Note: This page contains sample records for the topic diseases from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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Last update: August 15, 2014.
1

Parkinson's Disease  

MedlinePLUS

Parkinson’s Disease Introduction Parkinson’s disease is a common disease that affects muscle control. Parkinson’s disease affects about half a million people every year. The symptoms of Parkinson’s disease are easily treated. This ...

2

Parkinson's Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Deep Brain Stimulation Consortium Meeting Summary Parkinson's Disease Cell Biology Meeting Summary Parkinson's Disease Cell Biology Meeting Summary Udall Centers Meeting—Expediting Parkinson’s Disease ...

3

Tickborne Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

... this page Order publications Additional Information From NIAID Lyme Disease and Other Tickborne Diseases News Releases Vector Biology ... Types of Tickborne Diseases Babesiosis Ehrlichiosis and Anaplasmosis Lyme Disease Relapsing Fever Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Tularemia Understanding ...

4

Fabry's Disease  

MedlinePLUS

NINDS Fabry Disease Information Page Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What is Fabry Disease? Is there any ... is being done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Fabry Disease? Fabry disease is caused by the lack of ...

5

Behcet's Disease  

MedlinePLUS

NINDS Behcet's Disease Information Page Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What is Behcet's Disease? Is there ... Trials Organizations Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Behcet's Disease? Behcet's disease is a rare, chronic inflammatory ...

6

Crohn's Disease.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: What Are the Symptoms; What Causes Crohn's Disease and Who Gets It; How Does Crohn's Disease Affect Children; How is Crohn's Disease Diagnosed; What Is the Treatment; Can Diet Control Crohn's Disease; What Are the Complications of Crohn's Diseas...

1992-01-01

7

Ribbing disease  

PubMed Central

Ribbing disease is a rare sclerosing dysplasia that involves long tubular bones, especially the tibia and femur. It occurs after puberty and is reported to be more common in women. In this article we describe how Ribbing disease can be differentiated from diseases like Engelmann-Camurati disease, van Buchem disease, Erdheim-Chester disease, osteoid osteoma, chronic osteomyelitis, stress fracture, etc.

Mukkada, Philson J; Franklin, Teenu; Rajeswaran, Rangasami; Joseph, Santhosh

2010-01-01

8

Menkes Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... link in the menu on the left. Common Names Kinky hair disease Menkes disease Menkes syndrome Steely hair disease Medical or Scientific Names Congenital hypocupremia (pronounced kuhn-JEN-i-tl hahy- ...

9

Lyme Disease  

MedlinePLUS

newsletter | contact Share | Lyme Disease Teen information A A A A pink, ring-like, slightly raised rash that expands outward is a classic sign of Lyme disease. Overview Lyme disease is the result of infection ...

10

Lyme Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... JavaScript on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Lyme Disease Top Banner Content Area Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Understanding Lyme Disease A History of Lyme Disease, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment ...

11

Lyme Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... well as the northern midwestern states. What Is Lyme Disease? Lyme disease is caused by the bacterium Borrelia ... swollen joint, or facial paralysis. Can I Prevent Lyme Disease? There's no surefire way to avoid getting Lyme ...

12

Farber's Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... a group of inherited metabolic disorders called lipid storage diseases, in which excess amounts of lipids (oils, ... Institutes of Health (NIH), conducts research about lipid storage diseases such as Farber’s disease in laboratories at ...

13

Crohn's Disease  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... Crohn's disease is one of the 2 most common inflammatory bowel diseases or IBD. The other one is ulcerative colitis. ... Crohn's disease affects small children, too. The most common symptoms of Crohn's Disease are pain in the lower right abdomen and ...

14

Huntington's Disease  

MedlinePLUS

Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited disease that causes certain nerve cells in the brain to waste away. People are born ... t appear until middle age. Early symptoms of HD may include uncontrolled movements, clumsiness, and balance problems. ...

15

Huntington disease  

MedlinePLUS

Huntington disease is a disorder in which nerve cells in certain parts of the brain waste away, or ... Huntington disease is caused by a genetic defect on chromosome 4. The defect causes a part of DNA, ...

16

Gorham's disease.  

PubMed

Gorham's disease is a rare disorder characterised by proliferation of vascular channels that result in destruction and resorption of osseous matrix. A case of Gorham's disease presenting as chylothorax and osteolysis of ribs is presented. PMID:24968562

Jayaprakash, B; Prajeesh, B; Nair, Deepa S

2013-12-01

17

Hartnup Disease.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Hartnup disease is a rare genetic disorder of amino acid transport associated with variable and intermittent clinical abnormalities. A family is described in which three siblings had an intermittently progressive neurological disease and two of the affect...

A. J. Tahmoush D. H. Alpers R. D. Feigin V. Armbrustmacher A. L. Prensky

1976-01-01

18

Heart Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention ...

19

Lyme disease  

MedlinePLUS

Lyme disease is a bacterial infection that is spread through the bite of one of several types of ... Lyme disease is caused by bacteria called Borrelia burgdorferi ( B. burgdorferi) . Blacklegged ticks and other species of ticks ...

20

Lyme Disease  

MedlinePLUS

Lyme disease is a bacterial infection you get from the bite of an infected tick. The first symptom ... Muscle and joint aches A stiff neck Fatigue Lyme disease can be hard to diagnose because you may ...

21

Wilson Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... most individuals with WD is liver disease, appearing in late childhood or early adolescence as acute hepatitis, liver failure, or progressive chronic liver disease in the form of chronic active hepatitis or cirrhosis ...

22

Legionnaire disease  

MedlinePLUS

Legionnaire disease is an infection of the lungs and airways caused by Legionella bacteria. ... The bacteria that cause Legionnaire disease have been found in ... the warm, moist, air conditioning systems of large buildings, ...

23

Celiac Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... immune disease in which people can't eat gluten because it will damage their small intestine. If you have celiac disease and eat foods with gluten, your immune system responds by damaging the small ...

24

Autoimmune Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

... A disease in which people can't tolerate gluten, a substance found in wheat, rye, and barley, ... disease eat foods or use products that have gluten, the immune system responds by damaging the lining ...

25

Autoimmune diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental models of autoimmune disease have been used to dissect the mechanisms of disease pathogenesis in the corresponding\\u000a human diseases. This chapter will deal with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) as a model for human multiple\\u000a sclerosis (MS) and experimental autoimmune diabetes (EAD) in the NOD mouse as a model for human diabetes. In the case of these\\u000a tissue-specific autoimmune diseases,

William J. Karpus

26

Autoimmune Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

... of the body. No one is sure what causes autoimmune diseases. They do tend to run in families. Women - ... a low fever. The classic sign of an autoimmune disease is inflammation, which can cause redness, heat, pain and swelling. The diseases may ...

27

Wilson Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wilson disease (WD) is an autosomal recessive inherited disorder of copper metabolism, resulting in pathological accumulation of copper in many organs and tissues. The hallmarks of the disease are the presence of liver disease, neurologic symptoms, and Kayser–Fleischer corneal rings. The leading neurologic symptoms in WD are dysathria, dyspraxia, ataxia, and Parkinsonian-like extrapyramidal signs. Changes in the basal ganglia in

Reinhard Kitzberger; Christian Madl; Peter Ferenci

2005-01-01

28

Meniere's Disease.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Meniere's disease is characterized by unpredictable spells of severe vertigo and fluctuations in hearing and tinnitus. This article discusses the incidence of Meniere's disease, the present status of our understanding of this disease, controversies in its diagnosis, and the multiple therapeutic modalities recruited in its treatment. (Contains…

Schessel, David A.

1997-01-01

29

Fabry Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTIONFabry disease, also known as Anderson–Fabry disease, is an X-linked inborn error of metabolism caused by deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme ?-galactosidase A, the gene for which is localized at Xq22. It is the second most common lysosomal storage disorder (after Gaucher disease). Birth frequency estimates range from 1 : 20 000 to 1 : 100 000. As a consequence

Lionel Ginsberg; Alan Valentine; Atul Mehta

2005-01-01

30

Hodgkin Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Night sweats Weight loss Loss of appetite Itchy skin To diagnose Hodgkin disease, doctors use a physical exam and history, blood tests, and a biopsy. Treatment depends on how far the disease has spread. It often includes radiation therapy or chemotherapy. The earlier the disease is diagnosed, ...

31

Lyme Disease  

MedlinePLUS

newsletter | contact Share | Lyme Disease A parent's guide to condition and treatment information A A A Lyme disease may simply be displayed as a subtle area ... rather than the classic bull's-eye rash. Overview Lyme disease is the result of infection with the bacteria ...

32

Lyme Disease.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This overview of the public health significance of Lyme disease includes the microbiological specifics of the infectious spirochete, the entomology and ecology of the ticks which are the primary disease carrier, the clinical aspects and treatment stages, the known epidemiological patterns, and strategies for disease control and for expanded public…

Taylor, George C.

1991-01-01

33

Lyme Disease  

MedlinePLUS

newsletter | contact Share | Lyme Disease Information for adults A A A Lyme disease frequently presents as a red or pink circle that is short- ... rash is noticed by the person affected. Overview Lyme disease is the result of infection with the bacteria ...

34

Fifth Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... are the symptoms of fifth disease? The most common symptom of fifth disease is a bright red raised rash that appears ... 5 to 7 years old. It is most common in the spring. Adults who haven’t had fifth disease before can catch it, but many adults have ...

35

Autoinflammatory Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

... treatment, a synthetic form of human IL-1Ra. Behçet’s Disease Behçet’s disease causes canker sores or ulcers in the ... of the digestive tract, brain, and spinal cord. Behçet’s disease is common in the Middle East, Asia, ...

36

Addison's disease  

PubMed Central

Addison's disease is a rare endocrinal disorder, with several oral and systemic manifestations. A variety of pathological processes may cause Addison's disease. Classically, hyperpigmentation is associated with the disease, and intraoral pigmentation is perceived as the initial sign and develops earlier than the dermatological pigmentation. The symptoms of the disease usually progress slowly and an event of illness or accident can make the condition worse and may lead to a life-threatening crisis. In this case, several oral as well as systemic manifestation of the Addison's disease was encountered.

Sarkar, Soumya Brata; Sarkar, Subrata; Ghosh, Supratim; Bandyopadhyay, Subhankar

2012-01-01

37

Prion Diseases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Prion Diseases is one of a set of lecture notes for Virology 335 by Shaun Heaphy of Leicester University (UK). It contains detailed information on its topic, along with selected links. Although prion research has been going on for over 25 years, the scientific and medical communities have only recently acknowledged the existence of prions and there remains serious debate over their role in a variety of neurological diseases. The name "prion" is derived from "proteinaceous infectious particles," and was coined by Dr. Stanley Prusiner, who discovered the agents and who recently received the Nobel Prize for Medicine for his work. Prions are thought to be the first transmissible and heritable disease-causing agents that lack DNA and RNA. They are composed solely of protein and appear to be the cause of such diseases as kuru and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans, and bovine spongiform encephalopathies, mad cow disease, and scrapie in sheep and goats.

Heaphy, Shaun.

1997-01-01

38

Borna disease.  

PubMed

Borna disease virus, a newly classified nonsegmented negative-strand RNA virus with international distribution, infects a broad range of warm-blooded animals from birds to primates. Infection causes movement and behavioral disturbances reminiscent of some neuropsychiatric syndromes. The virus has not been clearly linked to any human disease; however, an association between infection with the virus and selected neuropsychiatric disorders has been suggested. We reviewed recent advances in Borna disease virus research, focusing on evidence of infection in humans. PMID:9204293

Hatalski, C G; Lewis, A J; Lipkin, W I

1997-01-01

39

Lyme Disease  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A little microorganism called a spirochete causes Lyme disease, which can cause extremely severe symptoms, including neck stiffness, acute headaches, neurological damage, and rheumatoid arthritis-like problems. Lyme disease is transmitted by ticks and so is tied to the ticks' life cycle. Lyme disease is also seen by veterinarians, largely in dogs, for whom it can be fatal. Lyme research is ongoing on numerous fronts.

Dr. Leslie Nader (MSMR)

1992-04-14

40

[Cardiological diseases].  

PubMed

Knowledge of rare but important clinical disease symptoms in cardiology is of vital importance in the daily routine as severe courses of disease as well as death may be prevented by early diagnosis, effective monitoring and timely initiation of an adequate therapy. In this article an important rhythmological disease, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, as well as two significant structural diseases, takotsubo (stress-related) cardiomyopathy and aortic aneurysm related to Marfan syndrome, as well as their implications for clinical practice will be presented. PMID:24005787

Gross, L; Massberg, S; Sibbing, D

2013-10-01

41

Hodgkin's disease  

SciTech Connect

The outlook for patients with Hodgkin's disease has improved dramatically over the past 20 years. The question is no longer whether cure is possible, but rather, how can cure be best achieved. With better understanding of the biology of Hodgkin's disease and with continued evolution of treatment approaches, the goal of curing all patients with Hodgkin's disease is clearly within reach. This article provides a summary of current concepts in the biology and management of Hodgkin's disease. Staging, treatment options, and complications of therapy are discussed.

Portlock, C.S.

1984-05-01

42

[Wilson's disease].  

PubMed

Wilson's disease is a disorder of the liver's copper metabolism. Accumulation of copper causes liver and central nervous system damage. Wilson's disease should always be suspected, when a liver disease is detected in a child or an adolescent. The disease may also manifest itself as severe neurological or neuropsychiatric disorders. The diagnosis is often delayed despite the fact that the accumulation of copper in the body can be shown by various means. Early started medication will stop the accumulation of copper into the body. If the treatment is delayed or ineffective, liver transplantation is required. PMID:20597314

Moilanen, Veikko; Mäkisalo, Heikki

2010-01-01

43

[Disease mechanisms in coeliac disease].  

PubMed

Coeliac disease is a chronic inflammatory disorder that is caused by an inappropriate immune response in the gut to wheat gluten and similar proteins of barley and rye. The disease has a multifactorial aetiology involving multiple genes and environmental factors. In recent years we have gained new knowledge of the molecular basis of this disorder; this paper gives an overview of the current understanding of the pathogenesis of coeliac disease. PMID:14714017

Sollid, Ludvig M; Lundin, Knut E A

2003-11-20

44

Protozoal diseases.  

PubMed

The clinical and pathologic findings of and therapy for such protozoal diseases as equine protozoal myeloencephalitis, toxoplasmosis, sarcocystosis, pneumocytosis, cryptosporidiosis, giardiasis, besnoitiosis, and klossiellosis are discussed. Emphasis is placed on disorders that occur with greater frequency in North America and on emerging protozoal diseases affecting horses. PMID:3091219

Mayhew, I G; Greiner, E C

1986-08-01

45

Lyme Disease.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The video discusses what lyme disease is, what causes it, how to avoid getting lyme disease, and how it is treated. The video includes graphic illustrations, b-roll, and interview with doctor. The tape is based on 'Medicine for the Public' lecture present...

1994-01-01

46

ALZHEIMER DISEASE  

PubMed Central

A recent study has used whole-exome sequencing, an ‘extreme trait’ design and imaging genetics to identify coding variants associated with hippocampal volume loss in Alzheimer disease. The research highlights the utility of next-generation sequencing and association studies involving quantitative traits for discovery of disease-related variants in neurodegeneration.

Apostolova, Liana G.

2014-01-01

47

Prostate Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

... many years, eventually dying of unrelated conditions. How Common are Prostate Diseases? Approximately 3 million American men have some type ... under the age of 40, it becomes more common in older men, and almost half of ... 30,000 die of the disease, making it the second most deadly cancer in ...

48

Celiac disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Celiac disease is a chronic intestinal disease caused by intolerance to gluten. It is characterized by immune-mediated enteropathy, associated with maldigestion and malabsorption of most nutrients and vitamins. In predisposed individuals, the ingestion of gluten-containing food such as wheat and rye induces a flat jejunal mucosa with infiltration of lymphocytes. The main symptoms are: stomach pain, gas, and bloating, diarrhea,

Wolfgang Holtmeier; Wolfgang F Caspary

2006-01-01

49

Photoresponsive diseases.  

PubMed

Photoresponsive diseases are skin diseases or conditions that are known to respond with partial or complete clearing to ultraviolet exposure. Phototherapy may be used as a single therapy or as combination therapy with other treatments. Health care professionals providing phototherapy treatment are responsible for educating patients regarding the benefits and risks of phototherapy. PMID:17330554

Muekusch, Gabriele; Pitman, Judith; Smiljanic, Dara

2007-02-01

50

Celiac disease.  

PubMed

Celiac disease is an autoimmune disease that occurs in genetically predisposed individuals as the result of an immune response to gluten. This immune response occurs in both the lamina propria and the epithelium of the small intestine. There is a close link to HLA DQ2 and DQ8, although these HLA genes account for only 40% of the genetic influence. Environmental factors, such as the amount and timing of gluten administration in infancy, as well as breastfeeding, influence the disease. Serologic screening studies that use sensitive and specific antibody tests have revealed the disease to be common, occurring in approximately 1% of the population. Clinical presentations are diverse and atypical; the majority of patients lack diarrhea. Therapy is a gluten-free diet that requires avoidance of wheat, rye, and barley, although there is potential for other therapies based on our understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease. PMID:16409146

Green, Peter H R; Jabri, Bana

2006-01-01

51

[Infectious diseases].  

PubMed

In 2008, several publications have highlighted the role of climate change and globalization on the epidemiology of infectious diseases. Studies have shown the extension towards Europe of diseases such as Crimea-Congo fever (Kosovo, Turkey and Bulgaria), leismaniosis (Cyprus) and chikungunya virus infection (Italy). The article also contains comments on Plasmodium knowlesi, a newly identified cause of severe malaria in humans, as well as an update on human transmission of the H5NI avian influenza virus. It also mentions new data on Bell's palsy as well as two vaccines (varicella-zoster and pneumococcus), and provides a list of recent guidelines for the treatment of common infectious diseases. PMID:19216322

Chapuis-Taillard, Caroline; de Vallière, Serge; Bochud, Pierre-Yves

2009-01-01

52

Gaucher's disease  

PubMed Central

Gaucher's disease (GD) is the most common amongst the various disorders classified under the lysosomal storage disorders. GD is a model for applications of molecular medicine to clinical delineation, diagnosis, and treatment. The multiorgan and varied presentation of the disease makes it a challenge to diagnose GD early. The advent of enzyme replacement therapy in the early 1990s changed the management, and survival, of patients with GD. In addition to this, development of substrate reduction, pharmacological chaperone, and gene therapies has broadened the horizon for this rare disease. However, in resource-poor countries like ours, optimal management is still a distant dream.

Bohra, Vijay; Nair, Velu

2011-01-01

53

Celiac Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Celiac disease is induced by the ingestion of gluten, which is derived from wheat, barley, and rye. The gluten protein is enriched in glutamine and proline and is poor- ly digested in the human upper gastrointestinal tract. The term \\

Peter H. R. Green; Christophe Cellier

2007-01-01

54

Lyme Disease  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... Lyme, Connecticut, and in surrounding areas, developed arthritis. Health care providers soon found out that the arthritis was ... is usually painless. To diagnose Lyme disease, the health care provider asks the patient questions about recent activities ...

55

Leishmaniasis Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... the skin and cause sores in the mucous membranes of the nose (most common location), mouth, or ... Leishmaniasis General Information Leishmaniasis FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology Disease Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health ...

56

Meniere's Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... vertigo (attacks of a spinning sensation), hearing loss, tinnitus (a roaring, buzzing, or ringing sound in the ... of the disease, hearing loss often becomes permanent. Tinnitus and fullness of the ear may come and ...

57

Lyme Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... spread the disease to animals and humans through tick bites. These ticks are typically about the size of ... may appear 3 to 30 days after the tick bite. This rash usually starts at the site of ...

58

Still's Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... your disease are: Learn more about arthritis treatments. Discover ways to make living with arthritis easier. Understand ... pain and the best ways to manage it. Discover what is happening with arthritis research. Help researchers ...

59

Epidemic Diseases.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The chemotherapy of epidemic diseases in tropical countries poses important practical problems which tend to be underestimated in those western countries where patients can be admitted to a hospital, precisely diagnosed and given the drug appropriate to t...

D. A. Warrell P. L. Perine D. W. Krause

1976-01-01

60

Buerger's Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... is most common in the Orient, Southeast Asia, India and the Middle East, but appears to be ... prevent clots) have not proven effective. The only way to prevent the progression of the disease is ...

61

Alzheimer's Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... years or more if the person is younger. Memory Problems Memory problems are typically one of the first signs ... worried, angry, or violent. Not all people with memory problems have Alzheimer’s disease. Mild forgetfulness can be ...

62

Disease Resources  

Cancer.gov

Key Programs Disease Resources The ASCUS/LSIL Triage Study for Cervical Cancer (ALTS) Human Papillomavirus Cervical Cancer Screening NCI Bethesda System 2001 The Bethesda System Web Atlas National Cervical Cancer Coalition American Social

63

Reportable diseases  

MedlinePLUS

... report by phone. Examples are rubeola (measles) and pertussis (whooping cough). Report of total number of cases: Examples are ... Meningococcal disease Mumps Novel influenza A virus infections Pertussis ... Poliovirus infection, nonparalytic Psittacosis Q-fever ...

64

Fifth disease  

MedlinePLUS

... only have mild symptoms. However, the virus can cause anemia in an unborn baby and even cause miscarriage. ... such as sickle cell anemia Fifth disease can cause severe anemia , which will need medical treatment.

65

Crohn disease  

PubMed Central

Crohn disease (CD) is a chronic and debilitating inflammatory condition of the gastrointestinal tract.1 Prevalence in western populations is 100–150/100,000 and somewhat higher in Ashkenazi Jews. Peak incidence is in early adult life, although any age can be affected and a majority of affected individuals progress to relapsing and chronic disease. Medical treatments rely significantly on empirical corticosteroid therapy and immunosuppression, and intestinal resectional surgery is frequently required. Thus, 80% of patients with CD come to surgery for refractory disease or complications. It is hoped that an improved understanding of pathogenic mechanisms, for example by studying the genetic basis of CD and other forms of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), will lead to improved therapies and possibly preventative strategies in individuals identified as being at risk.

Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S.; Rioux, John D.; Mizoguchi, Atsushi; Saitoh, Tatsuya; Huett, Alan; Darfeuille-Michaud, Arlette; Wileman, Tom; Mizushima, Noboru; Carding, Simon; Akira, Shizuo; Parkes, Miles; Xavier, Ramnik J.

2011-01-01

66

Binswanger's Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Information Page Synonym(s): Subcortical Arteriosclerotic Encephalopathy, Dementia - Subcortical Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What ... or gradual and then progress in a stepwise manner. BD can often coexist with Alzheimer's disease. Behaviors ...

67

Alzheimer Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... neurotransmitters (say: nur-oh- trans -mih-terz), allow brain cells to communicate with each other. But a person ... to other parts of the brain. Over time, brain cells affected by Alzheimer disease also begin to shrink ...

68

Alpers' Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... in the gene for the mitochondrial DNA polymerase POLG. The disease occurs in about one in 100, ... symptoms. Diagnosis is established by testing for the POLG gene. Symptoms typically occur months before tissue samples ...

69

Gaucher Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... of the inherited metabolic disorder known as lipid storage diseases. Lipids are fatty materials that include oils, ... to find ways to treat and prevent lipid storage disorders. This research includes clinical studies by the ...

70

Graves' Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... thyroid hormone. This overactive thyroid state is called hyperthyroidism. Doctors don't know what causes Graves' disease, ... your doctor will check for additional signs of hyperthyroidism, including fast heart rate, irregular heart rhythm, hand ...

71

Graves' Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... see if levels return to normal. Radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU). An RAIU tells how much iodine the ... uses it to make thyroid hormone. A high uptake suggests Graves' disease. This test can be helpful ...

72

Kawasaki Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Digg. Share this page from the NHLBI on Facebook. Add this link to the NHLBI to my ... treatment helps reduce the risk of Kawasaki disease affecting the coronary arteries and causing serious problems. Outlook ...

73

Hirschsprung Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... appear months or years later. Hirschsprung disease can cause constipation, diarrhea, and vomiting and sometimes lead to serious colon complications, like enterocolitis and toxic megacolon, which can be life threatening. So it's ... The large intestine moves digested material through the ...

74

[Celiac disease].  

PubMed

Celiac disease is an enteropathy due to gluten intake in genetically predisposed individuals (HLA DQ2/DQ8). Celiac disease occurs in adults and children at rates approaching 1% of population in Europe and USA. Clinical features observed in celiac disease are extremely various and anaemia, oral aphthous stomatis, amenorrhea or articular symptoms may be the only presenting manifestations. Diagnosis relies on the evidence of histological villous atrophy in proximal small bowel and the presence of specific serum antibodies. Treatment relies on eviction of gluten (wheat, barley, rye) from diet. Gluten free diet allows prevention of malignant complications such as small bowel adenocarcinoma and lymphoma, and osteopenia. The main cause of resistance to gluten free diet is its poor observance. If not the case, serious complications of celiac disease, such as clonal refractory celiac sprue and intestinal T-cell lymphoma should be suspected. Current therapeutic challenges concern alternative to gluten free diet and new efficient treatments of lymphomatous complications. PMID:20359791

Malamut, G; Cellier, C

2010-06-01

75

Heart Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... heart disease and stroke. The NIH-supported Cardiovascular Cell Therapy Research Network is exploring the use of bone ... cctrn/ ). Network researchers are investigating the types of cells suitable for therapy, optimal numbers of cells to use, and methods ...

76

Chagas disease  

MedlinePLUS

... help control the spread of the disease. Blood banks in Central and South America screen donors for ... discarded if the donor tests positive. Most blood banks in the United States began screening for Chagas ...

77

Crohn's Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... can help control symptoms, and may include medicines, nutrition supplements, and/or surgery. Some people have long periods of remission, when they are free of symptoms. NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

78

Chagas disease  

PubMed Central

Chagas disease is the clinical condition triggered by infection with the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. The infection is transmitted by triatomine insects while blood feeding on a human host. Field studies predict that one third of an estimated 18 million T cruzi?infected humans in Latin America will die of Chagas disease. Acute infections are usually asymptomatic, but the ensuing chronic T cruzi infections have been associated with high ratios of morbidity and mortality: Chagas heart disease leads to unexpected death in 37.5% of patients, 58% develop heart failure and die and megacolon or megaoesophagus has been associated with death in 4.5%. The pathogenesis of Chagas disease appears to be related to a parasite?induced mutation of the vertebrate genome. Currently, treatment is unsatisfactory.

Teixeira, A R L; Nitz, N; Guimaro, M C; Gomes, C

2006-01-01

79

Huntington's Disease.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As the aviation population ages, it increasingly becomes affected by neurological diseases that may cause disability and reduce mobility and freedom, both mentally and physically. While some disorders progress slowly with relatively little effect, others ...

R. Craig-Gray

2012-01-01

80

Alzheimer's disease  

MedlinePLUS

Senile dementia - Alzheimer's type (SDAT); SDAT ... You are more likely to get Alzheimer's disease (AD) if you: Are older. However, developing AD is not a part of normal aging. Have a close blood relative, such ...

81

Vaginal Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

... symptoms. Common causes are bacterial infections, trichomoniasis, and yeast infections. Some other causes of vaginal symptoms include sexually transmitted diseases, vaginal cancer, and vulvar cancer. Treatment of vaginal problems depends ...

82

[Prion disease].  

PubMed

Human prion diseases are classified into 3 categories according to etiologies: idiopathic of unknown cause, acquired of infectious origin, and genetic by PRNP mutation. The surveillance committee have analyzed 2,494 cases and identified 1,402 as prion diseases. Most of them are idiopathic, namely sporadic CJD (77%) with less genetic and acquired prion diseases (17% and 5%, respectively). The number of patients identified by the surveillance committee in these years is about 120 which are less than the number of annual death of prion disease. The difference might be due to partly the fact our surveillance need the consent from patients' family and is not complete. The mean age at onset of prion disease is late 60s while the range is fairly wide. Brain MRIs and increase of CSF 14-3-3 and tau protein levels are very characteristic. Classical sporadic CJD could show completely normal T1WI with patchy high signals in the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia on DWI. In Japan, classical sporadic CJD (MM1) is most popular but there are some rare atypical subtypes. Among them, MM2-thalamic CJD is hardest to diagnose because it shows no high intensity signals on DWI, in addition to frequent absence of CSF and EEG characteristics. In this case, CBF decrease in the thalamus on SPECT is very helpful. Genetic prion diseases in Japan are quite distinct from those in Europe. V180I and M232R mutations are unique to Japan and show sporadic CJD phenotype. Dura graft-associated CJD (dCJD) are composed of 67% of classical sporadic CJD phenotype and 33% of atypical phenotype showing slower progression with amyloid plaques. Trace-back experiments suggested the PrP(sc) of the atypical dCJD was likely to be modified from infection of abnormal VV2 protein. Although there are some atypical forms of prion diseases as mentioned above, almost all prion cases could be diagnosed with EEG, MRI, genetic test, CSF test and SPECT. We also have some incidents in which brain surgery was done before the diagnosis of prion disease and many other patients were operated using the same operating instruments before their sterilization against prion disease had been done. The explanation of possibility of prion disease infection to the patients and their follow-up was started by the incident committee. It is very important for all the nations to cooperate with each other in order to overcome this intractable disease. PMID:21921445

Mizusawa, Hidehiro

2010-11-01

83

Graves’ Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hyperthyroid Graves’ disease is one of the commonest autoimmune disorders, affecting about 1% of women. It is most frequent\\u000a in the 4th decade of life. There is a genetic predisposition to Graves’ disease, determined by alleles at the major histocompatibility\\u000a complex (MHC), cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen (CTLA-4), protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor 22 (PTPN22), and other less well-defined chromosomal loci. Additional, non-genetic,

Simon H. S. Pearce

84

Chronic Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and human immunodeficiency virus infection are three separate entities,\\u000a each has causal and non-causal risk factors that are common in the stage 5 chronic kidney disease population. The medical\\u000a nutrition therapies are similar, which emphasize adequate protein and energy intakes, fluid control, and possibly carbohydrate\\u000a and fat modifications. Each patient requires an individualized evaluation, taking

Sharon R. Schatz

85

Celiac disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinically, celiac disease has always been regarded as a wasting, malabsorptive disorder due to disease of the small intestinal\\u000a mucosa. It has been difficult for clinicians to recognize that this condition is primarily due to sensitization of mesenteric\\u000a T lymphocytes to wheat protein (gluten) in genetically predisposed (DQ2+) individuals. On contact with dietary-derived gluten in the upper intestine, these sensitized

Debbie Williamson; Michael N. Marsh

2002-01-01

86

Lentil Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fungal diseases of lentils are the most important biological constraint to productivity. Ascochyta lentis (ascochyta blight) and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lentis (fusarium wilt) are the major fungal pathogens that can cause severe losses in most lentil growing regions of the world.\\u000a Fungal diseases such as botrytis grey mould (Botrytis fabae and B. cinerea), rust (Uromyces viciae-fabae), stemphylium blight (Stemphylium

Paul Taylor; Kurt Lindbeck; Weidong Chen; Rebecca Ford

87

[Allergic diseases as environmental diseases].  

PubMed

Respiratory allergic diseases belong to atopic diseases. Their prevalence has steadily increased over the past decades. Recently, a plateau effect seems to occur. This increased prevalence should be related to environmental changes. However, "classical" aerocontaminants, such as aero-allergens and air pollutants cannot account for such a drastic increase in prevalence. Change in diet can account for biological changes but the relation to allergic diseases seems questionable. Use of contraceptive pills and caesarean section had been put forward as hypotheses but their implication seems unlikely. Among the classical risk factors, 2 only should remain in the primary prevention of atopic diseases, namely, prolonged breast feeding and avoiding passive smoking. The major input of epidemiological research over the past decades lies in the "hygienic hypothesis" and the protective effect of early exposure to farm animals and raw cow milk. Progress to come in this field should lie in a better knowledge of in utero exposure on the foetal immune system. PMID:17717941

Charpin, Denis

2007-06-30

88

Infection and Cardiovascular Disease  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Cardiovascular Diseases; Coronary Disease; Cerebrovascular Accident; Heart Diseases; Myocardial Infarction; Infection; Chlamydia Infections; Cytomegalovirus Infections; Helicobacter Infections; Atherosclerosis

2005-06-23

89

Cryoglobulinemic disease.  

PubMed

"Cryoglobulinemia" refers to the presence of cryoglobulins (immunoglobulins that precipitate at variable temperatures < 37 degrees C [98.6 degrees F]) in serum. Monoclonal cryoglobulinemia (type I) involves a single type of monoclonal immunoglobulin, while mixed cryoglobulinemia involves a mixture either of polyclonal immunoglobulin (Ig) G and monoclonal IgM (type II), or of polyclonal IgG and polyclonal IgM (type Ill); both monoclonal and polyclonal IgM have rheumatoid factor activity. Cryoglobulinemia is a unique model of human disease for several reasons: (1) cryoglobulins are detected using a simple technical approach that is based on in vitro laboratory observation of cold precipitation in serum; (2) cryoglobulinemic organ damage may be produced by two different etiopathogenic mechanisms (accumulation of cryoglobulins and autoimmune-mediated vasculitic damage); and (3) cryoglobulinemia is associated with a wide range of etiologies, symptoms, and outcomes, and is considered a disease that combines elements of autoimmune and lymphoproliferative diseases. There are three main broad treatment strategies in cryoglobulinemia-conventional immunosuppression, antiviral treatment, and biologic therapy. Some agents, such as corticosteroids and rituximab, have been successfully used in all types of cryoglobulinemia; however, treatment should be modulated according to the underlying associated disease (chronic viral infections, autoimmune diseases, or cancer), the predominant etiopathogenic damage (vasculitis vs. hyperviscosity), and the severity of internal organ involvement. PMID:24575538

Retamozo, Soledad; Brito-Zerón, Pilar; Bosch, Xavier; Stone, John H; Ramos-Casals, Manuel

2013-11-01

90

Wilson's disease.  

PubMed

(Full text is available at http://www.manu.edu.mk/prilozi). Wilson's disease (WD) is a disorder of copper transport resulting from the defective function of a copper transporting P-type ATPase, ATP7B. The WD incidence is approximately 1/50-10,000 live births worldwide. Clinical manifestations of WD may be of any kind, but usually the symptoms of presentation are hepatic or neuropsychiatric, with a vast range of disturbances for both groups of symptoms. In children, however, clinical symptoms may be absent, making the diagnosis of the disease more difficult than in adults. Hepatic manifestations may range from asymptomatic minor biochemical disturbances, to acute, but mostly chronic, hepatitis, cirrhosis or severe fulminant hepatic failure. The spectrum of neurological manifestations is wide, including tremor, hypersalivation, Dysarthria, coordination defects, dystonia, ataxia. The spectrum of psychiatric manifestations is considerable and may include different disturbances such as altered working performance, anxiety, depression and antisocial behaviour. Kayser-Fleischer rings (KF) are present in 95% of patients with neurological symptoms and somewhat over half of those without neurological symptoms. In children presenting with liver disease, KF rings are usually absent. To obtain a more reliable diagnosis of WD, the Leipzig scoring system was proposed by an international consensus of experts. Wilson's disease copper overload is treated with chelating agents such as penicillamine, trientine and tetrathiomolybdate. Zinc is used mostly for mantainance therapy or the treatment of asymptomatic WD patients. Key words: Wilson diseases, copper, cirrhosis, children. PMID:24798599

Loudianos, G; Lepori, M B; Mameli, E; Dessì, V; Zappu, A

2014-01-01

91

[Castlemans disease].  

