Science.gov

Sample records for diseases

  1. Behcet's Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    You are here: Home / Types of Vasculitis / Behcet’s Disease Behcet’s Disease First Description Who gets Behcet’s Disease (the “typical” patients)? Classic symptoms of Behcet’s Disease What causes Behcet’s Disease? ...

  2. Lyme Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Lyme Disease Lyme disease, or borreliosis, is caused by ... designed to increase our understanding of this disease. Lyme Disease A History of Lyme Disease, Symptoms, Diagnosis, ...

  3. Behcet's Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    NINDS Behcet's Disease Information Page Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What is Behcet's Disease? Is there ... Trials Organizations Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Behcet's Disease? Behcet's disease is a rare, chronic inflammatory ...

  4. Parkinson's Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... NINDS NINDS Parkinson's Disease Information Page Clinical Trials Biomarkers of Risk of Parkinson Disease This study determines if people with biomarkers for Parkinson’s disease actually develop the disease during ...

  5. Lentil Diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Major lentil diseases around the world have been described and reviewed. The major diseases include Ascochyta blight, Fusarium wilt, Botrytis Gray Mold, Lentil rust, Stemphylium blight, Anthracnose, and virus diseases. The management practices for these diseases are also presented....

  6. Meningococcal Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... gets meningococcal disease? Meningococcal disease most often causes meningitis and blood infections. It may start like a ... Science: Putting a Face on Meningococcal Disease National Meningitis Association Facts about Meningococcal Disease for Adults adultvaccination. ...

  7. Kawasaki Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... treatment helps reduce the risk of Kawasaki disease affecting the coronary arteries and causing serious problems. Outlook Kawasaki disease can't be prevented. However, most children who have the disease usually recover within weeks ...

  8. Huntington's Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited disease that causes certain nerve cells in the brain to waste away. ... express emotions. If one of your parents has Huntington's disease, you have a 50 percent chance of getting ...

  9. Alzheimer's Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia among older people. Dementia is a brain disorder that ... higher if a family member has had the disease. No treatment can stop the disease. However, some ...

  10. Infectious Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    Infectious diseases kill more people worldwide than any other single cause. Infectious diseases are caused by germs. Germs are tiny living ... live NIH: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

  11. Bone Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... break Osteogenesis imperfecta makes your bones brittle Paget's disease of bone makes them weak Bone disease can make bones easy to break Bones can also develop cancer and infections Other bone diseases are caused by poor nutrition, genetic factors or ...

  12. Wilson Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Share External Link Disclaimer Digestive Diseases Wilson Disease Alternate Versions Wilson Disease (444 KB) You can also ... things psychosis—when a person loses contact with reality Other Signs and Symptoms Other signs and symptoms ...

  13. Binswanger's Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Binswanger's Disease? Binswanger's disease (BD), also called subcortical vascular dementia , is a type of dementia caused by widespread, ... Hope Through Research Information booklet about Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, and other types of dementia compiled by the ...

  14. Parkinson's Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Digestive System How the Body Works Main Page Parkinson's Disease KidsHealth > Kids > Health Problems of Grown-Ups > ... symptoms of something called Parkinson's disease. What Is Parkinson's Disease? You may have seen the actor Michael ...

  15. Lyme Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Your Best Self Smart Snacking Losing Weight Safely Lyme Disease KidsHealth > Teens > Infections > Skin Infections & Rashes > Lyme ... Northwest, and the northern midwestern states. What Is Lyme Disease? People get Lyme disease through tick bites. ...

  16. Lyme Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    newsletter | contact Share | Lyme Disease Information for adults A A A Lyme disease frequently presents as a red or pink circle that is ... rash is noticed by the person affected. Overview Lyme disease is the result of infection with the ...

  17. Menkes Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... link in the menu on the left. Common Names Kinky hair disease Menkes disease Menkes syndrome Steely hair disease Medical or Scientific Names Congenital hypocupremia (pronounced kuhn-JEN-i-tl hahy- ...

  18. Bladder Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... frequent, urgent urination Bladder cancer Doctors diagnose bladder diseases using different tests. These include urine tests, x- ... National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

  19. Heart Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... you're like most people, you think that heart disease is a problem for others. But heart disease is the number one killer in the ... of disability. There are many different forms of heart disease. The most common cause of heart disease ...

  20. Newcastle disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Newcastle disease (ND), referred to as Exotic Newcastle disease (END) in the U. S., is an acute viral disease of domestic poultry and many other bird species and a recognized worldwide problem. Occurrence of END is due to an infection with virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and is a ...

  1. Cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    2015-10-21

    Essential facts Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is an umbrella term for all diseases of the heart and blood vessels. It includes coronary heart disease, peripheral arterial disease, stroke and transient ischaemic attack. CVD is the leading cause of death in England and Wales, accounting for almost one third of all deaths. PMID:26488967

  2. Zoonotic Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Publications Presentations and Podcasts Training Related Links Related Links One Health Office One Health Office Mission Zoonotic ... discussions about zoonotic diseases and One Health. Related Links Gastrointestinal (Enteric) Diseases from Animals Related Links One ...

  3. Heart Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention ...

  4. Kidney Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Your Best Self Smart Snacking Losing Weight Safely Kidney Disease KidsHealth > Teens > Diseases & Conditions > Kidneys & Urinary System > ... Syndrome Coping With Kidney Conditions What Do the Kidneys Do? You might never think much about some ...

  5. Colonic Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... where your body makes and stores stool. Many disorders affect the colon's ability to work properly. Some ... abdominal cramping and other symptoms Treatment for colonic diseases varies greatly depending on the disease and its ...

  6. Huntington's Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is Huntington's Disease? Huntington's disease (HD) results from genetically programmed degeneration of brain cells, called neurons, in ... the NINDS or the NIH is appreciated. Last Modified April 19, 2015 National Institute of Neurological Disorders ...

  7. Wilson Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Share External Link Disclaimer Digestive Diseases Wilson Disease Alternate Versions PDF Version? (444 KB) You can also ... things psychosis—when a person loses contact with reality Other Signs and Symptoms Other signs and symptoms ...

  8. Heart Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Digestive System How the Body Works Main Page Heart Disease KidsHealth > Kids > Health Problems of Grown-Ups > ... chest pain, heart attacks, and strokes . What Is Heart Disease? The heart is the center of the ...

  9. Mycobacterial Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... NIAID clinical studies on ClinicalTrials.gov . ? Related Links Tuberculosis Leprosy (Hansen's Disease) National Library of Medicine, MedlinePlus ... coats that can be found throughout the world. Tuberculosis and leprosy (Hansen’s disease) are the best known ...

  10. Chagas disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Chagas disease is an illness spread by insects. It is common in South and Central America. ... Chagas disease is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. It is spread by the bite of reduviid bugs ...

  11. Hashimoto's Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... print versions from our online catalog. ? Additional Links Hypothyroidism Pregnancy and Thyroid Disease Thyroid Tests Find a ... disease often leads to reduced thyroid function, or hypothyroidism. Hypothyroidism is a disorder that occurs when the ...

  12. Huntington disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Huntington disease is a disorder in which nerve cells in certain parts of the brain waste away, or ... Huntington disease is caused by a genetic defect on chromosome 4. The defect causes a part of DNA, ...

  13. Lyme Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Lyme disease is a bacterial infection you get from the bite of an infected tick. The first symptom ... Muscle and joint aches A stiff neck Fatigue Lyme disease can be hard to diagnose because you may ...

  14. Tickborne Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... on a blade of grass. Credit: CDC. Rocky Mountain spotted fever, a bacterial disease transmitted by the ... Ehrlichiosis and Anaplasmosis Lyme Disease Relapsing Fever Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Tularemia back to top ???? Last Updated ...

  15. Graves' Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... our online catalog. ? Additional Links Hashimoto's Disease Hyperthyroidism Hypothyroidism Pregnancy & Thyroid Disease Thyroid Tests Find a Specialist ... everyone who receives radioactive iodine treatment eventually develops hypothyroidism, which occurs when the thyroid does not make ...

  16. Hashimoto's Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... disease often leads to reduced thyroid function, or hypothyroidism. Hypothyroidism is a disorder that occurs when the thyroid ... Hashimoto’s disease is the most common cause of hypothyroidism in the United States. 1 Read more in ...

  17. Parkinson's Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a type of movement disorder. It happens when nerve cells in the brain don't ... coordination As symptoms get worse, people with the disease may have trouble walking, talking, or doing simple ...

  18. Raynaud's Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Raynaud's disease is a rare disorder of the blood vessels, usually in the fingers and toes. It causes the ... secondary Raynaud's, which is caused by injuries, other diseases, or certain medicines. People in colder climates are ...

  19. Meniere's Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Meniere's disease is a disorder of the inner ear. It can cause severe dizziness, a roaring sound in your ... together over several days. Some people with Meniere's disease have "drop attacks" during which the dizziness is ...

  20. Fifth Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Fifth disease is a viral infection caused by parvovirus B19. The virus only infects humans; it's not the same parvovirus that dogs and cats can get. Fifth disease mostly affects children. Symptoms can include a low ...

  1. Legionnaires' Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Legionnaires' disease is a type of pneumonia caused by bacteria. You usually get it by breathing in mist from ... spread from person to person. Symptoms of Legionnaires' disease include high fever, chills, a cough, and sometimes ...

  2. Chagas Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Chagas disease is caused by a parasite. It is common in Latin America but not in the United States. ... nose, the bite wound or a cut. The disease can also spread through contaminated food, a blood ...

  3. Addison Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... blood pressure and water and salt balance. Addison disease happens if the adrenal glands don't make ... problem with your immune system usually causes Addison disease. The immune system mistakenly attacks your own tissues, ...

  4. Eye Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the back of the eye Macular degeneration - a disease that destroys sharp, central vision Diabetic eye problems ... defense is to have regular checkups, because eye diseases do not always have symptoms. Early detection and ...

  5. Endocrine Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... low, you may have a hormone disorder. Hormone diseases also occur if your body does not respond ... In the United States, the most common endocrine disease is diabetes. There are many others. They are ...

  6. Parasitic Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a bug bite, or sexual contact. Some parasitic diseases are easily treated and some are not. Parasites ... be seen with the naked eye. Some parasitic diseases occur in the United States. Contaminated water supplies ...

  7. Gaucher Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Gaucher disease is a rare, inherited disorder in which you do not have enough of an enzyme called glucocerebrosidase. ... It usually starts in childhood or adolescence. Gaucher disease has no cure. Treatment options for types 1 ...

  8. Liver Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... remove poisons. There are many kinds of liver diseases. Viruses cause some of them, like hepatitis A, ... the skin, can be one sign of liver disease. Cancer can affect the liver. You could also ...

  9. Wilson Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Wilson disease is a rare inherited disorder that prevents your body from getting rid of extra copper. You need ... copper into bile, a digestive fluid. With Wilson disease, the copper builds up in your liver, and ...

  10. Leigh's Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Leigh's disease can be caused by mutations in mitochondrial DNA or by deficiencies of an enzyme called pyruvate ... kidney function. In Leigh’s disease, genetic mutations in mitochondrial DNA interfere with the energy sources that run cells ...

  11. Fifth Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Parvovirus B19 and Fifth Disease Note: Javascript is disabled ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Parvovirus Home About Parvovirus B19 Fifth Disease Pregnancy and ...

  12. Fifth disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Parvovirus B19; Erythema infectiosum; Slapped cheek rash ... Fifth disease is caused by human parvovirus B19. It often affects preschoolers or school-age children during the spring. The disease spreads through the fluids in the nose and ...

  13. Celiac Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... problems in your small intestine when you eat gluten, a protein found in wheat, rye, and barley. Gluten is poison to people who have celiac disease. What does gluten do to people who have celiac disease? In ...

  14. Celiac Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the disease over time. Long-term complications include malnutrition liver diseases intestinal cancer lymphoma [ Top ] What other ... care provider usually examines the patient's body for malnutrition or a rash uses a stethoscope to listen ...

  15. Hirschsprung Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Digestive System Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) Inflammatory Bowel Disease X-Ray Exam: Upper Gastrointestinal Tract (Upper GI) Irritable Bowel Syndrome Inflammatory Bowel Disease Your Digestive System Constipation ...

  16. Wildlife Diseases 

    E-print Network

    Texas Wildlife Services

    2007-03-13

    Some wildlife diseases can be transmitted to humans. This leaflet explains the causes and symptoms of rabies, giardiasis, bubonic plague, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Lyme disease, tularemia, leptospirosis and histoplasmosis....

  17. Fungal Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... flu or tuberculosis. Some fungal diseases like fungal meningitis and bloodstream infections are less common than skin and lung infections but can be deadly. Types of fungal diseases Read about different types of ...

  18. Gaucher Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... common of the inherited metabolic disorder known as lipid storage diseases. Lipids are fatty materials that include oils, fatty acids, ... research to find ways to treat and prevent lipid storage disorders such as Gaucher disease. For example, ...

  19. Sandhoff Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Sandhoff Disease? Sandhoff disease is a rare, inherited lipid storage disorder that progressively destroys nerve cells in ... results in the harmful accumulation of certain fats (lipids) in the brain and other organs of the ...

  20. Meniere's Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schessel, David A.

    1997-01-01

    Meniere's disease is characterized by unpredictable spells of severe vertigo and fluctuations in hearing and tinnitus. This article discusses the incidence of Meniere's disease, the present status of our understanding of this disease, controversies in its diagnosis, and the multiple therapeutic modalities recruited in its treatment. (Contains…

  1. Canavan Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... prognosis? What research is being done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Canavan Disease? Canavan disease is a gene-linked neurological disorder in which the brain degenerates into spongy tissue riddled with microscopic fluid-filled spaces. Canavan disease has been classified as one of ...

  2. Prostate Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    Aging & Health A to Z Prostate Diseases Basic Facts & Information What are Prostate Diseases? The prostate—one of the components of a man's sex organs—is a ... out anything serious. The Most Common Types of Prostate Diseases Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) Prostatitis Prostate cancer ...

  3. Meniere's Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Overview What is Meniere's disease? Meniere's (say: "men-ears") disease is a problem with your inner ear. No ... a build up of fluid in the inner ear. Although it can be troublesome, Meniere's disease is not contagious, and it isn't fatal. ...

  4. Lyme Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    newsletter | contact Share | Lyme Disease A parent's guide to condition and treatment information A A A Lyme disease may simply be displayed as a subtle ... rather than the classic bull's-eye rash. Overview Lyme disease is the result of infection with the ...

  5. Lyme Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, George C.

    1991-01-01

    This overview of the public health significance of Lyme disease includes the microbiological specifics of the infectious spirochete, the entomology and ecology of the ticks which are the primary disease carrier, the clinical aspects and treatment stages, the known epidemiological patterns, and strategies for disease control and for expanded public…

  6. Celiac Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... symptoms in children. Some people have no symptoms. Celiac disease is genetic. Blood tests can help your doctor diagnose the disease. Your doctor may also need to examine a small piece of tissue from your small ... National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

  7. Addison's disease.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Soumya Brata; Sarkar, Subrata; Ghosh, Supratim; Bandyopadhyay, Subhankar

    2012-10-01

    Addison's disease is a rare endocrinal disorder, with several oral and systemic manifestations. A variety of pathological processes may cause Addison's disease. Classically, hyperpigmentation is associated with the disease, and intraoral pigmentation is perceived as the initial sign and develops earlier than the dermatological pigmentation. The symptoms of the disease usually progress slowly and an event of illness or accident can make the condition worse and may lead to a life-threatening crisis. In this case, several oral as well as systemic manifestation of the Addison's disease was encountered. PMID:23633816

  8. DiseasesWorld DiseasesWorld

    E-print Network

    MacDonald, Andrew

    : Mosquito bite. Around half of the world's population are at risk of malaria (3.3 billion people). #12World DiseasesWorld DiseasesWorld World World Diseases Diseases Diseases Diseases Diseases DiseasesWorld Diseases #12;Prevalence (people) 8.6million Deathsperyear 1.3million Geographicaldistribution worldwide

  9. [Social diseases, civilization diseases or lifestyle diseases?].

    PubMed

    Betlejewski, Stans?aw

    2007-01-01

    In general, the development of civilization is viewed as a positive step for the well-being of the human species, leading to an increased duration and quality of life. The accelerated progress of civilization (mainly industrialization, urbanization and nutrition) has lead to new possibilities for adverse effects on human health. In former high civilization--like old Egypt, Greece, Roman, Chinese, Indian, Maya civilizations--the "modem civilization diseases" were unknown. Modem science through improved sanitation, vaccination and antibiotics as well as improved social and economical conditions, has eliminated the threat of death from most infectious diseases. In the years after World War II the social, economic and health conditions changed. Most deaths have resulted from heart disease, stroke, cancer and other diseases as a result of an inappropriate relationship of people with their environment and changed lifestyle. Lifestyle diseases are different from other diseases because they are potentially preventable and can be lowered with changes in diet, lifestyle and environment. PMID:18350729

  10. Lyme Disease

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Thomas S.; Shapiro, Eugene D.

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis Lyme disease, caused by spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, is the most common vector-borne disease in the United States. The clinical presentation varies depending on the stage of the illness: early disease includes erthyma migrans, early disseminated disease includes multiple erythema migrans, meningitis, cranial nerve palsies and carditis; late disease is primarily arthritis. The symptoms and signs of infection resolve in the vast majority of patients after appropriate treatment with antimicrobials for from 2-4 weeks. Serologic testing should be used judiciously as it often results in misdiagnosis when performed on blood from patients with a low prior probability of disease and those with non-specific symptoms such as fatigue or arthralgia without signs of infection. PMID:20513553

  11. Gaucher Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nagral, Aabha

    2014-01-01

    Gaucher disease is the commonest lysosomal storage disease seen in India and worldwide. It should be considered in any child or adult with an unexplained splenohepatomegaly and cytopenia which are seen in the three types of Gaucher disease. Type 1 is the non-neuronopathic form and type 2 and 3 are the neuronopathic forms. Type 2 is a more severe neuronopathic form leading to mortality by 2 years of age. Definitive diagnosis is made by a blood test–the glucocerebrosidase assay. There is no role for histological examination of the bone marrow, liver or spleen for diagnosis of the disease. Molecular studies for mutations are useful for confirming diagnosis, screening family members and prognosticating the disease. A splenectomy should not be performed except for palliation or when there is no response to enzyme replacement treatment or no possibility of getting any definitive treatment. Splenectomy may worsen skeletal and lung manifestations in Gaucher disease. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) has completely revolutionized the prognosis and is now the standard of care for patients with this disease. Best results are seen in type 1 disease with good resolution of splenohepatomegaly, cytopenia and bone symptoms. Neurological symptoms in type 3 disease need supportive care. ERT is of no benefit in type 2 disease. Monitoring of patients on ERT involves evaluation of growth, blood counts, liver and spleen size and biomarkers such as chitotriosidase which reflect the disease burden. Therapy with ERT is very expensive and though patients in India have so far got the drug through a charitable access programme, there is a need for the government to facilitate access to treatment for this potentially curable disease. Bone marrow transplantation is an inferior option but may be considered when access to expensive ERT is not possible. PMID:25755533

  12. Heart Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Truth National Awareness Campaign for Women about Heart Disease National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) National Cholesterol Education Program National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) ...

  13. Alpers' Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... by mutation in the gene for the mitochondrial DNA polymerase POLG. The disease occurs in about one in 100,000 persons. Most individuals with Alpers' disease do not show ... the mitochondrial DNA depletion, so that these depletion studies cannot be ...

  14. Kidney Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Kidney Disease What is Kidney Disease? What the Kidneys Do Click for more information You have two ... damaged, wastes can build up in the body. Kidney Function and Aging Kidney function may be reduced ...

  15. Kawasaki Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to keep your child home from school or day care until he or she feels strong enough to return. Symptoms What are the symptoms of Kawasaki disease? Children who have Kawasaki disease have a fever (sometimes as high as 104°F) for 5 days or longer. Usually, they also have at least ...

  16. Newcastle disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The focus of this chapter, are viruses of avian paramyxovirus serotype-1 (APMV-1). All isolates of APMV-1 are of one serotype and are referred to as Newcastle disease viruses (NDV). Newcastle disease (ND) is caused only by infections with virulent isolates of APMV-1 (virulent NDV or vNDV). Virulent ...

  17. Cardiovascular Disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD), particularly CHD (coronary heart disease) and stroke, remain the leading causes of death of women in America and most developed countries. In recent years the rate of CVD has declined in men but not in women. This is contributed to by an under-recognition of women’s C...

  18. Liver disease.

    PubMed

    2015-11-01

    Essential facts Liver disease is the fifth biggest killer in the UK and, according to the British Liver Trust, the only major cause of death still increasing year on year. NHS Choices says there are more than 100 different types of liver disease affecting at least two million people in the UK at any one time. PMID:26530565

  19. Beryllium disease.

    PubMed Central

    Jones Williams, W.

    1988-01-01

    The increasing use of beryllium in a variety of industries continues to be a hazard. New cases are still being reported to the UK Beryllium Case Registry, now numbering 60 in the period 1945-1988. The majority of cases follow inhalation which results in acute beryllium disease (chemical pneumonitis) or more commonly chronic beryllium disease--a granulomatous pneumonitis. Granulomatous skin nodules also occur following local implantation. The clinical and radiological features are briefly described with the emphasis on pathology and immunology. Laser microprobe mass spectrometry analysis of tissue sections is a major advance in diagnosis. Detection of beryllium distinguishes the granulomas of chronic beryllium disease from other diseases, in particular sarcoidosis. The role of beryllium lymphocyte transformation tests is discussed. Chronic beryllium disease is steroid dependent and local excision of skin lesions appears to be curative. There is no evidence that beryllium is carcinogenic. Images Figure 1 PMID:3074283

  20. Lyme disease.

    PubMed

    Nat, Laura Bogdana; Simiti, Adriana Liana; Poanta, Laura Irina

    2014-01-01

    Lyme disease (Borreliosis), also called the "disease of 1000 faces", is produced by a bacterium called Borrelia burgdorferi, transmitted by the Ixodes tick. The clinical picture is non-specific and polymorph, with multisystemic involvement. Diagnosis is most often one of exclusion, and certain diagnosis is based on the presence of Borellia antibodies. The treatment is done differently depending on the stage of the disease and the severity of injuries, being used antibiotics like Doxycycline, Amoxicillin, Erythromycin or Penicillin. Under treatment the disease quickly heals without sequel, in the early stages, but advanced stages are usually resistant to treatment and chronic injuries can occur. Symptoms get worse without treatment and become chronic. We present the case of a woman of 66-year-old with a complex history of disease, which began one year prior to admission, through multiple and nonspecific symptoms; she presented herself in numerous medical services (gastroenterology, rheumatology--where an immunosuppressive treatment was initiated, hematology) without determining a final diagnosis. She was admitted in our service with altered general state and worsening symptoms, predominantly fever, muscle pain, joint pain, the patient being immobilized in bed. After multiple investigations and the problem of differential diagnosis with multiple pathologies, we finally established the diagnosis of Lyme disease. The peculiarities of the case are represented by the severity of the clinical manifestations and fulminant disease evolution under the unjustified administration of immunosuppressive treatment, and atypical joint involvement regarding localization and evolution that raised the issue of differential diagnosis with osteosarcoma or bone tuberculosis. PMID:25726630

  1. Whipworm Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... ClinicalTrials.gov . Related Links Parasitic Roundworm Diseases National Library of Medicine, MedlinePlus ?? Skip Content Marketing Share this: JavaScript is disabled in your browser. To view this content, please ...

  2. Graves' Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... uses iodine to make thyroid hormone. Radioactive iodine uptake test. This test measures the amount of iodine ... collects from the bloodstream. High levels of iodine uptake can indicate Graves’ disease. Thyroid scan. This scan ...

  3. Autoimmune Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of CAM are herbal products, chiropractic , acupuncture , and hypnosis . If you have an autoimmune disease, you might ... help you to feel your best. Meditation, self-hypnosis, and guided imagery, are simple relaxation techniques that ...

  4. Alexander Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... leukodystrophies). One clinical study is underway to identify biomarkers of disease severity or progression in samples of blood or cerebrospinal fluid. Such biomarkers, if found, would be a major advantage for ...

  5. Meniere's Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... vertigo (attacks of a spinning sensation), hearing loss, tinnitus (a roaring, buzzing, or ringing sound in the ... of the disease, hearing loss often becomes permanent. Tinnitus and fullness of the ear may come and ...

  6. Vascular Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... network of blood vessels. It includes the arteries, veins and capillaries that carry blood to and from ... the body. You are more likely to have vascular disease as you get older. Other factors that make ...

  7. Hirschsprung's disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Muscle contractions in the gut help digested foods and liquids move through the intestine. This is called peristalsis. Nerves between the muscle layers trigger the contractions. In Hirschsprung's disease, the nerves are missing from ...

  8. Pilonidal Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... if indicated to do so. DISCLAIMER The American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons is dedicated to ensuring high-quality patient care by advancing the science, prevention, and management of disorders and diseases of ...

  9. Graves' Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... women, untreated disease can threaten the mother and unborn baby's health. Return to top Does pregnancy affect the ... These changes do not affect the pregnancy or unborn baby. Yet, untreated thyroid problems can threaten pregnancy and ...

  10. Rh Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Fighting premature birth About us Annual report Our work Community impact Global programs Research Need help? Local ... at risk of Rh disease. How does RhIg work? It is not known exactly how RhIg works. ...

  11. Parkinson disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Nerve cells use a brain chemical called dopamine to help control muscle movement. With Parkinson disease, the brain cells that make dopamine slowly die. Without dopamine, the cells that control movement ...

  12. Lyme Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... ticks can spread the disease to animals and humans through tick bites. These ticks are typically about ... in mood Changes in sleep habits Loss of memory Muscle weakness Causes & Risk Factors Who gets Lyme ...

  13. Parkinson's Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... picture of how individual cells and complex neural circuits interact. The ultimate goal is to enhance understanding ... Parkinson’s disease (December 2014) Australian researcher outlines an integrated approach for studying Parkinson’s (December 2014) Research on ...

  14. Graves disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is called hyperthyroidism. (An underactive thyroid leads to hypothyroidism .) Graves disease is the most common cause of ... radioactive iodine usually will cause an underactive thyroid (hypothyroidism). Without getting the correct dosage of thyroid hormone ...

  15. Cushing disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... system . Cushing disease is a form of Cushing syndrome . ... McGee S. Cushing syndrome. In: Evidence-Based Physical Diagnosis. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier Saunders. 2012:chap 13. Molitch M. Anterior ...

  16. Autoinflammatory Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... ages can develop it. The exact cause of Behçet’s disease is unknown. Most symptoms of the disorder are caused by inflammation of the blood vessels. Doctors think that an autoinflammatory reaction may cause ...

  17. Blount Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... returning to all their normal activities, even competitive sports. One lesson many people take away from dealing with Blount disease is the importance of keeping weight in a healthy range. Staying ...

  18. Alzheimer Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Puberty Video: Am I Normal? (Girls and Puberty) Movie: Digestive System How the Body Works Main Page ... picture of the brain. They can study these images and look for signs of Alzheimer disease. Once ...

  19. Alzheimer's Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... risk of urinary tract and other serious infections. Malnutrition or dehydration: People who have Alzheimer’s disease may ... swallow. It’s important to watch for signs of malnutrition. If you think that a loved one might ...

  20. Crohn's Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and may include medicines, nutrition supplements, and/or surgery. Some people have long periods of remission, when they are free of symptoms. NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

  1. Prion Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... trying to access this site from a secured browser on the server. Please enable scripts and reload ... the human prion disease CJD ?? Javascript Error Your browser JavaScript is turned off causing certain features of ...

  2. Leishmaniasis Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Parasites - Leishmaniasis Parasites Home Share Compartir Disease Ulcerative skin lesion, with ... with some of the species (types) of the parasite that cause cutaneous leishmaniasis in parts of Latin ...

  3. Lung disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the lungs to take in oxygen and release carbon dioxide. People with this type of lung disorder often ... the lungs to take up oxygen and release carbon dioxide. These diseases may also affect heart function. An ...

  4. Menkes Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... The neurology of STPAT copper transporter disease: emerging concepts and future trends. Nature Reviews Neurology , 2001:7: ... Fax: 203-798-2291 Prepared by: Office of Communications and Public Liaison National Institute of Neurological Disorders ...

  5. Krabbe Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... NINDS Krabbe Disease Information Page Synonym(s): Globoid Cell Leukodystrophy Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) ... of a group of genetic disorders called the leukodystrophies . These disorders impair the growth or development of ...

