Iron Storage Disease  


... What's this? Submit Button CDC Features Hemochromatosis: Iron Storage Disease Language: English Español (Spanish) Share Compartir Excessive ... Learn more about hemochromatosis, a type of iron storage disease, and stay healthy. What Is Hemochromatosis? Hemochromatosis ...


Diet - liver disease  


DeLegge MH. Nutrition in gastrointestinal diseases. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. Sleisenger & Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease . 9th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; ...


Are all diseases infectious?  


The complex interactions between microorganisms and human hosts include the well-known, traditional infectious diseases and the symbiotic relation we have with our normal flora. The media have brought to the public's attention many newly described infectious diseases, such as Ebola virus hemorrhagic fever, that were not part of common medical parlance a decade ago. While flooding us with interesting and often dramatic reports of so-called emerging infectious diseases, the media have largely ignored a more fundamental change in our appreciation of human-microorganism interactions: the discovery that transmissible agents may play important roles in diseases not suspected of being infectious in origin. A well-known example is ulcer disease; other examples include neurodegenerative disease, inflammatory disease, and cancer. These fascinating instances of host-pathogen interaction open new prospects for the prevention of disease through immunization. PMID:8928993

Lorber, B



Digestive Diseases Statistics  


... 263 KB) * Also see: Celiac Disease Diverticular Disease Hemorrhoids Irritable Bowel Syndrome The Digestive System and How ... deaths (2011) 16 Prescriptions: 938,000 (2004) 8 Hemorrhoids Prevalence: 75 percent of people older than 45 ( ...


Chronic granulomatous disease  


CGD; Fatal granulomatosis of childhood; Chronic granulomatous disease of childhood; Progressive septic granulomatosis ... Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a genetic disorder in which certain immune system cells are unable to kill some ...


Hypothyroidism and Heart Disease  


... SITE › Hypothyroidism and Heart Disease Share: Fact Sheet Hypothyroidism and Heart Disease January 2014 Download PDFs English ... nervous system, body temperature, and weight. What is hypothyroidism and what are its symptoms? Hypothyroidism, also called ...


Lyme Disease and Animals  


... Page last updated: April 30, 2014 Content source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Home A-Z Index Policies Using this Site Link to Us Contact CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 1600 Clifton Road ...


Pediatric Celiac Disease  


... serious condition caused by a permanent intolerance for gluten--a protein found in wheat, rye, and barley. ... Disease If your child has celiac disease, consuming gluten will cause damage to finger-like projections, called ...


Diabetes and kidney disease  


Kidney disease or kidney damage that occurs in people with diabetes is called diabetic nephropathy. This condition is ... who have more severe and long-term (chronic) kidney disease may have symptoms such as: Fatigue most of ...


Carotid artery disease  


... 2 years. If you have high blood pressure, heart disease, diabetes, or you have had a stroke, you need ... treatment recommendations if you have high blood pressure, diabetes, high cholesterol, or heart disease.


Fibrocystic breast disease  


Fibrocystic breast disease; Mammary dysplasia; Diffuse cystic mastopathy; Benign breast disease; Glandular breast changes ... made in the ovaries may make a woman's breasts feel swollen, lumpy, or painful before or during ...


Progression of Liver Disease  


... Handouts Education Resources Support Services Helpful Links For Liver Health Information Call 1-800-GO-LIVER (1- ... The Progression of Liver Disease The Progression of Liver Disease There are many different types of liver ...


Parkinson's Disease Videos  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... University of Pennsylvania What is the relationship between depression and Parkinson's disease? Michael J. Aminoff, MD University ... treatments exist for Parkinson's disease patients with a depression diagnosis? Michael J. Aminoff, MD University of California- ...


Pediatric inflammatory bowel disease  

PubMed Central

Inflammatory bowel disease is an important cause of gastrointestinal pathology in children and adolescents. The incidence of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease is increasing; therefore, it is important for the clinician to be aware of the presentation of this disease in the pediatric population. Laboratory tests, radiology studies, and endoscopic procedures are helpful in diagnosing inflammatory bowel disease and differentiating between Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. Once diagnosed, the goal of medical management is to induce remission of disease while minimizing the side effects of the medication. Specific attention needs to be paid to achieving normal growth in this susceptible population. Surgical management is usually indicated for failure of medical management, complication, or malignancy. Algorithms for diagnostic evaluation and treatment of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease are presented. The specific psychosocial issues facing these patients are also discussed in this review as are the future goals of research in the complex problem of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:16718840

Diefenbach, Karen A; Breuer, Christopher K



Celiac disease - sprue  


Celiac disease is a condition that creates inflammation in the small intestine, and damage in the lining. This ... The exact cause of celiac disease is unknown. The lining of the ... called villi. These structures help absorb nutrients. When ...


About Thyroid Disease

Noncancerous Thyroid DiseaseSome thyroid diseases are caused by changes in the amount of thyroid hormones that enter the body from the thyroid gland. Doctors can screen for these with a simple blood test.


Genetics and Lung Disease  


... Society What should I know about genetics and lung disease? If you compare the genes of a group ... your risk of getting asthma. For a few lung diseases, genes play a much bigger role. These are ...


Diseases and Conditions  


... Conditions Public Health Public Health Public Health Home Military Exposures Military Exposures Home 4 Ways to Find Exposures Related ... Studies Publications & Reports Diseases & Conditions Diseases & Conditions Index Military Exposure Related Health Concerns Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses ...


Niemann-Pick Disease  


... a group of inherited metabolic disorders known as lipid storage diseases. Lipids (fatty materials such as waxes, fatty acids, oils, ... body. In Niemann-Pick disease, harmful quantities of lipids accumulate in the spleen, liver, lungs, bone marrow, ...


Pregnancy and Fifth Disease  


... Cheek Rash Parvovirus B19 and Other Illnesses References Pregnancy and Fifth Disease On this Page Testing for ... with fifth disease. Testing for Parvovirus B19 During Pregnancy A blood test for parvovirus B19 can show ...


Alzheimer's Disease Research Centers  


... Ph.D., Director Alzheimer's Disease Center Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine University of Pennsylvania School of ... Alzheimer's Disease Center Harborview Medical Center Department of Pathology 325 9th Avenue Seattle, WA 981084 Website: http:// ...


Parallelization: Infectious Disease  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Epidemiology is the study of infectious disease. Infectious diseases are said to be "contagious" among people if they are transmittable from one person to another. Epidemiologists can use models to assist them in predicting the behavior of infectious diseases. This module will develop a simple agent-based infectious disease model, develop a parallel algorithm based on the model, provide a coded implementation for the algorithm, and explore the scaling of the coded implementation on high performance cluster resources.

Weeden, Aaron


Smoking and Parkinson's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a case control study of the relationship between smoking habits and Parkinson's disease a negative association was demonstrated with a relative risk of 0 x 52. A history of smoking up to 20 years earlier was associated with a risk of developing Parkinson's disease equal to about half that in non-smokers. The type of disease, age of onset and

R B Godwin-Austen; P N Lee; M G Marmot; G M Stern



Menopause and Heart Disease  


Menopause and Heart Disease Updated:Oct 1,2013 Heart disease risk rises for everyone as they age, but for women symptoms can ... women is seen about 10 years after menopause. Heart disease is the leading killer of women . Estrogen Levels ...


Women and Heart Disease  


Women & Heart Disease Things you need to know Talk to your doctor about heart disease It’s important to ask your doctor about your ... you can do to lower your risk for heart disease Keep a healthy... 1. Blood pressure 2. Cholesterol ...


Metastatic Crohn's disease  

PubMed Central

Crohn's disease, first described in 1922, is characterized by segmental granulomatous inflammation of the intestinal tract and frequently involves the cutaneous tissues as well. Cutaneous Crohn's disease (CCD) is synonymous with metastatic Crohn's disease (MSD). A case of CCD, without any gastrointestinal involvement is reported for its rarity. PMID:24616854

Lanka, Padmavathy; Lanka, Lakshmana Rao; Sylvester, N.; Lakshmi, M. Dhana; Ethirajan, N.



Mosaic Disease in Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

THERE has been considerable speculation recently upon the cause of the so-called ``virus diseases,'' which occur in both animals and plants, such as typhus and Rocky Mountain fever in man, and ``mosaic'' disease in plants. These diseases are supposed to be due to the presence of some ultramicroscopic filter-passing organism. Many small bodies, some of a granular nature, have been

Kenneth M. Smith



16. Immunologic lung disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review summarizes the recent advances regarding pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of immunological diseases of the lung. Rather than attempt a comprehensive analysis, we have focused on selected diseases that are of particular relevance to the practicing physician, and the material has been organized according to the dominant immunologic mechanisms underlying the disease. Because of the redundancy that characterizes the

Joseph E. Prince; Farrah Kheradmand; David B. Corry



Diabetes and Heart Disease  


MENU Return to Web version Diabetes | Diabetes and Heart Disease What does diabetes have to do with heart disease? People who ... the weight you need to. Remember: Diabetes and heart disease are related. Diabetes, being overweight and having high blood pressure are ...


Heart Disease in Women  


... United States, 1 in 4 women dies from heart disease. The most common cause of heart disease in both men and women is narrowing ... the blood vessels that supply blood to the heart itself. This is called coronary artery disease, and ...


The human disease network  

Microsoft Academic Search

A network of disorders and disease genes linked by known disordergene associations offers a platform to explore in a single graphtheoretic framework all known phenotype and disease gene associations, indicating the common genetic origin of many diseases. Genes associated with similar disorders show both higher likelihood of physical interactions between their products and higher expression profiling similarity for their transcripts,

Kwang-Il Goh; M. E. Cusick; David Valle; Barton Childs; Marc Vidal; A.-L. Barabasi



Newcastle disease vaccines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Newcastle disease (ND) is a worldwide problem with severe economic implications, affecting chickens, turkeys and other birds. Newcastle disease virus (NDV), a member of the Paramyxoviridae group can cause disease of diverse severity in accordance with environmental factors. NDV strains are classified according to their virulence into three categories. The lentogenic strains are very mild and naturally inhabit healthy flocks.

Gilad E. Gallili; David Ben-Nathan



Environmental disease: environmental alteration and infectious disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Humans have changed their environment to survive and to achieve a safer and more comfortable life. For example, drinking water\\u000a and wastewater infrastructures are indispensable for civilized societies to flourish and to prevent water-borne infectious\\u000a diseases. However, excessive loading on environments might disturb microbial ecosystems, resulting in outbreaks of pathogenic\\u000a microbes and the expansion of infectious diseases. Clarifying the relationship

Nobuyasu Yamaguchi; Tomoaki Ichijo; Masao Nasu


[Acquired von Willebrand's disease].  


We describe a patient with acquired von Willebrand's disease and Waldenström's macroglobulinemia. He suffered from an acquired tendency to bleed. The laboratory findings were identical to those of congenital von Willebrand's disease. The acquired form of this bleeding disorder is seen in association with immunologically active B cell lymphomas, certain other malignant tumours, and autoimmune diseases. The incidence and prevalence are unknown, but this disorder is probably uncommon. We discuss possible pathogenetic mechanisms. Acquired von Willebrand's disease should be considered in patients with an acquired tendency to bleed, especially if the patient also has a lymphoproliferative, neoplastic, or autoimmune disease. PMID:8332973

Berentsen, S; Hammerstrøm, J



Genetics Home Reference: Pompe disease  


... treatment providers. Baby's First Test Gene Review: Glycogen Storage Disease Type II (Pompe Disease) Genetic Testing Registry: Glycogen storage disease, type II You might also find information ...


Behçet's disease as a systemic disease.  


Behçet's disease usually begins with cutaneous manifestations, such as recurrent aphthous stomatitis, genital ulcers, erythema nodosum-like lesions, papulopustular findings, and pathergy phenomenon. Recurrent aphthous stomatitis is generally the first sign, and other findings may develop in the course of the disease. There is no specific diagnostic available for Behçet's disease. It is most prevalent among patients along the ancient Silk Road. The high frequency of HLA-B51 among a wide range of ethnic populations favors the role of genetic factors. Behçet's disease usually appears in the third to fourth decade of life, and is rarely seen in children and adults over 50 years of age. It affects both genders equally, but the course of the disease is more severe in men. Eye involvement leading to loss of vision, plus vascular, articular, and central nervous system involvement are more commonly observed among men. Behçet's disease is a systemic inflammatory disorder. A complex genetic background, coupled with innate and adaptive immune system activation, causes the diverse clinical manifestations that characterize the clinical picture. PMID:24767193

Mat, M Cem; Sevim, Ay?egül; Fresko, Izzet; Tüzün, Yalç?n



Genetics of proteasome diseases.  


The proteasome is a large, multiple subunit complex that is capable of degrading most intracellular proteins. Polymorphisms in proteasome subunits are associated with cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, neurological diseases, and cancer. One polymorphism in the proteasome gene PSMA6 (-8C/G) is associated with three different diseases: type 2 diabetes, myocardial infarction, and coronary artery disease. One type of proteasome, the immunoproteasome, which contains inducible catalytic subunits, is adapted to generate peptides for antigen presentation. It has recently been shown that mutations and polymorphisms in the immunoproteasome catalytic subunit PSMB8 are associated with several inflammatory and autoinflammatory diseases including Nakajo-Nishimura syndrome, CANDLE syndrome, and intestinal M. tuberculosis infection. This comprehensive review describes the disease-related polymorphisms in proteasome genes associated with human diseases and the physiological modulation of proteasome function by these polymorphisms. Given the large number of subunits and the central importance of the proteasome in human physiology as well as the fast pace of detection of proteasome polymorphisms associated with human diseases, it is likely that other polymorphisms in proteasome genes associated with diseases will be detected in the near future. While disease-associated polymorphisms are now readily discovered, the challenge will be to use this genetic information for clinical benefit. PMID:24490108

Gomes, Aldrin V



Genetics of Proteasome Diseases  

PubMed Central

The proteasome is a large, multiple subunit complex that is capable of degrading most intracellular proteins. Polymorphisms in proteasome subunits are associated with cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, neurological diseases, and cancer. One polymorphism in the proteasome gene PSMA6 (?8C/G) is associated with three different diseases: type 2 diabetes, myocardial infarction, and coronary artery disease. One type of proteasome, the immunoproteasome, which contains inducible catalytic subunits, is adapted to generate peptides for antigen presentation. It has recently been shown that mutations and polymorphisms in the immunoproteasome catalytic subunit PSMB8 are associated with several inflammatory and autoinflammatory diseases including Nakajo-Nishimura syndrome, CANDLE syndrome, and intestinal M. tuberculosis infection. This comprehensive review describes the disease-related polymorphisms in proteasome genes associated with human diseases and the physiological modulation of proteasome function by these polymorphisms. Given the large number of subunits and the central importance of the proteasome in human physiology as well as the fast pace of detection of proteasome polymorphisms associated with human diseases, it is likely that other polymorphisms in proteasome genes associated with diseases will be detected in the near future. While disease-associated polymorphisms are now readily discovered, the challenge will be to use this genetic information for clinical benefit. PMID:24490108

Gomes, Aldrin V.



National Foundation for Infectious Diseases  


About NFID Contact Us NFID Store Home Infectious Disease Information Infectious Disease Information Chickenpox (Varicella) Diphtheria Ebola Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hib Disease HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Influenza (Flu) MRSA Measles Meningococcal Disease ...


Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)  


MENU Return to Web version Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Overview What is chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)? Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (also called COPD) is a lung disease that makes it ...


Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)  


... treated? Learn More What is COPD? Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, or COPD, refers to a group of diseases ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults—United States, 2011. MMWR . 2012;61( ...


Epigenetic Inheritance of Disease and Disease Risk  

PubMed Central

Epigenetic marks in an organism can be altered by environmental factors throughout life. Although changes in the epigenetic code can be positive, some are associated with severe diseases, in particular, cancer and neuropsychiatric disorders. Recent evidence has indicated that certain epigenetic marks can be inherited, and reshape developmental and cellular features over generations. This review examines the challenging possibility that epigenetic changes induced by environmental factors can contribute to some of the inheritance of disease and disease risk. This concept has immense implications for the understanding of biological functions and disease etiology, and provides potential novel strategies for diagnosis and treatment. Examples of epigenetic inheritance relevant to human disease, such as the detrimental effects of traumatic stress or drug/toxic exposure on brain functions, are reviewed. Different possible routes of transmission of epigenetic information involving the germline or germline-independent transfer are discussed, and different mechanisms for the maintenance and transmission of epigenetic information like chromatin remodeling and small noncoding RNAs are considered. Future research directions and remaining major challenges in this field are also outlined. Finally, the adaptive value of epigenetic inheritance, and the cost and benefit of allowing acquired epigenetic marks to persist across generations is critically evaluated. PMID:22781843

Bohacek, Johannes; Mansuy, Isabelle M



Heart disease in pregnancy: ischaemic heart disease.  


Coronary artery disease and in particular acute coronary syndromes in pregnancy are increasing with high risk of mortality and significant morbidity. Whilst women with atherosclerotic risk factors are at greater risk of developing problems in pregnancy, it is important to remember that women can develop problems even in the absence of atherosclerosis-secondary to thrombosis or coronary dissection. A low threshold to investigate women with chest pain is paramount, and women with raised troponin levels should be investigated seriously. Acute coronary syndromes should be managed using an invasive strategy where possible and women should not have coronary angiography withheld for fear of foetal harm. This article aims to review the limited available data of coronary artery disease in pregnancy and give practical advice on the management of stable and acute coronary disease, with particular emphasis on the latter. PMID:24794768

Fryearson, John; Adamson, Dawn L



Anderson-Fabry disease: a multiorgan disease.  


Fabry disease (FD) is a rare X-linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by a deficiency of the enzyme ?-galactosidase A. FD causes glycolipids, such as globotriaosylceramide (Gb3), to accumulate in the vascular endothelium of several organs (Fig. 2), including the skin, kidneys, nervous system, and heart, thereby triggering inflammation and fibrosis. These processes generally result in organ dysfunction, which is usually the first clinical evidence of FD. Patients with classic FD have various symptoms, eg, acroparesthesias, hypohidrosis, angiokeratomas, corneal opacities, cerebrovascular lesions, cardiac disorders, andrenal dysfunction.However, evolving knowledge about the natural course of disease suggests that it is more appropriate to describe FD as a disease with a wide spectrum of heterogeneously progressive clinical phenotypes. Indeed, most female heterozygotes develop symptoms due to yet undetermined mechanisms and a high percentage of females develops vital organ involvement including the kidneys, heart and/or brain about a decade later than males. Renal failure is a serious complication of this disease. Fabry nephropathy lesions are present and progress in childhood while the disease commonly remains silent by routine clinical measures. Early and timely diagnosis of Fabry nephropathy is crucial since late initiation of enzyme replacement therapy may not halt progressive renal dysfunction. This may be challenging due to difficulties in diagnosis of Fabry disease in children and absence of a sensitive non-invasive biomarker of early Fabry nephropathy. Accurate measurement of glomerular filtration rate and regular assessment for proteinuria and microalbuminuria are useful, though not sensitive enough to detect early lesions in the kidney. The principal clinical manifestations in Fabry disease consist of artery associated complications (such as cerebral disease and nephropathy), but the pathophysiology of this specific vasculopathy is unclear. Several studies indicate that the specific vascular lesions that are present in Fabry disease occur as a result of vascular dysfunction with major components being endothelial dysfunction, alterations in cerebral perfusion and a pro-thrombotic phenotype. Fabry cardiac involvement has several clinical manifestations (Table 10): concentric left ventricular hypertrophy without left ventricular dilation and severe loss of left ventricular systolic function, mitral and aortic valvulopathy, disorders of the atrioventricular conduction or repolarization, and compromised diastolic function. The neurological manifestations of Fabry disease include both peripheral nervous system and CNS involvement, with globotriaosylceramide accumulation found in Schwann cells and dorsal root ganglia together with deposits in CNS neurones. The main involvement of the CNS is attributable to cerebrovasculopathy, with an increased incidence of stroke. The abnormal neuronal accumulation of glycosphingolipid appears to have little clinical effect on the natural history of Fabry disease, with the possible exception of some reported mild cognitive abnormalities. The pathogenesis of Fabry vasculopathy remains poorly understood, but probably relates, in part, to abnormal functional control of the vessels, secondary to endothelial dysfunction as a consequence of ?-galactosidase A deficiency. The diagnosis of Fabry disease is made in hemizygous males after the detection of the presence of angiokeratomas (Fig. 19 A, B), irregularities in sweating, edema, scant body hair, painful sensations, and of cardiovascular, intestinal, renal, ophthalmologic, phlebologic, and respiratory involvement. A deficiency of alpha-gal A in serum, leukocytes, tears, tissue specimens, or cultured skin fibroblasts further supports the diagnosis in male patients. Since heterozygous women show angiokeratomas in only about 30% of cases and may have alpha-gal A levels within normal range, genetic analysis is recommended. The resultant storage of undegraded glycolipids leads to the progressive development of potentially life-threatening man

Tuttolomondo, Antonino; Pecoraro, Rosaria; Simonetta, Irene; Miceli, Salvatore; Pinto, Antonio; Licata, Giuseppe



Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.  


Prion diseases are rare in children. Three types are known: kuru, variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), and iatrogenic CJD. All three affect children and young adults, and are transmitted by infectious contamination. Kuru was the result of ritual funeral practices similar to cannibalism; variant CJD affects young people who have eaten meat from cows with mad cow disease (mostly in the UK); and iatrogenic CJD is secondary to graft of human tissues performed in the 1980s (dura mater, pituitary extracted growth hormone). The disease appears after 4-30 years of incubation. The initial symptomatology is frequently neurological (cerebellar ataxia, oculomotor disturbance, peripheral nerve pain, pyramidal syndrome) followed by dementia. There is no biological test available that can give a definite diagnosis of prion disease apart from neuropathology, although prion accumulation in vCJD can be demonstrated in pharyngeal tonsil by immunohistochemical techniques. This devastating disease results inevitably in death. No specific treatment is available. PMID:23622328

de Villemeur, Thierry Billette



[Dermatological diseases in reptiles].  


Reptiles are presented in increasing numbers in the small animal practice. The most important cause for dermatopathies is inadequate management, especially species inappropriate temperature and humidity. This aspect has to be considered in the treatment. Infectious skin diseases in reptiles are frequently caused by mites, as well as by bacteria and fungi. The special importance of the fungal disease caused by Chrysosporium Anamorph of Nannizziopsis vriesii (CANV) in lizards is emphasized. Viral skin diseases are less frequently diagnosed. Shell necrosis in chelonians is an important bacterial disease. Frequent causes of non-infectious dermatopathies are dysecdysis and trauma. Hypovitaminosis A is the most common metabolic disease. Physical examination, diagnostic tests and therapy in reptile skin diseases are comparable to mammals, however, scientific data in reptiles are still scarce. PMID:20235013

Hatt, J-M



Dynamics of interacting diseases  

E-print Network

Current modeling of infectious diseases allows for the study of complex and realistic scenarios that go from the population to the individual level of description. Most epidemic models however assume that the spreading process takes place on a single level (be it a single population, a meta-population system or a network of contacts). The latter is in part a consequence of our still limited knowledge about the interdependency of the many mechanisms and factors involved in disease spreading. In particular, interdependent contagion phenomena can only be addressed if we go beyond the scheme one pathogen-one network. In this paper, we study a model that allows describing the spreading dynamics of two concurrent diseases and apply it to a paradigmatic case of disease-disease interaction: the interaction between AIDS and Tuberculosis. Specifically, we characterize analytically the epidemic thresholds of the two diseases for different scenarios and also compute the temporal evolution characterizing the unfolding dyn...

Sanz, Joaquín; Meloni, Sandro; Moreno, Yamir



Viral Disease Networks?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Viral infections induce multiple perturbations that spread along the links of the biological networks of the host cells. Understanding the impact of these cascading perturbations requires an exhaustive knowledge of the cellular machinery as well as a systems biology approach that reveals how individual components of the cellular system function together. Here we describe an integrative method that provides a new approach to studying virus-human interactions and its correlations with diseases. Our method involves the combined utilization of protein - protein interactions, protein -- DNA interactions, metabolomics and gene - disease associations to build a ``viraldiseasome''. By solely using high-throughput data, we map well-known viral associated diseases and predict new candidate viral diseases. We use microarray data of virus-infected tissues and patient medical history data to further test the implications of the viral diseasome. We apply this method to Epstein-Barr virus and Human Papillomavirus and shed light into molecular development of viral diseases and disease pathways.

Gulbahce, Natali; Yan, Han; Vidal, Marc; Barabasi, Albert-Laszlo



Inflammatory Bowel Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic relapsing condition of inflammation of the digestive tract, characterized by\\u000a periods of active disease alternating with periods of disease remission. IBD is diagnosed in adolescence at a rate of 25–30%\\u000a (Cuffari & Darbari, 2002) and uniquely impacts the typical biological, psychological, social, and cognitive changes of adolescence,\\u000a as well as the process of

Carin Cunningham; Rachel Neff Greenley


Obesity and cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obesity is a major contributor to the prevalence of cardiovascular disease in the developed world, and yet has only recently\\u000a been afforded the same level of attention as other risk factors of coronary artery disease. Obesity is a chronic metabolic\\u000a disorder associated with cardiovascular disease and increased morbidity and mortality. It is apparent that a variety of adaptations\\/alterations\\u000a in cardiac

Paul Poirier; Robert H. Eckel



Pathomechanisms in Celiac Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Celiac disease is a complex autoimmune disease which is characterized by a strong genetic association (HLA-DQ2 or -DQ8), gluten as nutritional etiological factor, and the enzyme tissue transglutaminase as endomysial autoantigen. Patients develop highly predictive IgA autoantibodies to tTG. Certain gluten peptides are presented by the disease-associated HLA-DQ2\\/DQ8 molecules leading to stimulation of gluten-specific T cells. This immune response which

Walburga Dieterich; Birgit Esslinger; Detlef Schuppan



Genes and Disease  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Center for Biotechnology Information of the National Library of Medicine (part of the National Institutes of Health) has posted this webpage, Genes and Disease, which provides information "for some 60 diseases associated with specific genes, and has links to the 1998 Gene Map as well as to PubMed, protein sequences, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, and associations related to each disease."