PubMed

Castlemans disease is a rare but potentially serious diagnosis and, therefore, this paper aims to enhance the medical community's knowledge of this diverse disease. This is a non-malignant angiofollicular nodular hyperplasia. There are three types according to the histological picture - hyalinvascular, plasmocellular and plasmablastic, and two types according to the clinical picture - unicentric and multicentric. The symptoms are rather heterogeneous, from an asymptomatic mass seen in the unicentric form, to life-threatening systemic inflammatory state with systemic symptoms in the multicentric form. Pathophysiological mechanism involves hypersecretion of IL-6 cytokin, although the process trigger is known only in a small proportion of cases. This is HHV-8 infection that, however, is not found in every patient with Castlemans disease. Aetiology in HHV-8 negative patients is unclear. The disease is associated with a range of autoimmune conditions and some haematological malignancies. Surgical resection, some-times followed with radiotherapy, is the gold standard in the treatment of the unicentric form. Anti-IL-6 monoclonal antibodies are the optimal therapy of the multicentric form, although other modalities, including corticosteroids, chemotherapy (CHOP, CVAD), immunomodulators and rituximab, given in monotherapy or in combination, are more accessible in real practice. PMID:22486288

Majer?áková, D

2012-03-01

92

[Darier disease].  

PubMed

Darier disease (Darier-White disease, dyskeratosis follicularis) is a rare autosomal dominant genodermatosis with regional differences in prevalence. The responsible mutations have been identified on chromosome 12q23-24.1. The gene encodes a calcium-ATPase type 2 in the sarco-/endoplasmic reticulum (SERCA2), which belongs to the large family of P-type cation pumps. This pump couples ATP hydrolysis to the transport of cations across membranes and thus plays a significant role in intracellular calcium signaling. Neuropsychiatric disorders are often associated with Darier disease. However, these diseases are not due to mutations in the gene ATP2A2 but to a susceptibility locus in a 6.5 Mb region near this gene. Currently, the treatment is strictly limited to the relief of symptoms. In severe cases, oral retinoids (acitretin: initial 10-20 mg/Tag and isotretinoin: 0.5-1 mg/kg/day) lead to a response in 90% of cases. However, side effects often prevent long-term use of vitamin A derivatives. PMID:23337962

Klausegger, A; Laimer, M; Bauer, J W

2013-01-01

93

Lung Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

When you breathe, your lungs take in oxygen from the air and deliver it to the bloodstream. The cells in your body need oxygen to ... you breathe nearly 25,000 times. People with lung disease have difficulty breathing. Millions of people in ...

94

Lyme Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lyme disease is caused by the spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, a fastidious, microaerophilic bacterium that replicates slowly and requires special media to grow in the laboratory\\u000a (Shapiro and Gerber 2000). The organism has been subclassified into several genomospecies, including B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. garinii, B. afzelii and others. Different genomospecies seem to be associated with an increased likelihood

Eugene D. Shapiro

95

Infectious Diseases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With the threat of a warmer, wetter world and a larger global population, scientists are researching how climate change may impact the spread of infectious diseases,Âsuch as cholera and dengue fever, and how outbreaks may be prevented. "Changing Planet" is produced in partnership with the National Science Foundation.

Learn, Nbc

2010-10-07

96

Cement disease.  

PubMed

Does "cement disease" exist? The bony environment surrounding a loosened cemented prosthesis is an abnormal pathologic condition which, if left unattended, will progress to a total failure of the joint including an inhibition of function and immobilizing pain. That biomaterial properties of the cement used for fixation also contribute to the pathologic state separates this disease from other modes of loosening. This leads inevitably to the conclusion that "cement disease" does exist. Methyl methacrylate has revolutionized the treatment of severe joint dysfunction. There can be no doubt that improving surgical technique, cement handling, and the cement itself will continue to improve the results and reduce the incidence of failure due to loosening. Cement is undoubtedly satisfactory for elderly patients with low activity levels and relatively short life expectancies. However, because of the inherent biologic and biomechanical properties of methyl methacrylate, it is unlikely that it can be rendered satisfactory in the long run for the young, the active, or the overweight patient, for whom alternatives are currently being sought. In such cases, the elimination of "cement disease" can only occur with the elimination of cement. Alternatives include the search for other grouting materials and the development of prostheses with satisfactory surfaces for either press-fit or biologic ingrowth. PMID:3315375

Jones, L C; Hungerford, D S

1987-12-01

97

Moyamoya disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors reviewed the Japanese literature on moyamoya disease. In the article we discuss the history of such investigations in Japan, the signs and symptoms, the diagnosis (especially concerning diagnostic criteria and magnetic resonance imaging), the pathology in relation to its etiology, and the current methods of treatment. On the whole, the main aim of the paper was to introduce

Yutaka Maki; Takao Enomoto

1988-01-01

98

Celiac disease.  

PubMed

Celiac disease, with a prevalence around 1% of the general population, is the most common genetically-induced food intolerance in the world. Triggered by the ingestion of gluten in genetically predisposed individuals, this enteropathy may appear at any age, and is characterized by a wide variety of clinical signs and symptoms. Among them, gastrointestinal presentations include chronic diarrhea, abdominal pain, weight loss or failure to thrive in children; but extra-intestinal manifestations are also common, and actually appear to be on the rise. They include a large variety of ailments, such as dermatitis Herpetiformis, anemia, short stature, osteoporosis, arthritis, neurologic problems, unexplained elevation of transaminases, and even female infertility. For the clinician interested in oral diseases, celiac disease can lead to delayed tooth eruption, dental enamel hypoplasia, recurrent oral aphthae. Diagnosing celiac disease requires therefore a high degree of suspicion followed by a very sensitive screening test: serum levels of the autoantibody anti-tissue transglutaminase. A positive subject will then be confirmed by an intestinal biopsy, and will then be put on a strict gluten-free diet, that in most cases will bring a marked improvement of symptoms. Newer forms of treatment which in the future will probably be available to the non-responsive patients are currently being actively pursued. PMID:23496382

Rivera, E; Assiri, A; Guandalini, S

2013-10-01

99

Moyamoya disease.  

PubMed

A 4 years old boy presented with acute left hemiplegia. Preliminary neuroimaging suggested an arterial ischemic process. Clinical and laboratory evaluation excluded haematologic, metabolic and vasculitic causes. Cerebral angiography confirmed the diagnosis of Moyamoya disease. Treatment included physiotherapy and close follow-up for recurrence. PMID:21798142

Rafiq, Asim; Vaqar, Abeer; Javaid, Khalid Hussain; Parveen, Rashida; Sadaf, Rabia

2011-08-01

100

Parkinson's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parkinson's disease (PD) results primarily from the death of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Current PD medications treat symptoms; none halt or retard dopaminergic neuron degeneration. The main obstacle to developing neuroprotective therapies is a limited understanding of the key molecular events that provoke neurodegeneration. The discovery of PD genes has led to the hypothesis that misfolding of proteins

William Dauer; Serge Przedborski

2003-01-01

101

Cushing's Disease  

PubMed Central

We describe two patients of the Department of Medicine at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman, with Cushing’s disease. Their magnetic resonance imaging scans of the pituitary were negative. One patient was treated by transsphenoidal surgery and the other by bilateral endoscopic adrenalectomy. Both procedures were successful and the patients cured. The advantages and disadvantages of these two approaches are discussed.

El-Shafie, Omayma; Abid, Fatma B; Al-Kindy, Nayal; Sankhla, Dilip; Woodhouse, Nicholas J

2008-01-01

102

Fabry disease  

PubMed Central

Fabry disease (FD) is a progressive, X-linked inherited disorder of glycosphingolipid metabolism due to deficient or absent lysosomal ?-galactosidase A activity. FD is pan-ethnic and the reported annual incidence of 1 in 100,000 may underestimate the true prevalence of the disease. Classically affected hemizygous males, with no residual ?-galactosidase A activity may display all the characteristic neurological (pain), cutaneous (angiokeratoma), renal (proteinuria, kidney failure), cardiovascular (cardiomyopathy, arrhythmia), cochleo-vestibular and cerebrovascular (transient ischemic attacks, strokes) signs of the disease while heterozygous females have symptoms ranging from very mild to severe. Deficient activity of lysosomal ?-galactosidase A results in progressive accumulation of globotriaosylceramide within lysosomes, believed to trigger a cascade of cellular events. Demonstration of marked ?-galactosidase A deficiency is the definitive method for the diagnosis of hemizygous males. Enzyme analysis may occasionnally help to detect heterozygotes but is often inconclusive due to random X-chromosomal inactivation so that molecular testing (genotyping) of females is mandatory. In childhood, other possible causes of pain such as rheumatoid arthritis and 'growing pains' must be ruled out. In adulthood, multiple sclerosis is sometimes considered. Prenatal diagnosis, available by determination of enzyme activity or DNA testing in chorionic villi or cultured amniotic cells is, for ethical reasons, only considered in male fetuses. Pre-implantation diagnosis is possible. The existence of atypical variants and the availability of a specific therapy singularly complicate genetic counseling. A disease-specific therapeutic option - enzyme replacement therapy using recombinant human ?-galactosidase A - has been recently introduced and its long term outcome is currently still being investigated. Conventional management consists of pain relief with analgesic drugs, nephroprotection (angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptors blockers) and antiarrhythmic agents, whereas dialysis or renal transplantation are available for patients experiencing end-stage renal failure. With age, progressive damage to vital organ systems develops and at some point, organs may start to fail in functioning. End-stage renal disease and life-threatening cardiovascular or cerebrovascular complications limit life-expectancy of untreated males and females with reductions of 20 and 10 years, respectively, as compared to the general population. While there is increasing evidence that long-term enzyme therapy can halt disease progression, the importance of adjunctive therapies should be emphasized and the possibility of developing an oral therapy drives research forward into active site specific chaperones.

2010-01-01

103

Lyme Disease Transmission  

MedlinePLUS

... Health Officials Veterinarians Tool kit Lyme disease quiz Lyme disease transmission The Lyme disease bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi , is ... blacklegged ticks Are there other ways to get Lyme disease? There is no evidence that Lyme disease is ...

104

Occlusive Peripheral Arterial Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Pericardial Disease Sports and the Heart Heart Tumors Atherosclerosis Coronary Artery Disease Peripheral Arterial Disease Aneurysms and ... Disease Occlusive peripheral arterial disease often results from atherosclerosis. Symptoms depend on which artery is blocked and ...

105

Acid Lipase Disease  

MedlinePLUS

NINDS Acid Lipase Disease Information Page Synonym(s): Cholesterol Ester Storage Disease, Wolman’s Disease Table of Contents (click to jump ... research is being done? Clinical Trials What is Acid Lipase Disease ? Acid lipase disease occurs when the ...

106

Celiac disease.  

PubMed

Celiac disease is a genetically determined, permanent intolerance to gluten, a protein complex found in wheat, rye and barley. As many as 1:163 people are affected by it, but only a small percentage are aware of the condition, which begins either in infancy, with gastrointestinal symptoms, or in childhood and later years with non-Gl signs and symptoms, such as fatigue, depression, anxiety, anemia, stunted growth, and delayed puberty. A strong association with Type 1 diabetes and Down syndrome is also found, thus making screening mandatory for these subjects. Celiac disease is often entirely clinically silent, yet it must be detected in order to prevent long-term complications. PMID:12683313

Guandalini, Stefano

2003-03-01

107

Thyroid Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Dermatological manifestations as a sign of thyroid disturbances occur either in thyreotoxic states or in the evolution of\\u000a autoimmune diseases of the thyroid that is in apparent euthyroidism, or in overt hypothyroidism.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Pretibial myxedema and thyroid acropachy are typical manifestations of hyperthyroidism, in particular of Graves’ disease.\\u000a Vitiligo, diffuse alopecia (both telogen effluvium and alopecia areata), and chronic

Alfredo Rebora; Franco Rongioletti

108

Gaucher disease.  

PubMed

Gaucher disease is an autosomal recessive condition due to glucocerebrosidase deficiency responsible for the lysosomal accumulation of glucosylceramide, a complex lipid derived from cell membranes, mainly in macrophages. It is due to mutations mostly in the GBA gene, although saposine C deficiency is due to mutations in the PSAP gene. It encompasses an extremely heterogeneous spectrum of clinical involvement from the fetus to adulthood. Splenomegaly, blood cytopenia, and bone involvement are the main manifestations of Gaucher disease, but nervous system degeneration is observed in about 5-10% of patients. The accumulation in neurons of glucosylceramide and its derivative, psychosine, are thought to underlie neuronal dysfunction and death, although Gaucher cells that mostly accumulate such substances are mainly macrophages. Enzyme replacement therapy dramatically improves the outcome of patients because of its extreme efficacy in the treatment of the systemic involvement. However, it has only limited effects on most neurological signs. PMID:23622393

Mignot, Cyril; Gelot, Antoinette; De Villemeur, Thierry Billette

2013-01-01

109

Celiac disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Celiac disease (CD), or gluten-sensitive enteropathy, is a life-long disorder characterized by a severe damage of the small intestinal mucosa when ingesting gluten, a protein fraction found in wheat, rye and barley. Both in Europe and in the United States, the prevalence of CD in the general population is high, ranging between 0.3 and 1%. The clinical spectrum is highly

Carlo Catassi; Fabiola Fornaroli; Alessio Fasano

2002-01-01

110

Infectious Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Infectious diseases have keywords that represent viral, bacterial, mycobacterial, treponemal, borrelial, fungal, and yeast\\u000a organisms. Viruses include herpes simplex, varicella zoster, and variola. Even though variola (smallpox) is not present anywhere\\u000a in the world, because bioterrorism is a constant threat, it is included here. Terroristic use of this organism could lead\\u000a to devastating plagues because few people are immunized. The

Herbert B. Allen

111

Huntington's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Huntington’s disease (HD) is a familial and rare inherited neurological disorder with a prevalence of 5–8 cases per 100,000\\u000a worldwide. This makes HD the most common inherited neurodegenerative disorder (Fahn, 2005). HD is passed from parent to child\\u000a in autosomal dominant fashion. Each child of an HD parent has a 50% chance of inheriting HD. Both sexes are affected equally.

Seymour Gendelman; Howard E. Gendelman; Tsuneya Ikezu

112

Whipple's disease.  

PubMed

Whipple's disease is a chronic, systemic infection caused by Tropheryma whipplei. Gene amplification, isolation and DNA sequencing of T whipplei have extended our knowledge of this pathogen, which is now recognised as a ubiquitous commensal bacterium. The spectrum of signs associated with T whipplei has now been extended beyond the classic form, which affects middle-aged men, and begins with recurrent arthritis followed several years later by digestive problems associated with other diverse clinical signs. Children may present an acute primary infection, but only a small number of people with a genetic predisposition subsequently develop authentic Whipple's disease. This bacterium may also cause localised chronic infections with no intestinal symptoms: endocarditis, central nervous system involvement, arthritis, uveitis and spondylodiscitis. An impaired TH1 immune response is seen. T whipplei replication in vitro is dependent on interleukin 16 and is accompanied by the apoptosis of host cells, facilitating dissemination of the bacterium. In patients with arthritis, PCR with samples of joint fluid, saliva and stools has become the preferred examination for diagnosis. Immunohistochemical staining is also widely used for diagnosis. Treatment is based on recent microbiological data, but an immune reconstitution syndrome and recurrence remain possible. The future development of serological tests for diagnosis and the generalisation of antigen detection by immunohistochemistry should make it possible to obtain a diagnosis earlier and thus to decrease the morbidity, and perhaps also the mortality, associated with this curable disease which may, nonetheless, be fatal if diagnosed late or in an extensive systemic form. PMID:23291386

Puéchal, Xavier

2013-06-01

113

Whipple's disease.  

PubMed

Whipple's disease is a chronic, systemic infection caused by Tropheryma whipplei. Gene amplification, isolation and DNA sequencing of T whipplei have extended our knowledge of this pathogen, which is now recognised as a ubiquitous commensal bacterium. The spectrum of signs associated with T whipplei has now been extended beyond the classic form, which affects middle-aged men, and begins with recurrent arthritis followed several years later by digestive problems associated with other diverse clinical signs. Children may present an acute primary infection, but only a small number of people with a genetic predisposition subsequently develop authentic Whipple's disease. This bacterium may also cause localised chronic infections with no intestinal symptoms: endocarditis, central nervous system involvement, arthritis, uveitis and spondylodiscitis. An impaired TH1 immune response is seen. T whipplei replication in vitro is dependent on interleukin 16 and is accompanied by the apoptosis of host cells, facilitating dissemination of the bacterium. In patients with arthritis, PCR with samples of joint fluid, saliva and stools has become the preferred examination for diagnosis. Immunohistochemical staining is also widely used for diagnosis. Treatment is based on recent microbiological data, but an immune reconstitution syndrome and recurrence remain possible. The future development of serological tests for diagnosis and the generalisation of antigen detection by immunohistochemistry should make it possible to obtain a diagnosis earlier and thus to decrease the morbidity, and perhaps also the mortality, associated with this curable disease which may, nonetheless, be fatal if diagnosed late or in an extensive systemic form. PMID:24129033

Puéchal, Xavier

2013-11-01

114

Beryllium disease  

SciTech Connect

After two workers at the nuclear weapons plant at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee were diagnosed earlier this year with chronic beryllium disease (CBD), a rare and sometimes fatal scarring of the lungs, the Department of Energy ordered up a 4-year probe. Now, part of that probe has begun - tests conducted by the Oak Ridge Associated Universities' Center for Epidemiological Research measuring beryllium sensitivity in 3,000 people who've been exposed to the metal's dust since Manhattan Project managers opened the Y-12 plant at Oak Ridge in 1943. Currently, 119 Y-12 employees process beryllium, which has a number of industrial uses, including rocket heat shields and nuclear weapon and electrical components. The disease often takes 20 to 25 years to develop, and the stricken employees haven't worked with beryllium for years. There is no cure for CBD, estimated to strike 2% of people exposed to the metal. Anti-inflammatory steroids alleviate such symptoms as a dry cough, weight loss, and fatigue. Like other lung-fibrosis diseases that are linked to lung cancer, some people suspect CBD might cause some lung cancer. While difficult to diagnose, about 900 cases of CBD have been reported since a Beryllium Case Registry was established in 1952. The Department of Energy (DOE) estimates that about 10,000 DOE employees and 800,000 people in private industry have worked with beryllium.

Not Available

1991-12-20

115

[Botulism disease].  

PubMed

Botulism is caused by a neurotoxin produced from the anaerobic, spore forming bacteria--clostridium botulinum. The disease is usually caused by toxins type A, B and E. Since the disease was first recognized in the beginning of the nineteenth century as food poisoning, different forms of intoxication were described. Infantile botulism, wound botulism, infectious botulism and inadvertent botulism are all clinical syndromes caused by the same toxin. The attempt to use the botulinum toxin as biological warfare agent is well known. Recently the potential terrorist use of botulinum toxin has become a real concern. Botulism is characterized by its classic triad: 1) symmetric descending flaccid paralysis with prominent bulbar palsies 2) afebrile patient 3) clear sensorium. The paralysis usually begins in the cranial nerves where blurred vision, dysarthia and dysphagia are the initial complaints. Diagnosis is based on clinical findings, history of suspicious exposure and supportive ancillary testing to rule out other causes of neurologic dysfunction that mimic botulism such as the Guillain-Barre syndrome, Myasthenia Gravis or cerebrovascular stroke. Laboratory confirmation of suspected cases is usually delayed and treatment should begin before confirmation is completed. The treatment includes supportive care, and the administration of antitoxin which reduces mortality if given early. Since community and emergency room physicians may be the first to treat patients with any type of botulinum intoxication, they must know how to diagnose and treat this rare but potentially lethal disease. PMID:12170559

Marcus, Nir; Hourvitz, Ariel

2002-05-01

116

Plant Disease Lesson: Rhizoctonia Diseases of Turfgrass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This plant disease lesson on Rhizoctonia diseases of turfgrass (caused by the fungi Rhizoctonia species) includes information on symptoms and signs, pathogen biology, disease cycle and epidemiology, disease management, and the significance of the disease. Selected references are listed and a glossary is also available for use with this resource.

Lane P. Tredway (University of Georgia, Athens;); Lee L. Burpee (University of Georgia, Griffin;)

2001-11-09

117

Plant Disease Lesson: Soybean cyst nematode disease  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This plant disease lesson on Soybean cyst nematode disease (caused by Heterodera glycines) includes information on symptoms and signs, pathogen biology, disease cycle and epidemiology, disease management, and the significance of the disease. Selected references are listed and a glossary is also available for use with this resource.

Eric L. Davis (North Carolina State University;); Gregory L. Tylka (Iowa State University;)

2000-07-25

118

Plant Disease Lesson: Dutch elm disease  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This plant disease lesson on Dutch elm disease (caused by the fungus Ophiostoma ulmi) includes information on symptoms and signs, pathogen biology, disease cycle and epidemiology, disease management, and the significance of the disease. Selected references are listed and a glossary is also available for use with this resource.

Cleora J. D'Arcy (University of Illinois;)

2000-07-21

119

[Biermer's disease].  

PubMed

Pernicious anaemia is an autoimmune atrophic gastritis inducing vitamin B12 deficiency by malabsorption. This disease may be diagnosed in the absence of any anaemia, on a neuropathy or when one or several autoimmune disorders co-exist. Typically, pernicious anaemia is revealed by macrocytic megaloblastic anaemia. Diagnosis is done on low serum vitamin B12, raised serum homocysteine, parietal cell and, intrinsic factor antibodies. Pernicious anaemia should be treated indefinitely by monthly intramuscular hydroxocobalamin. Because of an increased incidence of gastric carcinoma, endoscopy should be evenly performed. PMID:11757269

Zittoun, J

2001-09-15

120

[Addison's disease].  

PubMed

The clinical signs and symptoms of primary adrenal insufficiency are unspecific often causing a delayed diagnosis or even misdiagnosis. In the diagnostic work-up the short synacthen test is regarded as the gold standard. Hydrocortisone and fludrocortisone are the preferred therapy for Addison's disease. The management and surveillance of therapy requires experience and several aspects need to be followed to prevent side effects which might occur due to overtreatment or undertreatment. Very important aspects in therapy are the repeated teaching of the patient and relatives, the issuing of an emergency steroid card and the prescription of a glucocorticoid emergency set. Acute adrenal failure (adrenal crisis), which might be the first manifestation of adrenal insufficiency, is a life-threatening situation requiring immediate glucocorticoid administration and fluid substitution. The most common causes for an adrenal crisis are gastrointestinal infections and fever and discontinuation of glucocorticoid therapy. This article gives an up-to-date overview of diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of Addison's disease. PMID:22907517

Quinkler, M

2012-09-01

121

Chagas' disease.  

PubMed Central

Chagas' disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, is an important cause of morbidity in many countries in Latin America. The important modes of transmission are by the bite of the reduviid bug and blood transfusion. The organism exists in three morphological forms: trypomastigotes, amastigotes, and epimastigotes. The mechanism of transformation and differentiation is currently being explored, and signal transduction pathways of the parasites may be involved in this process. Parasite adherence to and invasion of host cells is a complex process involving complement, phospholipase, penetrin, neuraminidase, and hemolysin. Two clinical forms of the disease are recognized, acute and chronic. During the acute stage pathological damage is related to the presence of the parasite, whereas in the chronic stage few parasites are found. In recent years the roles of tumor necrosis factor, gamma interferon, and the interleukins in the pathogenesis of this infection have been reported. The common manifestations of chronic cardiomyopathy are arrhythmias and thromboembolic events. Autoimmune, neurogenic, and microvascular factors may be important in the pathogenesis of the cardiomyopathy. The gastrointestinal tract is another important target, and "mega syndromes" are common manifestations. The diagnosis and treatment of this infection are active areas of investigation. New serological and molecular biological techniques have improved the diagnosis of chronic infection. Exacerbations of T. cruzi infection have been reported for patients receiving immuno-suppressive therapy and for those with AIDS. Images

Tanowitz, H B; Kirchhoff, L V; Simon, D; Morris, S A; Weiss, L M; Wittner, M

1992-01-01

122

Disease Activity Measures in Paediatric Rheumatic Diseases  

PubMed Central

Disease activity refers to potentially reversible aspects of a disease. Measurement of disease activity in paediatric rheumatic diseases is a critical component of patient care and clinical research. Disease activity measures are developed systematically, often involving consensus methods. To be useful, a disease activity measure must be feasible, valid, and interpretable. There are several challenges in quantifying disease activity in paediatric rheumatology; namely, the conditions are multidimensional, the level of activity must be valuated in the context of treatment being received, there is no gold standard for disease activity, and it is often difficult to incorporate the patient's perspective of their disease activity. To date, core sets of response variables are defined for juvenile idiopathic arthritis, juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus, and juvenile dermatomyositis, as well as definitions for improvement in response to therapy. Several specific absolute disease activity measures also exist for each condition. Further work is required to determine the optimal disease activity measures in paediatric rheumatology.

Luca, Nadia J.; Feldman, Brian M.

2013-01-01

123

Mitochondrial disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a •Mitochondrial diseases are disorders of energy metabolism that include defects of pyruvate metabolism, Krebs cycle, respiratory\\u000a chain (RC), and fatty acid oxidation (FAO).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a •Treatment of pyruvate metabolism, Krebs cycle, and RC disorders is, in general, disappointing. Therapeutic approaches consist\\u000a of electron acceptors, enzyme activators, vitamins, coenzymes, free-radical scavengers, dietary measures, and supportive therapy.\\u000a These treatment assumptions

Roser Pons; Darryl C. De Vivo

2001-01-01

124

Lyme disease antibody  

MedlinePLUS

Lyme disease serology; ELISA for Lyme disease; Western blot for Lyme disease ... see: Venipuncture . A laboratory specialist will look for Lyme disease antibodies in the blood sample using the ELISA ...

125

Sex and Heart Disease  

MedlinePLUS

Sex and Heart Disease Updated:Mar 2,2012 Is sex safe for heart disease patients? Readjusting to everyday ... disease, also called cardiovascular disease, will affect your sex life — or if it’s safe to have sex ...

126

About Alzheimer's Disease: Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... more about other early signs of Alzheimer's » Mild Alzheimer's disease As the disease progresses, memory loss worsens, ... disease is often diagnosed at this stage. Moderate Alzheimer's disease In this stage, damage occurs in areas ...

127

Alzheimer's disease: strategies for disease modification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alzheimer's disease is the largest unmet medical need in neurology. Current drugs improve symptoms, but do not have profound disease-modifying effects. However, in recent years, several approaches aimed at inhibiting disease progression have advanced to clinical trials. Among these, strategies targeting the production and clearance of the amyloid-? peptide — a cardinal feature of Alzheimer's disease that is thought to

Martin Citron

2010-01-01

128

Tangier Disease  

PubMed Central

Tangier disease is a rare familial disorder characterized by enlarged orange tonsils, transient peripheral neuropathy, hepatosplenomegaly, and lymphadenopathy, as well as striking reductions in plasma high density lipoproteins (HDL) and their major protein constituents, apolipoproteins (apo)A-I and A-II. In order to test the hypothesis that Tangier patients have abnormal apoA-I or apoA-II, the in vitro lipoprotein binding and in vivo metabolic characteristics of these proteins isolated from normal and Tangier plasma, were studied in normal subjects and patients with Tangier disease. After incubation with normal plasma, significantly greater percentages of radiolabeled Tangier apoA-I were associated with the 1.063-g/ml supernate (6%) and the 1.21 g/ml infranate (19%), and a lower percentage with HDL (75%), than those observed for normal apoA-I (2, 8, and 90%, respectively). In contrast, the lipoprotein binding properties of normal and Tangier apoA-II were very similar. Following the injection of radiolabeled normal and Tangier apoA-I into normal subjects (n = 4), the mean residence times of the specific activity for apoA-ITangier were significantly lower, both in plasma (1.29 d) and in HDL (1.34 d), than those observed for normal apoA-I (3.80 and 4.06 d). In Tangier homozygotes the decay rates of these tracers were very rapid and were similar. No significant differences between the kinetics of normal and Tangier apoA-II were observed in normal subjects (n = 2). Tangier homozygotes (n = 3) had mean plasma HDL cholesterol, apoA-I, and apoA-II concentrations that were 4, 2, and 11% of normal (n = 24), respectively, whereas for heterozygotes (n = 3) these values were 46, 62, and 68% of normal. In homozygotes, in contrast to normals or heterozygotes, a significant fraction of both apoA-I and apoA-II were found in the 1.063-g/ml supernate instead of in HDL. Homozygotes had apoA-ITangier synthesis rates and residence times that were 41 and 5% of values observed for normal apoA-I in normal subjects, and for apoA-II in homozygotes, these parameters were 63 and 18% of normal. Heterozygotes had apoA-I synthesis rates and residence times that were 92 and 66% of normal, and for apoA-II these values were 101 and 64% of normal. These data are consistent with the concept that apoA-ITangier is functionally and metabolically distinct from normal apoA-I, and is the cause of the striking hypercatabolism of apoA-I and apoA-II, and the lipoprotein abnormalities observed in Tangier disease.

Schaefer, Ernst J.; Kay, Linda L.; Zech, Loren A.; Brewer, H. Bryan

1982-01-01

129

[Castleman disease].  

PubMed

A 66 years female, who was since last year under astenia, arthralgias, pimply lesions in spread plates and tests showing eritrosedimentation over 100 mm, anemi, leucocitosis with neutrofilia, policlonal hypergammaglobulinemia, slight proteinuria and IgE on 900. This patient was sporadically treated with corticoids. When made the medical consult had lost 34lb., was under anorexy, as well as dyspepsia. Hemoglobyn 6.9 gr/dl, leucocytes 20000/mm3, neutrofils at 90%, proteinogram the same as former, with hypoalbuminemia. She was taking prednisona, 16 mg/day. When examined showed depress of conscience, astenia, and dermic lesions already quoted. 4 cm nonpainful right axillary adenopaty adhered to deep planes. Medulogram with increased iron, hyperegenerative. Ganglionar biopsia: linfoid hyperplasic process linked to inmune response. Toracoabdominal tomography with adenomegalia in torax and retroperitoneo. Skin biopsia: neutrofilic vasculitis. The patient suspends the 16 mg of prednisona and fever as well as generalized adenopatias come up. After laying aside other ethiologies, and understanding as Castleman Multicentric disease, it is started to supply prednisona 1 mg/kg of weight with a clinical and biochemical fast and outstanding response. After 7 months it was progressively suspended the esteroids and 60 days later, the process fall back; for that, corticoids are restarted, with a good evolution. The illness of Castleman although it is not very frequent, it should be considered as differential diagnosis in those clinical cases that are accompanied with important general commitment, linphadenopaties and respons to steroid therapy. PMID:16211996

Belletti, Gerardo A; Savio, Verónica; Minoldo, Daniel; Caminos, Susana; Yorio, Marcelo A

2004-01-01

130

[Papillomavirus diseases].  

PubMed

Papillomaviruses are prevalent throughout the world. They can cause warts or papillomas. Some papillomaviruses are also involved in the pathogenesis of malignant tumors. Cutaneous and anogenital warts are the most frequent viral disease of the skin. The incidence of verrucae vulgaris and condylomata is estimated to be 7-10% in the European population and 1% in the American population. HPV infections can be verified by clinical examination, cytology and histology, detection of antibodies, molecular techniques and directly via viral structures. Antibodies against HPV are considered markers for prolonged infection and cumulatively high expression of viral particles since they persist with low titers years after a lesion has resolved. Sensitivity only reaches 50-60% even in HPV DNA-positive patients. Serodiagnosis does not appear to be appropriate for routine practice. No virustatic treatment exists. Depending on wart-specific factors, compliance of the patient, and experience of the attending therapist, all ablative, chemodestructive or novel immuno modulatory procedures are comparable. However, there are enormous differences in price and effort required for treatment, which should be considered when choosing the method. PMID:15316638

Hengge, U R

2004-09-01

131

Alzheimer disease: An interactome of many diseases.  

PubMed

Alzheimer Disease (AD) is an outcome as well as source of many diseases. Alzheimer is linked with many other diseases like Diabetes type 2, cholesterolemia, hypertension and many more. But how each of these diseases affecting other is still unknown to scientific community. Signaling Pathways of one disease is interlinked with other disease. But to what extent healthy brain is affected when any signaling in human body is disturbed is the question that matters. There is a need of Pathway analysis, Protein-Protein interaction (PPI) and the conserved interactome study in AD and linked diseases. It will be helpful in finding the potent drug or vaccine target in conscious manner. In the present research the Protein-Protein interaction of all the proteins involved in Alzheimer Disease is analyzed using ViSANT and osprey tools and pathway analysis further reveals the significant genes/proteins linking AD with other diseases. PMID:24753659

Rao, Balaji S; Gupta, Krishna Kant; Karanam, Pujitha; Peruri, Anusha

2014-01-01

132

Alzheimer disease: An interactome of many diseases  

PubMed Central

Alzheimer Disease (AD) is an outcome as well as source of many diseases. Alzheimer is linked with many other diseases like Diabetes type 2, cholesterolemia, hypertension and many more. But how each of these diseases affecting other is still unknown to scientific community. Signaling Pathways of one disease is interlinked with other disease. But to what extent healthy brain is affected when any signaling in human body is disturbed is the question that matters. There is a need of Pathway analysis, Protein-Protein interaction (PPI) and the conserved interactome study in AD and linked diseases. It will be helpful in finding the potent drug or vaccine target in conscious manner. In the present research the Protein-Protein interaction of all the proteins involved in Alzheimer Disease is analyzed using ViSANT and osprey tools and pathway analysis further reveals the significant genes/proteins linking AD with other diseases.

Rao, Balaji S.; Gupta, Krishna Kant; Karanam, Pujitha; Peruri, Anusha

2014-01-01

133

[Segawa disease].  

PubMed

Segawa disease (hereditary progressive dystonia with marked diurnal fluctuation) is an autosomal dominant, childhood onset, postural dystonia and the first hereditary basal ganglia disorder whose causative enzyme and gene defect were clarified. The initial symptom is unilateral pes equinovarus with marked diurnal fluctuation. Progression becomes slower after mid-teens and stationary after thirties. Postural tremor may occur after 10 years of age, especially after thirties. Parkinsonian resting tremor action and torsion dystonia. and disturbed locomotion do not occur. L-Dopa shows marked and sustained effect without side effects. F-Dopa PET and [11C] raclopride PET of over 20-year-old cases are normal. Deficiency of GTP cyclohydrolase I (GCH-I) was suggested from low CSF biopterin and neopterin. Mutation of GCH-I gene and decreased GCH-I were clarified as etiology. Twenty-five mutations discordant among families have been found. Autopsy of a gene proven case revealed decreased striatal tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine (DA) in ventral striatum where direct pathway is predominant. Decreased GCH-I causes decreased tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), TH and DA in nigrostriatal (NS) terminal. The lowest affinity of BH4 to TH causes selective involvement of DA. Postural dystonia is caused by decreased TH and DA affecting D1-direct pathway. Thalamic ventrolateral and pedunculo-pontine nuclei are spared. Diurnal fluctuation of symptoms is due to diurnal fluctuation of TH and DA at NS-DA terminal. Decreased DA to below 20% of normal, shown by polysomnographical studies, and its physiological age related decremental changes in NS-DA terminal underlies characteristic clinical course. High D2 receptor before early thirties masks D1 related hypertonus and manifest progression before 20 years of age. Other pteridine abnormalities also cause dopa responsive postural dystonia with diurnal fluctuation. A case of juvenile parkinsonism without dystonia showed decreased TH in dorsolateral putamen where indirect pathway is predominant. These suggest that decreased TH due to decreased BH4 involves D1-direct pathway causing dystonia, and decreased TH itself involves D2-indirect pathway causing parkinsonism. PMID:9577670

Nomura, Y

1997-12-01

134

Celiac disease and metabolic bone disease.  

