Sample records for disintegrating tablets compared

  1. Effectiveness and medication acceptance of olanzapine disintegrating tablets compared to standard olanzapine tablets in acutely treated psychiatric patients

    PubMed Central

    Czekalla, Jörg; Wagner, Thomas; Schacht, Alexander; Kluge, Michael; Kinon, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    Background: This study compared effectiveness and acceptance of orally disintegrating olanzapine tablets (ODT) with standard-coated tablets (SOT) in acutely ill psychiatric patients admitted to psychiatric hospitals for emergency treatment. Methods: Large, prospective, observational study at hospital emergency units across Germany in patients with a diagnosis or tentative diagnosis of acute schizophrenia treated with ODT or SOT. Clinical (CGI-S and CGI-I) outcomes, attitudes towards medication (Nursing Assessment of Medication Acceptance, NAMA) scale, suicidal ideation, and adverse events were assessed at start of treatment and after 2 weeks. Results: Both olanzapine formulations, ODT (N = 247) and SOT (N = 207), showed similar effectiveness after 2 weeks. CGI-I improved in 92.1% of patients (ODT: 91.8%, SOT: 92.3%). In patients receiving both formulations suicidal ideations were reduced (ODT from 53.9% to 20.6%, SOT from 51.2% to 22.7%). ODT was preferably given to severely ill (SOT: 49.8%, ODT: 64.4%) and aggressive patients. Adverse events were reported for 6.5% of ODT- and 2.9% of SOT-patients. This difference was possibly caused by the characteristics of patients receiving ODT. Conclusions: This non-randomized, observational study shows comparable outcomes and tolerability in patients treated with both olanzapine formulations. In an acute treatment setting, orally disintegrating tablets were preferably used for more severely ill and aggressive patients with low medication acceptance. PMID:19956444

  2. Preparation of rapidly disintegrating tablets containing itraconazole solid dispersions.

    PubMed

    Oshima, Takao; Sonoda, Ryoichi; Ohkuma, Moriyuki; Sunada, Hisakazu

    2007-11-01

    The disintegratability of tablets prepared from two types of solid dispersions containing the water-soluble polymer TC-5 and the enteric polymer HP-55 as an excipient were compared. The disintegratability was better in the tablets of solid dispersions containing non-water-soluble HP-55 than those containing TC-5. In consideration of the dissolubility of solid dispersions containing HP-55, the mean diameter of the solid dispersion (coating powder) must be controlled to 120 microm or less, but as this markedly increases the adhesion/aggregation tendency of the particles (angle of repose: 47 degrees ), control of the adhesion/aggregation tendency emerged as another problem. Therefore, surface-modification was performed in a high-speed agitating granulator using 0.1% light anhydrous silicic acid as a surface modifier, and marked improvement in the flowability was observed. This made continuous tableting using a rotary tablet machine possible even with the poorly flowable solid dispersions. Also, in tableting of the solid dispersions, no recrystallization of amorphous itraconazole by the tableting pressure was observed, and the tablets maintained satisfactory dissolubility. Moreover, it was possible to obtain the rapidly disintegrating tablets with very satisfactory properties, i.e., a tablet hardness of 30 N or higher and a disintegration time of 30 s or less, by the addition of croscarmellose as a disintegrant at 2% to the surface-modified solid dispersion and selection of the tableting pressure at 4.5 kN. PMID:17978511

  3. Design and evaluation of microwave-treated orally disintegrating tablets containing polymeric disintegrant and mannitol.

    PubMed

    Sano, Syusuke; Iwao, Yasunori; Noguchi, Shuji; Kimura, Susumu; Itai, Shigeru

    2013-05-01

    Microwave (MW) treatment was used to develop a formulation process for the preparation of wet molded orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) consisting of mannitol and polymeric disintegrant with improved hardness and disintegration properties. The wet molded tablets were prepared in accordance with the conventional methods and subsequently heated by MW irradiation to induce the swelling of the tablet. Croscarmellose sodium, crospovidone, and low-substituted hydroxypropylcellulose (L-HPC) were evaluated for their use with this technology. NBD-020, which is a grade of L-HPC, provided the better hardness and disintegration results. In addition, the crystalline forms of mannitol impacted on hardness and disintegration properties of the ODT upon MW irradiation. The effects of the disintegrant ratio, ? and ? crystalline mannitol ratio, amount of water, and compression force on the ODT properties were evaluated using the design of experiment method. MW-induced swelling was enhanced by an increase in the disintegrant ratio. Although the hardness of the tablet increased following MW treatment, the disintegration time became less than that of the MW-untreated tablets as the ?-mannitol ratios increased. Taken together, the results indicated that the polymeric disintegrant greatly improved the properties of the molded tablets in combination with MW treatment. PMID:23524122

  4. Studies on the development of rapidly disintegrating hyoscine butylbromide tablets.

    PubMed

    Khattab, I S; Zaghloul1, A A; Afouna, M I

    2007-08-01

    The objective of this study was to prepare hyoscine butylbromide (a drug with bitter taste) tablets that can rapidly disintegrate in saliva. The granules were prepared by the extrusion method using aminoalkyl methacrylate copolymers (Eudragit E-100). The drugs dissolved rapidly in medium at pH 1.2 in a dissolution test while none of the drugs dissolved from the granules (% of dissolved < 5%) even after 8 h at pH 6.8. Rapidly disintegrating tablets were prepared using prepared taste-masked granules and a mixture of excipients consisting of crystalline cellulose (Avicel PH-102) and low substituted hydroxypropylcellulose (L-HPC, LH-11).The granules and excipients were mixed well (mixingratio by weight, crystalline cellulose: L-HPC, was 8:2) with 1% magnesium stearate as a lubricant and subsequently compressed at 500-1,500 kgf in a single-punch tableting machine. The prepared tablets (compressed at 500 kgf) containing the taste-masked granules have significant strength (crushing strength was 3.5 kg), and a rapid disintegration time (within 30 sec) was observed in the saliva of healthy volunteers. None of the volunteers sensed any bitter taste after the disintegration of the tablet that contained the taste-masked granules. The results confirmed that rapidly disintegrating tablets can be prepared using these taste-masked granules and excipients that are commonly used in tablet preparation. PMID:22504365

  5. Effects of disintegration-promoting agent, lubricants and moisture treatment on optimized fast disintegrating tablets.

    PubMed

    Late, Sameer G; Yu, Yi-Ying; Banga, Ajay K

    2009-01-01

    Effects of calcium silicate (disintegration-promoting agent) and various lubricants on an optimized beta-cyclodextrin-based fast-disintegrating tablet formulation were investigated. Effects of moisture treatment were also evaluated at 75, 85 and 95% relative humidities. A two factor, three levels (3(2)) full factorial design was used to optimize concentrations of calcium silicate and lubricant. Magnesium stearate, being commonly used lubricant, was used to optimize lubricant concentration in optimization study. Other lubricants were evaluated at an obtained optimum concentration. Desiccator with saturated salt solutions was used to analyze effects of moisture treatments. Results of multiple linear regression analysis revealed that concentration of calcium silicate had no effect; however concentration of lubricant was found to be important for tablet disintegration and hardness. An optimized value of 1.5% of magnesium stearate gave disintegration time of 23.4 s and hardness of 1.42 kg. At an optimized concentration, glycerol dibehenate and L-leucine significantly affected disintegration time, while talc and stearic acid had no significant effect. Tablet hardness was significantly affected with L-leucine, while other lubricants had no significant effect. Hardness was not affected at 75% moisture treatment. Moisture treatment at 85 and 95% increased hardness of the tablets; however at the same time it negatively affected the disintegration time. PMID:18778759

  6. Investigation of Formulation and Process of Lyophilised Orally Disintegrating Tablet (ODT) Using Novel Amino Acid Combination

    PubMed Central

    AlHusban, Farhan; ElShaer, Amr M.; Kansara, Jiteen H.; Smith, Alan M.; Grover, Liam M.; Perrie, Yvonne; Mohammed, Afzal R.

    2010-01-01

    Lyophilised orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) have achieved a great success in overcoming dysphagia associated with conventional solid dosage forms. However, the extensive use of saccharides within the formulation limits their use in treatment of chronic illnesses. The current study demonstrates the feasibility of using combination of proline and serine to formulate zero sacharide ODTs and investigates the effect of freezing protocol on sublimation rate and tablets characteristics. The results showed that inclusion of proline and serine improved ODT properties when compared to individual counterparts. Additionally, annealing the ODTs facilitated the sublimation process and shortened the disintegration time.

  7. Tablet disintegration studied by high-resolution real-time magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Quodbach, Julian; Moussavi, Amir; Tammer, Roland; Frahm, Jens; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The present work employs recent advances in high-resolution real-time magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to investigate the disintegration process of tablets containing disintegrants. A temporal resolution of 75 ms and a spatial resolution of 80 × 80 µm with a section thickness of only 600 µm were achieved. The histograms of MRI videos were quantitatively analyzed with MATLAB. The mechanisms of action of six commercially available disintegrants, the influence of relative tablet density, and the impact of disintegrant concentration were examined. Crospovidone seems to be the only disintegrant acting by a shape memory effect, whereas the others mainly swell. A higher relative density of tablets containing croscarmellose sodium leads to a more even distribution of water within the tablet matrix but hardly impacts the disintegration kinetics. Increasing the polacrilin potassium disintegrant concentration leads to a quicker and more thorough disintegration process. Real-time MRI emerges as valuable tool to visualize and investigate the process of tablet disintegration. PMID:24475490

  8. Comparative disintegrant activities of breadfruit starch and official corn starch

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarafadeen A. Adebayo; Eugenie Brown-Myrie; Oludele A. Itiola

    2008-01-01

    A Comparative evaluation of starch powder extracted from breadfruit (Artocarpus communis, Frost) as tablet disintegrant was made with corn starch BP using a 2×4 factorial experiment in a randomized complete block design. Two factors (type of starch: 2 i.e. breadfruit and corn) at four levels (concentrations of starch disintegrant: 4 i.e. 2.5%, 5%, 7.5% and 10%) were studied. One (1)

  9. Process analytical technology to understand the disintegration behavior of alendronate sodium tablets.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoming; Gupta, Abhay; Sayeed, Vilayat A; Khan, Mansoor A

    2013-05-01

    Various adverse events including esophagus irritations have been reported with the use of alendronate tablets, likely attributed to the rapid tablet disintegration in the mouth or esophagus. Accordingly, the disintegration of six alendronate tablet drug products was studied using a newly developed testing device equipped with in-line sensors, in addition to the official compendial procedure for measuring the disintegration time. The in-line sensors were used to monitor the particle count and solution pH change to assess the onset and duration of disintegration. A relatively large variation was observed in the disintegration time of the tested drug products using the compendial method. The data collected using the in-line sensors suggested that all tested drug products exhibited almost instantaneous onset of disintegration, under 2 s, and a sharp drop in solution pH. The drop in pH was slower for tablets with slower disintegration. The in-house prepared alendronate test tablets also showed similar trends suggesting rapid solubilization of the drug contributed to the fast tablet disintegration. This research highlights the usefulness of the newly developed in-line analytical method in combination with the compendial method in providing a better understanding of the disintegration and the accompanying drug solubilization processes for fast disintegrating tablet drug products. PMID:23450666

  10. Bio-predictive tablet disintegration: effect of water diffusivity, fluid flow, food composition and test conditions.

    PubMed

    Radwan, Asma; Wagner, Manfred; Amidon, Gordon L; Langguth, Peter

    2014-06-16

    Food intake may delay tablet disintegration. Current in vitro methods have little predictive potential to account for such effects. The effect of a variety of factors on the disintegration of immediate release tablets in the gastrointestinal tract has been identified. They include viscosity of the media, precipitation of food constituents on the surface of the tablet and reduction of water diffusivity in the media as well as changes in the hydrodynamics in the surrounding media of the solid dosage form. In order to improve the predictability of food affecting the disintegration of a dosage form, tablet disintegration in various types of a liquefied meal has been studied under static vs. dynamic (agitative) conditions. Viscosity, water diffusivity, osmolality and Reynolds numbers for the different media were characterized. A quantitative model is introduced which predicts the influence of the Reynolds number in the tablet disintegration apparatus on the disintegration time. Viscosity, water diffusivity and media flow velocity are shown to be important factors affecting dosage form disintegration. The results suggest the necessity of considering these parameters when designing a predictive model for simulating the in vivo conditions. Based on these experiments and knowledge on in vivo hydrodynamics in the GI tract, it is concluded that the disintegration tester under current pharmacopoeial conditions is operated in an unphysiological mode and no bioprediction may be derived. Recommendations regarding alternative mode of operation are made. PMID:24036239

  11. Formulation Development and evaluation of fast disintegrating tablets of Lamotrigine using liqui-solid technique

    PubMed Central

    Koteswari, Poluri; Sunium, Suvarnala; Srinivasababu, Puttugunta; Babu, Govada Kishore; Nithya, Pinnamraju Durga

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Epilepsy is a serious neurological disorder. Lamotrigine is an alternative to lithium for the treatment of epilepsy, and its oral bioavailability is 98%; however, its poor aqueous solubility hinders its oral absorption. Among the techniques available to enhance the solubility, dissolution rate and bio availability of poorly soluble drugs, liqui-solid technique is a novel and promising approach. The objectives of the investigation are to formulate, optimize lamotrigine liqui-solid compacts using 23 factorial experiments, validate experimental designs statistically and to compare with the marketed tablets using similarity and difference factors. Materials and Methods: Based on solubility studies tween 20 as nonvolatile liquid, avicel pH 101 as a carrier and aerosil 200 as a coating material were used. Liquid load factor other flow and compression characteristics were determined for different ratios of carrier and coat materials. Suitable quantities of carrier and coat materials were taken, according to the experimental designs other excipients were added, liqui-solid tablets were prepared by direct compression and evaluated. Drug excipient compatibility was determined using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. The hardness, disintegration time and T75% were considered for validation of experimental designs. Results: The physicochemical properties of tablets such as hardness (1.5 ± 0.8–4.95 ± 0.96 kg), in vitro disintegration time (40 ± 20–320 ± 25 s) and Friability (0.39 ± 0.5–1.45 ± 0.2% also <1%) possess all the Indian pharmacopoeal requirements. The T75% was calculated and found to be 6.62–22.8 min. The rate of drug release followed first order kinetics. f1 and f2 values indicated the similarity in dissolution profiles between marketed and the optimized formulation and 63.64% similar with that of the marketed fast disintegrating tablets. FTIR studies revealed the absence of drug excipient incompatibility. PMID:25426442

  12. Preparation and evaluation of an orally fast disintegrating tablet formulation containing a hydrophobic drug.

    PubMed

    Comoglu, Tansel; Unal, Burcu

    2015-01-01

    Orally fast disintegrating tablets (FDTs or ODTs) have received ever-increasing demand during the last decade, and the field has become a rapidly growing area in the pharmaceutical industry. Upon introduction into the mouth, these tablets dissolve or disintegrate in the mouth in the absence of additional water for easy administration of active pharmaceutical ingredients. Although the FDT area has passed its infancy, as shown by a large number of commercial products on the market, there are still many aspects to improve in the FDT formulations. Despite advances in the FDT technologies, formulation of hydrophobic drugs is still a challenge, especially when the amount of drug is high. In this study, a new solution is being developed to incorporate higher doses of a model hydrophobic drug; meloxicam, without affecting the fast disintegrating properties of the formulation. In order to enhance the solubilization of meloxicam in FDT formulations, ? cyclodextrin inclusion complex of the drug is prepared and FDTs containing meloxicam--? cyclodextrin inclusion complex (F1 A and F2 A) were compared and evaluated with the FDTs containing pure meloxicam (F1 and F2) by means of in vitro quality control tests. PMID:24295202

  13. The Disintegration Process in Microcrystalline Cellulose Based Tablets I.: Influence of Temperature, Porosity and Superdisintegrants

    E-print Network

    Yassin, Samy; Goodwin, Daniel J.; Anderson, Andrew; Sibik, Juraj; Wilson, D. Ian; Gladden, Lynn F.; Zeitler, J. Axel

    2015-06-12

    the Quality Target Product Profile. Immediate release formulations typically employ hydrophilic and hygroscopic excipients that facilitate disintegration by promoting media ingress and swelling of the tablet. Disintegrants are obviously important components... 3 cup. The sample chamber was pressurised to 10 bar with helium and this was repeated thirty times, after which a density reading for the solid matrix was recorded (solid density Dp). Using these data the density of the void space within the tablet...

  14. Development and evaluation of orally disintegrating tablets of cilostazol-?-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes.

    PubMed

    Desai, Chirag; Prabhakar, Bala

    2014-10-28

    Abstract Context: The clinical applications of cilostazol (CLZ) are limited by its low aqueous solubility (<5?µg/ml) and high biovariability. Objective: The aim of this study was to enhance the solubility of CLZ by forming inclusion complexes (ICs) with beta cyclodextrin (?-CD) and formulating them into oral disintegrating tablets. Methods: Phase solubility study of CLZ with ?-CD was performed in water. Job's plot was constructed to determine the stoichiometry of ICs. ICs, prepared by spray-drying technique, were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, hot stage microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction and nuclear magnetic resonance. Molecular modeling studies were performed to understand the mode of interaction of CLZ with ?-CD. The formulation process was undertaken using a reproducible design of experiment generated model, attained by variation of diluents and disintegrants at three levels. Tablets were evaluated for drug content, hardness, friability, disintegration time (DT), wetting time (WT) and dissolution profiles. Results and discussion: Phase solubility studies suggested an AL type curve with stability constant (Ks) of 922.52?M(-1). Job's plot revealed 1:2 stoichiometry. All analytical techniques confirmed inclusion complexation. Molecular modeling revealed dispersive van der Waals interaction energy as a major contributor for stabilization of complex. The spray-dried complexes showed higher solubility and faster dissolution compared to plain CLZ. The optimized formulation showed DT of 11.1?±?0.8?s, WT of 8.7?±?0.9?s and almost complete dissolution of CLZ in 15?min. Conclusion: The prepared tablets with low DT and fast dissolution will prove to be a promising drug delivery system with improved bioavailability and better patient compliance. PMID:25350555

  15. Orally fast disintegrating tablets: developments, technologies, taste-masking and clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yourong; Yang, Shicheng; Jeong, Seong Hoon; Kimura, Susumu; Park, Kinam

    2004-01-01

    Fast disintegrating tablets (FDTs) have received ever-increasing demand during the last decade, and the field has become a rapidly growing area in the pharmaceutical industry. Upon introduction into the mouth, these tablets dissolve or disintegrate in the mouth in the absence of additional water for easy administration of active pharmaceutical ingredients. The popularity and usefulness of the formulation resulted in development of several FDT technologies. This review describes various formulations and technologies developed to achieve fast dissolution/dispersion of tablets in the oral cavity. In particular, this review describes in detail FDT technologies based on lyophilization, molding, sublimation, and compaction, as well as approaches to enhancing the FDT properties, such as spray-drying, moisture treatment, sintering, and use of sugar-based disintegrants. In addition, taste-masking technologies, experimental measurements of disintegration times, and clinical studies are also discussed. PMID:15658933

  16. Influence of dissolution media pH and USP1 basket speed on erosion and disintegration characteristics of immediate release metformin hydrochloride tablets.

    PubMed

    Desai, Divyakant; Wong, Benjamin; Huang, Yande; Tang, Dan; Hemenway, Jeffrey; Paruchuri, Srinivasa; Guo, Hang; Hsieh, Daniel; Timmins, Peter

    2014-03-12

    Abstract Purpose: To investigate the influence of the pH of the dissolution medium on immediate release 850?mg metformin hydrochloride tablets. Methods: A traditional wet granulation method was used to manufacture metformin hydrochloride tablets with or without a disintegrant. Tablet dissolution was conducted using the USP apparatus I at 100?rpm. Results: In spite of its pH-independent high solubility, metformin hydrochloride tablets dissolved significantly slower in 0.1?N HCl (pH 1.2) and 50?mM pH 4.5 acetate buffer compared with 50?mM pH 6.8 phosphate buffer, the dissolution medium in the USP. Metformin hydrochloride API compressed into a round 1200?mg disk showed a similar trend. When basket rotation speed was increased from 100 to 250?rpm, the dissolution of metformin hydrochloride tablets was similar in all three media. Incorporation of 2% w/w crospovidone in the tablet formulation improved the dissolution although the pH-dependent trend was still evident, but incorporation of 2% w/w croscarmellose sodium resulted in rapid pH-independent tablet dissolution. Conclusion: In absence of a disintegrant in the tablet formulation, the dissolution was governed by the erosion-diffusion process. Even for a highly soluble drug, a super-disintegrant was needed in the formulation to overcome the diffusion layer limitation and change the dissolution mechanism from erosion-diffusion to disintegration. PMID:24621340

  17. Pharmacokinetic Profile of Rizatriptan 10-mg Tablet and 10-mg Orally Disintegrating Tablet Administered With or Without Water in Healthy Subjects: An Open-Label, Randomized, Single-Dose, 3Period Crossover Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suzanne K. Swan; Harry Alcorn; Anthony Rodgers; Carolyn M. Hustad; Karen E. Ramsey; Susan Woll; Franck Skobieranda

    2006-01-01

    This open-label, 3-period crossover study compared the plasma concentration profiles of rizatriptan tablet, orally disintegrating tablet with water (ODTc), and ODT without water (ODTs) in 24 healthy volunteers aged 18 to 45 years. At each period, subjects received a single dose of either 10-mg rizatriptan tablet, 10-mg rizatriptan ODTs, or 10-mg rizatriptan ODTc. The authors hypothesized that ODTc has a

  18. Impact of chitosan as a disintegrant on the bioavailability of furosemide tablets: in vitro evaluation and in vivo simulation of novel formulations.

    PubMed

    Rasool, Bazigha Kadhim Abdul; Fahmy, Sahar Abdelsattar; Galeel, Omar Waleed Abdul

    2012-10-01

    To determine the effect of chitosan, starch powder, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), Avicel PH 101 powder, Avicel PH 102 granules as a function of different concentrations on the solubility, disintegration and hence dissolution of furosemide from immediate release tablet dosage forms. The tablets were prepared by the wet granulation method and evaluated for hardness, friability, disintegration and in vitro dissolution. Chitosan 7% w/w showed the fastest disintegration of furosemide tablets among the other disintegrants studied. This was attributed to its highest swelling properties and velocity constant of water uptake. The step of adding chitosan during tablet preparation had a great effect on the physical properties and dissolution profiles of the prepared tablets with external addition of chitosan showed best results compared to best results comparing to internal-external or internal addition. The most appropriate force of compression was 4ton/cm(2). The selected formula F15 containing 7% w/w chitosan was successful and showed a high significant (p<0.001) enhancement in disintegration and dissolution behaviors of furosemide tablets in comparison with the commercially available Furosemide ® tablets. These results were supported by the simulated data where F15 formula showed the highest plasma concentration C-max 1.89mcg/mL after 0.5 hr compared to C-max 1.05mcg/mL after 1hr for the reference. The present study demonstrated that chitosan is a very good candidate to be used as a tablet disintegrant and was able to enhance the dissolution of poorly absorbable drugs. PMID:23009999

  19. Effects of plantain and corn starches on the mechanical and disintegration properties of paracetamol tablets.

    PubMed

    Akin-Ajani, Olufunke D; Itiola, Oludele A; Odeku, Oluwatoyin A

    2005-01-01

    The effects of plantain starch obtained from the unripe fruit of the plant Musa paradisiaca L. (Musaceae) on the mechanical and disintegration properties of paracetamol tablets have been investigated in comparison with the effects of corn starch BP using a 2(3) factorial experimental design. The individual and combined effects of nature of starch binder (N), concentration of starch binder (C), and the relative density of tablet (RD) on the tensile strength (TS), brittle fracture index (BFI), and disintegration time (DT) of the tablets were investigated. The ranking of the individual effects on TS was RD > C > N, on BFI was C > RD > N and on DT was N > C > RD. The ranking for the interaction effects on TS and DT was N-C > N-RD > C-RD, while that on BFI was N-C > C-RD > N-RD. Changing nature of starch from a "low" (plantain starch) to a "high" (corn starch) level, increasing the concentration of starch binding agent from 2.5% to 10.0% wt/wt, and increasing relative density of the tablet from 0.80 to 0.90, led to increase in the values of TS and DT, but a decrease in BFI. Thus, tablets containing plantain starch had lower tensile strength and disintegration time values than those containing corn starch, but showed better ability to reduce the lamination and capping tendency in paracetamol tablet formulation. The interaction between N and C was significantly (P < .001) higher than those between N and RD and between C and RD. There is therefore the need to carefully choose the nature (N) and concentration (C) of starch used as binding agent in tablet formulations to obtain tablets of desired bond strength and disintegration properties. Furthermore, plantain starch could be useful as an alternative binding agent to cornstarch, especially where faster disintegration is required and the problems of lamination and capping are of particular concern. PMID:16354005

  20. A novel spray-dried nanoparticles-in-microparticles system for formulating scopolamine hydrobromide into orally disintegrating tablets

    PubMed Central

    Li, Feng-Qian; Yan, Cheng; Bi, Juan; Lv, Wei-Lin; Ji, Rui-Rui; Chen, Xu; Su, Jia-Can; Hu, Jin-Hong

    2011-01-01

    Scopolamine hydrobromide (SH)-loaded microparticles were prepared from a colloidal fluid containing ionotropic-gelated chitosan nanoparticles using a spray-drying method. The spray-dried microparticles were then formulated into orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) using a wet granulation tablet formation process. A drug entrapment efficiency of about 90% (w/w) and loading capacity of 20% (w/w) were achieved for the microparticles, which ranged from 2 ?m to 8 ?m in diameter. Results of disintegration tests showed that the formulated ODTs could be completely dissolved within 45 seconds. Drug dissolution profiles suggested that SH is released more slowly from tablets made using the microencapsulation process compared with tablets containing SH that is free or in the form of nanoparticles. The time it took for 90% of the drug to be released increased significantly from 3 minutes for conventional ODTs to 90 minutes for ODTs with crosslinked microparticles. Compared with ODTs made with noncrosslinked microparticles, it was thus possible to achieve an even lower drug release rate using tablets with appropriate chitosan crosslinking. Results obtained indicate that the development of new ODTs designed with crosslinked microparticles might be a rational way to overcome the unwanted taste of conventional ODTs and the side effects related to SH’s intrinsic characteristics. PMID:21720502

  1. Magnetic images of the disintegration process of tablets in the human stomach by ac biosusceptometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corá, L. A.; Andreis, U.; Romeiro, F. G.; Américo, M. F.; Oliveira, R. B.; Baffa, O.; Miranda, J. R. A.

    2005-12-01

    Oral administration of solid dosage forms is usually preferred in drug therapy. Conventional imaging methods are essential tools to investigate the in vivo performance of these formulations. The non-invasive technique of ac biosusceptometry has been introduced as an alternative in studies focusing on gastrointestinal motility and, more recently, to evaluate the behaviour of magnetic tablets in vivo. The aim of this work was to employ a multisensor ac biosusceptometer system to obtain magnetic images of disintegration of tablets in vitro and in the human stomach. The results showed that the transition between the magnetic marker and the magnetic tracer characterized the onset of disintegration (t50) and occurred in a short time interval (1.1 ± 0.4 min). The multisensor ac biosusceptometer was reliable to monitor and analyse the in vivo performance of magnetic tablets showing accuracy to quantify disintegration through the magnetic images and to characterize the profile of this process.

  2. Direct compression of cushion-layered ethyl cellulose-coated extended release pellets into rapidly disintegrating tablets without changes in the release profile.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Armin; Körber, Martin; Bodmeier, Roland

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and optimize a segregation-free ethyl cellulose-coated extended release multiparticulate formulation to be compressed into tablets without affecting the drug release. Standard tableting excipients (e.g., microcrystalline cellulose, lactose or sorbitol) were layered onto ethyl cellulose-coated propranolol hydrochloride pellets to form a cushion layer in order to eliminate segregation problems normally resulting from particle size difference between coated pellets and excipient powders and second to protect the integrity of the brittle ethyl cellulose coating during compression. The disintegration behavior of the tablets depended strongly on the composition of the cushion layer. Rapid tablet disintegration was obtained with microcrystalline cellulose and the disintegrant sodium croscarmellose. However, the drug release from these cushion-layered pellets still increased upon compression. Incorporation of a glidant into the cushion layer or between the cushion layer and the ethyl cellulose coating reduced the compression effect on drug release markedly. Glidant-containing formulations showed a delayed deformation and damage of the ethyl cellulose-coated pellet upon mechanical stress. In summary, cushion layer based on microcrystalline cellulose facilitated segregation-free compression of a highly compression-sensitive extended release ethyl cellulose-coated pellets into fast-disintegrating and hard tablets without compromising the release properties of the multiparticulates. Directly compressible cushion-layered pellets protected the pellet coating significantly better from damages during tabletting when compared to the conventional compression of blends of coated pellets and excipient powders. PMID:23892153

  3. Preparation and evaluation of orally disintegrating tablets of taste masked phencynonate HCl using ion-exchange resin.

    PubMed

    Ge, Zhenzhong; Yang, Meiyan; Wang, Yuli; Shan, Li; Gao, Chunsheng

    2015-06-01

    This study was intended to design an orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) formulation that can mask the extremely bitter and metallic taste of phencynonate HCl by novel ion-exchange resins. The drug-resin complexes (DRCs) were prepared and characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. In vitro properties (dissolution, wetting time and disintegration time) and in vivo behavior (disintegration time and taste-masking effect) in healthy volunteers of the prepared ODTs were also investigated. The drug was changed from the crystal structure to the amorphous form in the DRC. Compared with commercial tablets, the in vitro and in vivo disintegration of optimized DRC-loaded ODTs with a drug-resin ratio of 1:1 was greatly improved and better palatability with a low bitterness index (0.33) was obtained. The current DRC-loaded ODT could promise a good way to mask the unpleasant taste of certain drugs and accordingly improve the patient compliance. PMID:24785576

  4. Taste Masking of Lornoxicam by polymer carrier system and formulation of oral disintegrating tablets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rajesh S. Jadon; Swadesh Nayak; Sabita Amlan; Vikas Deep Vaidya; Prashant Khemariya; Sandip Sumbhate

    2009-01-01

    Lornoxicam is a non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug with analgesic properties and belongs to the class oxicams. It is extremely bitter in taste. The purpose of this research was to develop a bitterless oral disintegrating tablet of Lornoxicam. Taste masking was done by complexing Lornoxicam with aminoalkyl methacrylate copolymer (Eudragit EPO) in different ratios. In vitro release profile obtained at pH

  5. Rapidly-disintegrating sublingual tablets of epinephrine: role of non-medicinal ingredients in formulation development.

    PubMed

    Rachid, Ousama; Rawas-Qalaji, Mutasem; Simons, F Estelle R; Simons, Keith J

    2012-11-01

    Epinephrine is the drug of choice in the management of anaphylaxis. For first-aid treatment in the community, epinephrine autoinjectors (E-autos) are commonly prescribed, but are underutilized. In our laboratory, we developed a series of first-generation rapidly-disintegrating sublingual tablets (RDSTs) containing 40mg of epinephrine. One RDST had similar bioavailability to epinephrine 0.3mg from an auto-injector, as confirmed in a validated rabbit model, while other formulations containing different non-medicinal ingredients (NMIs) and with similar in vitro characteristics demonstrated much lower bioavailability. Subsequently, we evaluated the effect of changing the grade and proportion of NMIs, specifically mannitol and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), on the in vitro characteristics of second- and third-generation RDSTs. Weight variation, content uniformity, breaking force, and friability were tested using official USP methods. Novel validated methods that simulate ambient conditions of the sublingual cavity were developed to test disintegration time, wetting time, and dissolution. Using these methods, it was possible to measure the effects of making small changes in NMIs on the in vitro characteristics of the formulations. The RDST formulation that resulted in the best in vitro characteristics contained the optimum proportion of mannitol and a specific ratio of coarse and fine particle grades of MCC. Appropriate comparative testing resulted in the selection of the RDST with the optimum in vitro characteristics. PMID:22683694

  6. Development of Corn Starch-Neusilin UFL2 Conjugate as Tablet Superdisintegrant: Formulation and Evaluation of Fast Disintegrating Tablets.

    PubMed

    Juneja, Prateek; Kaur, Birender; Odeku, Oluwatoyin A; Singh, Inderbir

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, corn Starch-Neusilin UFL2 conjugates were prepared by physical, chemical, and microwave methods with the aim of using the conjugates as tablet superdisintegrant. Various powder tests, namely, angle of repose, bulk density, tapped density, Hausner's ratio, Carr's index, swelling index, and powder porosity were conducted on the samples. The conjugates were characterized by ATR-FTIR, XRD, DSC, and SEM techniques. Heckel and Kawakita models were applied to carry out compression studies for the prepared conjugates. Fast disintegrating tablets of domperidone were prepared using corn starch and corn Starch-Neusilin UFL2 conjugates as tablet superdisintegrants in different concentrations. Conjugates were found to possess good powder flow and tabletting properties. Heckel analysis indicated that the conjugates prepared by microwave method showed the slowest onset of plastic deformation while Kawakita analysis indicated that the conjugates prepared by microwave method exhibited the highest amount of total plastic deformation. The study revealed that the corn Starch-Neusilin UFL2 conjugates possess improved powder flow properties and could be a promising superdisintegrant for preparing fast disintegrating tablet. Also, the results sugessted that the microwave method was found to be most effective for the preparation of corn Starch-Neusilin UFL2 conjugates. PMID:25328710

  7. Development of novel fast-disintegrating tablets by direct compression using sucrose stearic acid ester as a disintegration-accelerating agent.

    PubMed

    Koseki, Takuma; Onishi, Hiraku; Takahashi, Yuri; Uchida, Minoru; Machida, Yoshiharu

    2008-10-01

    It was attempted to produce novel furosemide (FS) fast-disintegrating tablets by direct compression. The combination of FS, microcrystalline cellulose, croscarmellose sodium and xylitol was used as the basic formulation, and sucrose stearic acid ester (SSE) was chosen as an additional additive. The tablets with SSE were prepared by the simple addition of SSE, using a lyophilized mixture of FS and SSE or using a FS/SSE mixture obtained by evaporation of their ethanol solution. Only the tablets, produced using the FS/SSE mixture obtained by organic solvent (ethanol) evaporation, showed hardness of more than 30 N and a disintegration time of less than 20 s, which were the properties suitable for fast-disintegrating tablets. These properties were considered to result from well-mixed and fine-powdered SSE and FS. PMID:18827375

  8. Evaluation of Rapidly Disintegrating Vaginal Tablets of Tenofovir, Emtricitabine and Their Combination for HIV-1 Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Meredith R.; Peet, M. Melissa; Davis, Sarah; Doncel, Gustavo F.; Friend, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Vaginal tablets are being developed as an alternative to gels as an inexpensive, discreet dosage form for the administration of microbicides. This work describes the pharmacokinetic (PK) evaluation of rapidly disintegrating vaginal tablets containing tenofovir (TFV, 10 mg), emtricitabine (FTC, 10 mg), and the combination of TFV and FTC (10 mg each) under in vitro and in vivo conditions, and in direct comparison to the clinical TFV 1% gel, a microbicide product in Phase III clinical testing. The PK of TFV and FTC from tablets were also evaluated in female rabbits following intravaginal administration. Direct comparison of a single dose of TFV tablets (intact or predissolved at 10 mg/mL) and TFV 1% gel showed no differences in the vaginal PK of TFV between groups; however systemic bioavailability of TFV was significantly higher from the gel. When rabbits were dosed either once or daily for seven days with intact tablets of TFV, FTC, or the combination of TFV/FTC, vaginal and systemic concentrations of TFV and FTC were unaffected by co-formulation. Moreover, plasma PK parameters were similar following a single dose or seven once-daily doses. Tissue concentrations of TFV and FTC in the cranial vagina 4 h after administration ranged between 104 and 105 ng/g. Concentrations of TFV-diphospate (TFV-DP, the active metabolite) were also high (over 103 ng/g or about 3000 to 6000 fmol/mg) in the cranial vagina 4 h after administration and similar to those measured following administration of TFV 1% gel. These data demonstrate that rapidly disintegrating vaginal tablets may be a suitable topical microbicide dosage form providing similar vaginal TFV PK to that of TFV 1% gel. The data also support co-administration of FTC with TFV in a single vaginal tablet to create a combination microbicide in a simple and inexpensive dosage form. PMID:25494201

  9. [Technical scheme of real-time evaluation of traditional Chinese medicine orally disintegrating tablets].

    PubMed

    Qin, Dong; Chen, Xu-dong; Feng, Liang; Gu, Jun-fei; Yuan, Jia-rui; Jia, Xiao-bin

    2014-12-01

    Orally disintegrating tablets (ODT), a kind of new solid tablet that rapidly disintegrates to work in the mouth, has became the hot form of new drug research in recent years with many advantages, such as the convenient taking, a widely applicable people, fast acting, high bioavailability, good compliance, and so on. ODT has been widely used in chemical medicines, while the application of it in traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) is still in the stage of development The development of TCMs ODT provides a new direction for the research of Chinese medicine new dosage, accelerates the pace of connecting to the world and modernization of Chinese medicine. This dosage has a broad market prospect, and its quality control and assessment standards, taste, the disintegration time in vitro and evaluation method are the key factors that affect the industrialization, standardization of Chinese medicine ODT. Therefore, this paper reviewed the characteristics, preparation, taste masking technology and quality evaluation with new technology of ODT. Meantime, numerous application examples of ODT used in traditional Chinese medicine were described. We expect to provide the reference and utilization for the development of traditional Chinese medicine orally disinteeratine tablets. PMID:25898566

  10. Formulation and Evaluation of Mouth Disintegrating Tablets of Atenolol and Atorvastatin

    PubMed Central

    Sarfraz, R. M.; Khan, H. U.; Mahmood, A.; Ahmad, M.; Maheen, S.; Sher, M.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, mouth-disintegrating tablets of atenolol and atorvastatin combination were formulated using superdisintegrants to impart fast disintegration. Fifteen formulations were prepared based on different concentrations of two superdisintegrants, croscarmellose sodium and Kyron-T134. Three different techniques such as direct compression, effervescent and sublimation were used to study the effect of manufacturing processes, nature and concentration of superdisintegrants on various features of these tablets. Five formulations were made using each method. Precompression studies like bulk density, tapped density, angle of repose, Carr's compressibility index, Hausner's ratio and compatibility studies such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry were performed. Various features such as hardness, thickness, diameter, weight variation, friability, disintegration time, dissolution studies, wetting time, wetting volume, water absorption ratio, modified disintegration, uniformity of contents and stability were evaluated. Finally results were statistically analyzed by the application of one way ANOVA test. Formulation F13 containing Kyron-T134 (6%) and croscarmellose sodium (2%) was found to be the best among all fifteen formulations prepared in all aspects evaluated. Sublimation method is found to be the best among three methods of preparation used. PMID:25767322

  11. Evidence-Based Nanoscopic and Molecular Framework for Excipient Functionality in Compressed Orally Disintegrating Tablets

    PubMed Central

    Al-khattawi, Ali; Alyami, Hamad; Townsend, Bill; Ma, Xianghong; Mohammed, Afzal R.