Cerebrovascular Disease and Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Cerebrovascular diseases are a common cause of cognitive impairment in adults and a clinically significant cause of cognitive\\u000a disability in children. Ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke are the main types of cerebrovascular disease. Risk factors for stroke,\\u000a clinical signs and symptoms, diagnostic evaluation and treatment are discussed for each category of cerebrovascular disease,\\u000a and differences across the life span are highlighted.

Sabrina E. Smith; Juliana Sanchez Bloom; Nancy Minniti


Equine Cushing's disease.  


Equine Cushing's disease (ECD) is a chronic progressive disease of the intermediate pituitary gland of older horses. Horses with Cushing's disease often have other health problems, such as laminitis, chronic infections, pseudolactation, and other issues. Diagnosis of ECD is usually based on clinical signs and endocrine tests. Medical management of affected horses is usually a long-term or lifelong commitment. The goal of this article is to review the pathophysiology of ECD, outline diagnostic tests, and present treatment options. PMID:12516933

McCue, Patrick M



Pancytopenia in Lyme disease.  


We present a 49-year-old man with subacute onset of fever, weakness, shortness of breath, unilateral lower extremity oedema and pancytopenia who was found to have positive serology for Lyme disease. The patient presented with an intravascular haemolytic pattern on laboratory findings where an extensive infectious disease and haematological workup ruled out ehrlichiosis, anaplasmosis, babesiosis, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, HIV, hepatitis B and other parasitic infections. This left a very atypical presentation of Lyme disease. PMID:24596410

Mehrzad, Raman; Bravoco, Joseph



Nutrition and gastrointestinal disease.  


Nutrition and intestinal function are intimately interrelated. The chief purpose of the gut is to digest and absorb nutrients in order to maintain life. Consequently, chronic gastrointestinal (GI) disease commonly results in malnutrition and increased morbidity and mortality. For example, studies have shown that 50-70% of adult patients with Crohn's disease were weight-depleted and 75% of adolescents growth-retarded. On the other hand, chronic malnutrition impairs digestive and absorptive function because food and nutrients are not only the major trophic factors to the gut but also provide the building blocks for digestive enzymes and absorptive cells. For example, recent studies of ours have shown that a weight loss of greater than 30% accompanying a variety of diseases was associated with a reduction in pancreatic enzyme secretion of over 80%, villus atrophy and impaired carbohydrate and fat absorption. Finally, specific nutrients can induce disease, for example, gluten-sensitive enteropathy, whilst dietary factors such as fibre, resistant starch, short-chain fatty acids, glutamine and fish-oils may prevent gastrointestinal diseases such as diverticulitis, diversion colitis, ulcerative colitis, colonic adenomatosis and colonic carcinoma. The role of dietary antigens in the aetiology of Crohn's disease is controversial, but controlled studies have suggested that elemental diets may be as effective as corticosteroids in inducing a remission in patients with acute Crohn's disease. In conclusion, nutrition has both a supportive and therapeutic role in the management of chronic gastrointestinal diseases. With the development of modern techniques of nutritional support, the morbidity and mortality associated with chronic GI disease can be reduced. On the other hand, dietary manipulation may be used to treat to prevent specific GI disorders such as coeliac disease, functional bowel disease, Crohn's disease and colonic neoplasia. The future development of nutria-pharmaceuticals is particularly attractive in view of their low cost and wide safety margins. PMID:8898436

O'Keefe, S J



Airplanes and Infectious Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air travel is associated with crowded conditions that can facilitate the transmission of airborne\\u000a infectious diseases. The risk of contracting such diseases depends on the presence of an infected\\u000a person who is shedding infectious particles and sufficient exposure of a sensitive person to achieve\\u000a an adequate dose to cause disease. Proximity to the infectious person and the length of time

Harriet A. Burge


Variant Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The young and stable median age of those who die of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease has been attributed to age-dependent infection rates. This analysis shows that an influence of age on risk for death after infection better explains age patterns, suggesting that biologic factors peaking in the third decade of life may hasten disease. T he epidemic of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

M. J. Painter



Valvular Heart Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Primary valvular heart disease remains a source of significant morbidity and mortality. Over 5 million Americans are living\\u000a with valvular heart disease and nearly 100,000 undergo valve surgery each year (1). Valvular heart disease is often first\\u000a identified after a murmur is appreciated during a primary care visit and subsequently characterized by echocardiography (Fig.\\u000a 1) (2). Optimal management of valvular

Garrick C. Stewart; Patrick T. O’Gara


Lyme disease: An update  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lyme disease is a multisystem illness caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, and it is the most common vector-borne illness in the United States. Lyme disease is also endemic in Europe and Asia. There\\u000a have been major advances in the field since the disease was first described, including the sequencing of the B. burgdorferi genome; an increase in understanding of

Adriana R. Marques



Scleroderma Lung Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulmonary involvement is second in frequency only to esophageal involvement as a visceral complication of systemic sclerosis\\u000a (SSc) and has surpassed renal involvement as the most common cause of death. Interstitial lung disease and pulmonary vascular\\u000a disease, particularly pulmonary arterial hypertension, are the most commonly encountered types of lung involvement. Chronic\\u000a aspiration, airway disease, neuromuscular weakness, extrinsic pulmonary restrictive pathology,

Jérôme Le Pavec; David Launay; Stephen C. Mathai; Paul M. Hassoun; Marc Humbert



Enterobiasis (Pinworm Infection): Disease  


... Contact CDC-INFO Pinworm Infection General Information Pinworm Infection FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology Disease Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals Publications Information For: Travelers ...


Hodgkin's disease and leukemia  

PubMed Central

Four cases of acute leukemia occurring in patients with Hodgkin's disease are described. The literature on the association of these two diseases is reviewed. Acute myeloid or undifferentiated leukemias appear to be, at least in part, a complication affecting long-term survivors of Hodgkin's disease. Reed Sternberg cell leukemia is an unusual form of Hodgkin's disease and may be associated with a poor prognosis. The cytology and cytochemistry of Reed Sternberg cells are briefly discussed. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5 PMID:4503267

Chan, B. W. B.; McBride, J. A.



Heart Valve Disease  


... Search Form Advanced Search Search the NHLBI, use radio buttons below to select whole site or Disease and Conditions Index ... Research Research Resources Scientific Reports Technology Transfer ...


Creativity and neurological disease.  


Although humans have long valued creativity, the generation of such innovation is still incompletely understood. Looking at the healthy brain, researchers have localized certain parts for a basic understanding of these mechanisms. By researching the brain affected by neurological disease, scientists have observed unique manifestations of creativity, such as in frontotemporal lobar degeneration, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and parkinsonian spectrum disorders, and stroke, which help clarify these creative underpinnings. Incorporating both healthy and disease models of cerebral functioning, neurological and neuroscientific research from recent years has built on established theories and expanded current knowledge. PMID:24938215

Acosta, Lealani Mae Y



Colonic Crohn Disease  

PubMed Central

Colonic Crohn disease is a complicated disease entity that requires a multidisciplinary effort on the part of the surgeon, gastroenterologist, and pathologist. Crohn disease affects ?500,000 people in North America with nearly 300,000 people suffering from colonic manifestations. This represents a significant portion of the patient population in the typical colorectal surgeon's practice. As such, an intimate understanding of the disease process, presentation, and treatment options is imperative. In this article, the authors review the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and medical and surgical treatment options with a focus on current strategies for surgical management. PMID:24436655

Hedrick, Traci L.; Friel, Charles M.



[Crohn's disease surgery].  


Surgery of Crohns disease is an important part of the general treatment algorithm. The role of surgery is changing with the development of conservative procedures. The recent years have seen the return to early treatment of patients with Crohns disease. Given the character of the disease and its intestinal symptoms, a specific approach to these patients is necessary, especially regarding the correct choice of surgery. The paper focuses on the luminal damage of the small and large intestine including complications of the disease. We describe the individual indications for a surgical solution, including the choice of anastomosis or multiple / repeated surgeries. PMID:25130639

Kala, Zden?k; Marek, Filip; Válek, Vlastimil A; Bartušek, Daniel



Celiac Disease National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse  

E-print Network

and Human Services The Gluten-Free Diet: Some Examples In 2006, the American Dietetic Association updated its recommendations for a gluten-free diet. The following chart is based on the 2006 recommendations. This list is not complete, so people with celiac disease should discuss gluten-free food choices

Rau, Don C.


Disease-modifying drugs in Alzheimer's disease  

PubMed Central

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is an age-dependent neurodegenerative disorder and the most common cause of dementia. The early stages of AD are characterized by short-term memory loss. Once the disease progresses, patients experience difficulties in sense of direction, oral communication, calculation, ability to learn, and cognitive thinking. The median duration of the disease is 10 years. The pathology is characterized by deposition of amyloid beta peptide (so-called senile plaques) and tau protein in the form of neurofibrillary tangles. Currently, two classes of drugs are licensed by the European Medicines Agency for the treatment of AD, ie, acetylcholinesterase inhibitors for mild to moderate AD, and memantine, an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, for moderate and severe AD. Treatment with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors or memantine aims at slowing progression and controlling symptoms, whereas drugs under development are intended to modify the pathologic steps leading to AD. Herein, we review the clinical features, pharmacologic properties, and cost-effectiveness of the available acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and memantine, and focus on disease-modifying drugs aiming to interfere with the amyloid beta peptide, including vaccination, passive immunization, and tau deposition. PMID:24353405

Ghezzi, Laura; Scarpini, Elio; Galimberti, Daniela



Pharmacogenetics and disease genetics of complex diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in technologies and the availability of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) map are beginning to show the true potential for the human genome project to affect patient healthcare. A whole genome scan, the use of 100,000–300,000 SNPs across the genome, is now possible. Use of traditional approaches and the whole genome scan will result in identification of disease susceptibility

V. D. Schmith; D. A. Campbell; S. Sehgal; W. H. Anderson; D. K. Burns; L. T. Middleton; A. D. Roses



Borna Disease Virus and Human Disease  

PubMed Central

The biology of Borna disease virus (BDV) strongly supports the likelihood of human infection with BDV or a variant of BDV. Thus far, the evidence supporting BDV infection in humans has initiated much controversy among basic and clinical scientists; only time and additional research will support or refute the hypothesis of human BDV infection. Until an assay of acceptable specificity and sensitivity has been developed, validated, and used to document human BDV infection, scientists cannot reasonably begin to associate BDV infection with specific disease syndromes. Clinical studies seeking causal associations between BDV infection and specific diseases must ensure the proper identification of the BDV infection status of patients and control subjects by using a validated, highly sensitive, and highly specific assay (or series of assays). For clinical studies, a highly sensitive “screening” test followed by a highly specific confirmatory test will be of significant benefit. Although it is possible to formulate hypotheses about the clinical outcomes of human BDV infection based on animal model work, to date no human disease has been causally linked to human BDV infection. Scientists all over the world are actively pursuing these issues, and with continuing advances in clinical and basic BDV research, the answers cannot be far away. PMID:11432811

Carbone, Kathryn M.



Immunosenescence and infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infectious diseases are major causes, with malignancies, of morbidity and mortality in the elderly. Increased susceptibility to infections may result from underlying dysfunction of an aged immune system; moreover, inappropriate immunologic functions associated with aging can determine an insufficient response to vaccines. Impairments of cellular, humoral and innate immunity in the elderly, contributing to increased incidence of infectious diseases, are

Lia Ginaldi; Maria Francesca Loreto; Maria Pia Corsi; Marco Modesti; Massimo De Martinis



Liver disease in pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Liver diseases in pregnancy may be categorized into liver disorders that occur only in the setting of pregnancy and liver diseases that occur coincidentally with pregnancy. Hyperemesis gravidarum, preeclampsia/eclampsia, syndrome of hemolysis, elevated liver tests and low platelets (HELLP), acute fatty liver of pregnancy, and intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy are pregnancy-specific disorders that may cause elevations in liver tests and hepatic dysfunction. Chronic liver diseases, including cholestatic liver disease, autoimmune hepatitis, Wilson disease, and viral hepatitis may also be seen in pregnancy. Management of liver disease in pregnancy requires collaboration between obstetricians and gastroenterologists/hepatologists. Treatment of pregnancy-specific liver disorders usually involves delivery of the fetus and supportive care, whereas management of chronic liver disease in pregnancy is directed toward optimizing control of the liver disorder. Cirrhosis in the setting of pregnancy is less commonly observed but offers unique challenges for patients and practitioners. This article reviews the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of liver diseases seen in pregnancy. PMID:19248187

Lee, Noel M; Brady, Carla W



Monochloramine and Legionnaires' disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Legionnaires' disease is caused by Legionella bacteria, which live biofilm in natural and synthetic aquatic environments. The most frequent route of infection is inhalation of contaminated aerosol, which is often produced by faucets, showers, or cooling towers. Although the disease can be disseminated in potable water, the effects of the disinfection methods used by municipal water treatment facilities on the

Jacob L. Kool; Joseph C. Carpenter; Barry S. Fields



Health & Medicine Heart Disease  

E-print Network

See Also: Health & Medicine Heart Disease· Medical Imaging· Vioxx· Matter & Energy Stem Cell Study - Heart Now enrolling patients with heart disease in adult stem cell trial. www· Technology· Medical Technology· Reference Artificial heart· Biosensor· Circuit design· Machine· Science

Rogers, John A.


Lyme Disease Test  


... Forbes, B. et. al. (© 2007). Bailey & Scott's Diagnostic Microbiology, 12th Edition: Mosby Elsevier Press, St. Louis, MO. Pp 537-539. (Modified 2009 January 27). Learn About Lyme Disease. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [On-line information]. Available online at ...


Homocysteine and cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Despite the well-known effectiveness of vitamin supplementation in reducing homocysteine levels, it is not known whether lowering of homocysteine levels is associated with a reduction in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The aim of this review is to discuss the epidemiologic evidence about the relation between homocysteine and cardiovascular disease, the pathophysiologic

Arduino A Mangoni; Stephen H. D Jackson



Kidney Disease of Diabetes  

E-print Network

Kidney Disease of Diabetes National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse The Burden of Kidney Failure Each year in the United States, more than 100,000 people are diagnosed with kidney failure, a serious condition in which the kidneys fail to rid the body of wastes.1 Kidney failure

Baker, Chris I.



PubMed Central

SYNOPSIS The inflammatory pustular dermatoses constitute a spectrum of non-infectious conditions ranging from localized involvement to generalized disease with associated acute systemic inflammation and multi-organ involvement. Despite the variability in extent and severity of cutaneous presentation, each of these diseases is characterized by non-infectious neutrophilic intra-epidermal microabscesses. Many share systemic findings including fever, elevated inflammatory markers, inflammatory bowel disease and/or osteoarticular involvement, suggesting potential common pathogenic links (Figure 1). The recent discoveries of several genes responsible for heritable pustular diseases have revealed a distinct link between pustular skin disease and regulation of innate immunity. These genetic advances have led to a deeper exploration of common pathways in pustular skin disease and offer the potential for a new era of biologic therapy which targets these shared pathways. This chapter provides a new categorization of inflammatory pustular dermatoses in the context of recent genetic and biologic insights. We will discuss recently-described monogenic diseases with pustular phenotypes, including deficiency of IL-1 receptor antagonist (DIRA), deficiency of the IL-36 receptor antagonist (DITRA), CARD14-associated pustular psoriasis (CAMPS), and pyogenic arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum, acne (PAPA). We will then discuss how these new genetic advancements may inform how we view previously described pustular diseases, including pustular psoriasis and its clinical variants, with a focus on historical classification by clinical phenotype. PMID:23827244

Naik, Haley B.; Cowen, Edward W.



Information Regarding MENINGOCOCCAL DISEASE  

E-print Network

to complete and return a standard certificate indicating immunizations received by the student, but it is most common in infants less than one year of age and in people with certain medical conditions risk of contracting meningococcal disease. Immunization against meningococcal disease decreases


Swimming Associated Disease Outbreaks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a literature review of recreational waterborne outbreaks and cases of disease, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes: (1) retrospective and prospective epidemiological studies; (2) predictive models of the risk of recreational waterborn disease. A list of 35 references is also presented. (HM)

Cabelli, V. J.



Kikuchi disease in Connecticut.  


Kikuchi disease is a self-limited disorder of unknown etiology characterized by focal painful lymphadenitis, fever, and weight loss that can be mistaken for malignancy. Diagnosis is established by node biopsy. Kikuchi disease is endemic in Asia; 10 cases have been reported in the US to date. We report 3 cases and review other US cases. PMID:24112859

Feder, Henry M; Liu, Jinli; Rezuke, William N



Forecasting Alzheimer's Disease.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests that doctors may one day be able to identify healthy people who will develop Alzheimer's disease. Discusses recent studies in which characteristics of a person's writing early in life appear to predict the disease, and brain scans can highlight changes that may precede dementia. (CCM)

Fackelmann, Kathleen



Vectorborne Infectious Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vectorborne infectious diseases play an important role worldwide. Most of these infections result from transmission of pathogens which are carried by vectors internally. Malaria, Lyme disease,West Nile virus encephalitis and yellow fever serve as examples of a long list of infections caused by transmission of the pathogen from an infected vector to humans during a blood meal by the vector.

C. Ruef



Hallervorden-Spatz disease  

PubMed Central

Hallervorden-Spatz disease (HSD) is a rare disorder characterized by progressive extrapyramidal dysfunction and dementia. Hallervorden and Spatz first described the disease, in 1922 as a form of familial brain degeneration characterized by iron deposition in the brain. Here we present four HSD cases with different clinical pictures.

Dashti, Maseumeh; Chitsaz, Ahmad



Diseases of aging  

Microsoft Academic Search

By definition, diseases of aging become clinically manifested in elderly patients. However, their pathogenetic basis has to be sought earlier in life. The general thread of this presentation relies on the concept of an evolutionary-Darwinian view of the development of age-related diseases. In essence, this concept states that we may have to “pay” for genetic traits that play a beneficial

Georg Wick; Pidder Jansen-Dürr; Peter Berger; Imrich Blasko; Beatrix Grubeck-Loebenstein



Ethics in Prion Disease  

PubMed Central

This paper is intended to discuss some of the scientific and ethical issues that are created by increased research efforts towards earlier diagnosis, as well as to treatment of, human prion diseases (and related dementias), including the resulting consequences for individuals, their families, and society. Most patients with prion disease currently are diagnosed when they are about 2/3 of the way through their disease course (Geschwind, Kuo et al. 2010; Paterson, Torres-Chae et al. 2012), when the disease has progressed so far that even treatments that stop the disease process would probably have little benefit. Although there are currently no treatments available for prion diseases, we and others have realized that we must diagnose patients earlier and with greater accuracy so that future treatments have hope of success. As approximately 15% of prion diseases have a autosomal dominant genetic etiology, this further adds to the complexity of ethical issues, particularly regarding when to conduct genetic testing, release of genetic results, and when or if to implement experimental therapies. Human prion diseases are both infectious and transmissible; great care is required to balance the needs of the family and individual with both public health needs and strained hospital budgets. It is essential to proactively examine and address the ethical issues involved, as well as to define and in turn provide best standards of care. PMID:23906487

Bechtel, Kendra; Geschwind, Michael D.



Chronic viral diseases.  

PubMed Central

Until 20 years ago the only chronic viral diseases known were those considered to be confined to the nervous system. As a result of recent advances in epidemiology, molecular biology and immunology, new viral diseases have been recognized and their clinical features and pathogenesis elucidated. Chronic disease may result from infection with the hepatitis B and D viruses and whatever agent or agents cause hepatitis non-A, non-B, the herpesviruses, Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus and human T-lymphotropic virus type III. These diseases have common features, including long-term or even lifetime asymptomatic carriage, viremia, with virus free in the plasma or attached to circulating mononuclear cells, presence of virus in body secretions, irreversible tissue injury in target organs and oncogenic potential. New information on these diseases is reviewed. Other chronic diseases for which the cause is currently unknown may eventually prove to be due to viral infection. In addition, vaccines may be developed for prophylaxis of some chronic viral diseases and associated malignant diseases. PMID:3022903

Berris, B



Epidemiology of Cardiovascular Diseases.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews epidemiological studies of cardiovascular diseases especially coronary heart disease (CHD), to document their major public health importance, changes in mortality during this century, and international comparisons of trends. Finds major risk factors for CHD are determined in large part by psychosocial and behavioral mechanisms. Asserts…

Jenkins, C. David



Congenital cyanotic heart disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

HE surgieal relief of congenital heart disease was ushered in by the successful ligation of the patent duetus arteriosus by Gross in 1938. Crafoord's-brilliant resection of the strictured segment of the aorta in coarctation, with restoration of the lumen by direct end-toend anastomosis, followed in 1944. The cyanotic group of congenital heart diseases proved amenable to surgical treatment as a

R. C. Brock



Controlling Infectious Diseases.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Advocates establishing programs to educate the public about the growing threat of communicable diseases and to promote effective strategies. Utilizes recent successes and failures to formulate those strategies. Profiles three recent infectious disease outbreaks that illustrate some of the current problems. Identifies four ways that lawyers can…

Porter, Wm. Lane; Fidler, David P.



Foodborne Disease Epidemiologist  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that 76 million cases of foodborne illness occur in the U.S. each year; 5,000 are fatal. Most of these illnesses are caused by a variety of bacteria, viruses, and parasites and the remaining are poisonings triggered by harmful toxins or chemicals. To Jack Guzewich, a foodborne disease

Sullivan, Megan



Machado-Joseph Disease  


... persons with MJD have the same disease gene mutation: a DNA repeat expansion in the ATXN3 gene. The wide range in symptoms among affected individuals led researchers to separate the disease into distinct types that are broadly distinguished by age of onset and range of symptoms. Type I ...


Lung Diseases and Conditions  


... lead to a disease called COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). COPD prevents proper airflow in and out of ... surgery can cause a blood clot called a pulmonary embolism (PE) to block a lung artery. A PE can reduce or block the flow of blood in the ... July 17, 2012 The ...


Rheumatic diseases in pregnancy.  


The effects of pregnancy on the clinical course of the rheumatic diseases is not only variable but often unpredictable. Disease activity at the onset of pregnancy will have great bearing on fetal outcome. Thus the use of potentially harmful drug combinations in pregnancy has to be weighed against theoretical teratogenic effects. This review outlines some of these dilemmas. PMID:3258776

Nicholas, N S



HIV Disease: Current Concepts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), newly characterized human retrovirus which causes chronic, progressive, immune deficiency disease, the most severe phase of which is Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Reviews most important current epidemiologic, clinical, and virologic information about HIV and HIV disease and provides…

Keeling, Richard P.



Coeliac disease and lymphangiectasia.  

PubMed Central

Two out of 74 children with coeliac disease demonstrated severe intestinal protein loss. In both children a serial small bowel biopsy specimen showed intestinal lymphangiectasia to be also present. Intestinal lymphangiectasia is another disorder that may be associated with coeliac disease. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:1739329

Perisic, V N; Kokai, G



Kidney Disease and Diabetes  


Kidney Disease & Diabetes Updated:Jan 31,2013 One of the more common long-term complications of diabetes is diabetic renal disease (" ... content was last reviewed on 7/5/2012. Diabetes • Home • About Diabetes • Why Diabetes Matters Introduction Cardiovascular ...


Molecular Bioinformatics for Diseases  

E-print Network

of the most common causes of sexually transmitted infection · about 10% of the population is infected · some and disease) #12;Introduction · What should we do to betterWhat should we do to better understand and treatPSB 2009 Molecular Bioinformatics for Diseases Tutorial Atul Butte, Maricel Kann, Yves Lussier

Radivojac, Predrag


Cyanotic heart disease  


... good control over their blood sugar levels. Some inherited factors may play a role in congenital heart disease. Many family members may be affected. If you are planning to get pregnant, talk to your health care provider about screening for genetic diseases.



NSDL National Science Digital Library

DESK Standard: Determine how communicable diseases are spread. . DATES: You can begin this activity on January 8. You should complete it by January 12. OBJECTIVE: Everyone wants to feel healthy because being sick is a drag! We have been discussing ways to prevent the spread of infections and diseases during class. There are many ...

Hughes, Mr.



Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)  


... JavaScript on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) Top Banner Content Area Skip Content Marketing ... of Two Herpes Viruses —Jan. 5, 2012 All Sexually Transmitted Diseases News Releases News From NIAID-Supported Institutions Last ...


Your Disease Risk  


... Barnes-Jewish Hospital and Washington University School of Medicine Welcome to Your Disease Risk , the source on prevention. Here, you can find out your risk of developing five of the most important diseases in the United States and get personalized tips for preventing them. Developed over the past ...


[Amyloidgenesis in prion disease].  


Prion diseases, also known as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, are defined as fatal, neurodegenerative, and transmissible disorders that affect both humans and other mammalian species. The central pathogenic mechanism in prion diseases is the conformational conversion of the normal prion protein, PrPC into the pathogenic prion protein, PrPSc. PrPSc, which is rich in ?-sheet structure, is resistant to proteinase degradation and hence, accumulates within the brain. These processes closely relate to development of the pathology of prion diseases such as spongiform change, gliosis, and neuronal loss. Prion diseases are thought to be a type of localized amyloidosis of the brain because prion protein itself is amyloidogenic. We herein discuss prion diseases from the point of view of localized amyloidosis. PMID:24998829

Tsuboi, Yoshio



Valve disease in pregnancy.  