PubMed

Celiac disease is a common autoimmune gastrointestinal disorder affecting multiple organs, precipitated in genetically vulnerable persons by the ingestion of gluten. Gluten is poorly digested and is presented to the intestinal mucosa as a large polypeptide. Binding to human leukocyte antigen-DQ2 and human leukocyte antigen-DQ8 molecules on antigen-presenting cells stimulates cellular and humeral immune reactions. Although common serological tests are available to diagnose celiac disease, the diagnosis of celiac disease is often delayed or missed because of lack of recognition as the disease presentation in adults is highly variable and may be asymptomatic. Celiac disease is a common secondary cause of metabolic bone disease and delayed treatment with gluten-free diet affects bone mineral density and fracture risk, so it is crucial to diagnose and treat celiac disease promptly. In this article, we will review recent studies of celiac disease in adults and provide practical, easily accessible information for busy clinicians. PMID:24090646

Xing, Yanming; Morgan, Sarah L

2013-01-01

135

Strategies for disease modification in Alzheimer's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treating Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the biggest unmet medical need in neurology. Current drugs improve symptoms, but do not have profound disease-modifying effects. Three main classes of disease-modification approaches can be defined: one that is broadly neurotrophic or neuroprotective, one that targets specific aspects of AD pathology, and one that is based on epidemiological observation. This review discusses all three

Martin Citron

2004-01-01

136

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)  

MedlinePLUS

... Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) - CDC Fact Sheet Untreated sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) can cause pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), a serious ... It is a complication often caused by some STDs, like chlamydia and gonorrhea. Other infections that are ...

137

Tay-Sachs disease  

MedlinePLUS

Tay-Sachs disease is a life-threatening disease of the nervous system passed down through families. ... Tay-Sachs disease occurs when the body lacks hexosaminidase A, a protein that helps break down a chemical found ...

138

Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... group of rare, fatal brain disorders known as prion diseases. About Symptoms Diagnosis Causes & risks Treatments About ... bodies and frontotemporal dementia , typically progress more slowly. Prion diseases, such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, occur when ...

139

Kidney disease - resources  

MedlinePLUS

Resources - kidney disease ... The following organizations are good resources for information on kidney disease: National Kidney Disease Education Program - www.nkdep.nih.gov National Kidney Foundation - www.kidney.org National ...

140

Heart disease - resources  

MedlinePLUS

Resources - heart disease ... The following organizations are good resources for information on heart disease: American Heart Association - www.americanheart.org Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - www.cdc.gov/heartdisease/

141

Lyme Disease (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... Pacific Northwest, and the northern Midwest states. About Lyme Disease Lyme disease is caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi , which ... important to know and watch for symptoms of Lyme disease because ticks are hard to find and it's ...

142

Learning about Your Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... page Learning about your disease Learn more about common diseases treated with a transplant and how and when ... decisions about your care. Some of the more common diseases treated with a transplant are included here. Learn ...

143

Interstitial Lung Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... MS Dept. of Medicine View full profile Interstitial Lung Disease (ILD): Overview Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is ... they may make informed decisions Learn more. Interstitial Lung Disease Program As a center specializing in the ...

144

Pathogenesis of Lyme disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The etiology and pathogenesis of Lyme disease are reviewed and the value of the condition as a human model for an infectious etiology of rheumatic disease is discussed. Similarities between Lyme disease and rheumatoid arthritis are considered.

S. E. Malawista

1989-01-01

145

Peripheral Artery Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Artery Disease • Overview Peripheral artery disease, or P.A.D., refers to arterial disease that occurs outside of the heart or brain. In P.A.D., the arteries that carry oxygenated blood throughout the ...

146

What Is Vascular Disease?  

MedlinePLUS

... DVT) Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD) Pulmonary Embolism Stroke Varicose Veins Diabetes and Vascular Disease Kidney Failure and Vascular ... vein thrombosis (DVT), chronic venous insufficiency (CVI), and varicose veins. Everyone is at risk of vascular disease , and ...

147

Gaucher Disease in Pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

... you have Gaucher disease, you have two non-working genes for Gaucher disease, one from your mother and one from your father. You will always pass on one non-working gene for Gaucher disease to your children. A ...

148

Understanding Alzheimer's Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Referral Center Alzheimer's Disease Education and Referral Center Alzheimer's Disease Education and Referral Center Home About Alzheimer’s ... National Alzheimer's Project Act (NAPA) About ADEAR Understanding Alzheimer's Disease: What You Need to Know Introduction Many ...

149

About Alzheimer's Disease: Treatment  

MedlinePLUS

... being researched? What are clinical trials? How is Alzheimer's disease treated? Alzheimer's disease is complex, and it ... disease. What drugs are currently available to treat Alzheimer's? Four medications are approved by the U.S. Food ...

150

Liver in systemic disease  

PubMed Central

Potential causes of abnormal liver function tests include viral hepatitis, alcohol intake, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, autoimmune liver diseases, hereditary diseases, hepatobiliary malignancies or infection, gallstones and drug-induced liver injury. Moreover, the liver may be involved in systemic diseases that mainly affect other organs. Therefore, in patients without etiology of liver injury by screening serology and diagnostic imaging, but who have systemic diseases, the abnormal liver function test results might be caused by the systemic disease. In most of these patients, the systemic disease should be treated primarily. However, some patients with systemic disease and severe liver injury or fulminant hepatic failure require intensive treatments of the liver.

Shimizu, Yukihiro

2008-01-01

151

Autoimmunity in thyroid disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The autoimmune thyroid diseases, Graves' disease and autoimmune hypothyroidism, represent the two ends of a disease spectrum where an immune response is directed against the thyroid gland. In Graves' disease, antibodies directed against the thyrotropin receptor (TSH-R) lead to the development of glandular overactivity, while in autoimmune hypothyroidism, cell-mediated and humoral thyroid injury leads to destruction of thyroid tissue and

Joanne Collins; Stephen Gough

2002-01-01

152

Renal cystic diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Renal cystic disease comprises a mixed group of heritable, developmental, and acquired disorders. Because of their diverse\\u000a etiology, histology, and clinical presentation, no single scheme of classification has gained acceptance. Conditions include\\u000a autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, acquired renal cystic disease, medullary sponge kidney, autosomal recessive\\u000a polycystic kidney disease, multicystic dysplastic kidney, medullary cystic disease, tuberous sclerosis, cysts of

H. S. Thomsen; E. Levine; J. W. Meilstrup; M. A. Van Slyke; K. A. Edgar; J. C. Barth; D. S. Hartman

1997-01-01

153

Genetics Home Reference: Dent disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Lowe syndrome. Read more about Lowe syndrome . How common is Dent disease? Dent disease is a rare condition, with about ... affected families reported. Dent disease 1 is more common than Dent disease 2. Dent disease is likely underdiagnosed because it ...

154

About Alzheimer's Disease: Alzheimer's Basics  

MedlinePLUS

... with Alzheimer's disease? What is dementia? What is Alzheimer's disease? Alzheimer’s disease is an irreversible, progressive brain ... devastating disease. What happens to the brain in Alzheimer's disease? Although we still don’t know how ...

155

DIABETES AND VASCULAR DISEASE  

PubMed Central

Two-thirds of American adults are overweight or obese, 75 million have hypertension and another 25 million have diabetes. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality and a major driver of health care costs in patients with type 2 diabetes. Observational studies suggest that insulin resistance, hypertension and hyperglycemia independently predict cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease. Indeed, coexisting hypertension appears to be a most powerful determinant of cardiovascular disease risk in diabetic patients. This update explores recent investigation which sheds light on our understanding of various metabolic and hemodynamic factors which promote vascular disease, as well as strategies to lessen cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes.

Sowers, James R.

2013-01-01

156

About Batten Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Disease, and these developments led to the distinct identification, and separation, of the NCLs from Tay-Sachs ... 1995, The International Batten Disease Consortium announced the identification of the gene for the Juvenile form of ...

157

Medullary cystic kidney disease  

MedlinePLUS

Most people with MCKD reach end-stage kidney disease between ages 30 and 50. Lifelong treatment may control the symptoms of chronic kidney disease. The cysts that occur with MCKD may be very small, but large numbers of them ...

158

Chronic Beryllium Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Disease About Beryllium Causes Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Work Environment Management FAQ Make an Appointment Ask a Question Refer ... Beryllium Disease Information About Beryllium Causes Diagnosis Work Environment Management FAQ Symptoms Treatment Print Page Email Page Add ...

159

Treatments for Alzheimer's Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... 3900 Find your chapter: search by state Home > Alzheimer's Disease > Treatments Overview What Is Dementia? What Is Alzheimer's? ... and move closer to a cure. Treatments for Alzheimer's disease Get weekly e-news Take the Brain Tour ...

160

APOE Genotyping, Cardiovascular Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... cardiovascular disease (CVD) . However, there is a wide variability in the response to these lipid-lowering drugs ... normal" lipid metabolism, thus may not have any genetic impact on risk of developing cardiovascular disease . APOE ...

161

Learning about Dercum Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... metabolic process. The fatty deposits (lipomas) cause nerve compression and result in weakness and pain. Some cases ... Additional Resources for Dercum Disease Dercum's Disease [dercums_data.tripod.com] Information, Online Chat resources, support, more. ...

162

Rheoencephalography in Meniere's Disease.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Rheoencephalography (REG) was used on 35 patients with Meniere's disease to determine tonus and perfusion of cerebral vessels. The analysis took account of age, duration of the disease and presence or absence of cervical osteochondrosis. Hypertensive symp...

M. P. Nikolayev O. N. Mertsalova

1980-01-01

163

Polycystic Kidney Disease  

MedlinePLUS

National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse (NKUDIC) A service of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and ... Statistics Research Resources Order About Us Español National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse Publications Tools and ...

164

Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)  

MedlinePLUS

... link in the menu on the left. Common Names Sexually transmitted diseases STDs Sexually transmitted infections STIs Medical or Scientific Names Sexually transmitted diseases Sexually transmitted infections Last Updated ...

165

Travelers' Health: Meningococcal Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... 2007 Jun 30;369(9580):2196–210. Wilder-Smith A. Meningococcal disease: risk for international travellers and ... INFO Home Destinations Travel Notices Find a Clinic Yellow Fever Vaccinations Clinics FAQ Disease Directory Information Centers ...

166

Heart Disease Risk Factors  

MedlinePLUS

... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention ...

167

Hydroxyapatite Deposition Disease.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Hydroxyapatite deposition disease (HADD), a disease most commonly found in middle-aged individuals, is characterized by deposition of calcium phosphate crystals in periarticular tissues. The deposits frequently occur in tendons near their osseous attachme...

D. P. Beall J. Q. Ly L. Folio S. J. Upton

2006-01-01

168

Liver disease - resources  

MedlinePLUS

Resources - liver disease ... The following organizations are good resources for information on liver disease : American Liver Foundation - www.liverfoundation.org Children's Liver Association for Support Services - www.classkids.org Hepatitis ...

169

Lung disease - resources  

MedlinePLUS

Resources - lung disease ... The following organizations are good resources for information on lung disease : American Lung Association - www.lungusa.org National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute - www.nhlbi.nih.gov ...

170

Motor Neuron Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

... to study disease pathology and identify chemical and molecular processes involved in cellular degeneration. Research options fall ... ineffective in treating motor neuron diseases. Cellular and molecular studies seek to understand the mechanisms that trigger ...

171

Lyme Disease in Construction  

MedlinePLUS

... doctor about the vaccine.) (Please turn the page.) Lyme Disease in Construction Hazard Alert Check for tick bites ... carefully. Only 12 of the workers who had Lyme disease on Long Island knew they had been bitten. ...

172

American Lyme Disease Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

American Lyme Disease Foundation, Inc. P.O. Box 466, Lyme, CT 06371 Home About ALDF Programs and Services What is ... Dedicated to the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment, of Lyme disease and other tick-borne infections. Announcements & News ALDF ...

173

Meningococcal Disease: Risk Factors  

MedlinePLUS

... Campaign Podcast: Meningitis Immunization for Adolescents Meningitis Risk Factors Share Compartir Certain groups of people are at ... to protect yourself against meningococcal disease. Some risk factors include: Age Meningococcal disease is more commonly diagnosed ...

174

Coronary Artery Disease  

MedlinePLUS

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common type of heart disease. It is the leading cause of death in the United States in both men and women. CAD happens when the arteries that supply blood to ...

175

Pelizaeus-Merzbacher Disease  

MedlinePLUS

NINDS Pelizaeus-Merzbacher Disease Information Page Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What is Pelizaeus-Merzbacher Disease? Is there any treatment? What is the prognosis? What research ...

176

Learning about Huntington's Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Mouse Models Of Huntington's Disease 1998 News Release Learning About Huntington's Disease What do we know about ... other imaging technologies. Animal models: Scientists hope to learn more about the symptoms and progression of the ...

177

Meningococcal Disease: Surveillance  

MedlinePLUS

... meningococcal disease, which is caused by the bacterium Neisseria meningitidis , can be devastating and often – and unexpectedly ... Meningococcal Disease Active Bacterial Core surveillance Reports (see Neisseria meningitidis ) Related Links Meningococcal Vaccination Preteen Vaccine Campaign Podcast: ...

178

Kennedy's Disease Association  

MedlinePLUS

... MORE Will my child be born with this DNA defect? It takes an enormous amount of money ... Links About Kennedy's Disease What is Kennedy's Disease DNA Testing Frequently Asked Questions Doctors familiar with Kennedy's ...

179

Sickle Cell Disease Quiz  

MedlinePLUS

... among people whose ancestors come from sub-Saharan Africa, Spanish-speaking regions in the Western Hemisphere ( South ... cell disease cannot have a healthy pregnancy. FALSE Women with sickle cell disease can have a healthy ...

180

Lyme Disease Data  

MedlinePLUS

... 2011 Interactive Lyme Disease Map Lyme Disease Data File To facilitate the public health and research community's ... 4636) TTY: (888) 232-6348 Contact CDC–INFO File Formats Help: How do I view different file ...

181

What Is Alzheimer's Disease?  

MedlinePLUS

... IS ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE? The occurrence of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is not a normal development in the aging ... as 4 million Americans. Most people diagnosed with AD are older than 65. However, it is possible ...

182

Hypothyroidism and Heart Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... SITE › Hypothyroidism and Heart Disease Share: Fact Sheet Hypothyroidism and Heart Disease January 2014 Download PDFs English ... nervous system, body temperature, and weight. What is hypothyroidism and what are its symptoms? Hypothyroidism, also called ...

183

Von Gierke disease  

MedlinePLUS

... may be signs of: Delayed puberty Enlarged liver Gout Inflammatory bowel disease Liver tumors Severe low blood ... blood uric acid and decrease the risk for gout. Other medications may include those for kidney disease, ...

184

Celiac Disease Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

... email list! Donate one time monthly tribute team gluten-free Home About CDF Mission Statement Medical Advisory ... Conditions Checklist What is Celiac Disease? Dermatitis Herpetiformis Gluten Sensitivity Diagnosing Celiac Disease Screening Diagnosis Poorly Responsive ...

185

Pediatric Celiac Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... serious condition caused by a permanent intolerance for gluten--a protein found in wheat, rye, and barley. ... Disease If your child has celiac disease, consuming gluten will cause damage to finger-like projections, called ...

186

Pregnancy and Fifth Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Cheek Rash Parvovirus B19 and Other Illnesses References Pregnancy and Fifth Disease On this Page Testing for ... with fifth disease. Testing for Parvovirus B19 During Pregnancy A blood test for parvovirus B19 can show ...

187

About Alzheimer's Disease: Diagnosis  

MedlinePLUS

... I'm worried about memory loss or possible Alzheimer's? If you are concerned about changes in memory ... health issue is causing the problem. How is Alzheimer’s disease diagnosed? A definitive diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease ...

188

Arthritis and Heart Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... disease and control weight, which plays an important role in both diseases. Furthermore, research is showing the certain nutrients, such as omega-3 fatty acids found in certain fish and other foods, can ...

189

Lymphatics in Lung Disease  

PubMed Central

The lymphatic circulation appears to be a vital component in lung biology in health and in disease. Animal models have established the role of the lymphatic circulation in neoplastic and inflammatory diseases of the lung, such as asthma and cancer, and allowed for the understanding of the molecular controls of lymphangiogenesis in normal lung development. Understanding the role of lymphatics in human lung disease appears likely to contribute to the understanding of the pathogenesis of disease and the development of novel therapeutic targets.

El-Chemaly, Souheil; Levine, Stewart J.; Moss, Joel

2010-01-01

190

Peyronie’s Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peyronie’s disease is an enigmatic disease characterized by penile curvature, penile pain, and erectile dysfunction. The disease\\u000a appears to be more prevalent than previously thought as more men seek medical attention for sexual complaints. The lack of\\u000a a clear pathogenetic mechanism for the disease has led to numerous, diverse treatment options. Inconsistent results from studies\\u000a evaluating these various treatment options,

J. Slade Hubbard; Culley C. Carson

191

Women and Heart Disease  

MedlinePLUS

Women & Heart Disease Things you need to know Talk to your doctor about heart disease It’s important to ask your doctor about your ... you can do to lower your risk for heart disease Keep a healthy... 1. Blood pressure 2. Cholesterol ...

192

Celiac Disease: Internet Resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Celiac disease is an autoimmune malabsorption disorder caused by gluten, the protein present in wheat, rye, and barley. Gluten destroys the absorptive layer of the small intestine, which leads to malnourishment and other serious diseases. Recent research has established that celiac disease is a common disorder, affecting 1 in every 120 to 300 people in North America and Europe. The

Brian D. Cameron

2002-01-01

193

Venereal Disease. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is one in a series of contemporary topics in health science for students. The first chapter deals with the behavioral aspects of venereal disease and how the disease has been affected by our changing society. Chapter 2 discusses the magnitude of the problem, presenting various maps and charts. The history of venereal disease and the…

Bender, Stephen J.

194

Vector-Borne Diseases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online encyclopedia article discusses vector-borne diseases. It defines vectors as the transmitters of disease-causing organisms that carry the pathogens from one host to another. The article reviews the biological range of vectors, the transmission and types of vector-borne diseases, patterns of occurrence and existing control measures.

Artsob, Harvey; Health, Encyclopedia O.

195

Infections and autoimmune diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high percentage of disease-discordant pairs of monozygotic twins demonstrates the central role of environmental factors in the etiology of autoimmune diseases. Efforts were first focussed on the search for triggering factors. The study of animal models has clearly shown that infections may trigger autoimmune diseases, as in the case of Coxsackie B4 virus in type I diabetes and the

Jean-François Bach

2005-01-01

196

Peyronie's Disease: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peyronie's disease is an acquired benign condition without known systemic sequelae with presenting symptoms that include the presence of a plaque or induration of the penile shaft, penile curvature or deformity during erection, penile pain, and erectile dysfunction. This article reviews the natural history of the disease, discusses the disease's etiology (widely thought to involve minor penile trauma with subsequent

Mark Jalkut; Nestor Gonzalez-Cadavid; Jacob Rajfer

2003-01-01

197

Lyme Disease in Oregon ?  

PubMed Central

The incidence of Lyme disease in Oregon is calculated from cases reported to the Oregon State Health Division. We reviewed the exposure history of reported cases of Lyme disease and performed field surveys for infected Ixodes pacificus ticks. The incidence of Lyme disease correlated with the distribution of infected I. pacificus ticks.

Doggett, J. Stone; Kohlhepp, Sue; Gresbrink, Robert; Metz, Paul; Gleaves, Curt; Gilbert, David

2008-01-01

198

Disease control operations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Individual disease outbreaks have killed many thousands of animals on numerous occasions. Tens of thousands of migratory birds have died in single die-offs with as many as 1,000 birds succumbing in 1 day. In mammals, individual disease outbreaks have killed hundreds to thousands of animals with, for example, hemorrhagic disease in white-tailed deer, distemper in raccoon, Errington's disease in muskrat, and sylvatic plague in wild rodents. The ability to successfully combat such explosive situations is highly dependent n the readiness of field personnel to deal with them. Because many disease agents can spread though wildlife populations very fast, advance preparation is essential in preventing infected animals from spreading disease to additional species and locations. Carefully though-out disease contingency plans should be developed as practical working documents for field personnel and updated as necessary. Such well-designed plans can prove invaluable in minimizing wildlife losses and costs associated with disease control activities. Although requirements for disease control operations vary and must be tailored to each situation, all disease contingency planning involved general concepts and basic biological information. This chapter, intended as a practical guide, identifies the major activities and needs of disease control operations, and relates them to disease contingency planning.

Friend, Milton; Franson, J. Christian

1987-01-01

199

What Is Behcet's Disease?  

MedlinePLUS

... Behçet’s Disease Find a Clinical Trial Journal Articles Behçet’s Disease PDF Version Size: 70 KB Audio Version ... 1 MB Publication Date: May 2009 What Is Behçet’s Disease? Fast Facts: An Easy-to-Read Series ...

200

Immunotherapy for neurological diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The burden of neurological diseases in western societies has accentuated the need to develop effective therapies to stop the progression of chronic neurological diseases. Recent discoveries regarding the role of the immune system in brain damage coupled with the development of new technologies to manipulate the immune response make immunotherapies an attractive possibility to treat neurological diseases. The wide repertoire

Pablo Villoslada; Beatriz Moreno; Ignacio Melero; Jose L. Pablos; Gianvito Martino; Antonio Uccelli; Xavier Montalban; Jesus Avila; Serge Rivest; Laia Acarin; Stanley Appel; Samia J. Khoury; Patrick McGeer; Isidro Ferrer; Mario Delgado; Jose Obeso; Michal Schwartz

2008-01-01

201

Skin Diseases: Skin Health and Skin Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

... color or outline, or in any other way. Psoriasis © 2008 Logical Images, Inc. Psoriasis —A skin disease that causes scaling and swelling. Most psoriasis causes patches of thick, red skin with silvery ...

202

Mechanisms of Disease: immunopathogenesis of celiac disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Celiac disease is a genetic inflammatory disorder with autoimmune components that is induced by the ingestion of dietary gluten. Refractory sprue and enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma are rare but distinctive complications of the disease. Although the importance of the adaptive immune response to gluten has been well established, observations now also point towards a central role for the gluten-induced innate stress

Bana Jabri; Ludvig M Sollid

2006-01-01

203

Determining disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease.  

PubMed

To provide a stronger relationship between clinical assessment of disease activity and laboratory measurements, we studied hemoglobin concentrations, sedimentation rates, and the serum levels of albumin and of seromucoids in 86 patients; first when seriously ill with either ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease, and then again when they were well. Only albumin and seromucoids were separated clearly in the two states: hemoglobin and sedimentation rates showed significant overlap. Paired correlation tests between 10 laboratory variables in 149 patients with Crohn's disease of varying severity revealed a highly significant correlation between seromucoids and albumin (r = 0.71). Both variables correlated with six others, but at lower levels. Processing the correlation matrix by factor analysis suggested that the serum levels of albumin and seromucoid are indicators of the same effect--disease activity. A simple index using only hemoglobin, albumin, and seromucoid values, was derived from this analysis, positive values indicating health and negative ill health. Serum levels of albumin and seromucoids provide the essential data to determine disease activity at routine follow-up of inflammatory bowel disease or to indicate the success or failure of therapeutic regimens, overriding any arbitrary clinical assessment. PMID:6699391

Cooke, W T; Prior, P

1984-02-01

204

Behçet's disease as a systemic disease.  

PubMed

Behçet's disease usually begins with cutaneous manifestations, such as recurrent aphthous stomatitis, genital ulcers, erythema nodosum-like lesions, papulopustular findings, and pathergy phenomenon. Recurrent aphthous stomatitis is generally the first sign, and other findings may develop in the course of the disease. There is no specific diagnostic available for Behçet's disease. It is most prevalent among patients along the ancient Silk Road. The high frequency of HLA-B51 among a wide range of ethnic populations favors the role of genetic factors. Behçet's disease usually appears in the third to fourth decade of life, and is rarely seen in children and adults over 50 years of age. It affects both genders equally, but the course of the disease is more severe in men. Eye involvement leading to loss of vision, plus vascular, articular, and central nervous system involvement are more commonly observed among men. Behçet's disease is a systemic inflammatory disorder. A complex genetic background, coupled with innate and adaptive immune system activation, causes the diverse clinical manifestations that characterize the clinical picture. PMID:24767193

Mat, M Cem; Sevim, Ay?egül; Fresko, Izzet; Tüzün, Yalç?n

2014-01-01

205

[Acquired von Willebrand's disease].  

PubMed

We describe a patient with acquired von Willebrand's disease and Waldenström's macroglobulinemia. He suffered from an acquired tendency to bleed. The laboratory findings were identical to those of congenital von Willebrand's disease. The acquired form of this bleeding disorder is seen in association with immunologically active B cell lymphomas, certain other malignant tumours, and autoimmune diseases. The incidence and prevalence are unknown, but this disorder is probably uncommon. We discuss possible pathogenetic mechanisms. Acquired von Willebrand's disease should be considered in patients with an acquired tendency to bleed, especially if the patient also has a lymphoproliferative, neoplastic, or autoimmune disease. PMID:8332973

Berentsen, S; Hammerstrøm, J

1993-05-10

206

Osteoporosis and Gastrointestinal Disease  

PubMed Central

Gastrointestinal disease is often overlooked or simply forgotten as a cause of osteoporosis. Yet, the consequences of osteoporotic fractures can be devastating. Although the bulk of the published experience regarding osteoporosis is derived from the postmenopausal population, this review will focus on gastrointestinal disorders implicated in osteoporosis, with an emphasis on inflammatory bowel disease and celiac disease. The unique aspects of gastrointestinal diseases associated with osteoporosis include early onset of disease (and, therefore, prolonged exposure to risk factors for developing osteoporosis, particularly with inflammatory bowel disease and celiac disease), malabsorption, and maldigestion of nutrients necessary for bone health and maintenance (eg, calcium, vitamin D), as well as the impact of glucocorticoids. These factors, when added to smoking, a sedentary lifestyle, hypogonadism, and a family history of osteoporosis, accumulate into an imposing package of predictors for osteoporotic fracture. This paper will review the identification and treatment strategies for patients with gastrointestinal disorders and osteoporosis.

Weinerman, Stuart

2010-01-01

207

Legionella (Legionnaires' Disease and Pontiac Fever): History and Disease Patterns  

MedlinePLUS

... en... Favorites Delicious Digg Google Bookmarks History & Disease Patterns Legionnaires' disease (LEE-juh-nares) is caused by ... of Legionnaires’ disease in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (1) . Disease Patterns Each year, between 8,000 and 18,000 ...

208

[Serodiagnosis of Crohn's disease].  

PubMed

Three serological tests, recommended as being of diagnostic value for Crohn's disease, were evaluated in 39 patients with Crohn's disease and--as controls--in 27 patients with ulcerative colitis, 45 healthy persons and 65 patients with inflammatory diseases other than Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis. The tests were the determination of (1) serum antibodies to pseudomonas-like organisms (PLO) by means of indirect immunofluorescence; (2) agglutinating serum antibodies to 4 strains of anaerobic gram-positive coccoid rods (species of Eubacterium, Peptostreptococcus and Coprococcus); and (3) serum antibodies to perinuclear antigens in buccal mucosa of Crohn's disease patients by immunofluorescence. The results indicate that the occurrence of high-titer antibodies to PLO is reasonably sensitive for Crohn's disease, but has a low specificity, and that antibodies to perinuclear antigens in buccal mucosa have both low sensitivity and specificity. However, the occurrence of agglutinins to 4 strains of anaerobic grampositive coccoid rods is significantly higher in Crohn's disease than in ulcerative colitis, patients with other diseases and healthy controls. Thus the determination of these agglutinins does not discriminate between Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis; but it is a serodiagnostic adjunct in the diagnosis of chronic inflammatory bowel diseases. PMID:6872878

Auer, I O; Wensinck, F; Röder, A; Merwe, J P; Schmidt, H; Schuster, S

1983-08-19

209

Epigenetic Inheritance of Disease and Disease Risk  

PubMed Central

Epigenetic marks in an organism can be altered by environmental factors throughout life. Although changes in the epigenetic code can be positive, some are associated with severe diseases, in particular, cancer and neuropsychiatric disorders. Recent evidence has indicated that certain epigenetic marks can be inherited, and reshape developmental and cellular features over generations. This review examines the challenging possibility that epigenetic changes induced by environmental factors can contribute to some of the inheritance of disease and disease risk. This concept has immense implications for the understanding of biological functions and disease etiology, and provides potential novel strategies for diagnosis and treatment. Examples of epigenetic inheritance relevant to human disease, such as the detrimental effects of traumatic stress or drug/toxic exposure on brain functions, are reviewed. Different possible routes of transmission of epigenetic information involving the germline or germline-independent transfer are discussed, and different mechanisms for the maintenance and transmission of epigenetic information like chromatin remodeling and small noncoding RNAs are considered. Future research directions and remaining major challenges in this field are also outlined. Finally, the adaptive value of epigenetic inheritance, and the cost and benefit of allowing acquired epigenetic marks to persist across generations is critically evaluated.

Bohacek, Johannes; Mansuy, Isabelle M

2013-01-01

210

Animals: Disease Risks for People  

MedlinePLUS

... transmitting tick-borne diseases such as ehrlichiosis, babesiosis, Lyme disease, Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever and others. People can ... transmitting tick-borne diseases such as ehrlichiosis, babesiosis, Lyme disease, Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever and others. The symptoms ...

211

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and cardiovascular disease  

PubMed Central

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are two diseases that are common in the general population. To date, many studies have been conducted and demonstrate a direct link between NAFLD and CVD, but the exact mechanisms for this complex relationship are not well established. A systematic search of the PubMed database revealed that several common mechanisms are involved in many of the local and systemic manifestations of NAFLD and lead to an increased cardiovascular risk. The possible mechanisms linking NAFLD and CVD include inflammation, oxidative stress, insulin resistance, ectopic adipose tissue distribution, dyslipidemia, endothelial dysfunction, and adiponectin, among others. The clinical implication is that patients with NAFLD are at an increased risk of CVD and should undergo periodic cardiovascular risk assessment.

Liu, Hong; Lu, Hong-Yun

2014-01-01

212

Anderson-Fabry disease: a multiorgan disease.  

PubMed

Fabry disease (FD) is a rare X-linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by a deficiency of the enzyme ?-galactosidase A. FD causes glycolipids, such as globotriaosylceramide (Gb3), to accumulate in the vascular endothelium of several organs (Fig. 2), including the skin, kidneys, nervous system, and heart, thereby triggering inflammation and fibrosis. These processes generally result in organ dysfunction, which is usually the first clinical evidence of FD. Patients with classic FD have various symptoms, eg, acroparesthesias, hypohidrosis, angiokeratomas, corneal opacities, cerebrovascular lesions, cardiac disorders, andrenal dysfunction.However, evolving knowledge about the natural course of disease suggests that it is more appropriate to describe FD as a disease with a wide spectrum of heterogeneously progressive clinical phenotypes. Indeed, most female heterozygotes develop symptoms due to yet undetermined mechanisms and a high percentage of females develops vital organ involvement including the kidneys, heart and/or brain about a decade later than males. Renal failure is a serious complication of this disease. Fabry nephropathy lesions are present and progress in childhood while the disease commonly remains silent by routine clinical measures. Early and timely diagnosis of Fabry nephropathy is crucial since late initiation of enzyme replacement therapy may not halt progressive renal dysfunction. This may be challenging due to difficulties in diagnosis of Fabry disease in children and absence of a sensitive non-invasive biomarker of early Fabry nephropathy. Accurate measurement of glomerular filtration rate and regular assessment for proteinuria and microalbuminuria are useful, though not sensitive enough to detect early lesions in the kidney. The principal clinical manifestations in Fabry disease consist of artery associated complications (such as cerebral disease and nephropathy), but the pathophysiology of this specific vasculopathy is unclear. Several studies indicate that the specific vascular lesions that are present in Fabry disease occur as a result of vascular dysfunction with major components being endothelial dysfunction, alterations in cerebral perfusion and a pro-thrombotic phenotype. Fabry cardiac involvement has several clinical manifestations (Table 10): concentric left ventricular hypertrophy without left ventricular dilation and severe loss of left ventricular systolic function, mitral and aortic valvulopathy, disorders of the atrioventricular conduction or repolarization, and compromised diastolic function. The neurological manifestations of Fabry disease include both peripheral nervous system and CNS involvement, with globotriaosylceramide accumulation found in Schwann cells and dorsal root ganglia together with deposits in CNS neurones. The main involvement of the CNS is attributable to cerebrovasculopathy, with an increased incidence of stroke. The abnormal neuronal accumulation of glycosphingolipid appears to have little clinical effect on the natural history of Fabry disease, with the possible exception of some reported mild cognitive abnormalities. The pathogenesis of Fabry vasculopathy remains poorly understood, but probably relates, in part, to abnormal functional control of the vessels, secondary to endothelial dysfunction as a consequence of ?-galactosidase A deficiency. The diagnosis of Fabry disease is made in hemizygous males after the detection of the presence of angiokeratomas (Fig. 19 A, B), irregularities in sweating, edema, scant body hair, painful sensations, and of cardiovascular, intestinal, renal, ophthalmologic, phlebologic, and respiratory involvement. A deficiency of alpha-gal A in serum, leukocytes, tears, tissue specimens, or cultured skin fibroblasts further supports the diagnosis in male patients. Since heterozygous women show angiokeratomas in only about 30% of cases and may have alpha-gal A levels within normal range, genetic analysis is recommended. The resultant storage of undegraded glycolipids leads to the progressive development of potentially life-threatening man

Tuttolomondo, Antonino; Pecoraro, Rosaria; Simonetta, Irene; Miceli, Salvatore; Pinto, Antonio; Licata, Giuseppe

2013-01-01

213

Viral Disease Networks?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Viral infections induce multiple perturbations that spread along the links of the biological networks of the host cells. Understanding the impact of these cascading perturbations requires an exhaustive knowledge of the cellular machinery as well as a systems biology approach that reveals how individual components of the cellular system function together. Here we describe an integrative method that provides a new approach to studying virus-human interactions and its correlations with diseases. Our method involves the combined utilization of protein - protein interactions, protein -- DNA interactions, metabolomics and gene - disease associations to build a ``viraldiseasome''. By solely using high-throughput data, we map well-known viral associated diseases and predict new candidate viral diseases. We use microarray data of virus-infected tissues and patient medical history data to further test the implications of the viral diseasome. We apply this method to Epstein-Barr virus and Human Papillomavirus and shed light into molecular development of viral diseases and disease pathways.

Gulbahce, Natali; Yan, Han; Vidal, Marc; Barabasi, Albert-Laszlo

2010-03-01

214

Pediatric Moyamoya disease  

PubMed Central

Background: Moyamoya disease (MMD) is a progressive cerebrovascular occlusive disease of the bilateral internal carotid arteries that leads to a compensatory abnormal vascular network at the base of the brain. Its average annual incidence 0.54 per 100,000 population but it is the most common pediatric cerebrovascular disease in East Asia. The reported incidence in USA is approximately 0.086 per 100,000 patients. Case Report: We present a case of Moyamoya disease that was to detected in a 7-year-old female who presented with transient altered mental status. Conclusions: Moyamoya disease can be diagnosed if history, physical exam and brain imaging is highly suspicious. Conventional angiography remains the gold standard for diagnosis and aids in surgical planning for patients with suspected Moyamoya disease.

