Sample records for diseases

  1. Refsum Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Organizations What is Refsum Disease? Adult Refsum disease (ARD) is a rare genetic disease that causes weakness ... neuropathy). Due to a genetic abnormality, people with ARD disease lack the enzyme in peroxisomes that break ...

  2. Fabry's Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    NINDS Fabry Disease Information Page Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What is Fabry Disease? Is there any ... is being done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Fabry Disease? Fabry disease is caused by the lack of ...

  3. Graves' Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... information Autoimmune diseases fact sheet Diabetes fact sheet Hashimoto's disease fact sheet Illnesses and disabilities Lupus fact ... of overactive thyroid. It is closely related to Hashimoto's disease, another autoimmune disease affecting the thyroid. Return ...

  4. Behcet's Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    NINDS Behcet's Disease Information Page Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What is Behcet's Disease? Is there any ... Trials Organizations Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Behcet's Disease? Behcet's disease is a rare, chronic inflammatory disorder. ...

  5. Lentil Diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Major lentil diseases around the world have been described and reviewed. The major diseases include Ascochyta blight, Fusarium wilt, Botrytis Gray Mold, Lentil rust, Stemphylium blight, Anthracnose, and virus diseases. The management practices for these diseases are also presented....

  6. Crohn's disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Inflammatory bowel disease - Crohn's disease; Regional enteritis; Ileitis; Granulomatous ileocolitis; IBD- Crohn's disease ... Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2010:chap 111. Lichenstein GR. Inflammatory bowel disease. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Cecil Medicine . ...

  7. Ribbing disease

    PubMed Central

    Mukkada, Philson J; Franklin, Teenu; Rajeswaran, Rangasami; Joseph, Santhosh

    2010-01-01

    Ribbing disease is a rare sclerosing dysplasia that involves long tubular bones, especially the tibia and femur. It occurs after puberty and is reported to be more common in women. In this article we describe how Ribbing disease can be differentiated from diseases like Engelmann-Camurati disease, van Buchem disease, Erdheim-Chester disease, osteoid osteoma, chronic osteomyelitis, stress fracture, etc. PMID:20351994

  8. Ribbing disease.

    PubMed

    Mukkada, Philson J; Franklin, Teenu; Rajeswaran, Rangasami; Joseph, Santhosh

    2010-02-01

    Ribbing disease is a rare sclerosing dysplasia that involves long tubular bones, especially the tibia and femur. It occurs after puberty and is reported to be more common in women. In this article we describe how Ribbing disease can be differentiated from diseases like Engelmann-Camurati disease, van Buchem disease, Erdheim-Chester disease, osteoid osteoma, chronic osteomyelitis, stress fracture, etc. PMID:20351994

  9. Farber's Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a group of inherited metabolic disorders called lipid storage diseases, in which excess amounts of lipids (oils, ... Institutes of Health (NIH), conducts research about lipid storage diseases such as Farber’s disease in laboratories at ...

  10. Kidney Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Kidney Disease: What is Kidney Disease? In This Topic What is Kidney Disease? Risk Factors and Prevention ... for More Information National Institute on Aging Related Topics Diabetes High Blood Pressure Heart Failure The information ...

  11. Kennedy's Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    NINDS Kennedy's Disease Information Page Synonym(s): Bulbospinal Muscular Atrophy, X-Linked Spinal and Bulbar Muscular Atrophy Table of Contents ( ... is being done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Kennedy's Disease? Kennedy's disease is an inherited motor neuron ...

  12. Menkes Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... link in the menu on the left. Common Names Kinky hair disease Menkes disease Menkes syndrome Steely hair disease Medical or Scientific Names Congenital hypocupremia (pronounced kuhn-JEN-i-tl hahy- ...

  13. Meningococcal Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of Prestigious 2015 Awards Addressing the Challenges of Serogroup B Meningococcal Disease Outbreaks on Campuses The History of Vaccines: Vaccines for Teenagers 14 Adult Vaccine-Preventable Diseases ...

  14. Lyme Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of Lyme disease to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 2013. NIAID has a long-standing commitment to conduct Lyme disease research with the major goals of developing better means of diagnosing, treating, and preventing the disease. To ...

  15. Newcastle disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Newcastle disease (ND), referred to as Exotic Newcastle disease (END) in the U. S., is an acute viral disease of domestic poultry and many other bird species and a recognized worldwide problem. Occurrence of END is due to an infection with virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and is a ...

  16. Heart Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... you're like most people, you think that heart disease is a problem for others. But heart disease is the number one killer in the ... of disability. There are many different forms of heart disease. The most common cause of heart disease ...

  17. genetic disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerhard Nahler

    \\u000a Disease linked to a genetic defect such as a mutated gene; there are about 4,000 to 5,000 genetic diseases known to medical\\u000a science such as cystic fibrosis, Down syndrome, sickle cell anemia, haemophilia, Gilles de la Tourette syndrome or Fabry’s\\u000a disease; ? see also gene therapy, orphan diseases.

  18. Crohn's Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Crohn’s disease? Crohn’s disease is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that causes inflammation and irritation in the gastrointestinal ( ... before age 20. top of page How is Crohn’s disease evaluated? Your primary doctor will begin by asking ...

  19. Wilson disease.

    PubMed

    El-Youssef, Mounif

    2003-09-01

    Wilson disease is a rare disorder of copper metabolism that results in accumulation of copper in the liver and subsequently in other organs, mainly the central nervous system and the kidneys. Advances in the diagnosis and treatment of Wilson disease are discussed, with the emphasis that this is a disease of children, adolescents, and young adults. The myriad manifestations of Wilson disease make its diagnosis dependent on a high index of suspicion, and determination of its genetic background is helping to elucidate the genotype-phenotype correlation and the diversity of presentations. Treatment of Wilson disease has progressed from chelation therapy using D-penicillamine and trientine to the more recent use of zinc and finally to the establishment of liver transplantation as an urgent but excellent modality for fulminant presentation. The evolution of Wilson disease from a uniformly fatal disease to an eminently treatable disease during the past century is an example of the remarkable advances of modern medicine. PMID:12962167

  20. Addison disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Addison disease is a disorder that occurs when the adrenal glands do not produce enough hormones. ... estrogens (female), affect sexual development and sex drive. Addison disease results from damage to the adrenal cortex. ...

  1. Eye Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the back of the eye Macular degeneration - a disease that destroys sharp, central vision Diabetic eye problems ... defense is to have regular checkups, because eye diseases do not always have symptoms. Early detection and ...

  2. Chagas Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Chagas disease is caused by a parasite. It is common in Latin America but not in the United States. ... nose, the bite wound or a cut. The disease can also spread through contaminated food, a blood ...

  3. Raynaud's Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Raynaud's disease is a rare disorder of the blood vessels, usually in the fingers and toes. It causes the ... secondary Raynaud's, which is caused by injuries, other diseases, or certain medicines. People in colder climates are ...

  4. Wilson Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Wilson disease is a rare inherited disorder that prevents your body from getting rid of extra copper. You need ... copper into bile, a digestive fluid. With Wilson disease, the copper builds up in your liver, and ...

  5. Parasitic Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a bug bite, or sexual contact. Some parasitic diseases are easily treated and some are not. Parasites ... be seen with the naked eye. Some parasitic diseases occur in the United States. Contaminated water supplies ...

  6. Gaucher's Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Gaucher's disease is a rare, inherited disorder in which you do not have enough of an enzyme called glucocerebrosidase. ... It usually starts in childhood or adolescence. Gaucher's disease has no cure. Treatment options for types 1 ...

  7. Endocrine Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... low, you may have a hormone disorder. Hormone diseases also occur if your body does not respond ... In the United States, the most common endocrine disease is diabetes. There are many others. They are ...

  8. Addison Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... blood pressure and water and salt balance. Addison disease happens if the adrenal glands don't make ... problem with your immune system usually causes Addison disease. The immune system mistakenly attacks your own tissues, ...

  9. Fifth Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Fifth disease is a viral infection caused by parvovirus B19. The virus only infects humans; it's not the same parvovirus that dogs and cats can get. Fifth disease mostly affects children. Symptoms can include a low ...

  10. Legionnaires' Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Legionnaires' disease is a type of pneumonia caused by bacteria. You usually get it by breathing in mist from ... spread from person to person. Symptoms of Legionnaires' disease include high fever, chills, a cough, and sometimes ...

  11. Wilson Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Share External Link Disclaimer Digestive Diseases Wilson Disease Alternate Versions PDF Version? (444 KB) You can also ... things psychosis—when a person loses contact with reality Other Signs and Symptoms Other signs and symptoms ...

  12. Grover's Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... No, Keep Private Grover's Disease Share | Grover's disease (transient acantholytic dermatosis) is a condition that appears suddenly ... months (which is why it was originally called "transient"). Unfortunately it may last much longer. The cause ...

  13. Autoimmune Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... disease fact sheet Inflammatory bowel disease fact sheet Lupus fact sheet Myasthenia gravis fact sheet Stress and ... Office on Women's Health, the Could I Have Lupus? Campaign is raising awareness about lupus and providing ...

  14. Whipple's disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Maiwald M, von Herbay A, Relman DA. Whipple's disease. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. Sleisenger and Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease . 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders ...

  15. Fifth disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Parvovirus B19; Erythema infectiosum; Slapped cheek rash ... Fifth disease is caused by human parvovirus B19. It often affects preschoolers or school-age children during the spring. The disease spreads through the fluids in the nose and ...

  16. Fungal Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Fungal Diseases Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... CDC.gov . Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Fungal diseases can affect anyone. Learning about them can help ...

  17. Wildlife Diseases 

    E-print Network

    Texas Wildlife Services

    2007-03-13

    Some wildlife diseases can be transmitted to humans. This leaflet explains the causes and symptoms of rabies, giardiasis, bubonic plague, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Lyme disease, tularemia, leptospirosis and histoplasmosis....

  18. Heart Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention ...

  19. Glanzmann's disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Glanzmann's disease is a rare disorder of blood platelets , which results in easy bruising and nosebleeds . ... Glanzmann's disease is caused by the lack of a protein that is normally on the surface of ...

  20. Graves' Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is called Graves’ ophthalmopathy (GO). [ Top ] What is Graves’ ophthalmopathy? Graves’ ophthalmopathy is a condition associated with Graves’ disease that ... may also have bulging eyes, a condition called Graves’ ophthalmopathy (GO). Graves’ disease is most often treated with ...

  1. Hookworm Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Tools Print this page Get email updates Order publications Volunteer for Clinical Studies Help people who are suffering from hookworm by volunteering for NIAID clinical studies on ClinicalTrials.gov . Related Links Parasitic Roundworm Diseases Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases ...

  2. Behçet's disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heidi C. Mangelsdorf; Wain L. White; Joseph L. Jorizzo

    1996-01-01

    Background: Behçet's disease is a multisystem disease that is rare in the United States.Objective: The purpose of our study was to assess the characteristics and treatment of a series of patients with Behçet's disease in the United States.Methods: A retrospective clinical review of 25 patients with Behçet's disease was performed, and histopathologic findings and therapeutic modalities were reviewed.Results: All patients

  3. Rice Diseases

    E-print Network

    Jones, Roger K.

    1987-01-01

    (Blank P~ge in O .... a1-BUUetinl ? ~" -: . . r ". ./ RICE DISEASES Roger K. Jones * Rice diseases reduce yields in Texas by an average of 12 percent each year. The yield loss in certain fields with a history of disease may exceed 30... percent in some seasons. Disease development in individual fields depends upon the interaction of several factors including the genetic resistance of the variety planted, cropping practices, environmental conditions (such as temperature, dew periods...

  4. Kawasaki disease

    PubMed Central

    Kawasaki, Tomisaku

    2006-01-01

    Short history of Kawasaki disease, clinical features (principal symptoms and other significant symptoms or findings), diagnosis, cardiovascular involvement, epidemiology. Pathological features (lesion of vessels and lesion of organs exclusive of vessels), comparison between infantile periarteritis nodosa (IPN)/Kawasaki disease and classic periarteritis nodosa (CPN), etiology, treatment and management of Kawasaki disease are described. PMID:25792773

  5. NEWCASTLE DISEASE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concise information about Newcastle disease (ND) is provided for a book that serves as a quick reference guide to the infectious, parasitic, metabolic, nutritional, and toxic diseases of domesticated animals and birds as well some exotic species that a veterinarian might encounter. Newcastle disease...

  6. Fifth Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... are immune. How is fifth disease spread? Fifth disease is spread by coming into contact with saliva or mucus carrying the virus. For example, it can be spread by coughing, sneezing or sharing items. Frequent hand washing may ... Don’t worry! Fifth disease is caused by parvovirus, but it isn’t ...

  7. Kawasaki disease.

    PubMed

    Sundel, Robert P

    2015-01-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is the archetypal pediatric vasculitis, exemplifying the unique aspects and challenges of vascular inflammation in children. The condition is almost unheard of in adults, is closely associated with infections, and is self-limited, with fever resolving after an average of 12 days even without treatment. Yet KD is also a potentially fatal disease and the most common cause of acquired heart disease in the developed world. Unraveling of the developmental, immunologic, and genetic secrets of Kawasaki disease promises to improve our understanding of vasculitis in particular, and perhaps also to provide a window on the fundamental mysteries of inflammatory diseases in general. PMID:25399940

  8. Skin Diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roderick Hay; Sandra E. Bendeck; Suephy Chen; Roberto Estrada; Anne Haddix; Tonya McLeod; Antoine Mahé

    In assigning health priorities, skin diseases are sometimes thought of, in planning terms, as small-time players in the global league of illness compared with diseases that cause signif- icant mortality, such as HIV\\/AIDS, community-acquired pneu- monias, and tuberculosis. However, skin problems are generally among the most common diseases seen in primary care settings in tropical areas, and in some regions

  9. Gaucher Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nagral, Aabha

    2014-01-01

    Gaucher disease is the commonest lysosomal storage disease seen in India and worldwide. It should be considered in any child or adult with an unexplained splenohepatomegaly and cytopenia which are seen in the three types of Gaucher disease. Type 1 is the non-neuronopathic form and type 2 and 3 are the neuronopathic forms. Type 2 is a more severe neuronopathic form leading to mortality by 2 years of age. Definitive diagnosis is made by a blood test–the glucocerebrosidase assay. There is no role for histological examination of the bone marrow, liver or spleen for diagnosis of the disease. Molecular studies for mutations are useful for confirming diagnosis, screening family members and prognosticating the disease. A splenectomy should not be performed except for palliation or when there is no response to enzyme replacement treatment or no possibility of getting any definitive treatment. Splenectomy may worsen skeletal and lung manifestations in Gaucher disease. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) has completely revolutionized the prognosis and is now the standard of care for patients with this disease. Best results are seen in type 1 disease with good resolution of splenohepatomegaly, cytopenia and bone symptoms. Neurological symptoms in type 3 disease need supportive care. ERT is of no benefit in type 2 disease. Monitoring of patients on ERT involves evaluation of growth, blood counts, liver and spleen size and biomarkers such as chitotriosidase which reflect the disease burden. Therapy with ERT is very expensive and though patients in India have so far got the drug through a charitable access programme, there is a need for the government to facilitate access to treatment for this potentially curable disease. Bone marrow transplantation is an inferior option but may be considered when access to expensive ERT is not possible. PMID:25755533

  10. Lyme Disease

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dr. Leslie Nader (MSMR)

    1992-04-14

    A little microorganism called a spirochete causes Lyme disease, which can cause extremely severe symptoms, including neck stiffness, acute headaches, neurological damage, and rheumatoid arthritis-like problems. Lyme disease is transmitted by ticks and so is tied to the ticks' life cycle. Lyme disease is also seen by veterinarians, largely in dogs, for whom it can be fatal. Lyme research is ongoing on numerous fronts.

  11. Disease Detective

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-01-28

    This activity (on pages 35-43) lets learners analyze a "herd of elk" to detect the spread of a bacterial disease called brucellosis. The activity simulates how wildilfe veterinarians study elk in the wild by sampling only a subset of the animals. Based on a brucellosis problem with elk in Yellowstone National Park, learners cut out representations for two herds and then pick some at random to "test" for disease (denoted as a plus sign on a diseased animal). The results indicate that elk fed in Wyoming over the winter have more disease than the wild elk that go north to Montana

  12. Moyamoya disease.

    PubMed Central

    Farrugia, M.; Howlett, D. C.; Saks, A. M.

    1997-01-01

    Moyamoya disease is a rare cerebrovascular condition of uncertain aetiology commonly affecting young persons. The disease is mainly seen in Japanese patients. We report two cases of moyamoya disease in Caucasian women and review the postulated aetiological factors and associated conditions as well as the spectrum of invasive and non-invasive imaging modalities useful in the diagnosis and follow-up of the disease, with particular reference to the developing role of magnetic resonance imaging and angiography. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:9373593

  13. Huntington's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Finkbeiner, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is the most common inherited neurodegenerative disease and is characterized by uncontrolled excessive motor movements and cognitive and emotional deficits. The mutation responsible for HD leads to an abnormally long polyglutamine (polyQ) expansion in the huntingtin (Htt) protein, which confers one or more toxic functions to mutant Htt leading to neurodegeneration. The polyQ expansion makes Htt prone to aggregate and accumulate, and manipulations that mitigate protein misfolding or facilitate the clearance of misfolded proteins tend to slow disease progression in HD models. This article will focus on HD and the evidence that it is a conformational disease. PMID:21441583

  14. [Cardiological diseases].

    PubMed

    Gross, L; Massberg, S; Sibbing, D

    2013-10-01

    Knowledge of rare but important clinical disease symptoms in cardiology is of vital importance in the daily routine as severe courses of disease as well as death may be prevented by early diagnosis, effective monitoring and timely initiation of an adequate therapy. In this article an important rhythmological disease, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, as well as two significant structural diseases, takotsubo (stress-related) cardiomyopathy and aortic aneurysm related to Marfan syndrome, as well as their implications for clinical practice will be presented. PMID:24005787

  15. Lyme Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... information on enabling JavaScript. Lyme Disease Skip Content Marketing ... mysterious group of rheumatoid arthritis cases occurred among children in Lyme, Connecticut, and two neighboring towns. Puzzled, ...

  16. Meniere's disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. L. James; M. A. Thorp

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Meniere's disease causes recurrent vertigo, hearing loss, tinnitus, and fullness or pressure in the ear, which mainly affects adults aged 40-60 years. Meniere's disease is at first progressive but fluctuating, and episodes can occur in clusters. Vertigo usually resolves but hearing deteriorates, and symptoms other than hearing loss and tinnitus usually improve regardless of treatment. METHODS AND OUTCOMES: We

  17. Renovascular disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip A. Kalra

    2011-01-01

    In Western populations, fibromuscular disease (FMD) accounts for around 10% of all cases of renal artery stenosis (RAS), usually presenting as hypertension in young patients, most often women, and there is often a successful response after angioplasty. Atherosclerotic renovascular disease (ARVD) is very common, and accounts for the remaining 90% of cases of RAS. ARVD is frequently associated with hypertension

  18. Pericardial Diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cécile Tissot; Christina M. Phelps; Eduardo M. da Cruz; Shelley D. Miyamoto

    \\u000a Pericardial diseases are defined as structural or functional abnormalities of the visceral or parietal pericardium that may\\u000a or may not have an impact on cardiac function. Diseases of the pericardium include a spectrum of acquired and congenital problems\\u000a consisting of infectious and inflammatory processes, neoplastic lesions, as well as congenital structural defects.

  19. Wilson's disease.

    PubMed

    Ala, Aftab; Walker, Ann P; Ashkan, Keyoumars; Dooley, James S; Schilsky, Michael L

    2007-02-01

    Progressive hepatolenticular degeneration, or Wilson's disease, is a genetic disorder of copper metabolism. Knowledge of the clinical presentations and treatment of the disease are important both to the generalist and to specialists in gastroenterology and hepatology, neurology, psychiatry, and paediatrics. Wilson's disease invariably results in severe disability and death if untreated. The diagnosis is easily overlooked but if discovered early, effective treatments are available that will prevent or reverse many manifestations of this disorder. Studies have identified the role of copper in disease pathogenesis and clinical, biochemical, and genetic markers that can be useful in diagnosis. There are several chelating agents and zinc salts for medical therapy. Liver transplantation corrects the underlying pathophysiology and can be lifesaving. The discovery of the Wilson's disease gene has opened up a new molecular diagnostic approach, and could form the basis of future gene therapy. PMID:17276780

  20. Mitochondrial diseases.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Mock

    2012-03-01

    Mitochondria contain the respiratory chain enzyme complexes that carry out oxidative phosphorylation and produce the main part of cellular energy in the form of ATP. Although several proteins related with signalling, assembling, transporting, and enzymatic function can be impaired in mitochondrial diseases, most frequently the activity of the respiratory chain protein complexes is primarily or secondarily affected, leading to impaired oxygen utilization and reduced energy production. Mitochondrial diseases usually show a chronic, slowly progressive course and present with multiorgan involvement with varying onset between birth and late adulthood. Neuromuscular system is frequently affected in mitochondrial diseases. Although there is actually no specific therapy and cure for mitochondrial diseases, the understanding of the pathophysiology may further facilitate the diagnostic approach and open perspectives to future in mitochondrial diseases. PMID:24649452

  1. Infectious bursal disease (Gumboro disease).

    PubMed

    van den Berg, T P; Eterradossi, N; Toquin, D; Meulemans, G

    2000-08-01

    Infectious bursal disease (IBD) (Gumboro disease) has been described throughout the world, and the socio-economic significance of the disease is considerable world-wide. Various forms of the disease have been described, but typing remains unclear, since antigenic and pathotypic criteria are used indiscriminately, and the true incidence of different types is difficult to determine. Moreover, the infection, when not fatal, leads to a degree of immunosuppression which is often difficult to measure. Finally, the control measures used are subject to variations, and seldom follow a specific or standardised plan. In the context of expanding international trade, the authors provide an overview of existing knowledge on the subject to enhance available information on the epidemiology of IBD, the identification of reliable viral markers for diagnosis, and the implementation of specific control measures to ensure a global and co-ordinated approach to the disease. PMID:10935278

  2. Dercum's disease.

    PubMed

    Wortham, Noel C; Tomlinson, Ian Pm

    2005-01-01

    Dercum's disease (adiposis dolorosa, lipomatosis dolorosa morbus Dercum), is a rare disorder resulting in painful fatty deposits around the upper legs, trunk, and upper arms. The portrait painted of Dercum's disease is very complicated, with many other disorders seen associated with the disease. There are no clear pathological mechanisms known, although it is suspected that there is either a metabolic or autoimmune component involved. Here, the authors review the literature to date, including some information from their own studies. In particular, the authors will look at the different strands of evidence pointing to the pathological mechanism of the disorder. PMID:15891252

  3. Celiac disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmad S. Abdulkarim; Joseph A. Murray

    2002-01-01

    Opinion statement  \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a Individuals with celiac disease present with a wide array of symptoms and signs. Celiac disease can result in substantial\\u000a injury to the small intestine, deleterious effects on other organ systems, and an overall doubling of mortality. The role\\u000a of the gastroenterologist is primarily to make the diagnosis and then to ensure that patients with celiac disease receive

  4. Learning about Dercum Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... genetic terms used on this page. Learning About Dercum Disease What is Dercum disease? What are the ... Disease Additional Resources for Dercum Disease What is Dercum disease? Dercum disease - also known as Adiposis Dolorosa, ...

  5. Wilson Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in copper, such as shellfish liver mushrooms nuts chocolate People should not eat these foods during the ... in copper, such as shellfish liver mushrooms nuts chocolate A person cannot prevent Wilson disease; however, people ...

  6. Addison's Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... do not produce enough corticosteroid hormones, such as cortisol and aldosterone. Addison’s disease is most common among ... making. If your body is not making enough cortisol, your doctor may prescribe hydrocortisone, prednisone, or cortisone ...

  7. Digestive diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    Digestive diseases are disorders of the digestive tract, which is sometimes called the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. In digestion, food and drink are broken down into small parts (called nutrients) ...

  8. Batten Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... NCL, the neurologist needs the individual's medical and family history and information from various laboratory tests. Diagnostic tests used for NCLs include: blood or urine tests . These tests can detect abnormalities that may indicate Batten disease. For example, elevated ...

  9. Huntington's Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... gene with an eye toward understanding how it causes disease in the human body. What research is being done? Scientific investigations using electronic and other technologies enable scientists to see what the defective gene ...

  10. Peyronie's Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... The knowledge gained from these studies is advancing scientific understanding of why kidney diseases and urinary tract disorders develop and is leading to improved methods of diagnosing, treating, and preventing them. Clinical trials ...

  11. Lung disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the lungs to take in oxygen and release carbon dioxide. People with this type of lung disorder often ... the lungs to take up oxygen and release carbon dioxide. These diseases may also affect heart function. An ...

  12. Graves disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is called hyperthyroidism. (An underactive thyroid leads to hypothyroidism .) Graves disease is the most common cause of ... radioactive iodine usually will cause an underactive thyroid (hypothyroidism). Without getting the correct dosage of thyroid hormone ...

  13. Celiac Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter H. R. Green; Christophe Cellier

    2007-01-01

    Celiac disease is induced by the ingestion of gluten, which is derived from wheat, barley, and rye. The gluten protein is enriched in glutamine and proline and is poor- ly digested in the human upper gastrointestinal tract. The term \\

  14. Parkinson's Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is responsible for the core features, other affected locations contribute to the complicated picture of Parkinson's. Parkinson's disease is both chronic, meaning it lasts for a long time, and progressive, ...

  15. Alexander Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... that accumulate in non-neuronal cells of the brain called astrocytes. Rosenthal fibers are sometimes found in other disorders, but not in the same amount or area of the brain that are featured in Alexander disease. The infantile ...

  16. Glomerular Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... that affects the entire body, like diabetes or lupus. Many different kinds of diseases can cause swelling ... may affect only specific organs or regions. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) affects many parts of the body: ...

  17. Nail Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... smooth and consistent in color. Specific types of nail discoloration and changes in growth rate can be signs of lung, heart, kidney, and liver diseases, as well as diabetes and anemia. White spots ...

  18. Planning Diseases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabel, Medard

    1984-01-01

    To solve societal problems, both local and global, a global approach is needed. Serious diseases that are crippling present-day problem solving and planning are discussed, and the characteristics of a healthy, effective planning approach are described. (RM)

  19. Leishmaniasis Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Parasites - Leishmaniasis Parasites Home Share Compartir Disease Ulcerative skin lesion, with ... with some of the species (types) of the parasite that cause cutaneous leishmaniasis in parts of Latin ...

  20. Canavan Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... brain responsible for making myelin sheaths, known as oligodendrocytes, cannot properly complete this critical developmental task. Myelin ... support for nerve cells. In Canavan disease, many oligodendrocytes do not mature and instead die, leaving nerve ...

  1. Ormond's disease.

    PubMed

    Kovács, T; Besznyák, I; Köves, I; Petri, K

    Three cases of Ormond's disease (syndrome) are described, and the aetiopathogenesis, clinical picture and diagnostics of the disease are dealt with in this report. Besides, the traditional therapy and the new therapeutic possibilities are discussed. For a disease of low incidence and assumed autoimmune origin malignancy cannot be excluded. Therefore, surgical exploration and histological verification are indispensable interventions in every case of Ormond's disease. In two of the present cases, steroid was administered in defence of percutaneous nephrostomy. In two cases, the recently recommended anti-oestrogen therapy was successful. Stagnation, or even regression, of the process followed. The authors are sure that they were the first in Hungary to administer anti-oestrogen to patients suffering from IFR. PMID:9262733

  2. Sever's Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... pretty frightening, Sever's disease is really a common heel injury that occurs in kids. It can be ... inflammation (swelling) of the growth plate in the heel. A growth plate, also called an epiphyseal plate, ...

  3. Kawasaki Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Topics Cardiac Catheterization Chest X Ray Echocardiography Electrocardiogram Vasculitis Send a link to NHLBI to someone by ... disease. It's a form of a condition called vasculitis (vas-kyu-LI-tis). This condition involves inflammation ...

  4. Gaucher disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... harmful substances to build up in the liver, spleen, bones, and bone marrow. These substances prevent cells ... common. It involves bone disease, anemia, an enlarged spleen and low platelets (thrombocytopenia). Type I affects both ...

  5. Whipworm Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Tools Print this page Get email updates Order publications Volunteer for Clinical Studies Help people who are suffering from whipworm by volunteering for NIAID clinical studies on ClinicalTrials.gov . Related Links Parasitic Roundworm Diseases National Library of Medicine, ...

  6. Pneumococcal Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... information on enabling JavaScript. Pneumococcal Disease Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Streptococcus Pneumoniae Streptococcus pneumoniae are bacteria frequently found in the upper respiratory tract of healthy children and adults. These bacteria, however, can also cause ...

  7. Krabbe Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... laboratories at the NIH and also supports additional research through grants to major medical institutions across the country. NIH Patient Recruitment for Krabbe Disease Clinical Trials At NIH Clinical Center Throughout the U.S. ...

  8. Sandhoff Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... laboratories at the NIH and also supports additional research through grants to major medical institutions across the country. NIH Patient Recruitment for Sandhoff Disease Clinical Trials At NIH Clinical Center Throughout the U.S. ...

  9. Chronic Diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharon R. Schatz

    Although diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and human immunodeficiency virus infection are three separate entities,\\u000a each has causal and non-causal risk factors that are common in the stage 5 chronic kidney disease population. The medical\\u000a nutrition therapies are similar, which emphasize adequate protein and energy intakes, fluid control, and possibly carbohydrate\\u000a and fat modifications. Each patient requires an individualized evaluation, taking

  10. Méničre Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Iee-Ching Wu Anderson; John P. Carey; Walter Kutz; William H. Slattery

    A computerized PubMed search of MEDLINE 1966-May 2005 was performed. The terms “Meniere disease” and “gentamicin” were exploded,\\u000a and the resulting articles were combined. The terms “intratympanic” and “transtympanic” were entered as text words as the\\u000a search term “intratympanic OR transtympanic,” and the results were combined with the Méničre disease\\/gentamicin articles.\\u000a The resulting 136 articles were limited to the English

  11. Celiac Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sheila E. Crowe

    Celiac disease, also known as celiac sprue or gluten-sensitive enteropathy, is a chronic disorder that is readily recognized\\u000a when it presents in its classical form with diarrhea, bloating, flatulence, weight loss and evidence of malabsorption. However,\\u000a non-gastrointestinal GI and non-specific GI manifestations are currently the more common presentations of this disease. Withdrawal\\u000a of gluten from the diet results in a

  12. Celiac disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Debbie Williamson; Michael N. Marsh

    2002-01-01

    Clinically, celiac disease has always been regarded as a wasting, malabsorptive disorder due to disease of the small intestinal\\u000a mucosa. It has been difficult for clinicians to recognize that this condition is primarily due to sensitization of mesenteric\\u000a T lymphocytes to wheat protein (gluten) in genetically predisposed (DQ2+) individuals. On contact with dietary-derived gluten in the upper intestine, these sensitized

  13. Graves’ Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simon H. S. Pearce

    Hyperthyroid Graves’ disease is one of the commonest autoimmune disorders, affecting about 1% of women. It is most frequent\\u000a in the 4th decade of life. There is a genetic predisposition to Graves’ disease, determined by alleles at the major histocompatibility\\u000a complex (MHC), cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen (CTLA-4), protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor 22 (PTPN22), and other less well-defined chromosomal loci. Additional, non-genetic,

  14. [Wilson's disease].

