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Hirschsprung Disease  


... GI) Inflammatory Bowel Disease Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) Digestive System Irritable Bowel Syndrome Inflammatory Bowel Disease Your Digestive System Irritable Bowel Syndrome Constipation Inflammatory Bowel Disease Digestive ...


Behcet's Disease  


NINDS Behcet's Disease Information Page Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What is Behcet's Disease? Is there ... Trials Organizations Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Behcet's Disease? Behcet's disease is a rare, chronic inflammatory ...


Graves' Disease  


... information Autoimmune diseases fact sheet Diabetes fact sheet Hashimoto's disease fact sheet Illnesses and disabilities Lupus fact sheet ... of overactive thyroid. It is closely related to Hashimoto's disease, another autoimmune disease affecting the thyroid. Return to ...


Moyamoya Disease  


NINDS Moyamoya Disease Information Page Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What is Moyamoya Disease? Is there ... is being done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Moyamoya Disease? Moyamoya disease is a rare, progressive cerebrovascular ...


Alzheimer's Disease  


... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Alzheimer's Disease What Is Alzheimer's Disease? Alzheimer’s disease is a brain disease that slowly ... it has no cure. A Common Cause of Dementia Alzheimer’s disease is the most common cause of ...


Parkinson's Disease  


... of movements, and gait problems. DBS requires careful programming of the stimulator device in order to work ... Depression in Parkinson's Disease An NIH disease specific web site to facilitate research on Parkinson's Disease. NINDS, ...


Lyme Disease  


... JavaScript on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Lyme Disease Top Banner Content Area Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Understanding Lyme Disease A History of Lyme Disease, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment ...


Meningococcal Disease  


... A Hepatitis B HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Influenza (Flu) Measles Meningococcal Disease Mumps Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Pneumococcal Disease Rubella (German Measles) Shingles (Herpes Zoster) Tetanus (Lockjaw) Professional Resources Adult ...


Kennedy's Disease  


NINDS Kennedy's Disease Information Page Synonym(s): Bulbospinal Muscular Atrophy, X-Linked Spinal and Bulbar Muscular Atrophy Table of Contents (click ... is being done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Kennedy's Disease? Kennedy's disease is an inherited motor neuron disease ...


Prion Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The modern history of the prion diseases is one of novel microbes, anthropological intrigue, and food safety mishaps. The\\u000a prion diseases, also called the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, are fatal neurodegenerative diseases that can be\\u000a sporadic, inherited, or acquired. These multiple origins are unique among human disease. The basis of all prion diseases is\\u000a the misfolding of the host prion protein

Qingzhong Kong; Richard A. Bessen


Grover's Disease  


... No, Keep Private Grover's Disease Share | Grover's disease (transient acantholytic dermatosis) is a condition that appears suddenly ... months (which is why it was originally called "transient"). Unfortunately it may last much longer. The cause ...


Alpers' Disease  


NINDS Alpers' Disease Information Page Synonym(s): Progressive Sclerosing Poliodystrophy Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What is Alpers' Disease? Is there any treatment? What is the prognosis? What research ...


Chagas disease  


American trypanosomiasis ... Kirchhoff LV. Trypanosoma species (American trypanosomiasis, Chagas' disease): Biology of trypanosomes. In: Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolin R, eds. Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases . 7th ed. ...


Heart Disease  


... blood vessels. You might know someone who has cardiovascular disease because more than 60 million Americans have some ... The blood carries oxygen, which the cells need. Cardiovascular disease is a group of problems that occur when ...


Parkinson's Disease  


... You may have seen the actor Michael J. Fox on TV talking about Parkinson's disease. He has ... and help find a cure. Mostly adults (like Fox and boxer Muhammad Ali) get Parkinson's disease. It's ...


Mycobacterial Diseases  


... are conducting research on The biology of mycobacteria species that cause human disease How mycobacterial diseases develop in the body Interactions between the human immune system and mycobacteria Immunology ...


Lyme Disease  


... Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area A History of Lyme Disease, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention ... Diagnosis Treatment Prevention Borellia burgdorferi . Credit: NIAID A History of Lyme Disease In the early 1970s, a ...


Wildlife Diseases  

E-print Network

Some wildlife diseases can be transmitted to humans. This leaflet explains the causes and symptoms of rabies, giardiasis, bubonic plague, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Lyme disease, tularemia, leptospirosis and histoplasmosis....

Texas Wildlife Services



Reportable diseases  


... make a report by phone. Examples are rubeola (measles) and pertussis (whooping cough). Report of total number ... related infant deaths Legionellosis Listeriosis Lyme disease Malaria Measles Meningococcal disease Mumps Novel influenza A virus infections ...


Alexander Disease  


... no exact animal model for the disease; however, mice have been engineered to produce the same mutant ... GFAP found in individuals with Alexander disease. These mice form Rosenthal fibers and have a predisposition for ...


Celiac Disease  


... with celiac disease, a lifelong disorder of the digestive system, these foods aren't always the treats that ... commonly consumed ingredient. What Is Celiac Disease? The digestive system is the set of organs that digest food ...


Periodontal Diseases  


... diseases. ? The primary research focus was on oral bacteria. Periodontal diseases were thought to begin when chalky ... small pocket between the tooth and gingiva, allowing bacteria to freely enter and progressively erode the bone ...


Whipple's Disease  


... and large intestine. [ Top ] What causes Whipple disease? Bacteria called Tropheryma whipplei (T. whipplei) cause Whipple disease. ... whipplei infects people; however, scientists have noted the bacteria are found in soil and sewage wastewater the ...


Whipple's disease  


Whipple's disease is a rare condition that prevents the small intestines from allowing nutrients to pass into ... Whipple's disease is caused by infection with a form of bacteria called Tropheryma whippelii . The disorder mainly ...


Heart Disease  


... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention ...


Binswanger's Disease  


... BD is a progressive disease; there is no cure. Changes may be sudden or gradual and then progress in a stepwise manner. BD can often coexist with Alzheimer's disease. Behaviors that slow the progression of high ...


Tickborne Diseases  


... diseases are becoming a serious problem in this country as people increasingly build homes in formerly uninhabited wilderness areas where ticks and their animal hosts live. Tickborne diseases can be caused by viruses, ...


Parkinson disease  


Parkinson disease causes certain brain cells to die. These are the cells that help control movement and coordination. ... called dopamine to help control muscle movement. With Parkinson disease, the brain cells that make dopamine slowly die. ...


Krabbe Disease  


... better for children who receive umbilical cord blood stem cells prior to disease onset or early bone marrow transplantation. Persons with juvenile- or adult-onset cases of Krabbe disease generally have a ...


Lyme Disease  


Lyme disease is a bacterial infection you get from the bite of an infected tick. The first symptom ... Muscle and joint aches A stiff neck Fatigue Lyme disease can be hard to diagnose because you may ...


Behçet's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Behçet's disease is a multisystem disease that is rare in the United States.Objective: The purpose of our study was to assess the characteristics and treatment of a series of patients with Behçet's disease in the United States.Methods: A retrospective clinical review of 25 patients with Behçet's disease was performed, and histopathologic findings and therapeutic modalities were reviewed.Results: All patients

Heidi C. Mangelsdorf; Wain L. White; Joseph L. Jorizzo



Autoinflammatory Diseases  


... treatment, a synthetic form of human IL-1Ra. Behçet’s Disease Behçet’s disease causes canker sores or ulcers in the ... of the digestive tract, brain, and spinal cord. Behçet’s disease is common in the Middle East, Asia, ...


Lyme disease  


... Lyme disease: part II. Management and prevention. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2011;64:639-653. Centers for Disease Control. Lyme disease. Page last updated November 15, 2013. Available at: Accessed February 25, 2014. Halperin JJ, Shapiro ...


Lyme Disease.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This overview of the public health significance of Lyme disease includes the microbiological specifics of the infectious spirochete, the entomology and ecology of the ticks which are the primary disease carrier, the clinical aspects and treatment stages, the known epidemiological patterns, and strategies for disease control and for expanded public…

Taylor, George C.



Alzheimer's Disease  


... years of age and the sixth leading cause of death for all people in the United States. Most people live 4 to 8 years after being diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease. Some live with the disease for up ... of Alzheimer’s disease? The Alzheimer’s Association has identified 10 ...


Thyroid Diseases and Cerebrovascular Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose—Acute cerebral ischemia has been described in different diseases of the thyroid gland, and not only as a result of thyrotoxic atrial fibrillation and cardioembolic stroke. The purpose of this review is to summarize the studies on the relationship between thyroid diseases and cerebrovascular diseases, discussing the main findings for overt hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism, as well as for

A. Squizzato; V. E. A. Gerdes; D. P. M. Brandjes; H. R. Buller; J. Stam



[Social diseases, civilization diseases or lifestyle diseases?].  


In general, the development of civilization is viewed as a positive step for the well-being of the human species, leading to an increased duration and quality of life. The accelerated progress of civilization (mainly industrialization, urbanization and nutrition) has lead to new possibilities for adverse effects on human health. In former high civilization--like old Egypt, Greece, Roman, Chinese, Indian, Maya civilizations--the "modem civilization diseases" were unknown. Modem science through improved sanitation, vaccination and antibiotics as well as improved social and economical conditions, has eliminated the threat of death from most infectious diseases. In the years after World War II the social, economic and health conditions changed. Most deaths have resulted from heart disease, stroke, cancer and other diseases as a result of an inappropriate relationship of people with their environment and changed lifestyle. Lifestyle diseases are different from other diseases because they are potentially preventable and can be lowered with changes in diet, lifestyle and environment. PMID:18350729

Betlejewski, Stans?aw



Prion Diseases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Prion Diseases is one of a set of lecture notes for Virology 335 by Shaun Heaphy of Leicester University (UK). It contains detailed information on its topic, along with selected links. Although prion research has been going on for over 25 years, the scientific and medical communities have only recently acknowledged the existence of prions and there remains serious debate over their role in a variety of neurological diseases. The name "prion" is derived from "proteinaceous infectious particles," and was coined by Dr. Stanley Prusiner, who discovered the agents and who recently received the Nobel Prize for Medicine for his work. Prions are thought to be the first transmissible and heritable disease-causing agents that lack DNA and RNA. They are composed solely of protein and appear to be the cause of such diseases as kuru and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans, and bovine spongiform encephalopathies, mad cow disease, and scrapie in sheep and goats.

Heaphy, Shaun.



Skin Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

In assigning health priorities, skin diseases are sometimes thought of, in planning terms, as small-time players in the global league of illness compared with diseases that cause signif- icant mortality, such as HIV\\/AIDS, community-acquired pneu- monias, and tuberculosis. However, skin problems are generally among the most common diseases seen in primary care settings in tropical areas, and in some regions

Roderick Hay; Sandra E. Bendeck; Suephy Chen; Roberto Estrada; Anne Haddix; Tonya McLeod; Antoine Mahé


Lyme Disease  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A little microorganism called a spirochete causes Lyme disease, which can cause extremely severe symptoms, including neck stiffness, acute headaches, neurological damage, and rheumatoid arthritis-like problems. Lyme disease is transmitted by ticks and so is tied to the ticks' life cycle. Lyme disease is also seen by veterinarians, largely in dogs, for whom it can be fatal. Lyme research is ongoing on numerous fronts.

Dr. Leslie Nader (MSMR)



Huntington's Disease  

PubMed Central

Huntington's disease (HD) is the most common inherited neurodegenerative disease and is characterized by uncontrolled excessive motor movements and cognitive and emotional deficits. The mutation responsible for HD leads to an abnormally long polyglutamine (polyQ) expansion in the huntingtin (Htt) protein, which confers one or more toxic functions to mutant Htt leading to neurodegeneration. The polyQ expansion makes Htt prone to aggregate and accumulate, and manipulations that mitigate protein misfolding or facilitate the clearance of misfolded proteins tend to slow disease progression in HD models. This article will focus on HD and the evidence that it is a conformational disease. PMID:21441583

Finkbeiner, Steven



Parkinson's disease.  


Parkinson's disease is a common movement disorder caused by a deficiency of dopamine in the brain. The disease is chronic and progressive. While there are many treatments for symptomatic relief, there is no cure. This article addresses the etiology, clinical manifestations, standard and experimental therapeutics and role of the nurse in the comprehensive care of the patient and family. PMID:2529323

Vernon, G M



Cardiovascular Disease  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cardiovascular disease (CVD), particularly CHD (coronary heart disease) and stroke, remain the leading causes of death of women in America and most developed countries. In recent years the rate of CVD has declined in men but not in women. This is contributed to by an under-recognition of women’s C...


Alzheimer's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proliferation of information regarding Alzheimer's disease in current years has had a tremendous impact on the literature being generated on this topic. Until fairly recently, Alzheimer's disease was believed to be incurable, and its progress inexorable. In recent years research has come up with encouraging results which give hope that new treatments and even a cure is possible in

Carol Gillen



Prion Diseases  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Prion diseases comprise a set of rare fatal neurological diseases found in humans and other mammals. A prion is a protein capable of converting a normal cellular protein (PrPC) into a prion and thereby propagating an infection. A prion and PrPC differ solely in their conformation. There are differen...


[Graves' disease].  


Genetic and environmental determinants inducing Graves' disease are still poorly defined, especially those leading to the appearance of TSH receptor antibodies, which are both the hallmark of the disease and the keystone of its diagnosis. The treatment of Graves' disease is based on the use of antithyroid drugs and no therapeutic protocol has proven superior to the other. Surgical or radiometabolic treatments, largely restricted to relapses and to patients with comorbidities could be considered earlier provided we had reliable predictive markers for relapse. The treatment of Graves' orbitopathy relies first on a rigorous analysis of severity and activity of the disease. Intravenous steroids appear as a reference treatment in active forms. Evaluation of new therapeutics is in process. Graves' disease during pregnancy requires a multidisciplinary approach and an expert ultrasound evaluation of the fetus. Because of a suspected teratogenicity of carbimazole and methimazole, propylthiouracyl is the preferred drug used during early pregnancy. PMID:25090772

Illouz, Frédéric; Rodien, Patrice



Crohn's disease.  


Crohn's disease is a chronic inflammatory disease of the gastrointestinal tract and is an important cause of morbidity in children and adolescents. In India Crohn's disease (CD) was considered a rare disease, however, during the last 10 years CD in adults is being reported from several centers especially in Southern India. CD is characterized by transmural granulomatous inflammation involving any part of the gastrointestinal tract in a discontinuous manner. The peak incidence of Crohn's disease occurs during the adolescent and young adult years. The clinical presentation and complications are varied and several extraintestinal manifestations have been recognized. The understanding of the pathophysiology has opened new avenues in the management. The recognition of this problem in children and adolescents by pediatricians is necessary for proper diagnosis and management. PMID:16936369

Sathiyasekaran, Malathi; Shivbalan, So



[Peyronie's disease].  


Peyronie's disease is caused by collagen deposits in the tunica albuginea of the corpus cavernosum following microtrauma. Symptoms may include a combination of penile curvature, a palpable plaque, painful erections and erectile dysfunction. Peyronie's disease can have a major impact on the quality of life. In the course of the disease two phases can be discerned. In the first, active phase there is penile curvature with painful erections. The second, stable phase is characterised by painless curvature of the penis. Treatment in the active phase is conservative and supportive. Surgical treatment is useful only in the stable phase and may consist of penile plication surgery or penile graft surgery. PMID:25004781

Ruiter, Annebeth E C; Meuleman, Eric J H



[Fabry disease].  


Fabry disease is an uncommon, X-linked lysosomal storage disorder, caused by partial or complete deficiency of the enzyme a-galactosidase A. The defect leads to accumulation of uncleaved globotriaosylceramide on the vascular endothelium and visceral tissues, being the skin, heart, kidneys and central nervous system the most affected organs. We performed review of the literature related to the disease and emphasized that early recognition of angiokeratomas and hypohidrosis are key diagnostic signs of this serious disease. We also addressed the need of multidisciplinary assessment of these patients. PMID:19851669

Boggio, Paula; Luna, Paula Carolina; Abad, María Eugenia; Larralde, Margarita



Pericardial diseases.  


The pericardium provides an enclosed lubricated space for the beating heart and functions to fix the heart in the chest cavity relative to adjacent organs. Pericardial pathophysiology is often manifested in a spectrum of distinct cardiac and systemic disease states. The pericardial response to injury typically involves a spectrum of inflammation with both acute and chronic features and/or fluid accumulation. Recent advances in imaging methods have refined the diagnosis and therapy of pericardial disease. This article presents the anatomy and physiology of pericardial disease and the clinical approach for diagnosis and treatment. PMID:22289657

Dudzinski, David M; Mak, Gary S; Hung, Judy W



Hirschsprung disease.  


Hirschsprung disease is a relatively common condition managed by pediatric surgeons. Significant advances have been made in understanding its etiologies in the last decade, especially with the explosion of molecular genetic techniques and early diagnosis. The surgical management has progressed from a two- or three-stage procedure to a primary operation. More recently, definitive surgery for Hirschsprung disease through minimally invasive techniques has gained popularity. In neonates, the advancement of treatment strategies for Hirschsprung disease continues with reduced patient morbidity and improved outcomes. PMID:19019295

Haricharan, Ramanath N; Georgeson, Keith E



Digestive diseases  


... includes one or more of the following symptoms: Bleeding Bloating Constipation Diarrhea Heartburn Incontinence Nausea and vomiting Pain in the belly Swallowing problems Weight gain or loss A digestive disease is any health problem that occurs in ...


Kawasaki Disease  


... Division of Intramural Research Research Resources Scientific Reports Technology Transfer Clinical Trials What Are Clinical Trials? Children & ... any type of blood vessel in the body, including the arteries, veins, and capillaries. Sometimes Kawasaki disease ...


Graves disease  


... is called hyperthyroidism. (An underactive thyroid leads to hypothyroidism .) Graves disease is the most common cause of ... radioactive iodine usually will cause an underactive thyroid (hypothyroidism). Without getting the correct dosage of thyroid hormone ...


Chagas Disease  


... that cause Chagas disease are in the bug’s feces. People will usually scratch the bite and when this happens, a small amount of the bug’s feces, along with the germs, enter the bloodstream. ? The ...


Alzheimer's Disease  


... progressive brain disease that slowly destroys memory and thinking skills, and eventually even the ability to carry ... people. Dementia is the loss of cognitive functioning—thinking, remembering, and reasoning—and behavioral abilities, to such ...


Legionnaires' Disease  


... with major differences in "attack rate" (the fraction of exposed persons who become infected) and severity are not known. In the United States, Legionnaires' disease is fairly common and serious. LDB ...


Canavan Disease  


... known as axons vulnerable and unable to properly function. Canavan disease is caused by mutation in the gene for an enzyme called aspartoacylase, which acts to break down the concentrated brain chemical known as N-acetyl-aspartate. Symptoms of ...


Méničre's disease  


... in one ear, but it may affect both ears. Hearing tends to improve between attacks but gets worse ... disease, or if symptoms get worse. These include hearing loss, ringing in the ears, or dizziness.


Gaucher Disease  


... common of the inherited metabolic disorder known as lipid storage diseases. Lipids are fatty materials that include oils, fatty acids, ... research to find ways to treat and prevent lipid storage disorders. This research includes clinical studies by ...


Legionnaire disease  


... or diabetes Weakened immune system, such as during cancer treatment or taking steroid medicines Long-term (chronic) lung disease, such as COPD Long-term use of a breathing machine (ventilator) ...


Dupuytren's Disease  


Dupuytren’s disease is an abnormal thickening of the tissue just beneath the skin. This thickening occurs in ... Figure 2), which is a condition described as Dupuytren’s contracture. Although the skin may become involved in ...


Vascular Diseases  


... and block blood flow to the heart or brain. Weakened blood vessels can burst, causing bleeding inside ... and not smoking can help vascular disease. Other treatments include medicines and surgery.


Parkinson's Disease  


... Cognitive impairment Fatigue What are some of the environmental factors researchers believe may be associated with PD? ... PD or slow its progression. Stories from the Environmental Factor (the official newsletter of NIEHS) Parkinson’s disease ...


Diarrhoeal Disease  


... of diarrhoeal disease can be prevented through safe drinking-water and adequate sanitation and hygiene. Globally, there are ... organisms. Infection is spread through contaminated food or drinking-water, or from person-to-person as a result ...


Zoonotic Diseases  


... wildlife when we clear wooded land for new construction. Because of these interactions, it’s important to be ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 1600 Clifton Road Atlanta, GA 30329-4027, USA 800-CDC-INFO ( ...


Disease Resources

Key Programs Disease Resources The ASCUS/LSIL Triage Study for Cervical Cancer (ALTS) Human Papillomavirus Cervical Cancer Screening NCI Bethesda System 2001 The Bethesda System Web Atlas National Cervical Cancer Coalition American Social


Graves' Disease  


... Graves' disease can cause the following symptoms: Nervousness Insomnia Emotional swings Sweating Hand tremor Palpitations Unexplained weight ... medication such as propanolol (Inderal). For anxiety and insomnia, your doctor may prescribe diazepam (Valium), lorazepam (Ativan) ...


Menkes Disease  


... Additional research is being performed by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, in collaboration with the NINDS, that applies gene therapy approaches to Menkes disease. 3 1. Kaler, SG. The neurology of STPAT ...


Alzheimer disease  


Senile dementia - Alzheimer type (SDAT); SDAT ... The exact cause of Alzheimer disease (AD) is not known. Research shows that certain changes in the brain lead to AD developing. You are more likely ...


Kawasaki Disease  

PubMed Central

Kawasaki disease is an acute febrile, systemic vasculitic syndrome of an unknown etiology that primarily occurs in children younger than five years of age. The principal presentations of Kawasaki disease include fever, bilateral nonexudative conjunctivitis, erythema of the lips and oral mucosa, changes in the extremities, rash, and cervical lymphadenopathy. Coronary artery aneurysms or ectasia develops in 15% to 25% of untreated children with the disease, which may later lead to myocardial infarction, sudden death, or ischemic heart disease. Treatment with intravenous gamma globulin (IVIG) is effective, but the mode of action is still unclear. The development of a diagnostic test, a more specific therapy, and ultimately the prevention of this potentially fatal illness in children are all dependent upon the continued advances in determining the etiopathogenesis of this fascinating disorder. PMID:17191303



Lentil Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fungal diseases of lentils are the most important biological constraint to productivity. Ascochyta lentis (ascochyta blight) and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lentis (fusarium wilt) are the major fungal pathogens that can cause severe losses in most lentil growing regions of the world.\\u000a Fungal diseases such as botrytis grey mould (Botrytis fabae and B. cinerea), rust (Uromyces viciae-fabae), stemphylium blight (Stemphylium

Paul Taylor; Kurt Lindbeck; Weidong Chen; Rebecca Ford


Kidney Disease and Diabetes  


... the chance of getting kidney disease. How are cardiovascular disease (CVD) and kidney disease related? Chronic kidney disease can lead to cardiovascular disease (CVD) . Conversely, CVD can lead to kidney disease, ...


Neurodegenerative diseases ranging from Alzheimer disease and polyglutamine diseases to transmissible spongiform enceph-  

E-print Network

with Neurodegenerative Diseases The protein deposits found in Alzheimer disease, Huntington disease and prion diseaseNeurodegenerative diseases ranging from Alzheimer disease and polyglutamine diseases, we focus on three neuro- degenerative diseases, Alzheimer disease, Huntington disease and prion

Lindquist, Susan


[Vulvar diseases].  


Vulvar diseases might cause problems in the differential diagnosis, because the clinical presentation of inflammatory, infectious and neoplastic disorders may be quite similar. Itching and pain as well as dysuria and dyspareunia are the most common symptoms of vulvar diseases. Inflammatory dermatoses like atopic and contact dermatitis, lichen planus, lichen sclerosus and atrophic vulvitis account for the majority of cases in specialized clinics. Furthermore, neoplastic conditions such as vulvar carcinoma, vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) and vulvar Paget's disease have to be considered. Another frequent group are infections. Candida spp., herpes simplex viruses and human papilloma viruses are common pathogens. Additionally, vulvodynia is a typical problem that is sometimes difficult to treat. Because of the wide spectrum of clinical symptoms, cooperation with gynaecologists and psychosomatic specialists should be considered in difficult cases. The typical clinical presentations, their specific signs and symptoms, and pitfalls in the dermatological consultation are discussed. PMID:25475624

Peckruhn, M; Elsner, P



Celiac disease.  


On the basis of strong evidence, gastrointestinal symptoms and failure to thrive are classic presentations of celiac disease, but atypical, nongastrointestinal symptoms are also extremely common, particularly in the older child and adolescent. (3)(4)(8). On the basis of some research evidence and consensus, guidelines recommend celiac testing in symptomatic children with typical and atypical symptoms and consideration of testing in those with associated conditions and first-degree relatives of those with celiac disease. (3)(9). On the basis of strong research evidence, measurement of tTG IgA and total serum IgA level has been reported to be the most cost-effective and accurate means of serologic testing for celiac disease and is the test of choice unless the child is younger than 2 years or IgA deficient. (9). On the basis of strong research evidence, children with elevated titers of celiac antibodies or strong clinical suspicion for celiac disease should be referred to a gastroenterologist for upper endoscopy and biopsy. Until this procedure is performed, the child should continue on a diet with ingestion of gluten. (3)(9). On the basis of strong research evidence, all those with a confirmed diagnosis of celiac disease should follow a strict gluten-free diet for life, with avoidance of all foods that contain wheat, barley, and rye ingredients. (3)(4). Referral to a health care professional with specialized knowledge of celiac disease and the gluten-free diet is critical because of the numerous ways, often hidden, in which gluten may be present in the diet and environment. PMID:25274968

Ediger, Tracy R; Hill, Ivor D



Behçet's disease  

PubMed Central

Behçet's disease is a systemic vasculitis of unknown aetiology characteristically affecting venules. Onset is typically in young adults with recurrent oral and genital ulceration, uveitis, skin manifestations, arthritis, neurological involvement, and a tendency to thrombosis. It has a worldwide distribution but is prevalent in Japan, the Middle East, and some Mediterranean countries. International diagnostic criteria have been proposed, however diagnosis can be problematical, particularly if the typical ulcers are not obvious at presentation. Treatment is challenging, must be tailored to the pattern of organ involvement for each patient and often requires combination therapies.???Keywords: Behçet's disease; oral ulcers; uveitis; immunosuppressants PMID:11009577

Kontogiannis, V; Powell, R



Pilonidal Disease  

PubMed Central

Pilonidal disease presents many therapeutic challenges to surgeons throughout the world. Its varied clinical presentations necessitate a wide range of treatments, thus underscoring the need to tailor the treatment to the patient and the severity of disease. Recent studies confirm the efficacy of smaller, more conservative operations for appropriate indications. When flap closures are performed, every attempt should be directed to placing sutures off (lateral) to the midline gluteal cleft. Meticulous attention to the details of immediate and long-term postoperative care is paramount. PMID:22379405

Khanna, Amit; Rombeau, John L.



Prion Diseases  


... research on developing a better test for the proteins responsible for mad cow disease (Windows Media Player Format, SMIL captioned, 3 MB, Credit: ScienCentral, Inc.) How do I view captions in Windows Media Player? (PDF) Javascript Error Your browser JavaScript is turned off ...


Infectious Diseases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With the threat of a warmer, wetter world and a larger global population, scientists are researching how climate change may impact the spread of infectious diseases,ťsuch as cholera and dengue fever, and how outbreaks may be prevented.ť "Changing Planet" is produced in partnership with the National Science Foundation.

NBC Learn



Addison's Disease  


... just above your kidneys. They produce hormones that affect how your body responds to stress. In people who have Addison’s disease, the adrenal glands do not produce enough corticosteroid hormones, such as cortisol and ... can occur at any age and affects men and women equally. It is also called ...


Morbihan disease.  


Morbihan disease, which consists of solid facial edema, is a rare complication of rosacea, a common cutaneous disorder in middle-aged individuals. The characteristic features of Morbihan disease are its chronic course, typical clinical picture, lack of specific laboratory and histopathologic findings, and refractoriness to therapeutic measures. Since its initial description in 1957, only a small number of cases have been reported in the dermatologic literature. We report a 54-year-old man who developed a two-year duration of erythema and edema that affects the upper and mid face, with accentuation in the periorbital region. Patch tests excluded an allergic contact dermatitis and histopathologic investigation showed small, nodular clusters of epithelioid cells in the dermis that were consistent with sarcoidal granulomata. A diagnosis of Morbihan disease was made owing to the combination of clinical and histopathologic findings. Therapeutic options for the disease remain unsatisfactory and treatments reported in the literature include systemic glucocorticoids, oral tetracyclines, thalidomide, isotretinoin, ketotifen, and clofazimine. Our patient failed a six-to-seven months course of minocycline prior to presentation and has since experienced improvement on gradually-increasing doses of isotretinoin. PMID:23286817

Hu, Stephanie W; Robinson, Maria; Meehan, Shane A; Cohen, David E



Pompe Disease  


... by the GAA into glucose, a sugar that fuels muscles. In Pompe disease, mutations in the GAA gene reduce or completely eliminate this essential enzyme. Excessive amounts of lysosomal glycogen accumulate everywhere in the body, but the cells of the heart and skeletal muscles are the ...


Lyme Disease  


... Northern California. It has also been reported in China, Europe, Japan, Australia, and the parts of the ... Lyme disease can be treated and cured with one of several oral antibiotics for 3–4 weeks. The skin rash ... diagnosis or treatment provided by a qualified health care provider.


Lyme Disease  


... Northern California. It has also been reported in China, Europe, Japan, Australia, and the parts of the ... Lyme disease can be treated and cured with one of several oral antibiotics for 3–4 weeks. The skin rash will ... of Skinsight's terms of service and privacy policy. The material on this site is for informational ...


Behçet's disease  

PubMed Central

Definition of the disease Behçet disease (BD) is a chronic, relapsing, multisystemic disorder characterized by mucocutaneous, ocular, vascular and central nervous system manifestations. Epidemiology BD seems to cluster along the ancient Silk Road, which extends from eastern Asia to the Mediterranean basin. European cases are often described, not exclusively in the migrant population. Clinical description The clinical spectrum includes oral and genital ulcerations, uveitis, vascular, neurological, articular, renal and gastrointestinal manifestations. Etiology The etiopathogenesis of the disease remains unknown, although genetic predisposition, environmental factors and immunological abnormalities have been implicated. Diagnostic methods Diagnosis is only based on clinical criteria. Differrential diagnosis It depends on the clinical presentation of BD, but sarcoidosis, multiple sclerosis, Crohn’s disease, Takayasu’s arteritis, polychondritis or antiphospholipid syndrome need to be considered. Management Treatment is symptomatic using steroids and immunomodulatory therapy. It is efficient depending on the rapidity of initiation, the compliance, and the duration of therapy. Prognosis The prognosis is severe due to the ocular, neurological and arterial involvement. PMID:22497990



Lung Diseases  


When you breathe, your lungs take in oxygen from the air and deliver it to the bloodstream. The cells in your body need oxygen to ... you breathe nearly 25,000 times. People with lung disease have difficulty breathing. Millions of people in ...


Winkler's disease.  


Winkler's disease otherwise known as chondrodermatitis nodularis chronica helices (CNHC) is characterized by a painful persistent erythematous nodule, mostly located at the rim of helix of pinna. Occurs mostly in men over 40 years of age. Standard therapy is by local excision or carbon dioxide laser vaporization. Recurrence is frequent. PMID:23120207

Jacob K, Joe; Satheesh, S; Menon, P; Saju, K G



Winkler's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Winkler's disease otherwise known as chondrodermatitis nodularis chronica helices (CNHC) is characterized by a painful persistent\\u000a erythematous nodule, mostly located at the rim of helix of pinna. Occurs mostly in men over 40 years of age. Standard therapy\\u000a is by local excision or carbon dioxide laser vaporization. Recurrence is frequent.

Joe Jacob. K; S. Satheesh; P. Menon; K. G. Saju



Diverticular Disease  


... or in the toilet. If you notice blood coming from your rectum, you should call your doctor immediately. ... both men and women and is most common in people older than 40 years of age. Diverticular disease may be caused by not eating ...


Leigh's Disease  


... group of substances that are important for cell metabolism. This gene is only found on the X chromosome. Is there any treatment? The most common treatment for Leigh's disease is thiamine or Vitamin B1. Oral sodium bicarbonate or sodium citrate may ...


Diabetic Heart Disease  


... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Diabetic Heart Disease? The term "diabetic heart disease" (DHD) refers to ... Kidney Diseases' Introduction to Diabetes Web page. What Heart Diseases Are Involved in Diabetic Heart Disease? DHD may ...