Nagiub, Mohamed; Allarakhia, Iqbal

2013-01-01

215

Coeliac disease associated with congenital heart disease.  

PubMed Central

Six children with congenital heart disease are described in whom poor growth was found to be due to small-bowel villous atrophy; none was in heart failure and only one was severely cyanosed. Growth improved in all 6 on a gluten-free diet. Gluten enteropathy may be more common than is realised in children with congenital heart disease, and jejunal biopsy should be undertaken early in any patient with poor growth and no heart failure to exclude the coexistence of the condition.

Congdon, P. J.; Fiddler, G. I.; Littlewood, J. M.; Scott, O.

1982-01-01

216

Zoonotic Diseases Tutorial  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website from the University of Wisconsin, features an exhausting list of zoonotic diseases (those that can be shared by both animals and humans). Each disease has its own devoted sub-page, which discusses the particular disease in detail. A healthy list of related websites is also maintained on the lower half of the main page. The website is very minimalist, but this clean and well-organized site is extremely valuable and easy to navigate.

Olsen, Christopher W.

2006-11-03

217

Cerebrovascular Disease and Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Cerebrovascular diseases are a common cause of cognitive impairment in adults and a clinically significant cause of cognitive\\u000a disability in children. Ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke are the main types of cerebrovascular disease. Risk factors for stroke,\\u000a clinical signs and symptoms, diagnostic evaluation and treatment are discussed for each category of cerebrovascular disease,\\u000a and differences across the life span are highlighted.

Sabrina E. Smith; Juliana Sanchez Bloom; Nancy Minniti

218

Pathomechanisms in Celiac Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Celiac disease is a complex autoimmune disease which is characterized by a strong genetic association (HLA-DQ2 or -DQ8), gluten as nutritional etiological factor, and the enzyme tissue transglutaminase as endomysial autoantigen. Patients develop highly predictive IgA autoantibodies to tTG. Certain gluten peptides are presented by the disease-associated HLA-DQ2\\/DQ8 molecules leading to stimulation of gluten-specific T cells. This immune response which

Walburga Dieterich; Birgit Esslinger; Detlef Schuppan

2003-01-01

219

Metabolic liver disease.  

PubMed

Diagnosis of metabolic liver disease requires a high level of diagnostic suspicion. Diet is usually the primary treatment for metabolic liver disease. Where indicated, liver transplantation provides lifelong functional correction of liver-based metabolic defects. Liver cell therapy warrants further study for the future treatment of metabolic liver disease. All families should receive genetic advice and pre-emptive management of future affected siblings. PMID:22521124

McKiernan, Pat

2012-06-01

220

[Tuberculosis as occupational disease].  

PubMed

There is enough evidence to declare tuberculosis as an occupational disease among healthcare workers. In Peru, there are regulations granting employment rights regarding tuberculosis as an occupational disease, such as healthcare coverage for temporary or permanent disability. However, these rights have not been sufficiently socialized. This study presents information on the risk of acquiring tuberculosis in the workplace, and a review of the evidence to declare tuberculosis as an occupational disease among health care workers, presenting the current Peruvian law related. PMID:22858771

Mendoza-Ticona, Alberto

2012-06-01

221

Lyme disease: An update  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lyme disease is a multisystem illness caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, and it is the most common vector-borne illness in the United States. Lyme disease is also endemic in Europe and Asia. There\\u000a have been major advances in the field since the disease was first described, including the sequencing of the B. burgdorferi genome; an increase in understanding of

Adriana R. Marques

2001-01-01

222

Acquired von Willebrand Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acquired von Willebrand disease (AvWD) is a rare complication of an autoimmune or neoplastic disease. It is associated mostly with a lymphoid or plasma cell proliferative disorder. The clinical manifestations are similar to congenital von Willebrand disease. Diagnosis is confirmed by the demonstration of decreased levels of factor VIII coagulant activity (VIII:C), ristocetin cofactor activity (vWF:RCo), and von Willebrand factor

Ayalew Tefferi; William L Nichols

1997-01-01

223

Apoptosis in renal disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Apoptosis plays an important role in organ development and repair, however, it is becoming clear that it may also be involved\\u000a in a number of different diseases. In recent years, there has been growing evidence to implicate apoptosis in kidney development\\u000a [1, 2] and various renal disorders including immune-mediated renal disease, polycystic kidney disease and acute tubular necrosis.\\u000a Many of

Victoria Y. Wong; Shujath M. Ali; David P. Brooks

224

Vascular liver diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews the primary circulatory liver diseases, which include Budd-Chiari syndrome, obstruction of the hepatic\\u000a portion of the inferior vena cava, portal vein thrombosis, sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (veno-occlusive disease), nodular\\u000a regenerative hyperplasia, and peliosis hepatis. In addition, two systemic cardiovascular diseases that impair hepatic circulation,\\u000a ischemic hepatitis and congestive hepatopathy, are briefly discussed. A characteristic of the primary circulatory

Laurie D. DeLeve

2003-01-01

225

Appendectomy and Crohn's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To identify the relationship between appendectomy and Crohn's disease and the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease. METHODS: We performed a meta-analysis of case-control studies on the relationship between appendectomy and Crohn's disease published domestically and abroad from January 1987 to May 2007. RESULTS: Twelve case-control studies collec- tively gathered evidence from 11 058 patients and 784 440 controls. The results

Xu Liu; Xiao-Peng Cai; Feng Tian; Wei Dong

226

Lung disease in farmers.  

PubMed Central

Lung diseases in farmers attributable to their occupation include (a) farmer's lung, caused by exposure to mouldy hay, (b) the asthma caused by exposure to grain dust and (c) silo-filler's disease. Their prevalence in Canada is unknown. Farmer's lung results from inhalation of mould spores in hay; the mechanism is immunologic. The exact cause and mechanism of grain dust asthma are unknown but may be immunologic. Silo-filler's disease is caused by the toxic effects of inhaled nitrogen dioxide.

Warren, C. P.

1977-01-01

227

Cushing’s disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cushing’s disease, i.e., pituitary ACTH-secreting adenoma causing excess glucocorticoid secretion, is a rare disease with\\u000a significant mortality and morbidity. Timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment can alter the course of the disease and are\\u000a therefore mandatory. First step of the diagnostic work-up is the endogenous glucocorticoid excess by measurement of urinary\\u000a free cortisol, cortisol circadian rhythmicity or suppression by low doses

Martina De Martin; Francesca Pecori Giraldi; Francesco Cavagnini

2006-01-01

228

Feline respiratory disease complex.  

PubMed

Feline respiratory disease complex (FRDC) refers to the characteristic acute presentation of a contagious respiratory or ocular disease caused by one or multiple pathogens. Environmental and host factors impact the transmission, clinical presentation, preventive strategy, and treatment of affected cats. The FRDC is especially problematic in settings where large numbers of cats cohabit, including animal shelters, catteries, and semi-feral colonies. Although elimination of FRDC is an unrealistic goal, improved understanding can lead to strategies to minimize disease impact. PMID:22041216

Cohn, Leah A

2011-11-01

229

History of Kawasaki disease.  

PubMed

We describe a short history of Kawasaki disease. In 1967, we published a paper entitled 'Infantile acute febrile mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome with specific desquamation of the fingers and toes. Clinical observation of 50 cases'; this was the first report on what is now called Kawasaki disease. Since then, many reports on cardiology, treatment, epidemiology, pathology and etiology of Kawasaki disease have been published. Furthermore, a recent Chapel Hill Consensus Statement on Kawasaki disease in the classification of vasculitis is given, along with a figure on the relationship and classification of childhood vasculitis by autopsy material. PMID:24595558

Kawasaki, Tomisaku; Naoe, Shiro

2014-04-01

230

Glycosphingolipids and kidney disease.  

PubMed

Glycosphingolipids, derived from the addition of sugar-moieties to the sphingolipid ceramide, are highly abundant in the kidney. Glycosphingolipids are known to play an important role in organ function at least in part from inherited lipid storage diseases such as Anderson-Fabry disease (Fabry's disease; FD) that results from a mutation in alpha-galactosidase a (?-GLA or ?-Gal A), the enzyme responsible for catalyzing the removal of terminal galactose residues from glycosphingolipids. The inactivation in ?-GLA in FD results in the accumulation of glycosphingolipids, including globosides and lactosylceramides, which manifests as several common pathologies including end-stage kidney disease. More recently, glycosphingolipids and other sphingolipids have become increasingly recognized for their roles in a variety of other kidney diseases including polycystic kidney disease, acute kidney injury, glomerulonephritis, diabetic nephropathy and kidney cancer. This chapter reviews evidence supporting a mechanistic role for glycosphingolipids in kidney disease and discusses data implicating a role for these lipids in kidney disease resulting from metabolic syndrome. Importantly, inhibitors of glycosphingolipid synthesis are well tolerated in animal models as well as in humans. Thus, an increased understanding of the mechanisms by which altered renal glycosphingolipid metabolism leads to kidney disease has great therapeutic potential. PMID:21910086

Mather, Andrew R; Siskind, Leah J

2011-01-01

231

Cryptosporidium (Crypto) Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Child Care Facilities Prevention Oubreak Control Camps Disease Resources for Health Professionals Treatment - Nitazoxanide Boil Water Advisories Public Water Supplies Commercial Establishments Commercial Ice ...

232

[Koi herpesvirus disease].  

PubMed

Koi herpesvirus (KHV) disease emerged at the late 1990s, and has rapidly spread to the world. In Japan, KHV disease first occurred at October 2003. The disease resulted in mass mortality of wild carp as well as cultured carp. Until now, KHV-infected carp were found in 42 out of 47 prefectures in Japan. Only carp Cyprinus carpio is susceptible to KHV, while goldfish, closely-related species to carp, is not. The affected carp swim lethargically. Sunken eyes and gill necrosis are frequently noticed, but no marked internal signs are observed. Optimal water temperature for the disease is 18-23 degrees C. Under 13 degrees C or over 28 degrees C, no death occurs. Keep at over 30 degrees C cures KHV disease, but can make the fish latent carriers. Because the fish do not get acquired immunity against KHV disease under low water temperature, the disease recurs with increase of water temperature. Isolation of KHV is difficult. KHV disease is diagnosed through epidemiological investigation, disease signs and PCR detection of KHV DNA. Vaccine development is ongoing for restart of culturing carp at KHV-contaminated places. PMID:16308541

Iida, Takaji; Sano, Motohiko

2005-06-01

233

Creativity and neurological disease.  

PubMed

Although humans have long valued creativity, the generation of such innovation is still incompletely understood. Looking at the healthy brain, researchers have localized certain parts for a basic understanding of these mechanisms. By researching the brain affected by neurological disease, scientists have observed unique manifestations of creativity, such as in frontotemporal lobar degeneration, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and parkinsonian spectrum disorders, and stroke, which help clarify these creative underpinnings. Incorporating both healthy and disease models of cerebral functioning, neurological and neuroscientific research from recent years has built on established theories and expanded current knowledge. PMID:24938215

Acosta, Lealani Mae Y

2014-08-01

234

Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Pediatrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crohn's disease (CD) Crohn's disease (CD) Crohn's disease (CD) Crohn's disease (CD) Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative ulcerative ulcerative ulcerative ulcerative colitis (UC) are chronic diseases charac- terized by unpredictable periods of dis- ease activity and quiescence. Some pa- tients suffer from almost continuous symptoms, others, only rare flares of dis- ease activity. In addition to affecting the daily lives

Jason M. Shapiro; David Kawatu; Barbara Bancroft; Neal LeLeiko

235

Borna Disease Virus and Human Disease  

PubMed Central

The biology of Borna disease virus (BDV) strongly supports the likelihood of human infection with BDV or a variant of BDV. Thus far, the evidence supporting BDV infection in humans has initiated much controversy among basic and clinical scientists; only time and additional research will support or refute the hypothesis of human BDV infection. Until an assay of acceptable specificity and sensitivity has been developed, validated, and used to document human BDV infection, scientists cannot reasonably begin to associate BDV infection with specific disease syndromes. Clinical studies seeking causal associations between BDV infection and specific diseases must ensure the proper identification of the BDV infection status of patients and control subjects by using a validated, highly sensitive, and highly specific assay (or series of assays). For clinical studies, a highly sensitive “screening” test followed by a highly specific confirmatory test will be of significant benefit. Although it is possible to formulate hypotheses about the clinical outcomes of human BDV infection based on animal model work, to date no human disease has been causally linked to human BDV infection. Scientists all over the world are actively pursuing these issues, and with continuing advances in clinical and basic BDV research, the answers cannot be far away.

Carbone, Kathryn M.

2001-01-01

236

Diseases accompanying congenital hypothyroidism.  

PubMed

Abstract Introduction: Extrathyroidal abnormality incidence and especially the incidence of congenital cardiac disease are increased with congenital hypothyroidism. In this present study, it is aimed to evaluate patients who were being followed up for congenital hypothyroidism for accompanying diseases, and to compare impacts of accompanying diseases on prognosis under the light of published articles in the literature. Material and methods: A total of 400 cases which were diagnosed with, treated and followed up for congenital hypothyroidism in our clinic were retrospectively evaluated. Cases with complaining symptoms and without any complaints, but were diagnosed with hypothyroidism as the result of screening tests were enrolled in the study. Results: Of 400 subjects included due to congenital hypothyroidism, 186 (46.5%) were girls and 214 (53.5%) were boys. Accompanying diseases were diagnosed in 113 cases (28.2%). Accompanying diseases according to the frequency order were congenital cardiac disease (n=32, 8.0%), Down syndrome (n=25, 6.3%), inguinal hernia (n=21, 5.30%), undescended testicles (n=8, 2.0%), GH deficiency (n=4, 1.0%), and some other systemic diseases (n=23, 5.8%). In cases accompanied by congenital cardiac diseases, ventricular septal defect (n=10), atrial septal defect (n=9), pulmonary stenosis (n=7), patent ductus arteriosis (n=7), and aortic coarctation (n=3) were detected. Conclusion: In this present study, it was defined that approximately one third of patients with congenital hypothyroidism had an accompanying disease, and cardiac diseases were the most common problem. It is concluded that evaluation of congenital hypothyroidism cases for accompanying diseases, detailed cardiological examination being in the first order, is important for prognosis. PMID:24353135

Ba?, Veysel Nijat; Ozgelen, Sebnem; Cetinkaya, Semra; Aycan, Zehra

2014-05-01

237

Stroke in Fabry's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was performed to characterize the frequency, clinical presentation and etiology of cerebrovascular complications in patients with Fabry's disease. Thirty-three patients (age range 6–64 years) with Fabry's disease were reviewed, eight (24%) of whom suffered cerebrovascular complications. All patients developed ischemic strokes involving small arterial vessels which occurred in equal frequency in carotid and vertebrobasilar distributions. In six of

R. P. Grewal

1994-01-01

238

Rare Diseases Research  

PubMed Central

Extensive public-private partnerships, including the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the rare diseases community, which is seeing a renewed industry interest in smaller niche markets, have resulted in an increase of interventions for rare diseases. Significant collaborative efforts are required among the pharmaceutical industry, foundations, patient-advocacy groups, academic and government investigators and funding programs, regulatory scientists, and reimbursement agencies to meet the unmet diagnostic and treatment needs for approximately 25 million people in the United States with 7,000 rare diseases. The expanding role and outreach activities of patient-advocacy groups have increased public awareness. In the United States, a rare disease is defined as a disorder or condition with a prevalence of < 200,000 people. In 2011, the NIH provided > $3.5 billion for rare diseases research, including $750 million for orphan product development activities, nearly 11.4% of the NIH research budget. Several research institutes and centers of the NIH, including the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, have initiated varied translational research efforts to address the absence of preclinical and clinical data required for regulatory review purposes. Clinicians can expect to see significant increases in requests from patients and their families to participate in patient registries and natural history or observational studies to gather specific information from a larger pool of patients on the progression of the disease or response to treatments. An expanding emphasis on rare diseases provides hope for the millions of patients with rare diseases.

2013-01-01

239

Lesch-Nyhan Disease.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This special edition explores the serious genetic disorder, Lesch-Nyhan Disease (LND), which is characterized by severe dystonia, spasticity, speech impairment, renal disease, varying degrees of cognitive deficit, and, especially, compulsive self-injury. The information provided is based on experience at the Matheny School and Hospital (New…

Barabas, Gabor, Ed.

1993-01-01

240

Ethics in prion disease.  

PubMed

This paper is intended to discuss some of the scientific and ethical issues that are created by increased research efforts towards earlier diagnosis, as well as to treatment of, human prion diseases (and related dementias), including the resulting consequences for individuals, their families, and society. Most patients with prion disease currently are diagnosed when they are about 2/3 of the way through their disease course (Geschwind et al., 2010a; Paterson et al., 2012b), when the disease has progressed so far that even treatments that stop the disease process would probably have little benefit. Although there are currently no treatments available for prion diseases, we and others have realized that we must diagnose patients earlier and with greater accuracy so that future treatments have hope of success. As approximately 15% of prion diseases have a autosomal dominant genetic etiology, this further adds to the complexity of ethical issues, particularly regarding when to conduct genetic testing, release of genetic results, and when or if to implement experimental therapies. Human prion diseases are both infectious and transmissible; great care is required to balance the needs of the family and individual with both public health needs and strained hospital budgets. It is essential to proactively examine and address the ethical issues involved, as well as to define and in turn provide best standards of care. PMID:23906487

Bechtel, Kendra; Geschwind, Michael D

2013-11-01

241

Disease Epidemic Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This model can be used to create a virtual population to observe how different factors might affect the spread of a disease. Scientists often use computer models to study complicated phenomena like epidemics. This model is a simplified simulation of any disease that is spread through human contact.

Shodor

242

Isolated sphenoid sinus disease.  

PubMed

Disease of the sphenoid sinus is often vague and nonspecific in its clinical presentation. Therefore, the otolaryngologist must maintain a high index of suspicion when evaluating patients who present with such nonspecific symptoms. A thorough understanding of the radiologic characteristics of sphenoid sinus disease is essential in the proper evaluation and management of these patients. PMID:15064073

Grillone, Gregory A; Kasznica, Peter

2004-04-01

243

Adult Still's disease  

MedlinePLUS

... illness that causes high fevers, rash, and joint pain. It may lead to long-term (chronic) arthritis. Still's disease is a severe version of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), which occurs in children. Adults can have the same condition. The disease ...

244

Chronic Disease Indicators  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Chronic Disease Indicators (CDI) is a cross-cutting set of 97 indicators that were developed by consensus and that allows states and territories and large metropolitan areas to uniformly define, collect, and report chronic disease data that are important to public health practice and available for states, territories and large metropolitan areas. 

Control, Center F.

245

Sexually Transmitted Diseases.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper consists of a briefing or lecture outline on sexually transmitted diseases to be used by medical personnel as an instructional tool for a wide variety of audiences. It is intended to be used in whole or broken down to specific disease groups. I...

W. M. Simmons

1989-01-01

246

Evaluation of esophageal diseases.  

PubMed

The diagnosis of esophageal disease can be made by history alone in 80 percent of patients. Primary symptoms include dysphagia, odynophagia, heartburn and central chest pain. Although these symptoms may overlap, one esophageal symptom often predominates. This observation and an understanding of the available diagnostic tests enable the clinician to develop an algorithmic approach to the diagnosis of esophageal diseases. PMID:3942041

Dabaghi, R E; Scott, L D

1986-01-01

247

Parkinson's Disease Videos  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... College of Medicine What are some of the common misconceptions about Parkinson's disease? Joseph Jankovic, MD Baylor College of Medicine When ... MD John Hopkins University What are the most common side effects of Parkinson's disease medications? Zoltan Mari, MD John Hopkins University Are ...

248

Exercise and Alzheimer's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Substantial evidence exists to confirm that regular and moderate exercise is a potent disease prevention and health promotion resource for the elderly. Data is sparse, but accumulating, that physical activity may even have an important role in moderating dementia such as Alzheimer's disease. Of interest to caregivers and practitioners is the preliminary evidence reviewed in this paper which supports that

Allison P. Bonner; Sandra OBrien Cousins

1996-01-01

249

Homocysteine and cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Despite the well-known effectiveness of vitamin supplementation in reducing homocysteine levels, it is not known whether lowering of homocysteine levels is associated with a reduction in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The aim of this review is to discuss the epidemiologic evidence about the relation between homocysteine and cardiovascular disease, the pathophysiologic

Arduino A Mangoni; Stephen H. D Jackson

2002-01-01

250

Immunosenescence and infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infectious diseases are major causes, with malignancies, of morbidity and mortality in the elderly. Increased susceptibility to infections may result from underlying dysfunction of an aged immune system; moreover, inappropriate immunologic functions associated with aging can determine an insufficient response to vaccines. Impairments of cellular, humoral and innate immunity in the elderly, contributing to increased incidence of infectious diseases, are

Lia Ginaldi; Maria Francesca Loreto; Maria Pia Corsi; Marco Modesti; Massimo De Martinis

2001-01-01

251

Depression and Heart Disease  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... player. Depression and Heart Disease HealthDay June 19, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Depression Heart Disease in Women Women's Health Transcript Young women struggling with depression face a higher risk of suffering a heart attack new research reveals. Young women also face more than twice ...

252

Coronary Heart Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... 11/2014 Celebrating American Heart Month: NIH Advancing Heart Research 02/07/2014 The NHLBI "Grand Opportunity" Exome Sequencing Project 05/16/2012 Living With and Managing Coronary Artery Disease 08/13/2011 Coronary Heart Disease Clinical Trials Clinical trials are research studies ...

253

Gum and Heart Disease  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Scientists have long noticed a connection between gum disease and heart disease. Now, they've found a key piece of the puzzle. This science update examines what scientists have found linking the total amount of periodontal bacteria in the mouth and blockages in the carotid artery.

Science Update;

2005-04-25

254

Epidemiology of Peyronie's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Francois Gigot de la Peyronie, surgeon to Louis XV of France, has become synonymous with the rather enigmatic though not uncommon condition of Peyronie's disease (PD), a localized connective tissue disorder of the penile tunica albuginea. The true prevalence of Peyronie's disease is unknown. Therefore, we decided to perform an evaluation of existing epidemiological data. A prevalence rate of 3.2%

F Sommer; U Schwarzer; G Wassmer; W Bloch; M Braun; T Klotz; U Engelmann

2002-01-01

255

Fifth Disease (Erythema Infectiosum)  

MedlinePLUS

Fifth disease, which is especially common in kids between the ages of 5 and 15, usually produces a distinctive red rash on the ... kids recover from quickly and without complications. Fifth disease (also ... about in pets, especially dogs, and it cannot be passed from humans to ...

256

PREVENTING DISEASES AND INFECTIONS  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

DESK Standard: Determine how communicable diseases are spread. . DATES: You can begin this activity on January 8. You should complete it by January 12. OBJECTIVE: Everyone wants to feel healthy because being sick is a drag! We have been discussing ways to prevent the spread of infections and diseases during class. There are many ...

Hughes, Mr.

2006-02-19

257

Diabetes and macrovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes. Macrovascular events, including stroke, myocardial infarction (MI), and peripheral arterial disease (PAD), occur earlier than in nondiabetics and the underlying pathologies are often more diffuse and severe. Diabetic arteriopathy, which encompasses endothelial dysfunction, hypercoagulability, changes in blood flow, and platelet abnormalities, contributes to the early

Aaron Vinik; Mark Flemmer

2002-01-01

258

Esophageal disease in pediatrics  

PubMed Central

The following on esophageal disease in pediatrics contains commentaries on acquisition of neuromuscular maturation; physiology of esophageal peristaltic and sphincteric reflexes; implications for clinical practice; and conditions that predispose to severe gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in children with potential risk for esophageal cancer.

Jadcherla, Sudarshan R.; Nurko, Samuel

2013-01-01

259

AUTOINFLAMMATORY PUSTULAR NEUTROPHILIC DISEASES  

PubMed Central

SYNOPSIS The inflammatory pustular dermatoses constitute a spectrum of non-infectious conditions ranging from localized involvement to generalized disease with associated acute systemic inflammation and multi-organ involvement. Despite the variability in extent and severity of cutaneous presentation, each of these diseases is characterized by non-infectious neutrophilic intra-epidermal microabscesses. Many share systemic findings including fever, elevated inflammatory markers, inflammatory bowel disease and/or osteoarticular involvement, suggesting potential common pathogenic links (Figure 1). The recent discoveries of several genes responsible for heritable pustular diseases have revealed a distinct link between pustular skin disease and regulation of innate immunity. These genetic advances have led to a deeper exploration of common pathways in pustular skin disease and offer the potential for a new era of biologic therapy which targets these shared pathways. This chapter provides a new categorization of inflammatory pustular dermatoses in the context of recent genetic and biologic insights. We will discuss recently-described monogenic diseases with pustular phenotypes, including deficiency of IL-1 receptor antagonist (DIRA), deficiency of the IL-36 receptor antagonist (DITRA), CARD14-associated pustular psoriasis (CAMPS), and pyogenic arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum, acne (PAPA). We will then discuss how these new genetic advancements may inform how we view previously described pustular diseases, including pustular psoriasis and its clinical variants, with a focus on historical classification by clinical phenotype.

Naik, Haley B.; Cowen, Edward W.

2013-01-01

260

Cat scratch disease  

MedlinePLUS

Cat scratch disease is an infection with Bartonella bacteria that is believed to be transmitted by cat scratches and bites. ... a cat, your health care provider may suspect cat scratch disease. A ... bacteria, but must be considered with other information from ...

261

Diphtheria Disease Villain  

MedlinePLUS

... are now immunized that diphtheria was forced to change its plan of attack. The disease now targets adults who have not had the ... coughs and sneezes. Area of Operations In warmer climates, diphtheria ... diphtheria was a common childhood disease. And, it was a common cause of death ...

262

Microinvasive Paget's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background.Microinvasive squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva is defined as stromal invasion ?1 mm and is treated by wide local resection. Whether criteria for microinvasive squamous cell carcinoma can be applied to Paget's disease of the vulva is unknown because of the rarity of that disease.

Thomas Ewing; John Sawicki; Giuseppe Ciaravino; Gregory J. Rumore

2004-01-01

263

Parkinson's Disease: Gene Therapies  

PubMed Central

With the recent development of effective gene delivery systems, gene therapy for the central nervous system is finding novel applications. Here, we review existing viral vectors and discuss gene therapy strategies that have been proposed for Parkinson’s disease. To date, most of the clinical trials were based on viral vectors to deliver therapeutic transgenes to neurons within the basal ganglia. Initial trials used genes to relieve the major motor symptoms caused by nigrostriatal degeneration. Although these new genetic approaches still need to prove more effective than existing symptomatic treatments, there is a need for disease-modifying strategies. The investigation of the genetic factors implicated in Parkinson’s disease is providing precious insights in disease pathology that, combined with innovative gene delivery systems, will hopefully offer novel opportunities for gene therapy interventions to slow down, or even halt disease progression.

Coune, Philippe G.; Schneider, Bernard L.; Aebischer, Patrick

2012-01-01

264

Valve disease in pregnancy.  

PubMed

Maternal cardiac disease is a major cause of non-obstetric morbidity and accounts for 10-25% of maternal mortality. Valvular heart disease may result from congenital abnormalities or acquired lesions, some of which may involve more than one valve. Maternal and fetal risks in pregnant patients with valve disease vary according to the type and severity of the valve lesion along with resulting abnormalities of functional capacity, left ventricular function, and pulmonary artery pressure. Certain high-risk conditions are considered contraindications to pregnancy, while others may be successfully managed with observation, medications, and, in refractory cases, surgical intervention. Communication between the patient?s obstetrician, maternal-fetal medicine specialist, obstetrical anesthesiologist, and cardiologist is critical in managing a pregnancy with underlying maternal cardiac disease. The management of the various types of valve diseases in pregnancy will be reviewed here, along with a discussion of related complications including mechanical prosthetic valves and infective endocarditis. PMID:25037517

Pessel, Cara; Bonanno, Clarissa

2014-08-01

265

Atypical childhood Wilson's disease.  

PubMed

Wilson's disease is a genetic disorder of copper metabolism with a hepatic or neurologic presentation. A hepatic presentation is more common in young children. Neurologic Wilson's disease often manifests as a movement disorder with dystonia, tremor, and dysarthria. Psychiatric or behavioral symptoms can also be a presenting feature of Wilson's disease. We describe an atypical neurologic presentation in a prepubertal child with minimal hepatic involvement; in which transient hemiparesis and encephalopathy dominated her initial neurologic presentation. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed extensive cortical and subcortical signal change, in addition to the classical basal ganglia signal abnormality observed in Wilson's disease. She was treated with oral tetrathiomolybdate anticopper therapy, followed by zinc maintenance. Her clinical status and brain imaging improved considerably at 1 year after treatment initiation. Neurologic Wilson's disease may have diverse presentations, and should be considered in children who present with cortical features and signal change on magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:14738953

Carlson, Martha D; Al-Mateen, Majeed; Brewer, George J

2004-01-01

266

Complement in skin diseases.  

PubMed

Complement is one of the most important mechanisms of natural resistance preventing infections in humans and animals. It is actively involved in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including skin diseases, characterized by the presence of autoantibodies, foreign microorganisms, altered tissue cells, and the presence of mannan. Complement is intended to kill invading microorganisms but it can also destroy the organism's own damaged or altered cells. It is characterized by vigorous activity and is also potentially harmful for the host if triggered in its own body. This review discusses the significance of complement activation for emerging skin diseases and highlights the importance of serological laboratory tests for the detection of complement system activity alterations in skin diseases such as pemphigus vulgaris, bullous pemphigoid, herpes gestationis, dermatitis herpetiformis, porphyria, urticaria, angioedema, cutaneous vasculitis, systemic lupus erythematosus, partial lipodystrophy, lichen planus, xeroderma pigmentosum, psoriasis, and recurrent cutaneous infections. Finally, we draw attention to the current potential for treating these diseases with complement inhibitors. PMID:21879199

Kotnik, V

2011-01-01

267

Diseases in intercropping systems.  

PubMed

Intercropping, the simultaneous cultivation of multiple crop species, has been used throughout history and remains common among farmers of small landholdings in the tropics. One benefit of this practice may be disease control. In phenomenological research comparing disease in monocrops and intercrops, primarily due to foliar fungi, intercropping reduced disease in 73% of more than 200 studies. Nematodes are the primary pathogen for which disease increases are reported, but variability in disease impacts among studies can be high for all types of diseases. The mechanisms by which intercrops affect disease dynamics include alteration of wind, rain, and vector dispersal; modification of microclimate, especially temperature and moisture; changes in host morphology and physiology; and direct pathogen inhibition. The effect of intercropping on host density is a factor underlying many of these mechanisms. By synthesizing our growing understanding of mechanisms and their interactions with phenomenological studies, we may develop a theoretical grounding that allows us to improve the application of intercropping for tropical smallholders and industrial farmers alike. PMID:23725470

Boudreau, Mark A

2013-01-01

268

Achalasia and thyroid disease  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate some possible etiologies of achalasia by screening patients with achalasia for some autoimmune diseases such as thyroid disease. METHODS: We examined 30 known cases of achalasia (20 females, 10 males). Their age ranged 15-70 years. All of them were referred to our institute for treatment. Their sera were evaluated to detect some possible associations with rheumatoid disease, thyroid disease, inflammatory process, anemia, etc. RESULTS: Seven out of 30 patients (23%) had thyroid disease including four patients with hypothyroidism (13.3%), two patients with hyperthyroidism (6.6%), and one had only thyroid nodule but was in euthyroid state (3.3%). Two of these hypothyroid patients had no related clinical symptoms (subclinical) and two had clinical manifestations of hypothyroidism. There were no correlations between the intensity of thyroid diseases and the severity of achalasia symptoms. CONCLUSION: The etiology of achalasia is unknown although autoimmunity has been implicated and is supported by several studies. Thyroid disease presents concomitantly with achalasia in about one fourth of our patients who may have a common etiology.

Emami, Mohammad Hassan; Raisi, Mostafa; Amini, Jaleh; Daghaghzadeh, Hamed

2007-01-01

269

Indian genetic disease database  

PubMed Central

Indians, representing about one-sixth of the world population, consist of several thousands of endogamous groups with strong potential for excess of recessive diseases. However, no database is available on Indian population with comprehensive information on the diseases common in the country. To address this issue, we present Indian Genetic Disease Database (IGDD) release 1.0 (http://www.igdd.iicb.res.in)—an integrated and curated repository of growing number of mutation data on common genetic diseases afflicting the Indian populations. Currently the database covers 52 diseases with information on 5760 individuals carrying the mutant alleles of causal genes. Information on locus heterogeneity, type of mutation, clinical and biochemical data, geographical location and common mutations are furnished based on published literature. The database is currently designed to work best with Internet Explorer 8 (optimal resolution 1440?×?900) and it can be searched based on disease of interest, causal gene, type of mutation and geographical location of the patients or carriers. Provisions have been made for deposition of new data and logistics for regular updation of the database. The IGDD web portal, planned to be made freely available, contains user-friendly interfaces and is expected to be highly useful to the geneticists, clinicians, biologists and patient support groups of various genetic diseases.

Pradhan, Sanchari; Sengupta, Mainak; Dutta, Anirban; Bhattacharyya, Kausik; Bag, Sumit K.; Dutta, Chitra; Ray, Kunal

2011-01-01

270

Ethics and infectious disease.  

PubMed

Bioethics apparently suffers from a misdistribution of research resources analogous to the '10/90' divide in medical research. Though infectious disease should be recognized as a topic of primary importance for bioethics, the general topic of infectious disease has received relatively little attention from the discipline of bioethics in comparison with things like abortion, euthanasia, genetics, cloning, stem cell research, and so on. The fact that the historical and potential future consequences of infectious diseases are almost unrivalled is one reason that the topic of infectious disease warrants more attention from bioethicists. The 'Black Death' eliminated one third of the European population during the 14th Century; the 1989 flu killed between 20 and 100 million people; and, in the 20th Century smallpox killed perhaps three times more people than all the wars of that period. In the contemporary world, epidemics (AIDS, multi-drug resistant turberculosis, and newly emerging infectious diseases such as SARS) continue to have dramatic consequences. A second reason why the topic of infectious disease deserves further attention is that it raises difficult ethical questions of its own. While infected individuals can threaten the health of other individuals and society as a whole, for example, public health care measures such as surveillance, isolation, and quarantine can require the infringement of widely accepted basic human rights and liberties. An important and difficult ethical question asks how to strike a balance between the utilitarian aim of promoting public health, on the one hand, and libertarian aims of protecting privacy and freedom of movement, on the other, in contexts involving diseases that are--to varying degrees--contagious, deadly, or otherwise dangerous. Third, since their burden is most heavily shouldered by the poor (in developing countries), infectious diseases involve issues of justice--which should be a central concern of ethics. I conclude by providing sociological and historical explanations of why the topic of infectious disease has not already received more attention from bioethicists. PMID:16167406

Selgelid, Michael J

2005-06-01

271

Pott's disease before Pott.  