  6. Crohn disease

    PubMed Central

    Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S.; Rioux, John D.; Mizoguchi, Atsushi; Saitoh, Tatsuya; Huett, Alan; Darfeuille-Michaud, Arlette; Wileman, Tom; Mizushima, Noboru; Carding, Simon; Akira, Shizuo; Parkes, Miles; Xavier, Ramnik J.

    2011-01-01

    Crohn disease (CD) is a chronic and debilitating inflammatory condition of the gastrointestinal tract.1 Prevalence in western populations is 100–150/100,000 and somewhat higher in Ashkenazi Jews. Peak incidence is in early adult life, although any age can be affected and a majority of affected individuals progress to relapsing and chronic disease. Medical treatments rely significantly on empirical corticosteroid therapy and immunosuppression, and intestinal resectional surgery is frequently required. Thus, 80% of patients with CD come to surgery for refractory disease or complications. It is hoped that an improved understanding of pathogenic mechanisms, for example by studying the genetic basis of CD and other forms of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), will lead to improved therapies and possibly preventative strategies in individuals identified as being at risk. PMID:20729636

  7. Pneumococcal Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from relatively mild ear infections to fatal pneumonia, meningitis, and sepsis. Serious pneumococcal infections can occur throughout ... deaths occur in the world’s poorest countries. Pneumococcal meningitis is the most severe form of pneumococcal disease ...

  8. Gum Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... disease. It ranges from simple gum inflammation, called gingivitis, to serious damage to the tissue and bone ... the worst cases, you can lose teeth. In gingivitis, the gums become red and swollen. They can ...

  9. Information Regarding MENINGOCOCCAL DISEASE

    E-print Network

    Information Regarding MENINGOCOCCAL DISEASE Student Name. Meningococcal disease is a serious disease, caused by bacteria. Meningococcal disease is a contagious. Meningococcal disease can also cause blood infections. About 2,600 people get meningococcal disease each year

  10. [Meničre's Disease].

    PubMed

    Plontke, S K; Gürkov, R

    2015-08-01

    Meničre`s disease is one of the most common inner ear and vestibular disorders. It is defined as the idiopathic syndrome of endolymphatic hydrops (ELH). Despite the development of several different animal models of ELH, its etiology and pathogenesis is still unresolved. In humans, endolymphatic hydrops may occur spontaneously or as a consequence of specific disorders with distinct inner ear pathologies, e.?g., infectious labyrinthitis, noise induced hearing loss or vestibular schwannoma. Recent imaging studies using MRI have shown that hydropic ear disease is associated not only with the full triad of vertigo, hearing, loss and tinnitus/aural pressure, but also with inner ear symptoms that do not fulfill the clinical criteria of definite Meničre's disease as set forth by the AAO-HNS. Therefore, terms like "atypical" or "cochlear"/"vestibular" Meničre's disease or "forme fruste" should be avoided and the term "Meničre's disease" should universally be applied according only to these guidelines. Besides that, the recent possibility of visualizing endolymphatic hydrops on MRI and thereby ascertaining the diagnosis in difficult cases and new audiovestibular function tests for the indirect detection of endolymphatic hydrops show promising results. Evidenced based reviews of currently available therapeutic options still reveal many uncertainties with regard to efficacy, with the exception of the ablative therapies, e.?g., intratympanic gentamicin application. PMID:26243634

  11. Behçet's disease

    PubMed Central

    Kontogiannis, V; Powell, R

    2000-01-01

    Behçet's disease is a systemic vasculitis of unknown aetiology characteristically affecting venules. Onset is typically in young adults with recurrent oral and genital ulceration, uveitis, skin manifestations, arthritis, neurological involvement, and a tendency to thrombosis. It has a worldwide distribution but is prevalent in Japan, the Middle East, and some Mediterranean countries. International diagnostic criteria have been proposed, however diagnosis can be problematical, particularly if the typical ulcers are not obvious at presentation. Treatment is challenging, must be tailored to the pattern of organ involvement for each patient and often requires combination therapies.???Keywords: Behçet's disease; oral ulcers; uveitis; immunosuppressants PMID:11009577

  12. Ostrich diseases.

    PubMed

    Verwoerd, D J

    2000-08-01

    Scientific knowledge of ostrich diseases is incomplete and very fragmented, with specific details on technical aspects of diagnostic and/or screening tests completely absent in most cases. Salmonella Typhimurium is common in multispecies collections and causes mortality in chicks younger than three months on commercial farms, but is rarely found in chicks older than six months, or slaughter birds of twelve to fourteen months in southern Africa. Campylobacter jejuni and Chlamydia psittaci are occasionally reported, mainly in young ostriches, but both remain a diagnostic challenge. Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever is transmitted to domestic animals including ostriches, principally by ticks of the genus Hyalomma. In the ostrich, the disease causes no clinical symptoms during a viraemia of approximately four days. Spongiform encephalopathy has not been reliably reported in ostriches, while anthrax has occurred rarely in modern times but was reportedly an important cause of death approximately 100 years ago in South Africa. Salmonella Gallinarum and S. Pullorum are unknown in ostriches. Pasteurella multocida occurs but is easily contained with antibiotics. Mycoplasma spp. are regularly found in an upper respiratory disease syndrome complicated by opportunistic bacterial pathogens. Ostriches of all ages are susceptible to challenge by velogenic Newcastle disease virus (NDV), but standard inactivated La Sota poultry vaccines can stimulate protective immunity lasting over six months. The viraemic period in vaccinated slaughter ostriches is between nine and eleven days and there are no indications of a carrier state or presence of the virus in the meat or any other tissues after this period, with peak immunoglobulin G response reached on day fourteen post infection. Haemagglutination inhibition tests are significantly less sensitive and less specific than enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Cloacal and choanal swabs used for direct virological screening in clinically affected cases (field and experimental) could not detect NDV. All avian influenza isolates reported from ostriches have been non-pathogenic to poultry, even the H5 and H7 subtypes. Some of the latter have been associated with mortality of ostrich chicks in localised outbreaks during periods of inclement weather and with significant wild bird (waterfowl) contact. Borna disease causes a nervous syndrome in ostrich chicks, but to date, has only been reported in Israel. Eastern and Western equine encephalomyelitides cause fatal disease in ostriches and other ratites, with mortality ranging from less than 20% to over 80% in affected flocks. These diseases are present in North, Central and South America where the associated ornithophilic mosquito vectors occur. Equine and human vaccines are apparently safe and efficacious in ratites. Wesselsbron disease, infectious bursal disease (type 2), adenovirus and coronavirus infections have been reported from ostriches but the significance of these diseases is unclear. Due to the paucity of data regarding ostrich diseases and the unvalidated state of most poultry tests in this unique group of birds, strict observation of a pre-slaughter quarantine of thirty days is strongly advised, whilst live exports and fertile eggs should be screened through the additional use of sentinel chickens and/or young ostriches. PMID:10935285

  13. Lung Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    When you breathe, your lungs take in oxygen from the air and deliver it to the bloodstream. The cells in your body need oxygen to ... you breathe nearly 25,000 times. People with lung disease have difficulty breathing. Millions of people in ...

  14. Alzheimer disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... It tends to get worse quickly. Early onset disease can run in families. Several genes have been identified. Late onset AD: This is the most common type. It occurs in people age 60 and older. It may run in some families, but the role of genes is less clear.

  15. SMUT DISEASES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW OF MOST ASPECTS OF COMMON BUNT AND DWARF BUNT DISEASES OF WHEAT IS PRESENTED. INCLUDED ARE SECTIONS ON HISTORY, DISTRIBUTION AND ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE, TAXONOMY, MORPHOLOGY, SPORE GERMINATION, CULTURE, AND PHYSIOLOGY. EXTENSIVE SECTIONS DEAL WITH RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AND DISEA...

  16. Sever's Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... after activity. If the child has a pronated foot, a flat or high arch, or another condition that increases the risk of Sever's disease, the doctor might recommend special shoe inserts, called ... goes away on its own when foot growth is complete and the growth plate has ...

  17. Lyme disease.

    PubMed

    Chomel, B

    2015-08-01

    Lyme disease is among the most frequently diagnosed zoonotic tick-borne diseases worldwide. The number of human cases has been on the increase since the first recognition of its aetiological agent. Lyme disease is caused by spirochete bacteria belonging to the genus Borrelia, with B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.) found in the Americas, and B. afzelii and B. garinii, in addition to B. burgdorferi s.s., in Europe and Asia. Environmental factors, such as human encroachment onto habitats favourable to ticks and their hosts, reduced deforestation, increased human outdoor activities, and climatic factors favouring a wider distribution of tick vectors, have enhanced the impact of the disease on both humans and animals. Clinical manifestations in humans include, in the early phases, erythema migrans, followed several weeks later by neuro-borreliosis (meningo-radiculitis, meningitis or meningo-encephalitis), Lyme arthritis and/or Borrelia lymphocytoma. In dogs, acute signs include fever, general malaise, lameness, lymph node enlargement and polyarthritis, as well as neuro-borreliosis in the chronic form. Diagnosis is mainly serological in both humans and animals, based on either a two-tier approach (an immunoenzymatic test followed by a Western blot confirmatory test) in humans or C(6) peptide, only in dogs. Early treatment with antibiotics, such as doxycycline or amoxicillin, for three weeks usually reduces the risk of chronic disease. Tick control, including the use of tick repellents for both humans and animals, particularly dogs, is highly reliable in preventing transmission. Vaccines are not available to prevent human infection, whereas several vaccines are available to reduce transmission and the clinical manifestations of infection in dogs. PMID:26601457

  18. Coronary heart disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Heart disease, Coronary heart disease, Coronary artery disease; Arteriosclerotic heart disease; CHD; CAD ... Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of death in the United States for men and women. Coronary ...

  19. Diabetic Heart Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Diabetic Heart Disease? The term "diabetic heart disease" (DHD) refers ... Kidney Diseases' Introduction to Diabetes Web page. What Heart Diseases Are Involved in Diabetic Heart Disease? DHD ...

  20. Peripheral Artery Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD) Peripheral artery disease (PAD) refers to ... is peripheral artery disease treated? What is peripheral artery disease (PAD)? Peripheral artery disease, or PAD, refers ...

  1. Digestive Diseases Materials

    MedlinePLUS

    ... NIDDK INFORMATION CLEARINGHOUSES Diabetes Digestive Diseases Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases Hematologic Diseases Kidney and Urologic Diseases Weight-control Information Network EDUCATION PROGRAMS National Diabetes Education Program National Kidney Disease ...

  2. Fabry disease

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Fabry disease (FD) is a progressive, X-linked inherited disorder of glycosphingolipid metabolism due to deficient or absent lysosomal ?-galactosidase A activity. FD is pan-ethnic and the reported annual incidence of 1 in 100,000 may underestimate the true prevalence of the disease. Classically affected hemizygous males, with no residual ?-galactosidase A activity may display all the characteristic neurological (pain), cutaneous (angiokeratoma), renal (proteinuria, kidney failure), cardiovascular (cardiomyopathy, arrhythmia), cochleo-vestibular and cerebrovascular (transient ischemic attacks, strokes) signs of the disease while heterozygous females have symptoms ranging from very mild to severe. Deficient activity of lysosomal ?-galactosidase A results in progressive accumulation of globotriaosylceramide within lysosomes, believed to trigger a cascade of cellular events. Demonstration of marked ?-galactosidase A deficiency is the definitive method for the diagnosis of hemizygous males. Enzyme analysis may occasionnally help to detect heterozygotes but is often inconclusive due to random X-chromosomal inactivation so that molecular testing (genotyping) of females is mandatory. In childhood, other possible causes of pain such as rheumatoid arthritis and 'growing pains' must be ruled out. In adulthood, multiple sclerosis is sometimes considered. Prenatal diagnosis, available by determination of enzyme activity or DNA testing in chorionic villi or cultured amniotic cells is, for ethical reasons, only considered in male fetuses. Pre-implantation diagnosis is possible. The existence of atypical variants and the availability of a specific therapy singularly complicate genetic counseling. A disease-specific therapeutic option - enzyme replacement therapy using recombinant human ?-galactosidase A - has been recently introduced and its long term outcome is currently still being investigated. Conventional management consists of pain relief with analgesic drugs, nephroprotection (angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptors blockers) and antiarrhythmic agents, whereas dialysis or renal transplantation are available for patients experiencing end-stage renal failure. With age, progressive damage to vital organ systems develops and at some point, organs may start to fail in functioning. End-stage renal disease and life-threatening cardiovascular or cerebrovascular complications limit life-expectancy of untreated males and females with reductions of 20 and 10 years, respectively, as compared to the general population. While there is increasing evidence that long-term enzyme therapy can halt disease progression, the importance of adjunctive therapies should be emphasized and the possibility of developing an oral therapy drives research forward into active site specific chaperones. PMID:21092187

  3. Morgellons disease?

    PubMed

    Accordino, Robert E; Engler, Danielle; Ginsburg, Iona H; Koo, John

    2008-01-01

    Morgellons disease, a pattern of dermatologic symptoms very similar, if not identical, to those of delusions of parasitosis, was first described many centuries ago, but has recently been given much attention on the internet and in the mass media. The present authors present a history of Morgellons disease, in addition to which they discuss the potential benefit of using this diagnostic term as a means of building trust and rapport with patients to maximize treatment benefit. The present authors also suggest "meeting the patient halfway" and creating a therapeutic alliance when providing dermatologic treatment by taking their cutaneous symptoms seriously enough to provide both topical ointments as well as antipsychotic medications, which can be therapeutic in these patients. PMID:18318880

  4. Beryllium disease

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-20

    After two workers at the nuclear weapons plant at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee were diagnosed earlier this year with chronic beryllium disease (CBD), a rare and sometimes fatal scarring of the lungs, the Department of Energy ordered up a 4-year probe. Now, part of that probe has begun - tests conducted by the Oak Ridge Associated Universities' Center for Epidemiological Research measuring beryllium sensitivity in 3,000 people who've been exposed to the metal's dust since Manhattan Project managers opened the Y-12 plant at Oak Ridge in 1943. Currently, 119 Y-12 employees process beryllium, which has a number of industrial uses, including rocket heat shields and nuclear weapon and electrical components. The disease often takes 20 to 25 years to develop, and the stricken employees haven't worked with beryllium for years. There is no cure for CBD, estimated to strike 2% of people exposed to the metal. Anti-inflammatory steroids alleviate such symptoms as a dry cough, weight loss, and fatigue. Like other lung-fibrosis diseases that are linked to lung cancer, some people suspect CBD might cause some lung cancer. While difficult to diagnose, about 900 cases of CBD have been reported since a Beryllium Case Registry was established in 1952. The Department of Energy (DOE) estimates that about 10,000 DOE employees and 800,000 people in private industry have worked with beryllium.

  5. Doug Brutlag 2015 Diseases and Disease Databases

    E-print Network

    Brutlag, Doug

    © Doug Brutlag 2015 Diseases and Disease Databases http://biochem158.stanford.edu/ Doug Brutlag Huntington Disease · Autosomal Dominant ­ On the tip of the short arm of chromosome 4 ­ One bad gene causes disease (dominant) ­ Brain degeneration over 10-15 years until death · Neurodegenerative disease ­ Loss

  6. Doug Brutlag 2015 Diseases and Disease Databases

    E-print Network

    Brutlag, Doug

    © Doug Brutlag 2015 Diseases and Disease Databases Doug Brutlag, Professor Emeritus Biochemistry an inherited disease · And we know the function of that gene · Then we can understand the cause of the disease and other interventions to cure the disease. #12;© Doug Brutlag 2015 Stanford at The Tech: Understanding

  7. Vestibular disease: diseases causing vestibular signs.

    PubMed

    Lowrie, Mark

    2012-07-01

    Having determined whether a patient has central or peripheral vestibular disease, clinicians must then determine what diseases are likely to result in such a presentation. This article describes the more common diseases causing vestibular disease in dogs and cats. Having formulated a list of potential causes of vestibular disease, clinicians should proceed through a systematic investigation to diagnose the underlying condition. A companion article describes the anatomy, physiology, and clinical signs associated with vestibular disease. PMID:22847321

  8. Protein aggregates in Huntington's disease

    E-print Network

    Arrasate, M; Finkbeiner, S; Finkbeiner, S

    2011-01-01

    Huntington's disease . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Huntington's disease? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .D.M. , 1999. Huntington's disease intranuclear inclusions

  9. Chagas' disease.

    PubMed Central

    Tanowitz, H B; Kirchhoff, L V; Simon, D; Morris, S A; Weiss, L M; Wittner, M

    1992-01-01

    Chagas' disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, is an important cause of morbidity in many countries in Latin America. The important modes of transmission are by the bite of the reduviid bug and blood transfusion. The organism exists in three morphological forms: trypomastigotes, amastigotes, and epimastigotes. The mechanism of transformation and differentiation is currently being explored, and signal transduction pathways of the parasites may be involved in this process. Parasite adherence to and invasion of host cells is a complex process involving complement, phospholipase, penetrin, neuraminidase, and hemolysin. Two clinical forms of the disease are recognized, acute and chronic. During the acute stage pathological damage is related to the presence of the parasite, whereas in the chronic stage few parasites are found. In recent years the roles of tumor necrosis factor, gamma interferon, and the interleukins in the pathogenesis of this infection have been reported. The common manifestations of chronic cardiomyopathy are arrhythmias and thromboembolic events. Autoimmune, neurogenic, and microvascular factors may be important in the pathogenesis of the cardiomyopathy. The gastrointestinal tract is another important target, and "mega syndromes" are common manifestations. The diagnosis and treatment of this infection are active areas of investigation. New serological and molecular biological techniques have improved the diagnosis of chronic infection. Exacerbations of T. cruzi infection have been reported for patients receiving immuno-suppressive therapy and for those with AIDS. Images PMID:1423218

  10. About Alzheimer's Disease: Treatment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... National Alzheimer's Project Act (NAPA) About ADEAR About Alzheimer's Disease: Treatment How is Alzheimer's disease treated? What ... being researched? What are clinical trials? How is Alzheimer's disease treated? Alzheimer's disease is complex, and it ...

  11. Interstitial Lung Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    Interstitial lung disease is the name for a large group of diseases that inflame or scar the lungs. The inflammation and ... is responsible for some types of interstitial lung diseases. Specific types include Black lung disease among coal ...

  12. Depression and Heart Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Information on Heart Disease Citations Reprints Depression and Heart Disease Order a free hardcopy En Espańol Introduction ... see the NIMH booklet on Depression . What is heart disease? Heart disease refers to a number of ...

  13. HIV and Cardiovascular Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Select a Language: Fact Sheet 652 HIV and Cardiovascular Disease HIV AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE WHY SHOULD PEOPLE WITH HIV CARE ABOUT CVD? ... OF CVD? WHAT ABOUT CHANGING MEDICATIONS? HIV AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE Cardiovascular disease (CVD) includes a group of problems ...

  14. Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD)

    MedlinePLUS

    MENU Return to Web version Polycystic Kidney Disease Overview What is polycystic kidney disease? Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is an inherited disease that affects the kidneys. Sacs of fluid (called ...

  15. Vanishing White Matter Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Vanishing White Matter Disease What is Vanishing White Matter Disease? Vanishing White Matter Disease (VWM) is inherited ... about this). Other Clinical Names for Vanishing White Matter Disease Other clinical names of Vanishing White Matter ...

  16. [Prurigo diseases].

    PubMed

    Hundeiker, M

    1987-08-15

    The term "prurigo" is universally used in dermatology. But, up to now, no definition of this term has been generally accepted. The "classic" description of the "urticarial papules" as the primary skin eruptions of prurigo is not correct, for these papules do not show any momentary edema but a persistent cellular infiltration. In the past, some authors already pointed out that the histologic structure of such papules looks very much like that of the characteristic papulovesicles in eczema--especially those in atopic dermatitis. The various forms of the prurigo nodes secondarily develop in case of the coincidence of three main factors: (1) the particular cutaneous response to repeated irritation (especially in autosomally dominant ichthyosis simplex), (2) reduced threshold for or constitutional disposition to pruritus (especially in atopy), and (3) internal (e.g. intestinal disorders) or external (e.g. insect bites) triggers. Probably none of the prurigo diseases represents a nosologic entity. PMID:3673156

  17. Vibroacoustic disease.

    PubMed

    Branco, N A A Castelo; Alves-Pereira, M

    2004-01-01

    Vibroacoustic disease (VAD) is a whole-body, systemic pathology, characterized by the abnormal proliferation of extra-cellular matrices, and caused by excessive exposure to low frequency noise (LFN). VAD has been observed in LFN-exposed professionals, such as, aircraft technicians, commercial and military pilots and cabin crewmembers, ship machinists, restaurant workers, and disk-jockeys. VAD has also been observed in several populations exposed to environmental LFN. This report summarizes what is known to date on VAD, LFN-induced pathology, and related issues. In 1987, the first autopsy of a deceased VAD patient was performed. The extent of LFN induced damage was overwhelming, and the information obtained is, still today, guiding many of the associated and ongoing research projects. In 1992, LFN-exposed animal models began to be studied in order to gain a deeper knowledge of how tissues respond to this acoustic stressor. In both human and animal models, LFN exposure causes thickening of cardiovascular structures. Indeed, pericardial thickening with no inflammatory process, and in the absence of diastolic dysfunction, is the hallmark of VAD. Depressions, increased irritability and aggressiveness, a tendency for isolation, and decreased cognitive skills are all part of the clinical picture of VAD. LFN is a demonstrated genotoxic agent, inducing an increased frequency of sister chromatid exchanges in both human and animal models. The occurrence of malignancies among LFN-exposed humans, and of metaplastic and displastic appearances in LFN-exposed animals, clearly corroborates the mutagenic outcome of LFN exposure. The inadequacy of currently established legislation regarding noise assessments is a powerful hindrance to scientific advancement. VAD can never be fully recognized as an occupational and environmental pathology unless the agent of disease--LFN--is acknowledged and properly evaluated. The worldwide suffering of LFN-exposed individuals is staggering and it is unethical to maintain this status quo. PMID:15273020

  18. `Silk Route Disease' (Behçet's Disease)

    PubMed Central

    James, D. Geraint

    1988-01-01

    Behçet's disease is a multisystem disorder in which orogenital ulceration is associated with troublesome generalized uveitis, erythema nodosum, pyoderma, dermatographism, seronegative arthritis, and neurologic and cardiovascular symptoms. There is no diagnostic laboratory test; the diagnosis is based on the disorder's multisystem clinical features. A points scoring system is helpful in distinguishing it from other multisystem disorders that mimic it. It occurs most frequently in an area coinciding with the old Silk Route, between latitudes 30° and 45° north, in Asian and Eurasian populations, and it has an HLA-B51 affinity. The cause remains unknown, but a postulated trigger factor is a herpesvirus with cofactors that include ethnic group, human leukocyte antigen affinities, T-cell and autonomic imbalance, circulating immune complexes, autoimmunity, blood viscosity, decreased fibrinolysis, and zinc deficiency. Treatment includes administering corticosteroids, azathioprine, chlorambucil, cyclosporine, and colchicine, and fibrinolytic therapy. PMID:3291395

  19. Coronary Artery Disease - Coronary Heart Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Coronary Artery Disease - Coronary Heart Disease Updated:Aug 7,2015 ... for the buildup of plaque in the heart’s arteries that could lead to heart attack. But what ...

  20. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)

    MedlinePLUS

    MENU Return to Web version Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Overview What is pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)? Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is an infection of the female reproductive organs (the uterus, ...

  1. Anemia of chronic disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... There are many types of anemia. Anemia of chronic disease is anemia that is found in people with ... blood. Some conditions can lead to anemia of chronic disease include: Autoimmune disorders , such as Crohn disease , systemic ...

  2. Acid Lipase Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Acid Lipase Disease Information Page Synonym(s): Cholesterol Ester Storage ... Trials Related NINDS Publications and Information What is Acid Lipase Disease ? Acid lipase disease or deficiency occurs ...

  3. Kidney Disease (Nephropathy)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Espańol Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Kidneys are remarkable organs. Inside them ... resulting in kidney disease. How Does Diabetes Cause Kidney Disease? When our bodies digest the protein we ...

  4. Amyloidosis and Kidney Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Foundation Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center MedlinePlus Kidney and Urologic Disease Organizations Many organizations provide support ... PDF, 345 KB)????? Alternate Language URL Amyloidosis and Kidney Disease Page Content On this page: What is ...

  5. Tay-Sachs disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Tay-Sachs disease is a life-threatening disease of the nervous system passed down through families. ... Tay-Sachs disease occurs when the body lacks hexosaminidase A. This is a protein that helps break down ...

  6. Lyme disease blood test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to the bacterium that causes Lyme disease . The test is used to help diagnose Lyme disease. ... Western blot test can confirm the diagnosis of Lyme disease. For many people, the ELISA test remains positive, even after they have been treated ...

  7. Hypothyroidism and Heart Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and Heart Disease Share: Fact Sheet Hypothyroidism and Heart Disease January 2014 Download PDFs English Espanol Editors ... hormone. Why does hypothyroidism increase your risk for heart disease? Both thyroid hormones (T4 and T3) are ...

  8. Carotid Artery Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Carotid Artery Disease? Carotid artery disease is a disease in ... blood to your face, scalp, and neck. Carotid Arteries Figure A shows the location of the right ...

  9. Travelers' Health: Meningococcal Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... July 10, 2015 Content source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases ( ... General USA.gov Contact CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 1600 Clifton Road Atlanta , GA 30329-4027 USA ...

  10. Sickle Cell Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Sickle Cell Disease? Espańol The term sickle cell disease (SCD) ... common forms of SCD. Some Forms of Sickle Cell Disease Hemoglobin SS Hemoglobin SC Hemoglobin S? 0 thalassemia ...

  11. Autoimmune liver disease panel

    MedlinePLUS

    Liver disease test panel - autoimmune ... Autoimmune disorders are a possible cause of liver disease. The most common of these diseases are autoimmune hepatitis and primary biliary cirrhosis. This group of tests helps your health care provider ...

  12. Understanding Autoimmune Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... This is called an autoimmune disease. (“Autoimmune” means immunity against the self.) The Immune System Autoimmune Diseases ... disease. Unfortunately, because these drugs also suppress normal immunity, they leave the body at risk for infection. ...

  13. Learning about Parkinson's Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... affect many things about us: our height, eye color, why we respond to some medications better than ... diseases including Parkinson's disease. Top of page What determines who gets Parkinson's disease? In most cases inheriting ...

  14. Understanding Alzheimer's Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Referral Center Alzheimer's Disease Education and Referral Center Alzheimer's Disease Education and Referral Center Home About Alzheimer’s ... National Alzheimer's Project Act (NAPA) About ADEAR Understanding Alzheimer's Disease: What You Need to Know Introduction Many ...

  15. Peripheral Vascular Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Arterial blockage including peripheral artery disease or PAD Aortic aneurysms Buerger's Disease Raynaud's Phenomenon Disease of the veins ... blood to flow around, or "bypass," the blockage. Aortic Aneurysms An aneurysm is a balloon-like bulge in ...

  16. Heart disease - resources

    MedlinePLUS

    Resources - heart disease ... The following organizations are good resources for information on heart disease: American Heart Association -- www.heart.org Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www.cdc.gov/heartdisease/

  17. Kidney disease - resources

    MedlinePLUS

    Resources - kidney disease ... The following organizations are good resources for information on kidney disease: National Kidney Disease Education Program - www.nkdep.nih.gov National Kidney Foundation - www.kidney.org National ...

  18. Fibrocystic breast disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Fibrocystic breast disease; Mammary dysplasia; Diffuse cystic mastopathy; Benign breast disease; Glandular breast changes ... Ferri FF, Fort GG, et al, eds. Fibrocystic breast disease. In: Ferri FF, ed. Ferri's Clinical Advisor 2015 . ...

  19. Interstitial Lung Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... MD Dept. of Medicine View full profile Interstitial Lung Disease (ILD): Overview Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is ... they may make informed decisions Learn more. Interstitial Lung Disease Program As a center specializing in the ...

  20. Von Willebrand Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... get the proper diagnosis and treatment. What Is von Willebrand Disease? When people have von Willebrand disease ( ... guys can have vWD. Continue The Types of von Willebrand Disease There are different kinds of vWD: ...

  1. Parkinson disease - discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    Your doctor has told you that you have Parkinson disease . This disease affects the brain and leads ... have you take different medicines to treat your Parkinson disease and many of the problems that may ...

  2. Thyroid Disease Definitions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Eating Well While Eating Out Melanoma Thyroid Disease Definitions KidsHealth > Teens > Diseases & Conditions > Growth, Hormones & Diabetes > Thyroid Disease Definitions Print A A A Text Size amino acids: ...