    2014-01-01

    The work investigates the adhesive/cohesive molecular and physical interactions together with nanoscopic features of commonly used orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) excipients microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and D-mannitol. This helps to elucidate the underlying physico-chemical and mechanical mechanisms responsible for powder densification and optimum product functionality. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) contact mode analysis was performed to measure nano-adhesion forces and surface energies between excipient-drug particles (6-10 different particles per each pair). Moreover, surface topography images (100 nm2–10 µm2) and roughness data were acquired from AFM tapping mode. AFM data were related to ODT macro/microscopic properties obtained from SEM, FTIR, XRD, thermal analysis using DSC and TGA, disintegration testing, Heckel and tabletability profiles. The study results showed a good association between the adhesive molecular and physical forces of paired particles and the resultant densification mechanisms responsible for mechanical strength of tablets. MCC micro roughness was 3 times that of D-mannitol which explains the high hardness of MCC ODTs due to mechanical interlocking. Hydrogen bonding between MCC particles could not be established from both AFM and FTIR solid state investigation. On the contrary, D-mannitol produced fragile ODTs due to fragmentation of surface crystallites during compression attained from its weak crystal structure. Furthermore, AFM analysis has shown the presence of extensive micro fibril structures inhabiting nano pores which further supports the use of MCC as a disintegrant. Overall, excipients (and model drugs) showed mechanistic behaviour on the nano/micro scale that could be related to the functionality of materials on the macro scale. PMID:25025427

  12. Development and optimization of taste-masked orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) of clindamycin hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Cantor, Stuart L; Khan, Mansoor A; Gupta, Abhay

    2014-07-01

    Abstract The purpose of this research was to develop an orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) dosage form containing taste-masked beads of clindamycin HCl. Several formulation strategies were evaluated and a taste-masked ODT of clindamycin HCl was prepared without the use of a waxy cushioning agent. Clindamycin HCl (ca. 46% w/w) was coated onto microcrystalline cellulose beads (Cellets® 200) followed by the addition of a taste-masking layer of amino methacrylate copolymer, NF (Eudragit EPO® (EPO)) coating suspension. The efficiency of both the drug coating process and the taste-masking polymer coating process, as well as the taste masking ODTs was determined using potency and drug release analysis. Magnesium stearate was found to be advantageous over talc in improving the efficiency of the EPO coating suspension. A response surface methodology using a Box-Behnken design for the tablets revealed compression force and levels of both disintegrant and talc to be the main factors influencing the ODT properties. Blending of talc to the EPO-coated beads was found to be the most critical factor in ensuring that ODTs disintegrate within 30?s. The optimized ODTs formulation also showed negligible (<0.5%) drug release in 1?min using phosphate buffer, pH 6.8 (which is analogous to the residence time and pH in the oral cavity). By carefully adjusting the levels of coating polymers, the amounts of disintegrant and talc, as well as the compression force, robust ODTs can be obtained to improve pediatric and geriatric patient compliance for clindamycin oral dosage forms. PMID:25000481

  13. Development of orally disintegrating tablets comprising controlled-release multiparticulate beads

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Melperone is an atypical antipsychotic agent that has shown a wide spectrum of neuroleptic properties, particularly effective in the treatment of senile dementia and Parkinson’s-associated psychosis, and is marketed in Europe as an immediate-release (IR) tablet and syrup. An orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) dosage form would be advantageous for patients who experience difficulty in swallowing large tablets or capsules or those who experience dysphagia. Controlled-release (CR) capsule and ODT formulations containing melperone HCl were developed with target in vitro release profiles suitable for a once-daily dosing regimen. Both dosage forms allow for the convenient production of dose-proportional multiple strengths. Two ODT formulations exhibiting fast and medium release profiles and one medium release profile capsule formulation (each 50?mg) were tested in vivo using IR syrup as the reference. The two medium release formulations were shown to be bioequivalent to each other and are suitable for once-daily dosing. Based on the analytical and organoleptic test results, as well as the blend uniformity and in-process compression data at various compression forces using coated beads produced at one-tenth (1/10) commercial scale, both formulations in the form of CR capsules and CR ODTs have shown suitability for progression into further clinical development. PMID:22356215

  14. Pharmacokinetic and bioequivalence comparison between orally disintegrating and conventional tablet formulations of flurbiprofen: A single-dose, randomized-sequence, open-label, two-period crossover study in healthy chinese male volunteers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yan-Mei Liu; Gang-Yi Liu; Yun Liu; Shui-Jun Li; Jing-Ying Jia; Meng-Qi Zhang; Chuan Lu; Yong-Mei Zhang; Xue-Ning Li; Chen Yu

    2009-01-01

    Background: Flurbiprofen, an NSAID, is used for the treatment of inflammation and pain caused by rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis as well as soft-tissue injuries. A new orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) of flurbiprofen has recently been developed; this study was conducted to provide support for this drug to obtain marketing authorization in China.Objective: The aim of the study was to compare

  15. Effects of pigeon pea and plantain starches on the compressional, mechanical, and disintegration properties of paracetamol tablets.

    PubMed

    Dare, Kunle; Akin-Ajani, Dorothy O; Odeku, Oluwatoyin A; Itiola, Oludele A; Odusote, Omotunde M

    2006-03-01

    A study has been made of the effects of pigeon pea starch obtained from the plant Cajanus cajan (L) Millisp. (family Fabaceae) and plantain starch obtained from the unripe fruit of Musa paradisiaca L. (family Musaceae) on the compressional, mechanical, and disintegration properties of paracetamol tablets in comparison with official corn starch BP. Analysis of compressional properties was done by using density measurements, and the Heckel and Kawakita equations, whereas the mechanical properties of the tablets were evaluated by using tensile strength (T--a measure of bond strength) and brittle fracture index (BFI--a measure of lamination tendency). The ranking for the mean yield pressure, P(y), for the formulations containing the different starches was generally corn < pigeon pea < plantain starch while the ranking for P(k), an inverse measure of the amount of plasticity, was pigeon pea < plantain < corn starch, which indicated that formulations containing corn starch generally exhibited the fastest onset of plastic deformation, whereas those formulations containing pigeon pea starch exhibited the highest amount of plastic deformation during tableting. The tensile strength of the tablets increased with increase in concentration of the starches while the Brittle Fracture Index decreased. The ranking for T was pigeon pea > plantain > corn starch while the ranking for BFI was corn > plantain > pigeon pea starch. The bonding capacity of the formulations was in general agreement with the tensile strength results. The disintegration time (DT) of the formulation increased with concentration of plantain and corn starches but decreased with concentration of pigeon pea starch. The general ranking of DT values was plantain < pigeon pea < corn starch. Notably, formulations containing pigeon pea starch exhibited the highest bond strength and lowest brittleness, suggesting the usefulness of pigeon pea starch in producing strong tablets with minimal lamination tendency. Plantain starch, on the other hand, would be more useful where faster disintegration of tablet is desired. The results show that the starches could be useful in various formulations depending on the intended use of the tablets with the implication that the experimental starches can be developed for commercial purposes. PMID:16556540

  16. Comparative studies of binding potential of Prunus armeniaca and Prunus domestica gums in tablets formulations.

    PubMed

    Rahim, Haroon; Khan, Mir Azam; Sadiq, Abdul; Khan, Shahzeb; Chishti, Kamran Ahmad; Rahman, Inayat U

    2015-05-01

    The current study was undertaken to compare the binding potential of Prunus armeniaca L. and Prunus domestica L. gums in tablets' formulations. Tablet batches (F-1 to F-9) were prepared Diclofenac sodium as model drug using 5%, 7.5% and 10% of each Prunus armeniaca L., Prunus domestica L. gums as binder. PVP K30 was used as a standard binder. Magnesium stearate was used as lubricant. Flow properties of granules (like bulk density, tapped density, Carr's index, Hausner's ratio, angle of repose) as well as the physical parameters of compressed tablets including hardness, friability, thickness and disintegration time were determined. Flow parameters of granules of all the batches were found good. Physical parameters (drug content, weight variation, thickness, hardness, friability, disintegration time) of formulated tablets were found within limit when tested. The dissolution studies showed that tablets formulations containing each Prunus domestica showed better binding capacity compared to Prunus armeniaca gum. The binding potential increased as the concentration of gums increased. The FTIR spectroscopic investigation showed that the formulations containing plant gum are compatible with the drug and other excipients used. PMID:26004724

  17. Bioequivalence of a single 10-mg dose of finasteride 5-mg oral disintegrating tablets and standard tablets in healthy adult male Han Chinese volunteers: A randomized sequence, open-label, two-way crossover study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li Chen; Xuehua Jiang; Liang Huang; Ke Lan; Haiying Wang; Lina Hu; Jing Ren; Xihong Li; Qin Zou

    2009-01-01

    Background: Finasteride, an inhibitor of the steroid 5?-reductase, has been approved for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia and androgenetic alopecia. An orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) 5-mg formulation of finasteride was recently developed. Information regarding its pharmacokinetics and bioequivalence was required to assess the efficacy and safety of this formulation before marketing it in China.Objectives: The aims of this study

  18. Modified Polysaccharides as Fast Disintegrating Excipients for Orodispersible Tablets of Roxithromycin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vijay Sharma; Anil K. Philip; Kamla Pathak

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a dosage form that was easy to administer and provides rapid release of the drug\\u000a roxithromycin, using modified polysaccharides as rapidly disintegrating excipients. Modified polysaccharides co grinded treated\\u000a agar (C-TAG) and co grinded treated guar gum (C-TGG) were prepared by subjecting pure polysaccharides namely agar and guar\\u000a gum respectively to sequential processes

  19. Formulation Development and Evaluation of Fast Disintegrating Tablets of Salbutamol Sulphate, Cetirizine Hydrochloride in Combined Pharmaceutical Dosage Form: A New Era in Novel Drug Delivery for Pediatrics and Geriatrics

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Deepak; Singh, Gurmeet; Kumar, Dinesh; Singh, Mankaran

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to prepare the fast disintegrating tablet of Salbutamol Sulphate, Cetirizine Hydrochloride in combined tablet dosage form for respiratory disorders such as bronchitis, asthma, and coughing for pediatrics and geriatrics. The tablets were prepared by direct compression technique. Superdisintegrant such as Sodium Starch Glycolate was optimized as 4% on the basis of least disintegration time. Different binders such as MCC and PVP K-30 were optimized along with optimized superdisintegrant concentration. 1% MCC was selected as optimum binder concentration on the basis of least disintegration time. The tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, weight variation, wetting time, disintegration time, and drug content uniformity. Optimized formulation was further evaluated by in vitro dissolution test, drug-excipient compatibility, and accelerated stability study. Percent weight variation and content uniformity were within the acceptable limit. The friability was less than 1%. The wetting time and disintegration time were practically good for all formulations. FTIR studies and accelerated stability study showed that there was no interaction between the drug and excipients. It was concluded that, by employing commonly available pharmaceutical excipients such as superdisintegrants, hydrophilic and swellable excipients and proper filler, a fast disintegrating tablet of Salbutamol Sulphate, Cetirizine Hydrochloride in combined tablet dosage form, were formulated successfully with desired characteristics. PMID:25810924

  20. [Method for the evaluation of the stability and usability after opening packages of orally disintegrating tablets: case of amlodipine besilate products].

    PubMed

    Hori, Katsuhito; Yoshida, Naoko; Okumura, Tomonori; Okamura, Yasufumi; Kawakami, Junichi

    2010-08-01

    Orally disintegrating (OD) tablets are widely used in clinical practice. However, drug information on the choice and dispensing based on their stability after opening packages and usability in patients and dispensaries is not sufficient. The aim of this study was to investigate possible evaluation methods of the stability and usability of amlodipine OD tablets. Additives of the brand were changed in April 2009, and therefore the previous and current forms and two generics, current and newly marketed (in November 2009) products of different firms, were used. OD tablets were stored at 25 degrees C and 75% relative humidity for 3 months after opening the packages, and their physicochemical properties were evaluated. Their weight, diameter, thickness, and color difference increased slightly from the initial state. The extent of the change in their hardness, disintegration time, and friability was different among products. These physicochemical changes were acceptable in dispensary practice. Storage after opening the packages did not affect their dissolution rate. The dissolution rate at the initial state of the current brand was slower than that of the previous one. All products used were able to be dispensed by an automatic tablet-packing machine and applied to the so-called simple suspension method for intubational administration. Sensory evaluation tests revealed no major difference in the oral disintegration time, taste, impression, and preference among products. In conclusion, the stability and usability of amlodipine OD tablets used in this study were examined using several methods, and they can be used equivalently from the stability and usability viewpoints. PMID:20686207

  1. Analysis of small intestinal transit and colon arrival times of non-disintegrating tablets administered in the fasted state.

    PubMed

    Pišlar, Mitja; Brelih, Hana; Mrhar, Aleš; Bogataj, Marija

    2015-07-30

    In this study individual data on tablet gastrointestinal transit times (i.e. gastric emptying, small intestinal transit, ileocecal junction residence, and colon arrival times) were obtained from literature in order to present and analyze their distributions and relationships. The influence of the time of food intake after tablet administration in fasted state on gastrointestinal transit times was additionally evaluated. There were 114 measurements from subjects who received the first meal at 4h after tablet administration. Approximately 32% of the tablets arrived into the colon before the meal intake at 4h. An evident increase in the frequency of colon arrival of tablets within 40min after the meal intake at 4h post-dose was observed, where approximately 39% of all tablets arrived into the colon. This is in accordance with findings described in literature where a meal ingested several hours post-dose accelerates tablet transit through the terminal ileum and shortens the transit through the small intestine. The median (min, max) of gastric emptying, small intestinal transit, and colon arrival times in the group where the first meal intake was at 4h post-dose is 35 (0,192), 215 (60,544), and 254 (117,604) minutes, respectively. The dependence of colon arrival times on gastric emptying times was described by the nonparametric regression curve, and compared with the presumed interval of colon arrival times, calculated by summation of observed gastric emptying times and frequently cited small intestinal transit time interval, i.e. 3-4h. For shorter gastric emptying times the trend of colon arrival times was within the presumed interval. At short gastric emptying times many observation points are also within the presumed interval since this interval coincides with short period after meal intake at 4h post-dose. Additionally, in numerous occasions relatively long ileocecal junction residence times were obtained, which may be important information from the point of view of drug absorption. The findings of gastrointestinal transit times are important and should be taken into consideration when predicting the in vivo performance of dosage forms after oral administration. PMID:25769525

  2. Robust Vaginal Colonization of Macaques with a Novel Vaginally Disintegrating Tablet Containing a Live Biotherapeutic Product to Prevent HIV Infection in Women.

    PubMed

    Lagenaur, Laurel A; Swedek, Iwona; Lee, Peter P; Parks, Thomas P

    2015-01-01

    MucoCept is a biotherapeutic for prevention of HIV-1 infection in women and contains a human, vaginal Lactobacillus jensenii that has been genetically enhanced to express the HIV-1 entry inhibitor, modified cyanovirin-N (mCV-N). The objective of this study was to develop a solid vaginal dosage form that supports sustained vaginal colonization of the MucoCept Lactobacillus at levels previously shown, with freshly prepared cultures, to protect macaques from SHIV infection and to test this formulation in a macaque vaginal colonization model. Vaginally disintegrating tablets were prepared by lyophilizing the formulated bacteria in tablet-shaped molds, then packaging in foil pouches with desiccant. Disintegration time, potency and stability of the tablets were assessed. For colonization, non-synchronized macaques were dosed vaginally with either one tablet or five tablets delivered over five days. Vaginal samples were obtained at three, 14, and 21 days post-dosing and cultured to determine Lactobacillus colonization levels. To confirm identity of the MucoCept Lactobacillus strain, genomic DNA was extracted from samples on days 14 and 21 and a strain-specific PCR was performed. Supernatants from bacteria were tested for the presence of the mCV-N protein by Western blot. The tablets were easy to handle, disintegrated within two minutes, potent (5.7x1011 CFU/g), and stable at 4°C and 25°C. Vaginal administration of the tablets to macaques resulted in colonization of the MucoCept Lactobacillus in 66% of macaques at 14 days post-dosing and 83% after 21 days. There was no significant difference in colonization levels for the one or five tablet dosing regimens (p=0.88 Day 14, p=0.99 Day 21). Strain-specific PCR confirmed the presence of the bacteria even in culture-negative macaques. Finally, the presence of mCV-N protein was confirmed by Western blot analysis using a specific anti-mCV-N antibody. PMID:25875100

  3. Novel sustained-release fast-disintegrating multi-unit compressed tablets of lornoxicam containing Eudragit RS coated chitosan-alginate beads.

    PubMed

    Aburahma, Mona Hassan; Hamza, Yassin El-Said

    2011-08-01

    Novel fast-disintegrating multi-unit tablets (FDMUTs) were prepared to modify the release of lornoxicam (a potent non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug with a short half-life) as well as to combine the advantages of multi-unit systems with the cost-effectiveness of compressed tablets. The proposed FDMUTs consisted of sustained-release lornoxicam beads directly compressed with fast-disintegrating component, containing amorphous solid dispersion of lornoxicam, anticipating rapid drug release that starts in the stomach to rapidly alleviate the painful symptoms and continues in the intestine to maintain extended analgesic effect. Initially, calcium-alginate and chitosan-alginate beads containing lornoxicam were prepared. Then, the erosion of selected beads formulation was suppressed by treatment with Eudragit RS either through polymer-reinforcement or beads coating. The beads, which elicited appropriate sustainment of lornoxicam release, were directly compressed with fast-disintegrating components to form FDMUTs. The release characteristics of the original beads were maintained after compression which indicates that the adopted compression process did not induce mechanical damage to the beads or coating. All of the prepared FDMUTs demonstrated acceptable physical properties that complied with compendial requirements. Release studies, performed in simulated gastric and intestinal fluids used in sequence to mimic the gastrointestinal transit, illustrate that the FDMUTs containing 8?mg lornoxicam equally distributed between the sustained-release beads and the fast-release component, showed the desired release profile. PMID:20307250

  4. [Involvement of zinc in taste disturbance occurring during treatment for malignant tumor in the chest and the effects of polaprezinc oral disintegrating tablets (a retrospective study)].

    PubMed

    Nakata, Yoko; Hirashima, Tomonori; Kondou, Yoko; Tokuoka, Yoshie; Imazato, Hitomi; Iwata, Kaori; Oomori, Yukari; Yamato, Akihiro; Shimizu, Saburou; Nagao, Sadako; Matsui, Kaoru; Abe, Noriko

    2008-06-01

    We analyzed the correlation between serum zinc levels and taste disturbance, and between patient backgrounds and serum zinc levels or taste disturbance, and evaluated the effects of polaprezinc oral disintegrating tablets on taste disturbance in 29 patients with lung cancer and one patient with malignant pleural mesothelioma who were receiving chemotherapy. Taste disturbance developed in 11 (36.7%) out of 30 patients. Serum zinc levels significantly correlated with taste disturbance (p=0.0227). Serum zinc levels were significantly lower (p=0.0235) and taste disturbance tended to be more frequent (p=0.0625) in males. Polaprezinc improved taste disturbance in 5 of 8 patients. PMID:18633224

  5. Comparative evaluation of single and bilayered lamotrigine floating tablets

    PubMed Central

    Lakshmi, PK; Sridhar, M; Shruthi, B

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to prepare lamotrigine (LM) bilayered and single layered floating tablets and to compare their release profiles. Materials and Methods: LM floating tablets were prepared by direct compression method. Drug, hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose K4M, lactose monohydrate and polyvinylpyrrolidone K30 constitute controlled release layer components and floating layer components includes polymers and sodium bicarbonate. The prepared tablets were evaluated for physicochemical parameters such as hardness, friability, weight variation, thickness, floating lag time (FLT), floating time, in vitro buoyancy study, in vitro release studies. The drug-polymer interaction was studied by fourier transform infrared and differential scanning calorimetry. Results and Discussion: The FLT of all the formulations were within the prescribed limits (<3 min). When ethyl cellulose was used as floating layer component, tablets showed good buoyancy effect but eroded within 6-8 h. Hence it was replaced with hydroxypropyl cellulose -M hydrophilic polymer, which showed good FLT and floating duration for 16 h. Formulation LFC4 was found to be optimized with dissolution profile of zero order kinetics showing fickian diffusion. A comparative study of bilayered and single layered tablets of LM showed a highest similarity factor of 83.03, difference factor of 2.74 and t-test (P < 0.05) indicates that there is no significant difference between them. Conclusion: Though bilayered tablet possess many advantages, single layered tablet would be economical, cost-effective and reproducible for large scale production in the industry. However, the results of present study demonstrated that the in vitro development of bilayered gastro retentive floating tablets with controlled drug release profile for LM is feasible. PMID:24167788

  6. A comparative study of genetic and neurobiological findings in disintegrative psychosis and infantile autism.

    PubMed

    Mouridsen, S E; Rich, B; Isager, T

    2000-08-01

    Although disintegrative psychosis (DP) was first described in 1908, the validity of the syndrome has not yet been fully documented. To investigate the validity of DP as defined in ICD-9, 13 cases of DP were compared with 39 cases of infantile autism with reference to lifetime parental psychopathology, neuroradiological findings and genetic abnormalities. The groups were matched for gender, age, intellectual level and social class. Apart from a significantly higher rate of electroencephalogram abnormalities in the disintegrative group there was very little in the neurobiological background to support a clear distinction between DP and infantile autism. PMID:10997861

  7. Ondansetron, orally disintegrating tablets versus intravenous injection for prevention of intrathecal morphine-induced nausea, vomiting, and pruritus in young males.

    PubMed

    Pirat, Arash; Tuncay, Senay F; Torgay, Adnan; Candan, Selim; Arslan, Gulnaz

    2005-11-01

    In this study we compared the efficacy of orally disintegrating tablets (ODT) and IV ondansetron for preventing spinal morphine-induced pruritus and postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in healthy young male patients. Patients who received bupivacaine with 0.20 mg morphine for spinal anesthesia were randomly assigned to the ODT group (ODT ondansetron 8 mg, n = 50), the IV group (4 mg ondansetron IV, n = 50), or the placebo group (n = 50). Each individual was assessed for pruritus, postoperative nausea and vomiting, and pain at 0, 2, 6, 12, 18, and 24 h after surgery using three distinct visual analog scales. The frequencies of postoperative nausea and vomiting and frequencies of requirement for rescue antiemetic and antipruritic were recorded. There were no significant differences among the three groups with respect to incidence or severity of PONV or postoperative pain visual analog scale scores. The incidences of pruritus in the ODT (56%) and IV (66%) groups were significantly different from that in the placebo group (86%) (P < 0.02 for both). Only the ODT group had significantly lower mean pruritus visual analog scale scores at 0, 2, 6, and 12 h postsurgery than the placebo group (P < 0.023 for all). The frequency of requirement for rescue antipruritic was significantly less in the ODT group than the placebo group (P = 0.013). Both ODT ondansetron 8 mg and IV ondansetron 4 mg are more effective than placebo for preventing spinal morphine-induced pruritus, but neither form of this agent reduces spinal morphine-induced postoperative nausea and vomiting in this patient group. PMID:16243989

  8. Formulation of fast disintegrating tablets of ternary solid dispersions consisting of TPGS 1000 and HPMC 2910 or PVPVA 64 to improve the dissolution of the anti-HIV drug UC 781.

    PubMed

    Goddeeris, Caroline; Willems, Tom; Van den Mooter, Guy

    2008-08-01

    Solid dispersion formulations made up of d-alpha-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate 1000 (TPGS 1000) and polyvinyl pyrrolidone co-vinyl acetate 64 (PVPVA 64) or hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose 2910 (HPMC 2910) were developed in order to improve the dissolution of UC 781. UC 781 dissolution rate was markedly improved as compared to the physical mixtures and the pure drug, attaining maximum drug releases of up to 100% after only 5 min in the case of TPGS 1000-UC 781-PVPVA 64 solid dispersions and 30 min in TPGS 1000-UC 781-HPMC 2910. The increased UC 781 dissolution rate could be maintained when formulating UC 781 in PVPVA 64 tablets. The latter disintegrated in only 4 min, reaching drug releases of up to 90% (w/w). In addition, as opposed to the corresponding solid dispersions, no decrease in drug release occurred upon dissolution of PVPVA 64 tablets when the pH was increased to 6.8. Contrary to the PVPVA 64 tablet formulations, HPMC 2910 tablets showed a slow dissolution process due to the gelling nature of the polymer. The drug was slowly released as HPMC 2910 dissolved in the medium, however also in this case 90% (w/w) of the drug was dissolved after 4 h. Both polymers formed compatible blends in combination with the drug. Thermal analysis of the ternary mixtures revealed eutectic behavior exhibiting an extremely fine dispersion of the drug in the carrier. This was confirmed by the fact that no drug crystals could be detected using X-ray diffraction (XRD). As opposed to the physical mixtures, PVPVA 64 and HPMC 2910 solid dispersions did not contain any isolated polymer-rich phases, hence showed improved homogeneity. Amorphous TPGS 1000 clusters occurred in PVPVA 64 and HPMC 2910 formulations upon addition of at least 10% (w/w) UC 781, showing extremely low glass transition temperatures depending of the thermal history of the samples. PMID:18602800

  9. Comparative bioavailability of two tablet formulations of diclofenac sodium in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Hasan, M M; Najib, N M; Rawashdeh, N M; Sallam, E N; Shubair, M S; Alawneh, Y

    1991-05-01

    A comparative bioavailability study and in vitro characterization were conducted on two commercial products of diclofenac sodium (Voltaren "A" and Inflaban "B") in the form of enteric-coated tablets (25 and 50 mg). The two products were found similar in weight variation and content uniformity and both met the British Pharmacopeia requirements of disintegration for enteric-coated tablets. The dissolution in vitro revealed that product B was characterized by a faster rate compared to product A. The bioavailability of single doses, 2 x 50 and 2 x 25 mg, of each product was carried out respectively, on 14 and 6 normal male volunteers, according to a randomized complete block design. Blood samples were obtained over a 12-hour interval and serum concentrations of the drug were determined using an HPLC assay. The two products were found bioequivalent as assessed by AUC. However, the tmax value was found to be significantly smaller for product B compared to product A indicating that product B is apparently absorbed at a faster rate. Further, product B was characterized by higher Cmax values, although these were not statistically different from the corresponding values of product A. These findings are consistent with the in vitro dissolution pattern of the two products, and the differences in the rate of absorption may have therapeutic implications. PMID:2071269

  10. An in vitro and in vivo comparative study of directly compressed solid dispersions and freeze dried sildenafil citrate sublingual tablets for management of pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Zayed, Reham; Kamel, Amany O; Shukr, Marwa; El-Shamy, Abd El-Hamid

    2012-11-01

    Sildenafilcitrate (SILD) orodispersable sublingual tablets (ODSTs) have been developed using two comparative techniques for improving their oral disintegration, dissolution and bioavailability in order to manage acute attacks of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). The techniques employed were direct compression of SILD-poloxamer 188 solid dispersions (SDs) and freeze drying using various excipients. The physicochemical and solid-state properties, as well as the dissolution behavior of the tablets were evaluated. Moreover, SILD bioavailability in human volunteers from the prepared ODSTs was compared to that of the conventional oral tablet. Incorporation of SD of poloxamer188 in sublingual tablets together with Pharmaburst using the direct compression technique enhanced the extent and dissolution rate of SILD with 100% of drug being dissolved after 7 minutes. However, the lyophilization process was superior in enhancing dissolution and 100% of SILD was dissolved after only one minute. Moreover, the in vivo study showed that the AUC???? of lyophilized tablets was significantly higher than that of directly compressed tablets, with bioavailability values of 159.81 and 140.85%, respectively, compared to the commercial oral product. PMID:23470352

  11. A Randomized, Multicenter Study Comparing the Safety and Efficacy of Sodium Phosphate Tablets With 2L Polyethylene Glycol Solution Plus Bisacodyl Tablets for Colon Cleansing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John F. Johanson; John W. Popp; Lawrence B. Cohen; Sandra R. Lottes; William P. Forbes; Kelli Walker; Edwin Carter; Bing Zhang; Martin Rose

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:The safety and efficacy of NaP tablets have not been compared with 2L PEG lavage solution. A multicenter, investigator-blinded study was conducted to compare the colon-cleansing efficacy of a new NaP tablet formulation with that of 2L PEG solution plus bisacodyl tablets in adults undergoing colonoscopy.METHODS:A total of 481 patients were randomized to receive either 32 tablets (48 g) of

  12. A Comparative Study of Development and Symptoms among Disintegrative Psychosis and Infantile Autism with and without Speech Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurita, Hiroshi; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Eighteen cases of disintegrative psychosis (DP) were compared with 52 cases of infantile autism (IA) with speech loss and 145 IA cases without speech loss. DP cases showed clearer regression after more satisfactory development than the IA cases with speech loss, and by age seven were more severely retarded but similar in autistic symptomatology to…

  13. Formulation and evaluation of nanocrystalline cellulose as a potential disintegrant.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chengyu; Huang, Huijin; Jia, Min; Jin, Shanshan; Zhao, Wenjing; Cha, Ruitao

    2015-10-01

    Disintegrant is a typical excipient that improves the solubility, dissolution and bioavailability of drug. In this study, the application of nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) as a potential disintegrant in the preparation of tablet was investigated. Angle of repose of NCC was 44.26° which was between L-HPC and MCC suggesting a good fluidity of NCC. Swelling property of NCC was between CMS-Na and MCC indicating that NCC was of good absorbent ability. Carbonate calcium tablet of which NCC was used as a disintegrant exhibited fastest disintegration time than known disintegrants. The disintegration and dissolution tests demonstrated that NCC showed effective disintegrant properties, e.g. consistently fast disintegration, rapid dissolution, and effectiveness at low concentrations. Thus, we believe that NCC has a great potential as a disintegrant in tablets. PMID:26076627

  14. Comparative evaluation of the in vitro efficacy of lanthanum carbonate chewable tablets.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yongsheng; Bykadi, Srikant; Carlin, Alan S; Shah, Rakhi B; Yu, Lawrence X; Khan, Mansoor A

    2013-04-01

    The aims of this study were to systematically evaluate the effects of pH levels, phosphate concentrations, and tablet integrity on the phosphate binding profiles of lanthanum carbonate chewable tablets, and to compare the in vitro phosphate binding efficacy of one reference and two test products of lanthanum carbonate chewable tablets. Langmuir equation was utilized to calculate the binding constants k1 and k2 . The phosphate binding to the tablets of lanthanum carbonate product was pH dependent, with a faster binding rate at low pH. The crushed tablets bind phosphate more rapid. Compared with the whole tablets, the kinetic binding profiles from the crushed tablets were less variable under all conditions for both test and reference products. The phosphate level has a significant impact on the phosphate binding for both whole and crushed tablets under all pH conditions, with more binding at higher phosphate concentration. The phosphate binding profiles displayed significant difference among the products. For a crushed tablet, the phosphate binding to lanthanum reached equilibrium within 8 h under all conditions. The 90% confidence interval for the k2 ratio (test/reference) was well within the 80%-125% under all pH conditions. However, the k1 ratio varies from 54% to 144%. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 102:1370-1381, 2013. PMID:23334989

  15. Leaching of indium from obsolete liquid crystal displays: Comparing grinding with electrical disintegration in context of LCA

    SciTech Connect

    Dodbiba, Gjergj, E-mail: dodbiba@sys.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of System Innovation, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo (Japan); Nagai, Hiroki; Wang Lipang; Okaya, Katsunori; Fujita, Toyohisa [Department of System Innovation, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two pre-treatment methods, prior to leaching of indium from obsolete LCD modules, were described. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conventional grinding and electrical disintegration have been evaluated and compared in the context of LCA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Experimental data on the leaching capacity for indium and the electricity consumption of equipment were inputted into the LCA model in order to compare the environmental performance of each method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An estimate for the environmental performance was calculated as the sum of six impact categories. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electrical disintegration method outperforms conventional grinding in all impact categories. - Abstract: In order to develop an effective recycling system for obsolete Liquid Crystal Displays (LCDs), which would enable both the leaching of indium (In) and the recovery of a pure glass fraction for recycling, an effective liberation or size-reduction method would be an important pre-treatment step. Therefore, in this study, two different types of liberation methods: (1) conventional grinding, and (2) electrical disintegration have been tested and evaluated in the context of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). In other words, the above-mentioned methods were compared in order to find out the one that ensures the highest leaching capacity for indium, as well as the lowest environmental burden. One of the main findings of this study was that the electrical disintegration was the most effective liberation method, since it fully liberated the indium containing-layer, ensuring a leaching capacity of 968.5 mg-In/kg-LCD. In turn, the estimate for the environmental burden was approximately five times smaller when compared with the conventional grinding.

  16. Neem gum as a binder in a formulated paracetamol tablet with reference to Acacia gum BP.

    PubMed

    Ogunjimi, Abayomi Tolulope; Alebiowu, Gbenga

    2014-04-01

    This study determined the physical, compressional, and binding properties of neem gum (NMG) obtained from the trunk of Azadirachta indica (A Juss) in a paracetamol tablet formulation in comparison with official Acacia gum BP (ACA). The physical and flow properties were evaluated using density parameters: porosity, Carr's index, Hausner's ratio, and flow rate. Compressional properties were analyzed using Heckel and Kawakita equations. The tensile strength, brittle fracture index, and crushing strength-friability/disintegration time ratio were used to evaluate the mechanical properties of paracetamol tablets while the drug release properties of the tablets were assessed using disintegration time and dissolution times. Tablet formulations containing NMG exhibited faster onset and higher amount of plastic deformation during compression than those containing ACA. Neem gum produced paracetamol tablets with lower mechanical strength; however, the tendency of the tablets to cap or laminate was lower when compared to those containing ACA. Inclusion of NMG improved the balance between binding and disintegration properties of paracetamol tablets produced than those containing ACA. Neem gum produced paracetamol tablets with lower disintegration and dissolution times than those containing ACA. PMID:24500339

  17. Stability studies of aspirin-magaldrate double layer tablets.

    PubMed

    al-Gohary, O M; al-Kassas, R S

    2000-04-01

    Accelerated stability testing was performed on aspirin-magaldrate double layer tablets as well as aspirin-maalox marketed double layer tablets (Ascriptin) in order to evaluate the effect of the presence of the alkaline moieties of the antacid (magaldrate and maalox) on the chemical stability of aspirin. The results were compared simultaneously with that obtained from the marketed Aspro plain tablets. The results revealed that the presence of the alkaline moieties in the tested tablets has increased the rate of aspirin decomposition and reduced its shelf-life. This effect was more pronounced for aspirin tablets containing magaldrate antacid. Determination of shelf-lives at 25 degrees C for the prepared and the marketed tablets was carried out using Arrhenius plots and the results showed that they were 35, 34.5 and 13.5 months for Aspro, Ascriptin and aspirin-magaldrate double layer tablets, respectively. The effect of storage for 50 days and at different temperatures, on the crushing strength and the disintegration time of the prepared and the marked tablets showed a slight decrease in the disintegration time and the crushing strength of the tablets as the storage temperature increased. Aspro tablets did not produce the same results. The in vitro release data of the prepared aspirin-magaldrate double layer tablets and the marketed Ascriptin tablets stored for 50 days and at different storage temperatures as well as Aspro tablets stored at 70 degrees C were best fitted to the first-order kinetics model. The release data of Aspro tablets stored at 50 and 60 degrees C for 50 days were best fitted to Higuchi's model. PMID:10812933

  18. Hot-Stage Microscopy for Determination of API Particles in a Formulated Tablet

    PubMed Central

    Šimek, Michal; Grünwaldová, Veronika; Kratochvíl, Bohumil

    2014-01-01

    Although methods exist to readily determine the particle size distribution (PSD) of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) before its formulation into a final product, the primary challenge is to develop a method to determine the PSD of APIs in a finished tablet. To address the limitations of existing PSD methods, we used hot-stage microscopy to observe tablet disintegration during temperature change and, thus, reveal the API particles in a tablet. Both mechanical and liquid disintegration were evaluated after we had identified optimum milling time for mechanical disintegration and optimum volume of water for liquid disintegration. In each case, hot-stage micrographs, taken before and after the API melting point, were compared with image analysis software to obtain the PSDs. Then, the PSDs of the APIs from the disintegrated tablets were compared with the PSDs of raw APIs. Good agreement was obtained, thereby confirming the robustness of our methodology. The availability of such a method equips pharmaceutical scientists with an in vitro assessment method that will more reliably determine the PSD of active substances in finished tablets. PMID:25136629

  19. Comparative antidotal efficacy of activated charcoal tablets, capsules and suspension in healthy volunteers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. P. Remmert; M. Olling; W. Slob; W. F. van der Glesen; A. van Dijk; A. G. Rauws

    1990-01-01

    The efficacy of several formulations of activated charcoal (AC) was compared by measuring the intestinal absorption of a solution of 1 g paracetamol administered 2 min before administration of 5 g AC as suspension (200 ml), tablets (40 of 125 mg) or capsules (25 of 200 mg). The suspension medium without AC was used as the control treatment. Based on

  20. A comparative study of development and symptoms among disintegrative psychosis and infantile autism with and without speech loss.

    PubMed

    Kurita, H; Kita, M; Miyake, Y

    1992-06-01

    To investigate clinical pictures and the validity of disintegrative psychosis (DP) as defined in ICD-9, 18 cases of DP were compared with 51 and 145 cases of infantile autism (IA) with and without speech loss, respectively, on clinical variables. The DP cases showed clearer regression after more satisfactory development than the IA cases with speech loss. Around age 7, about 4 years after regression, those with DP were significantly more severely retarded than those with IA, yet both were similar in autistic symptomatology. EEG abnormalities and mothers 30 or older at delivery were significantly more common in the histories of those with DP than of those with IA. DP may be linked with IA having speech loss with regression in mental development as a common denominator. PMID:1378050

  1. Effect of repeated compaction of tablets on tablet properties and work of compaction using an instrumented laboratory tablet press.

