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Behcet's Disease  


NINDS Behcet's Disease Information Page Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What is Behcet's Disease? Is there any ... Trials Organizations Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Behcet's Disease? Behcet's disease is a rare, chronic inflammatory disorder. ...


Behcet's Disease  


... for Behcet’s Disease is Behcet’s syndrome . Who gets Behcet’s Disease (the “typical” patient)? Behcet’s disease is most common ... in the pons). Classic symptoms and signs of Behcet’s Disease Behcet’s disease is virtually unparalleled among the vasculitides ...


Infectious Diseases  


Infectious diseases kill more people worldwide than any other single cause. Infectious diseases are caused by germs. Germs are tiny living ... to live NIH: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases


Binswanger's Disease  


... Binswanger's Disease? Binswanger's disease (BD), also called subcortical vascular dementia , is a type of dementia caused by widespread, ... Hope Through Research Information booklet about Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, and other types of dementia compiled by the ...


Refsum Disease  


NINDS Refsum Disease Information Page Synonym(s): Phytanic Acid Storage Disease, Heredopathia Atactica Polyneuritiformis Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What is Refsum Disease? Is there any ...


Celiac Disease  


... as our most commonly consumed ingredient. What Is Celiac Disease? The digestive system is the set of organs ... an injury or pregnancy. Back Continue How Is Celiac Disease Diagnosed? Because the symptoms of celiac disease are ...


Autoimmune Diseases  


... protects you from disease and infection. But if you have an autoimmune disease, your immune system attacks healthy cells in your body by mistake. Autoimmune diseases can affect many parts of the body. No one is sure ...


Farber's Disease  


... a group of inherited metabolic disorders called lipid storage diseases, in which excess amounts of lipids (oils, ... Institutes of Health (NIH), conducts research about lipid storage diseases such as Farber’s disease in laboratories at ...


Gum Disease  


... which is both embarrassing and serious!). What Is Gum Disease? Gum disease is also known as periodontal (pronounced: per- ... tissues and bone that support the teeth. Untreated gum disease can become very serious, causing teeth to ...


Huntington's Disease  


Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited disease that causes certain nerve cells in the brain to waste ... express emotions. If one of your parents has Huntington's disease, you have a 50 percent chance of ...


Newcastle disease  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Newcastle disease (ND), referred to as Exotic Newcastle disease (END) in the U. S., is an acute viral disease of domestic poultry and many other bird species and a recognized worldwide problem. Occurrence of END is due to an infection with virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and is a ...


[Prion diseases].  


Prion diseases are a family of progressive neurodegenerative disorders caused by prions. There are four human prion diseases: Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker syndrome, fatal insomnia and Kuru. They can arise in three different ways: acquired, familial or sporadic. We review clinical presentations, pathophysiology, morphological picture, diagnostic procedures and available treatment options of prion diseases. PMID:23235426

Sto?da, N I; Zavalishin, I A



Kidney Diseases  


... urine until you go to the bathroom. Most kidney diseases attack the nephrons. This damage may leave kidneys ... or medicines. You are at greater risk for kidney disease if you have diabetes, high blood pressure, or ...


Buerger's Disease  


... United States, but is more common in the Middle East and Far East. Buerger's disease usually affects men ... Buerger's disease are highest in areas of the Middle East and Far East where heavy smoking is most ...


Pneumococcal Disease  


... Hepatitis B HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Influenza (Flu) Measles Meningitis (Meningococcal Disease) Mumps Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Pneumococcal Disease ... 3,000 to 6,000 cases of pneumococcal meningitis occur each year in the US. The case- ...


Alzheimer Disease  


... brain works by sending signals. Chemical messengers, called neurotransmitters (say: nur-oh- trans -mih-terz), allow brain ... person with Alzheimer disease has decreased amounts of neurotransmitters. People with Alzheimer disease also develop deposits of ...


Legionnaire's disease  


... not been proven. Most infections occur in middle-aged or older people, although they have been reported in children. Typically, the disease is less severe in children. Risk factors include: Alcoholism Cigarette smoking Diseases such as kidney failure or ...


Alexander Disease  


... by which the mutations cause disease, developing better animal models for the disorder, and exploring potential strategies for treatment. At present, there is no exact animal model for the disease; however, mice have been engineered ...


Gaucher disease  


... population. Persons of Eastern and Central European (Ashkenazi) Jewish heritage are more likely to get this disease. ... adults. It is most common in the Ashkenazi Jewish population. Type 2 disease usually begins in infancy ...


Moyamoya Disease  


... discovering how and why diseases develop in the brain, and focus on finding ways to prevent, treat, or cure them. NIH Patient Recruitment for Moyamoya Disease Clinical Trials At NIH Clinical Center Throughout the U.S. and ...


Chagas Disease  


... the disease has affected your intestines and heart. Medicines can kill the parasite, especially early on. You can also treat related problems. For example, a pacemaker helps with certain heart complications. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention


Krabbe disease  


Krabbe disease is a rare genetic disorder of the nervous system. It is a type of leukodystrophy. ... A defect in the GALC gene causes Krabbe disease. Persons with this gene ... (galactosylceramidase). The body needs this substance to ...


Lyme Disease  


... on the Pacific Coast). These ticks can spread the disease to animals and humans through tick bites. These ticks are typically about the size of a sesame seed. Lyme disease is most common in rural and suburban areas ...


Alzheimer's disease  


In a person with Alzheimer's disease, neurofibrillary tangles and plaques develop causing both structural and chemical problems in the brain. Alzheimer's disease appears to disconnect areas of the brain that ...


Huntington's disease  


Huntington chorea ... Huntington's disease is caused by a genetic defect on chromosome 4. The defect causes a part of ... 10 to 28 times. But in persons with Huntington's disease, it is repeated 36 to 120 times. ...


Parkinson's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parkinson's disease is a common disabling disease of old age. The diagnosis of idiopathic Parkinson's disease is based on clinical signs and has poor sensitivity, with about 25% of patients confidently diagnosed as having the disease actually having other conditions such as multi-system atrophy and other parkinsonism-plus syndromes. Benign essential tremor and arteriosclerotic pseudo-parkinsonism can easily be confused with Parkinson's

J. R. Playfer



Behçet's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Behçet's disease is a multisystem disease that is rare in the United States.Objective: The purpose of our study was to assess the characteristics and treatment of a series of patients with Behçet's disease in the United States.Methods: A retrospective clinical review of 25 patients with Behçet's disease was performed, and histopathologic findings and therapeutic modalities were reviewed.Results: All patients

Heidi C. Mangelsdorf; Wain L. White; Joseph L. Jorizzo



Meniere's Disease.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Meniere's disease is characterized by unpredictable spells of severe vertigo and fluctuations in hearing and tinnitus. This article discusses the incidence of Meniere's disease, the present status of our understanding of this disease, controversies in its diagnosis, and the multiple therapeutic modalities recruited in its treatment. (Contains…

Schessel, David A.



Prostate Diseases  


Aging & Health A to Z Prostate Diseases Basic Facts & Information What are Prostate Diseases? The prostate—one of the components of a man's sex organs—is a ... out anything serious. The Most Common Types of Prostate Diseases Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) Prostatitis Prostate cancer ...


Celiac Disease  


... absorbing enough iron. Continue Why Do Kids Get Celiac Disease? No one is sure why celiac disease happens, but it appears to run in families. ... have a 5% to 10% chance of getting celiac disease if someone in your family has it. It's ...


Lyme Disease.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This overview of the public health significance of Lyme disease includes the microbiological specifics of the infectious spirochete, the entomology and ecology of the ticks which are the primary disease carrier, the clinical aspects and treatment stages, the known epidemiological patterns, and strategies for disease control and for expanded…

Taylor, George C.



Sandhoff Disease  


... body. Sandhoff disease is a severe form of Tay-Sachs disease--which is prevalent primarily in people of ... Worldwide NINDS Clinical Trials Organizations Column1 Column2 National Tay-Sachs and Allied Diseases Association 2001 Beacon Street Suite ...


Foodborne Diseases  


... this site from a secured browser on the server. Please enable scripts and reload this page. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services • National ... Diseases Skip Website Tools Website Tools Print this ... disease information from CDC Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network, a CDC-sponsored program known as ...


Redefining Disease?  

Microsoft Academic Search

How will developments in genetic knowledge affect the classification of disease? Leaders in genetics have suggested that knowledge of the role of genes in dis- ease can determine nosology. Diseases might be defined by genotype, thus avoiding the limitations of more empirical approaches to categorization. Other commentators cau- tion against disease definitions that are detached from the look and feel

Fiona Alice Miller; Megan E. Begbie; Mita Giacomini; Catherine Ahern; Erin A. Harvey



Lyme Disease  

PubMed Central

Synopsis Lyme disease, caused by spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, is the most common vector-borne disease in the United States. The clinical presentation varies depending on the stage of the illness: early disease includes erthyma migrans, early disseminated disease includes multiple erythema migrans, meningitis, cranial nerve palsies and carditis; late disease is primarily arthritis. The symptoms and signs of infection resolve in the vast majority of patients after appropriate treatment with antimicrobials for from 2-4 weeks. Serologic testing should be used judiciously as it often results in misdiagnosis when performed on blood from patients with a low prior probability of disease and those with non-specific symptoms such as fatigue or arthralgia without signs of infection.

Murray, Thomas S.; Shapiro, Eugene D.



Prion Diseases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Prion Diseases is one of a set of lecture notes for Virology 335 by Shaun Heaphy of Leicester University (UK). It contains detailed information on its topic, along with selected links. Although prion research has been going on for over 25 years, the scientific and medical communities have only recently acknowledged the existence of prions and there remains serious debate over their role in a variety of neurological diseases. The name "prion" is derived from "proteinaceous infectious particles," and was coined by Dr. Stanley Prusiner, who discovered the agents and who recently received the Nobel Prize for Medicine for his work. Prions are thought to be the first transmissible and heritable disease-causing agents that lack DNA and RNA. They are composed solely of protein and appear to be the cause of such diseases as kuru and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans, and bovine spongiform encephalopathies, mad cow disease, and scrapie in sheep and goats.

Heaphy, Shaun.



Prion diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prion diseases are incurable neurodegenerative conditions affecting both animals and humans. They may be sporadic, infectious,\\u000a or inherited in origin. Human prion diseases include Creutzfeldt—Jakob desease (CJD), Gerstmann—Straussler—Scheinker disease,\\u000a kuru, and fatal familial insomnia. The appearance of variant CJD, and the demonstration that is caused by strains indistinguishable\\u000a from bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle, has led to the threat

Edward McKintosh; Sarah J. Tabrizi; John Collinge



Kawasaki disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Kawasaki disease is an acute vasculitis of childhood, complicated by coronary artery aneurysms in up to 25% of affected children.\\u000a High-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) administered in the acute phase of Kawasaki disease leads to a fivefold reduction\\u000a in the prevalence of coronary aneurysms. When fever persists, a second IVIG infusion should be administered. Rescue therapies\\u000a for IVIG-resistant Kawasaki disease

Jane W. Newburger; David R. Fulton



Disease Detective  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (on pages 35-43) lets learners analyze a "herd of elk" to detect the spread of a bacterial disease called brucellosis. The activity simulates how wildilfe veterinarians study elk in the wild by sampling only a subset of the animals. Based on a brucellosis problem with elk in Yellowstone National Park, learners cut out representations for two herds and then pick some at random to "test" for disease (denoted as a plus sign on a diseased animal). The results indicate that elk fed in Wyoming over the winter have more disease than the wild elk that go north to Montana

Museum, University O.; Nebraska Cooperative Extension 4-H Youth Development



Leishmaniasis Disease  


... Leishmaniasis General Information Leishmaniasis FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology Disease Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals Publications Additional Resources Information ...


[Cardiological diseases].  


Knowledge of rare but important clinical disease symptoms in cardiology is of vital importance in the daily routine as severe courses of disease as well as death may be prevented by early diagnosis, effective monitoring and timely initiation of an adequate therapy. In this article an important rhythmological disease, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, as well as two significant structural diseases, takotsubo (stress-related) cardiomyopathy and aortic aneurysm related to Marfan syndrome, as well as their implications for clinical practice will be presented. PMID:24005787

Gross, L; Massberg, S; Sibbing, D



Huntington's Disease  

PubMed Central

Huntington's disease (HD) is the most common inherited neurodegenerative disease and is characterized by uncontrolled excessive motor movements and cognitive and emotional deficits. The mutation responsible for HD leads to an abnormally long polyglutamine (polyQ) expansion in the huntingtin (Htt) protein, which confers one or more toxic functions to mutant Htt leading to neurodegeneration. The polyQ expansion makes Htt prone to aggregate and accumulate, and manipulations that mitigate protein misfolding or facilitate the clearance of misfolded proteins tend to slow disease progression in HD models. This article will focus on HD and the evidence that it is a conformational disease.

Finkbeiner, Steven



Disease proteomics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sequencing of the human genome and that of numerous pathogens has opened the door for proteomics by providing a sequence-based framework for mining proteomes. As a result, there is intense interest in applying proteomics to foster a better understanding of disease processes, develop new biomarkers for diagnosis and early detection of disease, and accelerate drug development. This interest creates

Sam Hanash



Celiac disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Celiac disease is a chronic intestinal disease caused by intolerance to gluten. It is characterized by immune-mediated enteropathy, associated with maldigestion and malabsorption of most nutrients and vitamins. In predisposed individuals, the ingestion of gluten-containing food such as wheat and rye induces a flat jejunal mucosa with infiltration of lymphocytes. The main symptoms are: stomach pain, gas, and bloating, diarrhea,

Wolfgang Holtmeier; Wolfgang F Caspary



Paneth's disease.  


In about 70% of patients Crohn's disease (CD) affects the small intestine. This disease location is stable over time and associated with a genetic background different from isolated colonic disease. A characteristic feature of small intestinal host defense is the presence of Paneth cells at the bottom of the crypts of Lieberkühn. These cells produce different broad spectrum antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) most abundantly the ?-defensins HD-5 and -6 (DEFA5 und DEFA6). In small intestinal Crohn's disease both these PC products are specifically reduced. As a functional consequence, ileal extracts from Crohn's disease patients are compromised in clearing bacteria and enteroadherent E. coli colonize the mucosa. Mechanisms for defective antimicrobial Paneth cell function are complex and include an association with a NOD2 loss of function mutation, a disturbance of the Wnt pathway transcription factor TCF7L2 (also known as TCF4), the autophagy factor ATG16L1, the endosomal stress protein XBP1, the toll-like receptor TLR9, the calcium mediated potassium channel KCNN4 as well as mutations or inactivation of HD5. Thus we conclude that small intestinal Crohn's disease is most likely a complex disease of the Paneth cell: Paneth's disease. PMID:21122555

Wehkamp, Jan; Stange, Eduard F



Fabry's Disease  


... system. Fabry disease is one of several lipid storage disorders and the only X-linked lipid storage disease. Since the gene that is altered is ... eye manifestations, especially cloudiness of the cornea. Lipid storage may lead to impaired arterial circulation and increased ...


Huntington's Disease  


... with an eye toward understanding how it causes disease in the human body. What research is being done? Scientific investigations ... radicals), tropic factors (natural chemical substances found in the human body that may protect ... Disease Clinical Trials At NIH Clinical Center Throughout the ...


[Celiac disease].  


Celiac disease is an enteropathy due to gluten intake in genetically predisposed persons (HLA DQ2/DQ8). Celiac disease occurs in adults and children at rates approaching 1% of population in Europe and USA. Clinical presentation of celiac disease is extremely varied. Anaemia, oral aphthous stomatis, amenorrhea or articular symptoms may reveal celiac disease. Diagnosis relies on evidence of duodenal villous atrophy and specific serum antibodies. Treatment relies on eviction of gluten (wheat, barley, rye). Gluten-free diet allows prevention of malignant complications and osteopenia. The main cause of resistance to gluten-free diet is its bad observance. On the contrary, serious complications of celiac disease, such as clonal refractory celiac sprue and intestinal T cell lymphoma need to be screen. PMID:18689116

Malamut, Georgia; Cellier, Christophe



[Lyme disease].  


Lyme disease, or Lyme borreliosis, is the most prevalent vector-borne illness in the United States of America and Europe. In the Netherlands, the disease is endemic with an estimated yearly incidence of 133 cases per 100.000 inhabitants. Lyme disease is caused by spirochetes of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and transmitted by Ixodes ticks. Diagnosing the different manifestations of Lyme disease is based on a history of possible exposure to ticks, the appearance of specific clinical symptoms, exclusion of other causes of the symptoms, whether or not combined with serological or other diagnostics tests. Antibiotics are effective in all Lyme disease manifestations and, generally, patients have a good prognosis. PMID:21761794

Coumou, J; Hovius, J W R



Buerger's Disease  


... Skin ulcerations and gangrene ( pictured below ) of the digits (fingers and toes) are common in Buerger’s disease. ... Even as ulcers and gangrene develop in the digits, organs such as the lung, kidneys, brain, and ...


Liver Diseases  


Your liver is the largest organ inside your body. It helps your body digest food, store energy, and remove poisons. There are many kinds of liver diseases. Viruses cause some of them, like hepatitis ...


Disease Resources

Key Programs Disease Resources The ASCUS/LSIL Triage Study for Cervical Cancer (ALTS) Human Papillomavirus Cervical Cancer Screening NCI Bethesda System 2001 The Bethesda System Web Atlas National Cervical Cancer Coalition American Social


Legionnaires' Disease  


... LDB and may be a hypersensitivity response to bacterial or other antigens rather than an infection. What ... of contracting disease. For additional information and current statistics, see CDC Patient Facts: Learn More about Legionnaires' ...


Addison's Disease  


... measure antibodies associated with autoimmune Addison's disease. ACTH stimulation test. This test involves measuring the level of ... If your adrenal glands are damaged, the ACTH stimulation test shows that your output of cortisol in ...


Hirschsprung Disease  


... to pass through the intestines due to missing nerve cells in the lower part of the colon — is ... rectum (short-segment disease). It's more common for nerve cells to stop developing closer to the rectum, since ...


Parkinson's Disease  


... of the brain, there is a collection of nerve cells that help control movement, known as the basal ... ah). In a person with Parkinson's disease, these nerve cells are damaged and do not work as well ...


Parkinson's disease  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... disease, dopamine production becomes irregular and inadequate and nerve cells cannot properly transmit messages. This results in the ... of medication that the body converts into dopamine, neurons are able to transmit messages and tremors improve.


Celiac Disease  


... nighttime bone pain. Lactose intolerance (a problem digesting milk products) is common in patients of all ages who have celiac disease. Dermatitis herpetiformis (an itchy, blistery skin problem) and ...


Parkinson's Disease  


Parkinson's disease (PD) is a type of movement disorder. It happens when nerve cells in the brain don't produce enough ... or speaking. There is no lab test for PD, so it can be difficult to diagnose. Doctors ...


Autoinflammatory Diseases  


... symptoms and the inflammation underlying the disease. Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) Receptor-Associated Periodic Syndrome (TRAPS) TRAPS (TNF ... genetic defect in a protein known as tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR). TNFR sits on the surface of ...


Celiac Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Celiac disease is induced by the ingestion of gluten, which is derived from wheat, barley, and rye. The gluten protein is enriched in glutamine and proline and is poor- ly digested in the human upper gastrointestinal tract. The term \\

Peter H. R. Green; Christophe Cellier



Parasitic Diseases  


Parasites are living things that use other living things - like your body - for food and a place ... diseases are easily treated and some are not. Parasites range in size from tiny, one-celled organisms ...


[Celiac disease].  


Celiac disease is an enteropathy due to gluten intake in genetically predisposed individuals (HLA DQ2/DQ8). Celiac disease occurs in adults and children at rates approaching 1% of population in Europe and USA. Clinical features observed in celiac disease are extremely various and anaemia, oral aphthous stomatis, amenorrhea or articular symptoms may be the only presenting manifestations. Diagnosis relies on the evidence of histological villous atrophy in proximal small bowel and the presence of specific serum antibodies. Treatment relies on eviction of gluten (wheat, barley, rye) from diet. Gluten free diet allows prevention of malignant complications such as small bowel adenocarcinoma and lymphoma, and osteopenia. The main cause of resistance to gluten free diet is its poor observance. If not the case, serious complications of celiac disease, such as clonal refractory celiac sprue and intestinal T-cell lymphoma should be suspected. Current therapeutic challenges concern alternative to gluten free diet and new efficient treatments of lymphomatous complications. PMID:20359791

Malamut, G; Cellier, C



Parkinson's Disease  


... Parkinson Disease Association 135 Parkinson Avenue Staten Island, NY 10305-1425 http://www.apdaparkinson. ... Central Station P.O. Box 4777 New York, NY 10163 Tel: 212-509- ...


Lyme Disease  


... effectively treat Lyme disease. These medicines can help speed healing of the erythema migrans rash and keep ... to prevent ticks from crawling under clothing. Wear light-colored clothing to make it easier to spot ...


Planning Diseases.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To solve societal problems, both local and global, a global approach is needed. Serious diseases that are crippling present-day problem solving and planning are discussed, and the characteristics of a healthy, effective planning approach are described. (RM)|

Gabel, Medard



Lung Diseases  


... Environmental Health (259KB) A Human Health Perspective on Climate Change (Full Report) (4MB) Certain Glass Wool Fibers (Inhalable) ( ... Environmental Public Health (PEPH) (357KB) Programs and Initiatives: Climate Change and Human Health Respiratory Disease and the Environment ( ...


Behcet's Disease  


... and is marked by four signs: swelling, redness, heat, and pain. Doctors think that an autoinflammatory reaction ... or disease, marked by four signs: swelling, redness, heat, and pain. Meningitis. Inflammation of the membranes that ...


Dupuytren's Disease  


... is required or that the disease will progress. Correction of finger position is best accomplished with milder ... that affect the base of the finger. Complete correction sometimes can not be attained, especially of the ...


[Prion disease].  


Human prion diseases are classified into 3 categories according to etiologies: idiopathic of unknown cause, acquired of infectious origin, and genetic by PRNP mutation. The surveillance committee have analyzed 2,494 cases and identified 1,402 as prion diseases. Most of them are idiopathic, namely sporadic CJD (77%) with less genetic and acquired prion diseases (17% and 5%, respectively). The number of patients identified by the surveillance committee in these years is about 120 which are less than the number of annual death of prion disease. The difference might be due to partly the fact our surveillance need the consent from patients' family and is not complete. The mean age at onset of prion disease is late 60s while the range is fairly wide. Brain MRIs and increase of CSF 14-3-3 and tau protein levels are very characteristic. Classical sporadic CJD could show completely normal T1WI with patchy high signals in the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia on DWI. In Japan, classical sporadic CJD (MM1) is most popular but there are some rare atypical subtypes. Among them, MM2-thalamic CJD is hardest to diagnose because it shows no high intensity signals on DWI, in addition to frequent absence of CSF and EEG characteristics. In this case, CBF decrease in the thalamus on SPECT is very helpful. Genetic prion diseases in Japan are quite distinct from those in Europe. V180I and M232R mutations are unique to Japan and show sporadic CJD phenotype. Dura graft-associated CJD (dCJD) are composed of 67% of classical sporadic CJD phenotype and 33% of atypical phenotype showing slower progression with amyloid plaques. Trace-back experiments suggested the PrP(sc) of the atypical dCJD was likely to be modified from infection of abnormal VV2 protein. Although there are some atypical forms of prion diseases as mentioned above, almost all prion cases could be diagnosed with EEG, MRI, genetic test, CSF test and SPECT. We also have some incidents in which brain surgery was done before the diagnosis of prion disease and many other patients were operated using the same operating instruments before their sterilization against prion disease had been done. The explanation of possibility of prion disease infection to the patients and their follow-up was started by the incident committee. It is very important for all the nations to cooperate with each other in order to overcome this intractable disease. PMID:21921445

Mizusawa, Hidehiro



Graves’ Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hyperthyroid Graves’ disease is one of the commonest autoimmune disorders, affecting about 1% of women. It is most frequent\\u000a in the 4th decade of life. There is a genetic predisposition to Graves’ disease, determined by alleles at the major histocompatibility\\u000a complex (MHC), cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen (CTLA-4), protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor 22 (PTPN22), and other less well-defined chromosomal loci. Additional, non-genetic,

Simon H. S. Pearce


Ménière Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computerized PubMed search of MEDLINE 1966-May 2005 was performed. The terms “Meniere disease” and “gentamicin” were exploded,\\u000a and the resulting articles were combined. The terms “intratympanic” and “transtympanic” were entered as text words as the\\u000a search term “intratympanic OR transtympanic,” and the results were combined with the Ménière disease\\/gentamicin articles.\\u000a The resulting 136 articles were limited to the English

Iee-Ching Wu Anderson; John P. Carey; Walter Kutz; William H. Slattery


Moyamoya Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Moyamoya disease is a chronic cerebrovascular disorder with spontaneous occlusion (stenosis) of terminal part of internal\\u000a carotid arteries bilaterally, along with angiogenesis at the base of the brain. Moyamoya disease is found predominantly among\\u000a those of Japanese and Korean descent; however cases now have been described worldwide. Moyamoya has a bimodal age distribution,\\u000a as it also affects children less than

Ahmed Itrat; Ayeesha Kamal


Chronic Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and human immunodeficiency virus infection are three separate entities,\\u000a each has causal and non-causal risk factors that are common in the stage 5 chronic kidney disease population. The medical\\u000a nutrition therapies are similar, which emphasize adequate protein and energy intakes, fluid control, and possibly carbohydrate\\u000a and fat modifications. Each patient requires an individualized evaluation, taking

Sharon R. Schatz


Celiac disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinically, celiac disease has always been regarded as a wasting, malabsorptive disorder due to disease of the small intestinal\\u000a mucosa. It has been difficult for clinicians to recognize that this condition is primarily due to sensitization of mesenteric\\u000a T lymphocytes to wheat protein (gluten) in genetically predisposed (DQ2+) individuals. On contact with dietary-derived gluten in the upper intestine, these sensitized

Debbie Williamson; Michael N. Marsh



Whipple Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A rare and chronic infection occurring primarily in Caucasian males and caused by the microorganism Tropheryma whipplei, Whipple disease involves the small intestine, where it leads to malabsorption, but it also causes a systemic infection with\\u000a extraintestinal signs and symptoms. It is currently thought that an abnormal host response may play a central role in the\\u000a pathogenesis of the disease,

George T. Fantry


Celiac disease.  


As many as one in every 100 to 200 persons in the United States has celiac disease, a condition resulting from an inappropriate immune response to the dietary protein gluten. The manifestations of celiac disease range from no symptoms to overt malabsorption with involvement of multiple organ systems and an increased risk of some malignancies. When celiac disease is suspected, initial testing for serum immunoglobulin A (IgA) tissue transglutaminase (tTG) antibodies is useful because it offers adequate sensitivity and specificity at a reasonable cost. A positive IgA tTG result should prompt small bowel biopsy with at least four tissue samples to confirm the diagnosis. However, 3 percent of patients with celiac disease have IgA deficiency. Therefore, if the serum IgA tTG result is negative but clinical suspicion for the disease is high, a serum total IgA level may be considered. Screening of asymptomatic patients is not recommended. The basis of treatment for celiac disease is adherence to a gluten-free diet, which may eliminate symptoms within a few months. Patients should also be evaluated for osteoporosis, thyroid dysfunction, and deficiencies in folic acid, vitamin B12, fat-soluble vitamins, and iron, and treated appropriately. Serum IgA tTG levels typically decrease as patients maintain a gluten-free diet. PMID:18217518

Presutti, R John; Cangemi, John R; Cassidy, Harvey D; Hill, David A



Behcet's disease.  


Behcet's disease (BD) is a systemic disorder of recurrent acute inflammation, characterized by major symptoms of oral aphthous ulcers, uveitis, skin lesions and genital ulcers. Involvement of intestines, vessels, and central nervous system (CNS) sometimes leads to a poor prognosis. Patients with BD are known to distribute along the ancient Silk Road. The incidence is relatively higher from eastern Asia to the Mediterranean area as roughly 1-10 patients in 10,000 people, whereas only 1-2 patients in 1,000,000 people in UK and North America. Although etiology of the disease is still unknown, high prevalence of HLA-B51, increased expression of heat shock protein 60 and Th1 dominant immune responses in the patients are considered important in its pathogenesis. Non-infectious neutrophil activation and infection with Streptococcus sanguis and herpes simplex virus would also be associated. Because BD lacks any pathognomonic symptoms and laboratory findings, the diagnosis relies largely upon the criteria proposed by the International Study Group for Behcet's disease in 1990. In Japan, the diagnosis was also made according to the Japanese criteria revised in 1987. Recently, the Behcet's Disease Research Committee of Japan again revised the Japanese criteria in 2003 to avoid overdiagnosis. The new Japanese criteria are introduced in this review. Differential diagnosis excluding Sweet's disease, pemphigus, erythema nodosum and Crohn's disease is important, and positive laboratory data for pathergy test, prick test for dead Streptococci and HLA-B51 are emphasized to make appropriate diagnosis in these criteria. Pathological findings of the disease-affected site such as erythematous nodosum is also stressed. Treatment for the disease has been chosen according to the clinical symptoms. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, immunosuppressants, corticosteroids and colchicine are basically introduced. Recently, effects of interferon-alpha/beta, anti-tumor necrosis factor antibody and thalidomide are encouraging, specifically in treatment for the cases with poor prognosis including eye, intestine, vessel and CNS involvement. Low dose weekly administration of methotraxate looks effective for the cases with CNS involvement. Further studies for elucidation of the etiology, improvement of the diagnostic criteria and development of new therapy are needed to conquer the disease. PMID:15598081

Suzuki Kurokawa, M; Suzuki, N



Behçet's disease.  


Behçet's disease is a chronic, relapsing vasculitis that can affect most organ systems. The prevalence varies geographically, and the disease is more common in countries along the ancient Silk Road, including Italy, Turkey, Israel, Saudi Arabia, Iran, China, Korea and Japan. Behçet's is more common in men than in women, and typically affects young adults. The classic finding in Behçet's patients is the presence of recurrent mucocutaneous ulcers, and oral aphthous ulcerations are usually the initial symptom. Other manifestations include genital ulcers, skin lesions, vascular, neurological, articular, and ocular disease. The disease can affect the anterior and/or posterior segments of the eye, and the main manifestations include iridocyclitis, hypopyon, mild to moderate vitreitis, retinal vasculitis and occlusion, optic disc hyperemia, and macular edema. There is no pathognomonic laboratory test in Behçet's disease, and the diagnosis is based in systemic and ocular clinical findings. Treatment of ocular Behçet is based in corticosteroids and immunosuppressive agents, to suppress acute inflammation and reduce its recurrence frequency. Ocular lesions may improve with immunosuppressive therapy, but usually are not fully reversible, and generally progress over time. The prognosis of anterior uveitis is usually good, but patients with posterior lesions tend to have some degree of visual loss, even with adequate treatment. PMID:16282155

Bonfioli, Adriana A; Orefice, Fernando


Huntington's disease.  


Huntington's disease is an autosomal-dominant, progressive neurodegenerative disorder with a distinct phenotype, including chorea and dystonia, incoordination, cognitive decline, and behavioural difficulties. Typically, onset of symptoms is in middle-age after affected individuals have had children, but the disorder can manifest at any time between infancy and senescence. The mutant protein in Huntington's disease--huntingtin--results from an expanded CAG repeat leading to a polyglutamine strand of variable length at the N-terminus. Evidence suggests that this tail confers a toxic gain of function. The precise pathophysiological mechanisms of Huntington's disease are poorly understood, but research in transgenic animal models of the disorder is providing insight into causative factors and potential treatments. PMID:17240289

Walker, Francis O



Hansen's disease: a vanishing disease?  


The introduction, implementation, successes and failures of multidrug therapy (MDT) in all Hansen's disease endemic countries are discussed in this paper. The high efficacy of leprosy treatment with MDT and the global reduction of prevalence led the World Health Organization, in 1991, to establish the goal of elimination of Hansen's disease (less than 1 patient per 10,000 inhabitants) to be accomplished by the year 2000. Brazil, Nepal and East Timor are among the few countries that didn't reach the elimination goal by the year 2000 or even 2005. The implications of these aspects are highlighted in this paper. Current data from endemic and previously endemic countries that carry a regular leprosy control programme show that the important fall in prevalence was not followed by the reduction of the incidence. This means that transmission of Mycobacterium leprae is still an issue. It is reasonable to conclude that we are still far from the most important goal of Hansen's disease control: the interruption of transmission and reduction of incidence. It is necessary to emphasize to health managers the need of keeping Hansen's disease control activities to better develop control programmes in the future. The recent international proposal to interrupt the transmission of leprosy by the year 2020 seems to unrealistic and it is discussed in this paper. The possibility of epidemiological impact related to the human immunodeficiency virus/Hansen's disease coinfection is also considered. PMID:23283447

Talhari, Sinésio; Grossi, Maria Aparecida de Faria; de Oliveira, Maria Leide W D R; Gontijo, Bernardo; Talhari, Carolina; Penna, Gerson Oliveira



Rickettsial diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rickettsial diseases are transmitted by arthropod vectors and are responsible for various spotted and typhus fevers. Epidemic typhus fever (Rickettsia prowazekii) occurs in prisons, in refugee camps and during wars, when lice thrive in unhygienic, overcrowded conditions. Endemic typhus (R. typhi) arises when humans live close to flea-infested rodents, typically near granaries, breweries, shops and garbage tips. Spotted fever infections

Nicola Jones



Whipple's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whipple's disease is a systemic bacterial infection and the common though not invariable manifestations are diarrhoea, weight loss, abdominal pain, and arthralgia. Arthritis or arthralgia may be the only presenting symptom, predating other manifestations by years. Virtually all organs in the body may be affected, with protean clinical manifestations. Various immunological abnormalities, some of which may be epiphenomena, are described.