  3. Sleep and Chronic Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... control in persons with Type 2 diabetes. 1 Cardiovascular Disease Persons with sleep apnea have been found to be at increased risk for a number of cardiovascular diseases. Notably, hypertension, stroke, coronary heart disease and irregular ...

  4. Lyme Disease (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... A With Robert Irvine Pregnant? What to Expect Lyme Disease KidsHealth > Parents > Infections > Bacterial & Viral Infections > Lyme ... Pacific Northwest, and the northern Midwest states. About Lyme Disease Lyme disease is caused by the bacterium ...

  5. Lyme disease (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Lyme disease is an acute inflammatory disease characterized by skin changes, joint inflammation and symptoms similar to ... that is caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi . Lyme disease is transmitted by the bite of a ...

  6. Carotid Artery Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... cerebrovascular disease, stroke, transient ischemic attacks (TIA) Carotid artery disease is a form of disease that affects ... to the brain by the 2 large carotid arteries in the front of your neck and by ...

  7. Lipid Storage Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Lipid Storage Diseases Information Page Condensed from Lipid Storage ... en Espańol Additional resources from MedlinePlus What are Lipid Storage Diseases? Lipid storage diseases are a group ...

  8. Parkinson's Disease Dementia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... An Interactive Tour Risk Factors Diagnosis Treatments Myths Clinical ... Parkinson's disease dementia is an impairment in thinking and reasoning that eventually affects many people with Parkinson's disease. ...

  9. Atheroembolic renal disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Renal disease - atheroembolic; Cholesterol embolization syndrome; Atheroemboli - renal; Atherosclerotic disease - renal ... disorder of the arteries. It occurs when fat, cholesterol, and other substances build up in the walls ...

  10. Biomarker for Glycogen Storage Diseases

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-06-12

    Fructose Metabolism, Inborn Errors; Glycogen Storage Disease; Glycogen Storage Disease Type I; Glycogen Storage Disease Type II; Glycogen Storage Disease Type III; Glycogen Storage Disease Type IV; Glycogen Storage Disease Type V; Glycogen Storage Disease Type VI; Glycogen Storage Disease Type VII; Glycogen Storage Disease Type VIII

  11. Diseases of Dairy Animals: Infectious Diseases: Johne's Disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Johne's disease is a chronic, debilitating intestinal disorder in cattle, sheep and wild ruminants, characterized by diarrhea, weight loss and death. Animals usually become infected when they are young by ingesting feces or milk containing the causative bacteria. However, clinical signs of disease...

  12. Understanding Heart Disease

    E-print Network

    Shen, Jun

    1 Understanding Heart Disease Vietnamese Aspire For Healthy Hearts What Is Heart Disease? Heart disease is the leading cause of death for Vietnamese. It develops over many years. It happens when arteries. When arteries become clogged, it increases the risk of developing heart disease. When the heart

  13. Renal cystic disease

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, D.S.

    1988-01-01

    The book begins with an overview of renal cystic disease and a presentation of simple renal cysts. Subsequent chapters cover cystic disease in association with renal neoplasms and medullary sponge kidney. The chapters addressing autosomal-dominant and autosomal-recessive polycystic kidney disease discuss and differentiate the infantile and adult forms of the disease. There are also separate discussions of medullary cystic disease, multicystic dysplastic kidney, and cysts of the renarenal sinus.

  14. Kidney Disease: A Silent Problem

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Kidney Disease: A Silent Problem Heath and Aging Kidney Disease: A Silent Problem Kidney Disease Who Is ... hormones that your body needs to stay healthy. Kidney Disease Kidney disease can sometimes develop very quickly, ...

  15. [Undifferentiated connective tissue disease].

    PubMed

    Bodolay, Edit; Szegedi, Gyula

    2009-05-10

    Evolution of immunopathological diseases is usually slow and progressive. Non-differentiated collagen disease (NDC) or the term "undifferentiated connective tissue disease" (UCTD) represents a stage of disease where clinical symptoms and serological abnormalities suggest autoimmune disease, but they are not sufficient to fulfill the diagnostic criteria of any well-established connective tissue disease (CTD) such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), Sjögren's syndrome, mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD), systemic sclerosis (SSc), polymyositis/ dermatomyositis (PM/DM) or rheumatoid arthritis (RA). 30-40 percent of patients presenting undifferentiated profile develops and reaches the stage of a well defined systemic autoimmune disease during five years follow up, while 60 percent remains in an undifferentiated stage.In the stage of NDC, immunoregulatory abnormalities and endothelial dysfunction are present. In conclusion, NDC represents a dynamic state, and it is important to recognize the possibility of a progression to a definite systemic autoimmune disease. PMID:19403430

  16. Obesity and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Jokinen, E

    2015-02-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of mortality in rich countries and today it has the same meaning for health care as the epidemics of past centuries had for medicine in earlier times: 50% of the population in these countries die of cardiovascular disease. The amount of cardiovascular disease is also increasing in the developing countries together with economic growth. By 2015 one in three deaths will globally be due to cardiovascular diseases. Coronary heart disease is a chronic disease that starts in childhood, even if the symptoms first occur in the middle age. The risks for coronary heart disease are well-known: lipid disorders, especially high serum LDL-cholesterol concentration, high blood pressure, tobacco smoking, obesity, diabetes, male gender and physical inactivity. Obesity is both an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease but is also closely connected with several other risk factors. This review focuses on the connection between overweight or obesity and cardiovascular disease. PMID:25387321

  17. Prion diseases as transmissible zoonotic diseases.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeongmin; Kim, Su Yeon; Hwang, Kyu Jam; Ju, Young Ran; Woo, Hee-Jong

    2013-02-01

    Prion diseases, also called transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), lead to neurological dysfunction in animals and are fatal. Infectious prion proteins are causative agents of many mammalian TSEs, including scrapie (in sheep), chronic wasting disease (in deer and elk), bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE; in cattle), and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD; in humans). BSE, better known as mad cow disease, is among the many recently discovered zoonotic diseases. BSE cases were first reported in the United Kingdom in 1986. Variant CJD (vCJD) is a disease that was first detected in 1996, which affects humans and is linked to the BSE epidemic in cattle. vCJD is presumed to be caused by consumption of contaminated meat and other food products derived from affected cattle. The BSE epidemic peaked in 1992 and decreased thereafter; this decline is continuing sharply owing to intensive surveillance and screening programs in the Western world. However, there are still new outbreaks and/or progression of prion diseases, including atypical BSE, and iatrogenic CJD and vCJD via organ transplantation and blood transfusion. This paper summarizes studies on prions, particularly on prion molecular mechanisms, BSE, vCJD, and diagnostic procedures. Risk perception and communication policies of the European Union for the prevention of prion diseases are also addressed to provide recommendations for appropriate government policies in Korea. PMID:24159531

  18. TPCP: Rhizina Root Disease RHIZINA ROOT DISEASE

    E-print Network

    TPCP: Rhizina Root Disease RHIZINA ROOT DISEASE INTRODUCTION Rhizina root rot was first recorded roots of the previous tree stand. When roots of newly planted seedlings come into contact with infested roots, they become infected and the seedlings dies. Where larger trees are subjected to burning

  19. Lung Disease and Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Imaizumi, Yuki; Eguchi, Kazuo; Kario, Kazuomi

    2014-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients are at a high risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. Airflow limitation is a predictor of future risks of hypertension and cardiovascular events. COPD is now understood as a systemic inflammatory disease, with the focus on inflammation of the lungs. An association between inflammation and sympathetic overactivity has also been reported. In this article, we review the association between chronic lung disease and the risks of hypertension, cardiovascular morbidity, the underlying mechanisms, and the therapeutic approach to hypertension and cardiovascular diseases in patients with lung diseases.

  20. Working Memory in Mild Alzheimer's Disease and Early Parkinson's Disease

    E-print Network

    Corkin, Suzanne

    Working Memory in Mild Alzheimer's Disease and Early Parkinson's Disease Elizabeth A. Kensinger of Technology Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) impair working memory (WM). It is unclear an expanding interest in how neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD

  1. Men and Heart Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Heart Disease Stroke High Blood Pressure Salt ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Heart Disease Stroke High Blood Pressure Salt ...

  2. Heart Disease Risk Factors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention ...

  3. Women and Heart Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Heart Disease Stroke High Blood Pressure Salt ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Heart Disease Stroke High Blood Pressure Salt ...

  4. Polycystic Kidney Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and requires immediate medical attention. [ Top ] How do health care providers diagnose autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease? Health ... when test results are available. [ Top ] How do health care providers treat autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease? Although ...

  5. Polycystic kidney disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Cysts - kidneys; Kidney - polycystic; Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease; ADPKD ... Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is passed down through families (inherited), usually as an autosomal dominant trait. If one parent ...

  6. Acquired Cystic Kidney Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Kidney Patients Life Options National Kidney Foundation MedlinePlus Kidney and Urologic Disease Organizations Many organizations provide support ... PDF, 345 KB)????? Alternate Language URL Acquired Cystic Kidney Disease Page Content On this page: What is ...

  7. Rheumatoid lung disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Lung disease - rheumatoid arthritis; Rheumatoid nodules ... Lung problems are common in rheumatoid arthritis. They often cause no symptoms. The causes of lung disease associated with rheumatoid arthritis are unknown. Sometimes the medicines used to ...

  8. About Alzheimer's Disease: Diagnosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... area of diagnostic research is the analysis of biomarkers—biological signs of disease found in brain images, ... medical practice. Watch a video about Alzheimer’s disease biomarkers: Learn more For information on new changes to ...

  9. Mad Cow Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is an incurable, fatal brain disease that affects cattle. Different versions of the disease can affect certain ... These prohibit the use of any high-risk cattle materials in the feed of any animal. In ...

  10. Coronary Heart Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Coronary Heart Disease? Espańol Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a ... the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Celebrating American Heart Month: NIH Advancing Heart Research 02/07/2014 ...

  11. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) STDs & Infertility STDs & Pregnancy Syphilis Trichomoniasis Other STDs See Also Pregnancy Reproductive Health ... Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) STDs & Infertility STDs & Pregnancy Syphilis Trichomoniasis Other STDs See Also Pregnancy Reproductive Health ...

  12. Coronary Artery Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common type of heart disease. It is the leading cause of death ... both men and women. CAD happens when the arteries that supply blood to heart muscle become hardened ...

  13. Progression of Liver Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Handouts Education Resources Support Services Helpful Links For Liver Health Information Call 1-800-GO-LIVER (1- ... The Progression of Liver Disease The Progression of Liver Disease There are many different types of liver ...

  14. Alcoholic liver disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Liver disease due to alcohol; Cirrhosis or hepatitis - alcoholic; Laennec's cirrhosis ... Alcoholic liver disease occurs after years of heavy drinking. The heavy drinking could be every day, or just a ...

  15. Head Lice: Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...

  16. Childhood Contagious Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... many childhood diseases, once contracted, result in lifelong immunity in the infected child. However, this is not always the case. Vaccinations also provide immunity to some of the below diseases. Chickenpox, for ...

  17. von Willebrand Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Willebrand Disease? Von Willebrand disease (VWD) is a bleeding disorder. It affects your blood's ability to clot. If ... work well in people who have hemophilia , another bleeding disorder. VWD is more common and usually milder than ...

  18. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    MedlinePLUS

    COPD; Chronic obstructive airways disease; Chronic obstructive lung disease; Chronic bronchitis; Emphysema; Bronchitis - chronic ... Smoking is the main cause of COPD. The more a person smokes, the ... develop COPD. But some people smoke for years and never get ...

  19. Lipid Storage Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Considerable progress has been made with regard to gene therapies in animal models of MLD. Wolman’s disease , also ... researchers developed a mouse model of Fabry disease. Gene therapy in this model appears to be especially encouraging. ...

  20. PI3 Kinase Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Diseases (PIDDs) Immune System National Library of Medicine, Genetics Home Reference ?? Javascript Error Your browser JavaScript is turned off causing certain features of the NIAID Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases web site to work incorrectly. ...

  1. Sickle Cell Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Form Controls NCBDDD Cancel Submit Search The CDC Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... Espańol (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a group of inherited red blood ...

  2. Depression and Parkinson's Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... For More Information on Parkinson's Disease Citations Reprints Depression and Parkinson's Disease Order a free hardcopy En ... difficult, so proper treatment is important. What is depression? Major depressive disorder, or depression, is a serious ...

  3. Parkinson disease - resources

    MedlinePLUS

    Resources - Parkinson disease ... The following organizations are good resources for information on Parkinson disease : The Michael J. Fox Foundation -- www.michaeljfox.org National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke -- www. ...

  4. Liver disease - resources

    MedlinePLUS

    Resources - liver disease ... The following organizations are good resources for information on liver disease : American Liver Foundation - www.liverfoundation.org Children's Liver Association for Support Services - www.classkids.org Hepatitis ...

  5. Lung disease - resources

    MedlinePLUS

    Resources - lung disease ... The following organizations are good resources for information on lung disease : American Lung Association -- www.lung.org National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute -- www.nhlbi.nih.gov ...

  6. Pregnancy and Thyroid Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Disease Organizations (PDF, 269 KB). Alternate Language URL Pregnancy and Thyroid Disease Page Content On this page: ... responds by decreasing TSH production. [ Top ] How does pregnancy normally affect thyroid function? Two pregnancy-related hormones— ...

  7. Collagen vascular disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... developed these disorders were previously said to have "connective tissue" or "collagen vascular" disease. We now have names ... be used. These include as undifferentiated systemic rheumatic (connective tissue) diseases or overlap syndromes.

  8. About Kennedy's Disease: Symptoms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... What is Kennedy's Disease Symptoms Common Misdiagnosis Treatments DNA Testing and Labs Genetic Counseling and Inheritance Issues Doctors ... Counter Frequently Used Links What is Kennedy's Disease DNA Testing for KD Frequently Asked Questions Doctors familiar with ...

  9. Bone Marrow Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... blood clotting. If you have a bone marrow disease, there are problems with the stem cells or ... marrow doesn't make red blood cells. Other diseases, such as lymphoma, can spread into the bone ...

  10. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is an infection and inflammation of the uterus, ovaries, and other female reproductive organs. It causes scarring ... United States. Gonorrhea and chlamydia, two sexually transmitted diseases, are the most common causes of PID. Other ...

  11. Tay-Sachs Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Tay-Sachs disease is a rare, inherited disorder. It causes too much of a fatty substance to build up in the ... mental and physical problems. Infants with Tay-Sachs disease appear to develop normally for the first few ...

  12. Cat Scratch Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Cat scratch disease (CSD) is an illness caused by the bacterium Bartonella henselae. Almost half of all cats carry the infection ... symptoms of CSD, call your doctor. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

  13. Bile Duct Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... carry the bile to your small intestine. Different diseases can block the bile ducts and cause a ... liver failure. A rare form of bile duct disease called biliary atresia occurs in infants. It is ...

  14. Lewy Body Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Lewy body disease is one of the most common causes of dementia in the elderly. Dementia is the loss of mental ... to affect normal activities and relationships. Lewy body disease happens when abnormal structures, called Lewy bodies, build ...

  15. Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a rare, degenerative brain disorder. Symptoms usually start around age 60. Memory problems, behavior changes, vision ... during a medical procedure Cattle can get a disease related to CJD called bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) ...

  16. Peripheral Arterial Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) happens when there is a narrowing of the blood vessels outside of your heart. The cause of ... smoking. Other risk factors include older age and diseases like diabetes, high blood cholesterol, high blood pressure, ...

  17. Degenerative Nerve Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    Degenerative nerve diseases affect many of your body's activities, such as balance, movement, talking, breathing, and heart function. Many of these diseases are genetic. Sometimes the cause is a medical ...

  18. Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are infections that you can get from having sex with someone who has the infection. The causes ... is no cure. Sometimes medicines can keep the disease under control. Correct usage of latex condoms greatly ...

  19. Carotid Artery Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... brain with blood. If you have carotid artery disease, the arteries become narrow, usually because of atherosclerosis. ... one of the causes of stroke. Carotid artery disease often does not cause symptoms, but there are ...

  20. Modeling Infectious Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Linked to Dengue Epidemics Now Trending: Mining Historical Data on Infectious Diseases Computing Diseases from Computing Life Forecasting Flu Solving the Sleeping Sickness 'Mystery' Social Studies: Profile of Stephen Eubank Related Links Up to top ...

  1. Minimal change disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... microscope. It can only be seen under an electron microscope. Minimal change disease is the most common ... biopsy and examination of the tissue with an electron microscope can show signs of minimal change disease. ...

  2. Cat scratch disease (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Cat scratch disease is an infectious illness associated with cat scratches, bites, or exposure to cat saliva, causing chronic swelling of the lymph nodes. Cat scratch disease is possibly the most common cause of ...

  3. About Alzheimer's Disease: Causes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a role in the development and course of Alzheimer’s disease. There is a great deal of interest, for example, in the relationship between cognitive decline and vascular conditions such as heart disease, stroke, and high ...

  4. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)

    MedlinePLUS

    Pelvic inflammatory disease is an infection of a woman's womb (uterus), ovaries, or fallopian tubes. ... Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is an infection caused by bacteria. When bacteria from the vagina or cervix travel to your ...

  5. Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Cardiovascular Disease & Diabetes Updated:Nov 10,2015 The following statistics speak ... disease. This content was last reviewed August 2015. Diabetes • Home • About Diabetes • Why Diabetes Matters Introduction Cardiovascular ...

  6. Kidney Disease and Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Kidney Disease & Diabetes Updated:Nov 10,2015 One of the more ... disease. This content was last reviewed August 2015. Diabetes • Home • About Diabetes • Why Diabetes Matters Introduction Cardiovascular ...

  7. Liver Disease and IBD

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 34% of Crohn’s patients with disease of the terminal ileum (the last segment of the small intestine). ... increased risk for developing gallstones because the diseased terminal ileum cannot absorb bile salts, which are necessary ...

  8. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... be the same one that causes vCJD in humans. Varient CJD causes less than 1% of all ... Scrapie (found in sheep) Other very rare inherited human diseases, such as Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker disease and ...

  9. Pediatric Celiac Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Z Celiac Disease Symptoms & Diagnosis Treatment & Management Coping Gluten Free Diet Guide Eosinophilic Esophagitis Inflammatory Bowel Disease ... serious condition caused by a permanent intolerance for gluten--a protein found in wheat, rye, and barley. ...

  10. What Is Parkinson's Disease?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... National HelpLine Educational Publications Online Seminars Parkinson's News Parkinson's HelpLine Learn More Educational Materials Do you want ... resources & more. Order Free Materials Today What is Parkinson’s Disease? Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic and ...

  11. Autoimmune Inner Ear Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Find an ENT Doctor Near You Autoimmune Inner Ear Disease Autoimmune Inner Ear Disease Patient Health Information ... with a hearing loss. How Does the Healthy Ear Work? The ear has three main parts: the ...

  12. Waterborne Diseases & Illnesses

    MedlinePLUS

    ... lead to disease outbreaks in a local area, country, or across the world. Did you know ? The largest waterborne disease outbreak in United States history happened in Milwaukee, Wisconsin in 1993. Over 400, ...

  13. Gaucher Disease Inherited disorder

    E-print Network

    Brutlag, Doug

    does not appear to be sustained ˇ Genetic counseling § Targeted Mutation Analysis Used to detect/> ˇ "Gaucher Disease." Genetics Home Reference ­ Your Guide to Understanding Genetic Conditions. US National Disease." Gene Review. Web 2 Oct. 2012. Genetics

  14. Genetics of Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ridge, Perry G.; Ebbert, Mark T. W.; Kauwe, John S. K.

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of dementia and is the only top 10 cause of death in the United States that lacks disease-altering treatments. It is a complex disorder with environmental and genetic components. There are two major types of Alzheimer's disease, early onset and the more common late onset. The genetics of early-onset Alzheimer's disease are largely understood with variants in three different genes leading to disease. In contrast, while several common alleles associated with late-onset Alzheimer's disease, including APOE, have been identified using association studies, the genetics of late-onset Alzheimer's disease are not fully understood. Here we review the known genetics of early- and late-onset Alzheimer's disease. PMID:23984328

  15. Chagas Disease (American trypanosomiasis)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... vector is a triatomine bug that carries the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi which causes the disease. Chagas disease ... potentially life-threatening illness caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) . It is found mainly ...

  16. Von Gierke disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... may be signs of: Delayed puberty Enlarged liver Gout Inflammatory bowel disease Liver tumors Severe low blood ... blood uric acid and decrease the risk for gout. Other medications may include those for kidney disease, ...

  17. Neuromuscular Disease Descriptions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... disease. Muscular dystrophies (involving the structure of the muscle cells) Becker (BMD) • Age of onset: 2 to ... or heart problems. Peripheral motor neuron diseases (involving muscle-controlling nerve cells of the arms, legs, neck, ...

  18. Blood and Lymph Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Medicine, National Institutes of Health. National Center for Biotechnology Information (US). Genes and Disease [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Center for Biotechnology Information (US); 1998-. Genes and Disease [Internet]. Show ...

  19. Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... link in the menu on the left. Common Names Sexually transmitted diseases STDs Sexually transmitted infections STIs Medical or Scientific Names Sexually transmitted diseases Sexually transmitted infections Last Reviewed: ...

  20. Medullary cystic kidney disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... kidney disease between ages 30 and 50. Lifelong treatment may control the symptoms of chronic kidney disease. The cysts that occur with MCKD may be very small, but large numbers of them can lead to kidney problems.

  1. Diabetes and kidney disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Kidney disease or kidney damage that occurs in people with diabetes is called diabetic nephropathy. This condition is ... who have more severe and long-term (chronic) kidney disease may have symptoms such as: Fatigue most of ...

  2. Gum Disease in Children

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Find a Periodontist Gum Disease In Children Chronic gingivitis. aggressive periodontitis and generalized aggressive periodontitis are types ... children. Types of periodontal diseases in children Chronic gingivitis is common in children. It usually causes gum ...

  3. Niemann-Pick Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a group of inherited metabolic disorders known as lipid storage diseases. Lipids (fatty materials such as waxes, fatty acids, oils, ... body. In Niemann-Pick disease, harmful quantities of lipids accumulate in the brain, spleen, liver, lungs, and ...

  4. Whipple's disease revisited

    PubMed Central

    Misbah, S; Mapstone, N

    2000-01-01

    Whipple's disease has traditionally been considered to be a rare multisystem disorder dominated by malabsorption. The recent identification of the Whipple's disease bacillus has, using polymerase chain reaction based assays, fuelled advances in the investigation, diagnosis, and management of this disease. This leader reviews the aetiology, clinical manifestations, investigation, and treatment of Whipple's disease in the light of this new information. Key Words: Tropheryma whippelii • immune system • polymerase chain reaction PMID:11064667

  5. Telomeres in disease

    PubMed Central

    Calado, Rodrigo

    2012-01-01

    Telomeres and telomere repair are basic molecular features of cells possessing linear DNA chromosomes and defects in them result in various diseases. This review examines recent advances in understanding these diseases, particularly at a molecular level, and in relating telomere dysfunction to clinical diseases. We also discuss the potential role of telomere elongation as a therapy in diseases, and more controversially, the prevention/reversal of aging. PMID:22500192

  6. [Bluetongue disease reaches Switzerland].

    PubMed

    Hofmann, M; Griot, C; Chaignat, V; Perler, L; Thür, B

    2008-02-01

    Since 2006 bluetongue disease is rapidly spreading across Europe and reached Switzerland in October 2007. In the present article a short overview about the disease and the virus is given, and the first three clinical bluetongue disease cases in cattle, and the respective laboratory findings are presented. PMID:18369049

  7. Tay-Sachs Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Tay-Sachs Disease Information Page Table of Contents (click to ... Trials Organizations Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Tay-Sachs Disease? Tay-Sachs disease is a fatal genetic ...

  8. Heart Disease in Women

    MedlinePLUS

    ... United States, 1 in 4 women dies from heart disease. The most common cause of heart disease in both men and women is narrowing ... the blood vessels that supply blood to the heart itself. This is called coronary artery disease, and ...

  9. Vascular Disease Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    The Faces of Vascular Disease Kipp had an abdominal aortic aneurysm. Learn how vascular research saved his life here . Project Voice Patients deserve to ... nonprofit organization representing the millions of patients with vascular disease. To learn about vascular disease click here . @ 2014 ...

  10. [Pancreatitis in intestinal diseases].

    PubMed

    Gubergrits, N B; Lukashevich, G M; Golubova, O A; Fomenko, P G

    2010-01-01

    In article review of the literature and own data about pathogenesis of pancreatitis and secondary pancreatic insufficiency in various diseases of small and large intestines is presented. The special attention is given to pancreatic insufficiency in celiac disease and in inflammatory bowel disease. The main directions of pancreatitis and exocrine pancreatic insufficiency therapy are grounded. PMID:21268323

  11. Chronic wasting disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is an emerging prion disease of deer, elk, and moose in North America. This fatal neurodegenerative disease was first recognized 50 years ago and its distribution was limited to the Rocky Mountains for several decades. In the past few years, CWD has been found in the ea...

  12. Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease (CJD)

    E-print Network

    Brutlag, Doug

    Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease (CJD) By Maia Mosse Biochem 118Q Fall Quarter #12;Overview of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Neurological #12;Diagnostics of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Only way to confirm a diagnosis of CJD is brain different mutation than others with CJD #12;Treatment of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Because scientists

  13. Major Histocompatibility Complex: Disease

    E-print Network

    Alper, Chester A.

    Major Histocompatibility Complex: Disease Associations Chester A Alper, Harvard Medical School at least a third of normal European Caucasian MHC haplotypes and contribute most of the MHC disease susceptibility genetic markers. Whereas this has facilitated the detection of MHC gene-disease association

  14. Diseases of Crustaceans

    E-print Network

    Diseases of Crustaceans Papers presented at the American Institute of Biological Sciences meeting #12;MFR PAPER 1139 Introductory Remarks on Diseases of Crustaceans GILBERT B. PAULEY Figure 1.-lnteractlon of host, environment, and pathogen to produce a disease (Snleszko, 1973). Potential Pathogen son

  15. Gaucher Disease in Pregnancy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... have Gaucher disease, you have two non-working genes for Gaucher disease, one from your mother and one from your ... You will always pass on one non-working gene for Gaucher disease to your children. A person who has only ...

  16. Venereal Disease. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Stephen J.

    This book is one in a series of contemporary topics in health science for students. The first chapter deals with the behavioral aspects of venereal disease and how the disease has been affected by our changing society. Chapter 2 discusses the magnitude of the problem, presenting various maps and charts. The history of venereal disease and the…

  17. What's Mad Cow Disease?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... System How the Body Works Main Page What's Mad Cow Disease? KidsHealth > Kids > Q&A > Q & A > What's Mad Cow Disease? Print A A A Text Size What's in ... Do? You might have heard news reports about mad cow disease and wondered: What the heck is that? Mad ...

  18. Disease and their management.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter reviews diseases of chickpea and their management practices. Some of the most important disease such as Ascochyta blight, Fuarium wilt, Botrytis gray mold, are described in detail. The life cycle and epidemiology of these diseases are discussed in relation to the management practices. ...

  19. Newcastle disease virus (velogens)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is also known as avian paramyxovirus serotype-1 (APMV-1). While all NDV are referred to as APMV-1 and are of one serotype, only infections with virulent NDV (vNDV) cause Newcastle disease (ND). Newcastle disease virus strains are defined as virulent if they 1) have th...

  20. Viral Skin Diseases.

    PubMed

    Ramdass, Priya; Mullick, Sahil; Farber, Harold F

    2015-12-01

    In the vast world of skin diseases, viral skin disorders account for a significant percentage. Most viral skin diseases present with an exanthem (skin rash) and, oftentimes, an accompanying enanthem (lesions involving the mucosal membrane). In this article, the various viral skin diseases are explored, including viral childhood exanthems (measles, rubella, erythema infectiosum, and roseola), herpes viruses (herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus, Kaposi sarcoma herpes virus, viral zoonotic infections [orf, monkeypox, ebola, smallpox]), and several other viral skin diseases, such as human papilloma virus, hand, foot, and mouth disease, molluscum contagiosum, and Gianotti-Crosti syndrome. PMID:26612372

  1. [Is Parkinson's disease a prion disease?].