    PubMed

    Gamlen, Michael John Desmond; Martini, Luigi G; Al Obaidy, Kais G

    2015-01-01

    The repeated compaction of Avicel PH101, dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCP) powder, 50:50 DCP/Avicel PH101 and Starch 1500 was studied using an instrumented laboratory tablet press which measures upper punch force, punch displacement and ejection force and operates using a V-shaped compression profile. The measurement of work compaction was demonstrated, and the test materials were ranked in order of compaction behaviour Avicel PH101?>?DCP/Avicel PH101?>?Starch?>?DCP. The behaviour of the DCP/Avicel PH101 mixture was distinctly non-linear compared with the pure components. Repeated compaction and precompression had no effect on the tensile fracture strength of Avicel PH101 tablets, although small effects on friability and disintegration time were seen. Repeated compaction and precompression reduced the tensile strength and the increased disintegration time of the DCP tablets, but improved the strength and friability of Starch 1500 tablets. Based on the data reported, routine laboratory measurement of tablet work of compaction may have potential as a critical quality attribute of a powder blend for compression. The instrumented press was suitable for student use with minimal supervisor input. PMID:24171692

  2. Comparative bioavailability of alpha-methyldopa normal and film tablet formulations after single oral administration in healthy volunteers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Róna; K. Ary; G. Renczes; B. Gachályi; Gy. Grézal; S. Drabant; I. Klebovich

    2001-01-01

    Summary  In a single dose, randomized, cross-over study, with one week of wash-out period, the relative bioavailability of Dopegyt®\\u000a tablets containing 250 mg alpha-methyldopa (AMD) and Presinol® film tablets with identical active ingredient content was examined\\u000a in 24 healthy volunteers.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Since technologically two completely different preparations (a film-tablet and a non-film-tablet) having significantly different\\u000a in vitro dissolution were to be compared,

  3. Efficacy of oral powder compared with chewable tablets for lanthanum carbonate administration in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Sakurada, Tsutomu; Oishi, Daisuke; Shibagaki, Yugo; Yasuda, Takashi; Kimura, Kenjiro

    2013-10-01

    Lanthanum carbonate (LC) has been administered in a chewable tablet form for patients with hyperphosphatemia undergoing dialysis. However, some patients have difficulty chewing the tablets. LC oral powder has recently been released in Japan. The purpose of this study was to clarify the efficacy of LC oral powder form compared with that of chewable tablet form. The efficacy and safety of LC oral powder was retrospectively assessed in hemodialysis patients who switched from chewable tablet form to oral powder form without dose modification. Thirty-six patients (mean age, 66.8 ± 10.5 years; male, 64%; 39% with diabetes; mean duration of dialysis treatment, 99.2 ± 95.6 months) were enrolled in this study between June and July of 2012. Changes in clinical data and adverse events after the switch to oral powder form were investigated. The average dose of LC was 1180 ± 520 mg/day. Serum phosphorus levels were significantly decreased after the switch from chewable tablet form to oral powder form (5.3 ± 1.7 mg/dL at baseline vs. 4.9 ± 1.2 mg/dL at after 1 month after, P = 0.038). In contrast, no significant differences were observed in serum calcium and parathyroid hormone levels. Furthermore, no significant differences were evident in weight gain after the switch to oral powder form (2.5 ± 1.2 kg at baseline vs. 2.4 ± 1.1 kg at 1 month after the switch, P = 0.29). No serious adverse events were recorded. Our results suggest that LC is more effective in oral powder form than chewable tablet form for hemodialysis patients. PMID:24134326

  4. Comparative release profile of sustained release matrix tablets of verapamil HCl

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Vikas; Nagpal, Kalpana; Singh, Shailendra Kumar; Mishra, Dina Nath

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Verapamil hydrochloride (VH) is a calcium channel blocking agent used in the treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmia and angina pectoris. The short half-life and high frequency of administration of VH makes it a suitable candidate for designing sustained drug delivery system. The aim of the present investigation was to develop a sustained release matrix tablet of verapamil hydrochloride (VH) using ethyl cellulose, methyl cellulose, Eudragit RS 100, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and carboxymethyl cellulose and to evaluate the drug release kinetics. Materials and Methods: In order to achieve the required sustained release profile, the tablets were prepared by a wet granulation method using avicel PH 101 and magnesium stearate as binder and lubricant, respectively. Results: The formulated tablets were characterized for pre-compression and post-compression parameters and they were in the acceptable limits. The drug release data obtained after an in vitro dissolution study was fitted to various release kinetic models in order to evaluate the release mechanism and kinetics. The criterion for selecting the best fit model was linearity (coefficient of correlation). Drug release mechanism was found to follow a complex mixture of diffusion, swelling and erosion. Furthermore, to minimize the initial burst drug release, batches were coated by using Eudragit RS100 polymer. After coating the tablets, a better release profile of the formulated tablets was expected and the release rate of the drug was compared with the marketed SR tablet of VH. Conclusion: The dosage form holds the potential to control the release rate of drug and extend the duration of action of a drug. PMID:23799207

  5. Tablets containing drug-loaded polymeric nanocapsules: an innovative platform.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, R B; Bastos, M O; Fontana, M C; Ourique, A F; Beck, R C R

    2010-09-01

    The aim of the present work was to evaluate the feasibility to convert drug-loaded nanocapsule suspensions in a solid dosage form (tablets). Dexamethasone was used as a model drug due to its low aqueous solubility and fast drug release from conventional tablets. Granules containing dexamethasone-loaded nanocapsules were obtained by a wet granulation process using a dispersion of polyvinylpirrolidone/nanocapsules as a binder system. Granules were compressed in an eccentric compression machine (D-NC-T). A control formulation (tablets without nanocapsules) was also prepared (D-T). Tablets were characterized by means of mean weight, hardness, friability, diameter, thickness, disintegration time, drug content, morphological analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and in vitro drug release studies. D-NC-T showed adequate physicochemical characteristics according to the pharmacopeial requirements in terms of mean weight, hardness, friability, disintegration time and drug content. Intact nanocapsules in tablets were observed by SEM. In vitro drug release studies showed a slower release of dexamethasone from these tablets (D-NC-T) compared to the control formulation (D-T). Results showed that these tablets represent an interesting platform to the development of oral drug delivery systems containing polymeric nanocapsules. PMID:21133121

  6. Towards a real time release approach for manufacturing tablets using NIR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Pestieau, Aude; Krier, Fabrice; Thoorens, Grégory; Dupont, Anaïs; Chavez, Pierre-François; Ziemons, Eric; Hubert, Philippe; Evrard, Brigitte

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to use the near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) as a process analytical tool to evaluate the conformity of paracetamol tablets in terms of four Pharmacopoeia tests (content uniformity, hardness, disintegration time, friability) and to control in-line blend uniformity. Tablets were manufactured by direct compression. Three different active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) concentrations were manufactured and three different compaction pressures were used. Intact tablets were analysed by transmission mode with NIRS prior to European Pharmacopoeia tests that were used as reference methods. Partial least square (PLS) regression was selected to build the prediction NIR models for content uniformity, tablet hardness and disintegration time. The prediction of NIR content uniformity and tablet hardness methods were validated using the accuracy profile approach. The values of the root mean squared error of calibration (RMSEC) and the root mean squared error of prediction (RMSEP) for the disintegration time indicated the robustness and the global accuracy of the NIR model. Regarding the tablet friability test, the classification was based on K-nearest neighbours (KNN). Then tablet NIR analyses successfully allowed the prediction of their conformity. Compared to the time consuming Pharmacopoeia reference methods, the benefit of this nondestructive method is significant, especially for reducing batch release time. PMID:24880992

  7. Formulation and evaluation of aceclofenac mouth-dissolving tablet.

    PubMed

    Solanki, Shailendra Singh; Dahima, Rashmi

    2011-04-01

    Aceclofenac has been shown to have potent analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities similar to indomethacin and diclofenac, and due to its preferential Cox-2 blockade, it has a better safety than conventional Non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAIDs) with respect to adverse effect on gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems. Aceclofenac is superior from other NSAIDs as it has selectivity for Cox-2, a beneficial Cox inhibitor is well tolerated, has better Gastrointestinal (GI) tolerability and improved cardiovascular safety when compared with other selective Cox-2 inhibitor. To provide the patient with the most convenient mode of administration, there is need to develop a fast-disintegrating dosage form, particularly one that disintegrates and dissolves/disperses in saliva and can be administered without water, anywhere, any time. Such tablets are also called as "melt in mouth tablet." Direct compression, freeze drying, sublimation, spray drying, tablet molding, disintegrant addition, and use of sugar-based excipients are technologies available for mouth-dissolving tablet. Mouth-dissolving tablets of aceclofenac were prepared with two different techniques, wet granulation and direct compression, in which different formulations were prepared with varying concentration of excipients. These tablets were evaluated for their friability, hardness, wetting time, and disintegration time; the drug release profile was studied in buffer Phosphate buffered Saline (PBS) pH 7.4. Direct compression batch C3 gave far better dissolution than the wet granulation Batch F2, which released only 75.37% drug, and C3, which released 89.69% drug in 90 minutes. PMID:22171305

  8. Formulation and evaluation of aceclofenac mouth-dissolving tablet

    PubMed Central

    Solanki, Shailendra Singh; Dahima, Rashmi

    2011-01-01

    Aceclofenac has been shown to have potent analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities similar to indomethacin and diclofenac, and due to its preferential Cox-2 blockade, it has a better safety than conventional Non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAIDs) with respect to adverse effect on gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems. Aceclofenac is superior from other NSAIDs as it has selectivity for Cox-2, a beneficial Cox inhibitor is well tolerated, has better Gastrointestinal (GI) tolerability and improved cardiovascular safety when compared with other selective Cox-2 inhibitor. To provide the patient with the most convenient mode of administration, there is need to develop a fast-disintegrating dosage form, particularly one that disintegrates and dissolves/disperses in saliva and can be administered without water, anywhere, any time. Such tablets are also called as “melt in mouth tablet.” Direct compression, freeze drying, sublimation, spray drying, tablet molding, disintegrant addition, and use of sugar-based excipients are technologies available for mouth-dissolving tablet. Mouth-dissolving tablets of aceclofenac were prepared with two different techniques, wet granulation and direct compression, in which different formulations were prepared with varying concentration of excipients. These tablets were evaluated for their friability, hardness, wetting time, and disintegration time; the drug release profile was studied in buffer Phosphate buffered Saline (PBS) pH 7.4. Direct compression batch C3 gave far better dissolution than the wet granulation Batch F2, which released only 75.37% drug, and C3, which released 89.69% drug in 90 minutes. PMID:22171305

  9. ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? STUDY ON ANTIOXIDANT OF EXTRACTS FROM RICE BRAN TABLETS COMPARED WITH OTHERS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aroonsri Priprem; Padungkwan Chitropas; Pramote Mahakunakorn; Chidchanok Khamlert; Bungorn Sripanidkulchai

    A comparative study of antioxidant activities of soft rice bran tablets (sRBT), which was formulated and processed for future use as a health product, , defatted rice bran (dRB), crude rice bran oil (cRBO) and refined rice bran oil (rRBO) by analyzing of scavenging effect on 1,1- diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radicals. The formulation of sRBT selected for investigations contained 200

  10. Comparative effect of different types of food on the bioavailability of cefaclor extended release tablet.

    PubMed

    Khan, B A H; Ahmed, T; Karim, S; Monif, T; Saha, N; Sharma, P L

    2004-01-01

    This randomized, six-treatment, six-period, six sequence, single dose, crossover pharmacokinetic study assessed the effect of different types of food on the bioavailability of 500-mg cefaclor extended release tablet in 23 healthy male volunteers. A single dose of cefaclor extended release 500-mg tablet was administered at six occasions: after overnight fasting, after two vegetarian (high-fat and low-fat), two non-vegetarian (high-fat and low-fat) and rice diets. Serial blood samples were collected up to 12 h after dose. Serum cefaclor concentrations were determined by a validated HPLC method. An almost equivalent increase in both Cmax and AUC was observed with both high-fat non-vegetarian and low-fat vegetarian breakfasts. However, when MIC90 values, a pharmacodynamic end-point were compared, the low-fat vegetarian diet fared better than the high-fat non-vegetarian diet. The results obtained favor low-fat vegetarian diet (breakfast) to be taken with cefaclor extended release tablet to achieve maximum benefit in terms of clinical efficacy. PMID:15230341

  11. Tablet preformulations of indomethacin-loaded mesoporous silicon microparticles.

    PubMed

    Tahvanainen, Maria; Rotko, Tanja; Mäkilä, Ermei; Santos, Hélder A; Neves, Diogo; Laaksonen, Timo; Kallonen, Aki; Hämäläinen, Keijo; Peura, Marko; Serimaa, Ritva; Salonen, Jarno; Hirvonen, Jouni; Peltonen, Leena

    2012-01-17

    In this study, indomethacin-loaded thermally oxidized mesoporous silicon microparticles (TOPSi-IMC) were formulated into tablets with excipients in order to improve the dissolution and permeability properties of the poorly soluble drug. Formulations of TOPSi-IMC particles and excipients were prepared at different TOPSi-IMC particle ratios (25, 30 and 35%). The formulations were compressed by direct compression technique with a single punch tablet machine. For comparison, a formulation containing the bulk IMC (indomethacin) and the same excipients without thermally oxidized mesoporous silicon microparticles particles (TOPSi) was prepared and compressed into tablets. The TOPSi-IMC tablets were characterised according to weight, thickness, crushing strength, disintegration time and dissolution rate. The results of this study show that TOPSi-IMC particles can be compressed to a conventional tablet. The release rate of the drug and its permeation across intestinal cells model (Caco-2) from TOPSi-IMC tablets was improved compared to the bulk IMC tablets. The dissolution rate and permeability of IMC from the tablets decreased with increasing ratio of the TOPSi-IMC particles in the formulation. The phenomenon is, presumably, a result of the loss of unique pore structure of the particles due to deformation of the particles under the compression load. PMID:22063301

  12. Comparison of Echinacea alkylamide pharmacokinetics between liquid and tablet preparations.

    PubMed

    Matthias, A; Addison, R S; Agnew, L L; Bone, K M; Watson, K; Lehmann, R P

    2007-09-01

    The relative oral bioavailability of alkylamides from two different Echinacea dosage forms (liquid and tablet) were compared in a small two-way crossover study in humans (n=3). The liquid preparation investigated contained a mixture of Echinacea purpurea root (300 mg/ml) and Echinacea angustifolia root (200 mg/ml) extracted in 60% ethanol. The tablet preparation investigated was also a mixture of E. purpurea root (675 mg/tablet) and E. angustifolia root (600 mg/tablet), but was prepared from the dried 60% ethanolic extracts of these two Echinacea species. Alkylamides were found to be rapidly absorbed and measurable in plasma from both preparations. No significant differences in the tetraene alkylamide pharmacokinetic parameters for T(1/2), AUC(t-lin) and C(max) in the two different preparations were found. T(max) increased from 20 min for the liquid to 30 min for the tablet, which is not unexpected as the tablet required time for disintegration before absorption could occur. These results suggested that there was no significant difference in the bioavailability of alkylamides from the liquid and tablet Echinacea formulations. Furthermore, the results also indicated that the absorption site and any alkylamide loss due to digestive processes were similar in both preparations. PMID:17289362

  13. An easy-to-use approach for determining the disintegration ability of disintegrants by analysis of available surface area.

    PubMed

    Iwao, Yasunori; Tanaka, Shoko; Uchimoto, Takeaki; Noguchi, Shuji; Itai, Shigeru

    2013-05-01

    With the aim of directly predicting the functionality and mechanism of disintegrants during the disintegration and dissolution of tablets, we investigated an analysis method based on available surface area, which is the surface area of a drug in a formulation in direct contact with the external solvent during dissolution. We evaluated the following disintegrants in this study: sodium starch glycolate (Glycolys), crospovidone (Kollidon CL), carboxymethylcellulose calcium (CMC-Ca), low-substituted hydroxypropylcellulose (L-HPC), and croscarmellose sodium (Ac-Di-Sol). When disintegrant was added to a 50% ethenzamide tablet formulation, an increase in the dissolution rate dependent on disintegrant concentration was observed, according to the type of disintegrant. In addition, the available surface area also differed between disintegrants. For Glycolys, CMC-Ca, and Ac-Di-Sol, a rapid increase in available surface area and a large increase in maximum available surface area (Smax) were observed due to high swellability and wicking, even when the disintegrant concentration was only 1.0%. In contrast, for Kollidon CL and LH-21, a gradual increase in available surface area was observed, depending on the disintegrant concentration. To evaluate the disintegrant ability, ?tmax and ?Smax were calculated by subtracting peak time (tmax) at 5.0% from that at 1.0% and subtracting Smax at 1.0% from that at 5.0%, respectively, and it was found that the water absorption ratio had strong negative correlations with ?tmax and ?Smax. Therefore, this study demonstrates that analysis of only available surface area and parameters thereby obtained can directly provide useful information, especially about the disintegration ability of disintegrants. PMID:23518366

  14. Liquisolid Tablets for Dissolution Enhancement of a Hypolipidemic Drug

    PubMed Central

    Patel, D. S.; Pipaliya, R. M.; Surti, Naazneen

    2015-01-01

    This investigation was aimed to improve the dissolution rate of the poorly soluble drug lovastatin, by formulating it as a liquisolid compact. Different liquisolid compacts were prepared using mathematical formulae to calculate the required quantities of powder and liquid ingredients to produce acceptably flowable and compressible admixture. Avicel PH 200, Cab-O-Sil, sodium starch glycolate and PEG 400 were employed as carrier, coating material, disintegrant and non-volatile liquid vehicle, respectively. The various drug to liquid and carrier to coating ratio were used to prepare liquisolid compacts. The formulated liquisolid tablets were evaluated for weight variation, hardness, drug content, friability and disintegration time. The in vitro release characteristics of the drug from tablets formulated by direct compression and liquisolid technique were compared in two different dissolution media. The tableting properties of the liquisolid compacts were within the acceptable limits and drug release rates were distinctly higher as compared to directly compressed tablets. The FTIR spectra showed no interaction between drug-excipient and disappearance of the characteristic absorption band of lovastatin in liquisolid formulations could be attributed to the formation of hydrogen bonding between the drug and liquid vehicle, which resulted in dissolution enhancement. Thus, the liquisolid technique was found to be a promising approach for improving the dissolution of a poorly soluble drug like lovastatin. PMID:26180274

  15. Formulation and In Vitro Evaluation of Ofloxacin Tablets using Natural Gums as Binders.

    PubMed

    Mistry, Amisha K; Nagda, Chirag D; Nagda, Dhruti C; Dixit, Bharat C; Dixit, Ritu B

    2014-06-01

    Natural gums are economical, easily available, and useful as tablet binders. In the present investigation, an attempt was made to formulate Ofloxacin tablets using three natural binders, namely Acacia arabica, Hibiscus esculentus, and xanthan gum. Such six batches of Ofloxacin tablets were prepared by using different types and amounts of the natural binders by the wet granulation method. The tablets were analyzed for their hardness, friability, and weight variation, and in vitro release was performed in a phosphate buffer at pH 6.8. The prepared tablets were also evaluated for their various release kinetics and similarity factors f2. The physical properties of the tablets containing the natural binders showed sufficient hardness, desirable disintegration time, and low friability. Their better percentage of drug release was observed as compared to the marketed formulation showing more than 85% drug release within 45 minutes. The in vitro release data was well-fitted into zero-order and the values of release exponent 'n' were between 0.303 and 0.514. The high similarity factor f2 of 64.50 was achieved with the best batch in comparison to the marketed tablets. The results obtained indicated that the gum Acacia arabica performed as well as gelatin compared to the other binders for the Ofloxacin tablet formulation. PMID:24959411

  16. Efficacy and safety of sodium phosphate tablets compared with PEG solution in colon cleansing: Two identically designed, randomized, controlled, parallel group, multicenter phase III trials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Kastenberg; Richard Chasen; Cuckoo Choudhary; Dennis Riff; Stephen Steinberg; Eric Weiss; Lawrence Wruble

    2001-01-01

    Background: Liquid purgatives for cleansing before colonoscopy often are poorly tolerated. A sodium phosphate tablet has been developed to provide equivalent efficacy with better patient tolerance. These 2 studies compare the safety, efficacy, and patient acceptance of the tablet (Visicol) to a polyethylene glycol (PEG) solution in adults undergoing colonoscopy. Methods: Two identically designed, randomized, investigator-blinded, multicenter trials were performed.

  17. [Tableting technology of a dry extract from Solidago virgaurea L. with the use of silicified microcrystalline cellulose (Prosolv) and other selected auxiliary substances].

    PubMed

    Marczyi?ski, Zbigniew

    2009-01-01

    Direct tableting is simpler and more cost-effective from the point of view of good manufacturing practice (GMP) than wet granulation or dry compacting. Moreover, the use of dry plant extracts in the process of direct tableting, omitting granulation, decreases the possibility of biological activity loss of active substances. Thus, pharmaceutical industry uses this particular process more and more frequently. Only few therapeutic substances form under compression tablets meeting current requirements. Very often addition of auxiliary substances appears to be indispensable. The aim of this study was to obtain uncoated tablets by the method of direct tableting with the use of selected auxiliary substances. Dry extract from Solidago virgaurea L. was the study material. Shrimp chitosan, silicified microcrystalline cellulose (Prosolv), polyvinylpyrrolidone, calcium carbonate and sodium stearyl fumarate were used as auxiliary substances. Eleven tablet batches were manufactured in a reciprocating instrumented tableting machine (Ewreka). The produced tablets were subjected to morphological tests comprising the tablet size, determination of batching accuracy (determination of mass uniformity of individual tablets), test of mechanical resistance (crushing strength), determination of disintegration time. The statistical hardness of the manufactured tablets was also estimated. Pharmaceutical availability tests were performed of the biologically active substances released from tablets to the acceptor fluid. The study was based on general and detailed regulations of Polish Pharmacopoeia VII (PP VII). The obtained results allow to conclude that the applied auxiliary substances appeared to be useful in adequate proportions in manufacturing tablets containing dry extract from Solidago virgaurea L. The properties of the obtained batches of tablets were in majority consistent with the current requirements. The applied method provides technological reproducibility and high durability of the drug. These tablets as compared to available herbal mixtures and aqueous extracts can be a more comfortable form of a drug. PMID:20099736

  18. Double-blind randomized multicenter study comparing Maalox TC tablets and ranitidine in healing of duodenal ulcers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. O. Hunter; R. J. Walker; J. Crowe; R. R. Gillies; K. R. Gillies; K. R. Gough; S. Lorber

    1991-01-01

    The efficacy of ranitidine 150 mg twice daily and Maalox TC three tablets four times daily were compared in patients with endoscopically confirmed duodenal ulcer. Seventy-nine patients were randomly allocated to double-blind, double-dummy treatment, stratified for smokers. Endoscopy was repeated after four weeks. Those unhealed continued treatment for a further two weeks before final endoscopy. Per protocol analysis in 53

  19. Comparative effect of different types of food on the bioavailability of cefaclor extended release tablet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. A. H. KHANI; T. AHMEDI; S. KARIMI; T. Monif; N. Saha; P. L. Sharma

    2004-01-01

    Summary  This randomized, six-treatment, six-period, six sequence, single dose, crossover pharmacokinetic study assessed the effect\\u000a of different types of food on the bioavailability of 500-mg cefaclor extended release tablet in 23 healthy male volunteers.\\u000a A single dose of cefaclor extended release 500-mg tablet was administered at six occasions: after overnight fasting, after\\u000a two vegetarian (high-fat and low-fat), two non-vegetarian (high-fat and

  20. In Vivo Disintegration Profiles of Encapsulated and Nonencapsulated Sumatriptan: Gamma Scintigraphy in Healthy Volunteers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian R. Wilding; Darren Clark; Heather Wray; Jeff Alderman; Nancy Muirhead; Carolyn R. Sikes

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this exploratory pilot study was to use gamma scintigraphy to evaluate, under physiological conditions, disintegration profiles of encapsulated and nonencapsulated formulations of 100 mg sumatriptan. Using a crossover design, healthy volunteers (n = 10) ingested 100-mg doses of sumatriptan tablets radiolabeled with 111Indium, as well as encapsulated sumatriptan tablets that were prepared similarly, then placed within a

  1. Comparative bioavailability of two immediate release tablets of cisapride in healthy volunteers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. T. Maya; C. R. Domingos; M. T. Guerreiro; A. P. Filipe; J. A. Morais

    1998-01-01

    Summary  Relative bioavailability of cisapride was investigated after oral administration of a test versus a reference formulation\\u000a of immediate release tablets of cisapride, both with 10 mg per unit. The study was conducted in a two-way cross-over design,\\u000a as a single dose open-label randomised trial. The two formulations were administered in two treatment days, separated by a\\u000a washout period of 6

  2. Comparative bioavailability of two immediate release tablets of enalapril\\/hydrochlorothiazide in healthy volunteers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manuela T. Maya; Nuno J. Goncalves; Nuno E. Silva; Augusto E. P. Filipe; José A. Morais; M. C. Caturla; M. Rovira

    2002-01-01

    Summary  A bioequivalence study of two oral formulations of 20\\/12.5 mg tablets of enalapril\\/hydrochlorothiazide was carried out in\\u000a 20 healthy male volunteers according to a single dose, two-sequence, crossover randomized design. One washout period of nine\\u000a days was observed between the two periods. Multiple samples were collected over 96 hours post-dosing. Bioavailability was\\u000a evaluated on the basis of plasma concentrations of

  3. Formulation of aspirin-magaldrate double-layer tablets: in vitro evaluation and cytoprotective activity in rats.

    PubMed

    al Gohary, O M; el Din, K; el Tahir, H

    1996-01-01

    Double layer 325 mg oral aspirin tablets buffered with magaldrate antacid, 100, 150, 175 and 200 mg (F1, F2, F3 and F4, respectively) were prepared by direct compression. The new formulae were of remarkable hardness and friability. The tablets complied with the requirements of the acid neutralizing capacity, uniformity of dosage units, disintegration and dissolution tests (USP XXIII) for buffered aspirin tablets. The in vitro release pattern of F1 and F1 followed first order kinetics (r = 0.999), while F3 and F4 were released according to a zero order model (r = 0.993). Formulations F2, F3 and F4 as well as the marketed preparations, pure Aspro tablets (Acetylsalicylic acid 320 mg per tablet), or Ascriptin tablets (aspirin 325 mg plus 150 mg Maalox per tablet) were administered to fasted rats by gavage at doses that provided 400 mg aspirin kg-1 and the extent of the induced gastric damage was quantified 6 h later. Ascriptin, F3 and F4 preparations produced significantly less gastric damage (p < 0.05, n = 6) when compared with pure Aspro tablets. There was a clear dose-dependent decrease in the gastric damage following treatment with F2, F3 and F4 preparations, but there was no significant difference between the effects of F3 and F4 which were equipotent with Ascriptin. PMID:9035555

  4. [The liberation of phenylbutazone from tablets].

    PubMed

    Miseta, M; Hoang Hun Manh; Pintye-Hódi, K; Szabó-Révész, P; Selmeczi, B

    1988-10-01

    The liberation of phenylbutazone from tablets prepared by wet granulation was examined. It was found that the solution process can be described by the equation c = cs (l-e-K.t alpha). The influence of the binder concentration and the disintegrant on the liberation rate was also studied. The increase of the Klucel MF concentration accelerated the liberation of the agents. Among the disintegrants Polyplasdone XL and cyclodextrin block polymer turned out to be very good. PMID:3212016

  5. Comparative study of telmisartan tablets prepared via the wet granulation method and pritor™ prepared using the spray-drying method.

    PubMed

    Park, Junsung; Park, Hee Jun; Cho, Wonkyung; Cha, Kwang-Ho; Yeon, Wonki; Kim, Min-Soo; Kim, Jeong-Soo; Hwang, Sung-Joo

    2011-03-01

    The wet granulation method was successfully used to manufacture amorphous telmisartan tablets (CNU) for comparison with the spray-drying method, used for Pritor™. Drug crystallinity in the tablet was characterized using differential scanning calorimetry and powder X-ray diffraction, and pharmaceutical properties of the tablets such as hardness, friability, water absorption, and in vitro dissolution in pH 1.2, 4.0, 6.8 and 7.5 were characterized. Especially with regard to the water absorption feature, the CNU tablets showed better performance by maintaining their original structures and by absorbing less water. Since both Pritor™ and CNU tablets had similar physical properties of crystallinity, hardness, friability, and > 50 f(2) value in an in vitro dissolution study, the bioequivalence of CNU tablets should be analyzed in a future in vivo study. Therefore, telmisartan tablets can be produced using a more economical and easier method than that used to produce Pritor™ tablets. PMID:21547679

  6. Hexagonal boron nitride as a tablet lubricant and a comparison with conventional lubricants.

    PubMed

    U?urlu, Timuçin; Turko?lu, Murat

    2008-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the lubrication properties of hexagonal boron nitride (HBN) as a new tablet lubricant and compare it with conventional lubricants such as magnesium stearate (MGST), stearic acid (STAC), and glyceryl behenate (COMP). Tablets were manufactured on an instrumented single-station tablet press to monitor lower punch ejection force (LPEF) containing varied lubricants in different ratio (0.5, 1, 2%). Tablet crushing strength, disintegration time and thickness were measured. Tensile strength of compacted tablets were measured by applying a diametrical load across the edge of tablets to determine mechanical strength. The deformation mechanism of tablets was studied during compression from the Heckel plots with or without lubricants. MGST was found to be the most effective lubricant based on LPEF-lubrication concentration profile and LPEF of HBN was found very close to that of MGST. HBN was better than both STAC and COMP. A good lubrication was obtained at 0.5% for MGST and HBN (189 and 195N, respectively). Where COMP and STAC showed 20 and 35% more LPEF compare to that of MGST (239 and 288N, respectively). Even at the concentration of 2% COMP and STAC did not decrease LPEF as much as 0.5% of MGST and HBN. Like all conventional lubricants the higher the concentration of HBN the lower the mechanical properties of tablets because of its hydrophobic character. However, this deterioration was not as pronounced as MGST. HBN had no significant effect on tablet properties. Based on the Heckel plots, it was observed that after the addition of 1% lubricant granules showed less plastic deformation. PMID:18160235

  7. Orally disintegrating systems: innovations in formulation and technology.

    PubMed

    Goel, Honey; Rai, Parshuram; Rana, Vikas; Tiwary, Ashok K

    2008-01-01

    Orally disintegrating systems have carved a niche amongst the oral drug delivery systems due to the highest component of compliance they enjoy in patients especially the geriatrics and pediatrics. In addition, patients suffering from dysphagia, motion sickness, repeated emesis and mental disorders prefer these medications because they cannot swallow large quantity of water. Further, drugs exhibiting satisfactory absorption from the oral mucosa or intended for immediate pharmacological action can be advantageously formulated in these dosage forms. However, the requirements of formulating these dosage forms with mechanical strength sufficient to with stand the rigors of handling and capable of disintegrating within a few seconds on contact with saliva are inextricable. Therefore, research in developing orally disintegrating systems has been aimed at investigating different excipients as well as techniques to meet these challenges. A variety of dosage forms like tablets, films, wafers, chewing gums, microparticles, nanoparticles etc. have been developed for enhancing the performance attributes in the orally disintegrating systems. Advancements in the technology arena for manufacturing these systems include the use of freeze drying, cotton candy, melt extrusion, sublimation, direct compression besides the classical wet granulation processes. Taste masking of active ingredients becomes essential in these systems because the drug is entirely released in the mouth. Fluid bed coating, agglomeration, pelletization and infusion methods have proven useful for this purpose. It is important to note that although, freeze dried and effervescent disintegrating systems rapidly disintegrate in contact with fluids, they do not generally exhibit the required mechanical strength. Similarly, the candy process cannot be used for thermolabile drugs. In the light of the paradoxical nature of the attributes desired in orally disintegrating systems (high mechanical strength and rapid disintegration), it becomes essential to study the innovations in this field and understand the intricacies of the different processes used for manufacturing these systems. This article attempts at discussing the patents relating to orally disintegrating systems with respect to the use of different formulation ingredients and technologies. PMID:19075912

  8. Regarding the comparative effect of Si\\/SiC addition on the microstructure and mechanical properties of an Al alloy processed using disintegrated melt deposition technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manoj Gupta; Su Ling

    1997-01-01

    In the present study, a non-heat-treatable aluminum alloy was reinforced with silicon and silicon carbide, respectively, using disintegrated melt deposition technique. The results of the chemical composition analysis following processing revealed that more silicon in comparison to silicon carbide was incorporated irrespective of starting with the same weight percentages of each element. The results of the microstructural characterization following thermomechanical

  9. Development of Fast Dispersible Aceclofenac Tablets: Effect of Functionality of Superdisintegrants

    PubMed Central

    Setty, C. Mallikarjuna; Prasad, D. V. K.; Gupta, V. R. M.; Sa, B.

    2008-01-01

    Aceclofenac, a non-steroidal antiinflammatory drug, is used for posttraumatic pain and rheumatoid arthritis. Aceclofenac fast-dispersible tablets have been prepared by direct compression method. Effect of superdisintegrants (such as, croscarmellose sodium, sodium starch glycolate and crospovidone) on wetting time, disintegration time, drug content, in vitro release and stability parameters has been studied. Disintegration time and dissolution parameters (t50% and t80%) decreased with increase in the level of croscarmellose sodium. Where as, disintegration time and dissolution parameters increased with increase in the level of sodium starch glycolate in tablets. However, the disintegration time values did not reflect in the dissolution parameter values of crospovidone tablets and release was dependent on the aggregate size in the dissolution medium. Stability studies indicated that tablets containing superdisintegrants were sensitive to high humidity conditions. It is concluded that fast-dispersible aceclofenac tablets could be prepared by direct compression using superdisintegrants. PMID:20046709

  10. Release Kinetics of Papaverine Hydrochloride from Tablets with Different Excipients

    PubMed Central

    Kasperek, Regina; Polski, Andrzej; Zimmer, ?ukasz; Poleszak, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The influence of excipients on the disintegration times of tablets and the release of papaverine hydrochloride (PAP) from tablets were studied. Ten different formulations of tablets with PAP were prepared by direct powder compression. Different binders, disintegrants, fillers, and lubricants were used as excipients. The release of PAP was carried out in the paddle apparatus using 0.1 N HCl as a dissolution medium. The results of the disintegration times of tablets showed that six formulations can be classified as fast dissolving tablets (FDT). FDT formulations contained Avicel PH 101, Avicel PH 102, mannitol, (3-lactose, PVP K 10, gelatinized starch (CPharmGel), Prosolv Easy Tab, Prosolv SMCC 90, magnesium stearate, and the addition of disintegrants such as AcDiSol and Kollidon CL. Drug release kinetics were estimated by the zero- and first-order, Higuchi release rate, and Korsmeyer-Peppas models. Two formulations of the tablets containing PVP (K10) (10%), CPharmGel (10% and 25%), and Prosolv Easy Tab (44% and 60%) without the addition of a disintegrant were well-fitted to the kinetics models such as the Higuchi and zero-order, which are suitable for controlled- or sustained-release. PMID:25853076

  11. Comparative in vitro-in vivo correlation analysis with pioglitazone tablets

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Sajal Kumar; Chowdhury, A. K. Azad; Bachar, Sitesh Chandra; Das, Sreedam Chandra; Kuddus, Ruhul H.; Uddin, Md Aftab

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the in vitro-in vivo correlation of immediate release formulation of pioglitazone 30 mg film coated tablet. Methods In vitro release data were obtained for test and reference formulation using the USP paddle method (Apparatus 2) at 50 r/min and with the temperature of 37 °C in the dissolution medium of 0.1 mol/L hydrochloric acid of pH 1.2. Twelve healthy volunteers were administered both test and reference pioglitazone 30 mg tablet orally and blood samples were collected over 24 h period. In vivo drug concentrations were analyzed by a simple, fast and precise reverse phase binary HPLC method with UV detection to establish a correlation between in vitro release and in vivo absorption data. Results Similarity factor (f2) and dissimilarity factor (f1) were determined for the time intervals of 5, 10, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 105 and 120 min and the obtained values were 65.17%, 59.37%, 63.62%, 66.61%, 68.89%, 70.73%, 72.27%, 73.59%, 74.65% and 75.67% for f2 and 9.43%, 9.00%, 5.42%, 3.86%, 3.07%, 2.56%, 2.20%, 1.94%, 1.82% and 1.65% for f1 at respective time intervals. Mean dissolution time for test and reference products were obtained at 3.06 and 3.40 min respectively. f2 and f1 values obtained were within the acceptable range f2 (50%-100%) and f1 (<15%). Conclusions Comparison of dissolution profiles corroborate that the test and reference formulations are similar and there is no linear in vitro-in vivo correlation.

  12. Childhood disintegrative disorder.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, S; Gupta, N

    1999-12-01

    Childhood disintegrative disorder (CDD) is a clinical syndrome characterized by disintegration of mental functions and regression of acquired language and intellectual functions after a period of normal development typically of 3 to 4 years. Although recognized for many years, research on this condition is less advanced than that in autism. Epidemiological data are limited but the condition is much less common than autism. The relationship of this condition to autism remains the topic of debate. Neuropathological and other medical conditions are sometimes associated with the disorder but contrary to earlier belief this is not typical. Collaborative research would facilitate our understanding of this condition. PMID:10638461

  13. Double Beta-Disintegration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Goeppert-Mayer

    1935-01-01

    From the Fermi theory of beta-disintegration the probability of simultaneous emission of two electrons (and two neutrinos) has been calculated. The result is that this process occurs sufficiently rarely to allow a half-life of over 1017 years for a nucleus, even if its isobar of atomic number different by 2 were more stable by 20 times the electron mass.