Ranjit N Ratnaike



Meniere's Disease  


... about your symptoms and ask you to describe what happens when you have an attack. Your doctor will want to rule out other ear problems, so he or she may do some tests. These tests might include hearing and blood tests, an MRI or CT ... What is the treatment for Meniere's disease? There is ...


Lung Diseases  


When you breathe, your lungs take in oxygen from the air and deliver it to the bloodstream. The cells in your body need oxygen to ... you breathe nearly 25,000 times. People with lung disease have difficulty breathing. Millions of people in ...


Wilson's Disease  


... to test for excess copper. Genetic testing. A blood test called DNA mutation analysis can identify the genetic mutations that cause Wilson's disease. This test is available at a limited number of medical centers and is done using a small sample of blood drawn from your arm or collected from a ...


Newcastle disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. In this paper several historical and contemporary aspects of Newcastle disease (ND) are reviewed, with particular reference to the greater understanding which modern techniques have allowed. 2. Virulent ND viruses were generally thought to have emerged in 1926 as a result of transfer from a wild bird host reservoir but there is evidence that the virulent virus may have

Dennis J. Alexander



Hunger Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines three aspects of hunger disease: the effect of initial fat stores on macronutrient fuel selection during total starvation (no energy) and how it influences survival; the effects of different rates of weight loss on tissue and body function; and the importance of appetite sensations, including hunger, during malnutrition and during enteral and parenteral nutritional support. Long-term starvation





Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Marek's disease virus (MDV) is able to induce a variety of syndromes and pathological manifestation in chickens. Because of its economic impact, the development of lymphomas in nerves and viscera is the pathological feature that has received the greatest attention. Nonetheless, there are other syndr...


Krabbe's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrastructural studies of brain and sural nerve biopsy specimens from a patient with Krabbe's disease disclosed periodically constricted or twisted tubules in addition to the more abundant and characteristic crystalloid and prismatic structures within macrophages. It is suggested that the twisted tubules may result from the intracellular accumulation of lactosyl ceramide. Familiarity with these unusual tubular structures is of practical

Sydney S. Schochet; William F. McCormick; Gerald F. Powell



orphan diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a WHO: pathological conditions affecting 65 to 100\\/100,000 of the general population; FDA: incidence <20\\/100,000; EC: ?50\\/100,000;\\u000a many o.d. have a genetic origin; ? see also genetic diseases.

Gerhard Nahler


Celiac disease.  


Celiac disease, with a prevalence around 1% of the general population, is the most common genetically-induced food intolerance in the world. Triggered by the ingestion of gluten in genetically predisposed individuals, this enteropathy may appear at any age, and is characterized by a wide variety of clinical signs and symptoms. Among them, gastrointestinal presentations include chronic diarrhea, abdominal pain, weight loss or failure to thrive in children; but extra-intestinal manifestations are also common, and actually appear to be on the rise. They include a large variety of ailments, such as dermatitis Herpetiformis, anemia, short stature, osteoporosis, arthritis, neurologic problems, unexplained elevation of transaminases, and even female infertility. For the clinician interested in oral diseases, celiac disease can lead to delayed tooth eruption, dental enamel hypoplasia, recurrent oral aphthae. Diagnosing celiac disease requires therefore a high degree of suspicion followed by a very sensitive screening test: serum levels of the autoantibody anti-tissue transglutaminase. A positive subject will then be confirmed by an intestinal biopsy, and will then be put on a strict gluten-free diet, that in most cases will bring a marked improvement of symptoms. Newer forms of treatment which in the future will probably be available to the non-responsive patients are currently being actively pursued. PMID:23496382

Rivera, E; Assiri, A; Guandalini, S



Avocado diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several fungi can cause diseases of avocado (Persea americana (Mill.)) of which Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands is the most serious. Phytophthora root rot causes extensive losses of avocado trees in nearly every country where avocados are grown. The fungus can be isolated from soil and roots by using selective agar media containing antibiotic chemicals and by using various types of baits

G. A. Zentmyer



Addison Disease  


... body respond to stress and regulate your blood pressure and water and salt balance. Addison disease happens if the adrenal glands don't make enough of these hormones. A problem with your immune system ... blood pressure Patchy or dark skin Lab tests can confirm ...


Infectious Diseases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With the threat of a warmer, wetter world and a larger global population, scientists are researching how climate change may impact the spread of infectious diseases,Âsuch as cholera and dengue fever, and how outbreaks may be prevented. "Changing Planet" is produced in partnership with the National Science Foundation.

Learn, Nbc



Behçet's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behçet's disease is a systemic vasculitis of unknown aetiology characteristically affecting venules. Onset is typically in young adults with recurrent oral and genital ulceration, uveitis, skin manifestations, arthritis, neurological involvement, and a tendency to thrombosis. It has a worldwide distribution but is prevalent in Japan, the Middle East, and some Mediterranean countries. International diagnostic criteria have been proposed, however diagnosis

V Kontogiannis; R J Powell



[Castlemans disease].  


Castlemans disease is a rare but potentially serious diagnosis and, therefore, this paper aims to enhance the medical community's knowledge of this diverse disease. This is a non-malignant angiofollicular nodular hyperplasia. There are three types according to the histological picture - hyalinvascular, plasmocellular and plasmablastic, and two types according to the clinical picture - unicentric and multicentric. The symptoms are rather heterogeneous, from an asymptomatic mass seen in the unicentric form, to life-threatening systemic inflammatory state with systemic symptoms in the multicentric form. Pathophysiological mechanism involves hypersecretion of IL-6 cytokin, although the process trigger is known only in a small proportion of cases. This is HHV-8 infection that, however, is not found in every patient with Castlemans disease. Aetiology in HHV-8 negative patients is unclear. The disease is associated with a range of autoimmune conditions and some haematological malignancies. Surgical resection, some-times followed with radiotherapy, is the gold standard in the treatment of the unicentric form. Anti-IL-6 monoclonal antibodies are the optimal therapy of the multicentric form, although other modalities, including corticosteroids, chemotherapy (CHOP, CVAD), immunomodulators and rituximab, given in monotherapy or in combination, are more accessible in real practice. PMID:22486288

Majer?áková, D



Castleman disease  

PubMed Central

Castleman and Towne described a disease presenting as a mediastinal mass resembling thymoma. It is also known as "giant lymph node hyperplasia", "lymph node hamartoma", "angiofollicular mediastinal lymph node hyperplasia", and "angiomatous lymphoid hyperplasia". The pathogenesis is unknown, but the bulk of evidence points toward faulty immune regulation, resulting in excessive B-lymphocyte and plasma-cell proliferation in lymphatic tissue. In addition to the mediastinal presentation, extrathoracic involvement in the neck, axilla, mesentery, pelvis, pancreas, adrenal gland, and retroperitoneum also have been described. There are 2 major pathologic variations of Castleman disease: (1) hyaline-vascular variant, the most frequent, characterized by small hyaline-vascular follicles and capillary proliferation; and (2) the plasma-cell variant, in which large lymphoid follicles are separated by sheets of plasma cells. The hyaline-vascular cases usually are largely asymptomatic, whereas the less common plasma-cell variant may present with fever, anemia, weight loss, and night sweats, along with polyclonal hypergamma-globulinemia. Castleman disease is a rare lymphoproliferative disorders. Few cases have been described world widely. In this article we reviewed the classification, pathogenesis, pathology, radiological features and up to date treatment with special emphasis on the role of viral stimulation, recent therapeutic modalities and the HIV-associated disease.

Al-Amri, Ali M.



Smelling Diseases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We all use our noses to make quick judgments from time to time -- whether it's checking to see if the milk's still good, or if a shirt needs to go in the wash. Now, doctors are developing a kind of sniff test to screen for diseases. Find out more in this Science Update.

Science Update;



Hodgkin's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two hundred and fifty cases of histologically proven Hodgkin's disease have been reviewed. These cases were classified according to the Rye Conference histological classification (Lukes et al., 1966a) and according to the Cross classification (Cross, 1969). Overall, both classifications were reasonably effective in predicting prognosis but that of Cross with its seven sub-groups proved more difficult to use than the

K A Newton; D H Mackenzie; Margaret F Spittle; Anna Mikolajczuk



Peyronie's Disease  


... man’s self-esteem. In a small percentage of men with the milder form of the disease, inflammation may resolve ... most doctors prefer to perform surgery only on the small number of men with curvature severe enough to prevent sexual intercourse. [ ...


Prionic diseases.  


Prion diseases are neurodegenerative illnesses due to the accumulation of small infectious pathogens containing protein but apparently lacking nucleic acid, which have long incubation periods and progress inexorably once clinical symptoms appear. Prions are uniquely resistant to a number of normal decontaminating procedures. The prionopathies [Kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) and its variants, Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker (GSS) syndrome and fatal familial insomnia (FFI)] result from accumulation of abnormal isoforms of the prion protein in the brains of normal animals on both neuronal and non-neuronal cells. The accumulation of this protein or fragments of it in neurons leads to apoptosis and cell death. There is a strong link between mutations in the gene encoding the normal prion protein in humans (PRNP) - located on the short arm of chromosome 20 - and forms of prion disease with a familial predisposition (familial CJD, GSS, FFI). Clinically a prionopathy should be suspected in any case of a fast progressing dementia with ataxia, myoclonus, or in individuals with pathological insomnia associated with dysautonomia. Magnetic resonance imaging, identification of the 14-3-3 protein in the cerebrospinal fluid, tonsil biopsy and genetic studies have been used for in vivo diagnosis circumventing the need of brain biopsy. Histopathology, however, remains the only conclusive method to reach a confident diagnosis. Unfortunately, despite numerous treatment efforts, prionopathies remain short-lasting and fatal diseases. PMID:24141515

Araújo, Abelardo Q-C



Fabry disease  

PubMed Central

Fabry disease (FD) is a progressive, X-linked inherited disorder of glycosphingolipid metabolism due to deficient or absent lysosomal ?-galactosidase A activity. FD is pan-ethnic and the reported annual incidence of 1 in 100,000 may underestimate the true prevalence of the disease. Classically affected hemizygous males, with no residual ?-galactosidase A activity may display all the characteristic neurological (pain), cutaneous (angiokeratoma), renal (proteinuria, kidney failure), cardiovascular (cardiomyopathy, arrhythmia), cochleo-vestibular and cerebrovascular (transient ischemic attacks, strokes) signs of the disease while heterozygous females have symptoms ranging from very mild to severe. Deficient activity of lysosomal ?-galactosidase A results in progressive accumulation of globotriaosylceramide within lysosomes, believed to trigger a cascade of cellular events. Demonstration of marked ?-galactosidase A deficiency is the definitive method for the diagnosis of hemizygous males. Enzyme analysis may occasionnally help to detect heterozygotes but is often inconclusive due to random X-chromosomal inactivation so that molecular testing (genotyping) of females is mandatory. In childhood, other possible causes of pain such as rheumatoid arthritis and 'growing pains' must be ruled out. In adulthood, multiple sclerosis is sometimes considered. Prenatal diagnosis, available by determination of enzyme activity or DNA testing in chorionic villi or cultured amniotic cells is, for ethical reasons, only considered in male fetuses. Pre-implantation diagnosis is possible. The existence of atypical variants and the availability of a specific therapy singularly complicate genetic counseling. A disease-specific therapeutic option - enzyme replacement therapy using recombinant human ?-galactosidase A - has been recently introduced and its long term outcome is currently still being investigated. Conventional management consists of pain relief with analgesic drugs, nephroprotection (angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptors blockers) and antiarrhythmic agents, whereas dialysis or renal transplantation are available for patients experiencing end-stage renal failure. With age, progressive damage to vital organ systems develops and at some point, organs may start to fail in functioning. End-stage renal disease and life-threatening cardiovascular or cerebrovascular complications limit life-expectancy of untreated males and females with reductions of 20 and 10 years, respectively, as compared to the general population. While there is increasing evidence that long-term enzyme therapy can halt disease progression, the importance of adjunctive therapies should be emphasized and the possibility of developing an oral therapy drives research forward into active site specific chaperones.



[Perthes disease].  


The Legg-Calve-Perthes disease is an idiopathic avascular necrosis of the hip during early childhood. It is characterized by different stages with the main risk of persisting hip deformation, dysfunction of the joint movement, and the potential for early osteoarthritis. For the evaluation of prognosis and therapy planning patients age and extent of the necrotic area of the epiphysis are important factors. For an early diagnosis and sufficient therapy all radiological efforts have to be performed. MR imaging is an ideal method for the assessment of osteonecrotic changes of the Morbus Perthes. Compared to plain radiography by MR imaging pathologic alterations can be detected earlier and with higher specificity. However, conventional radiograms have to be still used as basic imaging modality. Nowadays x-rays and MR imaging should be the main methods for the evaluation of children suffering from Perthes disease. PMID:12149903

Kramer, J; Hofmann, S; Scheurecker, A; Tschauner, C



Thyroid disease  

SciTech Connect

Presenting a multidisciplinary approach to the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disease, this volume provides a comprehensive picture of current thyroid medicine and surgery. The book integrates the perspectives of the many disciplines that deal with the clinical manifestations of thyroid disorders. Adding to the clinical usefulness of the book is the state-of-the-art coverage of many recent developments in thyroidology, including the use of highly sensitive two-site TSH immunoradionetric measurements to diagnose thyroid activity; thyroglobulin assays in thyroid cancer and other diseases; new diagnostic applications of MRI and CT; treatment with radionuclides and chemotherapy; new developments in thyroid immunology, pathology, and management of hyperthyroidism; suppressive treatment with thyroid hormone; and management of Graves' ophthalmopathy. The book also covers all aspects of thyroid surgery, including surgical treatment of hyperthyroidism; papillary, follicular, and other carcinomas; thyroidectomy; and prevention and management of complications.

Falk, S.



Chest Diseases  

PubMed Central

The Council on Scientific Affairs of the California Medical Association presents the following epitomes of progress in chest diseases. Each item, in the judgment of a panel of knowledgeable physicians, has recently become reasonably firmly established, both as to scientific fact and clinical importance. The items are presented in simple epitome, and an authoritative reference, both to the item itself and to the subject as a whole, is generally given for those who may be unfamiliar with a particular item. The purpose is to assist busy practitioners, students, researchers, and scholars to stay abreast of progress in medicine, whether in their own field of special interest or another. The epitomes included here were selected by the Advisory Panel to the Section on Chest Diseases of the California Medical Association, and the summaries were prepared under the direction of Dr Cosentino and the panel.

Baydur, Ahmet



Morgellons disease?  


Morgellons disease, a pattern of dermatologic symptoms very similar, if not identical, to those of delusions of parasitosis, was first described many centuries ago, but has recently been given much attention on the internet and in the mass media. The present authors present a history of Morgellons disease, in addition to which they discuss the potential benefit of using this diagnostic term as a means of building trust and rapport with patients to maximize treatment benefit. The present authors also suggest "meeting the patient halfway" and creating a therapeutic alliance when providing dermatologic treatment by taking their cutaneous symptoms seriously enough to provide both topical ointments as well as antipsychotic medications, which can be therapeutic in these patients. PMID:18318880

Accordino, Robert E; Engler, Danielle; Ginsburg, Iona H; Koo, John


Celiac disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Celiac disease (CD), or gluten-sensitive enteropathy, is a life-long disorder characterized by a severe damage of the small intestinal mucosa when ingesting gluten, a protein fraction found in wheat, rye and barley. Both in Europe and in the United States, the prevalence of CD in the general population is high, ranging between 0.3 and 1%. The clinical spectrum is highly

Carlo Catassi; Fabiola Fornaroli; Alessio Fasano



Celiac Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune disorder occurring in genetically susceptible individuals, triggered by gluten and related\\u000a prolamins, and plant storage proteins found in wheat, barley, and rye. It affects primarily the small intestine, where it\\u000a progressively leads to flattening of the small intestinal mucosa and subsequent nutrient malabsorption. Its pathogenesis involves\\u000a interactions among genetic, environmental, and immunological factors. Well-identified

Stefano Guandalini


Lyme disease  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To determine physicians’ level of awareness and knowledge of Lyme disease (LD) in a low-prevalence area and whether physicians’ practices align with current guidelines for treatment of LD. Design A 23-item questionnaire assessing demographic characteristics, general knowledge about LD, laboratory testing for LD, and responses to 3 clinical scenarios. Setting British Columbia (BC). Participants Pediatricians, FPs, and internal medicine specialists who were licensed to practise in BC. Main outcome measures Knowledge of signs and symptoms of LD, beliefs about risk of LD, attitudes toward LD in patients in their practices, and application of accepted practice guidelines for the treatment of LD in clinical scenarios. Results Overall, 80.6% of respondents were FPs. Average knowledge score was 72.5% for FPs and 75.0% for other specialists. Most respondents (75.6% of FPs and 71.8% of other specialists) underestimated the occurrence of erythema migrans (EM), and only 26.1% and 28.3%, respectively, knew that EM alone was diagnostic for LD. A total of 30.5% of FPs and 12.1% of other specialists reported having treated a patient for the disease despite not believing that the patient had LD. Of all the respondents, 62.1% knew that LD was a reportable disease in BC. Respondents’ reports of risk of LD in their areas were appropriately associated with actual risk based on ecological niche. Conclusion Physicians are knowledgeable about the clinical signs and symptoms of LD and aware of the risk of the disease despite being in a low-endemic area. Physicians in BC are comfortable with treating patients empirically for LD. Education is needed to inform physicians that EM is diagnostic and no laboratory testing is indicated before treatment. Raising awareness among physicians that LD is reportable might improve reporting of future cases.

Henry, Bonnie; Crabtree, Alexis; Roth, David; Blackman, Doug; Morshed, Muhammad



Autoimmune Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several autoimmune diseases are particularly important to oral health and nutrition because of their direct impact on the\\u000a oral mucosa, masticatory apparatus, salivary glands, teeth and supporting structures, oral pain, or mechanical ability to\\u000a chew. For some disorders, the earliest signs of systemic illness are found in the oral cavity, and these remain as significant\\u000a manifestations of the primary immune

David A. Sirois; Riva Touger-Decker


Huntington's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Huntington’s disease (HD) is a familial and rare inherited neurological disorder with a prevalence of 5–8 cases per 100,000\\u000a worldwide. This makes HD the most common inherited neurodegenerative disorder (Fahn, 2005). HD is passed from parent to child\\u000a in autosomal dominant fashion. Each child of an HD parent has a 50% chance of inheriting HD. Both sexes are affected equally.

Seymour Gendelman; Howard E. Gendelman; Tsuneya Ikezu


Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Health Issue Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in Canadian women and men. In general, women present with a wider range of symptoms, are more likely to delay seeking medial care and are less likely to be investigated and treated with evidence-based medications, angioplasty or coronary artery bypass graft than men. Key Findings In 1998, 78,964 Canadians died from CVD, almost half (39,197) were women. Acute myocardial infarction, which increases significantly after menopause, was the leading cause of death among women. Cardiovascular disease accounted for 21% of all hospital admissions for Canadian women over age 50 in 1999. Admissions to hospital for ischemic heart disease were more frequent for men, but the mean length of hospital stay was longer for women. Mean blood pressure increases with age in both men and women. After age 65, however, high blood pressure is more common among Canadian women. More than one-third of postmenopausal Canadian women have hypertension. Diabetes increases the mortality and morbidity associated with CVD in women more than it does in men. Depression also contributes to the incidence and recovery from CVD, particularly for women who experience twice the rate of depression as men. Data Gaps and Recommendations CVD needs to be recognized as a woman's health issue given Canadian mortality projections (particularly heart failure). Health professionals should be trained to screen, track, and address CVD risk factors among women, including hypertension, elevated lipid levels, smoking, physical inactivity, depression, diabetes and low socio-economic status.

Grace, Sherry L; Fry, Rick; Cheung, Angela; Stewart, Donna E



Beryllium disease  

SciTech Connect

After two workers at the nuclear weapons plant at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee were diagnosed earlier this year with chronic beryllium disease (CBD), a rare and sometimes fatal scarring of the lungs, the Department of Energy ordered up a 4-year probe. Now, part of that probe has begun - tests conducted by the Oak Ridge Associated Universities' Center for Epidemiological Research measuring beryllium sensitivity in 3,000 people who've been exposed to the metal's dust since Manhattan Project managers opened the Y-12 plant at Oak Ridge in 1943. Currently, 119 Y-12 employees process beryllium, which has a number of industrial uses, including rocket heat shields and nuclear weapon and electrical components. The disease often takes 20 to 25 years to develop, and the stricken employees haven't worked with beryllium for years. There is no cure for CBD, estimated to strike 2% of people exposed to the metal. Anti-inflammatory steroids alleviate such symptoms as a dry cough, weight loss, and fatigue. Like other lung-fibrosis diseases that are linked to lung cancer, some people suspect CBD might cause some lung cancer. While difficult to diagnose, about 900 cases of CBD have been reported since a Beryllium Case Registry was established in 1952. The Department of Energy (DOE) estimates that about 10,000 DOE employees and 800,000 people in private industry have worked with beryllium.

Not Available



Whipple's disease.  


Whipple's disease is a chronic, systemic infection caused by Tropheryma whipplei. Gene amplification, isolation and DNA sequencing of T whipplei have extended our knowledge of this pathogen, which is now recognised as a ubiquitous commensal bacterium. The spectrum of signs associated with T whipplei has now been extended beyond the classic form, which affects middle-aged men, and begins with recurrent arthritis followed several years later by digestive problems associated with other diverse clinical signs. Children may present an acute primary infection, but only a small number of people with a genetic predisposition subsequently develop authentic Whipple's disease. This bacterium may also cause localised chronic infections with no intestinal symptoms: endocarditis, central nervous system involvement, arthritis, uveitis and spondylodiscitis. An impaired TH1 immune response is seen. T whipplei replication in vitro is dependent on interleukin 16 and is accompanied by the apoptosis of host cells, facilitating dissemination of the bacterium. In patients with arthritis, PCR with samples of joint fluid, saliva and stools has become the preferred examination for diagnosis. Immunohistochemical staining is also widely used for diagnosis. Treatment is based on recent microbiological data, but an immune reconstitution syndrome and recurrence remain possible. The future development of serological tests for diagnosis and the generalisation of antigen detection by immunohistochemistry should make it possible to obtain a diagnosis earlier and thus to decrease the morbidity, and perhaps also the mortality, associated with this curable disease which may, nonetheless, be fatal if diagnosed late or in an extensive systemic form. PMID:23291386

Puéchal, Xavier



Lyme Disease Transmission  


... Health Officials Veterinarians Tool kit Lyme disease quiz Lyme disease transmission The Lyme disease bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi , is ... blacklegged ticks Are there other ways to get Lyme disease? There is no evidence that Lyme disease is ...


Plant Disease Lesson: Dutch elm disease  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This plant disease lesson on Dutch elm disease (caused by the fungus Ophiostoma ulmi) includes information on symptoms and signs, pathogen biology, disease cycle and epidemiology, disease management, and the significance of the disease. Selected references are listed and a glossary is also available for use with this resource.

Cleora J. D'Arcy (University of Illinois;)



[Perianal disease in Crohn disease].  


The treatment of perianal disease by Morbus Crohn belongs to a general conceptional therapy of this disease and requires close cooperation between gastro-enterologist and surgeon. Primary role in the treatment belongs to the internist, surgeon intervenes only in case of complications or during failure of the conservative treatment. Simple, asymptomatic fistulas are treated conservatively. The fistulas with trouble requires local surgical treatment. In case complicated, multiplied of the fistulas is indicated curative resection of the bowel, if it is indicated from another reasons, in dependence on classical criterions. Temporary derivative colostomy is applied in case, where curative resection is not indicated or if the rectum is not affected or if curative resection and local surgical treatment were ineffective. Proctectomy is applied only during massive affection of rectum and destruction of spincters. Our work confirms that the mentioned surgical methods in treatment of perianal disorder accompanying Morbus Crohn are still valid and the improvement of results in treatment this disease could be expected rather on the field of farmacotherapy. PMID:7992020

Klofanda, J



[Behçet's disease].  


Behçet's disease is a systemic vascularitis appearing primarily by an oral and/or genital aphtose and an uveitis, the unit constituting the tripod of call of the diagnosis having led to its initial description. But its clinical demonstrations are protean with other quasi-specific cutaneous signs and a whole panel of organic attacks, the complicated syndromic forms being the entero-, the angio- and the neuro-Behçet. Its diagnosis is sometimes difficult in the absence of clinical or biological specific signs, in particular when the tripod diagnosis is incomplete. The prognosis of this disease remains heavy, in particular on the ophthalmologic functional level, because of the absence of specific curative treatment, its etiology remaining ignored to date. However, ongoing therapeutic progress are observed for severe and refractory forms to conventional immunosuppressive drugs with the advent of anti-TNFalpha drugs of which the precise place in the therapeutic arsenal, still badly codified, and the long-term effectiveness remain to be specified. PMID:18524110

Aouba, Achille



Kidney Disease and Diabetes  


... Introduction Cardiovascular Disease & Diabetes Peripheral Artery Disease & Diabetes Kidney Disease & Diabetes Cholesterol Abnormalities & Diabetes • Understand Your Risk for Diabetes • Symptoms, Diagnosis & ...


Disease Activity Measures in Paediatric Rheumatic Diseases  

PubMed Central

Disease activity refers to potentially reversible aspects of a disease. Measurement of disease activity in paediatric rheumatic diseases is a critical component of patient care and clinical research. Disease activity measures are developed systematically, often involving consensus methods. To be useful, a disease activity measure must be feasible, valid, and interpretable. There are several challenges in quantifying disease activity in paediatric rheumatology; namely, the conditions are multidimensional, the level of activity must be valuated in the context of treatment being received, there is no gold standard for disease activity, and it is often difficult to incorporate the patient's perspective of their disease activity. To date, core sets of response variables are defined for juvenile idiopathic arthritis, juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus, and juvenile dermatomyositis, as well as definitions for improvement in response to therapy. Several specific absolute disease activity measures also exist for each condition. Further work is required to determine the optimal disease activity measures in paediatric rheumatology.

Luca, Nadia J.; Feldman, Brian M.



Machado-Joseph Disease  


NINDS Machado-Joseph Disease Information Page Condensed from Machado-Joseph Disease Fact Sheet Table of Contents (click to jump ... is being done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Machado-Joseph Disease? Machado-Joseph disease (MJD), which is ...


Testing for Kidney Disease  


... and Kidney Disease Additional Kidney Information Testing for Kidney Disease Early kidney disease usually does not have signs ( ... how often you should be tested. Testing for Kidney Disease Overview Understanding GFR Understanding Urine Albumin Videos Testing ...


Diseases and Conditions  


... Diseases & Conditions Health & Wellness Studies & Data Patient Treatment Employee Health About Us Site Search Diseases & Conditions Home ... Diseases & Conditions Health & Wellness Studies & Data Patient Treatment Employee Health About You are here: Home » Diseases & Conditions ...


Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease  


... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease? Childhood interstitial (in-ter-STISH-al) lung disease, or ... doctors better understand these diseases. Rate This Content: Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease Clinical Trials Clinical trials are ...


Diseases from Wildlife  


... Histoplasma Infection (histoplasmosis) : A fungal disease associated with bat guano (stool). Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis : A viral disease associated ... disease associated with wildlife especially raccoons, skunks, and bats. Tularemia : An infectious disease associated with wildlife especially ...


Acid Lipase Disease  


... Acid Lipase Disease Information Page Synonym(s): Cholesterol Ester Storage Disease, Wolman’s Disease Table of Contents (click to ... include waxes, oils, and cholesterol. Two rare lipid storage diseases are caused by the deficiency of the ...


Lipid Storage Diseases  


NINDS Lipid Storage Diseases Information Page Condensed from Lipid Storage Diseases Fact Sheet Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) ... Organizations Additional resources from MedlinePlus What are Lipid Storage Diseases? Lipid storage diseases are a group of ...


Kidney and Urologic Diseases  


... Urea Nitrogen ) C Calcitriol (See Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral and Bone Disorder ) Cardiovascular Disease and CKD (for ... Nutrition (for health care professionals) Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral and Bone Disorder Chronic Kidney Disease: What Does ...


Office of Rare Diseases  


... the Undiagnosed Contact GARD Feedback for GARD More Search for Genetic & Rare Diseases Search Go Browse Diseases ... Archive Conferences Rare Disease Day Staff Contact More Search for Conferences on Rare Diseases Search Go Advanced ...


Alzheimer's disease: strategies for disease modification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alzheimer's disease is the largest unmet medical need in neurology. Current drugs improve symptoms, but do not have profound disease-modifying effects. However, in recent years, several approaches aimed at inhibiting disease progression have advanced to clinical trials. Among these, strategies targeting the production and clearance of the amyloid-? peptide — a cardinal feature of Alzheimer's disease that is thought to

Martin Citron



What Is Celiac Disease?  


What is Celiac Disease? (Pronounced: SEE-lee-ack disease) Celiac disease (CD), also known as celiac sprue or gluten-sensitive enteropathy, is ... a variety of other related complications become apparent. Celiac Disease is: an inherited disease. Celiac disease effects those ...


Parathyroid Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Cutaneous manifestations in parathyroid-related diseases are rare in sporadic cases but not unusual in familial syndromes.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Familial isolated hyperparathyroidism is usually not accompanied by diagnostic skin manifestations.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Diagnostic cutaneous signs are found in MEN type 1 (angiofibromas and collagenomas) and MEN type 2 (cutaneous amyloidosis).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Metastatic calcification is commonly encountered in patients with hyperparathyroidism secondary to

Yann Charli-Joseph; Marcela Saeb-Lima



EPA Science Inventory

The rare disease list includes rare diseases and conditions for which information requests have been made to the Office of Rare Diseases. A rare disease is defined as a disease or condition for which there are fewer than 200,000 affected persons alive in the United States. The Of...


Strategies for disease modification in Alzheimer's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treating Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the biggest unmet medical need in neurology. Current drugs improve symptoms, but do not have profound disease-modifying effects. Three main classes of disease-modification approaches can be defined: one that is broadly neurotrophic or neuroprotective, one that targets specific aspects of AD pathology, and one that is based on epidemiological observation. This review discusses all three

Martin Citron



Machado-Joseph Disease  


Machado-Joseph Disease Fact Sheet See a list of all NINDS Disorders Get Web page suited for ... Where can I get more information? What is Machado-Joseph Disease? Machado-Joseph disease (MJD)—also called ...


Sexually Transmitted Diseases  


... of this website will be limited. Search Help? Sexually Transmitted Diseases Share this page: Was this page helpful? Overview | Related Pages Also known as: STDs; Sexually transmitted infections; STIs; Venereal diseases What are sexually transmitted diseases? ...


Pneumococcal Disease Fast Facts  


... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2013. Active Bacterial Core Surveillance Report, Emerging Infections Program Network, Streptococcus ... Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases , Division of Bacterial Diseases Home A-Z Index Site Map Policies ...


Sickle Cell Disease Quiz  


... Sickle Cell Disease is one of the most common genetic diseases in the United States. Sickle cell disease affects about 70,000 to 100,000 Americans. Test Your Knowledge... 1. True or False: Only African Americans get ...


Neuromuscular Disease Descriptions  


... problems. Peripheral motor neuron diseases (involving muscle-controlling nerve cells of the arms, legs, neck, face) Charcot-Marie- ... diabetes and heart disease. Motor neuron diseases (involving nerve cells in the spinal cord) Infantile progressive spinal muscular ...


Coronary Microvascular Disease (MVD)  


... Causes Who Is at Risk Signs & Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Prevention Living With Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Heart Disease in Women Atherosclerosis Coronary Heart Disease Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors ...


Celiac Disease Tests  


... of this website will be limited. Search Help? Celiac Disease Tests Share this page: Was this page helpful? ... celiac disease? 1. What is the difference between celiac disease and an allergy to wheat and other grains? ...


Celiac disease - sprue  


Celiac disease is a condition that damages the lining of the small intestine and prevents it from absorbing ... The exact cause of celiac disease is unknown. The lining of the ... which help absorb nutrients. When people with celiac disease ...


Diabetes and Celiac Disease  


... done by a simple blood test. What is celiac disease? - A malabsorption disease caused by eating gluten - a ... 100 people in the United States. Diabetes and celiac disease: The link - There is a genetic link between ...


Pediatric Celiac Disease  


... of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition Nurses Print Share Celiac Disease Many kids have sensitivities to certain foods, and ... protein found in wheat, rye, and barley. Pediatric Celiac Disease If your child has celiac disease, consuming gluten ...


Associated Autoimmune Diseases  


... follow up with the doctor? With the dietitian? Celiac Disease and Associated Autoimmune Diseases: The Connection People who ... is available at www.GLUTEN. net. Advances in celiac disease are fast-paced. If this document is more ...


Testing for Celiac Disease  


... and Titles : Testing for Celiac Disease Testing for Celiac Disease On this page: Serologic Tests tTG EMA DGP ... M.D., Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN. [ Top ] The Celiac Disease Awareness Campaign The National Institutes of Health Celiac ...


Celiac Disease Awareness Campaign  


... Welcome to the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Celiac Disease Awareness Campaign Celiac disease is an immune reaction to gluten, a protein ... information about the symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of celiac disease, also known as celiac sprue, nontropical sprue, and ...


Leprosy (Hansen's Disease)  


... on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Leprosy (Hansen's Disease) Skip Content Marketing Share this: What Is Leprosy? Leprosy (Hansen’s Disease), is a chronic infectious disease that primarily affects ...


Coronary heart disease  


... the heart can slow down or stop. A risk factor for heart disease is something that increases your chance of getting it. You cannot change some risk factors for heart disease, but others you can change. See: Heart disease - ...