    PubMed

    Brandel, J-P; Corbillé, A-G; Derkinderen, P; Haďk, S

    2015-12-01

    The accumulation of a specific protein in aggregated form is a common phenomenon in human neurodegenerative diseases. In Parkinson's disease, this protein is ?-synuclein which is a neuronal protein of 143 amino acids. With a monomeric conformation in solution, it also has a natural capacity to aggregate into amyloid structures (dimers, oligomers, fibrils and Lewy bodies or neurites). It therefore fulfils the characteristics of a prion protein (different conformations, seeding and spreading). In vitro and in vivo experimental evidence in transgenic and wild animals indicates a prion-like propagation of Parkinson's disease. The sequential and predictive distribution of ?-synuclein demonstrated by Braak et al. and its correlation with non-motor signs are consistent with the prion-like progression. Although the triggering factor causing the misfolding and aggregation of the target protein is unknown, Parkinson's disease is a highly relevant model for the study of these mechanisms and also to test specific treatments targeting the assemblies of ?-synuclein and propagation from pre-motor phase of the disease. Despite this prion-like progression, there is currently no argument indicating a risk of human transmission of Parkinson's disease. PMID:26563663

  2. Prioritising Infectious Disease Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Pigott, David M.; Howes, Rosalind E.; Wiebe, Antoinette; Battle, Katherine E.; Golding, Nick; Gething, Peter W.; Dowell, Scott F.; Farag, Tamer H.; Garcia, Andres J.; Kimball, Ann M.; Krause, L. Kendall; Smith, Craig H.; Brooker, Simon J.; Kyu, Hmwe H.; Vos, Theo; Murray, Christopher J. L.; Moyes, Catherine L.; Hay, Simon I.

    2015-01-01

    Background Increasing volumes of data and computational capacity afford unprecedented opportunities to scale up infectious disease (ID) mapping for public health uses. Whilst a large number of IDs show global spatial variation, comprehensive knowledge of these geographic patterns is poor. Here we use an objective method to prioritise mapping efforts to begin to address the large deficit in global disease maps currently available. Methodology/Principal Findings Automation of ID mapping requires bespoke methodological adjustments tailored to the epidemiological characteristics of different types of diseases. Diseases were therefore grouped into 33 clusters based upon taxonomic divisions and shared epidemiological characteristics. Disability-adjusted life years, derived from the Global Burden of Disease 2013 study, were used as a globally consistent metric of disease burden. A review of global health stakeholders, existing literature and national health priorities was undertaken to assess relative interest in the diseases. The clusters were ranked by combining both metrics, which identified 44 diseases of main concern within 15 principle clusters. Whilst malaria, HIV and tuberculosis were the highest priority due to their considerable burden, the high priority clusters were dominated by neglected tropical diseases and vector-borne parasites. Conclusions/Significance A quantitative, easily-updated and flexible framework for prioritising diseases is presented here. The study identifies a possible future strategy for those diseases where significant knowledge gaps remain, as well as recognising those where global mapping programs have already made significant progress. For many conditions, potential shared epidemiological information has yet to be exploited. PMID:26061527

  3. Prion diseases. An overview.

    PubMed

    Dalsgaard, Niels Jřrn

    2002-01-01

    Prion disease is the new designation of a group of spongiform encephalopathies, all invariably fatal, which show similar clinical and neuropathological changes. They comprise a range of distinct diseases in both animals and man, and spontaneous, hereditary and transmissible forms are recognized. Until the sudden occurrence in the mid-1980s of an epizootic of a formerly unknown disease, popularly named 'mad cow disease', in cattle in the UK, very little attention had been paid to these rather obscure diseases. Concurrently it was asserted that the disease-causing agent appeared to be a ubiquitous mammalian brain constituent, and the disease mechanism a conformational change of its structure. These events have not only led to a new understanding of these extraordinary diseases, but have also provided insight into both neurodegeneration and disease mechanisms at the molecular level. Moreover, in 1997 the prion concept earned its originator the second Nobel price for medicine within this scientific field. In this introduction and overview of prion diseases, historical and philosophical perspectives are presented along with descriptions of the diseases in both animals and man. Epidemiology, genetics and transmissibility are also covered. PMID:12064253

  4. Flies with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Vanhauwaert, Roeland; Verstreken, Patrik

    2015-12-01

    Parkinson's disease is an incurable neurodegenerative disease. Most cases of the disease are of sporadic origin, but about 10% of the cases are familial. The genes thus far identified in Parkinson's disease are well conserved. Drosophila is ideally suited to study the molecular neuronal cell biology of these genes and the pathogenic mutations in Parkinson's disease. Flies reproduce quickly, and their elaborate genetic tools in combination with their small size allow researchers to analyze identified cells and neurons in large numbers of animals. Furthermore, fruit flies recapitulate many of the cellular and molecular defects also seen in patients, and these defects often result in clear locomotor and behavioral phenotypes, facilitating genetic modifier screens. Hence, Drosophila has played a prominent role in Parkinson's disease research and has provided invaluable insight into the molecular mechanisms of this disease. PMID:25708988

  5. Kidney Disease Risks among Hispanics

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Risk Factors > Race & Kidney Disease Race/Ethnicity and Kidney Disease African-Americans , Hispanic Americans , Native Americans and ... Disease Risks Among Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders Kidney Disease Risks Among African-Americans African-Americans are ...

  6. Animals: Disease Risks for People

    MedlinePLUS

    ... diseases such as ehrlichiosis, babesiosis, Lyme disease , Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever and others. People can also become ... diseases such as ehrlichiosis, babesiosis, Lyme disease , Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever and others. The symptoms caused by ...

  7. Disease Management in Organic Plantings

    E-print Network

    Isaacs, Rufus

    Disease Management in Organic Plantings Annemiek Schilder Department of Plant Pathology Michigan State University #12;Healthy soil, healthy plants? #12;#12;Integrated disease management · Involves the use of multiple disease control strategies · Generally achieves better disease control than using

  8. Genetics Home Reference: Hirschsprung disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in approximately 1 in 5,000 newborns. What genes are related to Hirschsprung disease? Isolated Hirschsprung disease can result from mutations in ... providers. Cedars-Sinai: Treating Hirschsprung's Disease (Colonic Aganglionosis) ... Overview Genetic Testing Registry: Hirschsprung disease 1 Genetic ...

  9. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) Statistics

    MedlinePLUS

    ... STD on Facebook Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) Statistics Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... Disease (PID) (November 17, 2015) Figure F. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease — Trends in Lifetime Prevalence of Treatment Among ...

  10. What Causes Coronary Microvascular Disease?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Living With Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Angina Atherosclerosis Coronary Heart Disease Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors ... Microvascular Disease? The same risk factors that cause atherosclerosis may cause coronary microvascular disease. Atherosclerosis is a ...

  11. Neurological Complications of Lyme Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Find People About NINDS NINDS Neurological Complications of Lyme Disease Information Page Synonym(s): Lyme Disease - Neurological Complications ... resources from MedlinePlus What are Neurological Complications of Lyme Disease? Lyme disease is caused by a bacterial ...

  12. Genetics of Proteasome Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Aldrin V.

    2013-01-01

    The proteasome is a large, multiple subunit complex that is capable of degrading most intracellular proteins. Polymorphisms in proteasome subunits are associated with cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, neurological diseases, and cancer. One polymorphism in the proteasome gene PSMA6 (?8C/G) is associated with three different diseases: type 2 diabetes, myocardial infarction, and coronary artery disease. One type of proteasome, the immunoproteasome, which contains inducible catalytic subunits, is adapted to generate peptides for antigen presentation. It has recently been shown that mutations and polymorphisms in the immunoproteasome catalytic subunit PSMB8 are associated with several inflammatory and autoinflammatory diseases including Nakajo-Nishimura syndrome, CANDLE syndrome, and intestinal M. tuberculosis infection. This comprehensive review describes the disease-related polymorphisms in proteasome genes associated with human diseases and the physiological modulation of proteasome function by these polymorphisms. Given the large number of subunits and the central importance of the proteasome in human physiology as well as the fast pace of detection of proteasome polymorphisms associated with human diseases, it is likely that other polymorphisms in proteasome genes associated with diseases will be detected in the near future. While disease-associated polymorphisms are now readily discovered, the challenge will be to use this genetic information for clinical benefit. PMID:24490108

  13. Disease monitoring in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Shannon; Malter, Lisa; Hudesman, David

    2015-01-01

    The optimal method for monitoring quiescent disease in patients with Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis is yet to be determined. Endoscopic evaluation with ileocolonoscopy is the gold standard but is invasive, costly, and time-consuming. There are many commercially available biomarkers that may be used in clinical practice to evaluate disease status in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but the most widely adopted biomarkers are C-reactive protein (CRP) and fecal calprotectin (FC). This review summarizes the evidence for utilizing CRP and FC for monitoring IBD during clinical remission and after surgical resection. Endoscopic correlation with CRP and FC is evaluated in each disease state. Advantages and drawbacks of each biomarker are discussed with special consideration of isolated ileal CD. Fecal immunochemical testing, traditionally used for colorectal cancer screening, is mentioned as a potential new alternative assay in the evaluation of IBD. Based on a mixture of information gleaned from biomarkers, clinical status, and endoscopic evaluation, the best treatment decisions can be made for the patient with IBD. PMID:26523100

  14. Management of Orbital Diseases.

    PubMed

    Betbeze, Caroline

    2015-09-01

    Orbital diseases are common in dogs and cats and can present on emergency due to the acute onset of many of these issues. The difficulty with diagnosis and therapy of orbital disease is that the location of the problem is not readily visible. The focus of this article is on recognizing classical clinical presentations of orbital disease, which are typically exophthalmos, strabismus, enophthalmos, proptosis, or intraconal swelling. After the orbital disease is confirmed, certain characteristics such as pain on opening the mouth, acute vs. chronic swelling, and involvement of nearby structures can be helpful in determining the underlying cause. Abscesses, cellulitis, sialoceles, neoplasia (primary or secondary), foreign bodies, and immune-mediated diseases can all lead to exophthalmos, but it can be difficult to determine the cause of disease without advanced diagnostic imaging, such as ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, or computed tomography scan. Fine-needle aspirates and biopsies of the retrobulbar space can also be performed. PMID:26494502

  15. Viral Disease Networks?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulbahce, Natali; Yan, Han; Vidal, Marc; Barabasi, Albert-Laszlo

    2010-03-01

    Viral infections induce multiple perturbations that spread along the links of the biological networks of the host cells. Understanding the impact of these cascading perturbations requires an exhaustive knowledge of the cellular machinery as well as a systems biology approach that reveals how individual components of the cellular system function together. Here we describe an integrative method that provides a new approach to studying virus-human interactions and its correlations with diseases. Our method involves the combined utilization of protein - protein interactions, protein -- DNA interactions, metabolomics and gene - disease associations to build a ``viraldiseasome''. By solely using high-throughput data, we map well-known viral associated diseases and predict new candidate viral diseases. We use microarray data of virus-infected tissues and patient medical history data to further test the implications of the viral diseasome. We apply this method to Epstein-Barr virus and Human Papillomavirus and shed light into molecular development of viral diseases and disease pathways.

  16. Coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    McCullough, Peter A

    2007-05-01

    Coronary heart disease is the most common cause of death in the general population and in patients with ESRD. The principles of cardiovascular risk assessment and management apply to both populations. Advances in noninvasive coronary artery imaging have improved early detection of subclinical disease. The goals of medical management of coronary disease are to modify the natural history of disease and to improve the symptoms of angina. Coronary revascularization poses a different risk and benefit equation in the ESRD population. In stable ESRD with multivessel coronary artery disease, coronary bypass surgery, despite the upfront risks of stroke, myocardial infarction, and chest wound infection, seems to be a favored approach. In patients with ESRD and acute coronary syndromes, percutaneous coronary intervention on the target vessel has been associated with the most favorable outcomes. This article explores the clinical issues with respect to coronary artery disease in patients with ESRD. PMID:17699471

  17. [Physical diseases in alcoholism].

    PubMed

    Takase, Kojiro

    2015-09-01

    Rapid excessive alcohol drinking frequently causes disturbance of consciousness due to head trauma, brain edema, hypoglycemia, hyponatremia, hepatic coma and so on, provoked by acute alcohol intoxication. Rapid differential diagnosis and management are extremely important to save a life. On the other hands, the chronic users of alcohol so called alcoholism has many kinds of physical diseases such as liver diseases (i.e., fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, alcoholic liver cirrhosis and miscellaneous liver disease), diabetes mellitus, injury to happen in drunkenness, pancreas disease (i.e., acute and chronic pancreatitis and deterioration of chronic pancreatitis), gastrontestinal diseases (i.e., gastroduodenal ulcer), and so on. Enough attention should be paid to above mentioned diseases, otherwise they would turn worse more with continuation and increase in quantity of the alcohol. It should be born in its mind that the excessive drinking becomes the weapon threatening life. PMID:26394519

  18. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    PubMed

    de Villemeur, Thierry Billette

    2013-01-01

    Prion diseases are rare in children. Three types are known: kuru, variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), and iatrogenic CJD. All three affect children and young adults, and are transmitted by infectious contamination. Kuru was the result of ritual funeral practices similar to cannibalism; variant CJD affects young people who have eaten meat from cows with mad cow disease (mostly in the UK); and iatrogenic CJD is secondary to graft of human tissues performed in the 1980s (dura mater, pituitary extracted growth hormone). The disease appears after 4-30 years of incubation. The initial symptomatology is frequently neurological (cerebellar ataxia, oculomotor disturbance, peripheral nerve pain, pyramidal syndrome) followed by dementia. There is no biological test available that can give a definite diagnosis of prion disease apart from neuropathology, although prion accumulation in vCJD can be demonstrated in pharyngeal tonsil by immunohistochemical techniques. This devastating disease results inevitably in death. No specific treatment is available. PMID:23622328

  19. Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS) GARD Home Diseases Diseases Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD) Search for Rare or Genetic Diseases Search Search Enfermedades en espańol Browse diseases ...

  20. Preventing Chronic Disease

    Cancer.gov

    Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD) is a peer-reviewed electronic journal established by the National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion to address the interface between applied public health research, practice, and policy. Articles focus on preventing and controlling chronic diseases and conditions, promoting health, and examining the biological, behavioral, physical, and social determinants of health and their impact on quality of life, morbidity, and mortality across the life span.

  1. Osteocytes and Bone Diseases 

    E-print Network

    Ren, Yinshi

    2015-05-06

    and maintaining bone homeostasis; thus, osteocytes could be a potential target for treating bone diseases such as osteomalacia, periodontitis or osteoporosis. To address our hypothesis, three specific aims are proposed: Specific Aim 1: To investigate... into Ocy), and thus maintains overall healthy bone homeostasis. Last we utilized three different animal models (Dmp1 null mice as osteomalacia disease model, Periostin null mice as the periodontal disease model, and OVX rat as an osteoporosis model...

  2. Enterobiasis (Pinworm Infection): Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Contact CDC-INFO Pinworm Infection General Information Pinworm Infection FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology Disease Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals Publications Information For: Travelers ...

  3. Seronegative autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Alessandri, Cristiano; Conti, Fabrizio; Conigliaro, Paola; Mancini, Riccardo; Massaro, Laura; Valesini, Guido

    2009-09-01

    A close relationship exists between autoimmunity and autoantibodies; despite this, some patients are persistently negative for disease-specific autoantibodies. These conditions have been defined as seronegative autoimmune diseases. Although the prevalence of seronegative autoimmune diseases is low, they may represent a practical problem because they are often difficult cases. There are also situations in which autoantibodies are positive in healthy subjects. In particular, three different conditions can be described: latent autoimmunity, preclinical autoimmunity, and postclinical autoimmunity. Here, we analyze briefly the meaning of autoantibody negativity in the seronegative autoimmune diseases, focusing in particular on the specificities associated with systemic lupus erythematosus, antiphospholipid syndrome, and rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:19758132

  4. Interstitial lung disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Diffuse parenchymal lung disease; Alveolitis; Idiopathic pulmonary pneumonitis (IPP) ... The lungs contain tiny air sacs (alveoli), which is where oxygen is absorbed. These air sacs expand with each ...

  5. Plasmapheresis and Autoimmune Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Diseases Publications Spokespeople & Honorees Videos MDA Art Collection enter your zip code Visit Our MDA News Section and Research News for Updates. Home> Publications > Facts About Plasmapheresis ...

  6. Wheat Diseases Atlas. 

    E-print Network

    McCoy, Norman L.; Berry, Robert W.

    1982-01-01

    to wheat producers over the state on whose farms demonstrations have been conducted and pic tures for this publication were made. WhEAT DisEASES ATLAs Norman L. McCoy and Robert W Berry* INTRODUCTION Wheat diseases have caused untold human suffer ing... and the development of chemicals for controlling seedborne, soilborne and foliar-infecting wheat disease pathogens. In spite of the long history of human concern for wheat diseases, they continue to cause economic hard ship and health problems. In Texas, wheat...

  7. Lyme disease and conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ginsberg, H.

    1994-01-01

    Lyme disease is a tick-borne illness that is wide-spread in North America, especially in the northeastern and northcentral United States. This disease could negatively influence efforts to conserve natural populations in two ways: (1) the disease could directly affect wild animal health; and (2) tick control efforts could adversely affect natural populations and communities. Lyme disease affects several domestic animals, but symptoms have been reported in only a few wild species. Direct effects of Lyme disease on wild animal populations have not been reported, but the disease should be considered as a possible cause in cases of unexplained population declines in endemic areas. Methods available to manage ticks and Lyme disease include human self-protection techniques, manipulation of habitats and hosts species populations, biological control, and pesticide applications. The diversity of available techniques allows selection of approaches to minimize environmental effects by (1) emphasizing personal protection techniques, (2) carefully targeting management efforts to maximize efficiency, and (3) integrating environmentally benign techniques to improve management while avoiding broad-scale environmentally destructive approaches. The environmental effects of Lyme disease depend, to a large extent, on the methods chosen to minimize human exposure to infected ticks. Conservation biologists can help design tick management programs that effectively lower the incidence of human Lyme disease while simultaneously minimizing negative effects on natural populations.

  8. Defining an emerging disease.

    PubMed

    Moutou, F; Pastoret, P-P

    2015-04-01

    Defining an emerging disease is not straightforward, as there are several different types of disease emergence. For example, there can be a 'real' emergence of a brand new disease, such as the emergence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in the 1980s, or a geographic emergence in an area not previously affected, such as the emergence of bluetongue in northern Europe in 2006. In addition, disease can emerge in species formerly not considered affected, e.g. the emergence of bovine tuberculosis in wildlife species since 2000 in France. There can also be an unexpected increase of disease incidence in a known area and a known species, or there may simply be an increase in our knowledge or awareness of a particular disease. What all these emerging diseases have in common is that human activity frequently has a role to play in their emergence. For example, bovine spongiform encephalopathy very probably emerged as a result of changes in the manufacturing of meat-and-bone meal, bluetongue was able to spread to cooler climes as a result of uncontrolled trade in animals, and a relaxation of screening and surveillance for bovine tuberculosis enabled the disease to re-emerge in areas that had been able to drastically reduce the number of cases. Globalisation and population growth will continue to affect the epidemiology of diseases in years to come and ecosystems will continue to evolve. Furthermore, new technologies such as metagenomics and high-throughput sequencing are identifying new microorganisms all the time. Change is the one constant, and diseases will continue to emerge, and we must consider the causes and different types of emergence as we deal with these diseases in the future. PMID:26470448

  9. What Is Crohn's Disease?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... at any age, Crohn's is more prevalent among adolescents and young adults between the ages of 15 and 35. The causes of Crohn’s Disease are not well understood. Diet and stress may aggravate Crohn’s Disease, but they do not ...

  10. Disease concerns in energycane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diseases may be a limiting factor in the production of energycane, a perennial crop, by reducing annual yields and reducing the longevity of the crop cycle. Disease concerns also include the potential that a compatible pathogen could spread between energycane and sugarcane, sorghum, or corn. Widesp...

  11. HIV and Kidney Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the MDRD or Modification in Diet in Renal Disease equation. These provide a measure called glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Doctors use the GFR to get a better picture of what your creatine level really means. People without kidney disease have a GFR of about 100. As ...

  12. Disease concerns in energycane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diseases may be a limiting factor in the production of energycane, a perennial crop, by reducing annual yields and reducing the longevity of the crop cycle. Disease concerns also include the potential that a compatible pathogen could spread between energycane and sugarcane, sorghum, or corn. Widespr...

  13. Controlling Infectious Diseases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Wm. Lane; Fidler, David P.

    1997-01-01

    Advocates establishing programs to educate the public about the growing threat of communicable diseases and to promote effective strategies. Utilizes recent successes and failures to formulate those strategies. Profiles three recent infectious disease outbreaks that illustrate some of the current problems. Identifies four ways that lawyers can…

  14. Tay-Sachs Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Sports: Keeping Kids Safe Concussions: What to Know Tay-Sachs Disease KidsHealth > Parents > Diseases & Conditions > Genetic, Chromosomal & Metabolic ... to have it. Who Is at Risk for Tay-Sachs? Each year, about 16 cases of Tay-Sachs ...

  15. Anthocyanins and heart disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anthocyanins are red, blue, and purple pigments distributed throughout nature, and in our diet. One potential health benefit of dietary anthocyanins is protection against cardiovascular disease (CVD). Evidence for beneficial effects of anthocyanins with respect to heart disease comes from epidemio...

  16. Rare Diseases Research

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Extensive public-private partnerships, including the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the rare diseases community, which is seeing a renewed industry interest in smaller niche markets, have resulted in an increase of interventions for rare diseases. Significant collaborative efforts are required among the pharmaceutical industry, foundations, patient-advocacy groups, academic and government investigators and funding programs, regulatory scientists, and reimbursement agencies to meet the unmet diagnostic and treatment needs for approximately 25 million people in the United States with 7,000 rare diseases. The expanding role and outreach activities of patient-advocacy groups have increased public awareness. In the United States, a rare disease is defined as a disorder or condition with a prevalence of < 200,000 people. In 2011, the NIH provided > $3.5 billion for rare diseases research, including $750 million for orphan product development activities, nearly 11.4% of the NIH research budget. Several research institutes and centers of the NIH, including the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, have initiated varied translational research efforts to address the absence of preclinical and clinical data required for regulatory review purposes. Clinicians can expect to see significant increases in requests from patients and their families to participate in patient registries and natural history or observational studies to gather specific information from a larger pool of patients on the progression of the disease or response to treatments. An expanding emphasis on rare diseases provides hope for the millions of patients with rare diseases. PMID:23880676

  17. Vaccines in dermatological diseases.

    PubMed

    Magel, G D; Mendoza, N; Digiorgio, C M; Haitz, K A; Lapolla, W J; Tyring, S K

    2011-06-01

    Vaccines have been a cornerstone in medicine and public health since their inception in the 18th century by Edward Jenner. Today, greater than 20 vaccines are used worldwide for the prevention of both viral and bacterial diseases. This article will review the vaccines used for the following dermatological diseases: smallpox, measles, mumps, rubella, chickenpox, shingles, and human papillomavirus. PMID:21566552

  18. Raspberry Mosaic Disease Complex

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Raspberry mosaic disease (RMD) is an overarching term used to describe a range of diseases caused by various combinations of different viruses that are each transmitted by aphids. In the scientific literature RMD has been given various alternative names, including red raspberry mosaic, type b mosaic...

  19. Respiratory Diseases of Poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new Respiratory Diseases of Poultry CRIS will be established effective October 1, 2006. Initially, the disease agents to be studied will include Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT), Bordetella avium (BART) and Pasteurella multocida. The research will focus on development of more effective vacc...

  20. Epidemiology of Cardiovascular Diseases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, C. David

    1988-01-01

    Reviews epidemiological studies of cardiovascular diseases especially coronary heart disease (CHD), to document their major public health importance, changes in mortality during this century, and international comparisons of trends. Finds major risk factors for CHD are determined in large part by psychosocial and behavioral mechanisms. Asserts…

  1. Heart disease and depression

    MedlinePLUS

    Heart disease and depression often go hand-in-hand. You are are more likely to feel sad or depressed after a heart attack ... heart disease. The good news is that treating depression may help improve both your mental and physical ...

  2. Treating Pompe Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bokor, Julie; Joseph, Drew; Darwiche, Houda

    2015-01-01

    One of the crosscutting concepts in science is cause and effect. A disease model can provide understanding of cause and effect, as teachers scaffold student thinking from molecular changes in the DNA to visible traits in the organism. The project described in this article uses Pompe disease, a rare recessive disorder, as a model of cause and…

  3. Apple Replant Disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technical Abstract: Apple replant disease is a significant impediment to the establishment of viable orchards on sites previously planted to the same or related crop. Symptoms of replant disease are evident during the first growing season. Vigorous young trees exhibit an initial period of vegetati...

  4. Neoplastic Diseases of Poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Depending on whether the etiologic agent is known, neoplastic diseases of poultry are divided into two main classes, virus-induced tumors and tumors of unknown etiology. As a group, neoplastic diseases of poultry comprise a variety of related and unrelated conditions with a single common denominator...

  5. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    PubMed

    Narayan, S K; Dutta, J K

    2005-09-01

    Cruetzfeldt-Jakob disease is a prion protein disease causing a transmissible, subacute, fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by a spongiform encephalopathy. Though rare, ever since Pruisner described the pathogenesis in 1982, this disease kept the clinicians as well as biologists spellbound, because of its distinct clinical picture and the novel mechanism of transmission. There was a further quantum leap in the interest in the disease with the establishment of its new clinical variant, the so called 'mad cow disease' in the late 1990s and had led to more stringent measures to ensure the quality of cattle-feeds and cattle-derived food products. The sporadic genetic variants, the commonest form of the disease, continue to challenge the genetic scientists. Advances in neuroimaging, cerebrospinal fluid marker proteins and genetic linkage studies now offer excellent diagnostic methods, while advances in therapeutic medicine which use products from cadaveric extracts such as growth hormone for treatment of hypopituitarism, dural grafts for neurosurgical procedures and cornea for transplantation etc. have thrown new challenges in controlling this serious disease. PMID:16334625

  6. Diseases Caused by Viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The symptoms, causal agents, epidemiology and management of important virus diseases in chickpea and lentil crops were reviewed in depth. The virus diseases include.Alflafa mosaic virus, Cucumber mosaiv virus, Faba bean necrotic yellows virus, Pea enation mosaic virus, Pea seed-borne mosaci virus,...

  7. Viral disease in chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Control of infectious disease has been an important issue for poultry breeders, particularly since the introduction of high density rearing. Selection for enhanced genetic resistance to disease is an important factor for poultry breeding companies in gaining market share, maintaining consumer confid...

  8. Management of diverticular disease.

    PubMed

    Pfützer, Roland H; Kruis, Wolfgang

    2015-11-01

    Diverticular disease is a common condition in Western countries and the incidence and prevalence of the disease is increasing. The pathogenetic factors involved include structural changes in the gut that increase with age, a diet low in fibre and rich in meat, changes in intestinal motility, the concept of enteric neuropathy and an underlying genetic background. Current treatment strategies are hampered by insufficient options to stratify patients according to individual risk. One of the main reasons is the lack of an all-encompassing classification system of diverticular disease. In response, the German Society for Gastroenterology and Digestive Diseases (DGVS) has proposed a classification system as part of its new guideline for the diagnosis and management of diverticular disease. The classification system includes five main types of disease: asymptomatic diverticulosis, acute uncomplicated and complicated diverticulitis, as well as chronic diverticular disease and diverticular bleeding. Here, we review prevention and treatment strategies stratified by these five main types of disease, from prevention of the first attack of diverticulitis to the management of chronic complications and diverticular bleeding. PMID:26170219

  9. Foodborne Disease Epidemiologist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Megan

    2005-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that 76 million cases of foodborne illness occur in the U.S. each year; 5,000 are fatal. Most of these illnesses are caused by a variety of bacteria, viruses, and parasites and the remaining are poisonings triggered by harmful toxins or chemicals. To Jack Guzewich, a foodborne disease

  10. Foliar diseases of corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leaf blights and spots caused by fungi are some of the most destructive diseases of corn in the US and around the world. Correct identification of the disease is very important in determining the best means of control. For example, gray leaf spot of maize can be caused by one of at least two species...