  14. Childhood disintegrative disorder.

    PubMed

    Charan, Sri Hari

    2012-01-01

    We are presenting a case of a 10-year-old female child who presented with normal development till 5 years of age followed by deterioration in previously acquired language and social skills with stereotypic hand movements suggestive of childhood disintegrative disorder. This case is reported as this condition is very rare. PMID:22837782

  15. Childhood disintegrative disorder

    PubMed Central

    Charan, Sri Hari

    2012-01-01

    We are presenting a case of a 10-year-old female child who presented with normal development till 5 years of age followed by deterioration in previously acquired language and social skills with stereotypic hand movements suggestive of childhood disintegrative disorder. This case is reported as this condition is very rare. PMID:22837782

  16. Disintegration of Atomic Nuclei

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. S. Allen

    1932-01-01

    THE epoch-making results as to the disintegration of atomic nuclei recently obtained in the Cavendish Laboratory serve to recall the experiments of Prof. J. N. Collie and his fellow-workers made twenty years ago. In some of these experiments it was thought that helium and neon were produced by sending powerful electric discharges through exhausted tubes. Sir William Ramsay observed the

  17. Influence of Prosolv and Prosolv:Mannitol 200 direct compression fillers on the physicomechanical properties of atorvastatin oral dispersible tablets.

    PubMed

    Gowda, Veeran; Pabari, Ritesh M; Kelly, John G; Ramtoola, Zebunnissa

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of Prosolv® and Prosolv®: Mannitol 200 direct compression (DC) fillers on the physicomechanical characteristics of oral dispersible tablets (ODTs) of crystalline atorvastatin calcium. ODTs were formulated by DC and were analyzed for weight uniformity, hardness, friability, drug content, disintegration and dissolution. Three disintegration time (DT) test methods; European Pharmacopoeia (EP) method for conventional tablets (Method 1), a modification of this method (Method 2) and the EP method for oral lyophilisates (Method 3) were compared as part of this study. All ODTs showed low weight variation of <2.5%. Prosolv® only ODTs showed the highest tablet hardness of ?73?N, hardness decreased with increasing mannitol content. Friability of all formulations was <1% although friability of Prosolv®:Mannitol ODTs was higher than for pure Prosolv®. DT of all ODTs was <30?s. Method 2 showed the fastest DT. Method 3 was non-discriminatory giving a DT of 13-15?s for all formulations. Atorvastatin dissolution from all ODTs was >60% within 5?min despite the drug being crystalline. Prosolv® and Prosolv®:Mannitol-based ODTs are suitable for ODT formulations by DC to give ODTs with high mechanical strength, rapid disintegration and dissolution. PMID:24397821

  18. Disintegrative disorder or "late onset" autism.

    PubMed

    Volkmar, F R; Cohen, D J

    1989-09-01

    Ten cases of disintegrative disorder were identified within a larger sample of 165 individuals who met behavioral criteria for autism. These cases were compared to autistic individuals whose disorder had been recognized by age 2 and to those whose disorder had been recognized after age 2. Consistent with previous reports, children with disintegrative disorder had a period of normal development preceding the onset of a profound developmental regression from which they made, at best, only a limited recovery. Both clinical features at the time of regression and various outcome measures support the validity of the diagnostic concept, particularly when such cases are compared to "late onset" autistic ones. PMID:2793959

  19. Investigation of the pellet-distribution in single tablets via image analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karl G. Wagner; Markus Krumme; Peter C. Schmidt

    1999-01-01

    The influence of five different microcrystalline cellulose filler-binders on the pellet-distribution in tablets was investigated under production-scale conditions. Coloured coated pellets were tableted on an instrumented high speed rotary tablet press at four machine speed levels. The pellet-distribution on the upper and the lower tablet surfaces was detected via image analysis and correlated with the disintegration time and the crushing

  20. Comparing the Therapeutic Effects of Garlic Tablet and Oral Metronidazole on Bacterial Vaginosis: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadzadeh, Farnaz; Dolatian, Mahrokh; Jorjani, Masoome; Alavi Majd, Hamid; Borumandnia, Nasrin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is one of the most common gynecological infections during reproductive age. Although metronidazole is one of the most effective medications recommended as the first-line treatment, it has various side effects. Because of the side effects and contraindications of some chemical medicines, using herbs has been investigated in treating BV. Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of garlic tablet (Garsin) and oral metronidazole in clinical treatment of the BV in women referred to Resalat Health Center, affiliated with Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, in 2013. Patients and Methods: This randomized clinical trial was conducted on 120 married women aged 18 to 44 years who were diagnosed with BV by Amsel’s clinical criteria and Gram staining. Enrolled women were randomly allocated to two groups of 60 patients and were treated with either garlic tablet or oral metronidazole for seven days. Amsel’s criteria and Gram stain were assessed seven to ten days after beginning the treatment period and side effects were registered. Results: Amsel’s criteria were significantly decreased after treatment with garlic or metronidazole (70% and 48.3%, respectively; P < 0.001). Therapeutic effects of garlic on BV were similar to that of metronidazole (63.3% and 48.3%, respectively; P = 0.141). There were significant differences between the two treatment groups in terms of side effects; metronidazole was associated with more complications (P = 0.032). Conclusions: This study reveals that garlic could be a suitable alternative for metronidazole in treatment of BV in those interested in herbal medicines or those affected by side effects of metronidazole. PMID:25237588

  1. Development, disintegration and dementia.

    PubMed

    Corbett, J

    1987-12-01

    It has been argued that there is an important group of conditions, seen for the first time in late infancy and early childhood, which are both remarkably persistent and pervasive in their influence on cognitive and social development. They combine features of childhood autism, mental retardation and cognitive deterioration and the term 'disintegrative' most precisely characterizes their impact on development. The term 'psychosis' is only usually appropriate in describing the severity of the psychiatric symptoms. In order to avoid confusion with the psychoses or dementia of adult life, the term 'disintegrative disorder of development' may be preferred. While specific pathology is being identified in an increasing number of cases, the combined use of psychiatric and physical diagnostic categories perhaps best serves to draw attention to this important group of disorders. It is likely that, with increasing knowledge, the need for such an interim diagnostic category may become unnecessary. PMID:3325649

  2. Effects of ultrasonic disintegration of excess sludge obtained in disintegrators of different constructions.

    PubMed

    Zielewicz, Ewa; Tyt?a, Malwina

    2015-09-01

    The ultrasonic disintegration of excess sludge is placed after the mechanical thickening but before the digestion tanks in order to intensify the process of sludge stabilization. The effects obtained directly after ultrasonic disintegration depend on many factors and can be grouped in two main categories: factors affecting the quality of sludge and those associated with the construction of disintegrators and its parameters. The ultrasonic disintegration research was carried out using three types of structural solutions of disintegrators. Two of them, that is, WK-2000 ultrasonic generator (P?=?400?W) working with a thin sonotrode and WK-2010 ultrasonic generator (P?=?100-1000?W) working with a new type construction emitter lens sonotrode, were compared with the influence of a washer with a flat emitter. The investigations have shown that in the same sludge, using the same value of volumetric energy, the resulting effect depends on the construction of the ultrasonic disintegrator, that is, design of the head and the ratio between the field of the emitter and the field of the chamber in sonicated medium. PMID:25732595

  3. Comparison of childhood disintegrative disorder and disintegrative psychosis not diagnosed as childhood disintegrative disorder.

    PubMed

    Kurita, Hiroshi; Koyama, Tomonori; Osada, Hirokazu

    2005-04-01

    To clarify the difference of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edn; DSM-IV) childhood disintegrative disorder (CDD) from International Classification of Diseases (9th revision; ICD-9) disintegrative psychosis (DP), 10 CDD children (mean age, 7.7 years) and 18 DP children (mean, 6.5 years) not diagnosed as CDD divided into DSM-IV autistic disorder (DP-AD; n = 11) and pervasive developmental disorders not otherwise specified (DP-PDDNOS; n = 7) were compared on 31 variables not directly related to the normalcy before regression. The CDD, DP-AD, and DP-PDDNOS groups did not differ significantly in 28 variables. The DP-PDDNOS group met significantly a smaller number of items in criterion A of DSM-IV autistic disorder criteria than the CDD and DP-AD groups, both of which did not differ significantly in this respect. The CDD group tended to be more abnormal in auditory responsiveness and verbal communication than the DP-PDDNOS group. While CDD is distinct from DP-PDDNOS, its validity apart from AD with regression remains to be studied. PMID:15823168

  4. Mechanistic understanding of food effects: water diffusivity in gastrointestinal tract is an important parameter for the prediction of disintegration of solid oral dosage forms.

    PubMed

    Radwan, Asma; Ebert, Sandro; Amar, Andrea; Münnemann, Kerstin; Wagner, Manfred; Amidon, Gordon L; Langguth, Peter

    2013-06-01

    Much interest has been expressed in this work on the role of water diffusivity in the release media as a new parameter for predicting drug release. NMR was used to measure water diffusivity in different media varying in their osmolality and viscosity. Water self-diffusion coefficients in sucrose, sodium chloride, and polymeric hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) solutions were correlated with water uptake, disintegration, and drug release rates from trospium chloride immediate release tablets. The water diffusivity in sucrose solutions was significantly reduced compared to polymeric HPMC and molecular sodium chloride solutions. Water diffusivity was found to be a function of sucrose concentration in the media. Dosage form disintegration and drug release was to be affected by water diffusivity in these systems. This observation can be explained by hydrogen bonding formation between sugar molecules, an effect which was not expressed in sodium chloride solutions of equal osmolality. Water diffusivity and not media osmolality in general need to be considered to predict the effect of disintegration and dissolution media on drug release. Understanding the relevance of water diffusivity for disintegration and dissolution will lead to better parametrization of dosage form behavior in gastrointestinal (GI) aqueous and semisolid media. PMID:23600970

  5. Childhood disintegrative disorder.

    PubMed

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik

    2003-06-01

    In 1908 a Viennese remedial educator Theodor Heller described six children under the name of dementia infantilis who had insidiously developed a severe mental regression between the 3rd and 4th years of life after normal mental development. Neuropathological and other medical conditions are sometimes associated with this disorder, but contrary to earlier belief this is not typical. Interest in childhood disintegrative disorder has increased markedly in recent years and in this review attention is given to more recently published cases based on ICD-9, ICD-10 and DSM-IV diagnostic systems. Information is provided related to nosology, epidemiological data, differential diagnosis, aetiology, treatment and outcome. PMID:12767450

  6. Orodispersible films and tablets with prednisolone microparticles.

    PubMed

    Brniak, Witold; Ma?lak, Ewelina; Jachowicz, Renata

    2015-07-30

    Orodispersible tablets (ODTs) and orodispersible films (ODFs) are solid oral dosage forms disintegrating or dissolving rapidly when placed in the mouth. One of the main issues related to their preparation is an efficient taste masking of a bitter drug substance. Therefore, the aim of this study was to prepare and evaluate the microparticles intended to mask a bitter taste of the prednisolone and use them in further preparation of two orodispersible dosage forms. Microparticles based on the Eudragit E PO or E 100 as a taste-masking agent were prepared with spray-drying technique. Tablets containing microparticles, co-processed ODT excipient Pharmaburst, and lubricant were directly compressed with single-punch tablet press. Orodispersible films were prepared by casting polymeric solutions of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose containing uniformly dispersed microparticles. Physicochemical properties of microparticles were evaluated, as well as mechanical properties analysis, disintegration time measurements and dissolution tests were performed for prepared dosage forms. Both formulations showed good mechanical resistance while maintaining excellent disintegration properties. The dissolution studies showed good masking properties of microparticles with Eudragit E 100. The amount of prednisolone released during the first minute in phosphate buffer 6.8 was around 0.1%. After incorporation into the orodispersible forms, the amount of released prednisolone increased significantly. It was probably the effect of faster microparticles wetting in orodispersible forms and their partial destruction by compression force during tableting process. PMID:25889975

  7. Comparative Effectiveness of Di'ao Xin Xue Kang Capsule and Compound Danshen Tablet in Patients With Symptomatic Chronic Stable Angina

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yanan; Hu, Siyuan; Li, Guoxin; Xue, Jie; Li, Zhuoming; Liu, Xiangling; Yang, Xiyan; Dong, Bo; Wang, Donghai; Wang, Xiaofeng; Liu, Shurong; Liu, Jun; Chen, Bingwei; Wang, Liying; Liu, Songshan; Chen, Qiguang; Shen, Chunti; Wang, Zhong; Wang, Yongyan

    2014-01-01

    A high proportion of patients with stable angina remains symptomatic despite multiple treatment options. Di'ao Xinxuekang (XXK) capsule and Compound Danshen (CDS) tablet have been approved for treating angina pectoris for more than 20 years in China. We compare the anti-anginal effectiveness of XXK capsule and CDS tablet in patients with symptomatic chronic stable angina. A randomized, multicenter, double-blind, parallel-group, superiority trial was conducted in 4 study sites. 733 patients with symptomatic chronic stable angina were included in the full analysis set. The primary outcomes were the proportion of patients who were angina-free and the proportion of patients with normal electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings during 20 weeks treatment. Compared with CDS, XXK significantly increased the proportion of angina-free patients, but no significant difference was noted in the proportion of patients with normal ECG recordings. Weekly angina frequency and nitroglycerin use were significantly reduced with XXK versus CDS at week 20. Moreover, XXK also improved the quality of life of angina patients as measured by the SAQ score and Xueyu Zheng (a type of TCM syndrome) score. We demonstrate that XXK capsule is more effective for attenuating anginal symptoms and improving quality of life in patients with symptomatic chronic stable angina, compared with CDS tablet. PMID:25394847

  8. Formulation of fast disintegrating tablets of ternary solid dispersions consisting of TPGS 1000 and HPMC 2910 or PVPVA 64 to improve the dissolution of the anti-HIV drug UC 781

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caroline Goddeeris; Tom Willems; Guy Van den Mooter

    2008-01-01

    Solid dispersion formulations made up of d-?-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate 1000 (TPGS 1000) and polyvinyl pyrrolidone co-vinyl acetate 64 (PVPVA 64) or hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose 2910 (HPMC 2910) were developed in order to improve the dissolution of UC 781. UC 781 dissolution rate was markedly improved as compared to the physical mixtures and the pure drug, attaining maximum drug

  9. Disintegration of liquid sheets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mansour, Adel; Chigier, Norman

    1990-01-01

    The development, stability, and disintegration of liquid sheets issuing from a two-dimensional air-assisted nozzle is studied. Detailed measurements of mean drop size and velocity are made using a phase Doppler particle analyzer. Without air flow the liquid sheet converges toward the axis as a result of surface tension forces. With airflow a quasi-two-dimensional expanding spray is formed. The air flow causes small variations in sheet thickness to develop into major disturbances with the result that disruption starts before the formation of the main break-up region. In the two-dimensional variable geometry air-blast atomizer, it is shown that the air flow is responsible for the formation of large, ordered, and small chaotic 'cell' structures.

  10. Using tablet computers compared to interactive voice response to improve subject recruitment in osteoporosis pragmatic clinical trials: feasibility, satisfaction, and sample size

    PubMed Central

    Mudano, Amy S; Gary, Lisa C; Oliveira, Ana L; Melton, Mary; Wright, Nicole C; Curtis, Jeffrey R; Delzell, Elizabeth; Harrington, T Michael; Kilgore, Meredith L; Lewis, Cora Elizabeth; Singh, Jasvinder A; Warriner, Amy H; Pace, Wilson D; Saag, Kenneth G

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Pragmatic clinical trials (PCTs) provide large sample sizes and enhanced generalizability to assess therapeutic effectiveness, but efficient patient enrollment procedures are a challenge, especially for community physicians. Advances in technology may improve methods of patient recruitment and screening in PCTs. Our study looked at a tablet computer versus an integrated voice response system (IVRS) for patient recruitment and screening for an osteoporosis PCT in community physician offices. Materials and methods We recruited women ? 65 years of age from community physician offices to answer screening questions for a hypothetical osteoporosis active comparator PCT using a tablet computer or IVRS. We assessed the feasibility of these technologies for patient recruitment as well as for patient, physician, and office staff satisfaction with the process. We also evaluated the implications of these novel recruitment processes in determining the number of primary care practices and screened patients needed to conduct the proposed trial. Results A total of 160 women (80% of those approached) agreed to complete the osteoporosis screening questions in ten family physicians’ offices. Women using the tablet computer were able to complete all screening questions consistently and showed a nonsignificant trend towards greater ease of use and willingness to spend more time in their physician’s office compared to those using IVRS. Using the proportion of women found to be eligible in this study (almost 20%) and other eligibility scenarios, we determined that between 240 and 670 community physician offices would be needed to recruit ample patients for our hypothetical study. Conclusion We found good satisfaction and feasibility with a tablet computer interface for the recruitment and screening of patients for a hypothetical osteoporosis PCT in community office settings. In addition, we used this experience to estimate the number of research sites needed for such a study. PMID:23807841

  11. Tablet Weaving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kren, Margo

    1976-01-01

    Article described a weaving technique called tablet weaving, an ancient textile process that provides opportunity for making a variety of items, such as guitar straps, belts, and decorative bands. (Author/RK)

  12. Formulation and Evaluation of Alstonia boonei Stem Bark Powder Tablets.

    PubMed

    Chime, Salome A; Ugwuoke, E C; Onyishi, I V; Brown, S A; Onunkwo, G C

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this work was to formulate Alstonia boonei dried stem bark powder into tablets by wet granulation method using acacia, gelatine and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose as binders at concentrations of 1, 2, 4 and 8% w/w. The phytochemistry of the stem bark of Alstonia boonei was evaluated. The micromeritic properties of the granules prepared were studied. The tablets were evaluated using the necessary official and unofficial tests. The results of the phytochemical analysis showed that alkaloids, tannins, steroids, saponins, glycosides, flavonoids and terpenoids were present while anthroquinones and acidcompounds were absent. Micromeritic studies showed that Alstonia boonei granules had good flowability. The formulated tablets complied with British Pharmacopoeial specification for weight uniformity, hardness (?5 kgf) and tablet friability (<1%). For disintegration test, tablets formulated with gelatine and acacia at concentrations of 1, 2 and 4% w/w complied with Pharmacopoeial specification. However, tablets formulated with SCMC (1-8% w/w) and 8% w/w of acacia and gelatine failed the disintegration tests (Disintegration time more than 15 min). PMID:24019574

  13. Design and evaluation of fast dissolving tablets containing diclofenac sodium using fenugreek gum as a natural superdisintegrant

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, M. Uday; Babu, M. Kishore

    2014-01-01

    Objective To formulate diclofenac sodium as fast dissolving tablets (FDTs) using fenugreek gum as a natural superdisintegrant which also possess anti-inflammatory activity. Methods An attempt was made to extract the fenugreek gum and evaluated it for various physicochemical characterizations. The swelling index and viscosity of fenugreek gum was 221% and 293.4 mpa.s respectively. FDTs of diclofenac sodium was formulated by direct compression technique using different concentrations (1%-6%, w/w) of fenugreek gum as a natural superdisintegrant and compared with renowned synthetic superdisintegrants like sodium starch glycolate and croscarmellose sodium. The anti-inflammatory activity of a formulation was evaluated with carrageenan induced experimental rats. Results The formulated tablets were evaluated for various physical tests like weight variation, friability, hardness and results complied with the limits. The drug release from all the formulations ascertained first order kinetics. Among all the formulations F3 containing fenugreek gum with the concentration of 6% produced least disintegrating time 21 seconds resulting in higher drug release rate 93.74% at the end of 25 min. Hence, it was considered as optimized formulation. The present study revealed that the fenugreek gum as a natural superdisintegrant showed better disintegrating property than the most widely used synthetic superdisintegrants like sodium starch glycolate and croscarmellose sodium in the formulations of FDTs. Conclusions The results suggested that the fenugreek gum act as a good super disintegrating agent and it showed promising additive anti-inflammatory activity with diclofenac sodium. PMID:25183106

  14. Creation of a tablet database containing several active ingredients and prediction of their pharmaceutical characteristics based on ensemble artificial neural networks.

    PubMed

    Takagaki, Keisuke; Arai, Hiroaki; Takayama, Kozo

    2010-10-01

    A tablet database containing several active ingredients for a standard tablet formulation was created. Tablet tensile strength (TS) and disintegration time (DT) were measured before and after storage for 30 days at 40 degrees C and 75% relative humidity. An ensemble artificial neural network (EANN) was used to predict responses to differences in quantities of excipients and physical-chemical properties of active ingredients in tablets. Most classical neural networks involve a tedious trial and error approach, but EANNs automatically determine basal key parameters, which ensure that an optimal structure is rapidly obtained. We compared the predictive abilities of EANNs in which the following kinds of training algorithms were used: linear, radial basis function, general regression (GR), and multilayer perceptron. The GR EANN predicted pharmaceutical responses such as TS and DT most accurately, as evidenced by high correlation coefficients in a leave-some-out cross-validation procedure. When used in conjunction with a tablet database, the GR EANN is capable of identifying acceptable candidate tablet formulations. PMID:20310024

  15. Exploration of Novel Co-processed Multifunctional Diluent for the Development of Tablet Dosage Form.

    PubMed

    Gohel, M C; Patel, T M; Parikh, R K; Parejiya, P B; Barot, B S; Ramkishan, A

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this investigation was to develop a novel multifunctional co-processed diluent consisting of microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel PH 102), crospovidone (Polyplasdone XL) and polyethylene glycol 4000. Colloidal silicon dioxide and talc were also incorporated as minor components in the diluent to improve tableting properties. Melt granulation was adopted for preparation of co-processed diluent. Percentage of Avicel PH 102, Polyplasdone XL and polyethylene glycol 4000 were selected as independent variables and disintegration time was chosen as a dependent variable in simplex lattice design. The co-processed diluent was characterised for angle of repose, bulk density, tapped density, Carr's index, percentage of fines and dilution potential study. Acetaminophen and metformin were used as poorly compressible model drugs for preparation of tablets. The blend of granules of drug and extra-granular co-processed diluent exhibited better flow as compared to the blend of drug granules and physical mixture of diluents blend. The diluent exhibited satisfactory tableting properties. The tablets exhibited fairly rapid drug release. In conclusion, melt granulation is proposed as a method of preparing co-processed diluent. The concept can be used to bypass patents on excipient manufacturing. PMID:23716865

  16. Preparation and evaluation of sublingual tablets of zolmitriptan

    PubMed Central

    Prajapati, Shailesh T; Patel, Manoj V; Patel, Chhaganbhai N

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Zolmitriptan is a 5-HT receptor agonist (1B/1D). It is used in the acute treatment of migraine having low bioavailability about 40% orally due to hepatic first pass metabolism. The purpose of the present research was to formulate fast acting sublingual tablets of zolmitriptan. Materials and Methods: Sublingual tablets were prepared using ispaghula husk powder, gellan gum, sodium alginate as super disintegrating polymers and citric acid, tartaric acid and camphor as permeation enhancers by direct compressible technique and evaluated for weight variation, thickness, friability, content uniformity, hardness, disintegration time, wetting time, in-vitro drug release, in-vitro and ex-vivo permeation study. Stability study of optimized formulation was performed as per ICH (International Conference on Harmonisation) guideline. Results: The in-vitro disintegration time of the optimized formulation (D5) was 9 ± 2 s and all formulations showed 100% of dissolution within 6 ± 2 min. Formulation containing 4% of gellan gum (D5) showed highest disintegration and 2% of citric acid formulation (P3) showed highest permeation 88% within 30 min and ex-vivo permeation was 52% within 30 min. Optimized formulation was stable for 1 month during stability study as per ICH guideline. Conclusion: The sublingual tablet formulation gives better results using natural super disintegrant for fast onset of action. PMID:24678459

  17. Evaluation of hexagonal boron nitride as a new tablet lubricant.

    PubMed

    Turkoglu, Murat; Sahin, Inan; San, Tangul

    2005-01-01

    In this study, hexagonal boron nitride (HBN) was evaluated as a new lubricant for pharmaceutical tablet manufacturing. The other conventional lubricants such as magnesium stearate (MGST), stearic acid (STAC), and glyceryl behenate (COMP) were also tested along with HBN. Tablets were manufactured on an instrumented single-station tablet press to monitor and quantify the lower punch ejection force (LPEF). The force ratio, tablet crushing strength, disintegration time, and thickness were measured. The lubricant film formation and lubricant distribution in tablets were studied using the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron probe micro analyzer (EPMA). Based on the force ratio, a good lubrication was obtained at 1% for MGST and HBN; in contrast, STAC and COMP did not show a good lubrication. After 1%, all lubricants performed well. MGST was found to be the most effective lubricant based on LPEF-lubricant concentration profile. HBN provided a 50% decrease in LPEF at 2% lubricant concentration and was rated as an effective tablet lubricant. HBN was better than either STAC or COMP. Unlike MGST, HBN had no significant prolongation effect on tablet disintegration times. PMID:16176018

  18. Formulation and optimization of potassium iodide tablets

    PubMed Central

    Al-Achi, Antoine; Patel, Binit

    2014-01-01

    The use of potassium iodide (KI) as a protective agent against accidental radioactive exposure is well established. In this study, we aimed to prepare a KI tablet formulation using a direct compression method. We utilized Design of Experiment (DoE)/mixture design to define the best formulation with predetermined physical qualities as to its dissolution, hardness, assay, disintegration, and angle of repose. Based on the results from the DoE, the formulation had the following components (%w/w): Avicel 48.70%, silicon dioxide 0.27%, stearic acid (1.00%), magnesium stearate 2.45%, and dicalcium phosphate 18.69%, in addition to potassium iodide 28.89% (130 mg/tablet). This formulation was scaled-up using two tablet presses, a single-punch press and a rotary mini tablet press. The final scaled-up formulation was subjected to a variety of quality control tests, including photo-stability testing. The results indicate that potassium iodide tablets prepared by a rotary mini tablet press had good pharmaceutical characteristics and a shelf-life of 25 days when stored at room temperature protected from light. PMID:25685048

  19. Formulation and optimization of potassium iodide tablets.

    PubMed

    Al-Achi, Antoine; Patel, Binit

    2015-01-01

    The use of potassium iodide (KI) as a protective agent against accidental radioactive exposure is well established. In this study, we aimed to prepare a KI tablet formulation using a direct compression method. We utilized Design of Experiment (DoE)/mixture design to define the best formulation with predetermined physical qualities as to its dissolution, hardness, assay, disintegration, and angle of repose. Based on the results from the DoE, the formulation had the following components (%w/w): Avicel 48.70%, silicon dioxide 0.27%, stearic acid (1.00%), magnesium stearate 2.45%, and dicalcium phosphate 18.69%, in addition to potassium iodide 28.89% (130 mg/tablet). This formulation was scaled-up using two tablet presses, a single-punch press and a rotary mini tablet press. The final scaled-up formulation was subjected to a variety of quality control tests, including photo-stability testing. The results indicate that potassium iodide tablets prepared by a rotary mini tablet press had good pharmaceutical characteristics and a shelf-life of 25 days when stored at room temperature protected from light. PMID:25685048

  20. Drawbacks of Surfactant Presence on the Dissolution and Mechanical Properties of Detergent Tablets: How to Control Interfaces by Surfactant Localization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Florence Chantraine; Marylène Viana; Christelle Pouget; Nelly Brielles; Olivier Mondain-Monval; Paul Branlard; Gilles Rubinstenn; Dominique Chulia

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to limit the hurdles generated by the presence of a surfactant, i.e., sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS),\\u000a in effervescent detergent tablets containing a chlorine provider. The results are highlighted by investigating the tablet’s\\u000a functional characteristics (mechanical strength, disintegration time). A second objective is to increase the surfactant content\\u000a of the tablet in order to improve

  1. A comprehensive in vitro and in vivo evaluation of thiolated matrix tablets as a gastroretentive delivery system.

    PubMed

    Senyigit, Zeynep Ay; Vetter, Anja; Guneri, Tamer; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of thiolated matrix tablets for gastroretentive delivery systems. Poly(acrylic acid)-cysteine (PAA-Cys) and chitosan-4-thiobuthylamidine (chitosan-TBA) were evaluated as anionic and cationic thiolated polymers and riboflavin was used as a model drug. Tablets were prepared by direct compression and each formulation was characterized in terms of disintegration, swelling, mucoadhesion, and drug release properties. Thereafter, the gastric residence times of tablets were determined with in vivo study in rats. The resulting PAA-Cys and chitosan-TBA conjugates displayed 172.80 ± 30.33 and 371.11 ± 72.74 µmol free thiol groups, respectively. Disintegration studies demonstrated the stability of thiolated tablets up to 24 h, whereas tablets prepared with unmodified PAA and chitosan disintegrated within a time period of 1 h. Mucoadhesion studies showed that mucoadhesion work of PAA-Cys and chitosan-TBA tablets were 1.341- and 2.139-times higher than unmodified ones. The mucoadhesion times of PAA, PAA-Cys, chitosan, and chitosan-TBA tablets were 1.5 ± 0.5, 21 ± 1, 1 ± 0.5, 17 ± 1 h, respectively. These results confirm the theory that thiol groups react with mucin glycoproteins and form covalent bonds to the mucus layer. Release studies indicated that a controlled release was provided with thiolated tablets up to 24 h. These promising in vitro results of thiolated tablets were proved with in vivo studies. The thiolated tablets showed a gastroretention time up to 6 h, whereas unmodified tablets completely disintegrated within 1 h in rat stomach. Consequently, the study suggests that thiolated matrix tablets might be promising formulations for gastroretentive delivery systems. PMID:21463156

  2. A quality-by-design study for an immediate-release tablet platform: examining the relative impact of active pharmaceutical ingredient properties, processing methods, and excipient variability on drug product quality attributes.

    PubMed

    Kushner, Joseph; Langdon, Beth A; Hicks, Ian; Song, Daniel; Li, Fasheng; Kathiria, Lalji; Kane, Anil; Ranade, Gautam; Agarwal, Kam

    2014-02-01

    The impact of filler-lubricant particle size ratio variation (3.4-41.6) on the attributes of an immediate-release tablet was compared with the impacts of the manufacturing method used (direct compression or dry granulation) and drug loading (1%, 5%, and 25%), particle size (D[4,3]: 8-114 ?m), and drug type (theophylline or ibuprofen). All batches were successfully manufactured, except for direct compression of 25% drug loading of 8 ?m (D[4,3]) drug, which exhibited very poor flow properties. All manufactured tablets possessed adequate quality attributes: tablet weight uniformity <4% RSD, tablet potency: 94%-105%, content uniformity <6% RSD, acceptance value ? 15, solid fraction: 0.82-0.86, tensile strength >1 MPa, friability ? 0.2% weight loss, and disintegration time < 4 min. The filler-lubricant particle size ratio exhibited the greatest impact on blend and granulation particle size and granulation flow, whereas drug property variation dominated blend flow, ribbon solid fraction, and tablet quality attributes. Although statistically significant effects were observed, the results of this study suggest that the manufacturability and performance of this immediate-release tablet formulation is robust to a broad range of variation in drug properties, both within-grade and extra-grade excipient particle size variations, and the choice of manufacturing method. PMID:24375069

  3. Formulation and optimization of orodispersible tablets of flutamide.

    PubMed

    Elkhodairy, Kadria A; Hassan, Maha A; Afifi, Samar A

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to formulate orodispersible tablets of flutamide (FTM) to increase its bioavailability. Orodispersible tablets were prepared by direct compression technique using three different approaches namely; super-disintegration, effervescence and sublimation. Different combined approaches were proposed and evaluated to optimize tablet characteristics. Sodium starch glycolate (SSG) was used as the superdisintegrant. The prepared powder mixtures were subjected to both pre and post compression evaluation parameters including; IR spectroscopy, micromeritics properties, tablet hardness, friability, wetting time, disintegration time and in-vitro drug release. IR studies indicated that there was no interaction between the drug and the excipients used except Ludipress. The results of micromeritics studies revealed that all formulations were of acceptable to good flowability. Tablet hardness and friability indicated good mechanical strength. Wetting and dispersion times decreased from 46 to 38 s by increasing the SSG concentration from 3.33 to 6.66% w/w in tablets prepared by superdisintegration method. The F8 formulation which was prepared by combined approaches of effervescence and superdisintegrant addition gave promising results for tablet disintegration and wetting times but failed to give faster dissolution rate. The incorporation of 1:5 solid dispersion of FTM: PEG 6000 instead of the pure drug in the same formulation increased the drug release rate from 73.12 to 96.99% after 15 min. This increase in the dissolution rate may be due to the amorphization of the drug during the solid dispersion preparation. The presence of the amorphous form of the drug was shown in the IR spectra. PMID:24493974

  4. Absorption of effervescent paracetamol tablets relative to ordinary paracetamol tablets in healthy volunteers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Rygnestad; K. Zahlsen; F. A. Samdal

    2000-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the rate of absorption between ordinary paracetamol tablets and effervescent paracetamol\\u000a tablets.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods: Twenty healthy volunteers participated in an open randomised crossover study and were given a 1000-mg dose of either ordinary\\u000a paracetamol tablets (2??500?mg Panodil tablets, SmithKline Beecham) or effervescent paracetamol tablets (2??500?mg Pinex\\u000a Brusetablett, Alpharma AS) with a 3-week

  5. The comparison of ultrasonic disintegration in laboratory and technical scale disintegrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielewicz, E.; Sorys, P.

    2008-02-01

    The study was aimed at finding the impact of the construction of two disintegration instruments (laboratory and technical scale) on the effects of ultrasonic disintegration. The tests were carried out on excess sewage sludge and an increase in soluble COD in the sludge after ultrasonic disintegration was determined. In both types of disintegrators, the sludge was subjected to ultrasounds at the same level of energy density, but the disintegration effects were about three times higher in the case of the technical module application.

  6. Surfactants modify the release from tablets made of hydrophobically modified poly (acrylic acid)?

    PubMed Central

    Knöös, Patrik; Onder, Sebla; Pedersen, Lina; Piculell, Lennart; Ulvenlund, Stefan; Wahlgren, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Many novel pharmaceutically active substances are characterized by a high hydrophobicity and a low water solubility, which present challenges for their delivery as drugs. Tablets made from cross-linked hydrophobically modified poly (acrylic acid) (CLHMPAA), commercially available as Pemulen™, have previously shown promising abilities to control the release of hydrophobic model substances. This study further investigates the possibility to use CLHMPAA in tablet formulations using ibuprofen as a model substance. Furthermore, surfactants were added to the dissolution medium in order to simulate the presence of bile salts in the intestine. The release of ibuprofen is strongly affected by the presence of surfactant and/or buffer in the dissolution medium, which affect both the behaviour of CLHMPAA and the swelling of the gel layer that surrounds the disintegrating tablets. Two mechanisms of tablet disintegration were observed under shear, namely conventional dissolution of a soluble tablet matrix and erosion of swollen insoluble gel particles from the tablet. The effects of surfactant in the surrounding medium can be circumvented by addition of surfactant to the tablet. With added surfactant, tablets that may be insusceptible to the differences in bile salt level between fasted or fed states have been produced, thus addressing a central problem in controlled delivery of hydrophobic drugs. In other words CLHMPAA is a potential candidate to be used in tablet formulations for controlled release with poorly soluble drugs. PMID:25755999

  7. Comparative bioavailability of two brands of atenolol 100 mg tablets (Tensotin and Tenormin) in healthy human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Najib, Naji M; Idkaidek, Nasir; Adel, Ayman; Mohammed, B; Al-Masri, Sahar; Admour, Isra'; Alam, S Mahmood; Dham, Ruwayda; Qumaruzaman

    2005-01-01

    A bioequivalence study of two oral formulations of 100 mg atenolol was carried out in 24 healthy volunteers following a single dose, two-sequence, cross-over randomized design at the International Pharmaceutical Research Centre (IPRC), as a joint venture with Al-Mowasah Hospital, Amman, Jordan. The two formulations were Tensotin (Julphar, UAE) as test and Tenormin (Zeneca, UK) as reference product. Both test and reference tablets were administered with 240 ml of water to each subject after an overnight fast on 2 treatment days separated by a 1 week washout period. After dosing, serial blood samples were collected for a period of 36 h. Whole blood was analysed for atenolol by a sensitive, reproducible and accurate HPLC method with fluorescence detection capable of detecting atenolol in the range of 20-1600 ng/ml with a limit of quantitation of 20 ng/ml. Various pharmacokinetic parameters including AUC0-t, AUC0-proportional to), Cmax, Tmax, T1/2 and lambdaZ were determined from blood concentrations of both formulations and found to be in good agreement with reported values. AUC0-t, AUC0-proportional to), and Cmax were tested for bioequivalence after log-transformation of data using ANOVA and 90% confidence interval and were found within the acceptable range of 80%-125%. Based on these statistical inferences, it was concluded that Tensotin is bioequivalent to Tenormin. PMID:15578769

  8. Formulation Design and Optimization of Orodispersible Tablets of Quetiapine Fumarate by Sublimation Method

    PubMed Central

    Kalyankar, P.; Panzade, P.; Lahoti, S.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of present study was to formulate directly compressible orodispersible tablets of quetiapine fumarate by sublimation method with a view to enhance patient compliance. A full 32 factorial design was used to investigate the effect of two variables viz., concentration of Indion 414 and camphor. Indion 414 (3-5 % w/w) was used as superdisintegrant and camphor (5-15 % w/w) as subliming agent. The tablets were evaluated for thickness, weight variation, hardness, friability, content uniformity, wetting time, porosity, in vitro disintegration time and in vitro drug release. The formulation containing 5% w/w of Indion 414 and 5% w/w camphor was emerged as promising based on evaluation parameters. The disintegration time for optimized formulation was 18.66 s. The tablet surface was evaluated for presence of pores by scanning electron microscopy before and after sublimation. Differential scanning colorimetric study did not indicate any drug excipient incompatibility, either during mixing or after compression. The effect of independent variables on disintegration time, % drug release and friability is presented graphically by surface response plots. Short-term stability studies on the optimized formulation indicated no significant changes in drug content and in vitro disintegration time. The directly compressible orodispersible tablets of quetiapine fumarate with lower friability, greater drug release and shorter disintegration times were obtained using Indion 414 and camphor at optimum concentrations. PMID:26180271

  9. Sufentanil Sublingual Tablet System vs. Intravenous Patient-Controlled Analgesia with Morphine for Postoperative Pain Control: A Randomized, Active-Comparator Trial

    PubMed Central

    Melson, Timothy I; Boyer, David L; Minkowitz, Harold S; Turan, Alparslan; Chiang, Yu-Kun; Evashenk, Mark A; Palmer, Pamela P

    2014-01-01

    Background Problems with intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IV PCA) are well known, including invasive route of delivery and pump programming errors. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate patient satisfaction with a novel sublingual sufentanil PCA system (sufentanil sublingual tablet system 15 mcg with a 20-minute lockout interval; SSTS) to IV PCA morphine sulfate 1 mg with a 6-minute lockout interval (IV PCA MS) for the management of acute postoperative pain. Methods This was a randomized, open-label, 48-hour non-inferiority study with optional extension to 72 hours at 26 U.S. sites enrolling patients scheduled for elective major open abdominal or orthopedic (hip or knee replacement) surgery. The primary outcome measure was the proportion of patients who responded “good” or “excellent” (collectively “success”) at the 48-hour timepoint on the Patient Global Assessment of method of pain control (PGA48). Results A total of 357 patients received study drug and 78.5% vs. 65.6% of patients achieved PGA48 “success” for SSTS vs. IV PCA MS, respectively, demonstrating non-inferiority (P < 0.001 using the one-side Z-test against the non-inferiority margin) as well as statistical superiority for treatment effect (P = 0.007). Patients using SSTS reported more rapid onset of analgesia and patient and nurse ease of care and satisfaction scores were higher than IV PCA MS. Adverse events were similar between the 2 groups; however, SSTS had fewer patients experiencing oxygen desaturations below 95% compared to IV PCA MS (P = 0.028). Conclusions Sufentanil sublingual tablet system is a promising new analgesic technology that may address some of the concerns with IV PCA. PMID:25155134

  10. Impact of physicochemical environment on the super disintegrant functionality of cross-linked carboxymethyl sodium starch: insight on formulation precautions.