Coronary heart disease  


Heart disease, Coronary heart disease, Coronary artery disease; Arteriosclerotic heart disease; CHD; CAD ... al. Effectiveness-Based Guidelines for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in Women--2011 Update:a guideline from the ...


Acid Lipase Disease  


NINDS Acid Lipase Disease Information Page Synonym(s): Cholesterol Ester Storage Disease, Wolman’s Disease Table of Contents (click to jump ... research is being done? Clinical Trials What is Acid Lipase Disease ? Acid lipase disease occurs when the ...


Understanding Pulmonary Vascular Disease  


... ENews Home > Lung Disease > Pulmonary Vascular Disease Understanding Pulmonary Vascular Disease Pulmonary vascular disease is a category of disorders. ... in a person's pulmonary arteries gets dangerously high. Pulmonary Veno-occlusive Disease This is an extremely rare form of high ...


Lyme Disease Transmission  


... Health Officials Veterinarians Tool kit Lyme disease quiz Lyme disease transmission The Lyme disease bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi , is ... blacklegged ticks Are there other ways to get Lyme disease? There is no evidence that Lyme disease is ...


Fabry disease  

PubMed Central

Fabry disease (FD) is a progressive, X-linked inherited disorder of glycosphingolipid metabolism due to deficient or absent lysosomal ?-galactosidase A activity. FD is pan-ethnic and the reported annual incidence of 1 in 100,000 may underestimate the true prevalence of the disease. Classically affected hemizygous males, with no residual ?-galactosidase A activity may display all the characteristic neurological (pain), cutaneous (angiokeratoma), renal (proteinuria, kidney failure), cardiovascular (cardiomyopathy, arrhythmia), cochleo-vestibular and cerebrovascular (transient ischemic attacks, strokes) signs of the disease while heterozygous females have symptoms ranging from very mild to severe. Deficient activity of lysosomal ?-galactosidase A results in progressive accumulation of globotriaosylceramide within lysosomes, believed to trigger a cascade of cellular events. Demonstration of marked ?-galactosidase A deficiency is the definitive method for the diagnosis of hemizygous males. Enzyme analysis may occasionnally help to detect heterozygotes but is often inconclusive due to random X-chromosomal inactivation so that molecular testing (genotyping) of females is mandatory. In childhood, other possible causes of pain such as rheumatoid arthritis and 'growing pains' must be ruled out. In adulthood, multiple sclerosis is sometimes considered. Prenatal diagnosis, available by determination of enzyme activity or DNA testing in chorionic villi or cultured amniotic cells is, for ethical reasons, only considered in male fetuses. Pre-implantation diagnosis is possible. The existence of atypical variants and the availability of a specific therapy singularly complicate genetic counseling. A disease-specific therapeutic option - enzyme replacement therapy using recombinant human ?-galactosidase A - has been recently introduced and its long term outcome is currently still being investigated. Conventional management consists of pain relief with analgesic drugs, nephroprotection (angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptors blockers) and antiarrhythmic agents, whereas dialysis or renal transplantation are available for patients experiencing end-stage renal failure. With age, progressive damage to vital organ systems develops and at some point, organs may start to fail in functioning. End-stage renal disease and life-threatening cardiovascular or cerebrovascular complications limit life-expectancy of untreated males and females with reductions of 20 and 10 years, respectively, as compared to the general population. While there is increasing evidence that long-term enzyme therapy can halt disease progression, the importance of adjunctive therapies should be emphasized and the possibility of developing an oral therapy drives research forward into active site specific chaperones. PMID:21092187



[Perthes disease].  


The Legg-Calve-Perthes disease is an idiopathic avascular necrosis of the hip during early childhood. It is characterized by different stages with the main risk of persisting hip deformation, dysfunction of the joint movement, and the potential for early osteoarthritis. For the evaluation of prognosis and therapy planning patients age and extent of the necrotic area of the epiphysis are important factors. For an early diagnosis and sufficient therapy all radiological efforts have to be performed. MR imaging is an ideal method for the assessment of osteonecrotic changes of the Morbus Perthes. Compared to plain radiography by MR imaging pathologic alterations can be detected earlier and with higher specificity. However, conventional radiograms have to be still used as basic imaging modality. Nowadays x-rays and MR imaging should be the main methods for the evaluation of children suffering from Perthes disease. PMID:12149903

Kramer, J; Hofmann, S; Scheurecker, A; Tschauner, C



Thyroid disease  

SciTech Connect

Presenting a multidisciplinary approach to the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disease, this volume provides a comprehensive picture of current thyroid medicine and surgery. The book integrates the perspectives of the many disciplines that deal with the clinical manifestations of thyroid disorders. Adding to the clinical usefulness of the book is the state-of-the-art coverage of many recent developments in thyroidology, including the use of highly sensitive two-site TSH immunoradionetric measurements to diagnose thyroid activity; thyroglobulin assays in thyroid cancer and other diseases; new diagnostic applications of MRI and CT; treatment with radionuclides and chemotherapy; new developments in thyroid immunology, pathology, and management of hyperthyroidism; suppressive treatment with thyroid hormone; and management of Graves' ophthalmopathy. The book also covers all aspects of thyroid surgery, including surgical treatment of hyperthyroidism; papillary, follicular, and other carcinomas; thyroidectomy; and prevention and management of complications.

Falk, S.



Stargardt Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

When the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette (ABC) transporter gene, ABCA4 (originally named ABCR), was cloned and characterized in 1997 as the causal gene for autosomal recessive Stargardt disease (arSTGD or STGD1) (1) it seemed as if just another missing link was added to the extensive table of genetic determinants of rare monogenic retinal\\u000a dystrophies. Now, 9 yr later, the ABCA4

Rando Allikmets


Menkes disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Menkes disease (MD) is a lethal multisystemic disorder of copper metabolism. Progressive neurodegeneration and connective tissue disturbances, together with the peculiar ‘kinky’ hair are the main manifestations. MD is inherited as an X-linked recessive trait, and as expected the vast majority of patients are males. MD occurs due to mutations in the ATP7A gene and the vast majority of ATP7A

Zeynep Tümer; Lisbeth B Mřller



Wilson's disease.  


Wilson's disease (WD), an inborn error of copper (Cu) metabolism, is now one of the leading liver diseases in children in India. The clinical presentation can be extremely varied viz.,--all forms of acute and chronic liver disease, minimal to severe neurological disease, psychiatric problems, bony deformities, hemolytic anemia and endocrine manifestations. A high index of suspicion is necessary along with a judicious battery of investigations for diagnosis. Hepatic copper estimation is the most reliable test but is not easily available in India. Liver biopsy may not be possible because of bleeding problems and histological features are often not diagnostic of WD. In the absence of hepatic Cu, a low ceruloplasmin, high 24 hour urinary copper and presence of KF rings aid in making the diagnosis. The mainstay of initial therapy is Cu-chelators like D-Penicillamine, and Trientine for reduction in body copper to sub-toxic levels. Subsequent maintenance therapy is necessarily lifelong with D-Penicillamine, Trientine or Zinc. Children on therapy must be monitored regularly for response, side-effects, compliance and rehabilitation. Response to therapy may be unpredictable, but acute and early presentations like fulminant hepatic failures have a poor outcome. All siblings must be screened for WD as early diagnosis and treatment result in a good outcome. The identification of the WD gene on chromosome 13 has led to the possible use of molecular genetics (haplotype and mutational analyses) in the diagnosis of WD. Parent groups/associations must take active part in holistic management of WD. PMID:12420912

Pandit, Anand; Bavdekar, Ashish; Bhave, Sheila



Beryllium disease  

SciTech Connect

After two workers at the nuclear weapons plant at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee were diagnosed earlier this year with chronic beryllium disease (CBD), a rare and sometimes fatal scarring of the lungs, the Department of Energy ordered up a 4-year probe. Now, part of that probe has begun - tests conducted by the Oak Ridge Associated Universities' Center for Epidemiological Research measuring beryllium sensitivity in 3,000 people who've been exposed to the metal's dust since Manhattan Project managers opened the Y-12 plant at Oak Ridge in 1943. Currently, 119 Y-12 employees process beryllium, which has a number of industrial uses, including rocket heat shields and nuclear weapon and electrical components. The disease often takes 20 to 25 years to develop, and the stricken employees haven't worked with beryllium for years. There is no cure for CBD, estimated to strike 2% of people exposed to the metal. Anti-inflammatory steroids alleviate such symptoms as a dry cough, weight loss, and fatigue. Like other lung-fibrosis diseases that are linked to lung cancer, some people suspect CBD might cause some lung cancer. While difficult to diagnose, about 900 cases of CBD have been reported since a Beryllium Case Registry was established in 1952. The Department of Energy (DOE) estimates that about 10,000 DOE employees and 800,000 people in private industry have worked with beryllium.

Not Available



Vestibular disease: diseases causing vestibular signs.  


Having determined whether a patient has central or peripheral vestibular disease, clinicians must then determine what diseases are likely to result in such a presentation. This article describes the more common diseases causing vestibular disease in dogs and cats. Having formulated a list of potential causes of vestibular disease, clinicians should proceed through a systematic investigation to diagnose the underlying condition. A companion article describes the anatomy, physiology, and clinical signs associated with vestibular disease. PMID:22847321

Lowrie, Mark



Demyelinating diseases  

PubMed Central

A diagnosis of demyelination carries important therapeutic and prognostic implications. In most cases the diagnosis is made clinically, and involvement of the histopathologist is largely confined to postmortem confirmation and clinicopathological correlation. However, every now and then, accurate diagnosis of the presence or cause of demyelination before death hinges on the histopathological assessment. Recognition of demyelination depends on an awareness of this as a diagnostic possibility, and on the use of appropriate tinctorial and immunohistochemical stains to identify myelin, axons and inflammatory cells. In biopsy specimens, the critical distinction is usually from ischaemic or neoplastic disease, and the types of demyelinating disease most likely to be encountered are multiple sclerosis, acute?disseminated encephalomyelitis, progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy and extrapontine myelinolysis. Interpretation of the pathology has to be made in the context of the clinical, radiological and biochemical findings. Freezing of a small amount of fresh tissue allows for later virological studies, and electron microscopy is occasionally helpful for demonstration of viral particles. PMID:17071802

Love, S



Digestive Diseases Materials  


... for patients and health care professionals to help increase awareness of bowel control problems. Celiac Disease Awareness Campaign ... for patients and health care professionals to help increase awareness of celiac disease. Kidney Disease Kidney Diseases Information ...


Depression and Heart Disease  


... see the NIMH booklet on Depression . What is heart disease? Heart disease refers to a number of illnesses ... and save your life. How are depression and heart disease linked? People with heart disease are more likely ...


Heart disease and women  


... not consider heart disease a woman's disease.Yet cardiovascular disease is the leading killer of women over age ... al. Effectiveness-based guidelines for the prevention of cardiovascular disease in women--2011 update: A guideline from the ...


HIV and Cardiovascular Disease  


... Select a Language: Fact Sheet 652 HIV and Cardiovascular Disease HIV AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE WHY SHOULD PEOPLE WITH HIV CARE ABOUT CVD? ... OF CVD? WHAT ABOUT CHANGING MEDICATIONS? HIV AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE Cardiovascular disease (CVD) includes a group of problems ...


Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)  


... > Kidney Disease > Chronic Kidney Disease Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) An estimated 31 million people in the United States are living with chronic kidney disease (CKD). What is CKD? The term “chronic kidney ...


Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease  


... rare) Classic CJD is not related to mad cow disease (bovine spongiform encephalitis ). However, variant CJD (vCJD) ... of the disease that is related to mad cow disease. The infection that causes the disease in ...


Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease  


... disease This prion disease is similar to mad cow disease that's been found in wild deer, elk ... from the CDC . Meat or other products from cattle infected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy ("mad cow disease") , ...


Lipid Storage Diseases  


NINDS Lipid Storage Diseases Information Page Condensed from Lipid Storage Diseases Fact Sheet Table of Contents (click to jump ... Trials Organizations Additional resources from MedlinePlus What are Lipid Storage Diseases? Lipid storage diseases are a group ...


Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD)  


MENU Return to Web version Polycystic Kidney Disease Overview What is polycystic kidney disease? Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is an inherited disease that affects the kidneys. Sacs of fluid (called ...


Alzheimer's Disease Antimicrobial Peptides  

E-print Network

Keywords Alzheimer's Disease Antimicrobial Peptides Proteomics Posttranslational Modifications collaborations. Current international collaborations focus on Alzheimer's disease (Tau and A), molecular mechanisms of cell aging (glycation, oxidation) and related diseases (diabetes, Alzheimer's disease) as well

SchĂĽler, Axel


About Alzheimer's Disease: Symptoms  


... more about other early signs of Alzheimer's » Mild Alzheimer's disease As the disease progresses, memory loss worsens, and ... disease is often diagnosed at this stage. Moderate Alzheimer's disease In this stage, damage occurs in areas of ...


Rice Diseases Atlas.  

E-print Network

CONTENTS INTRODUCTION .......... . .. . ........ . SEEDLI NG DISEASES ... . ... . .. . ........ . FOLIAGE DISEASES ................... .. SHEATH AND STEM DISEASES .......... . DISEASES ATT ACKI NG THE KERNEL ..... . PHYSIOLOGICAL DiSORDERS... or middle porti of the leaves. Symptoms are most conspicuouso the flag leaf just before heading. Diseased plan have less vigor and height and produce small panicles. On severely diseased plants the flag Ie and sheath become twisted and hold the panic...

Walla, Walter



Alzheimer's disease: strategies for disease modification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alzheimer's disease is the largest unmet medical need in neurology. Current drugs improve symptoms, but do not have profound disease-modifying effects. However, in recent years, several approaches aimed at inhibiting disease progression have advanced to clinical trials. Among these, strategies targeting the production and clearance of the amyloid-? peptide — a cardinal feature of Alzheimer's disease that is thought to

Martin Citron



[Osler's disease].  


Osler's disease, also known as hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) and Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome, is an autosomal dominant disorder leading to abnormal blood vessel formation in the skin, mucous membranes and often in organs, such as the lungs, liver and brain (arteriovenous malformations AVM). Various types are known. Patients may present with epistaxis. Teleangiectasia can be identified by visual inspection during physical examination of the skin or oral cavity or by endoscopy. Diagnosis is made after clinical examination and genetic testing based on the Curacao criteria. Modern imaging modalities, such as computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have become more important as they can depict the AVMs. Pulmonary AVMs can be depicted in CT imaging even without the use of a contrast agent while other locations including the central nervous system (CNS) usually require administration of contrast agents. Knowledge of possible clinical manifestations in various organs, possible complications and typical radiological presentation is mandatory to enable adequate therapy of these patients. Interventional procedures are becoming increasingly more important in the treatment of HHT patients. PMID:24276214

Ahlhelm, F; Lieb, J; Schneider, G; Müller, U; Ulmer, S



Fabry disease.  


Fabry disease (FD) is an X-linked disorder caused by deficiency of the enzyme alpha-galactosidase A, required for the degradation of globotriaosylceramide. Accumulation of substrate occurs in multiple cell types resulting in a multi-system disorder, affecting both males and females. Clinical features include neuropathic pain and angiokeratoma, with subsequent development of proteinuria, renal failure, left ventricular hypertrophy, arrhythmias and stroke. Beyond palliative therapies for organ involvement and pain control, enzyme replacement therapy directed at the underlying metabolic defect became available in 2001-2003. Knowledge of the pathophysiology and clinical features of FD is vital for assessing the rationale and evidence of efficacy of therapies for FD and their limitations. Whilst ERT improves many of the symptoms of FD, its effect on the natural history of the disorder has yet to be fully demonstrated. Improved understanding of the appropriate use of adjunctive therapies and the development of new treatment strategies, including pharmacologic chaperone therapy and gene therapy, coupled with long term clinical outcome data on the effects of ERT are all key components of optimising treatment for FD. PMID:25345090

Thomas, Atison S; Hughes, Derralynn A



Alzheimer disease: An interactome of many diseases  

PubMed Central

Alzheimer Disease (AD) is an outcome as well as source of many diseases. Alzheimer is linked with many other diseases like Diabetes type 2, cholesterolemia, hypertension and many more. But how each of these diseases affecting other is still unknown to scientific community. Signaling Pathways of one disease is interlinked with other disease. But to what extent healthy brain is affected when any signaling in human body is disturbed is the question that matters. There is a need of Pathway analysis, Protein-Protein interaction (PPI) and the conserved interactome study in AD and linked diseases. It will be helpful in finding the potent drug or vaccine target in conscious manner. In the present research the Protein-Protein interaction of all the proteins involved in Alzheimer Disease is analyzed using ViSANT and osprey tools and pathway analysis further reveals the significant genes/proteins linking AD with other diseases. PMID:24753659

Rao, Balaji S.; Gupta, Krishna Kant; Karanam, Pujitha; Peruri, Anusha



Strategies for disease modification in Alzheimer's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treating Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the biggest unmet medical need in neurology. Current drugs improve symptoms, but do not have profound disease-modifying effects. Three main classes of disease-modification approaches can be defined: one that is broadly neurotrophic or neuroprotective, one that targets specific aspects of AD pathology, and one that is based on epidemiological observation. This review discusses all three

Martin Citron



Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes  


Cardiovascular Disease & Diabetes Updated:Jan 31,2013 The following statistics speak loud and clear that there is a strong correlation between cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes. Heart diseases and stroke are ...


Heart Disease in Women  


... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Does Heart Disease Affect Women? Espańol In the United States, 1 ... about coronary MVD and broken heart syndrome. Coronary Heart Disease CHD is a disease in which plaque (plak) ...


Sleep and Chronic Disease  


... control in persons with Type 2 diabetes. 1 Cardiovascular Disease Persons with sleep apnea have been found to be at increased risk for a number of cardiovascular diseases. Notably, hypertension, stroke, coronary heart disease and irregular ...


Mad Cow Disease  


... Anxiety Disorders Relaxation Exercises The Flu Vaccine Mad Cow Disease KidsHealth > Teens > Infections > Bacterial & Viral Infections > Mad ... are people to get it? What Is Mad Cow Disease? Mad cow disease is an incurable, fatal ...


Pregnancy and Rheumatic Disease  


... some rheumatic diseases (SLE, APS, Sjögren’s and, particularly, scleroderma), also warrants mention. Because this severe disease frequently ... period—pregnancy isconsidered inadvisable. Other diseases such as scleroderma (in the absence of pulmonary hypertension or lung ...


Chronic kidney disease  


Kidney failure - chronic; Renal failure - chronic; Chronic renal insufficiency; Chronic kidney failure; Chronic renal failure ... kidney disease. If it worsens to end-stage renal disease , and how ... Kidney failure is the last stage of chronic kidney disease. ...


Carotid Artery Disease  


... cerebrovascular disease, stroke, transient ischemic attacks (TIA) Carotid artery disease is a form of disease that affects ... to the brain by the 2 large carotid arteries in the front of your neck and by ...


Peripheral Artery Disease  


Peripheral Artery Disease • Overview Peripheral artery disease, or P.A.D., refers to arterial disease that occurs outside of the heart or brain. In P.A.D., the arteries that carry oxygenated blood throughout the body become ...


Gum Disease in Children  


... types of gum disease in children. Types of periodontal diseases in children Chronic gingivitis is common in ... cause the teeth to become loose. Signs of periodontal disease Four basic signs will alert you to ...


American Lyme Disease Foundation  


... A. Jacobs, M.D., Emeritus Professor, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of California - San Francisco [ Video ] Lyme Disease ... on line Find a Local Physician Knowledgeable About Infectious Diseases The best private organization-based site that can ...


Understanding Alzheimer's Disease  


... Referral Center Alzheimer's Disease Education and Referral Center Alzheimer's Disease Education and Referral Center Home About Alzheimer’s ... National Alzheimer's Project Act (NAPA) About ADEAR Understanding Alzheimer's Disease: What You Need to Know Introduction Many ...


Interstitial Lung Disease  


... MS Dept. of Medicine View full profile Interstitial Lung Disease (ILD): Overview Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is ... they may make informed decisions Learn more. Interstitial Lung Disease Program As a center specializing in the ...


Autoimmune liver disease panel  


Liver disease test panel - autoimmune ... Autoimmune disorders are a possible cause of liver disease. The most common of these diseases are autoimmune hepatitis and primary biliary cirrhosis. This group of tests helps your health care provider ...


Sickle Cell Disease  


... sickle cell disease? Sickle cell disease, also called sickle cell anemia, is a hereditary problem (which mean it runs ... there is no cure for sickle cell disease. Sickle cell anemia can cause: Swollen hands and feet Jaundice (the ...


About Alzheimer's Disease: Treatment  


... being researched? What are clinical trials? How is Alzheimer's disease treated? Alzheimer's disease is complex, and it is unlikely that any ... better to one drug than another. See also: Alzheimer's Disease Medications Fact Sheet Are there treatments available for ...


Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)  


MENU Return to Web version Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Overview What is pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)? Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is an infection of the female reproductive organs (the uterus, ...


Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)  


... STD, and TB Prevention Division of STD Prevention Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) - CDC Fact Sheet Untreated sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) can cause pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), a serious condition, in women. 1 in ...


Peripheral Vascular Disease  


... Arterial blockage including peripheral artery disease or PAD Aortic aneurysms Buerger's Disease Raynaud's Phenomenon Disease of the veins ... blood to flow around, or "bypass," the blockage. Aortic Aneurysms An aneurysm is a balloon-like bulge in ...


Types of Periodontal Disease  


Types of Periodontal Disease Gingivitis Chronic Periodontitis Aggressive Periodontitis Periodontitis Caused by Conditions of the Body Necrotizing Periodontal Diseases Periodontal disease can refer to any condition that affects the gums and ...


About Alzheimer's Disease: Alzheimer's Basics  


... with Alzheimer's disease? What is dementia? What is Alzheimer's disease? Alzheimer’s disease is an irreversible, progressive brain disease ... devastating disease. What happens to the brain in Alzheimer's disease? Although we still don’t know how the ...


Atheroembolic renal disease  


Renal disease - atheroembolic; Cholesterol embolization syndrome; Atheroemboli - renal; Atherosclerotic disease - renal ... disorder of the arteries. It occurs when fat, cholesterol, and other substances build up in the walls ...


Perianal Crohn's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: This study relates our experience with local surgical management of perianal Crohn's disease. METHOD: Of 1,735 patients with Crohn's disease seen between 1980 and 1990, records of 66 patients (3.8 percent) with symptomatic perianal Crohn's disease treated by local operations were retrospectively reviewed to study outcome of local surgical intervention. RESULTS: All patients had intestinal disease that was limited

Yash P. Sangwan; David J. Schoetz; John J. Murray; Patricia L. Roberts; John A. Coller



Kidney Disease of Diabetes  

E-print Network

Kidney Disease of Diabetes National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse is the final stage of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Diabetes is the most common cause of kidney failure, accounting for nearly 44 percent of new cases.1 Even when diabetes is controlled, the disease can lead to CKD

Baker, Chris I.


[Imaging of aortic disease].  


Diseases of the aorta are imaged using different modalities according to the cause and clinical situation. Current imaging strategies for the clinically most pertinent aortic diseases are analysed. These disease entities may be differentiated into congenital, acquired and inflammatory diseases. Traumatic and non-traumatic aortic aneurysms and dissections are emphasised in context with endovascular treatment options and subsequent follow-up. PMID:17479238

Reimer, P; Vosshenrich, R; Landwehr, P; Storck, M



Molecular Bioinformatics for Diseases  

E-print Network

. PNAS, 104: 8685 (2007). #12;Mendelian diseases E6V6 Sickle Cell Disease: Autosomal recessive disorder 4. Curr Opin Pediatr, 13: 22 (2001). Leads to sickle cell anemia Manifestation of disease vastly differentPSB 2009 Molecular Bioinformatics for Diseases Tutorial Atul Butte, Maricel Kann, Yves Lussier

Radivojac, Predrag


Disease model: LAMP2 enlightens Danon disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Danon disease (‘lysosomal glycogen storage disease with normal acid maltase’) is characterized by a cardiomyopathy, myopathy and variable mental retardation. Mutations in the coding sequence of the lysosomal-associated membrane protein 2 (LAMP-2) were shown to cause a LAMP-2 deficiency in patients with Danon disease. LAMP-2 deficient mice manifest a similar vacuolar cardioskeletal myopathy. In addition to the patient reports LAMP-2

Paul Saftig; Kurt von Figura; Yshitaka Tanaka; Renate Lüllmann-Rauch



Imaging in chest disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Imaging in chest disease may be performed:•to investigate symptoms (e.g. high temperature, cough)•to confirm or exclude suspected diagnoses (e.g. pulmonary embolic disease, cancer)•in the further investigation of known diseases (e.g. diffuse lung disease)•to monitor disease status (e.g. consolidation in pneumonia, pleural effusion in empyema, mediastinal lymphadenopathy in lung cancer).A combination of different imaging modalities may be used to aid diagnosis

Fergus V Gleeson



Cardiovascular Diseases (and Oral Health)  


Cardiovascular Diseases Periodontal Disease and Cardiovascular Conditions Heart Disease and Dental Treatment Myocardial Infarction (Heart Attack) High Blood ... it is a current list. Periodontal Disease and Cardiovascular Conditions Periodontal disease can affect your overall health. Over time, it ...


Understanding Byssinosis (Brown Lung Disease)  


... Disparities Reports Lung Disease Finder Lung Disease List Lung HelpLine Questions about your lung health? Need help ... ENews Home > Lung Disease > Byssinosis Understanding Byssinosis (Brown Lung Disease) What is Byssinosis? Byssinosis (brown lung disease) ...


Obesity and cardiovascular disease.  


Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of mortality in rich countries and today it has the same meaning for health care as the epidemics of past centuries had for medicine in earlier times: 50% of the population in these countries die of cardiovascular disease. The amount of cardiovascular disease is also increasing in the developing countries together with economic growth. By 2015 one in three deaths will globally be due to cardiovascular diseases. Coronary heart disease is a chronic disease that starts in childhood, even if the symptoms first occur in the middle age. The risks for coronary heart disease are well-known: lipid disorders, especially high serum LDL-cholesterol concentration, high blood pressure, tobacco smoking, obesity, diabetes, male gender and physical inactivity. Obesity is both an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease but is also closely connected with several other risk factors. This review focuses on the connection between overweight or obesity and cardiovascular disease. PMID:25387321

Jokinen, E



Prion diseases as transmissible zoonotic diseases.  


Prion diseases, also called transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), lead to neurological dysfunction in animals and are fatal. Infectious prion proteins are causative agents of many mammalian TSEs, including scrapie (in sheep), chronic wasting disease (in deer and elk), bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE; in cattle), and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD; in humans). BSE, better known as mad cow disease, is among the many recently discovered zoonotic diseases. BSE cases were first reported in the United Kingdom in 1986. Variant CJD (vCJD) is a disease that was first detected in 1996, which affects humans and is linked to the BSE epidemic in cattle. vCJD is presumed to be caused by consumption of contaminated meat and other food products derived from affected cattle. The BSE epidemic peaked in 1992 and decreased thereafter; this decline is continuing sharply owing to intensive surveillance and screening programs in the Western world. However, there are still new outbreaks and/or progression of prion diseases, including atypical BSE, and iatrogenic CJD and vCJD via organ transplantation and blood transfusion. This paper summarizes studies on prions, particularly on prion molecular mechanisms, BSE, vCJD, and diagnostic procedures. Risk perception and communication policies of the European Union for the prevention of prion diseases are also addressed to provide recommendations for appropriate government policies in Korea. PMID:24159531

Lee, Jeongmin; Kim, Su Yeon; Hwang, Kyu Jam; Ju, Young Ran; Woo, Hee-Jong



Coronary Artery Disease - Coronary Heart Disease  


... sudden cardiac death in patients with coronary heart disease. Cigarette smoking also acts with other risk factors to ... but their risk isn't as great as cigarette smokers'. Exposure to other people's smoke increases the risk of heart disease even for nonsmokers. Learn about smoking and cardiovascular ...


Prion Diseases as Transmissible Zoonotic Diseases  

PubMed Central

Prion diseases, also called transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), lead to neurological dysfunction in animals and are fatal. Infectious prion proteins are causative agents of many mammalian TSEs, including scrapie (in sheep), chronic wasting disease (in deer and elk), bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE; in cattle), and Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (CJD; in humans). BSE, better known as mad cow disease, is among the many recently discovered zoonotic diseases. BSE cases were first reported in the United Kingdom in 1986. Variant CJD (vCJD) is a disease that was first detected in 1996, which affects humans and is linked to the BSE epidemic in cattle. vCJD is presumed to be caused by consumption of contaminated meat and other food products derived from affected cattle. The BSE epidemic peaked in 1992 and decreased thereafter; this decline is continuing sharply owing to intensive surveillance and screening programs in the Western world. However, there are still new outbreaks and/or progression of prion diseases, including atypical BSE, and iatrogenic CJD and vCJD via organ transplantation and blood transfusion. This paper summarizes studies on prions, particularly on prion molecular mechanisms, BSE, vCJD, and diagnostic procedures. Risk perception and communication policies of the European Union for the prevention of prion diseases are also addressed to provide recommendations for appropriate government policies in Korea. PMID:24159531

Lee, Jeongmin; Kim, Su Yeon; Hwang, Kyu Jam; Ju, Young Ran; Woo, Hee-Jong



Metabolic Bone Disease in Chronic Kidney Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metabolic bone disease is a common complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is part of a broad spectrum of disorders of mineral metabolism that occur in this clinical setting and result in both skeletal and extraskeletal consequences. Detailed research in that past 4 decades has uncovered many of the mechanisms that are involved in the initiation and maintenance of

Kevin J. Martin; Esther A. Gonzalez



Working Memory in Mild Alzheimer's Disease and Early Parkinson's Disease  

E-print Network

Working Memory in Mild Alzheimer's Disease and Early Parkinson's Disease Elizabeth A. Kensinger of Technology Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) impair working memory (WM). It is unclear an expanding interest in how neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD

Corkin, Suzanne


Pelvic Inflammatory Disease  


... disease can lead to serious, long-term problems: • Infertility —One in ten women with PID becomes infertile. ... lead to pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility, and arthritis. Infertility: A condition in which a couple has been ...


Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  


COPD; Chronic obstructive airways disease; Chronic obstructive lung disease; Chronic bronchitis; Emphysema; Bronchitis - chronic ... Smoking is the main cause of COPD. The more a person smokes, the ... develop COPD. But some people smoke for years and never get ...


Diabetes and Celiac Disease  


... in every 133 people in the United States. Diabetes and celiac disease: The link • There is a ... blood sugar control. Signs of a malabsorption problem Diabetes Celiac Disease Weight Loss X X GI symptoms ( ...


Pregnancy and Fifth Disease  


... Cheek Rash Parvovirus B19 and Other Illnesses References Pregnancy and Fifth Disease Share Compartir On this Page ... with fifth disease. Testing for Parvovirus B19 During Pregnancy A blood test for parvovirus B19 can show ...


Menopause and Heart Disease  


... the onset of menopause. Menopause does not cause cardiovascular diseases . However, certain risk factors increase around the time ... t the only reason women face a higher cardiovascular disease risk after reaching menopause, Dr. Goldberg said. “We’ ...


Understanding cardiovascular disease  


Cardiovascular disease is the broad term for problems with the heart and blood vessels. These problems are often ... and tissue. High blood pressure (hypertension) is a cardiovascular disease that can lead to other problems, such as ...


Office of Rare Diseases  


... Read more... NCATS Expands Rare Diseases Clinical Research Network NIH funds 22 consortia and a data center ... NIH names new clinical sites in Undiagnosed Diseases Network Four-year, $43 million initiative engages broad expertise ...


Reproductive Diseases in Cattle  

E-print Network

This publication describes prevention measures, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment options for the most common reproductive diseases in cattle: brucellosis (Bang's disease); leptospirosis; infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) and bovine diarrhea...

Sprott, L. R.; Field, Bob



Kidney and Urologic Diseases  


... Kidney Failure: Hemodialysis ) Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (Yesterday, Today & Tomorrow: NIH Research Timelines) (from the National ... care professionals) Chronic Kidney Disease and Kidney Failure (Yesterday, Today & Tomorrow: NIH Research Timelines) (from the National ...


Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)  


... Disease Control and Prevention 1600 Clifton Rd Atlanta, GA 30329-4027 800-CDC-INFO (800-232-4636) ... Disease Control and Prevention 1600 Clifton Rd. Atlanta, GA 30329-4027, USA 800-CDC-INFO (800-232- ...


Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Disease  


... vessels. Examples of connective tissue diseases include lupus , scleroderma , rheumatoid arthritis , Sjögren's syndrome , myositis , and vasculitis . There ... connective tissue diseases, such as lupus, Sjögren's or scleroderma. More UCTD Information Causes Diagnosis Symptoms Treatment Print ...


Hemochromatosis: Iron Storage Disease  


... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button CDC Features Hemochromatosis: Iron Storage Disease Language: English Espańol (Spanish) Share ... iron storage disease, and stay healthy. What Is Hemochromatosis? Hemochromatosis occurs when the body absorbs too much ...


Polycystic kidney disease  


Cysts - kidneys; Kidney - polycystic; Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease; ADPKD ... Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is passed down through families (inherited), usually as an autosomal dominant trait. If one parent ...


Niemann-Pick Disease  


... a group of inherited metabolic disorders known as lipid storage diseases. Lipids (fatty materials such as waxes, fatty acids, oils, ... body. In Niemann-Pick disease, harmful quantities of lipids accumulate in the spleen, liver, lungs, bone marrow, ...


Coronary Heart Disease  


... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Coronary Heart Disease? Espańol Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a ... Red: Eileen's Story 10/14/2014 Celebrating American Heart Month: NIH Advancing Heart Research 10/14/2014 ...


Travelers' Health: Meningococcal Disease  


... CDC website: Table 3-13. Vaccines to prevent meningococcal disease VACCINE ... Book Contents Chapter 3 (78) Meningococcal Disease more Tables Maps Figures Boxes Updates About Mobile Apps RSS ...


Carotid Artery Disease  


... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Carotid Artery Disease? Carotid (ka-ROT-id) artery disease is ... blood to your face, scalp, and neck. Carotid Arteries Figure A shows the location of the right ...


Coronary Artery Disease  


Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common type of heart disease. It is the leading cause of death ... both men and women. CAD happens when the arteries that supply blood to heart muscle become hardened ...


Diabetic Eye Disease  


... de los Ojos Cómo hablarle a su oculista Diabetic Eye Disease Listen View this module and educate yourself, family, and friends about diabetic eye disease. This module includes descriptive audio and ...


Sickle Cell Disease  


... message, please visit this page: About . Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) New Study Findings - Sickle Cell Trait in ... SCD in New York found through newborn screening Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a group of inherited red blood ...


Chronic Kidney Diseases  


... pressure at a healthy level. Continue Kinds of Kidney Diseases Like any complicated machine, not all kidneys work ... passed down through a person's genes. How Are Kidney Diseases Diagnosed? Kidney problems are often not noticed at ...


Eye Disease Simulations  


... Research at NEI Education Programs Training and Jobs Eye Disease Simulations Listen Age-Related Macular Degeneration Cataract ... information page Back to top Diabetic Retinopathy Diabetic Eye Disease information page Back to top Glaucoma Glaucoma ...


Blood and Lymph Diseases  


... for Biotechnology Information (US); 1998-. Genes and Disease [Internet]. Show details National Center for Biotechnology Information (US). ... Center for Biotechnology Information (US). Genes and Disease [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Center for Biotechnology Information (US); ...


Cholesterol and Heart Disease  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... the lower right-hand corner of the player. Cholesterol and Heart Disease HealthDay February 5, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Cholesterol Heart Diseases Transcript When should you start worrying ...


Diseases and Their Management  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Important diseases and their management practices of lentil were reviewed. The diseases reveiwed include Ascochyta blight (Ascochyta lentis), Anthracnose (Colletotrichum truncatum), White mold (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum), rust (Uromyces viciae-fabae), Botrytis gray mold (Botrytis cinerea and B. faba...


Sickle Cell Disease Quiz  


... cure for sickle cell disease. FALSE Bone marrow/stem cell transplant can cure sickle cell disease. Bone ... where blood cells are made. A bone marrow/stem cell transplant is a procedure that takes healthy ...


Women and Heart Disease  


... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Heart Disease Stroke High Blood Pressure Salt ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Heart Disease Stroke High Blood Pressure Salt ...


Heart Disease Risk Factors  


... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention ...


Men and Heart Disease  


... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Heart Disease Stroke High Blood Pressure Salt ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Heart Disease Stroke High Blood Pressure Salt ...


Head Lice: Disease  


... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...


Genetics of Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of dementia and is the only top 10 cause of death in the United States that lacks disease-altering treatments. It is a complex disorder with environmental and genetic components. There are two major types of Alzheimer's disease, early onset and the more common late onset. The genetics of early-onset Alzheimer's disease are largely understood with variants in three different genes leading to disease. In contrast, while several common alleles associated with late-onset Alzheimer's disease, including APOE, have been identified using association studies, the genetics of late-onset Alzheimer's disease are not fully understood. Here we review the known genetics of early- and late-onset Alzheimer's disease. PMID:23984328

Ridge, Perry G.; Ebbert, Mark T. W.; Kauwe, John S. K.



Alcoholic liver disease  


Liver disease due to alcohol; Cirrhosis or hepatitis - alcoholic; Laennec's cirrhosis ... Alcoholic liver disease occurs after years of heavy drinking. Alcohol can cause inflammation in the liver . Over time, scarring ...


Progression of Liver Disease  


... Handouts Education Resources Support Services Helpful Links For Liver Health Information Call 1-800-GO-LIVER (1- ... The Progression of Liver Disease The Progression of Liver Disease There are many different types of liver ...


Progression of Parkinson's Disease  


... Order Free Materials Today Progression The progression of Parkinson’s disease varies among different individuals. Parkinson's is chronic and ... assess the progression of Parkinson's is the United Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). It is more comprehensive than ...


Treatments for Alzheimer's Disease  


... 3900 Find your chapter: search by state Home > Alzheimer's Disease > Treatments Overview What Is Dementia? What Is Alzheimer's? ... and move closer to a cure. Treatments for Alzheimer's disease Get weekly e-news Take the Brain Tour ...


Depression and Alzheimer's Disease  


... right-hand corner of the player. Depression and Alzheimer's Disease HealthDay January 15, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Alzheimer's Disease Depression Transcript Depression and anxiety are common in ...


Lyme Disease in Construction  


... doctor about the vaccine.) (Please turn the page.) Lyme Disease in Construction Hazard Alert Check for tick bites ... carefully. Only 12 of the workers who had Lyme disease on Long Island knew they had been bitten. ...


What Is Vascular Disease?  


... when diseased, frequently cause life threatening strokes. Coronary arteries supply blood to the heart and, when diseased, can block ... is primarily managed by heart specialists – cardiologists. Iliac Arteries supply blood to the hip and the legs and, when ...


Metabolic Bone Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Metabolic bone disease may result from genetic, endocrine, nutritional, or biochemical disorders, with variable and often\\u000a inconsistent imaging findings. For the radiologist, the cornerstone of “metabolic bone disease” has been osteoporosis, osteomalacia,\\u000a hyperparathyroidism, and Paget’s disease. Over the past three decades, the diagnosis and therapy of these diseases has changed,\\u000a influenced by biochemical discoveries, imaging advances, and epidemiology studies that

Murali Sundaram


Parallelization: Infectious Disease  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Epidemiology is the study of infectious disease. Infectious diseases are said to be "contagious" among people if they are transmittable from one person to another. Epidemiologists can use models to assist them in predicting the behavior of infectious diseases. This module will develop a simple agent-based infectious disease model, develop a parallel algorithm based on the model, provide a coded implementation for the algorithm, and explore the scaling of the coded implementation on high performance cluster resources.

Aaron Weeden


Telomeres in disease  

PubMed Central

Telomeres and telomere repair are basic molecular features of cells possessing linear DNA chromosomes and defects in them result in various diseases. This review examines recent advances in understanding these diseases, particularly at a molecular level, and in relating telomere dysfunction to clinical diseases. We also discuss the potential role of telomere elongation as a therapy in diseases, and more controversially, the prevention/reversal of aging. PMID:22500192

Calado, Rodrigo



Peyronie’s Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peyronie’s disease is an enigmatic disease characterized by penile curvature, penile pain, and erectile dysfunction. The disease\\u000a appears to be more prevalent than previously thought as more men seek medical attention for sexual complaints. The lack of\\u000a a clear pathogenetic mechanism for the disease has led to numerous, diverse treatment options. Inconsistent results from studies\\u000a evaluating these various treatment options,

J. Slade Hubbard; Culley C. Carson


Metastatic Crohn's disease  

PubMed Central

Crohn's disease, first described in 1922, is characterized by segmental granulomatous inflammation of the intestinal tract and frequently involves the cutaneous tissues as well. Cutaneous Crohn's disease (CCD) is synonymous with metastatic Crohn's disease (MSD). A case of CCD, without any gastrointestinal involvement is reported for its rarity. PMID:24616854

Lanka, Padmavathy; Lanka, Lakshmana Rao; Sylvester, N.; Lakshmi, M. Dhana; Ethirajan, N.



What's Mad Cow Disease?  


... Main Page The Pink Locker Society What's Mad Cow Disease? KidsHealth > Kids > Q&A > Q & A > What's Mad Cow Disease? Print A A A Text Size What's ... You might have heard news reports about mad cow disease and wondered: What the heck is that? ...


Diabetes and Kidney Disease  


... of high blood pressure and kidney disease. Maintaining control of your diabetes can lower your risk of developing severe kidney disease. What are the late signs of kidney disease in patients with diabetes? As your kidneys fail, your blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels will rise as well as the ...


Pelvic Inflammatory Disease  


... inflammatory disease What is pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)? Female reproductive system Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is an infection of a ... treatment for you. You must take all your medicine, even if your symptoms go away. This ... and chronic pelvic pain. Any damage done to your pelvic organs ...


Dysphagia in systemic disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dysphagia, difficulty in swallowing sometimes accompanied by a sensation of food sticking, is a common symptom resulting from structural and\\/or motility disorders of the oropharynx and esophagus which may result from local factors or occur as one of the manifestations of a systemic disease process. In this review, “systemic disease” will include diseases that affect more than one organ or

Bronwyn Jones; William J. Ravich; Martin W. Donner



Venereal Disease. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is one in a series of contemporary topics in health science for students. The first chapter deals with the behavioral aspects of venereal disease and how the disease has been affected by our changing society. Chapter 2 discusses the magnitude of the problem, presenting various maps and charts. The history of venereal disease and the…

Bender, Stephen J.


Metabolic bone disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metabolic bone disease is most often diagnosed by a combination of radiological features, clinical signs and symptoms and biochemistry for serum calcium, phosphate and alkaline phosphatase. The most common metabolic bone disease is osteoporosis which affects elderly patients, particularly women and is a disease on the increase in the Western world. It is now recognized that osteoporosis can be of

A. J. Malcolm



Geochemistry and Cardiovascular Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deficiencies or excesses in the content or availability of trace elements in rocks and soils, or in water flowing through them, is hypothesized as a possible cause of certain chronic diseases, including cardiovascular diseases. Geographic distribution of cardiovascular diseases is often associated with geochemical differences. This trend is particularly evident in the United States and in Europe, with higher rates

R. Masironi; J. R. Todd; P. Elwood; D. B. R. Poole




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bacterial kidney disease (BKD), caused by Renibacterium salmoninarum, is a prevalent disease that impacts the sustainable production of salmonid fish for consumption and species conservation efforts. The disease is chronic in nature and mortality most often occurs in 6–12 month old juvenile salmonid...


Liver Disease in Pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liver dysfunction during pregnancy can be caused by conditions that are specific to pregnancy or by liver diseases that are not related to pregnancy itself. This review attempts to summarize the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and management of the different pregnancy-related liver diseases, and to review different liver diseases not related to pregnancy and how they may affect or be effected by

Fabiana S. Benjaminov; Jenny Heathcote



Smoking and Parkinson's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a case control study of the relationship between smoking habits and Parkinson's disease a negative association was demonstrated with a relative risk of 0 x 52. A history of smoking up to 20 years earlier was associated with a risk of developing Parkinson's disease equal to about half that in non-smokers. The type of disease, age of onset and

R B Godwin-Austen; P N Lee; M G Marmot; G M Stern



Major Histocompatibility Complex: Disease  

E-print Network

Major Histocompatibility Complex: Disease Associations Chester A Alper, Harvard Medical School at least a third of normal European Caucasian MHC haplotypes and contribute most of the MHC disease susceptibility genetic markers. Whereas this has facilitated the detection of MHC gene-disease association

Alper, Chester A.


About Alzheimer's Disease: Diagnosis  


... health issue is causing the problem. How is Alzheimer’s disease diagnosed? A definitive diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease can ... Clinical Trials Database . What new methods for diagnosing Alzheimer’s disease are being studied? Scientists are exploring ways to ...


Lyme disease in athletes.  


Lyme disease, a bacterial infection transmitted by ticks, is the most common vector-borne disease in the northern hemisphere. Athletes who train or compete in wooded environments in endemic regions are at increased risk of contracting Lyme disease. Variability in clinical presentation, masquerading symptoms, and limitations in testing may lead to misdiagnosis. Early diagnosis and treatment result in full recovery for most patients with Lyme disease; however symptoms may persist for months to years, especially when diagnosis is delayed. This article reviews the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of Lyme disease, with focus on the athletic population. PMID:25574885

DuPrey, Kevin M



Storage diseases: diagnostic position.  


Storage diseases are metabolic multiorgan conditions, which may be divided into lysosomal and nonlysosomal diseases. Disorders of the lysosomal type require electron microscopy for morphological diagnosis. It is the metabolic substrate that determines involvement of the cell type or organ in the individual storage disease, allowing extracerebral biopsies, for instance, in the neuronal ceroid-lipofuscinoses (NCL). A hierarchy of tissues biopsied for diagnosis can be based on easy accessibility: blood lymphocytes, skin, conjunctiva, rectum, skeletal muscle. Lysosomal diseases are divided into vacuolar and nonvacuolar ones. NCL display variegated ultrastructural patterns. Drugs may induce lysosomal storage. Finally, polyglucosan body diseases require attention. PMID:23383614

Goebel, Hans H; Müller, Harald D



Aleutian Disease of Mink  

PubMed Central

A suspension of tissues from field cases of Aleutian disease was used successfully to reproduce the disease in Aleutian mink. Similarly, suspensions of diseased tissues from the experimentally infected mink were used to transmit the agent of Aleutian disease to both Aleutian mink and standard dark mink. Seitz and millipore filtrates prepared from these tissue suspensions were also infective; a suggestion that the etiologic agent is a virus. Genetic factors and hypersensitivity are discussed as possibly contributing to development of the disease. PMID:17649371

Karstad, Lars; Pridham, T. J.



Occupational skin diseases.  


Occupational skin diseases are the most commonly reported notifiable occupational diseases. In Germany, 23 596 out of a total of 71 263 reported occupational diseases in 2010 were classified as occupational skin diseases (BK No. 5101: "severe or recurrent skin diseases which have forced the person to discontinue all occupational activities that caused or could cause the development, worsening, or recurrence of the disease"). Contact dermatitis (allergic, irritant) of the hands is the most common skin disease and atopic skin diathesis is often an important co-factor. The number of work-related skin diseases is many times higher than the number of notified occupational dermatoses. This CME article explains the legal framework of occupational diseases, the tasks and obligations of the legal statutory work insurance. Typical allergens and irritants of high risk professions are also presented as are the important steps from diagnosis to compensation. Early prevention of occupational skin diseases is very important to avoid severe chronic hand eczema. Therefore the "dermatologist's report" is crucial. Other occupational dermatoses (outside of BK 5101) are briefly mentioned. In recent years the number of notifications of occupational skin cancer due to occupational UV-irradiation has increased. According to recent epidemiological findings, there is a significant and consistent positive association between occupational UV-irradiation and squamous cell carcinoma. Therefore, an important criterion for a new occupational disease is fulfilled. PMID:22455666

Diepgen, Thomas L



Structural imaging biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease: predicting disease progression  

E-print Network

1 Structural imaging biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease: predicting disease the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database (www of Alzheimer's disease (AD) may allow earlier detection and refined pre- diction

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) Statistics  


... Disease (PID) Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) Share Compartir Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) Statistics Most Recent Data STD ... National Family Growth Survey, 1995, 2002, 2006–2010 Pelvic Inflammatory Disease—Initial Visits to Physicians’ Offices by ...


National Foundation for Infectious Diseases  


About NFID Contact Us NFID Store Home Infectious Disease Information Infectious Disease Information Chickenpox (Varicella) Diphtheria Ebola Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hib Disease HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Influenza (Flu) MRSA Measles Meningococcal Disease ...


Respiratory Disease and the Environment  


... Respiratory Disease and the Environment Respiratory diseases such as asthma, pneumonia, influenza and ... pollutants and tobacco smoke. The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences sees respiratory disease as environmental disease. ...


Interstitial lung diseases in collagen vascular diseases.  


In this review, a clinical update is presented of the most important collagen vascular diseases (CVDs) and the different types of interstitial lung disease (ILD) encountered in these CVDs. These CVDs represent a heterogenous group of immunologically mediated inflammatory disorders with a large variety of affected organs besides the lungs. The frequency, clinical presentation, prognosis and response to therapy vary depending on the histological pattern (usual interstitial pneumonia, desquamative interstitial pneumonia, organising pneumonia, diffuse alveolar damage, nodular lesions, etc.), as well as on the underlying CVD (scleroderma, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, dermatopolymyositis, Sjogren's syndrome or mixed connective tissue disease). The diagnosis of most of these CVDs is based on a number of criteria; in several of these, however, lung involvement is not part of the diagnostic criteria. In addition, there may be overlaps between several of these CVDs. Optimal treatment varies depending on the type of collagen vascular disease and the presence of interstitial lung disease, although in many cases, a combination of corticosteroids and cytostatic drugs are given. PMID:11816826

Lamblin, C; Bergoin, C; Saelens, T; Wallaert, B



Vascular liver diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews the primary circulatory liver diseases, which include Budd-Chiari syndrome, obstruction of the hepatic\\u000a portion of the inferior vena cava, portal vein thrombosis, sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (veno-occlusive disease), nodular\\u000a regenerative hyperplasia, and peliosis hepatis. In addition, two systemic cardiovascular diseases that impair hepatic circulation,\\u000a ischemic hepatitis and congestive hepatopathy, are briefly discussed. A characteristic of the primary circulatory

Laurie D. DeLeve



Collecting rare diseases  

PubMed Central

This editorial introduces the F1000Research rare disease collection. It is common knowledge that for new treatments to be successful there has to be a partnership between the many interested parties such as the patient, advocate, disease foundations, the academic scientists, venture funding organizations, biotech companies, pharmaceutical companies, NIH, and the FDA. Our intention is to provide a forum for discussion and dissemination of any rare disease related topics that will advance scientific understanding and progress to treatments. PMID:25580231

Ekins, Sean



Depression in Parkinson's disease.  


The prevalence of major and minor depression in Parkinson's disease is around 30-40% but, unfortunately, depression remains frequently underrecognized and often undertreated. However, recognition and appropriate treatment of depression in patients with Parkinson's disease is essential for improving the cross-sectional picture and longitudinal course. This review focuses on the epidemiology, pathophysiology and different treatment modalities of depression in Parkinson's disease. PMID:25509363

Rihmer, Zoltán; Gonda, Xénia; Döme, Péter



Multiple Cystic Lung Disease  

PubMed Central

A lung cyst is an air-filled lucent structure surrounded by a thin wall. The presence of multiple intrapulmonary cysts is defined as cystic lung disease. Although cystic lung disease is rare, incidental detection has increased significantly in recent years by screening using computed tomography. There are many conditions that can mimic lung cysts and cause cystic lung disease. Clinical, radiographic, and histologic findings are all necessary for a proper diagnosis, and multidisciplinary approaches are frequently required. The aim of this report is to review the causes and characteristics of cystic lung disease to better understand and improve treatment. PMID:23579924

Yoo, Chul-Gyu



Enterobiasis (Pinworm Infection): Disease  


... Contact CDC-INFO Pinworm Infection General Information Pinworm Infection FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology Disease Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals Publications Information For: Travelers ...


Paraneoplastic muscle disease.  


In paraneoplastic muscle disease, the malignancy may remotely affect neuromuscular transmission or incite muscle inflammation or necrosis. In several of these diseases, an autoimmune basis for the muscle disease has been established and has become a defining feature. These paraneoplastic muscle diseases may be the first manifestation of a malignancy, and their diagnosis thus demands a vigilant search for an underlying tumor. This article is focused on inflammatory and necrotizing myopathies and disorders of neuromuscular transmission that may arise in the setting of malignancy and are considered paraneoplastic phenomena. PMID:21444019

Baer, Alan N



Heavy Chain Diseases  


... Blood Cell Disorders Plasma Cell Disorders Leukemias Lymphomas Myeloproliferative Disorders Spleen Disorders ... Heavy chain diseases are plasma cell cancers in which a clone of plasma cells produces ...


Genetics of Allergic Diseases.  


Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been employed in the field of allergic disease, and significant associations have been published for nearly 100 asthma genes/loci. An outcome of GWAS in allergic disease has been the formation of national and international collaborations leading to consortia meta-analyses, and an appreciation for the specificity of genetic associations to sub-phenotypes of allergic disease. Molecular genetics has undergone a technological revolution, leading to next-generation sequencing strategies that are increasingly employed to hone in on the causal variants associated with allergic diseases. Unmet needs include the inclusion of diverse cohorts and strategies for managing big data. PMID:25459575

Ortiz, Romina A; Barnes, Kathleen C



Diabetes and kidney disease  


Diabetic nephropathy; Nephropathy - diabetic; Diabetic glomerulosclerosis; Kimmelstiel-Wilson disease ... blood pressure. This is because if you have diabetic nephropathy, you likely also have high blood pressure. ...


Interstitial lung disease  


Diffuse parenchymal lung disease; Alveolitis; Idiopathic pulmonary pneumonitis (IPP) ... The lungs contain tiny air sacs (alveoli), which is where oxygen is absorbed. These air sacs expand with each ...


Lyme disease and conservation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lyme disease is a tick-borne illness that is wide-spread in North America, especially in the northeastern and northcentral United States. This disease could negatively influence efforts to conserve natural populations in two ways: (1) the disease could directly affect wild animal health; and (2) tick control efforts could adversely affect natural populations and communities. Lyme disease affects several domestic animals, but symptoms have been reported in only a few wild species. Direct effects of Lyme disease on wild animal populations have not been reported, but the disease should be considered as a possible cause in cases of unexplained population declines in endemic areas. Methods available to manage ticks and Lyme disease include human self-protection techniques, manipulation of habitats and hosts species populations, biological control, and pesticide applications. The diversity of available techniques allows selection of approaches to minimize environmental effects by (1) emphasizing personal protection techniques, (2) carefully targeting management efforts to maximize efficiency, and (3) integrating environmentally benign techniques to improve management while avoiding broad-scale environmentally destructive approaches. The environmental effects of Lyme disease depend, to a large extent, on the methods chosen to minimize human exposure to infected ticks. Conservation biologists can help design tick management programs that effectively lower the incidence of human Lyme disease while simultaneously minimizing negative effects on natural populations.

Ginsberg, H.



HIV and Cardiovascular Disease (Heart Disease)  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... you can assess your risks and plan for health improvement. Why are HIV patients at higher risk for CVD? Having HIV places you at a ... clear that people living with HIV have higher risks for kidney disease. Your ... health, partly because they help stablize blood pressure. Kidneys ...


Rare Diseases Research  

PubMed Central

Extensive public-private partnerships, including the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the rare diseases community, which is seeing a renewed industry interest in smaller niche markets, have resulted in an increase of interventions for rare diseases. Significant collaborative efforts are required among the pharmaceutical industry, foundations, patient-advocacy groups, academic and government investigators and funding programs, regulatory scientists, and reimbursement agencies to meet the unmet diagnostic and treatment needs for approximately 25 million people in the United States with 7,000 rare diseases. The expanding role and outreach activities of patient-advocacy groups have increased public awareness. In the United States, a rare disease is defined as a disorder or condition with a prevalence of < 200,000 people. In 2011, the NIH provided > $3.5 billion for rare diseases research, including $750 million for orphan product development activities, nearly 11.4% of the NIH research budget. Several research institutes and centers of the NIH, including the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, have initiated varied translational research efforts to address the absence of preclinical and clinical data required for regulatory review purposes. Clinicians can expect to see significant increases in requests from patients and their families to participate in patient registries and natural history or observational studies to gather specific information from a larger pool of patients on the progression of the disease or response to treatments. An expanding emphasis on rare diseases provides hope for the millions of patients with rare diseases. PMID:23880676



Niemann-Pick disease  


Niemann-Pick disease types A and B occur when cells in the body do not have an enzyme called acid ... al. Recommendations on the diagnosis and management of Niemann-Pick disease type C. Mol Genet Metab . 2009;98:152-165.


[Infectious diseases research].  


There has been a significant increase in research activity into infectious diseases in Spain in the last few years. The Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (SEIMC) currently has ten study groups, with the cooperation of infectious diseases specialists and microbiologists from different centres, with significant research activity. The program of Redes Temáticas de Investigación Cooperativa en Salud (Special Topics Cooperative Health Research Networks) is an appropriate framework for the strategic coordination of research groups from the Spanish autonomous communities. The Spanish Network for Research in Infectious Diseases (REIPI) and the Network for Research in AIDS (RIS) integrate investigators in Infectious Diseases from multiple groups, which continuously perform important research projects. Research using different experimental models in infectious diseases, in numerous institutions, is an important activity in our country. The analysis of the recent scientific production in Infectious Diseases shows that Spain has a good position in the context of the European Union. The research activity in Infectious Diseases carried out in our country is a great opportunity for the training of specialists in this area of knowledge. PMID:19195467

Carratalŕ, Jordi; Alcamí, José; Cordero, Elisa; Miró, José M; Ramos, José Manuel



Epidemiology of Peyronie's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Francois Gigot de la Peyronie, surgeon to Louis XV of France, has become synonymous with the rather enigmatic though not uncommon condition of Peyronie's disease (PD), a localized connective tissue disorder of the penile tunica albuginea. The true prevalence of Peyronie's disease is unknown. Therefore, we decided to perform an evaluation of existing epidemiological data. A prevalence rate of 3.2%

F Sommer; U Schwarzer; G Wassmer; W Bloch; M Braun; T Klotz; U Engelmann



Cystine Stone Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cystinuria is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by defects in renal and intestinal transport of dibasic amino acids\\u000a including cystine, ornithine, lysine, and arginine (1). The relative insolubility of cystine results in supersaturation of urine with cystine and recurrent stone formation, which\\u000a is the hallmark of the disease.

Bijan Shekarriz


Whipple's disease in neighbors.  


Two patients new newly diagnosed Whipple's disease lived 2000 ft apart over a 20-year period in the southern Connecticut, Long Island Sound Community of Bridgeport. The scant literature concerning the epidemiology of this possibly infectious multisystem disease is reviewed. PMID:6178776

Lopatin, R N; Grossman, E T; Horine, J; Saeedi, M; Sreenath, B



Advances in Alzheimer's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of the etiology of Alz- heimer's disease has not been solved. But in the past several years there have been significant extensions of our knowledge of the disease and advances in determining the molecular changes underlying the disorder. There is now convincing evidence that the dementia per se is caused by loss of neurons and synapses, particularly in



Metabolic bone disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metabolic bone disease results from a complex variety of causes but can generally be divided into conditions that mainly cause osteoporosis and those that result principally in osteomalacia. Some conditions show a mixture of these two states. Investigation of metabolic bone disease should follow a logical progression and a diagnosis can usually be made if this sequence is adhered to.

Jeremy Allgrove



Epidemiology of Cardiovascular Diseases.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews epidemiological studies of cardiovascular diseases especially coronary heart disease (CHD), to document their major public health importance, changes in mortality during this century, and international comparisons of trends. Finds major risk factors for CHD are determined in large part by psychosocial and behavioral mechanisms. Asserts…

Jenkins, C. David



Rheumatic Diseases in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Epidemiological studies of rheumatic diseases have been conducted during the past 20 years in China. The aim of this study was to clarify prevalence rates of common rheumatic diseases in China. METHODS: Relevant reports of population-based surveys conducted from 1980 to 2006 were retrieved. Studies using the World Health Organization-International League of Associations for Rheumatology COPCORD (Community Oriented Program

Qing Yu Zeng; Ren Chen; John Darmawan; Zheng Yu Xiao; Su Biao Chen; Richard Wigley; Shun Le Chen; Nai Zheng Zhang



Medullary cystic kidney disease  


Medullary cystic kidney disease (MCKD) is an inherited condition in which cysts in the center of each kidney cause the kidneys to ... Medullary cystic kidney disease (MCKD) is very similar to the ... juvenile nephronophthisis (NPH). Both lead to scarring of the ...


Ribosomopathies: Mechanisms of Disease  

PubMed Central

Ribosomopathies are diseases caused by alterations in the structure or function of ribosomal components. Progress in our understanding of the role of the ribosome in translational and transcriptional regulation has clarified the mechanisms of the ribosomopathies and the relationship between ribosomal dysfunction and other diseases, especially cancer. This review aims to discuss these topics with updated information. PMID:25512719

Nakhoul, Hani; Ke, Jiangwei; Zhou, Xiang; Liao, Wenjuan; Zeng, Shelya X; Lu, Hua



Anthocyanins and heart disease  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Anthocyanins are red, blue, and purple pigments distributed throughout nature, and in our diet. One potential health benefit of dietary anthocyanins is protection against cardiovascular disease (CVD). Evidence for beneficial effects of anthocyanins with respect to heart disease comes from epidemio...


Controlling Infectious Diseases.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Advocates establishing programs to educate the public about the growing threat of communicable diseases and to promote effective strategies. Utilizes recent successes and failures to formulate those strategies. Profiles three recent infectious disease outbreaks that illustrate some of the current problems. Identifies four ways that lawyers can…

Porter, Wm. Lane; Fidler, David P.



Ethics in prion disease.  


This paper is intended to discuss some of the scientific and ethical issues that are created by increased research efforts towards earlier diagnosis, as well as to treatment of, human prion diseases (and related dementias), including the resulting consequences for individuals, their families, and society. Most patients with prion disease currently are diagnosed when they are about 2/3 of the way through their disease course (Geschwind et al., 2010a; Paterson et al., 2012b), when the disease has progressed so far that even treatments that stop the disease process would probably have little benefit. Although there are currently no treatments available for prion diseases, we and others have realized that we must diagnose patients earlier and with greater accuracy so that future treatments have hope of success. As approximately 15% of prion diseases have a autosomal dominant genetic etiology, this further adds to the complexity of ethical issues, particularly regarding when to conduct genetic testing, release of genetic results, and when or if to implement experimental therapies. Human prion diseases are both infectious and transmissible; great care is required to balance the needs of the family and individual with both public health needs and strained hospital budgets. It is essential to proactively examine and address the ethical issues involved, as well as to define and in turn provide best standards of care. PMID:23906487

Bechtel, Kendra; Geschwind, Michael D



Vaccines in dermatological diseases.  


Vaccines have been a cornerstone in medicine and public health since their inception in the 18th century by Edward Jenner. Today, greater than 20 vaccines are used worldwide for the prevention of both viral and bacterial diseases. This article will review the vaccines used for the following dermatological diseases: smallpox, measles, mumps, rubella, chickenpox, shingles, and human papillomavirus. PMID:21566552

Magel, G D; Mendoza, N; Digiorgio, C M; Haitz, K A; Lapolla, W J; Tyring, S K



Lung Diseases and Conditions  


... lead to a disease called COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). COPD prevents proper airflow in and out of your lungs and can hinder gas exchange in the air sacs. An important ... blood clot called a pulmonary embolism (PE) to block a lung artery. A ...


Postmenopausal vulval disease.  


Vulval disease in the postmenopausal age group is relatively common. Some vulval conditions such as lichen sclerosus are more prevalent in the postmenopausal years. Often more than one condition is present at the same time. Accurate diagnosis is essential for effective treatment. The risk of progression to malignancy associated with some of these diseases dictates long-term surveillance. PMID:19037066

Olsson, Ann; Selva-Nayagam, Priya; Oehler, Martin K



Parkinson's Disease Foundation  


... TM for Treatment of Motor Fluctuations in Advanced Parkinson’s Disease January 12, 2015 PDF alerts the community that ... for the treatment of motor fluctuations in advanced Parkinson's disease. The drug’s manufacturer, AbbVie, Inc., announced the approval ...