  11. Ethics in Prion Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bechtel, Kendra; Geschwind, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is intended to discuss some of the scientific and ethical issues that are created by increased research efforts towards earlier diagnosis, as well as to treatment of, human prion diseases (and related dementias), including the resulting consequences for individuals, their families, and society. Most patients with prion disease currently are diagnosed when they are about 2/3 of the way through their disease course (Geschwind, Kuo et al. 2010; Paterson, Torres-Chae et al. 2012), when the disease has progressed so far that even treatments that stop the disease process would probably have little benefit. Although there are currently no treatments available for prion diseases, we and others have realized that we must diagnose patients earlier and with greater accuracy so that future treatments have hope of success. As approximately 15% of prion diseases have a autosomal dominant genetic etiology, this further adds to the complexity of ethical issues, particularly regarding when to conduct genetic testing, release of genetic results, and when or if to implement experimental therapies. Human prion diseases are both infectious and transmissible; great care is required to balance the needs of the family and individual with both public health needs and strained hospital budgets. It is essential to proactively examine and address the ethical issues involved, as well as to define and in turn provide best standards of care. PMID:23906487

  12. Nickle and plant disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge of the nutritional physiology of nickel (Ni) is relatively meager. Accumulating evidence indicates that attention to management of Ni nutrition may potentially benefit yield, quality, disease resistance, and disease control of certain crop species, most notably those transporting ureido-ni...

  13. Celiac disease in children.

    PubMed

    Garnier-Lengliné, Hélčne; Cerf-Bensussan, Nadine; Ruemmele, Frank M

    2015-10-01

    Celiac disease is an autoimmune enteropathy, triggered by ingestion of gluten in genetically predisposed individuals. Since the use of anti-transglutaminase and anti-endomysium antibodies in the early 1990s, two main groups of clinical presentation can be identified: patients with a symptomatic form of the disease, and patients with a pauci (a)-symptomatic form detected during the work-up of another autoimmune disease or due to a family history of celiac disease. The prevalence of both forms of the disease is currently estimated between 1/100 and 1/400. Classical form of the disease is characterized by occurrence of diarrhoea, failure to thrive, and abdominal bloating in young infants in the months following gluten introduction. Serological tests show high level of anti-transglutaminase and anti-endomysium antibodies. Until recently, the diagnosis required duodenal biopsies that show villous atrophy. HLA genotype can help for diagnosis: the absence of the HLA-DQ2 or DQ8 alleles has a high negative predictive value. European guidelines recently proposed to reconsider the need for systematic endoscopy in typical symptomatic forms with high level of anti-transglutaminase and positive anti-endomysium. These recommandations are being assessed now. Currently, the gluten-free diet remains the only effective treatment for celiac disease. Children with celiac disease have to exclude from their diet all products containing wheat, barley and rye. Gluten-free diet causes clinical remission within a few weeks, but normalization of the small bowel mucosa and negativity of anti-transglutaminase antibodies are obtained in several months or even years. Gluten-free diet is useful to obtain clinical assessment, but also to prevent long-term complications of celiac disease, mainly osteoporosis, other autoimmune diseases, decreased fertility and cancers. PMID:26186878

  14. Respiratory diseases of global consequence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Respiratory diseases are one of the two major categories of poultry diseases that cause the most severe economic losses globally (the other being enteric disease). The economic impact of respiratory disease is both direct, from the production losses caused by primary disease and indirect from preve...

  15. Some Important Diseases of Tree Fruits - Diseases of Vegetable Crops - Diseases of Grapes - Diseases of Tree Nuts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Donald H.; And Others

    This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University consists of four sections on plant disease recognition and control. The titles of these four sections are: (1) Some Important Diseases of Tree Fruits; (2) Diseases of Vegetable Crops; (3) Diseases of Crops; and (4) Diseases of Tree Nuts. The first section discusses…

  16. Endemic treponemal diseases

    PubMed Central

    Marks, Michael; Solomon, Anthony W; Mabey, David C

    2014-01-01

    The endemic treponemal diseases, consisting of yaws, bejel (endemic syphilis) and pinta, are non-venereal infections closely related to syphilis, and are recognized by WHO as neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Despite previous worldwide eradication efforts the prevalence of yaws has rebounded in recent years and the disease is now a major public health problem in 14 countries. Adequate data on the epidemiology of bejel and pinta is lacking. Each disease is restricted to a specific ecological niche but all predominantly affect poor, rural communities. As with venereal syphilis, the clinical manifestations of the endemic treponemal diseases are variable and can be broken down in to early stage and late stage disease. Current diagnostic techniques are unable to distinguish the different causative species but newer molecular techniques are now making this possible. Penicillin has long been considered the mainstay of treatment for the endemic treponemal diseases but the recent discovery that azithromycin is effective in the treatment of yaws has renewed interest in these most neglected of the NTDs, and raised hopes that global eradication may finally be possible. PMID:25157125

  17. The concept of disease

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, E J M; Scadding, J G; Roberts, R S

    1979-01-01

    The connotations of the term “a disease” were investigated by studying the ways in which both medical and non-medical people used the word. A list of common diagnostic terms was read slowly to groups of non-medical academic staff of a university, secondary-school students, medical academics, and family practitioners, who then indicated whether they thought each word referred to disease. All groups rated illnesses due to infections as diseases, but the doctors, and particularly the general practitioners, were more generous in accepting as diseases the terms for non-infectious conditions. Apart from the nature of the cause, the most influential factor in determining whether or not an illness was considered to be a disease was the importance of the doctor in diagnosis and treatment. These findings provide further evidence that there is ambiguity about the meaning of the term disease. To the layman a disease seems to be a living agency that causes illness. Doctors have obviously accepted more heterogeneous defining characteristics but remain reluctant to adopt unequivocally nominalist ways of thought. The position is not unlike that in the physical sciences, in which there is a good precedent for distinguishing between the formal scientific and the everyday uses of terms such as “force” and “power.” PMID:519183

  18. Genetic kidney diseases

    PubMed Central

    Hildebrandt, Friedhelm

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of the primary cause of a disease is essential for understanding its mechanisms and for adequate classification, prognosis, and treatment. Recently, the etiologies of many kidney diseases have been revealed as single-gene defects. This is exemplified by steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome, which is caused by podocin mutations in ~25% of childhood and ~15% of adult cases. Knowledge of a disease-causing mutation in a single-gene disorder represents one of the most robust diagnostic examples of “personalized medicine”, because the mutation conveys an almost 100% risk of developing the disease by a certain age. Whereas single-gene diseases are rare disorders, polygenic “risk alleles” are found in common adult-onset diseases. This review will discuss prominent renal single-gene kidney disorders and polygenic risk alleles of common disorders. We delineate how emerging techniques of total exome capture and large-scale sequencing will facilitate molecular genetic diagnosis, prognosis and specific therapy and lead to a better understanding of disease mechanisms, thus enabling development of new targeted drugs. PMID:20382325

  19. [Chronic disease and adolescence].

    PubMed

    Bühlmann, U

    1992-01-25

    Chronic disease is not a strictly defined term and includes a large number of illnesses ranging from physical to mental impairment. It is estimated that between 10% and 20% of adolescents have a chronic disease. Independence and new relations, acceptance of a new body image and sexuality, career plans and cognitive maturation are core topics in development to adulthood. Chronic disease may interfere with these developmental tasks. Most often there is no specific psychopathology, but the type of impairment, its influence on family life and functioning, age at onset, gender, and other factors will interact with psychosocial maturation. Because of the important role of the family, not only the adolescent patient him/herself, but also parents and siblings need to be included in all major decisions. As hospitalizations may be disruptive they must be planned, taking in account the patient's plans and opinions. Chronic disease may lead to death during the period of adolescence. It is believed that the concept of one's own mortality develops at age 14 to 17 years, a fact that will influence care during the terminal stage of a disease. Whatever the problems and questions raised by the family, the developmental stage of the adolescent has always to be considered when dealing with specific issues of chronic disease. Periodic reassessment of psychosocial development is therefore one of the main tasks of the primary care physician. Counselling will address not only the disease but also the developmental tasks of any teenager. PMID:1734506

  20. Legionella (Legionnaires' Disease and Pontiac Fever): History and Disease Patterns

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Disease Surveillance Network (ELDSNet) History and Disease Patterns Language: English Espańol (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... Outbreaks (URDO) European Legionnaires’ Disease Surveillance Network (ELDSNet) Language: English Espańol (Spanish) File Formats Help: How do I ...

  1. Heart Disease, Stroke, or Other Cardiovascular Disease and Adult Vaccination

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Disease, Stroke, or Other Cardiovascular Disease and Adult Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Vaccines are ... have immunity to this disease Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Type 1 ...

  2. Porcine circovirus diseases.

    PubMed

    Segalés, Joaquim; Allan, Gordon M; Domingo, Mariano

    2005-12-01

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is a member of the family Circoviridae, a recently established virus family composed of small, non-enveloped viruses, with a circular, single-stranded DNA genome. PCV2, which is found all over the world in the domestic pig and probably the wild boar, has been recently associated with a number of disease syndromes, which have been collectively named porcine circovirus diseases (PCVD). Postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS), porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome (PDNS) and reproductive disorders are the most relevant ones. Among them, only PMWS is considered to have a severe impact on domestic swine production. PMWS mainly affects nursery and/or fattening pigs; wasting is considered the most representative clinical sign in this disease. Diagnosis of this disease is confirmed by histopathological examination of lymphoid tissues and detection of a moderate to high amount of PCV2 in damaged tissues. Since PMWS is considered a multifactorial disease in which other factors in addition to PCV2 are needed in most cases to trigger the clinical disease, effective control measures have focused on the understanding of the co-factors involved in individual farms and the control or elimination of these triggers. PDNS, an immuno-complex disease characterized by fibrino-necrotizing glomerulonephritis and systemic necrotizing vasculitis, has been linked to PCV2, but a definitive proof of this association is still lacking. PCV2-associated reproductive disease seems to occur very sporadically under field conditions, but it has been characterized by late-term abortions and stillbirths, extensive fibrosing and/or necrotizing myocarditis in fetuses and the presence of moderate to high amounts of PCV2 in these lesions. Taking into account that scientific information on PCV2 and its associated diseases has been markedly expanded in the last 8 years, the objective of this review is to summarize the current state of knowledge of the most relevant aspects of PCV2 biology and PCVD. PMID:16583778

  3. Ethics and infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Selgelid, Michael J

    2005-06-01

    Bioethics apparently suffers from a misdistribution of research resources analogous to the '10/90' divide in medical research. Though infectious disease should be recognized as a topic of primary importance for bioethics, the general topic of infectious disease has received relatively little attention from the discipline of bioethics in comparison with things like abortion, euthanasia, genetics, cloning, stem cell research, and so on. The fact that the historical and potential future consequences of infectious diseases are almost unrivalled is one reason that the topic of infectious disease warrants more attention from bioethicists. The 'Black Death' eliminated one third of the European population during the 14th Century; the 1989 flu killed between 20 and 100 million people; and, in the 20th Century smallpox killed perhaps three times more people than all the wars of that period. In the contemporary world, epidemics (AIDS, multi-drug resistant turberculosis, and newly emerging infectious diseases such as SARS) continue to have dramatic consequences. A second reason why the topic of infectious disease deserves further attention is that it raises difficult ethical questions of its own. While infected individuals can threaten the health of other individuals and society as a whole, for example, public health care measures such as surveillance, isolation, and quarantine can require the infringement of widely accepted basic human rights and liberties. An important and difficult ethical question asks how to strike a balance between the utilitarian aim of promoting public health, on the one hand, and libertarian aims of protecting privacy and freedom of movement, on the other, in contexts involving diseases that are--to varying degrees--contagious, deadly, or otherwise dangerous. Third, since their burden is most heavily shouldered by the poor (in developing countries), infectious diseases involve issues of justice--which should be a central concern of ethics. I conclude by providing sociological and historical explanations of why the topic of infectious disease has not already received more attention from bioethicists. PMID:16167406

  4. Chronic Wasting Disease

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richards, Bryan

    2007-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is an always-fatal, neurological illness occurring in North American cervids (members of the deer family), including white-tailed deer, mule deer, elk and moose. Since its discovery in 1967, CWD has spread geographically and increased in prevalence locally. CWD is contagious; it can be transmitted freely within and among free-ranging populations. It is likely that diseased animals can transmit CWD to healthy animals long before they become clinically ill. Managing CWD in free-ranging populations is extremely difficult, therefore preventative measures designed to reduce the chance for disease spread are critically important.

  5. Zygomycetes in Human Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ribes, Julie A.; Vanover-Sams, Carolyn L.; Baker, Doris J.

    2000-01-01

    The Zygomycetes represent relatively uncommon isolates in the clinical laboratory, reflecting either environmental contaminants or, less commonly, a clinical disease called zygomycosis. There are two orders of Zygomycetes containing organisms that cause human disease, the Mucorales and the Entomophthorales. The majority of human illness is caused by the Mucorales. While disease is most commonly linked to Rhizopus spp., other organisms are also associated with human infection, including Mucor, Rhizomucor, Absidia, Apophysomyces, Saksenaea, Cunninghamella, Cokeromyces, and Syncephalastrum spp. Although Mortierella spp. do cause disease in animals, there is no longer sufficient evidence to suggest that they are true human pathogens. The spores from these molds are transmitted by inhalation, via a variety of percutaneous routes, or by ingestion of spores. Human zygomycosis caused by the Mucorales generally occurs in immunocompromised hosts as opportunistic infections. Host risk factors include diabetes mellitus, neutropenia, sustained immunosuppressive therapy, chronic prednisone use, iron chelation therapy, broad-spectrum antibiotic use, severe malnutrition, and primary breakdown in the integrity of the cutaneous barrier such as trauma, surgical wounds, needle sticks, or burns. Zygomycosis occurs only rarely in immunocompetent hosts. The disease manifestations reflect the mode of transmission, with rhinocerebral and pulmonary diseases being the most common manifestations. Cutaneous, gastrointestinal, and allergic diseases are also seen. The Mucorales are associated with angioinvasive disease, often leading to thrombosis, infarction of involved tissues, and tissue destruction mediated by a number of fungal proteases, lipases, and mycotoxins. If the diagnosis is not made early, dissemination often occurs. Therapy, if it is to be effective, must be started early and requires combinations of antifungal drugs, surgical intervention, and reversal of the underlying risk factors. The Entomophthorales are closely related to the Mucorales on the basis of sexual growth by production of zygospores and by the production of coenocytic hyphae. Despite these similarities, the Entomophthorales and Mucorales have dramatically different gross morphologies, asexual reproductive characteristics, and disease manifestations. In comparison to the floccose aerial mycelium of the Mucorales, the Entomophthorales produce a compact, glabrous mycelium. The asexually produced spores of the Entomophthorales may be passively released or actively expelled into the environment. Human disease with these organisms occurs predominantly in tropical regions, with transmission occurring by implantation of spores via minor trauma such as insect bites or by inhalation of spores into the sinuses. Conidiobolus typically infects mucocutaneous sites to produce sinusitis disease, while Basidiobolus infections occur as subcutaneous mycosis of the trunk and extremities. The Entomophthorales are true pathogens, infecting primarily immunocompetent hosts. They generally do not invade blood vessels and rarely disseminate. Occasional cases of disseminated and angioinvasive disease have recently been described, primarily in immunocompromised patients, suggesting a possible emerging role for this organism as an opportunist. PMID:10756000

  6. Bone hydatid disease

    PubMed Central

    Song, X H; Ding, L W

    2007-01-01

    Bone hydatid disease lacks a typical clinical appearance and image characteristics on x ray or CT are similar to those of tuberculosis, metastases and giant cell tumour or bone cysts. However, MRI does show distinctive diagnostic features of bone hydatid disease, especially in the spine. Until recently, treatment of osseous hydatid disease has been entirely surgical. Effective chemotherapy using benzimidazoles, particularly mebendazole, albendazole and combination treatments, has now been achieved in experimental studies and clinical practice. However, most of these drugs are still in the experimental stage or are in the early stages of clinical use. PMID:17675547

  7. Adventures in Infectious Diseases

    ScienceCinema

    Fisher-Hoch, Susan [University of Texas School of Public Health

    2014-06-25

    Dr. Susan Fisher-Hoch, Virologist and Epidemiologist, will discuss her research and travels associated with viral hemorrhagic fevers. From the Ebola outbreak in Reston, Virginia to outbreaks of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in South Africa, Senegal, and Saudi Arabia, Dr. Fisher-Hoch has studied and tracked the pathophysiology of these viral diseases. These studies have led her from the Center for Disease Control in the United States, to Lyon, France where she was instrumental in designing, constructing, and rendering operational a laboratory capable of containing some of the world's most dangerous diseases.

  8. Thromboangiitis obliterans (Buerger disease)

    PubMed Central

    Seebald, Jessica; Gritters, Lyndon

    2015-01-01

    Thromboangiitis obliterans (Buerger disease) is an occlusive, nonatherosclerotic, inflammatory vasculitis that causes ischemia in small and medium vessels. Most commonly, Buerger disease is diagnosed in 40- to 45-year-old men with a heavy smoking history. Our case exemplifies the most common presentation, diagnosis, and treatment in a 53-year-old male smoker who presents with arm pain and dusky cool fingers. A Buerger diagnosis requires exclusion of autoimmune, diabetic, and embolic causes. The only recognized treatment for this disease is smoking cessation. PMID:26649109

  9. Adventures in Infectious Diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher-Hoch, Susan

    2011-11-01

    Dr. Susan Fisher-Hoch, Virologist and Epidemiologist, will discuss her research and travels associated with viral hemorrhagic fevers. From the Ebola outbreak in Reston, Virginia to outbreaks of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in South Africa, Senegal, and Saudi Arabia, Dr. Fisher-Hoch has studied and tracked the pathophysiology of these viral diseases. These studies have led her from the Center for Disease Control in the United States, to Lyon, France where she was instrumental in designing, constructing, and rendering operational a laboratory capable of containing some of the world's most dangerous diseases.

  10. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pulmonary function and cardiovascular disease 

    E-print Network

    McAllister, David Anthony

    2011-07-05

    Cardiovascular disease is common in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) independently predicts cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Pathological changes in ...

  11. Disease Mapping In disease mapping, the rare disease counts Yi are assumed conditionally independently

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Tonglin

    Disease Mapping In disease mapping, the rare disease counts Yi are assumed conditionally. Disease mapping approaches are often formulated under the framework of Bayesian hierarchi- cal models prior distribution for . A common model in disease mapping methods is usually proposed as log(i) = µ

  12. Chronic Diseases and Health Promotion

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of blindness among adults. 6 Top of Page Health Risk Behaviors that Cause Chronic Diseases Health risk behaviors ... of Page The Cost of Chronic Diseases and Health Risk Behaviors In the United States, chronic diseases and ...

  13. CTEP Simplified Disease Classification Overview

    Cancer.gov

    CTEP Simplified Disease Classification Overview The CTEP Simplified Disease Classification (CTEP SDC) v1.0 is a restructured, more intuitive classification of diseases, designed to meet the needs of CTEP while still allowing reporting based on the

  14. Living with Carotid Artery Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Carotid Artery Disease If you have carotid artery disease, you can take steps to manage the ... treatment plan, and getting ongoing care. Having carotid artery disease raises your risk of having a stroke . ...

  15. Pneumococcal Disease Diagnosis and Treatment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Health Organization National Foundation for Infectious Diseases Sepsis Diagnosis and Treatment Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... pneumococcal disease, antibiotics can help prevent severe illness. Diagnosis If invasive pneumococcal disease , like meningitis or bloodstream ...

  16. American Autoimmune Related Diseases Association

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Summit. Read the press release ! Autoimmune Disease Awareness Month AARDA and the NCAPG held two important events for Autoimmune Disease Awareness Month. The State of Autoimmune Disease: a National Summit ...

  17. Animal Diseases and Your Health

    MedlinePLUS

    Animal diseases that people can catch are called zoonoses. Many diseases affecting humans can be traced to animals or animal products. You can get a disease directly from an animal, or indirectly, through the ...

  18. Occupational Disease in Connecticut, 2015

    E-print Network

    Occupational Disease in Connecticut, 2015 This report covers data for 2013 and was prepared under, as part of the Occupational Disease Surveillance Program, operated in cooperation with the Connecticut...............................................................................................19 Infectious Diseases

  19. Occupational Disease in Connecticut, 2014

    E-print Network

    Oliver, Douglas L.

    Occupational Disease in Connecticut, 2014 This report covers data for 2012 and was prepared under, as part of the Occupational Disease Surveillance Program, operated in cooperation with the Connecticut...............................................................................................18 Infectious Diseases

  20. Diabetes, Heart Disease, and Stroke

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of Diabetes Educators JDRF American Heart Association MedlinePlus Diabetes Disease Organizations Many organizations provide support to patients ... Disease Organizations (PDF, 293 KB). Alternate Language URL Diabetes, Heart Disease, and Stroke Page Content On this ...

  1. What Is a Neuromuscular Disease?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... About" Booklets MDA Programs Frequently Asked Questions A Teacher's Guide to Neuromuscular Disease An Invaluable Lesson Believe ... Say to the Students About the Neuromuscular Disease? Teacher Tips Neuromuscular Disease Descriptions Help from MDA MDA ...

  2. Lyme Disease: Fact or Fiction?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Lyme Disease Lyme Disease Preventing tick bites On people On pets ... and symptoms What you need to know about Lyme carditis Lyme Disease Rashes and Look-alikes Diagnosis ...

  3. Genetics Home Reference: Graves disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... arthritis, pernicious anemia, systemic lupus erythematosus, Addison disease, celiac disease, type 1 diabetes, and vitiligo. Variations in many ... or advice. Users seeking information about a personal genetic disease, syndrome, or condition should consult with a qualified ...

  4. Overview of Infectious Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to realize that not all germs (bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites) cause disease. In fact, a host ... we will become infected with harmful bacteria and fungi. The normal balance of bacteria can be upset ...

  5. Osgood-Schlatter Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Osgood-Schlatter disease (OSD), a common cause of knee pain in teens. The condition most often affects guys ... OSD include: pain, swelling, or tenderness below the knee pain that becomes worse during activities such as running ...

  6. Traveling with Celiac Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... now accommodate people with gluten intolerance, according to Smith, who has celiac disease. By land: If you ... items such as meat, cheese, and yogurt, recommends Smith. You might want to invest in a cooler ...

  7. Testing for Kidney Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Albumin Children and Kidney Disease Additional Kidney Information Contact Us Health Information Center Phone: 1-800-860- ... to share this content freely. September 17, 2014?? Contact Us Health Information Center Phone: 1-800-860- ...

  8. Kidney Disease Basics

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Albumin Children and Kidney Disease Additional Kidney Information Contact Us Health Information Center Phone: 1-800-860- ... kidneys work . Page last updated: March 1, 2012 ? ?????????????? Contact Us Health Information Center Phone: 1-800-860- ...

  9. Occlusive Peripheral Arterial Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a specialist is needed to confirm the diagnosis. Did You Know... Angioplasty can help certain types of ... In This Article Animation 1 Peripheral Arterial Disease Did You Know 1 Did You Know... Figure 1 ...

  10. Digestive Diseases Dictionary

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Anatomic Problems of the Lower GI Tract Iron Overload Disease Hemochromatosis Irritable Bowel Syndrome Irritable bowel syndrome ( ... Telephone: 301-496-3583 Contact the NIDDK Health Information Center Phone: 1-800-860-8747 | TTY: 1- ...

  11. About Chronic Kidney Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Rate Your Risk Quiz Featured Story African Americans & Kidney Disease Did you know that African Americans are ... Health checks Your Kidneys and You Featured Story Kidney Walk The Kidney Walk is the nation's largest ...

  12. Chronic kidney disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Kidney failure - chronic; Renal failure - chronic; Chronic renal insufficiency; Chronic kidney failure; Chronic renal failure ... Chronic kidney disease (CKD) slowly gets worse over months or years. you may not notice any symptoms for some ...

  13. Pregnancy and Kidney Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Rate Your Risk Quiz Featured Story African Americans & Kidney Disease Did you know that African Americans are ... Health checks Your Kidneys and You Featured Story Kidney Walk The Kidney Walk is the nation's largest ...

  14. Chronic Kidney Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... System How the Body Works Main Page Chronic Kidney Diseases KidsHealth > Kids > Health Problems > Bladder, Kidneys & Urinary ... re talking about your kidneys. What Are the Kidneys? Your kidneys are tucked under your lower ribs ...

  15. Chronic Kidney Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    You have two kidneys, each about the size of your fist. Their main job is to filter wastes and excess water out of ... help control blood pressure, and make hormones. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) means that your kidneys are damaged ...

  16. Lyme Disease Data

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the northeast and upper Midwest. Lyme Disease Data File To facilitate the public health and research communityâ??s ... Rightâ??click the link and select â??saveâ?ť. File Formats Help: How do I view different file ...

  17. American Behcet's Disease Association

    MedlinePLUS

    ... through a grant from Celgene Corporation. May is Behcet's Awareness Month Behcet's Disease Awareness Share your story and educate others about Behcet's: www.rareconnect.org/en/community/behcet-s-syndrome Upcoming ...

  18. Facts about Crohn's Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... has announced that it will per - mit the sale of Tysabri (natalizumab) for use by sufferers of ... skin problems, inflammation in the eyes or mouth, kidney stones, gallstones, and other diseases of the liver ...

  19. IMPROVING WATERBORNE DISEASE SURVEILLANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Public health surveillance has played a key role in controlling the spread of communicable disease and identifying the need for specific publich health practices, such as the filteration and chlorination of drinking water supplies. However, the characteristics of waterborne ou...

  20. Protagonists with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Haan, Joost

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson's disease is a complex disorder with many fascinating features. Its onset is creeping, the progression is slow but inevitable. There are motor symptoms, such as a tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, mask-like facial expression, and postural abnormalities, but also hallucinations, cognitive deterioration, and depression. In many novels, fictive patients with Parkinson's disease play a role. It seems that authors have used many aspects of the disease to emphasize their messages. Their narratives include themes such as rigidity, petrifaction, confusion, dementia, and hallucinations. In this chapter, as examples, several protagonists with Parkinson's disease will be described from works of John Updike, Jonathan Franzen, Sue Miller, J.M. Coetzee, and John Harding, among others. PMID:23485900

  1. Chronic Kidney Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... can also change the way your body uses minerals such as calcium and phosphorus that are used ... certain foods to help your body use these minerals better. If you have chronic kidney disease, you ...

  2. Reproductive Diseases in Cattle 

    E-print Network

    Sprott, L. R.; Field, Bob

    1998-12-03

    in Cattle State of Samples gestation needed for Diseases Organism How spread at abortion diagnosis Vaccination Remarks Brucellosis Bacterial Aborted fetuses, 6-9 months Blood sample Live vaccine in Cull infected animals. Do (Brucella abortus) fetal membranes...

  3. Diet - liver disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of toxic waste products. Increasing your intake of carbohydrates to be in proportion with the amount of ... severe liver disease include: Eat large amounts of carbohydrate foods. Carbohydrates should be the major source of ...

  4. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of the fallopian tubes, uterus, or ovaries. Most girls develop PID after getting sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), such as chlamydia or gonorrhea. Girls who have sex with different partners or don' ...

  5. Heavy Chain Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Google+ LinkedIn Merck Manuals Consumer Version Blood Disorders Plasma Cell Disorders Heavy Chain Diseases Drugs Mentioned In ... to Consumer Version DOCTORS: Go to Professional Version Plasma Cell Disorders Overview of Plasma Cell Disorders Monoclonal ...

  6. [Pregnancy in Gaucher disease].

    PubMed

    Boufettal, H; Quessar, A; Jeddaoui, Z; Mahdoui, S; Noun, M; Hermas, S; Samouh, N

    2014-05-01

    Gaucher disease is a lysosomal storage disorder due to deficiency of glucocerebrosidase. The association with pregnancy exposes the worsening of the disease and complications of pregnancy and puerperium. We report a case of pregnancy in a woman of 35 years, suffering from Gaucher disease type 1. Pregnancy had a favorable outcome. Complications occurred. They were kept under control. The outcome was favorable. The authors discuss the evolution of the disease during pregnancy and management of complications. They can occur during pregnancy, post-partum and breastfeeding. Support begins with preconception consultation. It involves finding and correcting the biological problems and deficiencies, and management of complications. Genetic counseling is important, it helps prevent inbreeding. PMID:23578492

  7. Office of Rare Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Diseases (GARD) Information Center. If you... Read more... Thanksgiving is National Family Health History Day! Each year since 2004, the US Surgeon General has declared Thanksgiving to be National Family... Read more... Your browser ...

  8. Large scale disease prediction

    E-print Network

    Schmid, Patrick R. (Patrick Raphael)

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to present the foundation of an automated large-scale disease prediction system. Unlike previous work that has typically focused on a small self-contained dataset, we explore the possibility ...