Maternal cardiac disease is a major cause of non-obstetric morbidity and accounts for 10-25% of maternal mortality. Valvular heart disease may result from congenital abnormalities or acquired lesions, some of which may involve more than one valve. Maternal and fetal risks in pregnant patients with valve disease vary according to the type and severity of the valve lesion along with resulting abnormalities of functional capacity, left ventricular function, and pulmonary artery pressure. Certain high-risk conditions are considered contraindications to pregnancy, while others may be successfully managed with observation, medications, and, in refractory cases, surgical intervention. Communication between the patient?s obstetrician, maternal-fetal medicine specialist, obstetrical anesthesiologist, and cardiologist is critical in managing a pregnancy with underlying maternal cardiac disease. The management of the various types of valve diseases in pregnancy will be reviewed here, along with a discussion of related complications including mechanical prosthetic valves and infective endocarditis. PMID:25037517

Pessel, Cara; Bonanno, Clarissa



HLA and Infectious Diseases  

PubMed Central

Summary: Following their discovery in the early 1970s, classical human leukocyte antigen (HLA) loci have been the prototypical candidates for genetic susceptibility to infectious disease. Indeed, the original hypothesis for the extreme variability observed at HLA loci (H-2 in mice) was the major selective pressure from infectious diseases. Now that both the human genome and the molecular basis of innate and acquired immunity are understood in greater detail, do the classical HLA loci still stand out as major genes that determine susceptibility to infectious disease? This review looks afresh at the evidence supporting a role for classical HLA loci in susceptibility to infectious disease, examines the limitations of data reported to date, and discusses current advances in methodology and technology that will potentially lead to greater understanding of their role in infectious diseases in the future. PMID:19366919

Blackwell, Jenefer M.; Jamieson, Sarra E.; Burgner, David



Depression, disease severity, and sickle cell disease.  


The present study examined depressive symptomatology in 440 adults with sickle cell disease (SCD). Participants completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies--Depression scale (CES-D) as part of their yearly routine visits to the Duke University--University of North Carolina Comprehensive Sickle Cell Center. They also completed questions regarding demographics, disease severity, pain, and health care use. Data analyses revealed that the percentage of patients with SCD exhibiting significant depressive symptomatology dropped from 43 to 18% when a more stringent cutoff was used on the CES-D, suggesting that future studies should determine the most valid cutoff score for identifying depression in patients with SCD. Gender and family income were positively and significantly associated with depressive symptomatology. Also, patients who reported more frequent painful episodes were more likely to report depressive symptoms. Implications for assessment and treatment of depression in adults with SCD are discussed. PMID:10374138

Wison Schaeffer, J J; Gil, K M; Burchinal, M; Kramer, K D; Nash, K B; Orringer, E; Strayhorn, D



Peyronie's Disease: Still a Surgical Disease  

PubMed Central

Peyronie's Disease (PD) remains a challenging and clinically significant morbid condition. Since its first description by François Gigot de la Peyronie, much of the treatment for PD remains nonstandardized. PD is characterized by the formation of fibrous plaques at the level of the tunica albuginea. Clinical manifestations include morphologic changes, such as curvatures and hourglass deformities. Here, we review the common surgical techniques for the management of patients with PD. PMID:22956943

Martinez, Daniel; Ercole, Cesar E.; Hakky, Tariq S.; Kramer, Andrew; Carrion, Rafael



Chronic granulomatous disease: why an inflammatory disease?  


Chronic granulomatous disease is a primary immunodeficiency caused by mutations in the genes encoding subunits of the phagocytic NADPH oxidase system. Patients can present with severe, recurrent infections and noninfectious conditions. Among the latter, inflammatory manifestations are predominant, especially granulomas and colitis. In this article, we systematically review the possible mechanisms of hyperinflammation in this rare primary immunodeficiency condition and their correlations with clinical aspects. PMID:25296353

Roxo-Junior, P; Simão, H M L



Domoic acid epileptic disease.  


Domoic acid epileptic disease is characterized by spontaneous recurrent seizures weeks to months after domoic acid exposure. The potential for this disease was first recognized in a human case study of temporal lobe epilepsy after the 1987 amnesic shellfish-poisoning event in Quebec, and was characterized as a chronic epileptic syndrome in California sea lions through investigation of a series of domoic acid poisoning cases between 1998 and 2006. The sea lion study provided a breadth of insight into clinical presentations, unusual behaviors, brain pathology, and epidemiology. A rat model that replicates key observations of the chronic epileptic syndrome in sea lions has been applied to identify the progression of the epileptic disease state, its relationship to behavioral manifestations, and to define the neural systems involved in these behavioral disorders. Here, we present the concept of domoic acid epileptic disease as a delayed manifestation of domoic acid poisoning and review the state of knowledge for this disease state in affected humans and sea lions. We discuss causative mechanisms and neural underpinnings of disease maturation revealed by the rat model to present the concept for olfactory origin of an epileptic disease; triggered in dendodendritic synapases of the olfactory bulb and maturing in the olfactory cortex. We conclude with updated information on populations at risk, medical diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. PMID:24663110

Ramsdell, John S; Gulland, Frances M



Genetic kidney diseases  

PubMed Central

Knowledge of the primary cause of a disease is essential for understanding its mechanisms and for adequate classification, prognosis, and treatment. Recently, the etiologies of many kidney diseases have been revealed as single-gene defects. This is exemplified by steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome, which is caused by podocin mutations in ~25% of childhood and ~15% of adult cases. Knowledge of a disease-causing mutation in a single-gene disorder represents one of the most robust diagnostic examples of “personalized medicine”, because the mutation conveys an almost 100% risk of developing the disease by a certain age. Whereas single-gene diseases are rare disorders, polygenic “risk alleles” are found in common adult-onset diseases. This review will discuss prominent renal single-gene kidney disorders and polygenic risk alleles of common disorders. We delineate how emerging techniques of total exome capture and large-scale sequencing will facilitate molecular genetic diagnosis, prognosis and specific therapy and lead to a better understanding of disease mechanisms, thus enabling development of new targeted drugs. PMID:20382325

Hildebrandt, Friedhelm



[Autoinflammatory diseases in childhood].  


Autoinflammatory diseases are a group of monogenic inflammatory diseases with an early onset in childhood. Previously these diseases were summarized as"periodic fever syndromes." Included in this spectrum are familial Mediterranean fever, mevalonate kinase deficiency, and tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated disease. They are characterized by periodic or recurrent episodes of systemic inflammation causing fever, accompanied by rash, serositis, lymphadenopathy, arthritis, and other clinical manifestations. The other large group of autoinflammatory diseases consists of the cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes, which include the cryopyrinopathies. The mildest form is familial cold-associated syndrome, a more severe form is Muckle-Wells syndrome, and the most severe is neonatal-onset multisystem inflammatory disease/chronic infantile neurological cutaneous and articular syndrome. These are characterized by chronic or recurrent systemic inflammation associated with various clinical presentations, including urticaria-like rash, arthritis, sensorineural deafness, and central nervous system and bone involvement. In our review we focus on the clinical presentation of these diseases. PMID:19841924

Foeldvari, I; Kümmerle-Deschner, J



Dynamics of Interacting Diseases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current modeling of infectious diseases allows for the study of complex and realistic scenarios that go from the population to the individual level of description. However, most epidemic models assume that the spreading process takes place on a single level (be it a single population, a metapopulation system, or a network of contacts). In particular, interdependent contagion phenomena can be addressed only if we go beyond the scheme-one pathogen-one network. In this paper, we propose a framework that allows us to describe the spreading dynamics of two concurrent diseases. Specifically, we characterize analytically the epidemic thresholds of the two diseases for different scenarios and compute the temporal evolution characterizing the unfolding dynamics. Results show that there are regions of the parameter space in which the onset of a disease's outbreak is conditioned to the prevalence levels of the other disease. Moreover, we show, for the susceptible-infected-susceptible scheme, that under certain circumstances, finite and not vanishing epidemic thresholds are found even at the limit for scale-free networks. For the susceptible-infected-removed scenario, the phenomenology is richer and additional interdependencies show up. We also find that the secondary thresholds for the susceptible-infected-susceptible and susceptible-infected-removed models are different, which results directly from the interaction between both diseases. Our work thus solves an important problem and paves the way toward a more comprehensive description of the dynamics of interacting diseases.

Sanz, Joaquín; Xia, Cheng-Yi; Meloni, Sandro; Moreno, Yamir



Inherited renal diseases.  


Genetic disorders of the kidney include cystic diseases, metabolic diseases and immune glomerulonephritis. Cystic diseases include autosomal dominant and recessive polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD, ARPKD, respectively). Neonates with enlarged, cystic kidneys should be evaluated for PKD. Patients with ADPKD have cysts and renal enlargement. Most patients present with hypertension, hematuria or flank pain; the most common extrarenal manifestation is polycystic liver disease. Oligohydramnios, bilaterally enlarged kidneys and decreased urine are featured in utero in ARPKD. Medullary sponge kidney is uncommon and features nephrocalcinosis, recurrent calcium stones and a history of polyuria/nocturia and/or urinary tract infections. Alport syndrome (AS) is an inherited disease of the glomerular basement membrane that is usually inherited as an X-linked dominant trait. Most patients with AS present in the first two decades of life with persistent microscopic or gross hematuria. Later, proteinuria is seen and its presence portends disease progression. Other findings may include sensorineural hearing loss and ocular abnormalities. There are various inherited tubulopathies, including Bartter syndrome, a group of renal tubular disorders that consist of two phenotypes with four genotypes. Patients usually present early in life with salt wasting, hypokalemia and metabolic alkalosis. Other features, depending on genotype, may include polyhydramnios and premature birth. Gitelman syndrome is also a salt-losing tubulopathy characterized by hypokalemic alkalosis. The majority of patients with Gitelman syndrome present during adolescence or early adulthood. PMID:25088262

Leung, Jocelyn C



Dracunculiasis (guinea worm disease)  

PubMed Central

DRACUNCULIASIS (GUINEA WORM DISEASE) IS A PARASITIC disease that is limited to remote, rural villages in 13 sub-Saharan African countries that do not have access to safe drinking water. It is one the next diseases targeted for eradication by the World Health Organization. Guinea worm disease is transmitted by drinking water containing copepods (water fleas) that are infected with Dracunculiasis medinensis larvae. One year after human ingestion of infected water a female adult worm emerges, typically from a lower extremity, producing painful ulcers that can impair mobility for up to several weeks. This disease occurs annually when agricultural activities are at their peak. Large proportions of economically productive individuals of a village are usually affected simultaneously, resulting in decreased agricultural productivity and economic hardship. Eradication of guinea worm disease depends on prevention, as there is no effective treatment or vaccine. Since 1986, there has been a 98% reduction in guinea worm disease worldwide, achieved primarily through community-based programs. These programs have educated local populations on how to filter drinking water to remove the parasite and how to prevent those with ulcers from infecting drinking-water sources. Complete eradication will require sustained high-level political, financial and community support. PMID:14970098

Greenaway, Chris



Diseases in intercropping systems.  


Intercropping, the simultaneous cultivation of multiple crop species, has been used throughout history and remains common among farmers of small landholdings in the tropics. One benefit of this practice may be disease control. In phenomenological research comparing disease in monocrops and intercrops, primarily due to foliar fungi, intercropping reduced disease in 73% of more than 200 studies. Nematodes are the primary pathogen for which disease increases are reported, but variability in disease impacts among studies can be high for all types of diseases. The mechanisms by which intercrops affect disease dynamics include alteration of wind, rain, and vector dispersal; modification of microclimate, especially temperature and moisture; changes in host morphology and physiology; and direct pathogen inhibition. The effect of intercropping on host density is a factor underlying many of these mechanisms. By synthesizing our growing understanding of mechanisms and their interactions with phenomenological studies, we may develop a theoretical grounding that allows us to improve the application of intercropping for tropical smallholders and industrial farmers alike. PMID:23725470

Boudreau, Mark A



Endemic treponemal diseases  

PubMed Central

The endemic treponemal diseases, consisting of yaws, bejel (endemic syphilis) and pinta, are non-venereal infections closely related to syphilis, and are recognized by WHO as neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Despite previous worldwide eradication efforts the prevalence of yaws has rebounded in recent years and the disease is now a major public health problem in 14 countries. Adequate data on the epidemiology of bejel and pinta is lacking. Each disease is restricted to a specific ecological niche but all predominantly affect poor, rural communities. As with venereal syphilis, the clinical manifestations of the endemic treponemal diseases are variable and can be broken down in to early stage and late stage disease. Current diagnostic techniques are unable to distinguish the different causative species but newer molecular techniques are now making this possible. Penicillin has long been considered the mainstay of treatment for the endemic treponemal diseases but the recent discovery that azithromycin is effective in the treatment of yaws has renewed interest in these most neglected of the NTDs, and raised hopes that global eradication may finally be possible. PMID:25157125

Marks, Michael; Solomon, Anthony W; Mabey, David C



Ethics and infectious disease.  


Bioethics apparently suffers from a misdistribution of research resources analogous to the '10/90' divide in medical research. Though infectious disease should be recognized as a topic of primary importance for bioethics, the general topic of infectious disease has received relatively little attention from the discipline of bioethics in comparison with things like abortion, euthanasia, genetics, cloning, stem cell research, and so on. The fact that the historical and potential future consequences of infectious diseases are almost unrivalled is one reason that the topic of infectious disease warrants more attention from bioethicists. The 'Black Death' eliminated one third of the European population during the 14th Century; the 1989 flu killed between 20 and 100 million people; and, in the 20th Century smallpox killed perhaps three times more people than all the wars of that period. In the contemporary world, epidemics (AIDS, multi-drug resistant turberculosis, and newly emerging infectious diseases such as SARS) continue to have dramatic consequences. A second reason why the topic of infectious disease deserves further attention is that it raises difficult ethical questions of its own. While infected individuals can threaten the health of other individuals and society as a whole, for example, public health care measures such as surveillance, isolation, and quarantine can require the infringement of widely accepted basic human rights and liberties. An important and difficult ethical question asks how to strike a balance between the utilitarian aim of promoting public health, on the one hand, and libertarian aims of protecting privacy and freedom of movement, on the other, in contexts involving diseases that are--to varying degrees--contagious, deadly, or otherwise dangerous. Third, since their burden is most heavily shouldered by the poor (in developing countries), infectious diseases involve issues of justice--which should be a central concern of ethics. I conclude by providing sociological and historical explanations of why the topic of infectious disease has not already received more attention from bioethicists. PMID:16167406

Selgelid, Michael J



Periodontal Disease and Heart Health  

E-print Network

Periodontal Disease and Heart Health Deaf HealthTalks Presenter: Christopher Lehfeldt, DDS Elmwood disease? · The medical name for heart disease is cardiovascular disease (CVD) · An American dies from CVD every 37 seconds. (Lloyd-Jones D,Adams R, Carnethon M et al. Heart Disease and stroke statistics--2009

Goldman, Steven A.


Peripheral Artery Disease and Diabetes  


... hypertension) High LDL ("bad") cholesterol Family history of cardiovascular disease, stroke or PAD Previous history of coronary artery disease ( ... reduce the chances of a heart attack or stroke while enhancing quality of life. This content was last reviewed on ... Disease & Diabetes Peripheral Artery Disease & Diabetes Kidney Disease & Diabetes ...


Some Important Diseases of Tree Fruits - Diseases of Vegetable Crops - Diseases of Grapes - Diseases of Tree Nuts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University consists of four sections on plant disease recognition and control. The titles of these four sections are: (1) Some Important Diseases of Tree Fruits; (2) Diseases of Vegetable Crops; (3) Diseases of Crops; and (4) Diseases of Tree Nuts. The first section discusses…

Petersen, Donald H.; And Others


Sexually transmitted diseases.  


Sexually transmitted infections (STIs), also referred to as sexually transmitted diseases, remain a growing worldwide problem and public health issue. This article covers the epidemiology of STIs, the history and physical findings, screening guidelines, and the general plan to combat STIs. Prevention is discussed using the latest information from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and other references. Infections discussed from the standpoint of cause, epidemiology, risk factors, clinical disease, diagnosis, and treatment include gonorrhea, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, syphilis, chancroid, Herpes simplex, lymphogranuloma venereum, granuloma inguinale, Herpes papilloma virus, Molluscum contagiosum, and pubic lice. PMID:23958358

Markle, William; Conti, Tracey; Kad, Manjusha



Parkinson's disease: recent advances.  


While a curative treatment for Parkinson's disease remains elusive, our understanding of disease mechanisms as well as preclinical and pre-motor early manifestations has improved greatly over the past years. An agent with proven disease modifying properties has not yet been identified but symptomatic treatment options for affected patients have improved. For patients with motor complications, this includes invasive approaches such as deep brain stimulation and continuous device-aided drug delivery. The many facets of non-motor problems patients are faced with have finally been fully recognized and have become the target of treatment trials, as have been non-pharmacological approaches. PMID:24687891

Katzenschlager, Regina



Feline dental disease.  


Periodontal disease and chronic gingivitis/stomatitis are the most common feline dental diseases. With routine dental care and increased emphasis on home oral hygiene, these diseases can be controlled. Cats can be seen with a number of other dental disorders, and improved treatment methods such as restorations of early subgingival resorptive lesions, endodontic therapy, and orthodontic therapy can be performed successfully. More study and research are necessary about the gingivitis/stomatitis syndrome and subgingival resorptive lesions so that improved prevention and treatment recommendations can be made. PMID:3490037

Frost, P; Williams, C A



Adventures in Infectious Diseases  


Dr. Susan Fisher-Hoch, Virologist and Epidemiologist, will discuss her research and travels associated with viral hemorrhagic fevers. From the Ebola outbreak in Reston, Virginia to outbreaks of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in South Africa, Senegal, and Saudi Arabia, Dr. Fisher-Hoch has studied and tracked the pathophysiology of these viral diseases. These studies have led her from the Center for Disease Control in the United States, to Lyon, France where she was instrumental in designing, constructing, and rendering operational a laboratory capable of containing some of the world's most dangerous diseases.

Fisher-Hoch, Susan [University of Texas School of Public Health



Incomplete Kawasaki disease.  


This is a report of a 4-year-old Hispanic boy who presented with skin changes to the lips and oral cavity, a generalized rash, edema of hands and feet, and peeling of the periungual areas of the fingers as well as to the groin and perianal areas. Fourteen days earlier, his 19-month-old brother was diagnosed and treated for Kawasaki disease. Upon laboratory investigation, our patient was found to have an elevated sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, and serum ?-glutamyl transferase. Infectious disease and cardiology consultations subsequently diagnosed and treated our patient for incomplete Kawasaki disease. PMID:23481152

Miller, Margarita M; Miller, Adam H



Adventures in Infectious Diseases  

SciTech Connect

Dr. Susan Fisher-Hoch, Virologist and Epidemiologist, will discuss her research and travels associated with viral hemorrhagic fevers. From the Ebola outbreak in Reston, Virginia to outbreaks of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in South Africa, Senegal, and Saudi Arabia, Dr. Fisher-Hoch has studied and tracked the pathophysiology of these viral diseases. These studies have led her from the Center for Disease Control in the United States, to Lyon, France where she was instrumental in designing, constructing, and rendering operational a laboratory capable of containing some of the world's most dangerous diseases.

Fisher-Hoch, Susan [University of Texas School of Public Health



[Wilson's disease and pregnancy].  


Wilson's disease is rare autosomal-recessive disorder originated on the basis of metabolic copper over-storage. This is the case report of patient aged 28, who suffers Wilson's disease during last ten years. She has been treated by penicillamine unregularly from the beginning of her disease. She reported three spontaneous abortions in her previous history. She was treated by penicillamin and bedoxin in current pregnancy. Vaginal delivery was completed using oxytocin stimulation. Newborn was male, alive, with body weight of 2900 grams. Apgar score was 8. During puerperal period normal uterine involution was estimated, but lactation was ceased. PMID:1306026

Avramovi?, D; Gligorovi?, S; Jovanovi?-Tajfl, S; Kastratovi?, B



[Emerging parasitic diseases].  


Travels, migration and circulation of goods facilitate the emergence of new infectious diseases often unrecognized outside endemic areas. Most of emerging infections are of viral origin. Muscular Sarcocystis infection, an acute illness acquired during short trips to Malaysia, and Chagas disease, a chronic illness with long incubation period found among Latin American migrants, are two very different examples of emerging parasitic diseases. The former requires a preventive approach for travelers going to Malaysia and must be brought forth when they return with fever, myalgia and eosinophilia, while the latter requires a proactive attitude to screen Latin American migrant populations that may face difficulties in accessing care. PMID:24908745

Weibel Galluzzo, C; Wagner, N; Michel, Y; Jackson, Y; Chappuis, F



Exotic viral diseases.  

PubMed Central

Marburg virus disease, Lassa fever, monkeypox, and Ebola virus diseases of humans have all been recognized since 1967. These are examples of some of the exotic virus diseases which through importation may present a potential public health problem in the United States. Some of these viruses are also highly hazardous to laboratory and medical personnel. This paper is a review of the general characteristics, the epidemiology, and laboratory diagnosis of the exotic viruses which have been described during the last 25 years. PMID:6246685

Dowdle, W. R.



Celiac disease during pregnancy.  

PubMed Central

QUESTION: One of my patients was diagnosed with celiac disease and maintains a strict gluten-free diet. Is her fetus at risk of neural tube defects because she does not get folic acid from bread and other flour-based foods? ANSWER: A woman with celiac disease must supplement her diet with multivitamins, including folic acid. Most prenatal vitamins contain 0.8 to 0.9 mg of folic acid, double the amount recommended by Health Canada for prevention of neural tube defects. Without supplementation (eg, undiagnosed pregnancy), women with celiac disease might not take in enough folate to maintain protective levels. PMID:15526871

Hancock, Rebecca; Koren, Gideon



Disease Role Play  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students in collaborative groups will develop an action plan to address a new disease. This activity provides 3 roles for student participation: scientist, public health official and community leader. Each group member will be required to remain within the parameters described by the scenario during the role play. For example, the scientists will be given a data sheet the they will need to interpret. This group member will be the only one with knowledge of the disease. Only this person will act as a disease expert. Once the groups have an opportunity to read their scenarios and prepare for a committee meeting, they will meet and devise an action plan.

BEGIN:VCARD VERSION:2.1 FN:Chris Kuka N:Kuka;Chris ORG:Bend Senior High School REV:2005-04-12 END:VCARD



Rheumatic Diseases and Malignancies  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT There are many studies which demonstrate a higher risk for malignancy in patients with rheumatic diseases. There have been a number of possible explanations for the differences in the risk of certain malignancies in patients with rheumatic disease, compared with general population, but a clear mechanism is difficult to identify. Rheumatoid syndromes may be associated with malignancy as paraneoplastic conditions, which can antedate the neoplasm diagnosis. On the other hand, autoimmune rheumatic diseases have a higher risk of malignancy by themselves or because of the immunosuppressant treatments. PMID:23482881

BOJINCA, Violeta; JANTA, Iustina



Autoinflammatory bone diseases.  


Autoinflammatory bone disease is a new branch of autoinflammatory diseases caused by seemingly unprovoked activation of the innate immune system leading to an osseous inflammatory process. The inflammatory bone lesions in these disorders are characterized by chronic inflammation that is typically culture negative with no demonstrable organism on histopathology. The most common autoinflammatory bone diseases in childhood include chronic nonbacterial osteomyelitis (CNO), synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis, osteitis syndrome, Majeed syndrome, deficiency of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, and cherubism. In this article, the authors focus on CNO and summarize the distinct genetic autoinflammatory bone syndromes. PMID:24182852

Stern, Sara M; Ferguson, Polly J



Bone hydatid disease  

PubMed Central

Bone hydatid disease lacks a typical clinical appearance and image characteristics on x ray or CT are similar to those of tuberculosis, metastases and giant cell tumour or bone cysts. However, MRI does show distinctive diagnostic features of bone hydatid disease, especially in the spine. Until recently, treatment of osseous hydatid disease has been entirely surgical. Effective chemotherapy using benzimidazoles, particularly mebendazole, albendazole and combination treatments, has now been achieved in experimental studies and clinical practice. However, most of these drugs are still in the experimental stage or are in the early stages of clinical use. PMID:17675547

Song, X H; Ding, L W



Lung disease in farmers.  

PubMed Central

Lung diseases in farmers attributable to their occupation include (a) farmer's lung, caused by exposure to mouldy hay, (b) the asthma caused by exposure to grain dust and (c) silo-filler's disease. Their prevalence in Canada is unknown. Farmer's lung results from inhalation of mould spores in hay; the mechanism is immunologic. The exact cause and mechanism of grain dust asthma are unknown but may be immunologic. Silo-filler's disease is caused by the toxic effects of inhaled nitrogen dioxide. PMID:321110

Warren, C. P.



Cryptosporidium (Crypto) Disease  


... Crypto") Parasites Home Share Compartir Disease Symptoms of cryptosporidiosis generally begin 2 to 10 days (average 7 ... with the parasite. The most common symptom of cryptosporidiosis is watery diarrhea. Other symptoms include: Stomach cramps ...


Gum Disease and Women  


... Surgery Procedures Find a Periodontist Gum Disease and Women A woman's periodontal health may be impacted by a variety ... turn red and feel tender. Menstruation Occasionally, some women experience menstruation gingivitis. Women with this condition may ...