Disease concerns in energycane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Diseases may be a limiting factor in the production of energycane, a perennial crop, by reducing annual yields and reducing the longevity of the crop cycle. Disease concerns also include the potential that a compatible pathogen could spread between energycane and sugarcane, sorghum, or corn. Widesp...


Vegetable Diseases Purdue extension  

E-print Network

at the earliest threat of disease. Because the downy mildew fungus cannot overwinter in soil or crop residue, crop are the most likely crop to suffer yield damage from this disease. That's because pumpkins are grown late lesions on the undersides of the leaves may be covered with spores that appear as a dark fuzz (Figure 2


LESCH-Nyhan Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first description of Lesch-Nyhan disease was in 1964; the first two patients were seen in 1963. The disease has caught the imagination of a variety of clinicians and scientists. The clinical picture is striking, combining spasticity, involuntary movements, and cognitive retardation with self-injurious behavior and the manifestations of gout. Biochemically, the overproduction of uric acid – the end product

William L. Nyhan



Lesch-Nyhan Disease.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This special edition explores the serious genetic disorder, Lesch-Nyhan Disease (LND), which is characterized by severe dystonia, spasticity, speech impairment, renal disease, varying degrees of cognitive deficit, and, especially, compulsive self-injury. The information provided is based on experience at the Matheny School and Hospital (New…

Barabas, Gabor, Ed.



The prion diseases.  


The human prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative maladies that may present as sporadic, genetic, or infectious illnesses. The sporadic form is called Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) while the inherited disorders are called familial (f) CJD, Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker (GSS) disease and fatal familial insomnia (FFI). Prions are transmissible particles that are devoid of nucleic acid and seem to be composed exclusively of a modified protein (PrPSc). The normal, cellular PrP (PrPC) is converted into PrPSc through a posttranslational process during which it acquires a high beta-sheet content. In fCJD, GSS, and FFI, mutations in the PrP gene located on the short arm of chromosome 20 are the cause of disease. Considerable evidence argues that the prion diseases are disorders of protein conformation. PMID:9669700

Prusiner, S B



[Therapy of Lyme disease].  


Lyme borreliosis is manifested as a multisystemic disease, depending on the clinical picture and severity of the illness in acute, subacute and chronic form. The disease evolves in three stages. A choice of therapy, route of administration and duration of treatment depend on the stage of the disease. The treatment of Lyme disease requires the use of antibiotics. The current antimicrobial therapy is successfully performed with the following antibiotics from ICN GALENIKA assortment. Natural penicillins-PENCILLIN CRYSTALISATUM for i.v. administration; JUGOCILLIN for i.m. administration and BIMEPEN which is administered orally; Semi-synthetic penicillins-SINACILIN, tetracycline AMRACIN; Cephalosporins- the most important is LONGACEPH- the third generation cephalosporin). The recommended current treatment of Lyme disease requires employment of up-to-date therapeutic approach. PMID:8262421

Niksi?, S



[Skin diseases with photosensitivity].  


Skin diseases associated with photosensitivity are numerous and may be divided into three main groups: photo-aggravated dermatoses, genophotodermatoses and metabolic photodermatoses. Photo-aggravated dermatoses are autonomous skin diseases in which exposure to sunlight may make the disease worse or precipitate its onset and/or its progressiveness; this group includes lupus erythematosus, autoimmune bullous diseases, acantolytic dyskeratoses, acne vulgaris, rosacea and cutaneous lymphoid infiltrates. To these must be added photosensitive forms of autonomous dermatoses such as atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, herpes labialis, erythema multiforme, granuloma and disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis. Genophotodermatoses are genodermatoses which are made photosensitive by a recognized or as yet unidentified deficiency of the natural photoprotection system. In this group are albinism, vitiligo, xeroderma pigmentosum and poikiloderma. Metabolic photodermatoses are diseases in which photosensitization reactions, often revealing, are due to the accumulation in the skin of an endogenous chromophore as a result of a congenital (porphyria) or acquired (pellagra) enzymatic disorder. PMID:1529248

Amblard, P; Leccia, M T



Rosai-Dorfman disease.  


Sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy, also known as Rosai-Dorfman disease, is a rare histiocytic proliferative disorder of unknown aetiology. The classic presentation of Rosai-Dorfman disease is massive, bilateral, painless cervical lymphadenopathy. Extranodal disease is also common, often with a particular predilection for the head and neck regions. We report a rare case of Rosai-Dorfman disease with nodal and multiple extranodal manifestations in a 13-year-old girl. The patient had cervical and mediastinal lymphadenopathy, multiple soft tissue swellings of the scalp, bilateral proptosis and goitre due to thyroid gland involvement. She responded to steroids, with remission of the swellings and symptoms. This case is being reported for its rarity, multiple extranodal manifestations and thyroid gland involvement. Thyroid gland involvement in Rosai-Dorfman disease has rarely been reported in the literature. PMID:21103807

Santra, G; Das, B K; Mandal, B; Kundu, S S; Bandopadhyay, A



Lymphadenopathy of Kimura's disease.  


Kimura's disease is an important category of reactive lymphadenopathy in the Oriental population. The enlarged nodes are mostly located in the head and neck region. Salient pathological changes include florid germinal centers, Warthin-Finkeldey type polykaryocytes, vascularization of germinal centers, increased postcapillary venules in the paracortex, eosinophilic infiltration, and sclerosis. The pathology of Kimura's disease is quite different from that of angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia (epithelioid hemangioma). Immunoperoxidase studies show IgE reticular networks in germinal centers. Nondegranulated surface IgE-positive mast cells are present in the paracortex. The authors propose that Kimura's disease represents an aberrant immune reaction to an as yet unknown stimulus. Although the individual histological features are nonspecific, the constellation of features is highly characteristic of Kimura's disease. Since lymphadenopathy can herald involvement of other tissues and the prognosis is excellent, accurate diagnosis of this disease in lymph node biopsies may spare the patients unnecessary radical surgery. PMID:2919716

Hui, P K; Chan, J K; Ng, C S; Kung, I T; Gwi, E



Lyme disease in children.  


Lyme disease is an increasing health risk for children. Pediatricians should become familiar with the different clinical syndromes caused by the Borrelia burgdorferi. Appropriate antibiotic therapy must be initiated and follow-up of these children should be a part of the management as some may develop (tertiary) chronic borreliosis. Lyme disease should be considered in the diagnostic work-up of heart block, childhood arthritis and in undiagnosed peripheral and central nervous system disease. Serologic tests appear to be quite specific and sensitive in children with late stage disease in our experience. Newer diagnostic tests to detect infection during the early stage will optimize the management of Lyme disease and further decrease the incidence of long-term sequelae. PMID:2685925

Belani, K; Regelmann, W E



Domoic Acid Epileptic Disease  

PubMed Central

Domoic acid epileptic disease is characterized by spontaneous recurrent seizures weeks to months after domoic acid exposure. The potential for this disease was first recognized in a human case study of temporal lobe epilepsy after the 1987 amnesic shellfish-poisoning event in Quebec, and was characterized as a chronic epileptic syndrome in California sea lions through investigation of a series of domoic acid poisoning cases between 1998 and 2006. The sea lion study provided a breadth of insight into clinical presentations, unusual behaviors, brain pathology, and epidemiology. A rat model that replicates key observations of the chronic epileptic syndrome in sea lions has been applied to identify the progression of the epileptic disease state, its relationship to behavioral manifestations, and to define the neural systems involved in these behavioral disorders. Here, we present the concept of domoic acid epileptic disease as a delayed manifestation of domoic acid poisoning and review the state of knowledge for this disease state in affected humans and sea lions. We discuss causative mechanisms and neural underpinnings of disease maturation revealed by the rat model to present the concept for olfactory origin of an epileptic disease; triggered in dendodendritic synapases of the olfactory bulb and maturing in the olfactory cortex. We conclude with updated information on populations at risk, medical diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. PMID:24663110

Ramsdell, John S.; Gulland, Frances M.



Diseases in intercropping systems.  


Intercropping, the simultaneous cultivation of multiple crop species, has been used throughout history and remains common among farmers of small landholdings in the tropics. One benefit of this practice may be disease control. In phenomenological research comparing disease in monocrops and intercrops, primarily due to foliar fungi, intercropping reduced disease in 73% of more than 200 studies. Nematodes are the primary pathogen for which disease increases are reported, but variability in disease impacts among studies can be high for all types of diseases. The mechanisms by which intercrops affect disease dynamics include alteration of wind, rain, and vector dispersal; modification of microclimate, especially temperature and moisture; changes in host morphology and physiology; and direct pathogen inhibition. The effect of intercropping on host density is a factor underlying many of these mechanisms. By synthesizing our growing understanding of mechanisms and their interactions with phenomenological studies, we may develop a theoretical grounding that allows us to improve the application of intercropping for tropical smallholders and industrial farmers alike. PMID:23725470

Boudreau, Mark A



Peyronie's Disease: Still a Surgical Disease.  


Peyronie's Disease (PD) remains a challenging and clinically significant morbid condition. Since its first description by François Gigot de la Peyronie, much of the treatment for PD remains nonstandardized. PD is characterized by the formation of fibrous plaques at the level of the tunica albuginea. Clinical manifestations include morphologic changes, such as curvatures and hourglass deformities. Here, we review the common surgical techniques for the management of patients with PD. PMID:22956943

Martinez, Daniel; Ercole, Cesar E; Hakky, Tariq S; Kramer, Andrew; Carrion, Rafael



Peyronie's Disease: Still a Surgical Disease  

PubMed Central

Peyronie's Disease (PD) remains a challenging and clinically significant morbid condition. Since its first description by François Gigot de la Peyronie, much of the treatment for PD remains nonstandardized. PD is characterized by the formation of fibrous plaques at the level of the tunica albuginea. Clinical manifestations include morphologic changes, such as curvatures and hourglass deformities. Here, we review the common surgical techniques for the management of patients with PD. PMID:22956943

Martinez, Daniel; Ercole, Cesar E.; Hakky, Tariq S.; Kramer, Andrew; Carrion, Rafael



Metabolic bone diseases and chronic liver disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Malabsorption of calcium has clearly been shown by isotopic studies on patients with various forms of chronic liver disease.\\u000a Such malabsorption can be corrected by the administration of vitamin D. Malabsorption is closely correlated with the degree\\u000a of obstruction as shown by the fact that there is depressed mean absorption of isotopic calcium in biliary as opposed to non-biliary\\u000a patients.

M. J. Whelton



Heart Disease, Stroke, or Other Cardiovascular Disease and Adult Vaccination  


... Disease, Stroke, or Other Cardiovascular Disease and Adult Vaccination Vaccines are especially critical for people with health ... have immunity to this disease Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Type 1 ...


The Orphan Disease Networks  

PubMed Central

The low prevalence rate of orphan diseases (OD) requires special combined efforts to improve diagnosis, prevention, and discovery of novel therapeutic strategies. To identify and investigate relationships based on shared genes or shared functional features, we have conducted a bioinformatic-based global analysis of all orphan diseases with known disease-causing mutant genes. Starting with a bipartite network of known OD and OD-causing mutant genes and using the human protein interactome, we first construct and topologically analyze three networks: the orphan disease network, the orphan disease-causing mutant gene network, and the orphan disease-causing mutant gene interactome. Our results demonstrate that in contrast to the common disease-causing mutant genes that are predominantly nonessential, a majority of orphan disease-causing mutant genes are essential. In confirmation of this finding, we found that OD-causing mutant genes are topologically important in the protein interactome and are ubiquitously expressed. Additionally, functional enrichment analysis of those genes in which mutations cause ODs shows that a majority result in premature death or are lethal in the orthologous mouse gene knockout models. To address the limitations of traditional gene-based disease networks, we also construct and analyze OD networks on the basis of shared enriched features (biological processes, cellular components, pathways, phenotypes, and literature citations). Analyzing these functionally-linked OD networks, we identified several additional OD-OD relations that are both phenotypically similar and phenotypically diverse. Surprisingly, we observed that the wiring of the gene-based and other feature-based OD networks are largely different; this suggests that the relationship between ODs cannot be fully captured by the gene-based network alone. PMID:21664998

Zhang, Minlu; Zhu, Cheng; Jacomy, Alexis; Lu, Long J.; Jegga, Anil G.



Bone disease in pediatric chronic kidney disease  

PubMed Central

Children with long-standing chronic kidney disease (CKD) display clinical symptoms of bone disease, including bony deformities and fractures, which contribute to long-standing disability. Abnormalities in skeletal mineralization occur in a substantial proportion of this population and may contribute to chronic morbidity. Underscoring the potential contribution of parameters other than bone turnover to bone disease in CKD, a new definition for renal osteodystrophy (ROD), emphasizing the assessment of three key histologic descriptors, i.e., bone turnover (T), mineralization (M), and volume (V) (TMV), has been recommended in the assessment of all patients with CKD. Although bone biopsy is the only available method for assessing all three recommended areas of bone histology, this invasive procedure is not routinely used in any clinical setting; thus, a true understanding of the prevalence of abnormal turnover, defective mineralization, and altered bone volume throughout the course of CKD is limited. Recent data, however, have shed light on the progression of renal ROD throughout the course of CKD, including its early stages, as well as on the alterations in cell biology that accompany ROD. PMID:23064662



Nanomedicine and Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Nanomedicine has become an important tool in the imaging and therapy of numerous diseases. This is due, in large part, to the ability to generate multifunctional nanoagents bearing combinations of targeting, diagnostic, and therapeutic moieties, allowing for the tailoring of the properties of the synthesized nanomaterials. With respect to cardiovascular disease and its sequelae, nanomedicine has the potential to detect and treat some of the leading causes of death and disability in the developed world, including atherosclerosis, thrombosis, and myocardial infarction. As such, this review focuses on some of the most poignant examples of the utility of nanomedicine in the detection and treatment of cardiovascular disease that have been recently reported. PMID:20369034

McCarthy, Jason R.



Paediatric Dupuytren's disease  

PubMed Central

Dupuytren's disease of the hand has only been rarely reported in children and is rarer still in infants. Only a few histologically confirmed diagnoses are found in literature. We report a case in a 4-month-old infant with Dupuytren's disease of palm and thumb who required surgery at 6 months of age. Histology confirmed the diagnosis of Dupuytren's disease. The purpose of this report is to show the importance of differential diagnosis of nodules and fibrotic bands in children's hands as paediatric patients may be seen by a variety of treating physicians, not only plastic surgeons or pathologists. PMID:22279295

Korambayil, Pradeoth Mukundan; Padikala, Anto Francis



Zygomycetes in Human Disease  

PubMed Central

The Zygomycetes represent relatively uncommon isolates in the clinical laboratory, reflecting either environmental contaminants or, less commonly, a clinical disease called zygomycosis. There are two orders of Zygomycetes containing organisms that cause human disease, the Mucorales and the Entomophthorales. The majority of human illness is caused by the Mucorales. While disease is most commonly linked to Rhizopus spp., other organisms are also associated with human infection, including Mucor, Rhizomucor, Absidia, Apophysomyces, Saksenaea, Cunninghamella, Cokeromyces, and Syncephalastrum spp. Although Mortierella spp. do cause disease in animals, there is no longer sufficient evidence to suggest that they are true human pathogens. The spores from these molds are transmitted by inhalation, via a variety of percutaneous routes, or by ingestion of spores. Human zygomycosis caused by the Mucorales generally occurs in immunocompromised hosts as opportunistic infections. Host risk factors include diabetes mellitus, neutropenia, sustained immunosuppressive therapy, chronic prednisone use, iron chelation therapy, broad-spectrum antibiotic use, severe malnutrition, and primary breakdown in the integrity of the cutaneous barrier such as trauma, surgical wounds, needle sticks, or burns. Zygomycosis occurs only rarely in immunocompetent hosts. The disease manifestations reflect the mode of transmission, with rhinocerebral and pulmonary diseases being the most common manifestations. Cutaneous, gastrointestinal, and allergic diseases are also seen. The Mucorales are associated with angioinvasive disease, often leading to thrombosis, infarction of involved tissues, and tissue destruction mediated by a number of fungal proteases, lipases, and mycotoxins. If the diagnosis is not made early, dissemination often occurs. Therapy, if it is to be effective, must be started early and requires combinations of antifungal drugs, surgical intervention, and reversal of the underlying risk factors. The Entomophthorales are closely related to the Mucorales on the basis of sexual growth by production of zygospores and by the production of coenocytic hyphae. Despite these similarities, the Entomophthorales and Mucorales have dramatically different gross morphologies, asexual reproductive characteristics, and disease manifestations. In comparison to the floccose aerial mycelium of the Mucorales, the Entomophthorales produce a compact, glabrous mycelium. The asexually produced spores of the Entomophthorales may be passively released or actively expelled into the environment. Human disease with these organisms occurs predominantly in tropical regions, with transmission occurring by implantation of spores via minor trauma such as insect bites or by inhalation of spores into the sinuses. Conidiobolus typically infects mucocutaneous sites to produce sinusitis disease, while Basidiobolus infections occur as subcutaneous mycosis of the trunk and extremities. The Entomophthorales are true pathogens, infecting primarily immunocompetent hosts. They generally do not invade blood vessels and rarely disseminate. Occasional cases of disseminated and angioinvasive disease have recently been described, primarily in immunocompromised patients, suggesting a possible emerging role for this organism as an opportunist. PMID:10756000

Ribes, Julie A.; Vanover-Sams, Carolyn L.; Baker, Doris J.



TRP Channels in Disease  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The mammalian TRP (transient receptor potential) family consists of six main subfamilies that include 28 ion channels that function as cellular sensors of various phenomena, including changes in temperature, osmolarity, pH, membrane stretch, and various second messenger pathways. All of the TRP channels are permeable to monovalent cations, and most are also permeable to calcium ions. There are strong indications that TRP channels are involved in many diseases. This review highlights some TRP "suspects" for which a role in disease can be anticipated. An understanding of the genetics of disease may lead to the development of targeted new therapies.

Bernd Nilius (Campus Gasthuisberg Katholieke Universiteit Leuven B; Department of Physiology REV)



Disease Role Play  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students in collaborative groups will develop an action plan to address a new disease. This activity provides 3 roles for student participation: scientist, public health official and community leader. Each group member will be required to remain within the parameters described by the scenario during the role play. For example, the scientists will be given a data sheet the they will need to interpret. This group member will be the only one with knowledge of the disease. Only this person will act as a disease expert. Once the groups have an opportunity to read their scenarios and prepare for a committee meeting, they will meet and devise an action plan.

Chris Kuka (Bend Senior High School REV)



Cytodiagnosis of Kimura's disease.  


Kimura's Disease, a rare chronic inflammatory disorder with a benign course affecting the lymphoid tissue is reported hare in an 18 year old South Indian male who presented with bilateral solitary swelling over the mastoid region. Its fine needle aspiration cytology characterised by the Warthin-Finkeldey type giant cells against a background of a bimodal population of lymphocytes and eosinophils prompted the diagnosis of Kimura's disease at cytology itself. This was confirmed at histology. This is the third cytological report of its kind being reported in English literature. Literature with regard to the cytological appearances of Kimura's disease has been reviewed and the various differential diagnoses discussed. PMID:9866912

Kini, U; Shariff, S



Chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease in the Medicare population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease in the Medicare population.BackgroundThe extent of diabetes, chronic kidney disease (CKD), and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the Medicare population is relatively unknown. Also unknown is the effect of these diseases on patient survival before end-stage renal disease (ESRD).MethodsPrevalent cohorts of Medicare enrollees from 1996 to 2000 were assessed for diabetes and CKD, presence of

Allan J. Collins; Shuling Li; David T. Gilbertson; Jiannong Liu; Shu-Cheng Chen; Charles A. Herzog



Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pulmonary function and cardiovascular disease   

E-print Network

Cardiovascular disease is common in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) independently predicts cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Pathological changes in ...

McAllister, David Anthony



Disease Mapping In disease mapping, the rare disease counts Yi are assumed conditionally independently  

E-print Network

. This method has been previously studied by Diggle et al (1998) and Wakefield et al. (2000). A disease mappingDisease Mapping In disease mapping, the rare disease counts Yi are assumed conditionally. Disease mapping approaches are often formulated under the framework of Bayesian hierarchi- cal models

Zhang, Tonglin


Diseases Caused by Nematodes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Nematodes are important yield limiting factors in soybean production world wide. This article is a short, general introduction of nematodes for non nematologists and is a section of a larger soybean disease compendium....


Cat scratch disease  


... a tunnel ( fistula ) through the skin and drain (leak fluid). This disease is often not found because it is hard to diagnose. However, the Bartonella henselae IFA test from the blood is an accurate way to ...


Ovarian hydatid disease.  


Hydatid disease, also known as Echinococcosis is a zoonosis caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus. The human cystic variant primarily affects liver and lungs. The pelvic location of the disease is a rare finding usually secondary to a ruptured liver cyst, although it may also appear as a primary lesion affecting the genital organs. Despite its rarity, in endemic areas, pelvic hydatid disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of complex adnexal cystic mass, to make an appropriate treatment strategy. The suspected diagnosis is based on imaging studies and serodiagnostic techniques, in which a new field of research attempts to find a standardized test with sufficient sensitivity and specificity. We report a case of primary pelvic hydatid disease in postmenopausal women operated for suspected ovarian cancer. PMID:24318274

Alonso García, M E; Suárez Mansilla, P; Mora Cepeda, P; Bayón Álvarez, E; Alvarez Colomo, C; González Martín, J I



Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Disease  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Images of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Disease.  Vesicular stomatitis viruses (VSV) are in the family Rhabdoviridae and the genus Vesiculovirus and are enveloped viruses with bullet-shaped capsids.

American Society For Microbiology;



Prevention of periodontal disease.  


Periodontal disease is the most common disease affecting adult dogs and cats. It is also a very preventable disease. The insidious nature of the disease and requirement for the pet owner to be actively involved make client and public education absolutely vital. Although clients are commonly aware of their pets' bad breath, they rarely notice gingivitis, fractured teeth, and traumatic malocclusions. The annual National Pet Dental Health Month program has resulted in a tremendous increase in public awareness. Veterinarians must carry this further in their everyday practices, convincing our clients of the need for preventive dental care. It is only through clients' ongoing desire and persistence that a long-term preventive program can be successful. This requires a coordinated effort by the entire hospital staff. When successful, clients' pets will live healthier and longer lives. PMID:9779544

DuPont, G A



Motor neurone disease  

PubMed Central

Motor neurone disease (MND), or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), is a neurodegenerative disorder of unknown aetiology. Progressive motor weakness and bulbar dysfunction lead to premature death, usually from respiratory failure. Confirming the diagnosis may initially be difficult until the full clinical features are manifest. For all forms of the disease there is a significant differential diagnosis to consider, including treatable conditions, and therefore specialist neurological opinion should always be sought. Clear genetic inheritance has been demonstrated in a minority of patients with familial ALS but elucidation of the biological basis of genetic subtypes is also providing important information which may lead to treatments for sporadic forms of the disease. In the absence of curative or disease modifying therapy, management is supportive and requires a multidisciplinary approach. If, as seems likely, complex inherited and environmental factors contribute to the pathogenesis of MND, future treatment may involve a combination of molecular based treatments or restoration of cellular integrity using stem cell grafts. PMID:12357010

Talbot, K



[Complications of celiac disease].  


Numerous complications can occur in celiac disease, nutritional (growth failure in children, malnutrition, vitamin deficiencies), hematologic (anaemia), bone disease (osteoporosis, fracture), gynaecologic (hypo fertility), cardiovascular (coronaropathy, venous thrombosis), neurological (peripheral neuropathy), hepatic (cytolysis, cirrhosis). Celiac disease is associated with an increased risk of autoimmune diseases (type 1 diabetes, thyroiditis), and cancer (upper digestive tract, hepatocellular carcinoma, lymphoma). The main digestive complications are microscopic colitis and refractory sprue, which are resistant to gluten-free diet. It can be associated with a monoclonal proliferation of intraepithelial lymphocytes (type 2 refractory sprue), which may be considered as a cryptic lymphoma and can lead to invasive T lymphoma, which occurs in one celiac patient in 1000. Gluten-free diet protects from the occurrence of most complications and correct the over-mortality related to these complications. PMID:21621350

Cosnes, J; Nion-Larmurier, I



The autoimmune diseases  

SciTech Connect

This book contains 25 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Genetic Predisposition to Autoimmune Diseases; Systemic Lupus Erythematosus; Autoimmune Aspects of Rheumatoid Arthritis; Immunology of Insulin-Dependent Diabetes; and Adrenal Autoimmunity and Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndromes.

Rose, N.R.; Mackay, I.R.



Diet - liver disease  


... prevent fatty buildup and damage to the liver cells. In people with badly damaged livers, proteins are not properly processed. Waste products may build up and affect the brain. Dietary changes for liver disease may ...


Emerging foodborne diseases.  

PubMed Central

The epidemiology of foodborne diseases is rapidly changing. Recently described pathogens, such as Escherichia coli O157:H7 and the epidemic strain of Salmonella serotype Typhimurium Definitive Type 104 (which is resistant to at least five antimicrobial drugs), have become important public health problems. Well-recognized pathogens, such as Salmonella serotype Enteritidis, have increased in prevalence or become associated with new vehicles. Emergence in foodborne diseases is driven by the same forces as emergence in other infectious diseases: changes in demographic characteristics, human behavior, industry, and technology; the shift toward a global economy; microbial adaptation; and the breakdown in the public health infrastructure. Addressing emerging foodborne diseases will require more sensitive and rapid surveillance, enhanced methods of laboratory identification and subtyping, and effective prevention and control. PMID:9284372

Altekruse, S. F.; Cohen, M. L.; Swerdlow, D. L.



Epidemiology of Peyronie's disease.  


Francois Gigot de la Peyronie, surgeon to Louis XV of France, has become synonymous with the rather enigmatic though not uncommon condition of Peyronie's disease (PD), a localized connective tissue disorder of the penile tunica albuginea. The true prevalence of Peyronie's disease is unknown. Therefore, we decided to perform an evaluation of existing epidemiological data. A prevalence rate of 3.2% was determined in male inhabitants of the greater Cologne area. This is much higher than revealed by the data reported up to now, thus rendering the accepted prevalence rates of 0.3% to 1% untenable. The actual prevalence of Peyronie's disease may be even higher, considering many patients' reluctance to report this embarrassing condition to their physicians. Along these lines, most clinicians note that the number of Peyronie's patients has increased since the advent of oral sildenafil. Comparably high prevalences are known for diabetes and urolithiasis, suggesting a greater frequency of this rare disease than formerly believed. PMID:12454689

Sommer, F; Schwarzer, U; Wassmer, G; Bloch, W; Braun, M; Klotz, T; Engelmann, U



Medicines and Kidney Disease  


... Look Learn when to use the CKD-EPI Equation. » Get Involved Talk with Your Family Talk with ... inhibitors and ARBs - may slow kidney disease and delay kidney failure, even in people who don't ...


Anemia of chronic disease  


Anemia of inflammation; AOCD; ACD ... Anemia is a lower-than-normal number of red blood cells in the blood. Some conditions can lead to anemia of chronic disease include: Autoimmune disorders , such as ...


Coronary Heart Disease  


... and-circulation, In this section Living With Diabetes Treatment and Care Women Coronary Heart Disease Sexual Health Women and Diabetes: Frequently Asked Questions Eating Disorders Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) donate en -- Last Chance ...


Large scale disease prediction  

E-print Network

The objective of this thesis is to present the foundation of an automated large-scale disease prediction system. Unlike previous work that has typically focused on a small self-contained dataset, we explore the possibility ...

Schmid, Patrick R. (Patrick Raphael)



Meniere's disease in infants.  


We described 3 patients who, from early infancy, evidenced attacks of vomiting associated with fluctuating hearing loss, culminating in bilateral severe sensorineural hearing loss. The patients suffered from Meniere's disease, according to all clinical yardsticks. The patients described by us were at first diagnosed and treated for gastroenteritis or meningitis. Meniere's disease was not suspected. We want to point out that Meniere's disease, though usually presenting itself at middle age, may well start in childhood as well as in infancy, and should be suspected whenever vomiting, without diarrhea, is associated with some hearing loss at any age--no matter how young the patient is. It is also possible that some sensorineural hearing losses in late childhood or adulthood are in effect the end result of burnt-out Meniere's disease--as our second case presented himself. PMID:6689828

Sadé, J; Yaniv, E



Evolution of Inflammatory Diseases  

PubMed Central

The association of inflammation with modern human diseases (e.g. obesity, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cancer) remains an unsolved mystery of current biology and medicine. Inflammation is a protective response to noxious stimuli that unavoidably occurs at a cost to normal tissue function. This fundamental tradeoff between the cost and benefit of the inflammatory response has been optimized over evolutionary time for specific environmental conditions. Rapid change of the human environment due to niche construction outpaces genetic adaptation through natural selection, leading increasingly to a mismatch between the modern environment and selected traits. Consequently, multiple tradeoffs that affect human physiology are not optimized to the modern environment, leading to increased disease susceptibility. Here we examine the inflammatory response from an evolutionary perspective. We discuss unique aspects of the inflammatory response and its evolutionary history that can help explain the association between inflammation and modern human diseases. PMID:22975004

Okin, Daniel



Evolution of inflammatory diseases.  


The association of inflammation with modern human diseases (e.g. obesity, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cancer) remains an unsolved mystery of current biology and medicine. Inflammation is a protective response to noxious stimuli that unavoidably occurs at a cost to normal tissue function. This fundamental trade-off between the cost and benefit of the inflammatory response has been optimized over evolutionary time for specific environmental conditions. Rapid change of the human environment due to niche construction outpaces genetic adaptation through natural selection, leading increasingly to a mismatch between the modern environment and selected traits. Consequently, multiple trade-offs that affect human physiology are not optimized to the modern environment, leading to increased disease susceptibility. Here we examine the inflammatory response from an evolutionary perspective. We discuss unique aspects of the inflammatory response and its evolutionary history that can help explain the association between inflammation and modern human diseases. PMID:22975004

Okin, Daniel; Medzhitov, Ruslan



Pneumococcal Disease Fast Facts  


... World Health Organization National Foundation for Infectious Diseases Fast Facts Share Compartir The major types of pneumococcal ... Atkinson W, Wolfe S, Hamborsky J, eds. 12th ed., second printing. Washington DC: Public Health Foundation, 2012. Huang SS, ...


Neuromuscular Disease Descriptions  


... current news articles and other content on the MDA website relating to each disease. Muscular dystrophies (involving ... others have high intelligence, such as the late MDA National Goodwill Ambassador Mattie J.T. Stepanek, who ...


Inflammatory Bowel Disease  


... than the digestive tract? How does a healthy digestive system work? How does inflammatory bowel disease interfere with ... separately. Return to top How does a healthy digestive system work? A normal digestive system breaks down food ...


Traveling with Celiac Disease  


... now accommodate people with gluten intolerance, according to Smith, who has celiac disease. By land: If you ... items such as meat, cheese, and yogurt, recommends Smith. You might want to invest in a cooler ...


Ebola Virus Disease  


... outbreaks. The first EVD outbreaks occurred in remote villages in Central Africa, near tropical rainforests, but the ... Republic of Congo. The latter occurred in a village near the Ebola River, from which the disease ...


American Behcet's Disease Association  


... of focus include education in the rheumatic diseases, sports medicine, and disability evaluation. Dr. Brown received his ... anti-inflammatory medication, case studies have shown its success in treating Behcet’s, according to Ms. Crawford. “We ...


Occlusive Peripheral Arterial Disease  


... Rhythms Heart Valve Disorders Infective Endocarditis Pericardial Disease Sports and the Heart Heart Tumors Atherosclerosis Coronary Artery ... sedative, but no general anesthetic, is given. The success of angioplasty varies, depending on the location of ...


Chronic Kidney Disease  


You have two kidneys, each about the size of your fist. Their main job is to filter wastes and excess water out of ... help control blood pressure, and make hormones. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) means that your kidneys are damaged ...


Metabolic Bone Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The current chapter provides an overview of the important imaging features observed in metabolic bone diseases [1, 2]. Common and uncommon imaging findings observed in insufficiency stress fractures are reviewed and illustrated.

BrunoVande Berg; Frederic Lecouvet; Paolo Simoni; Jacques Malghem


Meningococcal Disease: Risk Factors  


... about those with certain medical conditions being at risk . Travel Travelers to the meningitis belt in sub-Saharan Africa may be at risk for meningococcal disease, particularly during the dry season. ...