  9. What Is Vascular Disease?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Chronic Venous Insufficiency Congenital Vascular Malformation Critical Limb Ischemia (CLI) Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) Diabetes and Vascular ... and foot, and may progress to critical limb ischemia (CLI). Vascular disease affects the entire body and ...

  10. Diet and Chronic Disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Factors that improve insulin sensitivity usually lead to improvements in risk factors associated with the metabolic syndrome, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Naturally occurring bioactive compounds that have been shown to improve insulin sensitivity include chromium and polyphenols found in c...

  11. Leprosy (Hansen's Disease)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... disease that a person develops depends on the immunity of infected people. Some people in a family ... to M. leprae . Patients with good T-cell immunity (Th1 type) towards M. leprae exhibit tuberculoid (TT) ...

  12. Gestational Trophoblastic Disease Treatment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of GTD. Urinalysis : A test to check the color of urine and its contents, such as sugar, ... The information gathered from the staging process helps determine the stage of disease. For GTN, stage is ...

  13. Understanding cardiovascular disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of plaque. Narrow arteries reduce or block blood flow. When blood and oxygen can't get to the legs, it can injure nerves and tissue. High blood pressure (hypertension) is a cardiovascular disease that ...

  14. Metabolic Diseases of Muscle

    MedlinePLUS

    ... genes has allowed researchers to begin experiments with gene therapy, a potential cure for some metabolic dis- eases. ... to Myozyme for enzyme deficiencies; and development of gene therapies for metabolic diseases. The knowledge MDA-funded researchers ...

  15. Motor Neuron Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Research options fall largely into three categories: drugs, gene therapy, and stem cells. Clinical trials are testing whether ... neurons and surrounding support cells. Scientists have used gene therapy to halt motor neuron destruction and slow disease ...

  16. Smallpox Disease Images

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Methyl bromide Methyl isocyanate Nicotine Nitrogen mustard Opioids Organic solvents Osmium tetroxide Paraquat Phosgene Phosgene oxime Phosphine ... Doing What You Can Do Blog: Public Health Matters What's New A - Z Index Smallpox Disease Images* ...

  17. American Lyme Disease Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... regions, dog ticks are common vectors for Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever; however, not all bites result in ... humans in the U.S., including Lyme disease, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, babesiosis, and more recently, anaplasmosis and ...

  18. Pregnancy and Fifth Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Cheek Rash Parvovirus B19 and Other Illnesses References Pregnancy and Fifth Disease Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... half of pregnancy. Testing for Parvovirus B19 during Pregnancy A blood test for parvovirus B19 can show ...

  19. Parasitic Roundworm Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and allergic diseases NIAID Home Health & Research Topics Labs & Scientific Resources Funding About NIAID News & Events Volunteer ... or larvae (immature form) are found in the soil and enter the human body when a person ...

  20. Health & Medicine Heart Disease

    E-print Network

    Rogers, John A.

    See Also: Health & Medicine Heart Disease· Medical Imaging· Vioxx· Matter & Energy Electronics· Technology· Medical Technology· Reference Artificial heart· Biosensor· Circuit design· Machine· Science and stretchable electronics can map waves of electrical activity in the heart with better resolution and speed

  1. Fifth Disease (Erythema Infectiosum)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & ... rash spreads and red blotches (usually lighter in color) extend down to the trunk, arms, and legs. ...

  2. Chronic Beryllium Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... processes at a metal, alloy and oxide production plant. Occup Environ Med 1997; 54:605-612. Mroz ... for chronic beryllium disease in a beryllium machining plant. J Occup Environ Med 2001; 43:231-237. ...

  3. Caffeine and Heart Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... which can lead to dehydration. Caffeine is in coffee, tea, soft drinks, chocolate and some nuts. Whether ... see if there's a direct link between caffeine, coffee drinking and coronary heart disease. The results are ...

  4. Chronic Granulomatous Disease (CGD)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Area Chronic Granulomatous Disease (CGD) Phagocyte (purple) engulfing Staphylococcus aureus bacteria (yellow). Credit: NIAID CGD is a ... types of bacteria and fungi, including the following: Staphylococcus aureus Serratia marcescens Burkholderia cepacia Nocardia species Aspergillus ...

  5. Disease and Evolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Calvin

    1978-01-01

    Discusses disease and genetic disorders as evolutionary mechanisms. Emphasizes the archeological evidence from past human populations and societies, mentioning albinism, scurvy, sleeping sickness, bone conditions, various host-parasite relationships, rickets, sickle-cell anemia, diabetes, and influenza. (CS)

  6. Neuroinflammation in Alzheimer's disease

    E-print Network

    2015-01-01

    disease. Exploit e? ects of mutations, epigenetics, and the microbiomedisease, including single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in immune-associated genes, epigenetic immune regulation, and the e? ect of the microbiome

  7. Learning about Gaucher Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... History Initiative Finding Reliable Health Information Online Genetic & Genomic Science and Research Genetic & Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD) Genetic Disorders, Genomics & Healthcare Genomic Medicine Online Health Resources For Health ...

  8. Learning about Dercum Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... History Initiative Finding Reliable Health Information Online Genetic & Genomic Science and Research Genetic & Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD) Genetic Disorders, Genomics & Healthcare Genomic Medicine Online Health Resources For Health ...

  9. Heart Diseases and Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... very fast, but steady, heartbeat. Sick Sinus Syndrome ( SSS ) Sick sinus syndrome is not a disease, but ... the sinus node, is not working properly. In SSS , the heart rate can alternate between slow ( bradycardia ) ...

  10. Diabetes and Kidney Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... NKF Newsroom Contact Us You are here Home » Diabetes - A Major Risk Factor for Kidney Disease Diabetes ... of your body. Are there different types of diabetes? The most common ones are Type 1 and ...

  11. Hemoglobin C disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Clinical hemoglobin C ... Hemoglobin C is an abnormal type of hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen. It is ... Americans. You are more likely to have hemoglobin C disease if someone in your family has had ...

  12. Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... acquired CJD. CJD belongs to a family of human and animal diseases known as the transmissible spongiform ... CJD is the most common of the known human TSEs. Other human TSEs include kuru, fatal familial ...

  13. Symptoms of Celiac Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... before they can generate an autoimmune response to gluten and have their blood tested. 3.Any individual ... act in unpredictable ways. Some people can eat gluten for ?fty years and then develop celiac disease, ...

  14. Celiac Disease Tests

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the complications a person may experience, such as malnutrition , malabsorption , and the involvement of other organs. Tests ... someone has signs and symptoms suggesting celiac disease, malnutrition , and/or malabsorption . The symptoms are often nonspecific ...

  15. Wilson's Disease Association International

    MedlinePLUS

    ... who are afflicted with Wilson Disease, in all countries, so that when we speak to the legislature, the pharmaceutical companies, & ... About WDA History of WDA Board of Directors Medical Advisory Committee ...

  16. [Tick borne diseases].

    PubMed

    Holzer, B R

    2005-11-01

    It is known for many years that tick-borne diseases have worldwide a high economical impact on farming industry and veterinary medicine. But only in the last twenty years the importance of such diseases were notified in human medicine by the medical community and the public with emerging of the tick borne encephalitis virus and the description of Borrelia burgdorferi. It is often forgotten that many other infectious agents as bacteria, virus, Rickettsia or protozoa can be transmitted by ticks. Such diseases are rarely diagnosed in Europe either they are overlooked and misdiagnosed or they are connected with special professional activities. The development of new regions for tourism with different out door activities (adventure trips, trekking, hunting) leads to an exposure to different tick borne diseases, which are often misdiagnosed. PMID:16350539

  17. Peripheral Arterial Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Prevention Living With Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Atherosclerosis Coronary Heart Disease Heart Attack Smoking and Your ... in the body's arteries, the condition is called atherosclerosis . Over time, plaque can harden and narrow the ...

  18. FELINE BRONCHOPULMONARY DISEASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article discusses the current state of knowledge of naturally occurring feline bronchopulmonary disease; using in-depth diagnostic evaluation and pulmonary function testing to emphasize the diversity of the clinical manifestations and pathophysiologic abnormalities of these ...

  19. Pregnancy and Heart Disease

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... reading – health news for healthier living. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Health Problems in Pregnancy Heart Disease in Women Pregnancy ... Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page ...

  20. Scabies: Disease Symptoms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Parasites - Scabies Parasites Home Share Compartir Disease When a person is ... reaction) to the proteins and feces of the parasite. Severe itching (pruritus), especially at night, is the ...

  1. Kennedy's Disease Association

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Kennedy's Disease Click the image above for the article and video of an exclusive interview with Dr. ... a therapeutic target Click here to read these articles and more , X-linked Spinal Bulbar Muscular Atrophy, ...

  2. Kawasaki Disease (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from Nemours for Parents for Kids for Teens Parents Home General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & ... Other Parents Are Reading All About Allergies First Aid: What ...

  3. Peptic Ulcer Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... stomach and duodenum to diagnose or treat disease. Erosion – a very shallow sore, similar to an abrasion ... Ulcer – an open sore. Ulcers are deeper than erosions. Author(s) and Publication Date(s) Sean P. Caufield, MD, ...

  4. Motor neurone disease

    PubMed Central

    Talbot, K

    2002-01-01

    Motor neurone disease (MND), or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), is a neurodegenerative disorder of unknown aetiology. Progressive motor weakness and bulbar dysfunction lead to premature death, usually from respiratory failure. Confirming the diagnosis may initially be difficult until the full clinical features are manifest. For all forms of the disease there is a significant differential diagnosis to consider, including treatable conditions, and therefore specialist neurological opinion should always be sought. Clear genetic inheritance has been demonstrated in a minority of patients with familial ALS but elucidation of the biological basis of genetic subtypes is also providing important information which may lead to treatments for sporadic forms of the disease. In the absence of curative or disease modifying therapy, management is supportive and requires a multidisciplinary approach. If, as seems likely, complex inherited and environmental factors contribute to the pathogenesis of MND, future treatment may involve a combination of molecular based treatments or restoration of cellular integrity using stem cell grafts. PMID:12357010

  5. Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... tubes (airways). Sometimes these diseases directly damage the air sacs and airways. The various types of chILD can decrease lung function, reduce blood oxygen levels, and disturb the breathing process. Overview Researchers have only begun to study, define, ...

  6. The autoimmune diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, N.R.; Mackay, I.R.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 25 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Genetic Predisposition to Autoimmune Diseases; Systemic Lupus Erythematosus; Autoimmune Aspects of Rheumatoid Arthritis; Immunology of Insulin-Dependent Diabetes; and Adrenal Autoimmunity and Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndromes.

  7. Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... My Care Team Forms & Medical Records Travel, Locations & Logistics About Your Visit Prepare for Your Test Insurance & ... autoimmune disease. This means the body's natural immune system does not behave normally. Instead of serving to ...

  8. Gum (Periodontal) Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... forms of gum disease are gingivitis and periodontitis. Gingivitis and Periodontitis In gingivitis, the gums become red, swollen and can bleed easily. Gingivitis can usually be reversed with daily brushing and ...

  9. Sickle Cell Disease (SCD)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... also found in other ethnic and racial groups. Sickle cell anemia, where the patient inherited two hemoglobin S genes, is the most common form of sickle cell disease. There are variations of SCD where ...

  10. Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nasseri-Moghaddam, Siavosh

    2012-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is the term used for a group of diseases with yet unknown etiology, prevalence of which is increasing almost everywhere in the world. The disease was almost non-existent four decades ago in the east, including the middle-east, while now a days it is seen more and more. In addition to the increasing prevalence, our knowledge about its pathogenesis, clinical course, diagnosis, and treatment has changed dramatically over the past couple of decades. This has changed our concept of this group of diseases, their diagnosis, treatment, and treatment goals. Considering the vast literature on the subject, it is timely to review major topics in IBD with a look on the regional progress and knowledge as well. This essay is aimed to cover this task. PMID:24829639

  11. Pigmented Bowen's disease.

    PubMed

    Mota, Amanda Nascimento Cavalleiro de Macedo; Pińeiro-Maceira, Juan; Alves, Maria de Fatima Guimarăes Scotelaro; Tarazona, Mónica Jidid Mateus

    2014-01-01

    Pigmented Bowen's disease is rare, though more prevalent in men. It presents as a well-delineated plaque in areas unexposed to sun. There are reports of association with seborrheic keratosis, solar lentigo or exuberant pigmentation of genital and intertriginous regions. A specific dermoscopy finding is the presence of brown or gray dots in regular arrangement and coiled or dotted vessels. Thus, we aim to raise awareness of the diagnosis of pigmented Bowen's disease in pigmented lesions. PMID:25184929

  12. Diseases of Phenylalanine Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Charles E.

    1979-01-01

    Continuing investigation of the system that hydroxylates phenylalanine to tyrosine has led to new insights into diseases associated with the malfunction of this system. Good evidence has confirmed that phenylketonuria (PKU) is not caused by a simple lack of phenylalanine hydroxylase. Dihydropteridine reductase deficiency as well as defects in biopterin metabolism may also cause the clinical features of phenylketonuria. Furthermore, these diseases do not respond to the standard treatment for phenylketonuria. PMID:388868

  13. Zinc and gastrointestinal disease

    PubMed Central

    Skrovanek, Sonja; DiGuilio, Katherine; Bailey, Robert; Huntington, William; Urbas, Ryan; Mayilvaganan, Barani; Mercogliano, Giancarlo; Mullin, James M

    2014-01-01

    This review is a current summary of the role that both zinc deficiency and zinc supplementation can play in the etiology and therapy of a wide range of gastrointestinal diseases. The recent literature describing zinc action on gastrointestinal epithelial tight junctions and epithelial barrier function is described. Zinc enhancement of gastrointestinal epithelial barrier function may figure prominently in its potential therapeutic action in several gastrointestinal diseases. PMID:25400994

  14. Inflammatory bowel disease and risk of coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Rungoe, Christine; Nyboe Andersen, Nynne; Jess, Tine

    2015-11-01

    Emerging data have shown consistent evidence of an association between inflammation and development of atherosclerosis. Systemic autoimmune diseases are characterized by chronic inflammation and immune dysregulation, and diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus erythematosus are now commonly accepted to associate with development of cardiovascular disease, including coronary artery disease. However, the risk of cardiovascular disease in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), a chronic inflammatory disease of the gut, is still unclear and the magnitude of a potentially increased risk is continuously debated. The aim of this review is to give an update on the existing literature on the association between inflammatory bowel disease and risk of cardiovascular disease, in particular coronary artery disease, and further to discuss traditional and non-traditional risk factors in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:25912602

  15. Occupational Diseases in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun A

    2010-01-01

    Korea has industrialized since the 1970s. Pneumoconiosis in coal miners was the most common occupational disease in the 1970s to 1980s. With the industrialization, the use of many chemicals have increased since the 1970s. As a consequence, there were outbreaks of occupational diseases caused by poisonous chemicals, such as heavy metal poisoning, solvent poisoning and occupational asthma in the late 1980s and early 1990s with civil movement for democracy. Many actions have been taken for prevention by the government, employers and employees or unions. In the 1990s most chemical related diseases and pneumoconiosis have rapidly decreased due to improving work environment. In the late 1990s, cerebro-cardiovascular diseases related to job stress or work overloads have abruptly increased especially after the economic crisis in 1998. After the year 2000, musculoskeletal disorders became a major problem especially in assembly lines in the manufacturing industry and they were expanded to the service industry. Mental diseases related to job stress have increased. Infectious diseases increased in health care workers and afforestation workers. Occupational cancers are increasing because of their long latency, although the use of carcinogenic substances are reduced, limited, and even banned. PMID:21258589

  16. Genetics in Retinal Diseases.

    PubMed

    Riaz, Moeen; Baird, Paul N

    2016-01-01

    The phenotypic presentation of retinal diseases is typically underpinned by the presence of genetic variation represented by either polymorphic changes, mutations, copy number variations or epigenetic changes. Retinal dystrophies can broadly be divided into two forms, either monogenic (single-gene) or complex (multifactorial) diseases. Recent advances in molecular techniques such as genome-wide association studies and next-generation sequencing have revolutionized the discovery of genetic variants associated with different retinal disorders, including retinitis pigmentosa and age-related macular degeneration. Understanding the genetic profile of the disease not only helps in diagnostics but also in gene therapy, as recently shown for Leber's congenital amaurosis. Following the elucidation of many genetic features of retinal diseases, the task is now to make sense of this large amount of data to better understand as well as experimentally prove the physiological process of the retinal disease genes and the mechanisms behind the diseases. This in turn will lead to improved gene-based therapies and personalize treatments for patients. PMID:26501365

  17. Myocardial diseases of animals.

    PubMed Central

    Van Vleet, J. F.; Ferrans, V. J.

    1986-01-01

    In this review we have attempted a comprehensive compilation of the cardiac morphologic changes that occur in spontaneous and experimental myocardial diseases of animals. Our coverage addresses diseases of mammals and birds and includes these diseases found in both domesticated and wild animals. A similar review of the myocardial diseases in this broad range of animal species has not been attempted previously. We have summarized and illustrated the gross, microscopic, and ultrastructural alterations for these myocardial diseases; and, whenever possible, we have reviewed their biochemical pathogenesis. We have arranged the myocardial diseases for presentation and discussion according to an etiologic classification with seven categories. These include a group of idiopathic or primary cardiomyopathies recognized in man (hypertrophic, dilated, and restrictive types) and a large group of secondary cardiomyopathies with known causes, such as inherited tendency; nutritional deficiency; toxicity; physical injury and shock; endocrine disorders, and myocarditides of viral, bacterial, and protozoal causation. Considerable overlap exists between each of the etiologic groups in the spectrum of pathologic alterations seen in the myocardium. These include various degenerative changes, myocyte necrosis, and inflammatory lesions. However, some diseases show rather characteristic myocardial alterations such as vacuolar degeneration in anthracycline cardiotoxicity, myofibrillar lysis in furazolidone cardiotoxicity, calcification in calcinosis of mice, glycogen accumulation in the glycogenoses, lipofuscinosis in cattle, fatty degeneration in erucic acid cardiotoxicity, myofiber disarray in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and lymphocytic inflammation with inclusion bodies in canine parvoviral myocarditis. The myocardial diseases represent the largest group in the spectrum of spontaneous cardiac diseases of animals. Pericardial and endocardial diseases and congential cardiac diseases are seen less frequently; and, in contrast to man, coronary artery disease and myocardial ischemia are rather infrequent in animals. The present review shows clearly that the spectrum of myocardial diseases in animals is enlarging and that many newly recognized diseases are emerging and assuming considerable importance. For example, various heritable cardiomyopathies have recently been described in the KK mouse, cattle, and rats. Increasingly recognized myocardial diseases include cardiomyopathies in cats, dogs, and birds; anthracycline cardiotoxicity; furazolidone cardiotoxicity; ionophore cardiotoxicity; myocardial damage associated with central nervous system injuries; myocardial hypertrophy in Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 45 Figure 46 Figure 47 Figure 48 Figure 61 Figure 62 Figure 63 Figure 64 Figure 79 Figure 75 Figure 76 Figure 77 Figure 78 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 21 Figure 22 Figure 23 Figure 24 Figure 25 Figure 26 Figure 27 Figure 28 Figure 29 & 30 Figure 31 Figure 32 Figure 33 Figure 34 Figure 35 Figure 36 Figure 37 Figure 38 Figure 39 Figure 40 Figure 41 Figure 42 Figure 43 Figure 44 Figure 49 Figure 50 Figure 51 Figure 52 Figure 53 Figure 54 Figure 55 Figure 56 Figure 57 Figure 58 Figure 59 Figure 60 Figure 65 Figure 66 Figure 67 Figure 68 Figure 69 Figure 70 Figure 71 & 72 Figure 73 & 74 PMID:3524254

  18. Genetic architecture of human fibrotic diseases: disease risk and disease progression

    PubMed Central

    Gardet, Agnčs; Zheng, Timothy S.; Viney, Joanne L.

    2013-01-01

    Genetic studies of human diseases have identified multiple genetic risk loci for various fibrotic diseases. This has provided insights into the myriad of biological pathways potentially involved in disease pathogenesis. These discoveries suggest that alterations in immune responses, barrier function, metabolism and telomerase activity may be implicated in the genetic risks for fibrotic diseases. In addition to genetic disease-risks, the identification of genetic disease-modifiers associated with disease complications, severity or prognosis provides crucial insights into the biological processes implicated in disease progression. Understanding the biological processes driving disease progression may be critical to delineate more effective strategies for therapeutic interventions. This review provides an overview of current knowledge and gaps regarding genetic disease-risks and genetic disease-modifiers in human fibrotic diseases. PMID:24391588

  19. Affective behavioural disturbances in Alzheimer's disease and ischaemic vascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Hargrave, R.; Geck, L.; Reed, B.; Mungas, D.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To investigate affective change in Alzheimer's disease and ischaemic vascular disease and examine the contribution of white matter disease to psychopathology in these dementias. Based on earlier studies, it was predicted that: (1) depression would be more prevalent and severe in ischaemic vascular disease; (2) psychomotor slowing would be more prevalent in ischaemic vascular disease; (3) apathy would be more prevalent in ischaemic vascular disease; and (4) The degree of white matter disease would be positively correlated with the severity of psychomotor slowing.?METHODS—Ratings of affective/behavioural states and white matter disease were compared in 256 patients with Alzheimer's disease and 36 patients with ischaemic vascular disease or mixed dementia with an ischaemic vascular component using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and linear regression models.?RESULTS—The findings were: (1) decreased affect/withdrawal was more prevalent and severe in patients with ischaemic vascular disease and patients with white matter disease; (2) psychomotor slowing was more severe in patients with ischaemic vascular disease and patients with white matter disease; and (3) differences between Alzheimer's disease and ischaemic vascular dementia groups in the degree of psychomotor slowing were independent of the severity of white matter disease.?CONCLUSIONS—Future studies using structural and functional neuroimaging techniques would be helpful for examining the relation between neurobiological factors and affective/behavioural disturbances in dementia.?? PMID:10601400

  20. Disease Exchanges 20-365 Chapter 20. DISEASE EXCHANGES

    E-print Network

    Richerson, Peter J.

    Disease Exchanges 20-365 Chapter 20. DISEASE EXCHANGES Soldiers have rarely won wars. They more of history. Hans Zinsser (1935) I. Introduction A. Disease as an Example of Links Between Environment, Technology, & Biology We might say that disease is part of an "environment core," defined by analogy

  1. Calciphylaxis: from the disease to the diseased.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Tiago M; Frazăo, Joăo M

    2015-10-01

    Calciphylaxis, or calcific uremic arteriolopathy, is a vascular ossification-calcification disease involving cutaneous or visceral arterioles, with ischemic damage of the surrounding tissues, usually in the setting of chronic kidney disease. Pathogenesis is still unclear and probably comprises the participation of vascular smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells and macrophages surrounded by a uremic and/or pro-calcifying environment. According to the original concept of calcific uremic arteriolopathy coined by Hans Selye, risk factors may be divided into sensitizers and challengers and their knowledge is useful in clinical practice to pre-emptively identify both uremic and non-uremic 'at risk' patients and guide treatment. Systemic calcific uremic arteriolopathy is a rarity. Cutaneous calcific uremic arteriolopathy is more frequent and clinically presents as a first phase of cutaneous hardening and erythema, followed by a second phase of ulcerations and scars; these two phases are probably associated with the initial development of arteriolar lesion and tissue ischemic damage, respectively. Clinical history, physical examination, laboratory analysis, histology and imaging are the main tools to exclude important differential diagnoses and obtain a definitive diagnosis. Treatment is generally unrewarding and consists of rigorous control of comorbid conditions, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic strategies, avoidance of iatrogeny and wound and pain management. Prognosis remains poor in terms of morbidity and mortality. Efforts should be made towards a greater awareness of calcific uremic arteriolopathy, development of better therapies and improvement of clinical outcomes. PMID:25835730

  2. Glycoproteomics in Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Hyejin; Zhang, Jianpeng; Chung, Kathryn A.; Leverenz, James B.; Zabetian, Cyrus P.; Peskind, Elaine R.; Jankovic, Joseph; Su, Zhen; Hancock, Aneeka M.; Pan, Catherine; Montine, Thomas J.; Pan, Sheng; Nutt, John; Albin, Roger; Gearing, Marla; Beyer, Richard P.; Shi, Min; Zhang, Jing

    2009-01-01

    Protein glycosylation regulates protein function and cellular distribution. Additionally, aberrant protein glycosylations have been recognized to play major roles in human disorders, including neurodegenerative diseases. Glycoproteomics, a branch of proteomics that catalogs and quantifies glycoproteins, provides a powerful means to systematically profile the glycopeptides or glycoproteins of a complex mixture that are highly enriched in body fluids, and therefore, carry great potential to be diagnostic and/or prognostic markers. Application of this mass spectrometry-based technology to the study of neurodegenerative disorders (e.g., Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease) is relatively new, and is expected to provide insight into the biochemical pathogenesis of neurodegeneration, as well as biomarker discovery. In this review, we have summarized the current understanding of glycoproteins in biology and neurodegenerative disease, and have discussed existing proteomic technologies that are utilized to characterize glycoproteins. Some of the ongoing studies, where glycoproteins isolated from cerebrospinal fluid and human brain are being characterized in Parkinson's disease at different stages versus controls, are presented, along with future applications of targeted validation of brain specific glycoproteins in body fluids. PMID:19358229

  3. Scheuermann's disease: an update.

    PubMed

    Palazzo, Clémence; Sailhan, Frédéric; Revel, Michel

    2014-05-01

    Scheuermann's disease is a juvenile osteochondrosis of the spine. It is a disease of the growth cartilage endplate, probably due to repetitive strain on the growth cartilage weakened by a genetic background. The radiographic aspects are related to the vertebral endplate lesions and include vertebral wedging, irregularity of the vertebral endplate, and Schmorl's node (intraossous disk herniation). Disc alterations are frequent and may be secondary to dysfunction of the disc-vertebra complex. The definitions of Scheuermann's disease are varied; it can refer to the classical form of juvenile kyphosis, described by Scheuermann as well as asymptomatic radiographic abnormalities. Lumbar involvement is probably as frequent as the thoracic form and might be more painful. The first-line treatment is medical and includes rehabilitation and bracing. The earlier the start of treatment, the better the outcome, which highlights the importance of early diagnosis. Surgery is uncommon and must be limited to severe involvement after failure of conservative treatment. The natural history of Scheuermann's disease is unknown, but it might be associated with increased risk of back pain. The evolution of thoracolumbar and lumbar disease is unknown. PMID:24468666

  4. Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, James T.; Hamill, Robert W.; Maguire-Zeiss, Kathleen A.

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the most common age-related motoric neurodegenerative disease initially described in the 1800’s by James Parkinson as the ‘Shaking Palsy’. Loss of the neurotransmitter dopamine was recognized as underlying the pathophysiology of the motor dysfunction; subsequently discovery of dopamine replacement therapies brought substantial symptomatic benefit to PD patients. However, these therapies do not fully treat the clinical syndrome nor do they alter the natural history of this disorder motivating clinicians and researchers to further investigate the clinical phenotype, pathophysiology/pathobiology and etiology of this devastating disease. Although the exact cause of sporadic PD remains enigmatic studies of familial and rare toxicant forms of this disorder have laid the foundation for genome wide explorations and environmental studies. The combination of methodical clinical evaluation, systematic pathological studies and detailed genetic analyses have revealed that PD is a multifaceted disorder with a wide-range of clinical symptoms and pathology that include regions outside the dopamine system. One common thread in PD is the presence of intracytoplasmic inclusions that contain the protein, ?-synuclein. The presence of toxic aggregated forms of ?-synuclein (e.g., amyloid structures) are purported to be a harbinger of subsequent pathology. In fact, PD is both a cerebral amyloid disease and the most common synucleinopathy, that is, diseases that display accumulations of ?-synuclein. Here we present our current understanding of PD etiology, pathology, clinical symptoms and therapeutic approaches with an emphasis on misfolded ?-synuclein. PMID:23225012

  5. Disease specific protein corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, M.; Mahmoudi, M.

    2015-03-01

    It is now well accepted that upon their entrance into the biological environments, the surface of nanomaterials would be covered by various biomacromolecules (e.g., proteins and lipids). The absorption of these biomolecules, so called `protein corona', onto the surface of (nano)biomaterials confers them a new `biological identity'. Although the formation of protein coronas on the surface of nanoparticles has been widely investigated, there are few reports on the effect of various diseases on the biological identity of nanoparticles. As the type of diseases may tremendously changes the composition of the protein source (e.g., human plasma/serum), one can expect that amount and composition of associated proteins in the corona composition may be varied, in disease type manner. Here, we show that corona coated silica and polystyrene nanoparticles (after interaction with in the plasma of the healthy individuals) could induce unfolding of fibrinogen, which promotes release of the inflammatory cytokines. However, no considerable releases of inflammatory cytokines were observed for corona coated graphene sheets. In contrast, the obtained corona coated silica and polystyrene nanoparticles from the hypofibrinogenemia patients could not induce inflammatory cytokine release where graphene sheets do. Therefore, one can expect that disease-specific protein coronas can provide a novel approach for applying nanomedicine to personalized medicine, improving diagnosis and treatment of different diseases tailored to the specific conditions and circumstances.