Peripheral Artery Disease  


Peripheral Artery Disease • Overview Peripheral artery disease, or P.A.D., refers to arterial disease that occurs outside of the heart or brain. In P.A.D., the arteries that carry oxygenated blood throughout the body become ...


Tay-Sachs disease  


Tay-Sachs disease is a life-threatening disease of the nervous system passed down through families. ... Tay-Sachs disease occurs when the body lacks hexosaminidase A, a protein that helps break down a chemical ...


Chagas Disease: Detailed FAQs  


... have Chagas disease. In what parts of the world is Chagas disease found? People who have Chagas disease can be found anywhere in the world. However, vectorborne transmission is confined to the Americas, ...


Parkinson's disease - discharge  


Your doctor has told you that you have Parkinson’s disease . This disease affects the brain and leads to ( ... place you on different medicines to treat your Parkinson’s disease and many of the problems that may come ...


Diabetic heart disease  

PubMed Central

Diabetes mellitus is responsible for a spectrum of cardiovascular disease. The best known complications arise from endothelial dysfunction, oxidation, inflammation, and vascular remodelling and contribute to atherogenesis. However, the effects on the heart also relate to concurrent hypertensive heart disease, as well as direct effects of diabetes on the myocardium. Diabetic heart disease, defined as myocardial disease in patients with diabetes that cannot be ascribed to hypertension, coronary artery disease, or other known cardiac disease, is reviewed.

Marwick, T H



Drug-Disease Interactions  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... Renal disease. Cardiac disease ( hepatic blood flow). Acute myocardial infarction? Acute viral infection? Hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism? ... More results from


Atheroembolic renal disease  


Renal disease - atheroembolic; Cholesterol embolization syndrome; Atheroemboli - renal; Atherosclerotic disease - renal ... disorder of the arteries. It occurs when fat, cholesterol, and other substances build up in the walls ...


Meningococcal Disease: Risk Factors  


... Contact CDC-INFO Meningococcal Disease Home About the Disease Risk Factors Age Community Settings Certain Medical Conditions Travel Causes & Transmission Signs & Symptoms Diagnosis & Treatment Prevention ...


Liver in systemic disease  

PubMed Central

Potential causes of abnormal liver function tests include viral hepatitis, alcohol intake, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, autoimmune liver diseases, hereditary diseases, hepatobiliary malignancies or infection, gallstones and drug-induced liver injury. Moreover, the liver may be involved in systemic diseases that mainly affect other organs. Therefore, in patients without etiology of liver injury by screening serology and diagnostic imaging, but who have systemic diseases, the abnormal liver function test results might be caused by the systemic disease. In most of these patients, the systemic disease should be treated primarily. However, some patients with systemic disease and severe liver injury or fulminant hepatic failure require intensive treatments of the liver.

Shimizu, Yukihiro



Diseases of Dairy Animals: Infectious Diseases: Johne's Disease  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Johne's disease is a chronic, debilitating intestinal disorder in cattle, sheep and wild ruminants, characterized by diarrhea, weight loss and death. Animals usually become infected when they are young by ingesting feces or milk containing the causative bacteria. However, clinical signs of disease...


Sickle Cell Disease (SCD)  


... Volunteer Search Email this page Print this page Sickle cell disease (SCD) Tweet Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a disease of the hemoglobin. The ... hemoglobin S genes, is the most common form of sickle cell disease. There are variations on SCD where the patient ...


Lyme Disease in Oregon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incidence of Lyme disease in Oregon is calculated from cases reported to the Oregon State Health Division. We reviewed the exposure history of reported cases of Lyme disease and performed field surveys for infected Ixodes pacificus ticks. The incidence of Lyme disease correlated with the distribution of infected I. pacificus ticks. The average reported annual incidence of Lyme disease

J. Stone Doggett; Sue Kohlhepp; Robert Gresbrink; Paul Metz; Curt Gleaves; David Gilbert


Cardiovascular disease in pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the latest Confidential Enquiry into Maternal and Child Health, cardiac disease remains the leading cause of maternal death in the UK. Increasing maternal age and extended survival of patients with complex congenital disease are partly responsible for a rising number of patients with cardiac disease in pregnancy. Another large proportion consists of patients with rheumatic disease (often previously undiagnosed)

Anna Herrey; Catherine Nelson-Piercy



Cognition in liver disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Cognitive dysfunction has been observed in a range of liver diseases including chronic hepatitis C virus , alcoholic liver disease, primary biliary cirrhosis and Wilson's disease. Such dysfunction may range from mild cognitive changes to overt hepatic encephalopathy, and represents a significant complication of liver disease that may negatively impact the patient's quality of life, and normal activities of

Alexander Collie



Tay-Sachs Disease  


NINDS Tay-Sachs Disease Information Page Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What is Tay-Sachs Disease? Is ... Trials Organizations Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Tay-Sachs Disease? Tay-Sachs disease is a fatal genetic ...


Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease  


NINDS Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Information Page Condensed from Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Fact Sheet Table of Contents (click to jump ... Trials Organizations Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease? Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a ...


Kidney disease in cardiology.  


Focusing on the convergence of cardiology and nephrology, this article marks the second year of NDT's section on Kidney Diseases beyond Nephrology. The clinical themes highlighted by the articles chosen for review include risk stratification and diagnosis of ischemic heart disease in severe chronic kidney disease and endstage renal disease patients, trials to reduce the risk of acute kidney injury (particularly contrast nephropathy) occurring with the invasive diagnosis and treatment of ischemic heart disease, and new data on the special clinical characteristics of dialysis patients with acute myocardial infarction. Finally, two clinical trials focusing on cardiovascular disease in severe kidney disease patients will be briefly highlighted. PMID:18079149

Herzog, Charles A



Disease model: LAMP2 enlightens Danon disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Danon disease (‘lysosomal glycogen storage disease with normal acid maltase’) is characterized by a cardiomyopathy, myopathy and variable mental retardation. Mutations in the coding sequence of the lysosomal-associated membrane protein 2 (LAMP-2) were shown to cause a LAMP-2 deficiency in patients with Danon disease. LAMP-2 deficient mice manifest a similar vacuolar cardioskeletal myopathy. In addition to the patient reports LAMP-2

Paul Saftig; Kurt von Figura; Yshitaka Tanaka; Renate Lüllmann-Rauch



Renal cystic disease  

SciTech Connect

The book begins with an overview of renal cystic disease and a presentation of simple renal cysts. Subsequent chapters cover cystic disease in association with renal neoplasms and medullary sponge kidney. The chapters addressing autosomal-dominant and autosomal-recessive polycystic kidney disease discuss and differentiate the infantile and adult forms of the disease. There are also separate discussions of medullary cystic disease, multicystic dysplastic kidney, and cysts of the renarenal sinus.

Hartman, D.S.



Inflammatory Bowel Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) describes a heterogeneous group of chronic inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, of which Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis are the most common diagnoses. About a quarter of IBD presents in childhood, and the phenotype seen involves a wider disease distribution in both Crohn’s and ulcerative colitis than seen in adult-onset disease. The incidence of IBD

Richard Hansen; Fiona Louise Cameron; Georgina Louise Hold; Emad Munir El-Omar; Richard Kay Russell



Salivary gland disease.  


Salivary gland disease covers a wide range of pathological entities, including salivary gland-specific disease, as well as manifestations of systemic diseases. This chapter discusses the recent advances in managing obstructive salivary gland disease, the move from gland excision to gland preservation, the dilemmas in diagnosing and managing tumours of the salivary glands, and the international data collection to understand the aetiology and progression of Sjögren's disease. PMID:20428015

Thomas, Bethan L; Brown, Jackie E; McGurk, Mark



Zoonotic Diseases Go Global  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This recent Whyfiles feature offers a detailed look at zoonotic diseases, or those diseases that spread to people from other animals. Zoonotic diseases, such as monkeypox and West Nile virus, make up two-thirds of all infectious diseases and may represent a growing threat. This 4-page Whyfiles piece provides an insightful and easy-to-understand discussion of emerging zoonotic diseases, including a short section on the hazards presented by our own household pets.



Prion Diseases as Transmissible Zoonotic Diseases  

PubMed Central

Prion diseases, also called transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), lead to neurological dysfunction in animals and are fatal. Infectious prion proteins are causative agents of many mammalian TSEs, including scrapie (in sheep), chronic wasting disease (in deer and elk), bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE; in cattle), and Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (CJD; in humans). BSE, better known as mad cow disease, is among the many recently discovered zoonotic diseases. BSE cases were first reported in the United Kingdom in 1986. Variant CJD (vCJD) is a disease that was first detected in 1996, which affects humans and is linked to the BSE epidemic in cattle. vCJD is presumed to be caused by consumption of contaminated meat and other food products derived from affected cattle. The BSE epidemic peaked in 1992 and decreased thereafter; this decline is continuing sharply owing to intensive surveillance and screening programs in the Western world. However, there are still new outbreaks and/or progression of prion diseases, including atypical BSE, and iatrogenic CJD and vCJD via organ transplantation and blood transfusion. This paper summarizes studies on prions, particularly on prion molecular mechanisms, BSE, vCJD, and diagnostic procedures. Risk perception and communication policies of the European Union for the prevention of prion diseases are also addressed to provide recommendations for appropriate government policies in Korea.

Lee, Jeongmin; Kim, Su Yeon; Hwang, Kyu Jam; Ju, Young Ran; Woo, Hee-Jong



Darier's disease and schizophrenia.  


Darier's disease, also known as Darier-White disease or keratosis follicularis, is a rare autosomal dominant genodermatosis. Clinical experience has long suggested an association between neuropsychiatric abnormalities and Darier's disease. Although there are no formal epidemiological studies confirming this association, there have been a number of reports of patients with neuropsychiatric manifestations and Darier's disease in the literature. However, most reports have come from Caucasian populations, with limited reports of Darier's disease and its neuropsychiatric associations among Asian populations. This report describes 2 Asian patients presenting with associated schizophrenia and Darier's disease. PMID:22348929

Tang, C; Chan, M; Lee, J; Hariram, J



Heterogeneity in Cushing's disease.  


Some patients with Cushing's disease respond to neuropharmacological treatment, whereas others do not. This apparent heterogeneity has been attributed to the existence of a separate form of Cushing's disease of putative neurointermediate lobe origin as opposed to Cushing's disease of anterior pituitary origin. The present review summarizes recent observations in human and canine Cushing's disease which mitigate against this view. We propose that heterogeneity in Cushing's disease is related to heterogeneity of the normal anterior pituitary corticotroph. However, the most fundamental questions concerning the pathogenesis of Cushing's disease remain unanswered. PMID:2192296

Croughs, R J; Rijnberk, A; Koppeschaar, H P



Diarrheal Diseases - Acute and Chronic  


... doctor if you have a family history of celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), have unintentional weight loss, ... common small bowel disease in the U.S. is celiac disease, also called celiac sprue. Crohn’s disease can also ...


Cardiac Disease in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease  

PubMed Central

The cardiac manifestations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are numerous. Impairments of right ventricular dysfunction and pulmonary vascular disease are well known to complicate the clinical course of COPD and correlate inversely with survival. The pathogenesis of pulmonary vascular disease in COPD is likely multifactorial and related to alterations in gas exchange and vascular biology, as well as structural changes of the pulmonary vasculature and mechanical factors. Several modalities currently exist for the assessment of pulmonary vascular disease in COPD, but right heart catheterization remains the gold standard. Although no specific therapy other than oxygen has been generally accepted for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension in this population, there has been renewed interest in specific pulmonary vasodilators. The coexistence of COPD and coronary artery disease occurs frequently. This association is likely related to shared risk factors as well as similar pathogenic mechanisms, such as systemic inflammation. Management strategies for the care of patients with COPD and coronary artery disease are similar to those without COPD, but care must be given to address their respiratory limitations. Arrhythmias occur frequently in patients with COPD, but are rarely fatal and can generally be treated medically. Use of ?-blockers in the management of cardiac disease, while a theoretical concern in patients with increased airway resistance, is generally safe with the use of cardioselective agents.

Falk, Jeremy A.; Kadiev, Steven; Criner, Gerard J.; Scharf, Steven M.; Minai, Omar A.; Diaz, Philip



Von Gierke disease  


... may be signs of: Delayed puberty Enlarged liver Gout Inflammatory bowel disease Liver tumors Severe low blood ... blood uric acid and decrease the risk for gout. Other medications may include those for kidney disease, ...


Other Retinal Diseases  


... recessive pattern. Leber Congenital Amaurosis Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) is an inherited retinal degenerative disease characterized by ... also occur with this disease. Some patients with LCA also experience central nervous system abnormalities. Retinoschisis Juvenile ...


Treatment for Chagas Disease  


... . Parasites - American Trypanosomiasis (also known as Chagas Disease) Parasites Home Share Compartir Add this to... ... Favorites Delicious Digg Google Bookmarks Treatment Treatment for Chagas disease is recommended for all people diagnosed with ...


Chronic Kidney Diseases  


... pressure at a healthy level. Continue Kinds of Kidney Diseases Like any complicated machine, not all kidneys work ... to work the way they should. How Are Kidney Diseases Diagnosed? Kidney problems are often not noticed at ...


Diseases Related to Travel  


... Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID) Division of Global Migration and Quarantine (DGMQ) Home A-Z Index Site Map Policies Using this Site Link to Us All Languages CDC Mobile Contact CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 1600 ...


About Thyroid Disease

Noncancerous Thyroid DiseaseSome thyroid diseases are caused by changes in the amount of thyroid hormones that enter the body from the thyroid gland. Doctors can screen for these with a simple blood test.


Chagas Disease (American trypanosomiasis)  


... cruzi (T. cruzi). It is found mainly in endemic areas of 21 Latin American countries 1 , where ... mostly in Latin America where Chagas disease is endemic. The cost of treatment for Chagas disease remains ...


Learning about Your Disease  


... Volunteer Search Email this page Print this page Learning about your disease Tweet If you are diagnosed ... BMT) may be a treatment option for you. Learning more about your disease and treatment options will ...


Diseases from Horses  


... rare. For example, horses often carry the bacterium Salmonella . This germ causes salmonellosis (sal-MON-el-oh- ... fungal disease associated various animals, including with horses . Salmonella Infection (salmonellosis) : A bacterial disease associated with various ...


Childhood Contagious Diseases  


newsletter | contact Share | Childhood Contagious Diseases A A A Children have maturing immune systems and are often in close proximity to one another, ... in tinea infections, commonly called "ringworm"). Fortunately, many childhood diseases, once contracted, result in lifelong immunity in ...


Diabetes and Kidney Disease  


... Home Kidney Disease A to Z Health Guide Diabetes and Kidney Disease Diabetes mellitus, usually called diabetes, ... of your body. Are there different types of diabetes? The most common ones are Type 1 and ...


Learning about Parkinson's Disease  


... know about heredity and Parkinson's disease? Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurological condition that typically causes tremor ... of 60 years and the chance of developing PD increases as we age. Most people affected with ...


Hydroxyapatite Deposition Disease.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Hydroxyapatite deposition disease (HADD), a disease most commonly found in middle-aged individuals, is characterized by deposition of calcium phosphate crystals in periarticular tissues. The deposits frequently occur in tendons near their osseous attachme...

D. P. Beall J. Q. Ly L. Folio S. J. Upton



Diseases from Cats  


... Resources Outbreak Response and Prevention Branch Diseases from Cats Although cats can carry diseases and pass them ... eating raw meat than from having a pet cat. Special tips are available for pregnant women . Some ...


Parkinson’s disease  


... leads to shaking ( tremors ) and difficulty with walking , movement, and coordination. ... disease occurs in younger adults. It affects both men and women. In ... movement. Parkinson's disease occurs when the nerve cells in ...


Diseases and Their Management  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Important diseases and their management practices of lentil were reviewed. The diseases reveiwed include Ascochyta blight (Ascochyta lentis), Anthracnose (Colletotrichum truncatum), White mold (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum), rust (Uromyces viciae-fabae), Botrytis gray mold (Botrytis cinerea and B. faba...


Hemochromatosis: Iron Storage Disease  


... en... Favorites Delicious Digg Google Bookmarks Hemochromatosis: Iron Storage Disease Excessive iron buildup in the body's tissues ... Learn more about hemochromatosis, a type of iron storage disease, and stay healthy. What Is Hemochromatosis? Hemochromatosis ...


Understanding Autoimmune Diseases  


... autoimmune disease is inflammation, which can cause redness, heat, pain, and swelling. How an autoimmune disease affects ... thyroid hormone. This causes such symptoms as nervousness, heat intolerance, heart palpitations, and unexplained weight loss. Immune ...


Coronary Artery Disease  


Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common type of heart disease. It is the leading cause of death ... both men and women. CAD happens when the arteries that supply blood to heart muscle become hardened ...


Tay-Sachs Disease  


Tay-Sachs disease is a rare, inherited disorder. It causes too much of a fatty substance to build ... cells, causing mental and physical problems. Infants with Tay-Sachs disease appear to develop normally for the first ...


Osgood-Schlatter Disease  


... Quiz: Baseball Injuries Jellyfish The Pink Locker Society Osgood-Schlatter Disease KidsHealth > Kids > Illnesses & Injuries > Aches, Pains & Injuries > Osgood-Schlatter Disease Print A A A Text Size Osgood- ...


Osgood-Schlatter Disease  


... between 10 and 11 years old. What Is Osgood-Schlatter Disease? In 1903, doctors Robert Osgood and Carl ... more likely to happen during a growth spurt . Osgood-Schlatter disease is an overuse injury of the knee. ...


Osgood-Schlatter disease  


Osgood-Schlatter disease is a painful swelling of the bump on the upper part of the shinbone, just ... Osgood-Schlatter disease is thought to be caused by small injuries due to repeated overuse before the knee ...


Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Disease  


... vessels. Examples of connective tissue diseases include lupus , scleroderma , rheumatoid arthritis , Sjögren's syndrome , myositis , and vasculitis . There ... connective tissue diseases, such as lupus, Sjögren's or scleroderma. More UCTD Information Overview Causes Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment ...


Lyme Disease Data  


... 2011 Interactive Lyme Disease Map Lyme Disease Data File To facilitate the public health and research community's ... 4636) TTY: (888) 232-6348 Contact CDC–INFO File Formats Help: How do I view different file ...


Chronic granulomatous disease mimicking Crohn's disease.  


A 34-month-old boy with intermittent diarrhoea and abdominal distension from 2 months of age, a chronic microabscess of the cheek, gastric antral narrowing, and perianal abscesses containing granulomata was found at colonscopy to have extensive, noncaseating, submucosal ileal and colonic granulomata. He was initially thought to have Crohn's disease, but then developed a cervical abscess, and a diagnosis of chronic granulomatous disease was established. This is an important, although rare, differential diagnosis of chronic inflammatory bowel disease in childhood. PMID:3894611

Isaacs, D; Wright, V M; Shaw, D G; Raafat, F; Walker-Smith, J A



Parallelization: Infectious Disease  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Epidemiology is the study of infectious disease. Infectious diseases are said to be "contagious" among people if they are transmittable from one person to another. Epidemiologists can use models to assist them in predicting the behavior of infectious diseases. This module will develop a simple agent-based infectious disease model, develop a parallel algorithm based on the model, provide a coded implementation for the algorithm, and explore the scaling of the coded implementation on high performance cluster resources.

Weeden, Aaron


Peyronie’s Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peyronie’s disease is an enigmatic disease characterized by penile curvature, penile pain, and erectile dysfunction. The disease\\u000a appears to be more prevalent than previously thought as more men seek medical attention for sexual complaints. The lack of\\u000a a clear pathogenetic mechanism for the disease has led to numerous, diverse treatment options. Inconsistent results from studies\\u000a evaluating these various treatment options,

J. Slade Hubbard; Culley C. Carson


Pediatric stone disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urinary stone disease is less common in children than adults. Although many aspects of pediatric stone disease are similar\\u000a to that of adults, there are unique concerns regarding the presentation, diagnosis, and management of stone disease in children.\\u000a We present a review of the increasing prevalence of pediatric stone disease, the diagnostic concerns specific to children,\\u000a recent results from pediatric

Stacy T. Tanaka; John C. Pope




Microsoft Academic Search

Parkinson's disease is not only among the most common neurodegenerative disorders, it is also one of the most famed neurological illnesses with several celebrity figures suffering from Parkinson's disease. Over the past few decades there has been steady increase in the understanding of disease pathophysiology and clinical course, with advances in management choices including new drug therapies, surgical treatment options

Ismail A. Khatri; Umar S. Chaudhry


Venereal Disease. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is one in a series of contemporary topics in health science for students. The first chapter deals with the behavioral aspects of venereal disease and how the disease has been affected by our changing society. Chapter 2 discusses the magnitude of the problem, presenting various maps and charts. The history of venereal disease and the…

Bender, Stephen J.


Epizootic Haemorrhagic Disease  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Epizootic haemorrhagic disease (EHD) is an infectious non contagious viral disease transmitted by insects of the genus Culicoides which affects wild and domestic ruminants. The causative agent, the epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV), belongs to the family Reoviridae, genus Orbivirus and sha...


Parkinson's disease and anxiety  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been a recent surge of interest in the subject of anxiety in patients with Parkinson's disease. Up to 40% of patients with Parkinson's disease experience clinically significant anxiety. This anxiety may be a psychological reaction to the stress of the illness or may be related to the neurochemical changes of the disease itself. Antiparkinsonian drugs may have a

K Walsh; G Bennett



Celiac Disease: Internet Resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Celiac disease is an autoimmune malabsorption disorder caused by gluten, the protein present in wheat, rye, and barley. Gluten destroys the absorptive layer of the small intestine, which leads to malnourishment and other serious diseases. Recent research has established that celiac disease is a common disorder, affecting 1 in every 120 to 300 people in North America and Europe. The

Brian D. Cameron



Smoking and Crohn's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a case-control study 82 patients with Crohn's disease and matched controls drawn from general practice lists were questioned about their smoking habits. Patients with Crohn's disease were significantly more likely to be smokers than the controls, and the association was stronger for smoking habit before the onset of the disease than for current smoking habit, the relative risks for

K W Somerville; R F Logan; M Edmond; M J Langman



What Is Behcet's Disease?  


... Behçet’s Disease Find a Clinical Trial Journal Articles Behçet’s Disease PDF Version Size: 70 KB Audio Version Time: ... 1 MB Publication Date: May 2009 What Is Behçet’s Disease? Fast Facts: An Easy-to-Read Series of ...


Reflux and Lung Disease  


... Nutrition Reflux and Lung Disease Back-to-School Nutrition Tips Proper Hydration Sodium Dangers Plant-Based Diets Make an appointment Ask a Question Refer a Patient 1.877.CALL NJH ( 877.225.5654 ) You are ... > Health Information > Healthy Lifestyle > Nutrition > Reflux and Lung Disease Reflux and Lung Disease ...


Lyme Disease in Oregon ?  

PubMed Central

The incidence of Lyme disease in Oregon is calculated from cases reported to the Oregon State Health Division. We reviewed the exposure history of reported cases of Lyme disease and performed field surveys for infected Ixodes pacificus ticks. The incidence of Lyme disease correlated with the distribution of infected I. pacificus ticks.

Doggett, J. Stone; Kohlhepp, Sue; Gresbrink, Robert; Metz, Paul; Gleaves, Curt; Gilbert, David



Ageing and neurodegenerative diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ageing, which all creatures must encounter, is a challenge to every living organism. In the human body, it is estimated that cell division and metabolism occurs exuberantly until about 25 years of age. Beyond this age, subsidiary products of metabolism and cell damage accumulate, and the phenotypes of ageing appear, causing disease formation. Among these age-related diseases, neurodegenerative diseases have

Chia-Wei Hung; Yu-Chih Chen; Wan-Ling Hsieh; Shih-Hwa Chiou; Chung-Lan Kao



Sex and Heart Disease  


Sex and Heart Disease Updated:Mar 2,2012 Is sex safe for heart disease patients? Readjusting to everyday life can be tough for heart disease patients. You wonder about everything: Should I eat this food? Can I do that activity? ...


Infections and autoimmune diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high percentage of disease-discordant pairs of monozygotic twins demonstrates the central role of environmental factors in the etiology of autoimmune diseases. Efforts were first focussed on the search for triggering factors. The study of animal models has clearly shown that infections may trigger autoimmune diseases, as in the case of Coxsackie B4 virus in type I diabetes and the

Jean-François Bach



Chronic wasting disease  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is an emerging prion disease of deer, elk, and moose in North America. This fatal neurodegenerative disease was first recognized 50 years ago and its distribution was limited to the Rocky Mountains for several decades. In the past few years, CWD has been found in the ea...


Benign Breast Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Benign breast diseases have always been neglected in comparison to cancer, despite the fact that there are many more patients with such diseases than patients presenting to a breast clinic for cancer. Like normal breast tissues, benign breast diseases are under a complex system of controls by both systemic hormonal and local factors. In this review, we attempt to present

Carine Courtillot; Geneviève Plu-Bureau; Nadine Binart; Corinne Balleyguier; Brigitte Sigal-Zafrani; Vincent Goffin; Frédérique Kuttenn; Paul A. Kelly; Philippe Touraine



Venereal Disease. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book is one in a series of contemporary topics in health science for students. The first chapter deals with the behavioral aspects of venereal disease and how the disease has been affected by our changing society. Chapter 2 discusses the magnitude of the problem, presenting various maps and charts. The history of venereal disease and the…

Bender, Stephen J.


What's Mad Cow Disease?  


... is at a higher risk for getting a human form of the disease, called Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, or CJD. It is ... in the United States increases concern about the human form of the disease, but it's still very unlikely that you or ...


Psoriasis and cardiovascular diseases.  


Psoriasis is a chronic immune-mediated disorder that affects about 2% to 3% of the adult population. Several reports have demonstrated an association between psoriasis and cardiovascular diseases such as myocardial infarction, hypertension, valvular disease and arrhythmia. In this review we analysed the link between psoriasis and cardiovascular disease and the possible physiopathologic mechanism of this correlation. PMID:20666273

Vizzardi, Enrico; Raddino, Riccardo; Teli, Melissa; Gorga, Elio; Brambilla, Giulio; Dei Cas, Livio



Transglutaminases in disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transglutaminases (TGases) are enzymes that are widely used in many biological systems for generic tissue stabilization purposes. Mutations resulting in lost activity underlie several serious disorders. In addition, new evidence documents that they may also be aberrantly activated in tissues and cells and contribute to a variety of diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Huntington's diseases. In these

Soo-Youl Kim; Thomas M Jeitner; Peter M Steinert



Liver Disease in Pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liver dysfunction during pregnancy can be caused by conditions that are specific to pregnancy or by liver diseases that are not related to pregnancy itself. This review attempts to summarize the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and management of the different pregnancy-related liver diseases, and to review different liver diseases not related to pregnancy and how they may affect or be effected by

Fabiana S. Benjaminov; Jenny Heathcote



HIV and Cardiovascular Disease (Heart Disease)  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... signal problems with the reabsorption in the tubules. Diabetes Recent studies about diabetes risks for those with HIV contain some conflicting ... it is clear that minimizing your risks for diabetes is important. Diabetes contributes to heart disease and ...


Lung disease related to collagen vascular disease.  


Collagen vascular disease is one of the most common causes of chronic infiltrative lung disease. Patterns of lung injury from collagen vascular disease include nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP), usual interstitial pneumonia, organizing pneumonia, bronchiectasis, obliterative bronchiolitis, and pulmonary arterial hypertension. The prevalence of each entity varies according to the specific disease entity. NSIP and pulmonary hypertension are common in scleroderma, whereas usual interstitial pneumonia, bronchiectasis, and obliterative bronchiolitis are commonly found in rheumatoid arthritis. In systemic lupus erythematosus, pleural effusions and pulmonary hemorrhage are the salient features. In polymyositis, a combination of organizing pneumonia and NSIP is characteristic. Sjögren syndrome is characterized by bronchiectasis and lymphoid interstitial pneumonia, often associated with thin-walled cysts. Ankylosing spondylitis is associated with upper lobe fibrosis, and may be complicated by mycetoma. PMID:19935226

Lynch, David A



Alcoholic liver disease.  


In the United States, approximately 100,000 deaths are attributed to alcohol abuse each year. In 2009, the World Health Organization listed alcohol use as one of the leading causes of the global burden of disease and injury. Alcoholic liver disease, a direct result of chronic alcohol abuse, insidiously destroys the normal functions of the liver. The end result of the disease, cirrhosis, culminates in a dysfunctional and diffusely scarred liver. This article discusses the clinical manifestations, imaging considerations, and treatment of alcoholic liver disease and cirrhosis. Normal liver function, liver hemodynamics, the disease of alcoholism, and the deleterious effects of alcohol also are reviewed. PMID:23861518

Penny, Steven M


Gorham's Disease of Spine.  


Gorham's disease is a rare disorder characterized by clinical and radiological disappearance of bone by proliferation of non-neoplastic vascular tissue. The disease was first reported by Jackson in 1838 in a boneless arm. The disease was then described in detail in 1955 by Gorham and Stout. Since then, about 200 cases have been reported in the literature, with only about 28 cases involving the spine. We report 2 cases of Gorham's disease involving the spine and review related literature to gain more understanding about this rare disease. PMID:24066223

Sekharappa, Vijay; Arockiaraj, Justin; Amritanand, Rohit; Krishnan, Venkatesh; David, Kenny Samuel; David, Sundararaj Gabriel



Eosinophils and Disease Pathogenesis  

PubMed Central

Eosinophils are granulocytic innate immune cells whose presence is conspicuous in a variety of disease states, including eosinophilic hyperproliferative and infiltrative processes, as well as conditions associated with maladaptive Th2 inflammation. This review discusses the role of eosinophils in disease pathogenesis, including a consideration of relevant eosinophil biology. Eosinophilic disease patterns of tissue infiltration are also detailed, as are candidate mechanisms by which eosinophils cause fibrosis and hypercoagulability and the importance of eosinophils in allergic inflammation. Eosinophils are unique cells in their spectrum of associated disease, with the promise of future discoveries in delineating the manner in which they contribute to disease pathogenesis.

Akuthota, Praveen; Weller, Peter F.



Gorham's Disease of Spine  

PubMed Central

Gorham's disease is a rare disorder characterized by clinical and radiological disappearance of bone by proliferation of non-neoplastic vascular tissue. The disease was first reported by Jackson in 1838 in a boneless arm. The disease was then described in detail in 1955 by Gorham and Stout. Since then, about 200 cases have been reported in the literature, with only about 28 cases involving the spine. We report 2 cases of Gorham's disease involving the spine and review related literature to gain more understanding about this rare disease.

Arockiaraj, Justin; Amritanand, Rohit; Krishnan, Venkatesh; David, Kenny Samuel; David, Sundararaj Gabriel



Measuring disease activity in Crohn's disease.  


In the last few years the management of Crohn's disease (CD) has changed due to the introduction of new therapeutic agents that provide more alternative options in patients with severe diseases, introducing new concepts regarding treatment timing. At the moment, the absence of good predictors of disease outcome and a subclinical marker available to predict relapse during clinical remission are major problems in the management of CD. In recent decades, the evaluation of several variables has been proposed to address this issue, including disease behavior, clinical-endoscopic activity and intestinal damage. In particular, definition of mucosal restitution or healing after therapy has been proposed as a surrogate of efficacy and new goal of the therapy. Regarding this concept, several criticisms have been raised, such as the need to better define the role of mucosal healing in a transmural disease. In order to address this issue, new alternative techniques providing both extraluminal and luminal intestinal damage have been proposed, including ultrasonography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:22441627

Onali, Sara; Calabrese, Emma; Pallone, Francesco



Disease risk curves.  


ABSTRACT Disease risk curves are simple graphical relationships between the probability of need for treatment and evidence related to risk factors. In the context of the present article, our focus is on factors related to the occurrence of disease in crops. Risk is the probability of adverse consequences; specifically in the present context it denotes the chance that disease will reach a threshold level at which crop protection measures can be justified. This article describes disease risk curves that arise when risk is modeled as a function of more than one risk factor, and when risk is modeled as a function of a single factor (specifically the level of disease at an early disease assessment). In both cases, disease risk curves serve as calibration curves that allow the accumulated evidence related to risk to be expressed on a probability scale. When risk is modeled as a function of the level of disease at an early disease assessment, the resulting disease risk curve provides a crop loss assessment model in which the downside is denominated in terms of risk rather than in terms of yield loss. PMID:23531177

Hughes, G; Burnett, F J; Havis, N D



Hypothesis: Alzheimer's disease is a phylogenetic disease.  


It is hypothesized that Alzheimer's disease is a human phylogenetic disease which has a common multifactorial pathogenesis in sporadic and familial cases and in Down syndrome, related to a genomic character function G(x). Increments in G(x) accompanied the increased gene expression that sustained brain growth and differentiation during hominid evolution, particularly of the regions liable to Alzheimer pathology, and further occur in Down syndrome [suggesting that genes on chromosome 21 are included in G(x)]. If genes which promoted human brain evolution contribute to the value of G(x), a better understanding of the genomic events which promoted this evolution, using molecular biological techniques, should elucidate the genetic basis of Alzheimer's disease, and vice versa. PMID:2528670

Rapoport, S I



Anderson-fabry disease: a multiorgan disease.  