    PubMed

    Delalonde, Michèle; Fitouri, Raja; Ruiz, Emilie; Bataille, Bernard; Sharkawi, Tahmer

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this work is to improve the understanding of the physicochemical mechanisms involved in the functionality of cross-linked carboxymethyl sodium starch (CCSS) as a tablet super disintegrant (SD). The behavior and properties of this SD (medium uptake, disintegration times, particle size, and rheology) was investigated in a wetting medium of different physicochemical properties. In particular, the relative permittivity (dielectric constant) of these media was intentionally modified for evaluating its effect on CCSS properties. Results showed different swelling behaviors of CCSS particles according to the relative permittivity of the tested media and allow to propose two underlying mechanisms that explain CCSS functionality. Both the intra-particular swelling and the inter-particular repulsion are affected by the relative permittivity of the media. Finally, disintegration test performed on tablets specially formulated with mannitol (used commonly as an excipient and known to modify relative permittivity) confirmed that the functionality of CCSS and therefore the disintegration of the tablet can be altered according to the mannitol content. PMID:25348810

  11. Comparison of Preference for Rizatriptan 10-mg Wafer versus Sumatriptan 50-mg Tablet in Migraine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julio Pascual; Gennaro Bussone; Jose Fernando Hernandez; Christopher Allen; Krupa Patel

    2001-01-01

    Rizatriptan (MAXALTTM, a registered trademark of Merck & Co. Inc.) is a selective 5-HT1B\\/1D receptor agonist with rapid oral absorption and early onset of action in the acute treatment of migraine. This randomized, open-label, crossover outpatient study assessed the preference of 481 patients for rizatriptan 10-mg rapidly disintegrating tablets versus sumatriptan (IMIGRANTM, a registered trademark of GlaxoWellcome PLC) 50-mg tablets

  12. Development and optimization of carvedilol orodispersible tablets: enhancement of pharmacokinetic parameters in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Aljimaee, Yazeed HM; El-Helw, Abdel-Rahim M; Ahmed, Osama AA; El-Say, Khalid M

    2015-01-01

    Background Carvedilol (CVD) is used for the treatment of essential hypertension, heart failure, and systolic dysfunction after myocardial infarction. Due to its lower aqueous solubility and extensive first-pass metabolism, the absolute bioavailability of CVD does not exceed 30%. To overcome these drawbacks, the objective of this work was to improve the solubility and onset of action of CVD through complexation with hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin and formulation of the prepared complex as orodispersible tablets (ODTs). Methods Compatibility among CVD and all tablet excipients using differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, complexation of CVD with different polymers, and determination of the solubility of CVD in the prepared complexes were first determined. A Box-Behnken design (BBD) was used to study the effect of tablet formulation variables on the characteristics of the prepared tablets and to optimize preparation conditions. According to BBD design, 15 formulations of CVD-ODTs were prepared by direct compression and then evaluated for their quality attributes. The relative pharmacokinetic parameters of the optimized CVD-ODTs were compared with those of the marketed CVD tablet. A single dose, equivalent to 2.5 mg/kg CVD, was administered orally to New Zealand white rabbits using a double-blind, randomized, crossover design. Results The solubility of CVD was improved from 7.32 to 22.92 mg/mL after complexation with hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin at a molar ratio of 1:2 (CVD to cyclodextrin). The formulated CVD-ODTs showed satisfactory results concerning tablet hardness (5.35 kg/cm2), disintegration time (18 seconds), and maximum amount of CVD released (99.72%). The pharmacokinetic data for the optimized CVD-ODT showed a significant (P<0.05) increase in maximum plasma concentration from 363.667 to 496.4 ng/mL, and a shortening of the time taken to reach maximum plasma concentration to 2 hours in comparison with the marketed tablet. Conclusion The optimized CVD-ODTs showed improved oral absorption of CVD and a subsequent acceleration of clinical effect, which is favored for hypertensive and cardiac patients. PMID:25834396

  13. Comparison of the Halving of Tablets Prepared with Eccentric and Rotary Tablet Presses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Sovány; P. Kása Jr.; K. Pintye-Hódi

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the densification of powder mixtures on eccentric and rotary tablet presses and to establish\\u000a relationships with the halving properties of the resulting scored tablets. This is an important problem because the recent\\u000a guidelines of EU require verification of the equal masses of tablet halves. The models of Walker, Heckel, and Kawakita were

  14. Effi cacy and safety of artemether-lumefantrine dispersible tablets compared with crushed commercial tablets in African infants and children with uncomplicated malaria: a randomised, single-blind, multicentre trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Salim Abdulla; Issaka Sagara; Umberto D'Alessandro; Raquel González; Mary Hamel; Bernhards Ogutu; Andreas Mårtensson; John Lyimo; Hamma Maiga; Philip Sasi; Alain Nahum; Elizabeth Juma; Lucas Otieno; Anders Björkman; Hans Peter; Kim Andriano; Marc Cousin; Gilbert Lefèvre; David Ubben

    Methods We did a randomised non-inferiority study on children weighing 5-35 kg with uncomplicated P falciparum malaria in Benin, Kenya, Mali, M ozambique, and Tanzania. The primary outcome measure was PCR-corrected 28-day parasitological cure rate. We aimed to show non-inferiority (with a margin of -5%) of dispersible versus crushed tablet. We constructed an asymptotic one-sided 97·5% CI on the diff

  15. Temporal disintegration in depersonalization disorder.

    PubMed

    Simeon, Daphne; Hwu, Ruth; Knutelska, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    Distortions of the experience of time are central to some types of dissociative experiences. In this study, we investigated the relationship between a self-report measure of temporal disintegration and symptoms of dissociation in depersonalization disorder (DPD). Fifty-two DPD and thirty non-clinical control participants were administered the Dissociative Experience Scale (DES) and Temporal Integration Inventory (TII). The DPD group had significantly higher TII scores than the control group. Within the DPD group, there was a significant positive correlation between DES total score and TII total score, and between TII-time distinction subscale score and TII-agency subscale score. In the DPD group, TII scores were not associated with age of onset or duration of illness. Of the three dissociative domains of absorption, amnesia, and depersonalization/derealization, only absorption was a significant predictor of TII total and subscale scores by stepwise linear regression analyses. We conclude that the experience of temporal disintegration in DPD is not directly related to the core symptoms of depersonalization/derealization, but exists when the depersonalized experience involves more prominent absorption. PMID:17409052

  16. Finite covers of disintegrated sets Martin Ziegler

    E-print Network

    Ziegler, Martin

    Finite covers of disintegrated sets Martin Ziegler January 1992 1 Introduction Let X be structure the ønite covers are in the simplest of all cases: where X is a countable set without structure, a disintegrated set. Remark 1.1 Let ¯ E be a ønite cover of X. Since ¯ E is algebraic over X every automorphism

  17. Finite covers of disintegrated sets Martin Ziegler

    E-print Network

    Ziegler, Martin

    Finite covers of disintegrated sets set without structure, a disintegrated set. Remark 1.1 Let ~Ebe a onite cover of X. Since ~Eis) = Aut(E~)K0. Let F be a set with f0 elements. We make (F x X, X) to a onite covering by * *adding

  18. Finite covers of disintegrated sets Martin Ziegler

    E-print Network

    Ziegler, Martin

    Finite covers of disintegrated sets Martin Ziegler January 1992 1 Introduction Let X be structure covers are in the simplest of all cases: where X is a countable set without structure, a disintegrated set. Remark 1.1 Let ¯E be a finite cover of X. Since ¯E is algebraic over X every automorphism of X

  19. Internal solitary waves: propagation, deformation and disintegration

    E-print Network

    Internal solitary waves: propagation, deformation and disintegration Roger Grimshaw1 , Tatiana-amplitude, horizontally propagating internal solitary waves. Typically these waves occur in regions of variable bottom the propagation, deformation and disintegration of internal solitary waves as they propagate over the continental

  20. Release of indomethacin from bioadhesive tablets containing carbopol 941 modified with Abelmuschus esculentus (okra) gum.

    PubMed

    Attama, A A; Adikwu, M U; Amorha, C J

    2003-09-01

    Carbopol 941 (C-941) and Abelmuschus esculentus gum (Okra gum, AEG) were used as bioadhesive polymers in the formulation of mucoadhesive indomethacin tablets. Different batches of the tablet compacts were formulated based on different combination ratios of the polymers. The bioadhesive properties of the tablets were studied using a tensiometer: Tablets coated with 50% w/v solution of Eudragit I. 100 in ethanol, were also prepared and evaluated. The following tablet physical properties were evaluated: hardness, uniformity of weight, disintegration time, friability, and absolute drug content. Release studies were determined in simulated intestinal fluid (SIF pH 7.2) without pancreatin, and in 0.1 N solution of HCl. Result obtained indicated that tablets with equal ratio of C-941 and AEG (1:1) gave the highest bioadhesive strength for both the coated and uncoated tablets. The percentage of drug released ranged from 53-90% for uncoated tablets in 0.1 N HCl and SIF, and 9-16% for coated tablets in 0.1 N HCl, and 63-100% for coated tablets in SIF after 8 hrs. PMID:14677275

  1. Prevalence of childhood disintegrative disorder.

    PubMed

    Fombone, Eric

    2002-06-01

    The prevalence of childhood disintegrative disorder (CDD) is unknown. In this study, 32 epidemiological surveys of autism and pervasive developmental disorders published in English language journals since 1966 were reviewed. Four surveys yielded estimates for CDD ranging from 1.1 to 6.4 per 100,000 subjects. A pooled estimate across these four surveys is 1.7 per 100,000 (95 percent Confidence Interval: 0.6-3.8 per 100,000). The conclusion is that CDD is very rare and its prevalence is 60 times less than that for autistic disorder, assuming a prevalence of 10 per 10,000 for autism. If a rate of 30 per 10,000 is taken for all PDDs, only one child out of 175 children with a PDD diagnosis would, on average, meet criteria for CDD. PMID:12083281

  2. Single-dose bioavailability of levetiracetam intravenous infusion relative to oral tablets and multiple-dose pharmacokinetics and tolerability of levetiracetam intravenous infusion compared with placebo in healthy subjects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven Ramael; Florence De Smedt; Nathalie Toublanc; Christian Otoul; Pierre Boulanger; Jean-Michel Riethuisen; Armel Stockis

    2006-01-01

    Background: Antiepileptic drugs are usually administere dorally, but alternative routes of drug delivery may be required when oral administration is not feasible.Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the single-dose bioavailability of an IV formulation of levetiracetam relative to oral tablets and the multiple-dose tolerability and pharmacokinetics of this formulation compared with placebo in healthy subjects.Methods: This study

  3. A single-dose, three-period, six-sequence crossover study comparing the bioavailability of solution, suspension, and enteric-coated tablets of magnesium valproate in healthy Mexican volunteers under fasting conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gabriel Marcelín-Jiménez; Alionka P. Angeles-Moreno; Leticia Contreras-Zavala; Miriam Morales-Martínez; Liliana Rivera-Espinosa

    2009-01-01

    Background: Valproic acid has been associated with a highly variable intersubject absorptive phase; therefore, magnesium salt (magnesium valproate [MgV]) was developed to diminish variation during enteric absorption.Objectives: The aims of this study were to assess the pharmacokinetics of single oral doses of MgV 500-mg solution, suspension, and enteric-coated tablets in a healthy Mexican population, and to compare formulation-related differences.Methods: This

  4. Development Strategies for Herbal Products Reducing the Influence of Natural Variance in Dry Mass on Tableting Properties and Tablet Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Qusaj, Ylber; Leng, Andreas; Alshihabi, Firas; Krasniqi, Blerim; Vandamme, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    One “Quality by Design” approach is the focus on the variability of the properties of the active substance. This is crucially important for active substances that are obtained from natural resources such as herbal plant material and extracts. In this paper, we present various strategies for the development of herbal products especially taking into account the natural batch-to-batch variability (mainly of the dry mass) of tablets that contain a fixed amount of tincture. The following steps in the development have been evaluated for the outcome of the physico-chemical properties of the resulting tablets and intermediates: concentration of the tincture extracted from Echinacea fresh plant, loading of the concentrate onto an inert carrier, the respective wet granulation and drying step, including milling, and the adjuvant excipients for the tablet compression step. The responses that were investigated are the mean particle size of the dried and milled granulates, compaction properties and disintegration time of the tablets. Increased particle size showed a significant increase of the disintegration time and a decrease of the compaction properties. In addition, our results showed that the particle size has a great dependency on the ratio of liquid to carrier during the wet granulation process. Thus, the variability of the respective parameters tested was influenced by the performed strategies, which is how the tincture correlated to its dry mass and the relation of the amount of carrier used. In order to optimize these parameters, a strategy considering the above-mentioned points has to be chosen. PMID:24300367

  5. Preparation and biological efficacy of haddock bone calcium tablets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Jiancong; Deng, Shanggui; Xie, Chao; Tong, Guozhong

    2010-03-01

    To investigate the possible use of waste products obtained after processing haddock, the present study prepared haddock bone calcium powder by NaOH and ethanol soaking (alkalinealcohol method) and prepared haddock bone calcium tablets using the powder in combination with appropriate excipients. The biological efficacy of the haddock bone calcium tablets was investigated using Wistar rats as an experiment model. Results show that the optimal parameters for the alkalinealcohol method are: NaOH concentration 1 mol/L, immersion time 30 h; ethanol concentration 60%, immersion time 15 h. A mixture of 2% polyvinylpyrrolidone in ethanol was used as an excipient at a ratio of 1:2 to full-cream milk powder, without the use of a disintegrating agent. This process provided satisfactory tablets in terms of rigidity and taste. Animal studies showed that the haddock bone calcium tablets at a dose of 2 g·kg-1·d-1 or 5g·kg-1·d-1 significantly increased blood calcium and phosphorus levels and bone calcium content in rats. Therefore, these tablets could be used for calcium supplementation and prevent osteoporosis. Although the reasons of high absorption in the rats fed with haddock bone calcium tablets are unclear, it is suggested that there are some factors, such as treatment with method of alkaline-alcohol or the added milk, may play positive roles in increasing absorption ratio.

  6. Formulation, release characteristics and bioavailability of novel monolithic hydroxypropylmethylcellulose matrix tablets containing acetaminophen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qing-Ri Cao; Yun-Woong Choi; Jing-Hao Cui; Beom-Jin Lee

    2005-01-01

    Effect of incorporating pharmaceutical excipients on the in vitro release profiles and the release mechanism of monolithic hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (4000 cps) matrix tablets (m-HPMC tablets) in terms of mimicking the dual drug release character of bi-layered Tylenol® ER tablets was studied. We also compared the in vitro release profiles of optimized m-HPMC matrix tablet and Tylenol® ER tablet in water, pH

  7. Randomized Clinical Trial Comparing the Pharmacokinetics of Standard- and Increased-Dosage Lopinavir-Ritonavir Coformulation Tablets in HIV-Positive Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Estrela, Rita de Cássia Elias; Veloso, Valdiléa Gonçalves; Cattani, Vitória Berg; Yanavich, Carolyn; Velasque, Luciane; Torres, Thiago Silva; Marins, Luana Monteiro Spindola; Pilotto, José Henrique; João, Esaú Custódio; Gonçalves, José Carlos Saraiva; Grinsztejn, Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    A lopinavir-ritonavir (LPV/r)-based regimen is recommended during pregnancy to reduce the risk of HIV mother-to-child transmission, but the appropriate dose is controversial. We compared the pharmacokinetics of standard and increased LPV/r doses during pregnancy. This randomized, open-label prospective study enrolled 60 pregnant women between gestational weeks 14 and 30. The participants received either the standard dose (400/100 mg twice a day [BID]) or increased dose (600/150 mg BID) of LPV/r tablets during pregnancy and the standard dose for 6 weeks after childbirth. Pharmacokinetics analysis was performed using a high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. Adherent participants who received the standard dose presented minimum LPV concentrations of 4.4, 4.3, and 6.1 ?g/ml in the second and third trimesters and postpartum, respectively. The increased-dose group exhibited values of 7.9, 6.9, and 9.2 ?g/ml at the same three time points. Although LPV exposure was significantly higher in the increased-dose group, the standard dose produced therapeutic levels of LPV against wild-type virus in all adherent participants, except one patient in the third trimester; 50%, 37.5%, and 25%, and 0%, 15%, and 0% of the participants in the standard- and increased-dose groups failed to achieve therapeutic levels against resistant viruses during the second and third trimesters and after childbirth, respectively. After 12 weeks of treatment and after childbirth, all adherent participants achieved undetectable HIV viral loads, and their babies (49/54) were uninfected. No serious drug-related adverse events were observed. We conclude that the standard dose is appropriate for use during pregnancy and that an increased dose may be necessary for women harboring resistant HIV. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT00605098.) PMID:24614377

  8. Potential of carnuba wax in ameliorating brittle fracture during tableting.

    PubMed

    Uhumwangho, M U; Okor, R S; Adogah, J T

    2009-01-01

    Carnuba wax (as binder) forms hard tablets even at low compression load attributable to its high plasticity. The aim of the present study is to investigate its potential in ameliorating brittle fracture (i.e., lamination and capping) a problem often encountered during tableting. Granules of paracetamol (test drug) were made by triturating the drug powder with the melted wax or starch mucilage (20%w/v). Resulting granules were separated into different size fractions which were separately compressed into tablets with and without a centre hole (as in- built defect) using different compression loads. The tablets were evaluated for tensile strength and the data used to calculate the brittle fracture index (BFI), using the expression: BFI = 0.5(T/T(0)-1) where T0 and T are the tensile strength of tablets with and without a centre hole respectively. The BFI values were significantly lower (p<0.05) in tablets made with carnuba wax compared with tablets made with maize starch as binders. Increase in particle size of the granules or lowering of the compression load further ameliorated the brittle fracture tendency of the tablets. Using granules with the larger particle size (850microm) and applying the lowest unit of load (6 arbitrary unit on the load scale of the tableting machine) the BFI values were 0.03 (carnuba wax tablets) and 0.11 (maize starch tablets). When the conditions were reversed (i.e., a highest load, 8 units and the smallest particle size, 212microm) the BFI values now became 0.17 (carnuba wax tablets) and 0.26 (maize starch tablets). The indication is that the use of large granules and low compression loads to form tablets can further enhance the potential of carnuba wax in ameliorating brittle fracture tendency of tablets during their manufacture. PMID:19168422

  9. Granulation by roller compaction and enteric coated tablet formulation of the extract of the seeds of Glinus lotoides loaded on Aeroperl 300 Pharma.

    PubMed

    Endale, Abebe; Gebre-Mariam, Tsige; Schmidt, Peter C

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to improve the hygroscopicity and poor flow properties of the crude dry extract of the seeds of Glinus lotoides and improve the disintegration time of the core-tablets for enteric coated formulation thereof. The liquid crude extract of the plant was adsorbed on granulated colloidal silicon dioxide (Aeroperl 300 Pharma) at 30% w/w and the dry extract preparation (DEP) was dry-granulated with roller-compaction using Micro-Pactor. Hygroscopicity, flow property and disintegration time were improved significantly due to the adsorption and granulation processes. Moreover, the DEP does not become mucilaginous even at higher relative humidity levels (above 65%). Oblong tablets (20 x 8.25 mm) containing 947 mg of the granulated DEP (equivalent to the traditional dose), 363 mg of Avicel PH101 and 90 mg of Ac-di-Sol as disintegrant were formulated using an instrumented eccentric tablet machine at 20 kN. The tablets showed a crushing strength of 195 N, a friability of 0.4% and disintegrated within 9 min. The tablets were then enteric coated using polymethacrylate co-polymers (Eudragit L 100-55 and Kollicoat MAE 100P). The coated tablets resisted disintegration or softening in simulated gastric fluid for a minimum of 2 h and disintegrated within 15 min in intestine simulated fluid at pH 6.8. In addition to controlling the release of the active agents, the enteric coating improved the strength and decreased friability of the core-tablets. PMID:18446458

  10. Formulation of a extended release tablet containing dexibuprofen.

    PubMed

    Yi, Hong Gi; Chi, Moon Hyuk; Kim, Yong-Il; Woo, Jong Soo; Park, Eun-Seok

    2008-12-01

    Dexibuprofen, or S(+)-ibuprofen, is the pharmacologically effective enantiomer of racemic ibuprofen. Since dexibuprofen has a low melting point, the amorphous form having a high melting point was prepared with the fused solid dispersion method. With the fused solid dispersion of dexibuprofen, immediate release tablets, extended release tablets, and dual release tablets were compressed and their dissolution profiles compared. The dissolution profiles of the extended release and the dual release tablet depended on the amount of used release modulators (PEO 5,000,000). The release profiles of extended release tablets and extended release part of dual release tablets were well fitted to zero-order release model. The correlation coefficient ranged from 0.982 to 0.995. A pharmacokinetic evaluation where healthy volunteers took tablets of DRT-1 (300 mg) once and the reference drug, two tablets of conventional immediate release tablet (Daxfen, 300 mg), with a 6-h interval between them was studied. The 90% confidence interval for the ratio of the logarithmically transformed AUC (0-24 h), Cmax (0-6 h), and Cmax (6-24 h) values of the dual release tablet compared to those of the conventional immediate release tablet were calculated to be between 0.9176 and 1.0007, 0.9240 and 1.1968, and 0.8713 and 1.1414, respectively. When the immediate release tablet was taken two times with a six hour interval between doses it showed a bioequivalent effect to taking the dual release tablet once within 12 h. The Cmax was reached due to the rapid absorption of the immediate release portion of the dual release tablet and the AUC was maintained due to continuous absorption of the extended release portion. PMID:19099235

  11. Bioequivalence of zonisamide orally dispersible tablet and immediate-release capsule formulations: Results from two open-label, randomized-sequence, single-dose, two-period, two-treatment crossover studies in healthy male volunteers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rob van Maanen; Darren Bentley

    2009-01-01

    Background: To make it easier for patients who are prescribed zonisamide to administer their medicine, a rapidly disintegrating oral tablet formulation has been developed.Objective: These 2 trials assessed the bioequiva-lence of a new orally dispersible tablet formulation of zonisamide (test) versus an immediate-release reference capsule.Methods: Study 1 assessed the bioequivalence of a 100-mg orally dispersible tablet versus a 100-mg reference

  12. Model Test of Anchoring Effect on Zonal Disintegration in Deep Surrounding Rock Masses

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xu-Guang; Zhang, Qiang-Yong; Wang, Yuan; Liu, De-Jun; Zhang, Ning

    2013-01-01

    The deep rock masses show a different mechanical behavior compared with the shallow rock masses. They are classified into alternating fractured and intact zones during the excavation, which is known as zonal disintegration. Such phenomenon is a great disaster and will induce the different excavation and anchoring methodology. In this study, a 3D geomechanics model test was conducted to research the anchoring effect of zonal disintegration. The model was constructed with anchoring in a half and nonanchoring in the other half, to compare with each other. The optical extensometer and optical sensor were adopted to measure the displacement and strain changing law in the model test. The displacement laws of the deep surrounding rocks were obtained and found to be nonmonotonic versus the distance to the periphery. Zonal disintegration occurs in the area without anchoring and did not occur in the model under anchoring condition. By contrasting the phenomenon, the anchor effect of restraining zonal disintegration was revealed. And the formation condition of zonal disintegration was decided. In the procedure of tunnel excavation, the anchor strain was found to be alternation in tension and compression. It indicates that anchor will show the nonmonotonic law during suppressing the zonal disintegration. PMID:23997683

  13. A single-dose, randomized, two-way crossover study comparing two olanzapine tablet products in healthy adult male volunteers under fasting conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmed H. Elshafeey; Mohamed A. Elsherbiny; Mohsen M. Fathallah

    2009-01-01

    Background: Olanzapine is a psychotropic agent that belongs to the thienobenzodiazepine class.Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the bioequivalence of 2 commercial 10-mg tablet formulations of olanzapine by statistical analysis of the pharmacokinetic parameters Cmax, AUC from 0 to 72 hours after dosing (AUC0-72), and AUC0-? as required by the Egyptian health authority for the marketing of

  14. Thermally induced disintegration of the Bacillus stearothermophilus dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Hiromasa, Y; Aso, Y; Yamashita, S; Meno, K

    2000-09-01

    Upon heat treatment of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex from Bacillus stearothermophilus, the most thermostable component is a dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (E3c). To understand this stability, the thermal disintegration of E3 dissociated from the complex (E3d) was examined, comparing with that of E3c. Judging from residual activity and inactivation rate, E3d was less thermostable than E3c; E3d and E3c lost half of their original activities upon incubations for 30 min at 79 degrees C and 90 degrees C, respectively. Heat treatment of E3d raised the fluorescence intensities of Trp residue, intrinsic FAD, and extrinsic 8-anilinonaphthalene-1-sulfonate. E3d lost FAD, and inactive E3d polypeptides were aggregated. The sulfonate bound to the aggregate became notably fluorescent. The thermal disintegration of E3d was speculated to be a consecutive reaction that was different from the concurrent disintegration reaction of the complex. Some interactions with other component polypeptides was suggested to improve the thermostability of E3c. PMID:11055397

  15. Comparison of Echinacea alkylamide pharmacokinetics between liquid and tablet preparations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Matthias; R. S. Addison; L. L. Agnew; K. M. Bone; K. Watson; R. P. Lehmann

    2007-01-01

    The relative oral bioavailability of alkylamides from two different Echinacea dosage forms (liquid and tablet) were compared in a small two-way crossover study in humans (n=3). The liquid preparation investigated contained a mixture of Echinacea purpurea root (300mg\\/ml) and Echinacea angustifolia root (200mg\\/ml) extracted in 60% ethanol. The tablet preparation investigated was also a mixture of E. purpurea root (675mg\\/tablet)

  16. Formulation and evaluation of fast dissolving tablets of cinnarizine using superdisintegrant blends and subliming material.

    PubMed

    Basu, Biswajit; Bagadiya, Abhishek; Makwana, Sagar; Vipul, Vora; Batt, Devraj; Dharamsi, Abhay

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this investigation was to develop fast dissolving tablet of cinnarizine. A combination of super disintegrants, i.e., sodium starch glycolate (SSG) and crosscarmellose sodium (CCS) were used along with camphor as a subliming material. An optimized concentration of camphor was added to aid the porosity of the tablet. A 3(2) full factorial design was applied to investigate the combined effect of two formulation variables: Amount of SSG and CCS. Infrared (IR) spectroscopy was performed to identify the physicochemical interaction between drug and polymer. IR spectroscopy showed that there is no interaction of drug with polymer. In the present study, direct compression was used to prepare the tablets. The powder mixtures were compressed into tablet using flat face multi punch tablet machine. Camphor was sublimed from the tablet by exposing the tablet to vacuum drier at 60°C for 12 hours. All the formulations were evaluated for their characteristics such as average weight, hardness, wetting time, friability, content uniformity, dispersion time (DT), and dissolution rate. An optimized tablet formulation (F 9) was found to have good hardness of 3.30 ± 0.10 kg/cm(2), wetting time of 42.33 ± 4.04 seconds, DT of 34.67 ± 1.53 seconds, and cumulative drug release of not less than 99% in 16 minutes. PMID:22247895

  17. Improvement in the disintegration of shellac-coated soft gelatin capsules in simulated intestinal fluid.

    PubMed

    Pearnchob, Nantharat; Dashevsky, Andrei; Bodmeier, Roland

    2004-02-10

    Shellac is a natural enteric polymer, which results in good gastric resistance; however, it often dissolves too slowly in intestinal fluids. The objective of this study was to improve the disintegration of shellac-coated soft gelatin capsules in simulated intestinal fluids (phosphate buffer pH 6.8) through the addition of pore-formers, such as organic acids and hydrophilic polymers, while retaining gastric resistance. The mechanical properties (% elongation at rupture, puncture strength at break and modulus at puncture), media uptake and weight loss of shellac films were determined upon exposure in 0.1 N HCl and/or phosphate buffer pH 6.8. Organic acids (e.g., sorbic acid) acted as plasticizers, they reduced the glass transition temperature of ethanol-cast shellac films. The addition of additives effectively decreased the disintegration times in phosphate buffer pH 6.8, while the behavior in 0.1 N HCl remained unchanged. In addition, the hardness and disintegration of shellac-coated soft gelatin capsules were monitored through the whole disintegration experiments. The best disintegration was achieved with sorbic acid as pore-former. Sorbic acid remained in the shellac coating at low pH, but leached in pH 6.8 buffer, thus resulting in good gastric resistance and rapid disintegration in simulated intestinal fluids. The disintegration time of ethanolic shellac-coated soft gelatin capsules decreased with increasing amount of pore-former. The slow disintegration of aqueous shellac-coated soft gelatin capsules could be also improved by the addition of hydrophilic polymers, such as hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC). However, higher HPMC concentrations were required when compared to sorbic acid. PMID:14744483

  18. Formulation, characterization and physicochemical evaluation of amoxicillin effervescent tablets

    PubMed Central

    Aslani, Abolfazl; Sharifian, Tahereh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Amoxicillin is a semisynthetic antibiotic, which is used as an antimicrobial drug. This study was designed to formulate amoxicillin effervescent tablets, aimed at improved patient compliance and increased drug stability. Materials and Methods: In this study, nine effervescent tablet formulations were prepared from amoxicillin trihydrate. The effervescent base was comprised of various amounts of citric acid and sodium bicarbonate. Powders and granules were evaluated for their particle size, bulk density, tapped density, compressibility index, Hausner's ratio and angle of repose. The effervescent tablets were then prepared from powders and granules of acceptable quality by direct compression and fusion methods. The tablets were evaluated for weight variation, friability, pH of solution, carbon dioxide (CO2) content, hardness, effervescence time, thickness, assay, content uniformity, water content and equilibrium moisture content. Results: The results indicated better flowability of granules prepared by fusion method as compared with the direct compression. The percent weight variations of tablets were within the acceptable limit of 0.5%. The friability was less than 1% in all formulations. The solution pH of tablets prepared by direct compression and fusion methods ranged from 4.55 to 5.74 and 4.74-5.84, respectively. The CO2 amounts generated by of fusion method tablets were smaller as compared to the direct compression method. The hardness of tablets was 40.66-56 for direct compression method and 60.6-74.6 for fusion method. The tablets produced by the fusion method had a larger thickness and lower water content than tablets produced by direct compression method. Conclusion: Tablets prepared by the fusion method exhibited superior pre- and post-compression characteristics as compared to tablets prepared by direct compression method. PMID:25371866

  19. Application and Characterization of Gum from Bombax buonopozense Calyxes as an Excipient in Tablet Formulation.

    PubMed

    Ngwuluka, Ndidi C; Kyari, Jehu; Taplong, John; Uwaezuoke, Onyinye J

    2012-01-01

    This study was undertaken to explore gum from Bombax buonopozense calyxes as a binding agent in formulation of immediate release dosage forms using wet granulation method. The granules were characterized to assess the flow and compression properties and when compressed, non-compendial and compendial tests were undertaken to assess the tablet properties for tablets prepared with bombax gum in comparison with those prepared with tragacanth and acacia gums. Granules prepared with bombax exhibited good flow and compressible properties with angle of repose 28.60°, Carr's compressibility of 21.30% and Hausner's quotient of 1.27. The tablets were hard, but did not disintegrate after one hour. Furthermore, only 52.5% of paracetamol was released after one hour. The drug release profile followed zero order kinetics. Tablets prepared with bombax gum have the potential to deliver drugs in a controlled manner over a prolonged period at a constant rate. PMID:24300296

  20. Raman spectroscopic measurement of tablet-to-tablet coating variability.

    PubMed

    Romero-Torres, Saly; Pérez-Ramos, José D; Morris, Kenneth R; Grant, Edward R

    2005-06-15

    We report new results suggesting the feasibility of Raman spectrometry as a tool by which to examine the variability of tablet coatings. Our experiments feature a probe that can operate with a revolving laser focus to average content and coating non-uniformity. Raman spectral changes are correlated with tablet exposure times in a pan coater by means of partial least squares (PLS) multivariate analysis. Statistical models are found to be improved by pre-processing schemes that emphasize spectral changes while minimizing the effects of background light scattering and fluorescence. These pre-processing techniques include multiplicative scatter correction (MSC) and standard normal variate (SNV) transformation, used in concert with Savitzky-Golay second derivative smoothing (SGSD). The two approaches give comparable results yielding R2 values for PLS calibration and cross-calibrated prediction variance regression of 0.999 and 0.997, respectively. Correlation results and model residual values demonstrate that Raman spectroscopy serves sensitively to reflect the coating thickness of the tablets studied. PMID:15925218

  1. Pharmacokinetic comparison of the buprenorphine sublingual liquid and tablet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kory J Schuh; Chris-Ellyn Johanson

    1999-01-01

    Buprenorphine is a ? opioid partial agonist being developed as a treatment for opioid dependence. Buprenorphine, usually administered as a sublingual liquid, is now being developed as a sublingual tablet for clinical use. The present study compared participants’ plasma concentrations after daily maintenance on three buprenorphine liquid doses (2, 4 and 8 mg) and one tablet dose (8 mg). Fourteen

  2. Polymer swelling, drug mobilization and drug recrystallization in hydrating solid dispersion tablets studied by multinuclear NMR microimaging and spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Dahlberg, Carina; Dvinskikh, Sergey V; Schuleit, Michael; Furó, István

    2011-08-01

    Despite the advantages offered by solid dispersions, the marketed products based on this technology are few. The most frequent concern is the stability of the amorphous drug. The state of the drug in solid dispersions is, in general, poorly characterized as the number of characterization techniques available to monitor nanometer-sized drug particles embedded in a matrix are limited. Here we present a combination of localized NMR spectroscopic and NMR imaging techniques which allow in situ monitoring of the state of the drug during tablet disintegration and dissolution. (19)F NMR relaxation is shown to be sensitive to both the crystalline/amorphous state and the size of the model nanoparticles made of the drug substance flutamide. The time course of drug mobilization and recrystallization is detected with spatial resolution within swelling solid dispersion tablets. Comparing results from spatially resolved (19)F, (2)H and (1)H NMR experiments, recrystallization is related to its enabling factors such as local hydration level and local mobility of the polymer matrix. The initially amorphous drug may recrystallize either by nanoparticle coalescence or by ripening of crystalline grains. PMID:21696185

  3. Slow-release of famotidine from tablets consisting of chitosan/sulfobutyl ether ?-cyclodextrin composites.

    PubMed

    Anraku, Makoto; Hiraga, Ayumu; Iohara, Daisuke; Pipkin, James D; Uekama, Kaneto; Hirayama, Fumitoshi

    2015-06-20

    An intermolecular complex formed from a 1:1 weight ratio of chitosan (CS, molecular weight 30kDa) and sulfobutyl ether ?-cyclodextrin (SBE-?-CyD, degree of substitution 7) was less soluble than either of the original components. The release of famotidine from tablets composed of a simple mixture of CS and SBE-?-CyD is slower in media at pH 1.2 than at 6.8. Macroscopic observation of tablets and a kinetic analysis of release profiles suggested that, at pH 1.2, the drug was slowly released from the less-soluble CS/SBE-?-CyD complex formed on the surface of the tablet immediately after exposure to water, accompanied by the dissolution of the interpolymer complex and, ultimately, the erosion and disintegration of the tablet. In the case of the medium at pH 6.8, the formation of a gel by CS was the cause of the slow release, especially for CS/SBE-?-CyD tablets which were significantly gelated and both the diameter and thickness of the tablet had expanded. The in vitro slow releasing characteristic of the CS/SBE-?-CyD tablet was reflected in the in vivo absorption of the drug after oral administration to rats. These results suggest that a simple mixing of CS and SBE-?-CyD is potentially useful for the controlled release of a drug. PMID:25882010

  4. Application of crustacean chitin as a co-diluent in direct compression of tablets.

    PubMed

    Mir, Viviana García; Heinämäki, Jyrki; Antikainen, Osmo; Sandler, Niklas; Revoredo, Ofelia Bilbao; Colarte, Antonio Iraizoz; Nieto, Olga Maria; Yliruusi, Jouko

    2010-03-01

    A "simplex-centroid mixture design" was used to study the direct-compression properties of binary and ternary mixtures of chitin and two cellulosic direct-compression diluents. Native milled and fractioned (125-250 microm) crustacean chitin of lobster origin was blended with microcrystalline cellulose, MCC (Avicel PH 102) and spray-dried lactose-cellulose, SDLC Cellactose (composed of a spray-dried mixture of alpha-lactose monohydrate 75% and cellulose powder 25%). An instrumented single-punch tablet machine was used for tablet compactions. The flowability of the powder mixtures composed of a high percentage of chitin and SDLC was clearly improved. The fractioned pure chitin powder was easily compressed into tablets by using a magnesium stearate level of 0.1% (w/w) but, as the die lubricant level was 0.5% (w/w), the tablet strength collapsed dramatically. The tablets compressed from the binary mixtures of MCC and SDLC exhibited elevated mechanical strengths (>100 N) independent of the die lubricant level applied. In conclusion, fractioned chitin of crustacean origin can be used as an abundant direct-compression co-diluent with the established cellulosic excipients to modify the mechanical strength and, consequently, the disintegration of the tablets. Chitin of crustacean origin, however, is a lubrication-sensitive material, and this should be taken into account in formulating direct-compression tablets of it. PMID:20238188

  5. Risedronate-loaded Eudragit S100 microparticles formulated into tablets.

    PubMed

    Velasquez, Aline A; Mattiazzi, Juliane; Ferreira, Luana M; Pohlmann, Lauren; Silva, Cristiane B; Rolim, Clarice M B; Cruz, Letícia

    2014-05-01

    Risedronate, an anti-osteoporotic drug, is associated with low patient compliance due to the upper gastrointestinal side-effects and stringent dosing regimes. This study aimed to prepare and characterize risedronate-loaded Eudragit® S100 microparticles and develop a final dosage form by the compression of microparticles using direct tableting excipients. Microparticles were prepared by spray-drying and presented yield of 54%, encapsulation efficiency higher than 90%, mean diameter of 3.3?µm, moisture content around 8% and exhibited spherical shape and poor flowability. At pH 1.2, 23% of risedronate was released from microparticles in 120?min, while at pH 6.8 the drug took 90?min to reach 99.5%. Microparticles were compressed into tablets using microcrystalline cellulose, magnesium stearate, colloidal silicon dioxide and 2 polyvinylpyrrolidone concentrations (5% and 15%). Tablets presented low variations in weight, thickness and drug content. Besides, the formulations showed sufficient hardness, low friability and disintegrated in less than 15 min. In acid medium, no more than 16% of the drug was released in 120?min, while in intestinal medium the formulations prolonged the risedronate release for 240?min. Finally, the developed tableted microparticles can be considered a promising dosage form for oral risedronate administration. PMID:23506303

  6. [Granule formation mechanisms in fluid-bed melt granulation and their effects on tablet properties].