Leprosy (Hansen's Disease)  


... nasal mucosa. The disease is caused by a bacillus (rod-shaped) bacterium known as Mycobacterium leprae . The ... have an impaired cellular immune response to the bacillus. Changes in immunity of the host as well ...


Metastatic Bone Disease  


... that occurs without activity (i.e., walking or li ing an object) is particularly concerning. Diagnosis Medical ... with metastatic bone disease. In select cases, a computerized tomography (CT) scan and/or magnetic resonance image ( ...


Learning about Huntington's Disease  


... is no cure for this fatal disease. A single abnormal gene produces HD. In 1993, scientists finally ... brain and causing the death of nearby nerve cells. Cells of the basal ganglia, a brain area ...


Gum Disease and Men  


... than men with healthy gums. Specifically, men with periodontal disease may be 49 percent more likely than women to develop kidney cancer, 54 percent ... Tuesday, September 23, 2014 American Academy of Periodontology ...


Pediatric Celiac Disease  


... Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition Foundation The Association of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition Nurses Print Share Celiac Disease Many kids have sensitivities ...


Diabetes and Vascular Disease  


... and Kidney Disease @ 2014 Vascular Cures is a tax-exempt, nonprofit organization tax ID#: 94-2825216 as described in the Section ... 3) of the Internal Revenue Code. Donations are tax deductible. 555 Price Ave., Suite 180, Redwood City, ...


Learning about Gaucher Disease  


... be adequately degraded. Normally, the body makes an enzyme called glucocerebrosidase that breaks down and recycles glucocerebroside - ... test to measure the activity level of the enzyme glucocerebrosidase. Individuals who have Gaucher disease have very ...


Fulminant Demyelinating Diseases  

PubMed Central

Fulminant demyelinating disease is a heading that covers acute disseminated encephalomyelitis and its variant acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis (Hurst disease), severe relapses of multiple sclerosis (MS), variants of MS (tumefactive MS, Marburg variant, Balo concentric sclerosis, myelinoclastic diffuse sclerosis), and neuromyelitis optica-spectrum disorders associated with aquaporin autoimmunity. These categories of inflammatory demyelinating disease often prompt hospital admission and many necessitate intensive care monitoring due to the aggressive nature of the illness and associated neurologic morbidity. In this review, we highlight the discriminating clinical, radiographic, and pathologic features of these disorders. Acute management is often accomplished with use of high-dose intravenous steroids and plasma exchange. Aggressive disease may respond to immunosuppression. Prognosis for recovery varies among the disorders but most patients improve. Factors influencing outcome are also discussed. PMID:23983890

Rahmlow, Megan R.; Kantarci, Orhun



Fulminant demyelinating diseases.  


Fulminant demyelinating disease is a heading that covers acute disseminated encephalomyelitis and its variant acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis (Hurst disease), severe relapses of multiple sclerosis (MS), variants of MS (tumefactive MS, Marburg variant, Balo concentric sclerosis, myelinoclastic diffuse sclerosis), and neuromyelitis optica-spectrum disorders associated with aquaporin autoimmunity. These categories of inflammatory demyelinating disease often prompt hospital admission and many necessitate intensive care monitoring due to the aggressive nature of the illness and associated neurologic morbidity. In this review, we highlight the discriminating clinical, radiographic, and pathologic features of these disorders. Acute management is often accomplished with use of high-dose intravenous steroids and plasma exchange. Aggressive disease may respond to immunosuppression. Prognosis for recovery varies among the disorders but most patients improve. Factors influencing outcome are also discussed. PMID:23983890

Rahmlow, Megan R; Kantarci, Orhun



About Alzheimer's Disease: Causes  


... Scientists don’t yet fully understand what causes Alzheimer's disease, but it has become increasingly clear that ... in increasing or decreasing the risk of developing Alzheimer's differs from person to person. Age-related changes ...


Alzheimer's Disease Under Scrutiny  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

After reading a newspaper article on Alzheimer's disease, an incurable medical problem involving gradual and debilitating loss of memory, students examine the key elements of the scientific method as conveyed in the story. During their analysis, students

Michael S. Hudecki



Overview of Infectious Diseases  


... to realize that not all germs (bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites) cause disease. In fact, a host ... we will become infected with harmful bacteria and fungi. The normal balance of bacteria can be upset ...


Diet and Chronic Disease  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Factors that improve insulin sensitivity usually lead to improvements in risk factors associated with the metabolic syndrome, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Naturally occurring bioactive compounds that have been shown to improve insulin sensitivity include chromium and polyphenols found in c...


[Osteoporosis and oral diseases].  


Osteoporosis is a major cause of fractures in elderly women. Bone densitometry is used in order to detect osteoporosis. It has been observed can also be analyzed in the jawbone. The osteoporosis may be associated with resorption of the residual ridge, periodontitis and tooth loss; also the same treatments can affect the jaws. A search was carried out in the Medline-Pubmed database in order to search the association between osteoporosis and oral diseases over the past 5 years. Forty-two articles were obtained after the selection process. The authors stated that: in reference to periodontal disease the results are conflicting, but there seems to be a higher prevalence of the disease and tooth loss and resorption of the crest. Oral bisphosphonates have little risk of causing osteonecrosis, and there is no relationship in the dental implant failure among patients taking bisphosphonates. There is no clear scientific evidence that could link osteoporosis and oral diseases. PMID:22854070

Estrugo-Devesa, Albert; Gómez-Vaquero, Carmen; López-López, José



Kennedy's Disease Association  


Kennedy's Disease Association A Public Benefit, Non-Profit Organization Register GTranslate GTranslate Javascript is required to use GTranslate multilingual website and translation delivery network Select Language English Afrikaans Albanian Arabic Armenian ...


About Kennedy's Disease: Symptoms  


Kennedy's Disease Association A Public Benefit, Non-Profit Organization Register GTranslate GTranslate Javascript is required to use GTranslate multilingual website and translation delivery network Close "I attended a KDA Conference. Personally ...


Pertussis Disease Villain  


... The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... Kid-friendly Fact Sheet Pertussis Vaccination Pregnancy and Whooping Cough Clinicians Disease Specifics Treatment Clinical Features Clinical Complications ...


Lesson 30: Diseases [magonjwa  

E-print Network

(noun)] kifafa [epilepsy] kifuakikuu [tuberculosis] kikohozi [cough] kipindupindu [cholera] tumbo la [constipation] maradhi [diseases] najisi [rape] zimia; zirai [fainting] kiungulia [heartburn] kifaduro [whooping cough] kiharusi [polio] baridi yabisi [rheumatism] kuumika perema kupooza matege ngiri chango lukemia


Pelvic Inflammatory Disease: Complications  


... JavaScript on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area ... and appropriate treatment can help prevent complications of PID. Without treatment, PID can cause permanent damage to ...


Pelvic Inflammatory Disease: Diagnosis  


... JavaScript on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Diagnosis PID can be difficult for your healthcare provider to ...


Pelvic Inflammatory Disease  


... JavaScript on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Top Banner Content Area Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Understanding PID Cause Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Prevention Complications Pelvic inflammatory ...


Pelvic Inflammatory Disease: Treatment  


... JavaScript on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area ... 40 percent of women with gonorrhea may develop PID. Many different bacteria may cause an episode of ...


Arthritis and Rheumatic Diseases  


... National Institutes of Health (NIH), leads the Federal medical research effort in arthritis and rheumatic diseases. The NIAMS ... The National Institutes of Health (NIH)—The Nation's Medical Research Agency—includes 27 Institutes and Centers and is ...


Rare Diseases Clinical Research Network  


... Network Conference on Clinical Research on Rare Diseases Network Resources The Rare Diseases Clinical Research Network (RDCRN), ... Former Partners of the Rare Diseases Clinical Research Network [+] Clinical Research Consortium for Spinocerebellar Ataxias Spinocerebellar ataxia: ...


Mad Cow Disease (For Parents)  


... What to Expect Ebola: What to Know Mad Cow Disease KidsHealth > Parents > Infections > Bacterial & Viral Infections > Mad ... What Is Being Done About It About Mad Cow Disease Mad cow disease has been in the ...


Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention  


... Heart disease and stroke prevention Heart Health and Stroke Heart disease and stroke prevention Related information Learn more about healthy eating ... to top More information on Heart disease and stroke prevention Read more from A Lifetime ...


Living with Carotid Artery Disease  


... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Carotid Artery Disease If you have carotid artery disease, you can take steps to manage the ... treatment plan, and getting ongoing care. Having carotid artery disease raises your risk of having a stroke . ...


76 FR 39041 - Infectious Diseases  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Part 1910 RIN 1218-AC46 Infectious Diseases AGENCY: Occupational Safety...concerning occupational exposure to infectious diseases. OSHA plans to use the information...label it ``Attention: OSHA Infectious Diseases Stakeholder Meeting...



Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases  


... more information on enabling JavaScript. Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases Top Banner Content Area Skip Content Marketing Share ... diagnose, treat, and prevent a wide range of infectious diseases, whether those diseases emerge naturally or are deliberately ...


Dementia: Depression and Alzheimer's Disease  


MENU Return to Web version Dementia | Depression and Alzheimer’s Disease What is depression? When doctors talk about ... time Thoughts about death or suicide What is Alzheimer's disease? Alzheimer's disease is the most common type ...


Alzheimer's Disease: Unraveling the Mystery  


... Referral Center Alzheimer's Disease Education and Referral Center Alzheimer's Disease Education and Referral Center Home About Alzheimer’s ... Plan National Alzheimer's Project Act (NAPA) About ADEAR Alzheimer's Disease: Unraveling the Mystery Preface Over the past ...


Sickle Cell Disease (For Parents)  


... and productive lives. A Closer Look at Sickle Cell Disease The different forms of sickle cell disease ... India, or Middle Eastern countries. Causes of Sickle Cell Disease Hemoglobin allows red blood cells to carry ...


Learning about Sickle Cell Disease  


... Era A 2003 NHGRI Report Learning About Sickle Cell Disease What do we know about heredity and ... What do we know about heredity and sickle cell disease? Sickle cell disease is the most common ...


Drug-induced pulmonary disease  


Drug-induced pulmonary disease is lung disease brought on by a bad reaction to a medicine. ... Maldonado F, Limper AH. Drug-induced pulmonary disease. In: Mason RJ, ... of Respiratory Medicine . 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...


Warning Signs of Lung Disease  


... Lungs Warning Signs of Lung Disease Top Stories Lung HelpLine Questions about your lung health? Need help ... Warning Signs of Lung Disease Warning Signs of Lung Disease WARNING SIGNS If you have any of ...


Alcohol-Related Liver Disease  


... Handouts Education Resources Support Services Helpful Links For Liver Health Information Call 1-800-GO-LIVER (1- ... Disease Information > Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Explore this section to learn more about ...


Beware of Ticks … & Lyme Disease  


... Lyme disease. It is rarely, if ever, fatal. Lyme disease has different stages. Erythema migrans is a key ... it is not noticed. Other symptoms of early Lyme disease include: • muscle and joint aches • headache • chills and ...


What's My Lyme Disease Risk?  


... Disorders Relaxation Exercises The Flu Vaccine What's My Lyme Disease Risk? KidsHealth > Teens > Diseases & Conditions > Brain & Nervous System > What's My Lyme Disease Risk? Print A A A Text Size What's ...


Lyme Disease: Fact or Fiction?  


... message, please visit this page: About . Lyme Disease Lyme Disease Preventing tick bites On people On pets In ... What you need to know about Lyme carditis Lyme Disease Rashes and Look-alikes Diagnosis and testing Two- ...


CTEP Simplified Disease Classification Overview

CTEP Simplified Disease Classification Overview The CTEP Simplified Disease Classification (CTEP SDC) v1.0 is a restructured, more intuitive classification of diseases, designed to meet the needs of CTEP while still allowing reporting based on the


The neurological disease ontology  

PubMed Central

Background We are developing the Neurological Disease Ontology (ND) to provide a framework to enable representation of aspects of neurological diseases that are relevant to their treatment and study. ND is a representational tool that addresses the need for unambiguous annotation, storage, and retrieval of data associated with the treatment and study of neurological diseases. ND is being developed in compliance with the Open Biomedical Ontology Foundry principles and builds upon the paradigm established by the Ontology for General Medical Science (OGMS) for the representation of entities in the domain of disease and medical practice. Initial applications of ND will include the annotation and analysis of large data sets and patient records for Alzheimer’s disease, multiple sclerosis, and stroke. Description ND is implemented in OWL 2 and currently has more than 450 terms that refer to and describe various aspects of neurological diseases. ND directly imports the development version of OGMS, which uses BFO 2. Term development in ND has primarily extended the OGMS terms ‘disease’, ‘diagnosis’, ‘disease course’, and ‘disorder’. We have imported and utilize over 700 classes from related ontology efforts including the Foundational Model of Anatomy, Ontology for Biomedical Investigations, and Protein Ontology. ND terms are annotated with ontology metadata such as a label (term name), term editors, textual definition, definition source, curation status, and alternative terms (synonyms). Many terms have logical definitions in addition to these annotations. Current development has focused on the establishment of the upper-level structure of the ND hierarchy, as well as on the representation of Alzheimer’s disease, multiple sclerosis, and stroke. The ontology is available as a version-controlled file at along with a discussion list and an issue tracker. Conclusion ND seeks to provide a formal foundation for the representation of clinical and research data pertaining to neurological diseases. ND will enable its users to connect data in a robust way with related data that is annotated using other terminologies and ontologies in the biomedical domain. PMID:24314207



Pediatric inflammatory bowel disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  The combination of an unprecedented number of new therapeutic options (Fig. 1), along with new insights in how to optimize\\u000a currently available therapies and advances in our understanding of disease pathogenesis, present many exciting new aspects\\u000a to the management of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Clinical management paradigms must evolve in parallel\\u000a to keep pace with these advances.

Eric Vasiliauskas




PubMed Central

Isolated polycystic liver disease (PCLD) is an autosomal dominant disease with genetic and clinical heterogeneity. Apart from liver cysts, it exhibits few extra-hepatic manifestations and the majority of patients with this condition are asymptomatic or subclinical. However, a small fraction of these patients develop acute liver-cyst-related complications and/or massive cystic liver enlargement, causing morbidity and mortality. Currently, the management for symptomatic PCLD is centered on palliating symptoms and treating complications. PMID:20219621

Qian, Qi



Lyme disease: a review.  


Lyme disease is the most common vector-borne illness in the United States and is also endemic in Europe and Asia. It is caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi and transmitted by the bite of the Ixodes (deer) tick. It occurs most frequently during spring and summer and may involve the skin, nervous system, heart, and joints. This article reviews the pathogenesis, epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of Lyme disease. PMID:20425509

Marques, Adriana R



Parkinson’s disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Parkinson’s disease was first described by the London physician, James Parkinson, in 1817 and later named after him by Charcot.\\u000a Parkinson’s disease is one of the most important disabling illnesses of later life. The characteristic tremor, posture and\\u000a clinical course were first depicted by James Parkinson in his essay The Shaking Palsy in 1817; our description today has added\\u000a rigidity

Kartik Logishetty; K Ray Chaudhuri


Erdheim-Chester disease  

SciTech Connect

Three cases of Erdheim-Chester disease are presented, and the clinical and radiographic features of the disease are described. Although clinical manifestations related to skeletal involvement are often absent or mild, those due to histiocytic infiltration in other organ systems, including the heart, pericardium, lungs, and retroperitoneal tissues, can be prominent. Radiographic changes in the skeleton are characteristic, consisting most typically of diffuse sclerosis of the diaphyses and metaphyses of the long tubular bones.

Resnick, D. (Univ. of California, San Diego); Greenway, G.; Genant, H.; Brower, A.; Haghighi, P.; Emmett, M.



Plant Diseases Announcements  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Produced in collaboration with the ProMED Project (Federation of American Scientists), this searchable archive of the emerging plant disease announcements is provided by AgNIC. The Plant Diseases Announcements list may be viewed chronologically, or by subject area, or alphabetical order. In addition, users can perform full-text searches. From announcements of recent genome sequencing of Xylella fastidiosa in Brazil, to a listing of the best Websites on rice, this will be a valuable resource to plant pathologists.


Disease Epidemic - ELISA Technique  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the University of California, Davis, Partnership for Plant Genomics Education, this biotechnology laboratory is a two-day activity using the ELISA assay, a "test that uses the immune system to detect disease," to study the epidemiology of a hypothetical small scale epidemic. The lesson gives the objectives, materials, necessary background information, advanced preparation notes, teacher notes, and student activity pages and data sheets with the essay procedures. This is an excellent activity for using biotechnology to understand disease and its origins.



Zinc and gastrointestinal disease  

PubMed Central

This review is a current summary of the role that both zinc deficiency and zinc supplementation can play in the etiology and therapy of a wide range of gastrointestinal diseases. The recent literature describing zinc action on gastrointestinal epithelial tight junctions and epithelial barrier function is described. Zinc enhancement of gastrointestinal epithelial barrier function may figure prominently in its potential therapeutic action in several gastrointestinal diseases. PMID:25400994

Skrovanek, Sonja; DiGuilio, Katherine; Bailey, Robert; Huntington, William; Urbas, Ryan; Mayilvaganan, Barani; Mercogliano, Giancarlo; Mullin, James M



Narrative Review: Fabry Disease  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Physiology in Medicine review article. Fabry disease is an X-linked, hereditary, lysosomal storage disease caused by deficiency of the enzyme alpha-galactosidase A, which results in the accumulation of the neutral glycosphingolipid globotriaosylceramide. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with intravenous infusions of recombinant human alpha-galactosidase A consistently decreases Gb3 levels in plasma and clears lysosomal inclusions from vascular endothelial cells.

MD/PhD Joe T.R. Clarke (Hospital for Sick Children Div. of Clinical & Metabolic Genetics)



Infectious Diseases Gateway  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

BioMedNet (BMN) presents the Infectious Diseases Gateway "featuring expertly selected content from the leading publications in infectious diseases." Users will find research articles, reviews, and other resources from the Elsevier family of journals and books; all freely available to any reader (free registration required). The Web site also offers related BMN news features, links to other BMN Gateways, and a special supplement to the upcoming Interscience Conference of Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy.


Prevention of Stone Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years stone disease has become more widespread in developed countries. At present the prevalence is 5.2 and 15% of men and 6% of women are affected. The increase is linked to changes in lifestyle, eating patterns and obesity which has become very common. The ‘metabolic syndrome’ includes all the diseases, e.g. hypertension, lipid imbalances, type 2 diabetes mellitus,

M. Porena; P. Guiggi; C. Micheli



Pigmented Bowen's disease.  


Pigmented Bowen's disease is rare, though more prevalent in men. It presents as a well-delineated plaque in areas unexposed to sun. There are reports of association with seborrheic keratosis, solar lentigo or exuberant pigmentation of genital and intertriginous regions. A specific dermoscopy finding is the presence of brown or gray dots in regular arrangement and coiled or dotted vessels. Thus, we aim to raise awareness of the diagnosis of pigmented Bowen's disease in pigmented lesions. PMID:25184929

Mota, Amanda Nascimento Cavalleiro de Macedo; Pińeiro-Maceira, Juan; Alves, Maria de Fatima Guimarăes Scotelaro; Tarazona, Mónica Jidid Mateus



Pigmented Bowen's disease*  

PubMed Central

Pigmented Bowen's disease is rare, though more prevalent in men. It presents as a well-delineated plaque in areas unexposed to sun. There are reports of association with seborrheic keratosis, solar lentigo or exuberant pigmentation of genital and intertriginous regions. A specific dermoscopy finding is the presence of brown or gray dots in regular arrangement and coiled or dotted vessels. Thus, we aim to raise awareness of the diagnosis of pigmented Bowen's disease in pigmented lesions. PMID:25184929

Mota, Amanda Nascimento Cavalleiro de Macedo; Pińeiro-Maceira, Juan; Alves, Maria de Fatima Guimarăes Scotelaro; Tarazona, Mónica Jidid Mateus



Wilson’s Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The focus of this chapter is on the advances in our understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of Wilson disease, an autosomal\\u000a recessive disorder of copper metabolism. The discovery of the gene responsible for Wilson disease and elucidation of its function\\u000a has furthered our understanding of the pathogenesis and clinical findings associated with this disorder. The pathological\\u000a changes in the liver

Michael L. Schilsky; Kisha Mitchell


Alcohol and cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcohol in moderation is associated with lower risk of coronary heart disease in healthy men and women. New evidence suggests\\u000a that this association, described in over 70 epidemiologic studies, is causal and can be explained, in part, by alcohol’s beneficial\\u000a effects on serum lipids and clotting factors. Recently, the inverse association between alcohol and cardiovascular disease\\u000a also has been reported

Eric Rimm



Zinc and gastrointestinal disease.  


This review is a current summary of the role that both zinc deficiency and zinc supplementation can play in the etiology and therapy of a wide range of gastrointestinal diseases. The recent literature describing zinc action on gastrointestinal epithelial tight junctions and epithelial barrier function is described. Zinc enhancement of gastrointestinal epithelial barrier function may figure prominently in its potential therapeutic action in several gastrointestinal diseases. PMID:25400994

Skrovanek, Sonja; DiGuilio, Katherine; Bailey, Robert; Huntington, William; Urbas, Ryan; Mayilvaganan, Barani; Mercogliano, Giancarlo; Mullin, James M



Climate and vectorborne diseases.  


Climate change could significantly affect vectorborne disease in humans. Temperature, precipitation, humidity, and other climatic factors are known to affect the reproduction, development, behavior, and population dynamics of the arthropod vectors of these diseases. Climate also can affect the development of pathogens in vectors, as well as the population dynamics and ranges of the nonhuman vertebrate reservoirs of many vectorborne diseases. Whether climate changes increase or decrease the incidence of vectorborne diseases in humans will depend not only on the actual climatic conditions but also on local nonclimatic epidemiologic and ecologic factors. Predicting the relative impact of sustained climate change on vectorborne diseases is difficult and will require long-term studies that look not only at the effects of climate change but also at the contributions of other agents of global change such as increased trade and travel, demographic shifts, civil unrest, changes in land use, water availability, and other issues. Adapting to the effects of climate change will require the development of adequate response plans, enhancement of surveillance systems, and development of effective and locally appropriate strategies to control and prevent vectorborne diseases. PMID:18929970

Gage, Kenneth L; Burkot, Thomas R; Eisen, Rebecca J; Hayes, Edward B



Neuroimaging in Huntington's disease.  


Huntington's disease (HD) is a progressive and fatal neurodegenerative disorder caused by an expanded trinucleotide CAG sequence in huntingtin gene (HTT) on chromosome 4. HD manifests with chorea, cognitive and psychiatric symptoms. Although advances in genetics allow identification of individuals carrying the HD gene, much is still unknown about the mechanisms underlying the development of overt clinical symptoms and the transitional period between premanifestation and manifestation of the disease. HD has no cure and patients rely only in symptomatic treatment. There is an urgent need to identify biomarkers that are able to monitor disease progression and assess the development and efficacy of novel disease modifying drugs. Over the past years, neuroimaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) have provided important advances in our understanding of HD. MRI provides information about structural and functional organization of the brain, while PET can detect molecular changes in the brain. MRI and PET are able to detect changes in the brains of HD gene carriers years ahead of the manifestation of the disease and have also proved to be powerful in assessing disease progression. However, no single technique has been validated as an optimal biomarker. An integrative multimodal imaging approach, which combines different MRI and PET techniques, could be recommended for monitoring potential neuroprotective and preventive therapies in HD. In this article we review the current neuroimaging literature in HD. PMID:24976932

Niccolini, Flavia; Politis, Marios



Occupational Diseases in Korea  

PubMed Central

Korea has industrialized since the 1970s. Pneumoconiosis in coal miners was the most common occupational disease in the 1970s to 1980s. With the industrialization, the use of many chemicals have increased since the 1970s. As a consequence, there were outbreaks of occupational diseases caused by poisonous chemicals, such as heavy metal poisoning, solvent poisoning and occupational asthma in the late 1980s and early 1990s with civil movement for democracy. Many actions have been taken for prevention by the government, employers and employees or unions. In the 1990s most chemical related diseases and pneumoconiosis have rapidly decreased due to improving work environment. In the late 1990s, cerebro-cardiovascular diseases related to job stress or work overloads have abruptly increased especially after the economic crisis in 1998. After the year 2000, musculoskeletal disorders became a major problem especially in assembly lines in the manufacturing industry and they were expanded to the service industry. Mental diseases related to job stress have increased. Infectious diseases increased in health care workers and afforestation workers. Occupational cancers are increasing because of their long latency, although the use of carcinogenic substances are reduced, limited, and even banned. PMID:21258589

Kim, Eun A



Curcumin and neurodegenerative diseases  

PubMed Central

Over the last ten years curcumin has been reported to be effective against a wide variety of diseases and is characterized as having anti-carcinogenic, hepatoprotective, thrombosuppressive, cardioprotective, anti-arthritic, and anti-infectious properties. Recent studies performed in both vertebrate and invertebrate models have been conducted to determine whether curcumin was also neuroprotective. The efficacy of curcumin in several pre-clinical trials for neurodegenerative diseases has created considerable excitement mainly due to its lack of toxicity and low cost. This suggests that curcumin could be a worthy candidate for nutraceutical intervention. Since aging is a common risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases, it is possible that some compounds that target aging mechanisms could also prevent these kinds of diseases. One potential mechanism to explain several of the general health benefits associated with curcumin is that it may prevent aging-associated changes in cellular proteins that lead to protein insolubility and aggregation. This loss in protein homeostasis is associated with several age-related diseases. Recently, curcumin has been found to help maintain protein homeostasis and extend lifespan in the model invertebrate Caenorhabditis elegans. Here, we review the evidence from several animal models that curcumin improves healthspan by preventing or delaying the onset of various neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:23303664

Monroy, Adriana; Lithgow, Gordon J.; Alavez, Silvestre



Imaging of autoimmune diseases.  


Autoimmune diseases represent a heterogeneous group of pathologies with a wide range of immunological changes and clinical presentations. The clinical onset of the disease commonly occurs when signs and symptoms of target tissue hypofunction appear; complications can also be present. The aim of an imaging diagnostic technique in this context is to correctly evaluate the disease extent and severity for appropriate treatment and to follow up the efficacy of therapy. In addition, identification of subjects at risk and the preclinical diagnosis may allow disease prevention. Ultrasound (US), conventional radiology and computed tomography (CT) are often used for a detailed morphological study of tissues involved; magnetic resonance (MRI) may also demonstrate biochemical and structural tissue changes. Nuclear medicine techniques are known for their sensitivity and specificity and in recent years an expanding field is represented by the development of radiolabelled receptor ligands. New radiopharmaceuticals able to bind in vivo to specific receptors have been introduced allowing the non invasive detection of changes in affected tissues. The relevant criteria to choose different diagnostic approaches in several autoimmune diseases are discussed in this review. In particular the role and contribution of nuclear medicine for the study of autoimmune diseases have been described. PMID:10230286

Procaccini, E; Chianelli, M; Pantano, P; Signore, A



Myocardial diseases of animals.  

PubMed Central

In this review we have attempted a comprehensive compilation of the cardiac morphologic changes that occur in spontaneous and experimental myocardial diseases of animals. Our coverage addresses diseases of mammals and birds and includes these diseases found in both domesticated and wild animals. A similar review of the myocardial diseases in this broad range of animal species has not been attempted previously. We have summarized and illustrated the gross, microscopic, and ultrastructural alterations for these myocardial diseases; and, whenever possible, we have reviewed their biochemical pathogenesis. We have arranged the myocardial diseases for presentation and discussion according to an etiologic classification with seven categories. These include a group of idiopathic or primary cardiomyopathies recognized in man (hypertrophic, dilated, and restrictive types) and a large group of secondary cardiomyopathies with known causes, such as inherited tendency; nutritional deficiency; toxicity; physical injury and shock; endocrine disorders, and myocarditides of viral, bacterial, and protozoal causation. Considerable overlap exists between each of the etiologic groups in the spectrum of pathologic alterations seen in the myocardium. These include various degenerative changes, myocyte necrosis, and inflammatory lesions. However, some diseases show rather characteristic myocardial alterations such as vacuolar degeneration in anthracycline cardiotoxicity, myofibrillar lysis in furazolidone cardiotoxicity, calcification in calcinosis of mice, glycogen accumulation in the glycogenoses, lipofuscinosis in cattle, fatty degeneration in erucic acid cardiotoxicity, myofiber disarray in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and lymphocytic inflammation with inclusion bodies in canine parvoviral myocarditis. The myocardial diseases represent the largest group in the spectrum of spontaneous cardiac diseases of animals. Pericardial and endocardial diseases and congential cardiac diseases are seen less frequently; and, in contrast to man, coronary artery disease and myocardial ischemia are rather infrequent in animals. The present review shows clearly that the spectrum of myocardial diseases in animals is enlarging and that many newly recognized diseases are emerging and assuming considerable importance. For example, various heritable cardiomyopathies have recently been described in the KK mouse, cattle, and rats. Increasingly recognized myocardial diseases include cardiomyopathies in cats, dogs, and birds; anthracycline cardiotoxicity; furazolidone cardiotoxicity; ionophore cardiotoxicity; myocardial damage associated with central nervous system injuries; myocardial hypertrophy in Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 45 Figure 46 Figure 47 Figure 48 Figure 61 Figure 62 Figure 63 Figure 64 Figure 79 Figure 75 Figure 76 Figure 77 Figure 78 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 21 Figure 22 Figure 23 Figure 24 Figure 25 Figure 26 Figure 27 Figure 28 Figure 29 & 30 Figure 31 Figure 32 Figure 33 Figure 34 Figure 35 Figure 36 Figure 37 Figure 38 Figure 39 Figure 40 Figure 41 Figure 42 Figure 43 Figure 44 Figure 49 Figure 50 Figure 51 Figure 52 Figure 53 Figure 54 Figure 55 Figure 56 Figure 57 Figure 58 Figure 59 Figure 60 Figure 65 Figure 66 Figure 67 Figure 68 Figure 69 Figure 70 Figure 71 & 72 Figure 73 & 74 PMID:3524254

Van Vleet, J. F.; Ferrans, V. J.



Neurological Complications of Lyme Disease  


NINDS Neurological Complications of Lyme Disease Information Page Synonym(s): Lyme Disease - Neurological Complications Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What are Neurological Complications of ...


Cardiovascular disease in autoimmune rheumatic diseases.  


Various autoimmune rheumatic diseases (ARDs), including rheumatoid arthritis, spondyloarthritis, vasculitis and systemic lupus erythematosus, are associated with premature atherosclerosis. However, premature atherosclerosis has not been uniformly observed in systemic sclerosis. Furthermore, although experimental models of atherosclerosis support the role of antiphospholipid antibodies in atherosclerosis, there is no clear evidence of premature atherosclerosis in antiphospholipid syndrome (APA). Ischemic events in APA are more likely to be caused by pro-thrombotic state than by enhanced atherosclerosis. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) in ARDs is caused by traditional and non-traditional risk factors. Besides other factors, inflammation and immunologic abnormalities, the quantity and quality of lipoproteins, hypertension, insulin resistance/hyperglycemia, obesity and underweight, presence of platelets bearing complement protein C4d, reduced number and function of endothelial progenitor cells, apoptosis of endothelial cells, epigenetic mechanisms, renal disease, periodontal disease, depression, hyperuricemia, hypothyroidism, sleep apnea and vitamin D deficiency may contribute to the premature CVD. Although most research has focused on systemic inflammation, vascular inflammation may play a crucial role in the premature CVD in ARDs. It may be involved in the development and destabilization of both atherosclerotic lesions and of aortic aneurysms (a known complication of ARDs). Inflammation in subintimal vascular and perivascular layers appears to frequently occur in CVD, with a higher frequency in ARD than in non-ARD patients. It is possible that this inflammation is caused by infections and/or autoimmunity, which might have consequences for treatment. Importantly, drugs targeting immunologic factors participating in the subintimal inflammation (e.g., T- and B-cells) might have a protective effect on CVD. Interestingly, vasa vasorum and cardiovascular adipose tissue may play an important role in atherogenesis. Inflammation and complement depositions in the vessel wall are likely to contribute to vascular stiffness. Based on biopsy findings, also inflammation in the myocardium and small vessels may contribute to premature CVD in ARDs (cardiac ischemia and heart failure). There is an enormous need for an improved CVD prevention in ARDs. Studies examining the effect of DMARDs/biologics on vascular inflammation and CV risk are warranted. PMID:23541482

Hollan, Ivana; Meroni, Pier Luigi; Ahearn, Joseph M; Cohen Tervaert, J W; Curran, Sam; Goodyear, Carl S; Hestad, Knut A; Kahaleh, Bashar; Riggio, Marcello; Shields, Kelly; Wasko, Mary C



Genetic architecture of human fibrotic diseases: disease risk and disease progression  

PubMed Central

Genetic studies of human diseases have identified multiple genetic risk loci for various fibrotic diseases. This has provided insights into the myriad of biological pathways potentially involved in disease pathogenesis. These discoveries suggest that alterations in immune responses, barrier function, metabolism and telomerase activity may be implicated in the genetic risks for fibrotic diseases. In addition to genetic disease-risks, the identification of genetic disease-modifiers associated with disease complications, severity or prognosis provides crucial insights into the biological processes implicated in disease progression. Understanding the biological processes driving disease progression may be critical to delineate more effective strategies for therapeutic interventions. This review provides an overview of current knowledge and gaps regarding genetic disease-risks and genetic disease-modifiers in human fibrotic diseases. PMID:24391588

Gardet, Agnčs; Zheng, Timothy S.; Viney, Joanne L.