Arthritis and Rheumatic Diseases  


... people who have connective tissue diseases or other autoimmune disorders, such as lupus. Because the antibodies react with ... may be more specific to people with certain autoimmune disorders. ANAs are also sometimes found in people who ...


Carotid Artery Disease  


... a carotid artery narrowed by plaque. By plaque breaking off from the carotid arteries and blocking a ... disease: High levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (bad cholesterol) and triglycerides in the blood. High blood ...


What Is Hodgkin Disease?  


... Cancer Society document Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma . The lymph system and lymphoid tissue To understand what Hodgkin disease is, it helps to know how the lymph system works. The lymph system (also known as the ...


Motor neurone disease  

PubMed Central

Motor neurone disease (MND), or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), is a neurodegenerative disorder of unknown aetiology. Progressive motor weakness and bulbar dysfunction lead to premature death, usually from respiratory failure. Confirming the diagnosis may initially be difficult until the full clinical features are manifest. For all forms of the disease there is a significant differential diagnosis to consider, including treatable conditions, and therefore specialist neurological opinion should always be sought. Clear genetic inheritance has been demonstrated in a minority of patients with familial ALS but elucidation of the biological basis of genetic subtypes is also providing important information which may lead to treatments for sporadic forms of the disease. In the absence of curative or disease modifying therapy, management is supportive and requires a multidisciplinary approach. If, as seems likely, complex inherited and environmental factors contribute to the pathogenesis of MND, future treatment may involve a combination of molecular based treatments or restoration of cellular integrity using stem cell grafts. PMID:12357010

Talbot, K



[Nail diseases in cosmetology].  


Clinical symptoms attributed to the nail apparatus and observed in cosmetology include atrophic or hypertrophic lesions, pathologic nail coloration, abnormalities of the nail surface, and disorders of the nail plate and bed junction. These symptoms may reflect pathologic processes limited to the nail apparatus or may be the consequence of a dermal or systemic disease. Even though the etiology of nail lesions is variegated, diseases of the nails are simply classified as infectious or non-infectious. The aim of this work was to present the most common diseases of the nail apparatus encountered in cosmetology. Often, nail diseases worsen the quality of life of the patient. In addition, the variegated symptomatology demonstrates that nail lesions should be viewed in a wider perspective because they often are important signs of pathologic processes taking place in the organism of the patient. PMID:21427814

Maleszka, Romuald; Ratajczak-Stefa?ska, Violetta; Boer, Magdalena; Kiedrowicz, Magdalena



Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Disease  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Images of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Disease.  Vesicular stomatitis viruses (VSV) are in the family Rhabdoviridae and the genus Vesiculovirus and are enveloped viruses with bullet-shaped capsids.

American Society For Microbiology;



Heavy Chain Diseases  


... Multimedia Table Index In This Topic Blood Disorders Plasma Cell Disorders Heavy Chain Diseases Back to Top ... Blood Vessels Platelet Disorders White Blood Cell Disorders Plasma Cell Disorders Leukemias Lymphomas Myeloproliferative Disorders Spleen Disorders ...


Heart Diseases and Disorders  


... very fast, but steady, heartbeat. Sick Sinus Syndrome ( SSS ) Sick sinus syndrome is not a disease, but ... the sinus node, is not working properly. In SSS , the heart rate can alternate between slow ( bradycardia ) ...


Sickle Cell Disease  


... this page: About . Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) Deaths among Children with SCD - Study reports number of deaths among children with SCD in New York found through newborn screening Hemoglobinopathies ...


Living with Heart Disease  


... Share this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Heart Disease If you have coronary heart ... suddenly faint, collapse, or have other severe symptoms. Living With Broken Heart Syndrome Most people who have ...


The autoimmune diseases  

SciTech Connect

This book contains 25 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Genetic Predisposition to Autoimmune Diseases; Systemic Lupus Erythematosus; Autoimmune Aspects of Rheumatoid Arthritis; Immunology of Insulin-Dependent Diabetes; and Adrenal Autoimmunity and Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndromes.

Rose, N.R.; Mackay, I.R.



Lyme Disease in Construction  


... on Long Island, New York, tested 396 building trades workers and found 43 had Lyme disease. Three ... and training arm of the Building and Construction Trades Dept., AFL-CIO: CPWR, Suite 1000, 8484 Georgia ...


Understanding cardiovascular disease  


... of plaque. Narrow arteries reduce or block blood flow. When blood and oxygen can't get to the legs, it can injure nerves and tissue. High blood pressure (hypertension) is a cardiovascular disease that ...


Krabbe Disease (GLD)  


... however you can Daughter's dying wish became mother's motivation Stories Anna, transplant recipient and her daughter Every ... can support the cause. For Patients and Families Learning about your disease Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) How ...


Sickle Cell Disease (SCD)  


... however you can Daughter's dying wish became mother's motivation Stories Anna, transplant recipient and her daughter Every ... can support the cause. For Patients and Families Learning about your disease Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) How ...


Occupational Lung Diseases  


... disease? Some dusts, such as asbestos, silica, and coal can cause serious scarring (fibrosis) in the lungs. ... Chlorine Gas Lun g Scarring Asbestos Silica Foundry Coal Dust Asbestos Shipyards Sandblasters Brake Manufacturers Latex Beryllium ...


Venereal Diseases in Scandinavia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Venereal diseases in Sweden, Finland, Denmark and Norway are handled at the outpatient clinics by dermato-venereologists, most of whom are in the process of receiving their specialty training. They make an etiologic diagnosis, treat, report cases to socia...

A. W. Frisch



Recognition of Kawasaki Disease  

PubMed Central

Kawasaki disease is one of the most common vasculidities of childhood. It is the leading cause of acquired heart disease in children in the US.1 Although its course is typically self-limited, it is important that the clinician have a high degree of suspicion for its presence in light of its potential cardiac complications. It should be included in the differential diagnosis for any child with prolonged fever that is unresponsive to antibiotics. Diagnosis is often difficult in that the symptoms tend to present at different times. Usually a detailed medical history and multiple examinations (on different days) are needed to establish the diagnosis. Here, we present the case of a boy in whom a delayed diagnosis of Kawasaki disease was made after he had made multiple visits to pediatricians and also to the Emergency Department. In addition, the diagnostic criteria, differential diagnosis, treatment, and possible complications of Kawasaki disease are reviewed here. PMID:21373247

Cox, Janelle R; Sallis, Robert E



Legionellosis (Legionnaires' Disease)  


... Disease) Information for adults A A A The Legionella pneumophila bacteria are tagged with a monoclonal antibody ... is the name for infection caused by the Legionella pneumophila bacterium. Infection can take two forms: the ...


Prevention of periodontal disease.  


Periodontal disease is the most common disease affecting adult dogs and cats. It is also a very preventable disease. The insidious nature of the disease and requirement for the pet owner to be actively involved make client and public education absolutely vital. Although clients are commonly aware of their pets' bad breath, they rarely notice gingivitis, fractured teeth, and traumatic malocclusions. The annual National Pet Dental Health Month program has resulted in a tremendous increase in public awareness. Veterinarians must carry this further in their everyday practices, convincing our clients of the need for preventive dental care. It is only through clients' ongoing desire and persistence that a long-term preventive program can be successful. This requires a coordinated effort by the entire hospital staff. When successful, clients' pets will live healthier and longer lives. PMID:9779544

DuPont, G A



Alzheimer's Disease Genetics  


... Why do some people with memory and other thinking problems develop Alzheimer's while others do not? Determine ... qualified researchers. The participation of volunteers is a critical part of Alzheimer's disease genetics research. The more ...


Symptoms of Celiac Disease  


... before they can generate an autoimmune response to gluten and have their blood tested. 3. Any individual ... with the genes for celiac disease, and that gluten is what turns on the autoimmune response. However, ...


Diabetes and Celiac Disease  


... infertility, bone disease, dental enamel defects, and more. Gluten-free starches The following grains and starches are ... Quinoa Rice Sorghum Soy Tapioca Teff Foods Containing Gluten The following foods are not allowed on a ...


Smoking and skin disease.  


Tobacco smoking is a serious and preventable health hazard that can cause or exacerbate a number of diseases and shorten life expectancy, but the role of smoking as an etiologic factor in the development of skin disease is largely unknown. Although epidemiological evidence is sparse, findings suggest that tobacco smoking is a contributing factor in systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, palmoplantar pustulosis, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, hidradenitis suppurativa, and genital warts. In contrast, smoking may confer some protective effects and mitigate other skin diseases, notably pemphigus vulgaris, pyoderma gangrenosum, aphthous ulcers, and Behçet's disease. Various degenerative dermatologic conditions are also impacted by smoking, such as skin wrinkling and dysregulated wound healing, which can result in post-surgical complications and delayed or even arrested healing of chronic wounds. Most likely, alteration of inflammatory cell function and extracellular matrix turnover caused by smoking-induced oxidative stress are involved in the pathophysiologic mechanisms. PMID:20532469

Thomsen, S F; Sørensen, L T



Evolution of Inflammatory Diseases  

PubMed Central

The association of inflammation with modern human diseases (e.g. obesity, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cancer) remains an unsolved mystery of current biology and medicine. Inflammation is a protective response to noxious stimuli that unavoidably occurs at a cost to normal tissue function. This fundamental tradeoff between the cost and benefit of the inflammatory response has been optimized over evolutionary time for specific environmental conditions. Rapid change of the human environment due to niche construction outpaces genetic adaptation through natural selection, leading increasingly to a mismatch between the modern environment and selected traits. Consequently, multiple tradeoffs that affect human physiology are not optimized to the modern environment, leading to increased disease susceptibility. Here we examine the inflammatory response from an evolutionary perspective. We discuss unique aspects of the inflammatory response and its evolutionary history that can help explain the association between inflammation and modern human diseases. PMID:22975004

Okin, Daniel



Inflammatory Bowel Disease  

PubMed Central

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is the term used for a group of diseases with yet unknown etiology, prevalence of which is increasing almost everywhere in the world. The disease was almost non-existent four decades ago in the east, including the middle-east, while now a days it is seen more and more. In addition to the increasing prevalence, our knowledge about its pathogenesis, clinical course, diagnosis, and treatment has changed dramatically over the past couple of decades. This has changed our concept of this group of diseases, their diagnosis, treatment, and treatment goals. Considering the vast literature on the subject, it is timely to review major topics in IBD with a look on the regional progress and knowledge as well. This essay is aimed to cover this task. PMID:24829639

Nasseri-Moghaddam, Siavosh



About Kennedy's Disease: Symptoms  


Kennedy's Disease Association A Public Benefit, Non-Profit Organization Register GTranslate GTranslate Javascript is required to use ... KDA Newsletters Memorials Symptoms Print Email Medical Term: Definition: Neurological: Bulbar Signs The Bulbar muscles are those ...


Fatty Liver Disease.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The relationship between liver disease and prior exposure to hepatotoxic agents was investigated in four separate studies. The first was a cross sectional study of hazardous waste workers who were well protected. The study examined the relationship betwee...

M. J. Hodgson, D. H. Van Thiel



Epigenomics and allergic disease  

PubMed Central

Allergic disease development is affected by both genes and the environment, and epigenetic mechanisms are hypothesized to mediate these environmental effects. In this article, we discuss the link between the environment, DNA methylation and allergic disease, as well as questions of causality inherent to analyses of DNA methylation. From the practical side, we describe characteristics of allergic phenotypes and contrast different epidemiologic study designs used in epigenetic research. We examine methodological considerations, how best to conduct preprocessing and analysis of DNA methylation data sets, and the latest methods, technologies and discoveries in this rapidly advancing field. DNA methylation and other epigenetic marks are firmly entwined with allergic disease, a link that may hold the basis for future allergic disease diagnosis and treatment. PMID:24283882

Lockett, Gabrielle A; Patil, Veeresh K; Soto-Ramirez, Nelis; Ziyab, Ali H; Holloway, John W; Karmaus, Wilfried



Kennedy's Disease Association  


... KD. The progress made by current research on animal models of KD and by therapeutic trials gives ... onset “X” linked inherited disease with symptoms usually beginning to appear between the ages of 30 and ...


Other Retinal Diseases  


... and Other Retinal Diseases: Talk to the Expert Videos View All VISIONS 2013 Attendee Videos Seeing Tomorrow ... CALENDAR "); jQuery("#block-views-videos-block h2").html(" VIDEOS "); jQuery("#block-block-19 h2").html(" OUR BLOG - ...


Medullary cystic kidney disease  


... include: 24-hour urine volume and electrolytes Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) Complete blood count (CBC) Creatinine - blood ... weakening and fractures Cardiac tamponade Changes in glucose metabolism Congestive heart failure End-stage kidney disease Gastrointestinal ...


Lou Gehrig's Disease (ALS)  


... Gehrig's disease is a disorder that's also called amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (say: ah-my-uh-TRO-fik ... spinal cord) "sclerosis" for hardening or scarring So, amyotrophic means that the muscles have lost their nourishment. ...



EPA Science Inventory

This article discusses the current state of knowledge of naturally occurring feline bronchopulmonary disease; using in-depth diagnostic evaluation and pulmonary function testing to emphasize the diversity of the clinical manifestations and pathophysiologic abnormalities of these ...


Learning about Gaucher Disease  


... be adequately degraded. Normally, the body makes an enzyme called glucocerebrosidase that breaks down and recycles glucocerebroside - ... test to measure the activity level of the enzyme glucocerebrosidase. Individuals who have Gaucher disease have very ...


Coronary Artery Disease  


... foods that are rich in vitamin E and beta-carotene are very healthy and help reduce cardiovascular risk, ... Family Physicians recommend against taking vitamin E or beta-carotene supplements for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Even ...


Interstitial lung disease  


... to the chest Working with or around asbestos, coal dust, cotton dust, and silica dust (called occupational ... routinely screened for lung disease. These jobs include coal mining, sand blasting, and working on a ship.


Large scale disease prediction  

E-print Network

The objective of this thesis is to present the foundation of an automated large-scale disease prediction system. Unlike previous work that has typically focused on a small self-contained dataset, we explore the possibility ...

Schmid, Patrick R. (Patrick Raphael)



Vegetable Diseases Purdue extension  

E-print Network

an infamous history: it is the documented cause of the Irish potato famines of the mid-1800s. In 2009, the diseases moved from the pages of history books to tomato plants in your backyard. Unusual circumstances


[Tick borne diseases].  


It is known for many years that tick-borne diseases have worldwide a high economical impact on farming industry and veterinary medicine. But only in the last twenty years the importance of such diseases were notified in human medicine by the medical community and the public with emerging of the tick borne encephalitis virus and the description of Borrelia burgdorferi. It is often forgotten that many other infectious agents as bacteria, virus, Rickettsia or protozoa can be transmitted by ticks. Such diseases are rarely diagnosed in Europe either they are overlooked and misdiagnosed or they are connected with special professional activities. The development of new regions for tourism with different out door activities (adventure trips, trekking, hunting) leads to an exposure to different tick borne diseases, which are often misdiagnosed. PMID:16350539

Holzer, B R



Epidemiology of Alzheimer Disease  

PubMed Central

The global prevalence of dementia has been estimated to be as high as 24 million, and is predicted to double every 20 years until at least 2040. As the population worldwide continues to age, the number of individuals at risk will also increase, particularly among the very old. Alzheimer disease is the leading cause of dementia beginning with impaired memory. The neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer disease include diffuse and neuritic extracellular amyloid plaques in brain that are frequently surrounded by dystrophic neurites and intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles. The etiology of Alzheimer disease remains unclear, but it is likely to be the result of both genetic and environmental factors. In this review we discuss the prevalence and incidence rates, the established environmental risk factors, and the protective factors, and briefly review genetic variants predisposing to disease. PMID:22908189

Mayeux, Richard; Stern, Yaakov



Vascular Disease Foundation  


... vascular eye openers ? TYPES of VASCULAR DISEASE Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms (AAA) are caused by progressive ... when a blood vessel bursts. Learn More Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm Aneurysms of the aorta can occur in the ...


Anemia of chronic disease  


Anemia of inflammation; AOCD; ACD ... Anemia is a lower-than-normal number of red blood cells in the blood. Some conditions can lead to anemia of chronic disease include: Autoimmune disorders , such as ...


Disease and Evolution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses disease and genetic disorders as evolutionary mechanisms. Emphasizes the archeological evidence from past human populations and societies, mentioning albinism, scurvy, sleeping sickness, bone conditions, various host-parasite relationships, rickets, sickle-cell anemia, diabetes, and influenza. (CS)

Wells, Calvin



Ulcer disease of trout  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During the summer of 1933, lesions of a disease were noted among some fingerling brook, rainbow, blackspotted, and lake trout at the Cortland (New York) trout hatchery. Although these lesions bore a marked superficial resemblance to those of furunculosis, they were sufficiently atypical to warrant further investigation. A more detailed examination of the lesions proved them to be of a distinct disease, which for lack of a better name is herein called "ulcer disease," for the lesions closely resemble those described by Calkins (1899) under this name. Because of the marked resemblance to furunculosis, ulcer disease has not been generally recognized by trout culturists, and any ulcer appearing on fish has been ascribed by them to furunculosis without further question.

Fish, F. F.



Hemoglobin C disease  


Clinical hemoglobin C ... Hemoglobin C is an abnormal type of hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen. It is ... Americans. You are more likely to have hemoglobin C disease if someone in your family has had ...


Parkinson's Disease Foundation  


... View All News PDF Champions: Atlantic City Half Marathon Sunday, October 19 (Atlantic City, NJ) Katherine Lewis will run the Atlantic City Half Marathon to benefit the Parkinson's Disease Foundation. Learn More ...


Traveling with Celiac Disease  


... now accommodate people with gluten intolerance, according to Smith, who has celiac disease. By land: If you ... items such as meat, cheese, and yogurt, recommends Smith. You might want to invest in a cooler ...


About Alzheimer's Disease: Treatment  


... News » Featured Research NIA launched the Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study (ADCS) in 1991 to develop and test ... otherwise be developed by industry. Operated under a cooperative agreement with the University of California, San Diego, ...


Pregnancy and Rheumatic Disease  


... outcome than others. What are the effects of pregnancy on rheumatic diseases? During pregnancy, the effects of ... scans during pregnancy. Use of rheumatic drugs during pregnancy and lactation Information regarding the safety of many ...


The neurological disease ontology  

PubMed Central

Background We are developing the Neurological Disease Ontology (ND) to provide a framework to enable representation of aspects of neurological diseases that are relevant to their treatment and study. ND is a representational tool that addresses the need for unambiguous annotation, storage, and retrieval of data associated with the treatment and study of neurological diseases. ND is being developed in compliance with the Open Biomedical Ontology Foundry principles and builds upon the paradigm established by the Ontology for General Medical Science (OGMS) for the representation of entities in the domain of disease and medical practice. Initial applications of ND will include the annotation and analysis of large data sets and patient records for Alzheimer’s disease, multiple sclerosis, and stroke. Description ND is implemented in OWL 2 and currently has more than 450 terms that refer to and describe various aspects of neurological diseases. ND directly imports the development version of OGMS, which uses BFO 2. Term development in ND has primarily extended the OGMS terms ‘disease’, ‘diagnosis’, ‘disease course’, and ‘disorder’. We have imported and utilize over 700 classes from related ontology efforts including the Foundational Model of Anatomy, Ontology for Biomedical Investigations, and Protein Ontology. ND terms are annotated with ontology metadata such as a label (term name), term editors, textual definition, definition source, curation status, and alternative terms (synonyms). Many terms have logical definitions in addition to these annotations. Current development has focused on the establishment of the upper-level structure of the ND hierarchy, as well as on the representation of Alzheimer’s disease, multiple sclerosis, and stroke. The ontology is available as a version-controlled file at along with a discussion list and an issue tracker. Conclusion ND seeks to provide a formal foundation for the representation of clinical and research data pertaining to neurological diseases. ND will enable its users to connect data in a robust way with related data that is annotated using other terminologies and ontologies in the biomedical domain. PMID:24314207



Sickle Cell Disease (For Parents)  


... and productive lives. A Closer Look at Sickle Cell Disease The different forms of sickle cell disease ... India, or Middle Eastern countries. Causes of Sickle Cell Disease Hemoglobin allows red blood cells to carry ...


Learning about Sickle Cell Disease  


... Era A 2003 NHGRI Report Learning About Sickle Cell Disease What do we know about heredity and ... What do we know about heredity and sickle cell disease? Sickle cell disease is the most common ...


Occupational Disease in Connecticut, 2014  

E-print Network

...........................................................................................24 E. Occupational Disease Surveillance System: Physicians' Reports, as part of the Occupational Disease Surveillance Program, operated in cooperation with the ConnecticutOccupational Disease in Connecticut, 2014 This report covers data for 2012 and was prepared under

Oliver, Douglas L.


Living with Diabetic Heart Disease  


... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Diabetic Heart Disease Diabetic heart disease (DHD) increases the likelihood of earlier and more ... also tend to have less success from certain heart disease treatments, such as coronary artery bypass grafting and ...


Living with Coronary Heart Disease  


... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Coronary Heart Disease Coronary heart disease (CHD) can cause serious complications. However, if you ... changes and medicines, go to "How Is Coronary Heart Disease Treated?" Work closely with your doctor to control ...


Alcohol-Related Liver Disease  


... Liver > Liver Disease Information > Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Explore this section to learn ... removes harmful substances from your blood. How does alcohol affect the liver? Alcohol can damage or destroy ...


Kidney Disease (and Oral Health)  


Kidney Disease Oral Effects At the Dentist Oral Effects People with kidney disease often have other health issues. They often have ... body cannot absorb calcium properly. Therefore, people with kidney disease are at risk for losing bone from their ...


Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention  


... Health and Stroke > Heart disease and stroke prevention Heart Health and Stroke Heart disease and stroke prevention Related information Learn more ... well-being. Does menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) prevent heart disease? Once you reach menopause, your ovaries stop ...


76 FR 39041 - Infectious Diseases  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Part 1910 RIN 1218-AC46 Infectious Diseases AGENCY: Occupational Safety...concerning occupational exposure to infectious diseases. OSHA plans to use the information...label it ``Attention: OSHA Infectious Diseases Stakeholder Meeting...



National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse  


... Program Awareness Campaigns Let’s Talk about Bowel Control Celiac Disease Awareness Campaign Bladder Control for Women We Can! ... Diseases Research Studies recruiting patients, clinical practice guidelines Celiac Disease Awareness Campaign A campaign to raise awareness among ...


Warning Signs of Lung Disease  


... Warning Signs of Lung Disease Warning Signs of Lung Disease WARNING SIGNS If you have any of these ... production has lasted a month, this could indicate lung disease. Wheezing - Noisy breathing or wheezing is a sign ...


Flavorings-Related Lung Disease  


... Safety & Health Topics NIOSH Share Compartir FLAVORINGS-RELATED LUNG DISEASE On this Page Background Flavorings-Related Lung Disease ... practices that place workers at risk. Flavorings-Related Lung Disease Microwave popcorn plant and flavoring plant workers have ...


Interstitial lung disease - adults - discharge  


... your breathing problems that are caused by interstitial lung disease. This disease scars your lungs, which makes it ... Raghu G. Interstitial lung disease. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI. ... ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011: chap 92. Selman M, ...


Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)  


... COPD > In-Depth Resources > Facts & Figures Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Fact Sheet May 2014 Mortality Prevalence Gender ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Surveillance – United States, 1971-2000 . Morbidity and Mortality ...


Drug-induced pulmonary disease  


Drug-induced pulmonary disease is lung disease brought on by a bad reaction to a medicine. ... Maldonado F, Limper AH. Drug-induced pulmonary disease. In: Mason RJ, ... of Respiratory Medicine . 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...


Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)  


... takes no energy to empty the Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a preventable and treatable disease that ... Education Series © 2013 American Thoracic Society Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) AIR FLO W Swelling Restricted air ow ...


Diagnosis of Honey Bee Diseases.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Apiary inspectors and beekeepers must be able to recognize bee diseases and parasites and to differentiate the serious diseases from the less important ones. The handbook describes laboratory techniques used to diagnose diseases and other abnormalities of...

H. Shimanuki, D. A. Knox



Parkinson's Disease: Hope through Research  


... be accompanied by a motor neuron disease resembling amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Lou Gehrig's disease). The course of the disease ... used for PD. Among these therapies are standard physical, ... active treatment with the supplement was unlikely to demonstrate a ...


About Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)  


KidsHealth > Teens > Sexual Health > STDs & Other Infections > About Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) Print A A A Text Size What's ... STDs Spread Preventing and Treating STDs More Information Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are infectious diseases that spread from person ...


Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) Prevention  


... STDs) Share Compartir Prevention How You Can Prevent Sexually Transmitted Diseases This page includes information about STD prevention, testing, ... 4636) TTY: (888) 232-6348 Contact CDC–INFO Sexually Transmitted Diseases Diseases & Related Conditions STDs & Infertility Other STDs Archive ...


Zinc and gastrointestinal disease.  


This review is a current summary of the role that both zinc deficiency and zinc supplementation can play in the etiology and therapy of a wide range of gastrointestinal diseases. The recent literature describing zinc action on gastrointestinal epithelial tight junctions and epithelial barrier function is described. Zinc enhancement of gastrointestinal epithelial barrier function may figure prominently in its potential therapeutic action in several gastrointestinal diseases. PMID:25400994

Skrovanek, Sonja; DiGuilio, Katherine; Bailey, Robert; Huntington, William; Urbas, Ryan; Mayilvaganan, Barani; Mercogliano, Giancarlo; Mullin, James M



Zinc and gastrointestinal disease  

PubMed Central

This review is a current summary of the role that both zinc deficiency and zinc supplementation can play in the etiology and therapy of a wide range of gastrointestinal diseases. The recent literature describing zinc action on gastrointestinal epithelial tight junctions and epithelial barrier function is described. Zinc enhancement of gastrointestinal epithelial barrier function may figure prominently in its potential therapeutic action in several gastrointestinal diseases.