PubMed

Pott's disease, i.e. caries of the spine with gibbosity, psoas abscesses and palsy, has been known since antiquity, its relation with tuberculosis suspected, as is seen in the Hippocratic writings. In the 18th century cases were studied in France and England; in the Netherlands by Hovius, Camper, Bonn and Coopmans. The most lucid descriptions however were those of SIR PERCIVALL POTT (1779). An annotated Dutch translation by DU PUI (1779) called attention to the treatment of this disease which was on the increase. In retrospect the eponym 'Pott's disease' seems well deserved. PMID:6988738

Haneveld, G T

1980-01-01

272

TRP Channels in Disease  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The mammalian TRP (transient receptor potential) family consists of six main subfamilies that include 28 ion channels that function as cellular sensors of various phenomena, including changes in temperature, osmolarity, pH, membrane stretch, and various second messenger pathways. All of the TRP channels are permeable to monovalent cations, and most are also permeable to calcium ions. There are strong indications that TRP channels are involved in many diseases. This review highlights some TRP "suspects" for which a role in disease can be anticipated. An understanding of the genetics of disease may lead to the development of targeted new therapies.

Bernd Nilius (Campus Gasthuisberg Katholieke Universiteit Leuven B;Department of Physiology REV); Thomas Voets (Campus Gasthuisberg Katholieke Universiteit Leuven B;Department of Physiology REV); John Peters (Campus Gasthuisberg Katholieke Universiteit Leuven B;Department of Physiology REV)

2005-08-02

273

Adventures in Infectious Diseases  

SciTech Connect

Dr. Susan Fisher-Hoch, Virologist and Epidemiologist, will discuss her research and travels associated with viral hemorrhagic fevers. From the Ebola outbreak in Reston, Virginia to outbreaks of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in South Africa, Senegal, and Saudi Arabia, Dr. Fisher-Hoch has studied and tracked the pathophysiology of these viral diseases. These studies have led her from the Center for Disease Control in the United States, to Lyon, France where she was instrumental in designing, constructing, and rendering operational a laboratory capable of containing some of the world's most dangerous diseases.

Fisher-Hoch, Susan (University of Texas School of Public Health) [University of Texas School of Public Health

2011-11-01

274

Disease Role Play  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students in collaborative groups will develop an action plan to address a new disease. This activity provides 3 roles for student participation: scientist, public health official and community leader. Each group member will be required to remain within the parameters described by the scenario during the role play. For example, the scientists will be given a data sheet the they will need to interpret. This group member will be the only one with knowledge of the disease. Only this person will act as a disease expert. Once the groups have an opportunity to read their scenarios and prepare for a committee meeting, they will meet and devise an action plan.

Chris Kuka (Bend Senior High School REV)

1994-07-30

275

Zygomycetes in Human Disease  

PubMed Central

The Zygomycetes represent relatively uncommon isolates in the clinical laboratory, reflecting either environmental contaminants or, less commonly, a clinical disease called zygomycosis. There are two orders of Zygomycetes containing organisms that cause human disease, the Mucorales and the Entomophthorales. The majority of human illness is caused by the Mucorales. While disease is most commonly linked to Rhizopus spp., other organisms are also associated with human infection, including Mucor, Rhizomucor, Absidia, Apophysomyces, Saksenaea, Cunninghamella, Cokeromyces, and Syncephalastrum spp. Although Mortierella spp. do cause disease in animals, there is no longer sufficient evidence to suggest that they are true human pathogens. The spores from these molds are transmitted by inhalation, via a variety of percutaneous routes, or by ingestion of spores. Human zygomycosis caused by the Mucorales generally occurs in immunocompromised hosts as opportunistic infections. Host risk factors include diabetes mellitus, neutropenia, sustained immunosuppressive therapy, chronic prednisone use, iron chelation therapy, broad-spectrum antibiotic use, severe malnutrition, and primary breakdown in the integrity of the cutaneous barrier such as trauma, surgical wounds, needle sticks, or burns. Zygomycosis occurs only rarely in immunocompetent hosts. The disease manifestations reflect the mode of transmission, with rhinocerebral and pulmonary diseases being the most common manifestations. Cutaneous, gastrointestinal, and allergic diseases are also seen. The Mucorales are associated with angioinvasive disease, often leading to thrombosis, infarction of involved tissues, and tissue destruction mediated by a number of fungal proteases, lipases, and mycotoxins. If the diagnosis is not made early, dissemination often occurs. Therapy, if it is to be effective, must be started early and requires combinations of antifungal drugs, surgical intervention, and reversal of the underlying risk factors. The Entomophthorales are closely related to the Mucorales on the basis of sexual growth by production of zygospores and by the production of coenocytic hyphae. Despite these similarities, the Entomophthorales and Mucorales have dramatically different gross morphologies, asexual reproductive characteristics, and disease manifestations. In comparison to the floccose aerial mycelium of the Mucorales, the Entomophthorales produce a compact, glabrous mycelium. The asexually produced spores of the Entomophthorales may be passively released or actively expelled into the environment. Human disease with these organisms occurs predominantly in tropical regions, with transmission occurring by implantation of spores via minor trauma such as insect bites or by inhalation of spores into the sinuses. Conidiobolus typically infects mucocutaneous sites to produce sinusitis disease, while Basidiobolus infections occur as subcutaneous mycosis of the trunk and extremities. The Entomophthorales are true pathogens, infecting primarily immunocompetent hosts. They generally do not invade blood vessels and rarely disseminate. Occasional cases of disseminated and angioinvasive disease have recently been described, primarily in immunocompromised patients, suggesting a possible emerging role for this organism as an opportunist.

Ribes, Julie A.; Vanover-Sams, Carolyn L.; Baker, Doris J.

2000-01-01

276

Mitochondrial diseases and epilepsy.  

PubMed

The mitochondrial respiratory chain is the final common pathway for energy production. Defects affecting this pathway can give rise to disease that presents at any age and affects any tissue. However, irrespective of genetic defect, epilepsy is common and there is a significant risk of status epilepticus. This review summarizes our current understanding of the epilepsy that occurs in mitochondrial disease, focusing on three of the most common disorders: mitochondrial myopathy encephalopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS), myoclonus epilepsy and ragged-red fibers (MERRF), and polymerase gamma (POLG) related disease. In addition, we review the pathogenesis and possible treatment of these disorders. PMID:22946726

Bindoff, Laurence A; Engelsen, Bernt A

2012-09-01

277

Bone hydatid disease  

PubMed Central

Bone hydatid disease lacks a typical clinical appearance and image characteristics on x ray or CT are similar to those of tuberculosis, metastases and giant cell tumour or bone cysts. However, MRI does show distinctive diagnostic features of bone hydatid disease, especially in the spine. Until recently, treatment of osseous hydatid disease has been entirely surgical. Effective chemotherapy using benzimidazoles, particularly mebendazole, albendazole and combination treatments, has now been achieved in experimental studies and clinical practice. However, most of these drugs are still in the experimental stage or are in the early stages of clinical use.

Song, X H; Ding, L W

2007-01-01

278

Chronic Wasting Disease  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is an always-fatal, neurological illness occurring in North American cervids (members of the deer family), including white-tailed deer, mule deer, elk and moose. Since its discovery in 1967, CWD has spread geographically and increased in prevalence locally. CWD is contagious; it can be transmitted freely within and among free-ranging populations. It is likely that diseased animals can transmit CWD to healthy animals long before they become clinically ill. Managing CWD in free-ranging populations is extremely difficult, therefore preventative measures designed to reduce the chance for disease spread are critically important.

Richards, Bryan

2007-01-01

279

Rheumatic Diseases and Malignancies  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT There are many studies which demonstrate a higher risk for malignancy in patients with rheumatic diseases. There have been a number of possible explanations for the differences in the risk of certain malignancies in patients with rheumatic disease, compared with general population, but a clear mechanism is difficult to identify. Rheumatoid syndromes may be associated with malignancy as paraneoplastic conditions, which can antedate the neoplasm diagnosis. On the other hand, autoimmune rheumatic diseases have a higher risk of malignancy by themselves or because of the immunosuppressant treatments.

BOJINCA, Violeta; JANTA, Iustina

2012-01-01

280

Probiotics and Liver Disease  

PubMed Central

Intestinal microbiota play an important role in health and disease. The gut-liver axis provides for an interaction between bacterial components like lipopolysaccharide and hepatic receptors (Toll-like receptors). Dysbiosis and altered intestinal permeability may modulate this interaction and therefore result in hepatic disorders or worsening of hepatic disorders. Administration of health-promoting microbial strains may help ameliorate these harmful interactions and hepatic disorders. This review focuses on changes in gut microbiota in the context of liver disease and possible roles of probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics in liver disease.

Sharma, Vishal; Garg, Shashank; Aggarwal, Sourabh

2013-01-01

281

Celiac disease during pregnancy.  

PubMed Central

QUESTION: One of my patients was diagnosed with celiac disease and maintains a strict gluten-free diet. Is her fetus at risk of neural tube defects because she does not get folic acid from bread and other flour-based foods? ANSWER: A woman with celiac disease must supplement her diet with multivitamins, including folic acid. Most prenatal vitamins contain 0.8 to 0.9 mg of folic acid, double the amount recommended by Health Canada for prevention of neural tube defects. Without supplementation (eg, undiagnosed pregnancy), women with celiac disease might not take in enough folate to maintain protective levels.

Hancock, Rebecca; Koren, Gideon

2004-01-01

282

Sexually transmitted diseases.  

PubMed

Sexually transmitted infections (STIs), also referred to as sexually transmitted diseases, remain a growing worldwide problem and public health issue. This article covers the epidemiology of STIs, the history and physical findings, screening guidelines, and the general plan to combat STIs. Prevention is discussed using the latest information from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and other references. Infections discussed from the standpoint of cause, epidemiology, risk factors, clinical disease, diagnosis, and treatment include gonorrhea, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, syphilis, chancroid, Herpes simplex, lymphogranuloma venereum, granuloma inguinale, Herpes papilloma virus, Molluscum contagiosum, and pubic lice. PMID:23958358

Markle, William; Conti, Tracey; Kad, Manjusha

2013-09-01

283

Bilateral Bowen's disease.  

PubMed

Multiple Bowen's disease may be difficult to differentiate from bowenoid papulosis because of its clinicopathological resemblance to bowenoid papulosis. We experienced a case of bilaterally and symmetrically developed multiple bowenoid lesions in a 71-year-old man previously diagnosed as having chronic lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL). Based on histological findings and the results of human papillomavirus examinations, we finally diagnosed this case as bilateral Bowen's disease. We speculate that the underlying immunosuppressive state due to CLL may have been associated with onset of the disease. We report the unique clinical picture, the differential diagnosis and the aetiology. PMID:15270896

Nishimura, Y; Kishigawa, T; Tanaka, T

2004-07-01

284

Genetics of Common, Complex Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Stroke Diabetes The underlying genetic causes of these common diseases were poorly understood. TODAY Complex diseases are now ... diabetes, heart disease, prostate cancer, Crohn’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and a common cause of age-related blindness known as macular ...

285

Liver abnormalities in celiac disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Celiac disease is an intolerance of the small bowel to gluten. Although most symptomatic patients have symptoms related to the gastrointestinal tract, many extra-intestinal manifestations have been described. A wide spectrum of hepatobiliary diseases have been described, including asymptomatic elevations of liver enzyme levels, nonspecific hepatitis, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and autoimmune and cholestatic liver disease. In addition, celiac disease

Ayman Abdo; Jonathan Meddings; Mark Swain

2004-01-01

286

Forest Insect and Disease Conditions Report: Indigenous Diseases, 2002.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the forest insects and diseases in the Pacific Northwest for the year 2002. It includes indigenous and non-indigenous diseases, nursery diseases, indigenous and non-indigenous insects, etc.

2002-01-01

287

Heart Disease, Stroke, or Other Cardiovascular Disease and Adult Vaccination  

MedlinePLUS

... Disease, Stroke, or Other Cardiovascular Disease and Adult Vaccination Vaccines are especially critical for people with health ... have immunity to this disease Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Type 1 ...

288

Forest Insect and Disease Conditions Report: Indigenous Diseases, 1998.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the forest insects and diseases in the Pacific Northwest for the year 1998. It includes indigenous and non-indigenous diseases, nursery diseases, indigenous and non-indigenous insects, etc.

1998-01-01

289

Tay-Sachs Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... NIH Patient Recruitment for Tay-Sachs Disease Clinical Trials At NIH Clinical Center Throughout the U.S. and Worldwide NINDS Clinical Trials Organizations Column1 Column2 National Tay-Sachs and Allied ...

290

Superantigens in Human Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Superantigens have been implicated in a wide variety of human diseases. Yet, solid evidence for their role in pathogenesis is available only for Toxic Shock Syndrome and a few other conditions. This evidence is critically reviewed herein.

Alejandro Bernal; Thomas Proft; John D. Fraser; David N. Posnett

1999-01-01

291

Fulminant Demyelinating Diseases  

PubMed Central

Fulminant demyelinating disease is a heading that covers acute disseminated encephalomyelitis and its variant acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis (Hurst disease), severe relapses of multiple sclerosis (MS), variants of MS (tumefactive MS, Marburg variant, Balo concentric sclerosis, myelinoclastic diffuse sclerosis), and neuromyelitis optica-spectrum disorders associated with aquaporin autoimmunity. These categories of inflammatory demyelinating disease often prompt hospital admission and many necessitate intensive care monitoring due to the aggressive nature of the illness and associated neurologic morbidity. In this review, we highlight the discriminating clinical, radiographic, and pathologic features of these disorders. Acute management is often accomplished with use of high-dose intravenous steroids and plasma exchange. Aggressive disease may respond to immunosuppression. Prognosis for recovery varies among the disorders but most patients improve. Factors influencing outcome are also discussed.

Rahmlow, Megan R.; Kantarci, Orhun

2013-01-01

292

Atheroembolic renal disease  

MedlinePLUS

There is no treatment for atheroembolic kidney disease that works well. Treatment is focused on managing the complications of organ damage. Medicines may be used to treat high blood pressure and lower lipid and ...

293

Meningococcal Disease: Prevention  

MedlinePLUS

... Vaccination Preteen Vaccine Campaign Podcast: Meningitis Immunization for Adolescents Meningitis ... recommended immunizations is the best defense against meningococcal disease. Maintaining healthy habits, like getting plenty of rest and not coming ...

294

Inflammatory Bowel Disease  

PubMed Central

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is the term used for a group of diseases with yet unknown etiology, prevalence of which is increasing almost everywhere in the world. The disease was almost non-existent four decades ago in the east, including the middle-east, while now a days it is seen more and more. In addition to the increasing prevalence, our knowledge about its pathogenesis, clinical course, diagnosis, and treatment has changed dramatically over the past couple of decades. This has changed our concept of this group of diseases, their diagnosis, treatment, and treatment goals. Considering the vast literature on the subject, it is timely to review major topics in IBD with a look on the regional progress and knowledge as well. This essay is aimed to cover this task.

Nasseri-Moghaddam, Siavosh

2012-01-01

295

Facts about Crohn's Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... complication of Crohn’s disease. • Sores or ulcers, called “fistulas,” that tunnel through the affected area into surrounding tissues. Fistulas often become infected. • Small tears called fissures may ...

296

Salmonid Whirling Disease.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper provides the latest scientific and technical advances in the management of salmonid whirling disease caused by the myxosporean Myxobolus cerebralis (Syn. Myxosoma cerebralis). The complete life cycle of the parasite and the biology of the infect...

M. E. Markiw

1992-01-01

297

IMPROVING WATERBORNE DISEASE SURVEILLANCE  

EPA Science Inventory

Public health surveillance has played a key role in controlling the spread of communicable disease and identifying the need for specific publich health practices, such as the filteration and chlorination of drinking water supplies. However, the characteristics of waterborne ou...

298

What Is Crohn's Disease?  

MedlinePLUS

... a daily log of your disease and see trends over time to share with your healthcare team. Explore CCFA Research Research Success Current Research Studies Participate in Research Challenges in IBD Research Support ...

299

Neuromuscular Diseases and Breathing  

MedlinePLUS

... Help MDA Search form Search Neuromuscular Diseases and Breathing Breathing is accomplished with the effort of respiratory muscles. ... as air leaves the lungs. The process of breathing in and out, taking in oxygen and exhaling ...

300

Traveling with Celiac Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... list is growing, according to GFRAP Manager Madelyn Smith. Plan ahead. If possible, pack food to bring ... now accommodate people with gluten intolerance, according to Smith, who has celiac disease. By land: If you ...

301

Men and Heart Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Poor diet Physical inactivity Excessive alcohol use CDC's Public Health Efforts CDC's Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention Program ... Evaluation Plan Healthy People 2020 Partners Programs State Public Health Actions Program Funding Map Funding to State, Local, ...

302

[Liver diseases and pregnancy].  

PubMed

The pregnancy determines a deep variation in the human physiology mediated through sexual hormones. These changes can entail the appearance of diseases that affect the liver such as hyperemesis gravidarum, HELLP syndrome, intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy and acute fatty liver of pregnancy. The knowledge of the specific features of these diseases is crucial for their prompt recognition, since they are uncommon diseases in the clinical daily setting of the hepatologist. In addition, several preexisting chronic hepatopathies, including the liver post-transplant status, can affect the course of pregnancy and the maternal-fetal health. Understanding the distinct hepatic diseases which develop during pregnancy must be based on the knowledge of the perceptible physiological changes both on physical examination and laboratory tests which occur during the uneventful gestation. PMID:11766287

Nicolás Pérez, D; Ortiz Bellver, V; Pastor Plasencia, M A; Berenguer Haym, M; Ponce García, J

2001-10-01

303

Epidemiology of Alzheimer disease.  

PubMed

The global prevalence of dementia has been estimated to be as high as 24 million, and is predicted to double every 20 years until at least 2040. As the population worldwide continues to age, the number of individuals at risk will also increase, particularly among the very old. Alzheimer disease is the leading cause of dementia beginning with impaired memory. The neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer disease include diffuse and neuritic extracellular amyloid plaques in brain that are frequently surrounded by dystrophic neurites and intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles. The etiology of Alzheimer disease remains unclear, but it is likely to be the result of both genetic and environmental factors. In this review we discuss the prevalence and incidence rates, the established environmental risk factors, and the protective factors, and briefly review genetic variants predisposing to disease. PMID:22908189

Mayeux, Richard; Stern, Yaakov

2012-01-01

304

Lung Diseases and Conditions  

MedlinePLUS

... Share this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Lung Diseases and Conditions Breathing is a complex process. ... your bronchial tubes ( bronchitis ) or deep in your lungs ( pneumonia ). These infections cause a buildup of mucus ...

305

Heavy Chain Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

... Multimedia Table Index In This Topic Blood Disorders Plasma Cell Disorders Heavy Chain Diseases Back to Top ... Blood Vessels Platelet Disorders White Blood Cell Disorders Plasma Cell Disorders Leukemias Lymphomas Myeloproliferative Disorders Spleen Disorders ...

306

Coronary artery disease (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... through these arteries is critical for the heart. Coronary artery disease usually results from the build-up of fatty material and plaque, a condition called atherosclerosis. As the coronary arteries narrow, the flow of blood to the ...

307

Diseases and Conditions  

MedlinePLUS

... National Observances Veterans Day Memorial Day Celebrating America's Freedoms Special Events Adaptive Sports Program Creative Arts Festival ... what actions will help delay or reduce the impact of a flu pandemic. Radiation Exposure Related Diseases ...

308

Venereal Diseases in Scandinavia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Venereal diseases in Sweden, Finland, Denmark and Norway are handled at the outpatient clinics by dermato-venereologists, most of whom are in the process of receiving their specialty training. They make an etiologic diagnosis, treat, report cases to socia...

A. W. Frisch

1973-01-01

309

Fatty Liver Disease.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The relationship between liver disease and prior exposure to hepatotoxic agents was investigated in four separate studies. The first was a cross sectional study of hazardous waste workers who were well protected. The study examined the relationship betwee...

M. J. Hodgson D. H. Van Thiel

1991-01-01

310

Mitochondria in lung diseases.  

PubMed

Mitochondria are autonomous cellular organelles that oversee a variety of functions such as metabolism, energy production, calcium buffering and cell fate determination. Regulation of their morphology and diverse activities beyond energy production are being recognized as playing major roles in cellular health and dysfunction. This review is aimed at summarizing what is known regarding mitochondrial contributions to pathogenesis of lung diseases. Emphasis is given to understanding the importance of structural and functional aspects of mitochondria in both normal cellular function (based on knowledge from other cell types) and in development and modulation of lung diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cystic fibrosis and cancer. Emerging techniques that allow examination of mitochondria, and potential strategies to target mitochondria in the treatment of lung diseases are also discussed. PMID:23978003

Aravamudan, Bharathi; Thompson, Michael A; Pabelick, Christina M; Prakash, Y S

2013-12-01

311

Occupational Lung Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

... disease? Some dusts, such as asbestos, silica, and coal can cause serious scarring (fibrosis) in the lungs. ... Chlorine Gas Lun g Scarring Asbestos Silica Foundry Coal Dust Asbestos Shipyards Sandblasters Brake Manufacturers Latex Beryllium ...

312

Alzheimer's Disease Under Scrutiny  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

After reading a newspaper article on Alzheimer's disease, an incurable medical problem involving gradual and debilitating loss of memory, students examine the key elements of the scientific method as conveyed in the story. During their analysis, students

Hudecki, Michael S.

2001-09-01

313

Tay-Sachs Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... of the child's eyes. The child will stop smiling, crawling, turning over, and reaching out for things. ... milder form of Tay-Sachs, the disease causes muscle weakness and slurred speech, but sight, hearing, and ...

314

Modeling Infectious Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

... simulations with the help of customized programs called computational models. Different models address different questions. The ones ... 2004, a network of researchers has been building computational models of infectious disease outbreaks. The network is ...

315

Pharmacology of Periodontal Disease.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The specific aim of this contract is to 'identify antibacterial and anti-inflammatory agents, used individually or in combination, which are appropriate for preventing the exacerbation of acute periodontal disease under field conditions,' and our first ye...

S. F. Hoff

1985-01-01

316

Mad Cow Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... disease (vCJD). Researchers believe that people who eat beef from cows that have BSE are at risk ... believe that the people got vCJD after eating beef products from cows that had BSE. Because vCJD ...

317

Meniere’s disease  

MedlinePLUS

... damage hearing. Injecting steroids or an antibiotic called gentamicin directly into the middle ear can help control ... 361-369. Pullens B, van Benthem PP. Intratympanic gentamicin for Ménière's disease or syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst ...

318

Acquired Cystic Kidney Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... the body. In PKD, the presence of cysts marks the onset of disease. People with ACKD already ... Center c/o Medical Education Institute, Inc. 414 D’Onofrio Drive, Suite 200 Madison, WI 53719 Phone: ...

319

Arthritis and Heart Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... they meet – breaks down, causing pain and stiffness. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) : a condition affecting 1.5 million Americans ... of adults with heart disease. For people with rheumatoid arthritis, their RA is now known to be a ...

320

Urethral Stricture Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... options for urethral stricture disease are varied and selection depends upon the length, location and degree of ... in Public (Paruresis) Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer: Causes, Natural History, & Diagnosis Prostate Cancer: Chemotherapy Prostate Cancer: Cryoablation ...

321

Pertussis Disease Villain  

MedlinePLUS

... Print page Download page View page in Español (Spanish) Contact Us: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ... Pertussis Homepage About Pertussis Causes & Transmission Causes & Transmission-Spanish Signs & Symptoms Symptoms-Spanish Complications Complications-Spanish Diagnosis & ...

322

Epidemiology of Alzheimer Disease  

PubMed Central

The global prevalence of dementia has been estimated to be as high as 24 million, and is predicted to double every 20 years until at least 2040. As the population worldwide continues to age, the number of individuals at risk will also increase, particularly among the very old. Alzheimer disease is the leading cause of dementia beginning with impaired memory. The neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer disease include diffuse and neuritic extracellular amyloid plaques in brain that are frequently surrounded by dystrophic neurites and intra-neuronal neurofibrillary tangles. The etiology of Alzheimer disease remains unclear, but it is likely to be the result of both genetic and environmental factors. In this review we discuss the prevalence and incidence rates, the established environmental risk factors, and the protective factors, and briefly review genetic variants predisposing to disease.

Mayeux, Richard; Stern, Yaakov

2014-01-01

323

Respiratory Disease Survey.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study was conducted to determine the incidence of specific etiologic agents associated with upper respiratory disease and pneumoniae. Data was acquired from a series of surveys employing bacteriologic and serologic techniques. Results of these surveys i...

O. L. Weiser H. H. Higaki

1967-01-01

324

Disease and Evolution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses disease and genetic disorders as evolutionary mechanisms. Emphasizes the archeological evidence from past human populations and societies, mentioning albinism, scurvy, sleeping sickness, bone conditions, various host-parasite relationships, rickets, sickle-cell anemia, diabetes, and influenza. (CS)

Wells, Calvin

1978-01-01

325

What Is Batten Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... the patient’s medical history and information from various laboratory tests. Below are pictures of the retina showing ... Batten Disease Support and Research Association 1175 Dublin Road. Columbus, OH 43215 (800) 448-4570 Email: mfrazier@ ...

326

Ulcer disease of trout  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During the summer of 1933, lesions of a disease were noted among some fingerling brook, rainbow, blackspotted, and lake trout at the Cortland (New York) trout hatchery. Although these lesions bore a marked superficial resemblance to those of furunculosis, they were sufficiently atypical to warrant further investigation. A more detailed examination of the lesions proved them to be of a distinct disease, which for lack of a better name is herein called "ulcer disease," for the lesions closely resemble those described by Calkins (1899) under this name. Because of the marked resemblance to furunculosis, ulcer disease has not been generally recognized by trout culturists, and any ulcer appearing on fish has been ascribed by them to furunculosis without further question.

Fish, F. F.

1934-01-01

327

Heart disease. Third edition  

SciTech Connect

This book contains 62 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Radiological and Angiographic Examination of the Heart; Newer Cardiac Imaging Techniques: Digital Subtraction Angiography, Computerized Tomography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Nuclear Cardiology; and Genetics and Cardiovascular Disease.

Braunwald, E.

1988-01-01

328

Sexually Transmitted Diseases  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... via sexual activities, such as vaginal intercourse, oral sex, or anal sex. Sexually transmitted diseases are caused by one of ... mouth or rectum, especially when oral and anal sex are practiced. Swabs from open sores or discharges ...

329

What Is Celiac Disease?  

MedlinePLUS

... disease (CD), also known as celiac sprue or gluten-sensitive enteropathy, is a genetically linked autoimmune disorder ... The offending amino acid sequences are collectively called “gluten” and are found in wheat, barley, rye, and ...

330

Glossodynia and coeliac disease.  

PubMed

Coeliac disease is an immune-mediated chronic inflammatory disorder of the small bowel caused by irritant gluten and, possibly, other environmental cofactors, in genetically prone people. Coeliac disease is characterized by no (or elusive or varied) symptoms. Oral clinical settings include aphthous stomatitis and dental enamel defects. Association with other signs in the oral mucosa (such as, for example, soreness, a burning sensation, erythema or atrophy) is much less common and, often, not considered by clinicians. We report on a 72-year-old woman with a four months history of oral burning sensation as a single clinical manifestation of coeliac disease. Clinical presentation and symptomatology are discussed in relation to the differential diagnosis of oral glossodynia. This case history highlights the importance of considering coeliac disease in managing cases of idiopathic glossodynia. PMID:22268634

Lucchese, Alberta; Guida, Agostino; Serpico, Rosario

2012-04-01

331

Alzheimer's Disease and Immunotherapy  

PubMed Central

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a growing health care epidemic. It is the most common cause of dementia and its incidence is rising. Age, which influences the oxidative and inflammatory states of the brain, is the most important risk factor. Currently there is no disease modifying treatments available for this irreversible, progressive debilitating disease. Immunotherapy represents an emerging, potentially disease modifying strategy aimed at reducing the pathological lesions of AD and facilitating cognitive improvement. Many clinical trials are currently underway. This literature review highlights current knowledge regarding the physiology of aging and how it relates to the pathogenesis of AD. In addition, immunotherapy is discussed in the context of its mechanism, current studies and future goals.

Madeo, Jennifer; Frieri, Marianne

2013-01-01

332

Motor neurone disease  

PubMed Central

Motor neurone disease (MND), or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), is a neurodegenerative disorder of unknown aetiology. Progressive motor weakness and bulbar dysfunction lead to premature death, usually from respiratory failure. Confirming the diagnosis may initially be difficult until the full clinical features are manifest. For all forms of the disease there is a significant differential diagnosis to consider, including treatable conditions, and therefore specialist neurological opinion should always be sought. Clear genetic inheritance has been demonstrated in a minority of patients with familial ALS but elucidation of the biological basis of genetic subtypes is also providing important information which may lead to treatments for sporadic forms of the disease. In the absence of curative or disease modifying therapy, management is supportive and requires a multidisciplinary approach. If, as seems likely, complex inherited and environmental factors contribute to the pathogenesis of MND, future treatment may involve a combination of molecular based treatments or restoration of cellular integrity using stem cell grafts.

Talbot, K

2002-01-01

333

Legionnaires' Disease Laboratory Manual.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is a practical working laboratory manual for clinical and environmental microbiology laboratories concerned with the laboratory diagnosis of Legionnaires' disease, or the recovery of Legionella spp. from the environment. Details are given for perform...

P. H. Edelstein

1983-01-01

334

Overview of Infectious Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

... reappear later in life as shingles (herpes zoster). Germs and Children: Terminology normal flora Bacteria that live on or in a child pathogen A germ that can cause a disease colonization Presence of ...

335

Celiac Disease Awareness Campaign  

MedlinePLUS

... Campaign Celiac disease is an immune reaction to gluten, a protein found in wheat, rye, and barley. ... also known as celiac sprue, nontropical sprue, and gluten-sensitive enteropathy. 1 Rubio-Tapia A, Ludvigsson JF, ...

336

Neuromuscular Disease Descriptions  

MedlinePLUS

... slow. Possible cognitive effects : When MMD appears in infancy or childhood, about 75 percent of children have ... mobility. Dejerine-Sottas (DS) disease • Age of onset: infancy Characteristics : Slow development of early motor skills, leading ...

337

Learning about Gaucher Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Type 2 causes serious medical problems beginning in infancy, while Type 3 progresses more slowly than Type ... 2 Gaucher disease, severe medical problems begin in infancy. These individuals usually do not live beyond age ...

338

Lipid Storage Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

... A , the most severe form, is in early infancy. Infants appear normal at birth but develop an ... and females. Disease onset is typically in early infancy but may occur later in life. Children who ...

339

The autoimmune diseases  

SciTech Connect

This book contains 25 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Genetic Predisposition to Autoimmune Diseases; Systemic Lupus Erythematosus; Autoimmune Aspects of Rheumatoid Arthritis; Immunology of Insulin-Dependent Diabetes; and Adrenal Autoimmunity and Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndromes.

Rose, N.R.; Mackay, I.R.

1985-01-01

340

Vascular Disease Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

... vascular eye openers ? TYPES of VASCULAR DISEASE Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms (AAA) are caused by progressive ... when a blood vessel bursts. Learn More Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm Aneurysms of the aorta can occur in the ...

341

[Pregnancy in Gaucher disease].  

PubMed

Gaucher disease is a lysosomal storage disorder due to deficiency of glucocerebrosidase. The association with pregnancy exposes the worsening of the disease and complications of pregnancy and puerperium. We report a case of pregnancy in a woman of 35 years, suffering from Gaucher disease type 1. Pregnancy had a favorable outcome. Complications occurred. They were kept under control. The outcome was favorable. The authors discuss the evolution of the disease during pregnancy and management of complications. They can occur during pregnancy, post-partum and breastfeeding. Support begins with preconception consultation. It involves finding and correcting the biological problems and deficiencies, and management of complications. Genetic counseling is important, it helps prevent inbreeding. PMID:23578492

Boufettal, H; Quessar, A; Jeddaoui, Z; Mahdoui, S; Noun, M; Hermas, S; Samouh, N

2014-05-01

342

Emerging Infectious Diseases: Rabies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Rabies is a reemerging disease in China. The high incidence of rabies leads to numerous concerns: a potential carrier-dog phenomenon, undocumented transmission of rabies virus from wildlife to dogs, counterfeit vaccines, vaccine mismatching, and seroconve...

2009-01-01

343

About Alzheimer's Disease: Caregiving  

MedlinePLUS

... Caregiving Caregiving News Caring for a person with Alzheimer’s disease is physically, emotionally, and financially challenging . The ... hard to handle. Researchers have learned much about Alzheimer’s caregiving, and studies are testing new ways to ...

344

About Alzheimer's Disease: Causes  

MedlinePLUS

... Scientists don’t yet fully understand what causes Alzheimer's disease, but it has become increasingly clear that ... in increasing or decreasing the risk of developing Alzheimer's differs from person to person. Age-related changes ...

345

Digestive Diseases Materials  

MedlinePLUS

... TO... NIDDK Health Education NIDDK Home Digestive Diseases Materials by Title A-Z List by Publication Type Awareness and Prevention Series Online Only Publications Other Materials Patient Education Booklets (easy-to-read) Patient Education ...

346

The neurological disease ontology  

PubMed Central

Background We are developing the Neurological Disease Ontology (ND) to provide a framework to enable representation of aspects of neurological diseases that are relevant to their treatment and study. ND is a representational tool that addresses the need for unambiguous annotation, storage, and retrieval of data associated with the treatment and study of neurological diseases. ND is being developed in compliance with the Open Biomedical Ontology Foundry principles and builds upon the paradigm established by the Ontology for General Medical Science (OGMS) for the representation of entities in the domain of disease and medical practice. Initial applications of ND will include the annotation and analysis of large data sets and patient records for Alzheimer’s disease, multiple sclerosis, and stroke. Description ND is implemented in OWL 2 and currently has more than 450 terms that refer to and describe various aspects of neurological diseases. ND directly imports the development version of OGMS, which uses BFO 2. Term development in ND has primarily extended the OGMS terms ‘disease’, ‘diagnosis’, ‘disease course’, and ‘disorder’. We have imported and utilize over 700 classes from related ontology efforts including the Foundational Model of Anatomy, Ontology for Biomedical Investigations, and Protein Ontology. ND terms are annotated with ontology metadata such as a label (term name), term editors, textual definition, definition source, curation status, and alternative terms (synonyms). Many terms have logical definitions in addition to these annotations. Current development has focused on the establishment of the upper-level structure of the ND hierarchy, as well as on the representation of Alzheimer’s disease, multiple sclerosis, and stroke. The ontology is available as a version-controlled file at http://code.google.com/p/neurological-disease-ontology along with a discussion list and an issue tracker. Conclusion ND seeks to provide a formal foundation for the representation of clinical and research data pertaining to neurological diseases. ND will enable its users to connect data in a robust way with related data that is annotated using other terminologies and ontologies in the biomedical domain.