    PubMed

    Br?ha, R; Marecek, Z; Martásek, P; Nevsímalová, S; Petrtýl, J; Urbánek, P; Kalistová, H; Pospísilová, L

    2009-01-01

    Wilson's disease is an inherited disorder leading to accumulation of copper in tissues, mainly in the liver and brain. Genetic defect is in the gene coding ATPase type P (ATP7B). The inheritance is autosomal recessive. Up to now, more then 500 mutations causing Wilson's disease were described. The most frequent mutation in Central Europe is mutation H1069Q. The manifestation of Wilson's disease is usually hepatic or neurologic. Hepatic form is manifested by acute or chronic hepatitis, steatosis or cirrhosis. Neurologic involvement is manifested usually after 20 year of age by motor disturbances (tremor, disturbed speech, problems with writing), which could progress into severe extrapyramidal syndrome with tremor, rigidity, dysartria, dysfagia and muscle contracture. Diagnosis is based on clinical and laboratory examinations (neurologic symptoms, liver disease, low serum ceruloplasmin levels, elevated free copper concentration in serum, high urine copper excretion, and presence of Kayser-Fleischer rings). Confirmation of diagnosis is done by hepatic copper concentration in liver biopsy or by genetic examination. Untreated disease leads to the death of a patient. Treatment is based on chelating agents decreasing the copper content by excretion into urine (D-penicillamine, trientine) or on agents preventing absorption of copper from food (zinc, ammonium-tetrahiomolybdene). Patients with asymptomatic Wilson's disease have to be treated as well. In Czech Republic either penicillamine or zinc are used. Liver transplantation is indicated in patients with fulminant liver failure or decompensated cirrhosis. Screening in families of affected patients (all siblings) is obvious. PMID:20662462

  15. Disease mongering.

    PubMed

    Shankar, P R; Subish, P

    2007-04-01

    Convincing healthy people that they are sick and require medicines can enormously expand the market. Disease mongering can turn ordinary ailments like baldness into medical problems, consider risk factors such as hypertension and osteoporosis as diseases and frame prevalence estimates to increase potential markets. In Asia, conditions like erectile dysfunction, male pattern baldness, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and irritable bowel syndrome, and the drugs to treat them, are widely promoted. Fairness creams and traditional medicines are also widely used. The cost of disease mongering to the individual and the community is expected to be high. Some authors have argued that medicalisation of illnesses may not be a problem and the real problem may be the lack of medicines. Doctors will play a key role in combating disease mongering. Disentanglement from the pharmaceutical industry and development of a capacity for critical analysis are required. Educating patients and empowering them to make decisions are important. Several initiatives have been undertaken to combat disease mongering. Initiatives at the level of the patient and the physician are especially important. Studies on the extent and knowledge of disease mongering among doctors and medical students, and their economic and social consequences are urgently required. PMID:17384871

  16. Behcet's disease.

    PubMed

    Suzuki Kurokawa, M; Suzuki, N

    2004-09-01

    Behcet's disease (BD) is a systemic disorder of recurrent acute inflammation, characterized by major symptoms of oral aphthous ulcers, uveitis, skin lesions and genital ulcers. Involvement of intestines, vessels, and central nervous system (CNS) sometimes leads to a poor prognosis. Patients with BD are known to distribute along the ancient Silk Road. The incidence is relatively higher from eastern Asia to the Mediterranean area as roughly 1-10 patients in 10,000 people, whereas only 1-2 patients in 1,000,000 people in UK and North America. Although etiology of the disease is still unknown, high prevalence of HLA-B51, increased expression of heat shock protein 60 and Th1 dominant immune responses in the patients are considered important in its pathogenesis. Non-infectious neutrophil activation and infection with Streptococcus sanguis and herpes simplex virus would also be associated. Because BD lacks any pathognomonic symptoms and laboratory findings, the diagnosis relies largely upon the criteria proposed by the International Study Group for Behcet's disease in 1990. In Japan, the diagnosis was also made according to the Japanese criteria revised in 1987. Recently, the Behcet's Disease Research Committee of Japan again revised the Japanese criteria in 2003 to avoid overdiagnosis. The new Japanese criteria are introduced in this review. Differential diagnosis excluding Sweet's disease, pemphigus, erythema nodosum and Crohn's disease is important, and positive laboratory data for pathergy test, prick test for dead Streptococci and HLA-B51 are emphasized to make appropriate diagnosis in these criteria. Pathological findings of the disease-affected site such as erythematous nodosum is also stressed. Treatment for the disease has been chosen according to the clinical symptoms. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, immunosuppressants, corticosteroids and colchicine are basically introduced. Recently, effects of interferon-alpha/beta, anti-tumor necrosis factor antibody and thalidomide are encouraging, specifically in treatment for the cases with poor prognosis including eye, intestine, vessel and CNS involvement. Low dose weekly administration of methotraxate looks effective for the cases with CNS involvement. Further studies for elucidation of the etiology, improvement of the diagnostic criteria and development of new therapy are needed to conquer the disease. PMID:15598081

  17. Wilson's disease.

    PubMed

    Loudianos, G; Lepori, M B; Mameli, E; Dessě, V; Zappu, A

    2014-01-01

    (Full text is available at http://www.manu.edu.mk/prilozi). Wilson's disease (WD) is a disorder of copper transport resulting from the defective function of a copper transporting P-type ATPase, ATP7B. The WD incidence is approximately 1/50-10,000 live births worldwide. Clinical manifestations of WD may be of any kind, but usually the symptoms of presentation are hepatic or neuropsychiatric, with a vast range of disturbances for both groups of symptoms. In children, however, clinical symptoms may be absent, making the diagnosis of the disease more difficult than in adults. Hepatic manifestations may range from asymptomatic minor biochemical disturbances, to acute, but mostly chronic, hepatitis, cirrhosis or severe fulminant hepatic failure. The spectrum of neurological manifestations is wide, including tremor, hypersalivation, Dysarthria, coordination defects, dystonia, ataxia. The spectrum of psychiatric manifestations is considerable and may include different disturbances such as altered working performance, anxiety, depression and antisocial behaviour. Kayser-Fleischer rings (KF) are present in 95% of patients with neurological symptoms and somewhat over half of those without neurological symptoms. In children presenting with liver disease, KF rings are usually absent. To obtain a more reliable diagnosis of WD, the Leipzig scoring system was proposed by an international consensus of experts. Wilson's disease copper overload is treated with chelating agents such as penicillamine, trientine and tetrathiomolybdate. Zinc is used mostly for mantainance therapy or the treatment of asymptomatic WD patients. Key words: Wilson diseases, copper, cirrhosis, children. PMID:24798599

  18. Fabry's disease.

    PubMed

    El-Abassi, Rima; Singhal, Divya; England, John D

    2014-09-15

    Fabry's disease is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by abnormalities in the GLA gene, which leads to a deficiency in ?-galactosidase A. The abnormal accumulation of glycosphingolipids, primarily globotriaosylceramide, manifests as serious and progressive impairment of renal and cardiac functions. In addition, patients experience pain, gastrointestinal disturbance, transient ischemic attacks and strokes. Disease presentation in female heterozygotes may be as severe as in males although women may also remain asymptomatic. This review covers all basic aspects of the disease such as epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentation by systems, diagnosis, management, prevention, and repercussions on quality of life. With the development of enzyme replacement therapy in the past few years, early initiation of treatment was found to be key for reduction of disease burden in major affected organs with improvement in neuropathic pain, decreased cardiac mass and stabilization of renal function, gastrointestinal symptoms, and hearing. This review aims to raise the awareness of the signs and symptoms of Fabry's disease as well as to provide guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment. PMID:25106696

  19. Whipple's disease.

    PubMed

    Laeeq, Syed Mudassir; Luck, Nasir Hassan; Hassan, Syed Mujahid; Abbas, Zaigham; Tasneem, Abbas Ali; Mubarak, Muhammed

    2014-05-01

    Whipple's disease is a rare chronic multi-systemic infection, caused by Gram-positive bacillus Tropheryma whipplei. The infection usually involves the small bowel, but other organs may also be involved. The diagnosis is often challenging and can only be made on histopathological examination. This report describes 2 patients presenting with abdominal pain and weight loss who finally were diagnosed to have Whipple's disease. One of the patients was a renal transplant recipient. To the best of authors' knowledge, no case of Whipple's disease has yet been reported in Pakistan. The diagnosis were made on the basis of histopathological evaluation of duodenal biopsies. The cases underscore the need for diligent histopathological evaluation of the upper gastrointestinal biopsies and a high index of suspicion for an accurate diagnosis of the condition. The approach to the diagnosis and management of the condition is discussed. PMID:24906280

  20. Crohn's Disease

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Patient Education Institute

    This patient education program explains Crohn's Disease, one of the most common inflammatory bowel diseases, including the symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment options. It also reviews the anatomy of the gastrointestinal system, causes of the disease, dietary triggers, and pregnancy in the Crohn's patient. This resource is a MedlinePlus Interactive Health Tutorial from the National Library of Medicine, designed and developed by the Patient Education Institute. NOTE: This tutorial requires a special Flash plug-in, version 4 or above. If you do not have Flash, you will be prompted to obtain a free download of the software before you start the tutorial. You will also need an Acrobat Reader, available as a free download, in order to view the Reference Summary.

  1. Hirayama disease.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yen-Lin; Chen, Chi-Jen

    2011-11-01

    Hirayama disease (juvenile muscular atrophy of distal upper extremity) is a cervical myelopathy. Predominantly affecting male adolescents, it is characterized by progressive muscular weakness and atrophy of distal upper limbs, followed by spontaneous arrest within several years. Although the cause of cervical myelopathy remains unclear, neuropathologic and neuroradiologic findings suggest a forward displacement of the posterior cervical dural sac during neck flexion, causing compression of the cervical cord, and results in atrophic and ischemic changes in the anterior horn. A good understanding of Hirayama disease is essential because early recognition and management can effectively halt the progressive deterioration. PMID:22032508

  2. Behçet's disease

    PubMed Central

    Kontogiannis, V; Powell, R

    2000-01-01

    Behçet's disease is a systemic vasculitis of unknown aetiology characteristically affecting venules. Onset is typically in young adults with recurrent oral and genital ulceration, uveitis, skin manifestations, arthritis, neurological involvement, and a tendency to thrombosis. It has a worldwide distribution but is prevalent in Japan, the Middle East, and some Mediterranean countries. International diagnostic criteria have been proposed, however diagnosis can be problematical, particularly if the typical ulcers are not obvious at presentation. Treatment is challenging, must be tailored to the pattern of organ involvement for each patient and often requires combination therapies.???Keywords: Behçet's disease; oral ulcers; uveitis; immunosuppressants PMID:11009577

  3. Dent's disease.

    PubMed

    Devuyst, Olivier; Thakker, Rajesh V

    2010-01-01

    Dent's disease is a renal tubular disorder characterized by manifestations of proximal tubule dysfunction, including low-molecular-weight proteinuria, hypercalciuria, nephrolithiasis, nephrocalcinosis, and progressive renal failure. These features are generally found in males only, and may be present in early childhood, whereas female carriers may show a milder phenotype. Prevalence is unknown; the disorder has been reported in around 250 families to date. Complications such as rickets or osteomalacia may occur. The disease is caused by mutations in either the CLCN5 (Dent disease 1) or OCRL1 (Dent disease 2) genes that are located on chromosome Xp11.22 and Xq25, respectively. CLCN5 encodes the electrogenic Cl?/H(+) exchanger ClC-5, which belongs to the CLC family of Cl? channels/transporters. OCRL1 encodes a phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate (PIP?) 5-phosphatase and mutations are also associated with Lowe Syndrome. The phenotype of Dent's disease is explained by the predominant expression of ClC-5 in the proximal tubule segments of the kidney. No genotype-phenotype correlation has been described thus far, and there is considerable intra-familial variability in disease severity. A few patients with Dent's disease do not harbour mutations in CLCN5 and OCRL1, pointing to the involvement of other genes. Diagnosis is based on the presence of all three of the following criteria: low-molecular-weight proteinuria, hypercalciuria and at least one of the following: nephrocalcinosis, kidney stones, hematuria, hypophosphatemia or renal insufficiency. Molecular genetic testing confirms the diagnosis. The differential diagnosis includes other causes of generalized dysfunction of the proximal tubules (renal Fanconi syndrome), hereditary, acquired, or caused by exogenous substances. Antenatal diagnosis and pre-implantation genetic testing is not advised. The care of patients with Dent's disease is supportive, focusing on the treatment of hypercalciuria and the prevention of nephrolithiasis. The vital prognosis is good in the majority of patients. Progression to end-stage renal failure occurs between the 3rd and 5th decades of life in 30-80% of affected males. PMID:20946626

  4. Fungal Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Ask your pediatrician for a referral to a pediatric infectious disease specialist if your youngster is diagnosed with one ... B. Last Updated 5/5/2015 Source Immunizations ... © 2006 American Academy of Pediatrics) The information contained on this Web site should ...

  5. Smelling Diseases

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Science Update

    2004-06-14

    We all use our noses to make quick judgments from time to time -- whether it's checking to see if the milk's still good, or if a shirt needs to go in the wash. Now, doctors are developing a kind of sniff test to screen for diseases. Find out more in this Science Update.

  6. Newcastle disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dennis J. Alexander

    2001-01-01

    1. In this paper several historical and contemporary aspects of Newcastle disease (ND) are reviewed, with particular reference to the greater understanding which modern techniques have allowed. 2. Virulent ND viruses were generally thought to have emerged in 1926 as a result of transfer from a wild bird host reservoir but there is evidence that the virulent virus may have

  7. Prionic diseases.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Abelardo Q-C

    2013-09-01

    Prion diseases are neurodegenerative illnesses due to the accumulation of small infectious pathogens containing protein but apparently lacking nucleic acid, which have long incubation periods and progress inexorably once clinical symptoms appear. Prions are uniquely resistant to a number of normal decontaminating procedures. The prionopathies [Kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) and its variants, Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker (GSS) syndrome and fatal familial insomnia (FFI)] result from accumulation of abnormal isoforms of the prion protein in the brains of normal animals on both neuronal and non-neuronal cells. The accumulation of this protein or fragments of it in neurons leads to apoptosis and cell death. There is a strong link between mutations in the gene encoding the normal prion protein in humans (PRNP) - located on the short arm of chromosome 20 - and forms of prion disease with a familial predisposition (familial CJD, GSS, FFI). Clinically a prionopathy should be suspected in any case of a fast progressing dementia with ataxia, myoclonus, or in individuals with pathological insomnia associated with dysautonomia. Magnetic resonance imaging, identification of the 14-3-3 protein in the cerebrospinal fluid, tonsil biopsy and genetic studies have been used for in vivo diagnosis circumventing the need of brain biopsy. Histopathology, however, remains the only conclusive method to reach a confident diagnosis. Unfortunately, despite numerous treatment efforts, prionopathies remain short-lasting and fatal diseases. PMID:24141515

  8. Dent's disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olivier Devuyst; Rajesh V. Thakker

    2010-01-01

    Dent's disease is a renal tubular disorder characterized by manifestations of proximal tubule dysfunction, including low-molecular-weight proteinuria, hypercalciuria, nephrolithiasis, nephrocalcinosis, and progressive renal failure. These features are generally found in males only, and may be present in early childhood, whereas female carriers may show a milder phenotype. Prevalence is unknown; the disorder has been reported in around 250 families to

  9. Infectious Diseases

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    NBC Learn

    2010-10-07

    With the threat of a warmer, wetter world and a larger global population, scientists are researching how climate change may impact the spread of infectious diseases,ťsuch as cholera and dengue fever, and how outbreaks may be prevented.ť "Changing Planet" is produced in partnership with the National Science Foundation.

  10. Celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Green, Peter H R; Lebwohl, Benjamin; Greywoode, Ruby

    2015-05-01

    This review will focus on the pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and management of celiac disease (CD). Given an increasing awareness of gluten-related disorders, medical professionals of all varieties are encountering patients with a diagnosis of CD or who are thought to have food intolerance to gluten. The prevalence of CD among the general population is estimated to be 1% in Western nations, and there is growing evidence for underdiagnosis of the disease, especially in non-Western nations that were traditionally believed to be unaffected. The development of serologic markers specific to CD has revolutionized the ability both to diagnose and monitor patients with the disease. Additionally, understanding of the clinical presentations of CD has undergone a major shift over the past half century. Although it is well understood that CD develops in genetically predisposed subjects exposed to gluten, the extent of other environmental factors in the pathogenesis of the disease is an area of continued research. Currently, the main therapeutic intervention for CD is a gluten-free diet; however, novel nondietary agents are under active investigation. Future areas of research should also help us understand the relationship of CD to other gluten-related disorders. PMID:25956012

  11. Zoonotic Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... such as unpasteurized milk, undercooked meat, or unwashed fruits and vegetables that are contaminated with feces from an infected animal) Luckily, there are many ways you can protect yourself and your family from zoonotic diseases. You can: Always wash hands and follow proper ...

  12. Avocado diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. A. Zentmyer

    1984-01-01

    Several fungi can cause diseases of avocado (Persea americana (Mill.)) of which Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands is the most serious. Phytophthora root rot causes extensive losses of avocado trees in nearly every country where avocados are grown. The fungus can be isolated from soil and roots by using selective agar media containing antibiotic chemicals and by using various types of baits

  13. Diverticular Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... disease may be caused by not eating enough fiber. When you don't eat enough fiber, you may get constipated and your stools may ... your doctor may suggest that you eat more fiber, drink plenty of fluids and exercise regularly to ...

  14. Coronary heart disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Heart disease, Coronary heart disease, Coronary artery disease; Arteriosclerotic heart disease; CHD; CAD ... Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of death in the United States for men and women. Coronary ...

  15. Diabetic Heart Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Diabetic Heart Disease? The term "diabetic heart disease" (DHD) refers ... Kidney Diseases' Introduction to Diabetes Web page. What Heart Diseases Are Involved in Diabetic Heart Disease? DHD ...

  16. Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... www.kidneyfund.org > Kidney Disease > Chronic Kidney Disease Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) An estimated 31 million people in the United ... living with chronic kidney disease (CKD). What is CKD? The term “chronic kidney disease” (CKD) means lasting ...

  17. HIV and Rheumatic Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Patient Resources > Diseases & Conditions Back to Diseases & Conditions HIV and Rheumatic Disease PRINT Download PDF HIV infection ... treatment and HIV infection all overlap. What are HIV-associated rheumatic diseases? Some diseases of the joints ...

  18. Fabry disease

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Fabry disease (FD) is a progressive, X-linked inherited disorder of glycosphingolipid metabolism due to deficient or absent lysosomal ?-galactosidase A activity. FD is pan-ethnic and the reported annual incidence of 1 in 100,000 may underestimate the true prevalence of the disease. Classically affected hemizygous males, with no residual ?-galactosidase A activity may display all the characteristic neurological (pain), cutaneous (angiokeratoma), renal (proteinuria, kidney failure), cardiovascular (cardiomyopathy, arrhythmia), cochleo-vestibular and cerebrovascular (transient ischemic attacks, strokes) signs of the disease while heterozygous females have symptoms ranging from very mild to severe. Deficient activity of lysosomal ?-galactosidase A results in progressive accumulation of globotriaosylceramide within lysosomes, believed to trigger a cascade of cellular events. Demonstration of marked ?-galactosidase A deficiency is the definitive method for the diagnosis of hemizygous males. Enzyme analysis may occasionnally help to detect heterozygotes but is often inconclusive due to random X-chromosomal inactivation so that molecular testing (genotyping) of females is mandatory. In childhood, other possible causes of pain such as rheumatoid arthritis and 'growing pains' must be ruled out. In adulthood, multiple sclerosis is sometimes considered. Prenatal diagnosis, available by determination of enzyme activity or DNA testing in chorionic villi or cultured amniotic cells is, for ethical reasons, only considered in male fetuses. Pre-implantation diagnosis is possible. The existence of atypical variants and the availability of a specific therapy singularly complicate genetic counseling. A disease-specific therapeutic option - enzyme replacement therapy using recombinant human ?-galactosidase A - has been recently introduced and its long term outcome is currently still being investigated. Conventional management consists of pain relief with analgesic drugs, nephroprotection (angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptors blockers) and antiarrhythmic agents, whereas dialysis or renal transplantation are available for patients experiencing end-stage renal failure. With age, progressive damage to vital organ systems develops and at some point, organs may start to fail in functioning. End-stage renal disease and life-threatening cardiovascular or cerebrovascular complications limit life-expectancy of untreated males and females with reductions of 20 and 10 years, respectively, as compared to the general population. While there is increasing evidence that long-term enzyme therapy can halt disease progression, the importance of adjunctive therapies should be emphasized and the possibility of developing an oral therapy drives research forward into active site specific chaperones. PMID:21092187

  19. Gaucher disease.

    PubMed

    Mignot, Cyril; Gelot, Antoinette; De Villemeur, Thierry Billette

    2013-01-01

    Gaucher disease is an autosomal recessive condition due to glucocerebrosidase deficiency responsible for the lysosomal accumulation of glucosylceramide, a complex lipid derived from cell membranes, mainly in macrophages. It is due to mutations mostly in the GBA gene, although saposine C deficiency is due to mutations in the PSAP gene. It encompasses an extremely heterogeneous spectrum of clinical involvement from the fetus to adulthood. Splenomegaly, blood cytopenia, and bone involvement are the main manifestations of Gaucher disease, but nervous system degeneration is observed in about 5-10% of patients. The accumulation in neurons of glucosylceramide and its derivative, psychosine, are thought to underlie neuronal dysfunction and death, although Gaucher cells that mostly accumulate such substances are mainly macrophages. Enzyme replacement therapy dramatically improves the outcome of patients because of its extreme efficacy in the treatment of the systemic involvement. However, it has only limited effects on most neurological signs. PMID:23622393

  20. Morgellons disease?

    PubMed

    Accordino, Robert E; Engler, Danielle; Ginsburg, Iona H; Koo, John

    2008-01-01

    Morgellons disease, a pattern of dermatologic symptoms very similar, if not identical, to those of delusions of parasitosis, was first described many centuries ago, but has recently been given much attention on the internet and in the mass media. The present authors present a history of Morgellons disease, in addition to which they discuss the potential benefit of using this diagnostic term as a means of building trust and rapport with patients to maximize treatment benefit. The present authors also suggest "meeting the patient halfway" and creating a therapeutic alliance when providing dermatologic treatment by taking their cutaneous symptoms seriously enough to provide both topical ointments as well as antipsychotic medications, which can be therapeutic in these patients. PMID:18318880

  1. Adenotonsillar Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David H. Darrow; Nathan A. Kludt

    \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Tonsils and adenoid are important sources of J-chain bearing B-cell precursors that can eventually bind secretory IgA.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Although most tonsillitis in children is viral, Group A streptococcal disease is the most common treatable disorder. Treatment\\u000a is useful primarily in the prevention of sequelae. Tonsillectomy, however, may reduce the frequency of Group A streptococcal\\u000a disease in selected individuals with

  2. Thyroid disease

    SciTech Connect

    Falk, S.

    1990-01-01

    Presenting a multidisciplinary approach to the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disease, this volume provides a comprehensive picture of current thyroid medicine and surgery. The book integrates the perspectives of the many disciplines that deal with the clinical manifestations of thyroid disorders. Adding to the clinical usefulness of the book is the state-of-the-art coverage of many recent developments in thyroidology, including the use of highly sensitive two-site TSH immunoradionetric measurements to diagnose thyroid activity; thyroglobulin assays in thyroid cancer and other diseases; new diagnostic applications of MRI and CT; treatment with radionuclides and chemotherapy; new developments in thyroid immunology, pathology, and management of hyperthyroidism; suppressive treatment with thyroid hormone; and management of Graves' ophthalmopathy. The book also covers all aspects of thyroid surgery, including surgical treatment of hyperthyroidism; papillary, follicular, and other carcinomas; thyroidectomy; and prevention and management of complications.

  3. [Wilsons disease].

    PubMed

    Mare?ek, Z; Br?ha, R

    2013-07-01

    Wilsons disease is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder in which copper accumulates in tissues, especially in the liver and the brain. The genetic defect affects the P type ATPase gene (ATP7B). More than 500 mutations causing Wilsons disease have been described. The most common mutation in Central Europe concerns H1069Q. The symptoms of Wilsons disease include hepatic or neurological conditions. The hepatic condition is manifested as steatosis, acute or chronic hepatitis or cirrhosis. The neurological conditions are most often manifested after the age of 20 as motor disorders (tremor, speech and writing disorders), which may result in severe extrapyramidal syndrome with rigidity, dysarthria and muscle contractions. The dia-gnosis is based on clinical and laboratory assessments (neurological signs, liver lesions, low ceruloplasmin, increased free serum copper, high Cu volumes in urine, KayserFleischer ring). The dia-gnosis is confirmed by a high Cu level in liver tissue or genetic proof. Untreated Wilsons disease causes death of the patient. If treated properly the survival rate approximates to the survival rate of the common population. The treatment concerns either removal of copper from the body using chelating agents excreted into the urine (Penicillamine, Trientine) or limitation of copper absorption from the intestine and reducing the toxicity of copper (zinc, ammonium tetrathiomolybdate). In the Czech Republic, Penicillamine or zinc is used. A liver transplant is indicated in patients with fulminant hepatic failure or decompensated liver cirrhosis. In the family all siblings of the affected individual need to be screened in order to treat any asymptomatic subjects. PMID:23909262

  4. Stargardt Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rando Allikmets

    When the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette (ABC) transporter gene, ABCA4 (originally named ABCR), was cloned and characterized in 1997 as the causal gene for autosomal recessive Stargardt disease (arSTGD or STGD1) (1) it seemed as if just another missing link was added to the extensive table of genetic determinants of rare monogenic retinal\\u000a dystrophies. Now, 9 yr later, the ABCA4

  5. Celiac Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefano Guandalini

    \\u000a Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune disorder occurring in genetically susceptible individuals, triggered by gluten and related\\u000a prolamins, and plant storage proteins found in wheat, barley, and rye. It affects primarily the small intestine, where it\\u000a progressively leads to flattening of the small intestinal mucosa and subsequent nutrient malabsorption. Its pathogenesis involves\\u000a interactions among genetic, environmental, and immunological factors. Well-identified

  6. Huntington's Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seymour Gendelman; Howard E. Gendelman; Tsuneya Ikezu

    Huntington’s disease (HD) is a familial and rare inherited neurological disorder with a prevalence of 5–8 cases per 100,000\\u000a worldwide. This makes HD the most common inherited neurodegenerative disorder (Fahn, 2005). HD is passed from parent to child\\u000a in autosomal dominant fashion. Each child of an HD parent has a 50% chance of inheriting HD. Both sexes are affected equally.

  7. Plant Disease Lesson: Dutch elm disease

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Cleora J. D'Arcy (University of Illinois; )

    2000-07-21

    This plant disease lesson on Dutch elm disease (caused by the fungus Ophiostoma ulmi) includes information on symptoms and signs, pathogen biology, disease cycle and epidemiology, disease management, and the significance of the disease. Selected references are listed and a glossary is also available for use with this resource.

  8. Plant Disease Lesson: Rhizoctonia Diseases of Turfgrass

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lane P. Tredway (University of Georgia, Athens; )

    2001-11-09

    This plant disease lesson on Rhizoctonia diseases of turfgrass (caused by the fungi Rhizoctonia species) includes information on symptoms and signs, pathogen biology, disease cycle and epidemiology, disease management, and the significance of the disease. Selected references are listed and a glossary is also available for use with this resource.

  9. Plant Disease Lesson: Lesion nematode disease

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Eric L. Davis (North Carolina State University; )

    2000-10-30

    This plant disease lesson on Lesion nematode disease (caused by Pratylenchus) includes information on symptoms and signs, pathogen biology, disease cycle and epidemiology, disease management, and the significance of the disease. Selected references are listed and a glossary is also available for use with this resource.

  10. Plant Disease Lesson: Soybean cyst nematode disease

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Eric L. Davis (North Carolina State University; )

    2000-07-25

    This plant disease lesson on Soybean cyst nematode disease (caused by Heterodera glycines) includes information on symptoms and signs, pathogen biology, disease cycle and epidemiology, disease management, and the significance of the disease. Selected references are listed and a glossary is also available for use with this resource.

  11. [Morton's disease].

    PubMed

    Isomoto, Shinji; Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2014-12-01

    Morton's disease refers to neuralgia at the web space of the toes with a pseudo-neuroma. It commonly occurs in the third web space of the foot in middle-aged and older women. The pseudo-neuroma is thought to be a secondary change after entrapment or repeated microtrauma. Patients complain of forefoot pain while walking. Typically, symptoms are caused by tight high-heeled shoes. The physical examination includes palpation of the web spaces and Mulder's test. Weight bearing foot radiographs are used to evaluate the deformity of the foot, especially at metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joints. MRI is useful for differential diagnosis of pseudo-neuroma, MTP joint arthritis, and interdigital bursitis. Conservative treatments are shoe modification, use of orthotic insoles, and injection of corticosteroids and local anesthesia. The injections are useful not only for the treatment but also for diagnosis of Morton's disease. If the local injection is not temporally effective, surgical treatment is not indicated. If the conservative treatment fails, surgical treatment is indicated. The most common surgery is excision of the pseudo-neuroma. The surgery is usually performed using a dorsal approach. PMID:25475032

  12. Chagas' disease.

    PubMed Central

    Tanowitz, H B; Kirchhoff, L V; Simon, D; Morris, S A; Weiss, L M; Wittner, M

    1992-01-01

    Chagas' disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, is an important cause of morbidity in many countries in Latin America. The important modes of transmission are by the bite of the reduviid bug and blood transfusion. The organism exists in three morphological forms: trypomastigotes, amastigotes, and epimastigotes. The mechanism of transformation and differentiation is currently being explored, and signal transduction pathways of the parasites may be involved in this process. Parasite adherence to and invasion of host cells is a complex process involving complement, phospholipase, penetrin, neuraminidase, and hemolysin. Two clinical forms of the disease are recognized, acute and chronic. During the acute stage pathological damage is related to the presence of the parasite, whereas in the chronic stage few parasites are found. In recent years the roles of tumor necrosis factor, gamma interferon, and the interleukins in the pathogenesis of this infection have been reported. The common manifestations of chronic cardiomyopathy are arrhythmias and thromboembolic events. Autoimmune, neurogenic, and microvascular factors may be important in the pathogenesis of the cardiomyopathy. The gastrointestinal tract is another important target, and "mega syndromes" are common manifestations. The diagnosis and treatment of this infection are active areas of investigation. New serological and molecular biological techniques have improved the diagnosis of chronic infection. Exacerbations of T. cruzi infection have been reported for patients receiving immuno-suppressive therapy and for those with AIDS. Images PMID:1423218

  13. Vibration disease.

    PubMed

    Kákosy, T

    1989-04-01

    Today, in this age of technology, vibration caused by machinery is an almost universal hazard. Vibration transferred from a machine to the human body may cause discomfort, a reduction of performance, and even injury. Vibratory manual tools may cause damage to the circulatory system of the upper extremities (Raynaud's syndrome), to the peripheral nerves (peripheral neuropathy), and to the bones and joints (aseptic necrosis, fatigue fractures, degenerative joint disease). Vehicles and machines causing floor vibration cause degenerative disc disease of the lumbar spine. The pathogenesis of vibration injuries is still not completely clear and there is no effective treatment. Some of the abnormalities are irreversible and may cause permanent decrease of working ability, and even unemployment. This is why prevention is so important. Prevention is complex, including technical and organizational measures, use of individual protective clothing and footwear, and medical supervision both before and during employment. Workers who are exposed to vibration should be protected against other aggravating factors such as cold and noise, etc. Vibration-induced injuries are recognized in law in many countries as grounds for financial compensation. Their cost to industry is rising and, unless a means of prevention or cure is found, will continue to do so in the foreseeable future. PMID:2661029

  14. Disease Activity Measures in Paediatric Rheumatic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Luca, Nadia J.; Feldman, Brian M.

    2013-01-01

    Disease activity refers to potentially reversible aspects of a disease. Measurement of disease activity in paediatric rheumatic diseases is a critical component of patient care and clinical research. Disease activity measures are developed systematically, often involving consensus methods. To be useful, a disease activity measure must be feasible, valid, and interpretable. There are several challenges in quantifying disease activity in paediatric rheumatology; namely, the conditions are multidimensional, the level of activity must be valuated in the context of treatment being received, there is no gold standard for disease activity, and it is often difficult to incorporate the patient's perspective of their disease activity. To date, core sets of response variables are defined for juvenile idiopathic arthritis, juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus, and juvenile dermatomyositis, as well as definitions for improvement in response to therapy. Several specific absolute disease activity measures also exist for each condition. Further work is required to determine the optimal disease activity measures in paediatric rheumatology. PMID:24089617

  15. What Is Hodgkin Disease?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the key statistics about Hodgkin disease? What is Hodgkin disease? Hodgkin disease (Hodgkin lymphoma) is a type of ... also have lymphoid tissue. Start and spread of Hodgkin disease Because lymphoid tissue is in many parts of ...

  16. Wheat Diseases Atlas. 

    E-print Network

    McCoy, Norman L.; Berry, Robert W.

    1982-01-01

    CONTENTS INTRODUCTION ........................ . DISSEMINATION OF WHEAT DISEASES ... . ROOT DISEASES ......................... . Root, Crown and Foot Rots ............... . Plant Parasitic Nematodes ................ . Seedling Diseases... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FOLIAGE DISEASES ..................... . 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 Rusts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Leaf Rust . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Stem Rust...