Indium Lung Disease  

PubMed Central

Background: Reports of pulmonary fibrosis, emphysema, and, more recently, pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) in indium workers suggested that workplace exposure to indium compounds caused several different lung diseases. Methods: To better understand the pathogenesis and natural history of indium lung disease, a detailed, systematic, multidisciplinary analysis of clinical, histopathologic, radiologic, and epidemiologic data for all reported cases and workplaces was undertaken. Results: Ten men (median age, 35 years) who produced, used, or reclaimed indium compounds were diagnosed with interstitial lung disease 4-13 years after first exposure (n = 7) or PAP 1-2 years after first exposure (n = 3). Common pulmonary histopathologic features in these patients included intraalveolar exudate typical of alveolar proteinosis (n = 9), cholesterol clefts and granulomas (n = 10), and fibrosis (n = 9). Two patients with interstitial lung disease had pneumothoraces. Lung disease progressed following cessation of exposure in most patients and was fatal in two. Radiographic data revealed that two patients with PAP subsequently developed fibrosis and one also developed emphysematous changes. Epidemiologic investigations demonstrated the potential for exposure to respirable particles and an excess of lung abnormalities among coworkers. Conclusions: Occupational exposure to indium compounds was associated with PAP, cholesterol ester crystals and granulomas, pulmonary fibrosis, emphysema, and pneumothoraces. The available evidence suggests exposure to indium compounds causes a novel lung disease that may begin with PAP and progress to include fibrosis and emphysema, and, in some cases, premature death. Prospective studies are needed to better define the natural history and prognosis of this emerging lung disease and identify effective prevention strategies. PMID:22207675

Nakano, Makiko; Omae, Kazuyuki; Takeuchi, Koichiro; Chonan, Tatsuya; Xiao, Yong-long; Harley, Russell A.; Roggli, Victor L.; Hebisawa, Akira; Tallaksen, Robert J.; Trapnell, Bruce C.; Day, Gregory A.; Saito, Rena; Stanton, Marcia L.; Suarthana, Eva; Kreiss, Kathleen



Neurological diseases and pain  

PubMed Central

Chronic pain is a frequent component of many neurological disorders, affecting 20–40% of patients for many primary neurological diseases. These diseases result from a wide range of pathophysiologies including traumatic injury to the central nervous system, neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation, and exploring the aetiology of pain in these disorders is an opportunity to achieve new insight into pain processing. Whether pain originates in the central or peripheral nervous system, it frequently becomes centralized through maladaptive responses within the central nervous system that can profoundly alter brain systems and thereby behaviour (e.g. depression). Chronic pain should thus be considered a brain disease in which alterations in neural networks affect multiple aspects of brain function, structure and chemistry. The study and treatment of this disease is greatly complicated by the lack of objective measures for either the symptoms or the underlying mechanisms of chronic pain. In pain associated with neurological disease, it is sometimes difficult to obtain even a subjective evaluation of pain, as is the case for patients in a vegetative state or end-stage Alzheimer's disease. It is critical that neurologists become more involved in chronic pain treatment and research (already significant in the fields of migraine and peripheral neuropathies). To achieve this goal, greater efforts are needed to enhance training for neurologists in pain treatment and promote greater interest in the field. This review describes examples of pain in different neurological diseases including primary neurological pain conditions, discusses the therapeutic potential of brain-targeted therapies and highlights the need for objective measures of pain. PMID:22067541



[Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease].  


Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease (KFD), also know as histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis, is a benign disorder characterized histologically by necrotic foci surrounded by histiocytic aggregates, and with the absence of neutrophils. KFD was recognized in Japan, where it was first described in 1972. The disease is most commonly affecting young women. The cause of the disease is unknown, and its exact pathogenesis has not yet been clarified. Many investigators have postulated viral etiology of KFD, connecting it with Epstein Barr virus, human herpes simplex virus 6 parvo B 19, but also with toxoplasmic infection. Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease is usually manifested with lymphadenopathy and high fever, and is associated with lymphopenia, splenomegaly, and hepatomegaly with abnormal liver function tests, arthralgia, and weight loss. The disease has the tendency of spontaneous remission, with mean duration of three months. Single recurrent episodes of KFD have been reported with many years' pauses between the episodes. Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease may reflect systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and self-limited SLE-like conditions. Final diagnosis could only be established on the basis of typical morphological changes in the lymph node, and lymph node biopsy is needed for establishing the diagnosis. Lymphadenopathy in a patient with fever of the unknown origin could provide a clue to the diagnosis of lymphoma, tuberculosis, metastatic carcinoma, toxoplasmosis and infectious mononucleosis. As KFD does not have any classical clinical features and laboratory characteristics, it may lead to diagnostic confusion and erroneous treatment. We described a case of KFD, and suggested that this disease should be considered as a possible cause of fever of the unknown origin with lymphadenopathy. PMID:14608843

Doki?, Milomir; Begovi?, Vesna; Boji?, Ivanko; Tasi?, Olga; Stamatovi?, Dragana



Discovering disease-disease associations by fusing systems-level  

E-print Network

of relating human diseases through their molecular causes. Loscalzo et al.7 catalogued diseases through and environmental factors that influence pathophenotype. Gulbahce et al.8 constructed a ``viral disease network. A similar approach was used by Lee et al.9 to gain insights into disease relationships through a network

Przulj, Natasa


Kyasanur forest disease.  


In the spring of 1957, an outbreak of severe disease was documented in people living near the Kyasanur forest in Karnataka state, India, which also affected wild nonhuman primates. Collection of samples from dead animals and the use of classical virological techniques led to the isolation of a previously unrecognized virus, named Kyasanur forest disease virus (KFDV), which was found to be related to the Russian spring-summer encephalitis (RSSE) complex of tick-borne viruses. Further evaluation found that KFD, which frequently took the form of a hemorrhagic syndrome, differed from most other RSSE virus infections, which were characterized by neurologic disease. Its association with illness in wild primates was also unique. Hemaphysalis spinigera was identified as the probable tick vector. Despite an estimated annual incidence in India of 400-500 cases, KFD is historically understudied. Most of what is known about the disease comes from studies in the late 1950s and early 1960s by the Virus Research Center in Pune, India and their collaborators at the Rockefeller Foundation. A report in ProMED in early 2012 indicated that the number of cases of KFD this year is possibly the largest since 2005, reminding us that there are significant gaps in our knowledge of the disease, including many aspects of its pathogenesis, the host response to infection and potential therapeutic options. A vaccine is currently in use in India, but efforts could be made to improve its long-term efficacy. PMID:23110991

Holbrook, Michael R



[Crohn's disease - etiopathogenetic factors].  


Crohn's disease is often purely inflammatory, but most patients develop complicated disease with strictures or fistulae. Specific etiopathogenesis of this severe disease is not definitely clear despite research efforts and learning of many pathogenetic mechanisms. Many studies have suggested that NOD2 mutations are associated with increased risk of complicated disease. Presence of NOD2 mutation itself is just one of factors contributing to development of this disease. Genetically predisposed individuals in combination with influence of environmental factors result in a disturbed innate (i.e., disturbed intestinal barrier, Paneth cell dysfunction) and adaptive (i.e., imbalance of effector and regulatory T cells and cytokines, migration and retention of leukocytes) immune response towards a diminished diversity of commensal microbiota. Data of meta-analysis made so far provide ambiguous evidence to support top-down therapy based solely on single NOD2 mutations, but suggest that targeted early-intensive therapy for high-risk patients with two NOD2 mutations might be beneficial, but more prospective trials could answer these questions. PMID:25130642

Kupka, Tomáš; Símová, Jarmila; Martínek, Lubomír; Svoboda, Pavel; Klva?a, Pavel; Bojková, Martina; Uvírová, Magdalena; Dovrt?lová, Lenka; Dít?, Petr



[Biomarkers of Alzheimer disease].  


Cognitive impairment is one of the most abundant age-related psychiatric disorders. The outcome of cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease has both individual (the patients and their families) and socio-economic effects. The prevalence of Alzheimer's disease doubles after the age of 65 years, every 4.5 years. An etiologically heterogenic group of disorders related to aging as well as genetic and environmental interactions probably underlie the impairment in Alzheimer's disease. Those factors cause the degeneration of brain tissue which leads to significant cognitive dysfunction. There are two main hypotheses that are linked to the process of neurodegeneration: (i) amyloid cascade and (ii) the role of secretases and dysfunction of mitochondria. From the therapeutic standpoint it is crucial to get an early diagnosis and start with an adequate treatment. The undeniable progress in the field of biomarker research should lead to a better understanding of the early stages of the disorder. So far, the best recognised and described biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease, which can be detected in both cerebrospinal fluid and blood, are: beta-amyloid, tau-protein and phosphorylated tau-protein (phospho-tau). The article discusses the usefulness of the known biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease in early diagnosis. PMID:25016785

Rachel, Wojciech; Grela, Agatha; Zyss, Tomasz; Zieba, Andrzej; Piekoszewski, Wojciech



Efferocytosis and Lung Disease  

PubMed Central

In healthy individuals, billions of cells die by apoptosis each day. Clearance of these apoptotic cells, termed “efferocytosis,” must be efficient to prevent secondary necrosis and the release of proinflammatory cell contents that disrupt tissue homeostasis and potentially foster autoimmunity. During inflammation, most apoptotic cells are cleared by macrophages; the efferocytic process actively induces a macrophage phenotype that favors tissue repair and suppression of inflammation. Several chronic lung diseases, particularly airways diseases such as chronic obstructive lung disease, asthma, and cystic fibrosis, are characterized by an increased lung burden of uningested apoptotic cells. Alveolar macrophages from individuals with these chronic airways diseases have decreased efferocytosis relative to alveolar macrophages from healthy subjects. These two findings have led to the hypothesis that impaired apoptotic cell clearance may contribute causally to sustained lung inflammation and that therapies to enhance efferocytosis might be beneficial. This review of the English-language scientific literature (2006 to mid-2012) explains how such existing therapies as corticosteroids, statins, and macrolides may act in part by augmenting apoptotic cell clearance. However, efferocytosis can also impede host defenses against lung infection. Thus, determining whether novel therapies to augment efferocytosis should be developed and in whom they should be used lies at the heart of efforts to differentiate specific phenotypes within complex chronic lung diseases to provide appropriately personalized therapies. PMID:23732585

McCubbrey, Alexandra L.



Glycoproteomics in Neurodegenerative Diseases  

PubMed Central

Protein glycosylation regulates protein function and cellular distribution. Additionally, aberrant protein glycosylations have been recognized to play major roles in human disorders, including neurodegenerative diseases. Glycoproteomics, a branch of proteomics that catalogs and quantifies glycoproteins, provides a powerful means to systematically profile the glycopeptides or glycoproteins of a complex mixture that are highly enriched in body fluids, and therefore, carry great potential to be diagnostic and/or prognostic markers. Application of this mass spectrometry-based technology to the study of neurodegenerative disorders (e.g., Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease) is relatively new, and is expected to provide insight into the biochemical pathogenesis of neurodegeneration, as well as biomarker discovery. In this review, we have summarized the current understanding of glycoproteins in biology and neurodegenerative disease, and have discussed existing proteomic technologies that are utilized to characterize glycoproteins. Some of the ongoing studies, where glycoproteins isolated from cerebrospinal fluid and human brain are being characterized in Parkinson's disease at different stages versus controls, are presented, along with future applications of targeted validation of brain specific glycoproteins in body fluids. PMID:19358229

Hwang, Hyejin; Zhang, Jianpeng; Chung, Kathryn A.; Leverenz, James B.; Zabetian, Cyrus P.; Peskind, Elaine R.; Jankovic, Joseph; Su, Zhen; Hancock, Aneeka M.; Pan, Catherine; Montine, Thomas J.; Pan, Sheng; Nutt, John; Albin, Roger; Gearing, Marla; Beyer, Richard P.; Shi, Min; Zhang, Jing



Kyasanur Forest Disease  

PubMed Central

In the spring of 1957, an outbreak of severe disease was documented in people living near the Kyasanur Forest in Karnataka state, India, which also affected wild nonhuman primates. Collection of samples from dead animals and the use of classical virological techniques led to the isolation of a previously unrecognized virus, named Kyasanur Forest disease virus (KFDV), which was found to be related to the Russian spring-summer encephalitis (RSSE) complex of tick-borne viruses. Further evaluation found that KFD, which frequently took the form of a hemorrhagic syndrome, differed from most other RSSE virus infections, which were characterized by neurologic disease. Its association with illness in wild primates was also unique. Hemaphysalis spinigera was identified as the probable tick vector. Despite an estimated annual incidence in India of 400–500 cases, KFD is historically understudied. Most of what is known about the disease comes from studies in the late 1950s and early 1960s by the Virus Research Center in Pune, India and their collaborators at the Rockefeller Foundation. A report in ProMED in early 2012 indicated that the number of cases of KFD this year is possibly the largest since 2005, reminding us that there are significant gaps in our knowledge of the disease, including many aspects of its pathogenesis, the host response to infection and potential therapeutic options. A vaccine is currently in use in India, but efforts could be made to improve its long-term efficacy. PMID:23110991

Holbrook, Michael R.



Mitochondrial therapeutics in Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

In neurons, mitochondria serve a wide variety of processes that are integral to their function and survival. It is, therefore,\\u000a not surprising that evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction is observed across numerous neurodegenerative diseases. Alzheimer's\\u000a disease and Parkinson's disease are two such diseases in which aberrant mitochondrial activity is proposed to contribute to\\u000a pathogenesis. Current therapies for each disease target various

Jake G Hoekstra; Kathleen S Montine; Jing Zhang; Thomas J Montine



[Biologics and mycobacterial diseases].  


Various biologics such as TNF-alpha inhibitor or IL-6 inhibitor are now widely used for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Many reports suggested that one of the major issues is high risk of developing tuberculosis (TB) associated with using these agents, which is especially important in Japan where tuberculosis still remains endemic. Another concern is the risk of development of nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) diseases and we have only scanty information about it. The purpose of this symposium is to elucidate the role of biologics in the development of mycobacterial diseases and to establish the strategy to control them. First, Dr. Tohma showed the epidemiologic data of TB risks associated with using biologics calculated from the clinical database on National Database of Rheumatic Diseases by iR-net in Japan. He estimated TB risks in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients to be about four times higher compared with general populations and to become even higher by using biologics. He also pointed out a low rate of implementation of QuantiFERON test (QFT) as screening test for TB infection. Next, Dr. Tokuda discussed the issue of NTM disease associated with using biologics. He suggested the airway disease in RA patients might play some role in the development of NTM disease, which may conversely lead to overdiagnosis of NTM disease in RA patients. He suggested that NTM disease should not be uniformly considered a contraindication to treatment with biologics, considering from the results of recent multicenter study showing relatively favorable outcome of NTM patients receiving biologics. Patients with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) should receive LTBI treatment before starting biologics. Dr. Kato, a chairperson of the Prevention Committee of the Japanese Society for Tuberculosis, proposed a new LTBI guideline including active implementation of LTBI treatment, introducing interferon gamma release assay, and appropriate selection of persons at high risk for developing TB. Lastly, Dr. Matsumoto stressed the risk of discontinuing TNF-alpha inhibitor during treatment for tuberculosis. He showed from his clinical experience that TNF-alpha inhibitor can be safely used in active TB patient receiving effective antituberculosis chemotherapy and it is even more effective for prevention of paradoxical response. Active discussion was done about the four topics, including the matter beyond present guidelines. We hope these discussions will form the basis for the establishment of new guideline for the management of mycobacterial disease when using immunosuppressive agents including biologics. 1. The risk of developing tuberculosis (TB) and situations of screening for TB risk at administration of biologics-the case of rheumatoid arthritis: Shigeto TOHMA (Clinical Research Center for Allergy and Rheumatology, National Hospital Organization Sagamihara National Hospital) We calculated the standardized incidence ratio (SIR) of TB from the clinical data on National Database of Rheumatic Diseases by iR-net in Japan (NinJa) and compared with the SIR of TB from the data of the post-marketing surveillances of five biologics. Among 43584 patient-years, forty patients developed TB. The SIR of TB in NinJa was 4.34 (95%CI: 3.00-5.69). According to the post-marketing surveillances of 5 biologics, the SIR of TB were 3.62-34.4. The incidence of TB in patients with RA was higher than general population in Japan, and was increased more by some biologics. We have to recognize the risk of TB when we start biologics therapy to patients with RA. Although the frequency of implementation of QuantiFERON test (QFT) had gradually increased, it was still limited to 41%. In order to predict the risk of developing TB and to prevent TB, it might be better to check all RA patients by QFT at time time of biologics administration. 2. Biologics and nontuberculous mycobacterial diseases: Hitoshi TOKUDA (Social Insurance Central General Hospital) Several topics about the relationship between RA and nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) diseases were discussed, which is sti

Tsuyuguchi, Kazunari; Matsumoto, Tomoshige



Sarcoid heart disease  

PubMed Central

To this day the aetiology of sarcoidosis continues to elude definition. Partially as a consequence of this, little in the way of new therapies has evolved. The enigma of this condition is that, unusually for a disease with the potential for devastating consequences, many patients show spontaneous resolution and recover. Cardiac involvement can affect individuals of any age, gender or race and has a predilection for the conduction system of the heart. Heart involvement can also cause a dilated cardiomyopathy with consequent progressive heart failure. The most common presentation of this systemic disease is with pulmonary infiltration, but many cases will be asymptomatic and are detected on routine chest radiography revealing lymphadenopathy. Current advances lie in the newer methods of imaging and diagnosing this unusual heart disease. This review describes the pathology and diagnosis of this condition and the newer imaging techniques that have developed for determining cardiac involvement. PMID:17916869

Dubrey, Simon W; Bell, Alex; Mittal, Tarun K



[Fournier's disease. Clinical case].  


Fournier's disease is a necrotizing fasciitis that prefers the male and which is located in the perineal area. In view of possible complications related to sepsis, systemic organ impairment and high mortality, is now considered a urological emergency. The main causes are infections of urethral and anorectal tract, immunodepression syndromes, diabetes mellitus and trauma. Infections are mixed with aerobic and anaerobic germs responsible of necrosis of tissue disorders due to the phenomena of necrotizing immunovasculitis disease. We present a case of Fournier's disease in perineal area, with gangrenosum necrotic evolution treated with antibiotic therapy, curettage of the necrotic tissue and local disinfection with saline and antiseptics solution. A total parenteral nutrition to ensure maximum perineal decontamination has been made. The extensive loss of substance scrotal was rebuilt in 25- day while the anal wound has healed spontaneously after complete surgical curettage. PMID:21104664

Pedalino, M; Di Primio, O G; Vella, R; Vercesi, E; Marino, G



Genetics of Behçet's Disease  

PubMed Central

Behçet's disease (BD) is a systemic inflammatory disorder characterized mainly by recurrent oral and genital ulcers and eye involvement. Although the pathogenesis remains poorly understood, a variety of studies have demonstrated that genetic predisposition is a major factor in disease susceptibility. Peculiar geographical distribution of BD along the ancient Silk Road has been regarded as evidence supporting genetic influence. The observed aggregation of BD in families of patients with BD is also supportive for a genetic component in its etiology. HLA-B51 (B510101 subtype) is the most strongly associated genetic marker for BD in countries on the Silk Road. In recent years, several genome-wide association studies and genetic polymorphism studies have also found new genetic associations with BD, which may have a supplementary role in disease susceptibility and/or severity. The author reviewed the HLA and non-HLA genetic association studies. PMID:22013548

Kaya, Tamer ?rfan



Sexually transmitted diseases.  


Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) constitute a major health burden in the United States, causing pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, infertility, chronic pelvic pain, genital lesions, genital neoplasms, adverse pregnancy outcomes, immune system dysfunction, liver disease, and even death. STDs disproportionately affect adolescents and young adults. Of the estimated 15 million STDs that occur annually each year in the United States, 4 million are among adolescents and 6 million among young adults. The current epidemic is complicated by the high asymptomatic carrier state associated with most STDs and the inadequate protection of condoms in preventing transmission. Sexually active individuals, particularly adolescents, must be educated on the ramifications of early onset of sexual activity and the health consequences of multiple sexual partners. PMID:14724772

Sulak, Patricia J



Antioxidants and human diseases.  


Oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in the development of human diseases. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) that includes hydrogen peroxide, hyphochlorus acid, superoxide anion, singlet oxygen, lipid peroxides, hypochlorite and hydroxyl radical are involved in growth, differentiation, progression and death of the cell. They can react with membrane lipids, nucleic acids, proteins, enzymes and other small molecules. Low concentrations of ROS has an indispensable role in intracellular signalling and defence against pathogens, while, higher amounts of ROS play a role in number of human diseases, including arthritis, cancer, diabetes, atherosclerosis, ischemia, failures in immunity and endocrine functions. Antioxidants presumably act as safeguard against the accumulation of ROS and their elimination from the system. The aim of this review is to highlight advances in understanding of the ROS and also to summarize the detailed impact and involvement of antioxidants in selected human diseases. PMID:24933428

Rajendran, Peramaiyan; Nandakumar, Natarajan; Rengarajan, Thamaraiselvan; Palaniswami, Rajendran; Gnanadhas, Edwinoliver Nesamony; Lakshminarasaiah, Uppalapati; Gopas, Jacob; Nishigaki, Ikuo



Diseases of Jews  

PubMed Central

The relative social and genetic isolation of Jews from other communities, which was much more marked in the past than now, has led to the belief that they are unusually prone to a variety of illnesses. Until the last few decades assessments of the incidence of various diseases among them were usually based on impressions rather than planned surveys or careful analyses, and many misconceptions still persist. It is proposed to consider the present state of knowledge as well as to indicate the historical and social basis for any tendencies for Jews to suffer from, or perhaps to resist, some diseases. No attempt has been made to analyse every single report in which Jewish pre-disposition to various diseases is mentioned; attention will be focused on those conditions that have received greater attention or from which it is possible to draw meaningful conclusions. PMID:4923893

Krikler, Dennis M.



Ecology of Infectious Diseases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With a dramatic image of a bustling city superimposed over a peaceful forest, the National Science Foundation's homepage on the ecology of infectious diseases is quite intriguing. After clicking on the image, visitors will be treated to an overview of this special report that asks: "Is our interaction with the environment somehow responsible for the increases in incidence of these diseases?" The report is divided into five sections, each exploring a different facet of the National Science Foundation's work on this problem. The sections include "Medical Mystery Solved" and "Lyme Disease on the Rise". Each of these sections includes helpful graphics, well-written text, and links to additional sites. Overall, the site will be most useful for science educators and members of the public health community.


Alcoholic liver disease: treatment.  


The excess consumption of alcohol is associated with alcoholic liver diseases (ALD). ALD is a major healthcare problem, personal and social burden, and significant reason for economic loss worldwide. The ALD spectrum includes alcoholic fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. The diagnosis of ALD is based on a combination of clinical features, including a history of significant alcohol intake, evidence of liver disease, and laboratory findings. Abstinence is the most important treatment for ALD and the treatment plan varies according to the stage of the disease. Various treatments including abstinence, nutritional therapy, pharmacological therapy, psychotherapy, and surgery are currently available. For severe alcoholic hepatitis, corticosteroid or pentoxifylline are recommended based on the guidelines. In addition, new therapeutic targets are being under investigation. PMID:25278689

Suk, Ki Tae; Kim, Moon Young; Baik, Soon Koo



Mitochondria in Lung Diseases  

PubMed Central

Summary Mitochondria are autonomous cellular organelles that oversee a variety of functions such as metabolism, energy production, calcium buffering, and cell fate determination. Regulation of their morphology and diverse activities beyond energy production are being recognized as playing major roles in cellular health and dysfunction. This review is aimed at summarizing what is known regarding mitochondrial contributions to pathogenesis of lung diseases. Emphasis is given to understanding the importance of structural and functional aspects of mitochondria in both normal cellular function (based on knowledge from other cell types) and in development and modulation of lung diseases such as asthma, COPD, cystic fibrosis and cancer. Emerging techniques that allow examination of mitochondria, and potential strategies to target mitochondria in the treatment of lung diseases are also discussed. PMID:23978003

Aravamudan, Bharathi; Thompson, Michael A.; Pabelick, Christina M.; Prakash, Y. S.



Pediatric infl ammatory bowel disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inflammatory bowel disease is an important cause of gastrointestinal pathology in children and adolescents. The incidence of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease is increasing; therefore, it is important for the clinician to be aware of the presentation of this disease in the pediatric population. Laboratory tests, radiology studies, and endoscopic procedures are helpful in diagnosing infl ammatory bowel disease and differentiating

Karen A Diefenbach; Christopher K Breuer


Periodontal Disease and Heart Health  

E-print Network

Periodontal Disease and Heart Health Deaf HealthTalks Presenter: Christopher Lehfeldt, DDS Elmwood #12;X-ray showing bone loss Thursday, March 15, 12 #12;5. What is heart disease? · The medical name for heart disease is cardiovascular disease (CVD) · An American dies from CVD

Goldman, Steven A.


Plant Disease Lesson: Black Sigatoka  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This plant disease lesson on Black Sigatoka (caused Mycosphaerella fijiensis - found in nearly all the world's banana-growing regions.) includes information on symptoms and signs, pathogen biology, disease cycle and epidemiology, disease management, and the significance of the disease. Selected references are listed and a glossary is also available for use with this resource.

Rebecca S. Bennett (Cornell University;); Phil A. Arneson (Cornell University;)



[Alzheimer's disease and visual impairment].  


Alzheimer disease is the most prevalent cause of cognitive decline in older adults. The typical presentation of Alzheimer disease is memory dysfunction, however, presentations with impairment in other domains may occur. Visual symptoms may be the first manifestation of Alzheimer disease. The purpose of this article is to review the spectrum of visual system disturbances found in Alzheimer disease. PMID:22243653

Leruez, S; Annweiler, C; Annweiller, C; Etcharry-Bouyx, F; Verny, C; Beauchet, O; Milea, D



About Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD)  


About Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD) Updated:Sep 15,2014 Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a narrowing of the peripheral arteries to ... was last reviewed on 8/05/2014. Peripheral Artery Disease • Home • About Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD) • Why ...


How Is Hodgkin Disease Diagnosed?  


... found in classic Hodgkin disease. Tests for other proteins may point to nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin disease, to non-Hodgkin lymphoma rather than Hodgkin disease, or to other diseases entirely. Last Medical Review: 07/10/2014 Last Revised: 01/13/2015 Back to top »


Liver Disease and Pulmonary Hypertension  

MedlinePLUS &Liver Disease Pulmonary Hypertension PH Did you know that if you have liver disease, you are at risk for pulmonary hypertension? ... that About Pulmonary Hypertension lupus for example), chronic liver disease, congenital heart disease, or HIV infection. Finally ...


Plant Disease Lesson: Apple scab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This plant disease lesson on Apple scab (caused by Venturia inaequalis) includes information on symptoms and signs, pathogen biology, disease cycle and epidemiology, disease management, and the significance of the disease. Selected references are listed and a glossary is also available for use with this resource.

Lisa J. Vaillancourt (University of Kentucky;); John R. Hartman (University of Kentucky;)



Vaccines and Inflammatory Bowel Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, are at increased risk for infection due to both their underlying disease and the immunosuppressive therapy used to treat the disease. Numerous groups and papers support the routine vaccination of IBD patients, yet many opportunities to vaccinate this vulnerable population are missed. While immunogenicity may be somewhat attenuated,

Camille Nelson Kotton



Androgens and prostate disease  

PubMed Central

A growing body of literature has established the anabolic benefits of testosterone (T) therapy in hypogonadal men. However, there remains a paucity of data regarding the risks of exogenous androgen use in older men and the potential for adverse effects on the prostate gland. Whether T therapy in older, hypogonadal men might worsen lower urinary tract symptoms or exacerbate, unmask, or even incite prostate cancer development has tempered enthusiasm for T therapy, while known prostatic disease has served as a relative contraindication to T therapy. Androgens are necessary for the development and maintenance of the prostate gland. However, epidemiologic studies do not consistently find a positive relationship between endogenous serum androgen concentrations and the risk of prostate disease. Recent data demonstrate that 5?-reductase inhibitors decrease the risk of low-grade prostate cancer, suggesting that modifying androgen metabolism may have beneficial effects on prostate health, yet similar reductions in high-grade disease have not been observed, thereby questioning the true clinical benefits of these agents for chemoprevention. Knowing how to best investigate the relationship between androgens and the development of prostate disease given the lack of large, randomized trials is difficult. Accumulating data challenges the assumption that alterations in serum androgens have parallel effects within the prostate hormonal environment or change androgen-regulated processes within the gland. Long-term intervention studies are needed to truly ascertain the effects of androgen manipulation on prostate tissue and disease risk. However, available data do not support the notion that restoring serum androgens to normal physiologic ranges drives prostate disease. PMID:24407178

Cooper, Lori A; Page, Stephanie T



[Peyronie's disease: an update].  


Peyronie's disease is currently considered a wound healing disorder that presents with a fibrous inelastic scar of the tunica albuginea, which is believed to occur in genetically susceptible individuals following trauma to the penis. It is characterized by the development of a palpable scar, which in the erectile state causes a variety of deformities, erectile dysfunction and painful erections, and its pathogenesis is unclear. There are many therapeutic options and each has its advantages and disadvantages. This article outlines the advances in the recent studies of Peyronie's disease. PMID:23678718

Zhu, Xiu-Bo; Jiang, Rui



Vaccination for Disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recombinant virus vaccines that express a limited number of epitopes are currently being developed to prevent disease by changing the relative balance between viral spread and the immune response. Some circumstances, however, were found in infections with a noncytopathic virus in which vaccination caused disease; sensitive parameters included the genetic background of the host, the time or dose of infection, and the constituents of the vaccine. Thus, immunopathologic damage by T cells may be an unwanted consequence of vaccination with the new types of peptide or recombinant vaccines that are being investigated for the human immunodeficiency viruses and other pathogens.

Oehen, Stephan; Hengartner, Hans; Zinkernagel, Rolf M.



[Hemoglobin SD disease].  


A 7 year old Kurdish girl presented with a cerebral infarction and a resulting hemiparesis following a blood transfusion. Examination of the blood film suggested sickle cell anaemia. However a simultaneously carried out haemoglobin electrophoresis showed haemoglobin S and haemoglobin D. The diagnosis of haemoglobin SD disease was thereby established. This kind of haemoglobin disorder usually shows a mild clinical manifestation. According to our knowledge such serious cases have not been published before. With this disease the main emphasis is on the prevention of recurrent cerebral infarctions bay a long-term transfusion programme whereas the effects of the cerebral infarction are treated in the usual way. PMID:8413345

Laws, H J; Dickerhoff, R; Mayer, J; Köster, B



[Hand and endocrine diseases].  