2013-01-01

347

Superantigens and Allergic Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are still in the early phases of a new era of investigation into the immunopathogenesis and treatment for chronic inflammatory\\u000a diseases. Understanding of the interfaces between microbes and chronic inflammatory diseases promises to be a fruitful avenue\\u000a for continued investigation. Since the landmark discovery of the superantigen concept in 1989 [1], our understanding of the\\u000a potential biological roles of

Mark S. Schubert

348

Immunopathogenesis of celiac disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Celiac disease is a chronic inflammatory disease caused by dietary gluten that affects 1% of Europeans and North Americans.\\u000a Gluten is unusual because it is consumed in relatively large amounts, is partially resistant to luminal digestion in the human\\u000a small intestine, and when absorbed, is susceptible to post-translational modification (deamidation) by mucosal transglutaminase.\\u000a Deamidation of certain gluten peptides enhances their

Jason Tye-Din; Robert Anderson

2008-01-01

349

Adult congenital heart disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children call adults ‘grown-up’. Adults may call teenagers, but not mature men and women grown-up. As many people with repaired congenital heart disease (CHD) live a full life, the appropriate perspective is adult CHD superceding the term grown-up congenital heart disease (GUCH). Population-based data now show some adults with corrected cardiac defects revert to normal life expectancy. Maternal and fetal

Elliot A. Shinebourne; Michael A. Gatzoulis

2002-01-01

350

[Grave's disease in 2009].  

PubMed

Grave's disease is an autoimmune disease of the thyroid gland characterized by hyperthyroidism, a homogenous goiter and occasionally an ophtalmopathy. It occurs in less than 1% of the population with a large predominance in women (10/1). Treatment is directed to inhibit thyroid hormone synthesis with carbimazole during 12-18 months. Recurrence rates after stopping treatment is about 50%; in these patients, radioactive iodine is the preferred treatment. PMID:19418977

Philippe, Jacques

2009-04-01

351

Bone in celiac disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Chronic inflammation and malabsorption in celiac disease (CD) can cause bone metabolism alterations and bone mineral loss\\u000a in children and adults. Bone status before and after gluten-free diet, epidemiology of fractures, and possible treatment options\\u000a for CD-related osteoporosis are presented. Controversial aspects of this complication of CD are discussed.\\u000a \\u000a The relationship between bone derangements and celiac disease (CD) was recognized

M.-L. Bianchi; M. T. Bardella

2008-01-01

352

Social determinants of disease.  

PubMed

The primary purpose for identifying psychosocial risk factors is to prevent disease and disease complications. For 30 years, we have been doing research in this field and have been successful in identifying such risk factors as Type A behavior, social isolation, stressful life events, and various psychological patterns. However, our success in using this information to help prevent disease has been much more limited. One reason for this limited success is that we have focused virtually all of our attention on the study of individuals and almost no attention on the social environment within which people live. There are two major limitations of such a one-to-one approach: it is difficult for people to change their behavior and their life situation and even if some people do change, others enter the "at risk" population because no action has been taken to change those forces in society that stimulated the problem in the first place. In discussing the social determinants of disease, it is important that we develop a new approach that permits us to study not only individuals but also the social environment. An example of this approach is provided by researchers who were successful in preventing infectious diseases. The work of these researchers focused not on clinical entities or on individuals but on the environment. This resulted in a disease classification system that included concepts such as air-borne, food-borne, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases. We have no such system for the study of non-infectious diseases. Considerable data already are available to help us to think about such a new classification system.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3662409

Syme, S L

1987-01-01

353

Interstitial lung disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias represent an important group of interstitial lung diseases, encompassing seven entities: (1) usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP)\\/idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis; (2) non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP); (3) organizing pneumonia\\/cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP); (4) diffuse alveolar damage (DAD)\\/acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP); (5) respiratory bronchiolitis (RB)\\/respiratory bronchiolitis–interstitial lung disease (RB–ILD); (6) desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP); and (7) lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia (LIP). The

William D. Travis

2008-01-01

354

Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in North America, affecting approximately\\u000a 30% of the population [1]. It is the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome, and is directly linked to the escalating\\u000a prevalence of obesity and the associated insulin resistance. Histologically, NAFLD is characterized by a spectrum that ranges\\u000a from nonalcoholic fatty

Onpan Cheung; Arun J. Sanyal

355

Minocycline and neurodegenerative diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Minocycline is a semi-synthetic, second-generation tetracycline analog which is effectively crossing the blood–brain barrier, effective against gram-positive and -negative infections.In addition to its own antimicrobacterial properties, minocycline has been reported to exert neuroprotective effects over various experimental models such as cerebral ischemia, traumatic brain injury, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, kainic acid treatment, Huntington’ disease and multiple sclerosis. Minocycline has

Hye-Sun Kim; Yoo-Hun Suh

2009-01-01

356

Minocycline and neurodegenerative diseases.  

PubMed

Minocycline is a semi-synthetic, second-generation tetracycline analog which is effectively crossing the blood-brain barrier, effective against gram-positive and -negative infections. In addition to its own antimicrobacterial properties, minocycline has been reported to exert neuroprotective effects over various experimental models such as cerebral ischemia, traumatic brain injury, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, kainic acid treatment, Huntington' disease and multiple sclerosis. Minocycline has been focused as a neuroprotective agent over neurodegenerative disease since it has been first reported that minocycline has neuroprotective effects in animal models of ischemic injury [Yrjanheikki J, Keinanen R, Pellikka M, Hokfelt T, Koisinaho J. Tetracyclines inhibit microglial activation and are neuroprotective in global brain ischemia. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1998;95:15769-74; Yrjanheikki J, Tikka T, Keinanen R, Goldsteins G, Chan PH, Koistinaho J. A tetracycline derivative, minocycline, reduces inflammation and protects against focal cerebral ischemia with a wide therapeutic window. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1999;96:13496-500]. Recently, the effect of minocycline on Alzheimer's disease has been also reported. Although its precise primary target is not clear, the action mechanisms of minocycline for neuroprotection reported so far are; via; the inhibition of mitochondrial permeability-transition mediated cytochrome c release from mitochondria, the inhibition of caspase-1 and -3 expressions, and the suppression of microglial activation, involvement in some signaling pathways, metalloprotease activity inhibition. Because of the high tolerance and the excellent penetration into the brain, minocycline has been clinically tried for some neurodegenerative diseases such as stroke, multiple sclerosis, spinal cord injury, amyotropic lateral sclerosis, Hungtington's disease and Parkinson's disease. This review will briefly summarize the effects and action mechanisms of minocycline on neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:18977395

Kim, Hye-Sun; Suh, Yoo-Hun

2009-01-23

357

Smoking and Pancreatic Disease  

PubMed Central

Smoking is a major risk factor for chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. However, the mechanisms through which it causes the diseases remain unknown. In the present manuscript we reviewed the latest knowledge gained on the effect of cigarette smoke and smoking compounds on cell signaling pathways mediating both diseases. We also reviewed the effect of smoking on the pancreatic cell microenvironment including inflammatory cells and stellate cells.

Edderkaoui, Mouad; Thrower, Edwin

2014-01-01

358

Isolated polycystic liver disease.  

PubMed

Isolated polycystic liver disease (PCLD) is an autosomal dominant disease with genetic and clinical heterogeneity. Apart from liver cysts, it exhibits few extrahepatic manifestations, and the majority of patients with this condition are asymptomatic or subclinical. However, a small fraction of these patients develop acute liver cyst-related complications and/or massive cystic liver enlargement, causing morbidity and mortality. Currently, the management for symptomatic PCLD is centered on palliating symptoms and treating complications. PMID:20219621

Qian, Qi

2010-03-01

359

ISOLATED POLYCYSTIC LIVER DISEASE  

PubMed Central

Isolated polycystic liver disease (PCLD) is an autosomal dominant disease with genetic and clinical heterogeneity. Apart from liver cysts, it exhibits few extra-hepatic manifestations and the majority of patients with this condition are asymptomatic or subclinical. However, a small fraction of these patients develop acute liver-cyst-related complications and/or massive cystic liver enlargement, causing morbidity and mortality. Currently, the management for symptomatic PCLD is centered on palliating symptoms and treating complications.

Qian, Qi

2010-01-01

360

Immunopathogenesis of Graves’ Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Graves’ disease (GD) was one of the first human autoimmune diseases to be characterized following the discovery of thyroid-stimulating\\u000a antibodies in hyperthyroid patients in 1956 (1 ?). GD is now known to be the most common cause of hyperthyroidism between\\u000a the ages of 20 and 50 years. In females, the annual incidence ranges from 15 to 200 per 100,000 per

Syed A. Morshed; Rauf Latif; Terry F. Davies

361

[Gastrointestinal diseases and bone].  

PubMed

Bone mineral density is decreased in inflammatory bowel diseases, which are intractable inflammation in the digestive tract. The causes of decreased bone mineral density are multifactorial including steroid use, insufficiency of nutritional intake, malabsorption in the gastrointestinal tract and activation of mucosal immune system. Insufficient levels of vitamins D and K are reported in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases and are also suggested to be involved in acceleration of intestinal inflammation. PMID:23354092

Iijima, Hideki; Tsujii, Masahiko; Takehara, Tetsuo

2013-02-01

362

Plant Diseases Announcements  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Produced in collaboration with the ProMED Project (Federation of American Scientists), this searchable archive of the emerging plant disease announcements is provided by AgNIC. The Plant Diseases Announcements list may be viewed chronologically, or by subject area, or alphabetical order. In addition, users can perform full-text searches. From announcements of recent genome sequencing of Xylella fastidiosa in Brazil, to a listing of the best Websites on rice, this will be a valuable resource to plant pathologists.

363

Anderson-Fabry Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anderson-Fabry disease is a multisystemic lysosomal storage disorder due to a deficiency of ?-galactosidase A resulting in\\u000a an accumulation of neutral glycosphingolipids. Due to its rare occurrence the disease is often misdiagnosed or the correct\\u000a diagnose is delayed for many years (Weidemann et al. 2008). Dermatologists except ophthalmologists play the most important role for early diagnosis of this disorder, which

Anna-Christine Hauser

364

[Statins and kidney disease].  

PubMed

The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasing worldwide. This clinical and social problem is mainly related to the ongoing epidemic of obesity and metabolic syndrome resulting in hypertension and diabetes mellitus. CKD is a well-recognized risk multiplier for the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and it is widely known that CVD is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with CKD. Lipid metabolism abnormalities are commonly associated with CKD. These consist of increased levels of low-density lipoproteins (LDL), triglycerides, very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) and lipoprotein(a), and reduced levels of HDL cholesterol. Lipid abnormalities contribute to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in CKD patients. Some evidence also suggests that dyslipidemia may contribute to the progression of renal disease associated with type 1 and type 2 diabetic as well as non-diabetic renal disease. In the general population, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) reduce the cardiovascular risk and prevent CVD. Similar data from secondary analyses of CKD subgroups of larger prospective trials using statins suggest a beneficial effect on cardiovascular outcomes and - albeit with more conflicting evidence - the progression of renal disease. Statins reduce blood levels of LDL cholesterol but also have multiple effects above and beyond cholesterol lowering, including direct effects on vascular tissue, kidney, bone, and glucose metabolism. The evidence linking dyslipidemia management with statins to cardiovascular disease and the decline in renal function in CKD patients will be presented in this review. PMID:22538946

Bigazzi, Roberto; Grimaldi, Daniela; Bianchi, Stefano

2012-01-01

365

Curcumin and neurodegenerative diseases  

PubMed Central

Over the last ten years curcumin has been reported to be effective against a wide variety of diseases and is characterized as having anti-carcinogenic, hepatoprotective, thrombosuppressive, cardioprotective, anti-arthritic, and anti-infectious properties. Recent studies performed in both vertebrate and invertebrate models have been conducted to determine whether curcumin was also neuroprotective. The efficacy of curcumin in several pre-clinical trials for neurodegenerative diseases has created considerable excitement mainly due to its lack of toxicity and low cost. This suggests that curcumin could be a worthy candidate for nutraceutical intervention. Since aging is a common risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases, it is possible that some compounds that target aging mechanisms could also prevent these kinds of diseases. One potential mechanism to explain several of the general health benefits associated with curcumin is that it may prevent aging-associated changes in cellular proteins that lead to protein insolubility and aggregation. This loss in protein homeostasis is associated with several age-related diseases. Recently, curcumin has been found to help maintain protein homeostasis and extend lifespan in the model invertebrate Caenorhabditis elegans. Here, we review the evidence from several animal models that curcumin improves healthspan by preventing or delaying the onset of various neurodegenerative diseases.

Monroy, Adriana; Lithgow, Gordon J.; Alavez, Silvestre

2013-01-01

366

NCL disease mechanisms.  

PubMed

Despite the identification of a large number of disease-causing genes in recent years, it is still unclear what disease mechanisms operate in the neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs, Batten disease). As a group they are defined by the specific accumulation of protein, either subunit c of mitochondrial ATP synthase or SAPs A and D in lysosome-derived organelles, and regionally specific neurodegeneration. Evidence from biochemical and cell biology studies indicates related lesions in intracellular vesicle trafficking and lysosomal function. There is also extensive immunohistological evidence of a causative role of disease associated neuroinflammation. However the nature of these lesions is not clear nor is it clear why they lead to the defining pathology. Several different theories have proposed a range of potential mechanisms, but it remains to be determined which are central to pathogenesis, and whether there is a mechanism consistent across the group, or if it differs between disease forms. This review summarises the evidence that is currently available and the progress that has been made in understanding these profoundly disabling disorders. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: The Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinoses or Batten Disease. PMID:23707513

Palmer, David N; Barry, Lucy A; Tyynelä, Jaana; Cooper, Jonathan D

2013-11-01

367

Intracranial atherosclerotic disease.  

PubMed

Atherosclerotic disease of the intracranial arteries is responsible for at least 10% of ischaemic strokes worldwide. Symptomatic disease has been extensively studied in the past few years, using diagnostic methods including multi-slice computed tomography and high resolution magnetic resonance imaging. A literature search was performed using PubMed and OvidSP between 1984 and May 2013. Variations of the terms 'intracranial atherosclerosis' plus 'ischemic stroke', 'plaque', 'morphology', 'imaging' were used and a combination of them. The reference lists of identified articles were also consulted for additional references. Amongst symptomatic patients the prevalence of intracranial atherosclerotic disease is around 10%, depending on race ethnicity, and the diagnosis requires the presence of ?50% stenosis in the territory of the symptomatic vessel in a patient with stroke or transient ischaemic attack. The prognosis of intracranial atherosclerotic disease related stroke is poor. Although risk factor control can lead to a better outcome of intracranial atherosclerotic disease related strokes, the significance of asymptomatic disease is still a matter of debate. PMID:24612339

Battistella, V; Elkind, M

2014-07-01

368

Neuroimaging in Huntington's disease  

PubMed Central

Huntington’s disease (HD) is a progressive and fatal neurodegenerative disorder caused by an expanded trinucleotide CAG sequence in huntingtin gene (HTT) on chromosome 4. HD manifests with chorea, cognitive and psychiatric symptoms. Although advances in genetics allow identification of individuals carrying the HD gene, much is still unknown about the mechanisms underlying the development of overt clinical symptoms and the transitional period between premanifestation and manifestation of the disease. HD has no cure and patients rely only in symptomatic treatment. There is an urgent need to identify biomarkers that are able to monitor disease progression and assess the development and efficacy of novel disease modifying drugs. Over the past years, neuroimaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) have provided important advances in our understanding of HD. MRI provides information about structural and functional organization of the brain, while PET can detect molecular changes in the brain. MRI and PET are able to detect changes in the brains of HD gene carriers years ahead of the manifestation of the disease and have also proved to be powerful in assessing disease progression. However, no single technique has been validated as an optimal biomarker. An integrative multimodal imaging approach, which combines different MRI and PET techniques, could be recommended for monitoring potential neuroprotective and preventive therapies in HD. In this article we review the current neuroimaging literature in HD.

Niccolini, Flavia; Politis, Marios

2014-01-01

369

[Gestational trophoblastic disease, Villous gestational trophoblastic disease].  

PubMed

Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) represents a wide range of clinical and pathological distinct entities. The villous forms of GTD includes developmental disorders of the placental tree, like blighted ovum, embryonal, partial and complete moles. The risk of persistent GTD is estimated of 2-14% in partial and up to 50% in complete moles. So, the morphologic differentiation between the different entities of villous forms of GTD is clinical very important. Sometimes, early forms of complete moles (up to 12th weeks of gestation) may represent diagnostic problems, even in the diagnosis of regressive alterations of the placental villous tree after intrauterine retention. PMID:15197483

Vogel, M; Horn, L-C

2004-07-01

370

Cardiovascular disease in autoimmune rheumatic diseases.  

PubMed

Various autoimmune rheumatic diseases (ARDs), including rheumatoid arthritis, spondyloarthritis, vasculitis and systemic lupus erythematosus, are associated with premature atherosclerosis. However, premature atherosclerosis has not been uniformly observed in systemic sclerosis. Furthermore, although experimental models of atherosclerosis support the role of antiphospholipid antibodies in atherosclerosis, there is no clear evidence of premature atherosclerosis in antiphospholipid syndrome (APA). Ischemic events in APA are more likely to be caused by pro-thrombotic state than by enhanced atherosclerosis. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) in ARDs is caused by traditional and non-traditional risk factors. Besides other factors, inflammation and immunologic abnormalities, the quantity and quality of lipoproteins, hypertension, insulin resistance/hyperglycemia, obesity and underweight, presence of platelets bearing complement protein C4d, reduced number and function of endothelial progenitor cells, apoptosis of endothelial cells, epigenetic mechanisms, renal disease, periodontal disease, depression, hyperuricemia, hypothyroidism, sleep apnea and vitamin D deficiency may contribute to the premature CVD. Although most research has focused on systemic inflammation, vascular inflammation may play a crucial role in the premature CVD in ARDs. It may be involved in the development and destabilization of both atherosclerotic lesions and of aortic aneurysms (a known complication of ARDs). Inflammation in subintimal vascular and perivascular layers appears to frequently occur in CVD, with a higher frequency in ARD than in non-ARD patients. It is possible that this inflammation is caused by infections and/or autoimmunity, which might have consequences for treatment. Importantly, drugs targeting immunologic factors participating in the subintimal inflammation (e.g., T- and B-cells) might have a protective effect on CVD. Interestingly, vasa vasorum and cardiovascular adipose tissue may play an important role in atherogenesis. Inflammation and complement depositions in the vessel wall are likely to contribute to vascular stiffness. Based on biopsy findings, also inflammation in the myocardium and small vessels may contribute to premature CVD in ARDs (cardiac ischemia and heart failure). There is an enormous need for an improved CVD prevention in ARDs. Studies examining the effect of DMARDs/biologics on vascular inflammation and CV risk are warranted. PMID:23541482

Hollan, Ivana; Meroni, Pier Luigi; Ahearn, Joseph M; Cohen Tervaert, J W; Curran, Sam; Goodyear, Carl S; Hestad, Knut A; Kahaleh, Bashar; Riggio, Marcello; Shields, Kelly; Wasko, Mary C

2013-08-01

371

Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) Prevention  

MedlinePLUS

... STDs) Share Compartir Prevention How You Can Prevent Sexually Transmitted Diseases This page includes information about STD prevention, testing, ... 4636) TTY: (888) 232-6348 Contact CDC-INFO Sexually Transmitted Diseases Diseases & Related Conditions STDs & Infertility Other STDs Archive ...

372

Treating Cushing's Disease in Dogs  

MedlinePLUS

... Consumer Updates RSS Feed Treating Cushing's Disease in Dogs Search the Consumer Updates Section Get Consumer Updates ... than 10 years to treat Cushing's disease in dogs. Hyperadrenocorticism, commonly known as Cushing's disease, is a ...

373

Heart Disease: Know Your Risk  

MedlinePLUS

... This information in Spanish ( en español ) Heart disease: Know your risk Are you at risk for having ... a heart attack . More information on heart disease: Know your risk Heart disease is the leading cause ...

374

Lyme Disease: Fact or Fiction?  

MedlinePLUS

... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Lyme Disease Lyme Disease Preventing tick bites On people On pets In ... laboratory testing Testing of ticks Treatment Prolonged treatment Lyme disease stories Statistics Surveillance information How many people get ...

375

Beware of Ticks … & Lyme Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Lyme disease. It is rarely, if ever, fatal. Lyme disease has different stages. Erythema migrans is a key ... it is not noticed. Other symptoms of early Lyme disease include: • muscle and joint aches • headache • chills and ...

376

Lyme Disease and the Heart  

MedlinePLUS

Lyme Disease and the Heart Peter J. Krause , MD ; Linda K. Bockenstedt , MD From the Yale School of ... Previous Section Next Section Diagnosis and Treatment of Lyme Disease The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has ...

377

What's My Lyme Disease Risk?  

MedlinePLUS

... Teens > Diseases & Conditions > Brain & Nervous System > What's My Lyme Disease Risk? Print A A A Text Size What's ... Tips Removing a Tick Is the thought of Lyme disease making you feel you'd be safer in ...

378

Diagnosis of Honey Bee Diseases.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Apiary inspectors and beekeepers must be able to recognize bee diseases and parasites and to differentiate the serious diseases from the less important ones. The handbook describes laboratory techniques used to diagnose diseases and other abnormalities of...

H. Shimanuki D. A. Knox

1991-01-01

379

Genetics Home Reference: Milroy disease  

MedlinePLUS

... PubMed Recent literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Milroy disease On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance Diagnosis ... names Glossary definitions Reviewed April 2013 What is Milroy disease? Milroy disease is a condition that affects the ...

380

Genetics, Disease Prevention and Treatment  

MedlinePLUS

... We have known for a long time that common diseases like heart disease, asthma, cancer, and diabetes can ... you have an increased chance of getting some common diseases. Your health care provider can then give you ...

381

Genetics Home Reference: Cushing disease  

MedlinePLUS

... with Cushing disease typically experience slow growth. How common is Cushing disease? Cushing disease is estimated to occur in 10 ... the condition? Why are some genetic conditions more common in particular ethnic groups? These ... androgens ; anxiety ; autosomal ; autosomal dominant ; ...

382

Genetics Home Reference: Danon disease  

MedlinePLUS

... gastrointestinal disease, breathing problems, or visual abnormalities. How common is Danon disease? Danon disease is a rare condition, but the ... the condition? Why are some genetic conditions more common in particular ethnic groups? These links ... cell ; chromosome ; creatine ; creatine kinase ; ...

383

Infectious diseases and travelers (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Different areas of the world have different diseases and different prevalence rates of diseases. Travelers going to foreign countries may encounter diseases to which they have no natural immunity and should take any possible precautions.

384

Warning Signs of Lung Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Lungs Warning Signs of Lung Disease Top Stories Lung HelpLine Questions about your lung health? Need help ... Warning Signs of Lung Disease Warning Signs of Lung Disease WARNING SIGNS If you have any of ...

385

Learning about Sickle Cell Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Era A 2003 NHGRI Report Learning About Sickle Cell Disease What do we know about heredity and ... What do we know about heredity and sickle cell disease? Sickle cell disease is the most common ...

386

Prevention & Control of Chagas Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... the spread of Chagas disease. Further, screening of blood donations for Chagas is another important public health tool ... Parasite That Causes Chagas Disease Among United States Blood Donors Contact Us: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ...

387

CTEP Simplified Disease Classification Overview  

Cancer.gov

CTEP Simplified Disease Classification Overview The CTEP Simplified Disease Classification (CTEP SDC) v1.0 is a restructured, more intuitive classification of diseases, designed to meet the needs of CTEP while still allowing reporting based on the

388

International Conference on Parkinson's Disease.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Partial Contents: Description of Parkinson's Disease as a Clinical Syndrome. Physiology and Pathophysiology of Parkinson's Disease. PET Studies on the Function of Dopamine in Health and Parkinson's Disease. Midbrain Dopaminergic Neurons: Determination of ...

R. Shaikh

2003-01-01

389

Type I Glycogen Storage Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... glycogen storage disease? Type I glycogen storage disease (GSD I), also known as von Gierke’s disease, is ... maintain normal glucose levels in our body. In GSD I, the enzyme needed to release glucose from ...

390

Alzheimer's Disease: Unraveling the Mystery  

MedlinePLUS

... Referral Center Alzheimer's Disease Education and Referral Center Alzheimer's Disease Education and Referral Center Home About Alzheimer’s ... Plan National Alzheimer's Project Act (NAPA) About ADEAR Alzheimer's Disease: Unraveling the Mystery Preface Over the past ...

391

Dementia: Depression and Alzheimer's Disease  

MedlinePLUS

MENU Return to Web version Dementia | Depression and Alzheimer’s Disease What is depression? When doctors talk about ... time Thoughts about death or suicide What is Alzheimer's disease? Alzheimer's disease is the most common type ...

392

Ecology of Infectious Diseases (EID)  

NSF Publications Database

... Infectious Diseases (EID) Synopsis of Program: The Ecology of Infectious Diseases special ... Requirements Proposal Review Information NSF Proposal Review Process Review Protocol and Associated ...

393

Neurological Complications of Lyme Disease  

MedlinePLUS

NINDS Neurological Complications of Lyme Disease Information Page Synonym(s): Lyme Disease - Neurological Complications Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What are Neurological Complications of ...

394

Rickettsiae and rickettsial diseases  

PubMed Central

This paper summarizes present knowledge on rickettsiae and rickettsial diseases, and on their epidemiological characteristics, control, and public health significance. There are many natural foci of rickettsial diseases, from where the disease may spread to other areas in the world under changing socioeconomic conditions. Because of rapid long-distance travel, sporadic cases of serious rickettsial diseases may today appear far from endemic areas where the infection occurred. Even in endemic areas the disease may be misdiagnosed and deaths may occur as a result of inadequate treatment. Rapid treatment of rickettsial infections (preferably with tetracyclines) is therefore most important. Epidemic louse-borne typhus, though no longer subject to the International Health Regulations, remains one of the diseases in the WHO epidemiological surveillance programme. This disease continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality in some parts of Africa and it is present also in parts of the Americas and of Asia. Scrub typhus remains a continuing and serious public health problem in areas of South-East Asia and in the Western Pacific. The annual number of reported cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in the USA showed an increase during the last two decades, which may be due to improved recognition as well as to increased outdoor activities and migration of people from the city centres to the suburbs. Related forms of tick-borne typhus occur in South America, the Mediterranean region, Africa, South-East Asia, the Far East, and the Western Pacific. Increasing in number, though still sporadic, are reports of serious illness from chronic Q fever infection in many parts of the world.

Brezina, R.; Murray, E. S.; Tarizzo, M. L.; Bogel, K.

1973-01-01

395

Neurological diseases and pain  

PubMed Central

Chronic pain is a frequent component of many neurological disorders, affecting 20–40% of patients for many primary neurological diseases. These diseases result from a wide range of pathophysiologies including traumatic injury to the central nervous system, neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation, and exploring the aetiology of pain in these disorders is an opportunity to achieve new insight into pain processing. Whether pain originates in the central or peripheral nervous system, it frequently becomes centralized through maladaptive responses within the central nervous system that can profoundly alter brain systems and thereby behaviour (e.g. depression). Chronic pain should thus be considered a brain disease in which alterations in neural networks affect multiple aspects of brain function, structure and chemistry. The study and treatment of this disease is greatly complicated by the lack of objective measures for either the symptoms or the underlying mechanisms of chronic pain. In pain associated with neurological disease, it is sometimes difficult to obtain even a subjective evaluation of pain, as is the case for patients in a vegetative state or end-stage Alzheimer's disease. It is critical that neurologists become more involved in chronic pain treatment and research (already significant in the fields of migraine and peripheral neuropathies). To achieve this goal, greater efforts are needed to enhance training for neurologists in pain treatment and promote greater interest in the field. This review describes examples of pain in different neurological diseases including primary neurological pain conditions, discusses the therapeutic potential of brain-targeted therapies and highlights the need for objective measures of pain.

2012-01-01

396

Sorghum Diseases in India and Their Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The important diseases of sorghum and their control are described. Symptoms, causal organisms, and control measures are listed under the title of each disease. Diseases covered are: fungus diseases; bacterial diseases; virus diseases; parasites; and defic...

N. V. Sundaram S. P. Raychadhuri

1973-01-01

397

Genetic architecture of human fibrotic diseases: disease risk and disease progression.  

PubMed

Genetic studies of human diseases have identified multiple genetic risk loci for various fibrotic diseases. This has provided insights into the myriad of biological pathways potentially involved in disease pathogenesis. These discoveries suggest that alterations in immune responses, barrier function, metabolism and telomerase activity may be implicated in the genetic risks for fibrotic diseases. In addition to genetic disease-risks, the identification of genetic disease-modifiers associated with disease complications, severity or prognosis provides crucial insights into the biological processes implicated in disease progression. Understanding the biological processes driving disease progression may be critical to delineate more effective strategies for therapeutic interventions. This review provides an overview of current knowledge and gaps regarding genetic disease-risks and genetic disease-modifiers in human fibrotic diseases. PMID:24391588

Gardet, Agnès; Zheng, Timothy S; Viney, Joanne L

2013-01-01

398

[Legionnaires' disease in travellers].  

PubMed

The outbreak of pneumonia involving delegates to the 1976 American Legion convention at a Philadelphia hotel was the first example of travel-associated legionnaires' disease. Travel is now well known as a common risk factor for legionnaires' disease. This travel-associated disease is a preoccupation among European countries because of morbidity among citizens of the European Union. The definition of the case of legionellosis is a patient who presents an acute lower respiratory tract infection with focal signs of pneumonia and/or radiological features, and microbiological evidence of Legionella infection. A case is considered to be travel associated if the patient has spent one or more nights away from home during the ten days before becoming ill. An European Surveillance Scheme for Travel-Associated Legionnaires' Disease was established in 1987 to identify clusters and outbreaks of cases of the disease. This group centralizes the case reports of twenty-nine collaborating centres in twenty-five countries. Outbreaks of legionnaires' disease were described in hotels, camps or cruise ships. In 1996, the number of travel-associated cases of legionnaires' disease represented 16% of the total number cases. The increase of the number of reported cases may reflect improved surveillance and increased ascertainment. In Europe in 1996, the diagnosis of legionellosis was confirmed by detection of Legionella pneumophila sero-group 1 antigen in urine (36%), seroconversion (fourfold rise in antibody titre, 33%) and culture of the organism (16%). Fifteen per cent of legionellosis was diagnosed by the identification of a single high antibody titre. In France a coordination between Public Health Institutions (Réseau National de Santé Public and DDASS), clinicians, laboratories and National Reference Center was established to improve prevention and control of legionnaires' disease outbreaks. Legislation obliges to report each case. When more two cases in the same area are notified an epidemiological investigation must be done. The knowing of the source of the contamination and its eradication allows to prevent new cases and outbreaks. Outbreaks of Legionnaires' disease are even now mediatic and this fact leads to maintain attention for the quality of diagnosis and epidemiology investigation due to touristic and economic consequences for the implicated countries. PMID:10078391

Jarraud, S; Reyrolle, M; Riffard, S; Lo Presti, F; Etienne, J

1998-01-01

399

Happiness and neurological diseases.  

PubMed

Happiness is an emotional state reflecting positive feelings and satisfaction with life, which, as an outcome in disease states or as an end point in clinical trials, is a neglected concept in most therapeutic areas. In neurological disease, happiness is important as it can be diminished either as a direct result of damage to neuronal tissue or as a reaction to a poor prognosis. The monitoring and maintenance of happiness and wellbeing have historically been considered to be peripheral to medicine. However, as happiness interacts with the patient's physical health, it is an important parameter to assess alongside all aspects of any given disease. Happiness provides a reliable overview of the patient's general status over and above standard parameters for quality of life, and is more wide-ranging than the narrow measures of disease activity or treatment efficacy that are the focus of most clinical trials. In many studies, happiness has been associated with health and success in most areas of life, including performance at work, sporting achievement and social functioning. For approximately a decade, previously studied aspects of psychology have been grouped under the label of positive psychology (PoP). Principles of this discipline are now being used to guide some treatments in neurological and psychiatric diseases. PoP aims to define patient wellbeing in scientific terms and to increase understanding of happiness, meaning in life, resilience and character strengths, as well as to determine how this knowledge can be applied clinically to promote health. Some evidence has emerged recently suggesting that improvements in patient status can result from interventions to improve the patient's level of happiness in diseases, including epilepsy, Huntington's disease, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease and stroke. Several effective approaches to increase happiness employ activities to engage and stimulate patients who might otherwise be unoccupied and isolated. In addition, specific interventions to increase happiness developed by PoP clinicians have demonstrated efficacy and validity. Several measurement scales now exist that reliably measure happiness as a long-term state, rather than as a fluctuating condition resulting from prevailing mood. These enable the use of happiness as an end point in clinical trials. As happiness becomes increasingly accepted as an important consideration in neurological disease, it is likely to be monitored more extensively, with measures to raise happiness levels being taken as an effective means of improving patient outcomes. PMID:19344298

Barak, Yoram; Achiron, Anat

2009-04-01

400

Dense Deposit Disease  

PubMed Central

Dense deposit disease (DDD) is an orphan disease that primarily affects children and young adults without sexual predilection. Studies of its pathophysiology have shown conclusively that it is caused by fluid-phase dysregulation of the alternative pathway of complement, however the role played by genetics and autoantibodies like C3 nephritic factors must be more thoroughly defined if we are to make an impact in the clinical management of this disease. There are currently no mechanism-directed therapies to offer affected patients, half of whom progress to end stage renal failure disease within 10 years of diagnosis. Transplant recipients face the dim prospect of disease recurrence in their allografts, half of which ultimately fail. More detailed genetic and complement studies of DDD patients may make it possible to identify protective factors prognostic for naïve kidney and transplant survival, or conversely risk factors associated with progression to renal failure and allograft loss. The pathophysiology of DDD suggests that a number of different treatments warrant consideration. As advances are made in these areas, there will be a need to increase healthcare provider awareness of DDD by making resources available to clinicians to optimize care for DDD patients.

Smith, Richard J.H; Harris, Claire L.; Pickering, Matthew C.

2011-01-01

401

Meni?re's disease  

PubMed Central

Introduction Menière's disease causes recurrent vertigo, hearing loss, tinnitus, and fullness or pressure in the ear, which mainly affects adults aged 40-60 years. Menière's disease is at first progressive but fluctuating, and episodes can occur in clusters. Vertigo usually resolves but hearing deteriorates, and symptoms other than hearing loss and tinnitus usually improve regardless of treatment. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments for acute attacks of Menière's disease; and of interventions to prevent attacks and delay disease progression of Menière's disease? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to January 2006 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 17 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: anticholinergics, benzodiazepines, betahistine, cinnarizine, dietary modification, diuretics, phenothiazines, psychological support, trimetazidine, vestibular rehabilitation.

2007-01-01

402

Efferocytosis and Lung Disease  

PubMed Central

In healthy individuals, billions of cells die by apoptosis each day. Clearance of these apoptotic cells, termed “efferocytosis,” must be efficient to prevent secondary necrosis and the release of proinflammatory cell contents that disrupt tissue homeostasis and potentially foster autoimmunity. During inflammation, most apoptotic cells are cleared by macrophages; the efferocytic process actively induces a macrophage phenotype that favors tissue repair and suppression of inflammation. Several chronic lung diseases, particularly airways diseases such as chronic obstructive lung disease, asthma, and cystic fibrosis, are characterized by an increased lung burden of uningested apoptotic cells. Alveolar macrophages from individuals with these chronic airways diseases have decreased efferocytosis relative to alveolar macrophages from healthy subjects. These two findings have led to the hypothesis that impaired apoptotic cell clearance may contribute causally to sustained lung inflammation and that therapies to enhance efferocytosis might be beneficial. This review of the English-language scientific literature (2006 to mid-2012) explains how such existing therapies as corticosteroids, statins, and macrolides may act in part by augmenting apoptotic cell clearance. However, efferocytosis can also impede host defenses against lung infection. Thus, determining whether novel therapies to augment efferocytosis should be developed and in whom they should be used lies at the heart of efforts to differentiate specific phenotypes within complex chronic lung diseases to provide appropriately personalized therapies.