Fabry disease (FD) is a rare X-linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by a deficiency of the enzyme ?-galactosidase A. FD causes glycolipids, such as globotriaosylceramide (Gb3), to accumulate in the vascular endothelium of several organs (Fig. 2), including the skin, kidneys, nervous system, and heart, thereby triggering inflammation and fibrosis. These processes generally result in organ dysfunction, which is usually the first clinical evidence of FD. Patients with classic FD have various symptoms, eg, acroparesthesias, hypohidrosis, angiokeratomas, corneal opacities, cerebrovascular lesions, cardiac disorders, andrenal dysfunction.However, evolving knowledge about the natural course of disease suggests that it is more appropriate to describe FD as a disease with a wide spectrum of heterogeneously progressive clinical phenotypes. Indeed, most female heterozygotes develop symptoms due to yet undetermined mechanisms and a high percentage of females develops vital organ involvement including the kidneys, heart and/or brain about a decade later than males. Renal failure is a serious complication of this disease. Fabry nephropathy lesions are present and progress in childhood while the disease commonly remains silent by routine clinical measures. Early and timely diagnosis of Fabry nephropathy is crucial since late initiation of enzyme replacement therapy may not halt progressive renal dysfunction. This may be challenging due to difficulties in diagnosis of Fabry disease in children and absence of a sensitive non-invasive biomarker of early Fabry nephropathy. Accurate measurement of glomerular filtration rate and regular assessment for proteinuria and microalbuminuria are useful, though not sensitive enough to detect early lesions in the kidney. The principal clinical manifestations in Fabry disease consist of artery associated complications (such as cerebral disease and nephropathy), but the pathophysiology of this specific vasculopathy is unclear. Several studies indicate that the specific vascular lesions that are present in Fabry disease occur as a result of vascular dysfunction with major components being endothelial dysfunction, alterations in cerebral perfusion and a pro-thrombotic phenotype. Fabry cardiac involvement has several clinical manifestations (Table 10): concentric left ventricular hypertrophy without left ventricular dilation and severe loss of left ventricular systolic function, mitral and aortic valvulopathy, disorders of the atrioventricular conduction or repolarization, and compromised diastolic function. The neurological manifestations of Fabry disease include both peripheral nervous system and CNS involvement, with globotriaosylceramide accumulation found in Schwann cells and dorsal root ganglia together with deposits in CNS neurones. The main involvement of the CNS is attributable to cerebrovasculopathy, with an increased incidence of stroke. The abnormal neuronal accumulation of glycosphingolipid appears to have little clinical effect on the natural history of Fabry disease, with the possible exception of some reported mild cognitive abnormalities. The pathogenesis of Fabry vasculopathy remains poorly understood, but probably relates, in part, to abnormal functional control of the vessels, secondary to endothelial dysfunction as a consequence of ?-galactosidase A deficiency. The diagnosis of Fabry disease is made in hemizygous males after the detection of the presence of angiokeratomas (Fig. 19 A, B), irregularities in sweating, edema, scant body hair, painful sensations, and of cardiovascular, intestinal, renal, ophthalmologic, phlebologic, and respiratory involvement. A deficiency of alpha-gal A in serum, leukocytes, tears, tissue specimens, or cultured skin fibroblasts further supports the diagnosis in male patients. Since heterozygous women show angiokeratomas in only about 30% of cases and may have alpha-gal A levels within normal range, genetic analysis is recommended. The resultant storage of undegraded glycolipids leads to the progressive development of potentially life-threatening man

Tuttolomondo, Antonino; Pecoraro, Rosaria; Simonetta, Irene; Miceli, Salvatore; Pinto, Antonio; Licata, Giuseppe



Chronic Granulomatous Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) was first described in the 1950s and has become a paradigm for genetic neutrophil diseases.\\u000a It is characterized by recurrent infections with a narrow spectrum of bacteria and fungi as well as a common set of inflammatory\\u000a complications most notably including inflammatory bowel disease. Over the last half century major advances in management have\\u000a profoundly altered

Steven M. Holland



Variant Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The young and stable median age of those who die of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease has been attributed to age-dependent infection rates. This analysis shows that an influence of age on risk for death after infection better explains age patterns, suggesting that biologic factors peaking in the third decade of life may hasten disease. T he epidemic of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

M. J. Painter



Addison’s Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adrenal insufficiency, also called Addison’s disease (AD) in honour of the physician who first described this disease\\u000a in 1855, results from the bilateral involvement of the adrenal cortex, together with a deficiency in the production of glucocorticoids,\\u000a mineralocorticoids, and androgens, associated with high levels of both adrenocorticotropin hormone and plasma renin activity.\\u000a The prevalence of the disease is 110–140

Corrado Betterle; Renato Zanchetta; Fabio Presotto


Pathomechanisms in Celiac Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Celiac disease is a complex autoimmune disease which is characterized by a strong genetic association (HLA-DQ2 or -DQ8), gluten as nutritional etiological factor, and the enzyme tissue transglutaminase as endomysial autoantigen. Patients develop highly predictive IgA autoantibodies to tTG. Certain gluten peptides are presented by the disease-associated HLA-DQ2\\/DQ8 molecules leading to stimulation of gluten-specific T cells. This immune response which

Walburga Dieterich; Birgit Esslinger; Detlef Schuppan



World of Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this chapter, we shall look at nonlinear models for the spread and growth of diseases. We shall begin by looking at the\\u000a spread of infectious diseases. An infectious disease such as influenza, for example, is of concern when an epidemic of a new flu strain breaks out. The fear is that the new strain might mimic the horrific Spanish

Richard H. Enns


[Male nipple diseases].  


Because andrology is relatively undeveloped in France, the dermatologist is often the doctor first consulted for diseases of the nipple in men. All dermatological diseases can in fact occur at this site. There are some specific nipple diseases such as gynaecomastia, congenital abnormalities, hyperplasia, benign tumours and breast cancer. All clinical examinations and laboratory examinations should focus on diagnosis of this type of cancer and its elimination. PMID:23773741

Firmin-Lefebvre, D; Misery, L



Inflammatory Bowel Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic relapsing condition of inflammation of the digestive tract, characterized by\\u000a periods of active disease alternating with periods of disease remission. IBD is diagnosed in adolescence at a rate of 25–30%\\u000a (Cuffari & Darbari, 2002) and uniquely impacts the typical biological, psychological, social, and cognitive changes of adolescence,\\u000a as well as the process of

Carin Cunningham; Rachel Neff Greenley


[Meleda disease - akroerythrokeratoderma].  


The authors reexamined eight patients with autochthonous Meleda disease. They further report about three other patients with this disease living on the island of Mljet (Meleda). Fron the clinical appearance the authors conclude that Meleda disease belongs to the group of Akroerythrokeratodermias. In no case an enhancement of the keratinisation disorder had occurred. The hyperkeratosis but not the erythrodermatic signs drastically reduced within two weeks after a treatment with an aromatic retinoid (Ro 10-9359). PMID:6211845

Salamon, T; Cezarovi?, B; Nardelli-Kovacici, M; Schnyder, U W



Cerebrovascular Disease and Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Cerebrovascular diseases are a common cause of cognitive impairment in adults and a clinically significant cause of cognitive\\u000a disability in children. Ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke are the main types of cerebrovascular disease. Risk factors for stroke,\\u000a clinical signs and symptoms, diagnostic evaluation and treatment are discussed for each category of cerebrovascular disease,\\u000a and differences across the life span are highlighted.

Sabrina E. Smith; Juliana Sanchez Bloom; Nancy Minniti


Moyamoya disease: Diagnostic imaging.  


Moyamoya disease is a progressive vasculopathy leading to stenosis of the main intracranial arteries. The incidence of moyamoya disease is high in Asian countries; in Europe and North America, the prevalence of the disease is considerably lower. Clinically, the disease may be of ischaemic, haemorrhagic and epileptic type. Cognitive dysfunction and behavioral disturbance are atypical symptoms of moyamoya disease.Characteristic angiographic features of the disease include stenosis or occlusion of the arteries of the circle of Willis, as well as the development of collateral vasculature. Currently, magnetic resonance angiography and CT angiography with multi-row systems are the main imaging methods of diagnostics of the entire range of vascular changes in moyamoya disease.The most common surgical treatment combines the direct arterial anastomosis between the superficial temporal artery and middle cerebral, and the indirect synangiosis involving placement of vascularised tissue in the brain cortex, in order to promote neoangiogenesis. Due to progressive changes, correct and early diagnosis is of basic significance in selecting patients for surgery, which is the only effective treatment of the disease. An appropriate qualification to surgery should be based on a comprehensive angiographic and imaging evaluation of brain structures.Despite the rare occurrence of moyamoya disease in European population, it should be considered as one of causes of ischaemic or haemorrhagic strokes, especially in young patients. PMID:22802820

Tarasów, Eugeniusz; Ku?akowska, Alina; Lukasiewicz, Adam; Kapica-Topczewska, Katarzyna; Korneluk-Sadzy?ska, Alicja; Brzozowska, Joanna; Drozdowski, Wies?aw



Scabies: Disease Symptoms  


... Information Scabies FAQs Workplace FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology Disease Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals Medications Institutional Settings Prevention ...


[Viral exanthematic childhood diseases].  


Exanthem is defined as multiple, inflammatory skin alteration with a hematogenic, lymphogenic or neurogenic origin. Typically, so called exanthematic children's diseases are measles, mumps, rubella, varicella, erythema infectiosum (fifth disease) and in the past small pox. The pathogenesis of the viral-caused diseases primarily occurs in the vascular connective tissue. The cytopathogenetic effects result in inflammatory tissue reactions with activation of defence mechanism and producing of immune complexes. First symptoms are hyperemia, edema and inflammatory infiltrates with itchy swellings. Virological laboratory diagnosis are necessary especially for the progress of atypical infectious diseases, for persons with immunological or chronical illness and under chemotherapeutical or immunosuppressival treatment. PMID:9471842

Allwinn, R; Doerr, H W



Coronary Heart Disease  


... Women's Health Pregnant Women Coronary Heart Disease Depression Eating Disorders Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) Sexual Health Women and Diabetes: Frequently Asked Questions Health Care Professional ...


Sickle-cell disease.  


Sickle-cell disease is one of the most common severe monogenic disorders in the world. Haemoglobin polymerisation, leading to erythrocyte rigidity and vaso-occlusion, is central to the pathophysiology of this disease, although the importance of chronic anaemia, haemolysis, and vasculopathy has been established. Clinical management is basic and few treatments have a robust evidence base. One of the main problems of sickle-cell disease in children is the development of cerebrovascular disease and cognitive impairment, and the role of blood transfusion and hydroxycarbamide for prevention of these complications is starting to be understood. Recurrent episodes of vaso-occlusion and inflammation result in progressive damage to most organs, including the brain, kidneys, lungs, bones, and cardiovascular system, which becomes apparent with increasing age. Most people with sickle-cell disease live in Africa, where little is known about this disease; however, we do know that the disorder follows a more severe clinical course in Africa than for the rest of the world and that infectious diseases have a role in causing this increased severity of sickle-cell disease. More work is needed to develop effective treatments that specifically target pathophysiological changes and clinical complications of sickle-cell disease. PMID:21131035

Rees, David C; Williams, Thomas N; Gladwin, Mark T



Glycosphingolipids and kidney disease.  


Glycosphingolipids, derived from the addition of sugar-moieties to the sphingolipid ceramide, are highly abundant in the kidney. Glycosphingolipids are known to play an important role in organ function at least in part from inherited lipid storage diseases such as Anderson-Fabry disease (Fabry's disease; FD) that results from a mutation in alpha-galactosidase a (?-GLA or ?-Gal A), the enzyme responsible for catalyzing the removal of terminal galactose residues from glycosphingolipids. The inactivation in ?-GLA in FD results in the accumulation of glycosphingolipids, including globosides and lactosylceramides, which manifests as several common pathologies including end-stage kidney disease. More recently, glycosphingolipids and other sphingolipids have become increasingly recognized for their roles in a variety of other kidney diseases including polycystic kidney disease, acute kidney injury, glomerulonephritis, diabetic nephropathy and kidney cancer. This chapter reviews evidence supporting a mechanistic role for glycosphingolipids in kidney disease and discusses data implicating a role for these lipids in kidney disease resulting from metabolic syndrome. Importantly, inhibitors of glycosphingolipid synthesis are well tolerated in animal models as well as in humans. Thus, an increased understanding of the mechanisms by which altered renal glycosphingolipid metabolism leads to kidney disease has great therapeutic potential. PMID:21910086

Mather, Andrew R; Siskind, Leah J



Tracking disease outbreaks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientists have come one step closer to tracking outbreaks of bartonellosis, a potentially fatal vector-borne disease. Outbreaks of the disease, which was once thought to be found primarily in the high Andes Mountains of Peru, Ecuador, and Colombia, may be related to El Ni˜no events, according to researchers with NASA and the U.S. military.In findings reported on 17 January, climatology and disease prevention researchers said a study conducted in two regions in Peru points to a strong potential link between the 1997-1998 El Niño and an increase in sand flies, which are thought to be the disease host carriers.

Showstack, Randy


Perinatal lethal Gaucher disease.  


Perinatal Lethal Gaucher Disease (PLGD) is a rare form of Gaucher disease and is often considered a distinct form of type 2 Gaucher disease. The authors report on an infant who presented with progressive hepatosplenomegaly, ichthyosis, generalized skin edema and neonatal encephalopathy and died at 6 h of age. Autopsy revealed massive hepatosplenomegaly, ichthyosis, a diffuse collodion picture and histological evidence of infiltration by Gaucher cells in the liver, spleen, lung, thymus, lymph node and bone marrow. Genetic testing of the parents revealed both to be carriers of Gaucher disease. PMID:20924719

Plakkal, Nishad; Soraisham, Amuchou Singh; Jirapradittha, Junya; Pinto-Rojas, Alfredo



Gum Disease and Men  


... Gum Disease Regenerative Procedures Dental Crown Lengthening Procedure Dental Implants Single Tooth Implants Multiple Tooth Implants Full Mouth Dental Implants Sinus Augmentation Ridge Modification Periodontal Pocket Reduction Procedures ...


Gum Disease and Women  


... Gum Disease Regenerative Procedures Dental Crown Lengthening Procedure Dental Implants Single Tooth Implants Multiple Tooth Implants Full Mouth Dental Implants Sinus Augmentation Ridge Modification Periodontal Pocket Reduction Procedures ...


Peri-Implant Diseases  


... Gum Disease Regenerative Procedures Dental Crown Lengthening Procedure Dental Implants Single Tooth Implants Multiple Tooth Implants Full Mouth Dental Implants Sinus Augmentation Ridge Modification Periodontal Pocket Reduction Procedures ...


Renal cystic diseases.  


Renal cystic disease comprises a mixed group of heritable, developmental, and acquired disorders. Because of their diverse etiology, histology, and clinical presentation, no single scheme of classification has gained acceptance. Conditions include autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, acquired renal cystic disease, medullary sponge kidney, autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease, multicystic dysplastic kidney, medullary cystic disease, tuberous sclerosis, cysts of the renal sinus, and von Hippel-Lindau's disease. An awareness of the pathology of each cystic disease is helpful in the understanding of the corresponding radiological images. Imaging techniques used in evaluating renal cystic disease include intravenous urography, sonography, CT, MRI, nuclear medicine, and renal angiography. Many types of cystic disease show similar imaging features. Meticulous attention to subtle radiological findings is therefore essential for reaching a correct diagnosis. Imaging features requiring analysis include whether the cysts are unilateral or bilateral, renal size and functional status, cyst distribution in the kidneys, and the presence of hemorrhagic and calcified renal cysts, solid renal masses, renal sinus cysts, and cysts in adjacent organs. Radiological findings should be carefully correlated with clinical features such as patient age, family history, symptoms, physical findings, and renal functional status before a diagnosis is attempted. PMID:9377514

Thomsen, H S; Levine, E; Meilstrup, J W; Van Slyke, M A; Edgar, K A; Barth, J C; Hartman, D S



Inflammatory bowel disease  

PubMed Central

Twenty five per cent of inflammatory bowel disease presents in childhood. Growth and nutrition are key issues in the management with the aim of treatment being to induce and then maintain disease remission with minimal side effects. Only 25% of Crohn's disease presents with the classic triad of abdominal pain, weight loss, and diarrhoea. Most children with ulcerative colitis have blood in the stool at presentation. Inflammatory markers are usually although not invariably raised at presentation (particularly in Crohn's disease). Full investigation includes upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and ileocolonoscopy. Treatment requires multidisciplinary input as part of a clinical network led by a paediatrician with special expertise in the management of the condition.

Beattie, R M; Croft, N M; Fell, J M; Afzal, N A; Heuschkel, R B



Ageing and neurodegenerative diseases.  


Ageing, which all creatures must encounter, is a challenge to every living organism. In the human body, it is estimated that cell division and metabolism occurs exuberantly until about 25 years of age. Beyond this age, subsidiary products of metabolism and cell damage accumulate, and the phenotypes of ageing appear, causing disease formation. Among these age-related diseases, neurodegenerative diseases have drawn a lot of attention due to their irreversibility, lack of effective treatment, and accompanied social and economical burdens. In seeking to ameliorate ageing and age-related diseases, the search for anti-ageing drugs has been of much interest. Numerous studies have shown that the plant polyphenol, resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene), extends the lifespan of several species, prevents age-related diseases, and possesses anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer properties. The beneficial effects of resveratrol are believed to be associated with the activation of a longevity gene, SirT1. In this review, we discuss the pathogenesis of age-related neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and cerebrovascular disease. The therapeutic potential of resveratrol, diet and the roles of stem cell therapy are discussed to provide a better understanding of the ageing mystery. PMID:20732460

Hung, Chia-Wei; Chen, Yu-Chih; Hsieh, Wan-Ling; Chiou, Shih-Hwa; Kao, Chung-Lan



Gorham's disease of femur  

PubMed Central

Gorham's disease is a rare condition of bones characterized by spontaneous massive and progressive osteolysis. Less than 200 cases have been reported so far. Femur is an uncommon site of Gorham disease. We report a young female, presenting as pathological fracture of the femur, wherein rapid osteolysis of femur occurred. The clinical, pathological, and radiological picture suggested a diagnosis of Gorham's disease. The patient was subjected to radiotherapy (40 Gys) and put on bisphosphonates. At a follow-up of 2 years, the disease process had stopped and partial recalcification of the bone had occurred.

Baba, Asif Nazir; Bhat, Yasmeen J; Paljor, Simon D; Nazir, Abid; Khan, Nazir A



Disease-modifying treatments for Alzheimer's disease  

PubMed Central

The first drugs developed for Alzheimer’s disease (AD), acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEI), increase acetylcholine levels, previously demonstrated to be reduced in AD. To date, four AChEI are approved for the treatment of mild-to-moderate AD. A further therapeutic option available for moderate-to-severe AD is memantine. These treatments are symptomatic, whereas drugs under development are intended to modify the pathological steps leading to AD, thus acting on the evolution of the disease. For this reason they are have been termed ‘disease-modifying’ drugs. To block the progression of the disease they have to interfere with the pathogenic steps responsible for the clinical symptoms, including the deposition of extracellular amyloid beta (A?) plaques and of intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, inflammation, oxidative damage, iron deregulation and cholesterol metabolism. In this review, new perspectives will be discussed. In particular, several approaches will be described, including interference with A? deposition by anti-A? aggregation agents, vaccination, ?-secretase inhibitors or selective A?-lowering agents; interference with tau deposition by methylthioninium chloride; and reduction of inflammation and oxidative damage.

Galimberti, Daniela; Scarpini, Elio



Borna Disease Virus and Human Disease  

PubMed Central

The biology of Borna disease virus (BDV) strongly supports the likelihood of human infection with BDV or a variant of BDV. Thus far, the evidence supporting BDV infection in humans has initiated much controversy among basic and clinical scientists; only time and additional research will support or refute the hypothesis of human BDV infection. Until an assay of acceptable specificity and sensitivity has been developed, validated, and used to document human BDV infection, scientists cannot reasonably begin to associate BDV infection with specific disease syndromes. Clinical studies seeking causal associations between BDV infection and specific diseases must ensure the proper identification of the BDV infection status of patients and control subjects by using a validated, highly sensitive, and highly specific assay (or series of assays). For clinical studies, a highly sensitive “screening” test followed by a highly specific confirmatory test will be of significant benefit. Although it is possible to formulate hypotheses about the clinical outcomes of human BDV infection based on animal model work, to date no human disease has been causally linked to human BDV infection. Scientists all over the world are actively pursuing these issues, and with continuing advances in clinical and basic BDV research, the answers cannot be far away.

Carbone, Kathryn M.



Coronary Artery Disease - Coronary Heart Disease  


... as great as cigarette smokers'. Exposure to other people's smoke increases the risk of heart disease even for ... factors may affect established risk factors. For example, people under stress may overeat, start smoking or smoke more than they otherwise would. Get stress management ...


Microinvasive Paget's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background.Microinvasive squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva is defined as stromal invasion ?1 mm and is treated by wide local resection. Whether criteria for microinvasive squamous cell carcinoma can be applied to Paget's disease of the vulva is unknown because of the rarity of that disease.

Thomas Ewing; John Sawicki; Giuseppe Ciaravino; Gregory J. Rumore



Exercise and Alzheimer's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Substantial evidence exists to confirm that regular and moderate exercise is a potent disease prevention and health promotion resource for the elderly. Data is sparse, but accumulating, that physical activity may even have an important role in moderating dementia such as Alzheimer's disease. Of interest to caregivers and practitioners is the preliminary evidence reviewed in this paper which supports that

Allison P. Bonner; Sandra OBrien Cousins



Foliar diseases of corn  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Leaf blights and spots caused by fungi are some of the most destructive diseases of corn in the US and around the world. Correct identification of the disease is very important in determining the best means of control. For example, gray leaf spot of maize can be caused by one of at least two species...


Immunosenescence and infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infectious diseases are major causes, with malignancies, of morbidity and mortality in the elderly. Increased susceptibility to infections may result from underlying dysfunction of an aged immune system; moreover, inappropriate immunologic functions associated with aging can determine an insufficient response to vaccines. Impairments of cellular, humoral and innate immunity in the elderly, contributing to increased incidence of infectious diseases, are

Lia Ginaldi; Maria Francesca Loreto; Maria Pia Corsi; Marco Modesti; Massimo De Martinis



Culture and disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both art and the kinds of life styles which predispose one to disease reflect the culture of an era. Might the history of art give some insight into the origins of behaviors which are conducive to particular diseases? An attempt is made to answer this question by looking at the perception of time and space in modern and contemporary art

A. Appels



Women and Parasitic Diseases  


... consideration when being treated for parasitic diseases in order to avoid harm to the fetus, especially during the first trimester. Email page link Print page Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Listen to audio/Podcast Contact Us: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 1600 ...


Autoimmune diseases and rehabilitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review gives an overview of the rehabilitation of autoimmune diseases. After general remarks on rehabilitation, the effects of acute and chronic exercises on inflammatory markers are summarized. Most of the available literature deals with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and multiple sclerosis (MS), and therefore, rehabilitation of these diseases is described in more detail. Exercise is the main component in the

Peter Flachenecker



Microsoft Academic Search

Periodontal disease is the major cause of tooth loss in man. The initial histological picture of the inflamed gingiva is characteristic of local inflammatory reaction involving polymorphonuclear leukocytes, vasculitis and localized tissue loss. Subsequent clinical stages of periodontal disease (mild gingivitis) show histological evidence of the involvement of the immune response with initial accumulation of macrophages, and lymphocytes devoid of




Retinopathy in Danon Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results: Eye examinations confirmed the presence of retinopathy in the 2 boys and their maternal aunt, obligate carrier for the S157X mutation in LAMP2. The expression of the disease was milder in the female car- rier than in the hemizygous boys, possibly due to lyonization. Conclusions: Our report further expands the pheno- type of Danon disease by describing retinopathy in

Daniel F. Schorderet; Sandra Cottet; Johannes Alexander Lobrinus; Francois-Xavier Borruat; Aubin Balmer; Francis L. Munier



Niemann-Pick Disease  


... group of inherited metabolic disorders known as lipid storage diseases. Lipids (fatty materials such as waxes, fatty acids, oils, and cholesterol) and proteins are usually broken down into smaller components to provide energy for the body. In Niemann-Pick disease, harmful ...


Chronic Disease Indicators  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Chronic Disease Indicators (CDI) is a cross-cutting set of 97 indicators that were developed by consensus and that allows states and territories and large metropolitan areas to uniformly define, collect, and report chronic disease data that are important to public health practice and available for states, territories and large metropolitan areas. 

Control, Center F.


Immunotherapy of Crohn's disease.  

PubMed Central

Although the initiating events of Crohn's disease are unknown, models of experimental colitis have provided new insights in the immunologically mediated pathways of mucosal inflammation. In Crohn's disease activated mucosal T lymphocytes produce proinflammatory cytokines within the mucosal compartment. With this understanding, there has been a shift in past years from the use of unspecific anti-inflammatory agents (corticosteroids, aminosalicylates) to the use of immunomodulatory drugs (azathioprine, methotrexate). Moreover, novel strategies have been designed for specific targets in Crohn's disease, in particular T lymphocytes and cytokines. In an open label study treatment of steroid-refractory Crohn's disease with anti- CD4+ antibodies was well tolerated and showed clinical benefit. However, a sustained depletion of the CD4+ cells precluded further clinical trials. In controlled clinical studies, anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF-alpha) antibodies induced complete remissions and few side effects were observed. One study suggested efficacy in active Crohn's disease of recombinant interleukin-10. Long term treatment studies will have to answer questions about the indications for use, benefit and toxicity. Altogether, these results hold promise for future management of Crohn's disease, where disease-modifying interventions and strategies that effectively maintain disease remission will play a key role.

van Montfrans, C; Camoglio, L; van Deventer, S J



Respiratory Diseases of Poultry  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A new Respiratory Diseases of Poultry CRIS will be established effective October 1, 2006. Initially, the disease agents to be studied will include Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT), Bordetella avium (BART) and Pasteurella multocida. The research will focus on development of more effective vacc...


Interstitial Lung Diseases  


Interstitial lung disease is the name for a large group of diseases that inflame or scar the lungs. The inflammation and scarring make it hard to get enough oxygen. The scarring is called pulmonary fibrosis. Breathing in dust or other particles in ...


Epidemiology of Cardiovascular Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of health conditions. In this article, epidemiological studies of cardiovascular diseases and, more specifically, of coronary heart disease (CHD), are reviewed to document their major public health importance, the changes in mortality during this century, and international comparisons of these trends. The major risk indicators for CHD are reviewed and found

C. David Jenkins



Cardiovascular Disease in Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Almost 62 million Americans have one or more types of cardiovascular disease and, of these, more than 32 million are female. This translates into an average of 1 in 5 women, making cardiovascular disease the leading killer of women in the U.S., responsible for more than half a million deaths a year. While it has been known for some time




Vaccination against virus diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary One of the most important and most lasting benefits of medicine to human health and health expenditure is the controlled immunological interruption of the vicious cycle of infectious disease such as smallpox, poliomyelitis, yellow fever, measles. Smallpox, with globally more than 2.5 million cases ten years ago, is gone. The incidence of infectious diseases with available immunoprophylaxis has been

K. R. Schell



Interstitial Lung Disease  


... radiation treatments to your chest or using some chemotherapy drugs makes it more likely that you'll develop lung disease. Oxygen. Continually inhaling very high levels of therapeutic oxygen for more than 48 hours can harm the lungs. Complications Interstitial lung disease can lead to a series ...


Scuba Disease Revisited.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1970, Edmonds reported a self-limited respiratory disease afflicting students at the Royal Australian Navy Diving School. He ascribed this disease to aspiration of small amounts of sea water during dives preceding the onset of the syndrome. The syndrom...

M. E. Bradley R. C. Bornmann



Mitochondrial genetics and disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mitochondrial respiratory chain diseases are a highly diverse group of disorders whose main unifying characteristic is the impairment of mitochondrial function. As befits an organelle containing gene products encoded by both mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and nuclear DNA (nDNA), these diseases can be caused by inherited errors in either genome, but a surprising number are sporadic, and a few are even

Eric A. Schon



Mycobacterial diseases of deer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most significant mycobacterial diseases of free-living, captive and farmed deer are bovine tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium bovis, Johne's disease (paratuberculosis), caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (basonym M. paratuberculosis), and avian tuberculosis, caused principally by M. avium subsp avium.The first case of M. bovis infection in farmed deer was identified in New Zealand in 1978. In 1983, a voluntary

CG Mackintosh; GW de Lisle; DM Collins; JFT Griffin



Disease concerns in energycane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Diseases may be a limiting factor in the production of energycane, a perennial crop, by reducing annual yields and reducing the longevity of the crop cycle. Disease concerns also include the potential that a compatible pathogen could spread between energycane and sugarcane, sorghum, or corn. Widespr...


Disease concerns in energycane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Diseases may be a limiting factor in the production of energycane, a perennial crop, by reducing annual yields and reducing the longevity of the crop cycle. Disease concerns also include the potential that a compatible pathogen could spread between energycane and sugarcane, sorghum, or corn. Widesp...


Tobacco and Oral Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well known that smoking contributes to the development of lung cancer and cardiovascular disease, and there is weighty evidence that it has a considerable influence on oral health. Smoking has many negative effects on the mouth, including staining of teeth and dental restorations, reduction of the ability to smell and taste, and the development of oral diseases such

Jesper Reibel



Myopathy in Addison's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the first description of primary adrenocortical insufficiency by Thomas Addison in 1855 several large series of patients with Addison's disease have been published. The common signs and symptoms include: weakness, hyperpigmentation, weight loss, gastrointestinal complaints, and hypotension. It is rare for patients with Addison's disease to present with musculoskeletal symptoms including flexion contractures, hyperkalaemic neuromyopathy, Guillain-Barré syndrome, migratory myalgia,

F Mor; P Green; A J Wysenbeek



Lung Diseases and Conditions  


... Search Form Advanced Search Search the NHLBI, use radio buttons below to select whole site or Disease and Conditions Index only NHLBI Entire ... Information for the Public » Health Topics » How the Lungs Work » Lung Diseases & Conditions How the Lungs Work Explore ...


Glaucoma in Hansen's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glaucoma is considered to be an uncommon complication of Hansen's disease (leprosy). This study determined the prevalence and characteristics of glaucoma in a large institutionalised leprosy population. All 193 patients currently residing at the Gillis W Long Hansen's Disease Center received a complete ophthalmic examination and review of their records. All had been previously treated with dapsone and\\/or clofazimine. Based

R. C. Walton; S. F. Ball; V. C. Joffrion



Hydatid disease of rib  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osseous hydatidosis, especially when located in the rib, is a very rare disease. In 1978, only 39 costal echinococcosis cases were published. The course of the disease is generally slow and laboratory tests are frequently negative. Diagnosis is generally made through the combined assessment of clinical, radiologic, and laboratory data. Living in a rural area is an important risk factor

Nurettin Karao?lano?lu; Metin Gorguner; Atilla Eroglu



Miscellaneous Occupational Lung Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case is presented of a rare occupational lung disease for which the workplace etiology may have been overlooked. The authors review 4 such diseases, which are important to recognize not only because cessation of exposure can lead to clinical improvement, but also because other cases of these conditions may be identified in the workplace.

M. Sarper Erdogan; Christopher J. Martin



Predicting occupational lung diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis aims at demonstrating the development, validation, and application of prediction models for occupational lung diseases. Prediction models are developed to estimate an individual’s probability of the presence or future likelihood of occurrence of an outcome (i.e. disease of interest or its related condition). These models are used to assist clinical decision making for individuals, or to stratify individuals

E. Suarthana



Prion disease genetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prion diseases have stimulated intense scientific scrutiny since it was proposed that the infectious agent was devoid of nucleic acid. Despite this finding, genetics has played a key role in understanding the pathobiology and clinical aspects of prion disease through the effects of a series of polymorphisms and mutations in the prion protein gene (PRNP). The advent of variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob

Simon Mead



Disease Epidemic Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This model can be used to create a virtual population to observe how different factors might affect the spread of a disease. Scientists often use computer models to study complicated phenomena like epidemics. This model is a simplified simulation of any disease that is spread through human contact.



Peripheral arterial disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) comprises those entities which result in obstruction to blood flow in the arteries, exclusive of the coronary and intracranial vessels. Although the definition of PAD technically includes problems within the extracranial carotid circulation, the upper extremity arteries, and the mesenteric and renal circulation, we will focus on chronic arterial occlusive disease in the arteries to the

Kenneth Ouriel



Thromboangiitis obliterans (Buerger's disease)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thromboangiitis obliterans or Buerger's disease is a segmental occlusive inflammatory condition of arteries and veins, characterized by thrombosis and recanalization of the affected vessels. It is a non-atherosclerotic inflammatory disease affecting small and medium sized arteries and veins of upper and lower extremities. The clinical criteria include: age under 45 years; current or recent history of tobacco use; presence of

Perttu ET Arkkila




NSDL National Science Digital Library

DESK Standard: Determine how communicable diseases are spread. . DATES: You can begin this activity on January 8. You should complete it by January 12. OBJECTIVE: Everyone wants to feel healthy because being sick is a drag! We have been discussing ways to prevent the spread of infections and diseases during class. There are many ...

Hughes, Mr.



Migraine and cerebrovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Migraine and cerebrovascular disease are linked in different ways: migraine may be a potential cause of stroke as in migrainous infarction, headache may be a symptom of cerebrovascular disease and also a risk factor for stroke, the association of migraine and stroke may constitute specific syndromes such as CADASIL and MELAS. The new IHS 2003 criteria, though preserving their main

Vittorio Di Piero; Novella Bonaffini; Marta Altieri



Hirschsprung’s disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Two cases of Hirschsprung’s disease successfully treated by Swenson's pull-through operation are recorded. The evolution of\\u000a surgical management of this disease is discussed. The present justifies the use of Swenson's pull-through operation for this\\u000a rare condition in spite of the magnitude of this surgical undertaking.

Satya Pal Gulati; Roshan Lal Gupta



Juvenile Huntington disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of 195 cases of juvenile Huntington disease gathered from case descriptions, the sex, age at onset, duration of disease, clinical type, sex of the affected parent, as well as sex, mean age at onset and at death of adult cases in the same pedigrees were noted when available, and the data were investigated for evidence of relationships between different features.