  17. `Silk Route Disease' (Behçet's Disease)

    PubMed Central

    James, D. Geraint

    1988-01-01

    Behçet's disease is a multisystem disorder in which orogenital ulceration is associated with troublesome generalized uveitis, erythema nodosum, pyoderma, dermatographism, seronegative arthritis, and neurologic and cardiovascular symptoms. There is no diagnostic laboratory test; the diagnosis is based on the disorder's multisystem clinical features. A points scoring system is helpful in distinguishing it from other multisystem disorders that mimic it. It occurs most frequently in an area coinciding with the old Silk Route, between latitudes 30° and 45° north, in Asian and Eurasian populations, and it has an HLA-B51 affinity. The cause remains unknown, but a postulated trigger factor is a herpesvirus with cofactors that include ethnic group, human leukocyte antigen affinities, T-cell and autonomic imbalance, circulating immune complexes, autoimmunity, blood viscosity, decreased fibrinolysis, and zinc deficiency. Treatment includes administering corticosteroids, azathioprine, chlorambucil, cyclosporine, and colchicine, and fibrinolytic therapy. PMID:3291395

  18. Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Benninger, David H

    2013-01-01

    In advanced Parkinson's disease (PD), the emergence of symptoms refractory to conventional therapy poses therapeutic challenges. The success of deep brain stimulation (DBS) and advances in the understanding of the pathophysiology of PD have raised interest in noninvasive brain stimulation as an alternative therapeutic tool. The rationale for its use draws from the concept that reversing abnormalities in brain activity and physiology thought to cause the clinical deficits may restore normal functioning. Currently the best evidence in support of this concept comes from DBS, which improves motor deficits, and modulates brain activity and motor cortex physiology, although whether a causal interaction exists remains largely undetermined. Most trials of noninvasive brain stimulation in PD have applied repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), targeting the motor cortex. Current studies suggest a possible therapeutic potential for rTMS and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), but clinical effects so far have been small and negligible with regard to functional independence and quality of life. Approaches to potentiate the efficacy of rTMS include increasing stimulation intensity and novel stimulation parameters that derive their rationale from studies on brain physiology. These novel parameters are intended to simulate normal firing patterns or to act on the hypothesized role of oscillatory activity in the motor cortex and basal ganglia with regard to motor control and its contribution to the pathogenesis of motor disorders. Noninvasive brain stimulation studies will enhance our understanding of PD pathophysiology and might provide further evidence for potential therapeutic applications. PMID:24112916

  19. Rice Diseases Atlas.

    E-print Network

    Walla, Walter

    1977-01-01

    . 448. au., S.H. 1972 Rice Diseases. Eastern Press Ltd., London and Reading, England. Whitney, N. G. and Richard A. Frederiksen, 1975 Kernel Smut of Rice. Texas Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin MP-1231. (Blank Page in Original Bulletin... CONTENTS INTRODUCTION .......... . .. . ........ . SEEDLI NG DISEASES ... . ... . .. . ........ . FOLIAGE DISEASES ................... .. SHEATH AND STEM DISEASES .......... . DISEASES ATT ACKI NG THE KERNEL ..... . PHYSIOLOGICAL Di...

  20. RARE DISEASES LIST

    EPA Science Inventory

    The rare disease list includes rare diseases and conditions for which information requests have been made to the Office of Rare Diseases. A rare disease is defined as a disease or condition for which there are fewer than 200,000 affected persons alive in the United States. The Of...

  1. Diabetic Heart Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... heart disease (CHD), heart failure, and diabetic cardiomyopathy. Diabetes by itself puts you at risk for heart disease. Other risk factors include Family history of heart disease Carrying extra ...

  2. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) - CDC Fact Sheet Untreated sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) can cause pelvic inflammatory disease ( ... chlamydia and gonorrhea. Other infections that are not sexually transmitted can also cause PID. How do I ...

  3. Peripheral Vascular Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Arterial blockage including peripheral artery disease or PAD Aortic aneurysms Buerger's Disease Raynaud's Phenomenon Disease of the veins ... blood to flow around, or "bypass," the blockage. Aortic Aneurysms An aneurysm is a balloon-like bulge in ...

  4. Types of Periodontal Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Types of Periodontal Disease Gingivitis Chronic Periodontitis Aggressive Periodontitis Periodontitis Caused by Conditions of the Body Necrotizing Periodontal Diseases Periodontal disease can refer to any condition that affects the gums and ...

  5. Digestive Diseases Materials

    MedlinePLUS

    ... NIDDK Health Information NIDDK Home NIDDK Image Library Digestive Disease, Nutrition, and Weight-control Materials Healthy eating, ... Materials Statistics Tip Sheets Catalog Home | Diabetes Materials | Digestive Diseases Materials | Kidney and Urologic Diseases Materials Online ...

  6. Gum (Periodontal) Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Disease: What Is Gum (Periodontal) Disease? In This Topic What Is Gum (Periodontal) Disease? Risk Factors and ... for More Information National Institute on Aging Related Topics Problems with Taste The information in this topic ...

  7. Kidney disease - resources

    MedlinePLUS

    Resources - kidney disease ... The following organizations are good resources for information on kidney disease: National Kidney Disease Education Program - www.nkdep.nih.gov National Kidney Foundation - www.kidney.org National ...

  8. Heart disease - resources

    MedlinePLUS

    Resources - heart disease ... The following organizations are good resources for information on heart disease: American Heart Association - www.americanheart.org Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - www.cdc.gov/heartdisease/

  9. Lipid Storage Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of the lipid storage disorders, although Gaucher and Fabry diseases have highly effective enzyme replacement therapies. There is ... from infection or progressive neurological loss. Children with Fabry disease often die prematurely of complications from heart disease, ...

  10. Heart Disease in Women

    MedlinePLUS

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Does Heart Disease Affect Women? Espańol In the United States, ... about coronary MVD and broken heart syndrome. Coronary Heart Disease CHD is a disease in which plaque ( ...

  11. Childhood Contagious Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in children. Hand-Foot-and-Mouth Disease Hand-foot-and-mouth disease is a suddenly appearing (acute), self-limited viral disease caused by viruses of the enterovirus group, particularly Coxsackievirus A16. The ...

  12. Learning about Crohn's Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... have a blood relative with some form of inflammatory bowel disease, usually a brother or a sister, and sometimes ... 10 percent chance to develop some form of inflammatory bowel disease. When both parents have inflammatory bowel disease, the ...

  13. Carotid Artery Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... HEALTH Carotid Artery Disease What are the carotid arteries? The carotid arteries are the bloodd vessels that ... the back of the brain. What is carotid artery disease? Carotid artery disease is defined by the ...

  14. Ebola Virus Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Ebola virus disease Fact sheet N°103 Updated April 2015 Key facts Ebola virus disease (EVD), formerly ... live Ebola virus in vaginal secretions. Symptoms of Ebola virus disease The incubation period, that is, the ...

  15. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... airways disease; Chronic obstructive lung disease; Chronic bronchitis; Emphysema; Bronchitis - chronic ... a protein called alpha-1 antitrypsin can develop emphysema. Other risk factors for COPD are: Exposure to ...

  16. Biomarker for Glycogen Storage Diseases

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-06-12

    Fructose Metabolism, Inborn Errors; Glycogen Storage Disease; Glycogen Storage Disease Type I; Glycogen Storage Disease Type II; Glycogen Storage Disease Type III; Glycogen Storage Disease Type IV; Glycogen Storage Disease Type V; Glycogen Storage Disease Type VI; Glycogen Storage Disease Type VII; Glycogen Storage Disease Type VIII

  17. Plant Disease Lesson: Blackleg

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Gavin Ash (Charles Sturt University; )

    2000-11-11

    This plant disease lesson on Blackleg (caused by Leptosphaeria maculans (teleomorph) Phoma lingam (anamorph).) includes information on symptoms and signs, pathogen biology, disease cycle and epidemiology, disease management, and the significance of the disease. Selected references are listed and a glossary is also available for use with this resource.

  18. The integrated disease network.

    PubMed

    Sun, Kai; Buchan, Natalie; Larminie, Chris; Pržulj, Nataša

    2014-11-01

    The growing body of transcriptomic, proteomic, metabolomic and genomic data generated from disease states provides a great opportunity to improve our current understanding of the molecular mechanisms driving diseases and shared between diseases. The use of both clinical and molecular phenotypes will lead to better disease understanding and classification. In this study, we set out to gain novel insights into diseases and their relationships by utilising knowledge gained from system-level molecular data. We integrated different types of biological data including genome-wide association studies data, disease-chemical associations, biological pathways and Gene Ontology annotations into an Integrated Disease Network (IDN), a heterogeneous network where nodes are bio-entities and edges between nodes represent their associations. We also introduced a novel disease similarity measure to infer disease-disease associations from the IDN. Our predicted associations were systemically evaluated against the Medical Subject Heading classification and a statistical measure of disease co-occurrence in PubMed. The strong correlation between our predictions and co-occurrence associations indicated the ability of our approach to recover known disease associations. Furthermore, we presented a case study of Crohn's disease. We demonstrated that our approach not only identified well-established connections between Crohn's disease and other diseases, but also revealed new, interesting connections consistent with emerging literature. Our approach also enabled ready access to the knowledge supporting these new connections, making this a powerful approach for exploring connections between diseases. PMID:25133803

  19. Autoimmunity in thyroid disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joanne Collins; Stephen Gough

    2002-01-01

    The autoimmune thyroid diseases, Graves' disease and autoimmune hypothyroidism, represent the two ends of a disease spectrum where an immune response is directed against the thyroid gland. In Graves' disease, antibodies directed against the thyrotropin receptor (TSH-R) lead to the development of glandular overactivity, while in autoimmune hypothyroidism, cell-mediated and humoral thyroid injury leads to destruction of thyroid tissue and

  20. Kidney Disease of Diabetes

    E-print Network

    Baker, Chris I.

    Kidney Disease of Diabetes National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse is the final stage of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Diabetes is the most common cause of kidney failure, accounting for nearly 44 percent of new cases.1 Even when diabetes is controlled, the disease can lead to CKD

  1. What Is Crohn's Disease?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... belongs to a group of conditions known as Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD). Crohn’s disease is a chronic inflammatory condition of the gastrointestinal tract. When reading about inflammatory bowel diseases, it is important to know that Crohn’s disease ...

  2. Oral Crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    Padmavathi, BN; Sharma, Smriti; Astekar, Madhusudan; Rajan, Y; Sowmya, GV

    2014-01-01

    ’Crohn's disease’ is an inflammatory granulomatous disease of the gastrointestinal tract with extra-intestinal manifestations. Oral lesions may precede the intestinal disease and serve as a source for histological diagnosis. We present a case of orofacial Crohn's disease where orofacial symptoms were present for about 13 years and occasional constipation was present, since 6 months. Oral examination plays an important role in early diagnosis of Crohn's disease. PMID:25364165

  3. Prion diseases as transmissible zoonotic diseases.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeongmin; Kim, Su Yeon; Hwang, Kyu Jam; Ju, Young Ran; Woo, Hee-Jong

    2013-02-01

    Prion diseases, also called transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), lead to neurological dysfunction in animals and are fatal. Infectious prion proteins are causative agents of many mammalian TSEs, including scrapie (in sheep), chronic wasting disease (in deer and elk), bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE; in cattle), and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD; in humans). BSE, better known as mad cow disease, is among the many recently discovered zoonotic diseases. BSE cases were first reported in the United Kingdom in 1986. Variant CJD (vCJD) is a disease that was first detected in 1996, which affects humans and is linked to the BSE epidemic in cattle. vCJD is presumed to be caused by consumption of contaminated meat and other food products derived from affected cattle. The BSE epidemic peaked in 1992 and decreased thereafter; this decline is continuing sharply owing to intensive surveillance and screening programs in the Western world. However, there are still new outbreaks and/or progression of prion diseases, including atypical BSE, and iatrogenic CJD and vCJD via organ transplantation and blood transfusion. This paper summarizes studies on prions, particularly on prion molecular mechanisms, BSE, vCJD, and diagnostic procedures. Risk perception and communication policies of the European Union for the prevention of prion diseases are also addressed to provide recommendations for appropriate government policies in Korea. PMID:24159531

  4. Lyme Disease Research

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Maine Medical Center Research Institute's Lyme Disease Research Laboratory provides this website focusing on ticks and the control of tick-borne diseases. This site is divided into several sections. The first section "Tick Borne Diseases" contains resources on diseases caused by tick-borne pathogens, such as Lyme disease. "Prevention & Control" gives site visitors information on avoiding tick bites, and removal of ticks from the body. Links to other sites and key sources of information on ticks and Lyme disease can be found in the "Other Resources" section.

  5. Epidemiology: Understanding Disease Spread

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Marion Fass (Beloit College; Biology)

    2006-05-20

    Factors that influence disease spread throughout populations can be explored with the program Epidemiology. Both population and disease characteristics can be modeled over different time periods. The Susceptible- Infected- Recovered (SIR) model enables us to make predictions based on significant variables such as the flow of new susceptibles in to the population, transmission rates, disease deaths, and the duration of the disease. Ebola is used as a model organism and epidemiology is presented from both a microbiological and social perspective. * build epidemiological models of different diseases, design strategies for disease control, and test the effectiveness of these strategies on virtual populations

  6. Congenital heart disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Down syndrome Marfan syndrome Noonan syndrome Trisomy 13 Turner syndrome Often, no cause for the heart disease ... good control over their blood sugar levels. Certain genes may play a role in congenital heart disease. ...

  7. Liver Disease and IBD

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 34% of Crohn’s patients with disease of the terminal ileum (the last segment of the small intestine). ... increased risk for developing gallstones because the diseased terminal ileum cannot absorb bile salts, which are necessary ...

  8. Fibrocystic breast disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Miltenburg DM, Speights VO Jr. Benign breast disease. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am . 2008;35:285-300. Katz VL, ... malignant disease. In: Lentz GM, Lobo RA, Gershenson DM, Katz VL, eds. Comprehensive Gynecology . 6th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  9. Lou Gehrig's Disease (ALS)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 10% will survive more than 10 years. Stephen Hawking has been living with Lou Gehrig's disease for ... term survivor of the disease. Born in England, Hawking is a famous physicist who furthered our understanding ...

  10. Pediatric inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Diefenbach, Karen A; Breuer, Christopher K

    2006-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease is an important cause of gastrointestinal pathology in children and adolescents. The incidence of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease is increasing; therefore, it is important for the clinician to be aware of the presentation of this disease in the pediatric population. Laboratory tests, radiology studies, and endoscopic procedures are helpful in diagnosing inflammatory bowel disease and differentiating between Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. Once diagnosed, the goal of medical management is to induce remission of disease while minimizing the side effects of the medication. Specific attention needs to be paid to achieving normal growth in this susceptible population. Surgical management is usually indicated for failure of medical management, complication, or malignancy. Algorithms for diagnostic evaluation and treatment of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease are presented. The specific psychosocial issues facing these patients are also discussed in this review as are the future goals of research in the complex problem of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:16718840

  11. Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a rare, degenerative brain disorder. Symptoms usually start around age 60. Memory problems, behavior changes, vision ... during a medical procedure Cattle can get a disease related to CJD called bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) ...

  12. Tay-Sachs Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Tay-Sachs disease is a rare, inherited disorder. It causes too much of a fatty substance to build up in the ... mental and physical problems. Infants with Tay-Sachs disease appear to develop normally for the first few ...

  13. Cat Scratch Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Cat scratch disease (CSD) is an illness caused by the bacterium Bartonella henselae. Almost half of all cats carry the infection ... symptoms of CSD, call your doctor. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

  14. Carotid Artery Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... brain with blood. If you have carotid artery disease, the arteries become narrow, usually because of atherosclerosis. ... one of the causes of stroke. Carotid artery disease often does not cause symptoms, but there are ...

  15. Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are infections that you can get from having sex with someone who has the infection. The causes ... is no cure. Sometimes medicines can keep the disease under control. Correct usage of latex condoms greatly ...

  16. Bile Duct Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... carry the bile to your small intestine. Different diseases can block the bile ducts and cause a ... liver failure. A rare form of bile duct disease called biliary atresia occurs in infants. It is ...

  17. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is an infection and inflammation of the uterus, ovaries, and other female reproductive organs. It causes scarring ... United States. Gonorrhea and chlamydia, two sexually transmitted diseases, are the most common causes of PID. Other ...

  18. Paget's Disease of Bone

    MedlinePLUS

    ... What is Paget's Disease of Bone? In This Topic What is Paget's Disease of Bone? Symptoms and ... for More Information National Institute on Aging Related Topics Osteoarthritis Eating Well as You Get Older More ...

  19. Carotid artery disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... artery disease may be a stroke or a transient ischemic attack (TIA). A TIA is a small ... Major complications of carotid artery disease are: Transient ischemic ... vessel to the brain. It causes the same symptoms as stroke. ...

  20. Liver disease - resources

    MedlinePLUS

    Resources - liver disease ... The following organizations are good resources for information on liver disease : American Liver Foundation - www.liverfoundation.org Children's Liver Association for Support Services - www.classkids.org Hepatitis ...

  1. Lung disease - resources

    MedlinePLUS

    Resources - lung disease ... The following organizations are good resources for information on lung disease : American Lung Association - www.lungusa.org National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute - www.nhlbi.nih.gov ...

  2. Lyme disease (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... that is caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi . Lyme disease is transmitted by the bite of a deer tick. Symptoms resolve in 3 to 4 weeks even without treatment, but secondary or tertiary disease may develop if ...

  3. Heart Valve Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Heart Valve Disease? Heart valve disease occurs if one or ... ability to pump blood. Overview How the Heart Valves Work At the start of each heartbeat, blood ...

  4. Sickle Cell Disease (SCD)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... inherited two hemoglobin S genes, is the most common form of sickle cell disease. There are variations on SCD where the patient inherits one hemoglobin S gene with another hemoglobin problem that results in a disease similar to classic ...

  5. Dejerine-Sottas Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the genes for proteins found in myelin, a coating on axons that insulates and nourishes them. DS ... combat these effects. Disease: Peripheral Neuropathies Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease (CMT) Hereditary Motor and Sensory Neuropathy (Charcot- ...

  6. What Causes Heart Disease?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Heart Disease? Research suggests that coronary heart disease (CHD) ... Red: Eileen's Story 04/10/2014 Celebrating American Heart Month: NIH Advancing Heart Research 02/06/2014 ...

  7. Living with Heart Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Heart Disease If you have coronary heart disease (CHD), ... it harder for you to make lifestyle changes. Heart Attack Warning Signs If you have CHD, learn ...

  8. Diabetic Eye Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... los Ojos Cómo hablarle a su oculista Diabetic Eye Disease Listen View this module and educate yourself, family, and friends about diabetic eye disease. This module includes descriptive audio and captioning. Diabetic ...

  9. Coronary Heart Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Coronary Heart Disease? Espańol Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a ... Red: Eileen's Story 04/10/2014 Celebrating American Heart Month: NIH Advancing Heart Research 02/06/2014 ...

  10. Learning about Your Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for you. Tweet Learning about your disease Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) Adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) Chronic myelogeneous leukemia (CML) Hodgkin lymphoma Hurler syndrome Krabbe disease (GLD) Metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) ...

  11. Men and Heart Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Heart Disease Stroke High Blood Pressure Salt ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Heart Disease Stroke High Blood Pressure Salt ...

  12. Heart Disease Risk Factors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention ...

  13. Women and Heart Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Heart Disease Stroke High Blood Pressure Salt ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Heart Disease Stroke High Blood Pressure Salt ...

  14. Learning about Huntington's Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the symptoms and progression of the disease by breeding laboratory animals, such as mice, and attempting to ... Center (HDAC) Web site by focusing on the science of HD. Huntington Disease [rarediseases.info.nih.gov] ...

  15. Sickle Cell Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to help you deal with the disease. Strong family relationships and close personal friends can be helpful. A support group can also help you cope with the disease. Work with your family doctor to set goals for coping with your ...

  16. Pregnancy and Fifth Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Cheek Rash Parvovirus B19 and Other Illnesses References Pregnancy and Fifth Disease Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... with fifth disease. Testing for Parvovirus B19 During Pregnancy A blood test for parvovirus B19 can show ...

  17. Carotid Artery Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Carotid Artery Disease? Carotid (ka-ROT-id) artery disease is ... blood to your face, scalp, and neck. Carotid Arteries Figure A shows the location of the right ...

  18. Coronary Artery Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common type of heart disease. It is the leading cause of death ... both men and women. CAD happens when the arteries that supply blood to heart muscle become hardened ...

  19. Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... vessels. Examples of connective tissue diseases include lupus , scleroderma , rheumatoid arthritis , Sjögren's syndrome , myositis , and vasculitis . There ... connective tissue diseases, such as lupus, Sjögren's or scleroderma. More UCTD Information Causes Diagnosis Symptoms Treatment Print ...

  20. Blood and Lymph Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Medicine, National Institutes of Health. National Center for Biotechnology Information (US). Genes and Disease [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Center for Biotechnology Information (US); 1998-. Genes and Disease [Internet]. Show ...

  1. Cat scratch disease (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Cat scratch disease is an infectious illness associated with cat scratches, bites, or exposure to cat saliva, causing chronic swelling of the lymph nodes. Cat scratch disease is possibly the most common cause of chronic ...

  2. Cat scratch disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... scratch disease is caused by Bartonella henselae . The disease is spread through contact with an infected cat (a bite or scratch). It also can be spread through contact with cat saliva on broken skin or mucosal surfaces like those ...

  3. [Wilson disease in 2003].

    PubMed

    Szalay, Ferenc

    2003-12-14

    The actuality of this review is based on the results of a recent international consensus conference on the diagnosis and phenotypic classification of Wilson disease published in 2003. The mechanism of the genetically determined copper elimination failure and the copper toxicity, the clinical presentation forms, the diagnosis and treatment of the disease is reviewed. Wilson disease should be taken into consideration in case of any liver disease of unknown origin or neuropsychiatric symptoms. The internationally accepted scoring system is presented. PMID:15067983

  4. Rice Diseases Atlas. 

    E-print Network

    Walla, Walter

    1977-01-01

    . This condition is common early in the growing season when soil temperatures are cool FOLIAGE DISEASES Rice Blast - (fungus Piricularia oryzae) - Blast is one of the most important rice diseases in Texas. This disease varies in severity from year to year.... ~ ______________________________________________________________________ 5 Brown Leaf Sppt - (fungus He/minthosporium oryzae) - The disease is found on leaves, leaf sheath, panicle branches, glumes and grain. The fungus causes brown circular to oval spots on the first leaf sheath while it is still below ground...

  5. Telomeres in disease

    PubMed Central

    Calado, Rodrigo

    2012-01-01

    Telomeres and telomere repair are basic molecular features of cells possessing linear DNA chromosomes and defects in them result in various diseases. This review examines recent advances in understanding these diseases, particularly at a molecular level, and in relating telomere dysfunction to clinical diseases. We also discuss the potential role of telomere elongation as a therapy in diseases, and more controversially, the prevention/reversal of aging. PMID:22500192

  6. Parallelization: Infectious Disease

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Aaron Weeden

    Epidemiology is the study of infectious disease. Infectious diseases are said to be "contagious" among people if they are transmittable from one person to another. Epidemiologists can use models to assist them in predicting the behavior of infectious diseases. This module will develop a simple agent-based infectious disease model, develop a parallel algorithm based on the model, provide a coded implementation for the algorithm, and explore the scaling of the coded implementation on high performance cluster resources.

  7. Meningococcal Disease: Surveillance

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Meningococcal Vaccination Surveillance Meningococcal Outbreaks About Meningococcal Outbreaks Serogroup B Meningococcal Vaccine & Outbreaks Clinical Information Laboratory Information Meningococcal Disease in ...

  8. Meningococcal Disease: Risk Factors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Meningococcal Vaccination Surveillance Meningococcal Outbreaks About Meningococcal Outbreaks Serogroup B Meningococcal Vaccine & Outbreaks Clinical Information Laboratory Information Meningococcal Disease in ...

  9. Paget's Disease of Bone

    MedlinePLUS

    ... break easily. The disease can lead to other health problems, too, such as arthritis and hearing loss. You can have Paget's disease in any bone, but it is most common in the spine, pelvis, skull, and legs. The disease might affect ...

  10. Newcastle disease virus (velogens)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is also known as avian paramyxovirus serotype-1 (APMV-1). While all NDV are referred to as APMV-1 and are of one serotype, only infections with virulent NDV (vNDV) cause Newcastle disease (ND). Newcastle disease virus strains are defined as virulent if they 1) have th...

  11. Newcastle disease vaccines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gilad E. Gallili; David Ben-Nathan

    1998-01-01

    Newcastle disease (ND) is a worldwide problem with severe economic implications, affecting chickens, turkeys and other birds. Newcastle disease virus (NDV), a member of the Paramyxoviridae group can cause disease of diverse severity in accordance with environmental factors. NDV strains are classified according to their virulence into three categories. The lentogenic strains are very mild and naturally inhabit healthy flocks.

  12. Smoking and Parkinson's disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R B Godwin-Austen; P N Lee; M G Marmot; G M Stern

    1982-01-01

    In a case control study of the relationship between smoking habits and Parkinson's disease a negative association was demonstrated with a relative risk of 0 x 52. A history of smoking up to 20 years earlier was associated with a risk of developing Parkinson's disease equal to about half that in non-smokers. The type of disease, age of onset and

  13. Alzheimers disease Neurodegeneration

    E-print Network

    Schüler, Axel

    Keywords Alzheimer´s disease Neurodegeneration Cell cycle and apoptosis » Prof. Dr. Thomas Arendt The research group is working on the pathomechanism of Alzheimer´s disease and related of the cholinergic ba- sal forebrain system in Alzheimer´s disease which provides the basis for the currently

  14. Management of Cushing disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beverly M. K. Biller; Brooke Swearingen; Nicholas A. Tritos

    2011-01-01

    Cushing disease is caused by a corticotroph tumor of the pituitary gland. Patients with Cushing disease are usually treated with transsphenoidal surgery, as this approach leads to remission in 70–90% of cases and is associated with low morbidity when performed by experienced pituitary gland surgeons. Nonetheless, among patients in postoperative remission, the risk of recurrence of Cushing disease could reach

  15. Molecular Bioinformatics for Diseases

    E-print Network

    Radivojac, Predrag

    . Curr Opin Pediatr, 13: 22 (2001). Leads to sickle cell anemia Manifestation of disease vastly different. PNAS, 104: 8685 (2007). #12;Mendelian diseases E6V6 Sickle Cell Disease: Autosomal recessive disorder 4 of amyloid fibrils Abnormally shaped red blood cells Pauling et al. Science 110: 543 (1949). Chui & Dover

  16. Infections and autoimmune diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-François Bach

    2005-01-01

    The high percentage of disease-discordant pairs of monozygotic twins demonstrates the central role of environmental factors in the etiology of autoimmune diseases. Efforts were first focussed on the search for triggering factors. The study of animal models has clearly shown that infections may trigger autoimmune diseases, as in the case of Coxsackie B4 virus in type I diabetes and the

  17. Deer: Wasting Disease Disaster.

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease, the brain disease sometimes compared to mad cow disease that affects deer and elk, has become a problem outside of the states of Colorado and Wyoming where it has been known for decades, raising awareness and concern for wildlife in affected areas. This Web site is a recent Why Files discussing the epidemic and Wisconsin's plans to control it.

  18. Heart Disease in Women

    MedlinePLUS

    ... United States, 1 in 4 women dies from heart disease. The most common cause of heart disease in both men and women is narrowing ... the blood vessels that supply blood to the heart itself. This is called coronary artery disease, and ...

  19. Venereal Disease. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Stephen J.

    This book is one in a series of contemporary topics in health science for students. The first chapter deals with the behavioral aspects of venereal disease and how the disease has been affected by our changing society. Chapter 2 discusses the magnitude of the problem, presenting various maps and charts. The history of venereal disease and the…

  20. Disease and their management.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter reviews diseases of chickpea and their management practices. Some of the most important disease such as Ascochyta blight, Fuarium wilt, Botrytis gray mold, are described in detail. The life cycle and epidemiology of these diseases are discussed in relation to the management practices. ...

  1. Secondary minimal change disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard J. Glassock

    2003-01-01

    The great majority of patients identified as having a 'minimal change lesion' accompanying the nephrotic syndrome have a primary or 'idiopathic' disorder. Nevertheless, it is quite apparent that a similar or identical lesion can appear consequent to a growing number of underlying diseases; it is then known as 'secondary minimal change disease'. The predisposing conditions include neoplastic diseases, toxic or

  2. Enteric Redmouth Disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yersinia ruckeri, the causative agent of Enteric Redmouth Disease (ERM), is a disease of salmonid fish species that is endemic in areas of the world where salmonids are intensively cultured. The disease causes a chronic to acute hemorrhagic septicemia which can lead to high rates of mortality partic...

  3. Celiac Disease: Internet Resources

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian D. Cameron

    2002-01-01

    Celiac disease is an autoimmune malabsorption disorder caused by gluten, the protein present in wheat, rye, and barley. Gluten destroys the absorptive layer of the small intestine, which leads to malnourishment and other serious diseases. Recent research has established that celiac disease is a common disorder, affecting 1 in every 120 to 300 people in North America and Europe. The

  4. Primary glomerular disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Mathieson

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the clinical features, pathogenesis, investigation and management of glomerulonephritis (GN). This can occur as a primary isolated renal disease, as a manifestation of systemic diseases such as vasculitis or lupus, or secondary to drugs, infections or tumours. It is an important cause of morbidity and mortality and a potentially preventable cause of end-stage renal disease, so early

  5. Primary glomerular disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Momir Macanovic; Peter Mathieson

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews the clinical features, pathogenesis, investigation and management of glomerulonephritis (GN). This can occur as a primary isolated renal disease, as a manifestation of systemic diseases such as vasculitis or lupus, or secondary to drugs, infections or tumours. It is an important cause of morbidity and mortality and a potentially preventable cause of end-stage renal disease, so early

  6. Gaucher's disease and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Moughabghab, A V; Fenides, A; Hanon, F; Socolovsky, C

    1994-01-01

    For a long time, pregnancy has been discouraged for patients with Gaucher's disease. Because of the scarcity of complications found in the literature, the obstetrical attitude is favorable towards an authorization of pregnancy for patients with Gaucher's disease. We describe the evolution of pregnancy of a woman suffering from Gaucher's disease type I and the anesthesiological support provided. PMID:7847042

  7. Anosognosia in neurodegenerative disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Howard J. Rosen

    2011-01-01

    Patients with neurological disorders are often partially or completely unaware of the deficits caused by their disease. This impairment is referred to as anosognosia, and it is very common in neurodegenerative disease, particularly in frontotemporal dementia. Anosognosia has significant impacts on function and quality of life for patients with neurodegenerative disease and their caregivers, but the phenomenon has received little

  8. Skin Diseases: Skin Health and Skin Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... color or outline, or in any other way. Psoriasis © 2008 Logical Images, Inc. Psoriasis —A skin disease that causes scaling and swelling. Most psoriasis causes patches of thick, red skin with silvery ...

  9. Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) Coronary heart disease

    E-print Network

    Dever, Jennifer A.

    have a greater prevalence in women · Osteoporosis · Autoimmune disease A. Osteoporosis · Osteoporosis ­ disorder of low bone mass, microarchitectural denegra7on% of all women >65 years old have osteoporosis (15% of all Caucasian women

  10. HIV and Cardiovascular Disease (Heart Disease)

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... signal problems with the reabsorption in the tubules. Diabetes Recent studies about diabetes risks for those with HIV contain some conflicting ... it is clear that minimizing your risks for diabetes is important. Diabetes contributes to heart disease and ...

  11. Creutzfeldt--Jakob disease.

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, W. B.