McCubbrey, Alexandra L.

2013-01-01

403

Genetics of Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most frequent cause of dementia in the elderly and represents an important and increasing clinical challenge in terms of diagnosis and treatment. This review highlights the role of genetics in understanding the pieces of the complex AD puzzle and summarizes the genes known to be involved in Alzheimer's disease. The amount of risk of Alzheimer's disease that is attributable to genetics is estimated to be ?70%. Mutations in the genes encoding amyloid precursor protein (APP), presenilin 1 (PSEN1) and presenilin 2 (PSEN2) are responsible for early-onset autosomal dominant AD. Although mutations in these genes account for ?1% of AD cases, their identification has been crucial to understand the molecular mechanisms of AD. For the more common complex late-onset AD, the ?-4 allele of the gene encoding apolipoprotein E (APOE) has been recognized as a major genetic risk factor. More recently, several potential disease risk genes have been identified with the use of advanced genomic methods like genome-wide association studies (GWAS). In the end, the knowledge of the pathophysiological mechanisms leading to AD will enable the development of more accurate diagnostic tests and new disease-treating strategies. PMID:23142261

Alonso Vilatela, María Elisa; López-López, Marisol; Yescas-Gómez, Petra

2012-11-01

404

Methamphetamine and Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder predominantly affecting the elderly. The aetiology of the disease is not known, but age and environmental factors play an important role. Although more than a dozen gene mutations associated with familial forms of Parkinson's disease have been described, fewer than 10% of all cases can be explained by genetic abnormalities. The molecular basis of Parkinson's disease is the loss of dopamine in the basal ganglia (caudate/putamen) due to the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, which leads to the motor impairment characteristic of the disease. Methamphetamine is the second most widely used illicit drug in the world. In rodents, methamphetamine exposure damages dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, resulting in a significant loss of dopamine in the striatum. Biochemical and neuroimaging studies in human methamphetamine users have shown decreased levels of dopamine and dopamine transporter as well as prominent microglial activation in the striatum and other areas of the brain, changes similar to those observed in PD patients. Consistent with these similarities, recent epidemiological studies have shown that methamphetamine users are almost twice as likely as non-users to develop PD, despite the fact that methamphetamine abuse and PD have distinct symptomatic profiles. PMID:23476887

Granado, Noelia; Ares-Santos, Sara; Moratalla, Rosario

2013-01-01

405

Methamphetamine and Parkinson's Disease  

PubMed Central

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder predominantly affecting the elderly. The aetiology of the disease is not known, but age and environmental factors play an important role. Although more than a dozen gene mutations associated with familial forms of Parkinson's disease have been described, fewer than 10% of all cases can be explained by genetic abnormalities. The molecular basis of Parkinson's disease is the loss of dopamine in the basal ganglia (caudate/putamen) due to the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, which leads to the motor impairment characteristic of the disease. Methamphetamine is the second most widely used illicit drug in the world. In rodents, methamphetamine exposure damages dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, resulting in a significant loss of dopamine in the striatum. Biochemical and neuroimaging studies in human methamphetamine users have shown decreased levels of dopamine and dopamine transporter as well as prominent microglial activation in the striatum and other areas of the brain, changes similar to those observed in PD patients. Consistent with these similarities, recent epidemiological studies have shown that methamphetamine users are almost twice as likely as non-users to develop PD, despite the fact that methamphetamine abuse and PD have distinct symptomatic profiles.

Granado, Noelia; Ares-Santos, Sara; Moratalla, Rosario

2013-01-01

406

Coeliac disease in adults.  

PubMed

Coeliac disease is a chronic disease characterized by small bowel villous atrophy which impairs nutrient absorption and improves on withdrawal of wheat gliadins and barley, rye and oat prolamins from the diet. Knowledge of the adult form of coeliac disease has greatly improved in recent years. Although this knowledge is not yet sufficiently widespread among referring clinicians, it has, over the past few years, allowed an increasing number of patients to be diagnosed with subclinical forms characterized by minor, transient or apparently unrelated symptoms. As a consequence, our views on the clinical and epidemiological aspects of this condition, the prevalence of which in the general population is believed to be close to 1 in 300, have changed and are still changing. Since it has been demonstrated that a strict gluten-free diet is protective against the complications of adult coeliac disease, it is important that even subclinical and silent forms are diagnosed and treated as early as possible. Non-invasive screening tests, such as anti-gliadin and anti-endomysium antibody estimation, should therefore be used systematically in groups considered to be at risk of coeliac disease. These include first-degree relatives of coeliac patients and patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, iron-deficiency anaemia, epilepsy with cerebral calcification, recurrent aphthous stomatitis and dental enamel hypoplasia. Other conditions will probably be identified in the near future. PMID:7549030

Corazza, G R; Gasbarrini, G

1995-06-01

407

Mechanisms of Disease: autosomal dominant and recessive polycystic kidney diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease are the best known of a large family of inherited diseases characterized by the development of renal cysts of tubular epithelial cell origin. Autosomal dominant and recessive polycystic kidney diseases have overlapping but distinct pathogeneses. Identification of the causative mutated genes and elucidation of the function of their encoded

Peter C Harris; Vicente E Torres

2006-01-01

408

Disease Recording Systems and Herd Health Schemes for Production Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

: Disease recording of cattle is compulsory in Sweden and Norway. Sweden and Denmark also have mandatory disease recording for swine, whereas Finland and Norway only have compulsory recording of infectious diseases. Both compulsory and voluntary systems are databased, the first ones developed in the 1970's. Disease recording at pig slaughtering is somewhat older. The veterinary practitioner, and often also

S-O Olsson; P Baekbo; SÖ Hansson; H Rautala; O Østerås

2001-01-01

409

[Polycystic liver disease without autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease].  

PubMed

Polycystic liver disease is characterized by the presence of multiple bile duct-derived epithelial cysts scattered in the liver parenchyma. The natural history and clinical manifestations of polycystic liver disease are based on the disease as it manifests in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). The occurrence of polycystic liver disease independently from polycystic kidney disease has been known for a long time. More recently, a gene for autosomal dominant polycystic liver disease has been identified on chromosome 19p 13.2-13.1. Isolated polycystic liver disease is underdiagnosed and genetically distinct from polycystic liver disease associated with ADPKD but with similar pathogenesis and clinical manifestations. We report here two men with polycystic liver disease no associated with ADPKD. Ultrasound and computed tomography imaging were effective in documenting the underlying lesions non-invasively. PMID:14658173

Peces, R; González, P; Venegas, J L

2003-01-01

410

Serodiagnosis of parasitic diseases.  

PubMed Central

In this review on serodiagnosis of parasitic diseases, antibody detection, antigen detection, use of monoclonal antibodies in parasitic serodiagnosis, molecular biological technology, and skin tests are discussed. The focus at the Centers for Disease Control on developing improved antigens, a truly quantitative FAST-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the very specific immunoblot assays for antibody detection is highlighted. The last two assays are suitable for field studies. Identification of patient response in terms of immunoglobulin class or immunoglobulin G subclass isotypes or both is discussed. Immunoglobulin isotypes may asist in defining the stage of some diseases. In other instances, use of a particular anti-isotype conjugate may increase the specificity of the assay. Monoclonal antibodies have played important roles in antigen purification and identification, in competitive antibody assays with increased sensitivity and specificity, and in assays for antigen detection in serum, body fluids, or excreta. Molecular biological technology has allowed significant advances in the production of defined parasitic serodiagnostic antigens.

Maddison, S E

1991-01-01

411

[Treatment of Behçet's disease].  

PubMed

Behçet's disease (BD) is a systemic large-vessel vasculitis characterized by a wide clinical spectrum including recurrent oral and genital ulcerations, uveitis, vascular, neurological, articular, and gastrointestinal manifestations. Therapeutic management of BD depends on the clinical presentation and organ involved. Although colchicine, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents and topical treatments with corticosteroids are often sufficient for mucocutaneous and joint involvement, a more aggressive approach with immunosuppressive agents is warranted for severe manifestations such as posterior uveitis, retinal vasculitis, vascular, neurological and gastrointestinal involvement. However, some patients still have refractory disease, relapses, sight threatening eye disease, or irreversible organ damage. Recent improvements in the understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms have led to the identification of potential targets and future therapies for BD. In contrast to current non-specific immunosuppressive agents, the emergence of immunomodulatory drugs provides the possibility of interfering with specific pathogenic pathways. Novel targeted immunosuppressive therapies might be used in the future for BD. PMID:24438860

Comarmond, C; Wechsler, B; Cacoub, P; Saadoun, D

2014-02-01

412

Biomarkers in Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in the elderly, and it is characterized by progressive impairment in multiple cognitive domains of sufficient severity to interfere with individuals’ daily living activities. Historically, the diagnosis of AD has been based on the identification of a clinical syndrome, and accuracy studies of the current clinical criteria conducted in referral clinics have shown high sensitivity for AD. However, the identification of the disease is still not perfect, and there is growing evidence that the use of biomarkers will increase our ability to better indentify the underlying biology of AD, especially in its early stages. These biomarkers will improve the detection of the patients suitable for research studies and drug trials, and they will contribute to a better management of the disease in the clinical practice. In this review, we discuss the most studied biomarkers in AD: cerebrospinal fluid proteins, structural magnetic resonance imaging, functional neuroimaging techniques, and amyloid imaging.

Riverol, Mario; Lopez, Oscar L.

2011-01-01

413

Pharmacology of Stone Disease  

PubMed Central

Kidney stone disease remains a major health and economic burden on the nation. It has been increasingly recognized that nephrolithiasis can be both a chronic or systemic illness. There have been major limitations in the development of new drugs for the prevention and management of this disease, largely due to our lack of understanding of the complex pathophysiologic mechanisms involving the interaction of three major target organs: the kidney, bone, and intestine. We also do not yet understand the molecular genetic basis of this polygenic disorder. These limitations are coupled with the incorrect perception that kidney stone disease is solely an acute illness, and the lack of reliable tests to assess outcome measures. All of these factors combined have diminished the willingness of the pharmaceutical industry to engage in the development of novel drugs.

Sakhaee, Khashayar

2011-01-01

414

Genetics of Behçet's Disease.  

PubMed

Behçet's disease (BD) is a systemic inflammatory disorder characterized mainly by recurrent oral and genital ulcers and eye involvement. Although the pathogenesis remains poorly understood, a variety of studies have demonstrated that genetic predisposition is a major factor in disease susceptibility. Peculiar geographical distribution of BD along the ancient Silk Road has been regarded as evidence supporting genetic influence. The observed aggregation of BD in families of patients with BD is also supportive for a genetic component in its etiology. HLA-B51 (B510101 subtype) is the most strongly associated genetic marker for BD in countries on the Silk Road. In recent years, several genome-wide association studies and genetic polymorphism studies have also found new genetic associations with BD, which may have a supplementary role in disease susceptibility and/or severity. The author reviewed the HLA and non-HLA genetic association studies. PMID:22013548

Kaya, Tamer ?rfan

2012-01-01

415

Biotherapies in Behçet's disease.  

PubMed

Behçet's disease (BD) is a systemic large-vessel vasculitis characterized by a wide clinical spectrum including recurrent oral and genital ulcerations, uveitis, vascular, neurological, articular, renal and gastrointestinal manifestations. Therapeutic management of BD depends on the clinical presentation and organ involved. Although colchicine, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agents and topical treatments with corticosteroids are often sufficient for mucocutaneous and joint involvements, more aggressive approach with immunosuppressive agents is warranted for severe manifestations such as posterior uveitis, retinal vasculitis, vascular, and neurological and gastrointestinal involvements. However, some patients still have refractory disease, relapse, sight threatening eye disease, or irreversible organ damage. Recent improvements in the understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms have led to the identification of potential targets and future biological therapies for BD. In contrast to current non-specific immunosuppressive agents, the emergence of biotherapies provides the possibility of interfering with specific pathogenic pathways. Novel targeted biotherapies might be used in the future for BD. PMID:24473176

Comarmond, Cloé; Wechsler, Bertrand; Bodaghi, Bahram; Cacoub, Patrice; Saadoun, David

2014-07-01

416

Lysosomal storage disease.  

PubMed

We report a case of lysosomal storage disease diagnosed by lysosomal enzyme assay in a two year old boy with a history of gradual onset of weakness of body, poor vision, flaccid neck and spasticity in all four limbs with hyper-reflexia. On fundus examination cherry red spots were noted at macula. On performing lysosomal enzyme assay, beta-galactosidase level was considerably low. This indicates that the child is affected by lysosomal storage disease most likely GM1 gangliosidosis. The diagnosis is important because the disease is rare and it may be missed as the symptoms are similar to other neurological conditions and the diagnosis can help with future conception. PMID:20795466

Khatiwada, B; Pokharel, A

2009-01-01

417

Genetics of prion diseases  

PubMed Central

Prion diseases are transmissible, fatal neurodegenerative diseases that include scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in animals and Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (CJD) in human. The prion protein gene (PRNP) is the major genetic determinant of susceptibility, however, several studies now suggest that other genes are also important. Two recent genome wide association studies in human have identified four new loci of interest: ZBTB38-RASA2 in UK CJD cases and MTMR7 and NPAS2 in variant CJD. Complementary studies in mouse have used complex crosses to identify new modifiers such as Cpne8 and provided supporting evidence for previously implicated genes (Rarb and Stmn2). Expression profiling has identified new candidates, including Hspa13, which reduces incubation time in a transgenic model.

Lloyd, Sarah E; Mead, Simon; Collinge, John

2013-01-01

418

[Biologics and mycobacterial diseases].  

PubMed

Various biologics such as TNF-alpha inhibitor or IL-6 inhibitor are now widely used for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Many reports suggested that one of the major issues is high risk of developing tuberculosis (TB) associated with using these agents, which is especially important in Japan where tuberculosis still remains endemic. Another concern is the risk of development of nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) diseases and we have only scanty information about it. The purpose of this symposium is to elucidate the role of biologics in the development of mycobacterial diseases and to establish the strategy to control them. First, Dr. Tohma showed the epidemiologic data of TB risks associated with using biologics calculated from the clinical database on National Database of Rheumatic Diseases by iR-net in Japan. He estimated TB risks in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients to be about four times higher compared with general populations and to become even higher by using biologics. He also pointed out a low rate of implementation of QuantiFERON test (QFT) as screening test for TB infection. Next, Dr. Tokuda discussed the issue of NTM disease associated with using biologics. He suggested the airway disease in RA patients might play some role in the development of NTM disease, which may conversely lead to overdiagnosis of NTM disease in RA patients. He suggested that NTM disease should not be uniformly considered a contraindication to treatment with biologics, considering from the results of recent multicenter study showing relatively favorable outcome of NTM patients receiving biologics. Patients with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) should receive LTBI treatment before starting biologics. Dr. Kato, a chairperson of the Prevention Committee of the Japanese Society for Tuberculosis, proposed a new LTBI guideline including active implementation of LTBI treatment, introducing interferon gamma release assay, and appropriate selection of persons at high risk for developing TB. Lastly, Dr. Matsumoto stressed the risk of discontinuing TNF-alpha inhibitor during treatment for tuberculosis. He showed from his clinical experience that TNF-alpha inhibitor can be safely used in active TB patient receiving effective antituberculosis chemotherapy and it is even more effective for prevention of paradoxical response. Active discussion was done about the four topics, including the matter beyond present guidelines. We hope these discussions will form the basis for the establishment of new guideline for the management of mycobacterial disease when using immunosuppressive agents including biologics. 1. The risk of developing tuberculosis (TB) and situations of screening for TB risk at administration of biologics-the case of rheumatoid arthritis: Shigeto TOHMA (Clinical Research Center for Allergy and Rheumatology, National Hospital Organization Sagamihara National Hospital) We calculated the standardized incidence ratio (SIR) of TB from the clinical data on National Database of Rheumatic Diseases by iR-net in Japan (NinJa) and compared with the SIR of TB from the data of the post-marketing surveillances of five biologics. Among 43584 patient-years, forty patients developed TB. The SIR of TB in NinJa was 4.34 (95%CI: 3.00-5.69). According to the post-marketing surveillances of 5 biologics, the SIR of TB were 3.62-34.4. The incidence of TB in patients with RA was higher than general population in Japan, and was increased more by some biologics. We have to recognize the risk of TB when we start biologics therapy to patients with RA. Although the frequency of implementation of QuantiFERON test (QFT) had gradually increased, it was still limited to 41%. In order to predict the risk of developing TB and to prevent TB, it might be better to check all RA patients by QFT at time time of biologics administration. 2. Biologics and nontuberculous mycobacterial diseases: Hitoshi TOKUDA (Social Insurance Central General Hospital) Several topics about the relationship between RA and nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) diseases were discussed, which is sti

Tsuyuguchi, Kazunari; Matsumoto, Tomoshige

2013-03-01

419

Taking Crohn's Disease Personally  

PubMed Central

Crohn’s disease (CD) is a heterogeneous disorder that can involve any segment of the gastrointestinal tract. The pathogenesis of CD is unknown but is thought to involve an uncontrolled immune response triggered by an environmental factor in a genetically susceptible host. The heterogeneity of disease pathogenesis and clinical course, combined with the variable response to treatment and its associated side effects, creates an environment of complex therapeutic decisions. Despite this complexity, significant progress has been made which allows physicians to start and predict disease behavior and natural course, response to therapy, and factors associated with significant side effects. In this manuscript the data pertaining to these variables including clinical, endoscopic and the various biological and genetic markers are reviewed, and the possibility of tailoring personal treatment is discussed.

Chowers, Yehuda

2013-01-01

420

Winter cardiovascular diseases phenomenon.  

PubMed

THIS PAPER REVIEW SEASONAL PATTERNS ACROSS TWELVE CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES: Deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, aortic dissection and rupture, stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, hypertension, heart failure, angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, sudden cardiac death, venricular arrythmia and atrial fibrillation, and discuss a possible cause of the occurrence of these diseases. There is a clear seasonal trend of cardiovascular diseases, with the highest incidence occurring during the colder winter months, which have been described in many countries. This phenomenon likely contributes to the numbers of deaths occurring in winter. The implications of this finding are important for testing the relative importance of the proposed mechanisms. Understanding the influence of season and other factors is essential when seeking to implement effective public health measures. PMID:23724401

Fares, Auda

2013-04-01

421

Diseases of Jews  

PubMed Central

The relative social and genetic isolation of Jews from other communities, which was much more marked in the past than now, has led to the belief that they are unusually prone to a variety of illnesses. Until the last few decades assessments of the incidence of various diseases among them were usually based on impressions rather than planned surveys or careful analyses, and many misconceptions still persist. It is proposed to consider the present state of knowledge as well as to indicate the historical and social basis for any tendencies for Jews to suffer from, or perhaps to resist, some diseases. No attempt has been made to analyse every single report in which Jewish pre-disposition to various diseases is mentioned; attention will be focused on those conditions that have received greater attention or from which it is possible to draw meaningful conclusions.

Krikler, Dennis M.

1970-01-01

422

Emerging Infectious Diseases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The definition of "emerging" infectious diseases includes those diseases "whose incidences in humans has increased in the past 2 decades or threatens to increase in the near future." The journal of Emerging Infectious Diseases continues to be an invaluable resource for public health professionals, scholars, and others. On the journal's homepage, users can read over the current issue and take a look at all of the articles and various commentaries contained within. Visitors can also peruse the archive, which dates back to the journal's first issue in 1995. As with many online journals, visitors can sign up to receive their RSS feed and they even have a podcast archive. The podcasts are a nice bonus, and they include programs like "Strategies For Fighting Pandemic Flu in Developing Countries" and "The Mystery of Increased Hospitalization of Elderly Patients".

423

Celiac disease and autoimmunity.  

PubMed

Celiac disease (CD) has a multifactorial etiology with complex genetics and frequently occurs in association with other autoimmune disorders. Even though triggered by a dietary antigen, it shows many autoimmune features, the most peculiar being the presence of high titers of anti-tissue transglutaminase 2 autoantibodies, produced in the small intestinal mucosa since the early stages of the disease. More than 60% of CD-associated susceptibility loci are shared with at least another autoimmune condition, suggesting common pathogenic mechanisms. In particular, recognition of peptides by HLA molecules, posttranslational modifications required for optimal peptide binding and immune mechanisms leading to tissue damage have been found in CD as well as in other autoimmune diseases. This review briefly summarizes the main autoimmune features of CD, underlining the similarities with other autoimmune disorders, in particular with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Furthermore, the role of gluten and microbiome in driving autoimmunity is discussed. PMID:24979198

Troncone, Riccardo; Discepolo, Valentina

2014-07-01

424

Astroglia in neurological diseases  

PubMed Central

Astroglia encompass a subset of versatile glial cells that fulfill a major homeostatic role in the mammalian brain. Since any brain disease results from failure in brain homeostasis, astroglial cells are involved in many, if not all, aspects of neurological and/or psychiatric disorders. In this article, the roles of astrocytes as homeostatic cells in healthy and diseased brains are surveyed. These cells can mount the defence response to the insult of the brain, astrogliosis, when and where they display hypertrophy. Interestingly, astrocytes can alternatively display atrophy in some pathological conditions. Various pathologies, including Alexander and Alzheimer's diseases, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, stroke and epilepsy, to mention a few, are discussed. Astrocytes could represent a novel target for medical intervention in the treatment of brain disorders.

Verkhratsky, Alexei; Rodriguez, Jose J; Parpura, Vladimir

2013-01-01

425

Cell ultrastructure in disease.  

PubMed

The doctor of today must adopt the 'cellular way of thinking' in the evaluation of diseases. This ultrastructural outlook provides him with much indispensable information that also serves a practical purpose. A diseased cell organelle is at the basis of every clinical sign and any attempt of therapy must be aimed at that specific point of lesion. We intend, in the light of a long experience, to propose to clinicians a new way of thinking in which a precise correlation between symptoms and submicroscopic changes of the cell is considered. Many different examples amply justify this proposal. Electron microscopy can contribute by enabling identification of structural subcellular modifications suitable for the finest differential diagnosis, more and more complete understanding of pathogenic pathways of various diseases, the establishment of guidelines for precise pharmacological interventions at the molecular level. PMID:3738416

Laschi, R; Govoni, E

1986-01-01

426

Sarcoid heart disease  

PubMed Central

To this day the aetiology of sarcoidosis continues to elude definition. Partially as a consequence of this, little in the way of new therapies has evolved. The enigma of this condition is that, unusually for a disease with the potential for devastating consequences, many patients show spontaneous resolution and recover. Cardiac involvement can affect individuals of any age, gender or race and has a predilection for the conduction system of the heart. Heart involvement can also cause a dilated cardiomyopathy with consequent progressive heart failure. The most common presentation of this systemic disease is with pulmonary infiltration, but many cases will be asymptomatic and are detected on routine chest radiography revealing lymphadenopathy. Current advances lie in the newer methods of imaging and diagnosing this unusual heart disease. This review describes the pathology and diagnosis of this condition and the newer imaging techniques that have developed for determining cardiac involvement.

Dubrey, Simon W; Bell, Alex; Mittal, Tarun K

2007-01-01

427

Mitochondrial therapeutics in Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

In neurons, mitochondria serve a wide variety of processes that are integral to their function and survival. It is, therefore,\\u000a not surprising that evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction is observed across numerous neurodegenerative diseases. Alzheimer's\\u000a disease and Parkinson's disease are two such diseases in which aberrant mitochondrial activity is proposed to contribute to\\u000a pathogenesis. Current therapies for each disease target various

Jake G Hoekstra; Kathleen S Montine; Jing Zhang; Thomas J Montine

2011-01-01

428

Clinical neurogenetics: huntington disease.  

PubMed

Huntington disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant, adult-onset, progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by the triad of abnormal movements (typically chorea), cognitive impairment, and psychiatric problems. It is caused by an expanded CAG repeat in the gene encoding the protein huntingtin on chromosome 4 and causes progressive atrophy of the striatum as well as cortical and other extrastriatal structures. Genetic testing has been available since 1993 to confirm diagnosis in affected adults and for presymptomatic testing in at-risk individuals. This review covers HD signs, symptoms, and pathophysiology; current genetic testing issues; and current and future treatment strategies. PMID:24176425

Bordelon, Yvette M

2013-11-01

429

[Legionaire's disease (author's transl)].  

PubMed

In a review of all cases of legionaire's disease known so far the epidemiology, diagnosis and therapy of this disease are discussed. Risk factors have been shown to be stays in hotels and hospitals, especially if the rooms were subject to faulty air conditioning, water containers or to earthworks. Furthermore, the male sex and an immunosuppressive therapy were established as risk factors. The diagnosis can only be confirmed by increased titer in the indirect fluorescence test. Erythromycin and Rifampicin (as a supplementary medication) have proved the antibiotics of choice. PMID:117313

Meyer, R D

1979-10-19

430

Probiotics in Crohn's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a The outcomes of studies utilizing probiotics to treat Crohn's disease especially in pediatrics have been disappointing.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a The use of selected probiotics has demonstrated benefits in ulcerative colitis and pouchitis.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Future studies of probiotics in Crohn's disease will require greater scientific rigor

Esi S. N. Lamousé-Smith; Athos Bousvaros

431

Menkes' disease: neurophysiological aspects.  

PubMed Central

The evolution of neurophysiological features including the electroencephalogram (EEG), electroretinogram (ERG), and visual evoked potentials (VEP) is reported in eight cases of Menkes' "kinky hair" disease. All EEGs were severely abnormal, with some characteristic features seen from 3-5 months of age, after the onset of clinical symptomatology. From the age of 5 months, the EEGs resembled hypsarrhythmic patterns. The ERG was not affected in any patient, but the VEP was either of low amplitude or completely absent in all but one of the six patients tested. All eight patients received copper injections without substantial effect on either the clinical course of the disease or the EEG features.

Friedman, E; Harden, A; Koivikko, M; Pampiglione, G

1978-01-01

432

Immunology of Chagas' disease*  

PubMed Central

After reviewing present knowledge of the morphology, multiplication, and transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi, this Memorandum discusses the animal models that may be of value in understanding the immune mechanisms operating in Chagas' disease. The role of both circulating antibody and cell-mediated immunity in protection against the parasite is discussed, together with the possibility that immunopathological mechanisms may be responsible for some of the lesions found in patients with Chagas' disease. The immunodiagnostic methods at present available are also reviewed, and the possibility of producing a vaccine for human use is considered in the light of recent findings in experimental animals. A series of recommendations for further research is included.

1974-01-01

433

Familial Behçet's disease.  

PubMed

Behçet's disease (BD) is a multisystemic vasculitis syndrome characterized by a course of remissions and exacerbations of unpredictable frequency and duration. The disease has a worldwide distribution, but the majority of cases cluster along the ancient Silk Road, which extends from eastern Asia to the Mediterranean basin. The etiopathogenesis of BD is still unknown, but familial aggregation and peculiar geographical distribution have been regarded as evidence supporting genetic influence on the pathogenesis of BD. In this article, we describe a patient with BD, who had four members of his family associated with BD. PMID:19575202

Yilmaz, Sema; Cimen, Kadriye Akar

2010-06-01

434

Thyroid disease in pregnancy.  

PubMed

Thyroid diseases are common in women of childbearing age and it is well known that untreated thyroid disturbances result in an increased rate of adverse events, particularly miscarriage, preterm birth and gestational hypertension. Furthermore, thyroid autoimmunity per se seems to be associated with complications such as miscarriage and preterm delivery. While strong evidence clearly demonstrates that overt dysfunctions (hyper- or hypothyroidism) have deleterious effects on pregnancy, subclinical disease, namely subclinical hypothyroidism, has still to be conclusively defined as a risk factor for adverse outcomes. Additionally, other conditions, such as isolated hypothyroxinemia and thyroid autoimmunity in euthyroidism, are still clouded with uncertainty regarding the need for substitutive treatment. PMID:22115167

Negro, Roberto; Mestman, Jorge Hector

2011-12-01

435

Cardiac disease in pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Summary Summary This study was a retrospective review of patient charts of a relatively large number of patients with cardiac disease in pregnancy in a developing country. Ninety-five patients were evaluated; the majority (n = 36) were in the age group 21?25 years. Rheumatic heart disease was the commonest aetiology; eight women required balloon mitral valvuloplasty and one had a valve replacement at 32 weeks’ gestation. There were no maternal deaths but morbidity was high; 13 patients were admitted in cardiac failure, nine had atrial fibrillation and three required intensive-care management. There were 86 live births of the 97 deliveries.

Nqayana, T; Moodley, J; Naidoo, DP

2008-01-01

436

PET in Cerebrovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

SYNOPSIS Investigation of the interplay between the cerebral circulation and brain cellular function is fundamental to understanding both the pathophysiology and treatment of stroke. Currently, PET is the only technique that provides accurate, quantitative in vivo regional measurements of both cerebral circulation and cellular metabolism in human subjects. We review normal human cerebral blood flow and metabolism and human PET studies of ischemic stroke, carotid artery disease, vascular dementia, intracerebral hemorrhage and aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and discuss how these studies have added to our understanding of the pathophysiology of human cerebrovascular disease.

Powers, William J.; Zazulia, Allyson R.

2010-01-01

437

[Diseases in gastroenterology].  

PubMed

Autoimmune diseases of gastrointestinal organs require a timely diagnosis to facilitate appropriate treatment. It is an important challenge to differentiate autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) from pancreatic carcinoma. This is hampered by the occurrence of focal changes in the pancreatic parenchyma in AIP. Additionally, lymphadenopathy and duct obstruction are present. Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) results in liver cirrhosis and organ failure if not discovered in time. In 40?% of patients with AIH the initial diagnosis is not achieved at an early stage. Intestinal tuberculosis must be differentiated from Crohn's disease, especially if modern biotherapies employing antibodies are planned. PMID:24026789

Göke, A; Göke, B

2013-10-01

438

Hydatid disease in China.  

PubMed

Hydatid disease is one of the world's most geographically widespread zoonoses. It is present on all inhabited continents and occurs in tropical, subtropical, temperate, sub-arctic and arctic regions. The two countries with the greatest areas over which transmission occurs are almost certainly the Soviet Union and China. Until recently, however, very little information about hydatidosis in China was available outside the country(1). Since the 'open-door' policy over the past few years the great importance of hydatid disease in north and western China is gradually being realized. PMID:15463420

Craig, P S; Liu, D; Deshan, L; Ding, Z; Zhaoxun, D

1991-02-01

439

Salmonid Whirling Disease  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Whirling disease is a parasitic infection of trout and salmon by the myxosporean protozoan Myxobolus cerebralis (Syn. Myxosoma cerebralis). This parasite has selective tropism for cartilage; infection can cause deformities of the axial skeleton and neural damage that results in 'blacktail.' The disease is named for the erratic, tail-chasing, 'whirling' in young fish that are startled or fed. Heavy infection of young fish can result in high mortalities or unmarketable, deformed individuals. Although the parasite was first reported in 1903 in central Europe (Hofer 1903), its complete life cycle was not described until the early 1980's.

Markiw, Maria E.

1992-01-01

440

Thyroid disease and cognition.  

PubMed

Overt hypothyroidism and thyrotoxicosis are associated with significant decrements in mood and cognitive function, and therapy usually leads to improvement in these symptoms. In contrast, major affective or cognitive dysfunction is not typical of subclinical thyroid disease. Subtle deficits in specific cognitive domains (primarily working memory and executive function) likely exist in subclinical hypothyroidism and thyrotoxicosis, but these are unlikely to cause major problems in most patients. Patients with mild thyroid disease and significant distress related to mood or cognition most likely have independent diagnoses that should be evaluated and treated separately. PMID:24891176

Samuels, Mary H

2014-06-01

441

Genetics of Alzheimer disease.  

PubMed

Alzheimer disease prevails as a major cause of disability in the elderly population and ranks as the most common form of dementia that affects 1 of 8 individuals older than 65 years of age. Most AD cases are late in onset and are probably influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Apart from age, the risk factors include family history; brain injury, both traumatic and vascular; and metabolic diseases, such as diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, and obesity. Based on twin studies, inheritance plays a role in approximately 80% of cases (familial and sporadic). PMID:23538412

Rao, A T; Degnan, A J; Levy, L M

2014-03-01

442

Hodgkin's disease in children.  

PubMed

This study provides information about histological types of Hodgkin's disease (HD) among children of Pakistan. Hodgkins disease constitutes 12 per cent of all pediatric malignant tumours. The peak incidence is between 6 and 10 years. The male to female ratio is 5.25:1. The majority (78 per cent) present with cervical lymphadenopathy. Mixed cellularity (MC) is the commonest histological type. In the developed countries nodular sclerosis (NS) and lymphocyte predominant (LP) subtypes are more common, and which have better prognosis. The developing countries have a higher incidence of poor prognostic subtypes. Our study indicates a situation intermediate between the two. PMID:1527813

Ahmed, M; Khan, A H; Saleem, S; Mansoor, A

1992-08-01

443

Rhabdomyolysis in celiac disease.  

PubMed

A 12-year-old female presented with chronic diarrhea, fatigue, failure to thrive, sudden weakness of her upper and lower extremities and inability to walk. On neurological examination, atrophy was found of the lower extremity muscles, coupled with muscle weakness. Hypokalemia and a high creatine kinase (CK) level were detected. Antigliadin IgA, IgG and antiendomysial antibodies were positive. A duodenal biopsy revealed the classical findings of celiac disease. To our knowledge this is the first childhood case of celiac disease presenting with rhabdomyolysis. PMID:12728476

Ertekin, Vildan; Selimo?lu, Mukadder Ay?e; Tan, Hüseyin; Kiliçaslan, Buket

2003-04-30

444

Fabry Disease in Females  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Anderson-Fabry disease is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder resulting from deficiency of alpha galactosidase A and accumulation\\u000a of globotriaosyl ceramide (Gb3) in cells throughout the body. Despite X-linked inheritance, females with Fabry disease may\\u000a manifest significant multi-system pathology with effects on organ function, physical symptoms, quality of life and survival.\\u000a Lyonisation within the peripheral blood results in some females exhibiting

D. A. Hughes

445

Genetics of rheumatic disease  

PubMed Central

Many of the chronic inflammatory and degenerative disorders that present to clinical rheumatologists have a complex genetic aetiology. Over the past decade a dramatic improvement in technology and methodology has accelerated the pace of gene discovery in complex disorders in an exponential fashion. In this review, we focus on rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus and ankylosing spondylitis and describe some of the recently described genes that underlie these conditions and the extent to which they overlap. The next decade will witness a full account of the main disease susceptibility genes in these diseases and progress in establishing the molecular basis by which genetic variation contributes to pathogenesis.

2009-01-01

446

Gum and Heart Disease  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Over the past ten years, there have been many studies linking gum disease and hardening of the arteries. At first, there were observations that people with poor oral health were more prone to heart disease. More recently, scientists have found clear links between the total amount of periodontal bacteria in the mouth and blockages in the carotid artery. This study proves that at least some of the bacteria manage to escape that fate. This Science Update looks at the research, which leads to the findings presented and offers links to other sources for further inquiry.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (;)

2005-04-25

447

Evaluation of respiratory disease.  