Skrovanek, Sonja; DiGuilio, Katherine; Bailey, Robert; Huntington, William; Urbas, Ryan; Mayilvaganan, Barani; Mercogliano, Giancarlo; Mullin, James M



Soybean Diseases Atlas.  

E-print Network

weather. Wildfire (bacteria Pseudomonas tabaci) Wildfire symptoms are strikingly different from those of other soybean diseases. Prominent yel low haloes with well-marked margins develop around a large central area of brown, dead leaf tissue.... The brown area may increase to cover a large part of the leaf. Wildfire is closely associ ated with Bacterial Pustule, and is seldom a problem unless Pustule is widespread. FUNGAL LEAF DISEASES Brown Spot (fungus Septoria g/ycines) Brown Spot is one...




Rice Diseases Atlas.  

E-print Network

high. When disease organisms attack these leaves and cause lesions an effective leaf surface for producing food material is reduced, thus decreasing yields. Several disease organisms also prevent normal grain development. Kernel smut, for example..., completely replaces the endosperm with black smut spores. Other fungi may enter the flower during flowering and kill the developing endosperm. The blast fungus attacks the panicle cutting off some or all of the food supplied to developing grain, thus...

Walla, Walter



Climate and Infectious Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate plays an important role in the transmission of many infectious diseases; it not only determines spatial and seasonal\\u000a distributions, but influences inter-annual variability, including epidemics, and long-term trends. This paper collates published\\u000a scientific literature on climate and 20 infectious diseases that cause considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide. It\\u000a highlights what has been done to date, identifies gaps and assesses

Louise Kelly-Hope; Madeleine C. Thomson


Renal and Hepatic Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Living on farms or doing farm work is associated with a number of health risks, some of which may also pertain to liver or\\u000a kidney. However, apart from some specific but rare diseases or some unusual local clusters, liver or kidney disease in general\\u000a is not a major cause of concern in rural settings. One cause for this reduced specific

Michael Nasterlack; Andreas Zober


Disease Epidemic - ELISA Technique  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the University of California, Davis, Partnership for Plant Genomics Education, this biotechnology laboratory is a two-day activity using the ELISA assay, a "test that uses the immune system to detect disease," to study the epidemiology of a hypothetical small scale epidemic. The lesson gives the objectives, materials, necessary background information, advanced preparation notes, teacher notes, and student activity pages and data sheets with the essay procedures. This is an excellent activity for using biotechnology to understand disease and its origins.



Infectious Diseases Gateway  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

BioMedNet (BMN) presents the Infectious Diseases Gateway "featuring expertly selected content from the leading publications in infectious diseases." Users will find research articles, reviews, and other resources from the Elsevier family of journals and books; all freely available to any reader (free registration required). The Web site also offers related BMN news features, links to other BMN Gateways, and a special supplement to the upcoming Interscience Conference of Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy.


Narrative Review: Fabry Disease  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Physiology in Medicine review article. Fabry disease is an X-linked, hereditary, lysosomal storage disease caused by deficiency of the enzyme alpha-galactosidase A, which results in the accumulation of the neutral glycosphingolipid globotriaosylceramide. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with intravenous infusions of recombinant human alpha-galactosidase A consistently decreases Gb3 levels in plasma and clears lysosomal inclusions from vascular endothelial cells.

MD/PhD Joe T.R. Clarke (Hospital for Sick Children Div. of Clinical & Metabolic Genetics)



Polymyositis in Chagas's disease.  

PubMed Central

Polymyositis marked the clinical onset of Chagas's disease in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis. This is unusual, although clinically unimportant muscle involvement in trypanosomiasis has been described. The plasma cell infiltrate and vascular deposition of IgM and C3 suggest that the humoral immune system may play a role in the pathogenesis of chagasic polymyositis. It is not known whether the rheumatoid diseases predisposed to the polymyositis. Images PMID:99092

Cossermelli, W; Friedman, H; Pastor, E H; Nobre, M R; Manzione, A; Camargo, M E; Shiroma, M



Smoking and Pancreatic Disease  

PubMed Central

Smoking is a major risk factor for chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. However, the mechanisms through which it causes the diseases remain unknown. In the present manuscript we reviewed the latest knowledge gained on the effect of cigarette smoke and smoking compounds on cell signaling pathways mediating both diseases. We also reviewed the effect of smoking on the pancreatic cell microenvironment including inflammatory cells and stellate cells. PMID:24660091

Edderkaoui, Mouad; Thrower, Edwin



Animal prion diseases.  


Prion diseases occur in many animal species, most notably in ruminants. While scrapie in sheep has been recognised for three centuries and goat scrapie has been recognised for decades, BSE in cattle is a relatively novel disease which was first diagnosed in the UK in the mid 1980s. BSE was most likely caused through dietary exposure to animal feed contaminated with prions and disease was subsequently transmitted to people. The BSE epidemic is almost at an end, but the recent identification of so called atypical forms of BSE and scrapie pose many questions about the possible spectrum of prion diseases in animals and their transmissibility to other species, including humans.The pathogenesis of animal prion diseases has been studied both in natural infections and in experimental animal models. Detection of infectivity is greatly helped by suitable rodent models, in particular transgenic mice. Clinically infected animals show characteristic neuropathology in the brain and spinal cord which is accompanied by the accumulation of a conformationally altered, protease-resistant host protein. The post-mortem diagnosis is based on the detection of this protein, PrP(Sc), but despite recent impressive developments a routine ante-mortem diagnostic test has proved elusive.There is no treatment for prion diseases in animals, but disease outbreaks are controlled through a mixture of movement restrictions on holdings, culling of affected animals and herds and, for classical scrapie in sheep, selective breeding for genetic resistance. Prions are very stable and can remain in the environment for prolonged periods. This poses serious practical questions with regard to the decontamination of infected premises. The control of BSE specifically through restrictions in animal feeding practises has been successful, but the changing spectrum of these diseases plus the economic pressures to relax feed bans and reduce levels of surveillance will require constant vigilance to safeguard animal and public health. PMID:23225014

Windl, Otto; Dawson, Mike



Behavior and metabolic disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The link between behavioral factors and disease is not well-defined. Although connections between a fight-flight reaction\\u000a to environmental stress and hypertension have been much discussed, a potential disease association to a defeat-type of reaction\\u000a has been much less considered. This is characterized by an elevated activity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis,\\u000a which is difficult to measure over a sufficiently long

Per Björntorp



Plant Diseases Announcements  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Produced in collaboration with the ProMED Project (Federation of American Scientists), this searchable archive of the emerging plant disease announcements is provided by AgNIC. The Plant Diseases Announcements list may be viewed chronologically, or by subject area, or alphabetical order. In addition, users can perform full-text searches. From announcements of recent genome sequencing of Xylella fastidiosa in Brazil, to a listing of the best Websites on rice, this will be a valuable resource to plant pathologists.


Pigmented Bowen's disease*  

PubMed Central

Pigmented Bowen's disease is rare, though more prevalent in men. It presents as a well-delineated plaque in areas unexposed to sun. There are reports of association with seborrheic keratosis, solar lentigo or exuberant pigmentation of genital and intertriginous regions. A specific dermoscopy finding is the presence of brown or gray dots in regular arrangement and coiled or dotted vessels. Thus, we aim to raise awareness of the diagnosis of pigmented Bowen's disease in pigmented lesions. PMID:25184929

Mota, Amanda Nascimento Cavalleiro de Macedo; Pineiro-Maceira, Juan; Alves, Maria de Fatima Guimaraes Scotelaro; Tarazona, Monica Jidid Mateus



Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in North America, affecting approximately\\u000a 30% of the population [1]. It is the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome, and is directly linked to the escalating\\u000a prevalence of obesity and the associated insulin resistance. Histologically, NAFLD is characterized by a spectrum that ranges\\u000a from nonalcoholic fatty

Onpan Cheung; Arun J. Sanyal


Curcuminoids in neurodegenerative diseases.  


Neurodegeneration is a term used to describe progressive deterioration of structure and/or function of neurons that affects different parts of the central nervous system and leads to eventual death. Neurodegenerative diseases include Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Huntington's disease (HD), and Down's syndrome (DS), multiple sclerosis (MS), glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and diabetic encephalopathy (DE). Although the initial events that trigger these disorders may be different from each other, they share similar biochemical reactions that lead to neurodegeneration. Curcuminoids, polyphenol compounds from turmeric (Curcuma longa), possess diverse biological properties that modulate debilitating biochemical processes involved in AD that include attenuation of mitochondrial dysfunction-induced oxidative stress and inflammatory responses to inflammatory cytokines, COX-2, and iNOS. Curcuminoids also bind to ?-amyloid (A?) plaques to inhibit amyloid accumulation and aggregation in the brain, in addition to inhibiting the toxic A? oligomer formation and oligomer-dependent A? toxicity. These properties can be further elaborated to DS, glaucoma and AMD. Curcuminoids also prevent ?-synuclein aggregation in PD; attenuate ROS-induced COX-2 expression in ALS; ameliorate the symptoms of MS, DE and traumatic brain injury, in addition to neurodamages caused by heavy metal poisoning. These results demonstrate curcuminoids may be potentially effective therapeutic means to treat neurodegenerative diseases. A bulk of patents discloses methods to improve bioavailability of curcuminoids for therapeutic development. This review provides a comprehensive description on the current progress on curcuminoids against neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:22742420

Kim, Darrick S H L; Kim, Jin Y; Han, Yesun



Metabolic disease network and its implication for disease comorbidity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Given that most diseases are the result of the breakdown of some cellular processes, a key aim of modern medicine is to establish the relationship between disease phenotypes and the various disruptions in the underlying cellular networks. Here we show that our current understanding of the structure of the human metabolic network can provide insight into potential relationships among often distinct disease phenotypes. Using the known enzyme-disease associations, we construct a human metabolic disease network in which nodes are diseases and two diseases are linked if the enzymes associated with them catalyze adjacent metabolic reactions. We find that the more connected a disease is, the higher is its prevalence and the chance that it is associated with a high mortality. The results indicate that the cellular network-level relationships between metabolic pathways and the associated disease provide insights into disease comorbidity, with potential important consequences on disease diagnosis and prevention.

Lee, Deok-Sun; Oltvai, Zoltan; Christakis, Nicholas; Barabasi, Albert-Laszlo



[Alzheimer's disease and depression].  


Alzheimer's disease is the most frequent cause of dementia (60% of all dementias) and affects nearly 300,000 people in France. Alzheimer's disease is a disease of the elderly which generally begins after 60 years and whose prevalence increases markedly after age 75 years. The elderly population is increasing in all Western countries. Alzheimer's disease thus constitutes a veritable emergent public health problem. The rapid inflation of the epidemiological and etiopathogenetic data have contributed to enhanced nosographic definition and finer semiological characterization of the disease. Thus, the classic concept of senile dementia has been totally abandoned. In contrast, the concept of depressive pseudodementia as defined by Kiloh (1961) remains present in the "psychiatric culture". The concept refers to rare clinical situations in which the controversial concept of "test therapy" with antidepressants retains, in the author's opinion, some utility. Depressive or psychobehavioral signs and symptoms frequently inaugurate Alzheimer's disease giving rise to first-line psychiatric management. The use of multidimensional evaluation instruments such as the neuropsychiatric inventory (NPI) has enabled demonstration of the signs and symptoms and their quantification through the course of the disease. In the dementia stage, the psychobehavioral symptoms are related to the patient's awareness of the degradation in his intellectual functions and the loss of independence and to specific neuropathological lesions responsible for "frontal deafferentation". Certain clinical forms of depression of late onset are also characterized by symptoms reflecting hypofrontal signs (blunted affect, apathy, defective initiative, etc.) and severe cognitive disorders. Those depressions are associated with risk factors shared with Alzheimer's disease (sex, age, vascular function, APOE 4) and constitute a risk factor for progression to dementia, requiring regular clinical and neuropsychological follow-up. Now that we are entering the era of therapy for Alzheimer's disease, the psychiatrist must contribute to the collective effort of early diagnosis and treatment. In close collaboration with all the medical and social professionals involved, the psychiatrist has a fundamental role throughout the disease, towards the patient but also in providing support and psychological assistance for caregivers. PMID:10609097

Gallarda, T



Mechanisms of Disease: autosomal dominant and recessive polycystic kidney diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease are the best known of a large family of inherited diseases characterized by the development of renal cysts of tubular epithelial cell origin. Autosomal dominant and recessive polycystic kidney diseases have overlapping but distinct pathogeneses. Identification of the causative mutated genes and elucidation of the function of their encoded

Peter C Harris; Vicente E Torres




E-print Network

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus of 2002 and 2003 to determine the distribution of CWD in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Deer wasting disease, disease surveillance, Odocoileus virginianus, white- tailed deer, Wisconsin. INTRODUCTION

Mladenoff, David


Happiness and neurological diseases.  


Happiness is an emotional state reflecting positive feelings and satisfaction with life, which, as an outcome in disease states or as an end point in clinical trials, is a neglected concept in most therapeutic areas. In neurological disease, happiness is important as it can be diminished either as a direct result of damage to neuronal tissue or as a reaction to a poor prognosis. The monitoring and maintenance of happiness and wellbeing have historically been considered to be peripheral to medicine. However, as happiness interacts with the patient's physical health, it is an important parameter to assess alongside all aspects of any given disease. Happiness provides a reliable overview of the patient's general status over and above standard parameters for quality of life, and is more wide-ranging than the narrow measures of disease activity or treatment efficacy that are the focus of most clinical trials. In many studies, happiness has been associated with health and success in most areas of life, including performance at work, sporting achievement and social functioning. For approximately a decade, previously studied aspects of psychology have been grouped under the label of positive psychology (PoP). Principles of this discipline are now being used to guide some treatments in neurological and psychiatric diseases. PoP aims to define patient wellbeing in scientific terms and to increase understanding of happiness, meaning in life, resilience and character strengths, as well as to determine how this knowledge can be applied clinically to promote health. Some evidence has emerged recently suggesting that improvements in patient status can result from interventions to improve the patient's level of happiness in diseases, including epilepsy, Huntington's disease, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease and stroke. Several effective approaches to increase happiness employ activities to engage and stimulate patients who might otherwise be unoccupied and isolated. In addition, specific interventions to increase happiness developed by PoP clinicians have demonstrated efficacy and validity. Several measurement scales now exist that reliably measure happiness as a long-term state, rather than as a fluctuating condition resulting from prevailing mood. These enable the use of happiness as an end point in clinical trials. As happiness becomes increasingly accepted as an important consideration in neurological disease, it is likely to be monitored more extensively, with measures to raise happiness levels being taken as an effective means of improving patient outcomes. PMID:19344298

Barak, Yoram; Achiron, Anat



Glycoproteomics in Neurodegenerative Diseases  

PubMed Central

Protein glycosylation regulates protein function and cellular distribution. Additionally, aberrant protein glycosylations have been recognized to play major roles in human disorders, including neurodegenerative diseases. Glycoproteomics, a branch of proteomics that catalogs and quantifies glycoproteins, provides a powerful means to systematically profile the glycopeptides or glycoproteins of a complex mixture that are highly enriched in body fluids, and therefore, carry great potential to be diagnostic and/or prognostic markers. Application of this mass spectrometry-based technology to the study of neurodegenerative disorders (e.g., Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease) is relatively new, and is expected to provide insight into the biochemical pathogenesis of neurodegeneration, as well as biomarker discovery. In this review, we have summarized the current understanding of glycoproteins in biology and neurodegenerative disease, and have discussed existing proteomic technologies that are utilized to characterize glycoproteins. Some of the ongoing studies, where glycoproteins isolated from cerebrospinal fluid and human brain are being characterized in Parkinson's disease at different stages versus controls, are presented, along with future applications of targeted validation of brain specific glycoproteins in body fluids. PMID:19358229

Hwang, Hyejin; Zhang, Jianpeng; Chung, Kathryn A.; Leverenz, James B.; Zabetian, Cyrus P.; Peskind, Elaine R.; Jankovic, Joseph; Su, Zhen; Hancock, Aneeka M.; Pan, Catherine; Montine, Thomas J.; Pan, Sheng; Nutt, John; Albin, Roger; Gearing, Marla; Beyer, Richard P.; Shi, Min; Zhang, Jing



Niemann-Pick diseases.  


The Niemann-Pick disease group is now divided into two distinct entities: (1) acid sphingomyelinase-deficient Niemann-Pick disease (ASM-deficient NPD) resulting from mutations in the SMPD1 gene and encompassing type A and type B as well as intermediate forms; (2) Niemann-Pick disease type C (NP-C) including also type D, resulting from mutations in either the NPC1 or the NPC2 gene. Both Niemann-Pick diseases have an autosomal recessive inheritance and are lysosomal lipid storage disorders, with visceral (type B) or neurovisceral manifestations. The clinical knowledge is updated taking into account recent surveys in large cohort of patients, particularly for type B and type C. The diagnosis of NP-C is often delayed due to the wide spectrum of clinical phenotypes. Systemic manifestations, if present, always precede onset of neurological manifestations. Most common neurological signs are vertical supranuclear gaze palsy, cerebellar ataxia, dysarthria, dysphagia, and progressive dementia. Cataplexy, seizures, and dystonia are other common features of NP-C. For both ASM-deficient NPD and NP-C, strategies for laboratory diagnosis of patients and prenatal diagnosis are discussed. Recent progress towards enzyme replacement therapy in type B patients and management of the neurological disease in type C patients are finally highlighted. PMID:23622394

Vanier, Marie T



Niemann-Pick disease.  


Niemann-Pick disease, originally defined in terms of its histology as a reticuloendotheliosis, is now subdivided on the basis of biochemical and molecular criteria into two separate classes. This categorization has been aided by the discovery of the genes for acid sphingomyelinase, deficient in types A and B, and for the NPC-1 protein, deficient in types C and D, and the finding of mutations in each. Animal models of type A and type C disease are known or have been developed. These models have been utilized in therapeutic trials of bone marrow transplantation and gene transfection of stem cells and in studies of disease pathogenesis. Lysosphingomyelin has been implicated in the nervous system involvement associated with type A disease in humans and accumulations of the NPC-1 protein and apolipoprotein D have been found in murine NP-C brain. Cells from both human and murine Niemann-Pick disease type A have been studied to assess the role of acid sphingomyelinase in signal transduction pathways involving cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. PMID:10608504

Kolodny, E H



Efferocytosis and lung disease.  


In healthy individuals, billions of cells die by apoptosis each day. Clearance of these apoptotic cells, termed "efferocytosis," must be efficient to prevent secondary necrosis and the release of proinflammatory cell contents that disrupt tissue homeostasis and potentially foster autoimmunity. During inflammation, most apoptotic cells are cleared by macrophages; the efferocytic process actively induces a macrophage phenotype that favors tissue repair and suppression of inflammation. Several chronic lung diseases, particularly airways diseases such as chronic obstructive lung disease, asthma, and cystic fibrosis, are characterized by an increased lung burden of uningested apoptotic cells. Alveolar macrophages from individuals with these chronic airways diseases have decreased efferocytosis relative to alveolar macrophages from healthy subjects. These two findings have led to the hypothesis that impaired apoptotic cell clearance may contribute causally to sustained lung inflammation and that therapies to enhance efferocytosis might be beneficial. This review of the English-language scientific literature (2006 to mid-2012) explains how such existing therapies as corticosteroids, statins, and macrolides may act in part by augmenting apoptotic cell clearance. However, efferocytosis can also impede host defenses against lung infection. Thus, determining whether novel therapies to augment efferocytosis should be developed and in whom they should be used lies at the heart of efforts to differentiate specific phenotypes within complex chronic lung diseases to provide appropriately personalized therapies. PMID:23732585

McCubbrey, Alexandra L; Curtis, Jeffrey L



Epigenetics in ocular diseases.  


Epigenetics pertains to heritable alterations in gene expression that do not involve modification of the underlying genomic DNA sequence. Historically, the study of epigenetic mechanisms has focused on DNA methylation and histone modifications, but the concept of epigenetics has been more recently extended to include microRNAs as well. Epigenetic patterning is modified by environmental exposures and may be a mechanistic link between environmental risk factors and the development of disease. Epigenetic dysregulation has been associated with a variety of human diseases, including cancer, neurological disorders, and autoimmune diseases. In this review, we consider the role of epigenetics in common ocular diseases, with a particular focus on DNA methylation and microRNAs. DNA methylation is a critical regulator of gene expression in the eye and is necessary for the proper development and postmitotic survival of retinal neurons. Aberrant methylation patterns have been associated with age-related macular degeneration, susceptibility to oxidative stress, cataract, pterygium, and retinoblastoma. Changes in histone modifications have also been observed in experimental models of diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma. The expression levels of specific microRNAs have also been found to be altered in the context of ocular inflammation, retinal degeneration, pathological angiogenesis, diabetic retinopathy, and ocular neoplasms. Although the complete spectrum of epigenetic modifications remains to be more fully explored, it is clear that epigenetic dysregulation is an important contributor to common ocular diseases and may be a relevant therapeutic target. PMID:24179439

Liu, Melissa M; Chan, Chi-Chao; Tuo, Jingsheng



Methamphetamine and Parkinson's Disease  

PubMed Central

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder predominantly affecting the elderly. The aetiology of the disease is not known, but age and environmental factors play an important role. Although more than a dozen gene mutations associated with familial forms of Parkinson's disease have been described, fewer than 10% of all cases can be explained by genetic abnormalities. The molecular basis of Parkinson's disease is the loss of dopamine in the basal ganglia (caudate/putamen) due to the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, which leads to the motor impairment characteristic of the disease. Methamphetamine is the second most widely used illicit drug in the world. In rodents, methamphetamine exposure damages dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, resulting in a significant loss of dopamine in the striatum. Biochemical and neuroimaging studies in human methamphetamine users have shown decreased levels of dopamine and dopamine transporter as well as prominent microglial activation in the striatum and other areas of the brain, changes similar to those observed in PD patients. Consistent with these similarities, recent epidemiological studies have shown that methamphetamine users are almost twice as likely as non-users to develop PD, despite the fact that methamphetamine abuse and PD have distinct symptomatic profiles. PMID:23476887

Granado, Noelia; Ares-Santos, Sara; Moratalla, Rosario



Kyasanur Forest Disease  

PubMed Central

In the spring of 1957, an outbreak of severe disease was documented in people living near the Kyasanur Forest in Karnataka state, India, which also affected wild nonhuman primates. Collection of samples from dead animals and the use of classical virological techniques led to the isolation of a previously unrecognized virus, named Kyasanur Forest disease virus (KFDV), which was found to be related to the Russian spring-summer encephalitis (RSSE) complex of tick-borne viruses. Further evaluation found that KFD, which frequently took the form of a hemorrhagic syndrome, differed from most other RSSE virus infections, which were characterized by neurologic disease. Its association with illness in wild primates was also unique. Hemaphysalis spinigera was identified as the probable tick vector. Despite an estimated annual incidence in India of 400–500 cases, KFD is historically understudied. Most of what is known about the disease comes from studies in the late 1950s and early 1960s by the Virus Research Center in Pune, India and their collaborators at the Rockefeller Foundation. A report in ProMED in early 2012 indicated that the number of cases of KFD this year is possibly the largest since 2005, reminding us that there are significant gaps in our knowledge of the disease, including many aspects of its pathogenesis, the host response to infection and potential therapeutic options. A vaccine is currently in use in India, but efforts could be made to improve its long-term efficacy. PMID:23110991

Holbrook, Michael R.



Parkinson disease: an update.  


Parkinson disease is a progressive neurologic disorder afflicting approximately 1 percent of Americans older than 60 years. The cardinal features of Parkinson disease are bradykinesia, rigidity, tremor, and postural instability. There are a number of neurologic conditions that mimic the disease, making it difficult to diagnose in its early stages. Physicians who rarely diagnose Parkinson disease should refer patients suspected of having it to physicians with more experience in making the diagnosis, and should periodically reevaluate the accuracy of the diagnosis. Treatment is effective in reducing motor impairment and disability, and should be started when a patient begins to experience functional impairment. The combination of carbidopa and levodopa is the most effective treatment, but dopamine agonists and monoamine oxidase-B inhibitors are also effective, and are less likely to cause dyskinesias. For patients taking carbidopa/levodopa who have motor complications, adjunctive therapy with a dopamine agonist, a monoamine oxidase-B inhibitor, or a catechol O-methyltransferase inhibitor will improve motor symptoms and functional status, but with an increase in dyskinesias. Deep brain stimulation is effective in patients who have poorly controlled symptoms despite optimal medical therapy. Occupational, physical, and speech therapy improve patient function. Fatigue, sleep disturbances, dementia, and depression are common in patients with Parkinson disease. Although these conditions are associated with significantly lower quality of life, they may improve with treatment. PMID:23418798

Gazewood, John D; Richards, D Roxanne; Clebak, Karl



Pregnancy and liver disease.  