    1978-01-01

    The laboratory transmission to animals of an apparently degenerative disease of the nervous system, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), is now well established. Important questions arising from this observation are the possibility of natural transmission or infectivity and the existence of other similarly transmissible diseases. Epidemiological studies have revealed some possible clusters of CJD and also an association with previous craniotomy, but there is no definite evidence of natural infection. A few instances have been reported of experimental CJD in animals following inoculation with material from Alzheimer's disease, but apart from this there is so far no evidence of transmission of any other form of degenerative nervous disease. PMID:103082

  12. Lyme disease in athletes.

    PubMed

    DuPrey, Kevin M

    2015-01-01

    Lyme disease, a bacterial infection transmitted by ticks, is the most common vector-borne disease in the northern hemisphere. Athletes who train or compete in wooded environments in endemic regions are at increased risk of contracting Lyme disease. Variability in clinical presentation, masquerading symptoms, and limitations in testing may lead to misdiagnosis. Early diagnosis and treatment result in full recovery for most patients with Lyme disease; however symptoms may persist for months to years, especially when diagnosis is delayed. This article reviews the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of Lyme disease, with focus on the athletic population. PMID:25574885

  13. Behçet's disease as a systemic disease.

    PubMed

    Mat, M Cem; Sevim, Ay?egül; Fresko, Izzet; Tüzün, Yalç?n

    2014-01-01

    Behçet's disease usually begins with cutaneous manifestations, such as recurrent aphthous stomatitis, genital ulcers, erythema nodosum-like lesions, papulopustular findings, and pathergy phenomenon. Recurrent aphthous stomatitis is generally the first sign, and other findings may develop in the course of the disease. There is no specific diagnostic available for Behçet's disease. It is most prevalent among patients along the ancient Silk Road. The high frequency of HLA-B51 among a wide range of ethnic populations favors the role of genetic factors. Behçet's disease usually appears in the third to fourth decade of life, and is rarely seen in children and adults over 50 years of age. It affects both genders equally, but the course of the disease is more severe in men. Eye involvement leading to loss of vision, plus vascular, articular, and central nervous system involvement are more commonly observed among men. Behçet's disease is a systemic inflammatory disorder. A complex genetic background, coupled with innate and adaptive immune system activation, causes the diverse clinical manifestations that characterize the clinical picture. PMID:24767193

  14. Structural imaging biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease: predicting disease progression

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Structural imaging biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease: predicting disease the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database (www of Alzheimer's disease (AD) may allow earlier detection and refined pre- diction

  15. Prioritising Infectious Disease Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Pigott, David M.; Howes, Rosalind E.; Wiebe, Antoinette; Battle, Katherine E.; Golding, Nick; Gething, Peter W.; Dowell, Scott F.; Farag, Tamer H.; Garcia, Andres J.; Kimball, Ann M.; Krause, L. Kendall; Smith, Craig H.; Brooker, Simon J.; Kyu, Hmwe H.; Vos, Theo; Murray, Christopher J. L.; Moyes, Catherine L.; Hay, Simon I.

    2015-01-01

    Background Increasing volumes of data and computational capacity afford unprecedented opportunities to scale up infectious disease (ID) mapping for public health uses. Whilst a large number of IDs show global spatial variation, comprehensive knowledge of these geographic patterns is poor. Here we use an objective method to prioritise mapping efforts to begin to address the large deficit in global disease maps currently available. Methodology/Principal Findings Automation of ID mapping requires bespoke methodological adjustments tailored to the epidemiological characteristics of different types of diseases. Diseases were therefore grouped into 33 clusters based upon taxonomic divisions and shared epidemiological characteristics. Disability-adjusted life years, derived from the Global Burden of Disease 2013 study, were used as a globally consistent metric of disease burden. A review of global health stakeholders, existing literature and national health priorities was undertaken to assess relative interest in the diseases. The clusters were ranked by combining both metrics, which identified 44 diseases of main concern within 15 principle clusters. Whilst malaria, HIV and tuberculosis were the highest priority due to their considerable burden, the high priority clusters were dominated by neglected tropical diseases and vector-borne parasites. Conclusions/Significance A quantitative, easily-updated and flexible framework for prioritising diseases is presented here. The study identifies a possible future strategy for those diseases where significant knowledge gaps remain, as well as recognising those where global mapping programs have already made significant progress. For many conditions, potential shared epidemiological information has yet to be exploited. PMID:26061527

  16. Fight against infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Soda, K; Kamakura, M; Kitamura, K

    1996-08-01

    During early Meiji era in Japan, there were frequent epidemics of fatal acute communicable diseases such as cholera, dysentery and smallpox, and preventive measures and preparations for acute infectious diseases were urgently needed. Together with improvement of scientific preparations, the Communicable Disease Prevention Law was promulgated in 1897. Then gradually until 1940's, the focus of preventive measures have been shifted from acute infectious diseases to chronic ones, particularly tuberculosis. After the World War II, except the short period of social confusion, major legally-defined communicable diseases had been decreasing rapidly mainly due to the use of antibiotics and improvement of environmental sanitation. At the same time, the introduction of preventive vaccination marked a new era for the prevention of infectious diseases and was largely responsible for the remarkable decrease of infant mortality in Japan. Recently the concept of defense by vaccination against infectious diseases has evolved from group-oriented to individual-oriented, so that the Preventive Vaccination Law was drastically revised in 1994. Currently, effective counter-measures against newly emerged infectious diseases, as viral hepatitis, institution-acquired infection, viral hemorrhagic fever etc., have been implemented. For the future, improvement of infections disease surveillance, vaccine development and expansion of vaccination coverage along with monitoring side-effects, preventive health education on AIDS/STDs, addressing the special needs of foreigners living in Japan and international collaboration for disease control abroad are all vital to the success of protection of the public's health from infectious diseases in Japan. PMID:8800275

  17. [Tinnitus in systemic diseases].

    PubMed

    Nowak, Katarzyna; Banaszewski, Jacek; Dabrowski, Piotr; Szymiec, Eugeniusz; Szyfter, Witold

    2002-01-01

    Permanent or temporary degenerative changes in the internal ear causing tinnitus may occur with particular intensity in patients suffering from systemic disease (diabetes, hypertension, rheumatic diseases, kidney and thyroid gland diseases). Pathomechanisms of hearing impairment and the risk of tinnitus and its character in particular cases are discussed in the paper. The research was carried out on 1200 patients treated in the Laryngological Rehabilitation Centre in Pozna? between 1.1.1998 and 04.2001 due to tinnitus. The analysis included the diagnosis of general health condition, general laryngological examination as well as additional tests. In the examined group 34% suffered from systemic diseases. Among them the highest percentage (47%) suffered from hypertension, 41% from hypercholesterolaemia, 22% from rheumatic diseases and 16% from diabetes. 96% of the patients had a long family history of diseases. The additional factor causing damage of the internal ear may be ototoxic drug used in the treatment of many systemic diseases. PMID:12094648

  18. Periodontal Disease: Causes and Prevention

    MedlinePLUS

    Periodontal Disease: Causes and Prevention What Is Periodontal Disease? What Causes Periodontal Disease? Risks and Prevention What Is Periodontal Disease? If your hands bled when you washed them, you would be concerned. ...

  19. Epigenetic Inheritance of Disease and Disease Risk

    PubMed Central

    Bohacek, Johannes; Mansuy, Isabelle M

    2013-01-01

    Epigenetic marks in an organism can be altered by environmental factors throughout life. Although changes in the epigenetic code can be positive, some are associated with severe diseases, in particular, cancer and neuropsychiatric disorders. Recent evidence has indicated that certain epigenetic marks can be inherited, and reshape developmental and cellular features over generations. This review examines the challenging possibility that epigenetic changes induced by environmental factors can contribute to some of the inheritance of disease and disease risk. This concept has immense implications for the understanding of biological functions and disease etiology, and provides potential novel strategies for diagnosis and treatment. Examples of epigenetic inheritance relevant to human disease, such as the detrimental effects of traumatic stress or drug/toxic exposure on brain functions, are reviewed. Different possible routes of transmission of epigenetic information involving the germline or germline-independent transfer are discussed, and different mechanisms for the maintenance and transmission of epigenetic information like chromatin remodeling and small noncoding RNAs are considered. Future research directions and remaining major challenges in this field are also outlined. Finally, the adaptive value of epigenetic inheritance, and the cost and benefit of allowing acquired epigenetic marks to persist across generations is critically evaluated. PMID:22781843

  20. Liver disease in menopause.

    PubMed

    Brady, Carla W

    2015-07-01

    There are numerous physiologic and biochemical changes in menopause that can affect the function of the liver and mediate the development of liver disease. Menopause represents a state of growing estrogen deficiency, and this loss of estrogen in the setting of physiologic aging increases the likelihood of mitochondrial dysfunction, cellular senescence, declining immune responses to injury, and disarray in the balance between antioxidant formation and oxidative stress. The sum effect of these changes can contribute to increased susceptibility to development of significant liver pathology, particularly nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma, as well as accelerated progression of fibrosis in liver diseases, as has been particularly demonstrated in hepatitis C virus liver disease. Recognition of the unique nature of these mediating factors should raise suspicion for liver disease in perimenopausal and menopausal women and offer an opportunity for implementation of aggressive treatment measures so as to avoid progression of liver disease to cirrhosis, liver cancer and liver failure. PMID:26167064

  1. Viral Disease Networks?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulbahce, Natali; Yan, Han; Vidal, Marc; Barabasi, Albert-Laszlo

    2010-03-01

    Viral infections induce multiple perturbations that spread along the links of the biological networks of the host cells. Understanding the impact of these cascading perturbations requires an exhaustive knowledge of the cellular machinery as well as a systems biology approach that reveals how individual components of the cellular system function together. Here we describe an integrative method that provides a new approach to studying virus-human interactions and its correlations with diseases. Our method involves the combined utilization of protein - protein interactions, protein -- DNA interactions, metabolomics and gene - disease associations to build a ``viraldiseasome''. By solely using high-throughput data, we map well-known viral associated diseases and predict new candidate viral diseases. We use microarray data of virus-infected tissues and patient medical history data to further test the implications of the viral diseasome. We apply this method to Epstein-Barr virus and Human Papillomavirus and shed light into molecular development of viral diseases and disease pathways.

  2. Liver disease in menopause

    PubMed Central

    Brady, Carla W

    2015-01-01

    There are numerous physiologic and biochemical changes in menopause that can affect the function of the liver and mediate the development of liver disease. Menopause represents a state of growing estrogen deficiency, and this loss of estrogen in the setting of physiologic aging increases the likelihood of mitochondrial dysfunction, cellular senescence, declining immune responses to injury, and disarray in the balance between antioxidant formation and oxidative stress. The sum effect of these changes can contribute to increased susceptibility to development of significant liver pathology, particularly nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma, as well as accelerated progression of fibrosis in liver diseases, as has been particularly demonstrated in hepatitis C virus liver disease. Recognition of the unique nature of these mediating factors should raise suspicion for liver disease in perimenopausal and menopausal women and offer an opportunity for implementation of aggressive treatment measures so as to avoid progression of liver disease to cirrhosis, liver cancer and liver failure.

  3. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: a protein disease.

    PubMed

    Knight, R

    2001-06-01

    Creutzfeld-Jakob disease (CJD) is essentially a protein disease. All forms of CJD are characterized by the deposition of an abnormal coformation of a normal cellular protein. This protein (PrPc) is encoded for by the PRNP gene on chromosome 20 in humans. There are important genetic influences on susceptibility to CJD and on the resulting clinico-pathological picture. The abnormal protein (PrPSc), may be the infectious agent itself or the main component of it. However, its precise role in the pathogenesis of disease is not clear. The detection of PrPSc plays a crucial role in the diagnosis of CJD and its electrophoretic characteristics are used to classify different forms of CJD. However, the "molecular diagnosis" of CJD is not without uncertainties. PMID:11677782

  4. [Male breast diseases].

    PubMed

    Firmin-Lefebvre, D; Misery, L

    2013-01-01

    Because andrology is relatively undeveloped in France, the dermatologist is often the doctor first consulted for diseases of the nipple in men. All dermatological diseases can in fact occur at this site. There are some specific nipple diseases such as gynaecomastia, congenital abnormalities, hyperplasia, benign tumours and breast cancer. All clinical examinations and laboratory examinations should focus on diagnosis of this type of cancer and its elimination. PMID:23773741

  5. Feline respiratory disease complex.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Leah A

    2011-11-01

    Feline respiratory disease complex (FRDC) refers to the characteristic acute presentation of a contagious respiratory or ocular disease caused by one or multiple pathogens. Environmental and host factors impact the transmission, clinical presentation, preventive strategy, and treatment of affected cats. The FRDC is especially problematic in settings where large numbers of cats cohabit, including animal shelters, catteries, and semi-feral colonies. Although elimination of FRDC is an unrealistic goal, improved understanding can lead to strategies to minimize disease impact. PMID:22041216

  6. Depression in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Rihmer, Zoltán; Gonda, Xénia; Döme, Péter

    2014-07-30

    The prevalence of major and minor depression in Parkinson's disease is around 30-40% but, unfortunately, depression remains frequently underrecognized and often undertreated. However, recognition and appropriate treatment of depression in patients with Parkinson's disease is essential for improving the cross-sectional picture and longitudinal course. This review focuses on the epidemiology, pathophysiology and different treatment modalities of depression in Parkinson's disease. PMID:25509363

  7. Zoonotic Diseases Tutorial

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Olsen, Christopher W.

    This website from the University of Wisconsin, features an exhausting list of zoonotic diseases (those that can be shared by both animals and humans). Each disease has its own devoted sub-page, which discusses the particular disease in detail. A healthy list of related websites is also maintained on the lower half of the main page. The website is very minimalist, but this clean and well-organized site is extremely valuable and easy to navigate.

  8. Cushing’s disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martina De Martin; Francesca Pecori Giraldi; Francesco Cavagnini

    2006-01-01

    Cushing’s disease, i.e., pituitary ACTH-secreting adenoma causing excess glucocorticoid secretion, is a rare disease with\\u000a significant mortality and morbidity. Timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment can alter the course of the disease and are\\u000a therefore mandatory. First step of the diagnostic work-up is the endogenous glucocorticoid excess by measurement of urinary\\u000a free cortisol, cortisol circadian rhythmicity or suppression by low doses

  9. Genes and Disease

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1998-01-01

    The National Center for Biotechnology Information of the National Library of Medicine (part of the National Institutes of Health) has posted this webpage, Genes and Disease, which provides information "for some 60 diseases associated with specific genes, and has links to the 1998 Gene Map as well as to PubMed, protein sequences, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, and associations related to each disease."

  10. American trypanosomiasis (Chagas disease).

    PubMed

    Rassi, Anis; Rassi, Anis; Marcondes de Rezende, Joffre

    2012-06-01

    Chagas disease, also known as American trypanosomiasis, is a chronic infection caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, a protozoan parasite. It is transmitted to human beings mainly through the feces of infected triatomine bugs. The disease affects an estimated 8 to 10 million people in the Americas, putting them at risk of developing life-threatening cardiac and gastrointestinal complications. This article provides a brief update on the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of Chagas disease. PMID:22632639

  11. Pilonidal disease and hidradenitis.

    PubMed

    Velasco, Alfonso L; Dunlap, Wade W

    2009-06-01

    Pilonidal disease and hidradenitis suppurativa are common problems that affect young adults. The surgical management of pilonidal disease should be tailored to the individual clinical presentation and its goal is the resolution of pilonidal disease with low recurrence and low morbidity. The clinical course of hidradenitis suppurativa is characterized by chronicity with frequent flare-ups followed by quiescent periods. Treatment for both conditions needs to be individualized to the clinical presentation. PMID:19465205

  12. Lyme disease and conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ginsberg, H.

    1994-01-01

    Lyme disease is a tick-borne illness that is wide-spread in North America, especially in the northeastern and northcentral United States. This disease could negatively influence efforts to conserve natural populations in two ways: (1) the disease could directly affect wild animal health; and (2) tick control efforts could adversely affect natural populations and communities. Lyme disease affects several domestic animals, but symptoms have been reported in only a few wild species. Direct effects of Lyme disease on wild animal populations have not been reported, but the disease should be considered as a possible cause in cases of unexplained population declines in endemic areas. Methods available to manage ticks and Lyme disease include human self-protection techniques, manipulation of habitats and hosts species populations, biological control, and pesticide applications. The diversity of available techniques allows selection of approaches to minimize environmental effects by (1) emphasizing personal protection techniques, (2) carefully targeting management efforts to maximize efficiency, and (3) integrating environmentally benign techniques to improve management while avoiding broad-scale environmentally destructive approaches. The environmental effects of Lyme disease depend, to a large extent, on the methods chosen to minimize human exposure to infected ticks. Conservation biologists can help design tick management programs that effectively lower the incidence of human Lyme disease while simultaneously minimizing negative effects on natural populations.

  13. Diabetes and kidney disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Diabetic nephropathy; Nephropathy - diabetic; Diabetic glomerulosclerosis; Kimmelstiel-Wilson disease ... blood pressure. This is because if you have diabetic nephropathy, you likely also have high blood pressure. ...

  14. Health & Medicine Heart Disease

    E-print Network

    Rogers, John A.

    See Also: Health & Medicine Heart Disease· Medical Imaging· Vioxx· Matter & Energy Electronics Translational Medicine. The emerging technology holds promise for a new generation of flexible, implantable

  15. Gum Disease Symptoms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Gum Disease Regenerative Procedures Dental Crown Lengthening Procedure Dental Implants Single Tooth Implants Multiple Tooth Implants Full Mouth Dental Implants Sinus Augmentation Ridge Modification Periodontal Pocket Reduction Procedures ...

  16. Peri-Implant Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Gum Disease Regenerative Procedures Dental Crown Lengthening Procedure Dental Implants Single Tooth Implants Multiple Tooth Implants Full Mouth Dental Implants Sinus Augmentation Ridge Modification Periodontal Pocket Reduction Procedures ...

  17. Gum Disease and Women

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Gum Disease Regenerative Procedures Dental Crown Lengthening Procedure Dental Implants Single Tooth Implants Multiple Tooth Implants Full Mouth Dental Implants Sinus Augmentation Ridge Modification Periodontal Pocket Reduction Procedures ...

  18. Kidney Disease of Diabetes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse (NKUDIC) is a service provided by a related department of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Visitors will find that the NKUDIC website has a special page on Kidney Disease of Diabetes which includes articles on the homepage about "The Course of Kidney Disease", "Preventing and Slowing Kidney Disease", and "Good Care Makes a Difference". On the left side of the homepage visitors will find some very interesting research timelines by the NIH, titled "Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow". There is a timeline for "Chronic Kidney Disease and Kidney Failure", "Diabetes, Type 1", and "Diabetes, Type 2". The "Yesterday" section explain to visitors the past methods of treating the disease, as well as past statistics about death and diseases caused by diabetes. The "Today" section explains how the disease is treated presently, and how statistics have improved regarding survival and occurrence of diabetes-related disease. Finally, the "Tomorrow" section highlights research studies that aim to improve the lives of diabetics, and interested visitors will find links to relevant websites.

  19. Lymphatics in Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    El-Chemaly, Souheil; Levine, Stewart J.; Moss, Joel

    2010-01-01

    The lymphatic circulation appears to be a vital component in lung biology in health and in disease. Animal models have established the role of the lymphatic circulation in neoplastic and inflammatory diseases of the lung, such as asthma and cancer, and allowed for the understanding of the molecular controls of lymphangiogenesis in normal lung development. Understanding the role of lymphatics in human lung disease appears likely to contribute to the understanding of the pathogenesis of disease and the development of novel therapeutic targets. PMID:18519971

  20. Periodontal diseases: epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Papapanou, P N

    1996-11-01

    1. The interpretation of epidemiological data of periodontal disease is difficult, due to inconsistencies in the methodology used. It is not possible, therefore, to accurately assess if the prevalence of the periodontal diseases shows a world-wide decline. As long as the disease is assessed through accumulated clinical attachment loss, retention of the natural dentition in older ages entails increased prevalence in these cohorts. Contemporary epidemiological studies should ideally employ full-mouth examination of the periodontal tissues. Partial recording estimates are generally biased, especially when the prevalence of the disease is low. 2. Early-onset periodontitis is infrequent in all populations. Adult periodontitis is rather prevalent; however, advanced disease affects limited subfractions of the population (probably less than 10 to 15%). Although prevalence figures vary with race and geographic region, in most cases, the progression pattern of the disease seems compatible with the retention of a functional dentition throughout life. 3. Of a plethora of behavioral and environmental risk markers identified by multi-variate analysis, smoking and presence of certain subgingival microorganisms have been proven to be true risk factors. The same holds true for diabetes mellitus, a systemic condition that confers a risk for periodontal disease which is independent of the effect of other significant factors. 4. In certain cases, periodontal infections appear to have a systemic impact on the host. Most recent data indicate that periodontal disease may confer risk for coronary heart disease and pre-term low birth weight. PMID:9118256

  1. Lesson 30: Diseases [magonjwa

    E-print Network

    anemia goita / rovu matende mba / choa ndui tezi busha upele sotoka kimeta riahi mbulanga pumu-legged] [hernia] [intestinal worms] [leukemia] [anemia] [goiter] [elephantiasis] [dandruff / skin disease

  2. Enterobiasis (Pinworm Infection): Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Holidays Contact CDC-INFO Pinworm Infection General Information Pinworm Infection FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology Disease Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals Publications Information ...

  3. Immunologic lung disease

    SciTech Connect

    Harman, E.M.

    1985-07-01

    The term immunologic lung disease comprises a broad spectrum of disease. The authors have covered a few entities in which recent studies have been particularly helpful in elucidating pathophysiology though not in uncovering the inciting cause. Common to all of these entities is the problem of finding appropriate methods of defining disease activity and response to treatment. As exemplified by the improved outlook for Goodpasture's syndrome with elucidation of its underlying immunopathology, it is likely that better understanding of the immunologic basis of sarcoid and interstitial disease may be helpful in planning more effective treatment strategies. 44 references.

  4. Coronary Artery Disease - Coronary Heart Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Drinking too much alcohol can raise blood pressure, cause heart failure and lead to stroke. It can contribute to high triglycerides, cancer and other diseases, and produce irregular heartbeats. It contributes to obesity, alcoholism, suicide and accidents. The risk of heart ...

  5. ‘Imported’ Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Romanowski, Barbara

    1990-01-01

    A sexual history should be routinely obtained from all travellers. Those whose symptoms indicate a sexually transmitted disease may need to be investigated for unusual infections. Resistant strains of gonorrhea are becoming a major concern. Chancroid should be considered in the differential diagnosis of genital ulcer disease. The possiblility of human immunodeficiency virus infection should be discussed with all these patients. PMID:21233914

  6. Mummy berry disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mummy Berry is the most important disease of blueberry worldwide. It has not been as severe in the southeastern U.S. on rabbiteye blueberry has it is in other areas on highbush blueberry. However, it has caused severe losses on some farms in some years. This poster gives the symptoms, disease cyc...

  7. Hallervorden-Spatz disease

    PubMed Central

    Dashti, Maseumeh; Chitsaz, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Hallervorden-Spatz disease (HSD) is a rare disorder characterized by progressive extrapyramidal dysfunction and dementia. Hallervorden and Spatz first described the disease, in 1922 as a form of familial brain degeneration characterized by iron deposition in the brain. Here we present four HSD cases with different clinical pictures. PMID:25317409

  8. Ribosomopathies: mechanisms of disease.

    PubMed

    Nakhoul, Hani; Ke, Jiangwei; Zhou, Xiang; Liao, Wenjuan; Zeng, Shelya X; Lu, Hua

    2014-01-01

    Ribosomopathies are diseases caused by alterations in the structure or function of ribosomal components. Progress in our understanding of the role of the ribosome in translational and transcriptional regulation has clarified the mechanisms of the ribosomopathies and the relationship between ribosomal dysfunction and other diseases, especially cancer. This review aims to discuss these topics with updated information. PMID:25512719

  9. Cardiovascular Disease in Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. L ANE DUVALL

    2003-01-01

    Almost 62 million Americans have one or more types of cardiovascular disease and, of these, more than 32 million are female. This translates into an average of 1 in 5 women, making cardiovascular disease the leading killer of women in the U.S., responsible for more than half a million deaths a year. While it has been known for some time

  10. PREVENTING DISEASES AND INFECTIONS

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mr. Hughes

    2006-02-19

    DESK Standard: Determine how communicable diseases are spread. . DATES: You can begin this activity on January 8. You should complete it by January 12. OBJECTIVE: Everyone wants to feel healthy because being sick is a drag! We have been discussing ways to prevent the spread of infections and diseases during class. There are many ...

  11. Chronic wasting disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christina J. Sigurdson; Adriano Aguzzi

    2007-01-01

    Until recently, chronic wasting disease of cervids, the only prion disease affecting wildlife, was believed to be geographically concentrated to Colorado and Wyoming within the United States. However, increased surveillance has unveiled several additional pockets of CWD-infected deer and elk in 12 additional states and 2 Canadian provinces. Deer and elk with CWD have extensive aggregates of PrPSc not only

  12. Nickle and plant disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge of the nutritional physiology of nickel (Ni) is relatively meager. Accumulating evidence indicates that attention to management of Ni nutrition may potentially benefit yield, quality, disease resistance, and disease control of certain crop species, most notably those transporting ureido-ni...

  13. Anthocyanins and heart disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anthocyanins are red, blue, and purple pigments distributed throughout nature, and in our diet. One potential health benefit of dietary anthocyanins is protection against cardiovascular disease (CVD). Evidence for beneficial effects of anthocyanins with respect to heart disease comes from epidemio...

  14. Controlling Infectious Diseases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Wm. Lane; Fidler, David P.

    1997-01-01

    Advocates establishing programs to educate the public about the growing threat of communicable diseases and to promote effective strategies. Utilizes recent successes and failures to formulate those strategies. Profiles three recent infectious disease outbreaks that illustrate some of the current problems. Identifies four ways that lawyers can…

  15. Treating Pompe Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bokor, Julie; Joseph, Drew; Darwiche, Houda

    2015-01-01

    One of the crosscutting concepts in science is cause and effect. A disease model can provide understanding of cause and effect, as teachers scaffold student thinking from molecular changes in the DNA to visible traits in the organism. The project described in this article uses Pompe disease, a rare recessive disorder, as a model of cause and…

  16. Kidney Disease and Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    Kidney Disease & Diabetes Updated:Jan 31,2013 One of the more common long-term complications of diabetes is diabetic renal disease (" ... content was last reviewed on 7/5/2012. Diabetes • Home • About Diabetes • Why Diabetes Matters Introduction Cardiovascular ...

  17. Seasonal infectious disease epidemiology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas C. Grassly; Christophe Fraser

    2006-01-01

    formally examined. This paper examines the causes and consequences of seasonality, and in so doing derives several new results concerning vaccination strategy and the interpretation of disease outbreak data. It begins with a brief review of published scientific studies in support of different causes of seasonality in infectious diseases of humans, identifying four principal mechanisms and their association with different

  18. AUTOINFLAMMATORY PUSTULAR NEUTROPHILIC DISEASES

    PubMed Central

    Naik, Haley B.; Cowen, Edward W.

    2013-01-01

    SYNOPSIS The inflammatory pustular dermatoses constitute a spectrum of non-infectious conditions ranging from localized involvement to generalized disease with associated acute systemic inflammation and multi-organ involvement. Despite the variability in extent and severity of cutaneous presentation, each of these diseases is characterized by non-infectious neutrophilic intra-epidermal microabscesses. Many share systemic findings including fever, elevated inflammatory markers, inflammatory bowel disease and/or osteoarticular involvement, suggesting potential common pathogenic links (Figure 1). The recent discoveries of several genes responsible for heritable pustular diseases have revealed a distinct link between pustular skin disease and regulation of innate immunity. These genetic advances have led to a deeper exploration of common pathways in pustular skin disease and offer the potential for a new era of biologic therapy which targets these shared pathways. This chapter provides a new categorization of inflammatory pustular dermatoses in the context of recent genetic and biologic insights. We will discuss recently-described monogenic diseases with pustular phenotypes, including deficiency of IL-1 receptor antagonist (DIRA), deficiency of the IL-36 receptor antagonist (DITRA), CARD14-associated pustular psoriasis (CAMPS), and pyogenic arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum, acne (PAPA). We will then discuss how these new genetic advancements may inform how we view previously described pustular diseases, including pustular psoriasis and its clinical variants, with a focus on historical classification by clinical phenotype. PMID:23827244

  19. DISEASE - A WELFARE COMPROMISE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. S. J. ODENDAAL

    2001-01-01

    Odendaal J. S. J.: Disease - a Welfare Compromise. Acta Vet. Brno 2001, 70: 97-104. Veterinarians usually attempt to find the direct cause of diseases, trauma or behavioural problems, in order to decide on an appropriate therapeutic regimen. They rarely ask what causes the causes. As in the popular media, one should inquire about the story behind the story. Such

  20. Prevention of allergic diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Lorente; M. Isidoro; I. Dávila; E. Laffond; E. Moreno

    2007-01-01

    The prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases has increased in recent years, particularly in the industrialized world. Allergic disease begins to manifest in the first years of life. The disorder usually manifests initially in the form of food allergy and atopic dermatitis, followed in later stages by respiratory allergy with rhinitis and\\/or asthma. This has led to the adoption of

  1. Respiratory Diseases of Poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new Respiratory Diseases of Poultry CRIS will be established effective October 1, 2006. Initially, the disease agents to be studied will include Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT), Bordetella avium (BART) and Pasteurella multocida. The research will focus on development of more effective vacc...

  2. Chronic viral diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Berris, B

    1986-01-01

    Until 20 years ago the only chronic viral diseases known were those considered to be confined to the nervous system. As a result of recent advances in epidemiology, molecular biology and immunology, new viral diseases have been recognized and their clinical features and pathogenesis elucidated. Chronic disease may result from infection with the hepatitis B and D viruses and whatever agent or agents cause hepatitis non-A, non-B, the herpesviruses, Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus and human T-lymphotropic virus type III. These diseases have common features, including long-term or even lifetime asymptomatic carriage, viremia, with virus free in the plasma or attached to circulating mononuclear cells, presence of virus in body secretions, irreversible tissue injury in target organs and oncogenic potential. New information on these diseases is reviewed. Other chronic diseases for which the cause is currently unknown may eventually prove to be due to viral infection. In addition, vaccines may be developed for prophylaxis of some chronic viral diseases and associated malignant diseases. PMID:3022903

  3. Chronic Disease Indicators

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Center for Disease Control

    The Chronic Disease Indicators (CDI) is a cross-cutting set of 97 indicators that were developed by consensus and that allows states and territories and large metropolitan areas to uniformly define, collect, and report chronic disease data that are important to public health practice and available for states, territories and large metropolitan areas. 

  4. Gum and Heart Disease

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Science Update

    2005-04-25

    Scientists have long noticed a connection between gum disease and heart disease. Now, they've found a key piece of the puzzle. This science update examines what scientists have found linking the total amount of periodontal bacteria in the mouth and blockages in the carotid artery.

  5. Diseases Caused by Viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The symptoms, causal agents, epidemiology and management of important virus diseases in chickpea and lentil crops were reviewed in depth. The virus diseases include.Alflafa mosaic virus, Cucumber mosaiv virus, Faba bean necrotic yellows virus, Pea enation mosaic virus, Pea seed-borne mosaci virus,...

  6. Vaccines in dermatological diseases.

    PubMed

    Magel, G D; Mendoza, N; Digiorgio, C M; Haitz, K A; Lapolla, W J; Tyring, S K

    2011-06-01

    Vaccines have been a cornerstone in medicine and public health since their inception in the 18th century by Edward Jenner. Today, greater than 20 vaccines are used worldwide for the prevention of both viral and bacterial diseases. This article will review the vaccines used for the following dermatological diseases: smallpox, measles, mumps, rubella, chickenpox, shingles, and human papillomavirus. PMID:21566552

  7. Homocysteine and cardiovascular disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arduino A Mangoni; Stephen H. D Jackson

    2002-01-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Despite the well-known effectiveness of vitamin supplementation in reducing homocysteine levels, it is not known whether lowering of homocysteine levels is associated with a reduction in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The aim of this review is to discuss the epidemiologic evidence about the relation between homocysteine and cardiovascular disease, the pathophysiologic

  8. Renal Stone Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John A. Sayer

    2011-01-01

    Background\\/Aims: Renal stone disease may be seen as a clinical symptom of an underlying pathological process predisposing to crystallization within the renal tract. Renal stones may be comprised of calcium salts, uric acid, cystine and various other insoluble complexes. Nephrolithiasis may be the manifestation of rare single gene disorders or part of more common idiopathic renal stone-forming diseases. Methods and

  9. Diseases of salamanders

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Converse, K.A.; Green, D.E.