  6. Nervous system Lyme disease.

    PubMed

    Halperin, John J

    2014-01-01

    Lyme disease, the multisystem infectious disease caused by the tick-borne spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi involves the nervous system in 10-15% of affected individuals. Manifestations include lymphocytic meningitis, cranial neuritis, radiculoneuritis, and mononeuropathy multiplex. Encephalopathy, identical to that seen in many systemic inflammatory diseases, can occur during active systemic infection. It is not specific to Lyme disease and only rarely is evidence of nervous system infection. Diagnosis of systemic disease is based on demonstration of specific antibodies in peripheral blood by means of two-tier testing with an ELISA and Western blot. Central nervous system infection often results in specific antibody production in the CSF, demonstrable by comparing spinal fluid to blood serologies. Treatment is straightforward and curative in most instances. Many patients can be treated effectively with oral antibiotics such as doxycycline; in severe CNS infection parenteral treatment with ceftriaxone or other similar agents is highly effective. Treatment should usually be for 2 to at most 4 weeks. Longer treatment adds no therapeutic benefit but does add substantial risk. PMID:24365431

  7. Hydration and disease.

    PubMed

    Manz, Friedrich

    2007-10-01

    Many diseases have multifactorial origins. There is increasing evidence that mild dehydration plays a role in the development of various morbidities. In this review, effects of hydration status on acute and chronic diseases are depicted (excluding the acute effects of mild dehydration on exercise performance, wellness, cognitive function, and mental performance) and categorized according to four categories of evidence (I-IV). Avoidance of a high fluid intake as a precautionary measure may be indicated in patients with cardiovascular disorders, pronounced chronic renal failure (III), hypoalbuminemia, endocrinopathies, or in tumor patients with cisplatin therapy (IIb) and menace of water intoxication. Acute systemic mild hypohydration or dehydration may be a pathogenic factor in oligohydramnios (IIa), prolonged labor (IIa), cystic fibrosis (III), hypertonic dehydration (III), and renal toxicity of xenobiotica (Ib). Maintaining good hydration status has been shown to positively affect urolithiasis (Ib) and may be beneficial in treating urinary tract infection (IIb), constipation (III), hypertension (III), venous thromboembolism (III), fatal coronary heart disease (III), stroke (III), dental disease (IV), hyperosmolar hyperglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis (IIb), gallstone disease (III), mitral valve prolapse (IIb), and glaucoma (III). Local mild hypohydration or dehydration may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of several broncho-pulmonary disorders like exercise asthma (IIb) or cystic fibrosis (Ib). In bladder and colon cancers, the evidence on hydration status' effects is inconsistent. PMID:17921462

  8. Kawasaki disease: Canadian update.

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, R D; Rose, V

    1985-01-01

    Kawasaki disease, or mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome, is a multisystem disorder that affects young children. Between 1979 and 1982, 357 patients from 15 university pediatric centres in Canada were reported to have the disease. The diagnosis of Kawasaki disease is based on six clinical features, including fever, conjunctivitis, cracked lips, reddening and swelling of the hands and feet, rash and cervical lymphadenopathy. A scoring system is described that may help predict the development of cardiovascular complications. Coronary artery involvement can be recognized early by two-dimensional echocardiography. Anti-inflammatory therapy, principally with acetylsalicylic acid, is indicated in the acute phase and antithrombotic treatment in the subacute and chronic phases of the disease if coronary artery aneurysms have developed. Prolonged follow-up for patients with aneurysms is necessary. The length of follow-up for patients without aneurysms will depend on the results of studies on patients with Kawasaki disease after they reach adulthood. Images Fig. 1A Fig. 1B Fig. 2A Fig. 2B PMID:3965058

  9. Homocysteine in ocular diseases.

    PubMed

    Ajith, Thekkuttuparambil Ananthanarayanan; Ranimenon

    2015-10-23

    Homocysteine (Hcy) is a derived sulfur-containing and non-proteinogenic amino acid. The metabolism of Hcy occurs either through the remethylation to methionine or transsulfuration to cysteine. Studies have identified hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) as one of the possible risk factors for a multitude of diseases including vascular, neurodegenerative and ocular diseases. Association of HHcy with eye diseases such as retinopathy, pseudoexfoliative glaucoma maculopathy, cataract, optic atrophy and retinal vessel atherosclerosis is established. The molecular mechanism underlying these ocular diseases has been reported as impaired vascular endothelial function, apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells, extracellular matrix alterations, decreased lysyl oxidase activity and oxidative stress. The formed homocysteine-thiolactone in HHcy has stronger cytotoxicity and pro-inflammatory properties which can induce lens opacification and optic nerve damage. The metabolism of Hcy requires enzymes with vitamins such as folic acid, vitamins B12 and B6. Despite the mixed conclusion of various studies regarding the level of these vitamins in elder people, studies recommended the treatment with folate and B12 to reduce Hcy levels in subjects with or without any defect in the enzymes involved in its metabolism. The levels of Hcy, folate, B6 as well as B12 should be measured early in patients with visual impairment that would aid to screen patients for life-threatening disorders related with HHcy. Elder patients may supplement with these vitamins in order to attenuate the ocular damages. This article discusses the association of Hcy in ocular diseases and the possible mechanism in the pathogenesis. PMID:26343924

  10. Disease networks. Uncovering disease-disease relationships through the incomplete interactome.

    PubMed

    Menche, Jörg; Sharma, Amitabh; Kitsak, Maksim; Ghiassian, Susan Dina; Vidal, Marc; Loscalzo, Joseph; Barabási, Albert-László

    2015-02-20

    According to the disease module hypothesis, the cellular components associated with a disease segregate in the same neighborhood of the human interactome, the map of biologically relevant molecular interactions. Yet, given the incompleteness of the interactome and the limited knowledge of disease-associated genes, it is not obvious if the available data have sufficient coverage to map out modules associated with each disease. Here we derive mathematical conditions for the identifiability of disease modules and show that the network-based location of each disease module determines its pathobiological relationship to other diseases. For example, diseases with overlapping network modules show significant coexpression patterns, symptom similarity, and comorbidity, whereas diseases residing in separated network neighborhoods are phenotypically distinct. These tools represent an interactome-based platform to predict molecular commonalities between phenotypically related diseases, even if they do not share primary disease genes. PMID:25700523

  11. Vannida Ket Disease Case Presentation

    E-print Network

    Brutlag, Doug

    Ket 1 Vannida Ket 10/4/12 BioC 118Q Disease Case Presentation Tay-Sachs Disease Tay-Sachs of Tay-Sachs is autosomal recessive, so a child will have Tay-Sachs disease if he or she receives the defective gene from both parents. Though Tay-Sachs disease is very rare for the general population

  12. Respiratory diseases of global consequence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Respiratory diseases are one of the two major categories of poultry diseases that cause the most severe economic losses globally, both as enzootic diseases and as causes of epizootics. Some respiratory diseases are of such importance they are reportable to the World Organization for Animal Health (O...

  13. Inherited liver diseases in adults.

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, A; Riely, C A

    1995-01-01

    Important inherited disorders causing acute and chronic liver disease include hemochromatosis, Wilson's disease, alpha 1-antiprotease (antitrypsin) deficiency, and cystic fibrosis. The detection of an index case has implications for screening family members. A normal life span can be expected with treatment in asymptomatic patients with Wilson's disease and hemochromatosis. We present a clinical approach to disease recognition, investigation, and screening. PMID:7483606

  14. Blackberry Yellow Vein Disease Complex

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new virus disease has emerged in the Midsouth and Southeastern United States and was named blackberry yellow vein disease (BYVD). Originally, it was thought the disease was caused by Tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV) as the virus was found in many diseased plants and symptoms were very similar to thos...

  15. Cell ultrastructure in disease.

    PubMed

    Laschi, R; Govoni, E

    1986-01-01

    The doctor of today must adopt the 'cellular way of thinking' in the evaluation of diseases. This ultrastructural outlook provides him with much indispensable information that also serves a practical purpose. A diseased cell organelle is at the basis of every clinical sign and any attempt of therapy must be aimed at that specific point of lesion. We intend, in the light of a long experience, to propose to clinicians a new way of thinking in which a precise correlation between symptoms and submicroscopic changes of the cell is considered. Many different examples amply justify this proposal. Electron microscopy can contribute by enabling identification of structural subcellular modifications suitable for the finest differential diagnosis, more and more complete understanding of pathogenic pathways of various diseases, the establishment of guidelines for precise pharmacological interventions at the molecular level. PMID:3738416

  16. Chronic wasting disease

    PubMed Central

    Sigurdson, Christina J.; Aguzzi, Adriano

    2009-01-01

    Until recently, chronic wasting disease of cervids, the only wildlife prion disease, was believed to be geographically concentrated to Colorado and Wyoming within the United States. However, increased surveillance has unveiled several additional pockets of CWD-infected deer and elk in 12 additional states and 2 Canadian provinces. Deer and elk with CWD have extensive aggregates of PrPSc not only in the central nervous system, but also in peripheral lymphoid tissues, skeletal muscle, and other organs, perhaps influencing prion shedding. Indeed, CWD is transmitted efficiently among animals by horizontal routes, although the mechanism of spread is unknown. Genetic polymorphisms in the Prnp gene may affect CWD susceptibility, particularly at codon 225 (S/F) in deer and codon 132 (M/L) in elk. Since CWD infects free-ranging animals and is efficiently spread, disease management will be a challenge. PMID:17223321

  17. Skin diseases in musicians.

    PubMed

    Crépy, Marie-Noelle

    2015-10-01

    Instrumental musicians are a risk group for skin diseases. A systematic review was performed on Pubmed database and in the musical literature. Most publications on dermatoses in musicians are case reports. The exact prevalence of skin diseases in musicians is unknown but high rates have been reported. The most at-risk musicians are percussionists, string and wind instrumentalists. Repeated physical trauma is a frequent cause of skin conditions in musicians (callosities, fiddler's neck syndrome…). The allergens most often reported in musicians' allergic contact dermatitis are metals (nickel, dichromate), exotic woods and cane reed components, colophony and propolis. The key preventive measures are early management of the skin disease, specific tests and avoidance of the causative allergens, together with better adjustment of playing techniques to reduce trauma. PMID:25905552

  18. Winter Cardiovascular Diseases Phenomenon

    PubMed Central

    Fares, Auda

    2013-01-01

    This paper review seasonal patterns across twelve cardiovascular diseases: Deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, aortic dissection and rupture, stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, hypertension, heart failure, angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, sudden cardiac death, venricular arrythmia and atrial fibrillation, and discuss a possible cause of the occurrence of these diseases. There is a clear seasonal trend of cardiovascular diseases, with the highest incidence occurring during the colder winter months, which have been described in many countries. This phenomenon likely contributes to the numbers of deaths occurring in winter. The implications of this finding are important for testing the relative importance of the proposed mechanisms. Understanding the influence of season and other factors is essential when seeking to implement effective public health measures. PMID:23724401

  19. Toxicology of Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Hultman, Per; Kono, Dwight H.

    2010-01-01

    Susceptibility to most autoimmune diseases is dependent on polygenic inheritance, environmental factors, and poorly defined stochastic events. One of the significant challenges facing autoimmune disease research is in identifying the specific events that trigger loss of tolerance and autoimmunity. Although many intrinsic factors, including age, sex, and genetics, contribute to autoimmunity, extrinsic factors such as drugs, chemicals, microbes, or other environmental factors can also act as important initiators. This review explores how certain extrinsic factors, namely drugs and chemicals, can promote the development of autoimmunity, focusing on a few better characterized agents that, in most instances, have been shown to produce autoimmune manifestations in human populations. Mechanisms of autoimmune disease induction are discussed in terms of research obtained using specific animal models. Although a number of different pathways have been delineated for drug/chemical-induced autoimmunity some similarities do exist and a working model is proposed. PMID:20078109

  20. Inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed Central

    Van Rosendaal, G M

    1989-01-01

    An increasing number of options are available for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease; the selection depends on the extent and severity of the disease. Experience with sulfasalazine and corticosteroids has led to a proliferation of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) compounds and experimentation with alternative corticosteroid preparations. Given rectally 5-ASA is particularly effective in the treatment of distal ulcerative colitis, and experience is accumulating with several oral formulations. Metronidazole is useful in some cases, and immunosuppressive agents have a role in some patients with chronic refractory disease. A variety of measures, such as nutritional therapy, surgery and psychosocial support, are important elements of therapy. Further therapeutic innovations are expected as the etiology and pathogenesis are clarified. PMID:2568163

  1. Biotherapies in Behçet's disease.

    PubMed

    Comarmond, Cloé; Wechsler, Bertrand; Bodaghi, Bahram; Cacoub, Patrice; Saadoun, David

    2014-07-01

    Behçet's disease (BD) is a systemic large-vessel vasculitis characterized by a wide clinical spectrum including recurrent oral and genital ulcerations, uveitis, vascular, neurological, articular, renal and gastrointestinal manifestations. Therapeutic management of BD depends on the clinical presentation and organ involved. Although colchicine, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agents and topical treatments with corticosteroids are often sufficient for mucocutaneous and joint involvements, more aggressive approach with immunosuppressive agents is warranted for severe manifestations such as posterior uveitis, retinal vasculitis, vascular, and neurological and gastrointestinal involvements. However, some patients still have refractory disease, relapse, sight threatening eye disease, or irreversible organ damage. Recent improvements in the understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms have led to the identification of potential targets and future biological therapies for BD. In contrast to current non-specific immunosuppressive agents, the emergence of biotherapies provides the possibility of interfering with specific pathogenic pathways. Novel targeted biotherapies might be used in the future for BD. PMID:24473176

  2. [Selenium in Graves' disease].

    PubMed

    Kryczyk, Jadwiga; Zagrodzki, Pawe?

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to present the current state of knowledge of the role of selenium in Graves' disease. Recently, in the pathogenesis and course of this autoimmune disease, more attention has been paid to the relationship between oxidative stress and the antioxidant system, where selenium compounds play an important role. The thyroid is the organ with the highest selenium concentration in the human body. Selenium compounds, having antioxidant properties, protect thyrocytes against the destructive effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are generated during the synthesis of thyroid hormones. Therefore, strengthening the body's defense mechanisms, which protect against the formation and activity of ROS during medical treatment of Graves' disease patients, may be an effective adjuvant in commonly used methods of therapy. PMID:23752601

  3. Astroglia in neurological diseases

    PubMed Central

    Verkhratsky, Alexei; Rodríguez, José J; Parpura, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Astroglia encompass a subset of versatile glial cells that fulfill a major homeostatic role in the mammalian brain. Since any brain disease results from failure in brain homeostasis, astroglial cells are involved in many, if not all, aspects of neurological and/or psychiatric disorders. In this article, the roles of astrocytes as homeostatic cells in healthy and diseased brains are surveyed. These cells can mount the defence response to the insult of the brain, astrogliosis, when and where they display hypertrophy. Interestingly, astrocytes can alternatively display atrophy in some pathological conditions. Various pathologies, including Alexander and Alzheimer's diseases, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, stroke and epilepsy, to mention a few, are discussed. Astrocytes could represent a novel target for medical intervention in the treatment of brain disorders. PMID:23658503

  4. Alcoholic liver disease: Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Suk, Ki Tae; Kim, Moon Young; Baik, Soon Koo

    2014-01-01

    The excess consumption of alcohol is associated with alcoholic liver diseases (ALD). ALD is a major healthcare problem, personal and social burden, and significant reason for economic loss worldwide. The ALD spectrum includes alcoholic fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. The diagnosis of ALD is based on a combination of clinical features, including a history of significant alcohol intake, evidence of liver disease, and laboratory findings. Abstinence is the most important treatment for ALD and the treatment plan varies according to the stage of the disease. Various treatments including abstinence, nutritional therapy, pharmacological therapy, psychotherapy, and surgery are currently available. For severe alcoholic hepatitis, corticosteroid or pentoxifylline are recommended based on the guidelines. In addition, new therapeutic targets are being under investigation. PMID:25278689

  5. Autoinflammatory diseases in pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Hausmann, Jonathan S; Dedeoglu, Fatma

    2013-07-01

    Autoinflammatory diseases (AIDs) are characterized by recurrent episodes of systemic and organ-specific inflammation. Many of these diseases share fever as a common presenting feature. Physicians need to consider AIDs in children with recurrent, unexplained fevers, when infectious and malignant causes have been discarded. This article discusses the differential diagnosis of recurrent fever in children, with a focus on AIDs. It discusses pharyngitis, and cervical adenitis and the monogenic autoinflammatory diseases that cause recurrent fevers including familial Mediterranean fever, hyper-immunoglobulin (Ig) D and periodic fever syndrome, tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome, cryopyrin associated periodic syndromes, deficiency of interleukin-36 receptor antagonist, Majeed syndrome, chronic atypical neutrophilic dermatosis with lipodystrophy and increased temperature syndrome, and deficiency of the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist. In addition, the granulomatous disorders, pyogenic sterile arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum, and acne and Blau syndrome, will be discussed. PMID:23827250

  6. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Vijayan, V.K.

    2013-01-01

    The global prevalence of physiologically defined chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in adults aged >40 yr is approximately 9-10 per cent. Recently, the Indian Study on Epidemiology of Asthma, Respiratory Symptoms and Chronic Bronchitis in Adults had shown that the overall prevalence of chronic bronchitis in adults >35 yr is 3.49 per cent. The development of COPD is multifactorial and the risk factors of COPD include genetic and environmental factors. Pathological changes in COPD are observed in central airways, small airways and alveolar space. The proposed pathogenesis of COPD includes proteinase-antiproteinase hypothesis, immunological mechanisms, oxidant-antioxidant balance, systemic inflammation, apoptosis and ineffective repair. Airflow limitation in COPD is defined as a postbronchodilator FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 sec) to FVC (forced vital capacity) ratio <0.70. COPD is characterized by an accelerated decline in FEV1. Co morbidities associated with COPD are cardiovascular disorders (coronary artery disease and chronic heart failure), hypertension, metabolic diseases (diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome and obesity), bone disease (osteoporosis and osteopenia), stroke, lung cancer, cachexia, skeletal muscle weakness, anaemia, depression and cognitive decline. The assessment of COPD is required to determine the severity of the disease, its impact on the health status and the risk of future events (e.g., exacerbations, hospital admissions or death) and this is essential to guide therapy. COPD is treated with inhaled bronchodilators, inhaled corticosteroids, oral theophylline and oral phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor. Non pharmacological treatment of COPD includes smoking cessation, pulmonary rehabilitation and nutritional support. Lung volume reduction surgery and lung transplantation are advised in selected severe patients. Global strategy for the diagnosis, management and prevention of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease guidelines recommend influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations. PMID:23563369

  7. Gut microbiota and liver diseases

    PubMed Central

    Minemura, Masami; Shimizu, Yukihiro

    2015-01-01

    Several studies revealed that gut microbiota are associated with various human diseases, e.g., metabolic diseases, allergies, gastroenterological diseases, and liver diseases. The liver can be greatly affected by changes in gut microbiota due to the entry of gut bacteria or their metabolites into the liver through the portal vein, and the liver-gut axis is important to understand the pathophysiology of several liver diseases, especially non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and hepatic encephalopathy. Moreover, gut microbiota play a significant role in the development of alcoholic liver disease and hepatocarcinogenesis. Based on these previous findings, trials using probiotics have been performed for the prevention or treatment of liver diseases. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the changes in gut microbiota associated with various liver diseases, and we describe the therapeutic trials of probiotics for those diseases. PMID:25684933

  8. [Mixed connective tissue disease and correlated diseases].

    PubMed

    Rebora, A; Parodi, A

    1990-09-01

    Overlap syndromes (OS) are complex clinical entities in which symptoms and serological profiles of diverse connective tissue diseases, mainly systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS), dermato/polymyositis and Sjögren syndrome, converge in a single patient. On the basis of the personal experience, the Authors try to classify OS from the serological point of view. Six different serological profiles have been recognized. Anti-U1RNP antibodies define the classical mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) according to Sharp. These patients are probably most common and present with Raynaud's phenomenon and puffy hands which never reach sclerodactily. In Italian patients, the symptoms of lupus erythematosus are not as frequent as in USA patients, probably due to the prevalence of Negroes in the latter. The absence of renal involvement is, instead, common as in other series. The general trend of these patients is towards progressive systemic sclerosis and lung fibrosis. Anti-Ku antibodies define another group of patients with the same clinical symptoms as MCTD and good prognosis. Anti-Ki-SL antibodies, by contrast, characterize a less common group of patients in which the renal and the pulmonary involvement is frequent. Their prognosis is poor. Anti-Sm and anti Ro/SSA antibodies, which are more commonly found in SLE patients, may be detected also in some of the patients with OS who have a poor prognosis. Patients with anti-SSA, for example, have, as in PSS, an early onset and a rapid development of lung fibrosis. Finally, anti-La/SSB antibodies define patients who associate Sjögren syndrome to SLE or PSS.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2079345

  9. Granulomatous Diseases Affecting Jaws.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Baddam Venkat Ramana; Kuruba, Kiran K; Yalamanchili, Samatha; Mupparapu, Mel

    2016-01-01

    The common aspect of all granulomatous diseases is the typical form of chronic inflammatory response with distinct microscopic granulomas that are formed secondary to either definitive etiologic agents, like bacteria, fungal, or parasitic, or due to an unknown etiologic agent, such as trauma, autoimmune, or even neoplastic process. Although they can be histologically distinct, granulomatous diseases demonstrate a variety of clinical features that may not seem to be inflammatory. Two types of granulomas are typically encountered: foreign body granulomas and immune granulomas. The differences between the two types of granulomas lie in the pathogenesis. PMID:26614955

  10. Pathogenesis of Crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    Boyapati, Ray; Satsangi, Jack

    2015-01-01

    Significant progress in our understanding of Crohn's disease (CD), an archetypal common, complex disease, has now been achieved. Our ability to interrogate the deep complexities of the biological processes involved in maintaining gut mucosal homeostasis is a major over-riding factor underpinning this rapid progress. Key studies now offer many novel and expansive insights into the interacting roles of genetic susceptibility, immune function, and the gut microbiota in CD. Here, we provide overviews of these recent advances and new mechanistic themes, and address the challenges and prospects for translation from concept to clinic. PMID:26097717

  11. Perianal Paget's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chang Woo; Kim, Yon Hee; Cho, Min Soo; Min, Byung Soh; Kim, Nam Kyu

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of extramammary Paget's disease (EMPD) is very low. An 84-year-old Korean man was treated with topical and oral medications at a local dermatologic clinic for a year, but the symptoms did not improve. He visited Severance Hospital and underwent a perianal skin biopsy and was finally diagnosed with EMPD. The authors performed a wide local excision according to a 1-cm margin around the lesion. For the skin and the soft tissue defects, bilateral inferior gluteal artery perforator flap transpositions were performed. The size of the lesion was 14 cm2 × 9 cm2, and the lateral and the basal margins were all disease free. PMID:25360433

  12. Sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, George R; DeBaun, Michael R; Quinn, Charles T; Steinberg, Martin H

    2004-01-01

    Much progress has been made during the past several decades in gaining understanding about the natural history of sickle cell disease and management approaches aimed at treating or even preventing certain disease complications. The characterization of the human genome now offers the opportunity to understand relationships regarding how gene polymorphisms as well as how environmental factors affect the sickle cell disease phenotype, i.e., the individual patient's overall clinical severity as well as their specific organ function. This chapter explores some of these recent advances in knowledge. In Section I, Dr. Michael DeBaun characterizes the problem of silent stroke in sickle cell disease, comparing and contrasting its clinical and neuroimaging features with overt stroke. Combined, these events affect virtually 40% of children with sickle cell anemia. New understanding of risk factors, associated clinical findings, and imaging technologies are impacting substantially on treatment options. The appreciable cognitive dysfunction and other sequelae of silent infarct demand more effective treatments and ultimate prevention. In Section II, Dr. Charles Quinn addresses the conundrum of why some patients with sickle cell disease do well whereas others fare poorly. Some risk factors have been known for years, based upon careful study of hundreds of patients by the Cooperative Study for Sickle Cell Disease and investigators studying the Jamaican newborn cohort. Other prognostic measures have only recently been defined. Dr. Quinn devotes special attention to stroke and chest syndrome as organ-related complications but also describes attempts to measure overall disease severity and to predict survival. Recently, investigators have attempted to predict factors responsible for early mortality in children and following onset of pulmonary hypertension in adults. In Section III, Dr. Martin Steinberg reviews pharmacologic approaches to sickle cell disease and the rationale for their use. In addition to the inhibition of hemoglobin S polymerization, newer targets have been defined during the past one to two decades. These include the erythrocyte membrane, changes in the red cell intracellular content (especially loss of water), endothelial injury, and free radical production. Hydroxyurea treatment attracted the greatest interest, but many uncertainties remain about its long-term benefits and toxicities. Newer "anti-sickling" agents such as decitabine and short-chain fatty acids also receive attention. Prevention of red cell dehydration, "anti-endothelial" therapy, and marshalling the potentially beneficial effects of nitric oxide are other new and exciting approaches. PMID:15561675

  13. CNS Diseases and Uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Allegri, Pia; Rissotto, Roberto; Herbort, Carl P.; Murialdo, Ugo

    2011-01-01

    A number of inflammatory, infectious, neoplastic and idiopathic disorders affect the eye and the central nervous system (CNS) concurrently or at different time frames. These conditions pose a diagnostic challenge to the clinician since they may present with similar ocular and neurological manifestations. The purpose of this review is to describe major neurological syndromes including multiple sclerosis, Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease, other autoimmune syndromes, and several infectious diseases which may affect the eye. This article may serve as a guide for the diagnosis and treatment of such disorders. It should be noted that these conditions have been viewed from a neurologist’s perspective thereby neurologic involvement is stressed. PMID:22454751

  14. Lyme Disease Diagnosis: Serology.

    PubMed

    Schriefer, Martin E

    2015-12-01

    Serology is the mainstay of confirmation of Lyme borreliosis; direct detection has limited application. Because standardized 2-tier testing (STTT) has been commonly used since the mid 1990s, standardization and performance have improved. STTT detection of early, localized infection is poor; that of late disease is good. The best indicator of stage 1 infection, erythema migrans, is presented in the majority of US cases and should prompt treatment without testing. Clinical and epidemiologic correlates should be carefully assessed before ordering STTT. STTT has great value in confirming extracutaneous infection. Recent developments promise to improve performance, particularly in early disease detection. PMID:26593258

  15. Alternative splicing and disease.

    PubMed

    Tazi, Jamal; Bakkour, Nadia; Stamm, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Almost all protein-coding genes are spliced and their majority is alternatively spliced. Alternative splicing is a key element in eukaryotic gene expression that increases the coding capacity of the human genome and an increasing number of examples illustrates that the selection of wrong splice sites causes human disease. A fine-tuned balance of factors regulates splice site selection. Here, we discuss well-studied examples that show how a disturbance of this balance can cause human disease. The rapidly emerging knowledge of splicing regulation now allows the development of treatment options. PMID:18992329

  16. Cardiac disease in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Nqayana, T; Moodley, J; Naidoo, DP

    2008-01-01

    Summary Summary This study was a retrospective review of patient charts of a relatively large number of patients with cardiac disease in pregnancy in a developing country. Ninety-five patients were evaluated; the majority (n = 36) were in the age group 21?25 years. Rheumatic heart disease was the commonest aetiology; eight women required balloon mitral valvuloplasty and one had a valve replacement at 32 weeks’ gestation. There were no maternal deaths but morbidity was high; 13 patients were admitted in cardiac failure, nine had atrial fibrillation and three required intensive-care management. There were 86 live births of the 97 deliveries. PMID:18568175

  17. Blount disease: an update.

    PubMed

    Sabharwal, Sanjeev

    2015-01-01

    Blount disease is a developmental disorder associated with childhood obesity. Based on whether the deformity is first noted before or after 4 years of age, early-onset and late-onset forms of Blount disease have been described. Besides physeal abnormalities of the proximal tibia, compensatory changes in the intra-articular morphology of the medial compartment of the affected knee are often noted on MRI scan. Both guided growth and acute and gradual correction via a proximal tibial osteotomy have roles in the surgical management of these patients. In order to optimize clinical outcome, frequent follow-up until skeletal maturity is recommended. PMID:25435033

  18. Inherited Retinal Degenerative Disease Registry

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-05-01

    Eye Diseases Hereditary; Retinal Disease; Achromatopsia; Bardet-Biedl Syndrome; Bassen-Kornzweig Syndrome; Batten Disease; Best Disease; Choroidal Dystrophy; Choroideremia; Cone Dystrophy; Cone-Rod Dystrophy; Congenital Stationary Night Blindness; Enhanced S-Cone Syndrome; Fundus Albipunctatus; Goldmann-Favre Syndrome; Gyrate Atrophy; Juvenile Macular Degeneration; Kearns-Sayre Syndrome; Leber Congenital Amaurosis; Refsum Syndrome; Retinitis Pigmentosa; Retinitis Punctata Albescens; Retinoschisis; Rod-Cone Dystrophy; Rod Dystrophy; Rod Monochromacy; Stargardt Disease; Usher Syndrome

  19. Pelvic inflammatory disease

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Pelvic inflammatory disease is caused by infection of the upper female genital tract and is often asymptomatic. Pelvic inflammatory disease is the most common gynaecological reason for admission to hospital in the US, and is diagnosed in approximately 1% of women aged 16 to 45 years consulting their GP in England and Wales. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: How do different antimicrobial regimens compare when treating women with confirmed pelvic inflammatory disease? What are the effects of routine antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent pelvic inflammatory disease before intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD) insertion? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to September 2013 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up to date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the European Medicines Agency (EMA), and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 13 RCTs or systematic reviews of RCTs that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: antibiotics (oral, parenteral, different durations, different regimens) and routine antibiotic prophylaxis (before intrauterine device insertion in women at high risk or low risk). PMID:24330771

  20. Pelizaeus-Merzbacher Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... disease (PMD) is a rare, progressive, degenerative central nervous system disorder in which coordination, motor abilities, and intellectual function ... Spastic Paraplegia Type 2 (SPG2). The PLP1-related disorders span a ... nervous system involvement (PMD) to progressive weakness and stiffness of ...