    PubMed

    Abberger, T; Henck, J O

    2000-07-01

    Melt granulations of lactose and PEG 4000 were made with a fluid-bed granulator and for comparison in a high-speed mixer with scraper. Two different mechanisms of granule formation occurred, coalescence and layering. The agglomeration kinetics of layering was modeled. The granulations were compressed on an instrumented press and examined for uniformity of mass, hardness and disintegration time. Remarkable differences in tablet properties were found between the mechanisms of granule formation. PMID:10944781

  7. Abuse and diversion of buprenorphine sublingual tablets and film.

    PubMed

    Lavonas, Eric J; Severtson, S Geoffrey; Martinez, Erin M; Bucher-Bartelson, Becki; Le Lait, Marie-Claire; Green, Jody L; Murrelle, Lenn E; Cicero, Theodore J; Kurtz, Steven P; Rosenblum, Andrew; Surratt, Hilary L; Dart, Richard C

    2014-07-01

    Buprenorphine abuse is common worldwide. Rates of abuse and diversion of three sublingual buprenorphine formulations (single ingredient tablets; naloxone combination tablets and film) were compared. Data were obtained from the Researched Abuse, Diversion, and Addiction-Related Surveillance (RADARS) System Poison Center, Drug Diversion, Opioid Treatment (OTP), Survey of Key Informants' Patients (SKIP), and College Survey Programs through December 2012. To control for drug availability, event ratios (rates) were calculated quarterly, based on the number of patients filling prescriptions for each formulation ("unique recipients of a dispensed drug," URDD) and averaged and compared using negative binomial regression. Abuse rates in the OTP, SKIP, and College Survey Programs were greatest for single ingredient tablets, and abuse rates in the Poison Center Program and illicit diversion rates were greatest for the combination tablets. Combination film rates were significantly less than rates for either tablet formulation in all programs. No geographic pattern could be discerned. PMID:24680219

  8. Development of Orodispersible Tizanidine HCl Tablets Using Spray Dried Coprocessed Exipient Bases.

    PubMed

    Masareddy, Rajashree; Kokate, A; Shah, V

    2011-07-01

    Tizanidine HCl is a centrally acting ?-2 adrenergic agonist muscle relaxant with a slightly bitter taste having short half-life of 2.5 h. In the present study effect of co-processed excipient bases in formulation of orodispersible tizanidine HCl tablets by direct compression method was investigated. Co-processed excipient of microcrystalline cellulose with SSL-hydroxypropylcellulose was prepared using spray drier in 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3 ratio. Formulated tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, in vitro disintegration time and in vitro drug release. Formulation F-3 prepared by addition of co-processed excipient base in ratio of 1:3 showed minimum disintegration time of 9.15±0.04 s and higher amount of drug release of 93.75% at the end of 15 min. Granules obtained by spray drying technique were found to be more spherical which improved its flow property and was supported by scanning electron microscope studies. Thermal studies indicated change in amorphous state, compatibility of drug in formulation was confirmed by fourier transform infrared studies. Analyses of drug release data indicated formulation followed first order kinetics. Inclusion of co-processed excipient base in formulation of orodispersible tablets enhanced disintegration significantly. PMID:22707822

  9. Pulse release of doxazosin from hydroxyethylcellulose compression coated tablet: mechanistic and in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Nikhil; Guha, Arijit; Sahoo, Ranjan Kumar; Kuotsu, Ketousetuo

    2015-01-01

    Chronotherapeutically programmed hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC) based compression coated doxazosin tablets were prepared and the influence of disintegrants croscarmellose sodium, L-hydroxypropylcellulose (L-HPC), gellan gum on drug release and in vivo performance were investigated. Infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetric studies did not indicate any excipient incompatibility in the tablets. The disintegrants induced a continuous water influx resulting in a rapid expansion of the membrane. The subsequent formation of fractures into the coats leads to a fast drug release after an initial lag time. Release rates indicated that croscarmellose sodium and L-HPC were directly proportional to their concentration in the formulations. In vitro optimized croscarmellose sodium-HEC matrix showed significantly faster (p < 0.05) drug release (t90% = 46 min) after an initial lag of 243 min. Disintegrant-HEC blended matrices were found significantly superior (p < 0.05) in terms of in vitro release and bioavailability in comparison to plain HEC matrices. Drug release kinetics followed modified power law and Weibull model (r > 0.99). The mechanism involved in release was anomalous transport and super case II transport with matrix swelling. The pulsatile tablets showed no changes either in physicochemical appearance, drug content or in dissolution pattern during its accelerated stability studies. PMID:25179280

  10. Microstructural investigation of tablet compaction and tablet pharmacological properties

    E-print Network

    Mao, Kangyi

    2010-01-01

    In current tablet manufacturing processes, there is a knowledge gap concerning material transformation and the subsequent impact on tablet properties; this gap presents a barrier to rational formulation / process design. ...

  11. A new tablet brittleness index.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xingchu; Sun, Changquan Calvin

    2015-06-01

    Brittleness is one of the important material properties that influences the success or failure of powder compaction. We have discovered that the reciprocal of diametrical elastic strain at fracture is the most suitable tablet brittleness indices (TBIs) for quantifying brittleness of pharmaceutical tablets. The new strain based TBI is supported by both theoretical considerations and a systematic statistical analysis of friability data. It is sufficiently sensitive to changes in both tablet compositions and compaction parameters. For all tested materials, it correctly shows that tablet brittleness increases with increasing tablet porosity for the same powder. In addition, TBI increases with increasing content of a brittle excipient, lactose monohydrate, in the mixtures with a plastic excipient, microcrystalline cellulose. A probability map for achieving less than 1% tablet friability at various combinations of tablet tensile strength and TBI was constructed. Data from marketed tablets validate this probability map and a TBI value of 150 is recommended as the upper limit for pharmaceutical tablets. This TBI can be calculated from the data routinely obtained during tablet diametrical breaking test, which is commonly performed for assessing tablet mechanical strength. Therefore, it is ready for adoption for quantifying tablet brittleness to guide tablet formulation development since it does not require additional experimental work. PMID:25907006

  12. Does temperature increase induced by tableting contribute to tablet quality?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. M. Picker-Freyer; A. G. Schmidt

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to determine temperature and structural changes caused by tableting and to deduce from the combination\\u000a of temperature measurement and the determination of structural changes whether temperature increase induced by tableting contributes\\u000a to tablet quality. Tablets were produced of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), spray-dried lactose, pregelatinized starch,\\u000a and dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) with an instrumented single

  13. Tablet Splitting: A Risky Practice

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Updates by E-mail Consumer Updates RSS Feed Tablet Splitting: A Risky Practice Search the Consumer Updates ... Pharmacists Association. This includes skipping doses and splitting tablets in an effort to save money. Regarding the ...

  14. Granule size distribution of tablets.

    PubMed

    Virtanen, Satu; Antikainen, Osmo; Räikkönen, Heikki; Yliruusi, Jouko

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the variation in the granule size distribution in a die of an eccentric tableting machine. Theophylline anhydrate and alpha-lactose monohydrate were granulated with an aqueous solution of polyvinylpyrrolidone, using an instrumented fluid bed granulator. The granules were tabletted, using an instrumented eccentric tableting machine. Punch forces were recorded and tablets were collected in order during the tableting process. Powder samples, which had the same mass as the tablets, were also collected from the die for particle size determination. The particle size distribution was measured, using a spatial filtering technique. In addition, the segregation of microcrystalline cellulose pellets during tableting was analyzed. The particle size distribution changed dramatically during the tableting process, due to a segregation phenomenon. PMID:19780134

  15. Vindolanda Tablets Online

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Written in ink on postcard-sized sheets of wood, the Vindolanda tablets constitute a fascinating record of life in Roman Britain in the area of northern England around Hadrian's Wall during the first and second centuries AD. The tablets and the accompanying visual and printed materials were brought online through the collaborative efforts of the Centre for the Study of Ancient Documents and the Academic Computing Development Team at Oxford University. Visitors unfamiliar with the world of Roman Britain would do well to go first to the Exhibition section which contains helpful areas devoted to the world of military life during this period, the tablets themselves, and the excavations at Vindolanda. The Reference section also provides a great deal of context to the commentaries contained on the tablets, providing information about the military units in the Roman army and important dates and events in early Roman Britain. The heart of the site is dedicated to the tablets themselves, which may be browsed by number or searched by such variables as title, author, English translation, or commentary.

  16. The use of inorganic salts to improve the dissolution characteristics of tablets containing Soluplus®-based solid dispersions.

    PubMed

    Hughey, Justin R; Keen, Justin M; Miller, Dave A; Kolter, Karl; Langley, Nigel; McGinity, James W

    2013-03-12

    The dissolution enhancement advantages inherent to amorphous solid dispersions systems are often not fully realized once they are formulated into a solid dosage form. The objective of this study was to investigate the ability of inorganic salts to improve the dissolution rate of carbamazepine (CBZ) from tablets containing a high loading of a Soluplus®-based solid dispersion. Cloud point and viscometric studies were conducted on Soluplus® solutions to understand the effect of temperature, salt type and salt concentration on the aqueous solubility and gelling tendencies of Soluplus®, properties that can significantly impact dissolution performance. Studies indicated that Soluplus® exhibited a cloud point that was strongly dependent on the salt type and salt concentration present in the dissolving medium. The presence of kosmotropic salts dehydrated the polymer, effectively lowering the cloud point and facilitating formation of a thermoreversible hydrogel. The ability of ions to impact the cloud point and gel strength generally followed the rank order of the Hofmeister series. Solid dispersions of CBZ and Soluplus® were prepared by KinetiSol® Dispersing, characterized to confirm an amorphous composition was formed and incorporated into tablets at very high levels (70% w/w). Dissolution studies demonstrated the utility of including salts in tablets to improve dissolution properties. Tablets that did not contain a salt or those that included a chaotropic salt hydrated at the tablet surface and did not allow for sufficient moisture ingress into the tablet. Conversely, the inclusion of kosmotropic salts allowed for rapid hydration of the entire tablet and the formation of a gel structure with strength dependent on the type of salt utilized. Studies also showed that, in addition to allowing tablet hydration, potassium bicarbonate and potassium carbonate provided effervescence which effectively destroyed the gel network and allowed for rapid dissolution of CBZ. Subsequent dissolution studies in 0.1 N HCl showed that potassium bicarbonate was an effective tablet disintegrant at levels as low as 1% and provided for tablets that rapidly disintegrated over a wide range of applied compression forces, presumably due to synergy between the ability to form a weak hydrogel structure and carbon dioxide liberation. Similar dissolution performance was measured in pH 4.5 acetate buffer, despite reduced polymer solubility caused by kosmotropic salts in solution, demonstrating robustness. With the use of inorganic salts such as potassium bicarbonate, it may be possible to substantially improve disintegration and dissolution characteristics of tablets containing Soluplus®. PMID:23348153

  17. Tablets of pre-liposomes govern in situ formation of liposomes: concept and potential of the novel drug delivery system.

    PubMed

    Vani?, Željka; Planinšek, Odon; Škalko-Basnet, Nataša; Tho, Ingunn

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a novel drug delivery system for challenging drugs with potential for scale-up manufacturing and controlled release of incorporated drug. Pre-liposomes powder containing metronidazole, lecithin and mannitol, prepared by spray-drying, was mixed with different tableting excipients (microcrystalline cellulose, lactose monohydrate, mannitol, dibasic calcium phosphate, pregelatinized starch, pectin or chitosan) and compressed into tablets. The delivery system was characterized with respect to (i) dry powder characteristics, (ii) mechanical tablet properties and drug release, and (iii) liposomal characteristics. The pre-liposomes powder was free-flowing, and tablets of similarly high qualities as tablets made of physical mixtures were prepared with all excipients. Liposomes were formed in situ upon tablet disintegration, dissolution or erosion depending on the type of tablet excipient used. The liposomal characteristics and drug release were found to depend on the tablet excipient. The new delivery system offers a unique synergy between the ability of liposomes to encapsulate and protect drugs and increased stability provided by compressed formulations. It can be adjusted for drug administration via various routes, e.g. oral, buccal and vaginal. PMID:24929211

  18. Preparation and In Vitro/In Vivo Characterization of Porous Sublingual Tablets Containing Ternary Kneaded Solid System of Vinpocetine with ?-Cyclodextrin and Hydroxy Acid

    PubMed Central

    Aburahma, Mona H.; El-Laithy, Hanan M.; Hamza, Yassin El-Said

    2010-01-01

    The demand for sublingual tablets has been growing during the previous decades especially for drugs with extensive hepatic first-pass metabolism. Vinpocetine, a widely used neurotropic agent, has low oral bioavailability due to its poor aqueous solubility and marked first-pass metabolism. Accordingly, the aim of this work was to develop tablets for the sublingual delivery of vinpocetine. Initially, the feasibility of improving vinpocetine’s poor aqueous solubility by preparing kneaded solid systems of the drug with ?-Cyclodextrin and hydroxy acids (citric acid and tartaric acid) was assessed. The solid system with improved solubility and dissolution properties was incorporated into porous tablets that rapidly disintegrate permitting fast release of vinpocetine into the sublingual cavity. The pores were induced into these tablets by directly compressing the tablets’ excipients with a sublimable material, either camphor or menthol, which was eventually sublimated leaving pores. The obtained results demonstrated that the tablets prepared using camphor attained sufficient mechanical strength for practical use together with rapid disintegration and dissolution. In vivo absorption study performed in rabbits indicated that the sublingual administration of the proposed porous tablets containing vinpocetine solid system with ?-Cyclodextrin and tartaric acid could be useful for therapeutic application. PMID:21179352

  19. Effects of various excipients on tizanidine hydrochloride tablets prepared by direct compression.

    PubMed

    Khan, Lubna Ghazal; Razvi, Nighat; Anjum, Fakhsheena; Siddiqui, Saeed Ahmed; Ghayas, Sana

    2014-09-01

    This study was conducted to assess the effects of various excipients in 10 different Tizanidine hydrochloride tablet dosage forms that were prepared by direct compression method (DC). Various excipients are available for DC method; we selected those excipients that are used commonly in tablet manufacturing. The excipients used included lactose anhydrous, di-basic calcium phosphate anhydrous, starch, talc, sodium carboxy methyl cellulose, polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), silicon dioxide (Aerosil), stearic acid, magnesium stearate and microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel). These tablets were then evaluated by performing different pharmacopoeial and non-pharmacopoeial tests (i.e. diameter, hardness, thickness, weight variation, disintegration and assay). It was observed that Formulations B, D and H of Tizanidine hydrochloride gave best results within USP specified limits for the tests employed among all the formulations whereas Formulations F and G showed poor friability, disintegration and dissolution profiles rendering starch in combination of talc and sodium carboxy-methyl cellulose unsuitable for Tizanidine hydrochloride tablet formulations. With the present approach, more studies can be designed using other active ingredients and excipients to get an optimal and cost effective product. PMID:25176379

  20. Comparison between ozone and ultrasound disintegration on sludge anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Braguglia, C M; Gianico, A; Mininni, G

    2012-03-01

    This paper deals with the comparison of ultrasound (mechanical) and ozone (chemical) pre-treatment on the performances of excess sludge semi-continuous digestion. Sludge solubilisation has been investigated by varying specific energy input. For each pre-treatment, long anaerobic digestion tests were carried out by two parallel digesters: one reactor, as control unit, was fed with untreated waste activated sludge, and the other one was fed with disintegrated sludge. To evaluate and compare the efficacy of both pre-treatments, the specific energy was maintained approximately the same. The digestion tests were carried out to investigate the feasibility of anaerobic digestion performance (total biogas production, volatile solids removal, sludge dewaterability) and to assess the heat balance. Results obtained from the digestion of sonicated sludge at 4% disintegration degree (? 2500 kJ/kg TS) showed that the ultrasound pre-treatment may be effective both in increasing VS destruction (+19%) and cumulative biogas production (+26%). On the contrary, the digestion test with ozonized sludge (ozone dose of 0.05 g O(3)/g TS corresponding to ? 2000 kJ/kg TS) did not indicate a significant improvement on the digestion performances. By doubling the ozone dose an improvement in the organics removal and cumulative biogas production was observed. Relevant differences in terms of colloidal charge and filterability were discussed. PMID:20719427

  1. Tablet Process Simulator

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The North Carolina Community College System BioNetwork's interactive eLearning tools (IETs) are reusable chunks of training that can be deployed in a variety of courses or training programs. IETs are designed to enhance, not replace hands-on training. Learners are able to enter a hands-on lab experience better prepared and more confident. This particular IET is a Tablet Process Simulator in which visitors set up and run a tablet press in a virtual 3D environment. The tool requires the program to be downloaded and installed, and gives helpful installation instructions. Users will start by downloading a zip file to their computer.

  2. Integration of Trade and Disintegration of Production in the Global Economy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert C. Feenstra

    1998-01-01

    The last few decades have seen a spectacular integration of the global economy through trade. The rising integration of world markets has brought with it a disintegration of the production process, however, in which manufacturing or services activities done abroad are combined with those performed at home. The author compares several different measures of foreign outsourcing and argues that they

  3. Predictive model for tensile strength of pharmaceutical tablets based on local hardness measurements.

    PubMed

    Juban, Audrey; Nouguier-Lehon, Cécile; Briancon, Stéphanie; Hoc, Thierry; Puel, François

    2015-07-25

    In the pharmaceutical field, tablets are the most common dosage forms for oral administration. During the manufacture of tablets, measures are taken to assure that they possess a suitable mechanical strength to avoid crumbling or breaking when handling while ensuring disintegration after administration. Accordingly, the tensile strength is an essential parameter to consider. In the present study, microscopic hardness and macroscopic tensile strength of binary tablets made from microcrystalline cellulose and caffeine in various proportions were measured. A relationship between these two mechanical properties was found for binary mixture. The proposed model was based on two physical measurements easily reachable: hardness and tablet density. Constants were determined from the two extreme compositions of this given system. This model was validated with experimental results, and a comparison was made with the one developed by Wu et al. (2005). Both models are relevant for this studied system. Nonetheless, with this model, the tablet tensile strength can be connected with a tablet characteristic at microscopic scale in which porosity is not needed. PMID:26043825

  4. Pharmacokinetics and comparative bioavailability of two vinpocetine tablet formulations in healthy volunteers by using the metabolite apovincaminic acid as pharmacokinetic parameter.

    PubMed

    Vlase, Laurian; Bodiu, Bogdan; Leucuta, Sorin E

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of apovincaminic acid, the main metabolite of vinpocetine ((3alpha, 16alpha) -eburnamenine-14-carboxylic acid ethyl ester, CAS 42971-09-5), and to assess the average bioequivalence of two immediate release formulations of 10 mg vinpocetine tablets in 24 healthy male volunteers. The relative bioavailability of the test (generic) product (Vimpocetina) with respect to the reference product was determined in a single dose, randomized, crossover study. A simple, rapid specific and reliable high performance liquid chromatographic method coupled with mass spectrometry detection has been developed and validated for vinpocetine and apovincaminic acid. However, only the concentrations of the metabolite could be used for bioequivalence determinations because the concentrations of the parent drug were too low to be accurately measured in the biological matrix. The compartmental analysis of the metabolite's appearance-disappearance in blood shows similarity with first-order kinetics of a drug extravascularly administered. The apparent pharmacokinetic constants were determined. The mean values for the Cmax were 49.5 (+/- 16) ng/ml for test and 51.4 (+/- 14) ng/ml for the reference product. The mean values for the AUC0-infinity were 95 (+/- 29) ng/ml x h for test and 96.9 (+/- 26) ng/ml x h for reference, respectively. The 90 % confidence intervals for test/reference mean ratios of the plasma pharmacokinetic variables Cmax and AUC0-infinity lie between 0.83-1.08 and 0.88-1.08, respectively, which is within the conventional bioequivalence range of 80-125 % (Schuirman test). The difference between Tmax of the test and reference products was statistically non-significant (Friedman test). The test product is therefore bioequivalent to the reference product with respect to the rate and extent of apovincaminic acid pharmacokinetics. PMID:16366040

  5. Study of accelerated storage conditions affecting physical characteristics, in-vitro dissolution and stability of bioadhesive containing tablets

    PubMed

    Hosny

    1999-06-01

    The effect of storage at different temperatures and relative humidities on directly compressed tablets of indometacin containing 20% polycarbophil was studied for up to 16 weeks. The prepared tablets were stored in closed containers of type III glass under different conditions of temperature (30 degrees C, 40 degrees C and 50 degrees C), in open petri dishes at room temperature, at relative humidity (RH) (31%, 79.3% and 98%), and combinations of temperature and relative humidity (30 degrees C/92.9% RH, 40 degrees C/79.5% RH and 50 degrees C/65% RH). The tablet properties such as mean weight, hardness, disintegration, in-vitro dissolution and drug content were monitored just after preparation and after 2, 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks of storage. The tablets mean weight was significantly (p < 0.05) increased at RH 98% and at 30 degrees C/92.9% RH and non-significantly increased at 79.3% RH, 40 degrees C/79.5% RH and 50 degrees C/65% RH. There was no effect of temperature on mean weight. The hardness of the tablets increased slightly at 31% RH and decreased at 79.3% RH and at 40 degrees C/79.5% RH and became zero at 98% RH and at 30 degrees C/92.9% RH. The increase in temperature caused slight increase in tablets hardness. Tablets stored at 98% RH and at 30 degrees C/92% RH showed an increase in disintegration time associated with a decrease in rate of dissolution and indometacin content. No effect on drug content or dissolution profile was observed as a result of storage under other conditions. These findings point out to the importance of proper protection of indometacin tablets containing polycarbophil from high temperature and humidity conditions in order to ensure stability of the drug. PMID:10464972

  6. Suitability of ?-carrageenan pellets for the formulation of multiparticulate tablets with modified release.

    PubMed

    Ghanam, Dima; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2011-05-16

    ?-Carrageenan is a novel pelletisation aid with high formulation robustness and quick disintegration leading to fast drug release unlike the matrix-like release from non-disintegrating microcrystalline cellulose pellets. Compression of pellets into tablets is cost effective. The feasibility of formulating multiparticulate tablets with coated ?-carrageenan pellets was investigated. Pellets containing a highly soluble drug in acid, namely bisacodyl and ?-carrageenan or MCC as pelletisation aid were prepared, enteric coated with a mixture of Kollicoat(®) MAE 30 DP and Eudragit(®) NE 30 D and compressed using silicified microcrystalline cellulose as embedding powder. The effect of coating level, type of pellet core, compression force and punch configurations on drug release were studied. A sufficient coating thickness for ?-carrageenan pellets was necessary to obtain multiparticulate tablets with adequate resistance in the acid stage regardless of the compression pressure used. While ?-carrageenan pellets and their tablets released over 80% of the drug during the neutral stage only about 20-24% was released from MCC pellets and their tablets. The type of punches used (oblong or round) did not significantly influence the drug release from the prepared tablets. Moreover, sufficient prolonged release properties were obtained with ?-carrageenan pellets containing theophylline as a model drug and coated with Kollicoat(®) SR 30 D using Kollicoat(®) IR as pore former. A lower coating level and higher amount of pore former were needed in case of theophylline pellets formulated with MCC as pelletisation aid. The sustained release properties of both coated pellet formulations were maintained after compression at different compression pressures. PMID:21335073

  7. Design and evaluation of an economic taste-masked dispersible tablet of pyridostigmine bromide, a highly soluble drug with an extremely bitter taste.

    PubMed

    Tan, Qunyou; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Liangke; Teng, Yongzhen; Zhang, Jingqing

    2012-01-01

    Pyridostigmine bromide (PTB) is a highly soluble and extremely bitter drug. Here, an economic complexation technology combined with direct tablet compression method has been developed to meet the requirements of a patient friendly dosage known as taste-masked dispersible tablets loaded PTB (TPDPTs): (1) TPDPTs should have optimal disintegration and good physical resistance (hardness); (2) a low-cost, simple but practical preparation method suitable for industrial production is preferred from a cost perspective. Physicochemical properties of the inclusion complex of PTB with beta-cyclodextrin were investigated by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and UV spectroscopy. An orthogonal design was chosen to properly formulate TPDPTs. All volunteers regarded acceptable bitterness of TPDPTs. The properties including disintegration time, weight variation, friability, hardness, dispersible uniformity and drug content of TPDPTs were evaluated. The dissolution profile of TPDPTs in distilled water exhibited a fast rate. Pharmacokinetic results demonstrated that TPDPTs and the commercial tablets were bioequivalent. PMID:23207632

  8. Evaluating the effect of coating equipment on tablet film quality using terahertz pulsed imaging.

    PubMed

    Haaser, Miriam; Naelapää, Kaisa; Gordon, Keith C; Pepper, Michael; Rantanen, Jukka; Strachan, Clare J; Taday, Philip F; Zeitler, J Axel; Rades, Thomas

    2013-11-01

    In this study, terahertz pulsed imaging (TPI) was employed to investigate the effect of the coating equipment (fluid bed and drum coater) on the structure of the applied film coating and subsequent dissolution behaviour. Six tablets from every batch coated with the same delayed release coating formulation under recommended process conditions (provided by the coating polymer supplier) were mapped individually to evaluate the effect of coating device on critical coating characteristics (coating thickness, surface morphology and density). Although the traditional coating quality parameter (weight gain) indicated no differences between both batches, TPI analysis revealed a lower mean coating thickness (CT) for tablets coated in the drum coater compared to fluid bed coated tablets (p<0.05). Moreover, drum coated tablets showed a more pronounced CT variation between the two sides and the centre band of the biconvex tablets, with the CT around the centre band being 22.5% thinner than the top and bottom sides for the drum coated tablets and 12.5% thinner for fluid bed coated tablets. The TPI analysis suggested a denser coating for the drum coated tablets. Dissolution testing confirmed that the film coating density was the drug release governing factor, with faster drug release for tablets coated in the fluid bed coater (98 ± 4% after 6h) compared to drum coated tablets (72 ± 6% after 6h). Overall, TPI investigation revealed substantial differences in the applied film coating quality between tablets coated in the two coaters, which in turn correlated with the subsequent dissolution performance. PMID:23563103

  9. Ultrasonic disintegration of biosolids for improved biodegradation.

    PubMed

    Nickel, Klaus; Neis, Uwe

    2007-04-01

    Biological cell lysis is known to be the rate-limiting step of anaerobic biosolids degradation. Shear forces generated by low frequency ultrasound can be used to disintegrate bacterial cells in sewage sludge. Thus, the quantity of dissolved organic substrate is increased. Consequently, the degradation rate and the biodegradability of organic biosolids mass are improved. Fundamental pilot-studies showed a significantly accelerated biosolids degradation with less digested sludge being produced and increased biogas production being attained. A full-scale ultrasound reactor system was developed for continuous operation under real life conditions on sewage treatment plants (STP). PMID:17289422

  10. Security approaches in using tablet computers for primary data collection in clinical research.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Adam B; Gallagher, Kathleen; Bakken, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Next-generation tablets (iPads and Android tablets) may potentially improve the collection and management of clinical research data. The widespread adoption of tablets, coupled with decreased software and hardware costs, has led to increased consideration of tablets for primary research data collection. When using tablets for the Washington Heights/Inwood Infrastructure for Comparative Effectiveness Research (WICER) project, we found that the devices give rise to inherent security issues associated with the potential use of cloud-based data storage approaches. This paper identifies and describes major security considerations for primary data collection with tablets; proposes a set of architectural strategies for implementing data collection forms with tablet computers; and discusses the security, cost, and workflow of each strategy. The paper briefly reviews the strategies with respect to their implementation for three primary data collection activities for the WICER project. PMID:25848559

  11. Compressional behavior of a mixture of granules containing high load of Phyllanthus niruri spray-dried extract and granules of adjuvants: comparison between eccentric and rotary tablet machines.

    PubMed

    Spaniol, Bárbara; Bica, Vinicius Claudino; Ruppenthal, Lisias Rafael; Volpato, Maria Ramos; Petrovick, Pedro Ros

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the compressional behavior of granules containing high load of a Phyllanthus niruri spray-dried extract in eccentric (ETM) and rotary (RTM) tablet presses. Tablets were constituted by spray-dried extract granules (SDEG, 92%), excipient granules (EXCG, 7.92%), and magnesium stearate (0.08%). SDEG was obtained by dry granulation and EXCG, composed of microcrystalline cellulose (62.9%) and sodium starch glycolate (37.1%), by wet granulation. Particle size distribution was fixed between 0.250 and 0.850 mm. Tablets did not evidence any mechanical failures, such as lamination or capping, or anomalous weight variation in either tablet machine types. Upper and lower tablet surface photomicrographs from ETM and RTM tablets showed differences in porosity and texture. Different RTM speeds suggested the visco-plastic behavior of the formulation, since, by slowing down rotation speeds, the tensile strength of the tablets increased significantly, but the porosity and disintegration time were not affected. Tablets produced in RTM showed lower friability and porosity than ETM tablets, which did not reflect on higher tensile strength. The EXCG distribution at upper and lower surfaces from ETM and RTM tablets was quantified by image analysis and evaluated through statistical methods. Spray-dried extract release was not influenced by the type of equipment or operational conditions to which the compacts were submitted. Construction and operation differences between both tablet presses influenced the final product, since tablets with similar tensile strength, made by distinct tablet machines, exhibited different quality parameters. PMID:19662537

  12. Application of guar gum biopolymer in the prescription of tablets with sodium ibuprofen--quality tests and pharmaceutical availability in vitro.

    PubMed

    Berner-Strzelczyk, Aneta; Ko?odziejska, Justyna; Zgoda, Marian Miko?aj

    2006-01-01

    The increasing interest of the technology of drug form in natural biopolymers has become the reason for undertaking investigations on the possibility of guar gum application in the prescription of oral solid form of a drug. Alternative compositions and technology of the production of tablets of regulated in time sodium ibuprofen release were worked out for children. Two series of tablets were prepared with guar gum (5 and 10% content) and a series without the biopolymer. The tablet mass in each case contained keryostatic sorbitol and bioadhesive polyvinylpyrrolidone. All tablets were tested as regards the quality of production, compliance with the requirements of Polish Pharmacopoeia VI and potential therapeutic usefulness, manifestation of which is pharmaceutical availability of the therapeutic agent (sodium ibuprofen). The tests demonstrated that the produced tablets with sodium ibuprofen have proper physicochemical properties, in compliance with Polish Pharmacopoeia VI requirements. Application of biopolymer of guar gum type as adjuvant substance contributes to the improvement of the tablet hardness parameters and prevents technological problems (lining mixture of powders to tableting machine punch). The designed tablets demonstrate proper pharmaceutical availability of over 80%. Introduction of guar gum into their prescription prolonged their disintegration time and the rate of sodium ibuprofen release, which predisposes the produced form of a drug to have the function of a tablet with slowed-down release. PMID:17402228

  13. Characterization of low crystallinity cellulose as a direct compression excipient: Effects of physicochemical properties of cellulose excipients on their tabletting characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kothari, Sanjeev Hukmichand

    A scale-up method for the preparation of a new excipient, low crystallinity powder cellulose (LCPC), was established. Physicochemical characterization of a series of LCPC materials was performed, and compared to the physicochemical properties of commercially existing cellulose excipients, microcrystalline cellulose (AvicelsRTM) and powdered celluloses (Solka Flocs RTM). Low crystallinity cellulose powders had high amorphous contents (>50%) and a low degree of polymerization (<40 anhydroglucose units). They were dense aggregates with porosity values less than 62%. Low crystallinity cellulose was found to contain cellulose II as the predominant polymorphic form in the crystalline regions. LCPC particles, obtained from larger scale preparations (>2 kg), typically showed low yield pressures (<75 MPa), high compressibility (>200 MPa), and intermediate compactability (250--600 MPa2) values. Mechanical characterization of the three types of cellulose materials, and the statistical models obtained for the results, indicated that a high porosity (>810%), a high average of amorphous content (>40%) and moisture content (>4%), and a low degree of polymerization (<150) significantly lowered the yield pressures, and significantly enhanced the compressibility and compactability. The bonding indices of microcrystalline celluloses (0.013 to 0.031) and LCPC materials (0.011 to 0.020) investigated indicated a ductile behavior. The LCPC compacts showed a higher brittle fracture propensity (0.42 to 0.55) as compared to the brittle fracture indices (0.02 to 0.19) seen for the Avicel RTM compacts. Heckel analysis of different particle size fractions of LCPC and the surface area results of the LCPC compacts indicated that the particles do not fragment on uniaxial compression. The rapid disintegration times (5 to 90 seconds) for LCPC tablets at low as well as high solid fractions suggest the high affinity of these materials to water, due to their high amorphous contents that expose a larger number of hydroxyl groups to water, compared to the more crystalline materials, such as microcrystalline celluloses, the tablets of which showed extremely long disintegration times (24 to 6000 seconds). The physicochemical and mechanical characterization of low crystallinity cellulose suggests it to be a promising direct compression excipient for immediate release tablet formulations.

  14. Beta-blocking effect and serum levels of alprenolol in man after administration of ordinary and sustained release tablets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Johnsson; J. Sjögren; L. Sölvell

    1971-01-01

    The effect of alprenolol administered as ordinary and as sustained release tablets was compared by studies on the inhibition of the haemodynamic response to physical work. Serum levels of alprenolol were also determined. Two types of double-blind cross-over studies were performed in healthy volunteers. In one the effects of ordinary tablets, sustained release tablets and a placebo were followed for

  15. Characterising the Disintegration Properties of Tablets in Opaque Media Using Texture Analysis

    E-print Network

    Scheuerle, Rebekah L.; Gerrard, Stephen E.; Kendall, Richard A.; Tuleu, Catherine; Slater, Nigel K. H.; Mahbubani, Krishnaa T.

    2015-03-16

    fat content varying between 153 colostrum, transitional, and mature milk. The averages range from 2.6 w/v% to 4.1 w/v% depending 154 on the time of day, the number of days post-partum, the time within the feed, and the mother 155 (Emmett and Rogers...

  16. In-line quantification of micronized drug and excipients in tablets by near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy: Real time monitoring of tabletting process.