    2005-01-01

    Few diseases are reported in salamanders. Two notable exceptions are infections by Ranavirus and Ichthyophonus. Except for mortality events associated with ranaviruses in tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum) and spotted salamanders (A. maculatum), dieoffs of salamanders are rarely detected or reported. Diseases presented in this chapter are those encountered in free-living salamanders of the United States and Canada. A few additional diseases that are occasionally seen in captive and zoo animals have been reviewed by Green (2001). This chapter on Diseases of Salamanders will address five common infectious diseases of free-living larval and adult salamanders: Ranavirus (iridovims) infection Chytrid fungal infection Ichthyophoniasis Clinostomum metacercaria Chiggers Many helminthic parasites infect salamanders, but with few exceptions, these infections are unlikely to cause illness (morbidity) or death (mortality). Readers are referred to parasitology texts for a review of protozoan, helminthic and ectoparasitic organisms of amphibians (Flynn, 1973; Poynton and Whitaker, 2001).

  10. [Catastrophic neuromuscular diseases].

    PubMed

    Muńoz Blanco, J L

    2010-10-01

    Neurologists should anticipate and recognize the onset of respiratory failure in patients with neuromuscular diseases. Symptoms vary according to the speed of onset of respiratory muscle weakness. Catastrophic situations usually occur in three clinical scenarios: 1) incorrect management of acute respiratory failure of neuromuscular origin, autonomic dysfunction or during general anaesthesia of patients with neuromuscular diseases ; 2) incorrect prognosis and treatment due to the lack of a correct diagnosis. This situation is more common in ventilated patients with associated muscular weakness, acute neuropathies or motor neuron disease, and 3) inappropriate medical intervention in patients with neuromuscular disease with a definitive diagnosis but longstanding disease (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, spinal muscular atrophy, myotonic dystrophy and other muscular dystrophies). PMID:21129596

  11. Neuroinflammation in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Heneka, Michael T; Carson, Monica J; El Khoury, Joseph; Landreth, Gary E; Brosseron, Frederic; Feinstein, Douglas L; Jacobs, Andreas H; Wyss-Coray, Tony; Vitorica, Javier; Ransohoff, Richard M; Herrup, Karl; Frautschy, Sally A; Finsen, Bente; Brown, Guy C; Verkhratsky, Alexei; Yamanaka, Koji; Koistinaho, Jari; Latz, Eicke; Halle, Annett; Petzold, Gabor C; Town, Terrence; Morgan, Dave; Shinohara, Mari L; Perry, V Hugh; Holmes, Clive; Bazan, Nicolas G; Brooks, David J; Hunot, Stéphane; Joseph, Bertrand; Deigendesch, Nikolaus; Garaschuk, Olga; Boddeke, Erik; Dinarello, Charles A; Breitner, John C; Cole, Greg M; Golenbock, Douglas T; Kummer, Markus P

    2015-04-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis is not restricted to the neuronal compartment, but includes strong interactions with immunological mechanisms in the brain. Misfolded and aggregated proteins bind to pattern recognition receptors on microglia and astroglia, and trigger an innate immune response characterised by release of inflammatory mediators, which contribute to disease progression and severity. Genome-wide analysis suggests that several genes that increase the risk for sporadic Alzheimer's disease encode factors that regulate glial clearance of misfolded proteins and the inflammatory reaction. External factors, including systemic inflammation and obesity, are likely to interfere with immunological processes of the brain and further promote disease progression. Modulation of risk factors and targeting of these immune mechanisms could lead to future therapeutic or preventive strategies for Alzheimer's disease. PMID:25792098

  12. Nutrition, Epigenetics, and Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Serra, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Increasing epidemiological evidence suggests that maternal nutrition and environmental exposure early in development play an important role in susceptibility to disease in later life. In addition, these disease outcomes seem to pass through subsequent generations. Epigenetic modifications provide a potential link between the nutrition status during critical periods in development and changes in gene expression that may lead to disease phenotypes. An increasing body of evidence from experimental animal studies supports the role of epigenetics in disease susceptibility during critical developmental periods, including periconceptional period, gestation, and early postnatal period. The rapid improvements in genetic and epigenetic technologies will allow comprehensive investigations of the relevance of these epigenetic phenomena in human diseases. PMID:24527414

  13. Why infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, John G

    2014-09-15

    Infectious diseases is a broad discipline that is almost unique in contemporary medicine with its ability to cure and prevent disease, to identify specific disease causes (microbes), and to deal with diverse, sometimes massive outbreaks. The value of the infectious disease practitioner is now magnified by the crisis of antibiotic resistance, the expanding consequences of international travel, the introduction of completely new pathogen diagnostics, and healthcare reform with emphasis on infection prevention and cost in dollars and lives. Infectious disease careers have great personal rewards to the practitioner based on these observations. It is unfortunate that we have been so effective in our work, but relatively ineffective in convincing the healthcare system of this value. PMID:25151484

  14. Complement in skin diseases.

    PubMed

    Kotnik, V

    2011-01-01

    Complement is one of the most important mechanisms of natural resistance preventing infections in humans and animals. It is actively involved in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including skin diseases, characterized by the presence of autoantibodies, foreign microorganisms, altered tissue cells, and the presence of mannan. Complement is intended to kill invading microorganisms but it can also destroy the organism's own damaged or altered cells. It is characterized by vigorous activity and is also potentially harmful for the host if triggered in its own body. This review discusses the significance of complement activation for emerging skin diseases and highlights the importance of serological laboratory tests for the detection of complement system activity alterations in skin diseases such as pemphigus vulgaris, bullous pemphigoid, herpes gestationis, dermatitis herpetiformis, porphyria, urticaria, angioedema, cutaneous vasculitis, systemic lupus erythematosus, partial lipodystrophy, lichen planus, xeroderma pigmentosum, psoriasis, and recurrent cutaneous infections. Finally, we draw attention to the current potential for treating these diseases with complement inhibitors. PMID:21879199

  15. Disease Management for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Clinical Strategy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian L. Tiep; Mary C. Barnett

    2008-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive chronic disease that is subject to acute exacerbations. Ideally, a patient with such a chronic disease should be provided with medical care that addresses these issues while empowering the patient to initiate rapid and definitive treatments to counter exacerbations. To do this, disease management for COPD must recognize that, as this disease

  16. Disease management strategies for wildlife

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Wobeser

    2002-01-01

    Summary Three basic forms of management strategies exist for wildlife disease, as follows: prevention of introduction of disease, control of existing disease or eradication. Management may be directed at the disease agent, host population, habitat or be focused on human activities. Disease agents may be dealt with in the environment through disinfection or in the host through treatment. Disinfection and

  17. Surgical management of Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Lu, Kim C; Hunt, Steven R

    2013-02-01

    Although medical management can control symptoms in a recurring incurable disease, such as Crohn's disease, surgical management is reserved for disease complications or those problems refractory to medical management. In this article, we cover general principles for the surgical management of Crohn's disease, ranging from skin tags, abscesses, fistulae, and stenoses to small bowel and extraintestinal disease. PMID:23177070

  18. Endemic treponemal diseases

    PubMed Central

    Marks, Michael; Solomon, Anthony W; Mabey, David C

    2014-01-01

    The endemic treponemal diseases, consisting of yaws, bejel (endemic syphilis) and pinta, are non-venereal infections closely related to syphilis, and are recognized by WHO as neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Despite previous worldwide eradication efforts the prevalence of yaws has rebounded in recent years and the disease is now a major public health problem in 14 countries. Adequate data on the epidemiology of bejel and pinta is lacking. Each disease is restricted to a specific ecological niche but all predominantly affect poor, rural communities. As with venereal syphilis, the clinical manifestations of the endemic treponemal diseases are variable and can be broken down in to early stage and late stage disease. Current diagnostic techniques are unable to distinguish the different causative species but newer molecular techniques are now making this possible. Penicillin has long been considered the mainstay of treatment for the endemic treponemal diseases but the recent discovery that azithromycin is effective in the treatment of yaws has renewed interest in these most neglected of the NTDs, and raised hopes that global eradication may finally be possible. PMID:25157125

  19. Dynamics of Interacting Diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanz, Joaquín; Xia, Cheng-Yi; Meloni, Sandro; Moreno, Yamir

    2014-10-01

    Current modeling of infectious diseases allows for the study of complex and realistic scenarios that go from the population to the individual level of description. However, most epidemic models assume that the spreading process takes place on a single level (be it a single population, a metapopulation system, or a network of contacts). In particular, interdependent contagion phenomena can be addressed only if we go beyond the scheme-one pathogen-one network. In this paper, we propose a framework that allows us to describe the spreading dynamics of two concurrent diseases. Specifically, we characterize analytically the epidemic thresholds of the two diseases for different scenarios and compute the temporal evolution characterizing the unfolding dynamics. Results show that there are regions of the parameter space in which the onset of a disease's outbreak is conditioned to the prevalence levels of the other disease. Moreover, we show, for the susceptible-infected-susceptible scheme, that under certain circumstances, finite and not vanishing epidemic thresholds are found even at the limit for scale-free networks. For the susceptible-infected-removed scenario, the phenomenology is richer and additional interdependencies show up. We also find that the secondary thresholds for the susceptible-infected-susceptible and susceptible-infected-removed models are different, which results directly from the interaction between both diseases. Our work thus solves an important problem and paves the way toward a more comprehensive description of the dynamics of interacting diseases.

  20. Endemic treponemal diseases.

    PubMed

    Marks, Michael; Solomon, Anthony W; Mabey, David C

    2014-10-01

    The endemic treponemal diseases, consisting of yaws, bejel (endemic syphilis) and pinta, are non-venereal infections closely related to syphilis, and are recognized by WHO as neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Despite previous worldwide eradication efforts the prevalence of yaws has rebounded in recent years and the disease is now a major public health problem in 14 countries. Adequate data on the epidemiology of bejel and pinta is lacking. Each disease is restricted to a specific ecological niche but all predominantly affect poor, rural communities. As with venereal syphilis, the clinical manifestations of the endemic treponemal diseases are variable and can be broken down in to early stage and late stage disease. Current diagnostic techniques are unable to distinguish the different causative species but newer molecular techniques are now making this possible. Penicillin has long been considered the mainstay of treatment for the endemic treponemal diseases but the recent discovery that azithromycin is effective in the treatment of yaws has renewed interest in these most neglected of the NTDs, and raised hopes that global eradication may finally be possible. PMID:25157125

  1. Cardiovascular disease mortality.

    PubMed Central

    Onwuanyi, Anekwe E.; Clarke, Aubrey; Vanderbush, Eric

    2003-01-01

    Although mortality from cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) has been declining, it remains the leading cause of death among urban U.S. blacks. McCord and Freeman reported CVD as the major contributor to excess mortality in Central Harlem. However the disease-specific CVD mortality was not assessed. Thus, it was unclear what the distribution of specific CVDs was in Central Harlem and their contribution to excess mortality. We reviewed the vital statistics records of New York City (NYC) Department of Health for 1990 and identified all cases in which the cause of death was coded as cardiovascular (International Classification of Diseases-ICD, 9th Revision, codes 391, 393-398, 401-404, 410, 411, 414-417, 420-438 and 440-444). The total and disease-specific CVD mortality for NYC and Central Harlem were calculated using the appropriate 1990 census data as the denominator. Central Harlem residents aged between 25-64 years were at least twice as likely to die from cardiovascular causes, compared to NYC residents. Hypertension-related deaths, ICD codes 401 (essential hypertension), 402 (hypertensive heart disease), 403 (hypertensive renal disease), and 404 (hypertensive heart and renal disease), were the major cause of excess death for men and women in Central Harlem. These findings show the importance of hypertension as the main determinant of the excess cardiovascular mortality in urban blacks and suggest an increased risk of cardiovascular death in blacks residing in Central Harlem. PMID:14717470

  2. Diffuse cystic lung diseases.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Jay H; Tian, Xinlun; Baqir, Misbah; Xu, Kaifeng

    2013-09-01

    Diffuse cystic lung diseases are uncommon but can present a diagnostic challenge because increasing number of diseases have been associated with this presentation. Cyst in the lung is defined as a round parenchymal lucency with a well-defined thin wall (< 2 mm thickness). Focal or multifocal cystic lesions include blebs, bullae, pneumatoceles, congenital cystic lesions, traumatic lesions, and several infectious processes such as coccidioidomycosis, Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia, and hydatid disease. "Diffuse" distribution in the lung implies involvement of all lobes. Diffuse lung involvement with cystic lesions can be seen in pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis, pulmonary Langerhans' cell histiocytosis, lymphoid interstitial pneumonia, Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome, amyloidosis, light chain deposition disease, honeycomb lung associated with advanced fibrosis, and several other rare causes including metastatic disease. High-resolution computed tomography of the chest helps define morphologic features of the lung lesions as well as their distribution and associated features such as intrathoracic lymphadenopathy. Correlating the tempo of the disease process and clinical context with chest imaging findings serve as important clues to defining the underlying nature of the cystic lung disease and guide diagnostic evaluation as well as management. PMID:23666611

  3. Cardiovascular disease in women: peripheral artery disease.

    PubMed

    Clark, Daniel S

    2013-08-01

    Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a common vascular disease in women that is underrecognized. It is most strongly associated with smoking and diabetes. Women with PAD are more likely to have atypical or no symptoms compared with men. The classic symptoms of claudication are seen in some, but not all, patients. The most useful initial test for PAD is the ankle-brachial index. The American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association guideline recommends that it be obtained for all patients with exertional leg symptoms; patients 50 years or older with diabetes; patients 50 years or older who smoke; all patients older than 65 years; and any patient with known coronary artery disease. Other tests, such as Doppler ultrasonography, magnetic resonance angiography, and computed tomography angiography, should be reserved for patients in whom the diagnosis of PAD is unclear. Exercise programs improve symptoms. Aspirin and statins are recommended for all patients with PAD, whereas surgery is reserved for patients who do not benefit from medical therapy. PMID:23977828

  4. Chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease in the Medicare population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allan J. Collins; Shuling Li; David T. Gilbertson; Jiannong Liu; Shu-Cheng Chen; Charles A. Herzog

    2003-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease in the Medicare population.BackgroundThe extent of diabetes, chronic kidney disease (CKD), and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the Medicare population is relatively unknown. Also unknown is the effect of these diseases on patient survival before end-stage renal disease (ESRD).MethodsPrevalent cohorts of Medicare enrollees from 1996 to 2000 were assessed for diabetes and CKD, presence of

  5. Feline dental disease.

    PubMed

    Frost, P; Williams, C A

    1986-09-01

    Periodontal disease and chronic gingivitis/stomatitis are the most common feline dental diseases. With routine dental care and increased emphasis on home oral hygiene, these diseases can be controlled. Cats can be seen with a number of other dental disorders, and improved treatment methods such as restorations of early subgingival resorptive lesions, endodontic therapy, and orthodontic therapy can be performed successfully. More study and research are necessary about the gingivitis/stomatitis syndrome and subgingival resorptive lesions so that improved prevention and treatment recommendations can be made. PMID:3490037

  6. Rheumatic Diseases and Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    BOJINCA, Violeta; JANTA, Iustina

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT There are many studies which demonstrate a higher risk for malignancy in patients with rheumatic diseases. There have been a number of possible explanations for the differences in the risk of certain malignancies in patients with rheumatic disease, compared with general population, but a clear mechanism is difficult to identify. Rheumatoid syndromes may be associated with malignancy as paraneoplastic conditions, which can antedate the neoplasm diagnosis. On the other hand, autoimmune rheumatic diseases have a higher risk of malignancy by themselves or because of the immunosuppressant treatments. PMID:23482881

  7. TRP Channels in Disease

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bernd Nilius (Campus Gasthuisberg Katholieke Universiteit Leuven B; Department of Physiology REV)

    2005-08-02

    The mammalian TRP (transient receptor potential) family consists of six main subfamilies that include 28 ion channels that function as cellular sensors of various phenomena, including changes in temperature, osmolarity, pH, membrane stretch, and various second messenger pathways. All of the TRP channels are permeable to monovalent cations, and most are also permeable to calcium ions. There are strong indications that TRP channels are involved in many diseases. This review highlights some TRP "suspects" for which a role in disease can be anticipated. An understanding of the genetics of disease may lead to the development of targeted new therapies.

  8. Chronic Wasting Disease

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richards, Bryan

    2007-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is an always-fatal, neurological illness occurring in North American cervids (members of the deer family), including white-tailed deer, mule deer, elk and moose. Since its discovery in 1967, CWD has spread geographically and increased in prevalence locally. CWD is contagious; it can be transmitted freely within and among free-ranging populations. It is likely that diseased animals can transmit CWD to healthy animals long before they become clinically ill. Managing CWD in free-ranging populations is extremely difficult, therefore preventative measures designed to reduce the chance for disease spread are critically important.

  9. Adventures in Infectious Diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher-Hoch, Susan [University of Texas School of Public Health

    2011-11-01

    Dr. Susan Fisher-Hoch, Virologist and Epidemiologist, will discuss her research and travels associated with viral hemorrhagic fevers. From the Ebola outbreak in Reston, Virginia to outbreaks of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in South Africa, Senegal, and Saudi Arabia, Dr. Fisher-Hoch has studied and tracked the pathophysiology of these viral diseases. These studies have led her from the Center for Disease Control in the United States, to Lyon, France where she was instrumental in designing, constructing, and rendering operational a laboratory capable of containing some of the world's most dangerous diseases.

  10. The prion diseases of animals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prion diseases or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are fatal neurodegenerative diseases that affect several species of animals and include bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), scrapie in sheep and goats, chronic wasting disease (CWD) in cervids, and transmissible mink encephalopat...

  11. Occupational Disease in Connecticut, 2011

    E-print Network

    Oliver, Douglas L.

    1 Occupational Disease in Connecticut, 2011 This report covers data for 2009 and was prepared under, as part of the Occupational Disease Surveillance Program, operated in cooperation with the Connecticut...............................................................................................16 Infectious Diseases

  12. Occupational Disease in Connecticut, 2014

    E-print Network

    Oliver, Douglas L.

    Occupational Disease in Connecticut, 2014 This report covers data for 2012 and was prepared under, as part of the Occupational Disease Surveillance Program, operated in cooperation with the Connecticut...............................................................................................18 Infectious Diseases

  13. Animal Diseases and Your Health

    MedlinePLUS

    Animal diseases that people can catch are called zoonoses. Many diseases affecting humans can be traced to animals or animal products. You can get a disease directly from an animal, or indirectly, through the ...

  14. Exercising with a Muscle Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... metabolic mus- cle diseases , such as Pompe disease (acid maltase deficiency), McArdle disease (myophosphorylase deficiency), carnitine palmityl ... mixture of whey concentrate, whey isolate and amino acids. Levinson says he has found that good food ...

  15. Diabetes, Heart Disease, and Stroke

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to 5 p.m. eastern time, M-F Diabetes Disease Organizations There are many organizations who provide ... Disease Organizations (PDF, 293 KB). Alternate Language URL Diabetes, Heart Disease, and Stroke Page Content On this ...

  16. Warning Signs of Lung Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Lungs Warning Signs of Lung Disease Top Stories Lung HelpLine Questions about your lung health? Need help ... Warning Signs of Lung Disease Warning Signs of Lung Disease WARNING SIGNS If you have any of ...

  17. Screening for Peripheral Artery Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Sign In Cardiology Patient Page Screening for Peripheral Artery Disease Emile R. Mohler III , MD From the ... with rest? If yes, you may have peripheral artery disease (PAD). This disease of the blood circulation ...

  18. Living with Carotid Artery Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Carotid Artery Disease If you have carotid artery disease, you can take steps to manage the ... treatment plan, and getting ongoing care. Having carotid artery disease raises your risk of having a stroke . ...

  19. Progress on diabetic cerebrovascular diseases

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Houguang; Zhang, Xiaoming; Lu, Jianfeng

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic cerebrovascular diseases are defined as cerebral vascular diseases induced by diabetes with sugar, fat and a series of nutrient substance metabolic disorders, resulting in intracranial large and small vessel diseases. About 20%-40% patients with type 2 diabetes suffer from cerebral blood vessel diseases. Diabetic cerebrovascular diseases are the main causes of death in patients with diabetes mellitus. The major clinical manifestations are asymptomatic cerebral atherosclerosis, stroke, cerebral small vessel disease and acute cerebral vascular disease. The pathogenesis, clinical characteristics, treatment and prognosis of diabetic cerebrovascular disease are obviously different from non-diabetic cerebral vascular diseases. This paper will focus on the diabetic cerebrovascular disease, including its latest research progress. Diabetic cerebral large vascular disease and diabetic cerebral small vessel disease will be reviewed here. PMID:25428668

  20. JAMA Patient Page: Chagas Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Chagas disease. SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS FOR MORE INFORMATION • World Health Organization www.who.int • Centers for Disease Control and ... November 14, 2007—Vol 298, No. 18 Sources: World Health Organization, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute ...

  1. Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... forms, such as hypersensitivity pneumonitis (noo-mo-NI-tis), immunodeficiency-associated lung disease, and bronchiolitis (brong-ke-o-LI-tis) obliterans. However, research shows that the course and ...

  2. Soybean Diseases Atlas. 

    E-print Network

    Anonymous,

    1979-01-01

    weather. Wildfire (bacteria Pseudomonas tabaci) Wildfire symptoms are strikingly different from those of other soybean diseases. Prominent yel low haloes with well-marked margins develop around a large central area of brown, dead leaf tissue...

  3. Epidemiology of Alzheimer Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mayeux, Richard; Stern, Yaakov

    2012-01-01

    The global prevalence of dementia has been estimated to be as high as 24 million, and is predicted to double every 20 years until at least 2040. As the population worldwide continues to age, the number of individuals at risk will also increase, particularly among the very old. Alzheimer disease is the leading cause of dementia beginning with impaired memory. The neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer disease include diffuse and neuritic extracellular amyloid plaques in brain that are frequently surrounded by dystrophic neurites and intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles. The etiology of Alzheimer disease remains unclear, but it is likely to be the result of both genetic and environmental factors. In this review we discuss the prevalence and incidence rates, the established environmental risk factors, and the protective factors, and briefly review genetic variants predisposing to disease. PMID:22908189

  4. Overview of Infectious Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... worms Last Updated 5/5/2015 Source Immunizations ? Infectious Diseases: An Informed Parent's Guide (Copyright © 2006 American Academy of Pediatrics) The information contained on this Web site should ...

  5. Chocolate and Cardiovascular Disease

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... health news that matters to you. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Heart Diseases Nutrition Stroke About MedlinePlus Site ... Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page ...

  6. Understanding Autoimmune Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Autoimmune Diseases Progress and Promise Key Words The Immune System Your immune system is the network of cells and tissues throughout ... having two parts: the acquired and the innate immune systems. The acquired (or adaptive) immune system develops as ...

  7. Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nasseri-Moghaddam, Siavosh

    2012-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is the term used for a group of diseases with yet unknown etiology, prevalence of which is increasing almost everywhere in the world. The disease was almost non-existent four decades ago in the east, including the middle-east, while now a days it is seen more and more. In addition to the increasing prevalence, our knowledge about its pathogenesis, clinical course, diagnosis, and treatment has changed dramatically over the past couple of decades. This has changed our concept of this group of diseases, their diagnosis, treatment, and treatment goals. Considering the vast literature on the subject, it is timely to review major topics in IBD with a look on the regional progress and knowledge as well. This essay is aimed to cover this task. PMID:24829639

  8. [Neuroimmunological diseases: update].

    PubMed

    Kusunoki, Susumu

    2013-05-01

    Autoimmune mechanisms are involved in the pathogenesis of several neurological diseases, called as neuroimmunological diseases. Neuromyelitis optica(NMO) has long been considered as a subset of multiple sclerosis but the primary target of NMO has recently been shown as a water channel aquaporin 4(AQP4) localized on the astrocytes. Anti-AQP4 antibody is the main pathogenic factor in NMO. Antibodies to gangliosides and ganglioside complexes are involved in the pathogenesis of Guillain-Barré syndrome and Fisher syndrome. Efficacy of high-dose chemotherapy with autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation for POEMS syndrome has been reported. Presence of anti-MuSK antibodies and anti-Lrp4 antibodies was shown in some of the patients with anti-AChR antibody-negative myasthenia gravis. Several novel autoantibodies have been reported in some neuroimmunological diseases affecting central nervous system. Nationwide surveys have recently been performed for several neuroimmunological diseases in Japan. PMID:23777080

  9. Traveling with Celiac Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... now accommodate people with gluten intolerance, according to Smith, who has celiac disease. By land: If you ... items such as meat, cheese, and yogurt, recommends Smith. You might want to invest in a cooler ...

  10. Diagnosis of Periodontal Diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. R. Ranney

    1991-01-01

    This paper reviews current (Fall, 1990) information related to the diagnosis of periodontal diseases. As background, principles of diagnostic decision-making and conceptual shifts during the 1970's and 1980's are reviewed in brief. \\

  11. Diet - liver disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Liver disease can affect the absorption of food and the production of proteins and vitamins. Therefore, your diet may influence your weight, appetite, and the amounts of vitamins in your body. Do not limit ...

  12. Autoimmune connective tissue diseases.

    PubMed

    Řstensen, Monika; Cetin, Irene

    2015-07-01

    Rheumatic diseases (RDs) occur preferentially in women, often during the childbearing age. The interaction of pregnancy and the RD is varied, ranging from spontaneous improvement to aggravation of disease symptoms or life-threatening flares. Risks for the mother with RD and the child differ in regard to the presence of organ manifestations, organ damage, disease activity, presence of specific autoantibodies, and therapy. Pregnancy complications comprise hypertension, preeclampsia, premature delivery, and side effects of therapy. Adverse pregnancy outcomes include recurrent miscarriage, intrauterine growth restriction, and fetal demise, and they are frequently encountered in RD with organ manifestations and harmful autoantibodies. Because of the difference in the prevalence of RDs, knowledge on the gestational course of disease and pregnancy outcome is limited to the fairly common RDs such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and antiphospholipid syndrome. Pregnancies in RD are connected with increased risks for mother and child and need interdisciplinary care and management. PMID:25891380

  13. Pregnancy and Rheumatic Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... with the potential to affect the kidneys, especially lupus and antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), are more likely to ... diseases vary by condition. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and APS typically are modified by ...

  14. The autoimmune diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, N.R.; Mackay, I.R.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 25 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Genetic Predisposition to Autoimmune Diseases; Systemic Lupus Erythematosus; Autoimmune Aspects of Rheumatoid Arthritis; Immunology of Insulin-Dependent Diabetes; and Adrenal Autoimmunity and Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndromes.

  15. DISEASE REGISTRY TOXICOLOGICAL PROFILES

    EPA Science Inventory

    By Congressional mandate, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) produces "toxicological profiles" for hazardous substances found at National Priorities List (NPL) sites. These hazardous substances are ranked based on frequency of occurrence at NPL sites, to...

  16. Lyme Disease Data

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the northeast and upper Midwest. Lyme Disease Data File To facilitate the public health and research community's ... Rightâ??click the link and select â??saveâ?ť. File Formats Help: How do I view different file ...

  17. Heart Diseases and Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... very fast, but steady, heartbeat. Sick Sinus Syndrome ( SSS ) Sick sinus syndrome is not a disease, but ... the sinus node, is not working properly. In SSS , the heart rate can alternate between slow ( bradycardia ) ...

  18. Diabetes and Kidney Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... NKF Newsroom Contact Us You are here Home » Diabetes - A Major Risk Factor for Kidney Disease Diabetes ... of your body. Are there different types of diabetes? The most common ones are Type 1 and ...

  19. Mad Cow Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... until the brain eventually has a "sponge-like" appearance. During this time, people with the disease gradually ... put into place additional safeguards to help protect consumers from BSE. These prohibit the use of any ...

  20. Lung Diseases and Conditions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Share this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Lung Diseases and Conditions Breathing is a complex process. ... your bronchial tubes ( bronchitis ) or deep in your lungs ( pneumonia ). These infections cause a buildup of mucus ...

  1. Scabies: Disease Symptoms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Parasites - Scabies Parasites Home Share Compartir Disease When a person is ... reaction) to the proteins and feces of the parasite. Severe itching (pruritus), especially at night, is the ...

  2. Chronic Kidney Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... well as they should. Normal, healthy kidneys remove waste from the blood. The waste then leaves your body in your urine. The ... have chronic kidney disease, your kidneys cannot remove waste from the blood as well as they should. ...

  3. Lyme Disease Transmission

    MedlinePLUS

    ... bite of infected ticks. The blacklegged tick (or deer tick, Ixodes scapularis ) spreads the disease in the ... cook meat thoroughly. Note that hunting and dressing deer or squirrels may bring you into close contact ...

  4. Neuroinflammation in Alzheimer's disease

    E-print Network

    2015-01-01

    disease. Exploit e? ects of mutations, epigenetics, and the microbiomedisease, including single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in immune-associated genes, epigenetic immune regulation, and the e? ect of the microbiome

  5. Machado-Joseph Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... progressive disease, meaning that symptoms worsen with time. Life expectancy ranges from the mid-30s for those with ... of early onset MJD to a nearly normal life expectancy for those with mild, late onset forms. The ...

  6. Machado-Joseph Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... disease, meaning that symptoms get worse with time. Life expectancy ranges from the mid-thirties for those with severe forms of MJD to a normal life expectancy for those with mild forms. The cause of ...

  7. FELINE BRONCHOPULMONARY DISEASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article discusses the current state of knowledge of naturally occurring feline bronchopulmonary disease; using in-depth diagnostic evaluation and pulmonary function testing to emphasize the diversity of the clinical manifestations and pathophysiologic abnormalities of these ...

  8. Occlusive Peripheral Arterial Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... cluster of heart risk factors known as the "metabolic syndrome" might raise the risk of heart disease more ... does for white women, a new study suggests. Metabolic syndrome refers to having at least three health conditions --... ...

  9. Peripheral Arterial Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Prevention Living With Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Atherosclerosis Coronary Heart Disease Heart Attack Smoking and Your ... in the body's arteries, the condition is called atherosclerosis (ATH-er-o-skler-O-sis). Over time, ...

  10. Chronic thyroiditis (Hashimoto disease)

    MedlinePLUS

    Hashimoto thyroiditis; Chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis; Autoimmune thyroiditis ... Chronic thyroiditis or Hashimoto disease is a common thyroid gland disorder. It can occur at any age, but is most often seen in ...

  11. Anemia of chronic disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Anemia of inflammation; AOCD; ACD ... Anemia is a lower-than-normal number of red blood cells in the blood. Some conditions can lead to anemia of chronic disease include: Autoimmune disorders , such as ...

  12. Symptoms of Celiac Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... conditions include insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (requiring insulin therapy), Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, Turner’s syndrome, Williams syndrome, Graves disease. 4. Any person with Down Syndrome should be tested on a periodic basis. ...

  13. Smoking and skin disease.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, S F; Sřrensen, L T

    2010-06-01

    Tobacco smoking is a serious and preventable health hazard that can cause or exacerbate a number of diseases and shorten life expectancy, but the role of smoking as an etiologic factor in the development of skin disease is largely unknown. Although epidemiological evidence is sparse, findings suggest that tobacco smoking is a contributing factor in systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, palmoplantar pustulosis, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, hidradenitis suppurativa, and genital warts. In contrast, smoking may confer some protective effects and mitigate other skin diseases, notably pemphigus vulgaris, pyoderma gangrenosum, aphthous ulcers, and Behçet's disease. Various degenerative dermatologic conditions are also impacted by smoking, such as skin wrinkling and dysregulated wound healing, which can result in post-surgical complications and delayed or even arrested healing of chronic wounds. Most likely, alteration of inflammatory cell function and extracellular matrix turnover caused by smoking-induced oxidative stress are involved in the pathophysiologic mechanisms. PMID:20532469

  14. Wheat Diseases Atlas.

    E-print Network

    McCoy, Norman L.; Berry, Robert W.

    1982-01-01

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Barley Yellow Dwarf (Virus) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Wheat Streak Mosaic (Virus) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IO Wheat (Soilborne) Mosaic (Virus) . . . . . . . . . . . IO STEM AND HEAD DISEASES .............. II Glume Blotch... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I5 Yellow Berry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I5 Storage Molds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I6 HERBICIDE INJURY TO WHEAT . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Low Fertility...

  15. Metastatic Bone Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in metastatic bone disease or multiple myeloma. Blood chemistries (i.e., electrolytes, calcium, and alkaline phosphatase) may ... multiple myeloma. Final Diagnosis A er the history, physical examination, x-ray and laboratory tests are completed, ...

  16. Diet and Chronic Disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Factors that improve insulin sensitivity usually lead to improvements in risk factors associated with the metabolic syndrome, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Naturally occurring bioactive compounds that have been shown to improve insulin sensitivity include chromium and polyphenols found in c...