Liver disease in pregnancy should be considered in 3 categories: pre-existing disease, disease peculiar to pregnancy and coincident acute liver or gall-stone disease. In addition the time of onset of diagnosis in terms of the trimester of gestation must be verified, as the diseases peculiar to pregancy have a characteristic time of onset. In the last trimester closes obstetric management is required for the constellation of abnormal liver function tests, nausea and/or vomiting and abdominal pain. This may be due to severe pre-eclampsia, HELLP (haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelets) syndrome or acute fatty liver of pregnancy with or without sub-capsular hepatic haematomas, amongst which there is an overlap. Early delivery is curative. A molecular basis consisting of long chain 3-hydroxyl CoA dehydroxegenase deficiency in heterozygote mothers underlies this clinical syndrome. Ursodeoxycholic acid is now established treatment for intra-hepatic cholestasis of pregnancy and appears to improve foetal outcome. Hepatitis B vaccination and immunoglobulin at birth prevents chronic hepatitis B in children of HBsAg (hepatitis B surface antigen) positive carrier mothers. PMID:9514993

Burroughs, A K



Inflammatory bowel disease.  

PubMed Central

An increasing number of options are available for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease; the selection depends on the extent and severity of the disease. Experience with sulfasalazine and corticosteroids has led to a proliferation of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) compounds and experimentation with alternative corticosteroid preparations. Given rectally 5-ASA is particularly effective in the treatment of distal ulcerative colitis, and experience is accumulating with several oral formulations. Metronidazole is useful in some cases, and immunosuppressive agents have a role in some patients with chronic refractory disease. A variety of measures, such as nutritional therapy, surgery and psychosocial support, are important elements of therapy. Further therapeutic innovations are expected as the etiology and pathogenesis are clarified. PMID:2568163

Van Rosendaal, G M



Toxicology of Autoimmune Diseases  

PubMed Central

Susceptibility to most autoimmune diseases is dependent on polygenic inheritance, environmental factors, and poorly defined stochastic events. One of the significant challenges facing autoimmune disease research is in identifying the specific events that trigger loss of tolerance and autoimmunity. Although many intrinsic factors, including age, sex, and genetics, contribute to autoimmunity, extrinsic factors such as drugs, chemicals, microbes, or other environmental factors can also act as important initiators. This review explores how certain extrinsic factors, namely drugs and chemicals, can promote the development of autoimmunity, focusing on a few better characterized agents that, in most instances, have been shown to produce autoimmune manifestations in human populations. Mechanisms of autoimmune disease induction are discussed in terms of research obtained using specific animal models. Although a number of different pathways have been delineated for drug/chemical-induced autoimmunity some similarities do exist and a working model is proposed. PMID:20078109

Hultman, Per; Kono, Dwight H.



Equine Cushing's disease.  


In the horse, adenomata of the pairs intermedia of the pituitary gland have been associated with the distinct clinical entity of Cushing's disease which arises largely as a result of excessive secretion of adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) or other proopiomelanocortin (POMC) peptides. Pars intermedia peptide secretion is under dopaminergic control and compounds such as pergolide or bromocriptine, which are dopamine agonists, can palliate the clinical signs. A variety of endocrinological abnormalities, relevant to both pathogenesis and diagnosis, may be demonstrated in equine Cushing's disease, including hyperadrenocorticism, peripheral insulin resistance and excessive POMC-peptide secretion from the pituitary gland. Preliminary studies on carbohydrate metabolism suggest that quantification of insulin activity may be a useful prognostic index in cases of equine Cushing's disease, and that insulin therapy of secondary diabetes mellitus may be indicated in some cases. PMID:8485640

Love, S



Autoinflammatory diseases in pediatrics.  


Autoinflammatory diseases (AIDs) are characterized by recurrent episodes of systemic and organ-specific inflammation. Many of these diseases share fever as a common presenting feature. Physicians need to consider AIDs in children with recurrent, unexplained fevers, when infectious and malignant causes have been discarded. This article discusses the differential diagnosis of recurrent fever in children, with a focus on AIDs. It discusses pharyngitis, and cervical adenitis and the monogenic autoinflammatory diseases that cause recurrent fevers including familial Mediterranean fever, hyper-immunoglobulin (Ig) D and periodic fever syndrome, tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome, cryopyrin associated periodic syndromes, deficiency of interleukin-36 receptor antagonist, Majeed syndrome, chronic atypical neutrophilic dermatosis with lipodystrophy and increased temperature syndrome, and deficiency of the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist. In addition, the granulomatous disorders, pyogenic sterile arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum, and acne and Blau syndrome, will be discussed. PMID:23827250

Hausmann, Jonathan S; Dedeoglu, Fatma



Genetics of Behçet's Disease.  


Behçet's disease (BD) is a systemic inflammatory disorder characterized mainly by recurrent oral and genital ulcers and eye involvement. Although the pathogenesis remains poorly understood, a variety of studies have demonstrated that genetic predisposition is a major factor in disease susceptibility. Peculiar geographical distribution of BD along the ancient Silk Road has been regarded as evidence supporting genetic influence. The observed aggregation of BD in families of patients with BD is also supportive for a genetic component in its etiology. HLA-B51 (B510101 subtype) is the most strongly associated genetic marker for BD in countries on the Silk Road. In recent years, several genome-wide association studies and genetic polymorphism studies have also found new genetic associations with BD, which may have a supplementary role in disease susceptibility and/or severity. The author reviewed the HLA and non-HLA genetic association studies. PMID:22013548

Kaya, Tamer ?rfan



Alcoholic liver disease: Treatment  

PubMed Central

The excess consumption of alcohol is associated with alcoholic liver diseases (ALD). ALD is a major healthcare problem, personal and social burden, and significant reason for economic loss worldwide. The ALD spectrum includes alcoholic fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. The diagnosis of ALD is based on a combination of clinical features, including a history of significant alcohol intake, evidence of liver disease, and laboratory findings. Abstinence is the most important treatment for ALD and the treatment plan varies according to the stage of the disease. Various treatments including abstinence, nutritional therapy, pharmacological therapy, psychotherapy, and surgery are currently available. For severe alcoholic hepatitis, corticosteroid or pentoxifylline are recommended based on the guidelines. In addition, new therapeutic targets are being under investigation. PMID:25278689

Suk, Ki Tae; Kim, Moon Young; Baik, Soon Koo



Ecology of Infectious Diseases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With a dramatic image of a bustling city superimposed over a peaceful forest, the National Science Foundation's homepage on the ecology of infectious diseases is quite intriguing. After clicking on the image, visitors will be treated to an overview of this special report that asks: "Is our interaction with the environment somehow responsible for the increases in incidence of these diseases?" The report is divided into five sections, each exploring a different facet of the National Science Foundation's work on this problem. The sections include "Medical Mystery Solved" and "Lyme Disease on the Rise". Each of these sections includes helpful graphics, well-written text, and links to additional sites. Overall, the site will be most useful for science educators and members of the public health community.


Lactoferrin in gastrointestinal disease.  


Lactoferrin, a major whey protein, is a red iron-binding protein present mainly in external secretions such as breast milk and in polymorphonuclear neutrophils. The presence of lactoferrin in body fluids is proportional to the flux of neutrophils and its assessment can provide a reliable biomarker for inflammation. In gastrointestinal diseases increased fecal lactoferrin is a sensitive and specific surrogate marker for inflammatory bowel diseases in patients with chronic diarrhea and pain, and ascites lactoferrin can also provide a promising and reliable biomarker for bacterial peritonitis. Lactoferrin in pancreatic juice and stone could provide pathophysiological information of protein plug and stone formation in the pancreatic duct. Serum anti-lactoferrin autoantibody might contribute to the clarification of the pathogenetic mechanisms of autoimmune pancreatitis and liver diseases, although its diagnostic and prognostic value appears to be limited. Further studies will be necessary to elucidate the exact details. PMID:19652425

Hayakawa, Tetsuo; Jin, Chun Xiang; Ko, Shigeru B H; Kitagawa, Motoji; Ishiguro, Hiroshi



Winter Cardiovascular Diseases Phenomenon  

PubMed Central

This paper review seasonal patterns across twelve cardiovascular diseases: Deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, aortic dissection and rupture, stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, hypertension, heart failure, angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, sudden cardiac death, venricular arrythmia and atrial fibrillation, and discuss a possible cause of the occurrence of these diseases. There is a clear seasonal trend of cardiovascular diseases, with the highest incidence occurring during the colder winter months, which have been described in many countries. This phenomenon likely contributes to the numbers of deaths occurring in winter. The implications of this finding are important for testing the relative importance of the proposed mechanisms. Understanding the influence of season and other factors is essential when seeking to implement effective public health measures. PMID:23724401

Fares, Auda



[Biologics and mycobacterial diseases].  


Various biologics such as TNF-alpha inhibitor or IL-6 inhibitor are now widely used for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Many reports suggested that one of the major issues is high risk of developing tuberculosis (TB) associated with using these agents, which is especially important in Japan where tuberculosis still remains endemic. Another concern is the risk of development of nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) diseases and we have only scanty information about it. The purpose of this symposium is to elucidate the role of biologics in the development of mycobacterial diseases and to establish the strategy to control them. First, Dr. Tohma showed the epidemiologic data of TB risks associated with using biologics calculated from the clinical database on National Database of Rheumatic Diseases by iR-net in Japan. He estimated TB risks in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients to be about four times higher compared with general populations and to become even higher by using biologics. He also pointed out a low rate of implementation of QuantiFERON test (QFT) as screening test for TB infection. Next, Dr. Tokuda discussed the issue of NTM disease associated with using biologics. He suggested the airway disease in RA patients might play some role in the development of NTM disease, which may conversely lead to overdiagnosis of NTM disease in RA patients. He suggested that NTM disease should not be uniformly considered a contraindication to treatment with biologics, considering from the results of recent multicenter study showing relatively favorable outcome of NTM patients receiving biologics. Patients with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) should receive LTBI treatment before starting biologics. Dr. Kato, a chairperson of the Prevention Committee of the Japanese Society for Tuberculosis, proposed a new LTBI guideline including active implementation of LTBI treatment, introducing interferon gamma release assay, and appropriate selection of persons at high risk for developing TB. Lastly, Dr. Matsumoto stressed the risk of discontinuing TNF-alpha inhibitor during treatment for tuberculosis. He showed from his clinical experience that TNF-alpha inhibitor can be safely used in active TB patient receiving effective antituberculosis chemotherapy and it is even more effective for prevention of paradoxical response. Active discussion was done about the four topics, including the matter beyond present guidelines. We hope these discussions will form the basis for the establishment of new guideline for the management of mycobacterial disease when using immunosuppressive agents including biologics. 1. The risk of developing tuberculosis (TB) and situations of screening for TB risk at administration of biologics-the case of rheumatoid arthritis: Shigeto TOHMA (Clinical Research Center for Allergy and Rheumatology, National Hospital Organization Sagamihara National Hospital) We calculated the standardized incidence ratio (SIR) of TB from the clinical data on National Database of Rheumatic Diseases by iR-net in Japan (NinJa) and compared with the SIR of TB from the data of the post-marketing surveillances of five biologics. Among 43584 patient-years, forty patients developed TB. The SIR of TB in NinJa was 4.34 (95%CI: 3.00-5.69). According to the post-marketing surveillances of 5 biologics, the SIR of TB were 3.62-34.4. The incidence of TB in patients with RA was higher than general population in Japan, and was increased more by some biologics. We have to recognize the risk of TB when we start biologics therapy to patients with RA. Although the frequency of implementation of QuantiFERON test (QFT) had gradually increased, it was still limited to 41%. In order to predict the risk of developing TB and to prevent TB, it might be better to check all RA patients by QFT at time time of biologics administration. 2. Biologics and nontuberculous mycobacterial diseases: Hitoshi TOKUDA (Social Insurance Central General Hospital) Several topics about the relationship between RA and nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) diseases were discussed, which is sti

Tsuyuguchi, Kazunari; Matsumoto, Tomoshige



Cardiovascular disease prevention.  


Cardiovascular diseases remain the first killer in the Western countries. Equivalent contributions of prevention initiatives, pharmaceutical developments and technological improvements have led to an important success in the reduction of mortality related to cardiovascular diseases in some of the countries of the Western world. However, increase in life expectance, incomplete adherence to guidelines, difficulties in convincing governments and the population to support and adhere to prevention measures make that the burden of cardiovascular diseases is still extremely high. This review gives a restricted summary of the most important prevention guidelines supported by the European Society of Cardiology. It also illustrates the still very incomplete adherence to these guidelines in the different European countries as published in the EUROASPIRE surveys. PMID:25176558

Van Camp, G



Diseases of Jews  

PubMed Central

The relative social and genetic isolation of Jews from other communities, which was much more marked in the past than now, has led to the belief that they are unusually prone to a variety of illnesses. Until the last few decades assessments of the incidence of various diseases among them were usually based on impressions rather than planned surveys or careful analyses, and many misconceptions still persist. It is proposed to consider the present state of knowledge as well as to indicate the historical and social basis for any tendencies for Jews to suffer from, or perhaps to resist, some diseases. No attempt has been made to analyse every single report in which Jewish pre-disposition to various diseases is mentioned; attention will be focused on those conditions that have received greater attention or from which it is possible to draw meaningful conclusions. PMID:4923893

Krikler, Dennis M.



Occupational lung diseases.  


Chest radiography and high-resolution computed tomography are indispensable tools in the detection, classification and characterization of occupational lung diseases that are caused by inhaling mineral particles such as asbestos, silicon-containing rock dust and other tissue-damaging antigens, nanomaterials and toxins. Radiographic evidence of occupational lung disease is interpreted with a patient's clinical signs and symptoms and a detailed occupational history in mind because of high variability in radiographic findings. This Directed Reading reviews the history, epidemiology, functional anatomy, pathobiology and medical diagnostic imaging of occupational lung diseases associated with inhalation of fine particulates in the workplace. This article is a Directed Reading. Your access to Directed Reading quizzes for continuing education credit is determined by your CE preference. For access to other quizzes, go to PMID:21771937

Furlow, Bryant



Plant Disease Lesson: Apple scab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This plant disease lesson on Apple scab (caused by Venturia inaequalis) includes information on symptoms and signs, pathogen biology, disease cycle and epidemiology, disease management, and the significance of the disease. Selected references are listed and a glossary is also available for use with this resource.

Lisa J. Vaillancourt (University of Kentucky;); John R. Hartman (University of Kentucky;)



Plant Disease Lesson: Coffee rust  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This plant disease lesson on coffee rust (caused by the fungi Hemileia vastatrix and H. coffeicola) includes information on symptoms and signs, pathogen biology, disease cycle and epidemiology, disease management, and the significance of the disease. Selected references are listed and a glossary is also available for use with this resource.

Phil A. Arneson (Cornell University;)



Plant Disease Lesson: Verticillium wilt  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This plant disease lesson on Verticillium wilt (caused by Verticillium dahliae) includes information on symptoms and signs, pathogen biology, disease cycle and epidemiology, disease management, and the significance of the disease. Selected references are listed and a glossary is also available for use with this resource.

Ingrid Berlanger (Oregon State University;); Mary L. Powelson (Oregon State University;)



Plant Disease Lesson: Early blight  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This plant disease lesson on early blight (caused by the fungus Alternaria solani) includes information on symptoms and signs, pathogen biology, disease cycle and epidemiology, disease management, and the significance of the disease. Selected references are listed and a glossary is also available for use with this resource.

Greg Kemmitt (Dow AgroSciences;)



Plant Disease Lesson: Black knot  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This plant disease lesson on Black knot (caused by Apiosporina morbosa (Syn. Dibotryon morbosum, Plowrightia morbosum)) includes information on symptoms and signs, pathogen biology, disease cycle and epidemiology, disease management, and the significance of the disease. Selected references are listed and a glossary is also available for use with this resource.

Karen L. Snover (Cornell University;); Phil A. Arneson (Cornell University;)



Systemic abnormalities in liver disease  

PubMed Central

Systemic abnormalities often occur in patients with liver disease. In particular, cardiopulmonary or renal diseases accompanied by advanced liver disease can be serious and may determine the quality of life and prognosis of patients. Therefore, both hepatologists and non-hepatologists should pay attention to such abnormalities in the management of patients with liver diseases. PMID:19554648

Minemura, Masami; Tajiri, Kazuto; Shimizu, Yukihiro



Vaccines and Inflammatory Bowel Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, are at increased risk for infection due to both their underlying disease and the immunosuppressive therapy used to treat the disease. Numerous groups and papers support the routine vaccination of IBD patients, yet many opportunities to vaccinate this vulnerable population are missed. While immunogenicity may be somewhat attenuated,

Camille Nelson Kotton



Pediatric infl ammatory bowel disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inflammatory bowel disease is an important cause of gastrointestinal pathology in children and adolescents. The incidence of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease is increasing; therefore, it is important for the clinician to be aware of the presentation of this disease in the pediatric population. Laboratory tests, radiology studies, and endoscopic procedures are helpful in diagnosing infl ammatory bowel disease and differentiating

Karen A Diefenbach; Christopher K Breuer


Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.  


The global prevalence of physiologically defined chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in adults aged >40 yr is approximately 9-10 per cent. Recently, the Indian Study on Epidemiology of Asthma, Respiratory Symptoms and Chronic Bronchitis in Adults had shown that the overall prevalence of chronic bronchitis in adults >35 yr is 3.49 per cent. The development of COPD is multifactorial and the risk factors of COPD include genetic and environmental factors. Pathological changes in COPD are observed in central airways, small airways and alveolar space. The proposed pathogenesis of COPD includes proteinase-antiproteinase hypothesis, immunological mechanisms, oxidant-antioxidant balance, systemic inflammation, apoptosis and ineffective repair. Airflow limitation in COPD is defined as a postbronchodilator FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 sec) to FVC (forced vital capacity) ratio <0.70. COPD is characterized by an accelerated decline in FEV1. Co morbidities associated with COPD are cardiovascular disorders (coronary artery disease and chronic heart failure), hypertension, metabolic diseases (diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome and obesity), bone disease (osteoporosis and osteopenia), stroke, lung cancer, cachexia, skeletal muscle weakness, anaemia, depression and cognitive decline. The assessment of COPD is required to determine the severity of the disease, its impact on the health status and the risk of future events (e.g., exacerbations, hospital admissions or death) and this is essential to guide therapy. COPD is treated with inhaled bronchodilators, inhaled corticosteroids, oral theophylline and oral phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor. Non pharmacological treatment of COPD includes smoking cessation, pulmonary rehabilitation and nutritional support. Lung volume reduction surgery and lung transplantation are advised in selected severe patients. Global strategy for the diagnosis, management and prevention of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease guidelines recommend influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations. PMID:23563369

Vijayan, V K



Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

PubMed Central

The global prevalence of physiologically defined chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in adults aged >40 yr is approximately 9-10 per cent. Recently, the Indian Study on Epidemiology of Asthma, Respiratory Symptoms and Chronic Bronchitis in Adults had shown that the overall prevalence of chronic bronchitis in adults >35 yr is 3.49 per cent. The development of COPD is multifactorial and the risk factors of COPD include genetic and environmental factors. Pathological changes in COPD are observed in central airways, small airways and alveolar space. The proposed pathogenesis of COPD includes proteinase-antiproteinase hypothesis, immunological mechanisms, oxidant-antioxidant balance, systemic inflammation, apoptosis and ineffective repair. Airflow limitation in COPD is defined as a postbronchodilator FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 sec) to FVC (forced vital capacity) ratio <0.70. COPD is characterized by an accelerated decline in FEV1. Co morbidities associated with COPD are cardiovascular disorders (coronary artery disease and chronic heart failure), hypertension, metabolic diseases (diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome and obesity), bone disease (osteoporosis and osteopenia), stroke, lung cancer, cachexia, skeletal muscle weakness, anaemia, depression and cognitive decline. The assessment of COPD is required to determine the severity of the disease, its impact on the health status and the risk of future events (e.g., exacerbations, hospital admissions or death) and this is essential to guide therapy. COPD is treated with inhaled bronchodilators, inhaled corticosteroids, oral theophylline and oral phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor. Non pharmacological treatment of COPD includes smoking cessation, pulmonary rehabilitation and nutritional support. Lung volume reduction surgery and lung transplantation are advised in selected severe patients. Global strategy for the diagnosis, management and prevention of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease guidelines recommend influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations. PMID:23563369

Vijayan, V.K.



Androgens and prostate disease  

PubMed Central

A growing body of literature has established the anabolic benefits of testosterone (T) therapy in hypogonadal men. However, there remains a paucity of data regarding the risks of exogenous androgen use in older men and the potential for adverse effects on the prostate gland. Whether T therapy in older, hypogonadal men might worsen lower urinary tract symptoms or exacerbate, unmask, or even incite prostate cancer development has tempered enthusiasm for T therapy, while known prostatic disease has served as a relative contraindication to T therapy. Androgens are necessary for the development and maintenance of the prostate gland. However, epidemiologic studies do not consistently find a positive relationship between endogenous serum androgen concentrations and the risk of prostate disease. Recent data demonstrate that 5?-reductase inhibitors decrease the risk of low-grade prostate cancer, suggesting that modifying androgen metabolism may have beneficial effects on prostate health, yet similar reductions in high-grade disease have not been observed, thereby questioning the true clinical benefits of these agents for chemoprevention. Knowing how to best investigate the relationship between androgens and the development of prostate disease given the lack of large, randomized trials is difficult. Accumulating data challenges the assumption that alterations in serum androgens have parallel effects within the prostate hormonal environment or change androgen-regulated processes within the gland. Long-term intervention studies are needed to truly ascertain the effects of androgen manipulation on prostate tissue and disease risk. However, available data do not support the notion that restoring serum androgens to normal physiologic ranges drives prostate disease. PMID:24407178

Cooper, Lori A; Page, Stephanie T



Corneal epithelial disease.  


This article reviews conditions that primarily affect the corneal epithelium as distinct from corneal stromal diseases. Corneal ulceration is discussed elsewhere in this issue. The other corneal conditions include a variety of more subtle epithelial disease,which might colloquially be termed epitheliopathies, as well as uninfected indolent superficial ulcerations, corneal neoplasia, and eosinophilic keratitis. The fungal plaque is an unusual and somewhat chronic form of epithelial infection. Although less common than corneal ulcers, this collection of lesions may present uniquely challenging obstacles to diagnosis and identification of a cure. Newer therapies and surgical strategies are discussed. PMID:15271426

Cutler, Tim J



Electrodiagnosis in neuromuscular disease.  


Electromyography (EMG) is an important diagnostic tool for the assessment of individuals with various neuromuscular diseases. It should be an extension of a thorough history and physical examination. Some prototypical characteristics and findings of EMG and nerve conduction studies are discussed; however, a more thorough discussion can be found in the textbooks and resources sited in the article. With an increase in molecular genetic diagnostics, EMG continues to play an important role in the diagnosis and management of patients with neuromuscular diseases and also provides a cost-effective diagnostic workup before ordering a battery of costly genetic tests. PMID:22938876

Lipa, Bethany M; Han, Jay J



[Infectious pulmonary diseases].  


Infectious pulmonary diseases and pneumonias are important causes of death within the group of infectious diseases in Germany. Most cases are triggered by bacteria. The morphology of the inflammation is often determined by the agent involved but several histopathological types of reaction are possible. Histology alone is only rarely able to identify the causal agent; therefore additional microbiological diagnostics are necessary in most cases. Clinically cases are classified as community acquired and nosocomial pneumonia, pneumonia under immunosuppression and mycobacterial infections. Histologically, alveolar and interstitial as well as lobar and focal pneumonia can be differentiated. PMID:25319227

Hager, T; Reis, H; Theegarten, D



Autoinflammatory pustular neutrophilic diseases.  


This article provides a new categorization of inflammatory pustular dermatoses in the context of recent genetic and biological insights. Monogenic diseases with pustular phenotypes are discussed, including deficiency of interleukin 1 receptor antagonist, deficiency of the interleukin 36 receptor antagonist, CARD14-associated pustular psoriasis, and pyogenic arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum, and acne. How these new genetic advancements may inform how previously described pustular diseases are viewed, including pustular psoriasis and its clinical variants, with a focus on historical classification by clinical phenotype, is also discussed. PMID:23827244

Naik, Haley B; Cowen, Edward W



HDL and cardiovascular disease.  


The cholesterol contained within HDL is inversely associated with risk of coronary heart disease and is a key component of predicting cardiovascular risk. However, despite its properties consistent with atheroprotection, the causal relation between HDL and atherosclerosis is uncertain. Human genetics and failed clinical trials have created scepticism about the HDL hypothesis. Nevertheless, drugs that raise HDL-C concentrations, cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitors, are in late-stage clinical development, and other approaches that promote HDL function, including reverse cholesterol transport, are in early-stage clinical development. The final chapters regarding the effect of HDL-targeted therapeutic interventions on coronary heart disease events remain to be written. PMID:25131981

Rader, Daniel J; Hovingh, G Kees



Familial Behçet's disease.  


Behçet's disease (BD) is a multisystemic vasculitis syndrome characterized by a course of remissions and exacerbations of unpredictable frequency and duration. The disease has a worldwide distribution, but the majority of cases cluster along the ancient Silk Road, which extends from eastern Asia to the Mediterranean basin. The etiopathogenesis of BD is still unknown, but familial aggregation and peculiar geographical distribution have been regarded as evidence supporting genetic influence on the pathogenesis of BD. In this article, we describe a patient with BD, who had four members of his family associated with BD. PMID:19575202

Yilmaz, Sema; Cimen, Kadriye Akar



Autoimmune blistering skin diseases.  