    PubMed

    Karande, Atul D; Heng, Paul Wan Sia; Liew, Celine Valeria

    2010-08-30

    The objectives of this study were to assess the utility of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for simultaneous in-line quantification of the contents of drug and excipients in tablets and to monitor the tabletting process in real time. Direct compression tablet formulations comprising micronized chlorpheniramine maleate, lactose, microcrystalline cellulose and magnesium stearate were used. A custom built NIR setup was used for in-line spectral acquisition (980-1900nm with 1nm resolution) during the tabletting process. Calibration models using dynamic spectral acquisition were prepared and validated using design of experiment approach. During tabletting, stratified sampling of tablets was also carried out to compare the NIR prediction results and subsequent UV analysis results for drug content. The results obtained with calibration and validation statistics confirmed the accuracy of models used to predict contents of tablet components. Stratified sampling results for drug content did not exhibit any significant statistical variation. However, in-line quantification enabled the content analysis of individual tablets in the production batch and detection of content uniformity problems towards the end of the tabletting process. Furthermore, it provided the assurance of in-process content uniformity monitoring of the individual excipients during the tabletting process. PMID:20558264

  17. Childhood disintegrative disorder. Re-examination of the current concept.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, S; Gupta, N

    2002-06-01

    Childhood disintegrative disorder (CDD), which is classified as a sub-type of pervasive developmental disorder (PDD), has been recognised for many years. Research data on CDD, however, is sparse and it primarily describes the clinical parameters. In this research report clinical data on 12 cases of CDD and 21 cases of typical autism, seen during a specified period, are compared and critically evaluated in reference to the diagnostic criteria in ICD-10 for these disorders. While the findings support the clinical validity of CDD, these also highlight the limitations of the current criteria (ICD-10) particularly the age of onset in CDD and the conceptual confusion in labelling it as a 'PDD'. Need for more research in the areas of the biology, course and outcome of CDD is emphasised. PMID:12369769

  18. Pharmacokinetic comparison of a dextromethorphan-salbutamol combination tablet and a plain dextromethorphan tablet.

    PubMed

    Silvasti, M; Karttunen, P; Happonen, P; Mykkänen, M; Romppanen, T; Tukiainen, H

    1990-06-01

    We compared in this double-blind crossover study the bioavailability of dextromethorphan from a dextromethorphan-salbutamol combination tablet (Redol comp) and from a plain dextromethorphan tablet (Extuson) by determining dextrorphan concentrations after single-dose oral administration in 10 healthy volunteers. The absorption of salbutamol from the combined preparation was also determined. The absorption of dextromethorphan was slightly faster from the plain dextromethorphan preparation. The peak concentration of dextrorphan was achieved at 1.5 h after Extuson and at 2 h after Redol comp (1,053.0 +/- 366.5 ng/ml and 901.5 +/- 210.9 ng/ml, NS). AUC0-12 values of dextrorphan were 4,315.6 +/- 295.0 (ng/ml)h after Extuson and 3,983.8 +/- 205.6 (ng/ml)h after Redol comp (p less than 0.05). Salbutamol was well absorbed from the combined preparation and the peak concentration was achieved at 3 h (6.57 +/- 2.95 ng/ml). Four subjects reported side-effects typical for salbutamol after the combination tablet. No side-effects were reported after the plain dextromethorphan tablet. On the basis of the present study, we conclude that the absorption of dextromethorphan from the preparations tested is almost equal and the dextromethorphan-salbutamol combination can be administered in tablet form for the treatment of cough. PMID:2376428

  19. Validation of standard manufacturing procedure of Gu??c? sattva (aqueous extract of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers) and its tablets

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Rohit; Amin, Hetal; Galib; Prajapati, P. K.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Gu??ci Sattva is a highly valued formulation among ayurvedic physicians, commonly recommended in conditions such as Jvara (fever), D?ha (burning sensation) and other conditions of Pitta predominance. In spite of its numerous medicinal attributes, no published work is available until date on manufacturing guidelines along with its quality control parameters. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study is to develop the standard manufacturing procedure for preparation of Gu??ci Sattva and its tablets. Materials and Methods: A total of 15 batches of Gu??ci Sattva were prepared in the laboratory. During its preparation, pharmaceutical findings and observations were systematically recorded. To maintain quality control, Gu??ci Sattva tablets were further subjected to analysis such as shape, diameter, width, hardness, weight variation, disintegration time (DT) and friability. Qualitative analysis to detect the presence of various functional groups and high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) profile were also carried out. Results and Conclusion: The average percentage of dried Sattva obtained was 3.8%. The tablets were prepared by direct compression method as per pharmacopoeal specifications. Optimum hardness, weight of tablets, DT and friability of Gu??ci Sattva tablets were found complying with official standards. Alkaloids, carbohydrates and starch were found present in Sattva tablets. Number of peaks obtained in HPTLC also corresponds to this finding. Data obtained by present study may be considered as standard for future studies. Conclusion: The average percentage of dried Sattva obtained was 3.8%. The tablets were prepared by direct compression method as per pharmacopoeal specifications. Optimum hardness, weight of tablets, DT and friability of Gu??ci Sattva tablets were found complying with official standards. Alkaloids, carbohydrates and starch were found present in Sattva tablets. Number of peaks obtained in HPTLC also corresponds to this finding. Data obtained by present study may be considered as standard for future studies. PMID:25161327

  20. Disintegration of Water Drops in an Electric Field

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geoffrey Taylor

    1964-01-01

    The disintegration of drops in strong electric fields is believed to play an important part in the formation of thunderstorms, at least in those parts of them where no ice crystals are present. Zeleny showed experimentally that disintegration begins as a hydrodynamical instability, but his ideas about the mechanics of the situation rest on the implicit assumption that instability occurs

  1. WELFARE LOSS OF WETLANDS DISINTEGRATION: A LOUISIANA STUDY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    STEPHEN FARBER

    1996-01-01

    This study estimates the loss in welfare of projected Louisiana coastal wetlands disintegration. Various programs have initiated costly projects to terminate this disintegration process. But can these projects succeed, and will their benefits exceed their costs? This study addresses the benefits issues and estimates reductions in incomes and consumption opportunities and increases in costs that would be avoided if restoration

  2. Disintegration of activated sludge flocs in presence of sulfide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Per Halkjær Nielsen; Kristian Keiding

    1998-01-01

    Addition of sulfide to activated sludge led to a change of floc structure due to specific reduction of Fe(III) to FeS. The change was observed as a weakening of the floc strength leading to an increased shear sensitivity of the flocs. The degree of disintegration thus depended on the shear rate in the system. The floc disintegration led to the

  3. Childhood disintegrative disorder: issues for DSM-IV.

    PubMed

    Volkmar, F R

    1992-12-01

    Childhood disintegrative disorder, also known as Heller syndrome or as disintegrative psychosis, is a relatively uncommon condition which has variably been included in official diagnostic systems. Available evidence regarding the validity of this diagnostic concept, particularly with regard to autism, supports inclusion of the category in DSM-IV. Proposed criteria and narrative description for the disorder are presented. PMID:1483980

  4. Disintegrative psychosis of childhood. An appraisal and case study.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, S; Singh, S P

    1993-01-01

    This study reports on five cases seen in a child psychiatry service in Northern India who met the criteria for disintegrative psychoses of childhood. Their clinical features were different from the described for autistic disorders of childhood supporting the validity of this disorder. The issues of diagnostic criteria and classification of disintegrative psychoses as distinct from autistic disorders is highlighted. PMID:8517159

  5. Nonlinear disintegration of the internal tide Karl R. Helfrich1

    E-print Network

    Nonlinear disintegration of the internal tide Karl R. Helfrich1 and Roger H. J. Grimshaw2 1 The disintegration of a first-mode internal tide into shorter solitary-like waves is considered. Because observations frequently show both tides and waves with amplitudes beyond the re- strictions of weakly nonlinear theory

  6. Preparation and in vitro/in vivo characterization of porous sublingual tablets containing ternary kneaded solid system of vinpocetine with î-cyclodextrin and hydroxy Acid.

    PubMed

    Aburahma, Mona H; El-Laithy, Hanan M; Hamza, Yassin El-Said

    2010-01-01

    The demand for sublingual tablets has been growing during the previous decades especially for drugs with extensive hepatic first-pass metabolism. Vinpocetine, a widely used neurotropic agent, has low oral bioavailability due to its poor aqueous solubility and marked first-pass metabolism. Accordingly, the aim of this work was to develop tablets for the sublingual delivery of vinpocetine. Initially, the feasibility of improving vinpocetineâs poor aqueous solubility by preparing kneaded solid systems of the drug with Î-Cyclodextrin and hydroxy acids (citric acid and tartaric acid) was assessed. The solid system with improved solubility and dissolution properties was incorporated into porous tablets that rapidly disintegrate permitting fast release of vinpocetine into the sublingual cavity. The pores were induced into these tablets by directly compressing the tabletsâ excipients with a sublimable material, either camphor or menthol, which was eventually sublimated leaving pores. The obtained results demonstrated that the tablets prepared using camphor attained sufficient mechanical strength for practical use together with rapid disintegration and dissolution. In vivo absorption study performed in rabbits indicated that the sublingual administration of the proposed porous tablets containing vinpocetine solid system with Î-Cyclodextrin and tartaric acid could be useful for therapeutic application. PMID:21179352

  7. 21 CFR 520.581 - Dichlorophene tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...false Dichlorophene tablets. 520.581 Section...PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.581 Dichlorophene tablets. (a) Specifications... Single dose of 1 tablet (1 gram of dichlorophene...Limitations. Withhold solid foods and milk for...

  8. 21 CFR 520.581 - Dichlorophene tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...false Dichlorophene tablets. 520.581 Section...PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.581 Dichlorophene tablets. (a) Specifications... Single dose of 1 tablet (1 gram of dichlorophene...Limitations. Withhold solid foods and milk for...

  9. 21 CFR 520.1380 - Methocarbamol tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Methocarbamol tablets. 520.1380 Section 520.1380 ...ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1380 Methocarbamol tablets. (a) Chemical name. 3-(O-Methoxyphenoxy...1-carbamate. (b) Specifications. Each tablet contains 500 milligrams of...

  10. 21 CFR 520.455 - Clomipramine tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Clomipramine tablets. 520.455 Section 520.455 Food and...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.455 Clomipramine tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 5, 20, 40, or 80 milligrams...

  11. 21 CFR 520.1900 - Primidone tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Primidone tablets. 520.1900 Section 520.1900 Food and...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1900 Primidone tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 50 or 250 milligrams of...

  12. 21 CFR 520.1900 - Primidone tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Primidone tablets. 520.1900 Section 520.1900 Food and...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1900 Primidone tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 50 or 250 milligrams of...

  13. 21 CFR 520.2088 - Roxarsone tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Roxarsone tablets. 520.2088 Section 520.2088 Food...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2088 Roxarsone tablets. (a)(1) Specifications. Each tablet contains 36 milligrams of roxarsone...

  14. 21 CFR 520.1380 - Methocarbamol tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Methocarbamol tablets. 520.1380 Section 520.1380 ...ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1380 Methocarbamol tablets. (a) Chemical name. 3-(O-Methoxyphenoxy...1-carbamate. (b) Specifications. Each tablet contains 500 milligrams of...

  15. 21 CFR 520.455 - Clomipramine tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Clomipramine tablets. 520.455 Section 520.455 Food and...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.455 Clomipramine tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 5, 20, 40, or 80 milligrams...

  16. 21 CFR 520.2088 - Roxarsone tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Roxarsone tablets. 520.2088 Section 520.2088 Food...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2088 Roxarsone tablets. (a)(1) Specifications. Each tablet contains 36 milligrams of roxarsone...

  17. A randomized, open-label, comparative efficacy trial of artemether-lumefantrine suspension versus artemether-lumefantrine tablets for treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in children in western Kenya

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth A Juma; Charles O Obonyo; Willis S Akhwale; Bernhards R Ogutu

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Artemether\\/lumefantrine (AL) has been adopted as the treatment of choice for uncomplicated malaria in Kenya and other countries in the region. Six-dose artemether\\/lumefantrine tablets are highly effective and safe for the treatment of infants and children weighing between five and 25 kg with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. However, oral paediatric formulations are urgently needed, as the tablets are difficult

  18. Mechanisms and kinetics models for ultrasonic waste activated sludge disintegration.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fen; Wang, Yong; Ji, Min

    2005-08-31

    Ultrasonic energy can be applied as pre-treatment to disintegrate sludge flocs and disrupt bacterial cells' walls, and the hydrolysis can be improved, so that the rate of sludge digestion and methane production is improved. In this paper, by adding NaHCO3 to mask the oxidizing effect of OH, the mechanisms of disintegration are investigated. In addition, kinetics models for ultrasonic sludge disintegration are established by applying multi-variable linear regression method. It has been found that hydro-mechanical shear forces predominantly responsible for the disintegration, and the contribution of oxidizing effect of OH increases with the amount of the ultrasonic density and ultrasonic intensity. It has also been inferred from the kinetics model which dependent variable is SCOD+ that both sludge pH and sludge concentration significantly affect the disintegration. PMID:15993296

  19. Tabletability Modulation Through Surface Engineering.

    PubMed

    Osei-Yeboah, Frederick; Sun, Changquan Calvin

    2015-08-01

    Poor powder tabletability is a common problem that challenges the successful development of high-quality tablet products. Using noncompressible microcrystalline cellulose beads, we demonstrate that surface coating is an effective strategy for modulating tabletability, almost at will, through judicious selection of coating material. This strategy has broad applicability as tabletability of such particles is dictated by the properties of the outermost layer coat regardless the nature of the core. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 104:2645-2648, 2015. PMID:26059496

  20. The comet disintegration and meteor streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guliyev, A. S.; Poladova, U. J.

    2015-03-01

    Possibility of disintegration of proto-comet nucleus of sungraser comets in three zones of Solar System predicted by one of authors is considered. Testing of parameters of 118 split comets confirms the basic idea. Results of the statistical analysis of comet outbursts gave us additional argument in favor of this assumption. Almost twenty years have passed since, as a result of the search for host phases of isotopically unusual noble gases, the first discovery in 1987 of surviving pre-solar minerals (diamond and silicon carbide) in primitive meteorites. These were followed by others (graphite, refractory oxides, silicon nitride, and finally silicates) in the years since. Pre-solar grains occur in even higher abundance than in meteorites in interplanetary dust particles (IDPs). The result is a kind of `new astronomy' based on the study of pre-solar condensates with all the methods available in modern analytical laboratories.

  1. The mobility of rock avalanches: disintegration, entrainment and deposition - a conceptual approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapp, Sibylle; Mamot, Philipp; Krautblatter, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Massive rock slope failures cause more than 60% of all catastrophic landslide disasters. Failures usually progress through three consecutive phases: detachment, disintegration and flow. While significant advances have been achieved in modelling Rock Avalanche Phase 1 "Detachment" and Phase 3 "Flow", the crucial link between both during Phase 2 "Disintegration", is still poorly understood. Disintegration of the detached rock mass is often initiated by its first major impact with the ground surface. This is a preliminary setup of a PhD project in which we aim at understanding the importance of disintegration and on site conditions at the impact site on fluidization and mobilization. The TUM Landslides Group is experienced in near surface geophysics of rockwalls and under Alpine conditions and has also developed laboratory experience in testing resistivity and P-/S-wave velocity of anisotropic and fractured rocks in the laboratory. In addition, there is a more than ten year experience in the analysis of different magnitudes of rock slope failure. Many of these studies took part in the Wetterstein Mountains and close to the Zugspitze. In this project we plan to compare one very small (Steingerümpel, Rein valley, Germany, with 0.003 km³) and two larger test sites (Eibsee, Zugspitze area, Germany, with 0.3 km³ and Flims, Grisons, Switzerland, with 12 km³) situated in limestone rocks. From our preliminary work we know that the Steingerümpel bergsturz shows a low degree of fracturing in spite of a high impact; the latter ones are high-magnitude rock slope failures which both partially collapsed into a lake and were highly disintegrated and fluidized. We intend to use the smaller Eibsee rock avalanche as a training site where we can try to understand the full dynamics of the flow using sedimentology, geophysics and surface geomorphology which indicated compressive and extensional flow, superelevation and runups. Regarding entrainment processes, we will carry out a seismic investigation of the Eibsee lake floor, assuming an impact of the Eibsee rock avalanche with a former paleo-lake, thereby entraining fine grained lake sediments. Furthermore, we apply these insights to the 12 km³ large Flims rock avalanche which is also partly fluidized and partly highly disintegrated in limestone with similar geomechanical properties. Here we demonstrate a conceptual approach for deciphering the disintegration impact on different magnitudes of rock avalanches. We want to show how they can be applied to constrain realistic flow models, and finally, how the latter can be used to better understand the mobilization and anticipation of highly mobile rock avalanches.

  2. New insights into segregation during tabletting.

    PubMed

    Lakio, S; Siiriä, S; Räikkönen, H; Airaksinen, S; Närvänen, T; Antikainen, O; Yliruusi, J

    2010-09-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate how different granule size distributions affect the tablet compression process. The emphasis was on developing new analytic methods for compression data for entire batch. In all, 18 batches of granules containing theophylline and lactose were tabletted, using an instrumented eccentric tabletting machine. During tablet compression, upper and lower punch forces were recorded. Mathematical methods were developed for analysing the compression data during tabletting. The results suggested two types of undulation in the tabletting data: (1) short-time scale variation or tablet-to-tablet changes in force data and (2) long-time scale undulation describing the changes occurring throughout the tabletting process, such as segregation. These undulation phenomena were analysed, using various mathematical methods. In addition the results suggest that smaller particles have better tabletting properties, to a certain limit. However particle size alone cannot explain the tabletability of granules. PMID:20600718

  3. Use of Propranolol-Magnesium Aluminium Silicate Intercalated Complexes as Drug Reservoirs in Polymeric Matrix Tablets

    PubMed Central

    Pongjanyakul, T.; Rojtanatanya, S.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the use of propranolol–magnesium aluminium silicate intercalated complexes as drug reservoirs in hydroxypropylmethylcellulose tablets. The matrix tablets containing the complexes were prepared and characterised with respect to propranolol release and were subsequently compared with those loading propranolol or a propranolol–magnesium aluminium silicate physical mixture. Additionally, the effects of varying viscosity grades of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, compression pressures and calcium acetate incorporation on the drug release characteristics of the complex-loaded tablets were also examined. The results showed that the complex-loaded tablets have higher tablet hardness than those containing propranolol or a physical mixture. The drug release from the complex-loaded tablets followed a zero-order release kinetic, whereas an anomalous transport was found in the propranolol or physical mixture tablets. The drug release rate of the complex tablet significantly decreased with increasing hydroxypropylmethylcellulose viscosity grade. Increase in the compression pressure caused a decrease in the drug release rate of the tablets. Furthermore, the incorporation of calcium ions could accelerate propranolol release, particularly in acidic medium, because calcium ions could be exchanged with propranolol molecules intercalated in the silicate layers of magnesium aluminium silicate. These findings suggest that propranolol-magnesium aluminium silicate intercalated complexes show strong potential for use as drug reservoirs in matrix tablets intended for modifying drug release. PMID:23626384

  4. Physico-chemical comparison of famotidine tablets prepared via dry granulation and direct compression techniques.

    PubMed

    Baseer, Abdul; Hassan, Fouzia; Hassan, Sm Fareed; Jabeen, Sabahat; Israr, Fozia; Murtaza, Ghulam; Haque, Naheed

    2013-05-01

    Famotidine is generally employed for the treatment of gastric ulcer. The present study was conducted to fabricate famotidine tablets using various diluents. The binder was incorporated to the formulations in different proportions. Both the dry granulation and direct compression techniques were employed to develop the tablets. Physical evaluation of tablets i.e. tablets hardness, friability, weight variation, thickness and diameter was determined. In vitro dissolution studies of the prepared tablets were carried out for 60 min using the USP apparatus II and 900 ml 0.1 M HCl stirred at 37 ± 0.5°C with a speed of 50 rpm. Physical analysis of tablets prepared via direct compression showed satisfactory results regarding the weight variation, hardness and friability, since their respective values were within the BP limits. All the prepared famotidine tablets exhibited diffusion based mode of drug release. 100% release of drug occurred in less than 60 min. The drug release from all the formulated tablets has elaborated the involvement of diffusion (Higuchian drug release). This comparative study exhibited that physical parameters of tablets are affected by the technique of tabletting. PMID:23625414

  5. Tablet PCs: The Write Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milner, Jacob

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the transforming effects of tablet PCs in the classroom. As 1-to-1 computing becomes the goal on K-12 campuses, school districts are turning to this newer, pen-based technology. Saint Mary's School's new Lenovo ThinkPad X41 tablet PCs had transformed the way Saint Mary's teachers did their jobs. Teachers created outlines for…

  6. Photoimages and the release characteristics of lipophilic matrix tablets containing highly water-soluble potassium citrate with high drug loadings.

    PubMed

    Cao, Qing-Ri; Kim, Tae-Wan; Lee, Beom-Jin

    2007-07-18

    Two types of the carnauba wax-based lipophilic matrix tablet using spray-dried granules (SDT) or directly compressible powdered mixtures (DCT) were prepared for sustained release. The model drug was a highly water-soluble potassium citrate and loaded about 74% of the total tablet weight. The SDT slowly eroded and disintegrated during the release study without showing sustained release when the hydrophilic excipients were added. In contrast, the DCT was more efficient for sustained release. The release rate decreased with increasing carnauba wax concentration. In particular, the sustained release rate was markedly pronounced when the lipophilic stearyl alcohol and stearic acid were combined with the carnauba wax. The surface of the intact DCT appeared to be smooth and rusty. The DCT rose to the surface from the bottom of the vessel during the release test, and numerous pores and cracks with no signs of disintegration were also observed after the release test. The release profile was dependent on the formulation composition and preparation method of the matrix tablet. Diffusion-controlled leaching through the channels of the pores and cracks of the lipophilic matrix tablet (DCT) is a key to the sustained release. PMID:17532156

  7. Poisoning with delayed-release tablets

    PubMed Central

    Meadow, S. R.; Leeson, Gerald A.

    1974-01-01

    Accidental poisoning with delayed-release tablets causes symptoms at a time when the tablets can no longer be retrieved from the stomach. A child died from eating 23 tablets of Debendox, which is a delayed-release tablet containing dicyclomine and doxylamine. A second child survived a similar overdose, having been subjected to vigorous purgation and peritoneal dialysis. PMID:4830120

  8. Validation of tablet-based evaluation of color fundus images

    PubMed Central

    Christopher, Mark; Moga, Daniela C.; Russell, Stephen R.; Folk, James C.; Scheetz, Todd; Abràmoff, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To compare diabetic retinopathy (DR) referral recommendations made by viewing fundus images using a tablet computer to recommendations made using a standard desktop display. Methods A tablet computer (iPad) and a desktop PC with a high-definition color display were compared. For each platform, two retinal specialists independently rated 1200 color fundus images from patients at risk for DR using an annotation program, Truthseeker. The specialists determined whether each image had referable DR, and also how urgently each patient should be referred for medical examination. Graders viewed and rated the randomly presented images independently and were masked to their ratings on the alternative platform. Tablet- and desktop display-based referral ratings were compared using cross-platform, intra-observer kappa as the primary outcome measure. Additionally, inter-observer kappa, sensitivity, specificity, and area under ROC (AUC) were determined. Results A high level of cross-platform, intra-observer agreement was found for the DR referral ratings between the platforms (?=0.778), and for the two graders, (?=0.812). Inter-observer agreement was similar for the two platforms (?=0.544 and ?=0.625 for tablet and desktop, respectively). The tablet-based ratings achieved a sensitivity of 0.848, a specificity of 0.987, and an AUC of 0.950 compared to desktop display-based ratings. Conclusions In this pilot study, tablet-based rating of color fundus images for subjects at risk for DR was consistent with desktop display-based rating. These results indicate that tablet computers can be reliably used for clinical evaluation of fundus images for DR. PMID:22495326

  9. Ultrasound transmission measurements for tensile strength evaluation of tablets.

    PubMed

    Simonaho, Simo-Pekka; Takala, T Aleksi; Kuosmanen, Marko; Ketolainen, Jarkko

    2011-05-16

    Ultrasound transmission measurements were performed to evaluate the tensile strength of tablets. Tablets consisting of one ingredient were compressed from dibasic calcium phosphate dehydrate, two grades of microcrystalline cellulose and two grades of lactose monohydrate powders. From each powder, tablets with five different tensile strengths were directly compressed. Ultrasound transmission measurements were conducted on every tablet at frequencies of 2.25 MHz, 5 MHz and 10 MHz and the speed of sound was calculated from the acquired waveforms. The tensile strength of the tablets was determined using a diametrical mechanical testing machine and compared to the calculated speed of sound values. It was found that the speed of sound increased with the tensile strength for the tested excipients. There was a good correlation between the speed of sound and tensile strength. Moreover, based on the statistical tests, the groups with different tensile strengths can be differentiated from each other by measuring the speed of sound. Thus, the ultrasound transmission measurement technique is a potentially useful method for non-destructive and fast evaluation of the tensile strength of tablets. PMID:21356298

  10. Mini-tablets versus pellets as promising multiparticulate modified release delivery systems for highly soluble drugs.

    PubMed

    Gaber, Dina M; Nafee, Noha; Abdallah, Osama Y

    2015-07-01

    Whether mini-tablets (tablets, diameters ?6mm) belong to single- or multiple-unit dosage forms is still questionable. Accordingly, Pharmacopoeial evaluation procedures for mini-tablets are lacking. In this study, the aforementioned points were discussed. Moreover, their potential for oral controlled delivery was assessed. The antidepressant venlafaxine hydrochloride (Vx), a highly soluble drug undergoing first pass effect, low bioavailability and short half-life was selected as a challenging payload. In an attempt to weigh up mini-tablets versus pellets as multiparticulate carriers, Vx-loaded mini-tablets were compared to formulated pellets of the same composition and the innovator Effexor(®)XR pellets. Formulations were prepared using various polymer hydrogels in the core and ethyl cellulose film coating with increasing thickness. Mini-tablets (diameter 2mm) showed extended Vx release (<60%, 8h). Indeed, release profiles comparable to Effexor(®)XR pellets were obtained. Remarkably higher coating thickness was required for pellets to provide equivalent retardation. Ethyl cellulose in the core ensured faster release due to polymer migration to the surface and pore formation in the coat. mini-tablets showed higher stability to pellets upon storage. Industrially speaking, mini-tablets proved to be superior to pellets in terms of manufacturing, product quality and economical aspects. Results point out the urgent need for standardized evaluation procedures for mini-tablets. PMID:25869450

  11. Ultrasonic waste activated sludge disintegration for improving anaerobic stabilization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Tiehm; K Nickel; M Zellhorn; U Neis

    2001-01-01

    The pretreatment of waste activated sludge by ultrasonic disintegration was studied in order to improve the anaerobic sludge stabilization. The ultrasound frequency was varied within a range from 41 to 3217kHz. The impact of different ultrasound intensities and treatment times was examined. Sludge disintegration was most significant at low frequencies. Low-frequency ultrasound creates large cavitation bubbles which upon collapse initiate

  12. 21 CFR 520.1200 - Ivermectin, fenbendazole, and praziquantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Ivermectin, fenbendazole, and praziquantel tablets. 520.1200 Section 520.1200 Food...Ivermectin, fenbendazole, and praziquantel tablets. (a) Specifications . Each chewable tablet contains either: (1) 68...

  13. 21 CFR 520.1200 - Ivermectin, fenbendazole, and praziquantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Ivermectin, fenbendazole, and praziquantel tablets. 520.1200 Section 520.1200 Food...Ivermectin, fenbendazole, and praziquantel tablets. (a) Specifications . Each chewable tablet contains either: (1) 68...

  14. Pervasive disintegrative disorder: are Rett syndrome and Heller dementia infantilis subtypes?

    PubMed

    Burd, L; Fisher, W; Kerbeshian, J

    1989-10-01

    Children with developmental regression and emerging symptoms of autism have been given a variety of classifications. The authors compare two boys with Heller dementia with six girls with Rett syndrome. They all differed from children with classic autism in that they had normal prenatal and perinatal periods, followed by marked developmental regression, after which they acquired few or no skills. The boys differed from the girls in terms of estimated prevalence, age at onset, stereotypic breathing patterns, midline hand stereotypies, hand and gait apraxia and speech development. It is suggested that these children should be distinguished from those with classic autism, and should be classified as 'pervasive disintegrative disorder, Heller type' and 'pervasive disintegrative disorder, Rett type'. PMID:2806742

  15. Tremor in healthy volunteers after bambuterol and terbutaline CR-tablets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Larsén; B. Schmekel

    1993-01-01

    Bambuterol tablets, 10 and 20 mg, and terbutaline CR-tablets, 5 and 7.5 mg, have been compared for their capacity to produce subjectively determined tremor in a randomised, double-blind, cross-over study in 40 healthy volunteers. The duration of each treatment was one week, with an intervening washout period of at least 2 weeks.

  16. Functionality and metagraph disintegration in boolean networks.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jamie X; Turner, Matthew S

    2011-08-01

    We study regulatory networks of N genes giving rise to a vector expression profile v(t) in which each gene is Boolean; either on or off at any time. We require a network to produce a particular time sequence v(t) for t?1,…,T and parameterize the complexity of such a genetic function by its duration T. We establish a number of new results regarding how functional complexity constrains genetic regulatory networks and their evolution. We find that the number of networks which generate a function decreases approximately exponentially with its complexity T and show there is a corresponding weakening of the robustness of those networks to mutations. These results suggest a limit on the functional complexity T of typical networks that is polynomial in N. However, we are also able to prove the existence of a, presumably small, class of networks in which this scales exponentially with N. We demonstrate that an increase in functional complexity T drives what we describe as a metagraph disintegration effect, breaking up the space of networks previously connected by neutral mutations and contrast this with what is found with less restrictive definitions of functionality. Our findings show how functional complexity could be a factor in shaping the evolutionary landscape and how the evolutionary history of a species constrains its future functionality. Finally we extend our analysis to functions with more exotic topologies in expression space, including "stars" and "trees". We quantify how the properties of networks that give rise to these functions differ from those that produce linear functional paths with the same overall duration T. PMID:21600222

  17. Floating tablet of trimetazidine dihydrochloride: an approach for extended release with zero-order kinetics.

    PubMed

    Abdelbary, Ahmed; El-Gazayerly, Omaima N; El-Gendy, Nashwa A; Ali, Adel A

    2010-09-01

    Trimetazidine dihydrochloride is an effective anti-anginal agent; however, it is freely soluble in water and suffers from a relatively short half-life. To solve this encumbrance, it is a prospective candidate for fabricating trimetazidine extended-release formulations. Trimetazidine extended-release floating tablets were prepared using different hydrophilic matrix forming polymers including HPMC 4000 cps, carbopol 971P, polycarbophil, and guar gum. The tablets were fabricated by dry coating technique. In vitro evaluation of the prepared tablets was performed by the determination of the hardness, friability, content uniformity, and weight variation. The floating lag time and floating duration were also evaluated. Release profile of the prepared tablets was performed and analyzed. Furthermore, a stability study of the floating tablets was carried out at three different temperatures over 12 weeks. Finally, in vivo bioavailability study was done on human volunteers. All tablet formulas achieved < 0.5 min of floating lag time, more than 12 h of floating duration, and extended t (1/2). The drug release in all formulas followed zero-order kinetics. T4 and T8 tablets contained the least polymer concentration and complied with the dissolution requirements for controlled-release dosage forms. These two formulas were selected for further stability studies. T8 exhibited longer expiration date and was chosen for in vivo studies. T8 floating tablets showed an improvement in the drug bioavailability compared to immediate-release tablets (Vastrel® 20 mg). PMID:20582493

  18. Development and evaluation of acid-buffering bioadhesive vaginal tablet for mixed vaginal infections.

    PubMed

    Alam, Mohd Aftab; Ahmad, Farhan Jalees; Khan, Zeenat Iqbal; Khar, Roop Krishen; Ali, Mushir

    2007-01-01

    An acid-buffering bioadhesive vaginal tablet was developed for the treatment of genitourinary tract infections. From the bioadhesion experiment and release studies it was found that polycarbophil and sodium carboxymethylcellulose is a good combination for an acid-buffering bioadhesive vaginal tablet. Sodium monocitrate was used as a buffering agent to provide acidic pH (4.4), which is an attribute of a healthy vagina. The effervescent mixture (citric acid and sodium bicarbonate) along with a superdisintegrant (Ac-Di-sol) was used to enhance the swellability of the bioadhesive tablet. The drugs clotrimazole (antifungal) and metronidazole (antiprotozoal as well as an antibacterial) were used in the formulation along with Lactobacillus acidophilus spores to treat mixed vaginal infections. From the ex vivo retention study it was found that the bioadhesive polymers hold the tablet for more than 24 hours inside the vaginal tube. The hardness of the acid-buffering bioadhesive vaginal tablet was optimized, at 4 to 5 kg hardness the swelling was found to be good and the cumulative release profile of the developed tablet was matched with a marketed conventional tablet (Infa-V). The in vitro spreadability of the swelled tablet was comparable to the marketed gel. In the in vitro antimicrobial study it was found that the acid-buffering bioadhesive tablet produces better antimicrobial action than marketed intravaginal drug delivery systems (Infa-V, Candid-V and Canesten 1). PMID:18181530

  19. Immediate release tablets of telmisartan using superdisintegrant-formulation, evaluation and stability studies.

    PubMed

    Sekar, Vasanthakumar; Chellan, Vijaya Raghavan

    2008-04-01

    Telmisartan (anti-hypertensive) is insoluble in water; hence the drug may be slowly or incompletely dissolved in the gastro intestinal tract. So the rate of dissolution and therefore its bioavailability is less (bioavailability 42%). In the present study an attempt has been made to prepare immediate release tablets of telmisartan by using Polyplasdone XL-10 (Crosspovidone) at intragranular, extragranular and partly intra and extragranular level of addition to increase the rate of drug release from dosage form to increase the dissolution rate and hence its bioavailability. The prepared granules and tablets were evaluated for their physiochemical properties and in-vitro dissolution study was conducted for the prepared tablets. It was concluded that the immediate release tablets with proper hardness, disintegration time and with increase rate of dissolution can be made using Polyplasdone XL-10. Formuation-10 (F10) was selected for stability study and the in-vitro dissolution study showed that was no difference in percent of drug released between initial and sixth month sample. PMID:18379110

  20. 21 CFR 520.1284 - Sodium liothyronine tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Sodium liothyronine tablets. 520.1284 Section 520.1284 Food...DRUGS § 520.1284 Sodium liothyronine tablets. (a) Specifications. Sodium liothyronine tablets consist of tablets intended for oral...

  1. 21 CFR 520.82a - Aminopropazine fumarate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Aminopropazine fumarate tablets. 520.82a Section 520.82a Food...DRUGS § 520.82a Aminopropazine fumarate tablets. (a) Specifications. The drug is in tablet form. Each tablet contains...

  2. 21 CFR 520.1284 - Sodium liothyronine tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Sodium liothyronine tablets. 520.1284 Section 520.1284 Food...DRUGS § 520.1284 Sodium liothyronine tablets. (a) Specifications. Sodium liothyronine tablets consist of tablets intended for oral...

  3. 21 CFR 520.82a - Aminopropazine fumarate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Aminopropazine fumarate tablets. 520.82a Section 520.82a Food...DRUGS § 520.82a Aminopropazine fumarate tablets. (a) Specifications. The drug is in tablet form. Each tablet contains...

  4. Granulation by Roller Compaction and Enteric Coated Tablet Formulation of the Extract of the Seeds of Glinus Lotoides Loaded on Aeroperl® 300 Pharma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abebe Endale; Tsige Gebre-Mariam; Peter C. Schmidt

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to improve the hygrpscopicity and poor flow properties of the crude dry extract of the seeds\\u000a of Glinus lotoides and improve the disintegration time of the core-tablets for enteric coated formulation thereof. The liquid crude extract\\u000a of the plant was adsorbed on granulated colloidal silicon dioxide (Aeroperl® 300 Pharma) at 30% w\\/w and the

  5. Formulation, release characteristics and bioavailability of novel monolithic hydroxypropylmethylcellulose matrix tablets containing acetaminophen.

    PubMed

    Cao, Qing-Ri; Choi, Yun-Woong; Cui, Jing-Hao; Lee, Beom-Jin

    2005-11-28

    Effect of incorporating pharmaceutical excipients on the in vitro release profiles and the release mechanism of monolithic hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (4000 cps) matrix tablets (m-HPMC tablets) in terms of mimicking the dual drug release character of bi-layered Tylenol ER tablets was studied. We also compared the in vitro release profiles of optimized m-HPMC matrix tablet and Tylenol ER tablet in water, pH 1.2 gastric fluid, and pH 6.8 intestinal fluid, and in vivo drug bioavailabilities in healthy human volunteers. Acetaminophen was used as the model drug. The m-HPMC tablets were prepared using a wet granulation method followed by direct compression. Release profiles and swelling rates of m-HPMC tablets were found to be highly influenced by the types and amounts of pharmaceutical excipients incorporated. Starch 1500 (Prejel) and sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) played a key role in determining the dissolution rate of m-HPMC tablets. Additional excipients, i.e., microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel PH101) and NaH2PO4 were used to tune the release profiles of m-HPMC tablets. The effect of pharmaceutical excipients on drug release from HPMC-based matrix tablets was found to be mainly due to a change in hydrophilic gel expansion and on physical interactions between the drug and HPMC. The optimized m-HPMC tablet with a balanced ratio of Prejel, SLS, Avicel PH101, and NaH2PO4 in the formulation showed dual release profiles in water, pH 1.2 gastric fluid, and pH 6.8 intestinal fluid in vitro. Dual release was defined as immediate drug release within few minutes followed by extended release over 8 h. The similarity factors of m-HPMC tablets and bi-layered Tylenol ER tablets were 79.8, 66.1, and 82.7 in water, gastric fluid and intestinal fluid, respectively, indicating the equivalence of the two release profiles. No significant in vivo bioavailability differences were observed in healthy human volunteers. The developed m-HPMC tablet with dual release characteristics can be easily prepared using a conventional high-speed tablet machine and could provide an alternative to commercially available bilayered Tylenol ER tablets. PMID:16154656

  6. Evaluating Tablet Computers as a Survey Tool in Rural Communities

    PubMed Central

    Newell, Steve M.; Logan, Henrietta L.; Guo, Yi; Marks, John G.; Shepperd, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Although tablet computers offer advantages in data collection over traditional paper-and-pencil methods, little research has examined whether the 2 formats yield similar responses, especially with underserved populations. We compared the 2 survey formats and tested whether participants’ responses to common health questionnaires or perceptions of usability differed by survey format. We also tested whether we could replicate established paper-and-pencil findings via tablet computer. Methods We recruited a sample of low-income community members living in the rural southern United States. Participants were 170 residents (black = 49%; white = 36%; other races and missing data = 15%) drawn from 2 counties meeting Florida’s state statutory definition of rural with 100 persons or fewer per square mile. We randomly assigned participants to complete scales (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Inventory and Regulatory Focus Questionnaire) along with survey format usability ratings via paper-and-pencil or tablet computer. All participants rated a series of previously validated posters using a tablet computer. Finally, participants completed comparisons of the survey formats and reported survey format preferences. Findings Participants preferred using the tablet computer and showed no significant differences between formats in mean responses, scale reliabilities, or in participants’ usability ratings. Conclusions Overall, participants reported similar scales responses and usability ratings between formats. However, participants reported both preferring and enjoying responding via tablet computer more. Collectively, these findings are among the first data to show that tablet computers represent a suitable substitute among an underrepresented rural sample for paper-and-pencil methodology in survey research. PMID:25243953

  7. Processing of tungsten scrap into powders by electroerosion disintegration

    SciTech Connect

    Fominskii, L.P.; Leuchuk, M.V.; Myuller, A.S.; Tarabrina, V.P.

    1985-04-01

    Utilization of tungsten and tungsten alloy swarf and other waste and also of rejected and worn parts is a matter of great importance in view of the shortage of this metal. The authors examine the electroerosion (EE) disintegration of tungsten in water as a means of utilizing swarf and other loose waste. Unlike chemical methods, EE disintegration ensures ecological purity since there are no effluent waters or toxic discharges. Swarf and trimmings of rods of diameters up to 20 mm obtained after the lathe-turning of tungsten bars sintered from PVN and PVV tungsten powders were disintegrated in water at room temperature between tungsten electrodes. The phase composition of the powder was studied using FeK /SUB alpha/ radiation, by x-ray diffraction methods in a DRON-2 diffractometer with a graphite monochromator on the secondary beam. When tungsten is heated to boiling during EE disintegration, the impurities present in it can evaporate and burn out. Thus, tungsten powder produced by EE disintegration can be purer than the starting metal.