  1. Machado-Joseph Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... longer repeat expansions tend to cause disease that begins earlier in life and shows a broader range of neurological symptoms. In most individuals with MJD, symptoms typically begin in the third to fifth decade of life but can start as early as young childhood ...

  2. Grafting for disease resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The primary purpose of grafting vegetables worldwide has been to provide resistance to soilborne diseases. The potential loss of methyl bromide as a soil fumigant combined with pathogen resistance to commonly used pesticides will make resistance to soil born pathogens even more important in the futu...

  3. Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... your blood. Your doctor will then use your creatinine test result to figure out your eGFR. An eGFR less than 60 for 3 months or more may be a sign of kidney disease. Urine Test This test tells your doctor if there ...

  4. POTATO DISEASE RESISTANCE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potential to use systemic acquired resistance for disease control in potato is discussed. The mechanism of how SAR works in plants is described. Potato was found to have high salicylic acid levels in all tissues examined. The defense gene PR-1 was constitutively expressed in potato, in contrast ...

  5. Lyme Disease Tests

    MedlinePLUS

    ... services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities PLEASE NOTE: Your web browser does not have JavaScript enabled. Unless you enable Javascript , your ability to navigate and access the features of this website will be ... Lyme Disease Tests Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ...

  6. Menopause and Heart Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... that emphasizes: fruits, vegetables, whole grains, low-fat dairy products, poultry, fish and nuts, while limiting red meat and sugary foods and beverages. Women should aim for a 150 minutes of physical activity each week to help prevent heart disease , and an hour daily for a weight loss ...

  7. Epigenetics and cardiovascular disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite advances in the prevention and management of cardiovascular disease (CVD), this group of multifactorial disorders remains a leading cause of mortality worldwide. CVD is associated with multiple genetic and modifiable risk factors; however, known environmental and genetic influences can only...

  8. BORNA DISEASE IN EQUINES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Borna disease (BD) is a naturally occuring, infectious, usually fatal, progressive meningopolioencephalitis, predominantly affecting horses and sheep, more rarely other Equidae, cattle, goats, rabbits and exceptionally a variety of other animal species and possibly man. Synonyms used in the past suc...

  9. Almond Brownline Disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A recent outbreak of almond brownline that occurred in Sutter County in 2008, provided an opportunity to investigate on the nature of the pathogen associated with the disease. A grant support was provided by the California Almond Research Board and the Tree Fruits & Nuts and Grapevines Advisory Boar...

  10. Wilson's Disease Stacy Aguilera

    E-print Network

    Brutlag, Doug

    base pairs 51,404,805 to 51,483,630 ATPase family Protein: copper-transporting ATPase 2 Exports Degeneration Copper Metabolism Liver, Brain, Eyes, Kidneys Toxic Menkes Disease Frequency: 1 copper from cells #12;Mutations Complete Gene Sequencing: mutations in 98% affected +260 mutations

  11. Modeling disease elimination.

    PubMed

    Somerville, Kevin; Francombe, Paula

    2005-01-01

    The effect of the elimination of mortality from heart disease and cancer was modelled mathematically to allow for the effect of other competing causes of death. The model allows for potential dependence between heart disease or cancer and other causes of death by using cupola functions, which analyse the individual risk itself and the dependence structure between causes of death by using correlation coefficients. As the strength of these risk associations is unknown, the study investigated both full positive and negative dependence and compared this with no dependence. Depending upon the degree and type of correlation assumed, positive or negative, the life expectancy at birth is increased by between 3 months and 6.5 years if cancer mortality was eliminated, and between 5 months and 7.5 years in the case of heart disease. In addition, estimates of these effects on life insurance premia can be made with the greatest reduction for women with the elimination of cancer mortality. These figures provide a range of improvements in life expectancy and the consequent effect on life insurance risk premium rates which elimination of either of these important diseases would produce. PMID:15895694

  12. Newcastle disease virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV), a member of the Avulavirus genus in the Paramyxoviridae family, has a ribonucleic acid (RNA) genome that is negative sense, non-segmented, and single-stranded. The genome codes for six structural proteins: nucleocapsid, phosphoprotein, matrix, fusion, hemagglutinin-neu...

  13. PEPTIC ULCER DISEASE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) is an ulcerative condition of the stomach or duodenum that may be accompanied by mucosal inflammation. PUD is classified as primary when it occurs in healthy children and as secondary when underlying disorders associated with injury, illness, or drug therapy co-exists. Pri...

  14. Heavy Chain Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... cells often prevents proper absorption of nutrients from food (malabsorption), resulting in severe diarrhea and weight loss. A rare form that affects the respiratory tract also exists. Blood tests are done when alpha heavy chain disease is suspected. Serum protein electrophoresis, measurement of ...

  15. Preeclampsia: Syndrome or Disease?

    PubMed

    Myatt, Leslie; Roberts, James M

    2015-11-01

    The focus on disease mechanisms underlying the hypertension and proteinuria defining preeclampsia has increased knowledge of the pathophysiology yet we lack both therapy and predictors. We propose this is in part due to the fact that diagnostic findings identify a "preeclampsia syndrome" but do not necessarily indicate the most important pathophysiology nor if organs are involved as cause or consequence. The increased risk for later life cardiovascular disease in women who develop preeclampsia suggests the stress test of pregnancy exposes pre-existing subclinical vascular disease. The dogma that inadequate trophoblast invasion and ischemia/reperfusion injury to the placenta is "the" cause of preeclampsia is more relevant to early onset preeclampsia (<34 weeks). There is much less evidence for defective placentation in late onset preeclampsia where maternal constitutive factors or susceptibility to vascular damage is more relevant. The contribution of differing disease phenotypes to the syndrome may explain the inability of biomarker studies to identify all preeclampsia. Identification of phenotypes will require large amounts of prospective clinical data and biospecimens, collected in a harmonized manner with analysis in an unbiased discovery approach. PMID:26362531

  16. Lysosomal lipid storage diseases.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Heike; Sandhoff, Konrad

    2011-06-01

    Lysosomal lipid storage diseases, or lipidoses, are inherited metabolic disorders in which typically lipids accumulate in cells and tissues. Complex lipids, such as glycosphingolipids, are constitutively degraded within the endolysosomal system by soluble hydrolytic enzymes with the help of lipid binding proteins in a sequential manner. Because of a functionally impaired hydrolase or auxiliary protein, their lipid substrates cannot be degraded, accumulate in the lysosome, and slowly spread to other intracellular membranes. In Niemann-Pick type C disease, cholesterol transport is impaired and unesterified cholesterol accumulates in the late endosome. In most lysosomal lipid storage diseases, the accumulation of one or few lipids leads to the coprecipitation of other hydrophobic substances in the endolysosomal system, such as lipids and proteins, causing a "traffic jam." This can impair lysosomal function, such as delivery of nutrients through the endolysosomal system, leading to a state of cellular starvation. Therapeutic approaches are currently restricted to mild forms of diseases with significant residual catabolic activities and without brain involvement. PMID:21502308

  17. Degreeism: Disease or Cure?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fry, Gerald W.

    1981-01-01

    Drawing upon recent literature on educational inflation, overeducation, and the "diploma disease," positive and negative aspects of degreeism are examined. Suggestions are presented for addressing the problem of degreeism including: degree tax, incomes policy, improved labor market information services, and modified civil service procedures.…

  18. Lung Diseases and Conditions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Explore How the Lungs Work What Are... The Respiratory System What Happens When You Breathe What Controls Your Breathing Lung Diseases & Conditions Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Asthma Bronchitis COPD How the Heart Works Respiratory Failure Send a link to NHLBI to someone ...

  19. Lou Gehrig's Disease (ALS)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Gehrig's disease is a disorder that's also called amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (say: ah-my-uh-TRO-fik LA-tuh- ... for without "myo" for muscle "trophic" for nourishment "lateral" for ... or scarring So, amyotrophic means that the muscles have lost their nourishment. ...

  20. Hallervoredn-Spatz disease.

    PubMed

    2006-08-01

    Hallervorden-Spatz disease is an extremely rare cause of dystonia that carries a poor prognosis. A case occurring in an 11-year-old girl with progressive extra-pyramidal symptoms since infancy is described. The clinical picture and typical radiological findings are described. PMID:16899188

  1. Dynamics of infectious diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rock, Kat; Brand, Sam; Moir, Jo; Keeling, Matt J.

    2014-02-01

    Modern infectious disease epidemiology has a strong history of using mathematics both for prediction and to gain a deeper understanding. However the study of infectious diseases is a highly interdisciplinary subject requiring insights from multiple disciplines, in particular a biological knowledge of the pathogen, a statistical description of the available data and a mathematical framework for prediction. Here we begin with the basic building blocks of infectious disease epidemiology—the SIS and SIR type models—before considering the progress that has been made over the recent decades and the challenges that lie ahead. Throughout we focus on the understanding that can be developed from relatively simple models, although accurate prediction will inevitably require far greater complexity beyond the scope of this review. In particular, we focus on three critical aspects of infectious disease models that we feel fundamentally shape their dynamics: heterogeneously structured populations, stochasticity and spatial structure. Throughout we relate the mathematical models and their results to a variety of real-world problems.

  2. Neurobiology of Huntington's Disease.

    PubMed

    De Souza, Rebecca A G; Leavitt, Blair R

    2015-01-01

    Of the neurodegenerative diseases presented in this book, Huntington's disease (HD) stands as the archetypal autosomal dominantly inherited neurodegenerative disorder. Its occurrence through generations of affected families was noted long before the basic genetic underpinnings of hereditary diseases was understood. The early classification of HD as a distinct hereditary neurodegenerative disorder allowed the study of this disease to lead the way in the development of our understanding of the mechanisms of human genetic disorders. Following its clinical and pathologic characterization, the causative genetic mutation in HD was subsequently identified as a trinucleotide (CAG) repeat expansion in the huntingtin (HTT) gene, and consequently, the HTT gene and huntingtin protein have been studied in great detail. Despite this concentrated effort, there is still much about the function of huntingtin that still remains unknown. Presented in this chapter is an overview of the current knowledge on the normal function of huntingtin and some of the potential neurobiologic mechanisms by which the mutant HTT gene may mediate neurodegeneration in HD. PMID:25205327

  3. Lyme Disease in Construction

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a tick bite. It looks like a small red bullseye that is spreading out. Look carefully. Only 12 of the workers who had Lyme disease on Long Island knew they had been bitten. Deer tick (larger than actual size) Remove ticks from ...

  4. Genetics of disease resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic resistance is alluring from both the industrial and academic viewpoints. With respect to poultry companies, losses due to diseases induced by infectious pathogens continue to be a significant issue and can be the key factor in determining economic viability. This is because pathogens lead ...

  5. Fungal diseases of fish.

    PubMed

    Yanong, Roy P E

    2003-05-01

    Fungal diseases of fish have become increasingly important over the past 20 years. The traditional "fungi" are comprised of members from several different taxonomic kingdoms. Saprolegnia and other typical water molds are the "classic" secondary invaders, infecting more superficial areas of the body and requiring compromise of the exterior of the fish, poor water quality, or general immunosuppression. An increasing number of other environmental fungi are being reported from diseased fish, further testament to the opportunistic nature of many fungi. Common procedures such as air bladder deflation for many marine species collected at depth under nonsterile conditions may result in fungal infections of the swim bladder. Some fungi such as Aphanomyces and Fusarium can cause more invasive or systemic disease, often associated with changes in environmental factors such as temperature and salinity. Other fungi such as I. hoferi can be even more insidious and chronic, mimicking mycobacteriosis to a degree. Fungal diseases, in general, are very difficult to control or treat once they have taken hold. Prevention is, as always, the best medicine. Increased knowledge of basic biology will help guide treatment and control methods. Further research on general predisposing factors, species susceptibilities, immune system effects and other protective mechanisms in fish and more effective chemotherapeutics for external and systemic infections are needed. PMID:12836630

  6. Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... enabling JavaScript. Top Banner Content Area Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Sexually Transmitted Diseases STDs are an important global health priority because of their devastating impact on women and infants and their inter-relationships with HIV/AIDS. STDs and HIV are linked ...

  7. Genetics of celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Ricańo-Ponce, Isis; Wijmenga, Cisca; Gutierrez-Achury, Javier

    2015-06-01

    New insights into the underlying molecular pathophysiology of celiac disease (CeD) over the last few years have been guided by major advances in the fields of genetics and genomics. The development and use of the Immunochip genotyping platform paved the way for the discovery of 39 non-HLA loci associated to CeD, and for follow-up functional genomics studies that pinpointed new disease genes, biological pathways and regulatory elements. By combining information from genetics with gene expression data, it has become clear that CeD is a disease with a dysregulated immune response, which can probably occur in a variety of immune cells. This type of information is crucial for our understanding of the disease and for providing leads for developing alternative therapies to the current gluten-free diet. In this review, we place these genetic findings in a wider context and suggest how they can assist the clinical care of CeD patients. PMID:26060105

  8. Income and heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Lemstra, Mark; Rogers, Marla; Moraros, John

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine the unadjusted and adjusted effects of income on heart disease; its main disease intermediary, high blood pressure; and its main behavioural risk factors, smoking and physical inactivity. Design Random-digit dialing telephone survey collected through the Canadian Community Health Survey by Statistics Canada. Setting Saskatchewan. Participants A total of 27 090 residents aged 20 years and older; each health region in Saskatchewan was represented. Main outcome measures Overall, 178 variables related to demographic characteristics, socioeconomic factors, behaviour, life stress, disease intermediaries, health outcomes, and access to health care were analyzed to determine their unadjusted and adjusted effects on heart disease. Results The mean age of the sample was 52.6 years. Women represented 55.9% of the sample. Most respondents were married (52.3%) and had some postsecondary or graduate education (52.5%). The mean personal income was $23 931 and the mean household income was $37 533. All models statistically controlled for age. Five covariates independently associated with heart disease included high blood pressure, household income of $29 999 or less per year, being a daily smoker, male sex, and being physically inactive. Five covariates independently associated with high blood pressure included being overweight or obese, being a daily smoker, household income of $29 999 or less per year, male sex, and being physically inactive. Five covariates independently associated with daily smoking included being a visible minority, household income of $29 999 or less per year, not being overweight or obese, education level of less than secondary school, and male sex. Six covariates independently associated with physical inactivity included being a visible minority, being overweight or obese, education level of less than secondary school, male sex, household income of $29 999 or less per year, and being a daily smoker. Conclusion Household income was strongly and independently associated with heart disease; its main disease intermediary, high blood pressure; and its main behavioural risk factors, smoking and physical inactivity. Income inequality is a neglected risk factor worthy of appropriate public debate and policy intervention.

  9. Disease in marine aquaculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sindermann, C. J.

    1984-03-01

    It has become almost a truism that success in intensive production of animals must be based in part on development of methods for disease diagnosis and control. Excellent progress has been made in methods of diagnosis for major pathogens of cultivated fish, crustacean and molluscan species. In many instances these have proved to be facultative pathogens, able to exert severe effects in populations of animals under other stresses (marginal physical or chemical conditions; overcrowding). The concept of stress management as a critical prophylactic measure is not new, but its significance is being demonstrated repeatedly. The particular relationship of water quality and facultative pathogens such as Vibrio, Pseudomonas and Aeromonas species has been especially apparent. Virus diseases of marine vertebrates and invertebrates — little known two decades ago — are now recognized to be of significance to aquaculture. Virus infections of oysters, clams, shrimps and crabs have been described, and mortalities have been attributed to them. Several virus diseases of fish have also been recognized as potential or actual problems in culture. In some instances, the pathogens seem to be latent in natural populations, and may be provoked into patency by stresses of artificial environments. One of the most promising approaches to disease prophylaxis is through immunization. Fish respond well to various vaccination procedures, and new non-stressing methods have been developed. Vibriosis — probably the most severe disease of ocean-reared salmon — has been controlled to a great extent through use of a polyvalent bacterin, which can be modified as new pathogenic strains are isolated. Prophylactic immunization for other bacterial diseases of cultivated fish has been attempted, especially in Japan, with some success. There is also some evidence that the larger crustaceans may be immunologically responsive, and that at least short-term protection may be afforded to cultured populations. Some progress has been made in marine disease control through chemical treatment in intensive culture systems, principally through application and modification of methods developed for freshwater aquaculture. Major constraints to use of chemicals are restrictions due to public health concerns about food contamination, and the negative effects of some chemicals on biological filters and on algal food production. There is a continuing need, however, for development of specific treatments for acute disease episodes — such as the nitrofurans, developed in Japan, which are effective for some bacterial diseases. The history of aquaculture — freshwater as well as marine — has been characterized by transfers and introductions of species to waters beyond their present ranges. The process continues, and carries with it the possibility of transfers of pathogens to native species and to the recipient culture environments. International groups are attempting to define codes of practice to govern such mass movements, but examples of introductions of real or potential pathogens already exist. The most recent and the most dramatic is the world wide transfer of a virus pathogen of penaeid shrimps. Earlier examples include the introduction of a protozoan pathogen of salmonids to the western hemisphere, and the introduction of a parasitic copepod from the Far East to the west coast of North America and to France. The conclusion is inevitable — diseases are substantial deterrents to aquaculture production. Diagnostic and control procedures are and will be important components of emerging aquaculture technology.

  10. Behçets disease in children.

    PubMed

    Pivetti-Pezzi, P; Accorinti, M; Abdulaziz, M A; La Cava, M; Torella, M; Riso, D

    1995-01-01

    Ophthalmic and clinical analysis were carried out on 16 children and 122 adult patients affected by Behçet's disease (BD) to delineate the clinical features of BD in childhood and to investigate the differences between the expression of the disease in children and adults. The mean follow-up period was 7.8 and 7 years, respectively. Pediatric onset of BD was found in 7.6% of all the cases with a male:female ratio of 1.29:1. The complete type of the disease was observed in 50% of the children. No statistical significant differences were noted between children and adults in the incidence of oral aphthae, genital ulcers, skin lesions, arthritis, gastrointestinal involvement, neuropsychiatric symptoms and the presence of HLA-B51. Thrombophlebitis was associated with the onset of the disease in adult age (P=0.022). Uveitis alone or in combination with other major symptoms was the presenting sign in a higher percentage of children (P=0.077), As in adults, in children diffuse uveitis was the most common type of ocular inflammation, while ocular complications have been found mainly in children (P=0.021), who more frequently developed cataract, maculopathy and retinal detachment (P=0.024). Both adult and young male patients have shown a lower age at onset and higher rate of optic atrophy than females. In conclusion, no significant differences have been found between children and adults in the expression of the major and most of the minor symptoms of BD. Ocular involvement in childhood may be very severe, as was confirmed by the high frequency of diffuse uveitis and ocular complications. Young males, as adult males, showed an earlier onset of the disease and a worse ocular prognosis. PMID:8577084

  11. [Does vaccination cause disease?].

    PubMed

    Zingg, W

    2005-10-01

    Not many inventions in medical history have influenced our society as much as vaccination. The concept is old and simple. When Edward Jenner published his work on cowpox, "variolation" was quite common. In this procedure, pus of patients with mild smallpox was transferred to healthy individuals. Meanwhile smallpox has been eradicated worldwide. Diseases such as poliomyelitis, diphtheria or tetanus almost disappeared in industrialized countries. The same happened with epiglottitis and meningitis due to Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) after vaccination against Hib was introduced in Switzerland in 1990. This success was possible because of routine vaccination. Immunization is a save procedure and adverse events are much lower than complications in the natural course of the prevented diseases. However vaccinations were accused to cause diseases themselves such as asthma, multiple sclerosis, diabetes mellitus, chronic arthritis or autism. Hitherto no large cohort study or case-control-study was able to proof responsibility of vaccines in any of these diseases. Public media are eager to publish early data from surveillance reports or case reports which are descriptive and never a principle of cause and effect. In large controlled trials there was no proof that vaccination causes asthma, hepatitis-B-vaccination causes multiple sclerosis or macrophagic myofasciitis, Hib-vaccination causes diabetes mellitus, rubella-vaccination causes chronic arthritis, measles-mumps-rubella-vaccination causes gait disturbance or thiomersal causes autism. These results are rarely published in newspapers or television. Thus, many caring parents are left with negative ideas about immunization. Looking for the best for their children they withhold vaccination and give way to resurgence of preventable diseases in our communities. This must be prevented. There is more evidence than expected that vaccination is safe and this can and must be told to parents. PMID:16277033

  12. Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease (HFMD)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Mouth (HFMD) Disease in Singapore Commonly Confused With Foot-and-Mouth Disease Hand, foot, and mouth disease ... Library, Foot-and-Mouth Disease . Outbreaks of Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease Large outbreaks of hand, foot, ...

  13. Crohn's Disease of the Foregut.

    PubMed

    Davis, Kurt G

    2015-12-01

    Crohn's disease of the foregut is more common than previously recognized, with up to 40% of patients with Crohn's disease in the distal intestine also having evidence of foregut disease. Esophageal disease is best managed medically with proton pump inhibition, steroids, thiopurines, methotrexate, and anti-tumor necrosis factor-? biologic medications. Esophageal strictures are dealt with using endoscopic dilation. Surgery is generally reserved of resistant strictures or esophageal fistulas. Patients with gastroduodenal disease more commonly come to surgery. The most commonly performed operations for gastroduodenal Crohn's disease are intestinal bypass or strictureplasty. The concomitant use of vagotomy remains controversial. PMID:26596921

  14. Cell Therapies for Liver Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yue; Fisher, James E.; Lillegard, Joseph B.; Rodysill, Brian; Amiot, Bruce; Nyberg, Scott L.

    2011-01-01

    Cell therapies, which include bioartificial liver support and hepatocyte transplantation, have emerged as potential treatments for a variety of liver diseases. Acute liver failure (ALF), acute-on-chronic liver failure, and inherited metabolic liver diseases are examples of liver diseases that have been successfully treated with cell therapies at centers around the world. Cell therapies also have the potential for wide application in other liver diseases, including non-inherited liver diseases and liver cancer, and in improving the success of liver transplantation. Here we briefly summarize current concepts of cell therapy for liver diseases. PMID:22140063

  15. Chronic Disease and Childhood Development: Kidney Disease and Transplantation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Susan D.; Simmons, Roberta G.

    As part of a larger study of transplantation and chronic disease and the family, 124 children (10-18 years old) who were chronically ill with kidney disease (n=72) or were a year or more post-transplant (n=52) were included in a study focusing on the effects of chronic kidney disease and transplantation on children's psychosocial development. Ss…

  16. Sexual transmission of Lyme disease: challenging the tickborne disease paradigm.

    PubMed

    Stricker, Raphael B; Middelveen, Marianne J

    2015-11-01

    Lyme disease caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi has become a major worldwide epidemic. In this article, we explore the clinical, epidemiological and experimental evidence for sexual transmission of Lyme disease in animal models and humans. Although the likelihood of sexual transmission of the Lyme spirochete remains speculative, the possibility of Lyme disease transmission via intimate human contact merits further study. PMID:26489537

  17. [Online addictive disease].

    PubMed

    Neuenschwander, Martin

    2014-10-01

    Digital media are indispensable in school, profession, family and leisure time. 1 to 6 % of all users show dsyfunctional ans addictive patterns, first of all in online and "social" media. In Switzerland over 80 % of young people own a smartphone and "pocket internet". Time of interaction with online-media (hours/day), as well as peer group pattern are markers for risk of addiction. Active music making and sports are protective factors. Family physicians are important in early recognition of "internet addictive disease". Care-givers with special experience in this field are often successful in reducing time of harmful interaction with the internet. Internet addictive disease is not yet classified in ICD and DSM-5 lists, even though it is an increasing reality. PMID:25257114

  18. Glutamate and Neurodegenerative Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaeffer, Eric; Duplantier, Allen

    As the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system, glutamate is critically involved in most aspects of CNS function. Given this critical role, it is not surprising that glutamatergic dysfunction is associated with many CNS disorders. In this chapter, we review the literature that links aberrant glutamate neurotransmission with CNS pathology, with a focus on neurodegenerative diseases. The biology and pharmacology of the various glutamate receptor families are discussed, along with data which links these receptors with neurodegenerative conditions. In addition, we review progress that has been made in developing small molecule modulators of glutamate receptors and transporters, and describe how these compounds have helped us understand the complex pharmacology of glutamate in normal CNS function, as well as their potential for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

  19. Lyme disease: review.

    PubMed

    Biesiada, Gra?yna; Czepiel, Jacek; Le?niak, Maciej R; Garlicki, Aleksander; Mach, Tomasz

    2012-12-20

    Lyme disease is a multi-organ animal-borne disease, caused by spirochetes of Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb), which typically affect the skin, nervous system, musculoskeletal system and heart. A history of confirmed exposure to tick bites, typical signs and symptoms of Lyme borreliosis and positive tests for anti-Bb antibodies, are the basis of a diagnosis. A two-step diagnosis is necessary: the first step is based on a high sensitivity ELISA test with positive results confirmed by a more specific Western blot assay. Antibiotic therapy is curative in most cases, but some patients develop chronic symptoms, which do not respond to antibiotics. The aim of this review is to summarize our current knowledge of the symptoms, clinical diagnosis and treatment of Lyme borreliosis. PMID:23319969

  20. Psoriatic Disease: Clinical Staging.

    PubMed

    Scarpa, Raffaele; Caso, Francesco; Costa, Luisa; Peluso, Rosario; Spanň, Angelo; Lubrano, Ennio; Del Puente, Antonio; Moll, John M H

    2015-11-01

    In 2006, the introduction of the concept "psoriatic disease" (PsD) extended the traditional idea of a condition confined to skin and joints. Now we consider PsD a systemic condition, in which the increased activity of tumor necrosis factor acts as the most potent engine for a series of molecular interactions. These lead not only to the genesis of skin and joint symptoms, but also to other clinical aspects such as inflammatory bowel disease, eye involvement, and metabolic syndrome. The blocking of a precise molecular target has dramatically modified therapeutic strategies, making possible adequate control of all the clinical aspects of the condition. Therefore, an expanded clinical staging of patients could now be considered in order to ensure the best therapeutic approach and prognosis. PMID:26523050