Emergency physicians, at the front line of patient care, are often confronted with a wide variety of dermatologic conditions. Prompt recognition is essential, especially for the autoimmune blistering skin diseases, many of which have considerable morbidity and mortality. Therefore, an accurate diagnosis is imperative for appropriate referral and initiation of therapy. This review article provides a concise yet thorough discussion of the clinical presentation, incidence, differential diagnosis and management of the commonly encountered autoimmune blistering skin diseases, some of which include pemphigus, bullous pemphigoid, and epidermolysis bullosa acquisita. PMID:10830686

Cotell, S; Robinson, N D; Chan, L S



PET in Cerebrovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

SYNOPSIS Investigation of the interplay between the cerebral circulation and brain cellular function is fundamental to understanding both the pathophysiology and treatment of stroke. Currently, PET is the only technique that provides accurate, quantitative in vivo regional measurements of both cerebral circulation and cellular metabolism in human subjects. We review normal human cerebral blood flow and metabolism and human PET studies of ischemic stroke, carotid artery disease, vascular dementia, intracerebral hemorrhage and aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and discuss how these studies have added to our understanding of the pathophysiology of human cerebrovascular disease. PMID:20543975

Powers, William J.; Zazulia, Allyson R.



Granulomatous liver disease.  


Hepatic granulomata are not infrequently encountered in liver biopsy and often are associated with systemic disease. The clinical presentation varies with the particular systemic process. From a biochemical standpoint, the most common abnormalities are elevated serum alkaline phosphatase and ?-glutamyltransferase. The observation of granulomata in a liver biopsy specimen warrants workup to identify a possible cause. Clues may be obtained in the medical history, on physical examination, or with specialized blood testing or radiologic studies. Treatment involves therapy of the underlying cause of the disease associated with the development of the granulomatous hepatitis. PMID:22541705

Flamm, Steven L



Communicable Disease Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The COSMIC program FITLOS is used regularly by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), for analyzing data from radioimmunoassays, which involve testing human body substances to provide information on how deficits or excesses of those substances affect a body's ability to ward off disease. A liquid scintillation counter's data is analyzed by the FITLOS program. FITLOS data, then aids in establishing reference methods for hospitals and other health laboratories in their radioimmunoassays. CDC's use of this program enabled them to avoid the cost of designing and developing a new program.



Beh?et's disease  

PubMed Central

Behçet's disease is a systemic vasculitis of unknown aetiology characteristically affecting venules. Onset is typically in young adults with recurrent oral and genital ulceration, uveitis, skin manifestations, arthritis, neurological involvement, and a tendency to thrombosis. It has a worldwide distribution but is prevalent in Japan, the Middle East, and some Mediterranean countries. International diagnostic criteria have been proposed, however diagnosis can be problematical, particularly if the typical ulcers are not obvious at presentation. Treatment is challenging, must be tailored to the pattern of organ involvement for each patient and often requires combination therapies.???Keywords: Behçet's disease; oral ulcers; uveitis; immunosuppressants PMID:11009577

Kontogiannis, V; Powell, R



Perianal Paget's Disease  

PubMed Central

The incidence of extramammary Paget's disease (EMPD) is very low. An 84-year-old Korean man was treated with topical and oral medications at a local dermatologic clinic for a year, but the symptoms did not improve. He visited Severance Hospital and underwent a perianal skin biopsy and was finally diagnosed with EMPD. The authors performed a wide local excision according to a 1-cm margin around the lesion. For the skin and the soft tissue defects, bilateral inferior gluteal artery perforator flap transpositions were performed. The size of the lesion was 14 cm2 × 9 cm2, and the lateral and the basal margins were all disease free. PMID:25360433

Kim, Chang Woo; Kim, Yon Hee; Cho, Min Soo; Min, Byung Soh; Kim, Nam Kyu



Pain in renal disease.  


ABSTRACT Pain is the presenting symptom in 20 to 30% of patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and occurs in 50 to 60% of patients at some stage of the disease process, but its frequency increases with age and size of the cysts. Back pain is caused by kidney enlargement as well as rupture, hemorrhage, or infection of cysts. Other causes of pain include nephrolithiasis and urinary tract infections (UTIs). Analgesic options for patients with ADPKD include transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), spinal cord stimulation, low-dose opioids, and local anesthetics. PMID:25348222

Santoro, Domenico; Satta, Ersilia



Whyfiles: Zoonotic Diseases Go Global  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This recent Whyfiles feature offers a detailed look at zoonotic diseases, or those diseases that spread to people from other animals. Zoonotic diseases, such as monkeypox and West Nile virus, make up two-thirds of all infectious diseases and may represent a growing threat. This 4-page Whyfiles piece provides an insightful and easy-to-understand discussion of emerging zoonotic diseases, including a short section on the hazards presented by our own household pets.


Pregnancy and inflammatory bowel disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions  Pregnancy is not contraindicated i? either colitis or Crohn’s disease. Indeed, pregnancy outcome is excellent in both diseases.\\u000a Ulcerative colitics should await quiescent disease before they become pregnant; to a degree Crohn’s disease patients may have\\u000a to, either because of the disease or associated dyspareunia (surgery may be required for either or both). Patients should\\u000a be looked after by both

John F. Fielding



DiseaseConnect: a comprehensive web server for mechanism-based disease–disease connections  

PubMed Central

The DiseaseConnect ( is a web server for analysis and visualization of a comprehensive knowledge on mechanism-based disease connectivity. The traditional disease classification system groups diseases with similar clinical symptoms and phenotypic traits. Thus, diseases with entirely different pathologies could be grouped together, leading to a similar treatment design. Such problems could be avoided if diseases were classified based on their molecular mechanisms. Connecting diseases with similar pathological mechanisms could inspire novel strategies on the effective repositioning of existing drugs and therapies. Although there have been several studies attempting to generate disease connectivity networks, they have not yet utilized the enormous and rapidly growing public repositories of disease-related omics data and literature, two primary resources capable of providing insights into disease connections at an unprecedented level of detail. Our DiseaseConnect, the first public web server, integrates comprehensive omics and literature data, including a large amount of gene expression data, Genome-Wide Association Studies catalog, and text-mined knowledge, to discover disease–disease connectivity via common molecular mechanisms. Moreover, the clinical comorbidity data and a comprehensive compilation of known drug–disease relationships are additionally utilized for advancing the understanding of the disease landscape and for facilitating the mechanism-based development of new drug treatments. PMID:24895436

Liu, Chun-Chi; Tseng, Yu-Ting; Li, Wenyuan; Wu, Chia-Yu; Mayzus, Ilya; Rzhetsky, Andrey; Sun, Fengzhu; Waterman, Michael; Chen, Jeremy J. W.; Chaudhary, Preet M.; Loscalzo, Joseph; Crandall, Edward; Zhou, Xianghong Jasmine



Diseases of Landscape Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

t he cedar rust diseases (Juniper spp.) stand out due to their conspicuous nature, and the fact the fungi that cause them complete their life cycles on two plant hosts — the juniper (cedar) and the apple (although pear, hawthorn, quince, serviceberry, and crabapple are other hosts). All potential host plants are commonly planted in the urban landscape, or are

Janna Beckerman


Pelvic Inflammatory Disease  


... 000 women suffer from an episode of acute PID each year, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Up to 10 to 15 ... antibiotics, hormones, and substances that boost the immune system. These studies may lead to insights about how to prevent infertility ... Last Updated November ...


Bone Marrow Diseases  


Bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside some of your bones, such as your hip and thigh bones. It contains immature cells, called stem cells. The ... help with blood clotting. If you have a bone marrow disease, there are problems with the stem ...


Autoantigens in thyroid diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The autoantigens involved in autoimmune thyroid disease have now been extensively characterised, and the autoantibodies they evoke provide important aids to diagnosis, leading to early treatment of thyroid autoimmunity. The next stage in the puzzle is to determine towards which epitopes on the autoantigens the immune response is directed. We have already come a long way in the identification of

Kim Dawe; Patricia Hutchings; Brian Champion; Anne Cooke; Ivan Roitt



Genes, disease and medicine.  


1. Information and technologies derived from genomic research are beginning to revolutionize the study of disease. It is now being predicted that the human genome sequencing project will be more than 90% complete by the end of this decade and that most of the major genes involved in common diseases will have been identified by that time. Correlations between genetic mutations, disease susceptibility, and adverse reactions to drugs are already being established and it seems inevitable that this will lead to the development of novel therapies accurately targeted at subsets of patients most likely to show a favourable response. 2. Targeted therapies present a significant challenge to the pharmaceutical industry because the potential market for such drugs is likely to be smaller than for current 'phenotypic' treatments. However, application of molecular genetic technologies may allow parallel reductions in development costs since it should be more straightforward to demonstrate efficacy and safety in accurately selected patient groups, reducing the requirement for large clinical trials. 3. Gene-based diagnostics have the potential to radically improve medical practice, and progress in genetic testing technology has been impressive. Yet there is growing concern that commercial and other pressures may result in genetic testing being made widely available before the biological consequences of mutations in disease susceptibility genes are fully understood and before the legal, ethical and psychological consequences of testing have been fully debated. PMID:8971423

Dykes, C W



Diabetes and eye disease  


... the eye that are weak and can bleed Small scars forming on the retina and in other parts of the eye (the vitreous) ... doctor who is trained to treat diabetic eye diseases. Once your eye ... creates small burns in the retina where there are abnormal ...


Eye Disease Simulations  


... it might be viewed by someone with normal vision Age-Related Macular Degeneration Age-Related Macular Degeneration information page Back to top Cataract Cataract information page Back to top Diabetic Retinopathy Diabetic Eye Disease information page Back to top ...


Disease Dynamics Evolutionary  

E-print Network

discoveries. 18 Evolutionary Science Understand the importance of Penn State scientists studying animal Forensic Science Program Establishes Partnership with Life Technologies Mary Ann Raymond ReceivesJune 2012 Disease Dynamics PG 10 Evolutionary Science PG 18 Outside Our Solar System Alex Wolszczan

dePamphilis, Claude


Dopamine in gastrointestinal disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dopamine is an important enteric neuromodulator. Herein we review the data that support a role for dopaminergic involvement in experimental duodenal and gastric ulceration; gastric, pancreatic, and duodenal secretion; gastrointestinal motility; and gastric and intestinal submucosal blood flow regulation. There also is support for a role for dopamine and dopamimetic agents in the treatment of certain experimental gastrointestinal diseases because

Gary B. Glavin; Sandor Szabo



Inflammatory bowel disease: Pathogenesis  

PubMed Central

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, is characterized by chronic relapsing intestinal inflammation. It has been a worldwide health-care problem with a continually increasing incidence. It is thought that IBD results from an aberrant and continuing immune response to the microbes in the gut, catalyzed by the genetic susceptibility of the individual. Although the etiology of IBD remains largely unknown, it involves a complex interaction between the genetic, environmental or microbial factors and the immune responses. Of the four components of IBD pathogenesis, most rapid progress has been made in the genetic study of gut inflammation. The latest internationally collaborative studies have ascertained 163 susceptibility gene loci for IBD. The genes implicated in childhood-onset and adult-onset IBD overlap, suggesting similar genetic predispositions. However, the fact that genetic factors account for only a portion of overall disease variance indicates that microbial and environmental factors may interact with genetic elements in the pathogenesis of IBD. Meanwhile, the adaptive immune response has been classically considered to play a major role in the pathogenesis of IBD, as new studies in immunology and genetics have clarified that the innate immune response maintains the same importance in inducing gut inflammation. Recent progress in understanding IBD pathogenesis sheds lights on relevant disease mechanisms, including the innate and adaptive immunity, and the interactions between genetic factors and microbial and environmental cues. In this review, we provide an update on the major advances that have occurred in above areas. PMID:24415861

Zhang, Yi-Zhen; Li, Yong-Yu



Castleman’s Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Castleman’s disease (CD) is a rare, benign lymphoproliferative disorder of lymph nodes that was first described by Dr. Benjamin\\u000a Castleman in 1956. CD is also known as giant lymph node hyperplasia or angiofollicular hyperplasia.

Richard Flavin; Cara M. Martin; Orla Sheils; John James O’Leary


Chronic Granulomatous Disease (CGD)  


... Rhinitis (Hay Fever) School Key School Tools Secondary Immune Deficiency Disease Selective IgA Deficiency Selective IgA Deficiency Severe ... CGD. To learn more about PIDDs visit the Immune Deficiency Foundation website . Look to the experts The AAAAI’s ...


Epigenetics and cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite advances in the prevention and management of cardiovascular disease (CVD), this group of multifactorial disorders remains a leading cause of mortality worldwide. CVD is associated with multiple genetic and modifiable risk factors; however, known environmental and genetic influences can only explain a small part of the variability in CVD risk, which is a major obstacle for its prevention and

Caren E. Smith; José M. Ordovás



Alzheimer's Disease and Depression.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews research on depression in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Discusses evidence suggesting that depression affects many AD patients and can have profound effects on patient long-term functioning and caregiver well-being. Notes that field is dominated by studies of prevalence, as opposed to studies of etiology, association with other aspects of…

Teri, Linda; Wagner, Amy



COgnitive-Pulmonary Disease  

PubMed Central

Over the past few decades, chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD) has been considered a disease of the lungs, often caused by smoking. Nowadays, COPD is regarded as a systemic disease. Both physical effects and effects on brains, including impaired psychological and cognitive functioning, have been demonstrated. Patients with COPD may have cognitive impairment, either globally or in single cognitive domains, such as information processing, attention and concentration, memory, executive functioning, and self-control. Possible causes are hypoxemia, hypercapnia, exacerbations, and decreased physical activity. Cognitive impairment in these patients may be related to structural brain abnormalities, such as gray-matter pathologic changes and the loss of white matter integrity which can be induced by smoking. Cognitive impairment can have a negative impact on health and daily life and may be associated with widespread consequences for disease management programs. It is important to assess cognitive functioning in patients with COPD in order to optimize patient-oriented treatment and to reduce personal discomfort, hospital admissions, and mortality. This paper will summarize the current knowledge about cognitive impairment as extrapulmonary feature of COPD. Hereby, the impact of smoking on cognitive functioning and the impact of cognitive impairment on smoking behaviour will be examined. PMID:24738069

Cleutjens, Fiona A. H. M.; Janssen, Daisy J. A.; Ponds, Rudolf W. H. M.; Dijkstra, Jeanette B.; Wouters, Emiel F. M.



[Gluten induced diseases].  


The introduction of cereals in human nutrition 10 000 years ago caused the occurrence of gluten induced diseases. This protein complex is involved in pathogenesis of wheat allergy, celiac disease, and gluten sensitivity. Wheat allergy and celiac disease are mediated by the system of adaptive immunity. Gluten sensitivity is a recently defined entity induced by innate immune mechanisms. These subjects present various intestinal and particularly extraintestinal symptoms. The differences between celiac disease and gluten intolerance include permeability of the intestinal mucosal barrier, histology of duodenal biopsy, and mucosal gene expression. The symptoms of gluten sensitivity may also have another genetic background of food intolerance independent of the HLADQ2, -?DQ8 system and tissue transglutaminase (eg. in some psychiatric disorders). At present, there is no specific bio-marker of gluten sensitivity. The diagnosis is possible only by exclusion of other causes of symptoms and improvement on a glutenfree diet applied in a doubleblind placebo controlled manner with optional sequence of both stages to exclude the placebo effect due to nutritional intervention. PMID:23767452

Fri?, P; Zavoral, M; Dvo?áková, T



[Hand and occupational diseases].  


Hand is frequently the site of work accidents or occupational diseases. The musculoskeletal upper limb is the first recognized occupational disease and carpal tunnel syndrome is the most common of them. The most common location of occupational dermatoses is the hand. Their causes are often multifactorial, involving chemical irritants, physical, allergens and endogenous factors (mainly atopic dermatitis). Occupational exposure to microtrauma and iterative use of vibrating tools may also be the cause of hypothenar hammer syndrome and acrosyndromes. The frequent chronicity and functional impairment induced by these attacks can cause lasting disabilities, an inability to source workstation. Occupational physician is a focal point for helping to maintain the position and the prevention of socioprofessional disinsertion. Many pathologies of the hand related to professional activity may benefit from a statement in occupational disease and thus allow the patient to obtain compensation and employment protection. Prevention of occupational hand diseases should be made by all health actors, especially in occupations and industries at risk. PMID:24134812

Bensefa-Colas, Lynda; Choudat, Dominique



Autoimmune blistering skin diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emergency physicians, at the front line of patient care, are often confronted with a wide variety of dermatologic conditions. Prompt recognition is essential, especially for the autoimmune blistering skin diseases, many of which have considerable morbidity and mortality. Therefore, an accurate diagnosis is imperative for appropriate referral and initiation of therapy. This review article provides a concise yet thorough discussion

Stephanie Cotell; Neha D Robinson; Lawrence S Chan



Beh?et's disease  

PubMed Central

Definition of the disease Behçet disease (BD) is a chronic, relapsing, multisystemic disorder characterized by mucocutaneous, ocular, vascular and central nervous system manifestations. Epidemiology BD seems to cluster along the ancient Silk Road, which extends from eastern Asia to the Mediterranean basin. European cases are often described, not exclusively in the migrant population. Clinical description The clinical spectrum includes oral and genital ulcerations, uveitis, vascular, neurological, articular, renal and gastrointestinal manifestations. Etiology The etiopathogenesis of the disease remains unknown, although genetic predisposition, environmental factors and immunological abnormalities have been implicated. Diagnostic methods Diagnosis is only based on clinical criteria. Differrential diagnosis It depends on the clinical presentation of BD, but sarcoidosis, multiple sclerosis, Crohn’s disease, Takayasu’s arteritis, polychondritis or antiphospholipid syndrome need to be considered. Management Treatment is symptomatic using steroids and immunomodulatory therapy. It is efficient depending on the rapidity of initiation, the compliance, and the duration of therapy. Prognosis The prognosis is severe due to the ocular, neurological and arterial involvement. PMID:22497990



Diagnosis of Parasitic Diseases  


... available to diagnose parasitic diseases. The kind of test(s) your health care provider will order will be based on your ... below for a list of some commonly used tests your health care provider may order. A fecal (stool) exam, also ...


Coronary artery disease (image)  


... through these arteries is critical for the heart. Coronary artery disease usually results from the build-up of fatty material and plaque, a condition called atherosclerosis. As the ... blood to the heart can slow or stop, causing chest pain (stable ...


Exercise and heart disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atherosclerotic coronary artery disease (CAD) is a leading cause of death in the United States. It accounts for myocardial infarction in ?1.5 million Americans annually and results in ?500,000 deaths yearly. Half of these deaths occur prior to patients being admitted to a hospital. A dramatic reduction in mortality related to atherosclerotic CAD has occurred in the last decade. This

James C. Puffer



Arsenic and Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Chronic arsenic exposure is a worldwide health problem. Although arsenic-induced cancer has been widely studied, comparatively little attention has been paid to arsenic-induced vascular disease. Epidemiological studies have shown that chronic arsenic exposure is associated with increased morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease. In addition, studies suggest that susceptibility to arsenic-induced vascular disease may be modified by nutritional factors in addition to genetic factors. Recently, animal models for arsenic-induced atherosclerosis and liver sinusoidal endothelial cell dysfunction have been developed. Initial studies in these models show that arsenic exposure accelerates and exacerbates atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E–knockout mice. Microarray studies of liver mRNA and micro-RNA abundance in mice exposed in utero suggest that a permanent state of stress is induced by the arsenic exposure. Furthermore, the livers of the arsenic-exposed mice have activated pathways involved in immune responses suggesting a pro-hyperinflammatory state. Arsenic exposure of mice after weaning shows a clear dose-response in the extent of disease exacerbation. In addition, increased inflammation in arterial wall is evident. In response to arsenic-stimulated oxidative signaling, liver sinusoidal endothelium differentiates into a continuous endothelium that limits nutrient exchange and waste elimination. Data suggest that nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase–derived superoxide or its derivatives are essential second messengers in the signaling pathway for arsenic-stimulated vessel remodeling. The recent findings provide future directions for research into the cardiovascular effects of arsenic exposure. PMID:19015167

States, J. Christopher; Srivastava, Sanjay; Chen, Yu; Barchowsky, Aaron



HIV and Kidney Disease  


... don’t really show up as symptoms of disease. It’s important to get the urine checked regularly for signs of trouble. Back to Fact Sheet Categories The AIDS InfoNet is a project of the New Mexico AIDS Education and Training Center at the University ...


Dynamics of infectious diseases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern infectious disease epidemiology has a strong history of using mathematics both for prediction and to gain a deeper understanding. However the study of infectious diseases is a highly interdisciplinary subject requiring insights from multiple disciplines, in particular a biological knowledge of the pathogen, a statistical description of the available data and a mathematical framework for prediction. Here we begin with the basic building blocks of infectious disease epidemiology—the SIS and SIR type models—before considering the progress that has been made over the recent decades and the challenges that lie ahead. Throughout we focus on the understanding that can be developed from relatively simple models, although accurate prediction will inevitably require far greater complexity beyond the scope of this review. In particular, we focus on three critical aspects of infectious disease models that we feel fundamentally shape their dynamics: heterogeneously structured populations, stochasticity and spatial structure. Throughout we relate the mathematical models and their results to a variety of real-world problems.

Rock, Kat; Brand, Sam; Moir, Jo; Keeling, Matt J.



Ebola virus disease epidemic.  


The Ebola virus disease epidemic now constitutes an international public health emergency. Occupational and environmental health nurses can collaborate with international colleagues to halt Ebola virus transmission within Africa, protect workers from exposures, and prevent another pandemic. [Workplace Health Saf 2014;62(11):484.]. PMID:25373029

Phillips, Jennan A



Charcot Marie Tooth Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Charcot Marie Tooth (CMT) disease was first described in 1886. It describes a spectrum of genetic disorders that affects peripheral nerves, either by slowing action potential transmission along the axons, or by reducing the amplitude, or both.It is this variety of underlying genetic findings and subtleties of clinical presentation that has resulted in the varying nomenclature over the years. Patients

D. W. J. Howcroft; S. Kumar; N. Makwana



Phosphoinositide phosphatases and disease  

PubMed Central

The field of inositol signaling has expanded greatly in recent years. Given the many reviews on phosphoinositide kinases, we have chosen to restrict our discussion to inositol lipid hydrolysis focused on the phosphatases and a brief mention of the lipase isoforms. We also discuss recent discoveries that link mutations in phosphoinositide phosphatases to disease. PMID:19001665

Majerus, Philip W.; York, John D.



Chronic Kidney Disease  


... suspects you might have chronic kidney disease: Blood pressure test Urine albumin (a test to see how much protein is in the urine) Serum creatinine (a test to see how much creatinine, a ... or high blood pressure, talk to your doctor about whether you should ...


Vanishing White Matter Disease  


... in your family, you can talk to a genetic counselor about the option of prenatal testing, as well as testing of family members so that they can find out if they are carriers of the disease (see our fact sheet on genetic inheritance for more information about this). Other Clinical ...


Polyphenols and gastrointestinal diseases  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review This article will review the role of polyphenols in gastrointestinal diseases. Ingested polyphenols are concentrated in the gastrointestinal tract and are not well absorbed into the rest of the body. Thus, the high luminal concentrations achieved support a potential for therapeutic uses in the gastrointestinal tract. Additionally, there is great interest from the general public in complementary and alternative medicine. Recent findings Dietary polyphenols are a major source of antioxidants consumed by humans. Polyphenols possess not only antioxidant properties but also antiviral, antibacterial, antiinflammatory and anticarcinogenic effects, as well as the ability to modulate certain signaling pathways such as nuclear factor-?B activation. Green tea polyphenols have been shown to have efficacy in various models of inflammatory bowel disease. Silymarin, or milk thistle, is hepatoprotective against many forms of experimental liver injury and is widely used in human liver diseases, such as hepatitis C and alcoholic cirrhosis, with an excellent safety profile (but with unclear efficacy). Summary Substantial in-vitro and animal studies support the beneficial effects of polyphenols in many gastrointestinal diseases. Well designed multicenter trials in humans, such as those called for in the 2005 National Institutes of Health Requests for Applications for Silymarin Centers, will be critical for defining the safety, appropriate dosing and therapeutic efficacy of such agents. PMID:16462174

Dryden, Gerald W.; Song, Ming; McClain, Craig



Obesity and Cardiovascular Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obesity has reached global epidemic proportions in both adults and children and is associated with numerous comorbidities, including hypertension (HTN), type II diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, obstructive sleep apnea and sleep-disordered breathing, certain cancers, and major cardiovascular (CV) diseases. Because of its maladaptive effects on various CV risk factors and its adverse effects on CV structure and function, obesity has a

Carl J. Lavie; Richard V. Milani; Hector O. Ventura



Modelling Plant Disease Epidemics  

Microsoft Academic Search

An epidemic is the progress of disease in time and space. Each epidemic has a structure whose temporal dynamics and spatial patterns are jointly determined by the pathosystem characteristics and environmental conditions. One of the important objectives in epidemiology is to understand such spatio-temporal dynamics via mathematical and statistical modelling. In this paper, we outline common methodologies that are used

A. van Maanen; X.-M. Xu




Microsoft Academic Search

lcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a major health problem in the western world. In the United States, ALD affects at least 2 million people, or approximately 1% of the population.1 The true incidence of ALD, especially in its milder forms, may be substantially greater because many patients are asymptomatic and may never seek medical attention. ALD alone accounts for approximately

S. F. Stewart; C. P. Day



Fungal diseases of fish.  