J. G. van Dijk; E. A. Velde; R. A. C. Roos; G. W. Bruyn



Foodborne Disease Epidemiologist  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that 76 million cases of foodborne illness occur in the U.S. each year; 5,000 are fatal. Most of these illnesses are caused by a variety of bacteria, viruses, and parasites and the remaining are poisonings triggered by harmful toxins or chemicals. To Jack Guzewich, a foodborne disease

Sullivan, Megan



Probiotics in GI Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Probiotics are living organisms, which upon ingestion in certain numbers, exert health benefits beyond inherent basic nutrition. Probiotics have been studied in a variety of GI diseases, and are an appealing concept given their favourable safety profiles. Current data on the use of probiotic therapy in GI diseases are reviewed. The rationale for using probiotics in IBD is based on

P. Gionchetti; F. Rizzello; R. Tambasco; R. Brugnera; G. Straforini; S. Nobile; G. Liguori; Spuri Fornarini; M. Campieri



Seasonal infectious disease epidemiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

formally examined. This paper examines the causes and consequences of seasonality, and in so doing derives several new results concerning vaccination strategy and the interpretation of disease outbreak data. It begins with a brief review of published scientific studies in support of different causes of seasonality in infectious diseases of humans, identifying four principal mechanisms and their association with different

Nicholas C. Grassly; Christophe Fraser



Osteoporosis in Parkinson's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients affected by Parkinson's disease are at a high risk for fractures, mainly of the hip. These fractures are caused by falls due to postural imbalance, neurological impairment and reduced bone mass. The purpose of this study was (1) to investigate the correlations and the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying bone loss in Parkinson's disease and appraise bone loss or fracture risk

Marco Invernizzi; Stefano Carda; Giovanni Sguazzini Viscontini; Carlo Cisari



Other animal prion diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

In addition to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) of cattle and scrapie of sheep and goats, a few other animal prion diseases have been reported. These include feline spongiform encephalopathy of zoological and domestic cats (FSE) and transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) of zoological ruminants and non-human primates, as well as chronic wasting disease of deer and elk (CWD) and transmissible mink

Christina J Sigurdson; Michael W Miller



Carotid Artery Disease  


... away from the heart to the head and brain. Located on each side of the neck, these arteries can easily be felt pulsating by ... arteries, are located along the back of the neck adjacent to the spine, and supply blood to the back of the brain. What is carotid artery disease? Carotid artery disease ...


[Epidemiology of celiac disease].  


Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder induced by gluten in genetically susceptible individuals. Patients may present with typical symptoms of enteropathy with diarrhoea and failure to thrive, but atypical symptoms, or even silent forms are more often recognized since serologic markers are available. This progress led to the increase of the incidence of the celiac disease during the last 30 years, which reflect probably the improvement in diagnosing atypical forms of the disease. The prevalence is comparable from a country to another, around 0,7 to 2%. There is a progression with time from latent to silent form, and then to the active disease. The exclusion of the gluten from the diet leads to the regression from the active to the latent form of the disease. PMID:21616605

Lamireau, T; Clouzeau, H



Diseases of echinoderms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diseases of echinoderms are poorly documented. Most reports concern biotic diseases caused by animal agents. While parasites on echinoderms have been described in increasing numbers of papers for more than one century, the host-parasite relationship and the effects of parasitism on echinoderm life-cycles were rarely considered. The parasitic fauna differs markedly according to the echinoderm group concerned, depending on various factors such as feeding-habits or symbiogenesis. Microorganismic diseases undoubtedly occur in echinoderms but they were not investigated until recently. Microorganisms have frequently been assumed to act as agents causing mass mortalities. As for stress-caused diseases, the only — and very preliminary — data available concern almost exclusively those induced by pollution. Since echinoderms are major components of benthic ecosystems, echinoderm diseases may be expected to exert prominent ecological effects.

Jangoux, M.



[Endocrine disease symptoms].  


Diseases of the endocrine system can be classified according to the prevalence into two categories: very frequent endocrinopathies, which affect a population of several millions in Germany and include diabetes mellitus, endemic goiter, osteoporosis and obesity. On the other hand there are a large number of rare endocrine diseases which share the paradox of other rare diseases: they are also often falsely suspected in patients who are not affected but at the same time there are sometimes long delays in diagnosis in those who do have the disease. In cases of adrenal insufficiency, absolute glucocorticoid deficiency can progress to an adrenal crisis which is fatal if not treated. Patients with de Quervain thyroiditis often suffer from prolonged episodes of fever with tender, diffuse goiter and neck pain. Pheochromocytomas should be recognized early in the course of disease because of life-threatening cardiovascular complications. This article highlights the essential characteristics in order to increase awareness. PMID:23989403

Reincke, M



Autophagy in pulmonary diseases.  


(Macro)autophagy provides a membrane-dependent mechanism for the sequestration, transport, and lysosomal turnover of subcellular components, including proteins and organelles. In this capacity, autophagy maintains basal cellular homeostasis and healthy organelle populations such as mitochondria. During starvation, autophagy prolongs cell survival by recycling metabolic precursors from intracellular macromolecules. Furthermore, autophagy represents an inducible response to chemical and physical cellular stress. Increasing evidence suggests that autophagy, and its regulatory proteins, may critically influence vital cellular processes such as programmed cell death, cell proliferation, inflammation, and innate immune functions and thereby may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of human disease. The function of autophagy in disease pathogenesis remains unclear and may involve either impaired or accelerated autophagic activity or imbalances in the activation of autophagic proteins. This review examines the roles of autophagy in the pathogenesis of pulmonary diseases, with emphasis on pulmonary vascular disease and acute and chronic lung diseases. PMID:22035347

Ryter, Stefan W; Nakahira, Kiichi; Haspel, Jeffrey A; Choi, Augustine M K



Anesthesia in neuromuscular diseases.  


Neuromuscular diseases raise a lot of anesthesia related problems. The first is the hitherto unknown disease discovered by an unexpected adverse reaction to anesthetics or/and muscle relaxants up to a life-threatening incident. A second problem is the probable, suspected or proven disposition to malignant hyperthermia in patients with other neuromuscular diseases. Furthermore, severe rhabdomyolysis can be induced in myopathic muscle by the application of succinylcholine alone or in combination with inhalational anesthetics resulting in hyperkalemia, myoglobinuria and CK-elevation, sometimes followed by cardiac arrest. Cardiomyopathy is a common feature in many neuromuscular diseases. All cardiodepressant agents must be avoided. Specific problems with muscle relaxants arise in myasthenia gravis and in the myotonias. In the later stages of severe neuromuscular diseases the main problem concerning anesthesia is respiratory failure. The individual risk of every patient has to be evaluated before anesthesia. Recommendations for the anesthetic management are given. PMID:2196754

Breucking, E; Mortier, W



Feline hepatic disease.  


Species differences in anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry lead to many dissimilarities between the canine and feline liver. Major differences exist in the interpretation of liver function tests, the significance of biochemical jaundice, the consequences of anorexia, and the efficiency of hepatic metabolic systems. Biochemical alterations in total bilirubin, ALT, and SAP may indicate the presence of disease in the feline liver. It is, however, impossible to make accurate diagnoses without liver biopsy. A liver biopsy can provide a diagnosis and prognosis and can guide the therapeutic plan. The feline hepatic diseases most frequently seen in our hospital are hepatic lipidosis, cholangiohepatitis complex, toxic hepatopathy, and hepatic neoplasia. Less common diseases of the feline liver include extrahepatic biliary obstruction, portacaval vascular anomalies, hepatic parasites, hepatic cysts, and diaphragmatic hernia. Systemic diseases that can effect the liver of cats are feline infectious peritonitis, multicentric lymphosarcoma, myeloproliferative diseases, hemolytic anemia, infectious panleukopenia, and systemic fungal infections. PMID:6393553

Zawie, D A; Garvey, M S



[Childhood diseases with exanthema].  


- Due to high vaccination coverage, measles and rubella (German measles) are now rarely seen in the Netherlands, which makes recognition of these diseases difficult. - Measles can also occur in people who have been immunized, as a result of vaccination failure. - Swift recognition of measles and rubella is necessary in order to manage them adequately and to prevent spreading of the disease. - Measles, rubella, and erythema infectiosum ('fifth disease') may result in complications during pregnancy. - Measles, rubella, scarlet fever, erythema infectiosum, and roseola ('sixth disease') can be difficult to differentiate. - In the Netherlands, diagnosis of a patient with measles or rubella, or of more than 1 patient with erythema infectiosum within one institution, must be reported to the local health authority within 1 working day. - Exclusion from school or a day-care facility is not required for any if the diseases discussed. PMID:22008158

Opstelten, Wim; Eekhof, Just A H; Knuistingh Neven, Arie



Epigenetics and Autoimmune Diseases  

PubMed Central

Epigenetics is defined as the study of all inheritable and potentially reversible changes in genome function that do not alter the nucleotide sequence within the DNA. Epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation, histone modification, nucleosome positioning, and microRNAs (miRNAs) are essential to carry out key functions in the regulation of gene expression. Therefore, the epigenetic mechanisms are a window to understanding the possible mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of complex diseases such as autoimmune diseases. It is noteworthy that autoimmune diseases do not have the same epidemiology, pathology, or symptoms but do have a common origin that can be explained by the sharing of immunogenetic mechanisms. Currently, epigenetic research is looking for disruption in one or more epigenetic mechanisms to provide new insights into autoimmune diseases. The identification of cell-specific targets of epigenetic deregulation will serve us as clinical markers for diagnosis, disease progression, and therapy approaches.

Quintero-Ronderos, Paula; Montoya-Ortiz, Gladis



The differential disease regulome  

PubMed Central

Background Transcription factors in disease-relevant pathways represent potential drug targets, by impacting a distinct set of pathways that may be modulated through gene regulation. The influence of transcription factors is typically studied on a per disease basis, and no current resources provide a global overview of the relations between transcription factors and disease. Furthermore, existing pipelines for related large-scale analysis are tailored for particular sources of input data, and there is a need for generic methodology for integrating complementary sources of genomic information. Results We here present a large-scale analysis of multiple diseases versus multiple transcription factors, with a global map of over-and under-representation of 446 transcription factors in 1010 diseases. This map, referred to as the differential disease regulome, provides a first global statistical overview of the complex interrelationships between diseases, genes and controlling elements. The map is visualized using the Google map engine, due to its very large size, and provides a range of detailed information in a dynamic presentation format. The analysis is achieved through a novel methodology that performs a pairwise, genome-wide comparison on the cartesian product of two distinct sets of annotation tracks, e.g. all combinations of one disease and one TF. The methodology was also used to extend with maps using alternative data sets related to transcription and disease, as well as data sets related to Gene Ontology classification and histone modifications. We provide a web-based interface that allows users to generate other custom maps, which could be based on precisely specified subsets of transcription factors and diseases, or, in general, on any categorical genome annotation tracks as they are improved or become available. Conclusion We have created a first resource that provides a global overview of the complex relations between transcription factors and disease. As the accuracy of the disease regulome depends mainly on the quality of the input data, forthcoming ChIP-seq based binding data for many TFs will provide improved maps. We further believe our approach to genome analysis could allow an advance from the current typical situation of one-time integrative efforts to reproducible and upgradable integrative analysis. The differential disease regulome and its associated methodology is available at



[Lyme disease, erythema migrans disease, borreliosis (review)].  


An increasing rate of infections with Borrelia burgdorferi seems to endanger humans and domestic animals. This may be due to increase of the main vectors Ixodids, of their infection with borrelia, of exposure of humans in nature, of climate influences, changes of the virulence or resistance et cet. Enforcement of research in this spirochaete and information of the public are recommended for diminishing the risk of this disease. PMID:2662959

Bengert, O



Cardiovascular disease in women: peripheral artery disease.  


Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a common vascular disease in women that is underrecognized. It is most strongly associated with smoking and diabetes. Women with PAD are more likely to have atypical or no symptoms compared with men. The classic symptoms of claudication are seen in some, but not all, patients. The most useful initial test for PAD is the ankle-brachial index. The American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association guideline recommends that it be obtained for all patients with exertional leg symptoms; patients 50 years or older with diabetes; patients 50 years or older who smoke; all patients older than 65 years; and any patient with known coronary artery disease. Other tests, such as Doppler ultrasonography, magnetic resonance angiography, and computed tomography angiography, should be reserved for patients in whom the diagnosis of PAD is unclear. Exercise programs improve symptoms. Aspirin and statins are recommended for all patients with PAD, whereas surgery is reserved for patients who do not benefit from medical therapy. PMID:23977828

Clark, Daniel S



[Atheroembolic renal disease].  


Atheroembolic renal disease can be defined as renal failure due to occlusion of the renal arterioles by cholesterol crystal emboli usually dislodged from ulcerated atherosclerotic plaques of the aorta. Atheroembolic renal disease is part of multisystem disease, since the embolization usually involves other organ systems such as the gastrointestinal system, central nervous system, and lower extremities. The kidney is frequently involved because of the proximity of the renal arteries to the abdominal aorta, where erosion of atheromatous plaques is most likely to occur. Embolization may occur spontaneously or after angiographic procedures, vascular surgery, and anticoagulation. In the last decade, atheroembolic renal disease has become a recognizable cause of renal disease. An ante-mortem diagnosis of the disease is possible in a significant proportion of cases as long as the level of diagnostic suspicion is high. The disease can severely affect kidney and patient survival. Although no specific treatment has been proven efficacious, use of statins may be justifiable and such therapy would be a reasonable choice for future treatment trials. PMID:19382074

Turina, S; Mazzola, G; Venturelli, C; Valerio, F; Dallera, N; Kenou, R; Sottini, L; Maffeo, D; Tardanico, R; Faggiano, P; Scolari, F


Diseases in intercropping systems.  


Intercropping, the simultaneous cultivation of multiple crop species, has been used throughout history and remains common among farmers of small landholdings in the tropics. One benefit of this practice may be disease control. In phenomenological research comparing disease in monocrops and intercrops, primarily due to foliar fungi, intercropping reduced disease in 73% of more than 200 studies. Nematodes are the primary pathogen for which disease increases are reported, but variability in disease impacts among studies can be high for all types of diseases. The mechanisms by which intercrops affect disease dynamics include alteration of wind, rain, and vector dispersal; modification of microclimate, especially temperature and moisture; changes in host morphology and physiology; and direct pathogen inhibition. The effect of intercropping on host density is a factor underlying many of these mechanisms. By synthesizing our growing understanding of mechanisms and their interactions with phenomenological studies, we may develop a theoretical grounding that allows us to improve the application of intercropping for tropical smallholders and industrial farmers alike. PMID:23725470

Boudreau, Mark A



[Skrljevo disease in Slovenia].  


During the first decades of the 19th century a disease appeared in the regions of Inner Carniola and Carst which was, due to its unusual course, at first considered a new entity. It spread among the population in an asexual, extragenital and endemic way and was enhanced by poor economic and hygienic circumstances. Since the clinical picture of the disease resembled sporadic syphilis, some doctors thought that it was a combination of syphilis and some others contagious disease, while others considered it sporadic syphilis. The government in Vienna responded to the epidemic by the introduction of extensive social and health measures. Compulsory medical examination of the inhabitants in the affected area was decreed, treatment of patients was initiated and preventive measures recommended. The action was organized by Baron Dr. Stifft. In the summer of 1818 a new specialized hospital for Skerljevo's patients was opened in Postojna. When the epidemic declined a decade later the hospital was closed down. Extensive preventive and curative actions, and the efforts of local authorities and clergy to improve living conditions of Slovenian peasant population and make them more aware of the seriousness and causes of the disease contributed to the decline of the epidemic. The example set by organization of the official measures taken in the case of Skerljevo disease can serve as a basis for a comparative medico-historical study regarding new epidemic diseases (AIDS, diseases caused by slow viruses). PMID:12152416

Slavec, Zvonka Zupanic



Genetic kidney diseases  

PubMed Central

Knowledge of the primary cause of a disease is essential for understanding its mechanisms and for adequate classification, prognosis, and treatment. Recently, the etiologies of many kidney diseases have been revealed as single-gene defects. This is exemplified by steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome, which is caused by podocin mutations in ~25% of childhood and ~15% of adult cases. Knowledge of a disease-causing mutation in a single-gene disorder represents one of the most robust diagnostic examples of “personalized medicine”, because the mutation conveys an almost 100% risk of developing the disease by a certain age. Whereas single-gene diseases are rare disorders, polygenic “risk alleles” are found in common adult-onset diseases. This review will discuss prominent renal single-gene kidney disorders and polygenic risk alleles of common disorders. We delineate how emerging techniques of total exome capture and large-scale sequencing will facilitate molecular genetic diagnosis, prognosis and specific therapy and lead to a better understanding of disease mechanisms, thus enabling development of new targeted drugs.

Hildebrandt, Friedhelm



Osteoporosis in Parkinson's disease.  


Patients affected by Parkinson's disease are at a high risk for fractures, mainly of the hip. These fractures are caused by falls due to postural imbalance, neurological impairment and reduced bone mass. The purpose of this study was (1) to investigate the correlations and the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying bone loss in Parkinson's disease and appraise bone loss or fracture risk reduction interventions; (2) to develop a research agenda that informs the design and development of risk reduction strategies. Osteoporosis and osteopenia are very common findings in patients with Parkinson's disease, affecting up to 91% of women and 61% of men. Reduced bone mass in Parkinsonian patients seems to be caused mainly by reduced mobility through a mechanism similar to that observed in other neurological diseases. Endocrine (such as vitamin D deficiency), nutritional and iatrogenic factors also play an important role in bone mass depletion. Female gender, disease duration and severity (Hoehn and Yahr stages III and IV), old age and low body mass index are related to more severe osteoporosis. Vitamin D supplementation and bisphosphonates seem to be effective in reducing the risk of nonvertebral fractures in patients affected by Parkinson's disease. Prevention and evaluation of osteoporosis through bone mass density assessment should be considered in all patients with Parkinson's disease. PMID:19346153

Invernizzi, Marco; Carda, Stefano; Viscontini, Giovanni Sguazzini; Cisari, Carlo



The orphan disease networks.  


The low prevalence rate of orphan diseases (OD) requires special combined efforts to improve diagnosis, prevention, and discovery of novel therapeutic strategies. To identify and investigate relationships based on shared genes or shared functional features, we have conducted a bioinformatic-based global analysis of all orphan diseases with known disease-causing mutant genes. Starting with a bipartite network of known OD and OD-causing mutant genes and using the human protein interactome, we first construct and topologically analyze three networks: the orphan disease network, the orphan disease-causing mutant gene network, and the orphan disease-causing mutant gene interactome. Our results demonstrate that in contrast to the common disease-causing mutant genes that are predominantly nonessential, a majority of orphan disease-causing mutant genes are essential. In confirmation of this finding, we found that OD-causing mutant genes are topologically important in the protein interactome and are ubiquitously expressed. Additionally, functional enrichment analysis of those genes in which mutations cause ODs shows that a majority result in premature death or are lethal in the orthologous mouse gene knockout models. To address the limitations of traditional gene-based disease networks, we also construct and analyze OD networks on the basis of shared enriched features (biological processes, cellular components, pathways, phenotypes, and literature citations). Analyzing these functionally-linked OD networks, we identified several additional OD-OD relations that are both phenotypically similar and phenotypically diverse. Surprisingly, we observed that the wiring of the gene-based and other feature-based OD networks are largely different; this suggests that the relationship between ODs cannot be fully captured by the gene-based network alone. PMID:21664998

Zhang, Minlu; Zhu, Cheng; Jacomy, Alexis; Lu, Long J; Jegga, Anil G



The Orphan Disease Networks  

PubMed Central

The low prevalence rate of orphan diseases (OD) requires special combined efforts to improve diagnosis, prevention, and discovery of novel therapeutic strategies. To identify and investigate relationships based on shared genes or shared functional features, we have conducted a bioinformatic-based global analysis of all orphan diseases with known disease-causing mutant genes. Starting with a bipartite network of known OD and OD-causing mutant genes and using the human protein interactome, we first construct and topologically analyze three networks: the orphan disease network, the orphan disease-causing mutant gene network, and the orphan disease-causing mutant gene interactome. Our results demonstrate that in contrast to the common disease-causing mutant genes that are predominantly nonessential, a majority of orphan disease-causing mutant genes are essential. In confirmation of this finding, we found that OD-causing mutant genes are topologically important in the protein interactome and are ubiquitously expressed. Additionally, functional enrichment analysis of those genes in which mutations cause ODs shows that a majority result in premature death or are lethal in the orthologous mouse gene knockout models. To address the limitations of traditional gene-based disease networks, we also construct and analyze OD networks on the basis of shared enriched features (biological processes, cellular components, pathways, phenotypes, and literature citations). Analyzing these functionally-linked OD networks, we identified several additional OD-OD relations that are both phenotypically similar and phenotypically diverse. Surprisingly, we observed that the wiring of the gene-based and other feature-based OD networks are largely different; this suggests that the relationship between ODs cannot be fully captured by the gene-based network alone.

Zhang, Minlu; Zhu, Cheng; Jacomy, Alexis; Lu, Long J.; Jegga, Anil G.



Cystic lung disease.  


This review addresses the pathology of lung disease in which the predominant finding is diffuse cystic change. Although cysts may be found radiologically in a wide variety of disease states, the entities discussed are those most likely to be encountered in biopsies where the underlying aetiology is unclear. These include Langerhans cell histiocytosis, lymphangioleiomyomatosis and Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome, and recent advances in the molecular pathology of these entities are reviewed. Conditions in which cyst formation may occur but does not represent the predominant pathology are also considered, including alveolar septal amyloidosis, light chain disease, follicular bronchiolitis and lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia. Cystic metastases may present a differential diagnostic dilemma. PMID:23729207

Clarke, Belinda E



Amyloid Heart Disease  

PubMed Central

Amyloidosis comprises a unique group of diseases that share in common the extracellular deposition of insoluble fibrillar proteins in organs and tissues. Cardiovascular amyloidosis can be primary, a part of systemic amyloidosis, or a result of chronic systemic diseases elsewhere in the body. The most common presentations are congestive heart failure—mainly a restrictive infiltrative pattern—and conduction system disturbances. Recent developments in imaging techniques and extracardiac tissue sampling have minimized the need for invasive endomyocardial biopsy for amyloidosis. Despite advances in treatment, the prognosis for patients with amyloidosis is still poor and depends on the underlying disease type. Herein, we present new insights and recent advances in cardiovascular amyloidosis.

Hassan, Walid; Al-Sergani, Hani; Mourad, Walid; Tabbaa, Rashed



[Refractory celiac disease].  


Refractory celiac disease is characterized by the persistence or recurrence of symptoms connected with enteropathy, presence of specific antibodies in the serum: EMA, tTG2 and DPG, and (or) intestinal villous atrophy despite strict adherence to gluten-free diet for 6 to 12 months. Correct initial diagnosis of celiac disease, exclusion of other causes of the lack of response to gluten-free diet and persistence of villous atrophy are necessary conditions of diagnosis of refractory celiac disease. Options of the treatment, depending on the patient condition are: gluten-free diet, elementary diet, parenteral nutrition, immunosuppression and biological therapy. PMID:23984606

Iwa?czak, Franciszek; Iwa?czak, Barbara



TRP Channels in Disease  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The mammalian TRP (transient receptor potential) family consists of six main subfamilies that include 28 ion channels that function as cellular sensors of various phenomena, including changes in temperature, osmolarity, pH, membrane stretch, and various second messenger pathways. All of the TRP channels are permeable to monovalent cations, and most are also permeable to calcium ions. There are strong indications that TRP channels are involved in many diseases. This review highlights some TRP "suspects" for which a role in disease can be anticipated. An understanding of the genetics of disease may lead to the development of targeted new therapies.

Bernd Nilius (Campus Gasthuisberg Katholieke Universiteit Leuven B;Department of Physiology REV); Thomas Voets (Campus Gasthuisberg Katholieke Universiteit Leuven B;Department of Physiology REV); John Peters (Campus Gasthuisberg Katholieke Universiteit Leuven B;Department of Physiology REV)



Disease Role Play  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students in collaborative groups will develop an action plan to address a new disease. This activity provides 3 roles for student participation: scientist, public health official and community leader. Each group member will be required to remain within the parameters described by the scenario during the role play. For example, the scientists will be given a data sheet the they will need to interpret. This group member will be the only one with knowledge of the disease. Only this person will act as a disease expert. Once the groups have an opportunity to read their scenarios and prepare for a committee meeting, they will meet and devise an action plan.

Chris Kuka (Bend Senior High School REV)



Zygomycetes in Human Disease  

PubMed Central

The Zygomycetes represent relatively uncommon isolates in the clinical laboratory, reflecting either environmental contaminants or, less commonly, a clinical disease called zygomycosis. There are two orders of Zygomycetes containing organisms that cause human disease, the Mucorales and the Entomophthorales. The majority of human illness is caused by the Mucorales. While disease is most commonly linked to Rhizopus spp., other organisms are also associated with human infection, including Mucor, Rhizomucor, Absidia, Apophysomyces, Saksenaea, Cunninghamella, Cokeromyces, and Syncephalastrum spp. Although Mortierella spp. do cause disease in animals, there is no longer sufficient evidence to suggest that they are true human pathogens. The spores from these molds are transmitted by inhalation, via a variety of percutaneous routes, or by ingestion of spores. Human zygomycosis caused by the Mucorales generally occurs in immunocompromised hosts as opportunistic infections. Host risk factors include diabetes mellitus, neutropenia, sustained immunosuppressive therapy, chronic prednisone use, iron chelation therapy, broad-spectrum antibiotic use, severe malnutrition, and primary breakdown in the integrity of the cutaneous barrier such as trauma, surgical wounds, needle sticks, or burns. Zygomycosis occurs only rarely in immunocompetent hosts. The disease manifestations reflect the mode of transmission, with rhinocerebral and pulmonary diseases being the most common manifestations. Cutaneous, gastrointestinal, and allergic diseases are also seen. The Mucorales are associated with angioinvasive disease, often leading to thrombosis, infarction of involved tissues, and tissue destruction mediated by a number of fungal proteases, lipases, and mycotoxins. If the diagnosis is not made early, dissemination often occurs. Therapy, if it is to be effective, must be started early and requires combinations of antifungal drugs, surgical intervention, and reversal of the underlying risk factors. The Entomophthorales are closely related to the Mucorales on the basis of sexual growth by production of zygospores and by the production of coenocytic hyphae. Despite these similarities, the Entomophthorales and Mucorales have dramatically different gross morphologies, asexual reproductive characteristics, and disease manifestations. In comparison to the floccose aerial mycelium of the Mucorales, the Entomophthorales produce a compact, glabrous mycelium. The asexually produced spores of the Entomophthorales may be passively released or actively expelled into the environment. Human disease with these organisms occurs predominantly in tropical regions, with transmission occurring by implantation of spores via minor trauma such as insect bites or by inhalation of spores into the sinuses. Conidiobolus typically infects mucocutaneous sites to produce sinusitis disease, while Basidiobolus infections occur as subcutaneous mycosis of the trunk and extremities. The Entomophthorales are true pathogens, infecting primarily immunocompetent hosts. They generally do not invade blood vessels and rarely disseminate. Occasional cases of disseminated and angioinvasive disease have recently been described, primarily in immunocompromised patients, suggesting a possible emerging role for this organism as an opportunist.

Ribes, Julie A.; Vanover-Sams, Carolyn L.; Baker, Doris J.



Chronic Wasting Disease  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is an always-fatal, neurological illness occurring in North American cervids (members of the deer family), including white-tailed deer, mule deer, elk and moose. Since its discovery in 1967, CWD has spread geographically and increased in prevalence locally. CWD is contagious; it can be transmitted freely within and among free-ranging populations. It is likely that diseased animals can transmit CWD to healthy animals long before they become clinically ill. Managing CWD in free-ranging populations is extremely difficult, therefore preventative measures designed to reduce the chance for disease spread are critically important.

Richards, Bryan



Rheumatic Diseases and Malignancies  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT There are many studies which demonstrate a higher risk for malignancy in patients with rheumatic diseases. There have been a number of possible explanations for the differences in the risk of certain malignancies in patients with rheumatic disease, compared with general population, but a clear mechanism is difficult to identify. Rheumatoid syndromes may be associated with malignancy as paraneoplastic conditions, which can antedate the neoplasm diagnosis. On the other hand, autoimmune rheumatic diseases have a higher risk of malignancy by themselves or because of the immunosuppressant treatments.

BOJINCA, Violeta; JANTA, Iustina



[Lifestyle diseases in dermatology].  


Psychosocial disorders and lifestyle trends have become more important in dermatology. Lifestyle diseases are a biopsychosocial phenomenon that can only be diagnosed and treated by paying attention to the quickly changing sociocultural aspects. The naming and popularization of the particular lifestyle diseases takes place by the media, but there is only an imprecise medical classification of these phenomena. This article gives an overview of the current situation and medical conditions of lifestyle diseases and try to assign them to an established psychosomatic diagnosis, based on the clinical symptomatic. Most often somatoform disorders, somatization disorders with a repeated presentation of physical symptoms which cannot be medically objectified or depressive disturbances are found. PMID:17701144

Harth, W; Hillert, A



Celiac disease during pregnancy.  

PubMed Central

QUESTION: One of my patients was diagnosed with celiac disease and maintains a strict gluten-free diet. Is her fetus at risk of neural tube defects because she does not get folic acid from bread and other flour-based foods? ANSWER: A woman with celiac disease must supplement her diet with multivitamins, including folic acid. Most prenatal vitamins contain 0.8 to 0.9 mg of folic acid, double the amount recommended by Health Canada for prevention of neural tube defects. Without supplementation (eg, undiagnosed pregnancy), women with celiac disease might not take in enough folate to maintain protective levels.

Hancock, Rebecca; Koren, Gideon



Sexually transmitted diseases.  


Sexually transmitted infections (STIs), also referred to as sexually transmitted diseases, remain a growing worldwide problem and public health issue. This article covers the epidemiology of STIs, the history and physical findings, screening guidelines, and the general plan to combat STIs. Prevention is discussed using the latest information from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and other references. Infections discussed from the standpoint of cause, epidemiology, risk factors, clinical disease, diagnosis, and treatment include gonorrhea, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, syphilis, chancroid, Herpes simplex, lymphogranuloma venereum, granuloma inguinale, Herpes papilloma virus, Molluscum contagiosum, and pubic lice. PMID:23958358

Markle, William; Conti, Tracey; Kad, Manjusha



Paediatric Dupuytren's disease  

PubMed Central

Dupuytren's disease of the hand has only been rarely reported in children and is rarer still in infants. Only a few histologically confirmed diagnoses are found in literature. We report a case in a 4-month-old infant with Dupuytren's disease of palm and thumb who required surgery at 6 months of age. Histology confirmed the diagnosis of Dupuytren's disease. The purpose of this report is to show the importance of differential diagnosis of nodules and fibrotic bands in children's hands as paediatric patients may be seen by a variety of treating physicians, not only plastic surgeons or pathologists.

Korambayil, Pradeoth Mukundan; Padikala, Anto Francis



Disease management strategies for wildlife  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Three basic forms of management strategies exist for wildlife disease, as follows: prevention of introduction of disease, control of existing disease or eradication. Management may be directed at the disease agent, host population, habitat or be focused on human activities. Disease agents may be dealt with in the environment through disinfection or in the host through treatment. Disinfection and

G. Wobeser



Some Important Diseases of Tree Fruits - Diseases of Vegetable Crops - Diseases of Grapes - Diseases of Tree Nuts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University consists of four sections on plant disease recognition and control. The titles of these four sections are: (1) Some Important Diseases of Tree Fruits; (2) Diseases of Vegetable Crops; (3) Diseases of Crops; and (4) Diseases of Tree Nuts. The first section discusses…

Petersen, Donald H.; And Others


Protein aggregation and neurodegenerative disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Huntington's disease (HD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and prion diseases are increasingly being realized to have common cellular and molecular mechanisms including protein aggregation and inclusion body formation. The aggregates usually consist of fibers containing misfolded protein with a ?-sheet conformation, termed amyloid. There is partial but not perfect overlap

Christopher A Ross; Michelle A Poirier



Some Important Diseases of Tree Fruits - Diseases of Vegetable Crops - Diseases of Grapes - Diseases of Tree Nuts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University consists of four sections on plant disease recognition and control. The titles of these four sections are: (1) Some Important Diseases of Tree Fruits; (2) Diseases of Vegetable Crops; (3) Diseases of Crops; and (4) Diseases of Tree Nuts. The first section discusses…

Petersen, Donald H.; And Others


Forest Insect and Disease Conditions Report: Indigenous Diseases, 1998.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the forest insects and diseases in the Pacific Northwest for the year 1998. It includes indigenous and non-indigenous diseases, nursery diseases, indigenous and non-indigenous insects, etc.



Forest Insect and Disease Conditions Report: Indigenous Diseases, 2000.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the forest insects and diseases in the Pacific Northwest for the year 2000. It includes indigenous and non-indigenous diseases, nursery diseases, indigenous and non-indigenous insects, etc.



Women and Vascular Disease  


... People Are Talking: Know Your Treatment Options! Social Media Connect With ... as peripheral vascular disease (PVD), is a very common condition affecting 12–20 percent of Americans age 65 and ...


Pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease.  


Parkinson's disease is a common adult-onset neurodegenerative disorder whose pathogenesis remains essentially unknown. Currently, it is believed that the neurodegenerative process in Parkinson's disease is a combination of both cell-autonomous and non-cell-autonomous mechanisms. Proposed cell-autonomous mechanisms include alterations in mitochondrial bioenergetics, dysregulation of calcium homeostasis, and impaired turnover of mitochondria. As for the proposed non-cell-autonomous mechanisms, they involve prion-like behavior of misfolded proteins and neuroinflammation. This suggests that cell death in Parkinson's disease is caused by a multifactorial cascade of pathogenic events and argues that effective neuroprotective therapy for Parkinson's disease may have to rely on multiple drug interventions. PMID:22927094

Hirsch, Etienne C; Jenner, Peter; Przedborski, Serge



Fatty Liver Disease.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The relationship between liver disease and prior exposure to hepatotoxic agents was investigated in four separate studies. The first was a cross sectional study of hazardous waste workers who were well protected. The study examined the relationship betwee...