  17. Hodgkin Disease in Pregnancy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... avoided if at all possible. MRI scans and ultrasound can often be used instead. Last Medical Review: 07/10/2014 Last ... Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treating Hodgkin Disease Talking With ...

  18. Acute Pericardial Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gorazd Voga

    Acute pericardial diseases include acute pericarditis and cardiac tamponade. Both conditions can be associated with acute\\u000a hemodynamic instability or cardiac failure and require immediate diagnostic workup and treatment.

  19. Chagas Disease (American trypanosomiasis)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of treatment for Chagas disease remains substantial. In Colombia alone, the annual cost of medical care for ... Argentina, Belize, Bolivia (Plurinational State of), Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guyana, Guatemala, ...

  20. American Behcet's Disease Association

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Behcet's Disease! http://www.msms.org/Education/SpringScientificMeeting/Rheumatology-SSM.aspx - Find a doctor through the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) here: http://ww2.rheumatology.org/directory/geo. ...

  1. Diabetes and Vascular Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and Kidney Disease @ 2014 Vascular Cures is a tax-exempt, nonprofit organization tax ID#: 94-2825216 as described in the Section ... 3) of the Internal Revenue Code. Donations are tax deductible. 555 Price Ave., Suite 180, Redwood City, ...

  2. Tay-Sachs Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... hearing, and other vital functions in part because enzymes clear out fatty protein and other unwanted material ... disease is born without one of those important enzymes, hexosaminidase A (HEXA). So, as those fatty proteins ...

  3. The neurological disease ontology

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background We are developing the Neurological Disease Ontology (ND) to provide a framework to enable representation of aspects of neurological diseases that are relevant to their treatment and study. ND is a representational tool that addresses the need for unambiguous annotation, storage, and retrieval of data associated with the treatment and study of neurological diseases. ND is being developed in compliance with the Open Biomedical Ontology Foundry principles and builds upon the paradigm established by the Ontology for General Medical Science (OGMS) for the representation of entities in the domain of disease and medical practice. Initial applications of ND will include the annotation and analysis of large data sets and patient records for Alzheimer’s disease, multiple sclerosis, and stroke. Description ND is implemented in OWL 2 and currently has more than 450 terms that refer to and describe various aspects of neurological diseases. ND directly imports the development version of OGMS, which uses BFO 2. Term development in ND has primarily extended the OGMS terms ‘disease’, ‘diagnosis’, ‘disease course’, and ‘disorder’. We have imported and utilize over 700 classes from related ontology efforts including the Foundational Model of Anatomy, Ontology for Biomedical Investigations, and Protein Ontology. ND terms are annotated with ontology metadata such as a label (term name), term editors, textual definition, definition source, curation status, and alternative terms (synonyms). Many terms have logical definitions in addition to these annotations. Current development has focused on the establishment of the upper-level structure of the ND hierarchy, as well as on the representation of Alzheimer’s disease, multiple sclerosis, and stroke. The ontology is available as a version-controlled file at http://code.google.com/p/neurological-disease-ontology along with a discussion list and an issue tracker. Conclusion ND seeks to provide a formal foundation for the representation of clinical and research data pertaining to neurological diseases. ND will enable its users to connect data in a robust way with related data that is annotated using other terminologies and ontologies in the biomedical domain. PMID:24314207

  4. A Manual of Poultry Diseases

    E-print Network

    Bell, R. R.; Flowers, A. I.; Grumbles, L. C.; Meinecke, C. F.; Patterson, C. M.; Wormell, B. C.; Hall, C. F.

    1965-01-01

    diseases, such as coccidiosis, mechanical damage to tissues is an important factor. All contagious diseases are infectious, but all infectious diseases are not contagious. A contagious disease is one that is transmitted readily from one individual... or flock to another. An infectious dis- ease is one produced by living organisms. Most infectious diseases of poultry are contagious; how- ever, a few, such as aspergillosis are not. The ability of an organism to cause disease in the particular host...

  5. Cushing's disease in 2012.

    PubMed

    Obiols Alfonso, Gabriel; Biagetti Biagetti, Betina; Chacón Oreja, Ana; Salvador Rodríguez, Javier

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to review the literature published and the most important papers presented to meetings on Cushing's disease from October 2011 to September 2012. The selection has been performed according to the authors' criteria. Articles have been classified into five groups: quality of life and perception of the disease, clinical features and pathophysiology, comorbidity conditions, diagnosis, and treatment. The results and conclusions of each publication are discussed. PMID:24041670

  6. Adiponectin and Cardiovascular Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Medhavi Jogi; Mandeep Bajaj

    Adiponectin, an adipocytokine secreted by adipose tissue, enhances insulin sensitivity and inhibits vascular inflammation.\\u000a Hypoadiponectinemia is associated with endothelial dysfunction, hypertension, coronary heart disease, and other cardiovascular\\u000a complications. Furthermore, enhancing adiponectin concentrations by lifestyle changes or pharmacological therapy can have\\u000a cardiovascular-protective effects. In this chapter, we review the association between adiponectin and cardiovascular disease\\u000a and discuss treatment strategies to ameliorate

  7. Disease Epidemic - ELISA Technique

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    From the University of California, Davis, Partnership for Plant Genomics Education, this biotechnology laboratory is a two-day activity using the ELISA assay, a "test that uses the immune system to detect disease," to study the epidemiology of a hypothetical small scale epidemic. The lesson gives the objectives, materials, necessary background information, advanced preparation notes, teacher notes, and student activity pages and data sheets with the essay procedures. This is an excellent activity for using biotechnology to understand disease and its origins.

  8. ROLEOFTREPONEIAU DENTICOLA INPERIODONTAL DISEASES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael N. Sela

    Amongperiodontal anaerobic pathogens, theoral spirochetes, andespecially Treponema denticola, havebeenasso- ciated withperiodontal diseases suchasearly-onset periodontitis, necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis, andacute pericoronitis. Basic research aswellasclinical evidence suggest that theprevalence ofT.denticola, together withother proteolytic Gram-negative bac- teria inhighnumbers inperiodontal pockets, mayplayanimportant role intheprogression ofperiodontal disease. Theaccu- mulation ofthese bacteria andtheir products inthepocket mayrender thesurface lining periodontal cells highly susceptible to lysis anddamage. T.denticola hasbeenshowntoadhere

  9. Immunopathogenesis of Graves’ Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Syed A. Morshed; Rauf Latif; Terry F. Davies

    \\u000a Graves’ disease (GD) was one of the first human autoimmune diseases to be characterized following the discovery of thyroid-stimulating\\u000a antibodies in hyperthyroid patients in 1956 (1 ?). GD is now known to be the most common cause of hyperthyroidism between\\u000a the ages of 20 and 50 years. In females, the annual incidence ranges from 15 to 200 per 100,000 per

  10. Pain and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Pickering, G; Eschalier, A; Dubray, C

    2000-01-01

    Literature on pain management in Alzheimer's disease is slowly emerging and this review deals with different aspects of pain in this growing population. Clinical pain, experimental pain and assessment of pain in cognitively impaired patients are presented. Treatment of pain is also discussed. This review calls for more studies and clinical trials with a view to improve the comfort and quality of life of patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease. PMID:10965178

  11. Myeloperoxidase in kidney disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ERNST MALLE; THOMAS BUCH; HERMANN-JOSEF GRONE

    2003-01-01

    Myeloperoxidase in kidney disease.In glomerular and tubulointerstitial disease, polymorphonuclear- and monocyte-derived reactive oxygen species may contribute to oxidative modification of proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. In part, the processes instigated by reactive oxygen species parallel events that lead to the development of atherosclerosis. Myeloperoxidase (MPO), a heme protein and catalyst for (lipo)protein oxidation is present in these mononuclear cells. The

  12. Behavior and metabolic disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Per Björntorp

    1996-01-01

    The link between behavioral factors and disease is not well-defined. Although connections between a fight-flight reaction\\u000a to environmental stress and hypertension have been much discussed, a potential disease association to a defeat-type of reaction\\u000a has been much less considered. This is characterized by an elevated activity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis,\\u000a which is difficult to measure over a sufficiently long

  13. Thick Filament Diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anders Oldfors; Phillipa J. Lamont

    Hereditary myosin myopathies are a newly emerged group of diseases caused by mutations in skeletal muscle myosin heavy chain\\u000a (MyHC) genes. The phenotypes of these diseases are varied, ranging from prenatal nonprogressive arthrogrypotic syndromes to\\u000a adult-onset progressive muscle weakness. They are caused by mutations in skeletal muscle myosin heavy chain (MyHC) genes.\\u000a Mutations have been reported in two of three

  14. Narrative Review: Fabry Disease

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    MD/PhD Joe T.R. Clarke (Hospital for Sick Children Div. of Clinical & Metabolic Genetics)

    2007-01-01

    Physiology in Medicine review article. Fabry disease is an X-linked, hereditary, lysosomal storage disease caused by deficiency of the enzyme alpha-galactosidase A, which results in the accumulation of the neutral glycosphingolipid globotriaosylceramide. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with intravenous infusions of recombinant human alpha-galactosidase A consistently decreases Gb3 levels in plasma and clears lysosomal inclusions from vascular endothelial cells.

  15. Zinc and gastrointestinal disease

    PubMed Central

    Skrovanek, Sonja; DiGuilio, Katherine; Bailey, Robert; Huntington, William; Urbas, Ryan; Mayilvaganan, Barani; Mercogliano, Giancarlo; Mullin, James M

    2014-01-01

    This review is a current summary of the role that both zinc deficiency and zinc supplementation can play in the etiology and therapy of a wide range of gastrointestinal diseases. The recent literature describing zinc action on gastrointestinal epithelial tight junctions and epithelial barrier function is described. Zinc enhancement of gastrointestinal epithelial barrier function may figure prominently in its potential therapeutic action in several gastrointestinal diseases. PMID:25400994

  16. Diagnosis of celiac disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shinjini Bhatnagar; Nitya Tandon

    2006-01-01

    Celiac disease is an immune mediated enteropathy initiated by ingestion of gluten, in genetically susceptible individuals.\\u000a With changing epidemiology, celiac disease initially thought to affect only Europeans, has been increasingly reported from\\u000a other parts of the world including India. However, its true prevalence in India is still not known, as the diagnosis is being\\u000a missed. The gold standards for diagnosis

  17. Subclinical thyroid disease.

    PubMed Central

    Elte, J. W.; Mudde, A. H.; Nieuwenhuijzen Kruseman, A. C.

    1996-01-01

    Thyroid disease can roughly be divided into functional and anatomical disorders. Subclinical disease is by definition not accompanied by symptoms or signs and usually goes unrecognized for the bearer (and the observer). In this communication an overview will be given of existing literature and some own results concerning subclinical hypothyroidism, subclinical thyrotoxicosis and thyroid incidentalomas. Apart from definitions, data on prevalence, clinical effects, prognostic significance and the need for and response to therapy will be discussed. PMID:8731703

  18. Valvular Heart Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vignendra Ariyarajah; Raymond Y. Kwong

    Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging can accurately assess cardiac structure and physiology vital in evaluating\\u000a regurgitant or stenotic valvular heart disease. Its versatility in providing comprehensive anatomical and functional assessment\\u000a in valvular heart disease stems from its ability to qualitatively and quantitatively measure flow volumes, velocities, and\\u000a flow fractions in any oblique cardiac plane.

  19. Ticks and Lyme Disease

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Did you know that there are more than 800 known tick species on earth? The following websites provide information about both tick biology and Lyme disease -- a disease transmitted through deer ticks (_Ixodes dammini_). The first (1) links to size comparison images and movies for female, male, and larva deer ticks. This site offers nymph images as well. The third 3) site, from the University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, presents brief information sections on the deer tick -- or blacklegged tick -- as part of its Featured Creatures series. The sections address topics like Description, Distribution, Life Cycle, and Management. Cornell University - Cooperative Extension hosts the fourth (4) site which contains an article titled _Tick Biology for the Homeowner_, by Renee R. Anderson and Laura C. Harrington. The article includes close-up images and short sections on Taxonomy and Description, Biology and Behavior, Guidelines on Safe Tick Removal, and Identification of Ticks -- to name a few. The fifth (5) site presents the American Lyme Disease Foundation, a group "Dedicated to the diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control of Lyme disease and other tick-borne infections." The Foundation's website provides information about its programs and services, Lyme disease, deer tick ecology, tick paralysis, and more. The sixth (6) site, from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, contains a research article titled _A Focus of Deer Tick Virus Transmission in the Northcentral United States_, by Gregory D. Ebel, Ivo Foppa, Andrew Spielman, and Sam R. Telford, III of the Harvard School of Public Health. The article reports on a deer tick study conducted in northern Wisconsin. The final (7) website presents the Maine Medical Center Research Institute's Lyme Disease Research Laboratory. This site offers sections on Tick Borne Diseases, Prevention & Control, Other Resources, and Research.

  20. HTLV-1-associated diseases.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, T

    1997-10-01

    HTLV-1-infection is associated with a variety of human diseases including adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) and non-neoplastic inflammatory diseases. The latter includes HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) and HTLV-1 uveitis (HU) and other diseases with unestablished associations such as arthropathy, pneumopathy, dermatitis, exocrinopathy and myositis. ATL is defined as neoplastic clonal growth of HTLV-1-infected T-cells and is characterized by unique clinical features including hypercalcemia and severe organ infiltration of leukemic cells. HAM/TSP and HU are characterized by infiltration of HTLV-1-infected lymphocytes and dysregulated production of cytokines. Four major subtypes (genotypes) of HTLV-1 have been identified, which depend more on geography than disease. No disease-specific variants or mutations have been identified to date. A viral transcriptional regulator, Tax, regulates virus and cellular gene expression through binding to transcription factors or other cytoplasmic cellular molecules. Aberrant expression of cellular genes will affect fundamental cellular functions. The interaction between HTLV-1-infected cells and different kinds of cells in the host appears to be one of the basic mechanisms underlying the development of HTLV-1-associated diseases. This interaction may play a major role in determining tumorigenicity and in forming clinical features of the disease. Increased provirus load found in patients with HAM/TSP and HU results from clonal expansion of the HTLV-1-infected T-cells, which has been implicated in the pathogenesis of HTLV-1-associated diseases. Regulatory mechanisms of clonal growth remain unknown. Efforts to characterize functions of the viral proteins and the virus-infected cells and to understand the natural history of the HTLV-1-infection are required to determine the mechanisms of HTLV-1 viral pathogenesis. PMID:9401272

  1. Occupational diseases in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kang, Seong-Kyu; Kim, Eun A

    2010-12-01

    Korea has industrialized since the 1970s. Pneumoconiosis in coal miners was the most common occupational disease in the 1970s to 1980s. With the industrialization, the use of many chemicals have increased since the 1970s. As a consequence, there were outbreaks of occupational diseases caused by poisonous chemicals, such as heavy metal poisoning, solvent poisoning and occupational asthma in the late 1980s and early 1990s with civil movement for democracy. Many actions have been taken for prevention by the government, employers and employees or unions. In the 1990s most chemical related diseases and pneumoconiosis have rapidly decreased due to improving work environment. In the late 1990s, cerebro-cardiovascular diseases related to job stress or work overloads have abruptly increased especially after the economic crisis in 1998. After the year 2000, musculoskeletal disorders became a major problem especially in assembly lines in the manufacturing industry and they were expanded to the service industry. Mental diseases related to job stress have increased. Infectious diseases increased in health care workers and afforestation workers. Occupational cancers are increasing because of their long latency, although the use of carcinogenic substances are reduced, limited, and even banned. PMID:21258589

  2. Occupational Diseases in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun A

    2010-01-01

    Korea has industrialized since the 1970s. Pneumoconiosis in coal miners was the most common occupational disease in the 1970s to 1980s. With the industrialization, the use of many chemicals have increased since the 1970s. As a consequence, there were outbreaks of occupational diseases caused by poisonous chemicals, such as heavy metal poisoning, solvent poisoning and occupational asthma in the late 1980s and early 1990s with civil movement for democracy. Many actions have been taken for prevention by the government, employers and employees or unions. In the 1990s most chemical related diseases and pneumoconiosis have rapidly decreased due to improving work environment. In the late 1990s, cerebro-cardiovascular diseases related to job stress or work overloads have abruptly increased especially after the economic crisis in 1998. After the year 2000, musculoskeletal disorders became a major problem especially in assembly lines in the manufacturing industry and they were expanded to the service industry. Mental diseases related to job stress have increased. Infectious diseases increased in health care workers and afforestation workers. Occupational cancers are increasing because of their long latency, although the use of carcinogenic substances are reduced, limited, and even banned. PMID:21258589

  3. FastStats: Prostate Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Prostate Disease in Health Data Interactive Related Links Mortality data National Home and Hospice Care Survey National Hospital Discharge Survey National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention ...

  4. Genetic architecture of human fibrotic diseases: disease risk and disease progression

    PubMed Central

    Gardet, Agnčs; Zheng, Timothy S.; Viney, Joanne L.

    2013-01-01

    Genetic studies of human diseases have identified multiple genetic risk loci for various fibrotic diseases. This has provided insights into the myriad of biological pathways potentially involved in disease pathogenesis. These discoveries suggest that alterations in immune responses, barrier function, metabolism and telomerase activity may be implicated in the genetic risks for fibrotic diseases. In addition to genetic disease-risks, the identification of genetic disease-modifiers associated with disease complications, severity or prognosis provides crucial insights into the biological processes implicated in disease progression. Understanding the biological processes driving disease progression may be critical to delineate more effective strategies for therapeutic interventions. This review provides an overview of current knowledge and gaps regarding genetic disease-risks and genetic disease-modifiers in human fibrotic diseases. PMID:24391588

  5. Disease Exchanges 20-365 Chapter 20. DISEASE EXCHANGES

    E-print Network

    Richerson, Peter J.

    Disease Exchanges 20-365 Chapter 20. DISEASE EXCHANGES Soldiers have rarely won wars. They more of history. Hans Zinsser (1935) I. Introduction A. Disease as an Example of Links Between Environment, Technology, & Biology We might say that disease is part of an "environment core," defined by analogy

  6. WILDLIFE DISEASES SURVEILLANCE TO DETECT CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE IN

    E-print Network

    Mladenoff, David

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus of 2002 and 2003 to determine the distribution of CWD in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Deer wasting disease, disease surveillance, Odocoileus virginianus, white- tailed deer, Wisconsin. INTRODUCTION

  7. Mechanisms of Disease: autosomal dominant and recessive polycystic kidney diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter C Harris; Vicente E Torres

    2006-01-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease are the best known of a large family of inherited diseases characterized by the development of renal cysts of tubular epithelial cell origin. Autosomal dominant and recessive polycystic kidney diseases have overlapping but distinct pathogeneses. Identification of the causative mutated genes and elucidation of the function of their encoded

  8. Indium Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Makiko; Omae, Kazuyuki; Takeuchi, Koichiro; Chonan, Tatsuya; Xiao, Yong-long; Harley, Russell A.; Roggli, Victor L.; Hebisawa, Akira; Tallaksen, Robert J.; Trapnell, Bruce C.; Day, Gregory A.; Saito, Rena; Stanton, Marcia L.; Suarthana, Eva; Kreiss, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    Background: Reports of pulmonary fibrosis, emphysema, and, more recently, pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) in indium workers suggested that workplace exposure to indium compounds caused several different lung diseases. Methods: To better understand the pathogenesis and natural history of indium lung disease, a detailed, systematic, multidisciplinary analysis of clinical, histopathologic, radiologic, and epidemiologic data for all reported cases and workplaces was undertaken. Results: Ten men (median age, 35 years) who produced, used, or reclaimed indium compounds were diagnosed with interstitial lung disease 4-13 years after first exposure (n = 7) or PAP 1-2 years after first exposure (n = 3). Common pulmonary histopathologic features in these patients included intraalveolar exudate typical of alveolar proteinosis (n = 9), cholesterol clefts and granulomas (n = 10), and fibrosis (n = 9). Two patients with interstitial lung disease had pneumothoraces. Lung disease progressed following cessation of exposure in most patients and was fatal in two. Radiographic data revealed that two patients with PAP subsequently developed fibrosis and one also developed emphysematous changes. Epidemiologic investigations demonstrated the potential for exposure to respirable particles and an excess of lung abnormalities among coworkers. Conclusions: Occupational exposure to indium compounds was associated with PAP, cholesterol ester crystals and granulomas, pulmonary fibrosis, emphysema, and pneumothoraces. The available evidence suggests exposure to indium compounds causes a novel lung disease that may begin with PAP and progress to include fibrosis and emphysema, and, in some cases, premature death. Prospective studies are needed to better define the natural history and prognosis of this emerging lung disease and identify effective prevention strategies. PMID:22207675

  9. Neurological diseases and pain

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Chronic pain is a frequent component of many neurological disorders, affecting 20–40% of patients for many primary neurological diseases. These diseases result from a wide range of pathophysiologies including traumatic injury to the central nervous system, neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation, and exploring the aetiology of pain in these disorders is an opportunity to achieve new insight into pain processing. Whether pain originates in the central or peripheral nervous system, it frequently becomes centralized through maladaptive responses within the central nervous system that can profoundly alter brain systems and thereby behaviour (e.g. depression). Chronic pain should thus be considered a brain disease in which alterations in neural networks affect multiple aspects of brain function, structure and chemistry. The study and treatment of this disease is greatly complicated by the lack of objective measures for either the symptoms or the underlying mechanisms of chronic pain. In pain associated with neurological disease, it is sometimes difficult to obtain even a subjective evaluation of pain, as is the case for patients in a vegetative state or end-stage Alzheimer's disease. It is critical that neurologists become more involved in chronic pain treatment and research (already significant in the fields of migraine and peripheral neuropathies). To achieve this goal, greater efforts are needed to enhance training for neurologists in pain treatment and promote greater interest in the field. This review describes examples of pain in different neurological diseases including primary neurological pain conditions, discusses the therapeutic potential of brain-targeted therapies and highlights the need for objective measures of pain. PMID:22067541

  10. Kyasanur forest disease.

    PubMed

    Holbrook, Michael R

    2012-12-01

    In the spring of 1957, an outbreak of severe disease was documented in people living near the Kyasanur forest in Karnataka state, India, which also affected wild nonhuman primates. Collection of samples from dead animals and the use of classical virological techniques led to the isolation of a previously unrecognized virus, named Kyasanur forest disease virus (KFDV), which was found to be related to the Russian spring-summer encephalitis (RSSE) complex of tick-borne viruses. Further evaluation found that KFD, which frequently took the form of a hemorrhagic syndrome, differed from most other RSSE virus infections, which were characterized by neurologic disease. Its association with illness in wild primates was also unique. Hemaphysalis spinigera was identified as the probable tick vector. Despite an estimated annual incidence in India of 400-500 cases, KFD is historically understudied. Most of what is known about the disease comes from studies in the late 1950s and early 1960s by the Virus Research Center in Pune, India and their collaborators at the Rockefeller Foundation. A report in ProMED in early 2012 indicated that the number of cases of KFD this year is possibly the largest since 2005, reminding us that there are significant gaps in our knowledge of the disease, including many aspects of its pathogenesis, the host response to infection and potential therapeutic options. A vaccine is currently in use in India, but efforts could be made to improve its long-term efficacy. PMID:23110991

  11. Methamphetamine and Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Granado, Noelia; Ares-Santos, Sara; Moratalla, Rosario

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder predominantly affecting the elderly. The aetiology of the disease is not known, but age and environmental factors play an important role. Although more than a dozen gene mutations associated with familial forms of Parkinson's disease have been described, fewer than 10% of all cases can be explained by genetic abnormalities. The molecular basis of Parkinson's disease is the loss of dopamine in the basal ganglia (caudate/putamen) due to the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, which leads to the motor impairment characteristic of the disease. Methamphetamine is the second most widely used illicit drug in the world. In rodents, methamphetamine exposure damages dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, resulting in a significant loss of dopamine in the striatum. Biochemical and neuroimaging studies in human methamphetamine users have shown decreased levels of dopamine and dopamine transporter as well as prominent microglial activation in the striatum and other areas of the brain, changes similar to those observed in PD patients. Consistent with these similarities, recent epidemiological studies have shown that methamphetamine users are almost twice as likely as non-users to develop PD, despite the fact that methamphetamine abuse and PD have distinct symptomatic profiles. PMID:23476887

  12. Diagnostic neuroimaging across diseases

    PubMed Central

    Klöppel, Stefan; Abdulkadir, Ahmed; Jack, Clifford R.; Koutsouleris, Nikolaos; Mourao-Miranda, Janaina; Vemuri, Prashanthi

    2012-01-01

    Fully automated classification algorithms have been successfully applied to diagnose a wide range of neurological and psychiatric diseases. They are sufficiently robust to handle data from different scanners for many applications and in specific cases outperform radiologists. This article provides an overview of current applications taking structural imaging in Alzheimer's Disease and schizophrenia as well as functional imaging to diagnose depression as examples. In this context, we also report studies aiming to predict the future course of the disease and the response to treatment for the individual. This has obvious clinical relevance but is also important for the design of treatment studies that may aim to include a cohort with a predicted fast disease progression to be more sensitive to detect treatment effects. In the second part, we present our own opinions on i) the role these classification methods can play in the clinical setting; ii) where their limitations are at the moment and iii) how those can be overcome. Specifically, we discuss strategies to deal with disease heterogeneity, diagnostic uncertainties, a probabilistic framework for classification and multi-class classification approaches. PMID:22094642

  13. Disease specific protein corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, M.; Mahmoudi, M.

    2015-03-01

    It is now well accepted that upon their entrance into the biological environments, the surface of nanomaterials would be covered by various biomacromolecules (e.g., proteins and lipids). The absorption of these biomolecules, so called `protein corona', onto the surface of (nano)biomaterials confers them a new `biological identity'. Although the formation of protein coronas on the surface of nanoparticles has been widely investigated, there are few reports on the effect of various diseases on the biological identity of nanoparticles. As the type of diseases may tremendously changes the composition of the protein source (e.g., human plasma/serum), one can expect that amount and composition of associated proteins in the corona composition may be varied, in disease type manner. Here, we show that corona coated silica and polystyrene nanoparticles (after interaction with in the plasma of the healthy individuals) could induce unfolding of fibrinogen, which promotes release of the inflammatory cytokines. However, no considerable releases of inflammatory cytokines were observed for corona coated graphene sheets. In contrast, the obtained corona coated silica and polystyrene nanoparticles from the hypofibrinogenemia patients could not induce inflammatory cytokine release where graphene sheets do. Therefore, one can expect that disease-specific protein coronas can provide a novel approach for applying nanomedicine to personalized medicine, improving diagnosis and treatment of different diseases tailored to the specific conditions and circumstances.

  14. Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, James T.; Hamill, Robert W.; Maguire-Zeiss, Kathleen A.

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the most common age-related motoric neurodegenerative disease initially described in the 1800’s by James Parkinson as the ‘Shaking Palsy’. Loss of the neurotransmitter dopamine was recognized as underlying the pathophysiology of the motor dysfunction; subsequently discovery of dopamine replacement therapies brought substantial symptomatic benefit to PD patients. However, these therapies do not fully treat the clinical syndrome nor do they alter the natural history of this disorder motivating clinicians and researchers to further investigate the clinical phenotype, pathophysiology/pathobiology and etiology of this devastating disease. Although the exact cause of sporadic PD remains enigmatic studies of familial and rare toxicant forms of this disorder have laid the foundation for genome wide explorations and environmental studies. The combination of methodical clinical evaluation, systematic pathological studies and detailed genetic analyses have revealed that PD is a multifaceted disorder with a wide-range of clinical symptoms and pathology that include regions outside the dopamine system. One common thread in PD is the presence of intracytoplasmic inclusions that contain the protein, ?-synuclein. The presence of toxic aggregated forms of ?-synuclein (e.g., amyloid structures) are purported to be a harbinger of subsequent pathology. In fact, PD is both a cerebral amyloid disease and the most common synucleinopathy, that is, diseases that display accumulations of ?-synuclein. Here we present our current understanding of PD etiology, pathology, clinical symptoms and therapeutic approaches with an emphasis on misfolded ?-synuclein. PMID:23225012

  15. NCL diseases - clinical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Angela; Kohlschütter, Alfried; Mink, Jonathan; Simonati, Alessandro; Williams, Ruth

    2013-11-01

    The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs) are lysosomal storage disorders and together are the most common degenerative brain diseases in childhood. They are a group of disorders linked by the characteristic accumulation of abnormal storage material in neurons and other cell types, and a degenerative disease course. All NCLs are characterized by a combination of dementia, epilepsy, and motor decline. For most childhood NCLs, a progressive visual failure is also a core feature. The characteristics of these symptoms can vary and the age at disease onset ranges from birth to young adulthood. Genetic heterogeneity, with fourteen identified NCL genes and wide phenotypic variability render diagnosis difficult. A new NCL classification system based on the affected gene and the age at disease onset allows a precise and practical delineation of an individual patient's NCL type. A diagnostic algorithm to identify each NCL form is presented here. Precise NCL diagnosis is essential not only for genetic counseling, but also for the optimal delivery of care and information sharing with the family and other caregivers. These aspects are challenging because there are also potential long term complications which are specific to NCL type. Therefore care supported by a specifically experienced team of clinicians is recommended. As the underlying pathophysiological mechanism is still unclear for all NCL forms, the development of curative therapies remains difficult. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses or Batten Disease. PMID:23602993

  16. Kyasanur Forest Disease

    PubMed Central

    Holbrook, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    In the spring of 1957, an outbreak of severe disease was documented in people living near the Kyasanur Forest in Karnataka state, India, which also affected wild nonhuman primates. Collection of samples from dead animals and the use of classical virological techniques led to the isolation of a previously unrecognized virus, named Kyasanur Forest disease virus (KFDV), which was found to be related to the Russian spring-summer encephalitis (RSSE) complex of tick-borne viruses. Further evaluation found that KFD, which frequently took the form of a hemorrhagic syndrome, differed from most other RSSE virus infections, which were characterized by neurologic disease. Its association with illness in wild primates was also unique. Hemaphysalis spinigera was identified as the probable tick vector. Despite an estimated annual incidence in India of 400–500 cases, KFD is historically understudied. Most of what is known about the disease comes from studies in the late 1950s and early 1960s by the Virus Research Center in Pune, India and their collaborators at the Rockefeller Foundation. A report in ProMED in early 2012 indicated that the number of cases of KFD this year is possibly the largest since 2005, reminding us that there are significant gaps in our knowledge of the disease, including many aspects of its pathogenesis, the host response to infection and potential therapeutic options. A vaccine is currently in use in India, but efforts could be made to improve its long-term efficacy. PMID:23110991

  17. [Occupational interstitial lung diseases].

    PubMed

    De Vuyst, Paul; Dalphin, Jean-Charles

    2007-12-31

    Pneumoconioses are induced by the inhalation of mineral or metallic dust. The incidence has decreased in the industrialized countries, but these diseases still exist. Diseases diagnosed nowadays may result from exposures that date back several decades. Besides, industry continuously creates new types of exposure and produces novel materials and alloys. Unusual exposures, sometimes in small workshops or in independent workers, may still cause severe diseases. In case of exposure to some metals, like beryllium, diseases may occur in susceptible subjects even at low levels of exposure. Medical and social consequences of misdiagnosis may be important. The diagnostic contribution of high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scan is very important, as this technique is sensitive and specific. Pathological, mineralogical, and immunological techniques are useful in the differential diagnosis. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis is a granulomatous interstitial disease of the lungs due to immune reactions following chronic inhalation of antigens, to which the subject has been previously sensitised. Diagnosis is based on associated clinical and paraclinical signs which are not specific. Clinical approach is essential. It allows to suspect the diagnosis in view of respiratory symptoms, inspiratory crackles and the identification of a hazardous environment. Serological tests, bronchoalveolar lavage and HRCT scan are required to confirm diagnosis. Early removal of exposure prevents the occurrence of chronic respiratory failure. Corticosteroids can be used in severe forms during few weeks. PMID:18320747

  18. Glycoproteomics in Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Hyejin; Zhang, Jianpeng; Chung, Kathryn A.; Leverenz, James B.; Zabetian, Cyrus P.; Peskind, Elaine R.; Jankovic, Joseph; Su, Zhen; Hancock, Aneeka M.; Pan, Catherine; Montine, Thomas J.; Pan, Sheng; Nutt, John; Albin, Roger; Gearing, Marla; Beyer, Richard P.; Shi, Min; Zhang, Jing

    2009-01-01

    Protein glycosylation regulates protein function and cellular distribution. Additionally, aberrant protein glycosylations have been recognized to play major roles in human disorders, including neurodegenerative diseases. Glycoproteomics, a branch of proteomics that catalogs and quantifies glycoproteins, provides a powerful means to systematically profile the glycopeptides or glycoproteins of a complex mixture that are highly enriched in body fluids, and therefore, carry great potential to be diagnostic and/or prognostic markers. Application of this mass spectrometry-based technology to the study of neurodegenerative disorders (e.g., Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease) is relatively new, and is expected to provide insight into the biochemical pathogenesis of neurodegeneration, as well as biomarker discovery. In this review, we have summarized the current understanding of glycoproteins in biology and neurodegenerative disease, and have discussed existing proteomic technologies that are utilized to characterize glycoproteins. Some of the ongoing studies, where glycoproteins isolated from cerebrospinal fluid and human brain are being characterized in Parkinson's disease at different stages versus controls, are presented, along with future applications of targeted validation of brain specific glycoproteins in body fluids. PMID:19358229

  19. Lhermitte-duclos disease associated with Cowden disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masaharu Amagasa; Fumiaki Yuda; Takahiko Tsunoda; So Sato

    1997-01-01

    We encountered a patient with Lhermitte-Duclos disease accompanied by Cowden disease, the second reported in Japan. The histological\\u000a findings are described in detail. It is important to suspect Cowden disease in patients with Lhermitte-Duclos disease. Although\\u000a Cowden disease is little known, making the diagnosis is very important, because cancer frequently occurs in the patient's\\u000a famility and genetic counseling is necessary.