Fungal diseases of fish have become increasingly important over the past 20 years. The traditional "fungi" are comprised of members from several different taxonomic kingdoms. Saprolegnia and other typical water molds are the "classic" secondary invaders, infecting more superficial areas of the body and requiring compromise of the exterior of the fish, poor water quality, or general immunosuppression. An increasing number of other environmental fungi are being reported from diseased fish, further testament to the opportunistic nature of many fungi. Common procedures such as air bladder deflation for many marine species collected at depth under nonsterile conditions may result in fungal infections of the swim bladder. Some fungi such as Aphanomyces and Fusarium can cause more invasive or systemic disease, often associated with changes in environmental factors such as temperature and salinity. Other fungi such as I. hoferi can be even more insidious and chronic, mimicking mycobacteriosis to a degree. Fungal diseases, in general, are very difficult to control or treat once they have taken hold. Prevention is, as always, the best medicine. Increased knowledge of basic biology will help guide treatment and control methods. Further research on general predisposing factors, species susceptibilities, immune system effects and other protective mechanisms in fish and more effective chemotherapeutics for external and systemic infections are needed. PMID:12836630

Yanong, Roy P E



Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes  


Cardiovascular Disease & Diabetes Updated:Jan 31,2013 The following statistics speak loud and clear that there is a strong correlation between ... content was last reviewed on 7/5/2012. Diabetes • Home • About Diabetes • Why Diabetes Matters Introduction Cardiovascular ...


Cardiac disease in pregnancy.  


Cardiac disease complicates approximately 1% to 3% of pregnancies and is responsible for 10% to 15% of maternal mortality. The number of women of childbearing age with congenital disease is increasing as advances in diagnosis and treatment improve survival rates and overall health, allowing successful pregnancy. Pregnant women with severe cardiac disease or women who experience a cardiac event during pregnancy will require admission and stabilization in an adult critical care unit. This group of patients can prove challenging for the obstetrical staff and the critical care staff because they require blending of the knowledge and skills of 2 highly specialized areas of healthcare. The key component to a comprehensive and organized approach to management that ensures the best possible outcome for the woman is a multidisciplinary team that devises a plan on the basis of the most current information, communicates with each other and the patient effectively, and assumes responsibility for implementation of the plan. The purpose of this article is to review management of the woman with cardiac disease throughout pregnancy. PMID:16456361

Arafeh, Julie M R; Baird, Suzanne McMurtry



Facts about Crohn's Disease  


... most common complication of Crohn’s disease. • Sores or ulcers, called “fistulas,” that tunnel through the affected area ... pubs/crohns/index.htm Crohn’s & Colitis Foundation of America ...


Cytokines and Behcet's disease.  


Behcet's Disease (BD) is a systemic vasculitis of unknown etiology. Increasing studies find that a sophisticated interlacing cytokine network is closely implicated in the onset, evolution and even organ damages of the disease. Cytokines involved can be categorized as Th1 type, Th2 type, Th17 type, chemokines and other proinflammatory cytokines, etc. The vicious cycle of cytokine network plays a substantial role in the disease pathogenesis and even in organ lesions, and might be disorganized by blocking one of the key links of the cytokines, which in turn may provide essential clues to outlook the target therapy regimen of cytokine agents in BD. There have been a number of case reports of the positive efficacies of cytokine (and cytokine blocker) agents including Infiximab (Human murine chimeric Anti-TNF ? monoclonal antibody), Anakinra (recombinant, non-glycosylated human IL1 receptor antagonist) etc in BD. IFN-? had been used clinically in treating BD with uveitis with beneficial efficacy ever since the 1980s. The studies to date suggested that IL6, IP10 are involved in BD with nervous system lesions, IL17, IL18 are relevant to the superimposed uveitis in patients with BD. Some cytokines i.e. IL8, RANTES, MIP-1? are associated with the disease activity, whereas others are exemplified by that of IL10, whose level shows negative relevance to the disease activity, might be potentially cytokine of protecting effect. According to the related genetic study, the SNPs of numerous cytokines including IL1, TNF?, IFN?, IL12, and IL18 are pertinent to BD. The recent GWAS (Genome Wide Association Studies) demonstrated that SNPs in the IL10 and IL23R-IL12RB2 region are associated with the disease. Most studies nowadays are confined within the cytokines in the peripheral blood levels, owing to the potentially significant roles of certain cytokines in local lesions. It warrants further in-depth study to address this issue. Moreover, it deserves multi-centre study considering the unique geographical "silk road" display picture of the disease. PMID:22197901

Zhou, Z Y; Chen, S L; Shen, N; Lu, Y



Prevention of cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed Central

1. Major risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD) are smoking, blood pressure and blood cholesterol and they interact in a multiplicative fashion. Family history of premature coronary heart disease and lack of exercise also contribute. Obesity increases risk probably mainly by its effect on blood cholesterol and blood pressure. Heavy alcohol consumption is a risk factor for stroke. 2. Prevention may be opportunistic or in specially organized clinics, the latter being less likely to result in the attendance of high risk individuals. 3. Worthwhile reductions in cigarette smoking can be achieved by brief advice and follow-up. Literature on smoking and other aspects of prevention is available from the district health education department. 4. Risk scores can be used to calculate the risk of coronary heart disease. They can help to indicate the advisability of measurement of blood cholesterol and to focus limited resources on those at highest risk by helping to define a 'special care group'. 5. Indications for measuring blood cholesterol are: a family history of premature coronary heart disease or hyperlipidaemia, personal history of coronary heart disease, clinical evidence of raised lipids (xanthelasma, corneal arcus under 50, xanthomas at any age), a high risk of coronary heart disease according to a risk score. Many would also include those under treatment for hypertension and diabetes. 6. Dietary advice can moderately reduce blood cholesterol. The proportion of calories from fat should be reduced from the current average of around 40% to a maximum of 33%. Dietary advice should be tailored to the patient's current diet. An increase in vegetables and fruit can be generally advocated. 7. Regular exercise has a worthwhile role to play in prevention. Rapid walking, jogging and swimming may all be suitable, as may be heavy gardening and housework. 8. A small proportion of patients may require lipid-lowering drugs. These include resins (cholestyramine and colestipol), fibrates (eg bezafibrate and gemfibrozil) and more recently HMG CoA inhibitors (eg simvastatin). The HMG CoA inhibitors produce large falls in cholesterol and may become first line drugs in future. Because of the current controversy about the effect of lipid-lowering drugs on total mortality, many believe that they should be reserved for those at the highest risk, for example patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia or with pre-existing coronary heart disease and a high plasma cholesterol (> 7.8 mmol/L). 9. The special care group defined by the practice should be offered regular follow-up.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1345159

Haines, A.; Patterson, D.; Rayner, M.; Hyland, K.



Disease in marine aquaculture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has become almost a truism that success in intensive production of animals must be based in part on development of methods for disease diagnosis and control. Excellent progress has been made in methods of diagnosis for major pathogens of cultivated fish, crustacean and molluscan species. In many instances these have proved to be facultative pathogens, able to exert severe effects in populations of animals under other stresses (marginal physical or chemical conditions; overcrowding). The concept of stress management as a critical prophylactic measure is not new, but its significance is being demonstrated repeatedly. The particular relationship of water quality and facultative pathogens such as Vibrio, Pseudomonas and Aeromonas species has been especially apparent. Virus diseases of marine vertebrates and invertebrates — little known two decades ago — are now recognized to be of significance to aquaculture. Virus infections of oysters, clams, shrimps and crabs have been described, and mortalities have been attributed to them. Several virus diseases of fish have also been recognized as potential or actual problems in culture. In some instances, the pathogens seem to be latent in natural populations, and may be provoked into patency by stresses of artificial environments. One of the most promising approaches to disease prophylaxis is through immunization. Fish respond well to various vaccination procedures, and new non-stressing methods have been developed. Vibriosis — probably the most severe disease of ocean-reared salmon — has been controlled to a great extent through use of a polyvalent bacterin, which can be modified as new pathogenic strains are isolated. Prophylactic immunization for other bacterial diseases of cultivated fish has been attempted, especially in Japan, with some success. There is also some evidence that the larger crustaceans may be immunologically responsive, and that at least short-term protection may be afforded to cultured populations. Some progress has been made in marine disease control through chemical treatment in intensive culture systems, principally through application and modification of methods developed for freshwater aquaculture. Major constraints to use of chemicals are restrictions due to public health concerns about food contamination, and the negative effects of some chemicals on biological filters and on algal food production. There is a continuing need, however, for development of specific treatments for acute disease episodes — such as the nitrofurans, developed in Japan, which are effective for some bacterial diseases. The history of aquaculture — freshwater as well as marine — has been characterized by transfers and introductions of species to waters beyond their present ranges. The process continues, and carries with it the possibility of transfers of pathogens to native species and to the recipient culture environments. International groups are attempting to define codes of practice to govern such mass movements, but examples of introductions of real or potential pathogens already exist. The most recent and the most dramatic is the world wide transfer of a virus pathogen of penaeid shrimps. Earlier examples include the introduction of a protozoan pathogen of salmonids to the western hemisphere, and the introduction of a parasitic copepod from the Far East to the west coast of North America and to France. The conclusion is inevitable — diseases are substantial deterrents to aquaculture production. Diagnostic and control procedures are and will be important components of emerging aquaculture technology.

Sindermann, C. J.



[Ischaemic heart disease].  


In the year 2011, cardiovascular diseases were responsible of 31.2% of total deaths in Spain. The absolute number of cases of acute coronary syndrome in this year will be approximately 115,752 cases (95%CI: 114,822-116,687). The prevalence of stable angina in the population aged 25-74 years is 2.6% in men and 3.5% in women. Cardiovascular diseases were in the year 2011 the first cause of hospitalizations representing 14.1% of the total hospitalizations. Diagnose of ischaemic heart disease and acute myocardial infarction were responsible of 110,950 and 50,064 hospitalizations, respectively. In the year 2003, the hospitalization rate was 314 while in the year 2011 was 237 per 100,000, a reduction of 24.4%. The average cost of hospitalization due to ischaemic heart disease in 1997 was 3,093.7euros while in the year 2011 was 7,028.71euros. Cardiovascular mortality rates have decreased from 2007 to 2011, showing a relative reduction of 7% in women and 8% in men. With regard to myocardial infarction, it was observed a relative reduction of 17% in men and 20% in women. According to EUROASPIREIII survey done in 8,966 patients with ischaemic heart disease in Europe, 17% of patients were still smokers, 35% were obese, 56% has uncontrolled blood pressure, 51% has raised blood cholesterol and 25% were diabetics. With regard to drugs utilisation, 91% were treated with antiplatelets agents, 80% with beta blockers, 71% with ACE inhibitors/ARBs. PMID:24238749

Brotons, Carlos; Cuende, José I; Fernández Pardo, Jacinto; Plana, Nuria; Moral, Irene



Vitamin D and inflammatory diseases  

PubMed Central

Beyond its critical function in calcium homeostasis, vitamin D has recently been found to play an important role in the modulation of the immune/inflammation system via regulating the production of inflammatory cytokines and inhibiting the proliferation of proinflammatory cells, both of which are crucial for the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. Several studies have associated lower vitamin D status with increased risk and unfavorable outcome of acute infections. Vitamin D supplementation bolsters clinical responses to acute infection. Moreover, chronic inflammatory diseases, such as atherosclerosis-related cardiovascular disease, asthma, inflammatory bowel disease, chronic kidney disease, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and others, tend to have lower vitamin D status, which may play a pleiotropic role in the pathogenesis of the diseases. In this article, we review recent epidemiological and interventional studies of vitamin D in various inflammatory diseases. The potential mechanisms of vitamin D in regulating immune/inflammatory responses in inflammatory diseases are also discussed. PMID:24971027

Yin, Kai; Agrawal, Devendra K



Legionnaires` disease: Seeking effective prevention  

SciTech Connect

During the Bicentennial summer of 1976, American Legion Conventioneers in Philadelphia suffered a dramatic epidemic that left 34 dead. Near the end of 1976, scientists at the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) in Atlanta discovered the bacterium that caused Legionnaires` disease and named it Legionella. Nearly two decades later, a wealth of scientific information exists about the organism, its health effects, epidemiology, microbiology, aquatic ecology, molecular biology, immunology, pathophysiology, etc. Fortunately, for the engineer seeking to prevent Legionnaires` disease, it is unnecessary to master this complexity; the practice of prevention requires understanding a few, straightforward facts. The purpose of this paper is to present four messages about Legionnaires` disease that provide a conceptual framework to guide the crucial role of practical prevention. Those messages are: Legionnaires` disease is important; Legionnaires` disease is an environmental disease; Legionnaires` disease is preventable; and Legionnaires` disease prevention requires the right strategy.

Millar, J.D.; Morris, G.K.; Shelton, B.G. [PathCon Labs., Norcross, GA (United States)



Mining disease state converters for medical intervention of diseases.  


In applications such as gene therapy and drug design, a key goal is to convert the disease state of diseased objects from an undesirable state into a desirable one. Such conversions may be achieved by changing the values of some attributes of the objects. For example, in gene therapy one may convert cancerous cells to normal ones by changing some genes' expression level from low to high or from high to low. In this paper, we define the disease state conversion problem as the discovery of disease state converters; a disease state converter is a small set of attribute value changes that may change an object's disease state from undesirable into desirable. We consider two variants of this problem: personalized disease state converter mining mines disease state converters for a given individual patient with a given disease, and universal disease state converter mining mines disease state converters for all samples with a given disease. We propose a DSCMiner algorithm to discover small and highly effective disease state converters. Since real-life medical experiments on living diseased instances are expensive and time consuming, we use classifiers trained from the datasets of given diseases to evaluate the quality of discovered converter sets. The effectiveness of a disease state converter is measured by the percentage of objects that are successfully converted from undesirable state into desirable state as deemed by state-of-the-art classifiers. We use experiments to evaluate the effectiveness of our algorithm and to show its effectiveness. We also discuss possible research directions for extensions and improvements. We note that the disease state conversion problem also has applications in customer retention, criminal rehabilitation, and company turn-around, where the goal is to convert class membership of objects whose class is an undesirable class. PMID:20183875

Dong, Guozhu; Duan, Lei; Tang, Changjie



Verbal fluency in Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and major depression  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To compare verbal fluency among Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and major depression and to assess the sociodemographic and clinical factors associated with the disease severity. METHODS: Patients from an outpatient university center with a clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease or major depression were studied. Severity was staged using the Hoehn & Yahr scale, the Hamilton Depression scale and the Clinical Dementia Rating for Parkinson's disease, major depression, and Alzheimer's disease, respectively. All subjects were tested with the Mini-Mental State Examination, the digit span test, and the verbal fluency test (animals). We fit four types of regression models for the count variable: Poisson model, negative binomial model, zero-inflated Poisson model, and zero-inflated negative binomial model. RESULTS: The mean digit span and verbal fluency scores were lower in patients with Alzheimer's disease (n?=?34) than in patients with major depression (n?=?52) or Parkinson's disease (n?=?17) (p<0.001). The average number of words listed was much lower for Alzheimer's disease patients (7.2 words) compared to the patients presenting with major depression (14.6 words) or Parkinson's disease (15.7 words) (KW test?=?32.4; p<0.01). Major depression and Parkinson's disease groups listed 44% (ROM?=?1.44) and 48% (ROM?=?1.48) more words, respectively, compared to those patients with Alzheimer's disease; these results were independent of age, education, disease severity and attention. Independently of diagnosis, age, and education, severe disease showed a 26% (ROM?=?0.74) reduction in the number of words listed when compared to mild cases. CONCLUSIONS: Verbal fluency provides a better characterization of Alzheimer's disease, major depression, and Parkinson's disease, even at later stages. PMID:21655757

de Araujo, Narahyana Bom; Barca, Maria Lage; Engedal, Knut; Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire; Deslandes, Andrea Camaz; Laks, Jerson



Adrenal disease in pregnancy.  


Adrenal disorders in pregnancy are relatively rare, yet can lead to significant maternal and fetal morbidity. Making a diagnosis is challenging as pregnancy may alter the manifestation of disease, many signs and symptoms associated with pregnancy are also seen in adrenal disease, and the fetal-placental unit alters the maternal endocrine metabolism and hormonal feedback mechanisms. The most common cause of Cushing's syndrome in pregnancy is an adrenal adenoma, followed by pituitary etiology, adrenal carcinoma, and other exceedingly rare causes. Medical therapy of Cushing's syndrome includes metyrapone and ketoconazole, but generally surgical treatment is more effective. Exogenous corticosteroid administration is the most common cause of adrenal insufficiency, followed by the endogenous causes of ACTH or CRH secretion. Primary adrenal insufficiency is least common. A low early morning cortisol <3 mcg/dL (83 mmol/L) in the non-stressed state and in the setting of typical clinical symptoms confirms the diagnosis. In the second and third trimester cortisol rises to levels 2-3 fold above those in the non-pregnant state, therefore a baseline level of <30 mcg/dL (823 mmol/L) warrants further evaluation. ACTH stimulated normal cortisol values have been established for each trimester. Hydrocortisone, which does not cross the placenta, is the glucocorticoid treatment of choice, and fludrocortisone is used as mineralocorticoid replacement in patients with primary disease. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia is an autosomal recessive disorder; 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21OHD) is the most common form of the disease. Non-classical 21OHD is most common, followed by the salt-wasting and simple virilizing forms. The treatment of choice for pregnant women affected with CAH is hydrocortisone, and fludrocortisones is added for those with the salt-wasting form of the disease. If the fetus is at risk for classical CAH, dexamethasone treatment can be used prenatally to prevent masculinization of the genitalia in a female infant. Because dexamethasone crosses the placenta, it should not be used to treat pregnant women with CAH if the fetus is not at risk for the disease. PMID:22115169

Lekarev, Oksana; New, Maria I



Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Neurodegenerative Diseases  

PubMed Central

Neurodegenerative diseases are a large group of disabling disorders of the nervous system, characterized by the relative selective death of neuronal subtypes. In most cases, there is overwhelming evidence of impaired mitochondrial function as a causative factor in these diseases. More recently, evidence has emerged for impaired mitochondrial dynamics (shape, size, fission-fusion, distribution, movement etc.) in neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Alzheimer's disease. Here, we provide a concise overview of the major findings in recent years highlighting the importance of healthy mitochondria for a healthy neuron. PMID:22700435

Johri, Ashu



Heart Disease, Stroke, or Other Cardiovascular Disease and Adult Vaccination  


... and have not gotten this vaccine or have immunity to these diseases Varicella vaccine to protect against ... gotten two doses of this vaccine or have immunity to this disease Learn about adult vaccination and ...


Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and the risk of cardiovascular diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous large epidemiological studies reporting on the association between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and\\u000a cardiovascular diseases mainly focussed on prevalent diseases rather than on the incidence of newly diagnosed cardiovascular\\u000a outcomes. We used the UK-based General Practice Research Database (GPRD) to assess the prevalence and incidence of cardiovascular\\u000a diseases in COPD patients aged 40–79 between 1995 and 2005, and

Cornelia Schneider; Ulrich Bothner; Susan S. Jick; Christoph R. Meier



[Emerging viral diseases].  


Emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases have again entered the public arena in recent years. This is due to factors such as evolving lifestyles, ecological and socio-political upheavals, and recent diagnostic advances. Numerous pathogens, including viruses like West Nile, Chikungunya and Japanese encephalitis on the one hand, and hemorrhagic fever viruses like Ebola and Maburg, are particular concerns. Recently, the Corona virus responsible for SARS, which caused an epidemic sufficiently worrisome to challenge crisis management concepts, was successfully isolated. It is in this context that so-called "bird flu'", may be on the verge of causing a human pandemic. Pox and Monkeypox are "virtually emerging" viruses that have potential for use in bioterrorism. The management and treatment of these emerging infectious diseases calls for new approaches, organizations and infrastructures. PMID:17140098

Bricaire, François; Bossi, Philippe



Epidemiology of Behçet disease.  


Behçet disease (BD) is a multisystem inflammatory disorder that is an important cause of morbidity worldwide. BD is most common along the ancient "Silk Road" route in the Far East and Mediterranean basin. The eye is the most commonly involved organ in BD patients.The prototypical form of involvement is a relapsing remitting panuveitis and retinal vasculitis. Less commonly, BD may present in the form of conjunctivitis, conjunctival ulcers, keratitis, episcleritis, scleritis, and extraocular muscle paralysis. Uveitis in BD carries significant implications for the patient, because it is a chronic recurrent disease characterized by explosive attacks of severe inflammation that may cause significant, cumulative damage to the intraocular structures. This review summarizes the epidemiology of systemic and ocular clinical features of BD with particular focus on risk factors, clinical characteristics, complications, and prognosis of BD-associated uveitis. PMID:23030353

Khairallah, Moncef; Accorinti, Massimo; Muccioli, Cristina; Kahloun, Rim; Kempen, John H



Parkinson's Disease and Autophagy  

PubMed Central

It is generally accepted that a correlation between neurodegenerative disease and protein aggregation in the brain exists; however, a causal relationship has not been elucidated. In neurons, failure of autophagy may result in the accumulation of aggregate-prone proteins and subsequent neurodegeneration. Thus, pharmacological induction of autophagy to enhance the clearance of intracytoplasmic aggregate-prone proteins has been considered as a therapeutic strategy to ameliorate pathology in cell and animal models of neurodegenerative disorders. However, autophagy has also been found to be a factor in the onset of these diseases, which raises the question of whether autophagy induction is an effective therapeutic strategy, or, on the contrary, can result in cell death. In this paper, we will first describe the autophagic machinery, and we will consider the literature to discuss the neuroprotective effects of autophagy. PMID:23125941

Sanchez-Perez, Ana Maria; Claramonte-Clausell, Berta; Sanchez-Andres, Juan Vicente; Herrero, Maria Trinidad



Genetics of Alzheimer's disease.  


The analyses of genetic factors contributing to Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other dementias have evolved at the same pace as genetic and genomic technologies are developed and improved. The identification of the first genes involved in AD arose from family-based studies, but risk factors have mainly been identified by studies comparing groups of patients with groups of controls. The best outcomes have been heavily associated with the capacity of interrogating genetic variability at the genome level without any particular a priori hypothesis. In this review we assess the role of genetic family studies in Alzheimer's disease and other dementias within the current status of dementias' and, particularly, AD's genetic architecture. PMID:25113539

Guerreiro, Rita; Hardy, John



Cryptorchidism --disease or symptom?  


Testes descend to the scrotum normally before birth. When they fail to do so, the boy is cryptorchid and has an increased risk for testicular germ cell cancer and subfertility later in life. Early correction of maldescent by orchiopexy operation improves the spermatogenetic capacity of the testis but does not return the testicular cancer risk to the control level. Testicular descent is regulated by testis-derived hormones testosterone and insulin-like peptide 3. Cryptorchidism can therefore be considered a symptom of impaired testicular function that may also be linked to other testicular diseases, such as germ cell cancer and subfertility. Early orchiopexy can alleviate the effects of cryptorchidism on spermatogenesis, but alertness for testicular cancer should be maintained. In searching the genetic and environmental reasons for these diseases, it is useful to consider their connection with each other. PMID:24786701

Toppari, Jorma; Rodprasert, Wiwat; Virtanen, Helena E



RNA and Disease  

PubMed Central

Cellular functions depend on numerous protein-coding and non-coding RNAs and the RNA-binding proteins associated with them, which form ribonucleoprotein complexes (RNPs). Mutations that disrupt either the RNA or protein components of RNPs or the factors required for their assembly can be deleterious. Alternative splicing provides cells with an exquisite capacity to fine-tune their transcriptome and proteome in response to cues. Splicing depends on a complex code, numerous RNA-binding proteins and an enormously intricate network of interactions among them, increasing the opportunity for exposure to mutations and mis-regulation that cause disease. The discovery of disease-causing mutations in RNAs is yielding a wealth of new therapeutic targets, and the growing understanding of RNA biology and chemistry is providing new RNA-based tools for developing therapeutics. PMID:19239895

Cooper, Thomas A.; Wan, Lili; Dreyfuss, Gideon



Testosterone and Cardiovascular Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of testosterone (T) on cardiovascular disease in both men and women are summarized in this chapter. The epidemiologic\\u000a data suggest that hypogonadism is associated with a higher prevalence of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, obesity,\\u000a asthma\\/COPD. Physiologically, androgen binding protein is expressed in the cardiac myocyte. Testosterone also affects basal\\u000a levels of intracellular calcium in the cardiac myocyte, as well

Allen D. Seftel; Spencer Land


Central core disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central core disease (CCD) is an inherited neuromuscular disorder characterised by central cores on muscle biopsy and clinical\\u000a features of a congenital myopathy. Prevalence is unknown but the condition is probably more common than other congenital myopathies.\\u000a CCD typically presents in infancy with hypotonia and motor developmental delay and is characterized by predominantly proximal\\u000a weakness pronounced in the hip girdle;

Heinz Jungbluth



Valvular Heart Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a VHD (stenosis, insufficiency, or combined lesions) is a major class of heart disease; if severe and left untreated, it may\\u000a lead to irreversible myocardial damage and death. VHD may exert its deleterious effect both by a direct decrease of stroke\\u000a volume (e.g., with critical AS or acute severe MR) and by the ultimately deleterious adaptive cardiac changes it produces\\u000a (ventricular

Gabriel A. Adelmann


Emerging diseases: Measles  

Microsoft Academic Search

High vaccination coverage rates and the administration of a second dose of measles vaccine have resulted in a significant\\u000a decline in the incidence of measles and neurologic diseases due to measles in many countries. However, intermittent outbreaks\\u000a of measles still occur even in countries with excellent vaccination coverage, suggesting the existence of high rates of measles\\u000a virus introduction from endemic

Martin O. Ota; William J. Moss; Diane E. Griffin



Disease concomitance in psoriasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Psoriasis is a multifactorial disease of unknown origin.Objective: Our purpose was to determine the frequency of skin disorders concomitantly seen in patients with psoriasis.Methods: We analyzed data from more than 40,000 patients and calculated sex- and age-adjusted ratios of expected and observed incidence rates of associated disorders.Results: The results demonstrate that, compared with age-matched control patients without psoriasis, cutaneous

Tilo Henseler; Enno Christophers