M. J. Hodgson D. H. Van Thiel



Diet - liver disease  


A person with liver disease must eat a special diet. This diet protects the liver from working too hard and helps it to ... also prevent fatty buildup and damage to the liver cells. In people with severely damaged livers, proteins ...


Alcoholic liver disease  


Liver disease due to alcohol; Cirrhosis or hepatitis - alcoholic; Laennec's cirrhosis ... Alcoholic liver diseaes occurs after years of heavy drinking. Alcohol can cause i inflammation in the liver . Over time, ...



EPA Science Inventory

By Congressional mandate, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) produces "toxicological profiles" for hazardous substances found at National Priorities List (NPL) sites. These hazardous substances are ranked based on frequency of occurrence at NPL sites, to...


Epidemiology of Alzheimer disease.  


The global prevalence of dementia has been estimated to be as high as 24 million, and is predicted to double every 20 years until at least 2040. As the population worldwide continues to age, the number of individuals at risk will also increase, particularly among the very old. Alzheimer disease is the leading cause of dementia beginning with impaired memory. The neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer disease include diffuse and neuritic extracellular amyloid plaques in brain that are frequently surrounded by dystrophic neurites and intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles. The etiology of Alzheimer disease remains unclear, but it is likely to be the result of both genetic and environmental factors. In this review we discuss the prevalence and incidence rates, the established environmental risk factors, and the protective factors, and briefly review genetic variants predisposing to disease. PMID:22908189

Mayeux, Richard; Stern, Yaakov



Immunity in Chagas' Disease.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the final report on the immunity in Chagas' disease contract and it summarizes the results of a diversity of studies directed toward understanding the immunology of this dreaded affliction. Among the achievements mentioned are the development of a...

D. E. Wood



Fulminant Demyelinating Diseases  

PubMed Central

Fulminant demyelinating disease is a heading that covers acute disseminated encephalomyelitis and its variant acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis (Hurst disease), severe relapses of multiple sclerosis (MS), variants of MS (tumefactive MS, Marburg variant, Balo concentric sclerosis, myelinoclastic diffuse sclerosis), and neuromyelitis optica-spectrum disorders associated with aquaporin autoimmunity. These categories of inflammatory demyelinating disease often prompt hospital admission and many necessitate intensive care monitoring due to the aggressive nature of the illness and associated neurologic morbidity. In this review, we highlight the discriminating clinical, radiographic, and pathologic features of these disorders. Acute management is often accomplished with use of high-dose intravenous steroids and plasma exchange. Aggressive disease may respond to immunosuppression. Prognosis for recovery varies among the disorders but most patients improve. Factors influencing outcome are also discussed.

Rahmlow, Megan R.; Kantarci, Orhun



Diffuse interstitial lung disease  


... to the chest Working with or around asbestos, coal dust, cotton dust, and silica dust (called occupational ... routinely screened for lung disease. These jobs include coal mining, sand blasting, and working on a ship.


Mitochondria in vascular disease.  


Mitochondria are often regarded as the powerhouse of the cell by generating the ultimate energy transfer molecule, ATP, which is required for a multitude of cellular processes. However, the role of mitochondria goes beyond their capacity to create molecular fuel, to include the generation of reactive oxygen species, the regulation of calcium, and activation of cell death. Mitochondrial dysfunction is part of both normal and premature ageing, but can contribute to inflammation, cell senescence, and apoptosis. Cardiovascular disease, and in particular atherosclerosis, is characterized by DNA damage, inflammation, cell senescence, and apoptosis. Increasing evidence indicates that mitochondrial damage and dysfunction also occur in atherosclerosis and may contribute to the multiple pathological processes underlying the disease. This review summarizes the normal role of mitochondria, the causes and consequences of mitochondrial dysfunction, and the evidence for mitochondrial damage and dysfunction in vascular disease. Finally, we highlight areas of mitochondrial biology that may have therapeutic targets in vascular disease. PMID:22392270

Yu, Emma; Mercer, John; Bennett, Martin



[Complications of celiac disease].  


Numerous complications can occur in celiac disease, nutritional (growth failure in children, malnutrition, vitamin deficiencies), hematologic (anaemia), bone disease (osteoporosis, fracture), gynaecologic (hypo fertility), cardiovascular (coronaropathy, venous thrombosis), neurological (peripheral neuropathy), hepatic (cytolysis, cirrhosis). Celiac disease is associated with an increased risk of autoimmune diseases (type 1 diabetes, thyroiditis), and cancer (upper digestive tract, hepatocellular carcinoma, lymphoma). The main digestive complications are microscopic colitis and refractory sprue, which are resistant to gluten-free diet. It can be associated with a monoclonal proliferation of intraepithelial lymphocytes (type 2 refractory sprue), which may be considered as a cryptic lymphoma and can lead to invasive T lymphoma, which occurs in one celiac patient in 1000. Gluten-free diet protects from the occurrence of most complications and correct the over-mortality related to these complications. PMID:21621350

Cosnes, J; Nion-Larmurier, I



Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease  


... CJD is not related to mad cow disease (bovine spongiform encephalitis ). However, variant CJD (vCJD) is a ... people were given corneal transplants, other tissues, or blood transfusions from infected donors. It may also have ...


Peripartum heart disease.  


Peripartum heart disease is reviewed in the light of reports in the literature and personal experience from the University College Hospital, Ibadan. It is concluded that it is worldwide in distribution but appears most commonly in multiparous black women with a low socioeconomic background. The clinical features are the same as those of dilated cardiomyopathy, with the exception of cases from Zaria, northern Nigeria, where heart failure may be induced by high salt and fluid intake. The possible causes of peripartum heart disease are reviewed. Glomerulonephritis, toxemia of pregnancy, and malnutrition have not been shown convincingly to be causal, and infection, hypertension, and alcoholism have been suggested. Hypertensive heart failure and toxemia of pregnancy can induce peripartum heart disease. It is concluded that the myocardial disorder in peripartum heart disease is probably the same condition as dilated cardiomyopathy, and that infection may be an important element. However, diverse other factors may also play a part. PMID:3843585

Falase, A O



Facts about Crohn's Disease  

MedlinePLUS Consumer Health Information 1 / FDA Consumer Health Information / U.S. Food and Drug Administration MAY 2, 2008 What is Crohn’s Disease? • It ...


Learning about Gaucher Disease  


... be adequately degraded. Normally, the body makes an enzyme called glucocerebrosidase that breaks down and recycles glucocerebroside - ... test to measure the activity level of the enzyme glucocerebrosidase. Individuals who have Gaucher disease have very ...


Coronary Artery Disease  


... heart disease. CAD and its complications, like arrhythmia, angina pectoris, and heart attack (also called myocardial infarction), are ... the heart may begin to cause something called angina pectoris , a Latin phrase that means, "strangling in the ...


Glossodynia and coeliac disease.  


Coeliac disease is an immune-mediated chronic inflammatory disorder of the small bowel caused by irritant gluten and, possibly, other environmental cofactors, in genetically prone people. Coeliac disease is characterized by no (or elusive or varied) symptoms. Oral clinical settings include aphthous stomatitis and dental enamel defects. Association with other signs in the oral mucosa (such as, for example, soreness, a burning sensation, erythema or atrophy) is much less common and, often, not considered by clinicians. We report on a 72-year-old woman with a four months history of oral burning sensation as a single clinical manifestation of coeliac disease. Clinical presentation and symptomatology are discussed in relation to the differential diagnosis of oral glossodynia. This case history highlights the importance of considering coeliac disease in managing cases of idiopathic glossodynia. PMID:22268634

Lucchese, Alberta; Guida, Agostino; Serpico, Rosario



Diabetes and periodontal disease  

PubMed Central

Diabetes mellitus is a systemic disease characterized by increased blood glucose levels and abnormalities of lipid metabolism due to absence or decreased level of insulin. It affects all the body organs and their functions either directly or indirectly. Every dentist should have a basic understanding of the etiopathogenesis, oral and systemic manifestations of this disease. The periodontal diseases are a consequence of extension of the gingival inflammation into the underlying supporting structures of the periodontium, initiated by the presence of plaque and its products on the surfaces of the teeth and the adjoining structures. The progression of periodontal disease is influenced by variety of factors like microorganisms, host response, systemic background, and genetic makeup of the host. Amongst them, diabetes mellitus tops the list. Diabetes and periodontitis influence the clinical outcome of each other and control of both influences the clinical improvement of each.

Daniel, Rajkumar; Gokulanathan, Subramanium; Shanmugasundaram, Natarajan; Lakshmigandhan, Mahalingam; Kavin, Thangavelu



Ferritin in autoimmune diseases.  


Iron, an essential element for many important cellular functions in all living organisms, can catalyze the formation of potentially toxic free radicals. Excessive iron is sequestered by ferritin in a nontoxic and readily available form in a cell. Ferritin is composed of 24 subunits of different proportions of two functionally distinct subunits: ferritin H and L. The expression of ferritin is under delicate control and is regulated at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels by iron, cytokines, hormones, and oxidative stress. Mutations in the ferritin gene cause the hereditary hyperferritinemia-cataract syndrome and neuroferritinopathy. Hyperferritinemia is associated with inflammation, infections, and malignancies. While elevated levels of ferritin are characteristic of adult-onset Still's disease and hemophagocytic syndrome, both associated with inflammation, it has scantly been evaluated in other autoimmune diseases. In this review, we describe ferritin structure and function, hyperferritinemia in disease states and in autoimmune diseases. PMID:17643933

Zandman-Goddard, Gisele; Shoenfeld, Yehuda



Membrane transport and disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four situations in which membrane transport is altered by disease are discussed: (a) non-specific leaks induced by poreforming agents; (b) glucose transport and cellular stress; (c) Ca+-ATPase and hypertension; (d) Na- channels and HSV infection.

C. A. Pasternak




EPA Science Inventory

Public health surveillance has played a key role in controlling the spread of communicable disease and identifying the need for specific publich health practices, such as the filteration and chlorination of drinking water supplies. However, the characteristics of waterborne ou...


Travelers' Health: Meningococcal Disease  


... highest in the “meningitis belt” of sub-Saharan Africa ( Map 3-11 ). The incidence of meningococcal disease ... prolonged. Hyperendemic regions include the meningitis belt of Africa during the dry season (December–June). Advisories for ...


Heart disease. Third edition  

SciTech Connect

This book contains 62 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Radiological and Angiographic Examination of the Heart; Newer Cardiac Imaging Techniques: Digital Subtraction Angiography, Computerized Tomography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Nuclear Cardiology; and Genetics and Cardiovascular Disease.

Braunwald, E.



Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Disease  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Images of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Disease.  Vesicular stomatitis viruses (VSV) are in the family Rhabdoviridae and the genus Vesiculovirus and are enveloped viruses with bullet-shaped capsids.

American Society For Microbiology;



Chronic granulomatous disease  


CGD; Fatal granulomatosis of childhood; Chronic granulomatous disease of childhood; Progressive septic granulomatosis ... The condition is often discovered in very early childhood. Milder forms may be diagnosed during the teen ...


Ulcer disease of trout  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During the summer of 1933, lesions of a disease were noted among some fingerling brook, rainbow, blackspotted, and lake trout at the Cortland (New York) trout hatchery. Although these lesions bore a marked superficial resemblance to those of furunculosis, they were sufficiently atypical to warrant further investigation. A more detailed examination of the lesions proved them to be of a distinct disease, which for lack of a better name is herein called "ulcer disease," for the lesions closely resemble those described by Calkins (1899) under this name. Because of the marked resemblance to furunculosis, ulcer disease has not been generally recognized by trout culturists, and any ulcer appearing on fish has been ascribed by them to furunculosis without further question.

Fish, F. F.



Parkinson's Disease Foundation  


... 2:00 PM - 3:15 PM Dance for PD (NY) Monday, October 7, 2013 - Tuesday, October 8, ... protect the dopamine neurons involved in Parkinson’s disease (PD) and reverse the effects of a rare genetic ...


Alzheimer's Disease Genetics  


... A study approach that involves rapidly scanning complete sets of DNA, or genomes, of many individuals to find genetic variations associated with a particular disease. Protein— A substance that determines the physical and chemical ...


Polycystic kidney disease.  


Polycystic kidney disease, an inherited systemic disorder, is characterized by the development of multiple cysts in the kidneys and other organs. Patients can present at any age, but more often come to clinical attention (unless there is a family history) after age 30. Patients who are diagnosed before age 30 have a worse renal survival. Although palpation of the abdomen occasionally provides a clue to the presence of polycystic kidney disease, radiographic procedures most often suggest the diagnosis. Mutations in the PKD1 or PKD2 genes give rise to cyst formation. Flank pain, hematuria, polyuria, nephrolithiasis, urinary tract infections, and hypertension may be part of the syndrome of polycystic kidney disease. It is the fourth most common cause of end-stage renal disease. Blood pressure treatment goals are less than 130/80 mm Hg. Treatment should include the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. PMID:16227765

Fall, Pamela J; Prisant, L Michael



Disease and Evolution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses disease and genetic disorders as evolutionary mechanisms. Emphasizes the archeological evidence from past human populations and societies, mentioning albinism, scurvy, sleeping sickness, bone conditions, various host-parasite relationships, rickets, sickle-cell anemia, diabetes, and influenza. (CS)|

Wells, Calvin



Flu and Heart Disease  


... contagious illness, which is caused by influenza viruses. Flu vaccines are created to combat the strains of flu ... American College of Cardiology has recommended an annual flu vaccine in injection form for cardiovascular disease patients “with ...


Treatment of Celiac Disease  


... such common foods as mold-based cheeses, mushrooms, yeast and yeast products. Xanthan, which may be used as a ... between untreated celiac disease and enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma. This is true also for patients with ...


Overview of Infectious Diseases  


... flora); pathogens that produce disease fungi Molds and yeasts. Fungi colonize (live on or in a child) and are pathogens parasites Forms range from single cells (amoeba, protozoa) to worms Last Updated 10/1/ ...


Alzheimer's Disease and Immunotherapy  

PubMed Central

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a growing health care epidemic. It is the most common cause of dementia and its incidence is rising. Age, which influences the oxidative and inflammatory states of the brain, is the most important risk factor. Currently there is no disease modifying treatments available for this irreversible, progressive debilitating disease. Immunotherapy represents an emerging, potentially disease modifying strategy aimed at reducing the pathological lesions of AD and facilitating cognitive improvement. Many clinical trials are currently underway. This literature review highlights current knowledge regarding the physiology of aging and how it relates to the pathogenesis of AD. In addition, immunotherapy is discussed in the context of its mechanism, current studies and future goals.

Madeo, Jennifer; Frieri, Marianne




EPA Science Inventory

This article discusses the current state of knowledge of naturally occurring feline bronchopulmonary disease; using in-depth diagnostic evaluation and pulmonary function testing to emphasize the diversity of the clinical manifestations and pathophysiologic abnormalities of these ...


Diagnosis of Hansen's Disease.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Discusses signs, symptoms, and areas of involvement0of Hansen's Disease (Leprosy). emphasizes diagnostic techniques. Shows clinical manifestations and presents differential diagnosis aspects. Primary audience: medical, nursing, and allied health professio...



Treatment of Hansen's Disease.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Discusses management of uncomplicated Hansen's Disease (Leprosy). outlines basic drug choices, treatment regimens, efficacy, measurements, drug resistance problems, and research efforts. Primary audience: medical, nursing, and allied health professions.



Sickle Cell Disease  


... It causes a type of faulty hemoglobin in red blood cells. Hemoglobin carries oxygen in the blood. Sickle cell disease commonly affects blacks and Latinos. Normal red blood cells are disc-shaped and very flexible. In people ...


Liver Disease on Taiwan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Review of 762 liver biopsies from 2 Chinese military hospitals on Taiwan over a 5 year period revealed the major distribution of clinically manifested liver diseases to be as follows: hepatitis (presumable viral) 42%; cirrhosis 19%; and primary carcinoma ...

P. C. Chu S. C. Sun W. H. Liang J. W. Fresh



Juvenile Huntington's Disease  


... Up Shop Login Contact Us For Physicians Twitter Facebook facebook twitter search form search: New to HD New ... Remembrance Living With HD HD Care Juvenile HD facebook twitter Juvenile Huntington's Disease Fewer than ten percent ...


Paget's Disease of Bone  


... osteoclasts" absorb bone. Cells of the bone called "osteoblasts" make new bone. Left, Large, plump osteoclasts (OCL) ... In Paget's disease, osteoclasts are more active than osteoblasts. This means that there is more bone absorption ...


Pelvic Inflammatory Disease  


... inflammatory disease occurs when bacteria move from the vagina and cervix upward into the uterus , ovaries , or ... contains and nourishes the developing fetus during pregnancy. Vagina: A tube-like structure surrounded by muscles leading ...


Immunology of Crohn's disease.  


The immense microbiological load of the gastrointestinal tract poses a daunting challenge for the mucosal immune system: whereas it should tolerate the vast number of commensal bacteria, it should adequately attack pathogenic organisms. Millions of years of co-evolution have produced an intricate system in which interactions between the endogenous flora and mucosal immune system manage to perform this difficult balancing act. When components of this interaction are defective, for instance by mutation, inflammatory bowel disease may result. In the present review, we comprehensively discuss the mucosal immune system in the context of Crohn's disease (CD) and its genetic risk factors, describe the clinical management of the disease, and discuss how knowledge of the mucosal immune system may yield novel therapeutical avenues for dealing with this debilitating disease. PMID:17057196

Braat, Henri; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P; Hommes, Daan W



What Is Castleman Disease?  


... often treated with chemotherapy or radiation therapy. About lymph nodes and lymphoid tissue To understand Castleman disease, it helps to know about the body's lymph system. Lymphoid tissue, also known as lymphatic tissue , ...


Understanding Pulmonary Vascular Disease  


... the major types of pulmonary vascular disease follows: Pulmonary Embolism A pulmonary embolism happens when the blood flow through the lung's ... pain, fainting and a rapid heart rate. A pulmonary embolism can damage the heart, and if not treated ...


Cushing’s disease  


... in which the pituitary gland releases too much adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). The pituitary gland is an organ of the ... brain. People with Cushing's disease have too much ACTH. ACTH stimulates the production and release of cortisol, ...


Chronic Kidney Disease  


You have two kidneys, each about the size of your fist. Their main job is to filter wastes and excess water out of ... help control blood pressure, and make hormones. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) means that your kidneys are damaged ...


Pediatric gastroesophageal reflux disease.  


This article reviews the mechanisms responsible for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), available techniques for diagnosis, and current medical management. In addition, it extensively discusses the surgical treatment of GERD, emphasizing the use of minimally invasive techniques. PMID:22595708

Blanco, Felix C; Davenport, Katherine P; Kane, Timothy D



Diabetes and kidney disease  


Kimmelstiel-Wilson disease; Diabetic glomerulosclerosis; Nephropathy - diabetic; Diabetic nephropathy ... a higher risk for kidney problems. People of African-American, Hispanic, and American Indian origin are also more ...


Von Willebrand Disease  


... disorders (including one you might have heard about — hemophilia) are rare. Von Willebrand disease is the most ... affecting about 1% to 2% of people. Unlike hemophilia, which usually affects only guys, vWD affects both ...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Altered glutathione metabolism in association with increased oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many diseases. However, whether strategies aimed at restoring glutathione concentration and homeostasis are effective in ameliorating or modifying the natural history of these st...


Emerging Infectious Diseases: Rabies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Rabies is a reemerging disease in China. The high incidence of rabies leads to numerous concerns: a potential carrier-dog phenomenon, undocumented transmission of rabies virus from wildlife to dogs, counterfeit vaccines, vaccine mismatching, and seroconve...



Blind Seed Disease.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In blind seed disease, infertilized or developing seed of susceptible grasses are colonized by the fungus Gloeotinia temulenta. Infection results in loss of seed germination. About 56 species of grasses are colonized by the fungus Gloeotinia temulenta. In...

S. C. Alderman



Hands in Systemic Disease  


... fingers) has also been linked to diabetes mellitus. Thomas R. Boyce, MD Clinical Assoc. Professor Dept. of ... Copyright 2006 from "Hands in Systemic Diseases" by Thomas R. Boyce, MD. Reproduced by permission of Routledge/ ...


The autoimmune diseases  

SciTech Connect

This book contains 25 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Genetic Predisposition to Autoimmune Diseases; Systemic Lupus Erythematosus; Autoimmune Aspects of Rheumatoid Arthritis; Immunology of Insulin-Dependent Diabetes; and Adrenal Autoimmunity and Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndromes.

Rose, N.R.; Mackay, I.R.



Chagas disease in prehistory.  


The classical hypothesis proposes that Chagas disease has been originated in the Andean region among prehistoric people when they started domesticating animals, changing to sedentary habits, and adopting agriculture. These changes in their way of life happened nearly 6,000 years ago. However, paleoparasitological data based on molecular tools showed that Trypanosoma cruzi infection and Chagas disease were commonly found both in South and North American prehistoric populations long before that time, suggesting that Chagas disease may be as old as the human presence in the American continent. The study of the origin and dispersion of Trypanosoma cruzi infection among prehistoric human populations may help in the comprehension of the clinical and epidemiological questions on Chagas disease that still remain unanswered. PMID:21739083

Ferreira, Luiz F; Jansen, Ana M; Araújo, Adauto



Traveling with Celiac Disease  


... list is growing, according to GFRAP Manager Madelyn Smith. Plan ahead. If possible, pack food to bring ... now accommodate people with gluten intolerance, according to Smith, who has celiac disease. By land: If you ...


Chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease in the Medicare population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease in the Medicare population.BackgroundThe extent of diabetes, chronic kidney disease (CKD), and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the Medicare population is relatively unknown. Also unknown is the effect of these diseases on patient survival before end-stage renal disease (ESRD).MethodsPrevalent cohorts of Medicare enrollees from 1996 to 2000 were assessed for diabetes and CKD, presence of

Allan J. Collins; Shuling Li; David T. Gilbertson; Jiannong Liu; Shu-Cheng Chen; Charles A. Herzog



Diseases of Phenylalanine Metabolism  

PubMed Central

Continuing investigation of the system that hydroxylates phenylalanine to tyrosine has led to new insights into diseases associated with the malfunction of this system. Good evidence has confirmed that phenylketonuria (PKU) is not caused by a simple lack of phenylalanine hydroxylase. Dihydropteridine reductase deficiency as well as defects in biopterin metabolism may also cause the clinical features of phenylketonuria. Furthermore, these diseases do not respond to the standard treatment for phenylketonuria.

Parker, Charles E.



HIV and hepatobiliary disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liver disease is an increasingly important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with HIV\\/AIDS. With the availability of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART), there has been a change in the pattern of liver disease seen. Although opportunistic infections and neoplasms are still seen, co-infection with hepatitis viruses, especially HCV, is now emerging as the most significant cause of liver

R. D. Goldin; J. Lloyd



Subclinical thyroid disease.  

PubMed Central

Thyroid disease can roughly be divided into functional and anatomical disorders. Subclinical disease is by definition not accompanied by symptoms or signs and usually goes unrecognized for the bearer (and the observer). In this communication an overview will be given of existing literature and some own results concerning subclinical hypothyroidism, subclinical thyrotoxicosis and thyroid incidentalomas. Apart from definitions, data on prevalence, clinical effects, prognostic significance and the need for and response to therapy will be discussed.

Elte, J. W.; Mudde, A. H.; Nieuwenhuijzen Kruseman, A. C.



Kikuchi disease during pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Kikuchi disease is a rare but distinctive type of necrotizing lymphadenitis. It has a self-limiting clinical course and usually affects the cervical lymph nodes in young women. Although Kikuchi disease occurs most often in young women, it is rare during pregnancy.Case  A 28-year-old woman, primigravida, 8 weeks pregnancy, presented initially for antenatal care. Last 4 years, she had chronic cough, weight loss and

Vorapong Phupong; Yenrudee Poomtavorn



Cerebrovascular diseases and depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cerebrovascular diseases constitute a leading health hazard. The association between stroke and depression has been recognized\\u000a for many years. Depression is the most common psychiatric disorder associated with cerebrovascular diseases, most episodes\\u000a of post-stroke depression occur in the first 2 years after a cerebrovascular accident. Studies have found an association between\\u000a lesion location, physical impairment, cognitive impairment, aphasia, and post-stroke

Himani Ghoge; Santvana Sharma; Shamash Sonawalla; Rajesh Parikh



Genetics and Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Relationships between genes and diseases have long been hypothesized. The association of a disease with a gene dates back\\u000a in Western medicine as far as Hippocrates, who hypothesized epilepsy was caused by a singular hereditary unit of biological\\u000a material. However, with technological advances and the completion of the human genome sequence (1), scientists can now associate\\u000a specific genetic variations with

James Kelley; Robert P. Kimberly


Disease Epidemic - ELISA Technique  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the University of California, Davis, Partnership for Plant Genomics Education, this biotechnology laboratory is a two-day activity using the ELISA assay, a "test that uses the immune system to detect disease," to study the epidemiology of a hypothetical small scale epidemic. The lesson gives the objectives, materials, necessary background information, advanced preparation notes, teacher notes, and student activity pages and data sheets with the essay procedures. This is an excellent activity for using biotechnology to understand disease and its origins.



Narrative Review: Fabry Disease  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Physiology in Medicine review article. Fabry disease is an X-linked, hereditary, lysosomal storage disease caused by deficiency of the enzyme alpha-galactosidase A, which results in the accumulation of the neutral glycosphingolipid globotriaosylceramide. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with intravenous infusions of recombinant human alpha-galactosidase A consistently decreases Gb3 levels in plasma and clears lysosomal inclusions from vascular endothelial cells.

MD/PhD Joe T.R. Clarke (Hospital for Sick Children Div. of Clinical & Metabolic Genetics)



Parkinson's disease dementia.  


Dementia associated with Parkinson's disease (PDD) is a common problem and one that is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Over the past decade, increasing research efforts and funding have been directed toward an improved understanding of PDD. Despite these efforts, fundamental gaps remain in our knowledge. Consequently, therapeutic progress has been frustratingly slow and incomplete. To significantly affect PDD, novel "disease-modifying" agents, rather than more traditional neurotransmitter replacement approaches, likely will be required. PMID:20428976

Docherty, Mary J; Burn, David J



[McArdle's disease].  


Glycogenosis type V (McArdle disease) is a serious metabolic disorder with an exercise intolerance, myalgia, early fatigue and stiffness of exercising muscles, relieved++ by rest. The authors present a case report of patient with McArdle's disease, and diagnostic procedures which can be used in different diagnostic of metabolic myopathies, especially between myoadenylate deaminase deficiency and different types of gly(geno)lytic myopathies. The importance of "ischemic forearm test" and muscle biopsy is emphasized. PMID:1306014

Lavrni?, D V; Svetkovi?, D; Apostolski, S; Rakocevi?-Stojanovi?, V; Triki?, R


Infectious Diseases Gateway  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

BioMedNet (BMN) presents the Infectious Diseases Gateway "featuring expertly selected content from the leading publications in infectious diseases." Users will find research articles, reviews, and other resources from the Elsevier family of journals and books; all freely available to any reader (free registration required). The Web site also offers related BMN news features, links to other BMN Gateways, and a special supplement to the upcoming Interscience Conference of Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy.


Oxalate crystal deposition disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

In addition to monosodium urate, calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate, and apatite crystals, oxalate crystals are less often found\\u000a in synovial fluids in association with acute or chronic arthritis. Oxalate crystal deposition disease is seen in patients\\u000a with primary hyperoxaluria types 1 and 2 (PH1 and 2) and in patients with end-stage renal disease managed with long-term dialysis.\\u000a Oxalate crystal deposits are

Irama Maldonado; Vineet Prasad; Antonio J. Reginato



Cat scratch disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aetiological agent of cat scratch disease (CSD) has been unknown for more than 30 years. Recently, a micro-organism clearly shown with Warthin-Starry silver (W-S) stain was found and thought to be a possible cause of the disease. In this study, 32 cases of regional lymphadenopathy histologically compatible with CSD and 20 contrasting cases of lymphadenopathy were examined retrospectively with

Eiji Kudo; Akihiko Sakaki; Masayuki Sumitomo; Yoshiyuki Fujii; Takanori Hirose; Toshiaki Sano; Kazuo Hizawa



Homocysteine and cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research over the past decade has shown that elevated levels of homocysteine have a strong association with all forms of atherothrombotic\\u000a disease and venous thromboembolism. This association is particularly strong for coronary disease and newer data indicate that\\u000a screening for homocysteine levels may be warranted in those with unexplained thrombotic tendencies and in young patients who\\u000a develop coronary events or

Dinesh K. Kalra



Infectious disease in athletes.  


While orthopedic injuries most commonly are associated with sports, infectious diseases cause significant morbidity in athletes. Exercise improves immunity at moderate intensity but impairs immune function at extremes of duration and intensity. Respiratory infections are the most common, but skin, blood borne, sexually transmitted, and even cardiac infections occur. Infectious disease outbreaks are a constant concern. Treatment of such infections resembles those used in the general population. Return to play issues and prevention of infection are especially important in athletes. PMID:21623289

Harris, Mark D


Genetic Metabolic Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The terms inborn errors of metabolism, genetic metabolic disease, disorders of intermediary metabolism, and inherited metabolic disease are used interchangeably. For the sake of clarity, inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs) is used in this chapter. The common\\u000a feature of these disorders is a genetically determined interruption in one (or several related) metabolic pathway. This results\\u000a in clinical symptoms caused by

David R. FitzPatrick


Inflammatory bowel disease unclassified  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are idiopathic, chronic, and inflammatory intestinal disorders. The two main types, ulcerative\\u000a colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD), sometimes mimic each other and are not readily distinguishable. The purpose of this\\u000a study was to present a series of hospitalized cases, which could not initially be classified as a subtype of IBD, and to try\\u000a to note

Ning Zhou; Wei-xing Chen; Shao-hua Chen; Cheng-fu Xu; You-ming Li



Fabry disease: a review.  


Fabry disease is an inherited deficiency of the lysosomal hydrolase alpha-galactosidase A (alpha GalA) due to mutations in the Gal gene at Xq22. The result is intralysosomal accumulation of glycosphingolipids. In males who carry the mutation (1/40,000), severe multisystem disease develops in childhood or adolescence. Attacks of acute pain lasting a few minutes to a few days occur in the hands and feet, joints, muscles, and abdomen, sometimes with a fever. Highly suggestive skin lesions called angiokeratomas develop, as well as cornea verticillata characterized by corneal deposits without visual impairment. Stroke, seizures, heart disorders (conduction disturbances, valve disease, and left heart failure) and kidney disorders (proteinuria and chronic renal failure) develop in the third or fourth decade of life. Women who are heterozygous for the Gal gene can transmit the disease to their sons but are usually free of symptoms, although many have cornea verticillata. However, they may have moderate or severe disease related to uneven chromosome X inactivation. Late-onset variants with predominant neurological, cardiac, or renal manifestations have been described. The diagnosis is difficult when the family history is negative for Fabry disease. Tests on plasma and leukocytes show very low levels of alpha GalA activity in affected men, confirming the diagnosis. The Gal gene mutation should be looked for to detect heterozygous women. Symptomatic treatments include analgesics, antihypertensives, antiplatelet agents or anticoagulants to treat ischemic events, and hemodialysis or kidney transplantation to treat chronic renal failure. The recent introduction of enzyme replacement therapy with recombinant agalsidase alpha or beta has been a major breakthrough in the treatment of Fabry disease. Enzyme replacement therapy relieves the pain and decreases the risk of complications. The safety profile is good. Given the high cost of agalsidase therapy (about 160,000 euro/year/patient) and the low incidence of Fabry disease, patients should be referred to highly specialized centers (see addresses on the France Orphanet web site). PMID:15474388

Masson, Charles; Cissé, Idrissa; Simon, Virginie; Insalaco, Paolo; Audran, Maurice



Primary mediastinal Castleman's disease  

PubMed Central

Castleman's disease is a rare entity with an unknown etiology which was first described by Castleman in 1954. It is a lymphoproliferative disorder histologically classified into three types; hyaline-vascular, plasma cell type and mixed type. It might be localized or multicentric and usually involves the mediastinum. We report a case of Castleman's disease discovered accidentally in a case of blunt chest trauma which caused a challenging diagnostic process and management.