  20. Plant Disease Lesson: Early blight

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Greg Kemmitt (Dow AgroSciences; )

    2002-08-09

    This plant disease lesson on early blight (caused by the fungus Alternaria solani) includes information on symptoms and signs, pathogen biology, disease cycle and epidemiology, disease management, and the significance of the disease. Selected references are listed and a glossary is also available for use with this resource.

  1. Women and Coronary Heart Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan Mather

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD), encompassing both coronary heart disease (CHD) and cerebrovascular disease, is a major health\\u000a burden worldwide in men and women. Although historically considered a “man’s disease,” this myth is quickly fading and for\\u000a good reason.

  2. Plant Disease Lesson: Verticillium wilt

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ingrid Berlanger (Oregon State University; )

    2000-08-01

    This plant disease lesson on Verticillium wilt (caused by Verticillium dahliae) includes information on symptoms and signs, pathogen biology, disease cycle and epidemiology, disease management, and the significance of the disease. Selected references are listed and a glossary is also available for use with this resource.

  3. Gallstones in inflammatory bowel disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alfred L. Baker; Marshall M. Kaplan; Richard A. Norton; James F. Patterson

    1974-01-01

    Chronic disease of the terminal ileum is associated with a high prevalence of gallstones. To decide whether the ileal location of the disease is responsible for this finding, we determined the prevalence of gallstones in 189 patients with all types of inflammatory bowel disease. The prevalence of gallstones in patients with disease involving the terminal ileum (regional enteritis and granulomatous

  4. [Subclavicular localization of Castleman's disease].

    PubMed

    Palmeri, R; Gorgone, S; Lazzara, S; Melita, G

    1997-01-01

    Castelman disease is a rare disease of lymph nodes. There are 2 pathological types: hyalo-vascular asymptomatic form and plasmacytic symptomatic form. Authors report a case of Castelman disease of a subclavicular lymph nodes that underwent surgical operation. Ethiopathogenesis and treatment of the disease are reported. PMID:12743877

  5. Plant Disease Lesson: Apple scab

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lisa J. Vaillancourt (University of Kentucky; )

    2000-10-05

    This plant disease lesson on Apple scab (caused by Venturia inaequalis) includes information on symptoms and signs, pathogen biology, disease cycle and epidemiology, disease management, and the significance of the disease. Selected references are listed and a glossary is also available for use with this resource.

  6. Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    NINDS Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease Information Page Condensed from Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease Fact Sheet Table of Contents (click ... Trials Organizations Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease? Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) ...

  7. Cutaneous manifestations of gastrointestinal diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erin E. Boh; Raed Mahmoud

    There are a myriad of dermatologic disorders asso- ciated with gastrointestinal (GI) diseases. This article covers the common dermatologic conditions that may be associated with underlying GI diseases and several uncommon conditions that the dermatologist should recognize as being associated with GI disor- ders. Table 1 presents an outline of the diseases that are covered. Inflammatory bowel diseases Inflammatory disorders

  8. [Occupational diseases in instrumental musicians].

    PubMed

    Zuskin, Eugenija; Mustajbegovi?, Jadranka; Zavali?, Marija; Bogadi-Sare, Ana; Pavlovi?, Mladen; Turci?, Nada

    2003-01-01

    Occupational diseases, work-related diseases and occupational stigma in professional musicians are discussed. Predominant diseases and symptoms related to various organic systems, such as musculoskeletal, neuromuscular, respiratory system, skin, mouth and teeth diseases, as well as the effect of noise and psychological stress, have been listed. The preventive measures in order to promote health of musicians are described in particular. PMID:12812021

  9. About Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD)

    MedlinePLUS

    About Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD) Updated:Sep 15,2014 Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a narrowing of the peripheral arteries to ... was last reviewed on 8/05/2014. Peripheral Artery Disease • Home • About Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD) • Why ...

  10. Plant Disease Lesson: Coffee rust

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Phil A. Arneson (Cornell University; )

    2000-07-18

    This plant disease lesson on coffee rust (caused by the fungi Hemileia vastatrix and H. coffeicola) includes information on symptoms and signs, pathogen biology, disease cycle and epidemiology, disease management, and the significance of the disease. Selected references are listed and a glossary is also available for use with this resource.

  11. Contraception and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W; Cornette, Jerome; Sliwa, Karen; Pieper, Petronella G; Veldtman, Gruschen R; Johnson, Mark R

    2015-07-14

    Contraceptive counselling should begin early in females with heart disease, preferably directly after the start of menstruation. In coming to a decision about the method of contraception, the following issues should be considered: (i) the risk of pregnancy for the mother and the consequences of an unplanned pregnancy; (ii) the risks of the contraceptive method; (iii) failure rates; (iv) the non-contraceptive benefits; (v) the availability; (vi) the individual's preferences; (vii) protection against infection; and (viii) costs. In some women with heart disease, the issues may be complex and require the input of both a cardiologist and an obstetrician (or other feto-maternal expert) to identify the optimal approach. No studies have been performed in women with heart disease to investigate the relative risks and benefits of different contraceptive methods. PMID:25926560

  12. Ecology of Infectious Diseases

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    With a dramatic image of a bustling city superimposed over a peaceful forest, the National Science Foundation's homepage on the ecology of infectious diseases is quite intriguing. After clicking on the image, visitors will be treated to an overview of this special report that asks: "Is our interaction with the environment somehow responsible for the increases in incidence of these diseases?" The report is divided into five sections, each exploring a different facet of the National Science Foundation's work on this problem. The sections include "Medical Mystery Solved" and "Lyme Disease on the Rise". Each of these sections includes helpful graphics, well-written text, and links to additional sites. Overall, the site will be most useful for science educators and members of the public health community.

  13. [Biologics and mycobacterial diseases].

    PubMed

    Tsuyuguchi, Kazunari; Matsumoto, Tomoshige

    2013-03-01

    Various biologics such as TNF-alpha inhibitor or IL-6 inhibitor are now widely used for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Many reports suggested that one of the major issues is high risk of developing tuberculosis (TB) associated with using these agents, which is especially important in Japan where tuberculosis still remains endemic. Another concern is the risk of development of nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) diseases and we have only scanty information about it. The purpose of this symposium is to elucidate the role of biologics in the development of mycobacterial diseases and to establish the strategy to control them. First, Dr. Tohma showed the epidemiologic data of TB risks associated with using biologics calculated from the clinical database on National Database of Rheumatic Diseases by iR-net in Japan. He estimated TB risks in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients to be about four times higher compared with general populations and to become even higher by using biologics. He also pointed out a low rate of implementation of QuantiFERON test (QFT) as screening test for TB infection. Next, Dr. Tokuda discussed the issue of NTM disease associated with using biologics. He suggested the airway disease in RA patients might play some role in the development of NTM disease, which may conversely lead to overdiagnosis of NTM disease in RA patients. He suggested that NTM disease should not be uniformly considered a contraindication to treatment with biologics, considering from the results of recent multicenter study showing relatively favorable outcome of NTM patients receiving biologics. Patients with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) should receive LTBI treatment before starting biologics. Dr. Kato, a chairperson of the Prevention Committee of the Japanese Society for Tuberculosis, proposed a new LTBI guideline including active implementation of LTBI treatment, introducing interferon gamma release assay, and appropriate selection of persons at high risk for developing TB. Lastly, Dr. Matsumoto stressed the risk of discontinuing TNF-alpha inhibitor during treatment for tuberculosis. He showed from his clinical experience that TNF-alpha inhibitor can be safely used in active TB patient receiving effective antituberculosis chemotherapy and it is even more effective for prevention of paradoxical response. Active discussion was done about the four topics, including the matter beyond present guidelines. We hope these discussions will form the basis for the establishment of new guideline for the management of mycobacterial disease when using immunosuppressive agents including biologics. 1. The risk of developing tuberculosis (TB) and situations of screening for TB risk at administration of biologics-the case of rheumatoid arthritis: Shigeto TOHMA (Clinical Research Center for Allergy and Rheumatology, National Hospital Organization Sagamihara National Hospital) We calculated the standardized incidence ratio (SIR) of TB from the clinical data on National Database of Rheumatic Diseases by iR-net in Japan (NinJa) and compared with the SIR of TB from the data of the post-marketing surveillances of five biologics. Among 43584 patient-years, forty patients developed TB. The SIR of TB in NinJa was 4.34 (95%CI: 3.00-5.69). According to the post-marketing surveillances of 5 biologics, the SIR of TB were 3.62-34.4. The incidence of TB in patients with RA was higher than general population in Japan, and was increased more by some biologics. We have to recognize the risk of TB when we start biologics therapy to patients with RA. Although the frequency of implementation of QuantiFERON test (QFT) had gradually increased, it was still limited to 41%. In order to predict the risk of developing TB and to prevent TB, it might be better to check all RA patients by QFT at time time of biologics administration. 2. Biologics and nontuberculous mycobacterial diseases: Hitoshi TOKUDA (Social Insurance Central General Hospital) Several topics about the relationship between RA and nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) diseases were discussed, which is sti

  14. Mitochondria in Lung Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Aravamudan, Bharathi; Thompson, Michael A.; Pabelick, Christina M.; Prakash, Y. S.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Mitochondria are autonomous cellular organelles that oversee a variety of functions such as metabolism, energy production, calcium buffering, and cell fate determination. Regulation of their morphology and diverse activities beyond energy production are being recognized as playing major roles in cellular health and dysfunction. This review is aimed at summarizing what is known regarding mitochondrial contributions to pathogenesis of lung diseases. Emphasis is given to understanding the importance of structural and functional aspects of mitochondria in both normal cellular function (based on knowledge from other cell types) and in development and modulation of lung diseases such as asthma, COPD, cystic fibrosis and cancer. Emerging techniques that allow examination of mitochondria, and potential strategies to target mitochondria in the treatment of lung diseases are also discussed. PMID:23978003

  15. Genetics of Behçet's Disease.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Tamer ?rfan

    2012-01-01

    Behçet's disease (BD) is a systemic inflammatory disorder characterized mainly by recurrent oral and genital ulcers and eye involvement. Although the pathogenesis remains poorly understood, a variety of studies have demonstrated that genetic predisposition is a major factor in disease susceptibility. Peculiar geographical distribution of BD along the ancient Silk Road has been regarded as evidence supporting genetic influence. The observed aggregation of BD in families of patients with BD is also supportive for a genetic component in its etiology. HLA-B51 (B510101 subtype) is the most strongly associated genetic marker for BD in countries on the Silk Road. In recent years, several genome-wide association studies and genetic polymorphism studies have also found new genetic associations with BD, which may have a supplementary role in disease susceptibility and/or severity. The author reviewed the HLA and non-HLA genetic association studies. PMID:22013548

  16. Pharmacology of Stone Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sakhaee, Khashayar

    2011-01-01

    Kidney stone disease remains a major health and economic burden on the nation. It has been increasingly recognized that nephrolithiasis can be both a chronic or systemic illness. There have been major limitations in the development of new drugs for the prevention and management of this disease, largely due to our lack of understanding of the complex pathophysiologic mechanisms involving the interaction of three major target organs: the kidney, bone, and intestine. We also do not yet understand the molecular genetic basis of this polygenic disorder. These limitations are coupled with the incorrect perception that kidney stone disease is solely an acute illness, and the lack of reliable tests to assess outcome measures. All of these factors combined have diminished the willingness of the pharmaceutical industry to engage in the development of novel drugs. PMID:19095203

  17. Inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed Central

    Van Rosendaal, G M

    1989-01-01

    An increasing number of options are available for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease; the selection depends on the extent and severity of the disease. Experience with sulfasalazine and corticosteroids has led to a proliferation of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) compounds and experimentation with alternative corticosteroid preparations. Given rectally 5-ASA is particularly effective in the treatment of distal ulcerative colitis, and experience is accumulating with several oral formulations. Metronidazole is useful in some cases, and immunosuppressive agents have a role in some patients with chronic refractory disease. A variety of measures, such as nutritional therapy, surgery and psychosocial support, are important elements of therapy. Further therapeutic innovations are expected as the etiology and pathogenesis are clarified. PMID:2568163

  18. HRCT of fibrosing lung disease.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Joseph; Hansell, David M

    2015-08-01

    The use of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) has brought increased diagnostic discrimination to the evaluation of lung disease, particularly fibrosing lung diseases. Once the presence of a predominantly fibrosing lung disease has been established on evaluation of a HRCT, a stepwise approach is proposed that can refine the potential HRCT diagnoses from a list of over 100 different interstitial lung diseases to one of only five fibrosing lung diseases. Within the category of the fibrosing lung diseases, the recognition of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is key. IPF is the most prevalent idiopathic interstitial pneumonia and has a mortality greater than any of the other diffuse lung diseases. Several diagnostic dilemmas are explored including challenges with the recent IPF diagnosis and management guidelines (2011), as well as with the 'difficult to characterize' fibrosing diseases such as smoking-related lung fibrosis, unclassifiable disease and acute exacerbations of fibrosing lung disease. PMID:25900734

  19. Androgens and prostate disease

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Lori A; Page, Stephanie T

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of literature has established the anabolic benefits of testosterone (T) therapy in hypogonadal men. However, there remains a paucity of data regarding the risks of exogenous androgen use in older men and the potential for adverse effects on the prostate gland. Whether T therapy in older, hypogonadal men might worsen lower urinary tract symptoms or exacerbate, unmask, or even incite prostate cancer development has tempered enthusiasm for T therapy, while known prostatic disease has served as a relative contraindication to T therapy. Androgens are necessary for the development and maintenance of the prostate gland. However, epidemiologic studies do not consistently find a positive relationship between endogenous serum androgen concentrations and the risk of prostate disease. Recent data demonstrate that 5?-reductase inhibitors decrease the risk of low-grade prostate cancer, suggesting that modifying androgen metabolism may have beneficial effects on prostate health, yet similar reductions in high-grade disease have not been observed, thereby questioning the true clinical benefits of these agents for chemoprevention. Knowing how to best investigate the relationship between androgens and the development of prostate disease given the lack of large, randomized trials is difficult. Accumulating data challenges the assumption that alterations in serum androgens have parallel effects within the prostate hormonal environment or change androgen-regulated processes within the gland. Long-term intervention studies are needed to truly ascertain the effects of androgen manipulation on prostate tissue and disease risk. However, available data do not support the notion that restoring serum androgens to normal physiologic ranges drives prostate disease. PMID:24407178

  20. Superficial venous disease.

    PubMed

    Brown, Kellie R; Rossi, Peter J

    2013-08-01

    Superficial venous disease is a common clinical problem. The concerning disease states of the superficial venous system are venous reflux, varicose veins, and superficial venous thrombosis. Superficial venous reflux can be a significant contributor to chronic venous stasis wounds of the lower extremity, the treatment of which can be costly both in terms of overall health care expenditure and lost working days for affected patients. Although commonly thought of as a benign process, superficial venous thrombosis is associated with several underlying pathologic processes, including malignancy and deep venous thrombosis. PMID:23885940

  1. [Gap functions and diseases].

    PubMed

    Allagnat, Florent; Krattinger, Nathalie; Nicod, Pascal; Meda, Paolo; Haefliger, Jacques-Antoine

    2005-04-27

    Gap junctions are highly conserved structures that provide cells with a direct pathway for sharing ions, nutrients and other intracellular messengers, thus participating to the homeostasis of various tissues. Research on transgenic mice has revealed a major involvement of gap junctions proteins (connexins) in several cellular functions. At the same time, an increasing number of mutations of connexin genes has been linked to several hereditary diseases, including peripheral neuropathies, skin diseases, genetic deafness, cataracts and some forms of epilepsy. This review summarizes the state of knowledge about the implication of connexins in human pathologies. PMID:15942999

  2. Von Willebrand disease.

    PubMed

    Berntorp, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Long-term prophylaxis is not as well known in Von Willebrand disease (VWD) as in hemophilia but attempts to evaluate prophylaxis scientifically in VWD have started. A few cohort studies have been reported. In an international effort the Von Willebrand disease prophylaxis network (VWD PN) has been formed to investigate the role of prophylaxis in clinically severe VWD (e.g., patients with type 3 VWD) that is nonresponsive to other treatments. Findings from the VWD PN studies will hopefully provide more robust evidence for which patients might best benefit from prophylaxis and for appropriate dosing regimens for prophylaxis in patients with VWD. PMID:23109385

  3. Vaccination for Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oehen, Stephan; Hengartner, Hans; Zinkernagel, Rolf M.

    1991-01-01

    Recombinant virus vaccines that express a limited number of epitopes are currently being developed to prevent disease by changing the relative balance between viral spread and the immune response. Some circumstances, however, were found in infections with a noncytopathic virus in which vaccination caused disease; sensitive parameters included the genetic background of the host, the time or dose of infection, and the constituents of the vaccine. Thus, immunopathologic damage by T cells may be an unwanted consequence of vaccination with the new types of peptide or recombinant vaccines that are being investigated for the human immunodeficiency viruses and other pathogens.

  4. Communicable Disease Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The COSMIC program FITLOS is used regularly by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), for analyzing data from radioimmunoassays, which involve testing human body substances to provide information on how deficits or excesses of those substances affect a body's ability to ward off disease. A liquid scintillation counter's data is analyzed by the FITLOS program. FITLOS data, then aids in establishing reference methods for hospitals and other health laboratories in their radioimmunoassays. CDC's use of this program enabled them to avoid the cost of designing and developing a new program.

  5. [Infectious pulmonary diseases].

    PubMed

    Hager, T; Reis, H; Theegarten, D

    2014-11-01

    Infectious pulmonary diseases and pneumonias are important causes of death within the group of infectious diseases in Germany. Most cases are triggered by bacteria. The morphology of the inflammation is often determined by the agent involved but several histopathological types of reaction are possible. Histology alone is only rarely able to identify the causal agent; therefore additional microbiological diagnostics are necessary in most cases. Clinically cases are classified as community acquired and nosocomial pneumonia, pneumonia under immunosuppression and mycobacterial infections. Histologically, alveolar and interstitial as well as lobar and focal pneumonia can be differentiated. PMID:25319227

  6. Pathogenesis of Crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    Boyapati, Ray; Satsangi, Jack

    2015-01-01

    Significant progress in our understanding of Crohn's disease (CD), an archetypal common, complex disease, has now been achieved. Our ability to interrogate the deep complexities of the biological processes involved in maintaining gut mucosal homeostasis is a major over-riding factor underpinning this rapid progress. Key studies now offer many novel and expansive insights into the interacting roles of genetic susceptibility, immune function, and the gut microbiota in CD. Here, we provide overviews of these recent advances and new mechanistic themes, and address the challenges and prospects for translation from concept to clinic. PMID:26097717

  7. Familial Behçet's disease.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Sema; Cimen, Kadriye Akar

    2010-06-01

    Behçet's disease (BD) is a multisystemic vasculitis syndrome characterized by a course of remissions and exacerbations of unpredictable frequency and duration. The disease has a worldwide distribution, but the majority of cases cluster along the ancient Silk Road, which extends from eastern Asia to the Mediterranean basin. The etiopathogenesis of BD is still unknown, but familial aggregation and peculiar geographical distribution have been regarded as evidence supporting genetic influence on the pathogenesis of BD. In this article, we describe a patient with BD, who had four members of his family associated with BD. PMID:19575202

  8. Genetics of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Kishore R; Djarmati-Westenberger, Ana; Grünewald, Anne

    2011-11-01

    The identification of genes contributing to Parkinson's disease (PD) has allowed for an improved understanding of the underlying pathogenesis of the disorder. The authors review the rapidly growing field of PD genetics, with a focus on the clinical, genetic, and pathophysiologic features of well-validated monogenic forms of PD caused by mutations in the SNCA, LRRK2, PARKIN, PINK1, DJ-1, and ATP13A2 genes. In addition, they discuss mutations in the GBA gene, which increase susceptibility for PD. The authors also evaluate the implications of genome-wide association studies and stem cell-derived disease models and give recommendations for genetic testing. PMID:22266881

  9. Blount disease: an update.

    PubMed

    Sabharwal, Sanjeev

    2015-01-01

    Blount disease is a developmental disorder associated with childhood obesity. Based on whether the deformity is first noted before or after 4 years of age, early-onset and late-onset forms of Blount disease have been described. Besides physeal abnormalities of the proximal tibia, compensatory changes in the intra-articular morphology of the medial compartment of the affected knee are often noted on MRI scan. Both guided growth and acute and gradual correction via a proximal tibial osteotomy have roles in the surgical management of these patients. In order to optimize clinical outcome, frequent follow-up until skeletal maturity is recommended. PMID:25435033

  10. [Pathogenesis of Bechterew disease].

    PubMed

    Gran, J T

    1998-11-30

    The etiopathogenesis of ankylosing spondylitis is still incompletely understood. HLA-B27 is important as more than 90% of the patients possess the antigen, but how this genetic marker confers disease susceptibility is yet to be understood. Recent studies of families and twins affected by ankylosing spondylitis have shown that additional non-HLA-B27 genes are necessary for disease development. The exogenous agent initiating chronic inflammation is yet to be identified, but Klebsiella pneumoniae remains a candidate. The microorganism may act through the intestinal canal as more than 60% of the patients exhibit inflammatory changes in the bowel. PMID:9889641

  11. PET in Cerebrovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Powers, William J.; Zazulia, Allyson R.

    2010-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Investigation of the interplay between the cerebral circulation and brain cellular function is fundamental to understanding both the pathophysiology and treatment of stroke. Currently, PET is the only technique that provides accurate, quantitative in vivo regional measurements of both cerebral circulation and cellular metabolism in human subjects. We review normal human cerebral blood flow and metabolism and human PET studies of ischemic stroke, carotid artery disease, vascular dementia, intracerebral hemorrhage and aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and discuss how these studies have added to our understanding of the pathophysiology of human cerebrovascular disease. PMID:20543975

  12. Gum and Heart Disease

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    American Association for the Advancement of Science (; )

    2005-04-25

    Over the past ten years, there have been many studies linking gum disease and hardening of the arteries. At first, there were observations that people with poor oral health were more prone to heart disease. More recently, scientists have found clear links between the total amount of periodontal bacteria in the mouth and blockages in the carotid artery. This study proves that at least some of the bacteria manage to escape that fate. This Science Update looks at the research, which leads to the findings presented and offers links to other sources for further inquiry.

  13. Osteopetrosis ('marble bone' disease).

    PubMed

    Manusov, E G; Douville, D R; Page, L V; Trivedi, D V

    1993-01-01

    Osteopetrosis is a hereditary disorder in which pathologic alteration of osteoclast resorption of bone results in thickening of cortical and lamellar bone. Before bone marrow transplantation, the infantile recessive form was uniformly fatal within the first two decades of life as a result of invasion of the marrow space by abnormal bone formation. The adult autosomal dominant form causes minimal morbidity and is usually diagnosed incidentally on routine radiographs. Although osteopetrosis is an extremely rare disorder, the study of this disease can provide insights into the formation of bone and the inheritance of disease. PMID:8418580

  14. A Manual of Poultry Diseases

    E-print Network

    Hall, C. F.; Bell, R. R.; Clifford, R. L., Jr.; Glass, S. E.; Grimes, J. E.; Grumbles, L. C.; Keahey, E. E.; Wormell, B. C.

    1971-01-01

    contagious diseases are infectious, but all infectious diseases are not contagious. A contagious disease is one that is transmitted readily from one individual or flock to another. An infectious dis- ease is one produced by living organisms. Most... infectious diseases of poultry are contagious; how- ever, a few such as aspergillosis are not. The ability of an organism to cause disease in the particular host is known as its virulence or pathogenicity. Many microorganisms that are un- able to cause...

  15. Inherited Retinal Degenerative Disease Registry

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-05-01

    Eye Diseases Hereditary; Retinal Disease; Achromatopsia; Bardet-Biedl Syndrome; Bassen-Kornzweig Syndrome; Batten Disease; Best Disease; Choroidal Dystrophy; Choroideremia; Cone Dystrophy; Cone-Rod Dystrophy; Congenital Stationary Night Blindness; Enhanced S-Cone Syndrome; Fundus Albipunctatus; Goldmann-Favre Syndrome; Gyrate Atrophy; Juvenile Macular Degeneration; Kearns-Sayre Syndrome; Leber Congenital Amaurosis; Refsum Syndrome; Retinitis Pigmentosa; Retinitis Punctata Albescens; Retinoschisis; Rod-Cone Dystrophy; Rod Dystrophy; Rod Monochromacy; Stargardt Disease; Usher Syndrome

  16. Curcumin in inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    Shehzad, Adeeb; Rehman, Gauhar; Lee, Young Sup

    2013-01-01

    Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a yellow coloring agent extracted from turmeric is also used as a remedy for the treatment and prevention of inflammatory diseases. Acute and chronic inflammation is a major factor in the progression of obesity, type II diabetes, arthritis, pancreatitis, cardiovascular, neurodegenerative and metabolic diseases, as well as certain types of cancer. Turmeric has a long history of use in Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of inflammatory disorders. Recent studies on the efficacy and therapeutic applicability of turmeric have suggested that the active ingredient of tumeric is curcumin. Further, compelling evidence has shown that curcumin has the ability to inhibit inflammatory cell proliferation, invasion, and angiogenesis through multiple molecular targets and mechanisms of action. Curcumin is safe, non-toxic, and mediates its anti-inflammatory effects through the down-regulation of inflammatory transcription factors, cytokines, redox status, protein kinases, and enzymes that all promote inflammation. In addition, curcumin induces apoptosis through mitochondrial and receptor-mediated pathways, as well as activation of caspase cascades. In the current study, the anti-inflammatory effects of curcumin were evaluated relative to various chronic inflammatory diseases. Based on the available pharmacological data obtained from in vitro and in vivo research, as well as clinical trials, an opportunity exists to translate curcumin into clinics for the prevention of inflammatory diseases in the near future. PMID:23281076

  17. Epigenetics and airways disease

    PubMed Central

    Adcock, Ian M; Ford, Paul; Ito, Kazuhiro; Barnes, P J

    2006-01-01

    Epigenetics is the term used to describe heritable changes in gene expression that are not coded in the DNA sequence itself but by post-translational modifications in DNA and histone proteins. These modifications include histone acetylation, methylation, ubiquitination, sumoylation and phosphorylation. Epigenetic regulation is not only critical for generating diversity of cell types during mammalian development, but it is also important for maintaining the stability and integrity of the expression profiles of different cell types. Until recently, the study of human disease has focused on genetic mechanisms rather than on non-coding events. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that disruption of epigenetic processes can lead to several major pathologies, including cancer, syndromes involving chromosomal instabilities, and mental retardation. Furthermore, the expression and activity of enzymes that regulate these epigenetic modifications have been reported to be abnormal in the airways of patients with respiratory disease. The development of new diagnostic tools might reveal other diseases that are caused by epigenetic alterations. These changes, despite being heritable and stably maintained, are also potentially reversible and there is scope for the development of 'epigenetic therapies' for disease. PMID:16460559

  18. Photosensitivity in Rheumatic Diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victoria P. Werth; Muhammad Bashir; Wei Zhang

    2004-01-01

    There have been a number of recent advances in the genetic understanding of photosensitive rheumatic diseases, especially subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus and dermatomyositis. These advances support the concept that increased numbers of ultraviolet light–induced apoptotic cells in skin lead to a suprathreshold concentration of antigenic peptides. The current genetic data suggest that increased keratinocyte apopotosis can result from increased amounts

  19. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)

    MedlinePLUS

    KidsHealth > Teens > Sexual Health > STDs & Other Infections > Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) Print A A A Text Size What's in this article? ... possible. So when you're making choices about sex, be smart and be safe. Reviewed by: Larissa Hirsch, MD Date reviewed: January ... For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC ...

  20. Communicating About Communicable Disease

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    IBM& #39; s Teachers Try Science program

    2011-11-23

    In this "tried and true" investigation, students use a commercially available product (Glo-germ) and a blacklight to demonstrate how germs are spread. Glitter can be substituted. Students then write a public service announcement, including statistics, about the preventing the spread of a communicable disease.

  1. Rare Disorders and Diseases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umlauf, Mary; Monaco, Jana; FitzZaland, Mary; FitzZaland, Richard; Novitsky, Scott

    2008-01-01

    According to the National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD), a rare or "orphan" disease affects fewer than 200,000 people in the United States. There are more than 6,000 rare disorders that, taken together, affect approximately 25 million Americans. "Exceptional Parent" ("EP") recognizes that when a disorder affects a child or adult, it…

  2. Diagnosis of Parasitic Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... available to diagnose parasitic diseases. The kind of test(s) your health care provider will order will be based on your ... below for a list of some commonly used tests your health care provider may order. A fecal (stool) exam, also ...

  3. Juvenile Battens Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gayton, Romayne

    1987-01-01

    Ten children diagnosed with juvenile Battens disease were tested over a three-year period in general intelligence, memory, listening and speech, motor skills, and general learning. Results showed that the patients followed a predetermined pattern but that the time span for development of memory, communication, and behavior problems varied greatly.…

  4. Dynamics of infectious diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rock, Kat; Brand, Sam; Moir, Jo; Keeling, Matt J.

    2014-02-01

    Modern infectious disease epidemiology has a strong history of using mathematics both for prediction and to gain a deeper understanding. However the study of infectious diseases is a highly interdisciplinary subject requiring insights from multiple disciplines, in particular a biological knowledge of the pathogen, a statistical description of the available data and a mathematical framework for prediction. Here we begin with the basic building blocks of infectious disease epidemiology—the SIS and SIR type models—before considering the progress that has been made over the recent decades and the challenges that lie ahead. Throughout we focus on the understanding that can be developed from relatively simple models, although accurate prediction will inevitably require far greater complexity beyond the scope of this review. In particular, we focus on three critical aspects of infectious disease models that we feel fundamentally shape their dynamics: heterogeneously structured populations, stochasticity and spatial structure. Throughout we relate the mathematical models and their results to a variety of real-world problems.

  5. Almond Brownline Disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A recent outbreak of almond brownline that occurred in Sutter County in 2008, provided an opportunity to investigate on the nature of the pathogen associated with the disease. A grant support was provided by the California Almond Research Board and the Tree Fruits & Nuts and Grapevines Advisory Boar...

  6. Wilson's disease in Scotland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R H Park; P McCabe; G S Fell; R I Russell

    1991-01-01

    The prevalence and clinical features of Wilson's disease in Scotland were investigated. Thirty three cases were identified but adequate information was available on only 28. In 1989, the prevalence rate was 4 per million. Ten patients with a mean (SEM) age of 18 (1.9) years presented with neurological symptoms, 12 patients aged 14 (1.7) years presented with hepatic symptoms, and

  7. Heart muscle disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Siân E Hughes

    2006-01-01

    Primary cardiomyopathies are heart muscle diseases intrinsic to the myocardium. This group includes dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (ARVC), hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM) and unclassified cardiomyopathy. The cardiomyopathies may be classified pathophysiologically and display unique pathological and clinical features. ARVC is characterized by fibroadipose substitution of right ventricular myocardium and a high risk of sudden cardiac death. HCM

  8. Emerging infectious plant diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Healthy plants are essential to the survival of humans and animals on earth. Despite the value of plants, however, threats to plant health are generally considered secondary in importance to those of humans and animals. Although the most extensively studied pathogens are those causing disease on s...