The whole of hormones likely influence state of hands, modifying colouring and trophicity of the skin and having influence on its muscular, tendineous, osseous, articular components. Thus state of the hands contributes to the recognition of the endocrine diseases: hot and moist hands of the Graves' disease, dry, cold and infiltrated hands in myxoedema, pale and fine hands of hypopituitarism, broad and thick hand of acromegaly, brachymetacarpia in the pseudohypoparathyroidism… Diabetes exposes particularly to tendineous and articular retractions, to whitlows and ungual mycosis. PMID:24148694

Wémeau, Jean-Louis; Ryndak, Amélie; Karrouz, Wassila; Balavoine, Anne-Sophie; Baudoux, Florence



CNS Diseases and Uveitis  

PubMed Central

A number of inflammatory, infectious, neoplastic and idiopathic disorders affect the eye and the central nervous system (CNS) concurrently or at different time frames. These conditions pose a diagnostic challenge to the clinician since they may present with similar ocular and neurological manifestations. The purpose of this review is to describe major neurological syndromes including multiple sclerosis, Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease, other autoimmune syndromes, and several infectious diseases which may affect the eye. This article may serve as a guide for the diagnosis and treatment of such disorders. It should be noted that these conditions have been viewed from a neurologist’s perspective thereby neurologic involvement is stressed. PMID:22454751

Allegri, Pia; Rissotto, Roberto; Herbort, Carl P.; Murialdo, Ugo



Electrodiagnosis in neuromuscular disease.  


Electromyography (EMG) is an important diagnostic tool for the assessment of individuals with various neuromuscular diseases. It should be an extension of a thorough history and physical examination. Some prototypical characteristics and findings of EMG and nerve conduction studies are discussed; however, a more thorough discussion can be found in the textbooks and resources sited in the article. With an increase in molecular genetic diagnostics, EMG continues to play an important role in the diagnosis and management of patients with neuromuscular diseases and also provides a cost-effective diagnostic workup before ordering a battery of costly genetic tests. PMID:22938876

Lipa, Bethany M; Han, Jay J



Skin disease in antiquity.  


Dermatological conditions and treatment in antiquity can be assessed by studying ancient skin, artefacts illustrating medical disorders and literature from the classified period as well as Egyptian papyri, cuneiform tablets and the Bible. It is often more useful and informative to study naturally preserved skin rather than artificially mummified skin. Great care must be taken in making retrospective diagnosis. Skin manifestations of internal diseases are, and have always been, of the greatest clinical importance. Study of the past may give an insight into the epidemiological aspects of diseases such as TB, leprosy and syphilis which have spread across the world with serious social consequences. PMID:16521362

Liddell, Keith



Gut microbiota and liver diseases  

PubMed Central

Several studies revealed that gut microbiota are associated with various human diseases, e.g., metabolic diseases, allergies, gastroenterological diseases, and liver diseases. The liver can be greatly affected by changes in gut microbiota due to the entry of gut bacteria or their metabolites into the liver through the portal vein, and the liver-gut axis is important to understand the pathophysiology of several liver diseases, especially non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and hepatic encephalopathy. Moreover, gut microbiota play a significant role in the development of alcoholic liver disease and hepatocarcinogenesis. Based on these previous findings, trials using probiotics have been performed for the prevention or treatment of liver diseases. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the changes in gut microbiota associated with various liver diseases, and we describe the therapeutic trials of probiotics for those diseases.

Minemura, Masami; Shimizu, Yukihiro



Diseases of Peaches and Plums.  

E-print Network

program. Use this publication and L-1329, Suggestions for Controlling Insects and Diseases on Commercial Peaches and Plums, to develop a well-planned con trol program for fruit diseases. Factors Affecting Fruit Disease Most fruit diseases vary..., darkened outward appearance, and may develop for several years. Infected tissue is hard and resistant to decay. Disease cycle: Bacteria enter the plant through wounds and grow in the intercellular spaces. Host 3 ? Crown gall on peach. tissue forms a...

Johnson, Jerral D.



Whyfiles: Zoonotic Diseases Go Global  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This recent Whyfiles feature offers a detailed look at zoonotic diseases, or those diseases that spread to people from other animals. Zoonotic diseases, such as monkeypox and West Nile virus, make up two-thirds of all infectious diseases and may represent a growing threat. This 4-page Whyfiles piece provides an insightful and easy-to-understand discussion of emerging zoonotic diseases, including a short section on the hazards presented by our own household pets.


Heart disease in women.  


In every year since 1984, cardiovascular disease has claimed the lives of more females than males. More than 450,000 women succumb to heart disease annually, and 250,000 die of coronary artery disease. Despite the proportions, most women believe they will die of breast cancer. The perception that heart disease is a man's disease and that women are more likely to die of breast cancer is alarming. Although women develop heart disease about 10 years later than men, they are likely to fare worse after a heart attack. The poorer outcomes are due, in part, to the failure to identify heart attack symptoms. Approximately 35% of heart attacks in women are believed to go unnoticed or unreported. However, because of increased age, women are more likely to have co-morbid diseases such as diabetes and hypertension. In women, not only is "tightness" or discomfort in the chest a warning sign, but in addition, nausea and dizziness are common indicators of myocardial ischemia. Other symptoms include breathlessness, perspiration, a sensation of fluttering in the heart, and fullness in the chest. In comparison to men, women are less likely to undergo tertiary care interventions such as cardiac catheterization, angioplasty, thrombolytic therapy, and bypass surgery; to participate in cardiac rehabilitation; and to return to work full-time after myocardial infarction. In the past, most research about treatments for heart disease focused on men, and gender differences have been ignored. Recent studies are enrolling enough women to test if there are differences between men and women in outcomes. One of the major areas of research relates to estrogen and hormonal replacement therapy to reduce the relative risk of heart attack and stroke. The Women's Health Initiative is a major NIH-sponsored trial that addresses the issue of primary prevention of cardiac disease by hormonal replacement therapy. The results will be available in 2004. The Heart Estrogen/Progestin Replacement Study (HERS), disappointingly, did not show a significant reduction of coronary events in women taking hormonal replacement therapy, nor did the Estrogen Replacement and Atherosclerosis (ERA) trial of 309 postmenopausal women who underwent coronary angiography. New insight into the role of vitamins, phytoestrogens and other natural sources, and selective estrogen receptor modulators may provide other options for management. Until then, modification of risk factors and healthy life style choices are recommended for reducing the risk of cardiac disease. In fact, the key to a healthy heart in the year 2000 appears closely tied to life style choices. Prevention of disease is the key, and current recommendations are simply to stop smoking, or do not start; treat and control blood pressure >140/90 mm Hg; manage elevated lipids by diet, exercise, and cholesterol-lowering medications (if necessary); treat diabetes; lose weight so that BMI is <25; walk for 20-30 minutes at least three times a week; and take an aspirin tablet daily. PMID:11140544

Giardina, E G



DiseaseConnect: a comprehensive web server for mechanism-based disease–disease connections  

PubMed Central

The DiseaseConnect ( is a web server for analysis and visualization of a comprehensive knowledge on mechanism-based disease connectivity. The traditional disease classification system groups diseases with similar clinical symptoms and phenotypic traits. Thus, diseases with entirely different pathologies could be grouped together, leading to a similar treatment design. Such problems could be avoided if diseases were classified based on their molecular mechanisms. Connecting diseases with similar pathological mechanisms could inspire novel strategies on the effective repositioning of existing drugs and therapies. Although there have been several studies attempting to generate disease connectivity networks, they have not yet utilized the enormous and rapidly growing public repositories of disease-related omics data and literature, two primary resources capable of providing insights into disease connections at an unprecedented level of detail. Our DiseaseConnect, the first public web server, integrates comprehensive omics and literature data, including a large amount of gene expression data, Genome-Wide Association Studies catalog, and text-mined knowledge, to discover disease–disease connectivity via common molecular mechanisms. Moreover, the clinical comorbidity data and a comprehensive compilation of known drug–disease relationships are additionally utilized for advancing the understanding of the disease landscape and for facilitating the mechanism-based development of new drug treatments. PMID:24895436

Liu, Chun-Chi; Tseng, Yu-Ting; Li, Wenyuan; Wu, Chia-Yu; Mayzus, Ilya; Rzhetsky, Andrey; Sun, Fengzhu; Waterman, Michael; Chen, Jeremy J. W.; Chaudhary, Preet M.; Loscalzo, Joseph; Crandall, Edward; Zhou, Xianghong Jasmine



Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)  


KidsHealth > Teens > Sexual Health > STDs & Other Infections > Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) Print A A A Text Size What's in this article? ... possible. So when you're making choices about sex, be smart and be safe. Reviewed by: Larissa Hirsch, MD Date reviewed: January ... For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC ...


[Fatigue in neuromuscular disease].  


Chronic fatigue is a symptom of diseases such as cancer, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's and cerebrovascular disease. Fatigue can also be present in people with no demonstrable somatic disease. If certain criteria are met, chronic-fatigue syndrome may be diagnosed in these cases. Fatigue is a multi-dimensional concept with physiological and psychological dimensions. The 'Short Fatigue Questionnaire' consisting of 4 questions is a tool to measure fatigue with a high degree of reliability and validity. Within the group of neuromuscular disorders, fatigue has been reported by patients with post-polio syndrome, myasthenia gravis, and Guillain-Barré syndrome. The percentage of neuromuscular patients suffering from severe fatigue (64%) is comparable with that of patients with multiple sclerosis, a disease in which fatigue is an acknowledged symptom. Now that reliable psychological and clinical neurophysiological techniques are available, a multidisciplinary approach to fatigue in patients with well-defined neuromuscular disorders may contribute towards the elucidation of the pathophysiological mechanisms of chronic fatigue, with the ultimate goal being to develop methods of treatment for fatigue in neuromuscular patients. PMID:15283024

Van Engelen, B G M; Kalkman, J S; Schillings, M L; Van Der Werf, S P; Bleijenberg, G; Zwarts, M J



Uveitis and systemic disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prospective study was conducted of 865 patients with uveitis to determine the frequency of associated systemic diseases and to assess the value of limited laboratory screening of these patients. All patients underwent a standard diagnostic protocol followed--when indicated--by special tests and procedures performed in order of likelihood ('tailored approach'). For 628 patients (73%) a specific diagnosis was established based

A Rothova; H J Buitenhuis; C Meenken; C J Brinkman; A Linssen; C Alberts; L Luyendijk; A Kijlstra



Inflammatory bowel disease: Pathogenesis  

PubMed Central

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, is characterized by chronic relapsing intestinal inflammation. It has been a worldwide health-care problem with a continually increasing incidence. It is thought that IBD results from an aberrant and continuing immune response to the microbes in the gut, catalyzed by the genetic susceptibility of the individual. Although the etiology of IBD remains largely unknown, it involves a complex interaction between the genetic, environmental or microbial factors and the immune responses. Of the four components of IBD pathogenesis, most rapid progress has been made in the genetic study of gut inflammation. The latest internationally collaborative studies have ascertained 163 susceptibility gene loci for IBD. The genes implicated in childhood-onset and adult-onset IBD overlap, suggesting similar genetic predispositions. However, the fact that genetic factors account for only a portion of overall disease variance indicates that microbial and environmental factors may interact with genetic elements in the pathogenesis of IBD. Meanwhile, the adaptive immune response has been classically considered to play a major role in the pathogenesis of IBD, as new studies in immunology and genetics have clarified that the innate immune response maintains the same importance in inducing gut inflammation. Recent progress in understanding IBD pathogenesis sheds lights on relevant disease mechanisms, including the innate and adaptive immunity, and the interactions between genetic factors and microbial and environmental cues. In this review, we provide an update on the major advances that have occurred in above areas. PMID:24415861

Zhang, Yi-Zhen; Li, Yong-Yu



Tay-Sachs Disease  


KidsHealth from Nemours for Parents for Kids for Teens Parents Home General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Q&A Recipes En Espańol Teachers - ...


Extramammary Paget's disease.  

PubMed Central

In a 74-year-old man extramammary Paget's disease of the scrotal and perianal areas masqueraded as tinea cruris and chronic dermatitis for 7 years before it was diagnosed. Topical therapy with 1% 5-fluorouracil cream resulted in clinical improvement but not histologic clearing. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 PMID:230891

Haberman, H. F.; Goodall, J.; Llewellyn, M.



Modeling disease elimination.  


The effect of the elimination of mortality from heart disease and cancer was modelled mathematically to allow for the effect of other competing causes of death. The model allows for potential dependence between heart disease or cancer and other causes of death by using cupola functions, which analyse the individual risk itself and the dependence structure between causes of death by using correlation coefficients. As the strength of these risk associations is unknown, the study investigated both full positive and negative dependence and compared this with no dependence. Depending upon the degree and type of correlation assumed, positive or negative, the life expectancy at birth is increased by between 3 months and 6.5 years if cancer mortality was eliminated, and between 5 months and 7.5 years in the case of heart disease. In addition, estimates of these effects on life insurance premia can be made with the greatest reduction for women with the elimination of cancer mortality. These figures provide a range of improvements in life expectancy and the consequent effect on life insurance risk premium rates which elimination of either of these important diseases would produce. PMID:15895694

Somerville, Kevin; Francombe, Paula



Parkinson's disease with camptocormia  

PubMed Central

Background Camptocormia is defined as an abnormal flexion of the trunk that appears when standing or walking and disappears in the supine position. The origin of the disorder is unknown, but it is usually attributed either to a primary or a secondary paravertebral muscle myopathy or a motor neurone disorder. Camptocormia is also observed in a minority of patients with parkinsonism. Objective To characterise the clinical and electrophysiological features of camptocormia and parkinsonian symptoms in patients with Parkinson's disease and camptocormia compared with patients with Parkinson's disease without camptocormia. Methods Patients with parkinsonism and camptocormia (excluding patients with multiple system atrophy) prospectively underwent a multidisciplinary clinical (neurological, neuropsychological, psychological, rheumatological) and neurophysiological (electromyogram, ocular movement recording) examination and were compared with age?matched patients with Parkinson's disease without camptocormia. Results The camptocormia developed after 8.5 (SD 5.3)?years of parkinsonism, responded poorly to levodopa treatment (20%) and displayed features consistent with axial dystonia. Patients with camptocormia were characterised by prominent levodopa?unresponsive axial symptoms (ie, axial rigidity, gait disorder and postural instability), along with a tendency for greater error in the antisaccade paradigm. Conclusion We suggest that (1) the salient features of parkinsonism observed in patients with camptocormia are likely to represent a specific form of Parkinson's disease and camptocormia is an axial dystonia and (2) both camptocormia and parkinsonism in these patients might result from additional, non?dopaminergic neuronal dysfunction in the basal ganglia. PMID:16754693

Bloch, F; Houeto, J L; du Montcel, S Tezenas; Bonneville, F; Etchepare, F; Welter, M L; Rivaud?Pechoux, S; Hahn?Barma, V; Maisonobe, T; Behar, C; Lazennec, J Y; Kurys, E; Arnulf, I; Bonnet, A M; Agid, Y




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The nucleation-polymerization and template assistance models for conversion of the normal cellular form of the prion protein, PrP**C, to the disease associated, protease resistant conformation, PrP**d, will be discussed. Attention will be paid to a recent model of PrP**d fibril structure, the impli...


Collagen vascular disease  


... protein that makes up about a third of body protein. It is part of the structure of tendons, bones, and connective tissues. In a class of diseases known as autoimmune disorders , the body's immune system attacks its own tissues. Some of ...


Dementia \\/ Alzheimer's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

HEALTH ISSUES: Dementia, including Alzheimer's disease (AD) increases exponentially with age from the age of 65. The number of people with dementia will increase significantly over the next three decades as the population ages. While prevalence and incidence rates do not differ markedly in women, compared to men, women live longer on average, so the number of women with dementia

Joan Lindsay; Lori Anderson




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Borna disease (BD) is a naturally occuring, infectious, usually fatal, progressive meningopolioencephalitis, predominantly affecting horses and sheep, more rarely other Equidae, cattle, goats, rabbits and exceptionally a variety of other animal species and possibly man. Synonyms used in the past suc...


Facts about Crohn's Disease  


... Tysabri had already been approved in the United States and the European Union for use against the most advanced cases of multiple sclerosis. Clinical trials have indicated that the drug is effective in limiting damage by inflammatory immune cells associated with Crohn’s disease by keeping ...


Epigenetics and cardiovascular disease  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Despite advances in the prevention and management of cardiovascular disease (CVD), this group of multifactorial disorders remains a leading cause of mortality worldwide. CVD is associated with multiple genetic and modifiable risk factors; however, known environmental and genetic influences can only...


Poorly Responsive Celiac Disease  


... Team Run Rock N Roll San Antonio Half Marathon 12/7/14 Tori and Team Boston Run the Boston Half Marathon 10/12/14 Kristen Advocates through TGF to ... Successful TGF Fundraiser Meet the 2014 TCS NYC Marathon Team Week Without Wheat Challenge Celiac Disease Foundation ...


Health & Medicine Heart Disease  

E-print Network

See Also: Health & Medicine Heart Disease· Medical Imaging· Vioxx· Matter & Energy Electronics· Technology· Medical Technology· Reference Artificial heart· Biosensor· Circuit design· Machine· Science and stretchable electronics can map waves of electrical activity in the heart with better resolution and speed

Rogers, John A.


Presenilins and Alzheimer's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutations in the genes encoding the presenilins cause the majority of early-onset cases of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The identification of the presenilin genes has provided new opportunities for elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying the etiology and pathogenesis of AD. Recent progress has been made in attempts to understand the normal and pathological functions of the presenilins, emphasizing the effects of

Tae-Wan Kim; Rudolph E Tanzi




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The potential to use systemic acquired resistance for disease control in potato is discussed. The mechanism of how SAR works in plants is described. Potato was found to have high salicylic acid levels in all tissues examined. The defense gene PR-1 was constitutively expressed in potato, in contrast ...


What Is Behcet's Disease?  


... publication. To order the Behçet’s Disease Q&A full-text version, please contact NIAMS using the contact information ... mailed to you? Visit our online order form. Full NIAMS Site NIH… Turning Discovery Into Health ® ... Comments Moderation Policy Site Map | Viewers and Players


Metabolic bone disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metabolic bone dlseases are frequently seen in the geriatric population. The pain which often accompanies the disorder is\\u000a a major cause of morbidity, frequent visits to the physician, health resource utilization, and even mortality. Successful\\u000a prevention, detection and management of metabolic bone disease are essential components of optimal geriatric health care.

Jeffrey E. Escher; Steven Gambert; Bruce Rothschild



Metabolic bone disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone is a complex organ that is highly metabolically active, particularly in children. Normal metabolism is dependent upon the three main elements, matrix, mineral and cells that are integral components of bone. In addition, there are several humoral factors that also influence bone. Abnormalities in any of these components can give rise to metabolic bone disease. Abnormalities of mineralisation are

Jeremy Allgrove



Coronary artery disease (image)  


... through these arteries is critical for the heart. Coronary artery disease usually results from the build-up of fatty material and plaque, a condition called atherosclerosis. As the ... blood to the heart can slow or stop, causing chest pain (stable ...


Hirayama Disease: MR Diagnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: We report the MR findings in two cases of Hirayama disease, a kind of cervical myelopathy related to flexion movements of the neck. In flexion MR studies, we can see the striking and pathognomonic picture of anterior shifting of posterior dura at the lower cervical spinal canal. In nonflexion studies, we find that asymmetric cord atro- phy, especially at

Chi-Jen Chen; Chiung-Mei Chen; Chia-Lun Wu; Long-Sun Ro; Sien-Tsong Chen; Tsong-Hai Lee


Huntington's Disease Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity includes a case study of Huntington's Disease (HD) genetics and explores the biology of codon repeats as well as the bioethical dilemmas of genetic testing. The laboratory activity uses dye electrophoresis to simulate diagnostic genetic testing for HD. Optional activities are included for more advanced students.

Mulvihill, Charlotte



Interstitial lung disease.  


This article reviews the most important articles published in interstitial lung disease, as reviewed during the Clinical Year in Review session at the 2012 annual European Respiratory Society Congress in Vienna, Austria. Since the recent international guidelines for the management of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), important new evidence is available. The anti-fibrotic drug pirfenidone has been recently approved in Europe. Other pharmacological agents, especially nintedanib, are still being tested. The so-called triple combination therapy, anticoagulation therapy and endothelin receptor antagonists, especially ambrisentan, are either harmful or ineffective in IPF and are not recommended as treatment. Although the clinical course of IPF is highly variable, novel tools have been developed for individual prediction of prognosis. Acute exacerbations of IPF are associated with increased mortality and may occur with higher frequency in IPF patients with associated pulmonary hypertension. Interstitial lung disease associated with connective tissue disease has been definitely established to have a better long-term survival than IPF. A subset of patients present with symptoms and/or biological autoimmune features, but do not fulfil diagnostic criteria for a given autoimmune disease; this condition is associated with a higher prevalence of nonspecific interstitial pneumonia pattern, female sex and younger age, although survival relevance is unclear. PMID:23457161

Cottin, Vincent



Viral diseases in pigs  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Genomic approaches have expanded our understanding of genes and gene pathways, and quantitative trait loci (QTL), controlling traits of economic importance in pig production, recently including health traits and disease resistance. Efforts are underway to use novel tools including pig gene arrays, s...


Polyamine catabolism and disease  

PubMed Central

In addition to polyamine homeostasis, it has become increasingly clear that polyamine catabolism can play a dominant role in drug response, apoptosis, response to stressful stimuli, and contribute to the etiology of several pathological states, including cancer. The highly inducible enzymes spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SSAT) and spermine oxidase (SMO), and, the generally constitutively expressed N1-acetylpolyamine oxidase (APAO), appear to play critical roles in many normal and disease processes. The dysregulation of polyamine catabolism frequently accompanies several disease states and suggests that such dysregulation may both provide useful insight into disease mechanism and provide unique drugable targets that can be exploited for therapeutic benefit. Each of these enzymes has the potential to alter polyamine homeostasis in response to multiple cell signals and the two oxidases produce the reactive oxygen species H2O2 and aldehydes, each with the potential to produce pathologies. The activity of SSAT has the potential to provide substrates for APAO or substrates for the polyamine exporter, thus reducing the intracellular polyamine concentration, the net effect of which depends on the magnitude and rate of any increase in SSAT. SSAT may also influence cellular metabolism via interaction with other proteins and by perturbing the content of acetyl CoA and ATP. The goal of this review is to cover those aspects of polyamine catabolism that have potential to impact disease etiology or treatment and to provide a solid background in this ever more exciting aspect of polyamine biology. PMID:19589128

CASERO, Robert A.; PEGG, Anthony E.



Maize Disease Resistance  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Worldwide losses in maize due to disease (not including animals or viruses) were estimated to be about 9% in 2001-3 . This varied significantly by region with estimates of 4% in northern Europe and 14% in West Africa and South Asia ( Losses have tende...


Polyphenols and gastrointestinal diseases  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review This article will review the role of polyphenols in gastrointestinal diseases. Ingested polyphenols are concentrated in the gastrointestinal tract and are not well absorbed into the rest of the body. Thus, the high luminal concentrations achieved support a potential for therapeutic uses in the gastrointestinal tract. Additionally, there is great interest from the general public in complementary and alternative medicine. Recent findings Dietary polyphenols are a major source of antioxidants consumed by humans. Polyphenols possess not only antioxidant properties but also antiviral, antibacterial, antiinflammatory and anticarcinogenic effects, as well as the ability to modulate certain signaling pathways such as nuclear factor-?B activation. Green tea polyphenols have been shown to have efficacy in various models of inflammatory bowel disease. Silymarin, or milk thistle, is hepatoprotective against many forms of experimental liver injury and is widely used in human liver diseases, such as hepatitis C and alcoholic cirrhosis, with an excellent safety profile (but with unclear efficacy). Summary Substantial in-vitro and animal studies support the beneficial effects of polyphenols in many gastrointestinal diseases. Well designed multicenter trials in humans, such as those called for in the 2005 National Institutes of Health Requests for Applications for Silymarin Centers, will be critical for defining the safety, appropriate dosing and therapeutic efficacy of such agents. PMID:16462174

Dryden, Gerald W.; Song, Ming; McClain, Craig



Androgens and Cardiovascular Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Globally, cardiovascular disease will continue causing most human deaths for the foreseeable future. The consistent gen- der gap in life span of approximately 5.6 yr in all advanced economies must derive from gender differences in age- specific cardiovascular death rates, which rise steeply in par- allel for both genders but 5-10 yr earlier in men. The lack of inflection point




Genomics of Disease  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This edited book represents the 23rd symposium in the Stadler Genetics Symposia series, and the general theme of this conference was "The Genomics of Disease." The 24 national and international speakers were invited to discuss their world-class research into the advances that genomics has made on c...


Epigenetics in liver disease  

PubMed Central

Epigenetics is a term that encompasses a variety of regulatory processes that are able to crosstalk in order to influence gene expression and cell phenotype in response to environmental cues. A deep understanding of epigenetics offers the potential for fresh insights into the basis for complex chronic diseases and improved diagnostic and prognostic tools. Moreover, as epigenetic modifications are highly plastic and responsive to the environment, there is much excitement around the theme of epigenetic therapeutics, including not only new drugs but also more informed patient advice on lifestyle choices and their impact on pathology. This review briefly explains the molecular nature of the individual regulatory process that constitute epigenetics, including DNA methylation, histone modifications, chromatin remodeling, transcriptional control, and noncoding RNAs. The ways in which these epigenetic mechanisms influence liver physiology and disease will be considered in detail, particularly in the context of cancer, fibrosis, and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. The current limitations associated with epigenetic profiling and therapeutics in liver disease are discussed, as is the intriguing possibility that environmental-induced epigenetic changes may become stable and heritable. Conclusion: The aim of the review is to inform hepatologists of the emerging key epigenetic ideas of relevance to liver diseases that are highly likely to form a component of patient management and care in the next decade. (Hepatology 2014;60:1418–1425) PMID:24633972

Mann, Derek A



Thyroid disease in pregnancy.  


Thyroid disease is the second most common endocrine disorder affecting women of reproductive age, and when untreated during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of miscarriage, placental abruption, hypertensive disorders, and growth restriction. Current guidelines recommend targeted screening of women at high risk, including those with a history of thyroid disease, type 1 diabetes mellitus, or other autoimmune disease; current or past use of thyroid therapy; or a family history of autoimmune thyroid disease. Appropriate management results in improved outcomes, demonstrating the importance of proper diagnosis and treatment. In women with hypothyroidism, levothyroxine is titrated to achieve a goal serum thyroid-stimulating hormone level less than 2.5 mIU per L. The preferred treatment for hyperthyroidism is antithyroid medications, with a goal of maintaining a serum free thyroxine level in the upper one-third of the normal range. Postpartum thyroiditis is the most common form of postpartum thyroid dysfunction and may present as hyper- or hypothyroidism. Symptomatic treatment is recommended for the former; levothyroxine is indicated for the latter in women who are symptomatic, breastfeeding, or who wish to become pregnant. PMID:24695447

Carney, Leo A; Quinlan, Jeff D; West, Janet M



Diseases of Landscape Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

t he cedar rust diseases (Juniper spp.) stand out due to their conspicuous nature, and the fact the fungi that cause them complete their life cycles on two plant hosts — the juniper (cedar) and the apple (although pear, hawthorn, quince, serviceberry, and crabapple are other hosts). All potential host plants are commonly planted in the urban landscape, or are

Janna Beckerman


Communicating About Communicable Disease  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this "tried and true" investigation, students use a commercially available product (Glo-germ) and a blacklight to demonstrate how germs are spread. Glitter can be substituted. Students then write a public service announcement, including statistics, about the preventing the spread of a communicable disease.

IBM& #39; s Teachers Try Science program



Rare Disorders and Diseases  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to the National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD), a rare or "orphan" disease affects fewer than 200,000 people in the United States. There are more than 6,000 rare disorders that, taken together, affect approximately 25 million Americans. "Exceptional Parent" ("EP") recognizes that when a disorder affects a child or adult, it…

Umlauf, Mary; Monaco, Jana; FitzZaland, Mary; FitzZaland, Richard; Novitsky, Scott



Mitochondrial therapeutics in Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease  

PubMed Central

In neurons, mitochondria serve a wide variety of processes that are integral to their function and survival. It is, therefore, not surprising that evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction is observed across numerous neurodegenerative diseases. Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease are two such diseases in which aberrant mitochondrial activity is proposed to contribute to pathogenesis. Current therapies for each disease target various mechanisms, but few, if any, directly target improved mitochondrial function. Recent discoveries pertaining to mitochondrial dynamics reveal that regulation of mitochondrial fission and fusion may play a key role in the pathogenesis of these diseases and consequently could be novel future therapeutic targets. PMID:21722346



[Perianal Crohn's disease].  


In patients with Crohn's disease, perianal lesions can be found at presentation in 20 - 30 % of all cases and a majority will have fistulas or abscesses. If a fistula is suspected, careful inspection of the perianal region will often confirm the diagnosis. Further investigation should be done by magnet-resonance imaging or anal endosonography to guide preoperative planing and minimize recurrence rates. Simple, uncomplicated fistulas are primarily treated with antibiotics. For complex fistulas combined with medication and surgical treatment usually offers the best treatment. Treatment of complex fistulas by surgery alone is rarely curative and may have significant morbidity, while medical treatment has the disadvantage of high recurrence rates and significant costs for long-term therapy. In trans-, supra- and extrasphincteric fistulas, immunosuppressants or anti-TNF alpha blockers will lead to sustained clinical remission with fistula closure in 30 - 50 %. However, 25 % of all patients with perianal Croh's disease will still need surgery during the course of their disease. Fistulotomy is used for subcutaneous or short intersphincteric fistulas while it should be avoided in fistulas with significant involvmenet of the sphincter muscles to avoid fecal incontinence. Seton drainage may be used as definitve treatment or as a bridge to a secondary surgical therapy. Minimally invasive precedures, such as the anal fistula plug have also been used in Crohn's disease. Although recurrence rates are high, the procedure is easy to perform and carries a low risk of incontinence and may therefore be used as primary treatment option for complex fistulas. The fistulectomy and closure of the inner fistula opening, e. g. with a mucosal advancement flap, is still considered the standard procedure, especially for complex fistulas. Anal fissures, ulcers and strictures are non-fistulating perianal lesions of Crohn's disease. PMID:23798025

Burri, Emanuel; Vavricka, Stephan R



[Does vaccination cause disease?].  


Not many inventions in medical history have influenced our society as much as vaccination. The concept is old and simple. When Edward Jenner published his work on cowpox, "variolation" was quite common. In this procedure, pus of patients with mild smallpox was transferred to healthy individuals. Meanwhile smallpox has been eradicated worldwide. Diseases such as poliomyelitis, diphtheria or tetanus almost disappeared in industrialized countries. The same happened with epiglottitis and meningitis due to Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) after vaccination against Hib was introduced in Switzerland in 1990. This success was possible because of routine vaccination. Immunization is a save procedure and adverse events are much lower than complications in the natural course of the prevented diseases. However vaccinations were accused to cause diseases themselves such as asthma, multiple sclerosis, diabetes mellitus, chronic arthritis or autism. Hitherto no large cohort study or case-control-study was able to proof responsibility of vaccines in any of these diseases. Public media are eager to publish early data from surveillance reports or case reports which are descriptive and never a principle of cause and effect. In large controlled trials there was no proof that vaccination causes asthma, hepatitis-B-vaccination causes multiple sclerosis or macrophagic myofasciitis, Hib-vaccination causes diabetes mellitus, rubella-vaccination causes chronic arthritis, measles-mumps-rubella-vaccination causes gait disturbance or thiomersal causes autism. These results are rarely published in newspapers or television. Thus, many caring parents are left with negative ideas about immunization. Looking for the best for their children they withhold vaccination and give way to resurgence of preventable diseases in our communities. This must be prevented. There is more evidence than expected that vaccination is safe and this can and must be told to parents. PMID:16277033

Zingg, W



Antiprogestins in gynecological diseases.  


Antiprogestins constitute a group of compounds, developed since the early 1980s, that bind progesterone receptors with different affinities. The first clinical uses for antiprogestins were in reproductive medicine, e.g., menstrual regulation, emergency contraception, and termination of early pregnancies. These initial applications, however, belied the capacity for these compounds to interfere with cell growth. Within the context of gynecological diseases, antiprogestins can block the growth of and kill gynecological-related cancer cells, such as those originating in the breast, ovary, endometrium, and cervix. They can also interrupt the excessive growth of cells giving rise to benign gynecological diseases such as endometriosis and leiomyomata (uterine fibroids). In this article, we present a review of the literature providing support for the antigrowth activity that antiprogestins impose on cells in various gynecological diseases. We also provide a summary of the cellular and molecular mechanisms reported for these compounds that lead to cell growth inhibition and death. The preclinical knowledge gained during the past few years provides robust evidence to encourage the use of antiprogestins in order to alleviate the burden of gynecological diseases, either as monotherapies or as adjuvants of other therapies with the perspective of allowing for long-term treatments with tolerable side effects. The key to the clinical success of antiprogestins in this field probably lies in selecting those patients who will benefit from this therapy. This can be achieved by defining the genetic makeup required - within each particular gynecological disease - for attaining an objective response to antiprogestin-driven growth inhibition therapy.Free Spanish abstractA Spanish translation of this abstract is freely available at PMID:25252652

Goyeneche, Alicia A; Telleria, Carlos M



Epigenetics and cardiovascular disease.  