Regal, Mohamed A.H; Aljehani, Yasser M; Bousbait, Hanan



Diseases of Military Importance  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Beginning with George Washington’s decision to immunize his army against smallpox during the War of the American Revolution,\\u000a vaccines have traditionally been used as a primary strategy for the prevention of infectious diseases in military settings\\u000a (Artenstein et al. 2005). This chapter will highlight two vaccine histories involving diseases of military importance. The\\u000a history of epidemic typhus, caused by rickettsial

Alan Cross; Phil Russell


Anderson-Fabry Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anderson-Fabry disease is a multisystemic lysosomal storage disorder due to a deficiency of ?-galactosidase A resulting in\\u000a an accumulation of neutral glycosphingolipids. Due to its rare occurrence the disease is often misdiagnosed or the correct\\u000a diagnose is delayed for many years (Weidemann et al. 2008). Dermatologists except ophthalmologists play the most important role for early diagnosis of this disorder, which

Anna-Christine Hauser


Moyamoya disease in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Moyamoya disease, a rare cause of pediatric stroke, is a cerebrovascular occlusive disorder resulting from progressive stenosis\\u000a of the distal intracranial carotid arteries and their proximal branches. In response to brain ischemia, there is the development\\u000a of basal collateral vessels, which give rise to the characteristic angiographic appearance of moyamoya. If left untreated,\\u000a the disease can result in overwhelming permanent

David M. Ibrahimi; Rafael J. Tamargo; Edward S. Ahn



Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in North America, affecting approximately\\u000a 30% of the population [1]. It is the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome, and is directly linked to the escalating\\u000a prevalence of obesity and the associated insulin resistance. Histologically, NAFLD is characterized by a spectrum that ranges\\u000a from nonalcoholic fatty

Onpan Cheung; Arun J. Sanyal


Fabry disease: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fabry disease is an inherited deficiency of the lysosomal hydrolase alpha-galactosidase A (?GalA) due to mutations in the Gal gene at Xq22. The result is intralysosomal accumulation of glycosphingolipids. In males who carry the mutation (1\\/40,000), severe multisystem disease develops in childhood or adolescence. Attacks of acute pain lasting a few minutes to a few days occur in the hands

Charles Masson; Idrissa Cissé; Virginie Simon; Paolo Insalaco; Maurice Audran



Epizootic heamorragic disease.  


Epizootic haemorrhagic disease (EHD) is an infectious non-contagious viral disease transmitted by insects of the genus Culicoides which affects wild and domestic ruminants. The causative agent, the epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV), belongs to the family Reoviridae, genus Orbivirus and shares many morphological and structural characteristics with the other members of the genus such as bluetongue, African horse sickness and equine encephalosis viruses. In recent years EHD outbreaks have been reported in countries bordering the European Union. They caused disease in cattle and severe repercussion on the livestock industry of the affected countries. In the light of recent European bluetongue epizootic these events pose an increasing threat to the European Union. This review includes the most recent information regarding the virus and the disease as well as tools for its diagnosis and control. It is our conviction that more attention should be drawn to both EHDV and the disease itself in order to fulfil all these gaps and not to be unprepared in case future possible incursions. PMID:21665237

Savini, G; Afonso, A; Mellor, P; Aradaib, I; Yadin, H; Sanaa, M; Wilson, W; Monaco, F; Domingo, M



NCL disease mechanisms.  


Despite the identification of a large number of disease-causing genes in recent years, it is still unclear what disease mechanisms operate in the neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs, Batten disease). As a group they are defined by the specific accumulation of protein, either subunit c of mitochondrial ATP synthase or SAPs A and D in lysosome-derived organelles, and regionally specific neurodegeneration. Evidence from biochemical and cell biology studies indicates related lesions in intracellular vesicle trafficking and lysosomal function. There is also extensive immunohistological evidence of a causative role of disease associated neuroinflammation. However the nature of these lesions is not clear nor is it clear why they lead to the defining pathology. Several different theories have proposed a range of potential mechanisms, but it remains to be determined which are central to pathogenesis, and whether there is a mechanism consistent across the group, or if it differs between disease forms. This review summarises the evidence that is currently available and the progress that has been made in understanding these profoundly disabling disorders. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: The Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinoses or Batten Disease. PMID:23707513

Palmer, David N; Barry, Lucy A; Tyynelä, Jaana; Cooper, Jonathan D



Adult Congenital Heart Disease  

PubMed Central

One million people over the age of 20 suffer from congenital heart disease in the United States. These adult patients can slip through the cracks of our medical system; many are too old to be cared for in most pediatric institutions by pediatric cardiologists and, unfortunately, most adult cardiologists are not trained in congenital heart disease. Therefore, it is important to identify the common lesions in adult congenital heart disease and how they should be managed. Acyanotic congenital heart disease in the adult population primarily involves left-to-right shunts, such as atrial septal defect, patent ductus arteriosus, and obstructive lesions such as aortic coarctation of the aorta. The most common form of cyanotic congenital heart disease in adults is tetralogy of Fallot. Other complex conditions seen in adults include univentricular hearts, Ebstein's anomaly of the tricuspid valve, and corrected transposition of the great vessels. Most patients with congenital heart disease will need to undergo surgery, catheterization, or catheterization intervention. Results are excellent in the adult population. Long-term follow-up is needed for any adult congenital heart patient receiving care in institutions that are well organized and well equipped, as we learn more about the natural and unnatural history of these conditions.

Moodie, Douglas S.



Adult congenital heart disease.  


One million people over the age of 20 suffer from congenital heart disease in the United States. These adult patients can slip through the cracks of our medical system; many are too old to be cared for in most pediatric institutions by pediatric cardiologists and, unfortunately, most adult cardiologists are not trained in congenital heart disease. Therefore, it is important to identify the common lesions in adult congenital heart disease and how they should be managed. Acyanotic congenital heart disease in the adult population primarily involves left-to-right shunts, such as atrial septal defect, patent ductus arteriosus, and obstructive lesions such as aortic coarctation of the aorta. The most common form of cyanotic congenital heart disease in adults is tetralogy of Fallot. Other complex conditions seen in adults include univentricular hearts, Ebstein's anomaly of the tricuspid valve, and corrected transposition of the great vessels. Most patients with congenital heart disease will need to undergo surgery, catheterization, or catheterization intervention. Results are excellent in the adult population. Long-term follow-up is needed for any adult congenital heart patient receiving care in institutions that are well organized and well equipped, as we learn more about the natural and unnatural history of these conditions. PMID:22826662

Moodie, Douglas S



Human prion diseases.  


The term 'prion diseases' refers to a group of neurodegenerative disorders thought to be caused by prions, pathogenic agents with novel modes of replication and transmission. Prion diseases are characterized by long incubation periods ranging from months to years and are invariably fatal once clinical symptoms have appeared. They are also called transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE), on account of the predominant neuropathological change observed in the central nervous system. The most important members of this group are Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) of man displaying sporadic, inherited and infectious forms, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, 'mad cow disease') of cattle, and scrapie of sheep. Despite their rarity, human prion diseases have recently been covered extensively in the media because of the likely connection between a new variant of human CJD (vCJD) and BSE and the possibility of contamination of human blood and blood products by the vCJD agent. This short review discusses the basic biological properties of prions, followed by a presentation of the clinical and pathological features of the most important human prion diseases. PMID:11087170

Haltia, M



Cardiovascular disease in autoimmune rheumatic diseases.  


Various autoimmune rheumatic diseases (ARDs), including rheumatoid arthritis, spondyloarthritis, vasculitis and systemic lupus erythematosus, are associated with premature atherosclerosis. However, premature atherosclerosis has not been uniformly observed in systemic sclerosis. Furthermore, although experimental models of atherosclerosis support the role of antiphospholipid antibodies in atherosclerosis, there is no clear evidence of premature atherosclerosis in antiphospholipid syndrome (APA). Ischemic events in APA are more likely to be caused by pro-thrombotic state than by enhanced atherosclerosis. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) in ARDs is caused by traditional and non-traditional risk factors. Besides other factors, inflammation and immunologic abnormalities, the quantity and quality of lipoproteins, hypertension, insulin resistance/hyperglycemia, obesity and underweight, presence of platelets bearing complement protein C4d, reduced number and function of endothelial progenitor cells, apoptosis of endothelial cells, epigenetic mechanisms, renal disease, periodontal disease, depression, hyperuricemia, hypothyroidism, sleep apnea and vitamin D deficiency may contribute to the premature CVD. Although most research has focused on systemic inflammation, vascular inflammation may play a crucial role in the premature CVD in ARDs. It may be involved in the development and destabilization of both atherosclerotic lesions and of aortic aneurysms (a known complication of ARDs). Inflammation in subintimal vascular and perivascular layers appears to frequently occur in CVD, with a higher frequency in ARD than in non-ARD patients. It is possible that this inflammation is caused by infections and/or autoimmunity, which might have consequences for treatment. Importantly, drugs targeting immunologic factors participating in the subintimal inflammation (e.g., T- and B-cells) might have a protective effect on CVD. Interestingly, vasa vasorum and cardiovascular adipose tissue may play an important role in atherogenesis. Inflammation and complement depositions in the vessel wall are likely to contribute to vascular stiffness. Based on biopsy findings, also inflammation in the myocardium and small vessels may contribute to premature CVD in ARDs (cardiac ischemia and heart failure). There is an enormous need for an improved CVD prevention in ARDs. Studies examining the effect of DMARDs/biologics on vascular inflammation and CV risk are warranted. PMID:23541482

Hollan, Ivana; Meroni, Pier Luigi; Ahearn, Joseph M; Cohen Tervaert, J W; Curran, Sam; Goodyear, Carl S; Hestad, Knut A; Kahaleh, Bashar; Riggio, Marcello; Shields, Kelly; Wasko, Mary C



Myocardial diseases of animals.  

PubMed Central

In this review we have attempted a comprehensive compilation of the cardiac morphologic changes that occur in spontaneous and experimental myocardial diseases of animals. Our coverage addresses diseases of mammals and birds and includes these diseases found in both domesticated and wild animals. A similar review of the myocardial diseases in this broad range of animal species has not been attempted previously. We have summarized and illustrated the gross, microscopic, and ultrastructural alterations for these myocardial diseases; and, whenever possible, we have reviewed their biochemical pathogenesis. We have arranged the myocardial diseases for presentation and discussion according to an etiologic classification with seven categories. These include a group of idiopathic or primary cardiomyopathies recognized in man (hypertrophic, dilated, and restrictive types) and a large group of secondary cardiomyopathies with known causes, such as inherited tendency; nutritional deficiency; toxicity; physical injury and shock; endocrine disorders, and myocarditides of viral, bacterial, and protozoal causation. Considerable overlap exists between each of the etiologic groups in the spectrum of pathologic alterations seen in the myocardium. These include various degenerative changes, myocyte necrosis, and inflammatory lesions. However, some diseases show rather characteristic myocardial alterations such as vacuolar degeneration in anthracycline cardiotoxicity, myofibrillar lysis in furazolidone cardiotoxicity, calcification in calcinosis of mice, glycogen accumulation in the glycogenoses, lipofuscinosis in cattle, fatty degeneration in erucic acid cardiotoxicity, myofiber disarray in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and lymphocytic inflammation with inclusion bodies in canine parvoviral myocarditis. The myocardial diseases represent the largest group in the spectrum of spontaneous cardiac diseases of animals. Pericardial and endocardial diseases and congential cardiac diseases are seen less frequently; and, in contrast to man, coronary artery disease and myocardial ischemia are rather infrequent in animals. The present review shows clearly that the spectrum of myocardial diseases in animals is enlarging and that many newly recognized diseases are emerging and assuming considerable importance. For example, various heritable cardiomyopathies have recently been described in the KK mouse, cattle, and rats. Increasingly recognized myocardial diseases include cardiomyopathies in cats, dogs, and birds; anthracycline cardiotoxicity; furazolidone cardiotoxicity; ionophore cardiotoxicity; myocardial damage associated with central nervous system injuries; myocardial hypertrophy in Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 45 Figure 46 Figure 47 Figure 48 Figure 61 Figure 62 Figure 63 Figure 64 Figure 79 Figure 75 Figure 76 Figure 77 Figure 78 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 21 Figure 22 Figure 23 Figure 24 Figure 25 Figure 26 Figure 27 Figure 28 Figure 29 & 30 Figure 31 Figure 32 Figure 33 Figure 34 Figure 35 Figure 36 Figure 37 Figure 38 Figure 39 Figure 40 Figure 41 Figure 42 Figure 43 Figure 44 Figure 49 Figure 50 Figure 51 Figure 52 Figure 53 Figure 54 Figure 55 Figure 56 Figure 57 Figure 58 Figure 59 Figure 60 Figure 65 Figure 66 Figure 67 Figure 68 Figure 69 Figure 70 Figure 71 & 72 Figure 73 & 74

Van Vleet, J. F.; Ferrans, V. J.



Progress in Autoimmune Diseases Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This progress report is organized around the four major themes identified in the 2002 Autoimmune Diseases Coordinating Committee (ADCC) Autoimmune Diseases Research Plan: (1) Epidemiology and Burden of Autoimmune Diseases; (2) Etiology of Autoimmune Disea...



Peripheral Arterial Disease and Claudication  


MENU Return to Web version Peripheral Arterial Disease and Claudication Overview What is peripheral arterial disease? Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a problem with blood flow in the arteries, ...


Genetics Home Reference: Behçet disease  


... PubMed Recent literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Behçet disease On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance Diagnosis ... names Glossary definitions Reviewed July 2010 What is Behçet disease? Behçet disease is an inflammatory condition that affects ...


Vaccine-Preventable Childhood Diseases  


... Preventable Childhood Diseases Vaccines & Preventable Diseases: Vaccine-Preventable Childhood Diseases In our mobile society, over a million ... among children. On this page: Protect Your Child Childhood and Preteen/Teen Vaccination Schedule Descriptions of Vaccine- ...


Genetics Home Reference: Celiac disease  


... PubMed Recent literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Celiac disease On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance Diagnosis ... names Glossary definitions Reviewed October 2011 What is celiac disease? Celiac disease is a condition in which the ...


Warning Signs of Lung Disease  


... Lungs Warning Signs of Lung Disease Top Stories Lung HelpLine Questions about your lung health? Ask an ... Warning Signs of Lung Disease Warning Signs of Lung Disease WARNING SIGNS If you have any of ...


Diagnosis of Honey Bee Diseases.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Apiary inspectors and beekeepers must be able to recognize bee diseases and parasites and to differentiate the serious diseases from the less important ones. The handbook describes laboratory techniques used to diagnose diseases and other abnormalities of...

H. Shimanuki D. A. Knox



CTEP Simplified Disease Classification Overview

CTEP Simplified Disease Classification Overview The CTEP Simplified Disease Classification (CTEP SDC) v1.0 is a restructured, more intuitive classification of diseases, designed to meet the needs of CTEP while still allowing reporting based on the


United States: Total Cardiovascular Diseases.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Presents 1995 death rates for the following diseases: Total cardiovascular diseases; Ischemic heart diseases; Stroke; All cancers; Lung cancer; Colorectal cancer; Breast cancer; Diabetes; Cigarette smoking; No leisure time physical activity among adults; ...



Genetics Home Reference: Graves disease  


... is the most common cause of thyroid overactivity (hyperthyroidism) in the United States. What genes are related ... and Digestive and Kidney Diseases: Thyroid Function Tests Thyroid Disease Manager: Diagnosis and Treatment of Graves Disease You ...


Is Alzheimer's disease a homogeneous disease entity?  


The epidemic proportions of dementia in old age are a cause of great concern for the medical profession and the society at large. It is customary to consider Alzheimer's disease (AD) as the most common cause of dementia, and vascular dementia (VaD) as being the second. This dichotomous view of a primary neurodegenerative disease as opposed to a disorder where extrinsic factors cause brain damage led to separate lines of research in these two entities. New biomarkers, particularly the introduction of modern neuroimaging and cerebrospinal fluid changes, have, in recent years, helped to identify anatomical and chemical changes of VaD and of AD. Nevertheless, there is a substantial difference between the two entities. While it is clear that VaD is a heterogeneous entity, AD is supposed to be a single disorder. Nobody attempts to use CADASIL as a template to develops treatment for sporadic VaD. On the other hand, early-onset AD is used to develop therapy for sporadic AD. This paper will discuss the problems relating to this false concept and its consequences. PMID:23933662

Korczyn, Amos D



Neurological diseases and pain.  


Chronic pain is a frequent component of many neurological disorders, affecting 20-40% of patients for many primary neurological diseases. These diseases result from a wide range of pathophysiologies including traumatic injury to the central nervous system, neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation, and exploring the aetiology of pain in these disorders is an opportunity to achieve new insight into pain processing. Whether pain originates in the central or peripheral nervous system, it frequently becomes centralized through maladaptive responses within the central nervous system that can profoundly alter brain systems and thereby behaviour (e.g. depression). Chronic pain should thus be considered a brain disease in which alterations in neural networks affect multiple aspects of brain function, structure and chemistry. The study and treatment of this disease is greatly complicated by the lack of objective measures for either the symptoms or the underlying mechanisms of chronic pain. In pain associated with neurological disease, it is sometimes difficult to obtain even a subjective evaluation of pain, as is the case for patients in a vegetative state or end-stage Alzheimer's disease. It is critical that neurologists become more involved in chronic pain treatment and research (already significant in the fields of migraine and peripheral neuropathies). To achieve this goal, greater efforts are needed to enhance training for neurologists in pain treatment and promote greater interest in the field. This review describes examples of pain in different neurological diseases including primary neurological pain conditions, discusses the therapeutic potential of brain-targeted therapies and highlights the need for objective measures of pain. PMID:22067541

Borsook, David



Indium Lung Disease  

PubMed Central

Background: Reports of pulmonary fibrosis, emphysema, and, more recently, pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) in indium workers suggested that workplace exposure to indium compounds caused several different lung diseases. Methods: To better understand the pathogenesis and natural history of indium lung disease, a detailed, systematic, multidisciplinary analysis of clinical, histopathologic, radiologic, and epidemiologic data for all reported cases and workplaces was undertaken. Results: Ten men (median age, 35 years) who produced, used, or reclaimed indium compounds were diagnosed with interstitial lung disease 4-13 years after first exposure (n = 7) or PAP 1-2 years after first exposure (n = 3). Common pulmonary histopathologic features in these patients included intraalveolar exudate typical of alveolar proteinosis (n = 9), cholesterol clefts and granulomas (n = 10), and fibrosis (n = 9). Two patients with interstitial lung disease had pneumothoraces. Lung disease progressed following cessation of exposure in most patients and was fatal in two. Radiographic data revealed that two patients with PAP subsequently developed fibrosis and one also developed emphysematous changes. Epidemiologic investigations demonstrated the potential for exposure to respirable particles and an excess of lung abnormalities among coworkers. Conclusions: Occupational exposure to indium compounds was associated with PAP, cholesterol ester crystals and granulomas, pulmonary fibrosis, emphysema, and pneumothoraces. The available evidence suggests exposure to indium compounds causes a novel lung disease that may begin with PAP and progress to include fibrosis and emphysema, and, in some cases, premature death. Prospective studies are needed to better define the natural history and prognosis of this emerging lung disease and identify effective prevention strategies.

Nakano, Makiko; Omae, Kazuyuki; Takeuchi, Koichiro; Chonan, Tatsuya; Xiao, Yong-long; Harley, Russell A.; Roggli, Victor L.; Hebisawa, Akira; Tallaksen, Robert J.; Trapnell, Bruce C.; Day, Gregory A.; Saito, Rena; Stanton, Marcia L.; Suarthana, Eva; Kreiss, Kathleen



Neurological diseases and pain  

PubMed Central

Chronic pain is a frequent component of many neurological disorders, affecting 20–40% of patients for many primary neurological diseases. These diseases result from a wide range of pathophysiologies including traumatic injury to the central nervous system, neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation, and exploring the aetiology of pain in these disorders is an opportunity to achieve new insight into pain processing. Whether pain originates in the central or peripheral nervous system, it frequently becomes centralized through maladaptive responses within the central nervous system that can profoundly alter brain systems and thereby behaviour (e.g. depression). Chronic pain should thus be considered a brain disease in which alterations in neural networks affect multiple aspects of brain function, structure and chemistry. The study and treatment of this disease is greatly complicated by the lack of objective measures for either the symptoms or the underlying mechanisms of chronic pain. In pain associated with neurological disease, it is sometimes difficult to obtain even a subjective evaluation of pain, as is the case for patients in a vegetative state or end-stage Alzheimer's disease. It is critical that neurologists become more involved in chronic pain treatment and research (already significant in the fields of migraine and peripheral neuropathies). To achieve this goal, greater efforts are needed to enhance training for neurologists in pain treatment and promote greater interest in the field. This review describes examples of pain in different neurological diseases including primary neurological pain conditions, discusses the therapeutic potential of brain-targeted therapies and highlights the need for objective measures of pain.



[Cardiovascular disease and sexuality].  


Sexual activity corresponds to light to moderate physical exercise and entails no significant risk to the majority of patients with cardiovascular disease. In patients suffering from severe angina or chronic heart failure, however, sexual activity might trigger coital angina or cardiac decompensation necessitating hospitalization. Nevertheless, even for patients with coronary artery disease the absolute risk of having a heart attack or fatal event during sexual activity is extremely low. Due to systemic atherosclerosis and concomitant endothelial dysfunction the prevalence of sexual dysfunction is higher in patients with cardiovascular disease as compared to the general population. PDE-5 inhibitors can be safely used by many patients suffering from both, cardiovascular disease and sexual dysfunction as long as no concomitant medication with nitrates exists. The concomitant use of PDE-5 inhibitors and nitrates is strictly contraindicated because of the risk of life-threatening hypotension. It is therefore of utmost importance to ask patients presenting with coital angina about PDE-5 inhibitor intake before the administration of nitrate-based anti-ischemic therapies. The recommendations of the Princeton Consensus Conference provide a useful framework for risk stratification and counseling of patients with cardiovascular disease regarding sexual activity. PMID:20235042

Pfister, Otmar



Niemann-Pick diseases.  


The Niemann-Pick disease group is now divided into two distinct entities: (1) acid sphingomyelinase-deficient Niemann-Pick disease (ASM-deficient NPD) resulting from mutations in the SMPD1 gene and encompassing type A and type B as well as intermediate forms; (2) Niemann-Pick disease type C (NP-C) including also type D, resulting from mutations in either the NPC1 or the NPC2 gene. Both Niemann-Pick diseases have an autosomal recessive inheritance and are lysosomal lipid storage disorders, with visceral (type B) or neurovisceral manifestations. The clinical knowledge is updated taking into account recent surveys in large cohort of patients, particularly for type B and type C. The diagnosis of NP-C is often delayed due to the wide spectrum of clinical phenotypes. Systemic manifestations, if present, always precede onset of neurological manifestations. Most common neurological signs are vertical supranuclear gaze palsy, cerebellar ataxia, dysarthria, dysphagia, and progressive dementia. Cataplexy, seizures, and dystonia are other common features of NP-C. For both ASM-deficient NPD and NP-C, strategies for laboratory diagnosis of patients and prenatal diagnosis are discussed. Recent progress towards enzyme replacement therapy in type B patients and management of the neurological disease in type C patients are finally highlighted. PMID:23622394

Vanier, Marie T



[Apheresis in dermatologic diseases].  


This report discusses the different types of apheresis used to treat skin diseases and focuses specifically on photopheresis or ECP (extracorporeal photochemotherapy). ECP is a systemic immunomodulatory therapy used successfully to treat many different, mainly autoimmune diseases such as cutaneous T-cell lymphomas, graft-versus-host disease, systemic sclerosis, atopic dermatitis, and pemphigus vulgaris. It has also proved effective against graft rejection after transplant. The exact mechanism by which the ECP performs its therapeutic activity is not yet entirely clear. However, at least 2 mechanisms have been identified that may explain the therapeutic effect. Firstly, ECP is able to induce downregulation of the self-allogeneic immune response that occurs in graft-versus-host disease, systemic sclerosis and atopic dermatitis, and secondly, it can stimulate an immune response against the neoplastic clones in patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphomas. At the Dermatology Clinic of the University of Siena, more than 100 patients with different immune-mediated diseases were treated with ECP. The results obtained are very interesting and our 20 years of experience confirm that the treatment is well tolerated. ECP can therefore be considered of great utility in the modulation of the immune system. PMID:22388842

Strangi, Rosa Maria; D'Ascenzo, Giuseppina; Bilenchi, Roberta; Trovato, Emanuele; Sansica, Pietro; Gorgoglione, Valentina


Neuroimaging of mitochondrial disease.  


Mitochondrial disease represents a heterogeneous group of genetic disorders that require a variety of diagnostic tests for proper determination. Neuroimaging may play a significant role in diagnosis. The various modalities of nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allow for multiple independent detection procedures that can give important anatomical and metabolic clues for diagnosis. The non-invasive nature of neuroimaging also allows for longitudinal studies. To date, no pathonmonic correlation between specific genetic defect and neuroimaging findings have been described. However, certain neuroimaging results can give important clues that a patient may have a mitochondrial disease. Conventional MRI may show deep gray structural abnormalities or stroke-like lesions that do not respect vascular territories. Chemical techniques such as proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) may demonstrate high levels of lactate or succinate. When found, these results are suggestive of a mitochondrial disease. MRI and MRS studies may also show non-specific findings such as delayed myelination or non-specific leukodystrophy picture. However, in the context of other biochemical, structural, and clinical findings, even non-specific findings may support further diagnostic testing for potential mitochondrial disease. Once a diagnosis has been established, these non-invasive tools can also aid in following disease progression and evaluate the effects of therapeutic interventions. PMID:18590986

Saneto, Russell P; Friedman, Seth D; Shaw, Dennis W W



Parkinson disease: an update.  


Parkinson disease is a progressive neurologic disorder afflicting approximately 1 percent of Americans older than 60 years. The cardinal features of Parkinson disease are bradykinesia, rigidity, tremor, and postural instability. There are a number of neurologic conditions that mimic the disease, making it difficult to diagnose in its early stages. Physicians who rarely diagnose Parkinson disease should refer patients suspected of having it to physicians with more experience in making the diagnosis, and should periodically reevaluate the accuracy of the diagnosis. Treatment is effective in reducing motor impairment and disability, and should be started when a patient begins to experience functional impairment. The combination of carbidopa and levodopa is the most effective treatment, but dopamine agonists and monoamine oxidase-B inhibitors are also effective, and are less likely to cause dyskinesias. For patients taking carbidopa/levodopa who have motor complications, adjunctive therapy with a dopamine agonist, a monoamine oxidase-B inhibitor, or a catechol O-methyltransferase inhibitor will improve motor symptoms and functional status, but with an increase in dyskinesias. Deep brain stimulation is effective in patients who have poorly controlled symptoms despite optimal medical therapy. Occupational, physical, and speech therapy improve patient function. Fatigue, sleep disturbances, dementia, and depression are common in patients with Parkinson disease. Although these conditions are associated with significantly lower quality of life, they may improve with treatment. PMID:23418798

Gazewood, John D; Richards, D Roxanne; Clebak, Karl



Glycoproteomics in Neurodegenerative Diseases  

PubMed Central

Protein glycosylation regulates protein function and cellular distribution. Additionally, aberrant protein glycosylations have been recognized to play major roles in human disorders, including neurodegenerative diseases. Glycoproteomics, a branch of proteomics that catalogs and quantifies glycoproteins, provides a powerful means to systematically profile the glycopeptides or glycoproteins of a complex mixture that are highly enriched in body fluids, and therefore, carry great potential to be diagnostic and/or prognostic markers. Application of this mass spectrometry-based technology to the study of neurodegenerative disorders (e.g., Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease) is relatively new, and is expected to provide insight into the biochemical pathogenesis of neurodegeneration, as well as biomarker discovery. In this review, we have summarized the current understanding of glycoproteins in biology and neurodegenerative disease, and have discussed existing proteomic technologies that are utilized to characterize glycoproteins. Some of the ongoing studies, where glycoproteins isolated from cerebrospinal fluid and human brain are being characterized in Parkinson's disease at different stages versus controls, are presented, along with future applications of targeted validation of brain specific glycoproteins in body fluids.

Hwang, Hyejin; Zhang, Jianpeng; Chung, Kathryn A.; Leverenz, James B.; Zabetian, Cyrus P.; Peskind, Elaine R.; Jankovic, Joseph; Su, Zhen; Hancock, Aneeka M.; Pan, Catherine; Montine, Thomas J.; Pan, Sheng; Nutt, John; Albin, Roger; Gearing, Marla; Beyer, Richard P.; Shi, Min; Zhang, Jing



Efferocytosis and lung disease.  


In healthy individuals, billions of cells die by apoptosis each day. Clearance of these apoptotic cells, termed "efferocytosis," must be efficient to prevent secondary necrosis and the release of proinflammatory cell contents that disrupt tissue homeostasis and potentially foster autoimmunity. During inflammation, most apoptotic cells are cleared by macrophages; the efferocytic process actively induces a macrophage phenotype that favors tissue repair and suppression of inflammation. Several chronic lung diseases, particularly airways diseases such as chronic obstructive lung disease, asthma, and cystic fibrosis, are characterized by an increased lung burden of uningested apoptotic cells. Alveolar macrophages from individuals with these chronic airways diseases have decreased efferocytosis relative to alveolar macrophages from healthy subjects. These two findings have led to the hypothesis that impaired apoptotic cell clearance may contribute causally to sustained lung inflammation and that therapies to enhance efferocytosis might be beneficial. This review of the English-language scientific literature (2006 to mid-2012) explains how such existing therapies as corticosteroids, statins, and macrolides may act in part by augmenting apoptotic cell clearance. However, efferocytosis can also impede host defenses against lung infection. Thus, determining whether novel therapies to augment efferocytosis should be developed and in whom they should be used lies at the heart of efforts to differentiate specific phenotypes within complex chronic lung diseases to provide appropriately personalized therapies. PMID:23732585

McCubbrey, Alexandra L; Curtis, Jeffrey L



The prion diseases.  


The prion diseases are a family of rare neurodegenerative disorders that result from the accumulation of a misfolded isoform of the prion protein (PrP), a normal constituent of the neuronal membrane. Five subtypes constitute the known human prion diseases; kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome (GSS), fatal insomnia (FI), and variant CJD (vCJD). These subtypes are distinguished, in part, by their clinical phenotype, but primarily by their associated brain histopathology. Evidence suggests these phenotypes are defined by differences in the pathogenic conformation of misfolded PrP. Although the vast majority of cases are sporadic, 10% to 15% result from an autosomal dominant mutation of the PrP gene (PRNP). General phenotype-genotype correlations can be made for the major subtypes of CJD, GSS, and FI. This paper will review some of the general background related to prion biology and detail the clinical and pathologic features of the major prion diseases, with a particular focus on the genetic aspects that result in prion disease or modification of its risk or phenotype. PMID:20938044

Brown, Khalilah; Mastrianni, James A



Kyasanur forest disease.  


In the spring of 1957, an outbreak of severe disease was documented in people living near the Kyasanur forest in Karnataka state, India, which also affected wild nonhuman primates. Collection of samples from dead animals and the use of classical virological techniques led to the isolation of a previously unrecognized virus, named Kyasanur forest disease virus (KFDV), which was found to be related to the Russian spring-summer encephalitis (RSSE) complex of tick-borne viruses. Further evaluation found that KFD, which frequently took the form of a hemorrhagic syndrome, differed from most other RSSE virus infections, which were characterized by neurologic disease. Its association with illness in wild primates was also unique. Hemaphysalis spinigera was identified as the probable tick vector. Despite an estimated annual incidence in India of 400-500 cases, KFD is historically understudied. Most of what is known about the disease comes from studies in the late 1950s and early 1960s by the Virus Research Center in Pune, India and their collaborators at the Rockefeller Foundation. A report in ProMED in early 2012 indicated that the number of cases of KFD this year is possibly the largest since 2005, reminding us that there are significant gaps in our knowledge of the disease, including many aspects of its pathogenesis, the host response to infection and potential therapeutic options. A vaccine is currently in use in India, but efforts could be made to improve its long-term efficacy. PMID:23110991

Holbrook, Michael R



Repeat expansion disease: progress and puzzles in disease pathogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repeat expansion mutations cause at least 22 inherited neurological diseases. The complexity of repeat disease genetics and pathobiology has revealed unexpected shared themes and mechanistic pathways among the diseases, such as RNA toxicity. Also, investigation of the polyglutamine diseases has identified post-translational modification as a key step in the pathogenic cascade and has shown that the autophagy pathway has an

J. Paul Taylor; Albert R. La Spada



Mechanisms of Disease: autosomal dominant and recessive polycystic kidney diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease are the best known of a large family of inherited diseases characterized by the development of renal cysts of tubular epithelial cell origin. Autosomal dominant and recessive polycystic kidney diseases have overlapping but distinct pathogeneses. Identification of the causative mutated genes and elucidation of the function of their encoded

Peter C Harris; Vicente E Torres



Acetaminophen absorption and metabolism in celiac disease and Crohn's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate further the conflicting results in reports of drug absorption in patients with small intestinal mucosal disease, gastric emptying and the disposition of acetaminophen were assessed simultaneously in 41 subjects (13 controls, 12 patients with Crohn's disease, and 16 with celiac disease). Acetaminophen absorption as judged by plasma concentrations and gastric emptying were slower in patients with celiac disease

Stephen Holt; Robert C Heading; John A Clements; Peter Tothill; Laurence F Prescott



Risk of Thyroid Disease in Individuals with Celiac Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: It has been suggested that celiac disease is associated with thyroid disease. Earlier studies, however, have been predominately cross-sectional and have often lacked controls. There is hence a need for further research. In this study, we estimated the risk of thyroid disease in individuals with celiac disease from a general population cohort. Methods: A total of 14,021 individuals with

Peter Elfstrom; Scott M. Montgomery; Olle Kampe; Anders Ekbom; Jonas F. Ludvigsson


The potential for disease modification in Crohn's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The natural history of Crohn's disease is characterized by progression to complicated and disabling disease, often necessitating surgical interventions. There is either circumstantial or direct evidence to support the disease-modifying potential of several therapeutic agents. Healing of endoscopic lesions is an emerging surrogate marker of disease modification, as mucosal lesions are considered to reflect ongoing inflammation and tissue damage that

Séverine Vermeire; Paul Rutgeerts; G. Van Assche



Diffuse lewy body disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a •Diffuse Lewy body disease (DLB) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by dementia, fluctuations in mental status,\\u000a hallucinations, and parkinsonism. Diffuse Lewy body disease is the second most common cause of dementia, following Alzheimer’s\\u000a disease. The treatment of DLB includes cholinergic therapy for cognitive impairment, atypical neuroleptics to alleviate hallucinations,\\u000a and levodopa\\/carbidopa to improve parkinsonism.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a •The recognition

Theresa A. Zesiewicz; Matthew J. Baker; Peter B. Dunne; Robert A. Hauser



Serodiagnosis of parasitic diseases.  