  9. Chronic Wasting Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. S. Williams

    2005-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a unique transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer (O. virginianus), and Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni). The natural history of CWD is incompletely understood, but it differs from scrapie and bovine spon- giform encephalopathy (BSE) by virtue of its occurrence in nondomestic and free-ranging species. CWD has many features

  10. Autophagy in autoimmune disease.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhen; Goronzy, Jörg J; Weyand, Cornelia M

    2015-07-01

    Autophagy is a protective and life-sustaining process in which cytoplasmic components are packaged into double-membrane vesicles and targeted to lysosomes for degradation. This process of cellular self-digestion is an essential stress response and is cytoprotective by removing damaged organelles and proteins that threaten the cell's survival. Key outcomes include energy generation and recycling of metabolic precursors. In the immune system, autophagy regulates processes such as antigen uptake and presentation, removal of pathogens, survival of short- and long-lived immune cells, and cytokine-dependent inflammation. In all cases, a window of optimal autophagic activity appears critical to balance catabolic, reparative, and inflammation-inducing processes. Dysregulation of autophagosome formation and autophagic flux can have deleterious consequences, ranging from a failure to "clean house" to the induction of autophagy-induced cell death. Abnormalities in the autophagic pathway have been implicated in numerous autoimmune diseases. Genome-wide association studies have linked polymorphisms in autophagy-related genes with predisposition for tissue-destructive inflammatory disease, specifically in inflammatory bowel disease and systemic lupus erythematosus. Although the precise mechanisms by which dysfunctional autophagy renders the host susceptible to continuous inflammation remain unclear, autophagy's role in regulating the long-term survival of adaptive immune cells has recently surfaced as a defect in multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis. Efforts are underway to identify autophagy-inducing and autophagy-suppressing pharmacologic interventions that can be added to immunosuppressive therapy to improve outcomes of patients with autoimmune disease. PMID:26054920

  11. Familial Gestational Trophoblastic Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Fallahian

    2003-01-01

    Familial molar pregnancies and gestational trophoblastic disease are exceedingly rare. In this case report, a family including four sisters and their cousin had molar pregnancies. Eldest sister had repeated molar pregnancies. Second sister had early abortion at her first pregnancy and partial molar pregnancy following blighted ovum by intrauterine insemination at her second pregnancy. Third sister had two molar pregnancies

  12. Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    Cardiovascular Disease & Diabetes Updated:Jan 31,2013 The following statistics speak loud and clear that there is a strong correlation between ... content was last reviewed on 7/5/2012. Diabetes • Home • About Diabetes • Why Diabetes Matters Introduction Cardiovascular ...

  13. Hirayama Disease: MR Diagnosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chi-Jen Chen; Chiung-Mei Chen; Chia-Lun Wu; Long-Sun Ro; Sien-Tsong Chen; Tsong-Hai Lee

    Summary: We report the MR findings in two cases of Hirayama disease, a kind of cervical myelopathy related to flexion movements of the neck. In flexion MR studies, we can see the striking and pathognomonic picture of anterior shifting of posterior dura at the lower cervical spinal canal. In nonflexion studies, we find that asymmetric cord atro- phy, especially at

  14. [Adiposis dolorosa (Dercum's disease)].

    PubMed

    Pardal Refoyo, J L

    1996-01-01

    Adiposis dolorosa (Dercum's disease) is a rare fat-tissue malady most frequently presenting in middle-aged women as fatty lumps in the body. Its etiology and pathogenesis isn't known. Two female patients are reported who had symptomatic adiposis dolorosa (32 and 62-year-old). PMID:8967567

  15. Dercum's disease (adiposis dolorosa).

    PubMed

    Reece, P H; Wyatt, M; O'Flynn, P

    1999-02-01

    Dercum's disease (adiposis dolorosa) is a rare condition characterized by progressively painful fatty deposits, usually, in menopausal women with obesity, asthenia and mental phenomena. We report a case of a 48-year-old woman with recurrent neck swelling and pain in the neck and parotid region, and a review of management of this uncommon problem. PMID:10396574

  16. Tay-Sachs Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and physical abilities occurs. The child becomes blind, deaf, and unable to swallow. Muscles begin to atrophy ... disease can be identified by a simple blood test that measures beta-hexosaminidase A activity. Both ... Genetic Alliance 4301 Connecticut Avenue, N.W. Suite 404 ...

  17. Carotid Artery Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... when the carotid arteries become blocked and the brain does not get enough oxygen. Carotid artery disease increases the risk of stroke in 3 ways: By fatty deposits called plaque severely narrowing the carotid arteries. By a blood clot becoming wedged in a carotid artery narrowed by ...

  18. Alexithymia in neurodegenerative disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Virginia E. Sturm; Robert W. Levenson

    2011-01-01

    We investigated alexithymia, a deficit in the ability to identify and describe one's emotions, in a sample that included patients with neurodegenerative disease and healthy controls. In addition, we investigated the relationship that alexithymia has with behavioral disturbance and with regional gray matter volumes. Alexithymia was examined with the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20, behavioral disturbance was assessed with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory,

  19. Pediatric celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Tully, Mary-Alice

    2008-01-01

    Celiac disease is a disease of the small intestine caused by an immune response to ingested gluten. This response results in characteristic damage to the villi, resulting in malabsorption. It is far more prevalent and its presentation can be far more subtle than once recognized. The prevalence of celiac disease in children in the general U.S. population is estimated to be 1 in 100. Toddlers and young children classically present with failure to thrive, diarrhea, and abdominal distension sometime after the introduction of gluten in the diet, but more often they present with subtle gastrointestinal symptoms such as constipation. Some children may be asymptomatic. Symptomatic patients and high-risk individuals should have serologic testing and testing of their total immunoglobulin A. Seropositive patients should undergo upper endoscopy and small-bowel biopsy of the distal duodenum. Treatment is lifelong adherence to a gluten-free diet. Families must meet with a dietician and should be strongly encouraged to participate in celiac support groups. The gastroenterology nurse is in an unparalleled position to assist parents of children newly diagnosed with celiac disease to identify the necessary lifestyle changes to make their child's life gluten free. PMID:18391801

  20. Sickle Cell Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Statistics Data and statistics highlights. Research Registry and Surveillance System for Hemoglobinopathies (RuSH). Articles Articles by CDC scientists. About Us Overview of CDC’s work. CDC Facebook Posts NCBDDD Tweets VIDEO Sickle Cell Disease Education and Awareness in Your ...

  1. Chronic granulomatous disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul G Heyworth; Andrew R Cross; John T Curnutte

    2003-01-01

    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a primary immunodeficiency that affects phagocytes of the innate immune system and is characterized by a greatly increased susceptibility to severe bacterial and fungal infections. CGD is caused by mutations in any one of four genes that encode the subunits of phagocyte NADPH oxidase, the enzyme that generates microbicidal (and pro-inflammatory) oxygen radicals. Of the

  2. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Singh

    2003-01-01

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary disease (COPD), characterized by poorly reversible airflow limitation, and strongly associated with tobacco smoking, is estimated to cause >2.5 million deaths per year worldwide. Active smokers have more acute exacerbations, which correlate with long-term decline in lung function. The diagnosis, severity assessment and monitoring of COPD rely heavily but not exclusively on spirometry. Smoking cessation reduces exacerbation

  3. Treatment of Celiac Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... treatment for celiac disease to date is a gluten-free diet. Living Life Gluten-Free with a Medically Required ... Begins with a commitment to wellness through a gluten-free diet and lifestyle. Join the Celiac Support Association. What ...

  4. POTATO DISEASE RESISTANCE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potential to use systemic acquired resistance for disease control in potato is discussed. The mechanism of how SAR works in plants is described. Potato was found to have high salicylic acid levels in all tissues examined. The defense gene PR-1 was constitutively expressed in potato, in contrast ...

  5. ENGINEERING DISEASE RESISTANT CATTLE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mastitis is a disease of the mammary gland caused by pathogens that find their way into the lumen of the gland through the teat canal. Mammary gland infections cost the US dairy industry approximately $2 billion dollars annually and have a similar impact in Europe. In the absence of effective trea...

  6. Enterobiasis mimicking Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Flores, Angel; Dajil, Saleh

    2004-01-01

    We report a 20-year-old man who presented with abdominal discomfort for 2 months. Colonoscopy showed skip areas with ulceration, resembling Crohn's disease. Biopsies showed chronic inflammation and a non-necrotizing granuloma. An adult pinworm was found in the lumen from an uninvolved segment. The patient responded to mebendazole. PMID:15333976

  7. Enterocolitis in Hirschsprung's disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. M. R. Carneiro; R. J. Brereton; D. P. Drake; E. M. Kiely; L. Spitz; R. Turnock

    1992-01-01

    During the 5 years 1985–1989, 24 (32%) of 76 patients treated for Hirschsprung's disease (HD) developed enterocolitis, this being present at the time of diagnosis in 10 (13%) infants, 7 of whom were neonates. HD presented as necrotizing enterocolitis in 5 neonates, 4 of whom were premature. The enterocolitis developed postoperatively in 14 (18%) patients, in 7 after an enterostomy

  8. Travelers' Health: Lyme Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... gov . Home Destinations Travel Notices Find a Clinic Yellow Fever Vaccinations Clinics FAQ Disease Directory Information Centers For ... Ebola Outbreak: Airport, Border, & Port of Entry Resources Yellow Book ... that is often accompanied by symptoms of fatigue, fever, headache, mild stiff neck, arthralgia, or myalgia. Within ...

  9. PPARs in Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kummer, Markus P.; Heneka, Michael T.

    2008-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are well studied for their peripheral physiological and pathological impact, but they also play an important role for the pathogenesis of various disorders of the central nervous system (CNS) like multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer's, and Parkinson's disease. The observation that PPARs are able to suppress the inflammatory response in peripheral macrophages and in several models of human autoimmune diseases lead to the idea that PPARs might be beneficial for CNS disorders possessing an inflammatory component. The neuroinflammatory response during the course of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is triggered by the neurodegeneration and the deposition of the ?-amyloid peptide in extracellular plaques. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been considered to delay the onset and reduce the risk to develop Alzheimer's disease, while they also directly activate PPAR?. This led to the hypothesis that NSAID protection in AD may be partly mediated by PPAR?. Several lines of evidence have supported this hypothesis, using AD-related transgenic cellular and animal models. Stimulation of PPAR? receptors by synthetic agonist (thiazolidinediones) inducing anti-inflammatory, anti-amyloidogenic, and insulin sensitising effects may account for the observed effects. Several clinical trials already revealed promising results using PPAR agonists, therefore PPARs represent an attractive therapeutic target for the treatment of AD. PMID:18645613

  10. Immunology Infectious disease

    E-print Network

    Schüler, Axel

    asthma we hope to enlighten the exact mecha- nisms of induction of pathogenicity. Infection with A yeastKeywords Immunology Infectious disease Asthma risk factor » Dr. Uwe Müller The yeast-like organism Cryptococ- cus neoformans is an opportunistic pathogen for immunocompromised patients. Infection

  11. Predicting occupational diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eva Suarthana; Evert Meijer; Diederick E Grobbee; Dick Heederik

    2009-01-01

    Prediction research is relatively new in the occupational health field, although it is well established in clinical medicine. Prediction models are developed to estimate the individual probability of the presence (diagnostic model) or future occurrence (prognostic model) of an outcome (ie, disease). As an example from clinical practice, Wells and colleagues demonstrated that a diagnostic model (comprised of the patient’s

  12. Cause of occupational disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D C Muir

    1995-01-01

    The concept of causality is reviewed with special emphasis on occupational diseases. Separate approaches from the philosophical, scientific, and legal points of view are identified. There is controversy over the methodology of logical causality; inductive and deductive methods are described and reference is made to the verification or refutation approach. Application of the methods to epidemiology are reviewed. It is

  13. Inflammatory bowel disease: Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi-Zhen; Li, Yong-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, is characterized by chronic relapsing intestinal inflammation. It has been a worldwide health-care problem with a continually increasing incidence. It is thought that IBD results from an aberrant and continuing immune response to the microbes in the gut, catalyzed by the genetic susceptibility of the individual. Although the etiology of IBD remains largely unknown, it involves a complex interaction between the genetic, environmental or microbial factors and the immune responses. Of the four components of IBD pathogenesis, most rapid progress has been made in the genetic study of gut inflammation. The latest internationally collaborative studies have ascertained 163 susceptibility gene loci for IBD. The genes implicated in childhood-onset and adult-onset IBD overlap, suggesting similar genetic predispositions. However, the fact that genetic factors account for only a portion of overall disease variance indicates that microbial and environmental factors may interact with genetic elements in the pathogenesis of IBD. Meanwhile, the adaptive immune response has been classically considered to play a major role in the pathogenesis of IBD, as new studies in immunology and genetics have clarified that the innate immune response maintains the same importance in inducing gut inflammation. Recent progress in understanding IBD pathogenesis sheds lights on relevant disease mechanisms, including the innate and adaptive immunity, and the interactions between genetic factors and microbial and environmental cues. In this review, we provide an update on the major advances that have occurred in above areas. PMID:24415861

  14. Pregnancy and Thyroid Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... one of the glands that make up the endocrine system. The glands of the endocrine system produce, store, and release hormones into the bloodstream. ... result from the general suppression of the immune system that occurs during ... National Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases Information Service (NEMDIS) in the ...

  15. Pathology of Tangier disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia M. Bale; P. Clifton-Bligh; B. N. P. Benjamin; H. M. Whyte

    1971-01-01

    Two cases of Tangier disease are described in children from families unrelated to each other. Necropsy in one case, the first to be reported in this condition, showed large collections of cholesterol-laden macrophages in tonsils, thymus, lymph nodes, and colon, and moderate numbers in pyelonephritic scars and ureter. As the storage cells may be scanty in marrow, jejunum, and liver,

  16. Lhermitte-Duclos disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Reznik; J. Schoenen

    1983-01-01

    A new case of Lhermitte-Duclos disease (dysplastic gangliocytoma of the cerebellum) was recognized in an adult man after neurosurgery. Conventional, Golgi, and electron-microscopic investigations support the view that this rare lesion results from a progressive hypertrophy of granular cell neurons with excess of myelination of their axons in the molecular layer while inducing the local disappearance of Purkinje cells and

  17. Lhermitte-Duclos disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. K. Banerjee; C. A. Gleadhill

    1979-01-01

    Summary  The case of Lhermitte-Duclos disease here reported was diagnosed after a second operation, 11 years following the first. The\\u000a patient was reoperated on recently due to recurrence several years after the initial surgery. This is the longest post-operative\\u000a survival reported in the literature.

  18. Lhermitte-Duclos disease.

    PubMed

    Chiofalo, Maria Grazia; Cappabianca, Paolo; Del Basso De Caro, Maria Laura; Pezzullo, Luciano

    2007-04-01

    A 46-year-old female patient with previously recognized Graves' ophthalmopathy, underwent total thyroidectomy. After thyroid surgery exophthalmos worsened and signs unsteadiness of gait appeared. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a lesion in the basal portion of the left cerebellar hemisphere. Therefore, the patient underwent surgery. Pathological examination revealed dysplastic gangliocytoma of the cerebellum (Lhermitte-Duclos disease). PMID:17021955

  19. Lhermitte-Duclos disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Shiurba; E. C. Gessaga; L. F. Eng; L. A. Sternberger; N. H. Sternberger; H. Urich

    1988-01-01

    Immunocytochemical studies were carried out on two previously reported autopsy cases of Lhermitte-Duclos disease. The unaffected cerebellar cortex adjacent to the lesions served as control. The findings supported the view, previously expressed by one of the authors, of a heterogeneous neuronal structure of the lesion, consisting of at least two cell types. No further light was thrown on the predominant

  20. Heavy Chain Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... cells often prevents proper absorption of nutrients from food (malabsorption), resulting in severe diarrhea and weight loss. A rare form that affects the respiratory tract also exists. Blood tests are done when alpha heavy chain disease is suspected. Serum protein electrophoresis, measurement of ...

  1. Diseases of Landscape Plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janna Beckerman

    t he cedar rust diseases (Juniper spp.) stand out due to their conspicuous nature, and the fact the fungi that cause them complete their life cycles on two plant hosts — the juniper (cedar) and the apple (although pear, hawthorn, quince, serviceberry, and crabapple are other hosts). All potential host plants are commonly planted in the urban landscape, or are

  2. Cytokines and Behcet's disease.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Z Y; Chen, S L; Shen, N; Lu, Y

    2012-08-01

    Behcet's Disease (BD) is a systemic vasculitis of unknown etiology. Increasing studies find that a sophisticated interlacing cytokine network is closely implicated in the onset, evolution and even organ damages of the disease. Cytokines involved can be categorized as Th1 type, Th2 type, Th17 type, chemokines and other proinflammatory cytokines, etc. The vicious cycle of cytokine network plays a substantial role in the disease pathogenesis and even in organ lesions, and might be disorganized by blocking one of the key links of the cytokines, which in turn may provide essential clues to outlook the target therapy regimen of cytokine agents in BD. There have been a number of case reports of the positive efficacies of cytokine (and cytokine blocker) agents including Infiximab (Human murine chimeric Anti-TNF ? monoclonal antibody), Anakinra (recombinant, non-glycosylated human IL1 receptor antagonist) etc in BD. IFN-? had been used clinically in treating BD with uveitis with beneficial efficacy ever since the 1980s. The studies to date suggested that IL6, IP10 are involved in BD with nervous system lesions, IL17, IL18 are relevant to the superimposed uveitis in patients with BD. Some cytokines i.e. IL8, RANTES, MIP-1? are associated with the disease activity, whereas others are exemplified by that of IL10, whose level shows negative relevance to the disease activity, might be potentially cytokine of protecting effect. According to the related genetic study, the SNPs of numerous cytokines including IL1, TNF?, IFN?, IL12, and IL18 are pertinent to BD. The recent GWAS (Genome Wide Association Studies) demonstrated that SNPs in the IL10 and IL23R-IL12RB2 region are associated with the disease. Most studies nowadays are confined within the cytokines in the peripheral blood levels, owing to the potentially significant roles of certain cytokines in local lesions. It warrants further in-depth study to address this issue. Moreover, it deserves multi-centre study considering the unique geographical "silk road" display picture of the disease. PMID:22197901

  3. 68 FR 36566 - Control of Communicable Diseases

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2003-06-18

    ...SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...Control of Communicable Diseases AGENCIES: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...Center for Infectious Diseases (E03), Centers for Disease Control and...

  4. Antiprogestins in gynecological diseases

    PubMed Central

    Goyeneche, Alicia A; Telleria, Carlos M

    2015-01-01

    Antiprogestins constitute a group of compounds, developed since the early 1980s, that bind progesterone receptors with different affinities. The first clinical uses for antiprogestins were in reproductive medicine, e.g., menstrual regulation, emergency contraception, and termination of early pregnancies. These initial applications, however, belied the capacity for these compounds to interfere with cell growth. Within the context of gynecological diseases, antiprogestins can block the growth of and kill gynecological-related cancer cells, such as those originating in the breast, ovary, endometrium, and cervix. They can also interrupt the excessive growth of cells giving rise to benign gynecological diseases such as endometriosis and leiomyomata (uterine fibroids). In this article, we present a review of the literature providing support for the antigrowth activity that antiprogestins impose on cells in various gynecological diseases. We also provide a summary of the cellular and molecular mechanisms reported for these compounds that lead to cell growth inhibition and death. The preclinical knowledge gained during the past few years provides robust evidence to encourage the use of antiprogestins in order to alleviate the burden of gynecological diseases, either as monotherapies or as adjuvants of other therapies with the perspective of allowing for long-term treatments with tolerable side effects. The key to the clinical success of antiprogestins in this field probably lies in selecting those patients who will benefit from this therapy. This can be achieved by defining the genetic makeup required – within each particular gynecological disease – for attaining an objective response to antiprogestin-driven growth inhibition therapy. Free Spanish abstract A Spanish translation of this abstract is freely available at http://www.reproduction-online.org/content/149/1/15/suppl/DC1. PMID:25252652

  5. Infectious Disease in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Guzman; Jurado; Kron

    1995-06-01

    The republic of Ecuador, which has a population of 10 million, is one of the smallest of the Andean countries in South America. Although it covers only an area of 110,000 square miles, it yields an extraordinary diversity of infectious diseases. Public health problems reflect socioeconomic realities and uniquely diverse climates, cultures, and geography. Equador extends from the Galapagos Islands 600 miles to the west, to inhabited Andean highlands with altitudes over 15,000 feet, and to both the coastal and Amazonian rain forests. Health statistics in Ecuador are widely variable by western standards. Life expectancy is 64-68 years, and infant mortality rates are up to 60 per 1000. The physical and geographic barriers to health care facilities are highly variable in different provinces. This was evidenced dramatically by recent death rates from cholera in 1991-92, which ranged from 0% in Guayaquil to over 50% in isolated highland villages or in the Oriente (eastern provinces). Major cities, provincial borders, and selected topographic features are illustrated in the accompanying map of Ecuador (Fig. 1.) This review reports data on some of the major infectious diseases existent in Ecuador. Emphasis is on the viral, bacterial, protozoal, or helminthic diseases, which are uncommon elsewhere in the world, but which are prevalent, or especially important to public health officials in Ecuador. Table 1 lists reportable disease categories in Ecuador, 1986-1993. Recognition of the diversity of infectious agents endemic to Ecuador may prove useful for diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of infectious diseases in international travelers. PMID:9815368

  6. [Perianal Crohn's disease].

    PubMed

    Burri, Emanuel; Vavricka, Stephan R

    2013-07-01

    In patients with Crohn's disease, perianal lesions can be found at presentation in 20 - 30 % of all cases and a majority will have fistulas or abscesses. If a fistula is suspected, careful inspection of the perianal region will often confirm the diagnosis. Further investigation should be done by magnet-resonance imaging or anal endosonography to guide preoperative planing and minimize recurrence rates. Simple, uncomplicated fistulas are primarily treated with antibiotics. For complex fistulas combined with medication and surgical treatment usually offers the best treatment. Treatment of complex fistulas by surgery alone is rarely curative and may have significant morbidity, while medical treatment has the disadvantage of high recurrence rates and significant costs for long-term therapy. In trans-, supra- and extrasphincteric fistulas, immunosuppressants or anti-TNF alpha blockers will lead to sustained clinical remission with fistula closure in 30 - 50 %. However, 25 % of all patients with perianal Croh's disease will still need surgery during the course of their disease. Fistulotomy is used for subcutaneous or short intersphincteric fistulas while it should be avoided in fistulas with significant involvmenet of the sphincter muscles to avoid fecal incontinence. Seton drainage may be used as definitve treatment or as a bridge to a secondary surgical therapy. Minimally invasive precedures, such as the anal fistula plug have also been used in Crohn's disease. Although recurrence rates are high, the procedure is easy to perform and carries a low risk of incontinence and may therefore be used as primary treatment option for complex fistulas. The fistulectomy and closure of the inner fistula opening, e. g. with a mucosal advancement flap, is still considered the standard procedure, especially for complex fistulas. Anal fissures, ulcers and strictures are non-fistulating perianal lesions of Crohn's disease. PMID:23798025

  7. [Does vaccination cause disease?].

    PubMed

    Zingg, W

    2005-10-01

    Not many inventions in medical history have influenced our society as much as vaccination. The concept is old and simple. When Edward Jenner published his work on cowpox, "variolation" was quite common. In this procedure, pus of patients with mild smallpox was transferred to healthy individuals. Meanwhile smallpox has been eradicated worldwide. Diseases such as poliomyelitis, diphtheria or tetanus almost disappeared in industrialized countries. The same happened with epiglottitis and meningitis due to Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) after vaccination against Hib was introduced in Switzerland in 1990. This success was possible because of routine vaccination. Immunization is a save procedure and adverse events are much lower than complications in the natural course of the prevented diseases. However vaccinations were accused to cause diseases themselves such as asthma, multiple sclerosis, diabetes mellitus, chronic arthritis or autism. Hitherto no large cohort study or case-control-study was able to proof responsibility of vaccines in any of these diseases. Public media are eager to publish early data from surveillance reports or case reports which are descriptive and never a principle of cause and effect. In large controlled trials there was no proof that vaccination causes asthma, hepatitis-B-vaccination causes multiple sclerosis or macrophagic myofasciitis, Hib-vaccination causes diabetes mellitus, rubella-vaccination causes chronic arthritis, measles-mumps-rubella-vaccination causes gait disturbance or thiomersal causes autism. These results are rarely published in newspapers or television. Thus, many caring parents are left with negative ideas about immunization. Looking for the best for their children they withhold vaccination and give way to resurgence of preventable diseases in our communities. This must be prevented. There is more evidence than expected that vaccination is safe and this can and must be told to parents. PMID:16277033

  8. Cell Therapies for Liver Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yue; Fisher, James E.; Lillegard, Joseph B.; Rodysill, Brian; Amiot, Bruce; Nyberg, Scott L.

    2011-01-01

    Cell therapies, which include bioartificial liver support and hepatocyte transplantation, have emerged as potential treatments for a variety of liver diseases. Acute liver failure (ALF), acute-on-chronic liver failure, and inherited metabolic liver diseases are examples of liver diseases that have been successfully treated with cell therapies at centers around the world. Cell therapies also have the potential for wide application in other liver diseases, including non-inherited liver diseases and liver cancer, and in improving the success of liver transplantation. Here we briefly summarize current concepts of cell therapy for liver diseases. PMID:22140063

  9. Lhermitte-Duclos disease associated with Cowden's disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. W. Thomas; M. A. O. Lewis

    1995-01-01

    The twelfth patient in the known literature with Lhermitte-Duclos disease (dysplastic gangliocytoma) occurring in association with Cowden's disease is described. The investigation, aetiology, and management of the case are discussed.

  10. Mechanisms of Disease: pathogenesis of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R Balfour Sartor

    2006-01-01

    Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are idiopathic, chronic, relapsing, inflammatory conditions that are immunologically mediated. Although their exact etiologies remain uncertain, results from research in animal models, human genetics, basic science and clinical trials have provided important new insights into the pathogenesis of chronic, immune-mediated, intestinal inflammation. These studies indicate that Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are heterogeneous diseases characterized

  11. An Introduction to Disease Mapping and Disease Clustering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kunihiko TAKAHASHI; Tetsuji YOKOYAMA; Toshiro TANGO

    For data analysis in spatial epidemiology, it is important first to observe the geographical distribution of a disease within a population. Disease map is an useful tool to show the distribution. In this paper, we consider maps which show the relative risks in small areas, including the Standardized Mortality Ratio (SMR) . Next we discuss the disease clustering, and the

  12. Motor neurone disease and hyperthyroid Graves' disease: a chance association?

    PubMed Central

    McMenamin, J; Croxson, M

    1980-01-01

    The presentation of a 56-year-old woman with coexisting hyperthyroid Graves' disease and motor neurone disease is described. Circulating immune complexes were detected in the serum of seven patients with motor neurone disease (five cases) or primary lateral sclerosis (two cases), including a man with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. PMID:6444439

  13. Web Sites about Infectious Disease Web Sites about Infectious Disease

    E-print Network

    de Lijser, Peter

    Web Sites about Infectious Disease Web Sites about Infectious Disease Stanford Center for Tuberculosis Research-Site Links http://molepi.stanford.edu/tblinks.html Virology on the World Wide Web http://www.idsociety.org/ file:///C|/Program%20Files/Adobe/Adobe%20Dreamweav...nks/Web%20Sites%20about%20Infectious%20Disease

  14. Infectious diseases and global warming: Tracking disease incidence rates globally

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1995-01-01

    Given the increasing importance of impact of global warming on public health, there is no global database system to monitor infectious disease and disease in general, and to which global data of climate change and environmental factors, such as temperature, greenhouse gases, and human activities, e.g., coastal development, deforestation, can be calibrated, investigated and correlated. The author proposes the diseases

  15. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Chronic Systemic Inflammatory Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephan F. van Eeden; Don D. Sin

    2008-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by chronic inflammation in both the airways causing airway obstruction and the lung tissues causing emphysema. The disease is induced by inhalation of noxious gasses and particulate matter resulting in a chronic persistent inflammatory response in the lung, and the extent of the inflammatory reaction correlates with the severity of the disease. This

  16. Causes of Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Munoz, D G; Feldman, H

    2000-01-01

    It is now understood that genetic factors play a crucial role in the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). Rare mutations in at least 3 genes are responsible for early-onset familial AD. A common polymorphism in the apolipoprotein E gene is the major determinant of risk in families with late-onset AD, as well as in the general population. Advanced age, however, remains the major established risk factor for AD, although environmental variables may also have some role in disease expression. Some pathogenic factors directly associated with aging include oxidative damage and mutations in messenger RNA. Other factors unrelated to the aging process may, in the future, be amenable to therapeutic intervention by way of estrogen replacement therapy for postmenopausal women, anti-inflammatory drug therapy and reducing vascular risk factors. Older theories, such as aluminum playing a role in the pathogenesis of AD, have been mostly discarded as our understanding of pathogenic mechanisms of AD has advanced. PMID:11216203

  17. Management of Perthes’ disease

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    The main complication of Perthes’ disease is femoral head deformation. Evidence from the literature highlights two important factors related to the cause and timing of this complication. (1) Extrusion of the femoral head appears to be a major factor that leads to femoral head deformation. (2) Deformation of the femoral head occurs in the latter part of the stage of fragmentation. The likelihood of preventing femoral head deformation is over 16 times higher if extrusion is reversed or prevented by the early stage of fragmentation than if done later. Several treatment options have been described in children who present later in the course of the disease but the outcomes of all these measures do not compare with those of early intervention. PMID:25593353

  18. Atypical demyelinating disease.

    PubMed

    Adams, J M; Brown, W J; Cremer, N E; Eberle, E D; Fewster, M E; Lennette, E H

    1974-08-01

    A 17 year old girl died after an illness characterized by progressive mental deterioration and severe myoclonic jerks. Extensive pathological, virological, and immunological studies failed to support the diagnosis of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis but were compatible with disseminated demyelinating disease. The spinal fluid was positive for measles virus antibodies when examined by the fluorescent antibody technique, by complement fixation, and by haemagglutination inhibition tests, but the antibody titres were not high. The concentration of vaccinia antibody in the serum was consistent with that found in the general population and none was detected in the spinal fluid. Animal and tissue culture studies failed to disclose a viral agent, but pathological sections revealed perivascular cellular infiltration, demyelination, rare inclusion bodies, and multinucleated giant cells. Although these studies were not definitive, a record of procedures used and results obtained, both positive and negative, may be helpful to other investigators interested in defining more accurately the clinical features and the pathogenesis of these diseases. PMID:4371078

  19. Epidemiology of Behçet disease.

    PubMed

    Khairallah, Moncef; Accorinti, Massimo; Muccioli, Cristina; Kahloun, Rim; Kempen, John H

    2012-10-01

    Behçet disease (BD) is a multisystem inflammatory disorder that is an important cause of morbidity worldwide. BD is most common along the ancient "Silk Road" route in the Far East and Mediterranean basin. The eye is the most commonly involved organ in BD patients.The prototypical form of involvement is a relapsing remitting panuveitis and retinal vasculitis. Less commonly, BD may present in the form of conjunctivitis, conjunctival ulcers, keratitis, episcleritis, scleritis, and extraocular muscle paralysis. Uveitis in BD carries significant implications for the patient, because it is a chronic recurrent disease characterized by explosive attacks of severe inflammation that may cause significant, cumulative damage to the intraocular structures. This review summarizes the epidemiology of systemic and ocular clinical features of BD with particular focus on risk factors, clinical characteristics, complications, and prognosis of BD-associated uveitis. PMID:23030353

  20. Lipidomics of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Touboul, David; Gaudin, Mathieu

    2014-02-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive brain disease that leads to an irreversible loss of neurons and cognition. It is the most common cause of dementia and can be considered as a major public health problem. At the histological level, AD is characterized by senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Numerous studies involving genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic approaches have been published in order to understand the molecular mechanisms involved in AD, and to find new biomarkers. Metabolomics, and in particular lipidomics, have recently offered new possibilities due to the development of robust and sensitive analytical methods, such as LC-MS. This review aims to illustrate how lipidomics can help understand the biological mechanisms inherent to AD and how lipids can be considered as relevant biomarkers of AD at early stages. PMID:24568356