PubMed

The spectrum of HIV-associated pulmonary diseases is broad. Opportunistic infections, neoplasms, and noninfectious complications are all major considerations. Clinicians caring for persons infected with HIV must have a systematic approach. The approach begins with a thorough history and physical examination and often involves selected laboratory tests and a chest radiograph. Frequently, the clinical, laboratory, and chest radiographic presentation suggests a specific diagnosis or a few diagnoses, which then prompts specific diagnostic testing and treatment. This article presents an overview of the evaluation of respiratory disease in persons with HIV/AIDS. PMID:23702170

Tokman, Sofya; Huang, Laurence

2013-06-01

448

Global epidemiology of meningococcal disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

As reviewed in this paper, meningococcal disease epidemiology varies substantially by geographic area and time. The disease can occur as sporadic cases, outbreaks, and large epidemics. Surveillance is crucial for understanding meningococcal disease epidemiology, as well as the need for and impact of vaccination.Despite limited data from some regions of the world and constant change, current meningococcal disease epidemiology can

Lee H. Harrison; Caroline L. Trotter; Mary E. Ramsay

2009-01-01

449

Genetics Home Reference: Parkinson disease  

MedlinePLUS

... referred to as juvenile-onset Parkinson disease. How common is Parkinson disease? Parkinson disease affects more than 1 million people ... year. The late-onset form is the most common type of Parkinson disease, and the risk of developing this condition increases ...

450

Genetics Home Reference: Fabry disease  

MedlinePLUS

... and affect only the heart or kidneys. How common is Fabry disease? Fabry disease affects an estimated 1 in 40, ... onset forms of the disorder are probably more common than the classic, severe form. What genes are related to Fabry disease? Fabry disease is caused by mutations in the ...

451

Genetics Home Reference: Sandhoff disease  

MedlinePLUS

... with late-onset forms of Sandhoff disease. How common is Sandhoff disease? Sandhoff disease is a rare disorder; its frequency ... among populations. This condition appears to be more common in the Creole population of northern Argentina; the Metis ... in the HEXB gene cause Sandhoff disease. ...

452

Genetics Home Reference: Huntington disease  

MedlinePLUS

... 15 years after signs and symptoms appear. How common is Huntington disease? Huntington disease affects an estimated 3 to 7 ... European ancestry. The disorder appears to be less common in some other populations, ... disease? Mutations in the HTT gene cause Huntington disease. ...

453

Mitochondrial failures in Alzheimer's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mitochondrial dysfunction and free radical-induced oxidative damage have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several different neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson disease (PD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Huntington's disease (HD), and Alzheimer's disease (AD). The defective adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production and increased oxygen radicals may induce mitochondria-dependent cell death because damaged mitochondria are unable to maintain the energy demands of

Xiongwei Zhu; Mark A. Smith; George Perry; Gjumrakch Aliev

2004-01-01

454

Plant Disease Lesson: Crown Gall  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This plant disease lesson on Crown Gall (caused by Agrobacterium tumefaciens) includes information on symptoms and signs, pathogen biology, disease cycle and epidemiology, disease management, and the significance of the disease. Selected references are listed and a glossary is also available for use with this resource.

Clarence I. Kado (University of California, Davis;)

2002-11-18

455

Plant Disease Lesson: Black Sigatoka  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This plant disease lesson on Black Sigatoka (caused Mycosphaerella fijiensis - found in nearly all the world's banana-growing regions.) includes information on symptoms and signs, pathogen biology, disease cycle and epidemiology, disease management, and the significance of the disease. Selected references are listed and a glossary is also available for use with this resource.

Rebecca S. Bennett (Cornell University;); Phil A. Arneson (Cornell University;)

2003-09-05

456

Plant Disease Lesson: Apple scab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This plant disease lesson on Apple scab (caused by Venturia inaequalis) includes information on symptoms and signs, pathogen biology, disease cycle and epidemiology, disease management, and the significance of the disease. Selected references are listed and a glossary is also available for use with this resource.

Lisa J. Vaillancourt (University of Kentucky;); John R. Hartman (University of Kentucky;)

2000-10-05

457

Women and Coronary Heart Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiovascular disease (CVD), encompassing both coronary heart disease (CHD) and cerebrovascular disease, is a major health\\u000a burden worldwide in men and women. Although historically considered a “man’s disease,” this myth is quickly fading and for\\u000a good reason.

Susan Mather

458

Pediatric infl ammatory bowel disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inflammatory bowel disease is an important cause of gastrointestinal pathology in children and adolescents. The incidence of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease is increasing; therefore, it is important for the clinician to be aware of the presentation of this disease in the pediatric population. Laboratory tests, radiology studies, and endoscopic procedures are helpful in diagnosing infl ammatory bowel disease and differentiating

Karen A Diefenbach; Christopher K Breuer

459

Stem cells and neurodegenerative diseases.  

PubMed

Neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by the neurodegenerative changes or apoptosis of neurons involved in networks, which are important to specific physiological functions. With the development of old-aging society, the incidence of neurodegenerative diseases is on the increase. However, it is difficult to diagnose for most of neurodegenerative diseases. At present, there are too few effective therapies. Advances in stem cell biology have raised the hope and possibility for the therapy of neurodegenerative diseases. Recently, stem cells have been widely attempted to treat neurodegenerative diseases of animal model. Here we review the progress and prospects of various stem cells, including embryonic stem cells, mesenchymal stem cell and neural stem cells and so on, for the treatments of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, Huntington' disease and Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/Lou Gehrig's disease. PMID:18368305

Hou, LingLing; Hong, Tao

2008-04-01

460

Mammary and extramammary Paget's disease  

PubMed Central

Mammary and extramammary Paget's disease are uncommon intraepithelial adenocarcinomas. Both conditions have similar clinical features, which mimic inflammatory and infective diseases. Histological diagnostic confusion can arise between Paget's disease and other neoplastic conditions affecting the skin, with the most common differential diagnoses being malignant melanoma and atypical squamous disease. The glandular differentiation of both mammary Paget's disease and extramammary Paget's disease is indicated by morphological appearances, the presence of intracellular mucin in many cases, and positive immunohistochemical staining for glandular cytokeratins, epithelial membrane antigen, and carcinoembryonic antigen. This article provides an overview of mammary and extramammary Paget's disease and discusses recent evidence regarding the cell of origin. The concepts of primary and secondary Paget's disease are presented and the differential diagnosis is discussed with reference to immunohistochemical markers that might be of diagnostic value. Key Words: mammary Paget's disease • extramammary Paget's disease

Lloyd, J; Flanagan, A

2000-01-01

461

Therapeutic angiogenesis in cardiovascular disease  

PubMed Central

Atherosclerotic disease of the arteries is a major cause of coronary artery disease, peripheral vascular disease and stroke. Some patients are however not candidate for the standard treatment of angioplasty or bypass surgery. Hence there is tremendous enthusiasm for the utilization of angiogenesis as a therapeutic modality for atherosclerotic arterial disease. This augmentation of physiological neo-vascularization in cardiovascular disease can be achieved through different pathways. In this article we are reviewing the Use of Gene therapy, Protein therapy and cellular therapy.

Al Sabti, Hilal

2007-01-01

462

Rotigotine: in Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Rotigotine is a nonergolinic dopamine D3/D2/D1 receptor agonist delivered via a transdermal system and has been evaluated for the treatment of idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Patients with early Parkinson's disease receiving rotigotine monotherapy experienced significantly greater improvements in parkinsonian symptoms (as measured by Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale scores) compared to placebo in two large, well designed clinical trials. Significant beneficial effects versus placebo were observed with the 30 and 40 cm2 rotigotine patches in both trials.black triangle Patients with advanced Parkinson's disease receiving rotigotine as adjunctive therapy with levodopa experienced clinically significant reductions from baseline in 'off' time in two well designed clinical trials. In one trial, a large placebo effect was observed, therefore, there was no significant difference between placebo and active treatment (20, 40 and 60 cm2) for this primary efficacy variable, However, a recent study found a significant (p < or = 0.003) reduction in 'off' time in rotigotine 40 and 60 cm2 recipients versus that in the placebo group. Rotigotine was generally well tolerated in clinical trials as both monotherapy and when administered with levodopa; adverse events were generally mild or moderate in severity. PMID:16268667

Reynolds, Neil A; Wellington, Keri; Easthope, Stephanie E

2005-01-01

463

Epigenetics and cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite advances in the prevention and management of cardiovascular disease (CVD), this group of multifactorial disorders remains a leading cause of mortality worldwide. CVD is associated with multiple genetic and modifiable risk factors; however, known environmental and genetic influences can only explain a small part of the variability in CVD risk, which is a major obstacle for its prevention and

Caren E. Smith; José M. Ordovás

2010-01-01

464

Alcoholic Liver Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

These recommendations provide a data-supported approach. They are based on the following: (i) a formal review and analysis of the recently published world literature on the topic (Medline search); (ii) American College of Physicians Manual for Assessing Health Practices and Designing Practice Guidelines (1); (iii) guideline policies, including the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) Policy on

Robert S O’Shea; Srinivasan Dasarathy; Arthur J. McCullough

2010-01-01

465

Epigenetics and airways disease  

PubMed Central

Epigenetics is the term used to describe heritable changes in gene expression that are not coded in the DNA sequence itself but by post-translational modifications in DNA and histone proteins. These modifications include histone acetylation, methylation, ubiquitination, sumoylation and phosphorylation. Epigenetic regulation is not only critical for generating diversity of cell types during mammalian development, but it is also important for maintaining the stability and integrity of the expression profiles of different cell types. Until recently, the study of human disease has focused on genetic mechanisms rather than on non-coding events. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that disruption of epigenetic processes can lead to several major pathologies, including cancer, syndromes involving chromosomal instabilities, and mental retardation. Furthermore, the expression and activity of enzymes that regulate these epigenetic modifications have been reported to be abnormal in the airways of patients with respiratory disease. The development of new diagnostic tools might reveal other diseases that are caused by epigenetic alterations. These changes, despite being heritable and stably maintained, are also potentially reversible and there is scope for the development of 'epigenetic therapies' for disease.

Adcock, Ian M; Ford, Paul; Ito, Kazuhiro; Barnes, P J

2006-01-01

466

Benign breast disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lump, nipple discharge and pain are the major presenting symptoms of breast disease. Around 60% of referrals are for a lump and less than 10% of these will be diagnosed to have breast cancer. Benign diagnoses are: fibroadenoma, a firm mobile lump considered as aberrations of normal development; breast cysts, which are discrete lumps accounting for 15% of all breast

John Pollitt; Christopher Twine; Christopher A Gateley

2006-01-01

467

Parkinson's disease with camptocormia  

PubMed Central

Background Camptocormia is defined as an abnormal flexion of the trunk that appears when standing or walking and disappears in the supine position. The origin of the disorder is unknown, but it is usually attributed either to a primary or a secondary paravertebral muscle myopathy or a motor neurone disorder. Camptocormia is also observed in a minority of patients with parkinsonism. Objective To characterise the clinical and electrophysiological features of camptocormia and parkinsonian symptoms in patients with Parkinson's disease and camptocormia compared with patients with Parkinson's disease without camptocormia. Methods Patients with parkinsonism and camptocormia (excluding patients with multiple system atrophy) prospectively underwent a multidisciplinary clinical (neurological, neuropsychological, psychological, rheumatological) and neurophysiological (electromyogram, ocular movement recording) examination and were compared with age?matched patients with Parkinson's disease without camptocormia. Results The camptocormia developed after 8.5 (SD 5.3)?years of parkinsonism, responded poorly to levodopa treatment (20%) and displayed features consistent with axial dystonia. Patients with camptocormia were characterised by prominent levodopa?unresponsive axial symptoms (ie, axial rigidity, gait disorder and postural instability), along with a tendency for greater error in the antisaccade paradigm. Conclusion We suggest that (1) the salient features of parkinsonism observed in patients with camptocormia are likely to represent a specific form of Parkinson's disease and camptocormia is an axial dystonia and (2) both camptocormia and parkinsonism in these patients might result from additional, non?dopaminergic neuronal dysfunction in the basal ganglia.

Bloch, F; Houeto, J L; du Montcel, S Tezenas; Bonneville, F; Etchepare, F; Welter, M L; Rivaud-Pechoux, S; Hahn-Barma, V; Maisonobe, T; Behar, C; Lazennec, J Y; Kurys, E; Arnulf, I; Bonnet, A M; Agid, Y

2006-01-01

468

Symptoms of Celiac Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... symptoms tend to appear in children and adults? Children tend to have the more classic signs of celiac disease, including growth problems (failure to thrive, chronic diarrhea/constipation, recurring abdominal bloating and pain, fatigue and irritability. Adults tend to have symptoms ...

469

Beh?et's disease  

PubMed Central

Definition of the disease Behçet disease (BD) is a chronic, relapsing, multisystemic disorder characterized by mucocutaneous, ocular, vascular and central nervous system manifestations. Epidemiology BD seems to cluster along the ancient Silk Road, which extends from eastern Asia to the Mediterranean basin. European cases are often described, not exclusively in the migrant population. Clinical description The clinical spectrum includes oral and genital ulcerations, uveitis, vascular, neurological, articular, renal and gastrointestinal manifestations. Etiology The etiopathogenesis of the disease remains unknown, although genetic predisposition, environmental factors and immunological abnormalities have been implicated. Diagnostic methods Diagnosis is only based on clinical criteria. Differrential diagnosis It depends on the clinical presentation of BD, but sarcoidosis, multiple sclerosis, Crohn’s disease, Takayasu’s arteritis, polychondritis or antiphospholipid syndrome need to be considered. Management Treatment is symptomatic using steroids and immunomodulatory therapy. It is efficient depending on the rapidity of initiation, the compliance, and the duration of therapy. Prognosis The prognosis is severe due to the ocular, neurological and arterial involvement.

2012-01-01

470

Thyroid disease in pregnancy.  

PubMed

Some interesting recent developments have influenced the modern management of thyroid disease in pregnancy and enhanced our understanding of the interaction between maternal and fetal thyroid function, including the complex role of the placenta. This article will review the latest ideas in this area. PMID:11211582

Girling, J C

2000-12-01

471

Cholestatic liver disease.  

PubMed

Cholestasis develops as a consequence of impaired bile formation and/or bile flow and can be classified as intra- or extrahepatic. Chronic cholestatic diseases are mostly intrahepatic with the exception of primary and secondary sclerosing cholangitis affecting intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts. Recent genome-wide association studies have confirmed major histocompatibility complex associations and discovered multiple susceptibility loci in primary biliary cirrhosis and primary sclerosing cholangitis, providing new insights into disease pathogenesis, which may translate into more precise therapeutic prevention and intervention in the future. Diagnostic steps in cholestatic conditions comprise a thorough patient history, abdominal imaging and distinct serological studies including antimitochondrial antibodies and IgG4 levels; if the diagnosis remains unclear, liver biopsy is warranted. Genetic testing should also be considered, as mutations in the hepatobiliary transporters ATP8B1, ABCB11 and ABCB4 are causative for three different forms of familial intrahepatic cholestasis. Disease severity is dependent on the genotypic variants of these transporters, ranging from mildly elevated liver enzymes in adults to cirrhosis in early childhood. Ligands of nuclear receptors, which represent important regulators of hepatobiliary transporters, and modified bile salts are new promising therapeutic options in cholestatic liver disease and are currently being investigated in clinical trials. PMID:23797137

Jüngst, Christoph; Lammert, Frank

2013-01-01

472

Introduction: Infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

In any discussion of the great challenges facing humanity in addressing global environmental problems, a small number of topics automatically rise to the top: climate change, the loss of biodiversity, and the sustainability of the services ecosystems provide us. But no threats to human welfare are more urgent than those posed by infectious diseases; we suffer already the devastating consequences

SIMON A. LEVIN

2007-01-01

473

Cells Immortal - Chagas disease  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fortieth monthly installment of our "What A Year!" website project, introducing life science breakthroughs to middle and high school students and their teachers. Chagas disease, a dangerous condition, results from infection with the T. cruzi parasite that somehow avoids natural cell death and can remain in a person's body for decades before symptoms appear.

2010-09-06

474

Treatment of Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed Central

Pharmacotherapy with levodopa for Parkinson's disease provides symptomatic benefit, but fluctuations in (or loss of) response may eventually occur. Dopamine agonists are also helpful and, when taken with low doses of levodopa, often provide sustained benefit with fewer side effects; novel agonists and new methods for their administration are therefore under study. Other therapeutic strategies are being explored, including the use of type B monoamine oxidase inhibitors to reduce the metabolic breakdown of dopamine, catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitors to retard the breakdown of levodopa, norepinephrine precursors to compensate for deficiency of this neurotransmitter, glutamate antagonists to counteract the effects of the subthalamic nucleus, and various neurotrophic factors to influence dopaminergic nigrostriatal cells. Surgical procedures involving pallidotomy are sometimes helpful. Those involving cerebral transplantation of adrenal medullary or fetal mesencephalic tissue have yielded mixed results; benefits may relate to the presence of growth factors in the transplanted tissue. The transplantation of genetically engineered cell lines will probably become the optimal transplantation procedure. The cause of Parkinson's disease may relate to oxidant stress and the generation of free radicals. It is not clear whether treatment with selegiline hydrochloride (a type B monoamine oxidase inhibitor) delays the progression of Parkinson's disease, because the drug also exerts a mild symptomatic effect. Daily treatment with vitamin E (a scavenger of free radicals) does not influence disease progression, perhaps because of limited penetration into the brain. Images

Aminoff, M J

1994-01-01

475

Familial Gestational Trophoblastic Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Familial molar pregnancies and gestational trophoblastic disease are exceedingly rare. In this case report, a family including four sisters and their cousin had molar pregnancies. Eldest sister had repeated molar pregnancies. Second sister had early abortion at her first pregnancy and partial molar pregnancy following blighted ovum by intrauterine insemination at her second pregnancy. Third sister had two molar pregnancies

M. Fallahian

2003-01-01

476

Disease in marine aquaculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has become almost a truism that success in intensive production of animals must be based in part on development of methods for disease diagnosis and control. Excellent progress has been made in methods of diagnosis for major pathogens of cultivated fish, crustacean and molluscan species. In many instances these have proved to be facultative pathogens, able to exert severe

C. J. Sindermann

1984-01-01

477

Alzheimer's Disease and Depression.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews research on depression in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Discusses evidence suggesting that depression affects many AD patients and can have profound effects on patient long-term functioning and caregiver well-being. Notes that field is dominated by studies of prevalence, as opposed to studies of etiology, association with other aspects of…

Teri, Linda; Wagner, Amy

1992-01-01

478

Curcumin in inflammatory diseases.  

PubMed

Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a yellow coloring agent extracted from turmeric is also used as a remedy for the treatment and prevention of inflammatory diseases. Acute and chronic inflammation is a major factor in the progression of obesity, type II diabetes, arthritis, pancreatitis, cardiovascular, neurodegenerative and metabolic diseases, as well as certain types of cancer. Turmeric has a long history of use in Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of inflammatory disorders. Recent studies on the efficacy and therapeutic applicability of turmeric have suggested that the active ingredient of tumeric is curcumin. Further, compelling evidence has shown that curcumin has the ability to inhibit inflammatory cell proliferation, invasion, and angiogenesis through multiple molecular targets and mechanisms of action. Curcumin is safe, non-toxic, and mediates its anti-inflammatory effects through the down-regulation of inflammatory transcription factors, cytokines, redox status, protein kinases, and enzymes that all promote inflammation. In addition, curcumin induces apoptosis through mitochondrial and receptor-mediated pathways, as well as activation of caspase cascades. In the current study, the anti-inflammatory effects of curcumin were evaluated relative to various chronic inflammatory diseases. Based on the available pharmacological data obtained from in vitro and in vivo research, as well as clinical trials, an opportunity exists to translate curcumin into clinics for the prevention of inflammatory diseases in the near future. PMID:23281076

Shehzad, Adeeb; Rehman, Gauhar; Lee, Young Sup

2013-01-01

479

Periodontal disease and diabetes.  

PubMed

Diabetes is considered to be a genetically and environmentally based chronic metabolic and vascular syndrome caused by a partial or total insulin deficiency with alteration in the metabolism of lipids, carbohydrates and proteins culminating with different manifestations in different organisms. In humans hyperglycemia is the main consequence of defects in the secretion and/or action of insulin, and its deregulation can produce secondary lesions in various organs, especially kidneys, eyes, nerves, blood vessels and immune systems. Periodontal disease is an entity of localized infection that involves tooth-supporting tissues. The first clinical manifestation of periodontal disease is the appearance of periodontal pockets, which offer a favorable niche for bacterial colonization. The etiology of periodontal disease is multifactorial, being caused by interactions between multiple micro-organisms (necessary but not sufficient primary etiologic factors), a host with some degree of susceptibility and environmental factors. According to current scientific evidence, there is a symbiotic relationship between diabetes and periodontitis, such that diabetes is associated with an increased incidence and progression of periodontitis, and periodontal infection is associated with poor glycaemic control in diabetes due to poor immune systems. Hence, for a good periodontal control it is necessary to treat both periodontal disease and glycaemic control. PMID:23393673

Bascones-Martínez, Antonio; Arias-Herrera, Santiago; Criado-Cámara, Elena; Bascones-Ilundáin, Jaime; Bascones-Ilundáin, Cristina

2012-01-01

480

Lhermitte-Duclos disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immunocytochemical studies were carried out on two previously reported autopsy cases of Lhermitte-Duclos disease. The unaffected cerebellar cortex adjacent to the lesions served as control. The findings supported the view, previously expressed by one of the authors, of a heterogeneous neuronal structure of the lesion, consisting of at least two cell types. No further light was thrown on the predominant

R. A. Shiurba; E. C. Gessaga; L. F. Eng; L. A. Sternberger; N. H. Sternberger; H. Urich

1988-01-01

481

Is disease management sustainable?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Diseases have been well controlled in most crops for the past three decades. The apparent stability of control is to some extent illusory. It results from two highly dynamic interactions: firstly between agrochemical companies discovering new modes of action and pathogen populations acquiring insensitivity to them; secondly, between plant breeders introducing new host resistance genes and pathogen populations acquiring

N. PAVELEY

482

Genetics and heart disease.  

PubMed

Production of genome sequence has recently skyrocketed with many advances in the understanding and etiology of certain diseases. Researchers have localized a region of the human genome that plays a role in determining a persons susceptibility to myocardial infarction. A new apolipoprotein gene that influences triglyceride levels in humans is also described. A recent study from Finland showed that certain families are likely to carry a genetic form of insulin resistance syndrome that predisposes them to accelerated atherosclerosis. Researchers identified 3 mutations in the gene producing a protein called metavinculin, which appears to be linked to abnormalities in cellular structures and function in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. Gene therapy has emerged as a genuine therapeutic option with the potential to alter the manner in which cardiologists manage the 2 most common cardiac disorders--coronary artery disease and congestive heart failure. Along with angiogenesis and gene therapy, cell transplantation is one of the newest treatment modalities proposed to improve the outcome of patients with cardiac failure. Two major advances in stem cell therapy for cardiovascular disease were published recently. They demonstrate how bone marrow stem cells can regenerate myocardium in the infarct area of a mouse heart. A German Cardiologist has for the first time successfully transplanted a patients own stem cells in an infracted area in the heart. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the genetic associations with cardiac diseases. PMID:12590266

Chamsi Pasha, Hassan

2003-01-01

483

Peripheral arterial disease  

PubMed Central

Introduction Up to 20% of adults aged over 55 years have detectable peripheral arterial disease of the legs, but this may cause symptoms of intermittent claudication in only a small proportion of affected people. The main risk factors are smoking and diabetes mellitus, but other risk factors for cardiovascular disease are also associated with peripheral arterial disease. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for people with chronic peripheral arterial disease? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to March 2009. (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 59 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: antiplatelet agents; bypass surgery; cilostazol; exercise; pentoxifylline; percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA); prostaglandins; smoking cessation; and statins.

2009-01-01

484

Imaging Arterial Wall Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrasonographic imaging of the carotid arteries allows assessment of both early and advanced atherosclerotic disease. This noninvasive technique has played a central role in many recent epidemiological studies and is being used increasingly for evaluating the efficacy of atherosclerosis prevention trials. New developments in ultrasound equipment, the use of echocontrast agents, novel applications of three- and four-dimensional sonography and in

Michael Hennerici; Stephen Meairs

2000-01-01

485

Crohn's disease in women  

PubMed Central

This article provides an overview of the obstetric and gynecological manifestations of Crohn’s disease (CD). High incidence of the new onset of the disease in young women in their reproductive years demands special concern from physicians involved in their treatment. Pregnant women with CD are considered high-risk patients, regardless of disease activity index, due to associated complications. Predominately described complications are premature birth, low birth weight, and congenital anomalies. To minimize the risk for adverse pregnancy/birth outcomes, it is recommended that remission be achieved before conception. Treatment of CD in pregnant women is similar to that among the nonpregnant population, and there is no valid reason to terminate it, since most of the drugs are proven to be safe. Women with CD who wish to conceive or are already pregnant need to be properly advised according to the newest guidelines on the subject, given by the European Crohn’s and Colitis Organization. Gynecological manifestations are another special feature of CD. They are important in that they may facilitate early recognition of the underlying disease, which usually stays unrecognized for years before intestinal manifestation; in this way, the underlying manifestations are often mistreated.

Plavsic, Ivana; Stimac, Tea; Hauser, Goran

2013-01-01

486

Hemorrhagic type Moyamoya disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The clinical picture of hemorrhagic type Moyamoya disease was analyzed in 20 cases. Hematoma at the basal ganglia was noted in 40% of cases, intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) in 30%, thalamic hemorrhage with ventricular rupture in 15% and subcortical hemorrhage in 5%. The location was undetermined in two cases (10%) due to bleeding in the pre-computed tomography (CT) era. The frequencies

Naokatsu Saeki; Susumu Nakazaki; Motoo Kubota; Akira Yamaura; Seiichirou Hoshi; Souichi Sunada; Kenro Sunami

1997-01-01

487

Peripheral arterial disease  

PubMed Central

Introduction Up to 20% of adults aged over 55 years have detectable peripheral arterial disease of the legs, but this may cause symptoms of intermittent claudication in only a small proportion of affected people. The main risk factors are smoking and diabetes mellitus, but other risk factors for cardiovascular disease are also associated with peripheral arterial disease. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for people with chronic peripheral arterial disease? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to May 2010. Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review. We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 70 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: antiplatelet agents, bypass surgery, cilostazol, exercise, pentoxifylline, percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA), prostaglandins, smoking cessation, and statins.

2011-01-01

488

Acute inflammatory surgical disease.  

PubMed

Infectious and inflammatory diseases comprise some of the most common gastrointestinal disorders resulting in hospitalization in the United States. Accordingly, they occupy a significant proportion of the workload of the acute care surgeon. This article discusses the diagnosis, management, and treatment of appendicitis, acute cholecystitis/cholangitis, acute pancreatitis, diverticulitis, and Clostridium difficile colitis. PMID:24267493

Fagenholz, Peter J; de Moya, Marc A

2014-02-01

489

Pathology of Tangier disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two cases of Tangier disease are described in children from families unrelated to each other. Necropsy in one case, the first to be reported in this condition, showed large collections of cholesterol-laden macrophages in tonsils, thymus, lymph nodes, and colon, and moderate numbers in pyelonephritic scars and ureter. As the storage cells may be scanty in marrow, jejunum, and liver,

Patricia M. Bale; P. Clifton-Bligh; B. N. P. Benjamin; H. M. Whyte

1971-01-01

490

SKIN DISEASES IN CETACEANS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Micro-organisms that are known or suspected to cause skin diseases in cetaceans are briefly reviewed. Viruses belonging to four families i.e. Caliciviridae, Herpesviridae, Papillomaviridae and Poxviridae were detected by electron microscopy, histology and molecular techniques in vesicular skin lesions, black dots perceptible by the touch, warts and tattoos in several species of odontocetes and mysticetes. Herpesviruses, poxviruses and likely a

Marie-Françoise Van Bressem; Koen Van Waerebeek; Leonardo Flach; Julio César Reyes; Marcos César de Oliveira; Salvatore Siciliano; Monica Echegaray; Francisco Viddi; Fernando Felix; Enrique Crespo; Gian Paolo Sanino; Isabel Cristina Avila; Natalia Fraijia; Cristina Castro

491

James Parkinson: Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Parkinson's disease is a condition that anyone with a modicum of medical knowledge can recognise in the street--as indeed how it was studied by James Parkinson himself. Its three characteristic features are: 1. Increase in the tone of the voluntary muscles (rigidity). 2. Slowness of movement (bradykinesis). 3. Tremor (the characteristic 'pill rolling' movements of the fingers). PMID:24312998

Ellis, Harold

2013-11-01

492

Interstitial lung disease.  

PubMed

This article reviews the most important articles published in interstitial lung disease, as reviewed during the Clinical Year in Review session at the 2012 annual European Respiratory Society Congress in Vienna, Austria. Since the recent international guidelines for the management of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), important new evidence is available. The anti-fibrotic drug pirfenidone has been recently approved in Europe. Other pharmacological agents, especially nintedanib, are still being tested. The so-called triple combination therapy, anticoagulation therapy and endothelin receptor antagonists, especially ambrisentan, are either harmful or ineffective in IPF and are not recommended as treatment. Although the clinical course of IPF is highly variable, novel tools have been developed for individual prediction of prognosis. Acute exacerbations of IPF are associated with increased mortality and may occur with higher frequency in IPF patients with associated pulmonary hypertension. Interstitial lung disease associated with connective tissue disease has been definitely established to have a better long-term survival than IPF. A subset of patients present with symptoms and/or biological autoimmune features, but do not fulfil diagnostic criteria for a given autoimmune disease; this condition is associated with a higher prevalence of nonspecific interstitial pneumonia pattern, female sex and younger age, although survival relevance is unclear. PMID:23457161

Cottin, Vincent

2013-03-01

493

PPARs in Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are well studied for their peripheral physiological and pathological impact, but they also play an important role for the pathogenesis of various disorders of the central nervous system (CNS) like multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer's, and Parkinson's disease. The observation that PPARs are able to suppress the inflammatory response in peripheral macrophages and in several models of human autoimmune diseases lead to the idea that PPARs might be beneficial for CNS disorders possessing an inflammatory component. The neuroinflammatory response during the course of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is triggered by the neurodegeneration and the deposition of the ?-amyloid peptide in extracellular plaques. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been considered to delay the onset and reduce the risk to develop Alzheimer's disease, while they also directly activate PPAR?. This led to the hypothesis that NSAID protection in AD may be partly mediated by PPAR?. Several lines of evidence have supported this hypothesis, using AD-related transgenic cellular and animal models. Stimulation of PPAR? receptors by synthetic agonist (thiazolidinediones) inducing anti-inflammatory, anti-amyloidogenic, and insulin sensitising effects may account for the observed effects. Several clinical trials already revealed promising results using PPAR agonists, therefore PPARs represent an attractive therapeutic target for the treatment of AD.

Kummer, Markus P.; Heneka, Michael T.

2008-01-01

494

Allergic Skin Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review focuses on the two allergic skin diseases which are most common in the world, but the least familiar to surgeons – atopic dermatitis and contact dermatitis.The skin is the largest immunologic organ in humans, accounting for approximately 15% of our body weight, with a surface area of 1 to 2 square meters in an adult. Immune dysfunction can

Andrew J. Heller

495

Osgood-Schlatter Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... area. Ice can help prevent swelling and relieve pain. After applying ice, wrap your child’s knee with an ... she should apply ice to the affected area after exercising to prevent pain and swelling. In most people, Osgood-Schlatter disease ...

496

Neuropathology of Salla disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

A neuropathological study was performed on two patients with Salla disease, one male and one female, from different families. They both died at the age of 41 years. Both patients showed increased excretion of free sialic acid in the urine, psychomotor retardation starting in the 1st year of life, ataxia and spasticity. Several family members of both families were affected

H. Autio-Harmainen; A. Oldfors; P. Sourander; M. Renlund; K. Dammert; S. Similä

1988-01-01

497

Isolated gastric Crohn's disease  

PubMed Central

Crohn’s disease (CD) is a chronic idiopathic inflammatory disease of gastrointestinal tract characterized by segmental and transmural involvement of gastrointestinal tract. Ileocolonic and colonic/anorectal is a most common and account for 40% of cases and involvement of small intestine in about 30%. The stomach is rarely the sole or predominant site of CD. To date there are only a few documented case reports of adults with isolated gastric CD and no reports in the pediatric population. Isolated stomach involvement is very unusual presentation accounting for less than 0.07% of all gastrointestinal CD. The diagnosis is difficult to establish in cases of atypical presentation as in isolated gastroduodenal disease. In the absence of any other source of disease and in the presence of nonspecific upper GI endoscopy and histological findings, serological testing can play a vital role in the diagnosis of atypical CD. Recent studies have suggested that perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody and anti-Saccharomycescervisia antibody may be used as additional diagnostic tools. The effectiveness of infliximab in isolated gastric CD is limited to only a few case reports of adult patients and the long-term outcome is unknown.

Ingle, Sachin B; Hinge, Chitra R; Dakhure, Sarita; Bhosale, Smita S

2013-01-01

498

[Thyroid diseases and pregnancy].  

PubMed

Thyroid diseases in pregnancy must be recognized as a specific challenge for the clinician. Any pregnancy is causing alterations in thyroid hormone metabolism which have to be differentiated from pathologic states of thyroid function. Any thyroid disease of the mother with disturbances in the functional state of the gland could induce an adverse influence on the course of pregnancy. Furthermore, it can be associated with adverse consequences on fetal development. Especially hypothyroidism has to be avoided during pregnancy due to a danger of affected neurocognitive development of the offspring. Yet also maternal hyperthyroidism can lead to impairments in the course of pregnancy and to fetal thyroid dysfunction. Further clinical attention should be given to thyroid autoimmunity. There is a clear relationship between autoimmune thyroid disease and decreased fertility and an increase in the rate of spontaneous miscarriages. Furthermore, it displays an increased risk for the manifestation of postpartum thyroiditis. The management of nodular thyroid disease and malignancy does not differ from that of nonpregnant women/patients. Thyroid scintiscan and radioiodine therapy must be avoided during pregnancy and lactation. This review deals with the broad variety of thyroid disorders and function disturbances during and after pregnancy. All described diagnostic and therapeutic procedures are based upon the recent Clinical Practice Guideline of the Endocrine Society published in August 2007. PMID:19533052

Karger, Stefan; Führer-Sakel, Dagmar

2009-06-15

499

Diagnosis of Parasitic Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

... available to diagnose parasitic diseases. The kind of test(s) your health care provider will order will be based on your ... below for a list of some commonly used tests your health care provider may order. A fecal (stool) exam, also ...

500

Sphingolipid metabolism diseases.  

PubMed

Human diseases caused by alterations in the metabolism of sphingolipids or glycosphingolipids are mainly disorders of the degradation of these compounds. The sphingolipidoses are a group of monogenic inherited diseases caused by defects in the system of lysosomal sphingolipid degradation, with subsequent accumulation of non-degradable storage material in one or more organs. Most sphingolipidoses are associated with high mortality. Both, the ratio of substrate influx into the lysosomes and the reduced degradative capacity can be addressed by therapeutic approaches. In addition to symptomatic treatments, the current strategies for restoration of the reduced substrate degradation within the lysosome are enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), cell-mediated therapy (CMT) including bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and cell-mediated "cross correction", gene therapy, and enzyme-enhancement therapy with chemical chaperones. The reduction of substrate influx into the lysosomes can be achieved by substrate reduction therapy. Patients suffering from the attenuated form (type 1) of Gaucher disease and from Fabry disease have been successfully treated with ERT. PMID:16854371

Kolter, Thomas; Sandhoff, Konrad

2006-12-01