A commonly-assumed paradigm holds that the primary genetic determinant of cardiovascular disease resides within the DNA sequence of our genes. This paradigm can be challenged. For example, how do sequence changes in the non-coding region of the genome influence phenotype? Why are all diseases not shared between identical twins? Part of the answer lies in the fact that the environment or exogenous stimuli clearly influence disease susceptibility, but it was unclear in the past how these effects were signalled to the static DNA code. Epigenetics is providing a newer perspective on these issues. Epigenetics refers to chromatin-based mechanisms important in the regulation of gene expression that do not involve changes to the DNA sequence per se. The field can be broadly categorized into three areas: DNA base modifications (including cytosine methylation and cytosine hydroxymethylation), post-translational modifications of histone proteins, and RNA-based mechanisms that operate in the nucleus. Cardiovascular disease pathways are now being approached from the epigenetic perspective, including those associated with atherosclerosis, angiogenesis, ischemia-reperfusion damage, and the cardiovascular response to hypoxia and shear stress, among many others. With increasing interest and expanding partnerships in the field, we can expect new insights to emerge from epigenetic perspectives of cardiovascular health. This paper reviews the principles governing epigenetic regulation, discusses their presently-understood importance in cardiovascular disease, and considers the growing significance we are likely to attribute to epigenetic contributions in the future, as they provide new mechanistic insights and a host of novel clinical applications. PMID:23261320

Webster, Andrew L H; Yan, Matthew Shu-Ching; Marsden, Philip A



Vitamin D and inflammatory diseases  

PubMed Central

Beyond its critical function in calcium homeostasis, vitamin D has recently been found to play an important role in the modulation of the immune/inflammation system via regulating the production of inflammatory cytokines and inhibiting the proliferation of proinflammatory cells, both of which are crucial for the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. Several studies have associated lower vitamin D status with increased risk and unfavorable outcome of acute infections. Vitamin D supplementation bolsters clinical responses to acute infection. Moreover, chronic inflammatory diseases, such as atherosclerosis-related cardiovascular disease, asthma, inflammatory bowel disease, chronic kidney disease, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and others, tend to have lower vitamin D status, which may play a pleiotropic role in the pathogenesis of the diseases. In this article, we review recent epidemiological and interventional studies of vitamin D in various inflammatory diseases. The potential mechanisms of vitamin D in regulating immune/inflammatory responses in inflammatory diseases are also discussed. PMID:24971027

Yin, Kai; Agrawal, Devendra K



Women and peripheral arterial disease.  


Peripheral arterial disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Americans. Without aggressive management of the disease as well as comorbidities and risk factors, peripheral arterial disease may progress and place patients at risk for amputation of the affected limb. In addition, patients affected by peripheral arterial disease are at increased risk for death from both cardiovascular and noncardiovascular causes. Although traditionally felt to be a disease of Caucasian men, women compose a significant portion of patients with peripheral arterial disease, especially among the elderly. Increased prevalence of asymptomatic disease in women can lead to delayed diagnosis and treatment. Without the appropriate medical and or surgical intervention, women are at risk of poor procedural outcomes and increased mortality. This review will focus on the differences in peripheral arterial disease based on gender and how these differences can affect the presentation, diagnosis and treatment of peripheral arterial disease in women. PMID:19863470

Vavra, Ashley K; Kibbe, Melina R



Behçet's Disease (Adamantiades-Behçet's Disease)  

PubMed Central

Adamantiades-Behçet's disease (ABD) is characterized by starting with oral aphthous ulceration and developing of the systemic involvements. The pathogenesis of ABD is closely correlated with the genetic factors and the triggering factors which acquire delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction against oral streptococci mediated by IL-12 cytokine family. HLA-B51 is associated in more than 60% of the patients and its restricted CD8+ T cell response is clearly correlated with the target tissues. Bes-1 gene encoded partial S. sanguinis genome which is highly homologous with retinal protein, and 65?kD heat shock protein (Hsp-65) released from streptococci is playing an important role with human Hsp-60 in the pathogenesis of ABD. Although Hsp-65/60 has homologies with the respective T cell epitope, it stimulates peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from ABD patients. On the other hand, some peptides of Hsp-65 were found to reduce IL-8 and IL-12 production from PBMCs of ABD patients in active stage. PMID:21052488

Kaneko, Fumio; Togashi, Ari; Saito, Sanae; Sakuma, Hideo; Oyama, Noritaka; Nakamura, Koichiro; Yokota, Kenji; Oguma, Keiji



Cell Therapies for Liver Diseases  

PubMed Central

Cell therapies, which include bioartificial liver support and hepatocyte transplantation, have emerged as potential treatments for a variety of liver diseases. Acute liver failure (ALF), acute-on-chronic liver failure, and inherited metabolic liver diseases are examples of liver diseases that have been successfully treated with cell therapies at centers around the world. Cell therapies also have the potential for wide application in other liver diseases, including non-inherited liver diseases and liver cancer, and in improving the success of liver transplantation. Here we briefly summarize current concepts of cell therapy for liver diseases. PMID:22140063

Yu, Yue; Fisher, James E.; Lillegard, Joseph B.; Rodysill, Brian; Amiot, Bruce; Nyberg, Scott L.



Metabolic bone disease in patients with liver disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coexistence of liver disease and osteopenic bone disease has been recognized for many years and is now the subject of\\u000a increasing attention. Osteoporosis has been characterized well in patients with cholestatic liver disease, but new research\\u000a suggests that osteopenia and osteoporosis may also be prevalent in patients with other chronic liver diseases. Although the\\u000a precise mechanism of bone loss

Elizabeth Carey; Vijayan Balan



Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and the risk of cardiovascular diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous large epidemiological studies reporting on the association between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and\\u000a cardiovascular diseases mainly focussed on prevalent diseases rather than on the incidence of newly diagnosed cardiovascular\\u000a outcomes. We used the UK-based General Practice Research Database (GPRD) to assess the prevalence and incidence of cardiovascular\\u000a diseases in COPD patients aged 40–79 between 1995 and 2005, and

Cornelia Schneider; Ulrich Bothner; Susan S. Jick; Christoph R. Meier



Rheumatoid Arthritis and Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Rheumatic disease and heart disease share common underpinnings involving inflammation. The high levels of inflammation that characterize rheumatic diseases provide a “natural experiment” to help elucidate the mechanisms by which inflammation accelerates heart disease. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the most common of the rheumatic diseases and has the best studied relationships with heart disease. Methods Review of current literature on heart disease and rheumatoid arthritis Results Patients with RA have an increased risk of developing heart disease that is not fully explained by traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Therapies used to treat RA may also affect the development of heart disease; by suppressing inflammation, they may also reduce the risk of heart disease. However, their other effects, as in the case of steroids, may increase heart disease risk. Conclusions Investigations of the innate and adaptive immune responses occurring in RA may delineate novel mechanisms in the pathogenesis of heart disease, and help identify novel therapeutic targets for the prevention and treatment of heart disease. PMID:24093840

Crowson, Cynthia S; Liao, Katherine P; Davis, John M; Solomon, Daniel H; Matteson, Eric L; Knutson, Keith L; Hlatky, Mark A; Gabriel, Sherine E



Lipidomics of Alzheimer's disease.  


Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive brain disease that leads to an irreversible loss of neurons and cognition. It is the most common cause of dementia and can be considered as a major public health problem. At the histological level, AD is characterized by senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Numerous studies involving genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic approaches have been published in order to understand the molecular mechanisms involved in AD, and to find new biomarkers. Metabolomics, and in particular lipidomics, have recently offered new possibilities due to the development of robust and sensitive analytical methods, such as LC-MS. This review aims to illustrate how lipidomics can help understand the biological mechanisms inherent to AD and how lipids can be considered as relevant biomarkers of AD at early stages. PMID:24568356

Touboul, David; Gaudin, Mathieu



[Osgood-Schlatter disease].  


Osgood-Schlatter disease is a painful affection of the knee which touches particularly the active teenagers. Etiology of this frequent affection is unknown. This disease appears as an anterior knee pain and swelling started and worsened by the sports activities. Diagnosis is especially clinical. X-Rays, ultrasounds or IRM are not necessary for the diagnosis. Treatment is based on eviction of sports, analgesics and sometimes physiotherapy. Surgery is rarely proposed. Knee pain stops at the end of the growth. Long-term outcome is good for the majority of the patients. Some studies suggest a patella alta at the end of the growth, without an established correlation with knee arthritis. PMID:18946967

Vargas, Bernardo; Lutz, Nicolas; Dutoit, Michel; Zambelli, Pierre Yves



Pituitary Gland Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Excessive secretion of pituitary hormones, as well as their deficiency, may cause a constellation of clinical and pathological\\u000a manifestations involving major organ systems of the body, including the skin.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a There are no specific cutaneous signs or symptoms that are pathognomonic for the main manifestations of pituitary gland diseases\\u000a such as acromegaly, hyperprolactinemia, Cushing’s disease, or hypopituitarism.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a In

Martina Montinari; Franco Rongioletti


Microflora and periodontal disease  

PubMed Central

Background: Periodontitis is a disease that affects and destroys the tissues that support teeth. Tissue damage results from a prolonged inflammatory response to an ecological shift in the composition of subgingival biofilms. Three bacterial species that constitute the red complex group, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, and Treponema denticola, are considered the main pathogens involved in periodontitis. Materials and Methods: In the present study, a real-time polymerase chain reaction bases assay was designed to detect and quantify red complex species, then used to investigate 307 periodontal pocket samples from 127 periodontitis patients and 180 controls. Results: Significant higher prevalence of red complex species and increased amount of P. gingivalis and T. denticola were detected in periodontal pocket of periodontitis patients. Conclusions: Results demonstrated that the test is a valuable tool to improve diagnosis of periodontal disease. PMID:23814584

Scapoli, Luca; Girardi, Ambra; Palmieri, Annalisa; Testori, Tiziano; Zuffetti, Francesco; Monguzzi, Riccardo; Lauritano, Dorina; Carinci, Francesco



Management of Perthes’ disease  

PubMed Central

The main complication of Perthes’ disease is femoral head deformation. Evidence from the literature highlights two important factors related to the cause and timing of this complication. (1) Extrusion of the femoral head appears to be a major factor that leads to femoral head deformation. (2) Deformation of the femoral head occurs in the latter part of the stage of fragmentation. The likelihood of preventing femoral head deformation is over 16 times higher if extrusion is reversed or prevented by the early stage of fragmentation than if done later. Several treatment options have been described in children who present later in the course of the disease but the outcomes of all these measures do not compare with those of early intervention. PMID:25593353

Joseph, Benjamin



Your Disease Risk  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Harvard School of Public Health is renowned for its fine outreach programs, and in recent years has also initiated a strong online presence. That presence includes this well-designed site (created by the Harvard Center for Cancer Prevention) which allows users to determine their potential risks for various diseases, including diabetes, cancer, osteoporosis, and strokes. By answering a few questions, visitors can learn about their various risk levels for these diseases, and also peruse a list of nine ways to stay healthy. Another section of the site answers such commonly-asked questions as "What is prevention?" and "What is a screening test?". The "Community Action" section of the site offers helpful tips on achieving some personal wellness and preventive goals through fact sheets on reducing tobacco use, promoting physical activity, and limiting alcohol consumption.


Mycobacterium ulcerans disease.  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium ulcerans disease (Buruli ulcer) is an important health problem in several west African countries. It is prevalent in scattered foci around the world, predominantly in riverine areas with a humid, hot climate. We review the epidemiology, bacteriology, transmission, immunology, pathology, diagnosis and treatment of infections. M. ulcerans is an ubiquitous micro-organism and is harboured by fish, snails, and water insects. The mode of transmission is unknown. Lesions are most common on exposed parts of the body, particularly on the limbs. Spontaneous healing may occur. Many patients in endemic areas present late with advanced, severe lesions. BCG vaccination yields a limited, relatively short-lived, immune protection. Recommended treatment consists of surgical debridement, followed by skin grafting if necessary. Many patients have functional limitations after healing. Better understanding of disease transmission and pathogenesis is needed for improved control and prevention of Buruli ulcer. PMID:16283056

van der Werf, Tjip S.; Stienstra, Ymkje; Johnson, R. Christian; Phillips, Richard; Adjei, Ohene; Fleischer, Bernhard; Wansbrough-Jones, Mark H.; Johnson, Paul D. R.; Portaels, Françoise; van der Graaf, Winette T. A.; Asiedu, Kingsley



General sexually transmitted diseases.  


This review discusses current trends in sexually transmitted diseases. Topics include treatment and prevention of syphilis and gonorrhea, as well as the association of sexually transmitted diseases with sexual assault. Also discussed are the various organisms that cause vulvitis, including Trichomonas, Candida, and Gardnerella species, along with a discussion of vulvar lesions that are especially difficult to diagnose and treat. Diagnosis, sampling, pathogenesis, and treatment of Chlamydia trachomatis are also covered. A discussion of the various degrees of protection offered by different forms of contraception encourages use of barrier methods and oral contraceptives for teenagers as well as postponement of sexual activity. Detection, treatment, and vaccination against genital herpes are covered, along with diagnosing anogenital warts in children as either skin or genital wart virus types, and the relationship between human papillomavirus and cancer. PMID:1958806

Paavonen, J



Glutamate and Neurodegenerative Disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system, glutamate is critically involved in most aspects of CNS function. Given this critical role, it is not surprising that glutamatergic dysfunction is associated with many CNS disorders. In this chapter, we review the literature that links aberrant glutamate neurotransmission with CNS pathology, with a focus on neurodegenerative diseases. The biology and pharmacology of the various glutamate receptor families are discussed, along with data which links these receptors with neurodegenerative conditions. In addition, we review progress that has been made in developing small molecule modulators of glutamate receptors and transporters, and describe how these compounds have helped us understand the complex pharmacology of glutamate in normal CNS function, as well as their potential for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

Schaeffer, Eric; Duplantier, Allen


Hydatid Disease in Toronto.  


Two case reports of Echinococcus granulosus disease are presented in detail, together with a survey of 35 cases of the disease encountered in Toronto hospitals since 1932; 32 of these have occurred since 1949. Only six of the 35 patients were born in and lived in Canada, and all of these came from Northern Ontario. The liver was involved in 20 of the 35 patients, and the lung in 16. In seven the lesions were multiple at the time of the first operation or several years later. The Casoni skin test was positive in 14 of 21 patients tested and the complement fixation test was positive in 13 of 16 subjects tested. Eosinophilia of 6% or more occurred in nine of the 26 patients on whom a differential white blood cell count was performed, and allergic manifestations were recorded in eight of the 35 subjects in the series. PMID:20327534

Finlayson, D M; Fergus, A



Dengue eye disease.  


Dengue fever, a viral disease epidemic in some parts of the world, is of considerable international concern, with a growing incidence owing to developing urbanization, tourism, and trade. Ocular manifestations of dengue fever are uncommon, but of great significance. Proposed mechanisms include direct viral infection as well as immunologic phenomena. Common manifestations include subconjunctival, vitreous, and retinal hemorrhages; posterior uveitis; optic neuritis; and maculopathies such as foveolitis, hemorrhage, and edema. Main symptoms include blurring of vision, scotomata, metamorphopsia, and floaters. Diagnostic and monitoring investigations described included optical coherence tomography, fundus fluorescein and indocyanine green angiography, visual field analysis, and electrophysiologic tests. Management is based on clinical presentation and includes active surveillance as well as various anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive therapies. There have been no prospective, randomized therapeutic trials, and it is unclear if the disease is self-limiting or if treatment is actually beneficial. Prognosis varies, ranging from full resolution to permanent vision loss despite intervention. PMID:25223497

Ng, Aaron W; Teoh, Stephen C



Emerging infectious diseases  

PubMed Central

The spectrum of human pathogens and the infectious diseases they cause is continuously changing through evolution and changes in the way human populations interact with their environment and each other. New human pathogens most often emerge from an animal reservoir, emphasizing the central role that non-human reservoirs play in human infectious diseases. Pathogens may also re-emerge with new characteristics, such as multidrug-resistance, or in different places, such as West Nile virus in the USA in 1999, to cause new epidemics. Most human pathogens have a history of evolution in which they first emerge and cause epidemics, become unstably adapted, re-emerge periodically, and eventually become endemic with the potential for future outbreaks. PMID:24563608

van Doorn, H. Rogier



HPV-associated diseases.  


Nearly 200 distinct human papilloma viruses (HPVs) have now been recognized, and each is associated with a specific set of clinical lesions. They are associated with a spectrum of diseases, from benign verrucae vulgares and condylomata acuminata to the malignancies of the cervix, vulva, anus, and penis. Disease associated with HPV can be divided into skin and mucosal lesion of the genital and extragenital regions. The relationship between HPV and nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is important clinically, because NMSC is the most common form of malignancy among fair-skinned populations. HPVs have also been detected in skin tags, lichen sclerosus, seborrheic keratoses, actinic keratoses, epidermal cysts, psoriatic plaques, and plucked hairs, but cutaneous HPV can be found on healthy skin. PMID:24559558

Ljubojevic, Suzana; Skerlev, Mihael



Microglia in Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a familiar neurodegenerative disease in the elderly. In this paper, we will review current viewpoints of microglial activation, inflammatory regulatory systems, and their relationship with AD pathology and etiology. Microglia cells are macrophage and representative of the innate immune system in brain. AD brain is marked by obvious inflammatory features, in which microglial activation is the driving force. ?-amyloid protein sedimentation activates microglia cells, which causes the inflammation in AD. Microglia cells have dual roles: they provoke the release of inflammatory factors and cytotoxins leading to neuronal injuries and death; on the other hand, they have the neuroprotective effects. Through this, we hope to illustrate that the anti-inflammatory defenses of neurons can be practiced in the future strategy for recuperating the balance between the levels of inflammatory mediators and immune regulators in AD. PMID:25197646

Li, Ying; Tan, Meng-Shan; Jiang, Teng



Obesity and Gastrointestinal Diseases  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of obesity in the Japanese population has been increasing dramatically in step with the Westernization of lifestyles and food ways. Our study demonstrated significant associations between obesity and a number of gastrointestinal disorders in a large sample population in Japan. We demonstrated that reflux esophagitis and hiatal hernia were strongly related to obesity (BMI > 25) in the Japanese. In particular, obesity with young male was a high risk for these diseases. On the other hand, it has been reported that obesity is also associated with Barrett's esophagus and colorectal adenoma; however, obesity was not a risk factor for these diseases in our study. The difference of ethnicity of our subjects may partly explain why we found no data to implicate obesity as a risk factor for Barrett's esophagus. Arterial sclerosis associated with advanced age and hyperglycemia was accompanied by an increased risk of colorectal adenoma. PMID:23781242

Fujimoto, Ai; Hoteya, Shu; Iizuka, Toshiro; Ogawa, Osamu; Mitani, Toshifumi; Kuroki, Yuichiro; Matsui, Akira; Nakamura, Masanori; Kikuchi, Daisuke; Yamashita, Satoshi; Furuhata, Tsukasa; Yamada, Akihiro; Nishida, Noriko; Arase, Koji; Hashimoto, Mitsuyo; Igarashi, Yoshinori; Kaise, Mitsuru



Atypical demyelinating disease1  

PubMed Central

A 17 year old girl died after an illness characterized by progressive mental deterioration and severe myoclonic jerks. Extensive pathological, virological, and immunological studies failed to support the diagnosis of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis but were compatible with disseminated demyelinating disease. The spinal fluid was positive for measles virus antibodies when examined by the fluorescent antibody technique, by complement fixation, and by haemagglutination inhibition tests, but the antibody titres were not high. The concentration of vaccinia antibody in the serum was consistent with that found in the general population and none was detected in the spinal fluid. Animal and tissue culture studies failed to disclose a viral agent, but pathological sections revealed perivascular cellular infiltration, demyelination, rare inclusion bodies, and multinucleated giant cells. Although these studies were not definitive, a record of procedures used and results obtained, both positive and negative, may be helpful to other investigators interested in defining more accurately the clinical features and the pathogenesis of these diseases. Images PMID:4371078

Adams, J. M.; Brown, W. J.; Cremer, N. E.; Eberle, E. D.; Fewster, M. E.; Lennette, E. H.



Emerging infectious diseases.  


The spectrum of human pathogens and the infectious diseases they cause is continuously changing through evolution and changes in the way human populations interact with their environment and each other. New human pathogens most often emerge from an animal reservoir, emphasizing the central role that non-human reservoirs play in human infectious diseases. Pathogens may also re-emerge with new characteristics, such as multidrug-resistance, or in different places, such as West Nile virus in the USA in 1999, to cause new epidemics. Most human pathogens have a history of evolution in which they first emerge and cause epidemics, become unstably adapted, re-emerge periodically, and eventually become endemic with the potential for future outbreaks. PMID:24563608

van Doorn, H Rogier



Anxiety and Parkinson's disease.  


Anxiety disorders, particularly generalized anxiety, panic, and social phobia, occur in up to 40% of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). This rate is higher than in normal or other disease comparison populations. Current evidence suggests that anxiety may not be a psychological reaction to the illness but rather may be linked to specific neurobiologic processes accompanying PD. Anxiety in PD often coexists with depression. The optimal pharmacologic treatment for anxiety in patients with PD has not been established, but available information about the use of anxiolytics in PD is reviewed. Further study of the relationship between anxiety and PD may provide an excellent opportunity to clarify the neurobiologic substrate of anxiety itself. PMID:9116473

Richard, I H; Schiffer, R B; Kurlan, R



Chronic Disease and Childhood Development: Kidney Disease and Transplantation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of a larger study of transplantation and chronic disease and the family, 124 children (10-18 years old) who were chronically ill with kidney disease (n=72) or were a year or more post-transplant (n=52) were included in a study focusing on the effects of chronic kidney disease and transplantation on children's psychosocial development. Ss…

Klein, Susan D.; Simmons, Roberta G.


Cerebral Small Vessel Disease and Chronic Kidney Disease  

PubMed Central

Chronic kidney disease, defined by a decreased glomerular filtration rate or albuminuria, is recognized as a major global health burden, mainly because it is an established risk factor for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. The magnitude of the effect of chronic kidney disease on incident stroke seems to be higher in persons of Asian ethnicity. Since the kidney and brain share unique susceptibilities to vascular injury due to similar anatomical and functional features of small artery diseases, kidney impairment can be predictive of the presence and severity of cerebral small vessel diseases. Chronic kidney disease has been reported to be associated with silent brain infarcts, cerebral white matter lesions, and cerebral microbleeds, independently of vascular risk factors. In addition, chronic kidney disease affects cognitive function, partly via the high prevalence of cerebral small vessel diseases. Retinal artery disease also has an independent relationship with chronic kidney disease and cognitive impairment. Stroke experts are no longer allowed to be ignorant of chronic kidney disease. Close liaison between neurologists and nephrologists can improve the management of cerebral small vessel diseases in kidney patients.



Mechanisms of Disease: pathogenesis of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are idiopathic, chronic, relapsing, inflammatory conditions that are immunologically mediated. Although their exact etiologies remain uncertain, results from research in animal models, human genetics, basic science and clinical trials have provided important new insights into the pathogenesis of chronic, immune-mediated, intestinal inflammation. These studies indicate that Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are heterogeneous diseases characterized

R Balfour Sartor



Inhaled dust and disease  

SciTech Connect

Asbestos is not the only dust with known pathogenic effects: metal, china clay, talc, and cotton are some of the many other sources of hazardous dust. This work provides research on the hazards of inhale dust, describing the progress of knowledge in the field and areas in which future studies are needed. Discussions cover the properties of hazardous dust materials, dust-related diseases and experimental research, related occupational and environmental hazards, epidemiological evidence quantifying the hazards of dust sources, and more.

Holt, P.E.



Brucellosis: a political disease  

USGS Publications Warehouse

With the challenges confronting North America's elk herds today, a bacteria that causes a nonfatal disease in a few elk herds seems an unlikely addition to the list. Fragmentation of habitat, dwindling bull-cow ratios, grazing competition from livestock on public rangelands, or the crowding of favorite hunting spots all seem like far more urgent matters to elk junkies. But a twist of fate an a national campaign to eradicate this seemingly innocuous bacterium have put brucellosis on the front burner.

Smith, B.; Roffe, T.J.



Inflammation and Alzheimer disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inflammatory mechanisms are active in patients with Alzheimer disease. Serum elevations of acute phase proteins such as ?1-antichymotrypsin,\\u000a along with deposition of inflammatory cytokines in the brain, suggest a “cerebral acute phase response” contributing to amyloid\\u000a deposition and tissue destruction. Activated microglia possessing HLA-DR surface markers accumulate around amyloid plaques.\\u000a The complement cascade leads to generation of the membrane attack

Paul S. Aisen



[Review of Peyronie's disease].  


Peyronie's disease may be idiopatic or secondary to sexual intercourse. Medical treatment includes vitamin E, colchicine and tamoxifen, which provide a very limited solution. Lately, intralesional injection of verapamil and other substances have achieved a reasonable effect. The best cosmetic result is achieved by surgery which is recommended at least a year after onset of the problem. Surgery may result in penile shortening. PMID:23367736

Stein, Avi; Dekel, Yoram



Malignancy in Crohn's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cancer morbidity has been evaluated in a series of 513 patients with Crohn's disease under long-term review between 1944-76. In comparison with morbidity rates for cancer in the West Midlands Region (the geographical area from which these patients were drawn) the 31 tumours that occurred represented a relative risk of 1.7 (P less than 0.01) of cancer at all sites.

S N Gyde; P Prior; J C Macartney; H Thompson; J A Waterhouse; R N Allan



Wilson's disease: MRI features  

PubMed Central

A 15-year-old boy presented with coarse tremors of right hand and dysarthric speech. Neurologic examination demonstrated Kayser-Fleischer rings and dystonic tremor of the right hand. Serum ceruloplasmin and urine copper studies established the diagnosis of Wilson's disease. Brain MRI showed bilateral T2 hyperintensity involving putamen, thalami, and brainstem. Involvement of brainstem revealed the characteristic “double panda sign.” PMID:21977083

Singh, Paramdeep; Ahluwalia, Archana; Saggar, Kavita; Grewal, Charanpreet Singh



Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diabetes has been shown to be increasing at a rapid rate in the United States. There estimates of 23.6 million individuals with diabetes with 1.6 million new cases being diagnosed annually. [1] Diabetes has long been known as a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. Experts indicate 38% of patients admitted to the hospital are diabetic.[2] Therefore one

Barbara “Bobbi” Leeper; Dl Mcgee



BCG Refractory Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a For the last 30 years, we have depended upon Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) therapy to reduce the recurrence of non invasive\\u000a urothelial carcinoma of the bladder and prevent the progression to muscle invasive disease. Since Morales first reported the\\u000a efficacy of BCG in 1976, no other form of systemic or intravesical therapy has produced comparable response rates especially\\u000a with carcinoma in-situ

Tara Allen; Graham F. Greene


Glycosylation diseases: Quo vadis?  

PubMed Central

About 250 to 500 glycogenes (genes that are directly involved in glycan assembly) are in the human genome representing about 1–2% of the total genome. Over 40 human congenital diseases associated with glycogene mutations have been described to date. It is almost certain that the causative glycogene mutations for many more congenital diseases remain to be discovered. Some glycogenes are involved in the synthesis of only a specific protein and/or a specific class of glycan whereas others play a role in the biosynthesis of more than one glycan class. Mutations in the latter type of glycogene result in complex clinical phenotypes that present difficult diagnostic problems to the clinician. In order to understand in biochemical terms the clinical signs and symptoms of a patient with a glycogene mutation, one must understand how the glycogene works. That requires, first of all, determination of the target protein or proteins of the glycogene followed by an understanding of the role, if any, of the glycogene-dependent glycan in the functions of the protein. Many glycogenes act on thousands of glycoproteins. There are unfortunately no general methods to identify all the potentially large number of glycogene target proteins and which of these proteins are responsible for the mutant phenotypes. Whereas biochemical methods have been highly successful in the discovery of glycogenes responsible for many congenital diseases, it has more recently been necessary to use other methods such as homozygosity mapping. Accurate diagnosis of many recently discovered diseases has become difficult and new diagnostic procedures must be developed. Last but not least is the lack of effective treatment for most of these children and of animal models that can be used to test new therapies. PMID:19061954

Schachter, Harry; Freeze, Hudson H.



Darier’s Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Darter’s disease is an autosomal dominant acantholytic disorder (OMIM # 124200) characterized by a peculiar keratinization of the epidermis,\\u000a nails, and mucous membranes, resulting in a persistent eruption of keratotic papules predominantly in seborrheic areas (upper\\u000a and central trunk, flexures, scalp and forehead), palmar pits and nail dystrophy. Involvement may be severe, with widespread\\u000a itchy malodorous crusted plaques, painful erosions,

Marimar Saez-De-Ocariz; Luz Orozco-Covarrubias; Carola Durán-McKinster; Ramón Ruiz-Maldonado


Metabolic Bone Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Metabolic bone disease encompasses a number of disorders that typically show involvement of the entire skeleton. They are\\u000a mostly associated with increased bone turnover and increased uptake of radiolabeled diphosphonate. The increased uptake produces\\u000a heightened contrast on bone scan between bone and soft tissues, deceptively giving the appearance of excellent image quality.\\u000a In more severe cases, there may be characteristic

Paul J. Ryan


Disease concomitance in psoriasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Psoriasis is a multifactorial disease of unknown origin.Objective: Our purpose was to determine the frequency of skin disorders concomitantly seen in patients with psoriasis.Methods: We analyzed data from more than 40,000 patients and calculated sex- and age-adjusted ratios of expected and observed incidence rates of associated disorders.Results: The results demonstrate that, compared with age-matched control patients without psoriasis, cutaneous

Tilo Henseler; Enno Christophers



Echinococcosis (Hydatid Disease)  

PubMed Central

Echinococcosis is a disease caused by the larval form of Echinococcus granulosus. The adult worm lives parasitically in the intestine of the definitive host, the dog, wolf and other wild carnivores. The ova, which are passed in the feces, are ingested by grazing animals. The intestinal juices free the ovum from its cuticle and, having entered a capillary, it is carried by the blood stream to the liver or lung, where it develops into a hydatid cyst. Man becomes infected by ingesting contaminated vegetables or drinking contaminated water. In a mature hydatid cyst there may be thousands of scolices and each one of these, if released from the hydatid cyst, may form a new cyst if it is planted in a suitable environment. Hydatid cysts are most commonly found in the liver and the lung, but may occur in other organs. A hepatic cyst may rupture into the peritoneal cavity and produce a hydatidoperitoneum. A pulmonary cyst frequently ruptures into a bronchus and is thus evacuated. The disease is of world-wide distribution. In Canada most of the cases of this disease have occurred among Indians and Eskimos. It is now known that a sylvatic cycle has been established in North America and that it serves as a source of infection of the dog and man. The patient reported herein had spontaneous rupture of a hepatic hydatid cyst, with subsequent development of secondary peritoneal echinococcosis. Repeated laparotomies had to be performed to relieve pressure on or obstruction of various organs. The patient made an uneventful recovery and is again usefully employed. No effective medical treatment for this disease is available. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3 PMID:13972527

Pump, K. K.



Congenital Cystic Lung Diseases  

PubMed Central

Congenital cystic diseases of the lung are a rare but significant cause of morbidity in children and young adults presenting with respiratory distress and repeated chest infections. They consist of cystic adenomatoid malformation, bronchogenic cyst, pulmonary sequestration, and congenital lobar emphysema. Surgical treatment is a safe and an effective method of treatment. Chest X-ray and computed tomography are the key imaging modalities used for diagnosis. PMID:23607074

Jain, Aditi; Anand, K; Singla, Saurabh; Kumar, Ashok



Congenital cystic lung diseases.  


Congenital cystic diseases of the lung are a rare but significant cause of morbidity in children and young adults presenting with respiratory distress and repeated chest infections. They consist of cystic adenomatoid malformation, bronchogenic cyst, pulmonary sequestration, and congenital lobar emphysema. Surgical treatment is a safe and an effective method of treatment. Chest X-ray and computed tomography are the key imaging modalities used for diagnosis. PMID:23607074

Jain, Aditi; Anand, K; Singla, Saurabh; Kumar, Ashok