PubMed Central

In this review on serodiagnosis of parasitic diseases, antibody detection, antigen detection, use of monoclonal antibodies in parasitic serodiagnosis, molecular biological technology, and skin tests are discussed. The focus at the Centers for Disease Control on developing improved antigens, a truly quantitative FAST-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the very specific immunoblot assays for antibody detection is highlighted. The last two assays are suitable for field studies. Identification of patient response in terms of immunoglobulin class or immunoglobulin G subclass isotypes or both is discussed. Immunoglobulin isotypes may asist in defining the stage of some diseases. In other instances, use of a particular anti-isotype conjugate may increase the specificity of the assay. Monoclonal antibodies have played important roles in antigen purification and identification, in competitive antibody assays with increased sensitivity and specificity, and in assays for antigen detection in serum, body fluids, or excreta. Molecular biological technology has allowed significant advances in the production of defined parasitic serodiagnostic antigens.

Maddison, S E



Toxicology of Autoimmune Diseases  

PubMed Central

Susceptibility to most autoimmune diseases is dependent on polygenic inheritance, environmental factors, and poorly defined stochastic events. One of the significant challenges facing autoimmune disease research is in identifying the specific events that trigger loss of tolerance and autoimmunity. Although many intrinsic factors, including age, sex, and genetics, contribute to autoimmunity, extrinsic factors such as drugs, chemicals, microbes, or other environmental factors can also act as important initiators. This review explores how certain extrinsic factors, namely drugs and chemicals, can promote the development of autoimmunity, focusing on a few better characterized agents that, in most instances, have been shown to produce autoimmune manifestations in human populations. Mechanisms of autoimmune disease induction are discussed in terms of research obtained using specific animal models. Although a number of different pathways have been delineated for drug/chemical-induced autoimmunity some similarities do exist and a working model is proposed.

Hultman, Per; Kono, Dwight H.



Fungal diseases of horses.  


Among diseases of horses caused by fungi (=mycoses), dermatophytosis, cryptococcosis and aspergillosis are of particular concern, due their worldwide diffusion and, for some of them, zoonotic potential. Conversely, other mycoses such as subcutaneous (i.e., pythiosis and mycetoma) or deep mycoses (i.e., blastomycosis and coccidioidomycosis) are rare, and/or limited to restricted geographical areas. Generally, subcutaneous and deep mycoses are chronic and progressive diseases; clinical signs include extensive, painful lesions (not pathognomonic), which resemble to other microbial infections. In all cases, early diagnosis is crucial in order to achieve a favorable prognosis. Knowledge of the epidemiology, clinical signs, and diagnosis of fungal diseases is essential for the establishment of effective therapeutic strategies. This article reviews the clinical manifestations, diagnosis and therapeutic protocols of equine fungal infections as a support to early diagnosis and application of targeted therapeutic and control strategies. PMID:23428378

Cafarchia, Claudia; Figueredo, Luciana A; Otranto, Domenico



[Histopathology of coeliac disease].  


Coeliac disease is a common disease, affecting 1% of the population. Clinical manifestations are multiple. The diagnosis requires serologic testing and a duodenal biopsy that shows the characteristic findings of intraepithelial lymphocytosis, crypt hyperplasia and villous atrophy, and a positive response to a gluten-free diet. In most patients, the histological diagnosis is easily established. Pitfalls in the pathological diagnosis include a poorly orientated biopsy specimen, either an inadequate biopsy sampling in patients with patchy villous atrophy and the other causes of villous atrophy. A non-response to the gluten-free diet needs to reassess first, the initial diagnosis, second to be sure of the gluten-free diet adherence, and third, to exclude malignant complications such as refractory celiac disease or enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma. PMID:21620589

Verkarre, V; Brousse, N



Inflammatory bowel disease.  


This article reviews the etiology, clinical characteristics, and treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and associated psychological sequelae in children and adolescents with this lifelong disease. Pediatric-onset IBD, consisting of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, has significant medical morbidity and in many young persons is also associated with psychological and psychosocial challenges. Depression and anxiety are particularly prevalent and have a multifaceted etiology, including IBD-related factors such as cytokines and steroids used to treat IBD and psychosocial stress. A growing number of empirically supported interventions, such as cognitive behavioral therapy, hypnosis, and educational resources, help youth and their parents cope with IBD as well as the psychological and psychosocial sequelae. While there is convincing evidence that such interventions can help improve anxiety, depression, and health-related quality of life, their effects on IBD severity and course await further study. PMID:20478501

Szigethy, Eva; McLafferty, Laura; Goyal, Alka



Peptides in oral diseases.  


The oral cavity is home to numerous viruses and micro-organisms recognized as having a role in various oral diseases as well as in infections in other parts of the body. Indeed, in general a microbial infection underlies or is believed to underlie the ample spectrum of oral diseases, from tooth enamel decay to periodontal lesions, from candidiasis to virus-induced oral squamous cell carcinomas, and bullous autoimmune oral disorders. This clinico-pathological context stresses the need of targeted therapies to specifically kill infectious agents in a complex environment such as the oral cavity, and explains the current interest in exploring peptide-based therapeutic approaches in oral and dental research. Here, we review the therapeutic potential of antimicrobial peptides such as LL-37, beta defensins, adrenomedullin, histatins, and of various peptides modulating gene expression and immuno-biological interaction(s) in oral diseases. PMID:22236124

Lucchese, Alberta; Guida, Agostino; Petruzzi, Massimo; Capone, Giovanni; Laino, Luigi; Serpico, Rosario



Winter Cardiovascular Diseases Phenomenon  

PubMed Central

This paper review seasonal patterns across twelve cardiovascular diseases: Deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, aortic dissection and rupture, stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, hypertension, heart failure, angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, sudden cardiac death, venricular arrythmia and atrial fibrillation, and discuss a possible cause of the occurrence of these diseases. There is a clear seasonal trend of cardiovascular diseases, with the highest incidence occurring during the colder winter months, which have been described in many countries. This phenomenon likely contributes to the numbers of deaths occurring in winter. The implications of this finding are important for testing the relative importance of the proposed mechanisms. Understanding the influence of season and other factors is essential when seeking to implement effective public health measures.

Fares, Auda



Diseases of Jews  

PubMed Central

The relative social and genetic isolation of Jews from other communities, which was much more marked in the past than now, has led to the belief that they are unusually prone to a variety of illnesses. Until the last few decades assessments of the incidence of various diseases among them were usually based on impressions rather than planned surveys or careful analyses, and many misconceptions still persist. It is proposed to consider the present state of knowledge as well as to indicate the historical and social basis for any tendencies for Jews to suffer from, or perhaps to resist, some diseases. No attempt has been made to analyse every single report in which Jewish pre-disposition to various diseases is mentioned; attention will be focused on those conditions that have received greater attention or from which it is possible to draw meaningful conclusions.

Krikler, Dennis M.



Chronic wasting disease  

PubMed Central

Until recently, chronic wasting disease of cervids, the only wildlife prion disease, was believed to be geographically concentrated to Colorado and Wyoming within the United States. However, increased surveillance has unveiled several additional pockets of CWD-infected deer and elk in 12 additional states and 2 Canadian provinces. Deer and elk with CWD have extensive aggregates of PrPSc not only in the central nervous system, but also in peripheral lymphoid tissues, skeletal muscle, and other organs, perhaps influencing prion shedding. Indeed, CWD is transmitted efficiently among animals by horizontal routes, although the mechanism of spread is unknown. Genetic polymorphisms in the Prnp gene may affect CWD susceptibility, particularly at codon 225 (S/F) in deer and codon 132 (M/L) in elk. Since CWD infects free-ranging animals and is efficiently spread, disease management will be a challenge.

Sigurdson, Christina J.; Aguzzi, Adriano



Biomarkers in Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in the elderly, and it is characterized by progressive impairment in multiple cognitive domains of sufficient severity to interfere with individuals’ daily living activities. Historically, the diagnosis of AD has been based on the identification of a clinical syndrome, and accuracy studies of the current clinical criteria conducted in referral clinics have shown high sensitivity for AD. However, the identification of the disease is still not perfect, and there is growing evidence that the use of biomarkers will increase our ability to better indentify the underlying biology of AD, especially in its early stages. These biomarkers will improve the detection of the patients suitable for research studies and drug trials, and they will contribute to a better management of the disease in the clinical practice. In this review, we discuss the most studied biomarkers in AD: cerebrospinal fluid proteins, structural magnetic resonance imaging, functional neuroimaging techniques, and amyloid imaging.

Riverol, Mario; Lopez, Oscar L.



[Biologics and mycobacterial diseases].  


Various biologics such as TNF-alpha inhibitor or IL-6 inhibitor are now widely used for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Many reports suggested that one of the major issues is high risk of developing tuberculosis (TB) associated with using these agents, which is especially important in Japan where tuberculosis still remains endemic. Another concern is the risk of development of nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) diseases and we have only scanty information about it. The purpose of this symposium is to elucidate the role of biologics in the development of mycobacterial diseases and to establish the strategy to control them. First, Dr. Tohma showed the epidemiologic data of TB risks associated with using biologics calculated from the clinical database on National Database of Rheumatic Diseases by iR-net in Japan. He estimated TB risks in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients to be about four times higher compared with general populations and to become even higher by using biologics. He also pointed out a low rate of implementation of QuantiFERON test (QFT) as screening test for TB infection. Next, Dr. Tokuda discussed the issue of NTM disease associated with using biologics. He suggested the airway disease in RA patients might play some role in the development of NTM disease, which may conversely lead to overdiagnosis of NTM disease in RA patients. He suggested that NTM disease should not be uniformly considered a contraindication to treatment with biologics, considering from the results of recent multicenter study showing relatively favorable outcome of NTM patients receiving biologics. Patients with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) should receive LTBI treatment before starting biologics. Dr. Kato, a chairperson of the Prevention Committee of the Japanese Society for Tuberculosis, proposed a new LTBI guideline including active implementation of LTBI treatment, introducing interferon gamma release assay, and appropriate selection of persons at high risk for developing TB. Lastly, Dr. Matsumoto stressed the risk of discontinuing TNF-alpha inhibitor during treatment for tuberculosis. He showed from his clinical experience that TNF-alpha inhibitor can be safely used in active TB patient receiving effective antituberculosis chemotherapy and it is even more effective for prevention of paradoxical response. Active discussion was done about the four topics, including the matter beyond present guidelines. We hope these discussions will form the basis for the establishment of new guideline for the management of mycobacterial disease when using immunosuppressive agents including biologics. 1. The risk of developing tuberculosis (TB) and situations of screening for TB risk at administration of biologics-the case of rheumatoid arthritis: Shigeto TOHMA (Clinical Research Center for Allergy and Rheumatology, National Hospital Organization Sagamihara National Hospital) We calculated the standardized incidence ratio (SIR) of TB from the clinical data on National Database of Rheumatic Diseases by iR-net in Japan (NinJa) and compared with the SIR of TB from the data of the post-marketing surveillances of five biologics. Among 43584 patient-years, forty patients developed TB. The SIR of TB in NinJa was 4.34 (95%CI: 3.00-5.69). According to the post-marketing surveillances of 5 biologics, the SIR of TB were 3.62-34.4. The incidence of TB in patients with RA was higher than general population in Japan, and was increased more by some biologics. We have to recognize the risk of TB when we start biologics therapy to patients with RA. Although the frequency of implementation of QuantiFERON test (QFT) had gradually increased, it was still limited to 41%. In order to predict the risk of developing TB and to prevent TB, it might be better to check all RA patients by QFT at time time of biologics administration. 2. Biologics and nontuberculous mycobacterial diseases: Hitoshi TOKUDA (Social Insurance Central General Hospital) Several topics about the relationship between RA and nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) diseases were discussed, which is sti

Tsuyuguchi, Kazunari; Matsumoto, Tomoshige



Parkinson's disease and anaesthesia  

PubMed Central

Parkinson's disease (PD), one of the most common disabling neurological diseases, affects about 1% of the population over 60 years of age. It is a degenerative disease of the central nervous system caused by the loss of dopaminergic fibers in basal ganglia of the brain. PD is an important cause of perioperative morbidity and with an increasingly elderly population, it is being encountered with greater frequency in surgical patients. Particular anaesthetic problems in PD include old age, antiparkinsonian drug interaction with anaesthetic drugs and various alterations in the respiratory, cardiovascular, autonomic, and neurological systems. This brief review focuses on the preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative anesthetic management of PD and gives a brief account of intraoperative exacerbation of PDs and anesthetic management of stereotactic pallidotomy.

Shaikh, Safiya I; Verma, Himanshu



Lysosomal storage disease.  


We report a case of lysosomal storage disease diagnosed by lysosomal enzyme assay in a two year old boy with a history of gradual onset of weakness of body, poor vision, flaccid neck and spasticity in all four limbs with hyper-reflexia. On fundus examination cherry red spots were noted at macula. On performing lysosomal enzyme assay, beta-galactosidase level was considerably low. This indicates that the child is affected by lysosomal storage disease most likely GM1 gangliosidosis. The diagnosis is important because the disease is rare and it may be missed as the symptoms are similar to other neurological conditions and the diagnosis can help with future conception. PMID:20795466

Khatiwada, B; Pokharel, A


Sarcoid heart disease  

PubMed Central

To this day the aetiology of sarcoidosis continues to elude definition. Partially as a consequence of this, little in the way of new therapies has evolved. The enigma of this condition is that, unusually for a disease with the potential for devastating consequences, many patients show spontaneous resolution and recover. Cardiac involvement can affect individuals of any age, gender or race and has a predilection for the conduction system of the heart. Heart involvement can also cause a dilated cardiomyopathy with consequent progressive heart failure. The most common presentation of this systemic disease is with pulmonary infiltration, but many cases will be asymptomatic and are detected on routine chest radiography revealing lymphadenopathy. Current advances lie in the newer methods of imaging and diagnosing this unusual heart disease. This review describes the pathology and diagnosis of this condition and the newer imaging techniques that have developed for determining cardiac involvement.

Dubrey, Simon W; Bell, Alex; Mittal, Tarun K



[Selenium in Graves' disease].  


The aim of this study was to present the current state of knowledge of the role of selenium in Graves' disease. Recently, in the pathogenesis and course of this autoimmune disease, more attention has been paid to the relationship between oxidative stress and the antioxidant system, where selenium compounds play an important role. The thyroid is the organ with the highest selenium concentration in the human body. Selenium compounds, having antioxidant properties, protect thyrocytes against the destructive effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are generated during the synthesis of thyroid hormones. Therefore, strengthening the body's defense mechanisms, which protect against the formation and activity of ROS during medical treatment of Graves' disease patients, may be an effective adjuvant in commonly used methods of therapy. PMID:23752601

Kryczyk, Jadwiga; Zagrodzki, Pawe?



Genetics of prion diseases  

PubMed Central

Prion diseases are transmissible, fatal neurodegenerative diseases that include scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in animals and Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (CJD) in human. The prion protein gene (PRNP) is the major genetic determinant of susceptibility, however, several studies now suggest that other genes are also important. Two recent genome wide association studies in human have identified four new loci of interest: ZBTB38-RASA2 in UK CJD cases and MTMR7 and NPAS2 in variant CJD. Complementary studies in mouse have used complex crosses to identify new modifiers such as Cpne8 and provided supporting evidence for previously implicated genes (Rarb and Stmn2). Expression profiling has identified new candidates, including Hspa13, which reduces incubation time in a transgenic model.

Lloyd, Sarah E; Mead, Simon; Collinge, John



Genetics of Behçet's Disease.  


Behçet's disease (BD) is a systemic inflammatory disorder characterized mainly by recurrent oral and genital ulcers and eye involvement. Although the pathogenesis remains poorly understood, a variety of studies have demonstrated that genetic predisposition is a major factor in disease susceptibility. Peculiar geographical distribution of BD along the ancient Silk Road has been regarded as evidence supporting genetic influence. The observed aggregation of BD in families of patients with BD is also supportive for a genetic component in its etiology. HLA-B51 (B510101 subtype) is the most strongly associated genetic marker for BD in countries on the Silk Road. In recent years, several genome-wide association studies and genetic polymorphism studies have also found new genetic associations with BD, which may have a supplementary role in disease susceptibility and/or severity. The author reviewed the HLA and non-HLA genetic association studies. PMID:22013548

Kaya, Tamer ?rfan



Therapy for prion diseases  

PubMed Central

Insights into the molecular basis and the temporal evolution of neurotoxicity in prion disease are increasing, and recent work in mice leads to new avenues for targeting treatment of these disorders. Using lentivirally mediated RNA interference (RNAi) against native prion protein (PrP), White et al. report the first therapeutic intervention that results in neuronal rescue, prevents symptoms and increases survival in mice with established prion disease.1 Both the target and the timing of treatment here are crucial to the effectiveness of this strategy: the formation of the neurotoxic prion agent is prevented at a point when diseased neurons can still be saved from death. But the data also give new insights into the timing of treatment in the context of the pattern of spread of prion infection throughout the brain, with implications for developing the most effective treatments.

White, Melanie D



Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

PubMed Central

The global prevalence of physiologically defined chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in adults aged >40 yr is approximately 9-10 per cent. Recently, the Indian Study on Epidemiology of Asthma, Respiratory Symptoms and Chronic Bronchitis in Adults had shown that the overall prevalence of chronic bronchitis in adults >35 yr is 3.49 per cent. The development of COPD is multifactorial and the risk factors of COPD include genetic and environmental factors. Pathological changes in COPD are observed in central airways, small airways and alveolar space. The proposed pathogenesis of COPD includes proteinase-antiproteinase hypothesis, immunological mechanisms, oxidant-antioxidant balance, systemic inflammation, apoptosis and ineffective repair. Airflow limitation in COPD is defined as a postbronchodilator FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 sec) to FVC (forced vital capacity) ratio <0.70. COPD is characterized by an accelerated decline in FEV1. Co morbidities associated with COPD are cardiovascular disorders (coronary artery disease and chronic heart failure), hypertension, metabolic diseases (diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome and obesity), bone disease (osteoporosis and osteopenia), stroke, lung cancer, cachexia, skeletal muscle weakness, anaemia, depression and cognitive decline. The assessment of COPD is required to determine the severity of the disease, its impact on the health status and the risk of future events (e.g., exacerbations, hospital admissions or death) and this is essential to guide therapy. COPD is treated with inhaled bronchodilators, inhaled corticosteroids, oral theophylline and oral phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor. Non pharmacological treatment of COPD includes smoking cessation, pulmonary rehabilitation and nutritional support. Lung volume reduction surgery and lung transplantation are advised in selected severe patients. Global strategy for the diagnosis, management and prevention of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease guidelines recommend influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations.

Vijayan, V.K.



Transglutaminases in Crohn's disease.  

PubMed Central

Transglutaminases are a family of Ca-dependent enzymes involved in various biological events. Circulating transglutaminase (factor XIIIa) is decreased in blood of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases. There is evidence that factor XIIIa and tissue type transglutaminase, present in cell cytosol, bind to various proteins of the extracellular matrix. This study examined the value of serum transglutaminase assay in the treatment and follow up of Crohn's disease and then investigated the intestinal location of both forms of transglutaminases by immunohistochemistry in normal and abnormal tissues. Serum transglutaminase activity was assayed in 36 patients with active Crohn's disease (CDAI > 150). Eighteen patients were studied prospectively from relapse into remission. A significant inverse correlation (p < 0.001) was found between circulating transglutaminase and Crohn's disease activity index; a correlation was also found between serum transglutaminase and serum orosomucoid (p < 0.01) and C reactive protein (p < 0.01). Patients were prospectively studied until clinical remission showed improvement in both their CDAI score mean (SD) (230 (46) to 72 (34), p < 0.01) and transglutaminase activity mean (SD) (0.61 (0.12) to 0.93 (0.13) mU/ml, p < 0.01). The immunohistochemistry assessment showed a colocalisation of factor XIIIa and tissue transglutaminase to the extracellular matrix of damaged tissues. In conclusion, these data confirm the value of serum transglutaminase assay as marker of Crohn's disease activity, extend the utility of serum transglutaminase assay to follow up of the disease, and emphasised the role of different types of transglutaminases in extracellular matrix assembly in the damaged tissues. Images Figure 4 Figure 5A Figure 5B-5D Figure 6

D'Argenio, G; Biancone, L; Cosenza, V; Della Valle, N; D'Armiento, F P; Boirivant, M; Pallone, F; Mazzacca, G



Periodontitis and cardiovascular disease.  


Periodontal medicine has been studied and reviewed extensively since its introduction to the dental fraternity. The association of periodontal disease with and its effects on the cardiovascular system are amongst the many topics explored. A summary of the research into these associations and the possible mechanisms of any relationship is presented. Although a link between these two chronic inflammatory diseases is evident, the very heterogeneity of the relevant studies has not provided evidence sufficient to support an actual causal relationship. More stringent epidemiologic and intervention studies are required. PMID:23951765

Jeftha, A; Holmes, H



Superficial venous disease.  


Superficial venous disease is a common clinical problem. The concerning disease states of the superficial venous system are venous reflux, varicose veins, and superficial venous thrombosis. Superficial venous reflux can be a significant contributor to chronic venous stasis wounds of the lower extremity, the treatment of which can be costly both in terms of overall health care expenditure and lost working days for affected patients. Although commonly thought of as a benign process, superficial venous thrombosis is associated with several underlying pathologic processes, including malignancy and deep venous thrombosis. PMID:23885940

Brown, Kellie R; Rossi, Peter J



[Legionaire's disease (author's transl)].  


In a review of all cases of legionaire's disease known so far the epidemiology, diagnosis and therapy of this disease are discussed. Risk factors have been shown to be stays in hotels and hospitals, especially if the rooms were subject to faulty air conditioning, water containers or to earthworks. Furthermore, the male sex and an immunosuppressive therapy were established as risk factors. The diagnosis can only be confirmed by increased titer in the indirect fluorescence test. Erythromycin and Rifampicin (as a supplementary medication) have proved the antibiotics of choice. PMID:117313

Meyer, R D



Evaluation of respiratory disease.  


The spectrum of HIV-associated pulmonary diseases is broad. Opportunistic infections, neoplasms, and noninfectious complications are all major considerations. Clinicians caring for persons infected with HIV must have a systematic approach. The approach begins with a thorough history and physical examination and often involves selected laboratory tests and a chest radiograph. Frequently, the clinical, laboratory, and chest radiographic presentation suggests a specific diagnosis or a few diagnoses, which then prompts specific diagnostic testing and treatment. This article presents an overview of the evaluation of respiratory disease in persons with HIV/AIDS. PMID:23702170

Tokman, Sofya; Huang, Laurence



Foodborne diseases in travellers.  


It is encouraging that the problem of food- and waterborne disease in travellers is being increasingly recognized, but it is disappointing that to a large extent there is little effective action being taken. It is essential that the problem be recognized across government departments and joint programmes developed, particularly between ministries of health and tourism. Foodborne disease will always be a risk to travellers but this risk can be reduced by relatively simple programmes. The initial stage is to recognize the problem not just as an inconvenience to travellers but as an important economic factor which, unless controlled, can have severe effects on local, national and international trade. PMID:9282392

Cartwright, R Y; Chahed, M



Eosinophilic lung diseases.  


Eosinophilic lung diseases comprise eosinophilic pneumonia, which may present with chronic or acute onset, or as Löffler syndrome. The diagnosis of eosinophilic pneumonia relies on clinical imaging and the demonstration of alveolar eosinophilia. Lung biopsy is generally not necessary. Peripheral blood eosinophilia is common but may be absent at presentation in idiopathic acute eosinophilic pneumonia, which may be misdiagnosed as severe infectious pneumonia. Extra-thoracic manifestations should raise the suspicion of Churg-Strauss syndrome. All possible causes of eosinophilia (especially fungus infection or drug or toxic exposure) must be thoroughly investigated before the diagnosis of idiopathic disease is made. PMID:23102066

Cottin, Vincent; Cordier, Jean-François



Salmonid Whirling Disease  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Whirling disease is a parasitic infection of trout and salmon by the myxosporean protozoan Myxobolus cerebralis (Syn. Myxosoma cerebralis). This parasite has selective tropism for cartilage; infection can cause deformities of the axial skeleton and neural damage that results in 'blacktail.' The disease is named for the erratic, tail-chasing, 'whirling' in young fish that are startled or fed. Heavy infection of young fish can result in high mortalities or unmarketable, deformed individuals. Although the parasite was first reported in 1903 in central Europe (Hofer 1903), its complete life cycle was not described until the early 1980's.

Markiw, Maria E.



Clinical neurogenetics: huntington disease.  


Huntington disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant, adult-onset, progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by the triad of abnormal movements (typically chorea), cognitive impairment, and psychiatric problems. It is caused by an expanded CAG repeat in the gene encoding the protein huntingtin on chromosome 4 and causes progressive atrophy of the striatum as well as cortical and other extrastriatal structures. Genetic testing has been available since 1993 to confirm diagnosis in affected adults and for presymptomatic testing in at-risk individuals. This review covers HD signs, symptoms, and pathophysiology; current genetic testing issues; and current and future treatment strategies. PMID:24176425

Bordelon, Yvette M



Skin disease in antiquity.  


Dermatological conditions and treatment in antiquity can be assessed by studying ancient skin, artefacts illustrating medical disorders and literature from the classified period as well as Egyptian papyri, cuneiform tablets and the Bible. It is often more useful and informative to study naturally preserved skin rather than artificially mummified skin. Great care must be taken in making retrospective diagnosis. Skin manifestations of internal diseases are, and have always been, of the greatest clinical importance. Study of the past may give an insight into the epidemiological aspects of diseases such as TB, leprosy and syphilis which have spread across the world with serious social consequences. PMID:16521362

Liddell, Keith


Immunotherapy for Alzheimer's disease.  


The immune system plays a significant role in Alzheimer disease (AD). ?-Amyloid deposition in the cortex is thought to be an initiating event in AD and the widely believed amyloid hypothesis proposes removal of amyloid may delay disease progression. Human trials of active or passive immune agents have failed to show benefit and increased adverse events of vasogenic edema and microhemorrhages. Evidence suggests the illness may be too advanced by the time patients are symptomatic with dementia. Future directions include better understanding of how and where immunotherapies should be targeted and treating patients at earlier stages of the illness. PMID:23896510

Farlow, Martin R; Brosch, Jared R



Nanomedicine and infectious diseases.  


The First International Conference on Infectious Diseases and Nanomedicine congress facilitated the mixing of researchers in various fields of nanomedicine and infectious diseases, bringing together researchers from the fields of physics and chemistry, on the production of nanoparticles and researchers from various fields of microbiology where these nanoparticles have practical applications. The manufacture and applications of nanoparticles was one of the main themes of the congress, with much emphasis on the use of nanoparticles for the treatment of cancer. The ever increasing problems and concerns around antibiotic resistance also featured prominently in the congress. Various interesting presentations on human viruses were also presented during this congress. PMID:23566145

Bragg, Robert R; Kock, Lodewyk



[Carcinoid heart disease].  


Carcinoids are rare tumors originating from neuroendocrine cells. A large proportion of these tumors produce serotonin and other biologically active hormones which may produce carcinoid syndrome characterized by flushing, diarrhoea and bronchospasm. Carcinoid heart disease, a rare complication of carcinoid syndrome, may itself have a great impact on life expectancy of patients with carcinoid syndrome. The authors present a case history of a patients with carcinoid heart disease and they review the symptoms, diagnosis and therapeutic options of this rare complication of carcinoid syndrome. PMID:23545233

Bencze, Agnes; Szücs, Nikolette; Igaz, Péter; Leiszter, Katalin; Nagy, Zsolt; Patócs, Attila; Rácz, Károly



Familial Behçet's disease.  


Behçet's disease (BD) is a multisystemic vasculitis syndrome characterized by a course of remissions and exacerbations of unpredictable frequency and duration. The disease has a worldwide distribution, but the majority of cases cluster along the ancient Silk Road, which extends from eastern Asia to the Mediterranean basin. The etiopathogenesis of BD is still unknown, but familial aggregation and peculiar geographical distribution have been regarded as evidence supporting genetic influence on the pathogenesis of BD. In this article, we describe a patient with BD, who had four members of his family associated with BD. PMID:19575202

Yilmaz, Sema; Cimen, Kadriye Akar



CNS Diseases and Uveitis  

PubMed Central

A number of inflammatory, infectious, neoplastic and idiopathic disorders affect the eye and the central nervous system (CNS) concurrently or at different time frames. These conditions pose a diagnostic challenge to the clinician since they may present with similar ocular and neurological manifestations. The purpose of this review is to describe major neurological syndromes including multiple sclerosis, Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease, other autoimmune syndromes, and several infectious diseases which may affect the eye. This article may serve as a guide for the diagnosis and treatment of such disorders. It should be noted that these conditions have been viewed from a neurologist’s perspective thereby neurologic involvement is stressed.

Allegri, Pia; Rissotto, Roberto; Herbort, Carl P.; Murialdo, Ugo



Celiac disease in children with autoimmune thyroid disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ninety children and adolescents with autoimmune thyroid disease were screened for celiac disease. All 90 patients were typed for HLA antigen class I and II and for HLA-DQA1 and DQB1 heterodimers. Celiac disease and DQA1*0501, DQB1*02 were found in 7 (7.8%) patients. The prevalence of celiac disease was 1 of 13. Screening for celiac disease is recommended in children with

Daniela Larizza; Valeria Calcaterra; Costantino De Giacomo; Annalisa De Silvestri; Margherita Asti; Carla Badulli; Michele Autelli; Eliana Coslovich; Miryam Martinetti



Mycobacterial diseases of deer.  


The most significant mycobacterial diseases of free-living, captive and farmed deer are bovine tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium bovis, Johne's disease (paratuberculosis), caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (basonym M. paratuberculosis), and avian tuberculosis, caused principally by M. avium subsp avium. The first case of M. bovis infection in farmed deer was identified in New Zealand in 1978. In 1983, a voluntary scheme was introduced in New Zealand to control tuberculosis in farmed deer, followed by a compulsory tuberculosis control scheme in 1990. The primary control measure is the slaughter of infected animals, detected by skin testing and blood testing, together with movement control and vector control. The number of infected deer herds peaked in the mid 1990s at over 160 herds, but by 30 June 2002 this had been reduced to 79 (1.45%), and to 67 (1.23%) by June 2003. Deer-to-deer transmission occurs, but the majority of herd breakdowns are believed to be from infected vectors. Factors likely to affect the susceptibility of deer include age, environment, population density, exposure and genetics. Avian tuberculosis occasionally causes clinical disease in wild, captive and farmed deer in New Zealand and overseas. Mycobacterium intracellulare, and subspecies of M. avium other than M. paratuberculosis, are widespread throughout New Zealand and are thought to be largely responsible for the high level of sensitisation to avian purified protein derivative (PPD), which is used for comparison purposes in tuberculosis skin testing of deer in this country. Infections with these organisms are usually subclinical in farmed deer, although M. avium subsp avium commonly causes lesions in retropharyngeal, mesenteric and ileocaecal lymph nodes. These lesions cause problems because of their gross and microscopic similarity to those due to M. bovis infection. Birds and domestic animals are most likely to become infected via environmental contamination of food, water, bedding litter or soil, while carnivores or scavengers may also become infected by ingesting infected carcasses. Johne's disease has been reported in deer in the wild and in zoos, especially in North America, the United Kingdom (UK) and Europe. Since first being confirmed in farmed deer in New Zealand in 1979, the incidence of Johne's disease has increased steadily. To date, M. paratuberculosis has been identified in >600 farmed deer on 300 properties. The majority of cases have been identified from suspected tuberculous lesions submitted from deer slaughter plants. Clinically, Johne's disease in deer is similar to the disease in sheep and cattle, with typical signs of loss of weight and condition, and diarrhoea. However, outbreaks of Johne's disease frequently occur in young red deer, 8-15 months of age, whereas the clinical disease in sheep and cattle is sporadic and usually affects adults 3-5 years of age. The disease is characterised by a chronic granulomatous enteritis and lymphadenitis, especially affecting the jejunum and ileum and the mesenteric lymph nodes. Deer affected subclinically may have lesions in these lymph nodes at slaughter, which are grossly indistinguishable from those due to bovine tuberculosis. Because of the antigenic similarity between M. intracellulare and all the subspecies of M. avium, including M. paratuberculosis, the diagnostic tests for Johne's disease lack sensitivity and specificity, making control difficult. PMID:15726126

Mackintosh, C G; de Lisle, G W; Collins, D M; Griffin, J F T



Systemic abnormalities in liver disease  

PubMed Central

Systemic abnormalities often occur in patients with liver disease. In particular, cardiopulmonary or renal diseases accompanied by advanced liver disease can be serious and may determine the quality of life and prognosis of patients. Therefore, both hepatologists and non-hepatologists should pay attention to such abnormalities in the management of patients with liver diseases.

Minemura, Masami; Tajiri, Kazuto; Shimizu, Yukihiro



Cutaneous manifestations of gastrointestinal diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are a myriad of dermatologic disorders asso- ciated with gastrointestinal (GI) diseases. This article covers the common dermatologic conditions that may be associated with underlying GI diseases and several uncommon conditions that the dermatologist should recognize as being associated with GI disor- ders. Table 1 presents an outline of the diseases that are covered. Inflammatory bowel diseases Inflammatory disorders

Erin E. Boh; Raed Mahmoud


Women and Coronary Heart Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiovascular disease (CVD), encompassing both coronary heart disease (CHD) and cerebrovascular disease, is a major health\\u000a burden worldwide in men and women. Although historically considered a “man’s disease,” this myth is quickly fading and for\\u000a good reason.

Susan Mather