  8. The effect of chitosan on the stability and morphological parameters of tablets with Epilobium parviflorum Schreb. extract.

    PubMed

    Marczy?ski, Zbigniew; Bodek, Kazimiera Henryka

    2007-01-01

    The study is a continuation of research on manufacturing oral solid drug form containing extract from Epilobium parviflorum Schreb. This study aims at investigating the usefulness of selected high-molecular substances with particular consideration of chitosan (Ch), silicified microcrystalline cellulose (Prosolv) and croscarmellose sodium (Vivasol) as a carrier of E. parviflorum Schreb. extract in oral solid drug form in the process of direct tableting. In one series the alternative technological process (with initial granulation) was applied. The polymer carriers of extract were selected so as to obtain shorter disintegration time in relation to the earlier published studies and stability after longer time of storage. The effect of chitosan was estimated on selected morphological parameters of practical relevance during storage. The obtained results allow to state that the applied high-molecular adjuvant substances proved to be useful in adequate proportions in the production of tablets from dry extract from Epilobium parviflorum Schreb. through direct pressing of the tablet mass. The tablet properties in all series were in accordance with obligatory standards also after longer time of storage (12-month). The tablets formed from E. parviflorum Schreb. extract with chitosan can be included into preparations of sustained release time of the biologically active substances. PMID:18251200

  9. Modeling inter- and intra-tablet coating variability of pan coated tablets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arjun Vivek Kalbag

    2009-01-01

    This thesis work is focused on the modeling of inter- and intra-tablet coating variability of pan coated tablets. Tablets are coated for a number of reasons such as controlling the bioavailability and release profile of the drug (functional coatings), ensuring product identification and aesthetics, masking odor and taste and protecting the tablet core. Due to the critical nature of functional

  10. Development of early mathematical skills with a tablet intervention: a randomized control trial in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Pitchford, Nicola J

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of educational interventions is necessary prior to wide-scale rollout. Yet very few rigorous studies have been conducted on the effectiveness of tablet-based interventions, especially in the early years and in developing countries. This study reports a randomized control trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a tablet intervention for supporting the development of early mathematical skills in primary school children in Malawi. A total sample of 318 children, spanning Standards 1-3, attending a medium-sized urban primary school, were randomized to one of three groups: maths tablet intervention, non-maths tablet control, and standard face-to-face practice. Children were pre-tested using tablets at the start of the school year on two tests of mathematical knowledge and a range of basic skills related to scholastic progression. Class teachers then delivered the intervention over an 8-weeks period, for the equivalent of 30-min per day. Technical support was provided from the local Voluntary Service Overseas (VSO). Children were then post-tested on the same assessments as given at pre-test. A final sample of 283 children, from Standards 1-3, present at both pre- and post-test, was analyzed to investigate the effectiveness of the maths tablet intervention. Significant effects of the maths tablet intervention over and above standard face-to-face practice or using tablets without the maths software were found in Standards 2 and 3. In Standard 3 the greater learning gains shown by the maths tablet intervention group compared to both of the control groups on the tablet-based assessments transferred to paper and pencil format, illustrating generalization of knowledge gained. Thus, tablet technology can effectively support early years mathematical skills in developing countries if the software is carefully designed to engage the child in the learning process and the content is grounded in a solid well-constructed curriculum appropriate for the child's developmental stage. PMID:25954236

  11. E-Books and the Tablet PC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin-Jones, Bob

    2003-01-01

    Highlights the emerging technologies of e-books, electronic versions of texts, and the Tablet PC, a new hybrid laptop computer and personal digital assistant that features a writing tablet and stylus-based input/navigation. (Author/VWL)

  12. 21 CFR 520.312 - Carnidazole tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Conditions of use —(1) Amount. Adult pigeons: 1 tablet (10 milligrams); newly weaned pigeons: 1/2 tablet (5 milligrams). (2...trichomoniasis (canker) in ornamental and homing pigeons. (3) Limitations. Not for...

  13. 21 CFR 520.312 - Carnidazole tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Conditions of use —(1) Amount. Adult pigeons: 1 tablet (10 milligrams); newly weaned pigeons: 1/2 tablet (5 milligrams). (2...trichomoniasis (canker) in ornamental and homing pigeons. (3) Limitations. Not for...

  14. Safety and Colon-Cleansing Efficacy of a New Residue-Free Formulation of Sodium Phosphate Tablets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas K. Rex; Howard Schwartz; Michael Goldstein; John Popp; Seymour Katz; Charles Barish; Robyn G. Karlstadt; Martin Rose; Kelli Walker; Sandra Lottes; Nancy Ettinger; Bing Zhang

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:A residue-free sodium phosphate tablet (RF-NaP) was formulated that lacks microcrystalline cellulose, which can appear as a whitish residue in the colon. A multicenter, randomized, investigator-blinded study was conducted to compare the colon-cleansing efficacy of 40 or 32 tablets of RF-NaP with the marketed 40-tablet NaP treatment regimen.METHODS:Eight hundred sixteen patients were randomized prior to colonoscopy to receive either 40

  15. Low Volume Bowel Preparation for Colonoscopy: Randomized, Endoscopist-Blinded Trial of Liquid Sodium Phosphate Versus Tablet Sodium Phosphate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David H. Balaban; Byrd S. Leavell; Michael J. Oblinger; William O. Thompson; Nancy D. Bolton; Daniel J. Pambianco

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to compare the colon-cleansing effectiveness, ease of consumption, and side effect profiles of two commercially available preparations of sodium phosphate: liquid Fleet Phospho-soda and Visicol tablets.METHODS:Outpatients undergoing elective colonoscopy were sequentially randomized to one of two preparation groups: liquid: 45 ml at 7:00 PM, 45 ml 3 h before colonoscopy; or tablet: 20 tablets

  16. Pore shape in the sodium chloride matrix of tablets after the addition of starch as a second component

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu San Wu; Henderik W. Frijlink; Lucas J. van Vliet; Kees van der Voort Maarschalk

    2008-01-01

    The present research aims to test the hypothesis that the addition of a minor component causes a change in pore shape in the matrix of the primary component, causing a decrease in mechanical strength. Tablets made of sodium chloride only and tablets made of a mixture of sodium chloride (97.5% v\\/v) and starch (2.5% v\\/v) were compared. Tablets were subjected

  17. Bioequivalence study of two enalapril maleate tablet formulations in healthy male volunteersPharmacokinetic versus pharmacodynamic approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Ribeiro; M. N. Muscará; A. R. Martins; H. Moreno Jr.; G. B. Mendes; G. de Nucci

    1996-01-01

    Objective:\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Two different conventional release enalapril maleate tablet formulations were evaluated for their relative bioavailability\\u000a (Eupressin tablets 10?mg, Biosintética as the test formulation vs Renitec tablets 10 mg Merck Sharp & Dhome, as the reference\\u000a formulation). A single 20?mg oral dose of each preparation was administered to 18 healthy male adult volunteers and their\\u000a bioequivalence was assessed by comparing the

  18. 21 CFR 520.531 - Cythioate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cythioate tablets. 520.531 Section 520.531 Food...ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.531 Cythioate tablets. (a) [Reserved] (b) Sponsors...for use of 30- and 90-milligram (mg) tablets and see No. 053501 in §...

  19. Principles of Tablet Computing for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katzan, Harry, Jr.

    2015-01-01

    In the study of modern technology for the 21st century, one of the most popular subjects is tablet computing. Tablet computers are now used in business, government, education, and the personal lives of practically everyone--at least, it seems that way. As of October 2013, Apple has sold 170 million iPads. The success of tablets is enormous and has…

  20. 21 CFR 520.804 - Enalapril tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enalapril tablets. 520.804 Section 520.804 Food and...FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.804 Enalapril tablets. (a) Specifications . Each tablet contains either 1.0, 2.5, 5.0,...

  1. Scaffolding Equals Success in Teaching Tablet PCs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickerson, Jeremy; Williams, Scott; Browning, J. B.

    2009-01-01

    After many years of using the mouse and keyboard as the primary means of computer input, people are seeing a strong surge into a new generation of input technologies such as tablet PCs. As more professionals adopt tablet PCs for use in the workplace, there is a subsequent increased demand for tablet PC instruction in the classroom. Examples of…

  2. 21 CFR 520.1616 - Orbifloxacin tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Orbifloxacin tablets. 520.1616 Section 520.1616 Food and...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1616 Orbifloxacin tablets. (a) Specifications . Each tablet contains 5.7, 22.7, or 68...

  3. 21 CFR 520.531 - Cythioate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cythioate tablets. 520.531 Section 520.531 Food...ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.531 Cythioate tablets. (a) [Reserved] (b) Sponsors...for use of 30- and 90-milligram (mg) tablets and see No. 053501 in §...

  4. 21 CFR 520.812 - Enrofloxacin tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enrofloxacin tablets. 520.812 Section 520.812 Food and...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.812 Enrofloxacin tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains either 22.7, 68.0, or...

  5. 21 CFR 520.1510 - Nitenpyram tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nitenpyram tablets. 520.1510 Section 520.1510 Food and...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1510 Nitenpyram tablets. (a) Specifications . Each tablet contains 11.4 or 57 milligrams (mg)...

  6. 21 CFR 520.812 - Enrofloxacin tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Enrofloxacin tablets. 520.812 Section 520.812 Food and...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.812 Enrofloxacin tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains either 22.7, 68.0, or...

  7. 21 CFR 520.1510 - Nitenpyram tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nitenpyram tablets. 520.1510 Section 520.1510 Food and...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1510 Nitenpyram tablets. (a) Specifications . Each tablet contains 11.4 or 57 milligrams (mg)...

  8. Mathematics Instruction and the Tablet PC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fister, K. Renee; McCarthy, Maeve L.

    2008-01-01

    The use of tablet PCs in teaching is a relatively new phenomenon. A cross between a notebook computer and a personal digital assistant (PDA), the tablet PC has all of the features of a notebook with the additional capability that the screen can also be used for input. Tablet PCs are usually equipped with a stylus that allows the user to write on…

  9. Proportion: a tablet app for collaborative learning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jochen Rick

    2012-01-01

    Everyday computing technology is transitioning from PCs to more natural user interfaces. At the forefront of this trend are multi-touch tablets. Each year, tablets become more affordable, capable and widespread. Now is the time for research to shape how they will be used to support learning. In this paper, I introduce the Proportion tablet application as both a concrete vision

  10. TEACHING WITH TABLET PC'S Kenrick Mock

    E-print Network

    Mock, Kenrick

    powerful desktop machines. An "official" Tablet PC, as designated by Microsoft, is essentially an x86-based or recognized as text. As a Windows XP machine, the Tablet PC has the benefit that it can directly execute anyTEACHING WITH TABLET PC'S Kenrick Mock University of Alaska Anchorage Anchorage, AK 99508 kenrick

  11. Bioequivalence of a newly developed 17 beta-estradiol tablet versus an identical reference formulation

    PubMed

    Gisclon; Bowen; O'Reilly; Lakewold; Curtin; Larson; Palmer; Natarajan; Wong

    2000-10-01

    Two open-label, randomized studies determined the bioequivalence of a test preparation (Prefest) of micronized 17 beta-estradiol (E2, CAS 50-28-2) tablets as compared with a reference preparation of micronized E2 tablets in healthy postmenopausal women. In Study 1, 36 fasting subjects received 4 test preparation 0.5-mg E2 tablets in one period and 4 reference preparation 0.5-mg E2 tablets in the other period. In Study 2, 36 fasting subjects received 1 test preparation 2-mg E2 tablet in one period and 1 reference preparation 2-mg E2 tablet in the other period. Blood samples were collected before and after dosing to determine serum concentrations of E2, estrone, and estrone sulfate. The 90% confidence intervals for the ratios of mean Cmax and AUC values (test preparation/reference preparation) for all three analytes were within the prescribed 80%-125% range of bioequivalence. In conclusion, the test preparation 0.5-mg and 2-mg micronized E2 tablets are bioequivalent to the respective strength reference preparation micronized E2 tablets. PMID:11105233

  12. Pharmaceutical and pharmacokinetic characterization of a novel sublingual buprenorphine/naloxone tablet formulation in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Andreas; Hjelmström, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Context Bitter taste, as well as dissolve time, presents a significant challenge for the acceptability of formulations for oral transmucosal drug delivery. Objective To characterize a novel sublingual tablet formulation of buprenorphine/naloxone with regards to pharmacokinetics, dissolve time and formulation acceptability. Methods Dry mixing techniques were employed to produce a small and fast dissolving buprenorphine/naloxone sublingual tablet formulation, OX219 (Zubsolv®), using sucralose and menthol as sweetener and flavor to mask the bitter taste of the active ingredients. Two cross-over studies were performed in healthy volunteers to evaluate pharmacokinetics, dissolve time and acceptability of OX219 5.7/1.4?mg tablets compared to the commercially available buprenorphine/naloxone formulations Suboxone® tablets and films (8/2?mg). Results Buprenorphine exposure was equivalent in OX219 and Suboxone tablets. Sublingual dissolve times were significantly shorter for OX219 than for Suboxone tablets and were similar to Suboxone films. The OX219 formulation received significantly higher subjective ratings for taste and overall acceptability than both Suboxone formulations. OX219 was preferred over Suboxone tablet and film formulations by 77.4% and 88.9% of subjects, respectively. Conclusions A sublingual tablet formulation with an improved acceptability has been successfully developed. PMID:24099551

  13. Formulation and In Vitro, In Vivo Evaluation of Effervescent Floating Sustained-Release Imatinib Mesylate Tablet

    PubMed Central

    Kadivar, Ali; Kamalidehghan, Behnam; Javar, Hamid Akbari; Davoudi, Ehsan Taghizadeh; Zaharuddin, Nurul Dhania; Sabeti, Bahareh; Chung, Lip Yong; Noordin, Mohamed Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Imatinib mesylate is an antineoplastic agent which has high absorption in the upper part of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Conventional imatinib mesylate (Gleevec) tablets produce rapid and relatively high peak blood levels and requires frequent administration to keep the plasma drug level at an effective range. This might cause side effects, reduced effectiveness and poor therapeutic management. Therefore, floating sustained-release Imatinib tablets were developed to allow the tablets to be released in the upper part of the GIT and overcome the inadequacy of conventional tablets. Methodology Floating sustained-release Imatinib mesylate tablets were prepared using the wet granulation method. Tablets were formulated using Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose (HPMC K4M), with Sodium alginate (SA) and Carbomer 934P (CP) as release-retarding polymers, sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) as the effervescent agent and lactose as a filler. Floating behavior, in vitro drug release, and swelling index studies were conducted. Initial and total drug release duration was compared with a commercial tablet (Gleevec) in 0.1 N HCl (pH 1.2) at 37 ± 0.5°C for 24 hours. Tablets were then evaluated for various physical parameters, including weight variation, thickness, hardness, friability, and drug content. Consequently, 6 months of physical stability studies and in vitro gastro-retentive studies were conducted. Results and Discussion Statistical data analysis revealed that tablets containing a composition of 14.67% w/w HPMC K4M, 10.67%, w/w Na alginate, 1.33%, w/w Carbomer 934P and 9.33%, w/w NaHCO3 produced the most favorable formulation to develop 24-hour sustained-release tablets with optimum floating behavior and satisfactory physicochemical characteristics. Furthermore, in vitro release study revealed that the formulated SR tablet had significantly lower Cmax and higher Tmax compared to the conventional tablet (Gleevec). Thus, formulated SR tablets preserved persistent concentration of plasma up to 24 hours. Conclusion In conclusion, in order to suggest a better drug delivery system with constant favorable release, resulting in optimized absorption and less side effects, formulated CP-HPMC-SA based imatinib mesylate floating sustained-release tablets can be a promising candidate for cancer chemotherapy. PMID:26035710

  14. Tablet Analysis Using Gravimetric Dilutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonson, Larry A.

    2001-10-01

    This experiment introduces the concept of gravimetric dilutions in the context of tablet analysis. Caffeine tablets are analyzed by absorbance at 274 nm with reference to a standard calibration graph and tested for compliance with the USP criterion. All samples and standards are prepared using gravimetric dilutions without reference to volume or density. This experiment is appropriate for high school and college freshman chemistry courses and may be useful at higher levels. It is only necessary that students have had exposure to Beer's law.

  15. Ultrasonic waste activated sludge disintegration for improving anaerobic stabilization.

    PubMed

    Tiehm, A; Nickel, K; Zellhorn, M; Neis, U

    2001-06-01

    The pretreatment of waste activated sludge by ultrasonic disintegration was studied in order to improve the anaerobic sludge stabilization. The ultrasound frequency was varied within a range from 41 to 3217 kHz. The impact of different ultrasound intensities and treatment times was examined. Sludge disintegration was most significant at low frequencies. Low-frequency ultrasound creates large cavitation bubbles which upon collapse initiate powerful jet streams exerting strong shear forces in the liquid. The decreasing sludge disintegration efficiency observed at higher frequencies was attributed to smaller cavitation bubbles which do not allow the initiation of such strong shear forces. Short sonication times resulted in sludge floc deagglomeration without the destruction of bacteria cells. Longer sonication brought about the break-up of cell walls, the sludge solids were distintegrated and dissolved organic compounds were released. The anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge following ultrasonic pretreatment causing microbial cell lysis was significantly improved. There was an increase in the volatile solids degradation as well as an increase in the biogas production. The increase in digestion efficiency was proportional to the degree of sludge disintegration. To a lesser degree the deagglomeration of sludge flocs also augmented the anaerobic volatile solids degradation. PMID:11337847

  16. Nucleation, aggregation, annealing, and disintegration of granular clusters.

    PubMed

    González-Gutiérrez, Jorge; Carrillo-Estrada, J L; Ruiz-Suárez, J C

    2014-05-01

    The processes of nucleation, aggregation, annealing, and disintegration of clusters of non-Brownian paramagnetic beads in a vibrofluidized system are experimentally investigated. The interaction among the beads is induced by a magnetic seed composed of two dipoles allocated outside the container cell. We observe a clearly differentiated nucleation stage, whose evolution (nucleation time versus acceleration strength) follows a power law. Thereafter, the beads aggregate forming 2D disordered clusters around the nucleus. Both processes (nucleation and aggregation) are determined by the competition between magnetic forces and the drag produced by a thermal bath created by glass particles. Once the agglomerates reach a final state (shape and length), they are annealed by increasing and decreasing the granular temperature. We found that the fractal dimension and the lacunarity index clearly describe the structural variations of the clusters. Our discussion on this phenomenon is addressed, making a rough analogy with the glass transition in a super-cooled liquid. Finally, we study the disintegration of the clusters as a function of time and the density of the surrounding gas. The question is not if, but how they disintegrate upon removing the external field; we find that the disintegration follows an exponential decay. PMID:25353785

  17. Cultural Disintegration Perpetuated through Substance Abuse among American Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Laurence Armand

    Alcohol, perhaps more than any other factor, symbolizes the degree of cultural disintegration experienced by American Indians today. It has been recognized as a symptom of the numerous cultural adjustments forced upon American Indians since white contact. Indeed, alcohol among Indian groups was prohibited for a far longer period than the…

  18. Larsen Iceshelf: Iceshelf Partial Disintegration and Iceberg Calving

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Visitors can study this account of the calving of the Larsen ice shelf and the disintegration of the ice shelf around James Ross Island that occured in Austral Summer of 1994-95. The account is in chronolgical order and is accompanied by photographs. Follow-up examinations from 1996-2002 and links to related material are provided.

  19. Orally Disintegrating Systems: Innovations in Formulation and Technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Honey Goel; Parshuram Rai; Vikas Rana; Ashok K. Tiwary

    2008-01-01

    Orally disintegrating systems have carved a niche amongst the oral drug delivery systems due to the highest component of compliance they enjoy in patients especially the geriatrics and pediatrics. In addition, patients suffering from dysphagia, motion sickness, repeated emesis and mental disorders prefer these medications because they cannot swallow large quantity of water. Further, drugs exhibiting satisfactory absorption from the

  20. Plenary Speeches: Is the Second Language Acquisition Discipline Disintegrating?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulstijn, Jan H.

    2013-01-01

    After characterizing the study of second language acquisition (SLA) from three viewpoints, I try to answer the question, raised by DeKeyser (2010), of whether the SLA field is disintegrating. In answering this question, I first propose a distinction between SLA as the relatively fundamental academic discipline and SLA as the relatively applied…

  1. Disintegration of fluids under supercritical conditions from mixing layer studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okong'o, N.; Bellan, J.

    2003-01-01

    Databases of transitional states obtained from Direct Numerical simulations (DNS) of temporal, supercritical mixing layers for two species systems, O2/H2 and C7H16/N2, are analyzed to elucidate species-specific turbulence aspects and features of fluid disintegration.

  2. Evaluation of matrix type mucoadhesive tablets containing indomethacin for buccal application.

    PubMed

    Ikeuchi-Takahashi, Yuri; Sasatsu, Masanaho; Onishi, Hiraku

    2013-09-10

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are administered for pain relief from oral mucositis. However, the systemic administration of NSAIDs is limited due to systemic side effects. To avoid these side effects and treat local lesions effectively, a matrix type mucoadhesive tablet was developed. A mixture of hard fat, ethylcellulose (EC) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) was used as a matrix base, and indomethacin (IMC) was used as the principal agent. In tablets consisting of hard fat, EC and IMC, the drug release was sustained. In tablets consisting of hard fat, EC, considerable amounts of PEG and IMC, the drug release was relatively increased and IMC existed as the molecular phase or in an amorphous state. The in vitro adhesive force of the tablets consisting of hard fat, EC, considerable amounts of PEG and IMC was significantly increased as compared with the tablets consisting of hard fat and IMC. A significantly high tissue concentration and significantly low plasma concentration were observed after buccal administration of this matrix type mucoadhesive tablet as compared with that after oral administration of IMC. Thus, the matrix type mucoadhesive tablet has good potential as a preparation for the treatment of pain due to oral aphtha. PMID:23791737

  3. Study of the stability of tablets containing 10 mg of policosanol as active principle.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, L; González, V; Uribarri, E; Sierra, R; Laguna, A; Magraner, J; Mederos, D; Velázquez, C

    2002-01-01

    The stability studies of tablets containing 10 mg of policosanol, a new cholesterol lowering drug, were conducted to predict an expiration date and to search the appearance of putative degradation products. All quality specification parameters such as colour, moisture content, hardness, disintegration, policosanol content and microbiological limits of the tablets were done. The effect of drastic treatments such as acid and basic hydrolysis, oxidative and photolytic degradation as well as thermolysis on such parameters was studied. In addition; studies under drastic conditions of storage (40 degrees C and 75% R.H.) and under ambient conditions of storage for climatic zones II and IV were performed. These studies demonstrate that these tablets are a stable pharmaceutical formulation, without significant changes on their quality criteria at the stressed conditions studied. The chromatographic profile of the samples after 9 months of thermal degradation shows chromatographic peaks that corresponds to the octacosanoyl, triacontanoyl and hexacosanoyl esters of palmitate and stearate, being the only degradation products observed on these studies. PMID:12197422

  4. Using Tablets as Tools for Learner-Generated Drawings in the Context of Teaching the Kinetic Theory of Gases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehtinen, A.; Viiri, J.

    2014-01-01

    Even though research suggests that the use of drawings could be an important part of learning science, learner-generated drawings have not received much attention in physics classrooms. This paper presents a method for recording students' drawings and group discussions using tablets. Compared to pen and paper, tablets offer unique benefits,…

  5. Multifragment disintegration of the 129Xe+197Au system at E\\/A=50 MeV

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. R. Bowman; G. F. Peaslee; R. T. de Souza; N. Carlin; C. K. Gelbke; W. G. Gong; Y. D. Kim; M. A. Lisa; W. G. Lynch; L. Phair; M. B. Tsang; C. Williams; N. Colonna; K. Hanold; M. A. McMahan; G. J. Wozniak; L. G. Moretto; W. A. Friedman

    1991-01-01

    Multifragment disintegrations following 129Xe+197Au collisions at E\\/A=50 MeV have been studied with a multidetector system covering 88% of 4pi in solid angle. The average number of intermediate-mass fragments (Z=3-20) increases strongly as a function of charged-particle multiplicity and reaches values larger than six for the most violent collisions. The results are compared to calculations with both dynamical and statistical models.

  6. Real-time monitoring of changes of adsorbed and crystalline water contents in tablet formulation powder containing theophylline anhydrate at various temperatures during agitated granulation by near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Makoto; Kanai, Yoshinori; Hattori, Yusuke

    2014-09-01

    Real-time monitoring of adsorbed water content (FW) and hydrate formation of theophylline anhydrate (THA) in tablet formulation during agitated granulation was investigated by near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. As the wet-granulation process of THA tablet formulation involves change in pseudo-polymorphs between THA and theophylline monohydrate (THM), the pharmaceutical properties of THA tablet depend on the degree of hydration during granulation. After mixing of the powder materials (4 g) containing THA, and excipients and the addition of 600 ?L of binding water, the powder was kneaded at 27°C, 40°C, and 50°C and then dried. The mixing, granulating, and drying processes were monitored using NIR. The calibration models to predict THM and total water contents during granulation in THA tablet formulation were obtained by partial least-squares regression. The FW in the formulation was determined by subtracting THM from the water content. The results of the THA formulation powder bed during granulation by NIR monitoring indicated that the transformation pathway of the THA powder was THA ? THM ? THA at 27°C and 40°C, but that at 50°C was THA ? THA ? THA. The pharmaceutical properties, such as tablet porosity, hardness, tablet disintegration time, and dissolution rate of the final THA tablet products, were affected by the degree of crystalline transformation during granulation. PMID:24832393

  7. Optimization of municipal sludge and grease co-digestion using disintegration technologies.

    PubMed

    Bouchy, L; Pérez, A; Camacho, P; Rubio, P; Silvestre, G; Fernández, B; Cano, R; Polanco, M; Díaz, N

    2012-01-01

    Many drivers tend to foster the development of renewable energy production in wastewater treatment plants as many expectations rely upon energy recovery from sewage sludge, for example through biogas use. This paper is focused on the assessment of grease waste (GW) as an adequate substrate for co-digestion with municipal sludge, as it has a methane potential of 479-710 LCH(4)/kg VS, as well as the evaluation of disintegration technologies as a method to optimize the co-digestion process. With this objective three different pre-treatments have been selected for evaluation: thermal hydrolysis, ultrasound and enzymatic treatment. Results have shown that co-digestion processes without pre-treatment had a maximum increment of 128% of the volumetric methane productivity when GW addition was 23% inlet (at 20 days of HRT and with an OLR of 3.0 kg COD/m(3)d), compared with conventional digestion of sewage sludge alone. Concerning the application of the selected disintegration technologies, all pre-treatments showed improvements in terms of methane yield (51.8, 89.5 and 57.6% more for thermal hydrolysis, ultrasound and enzymatic treatment, respectively, compared with non-pretreated wastes), thermal hydrolysis of GW and secondary sludge being the best configuration as it improved the solubilization of the organic matter and the hydrodynamic characteristics of digestates. PMID:22233897

  8. Disintegration of rocks based on magnetically isolated high voltage discharge.

    PubMed

    He, Mengbing; Jiang, Jinbo; Huang, Guoliang; Liu, Jun; Li, Chengzu

    2013-02-01

    Recently, a method utilizing pulsed power technology for disintegration of rocks arouses great interest of many researchers. In this paper, an improved method based on magnetic switch and the results shown that the uniform dielectrics like plastic can be broken down in water is presented, and the feasible mechanism explaining the breakdown of solid is proposed and proved experimentally. A high voltage pulse of 120 kV, rise time 0.2 ?s was used to ignite the discharging channel in solids. When the plasma channel is formed in the solid, the resistance of the channel is quiet small; even if a relatively low voltage is applied on the channel on this occasion, it will produce high current to heat the plasma channel rapidly, and eventually disintegrate the solids. The feasibility of promising industrial application in the drilling and demolition of natural and artificial solid materials by the method we presented is verified by the experiment result in the paper. PMID:23464235

  9. Histotripsy methods in mechanical disintegration of tissue: towards clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Khokhlova, Vera A; Fowlkes, J Brian; Roberts, William W; Schade, George R; Xu, Zhen; Khokhlova, Tatiana D; Hall, Timothy L; Maxwell, Adam D; Wang, Yak-Nam; Cain, Charles A

    2015-03-01

    In high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) therapy, an ultrasound beam is focused within the body to locally affect the targeted site without damaging intervening tissues. The most common HIFU regime is thermal ablation. Recently there has been increasing interest in generating purely mechanical lesions in tissue (histotripsy). This paper provides an overview of several studies on the development of histotripsy methods toward clinical applications. Two histotripsy approaches and examples of their applications are presented. In one approach, sequences of high-amplitude, short (microsecond-long), focused ultrasound pulses periodically produce dense, energetic bubble clouds that mechanically disintegrate tissue. In an alternative approach, longer (millisecond-long) pulses with shock fronts generate boiling bubbles and the interaction of shock fronts with the resulting vapour cavity causes tissue disintegration. Recent preclinical studies on histotripsy are reviewed for treating benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), liver and kidney tumours, kidney stone fragmentation, enhancing anti-tumour immune response, and tissue decellularisation for regenerative medicine applications. Potential clinical advantages of the histotripsy methods are discussed. Histotripsy methods can be used to mechanically ablate a wide variety of tissues, whilst selectivity sparing structures such as large vessels. Both ultrasound and MR imaging can be used for targeting and monitoring the treatment in real time. Although the two approaches utilise different mechanisms for tissue disintegration, both have many of the same advantages and offer a promising alternative method of non-invasive surgery. PMID:25707817

  10. 21 CFR 520.2041 - Pyrantel pamoate chewable tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Pyrantel pamoate chewable tablets. 520.2041 Section 520.2041 Food and...DRUGS § 520.2041 Pyrantel pamoate chewable tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains pyrantel pamoate equivalent to...

  11. 21 CFR 520.2123a - Spectinomycin tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Spectinomycin tablets. 520.2123a Section 520.2123a Food...ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2123a Spectinomycin tablets. (a) Specifications . Each tablet contains spectinomycin dihydrochloride...

  12. 21 CFR 520.1331 - Meclofenamic acid tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 false Meclofenamic acid tablets. 520.1331 Section 520.1331 Food and...ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1331 Meclofenamic acid tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains either 10 or 20 milligrams of...

  13. 21 CFR 520.1242e - Levamisole hydrochloride effervescent tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...false Levamisole hydrochloride effervescent tablets. 520.1242e Section 520.1242e Food...1242e Levamisole hydrochloride effervescent tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 907 milligrams of levamisole...

  14. 21 CFR 520.1331 - Meclofenamic acid tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 false Meclofenamic acid tablets. 520.1331 Section 520.1331 Food and...ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1331 Meclofenamic acid tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains either 10 or 20 milligrams of...

  15. 21 CFR 520.784 - Doxylamine succinate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Doxylamine succinate tablets. 520.784 Section 520.784 Food...DRUGS § 520.784 Doxylamine succinate tablets. (a) Specifications. The drug is in tablet form and contains doxylamine succinate...

  16. 21 CFR 520.1341 - Megestrol acetate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 false Megestrol acetate tablets. 520.1341 Section 520.1341 Food and...ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1341 Megestrol acetate tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 5 or 20 milligrams of megestrol...

  17. 21 CFR 520.1720a - Phenylbutazone tablets and boluses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 false Phenylbutazone tablets and boluses. 520.1720a Section 520...ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1720a Phenylbutazone tablets and boluses. (a) Specifications . Each tablet contains 100, 200, or 400...

  18. 21 CFR 520.2041 - Pyrantel pamoate chewable tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Pyrantel pamoate chewable tablets. 520.2041 Section 520.2041 Food and...DRUGS § 520.2041 Pyrantel pamoate chewable tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains pyrantel pamoate equivalent to...

  19. 21 CFR 520.1720a - Phenylbutazone tablets and boluses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 false Phenylbutazone tablets and boluses. 520.1720a Section 520...ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1720a Phenylbutazone tablets and boluses. (a) Specifications . Each tablet contains 100, 200, or 400...

  20. 21 CFR 520.863 - Ethylisobutrazine hydrochloride tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Ethylisobutrazine hydrochloride tablets. 520.863 Section 520.863 Food and...520.863 Ethylisobutrazine hydrochloride tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains either 10 milligrams or 50...

  1. 21 CFR 520.784 - Doxylamine succinate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Doxylamine succinate tablets. 520.784 Section 520.784 Food...DRUGS § 520.784 Doxylamine succinate tablets. (a) Specifications. The drug is in tablet form and contains doxylamine succinate...

  2. 21 CFR 520.2582 - Triflupromazine hydrochloride tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Triflupromazine hydrochloride tablets. 520.2582 Section 520.2582 Food and...520.2582 Triflupromazine hydrochloride tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains either 10 milligrams or 25...

  3. 21 CFR 520.863 - Ethylisobutrazine hydrochloride tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Ethylisobutrazine hydrochloride tablets. 520.863 Section 520.863 Food and...520.863 Ethylisobutrazine hydrochloride tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains either 10 milligrams or 50...

  4. 21 CFR 520.623 - Diethylcarbamazine citrate, oxibendazole chewable tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Diethylcarbamazine citrate, oxibendazole chewable tablets. 520.623 Section 520.623 Food and...Diethylcarbamazine citrate, oxibendazole chewable tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains either 60, 120, or 180...

  5. 21 CFR 520.246 - Butorphanol tartrate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Butorphanol tartrate tablets. 520.246 Section 520.246 Food and...ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.246 Butorphanol tartrate tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 1, 5, or 10 milligrams of...

  6. 21 CFR 520.623 - Diethylcarbamazine citrate, oxibendazole chewable tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Diethylcarbamazine citrate, oxibendazole chewable tablets. 520.623 Section 520.623 Food and...Diethylcarbamazine citrate, oxibendazole chewable tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains either 60, 120, or 180...

  7. 21 CFR 520.2123a - Spectinomycin tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Spectinomycin tablets. 520.2123a Section 520.2123a Food...ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2123a Spectinomycin tablets. (a) Specifications . Each tablet contains spectinomycin dihydrochloride...

  8. 21 CFR 520.1446 - Milbemcyin oxime and lufenuron tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Milbemcyin oxime and lufenuron tablets. 520.1446 Section 520.1446 Food...520.1446 Milbemcyin oxime and lufenuron tablets. (a) Specifications —(1) Tablets containing: 2.3 milligrams (mg)...

  9. 21 CFR 520.1341 - Megestrol acetate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 false Megestrol acetate tablets. 520.1341 Section 520.1341 Food and...ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1341 Megestrol acetate tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 5 or 20 milligrams of megestrol...

  10. 21 CFR 520.1446 - Milbemcyin oxime and lufenuron tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Milbemcyin oxime and lufenuron tablets. 520.1446 Section 520.1446 Food...520.1446 Milbemcyin oxime and lufenuron tablets. (a) Specifications —(1) Tablets containing: 2.3 milligrams (mg)...

  11. 21 CFR 520.2582 - Triflupromazine hydrochloride tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Triflupromazine hydrochloride tablets. 520.2582 Section 520.2582 Food and...520.2582 Triflupromazine hydrochloride tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains either 10 milligrams or 25...

  12. Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems: Tablet Chlorination

    E-print Network

    Lesikar, Bruce J.

    2008-10-23

    Secondary treatment system Pump tank Tablet chlorinator Onsite wastewater treatment systems Tablet chlorination L-5344 9-08 Figure 1: The most common form of disinfection for onsite systems is tablet chlorination. W astewater that is sprayed onto... lawns must first be disinfected to prevent odors and remove disease-causing microorganisms. Wastewater can be disinfected with chlorine, ozone, and ultraviolet light. For onsite wastewater treatment systems, the most common form of disin- fection...

  13. Tablet Content Analysis Using Terahertz Transmission Spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John A. Spencer; Everett H. Jefferson; Ajaz S. Hussain; David Newnham; Thomas Lo

    2007-01-01

    A group of pressed tablets with acetaminophen content between 60 mg and 120 mg were scanned in the terahertz spectral region\\u000a (2 cm?1–120 cm?1) in transmission mode. Tablet acetaminophen content was determined by a standard HPLC method. Despite the lack of discernible\\u000a spectral features and the tablets being opaque above 45 cm?1, a working partial least squares model could be constructed. The results show the

  14. BIOEQUIVALENCE OF TWO BRANDS OF CITALOPRAM 40 mg TABLETS AFTER SINGLE ORAL ADMINISTRATION TO HEALTHY VOLUNTEERS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luis Mendoza; Marián Hajdúchb; Hana Kekulováa; Xenia Svobodová; Vladimír Mihálb; Michal Svoboda; M. Hajdúch; V. Mihál

    A randomized, two-way, crossover, bioequivalence study was conducted in 26 fasting, healthy, male volunteers to compare two brands of citalopram 40 mg tablets, Citol (Abdi Ibrahim ?laç San. ve Tic A.?., Istanbul, Turkey) as a test and Cipramil® (H. Lundbeck A\\/S, Copenhagen, Denmark) as a reference product. One tablet of either formulation was administered with low-carbonate water after 10 h

  15. Steady-state bioequivalence study of clozapine tablet in schizophrenic patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wongwiwat Tassaneeyakul; Suda Vannaprasaht; Arporn Tawalee; Siriporn Tiamkao; Veerapol Kukongviriyapan; Khon Kaen

    Purpose: To compare the bioavailabil- ity of two clozapine formulations (100 mg Clozaril tablet from Novartis Pharmaceuticals UK Ltd., UK, as a Reference formulation and 100 mg Cloril tablet from Atlantic Laboratories Corp., Ltd., Thailand, as a Test formulation). The present study was conducted under real-life conditions in schizophrenic patients using a steady-state, multiple-dose, randomized crossover design to avoid the

  16. In vivo absorption comparison of nanotechnology-based silybin tablets with its water-soluble derivative.

    PubMed

    Xu, Di; Ni, Rui; Sun, Wei; Li, Luk Chiu; Mao, Shirui

    2015-04-01

    In this study, the in vivo oral absorption of a nanocrystal tablet formulation of a BCS II poorly water-soluble drug was compared with that of its water-soluble salt form. Silybin is used as the model drug, and its nanosuspension was prepared by high-pressure homogenization. Effect of process and formulation parameters on properties of the nansuspensions was investigated. Dried powder of the nanosuspension was prepared by spray drying and used for preparing tablets. A pharmacokinetic study was performed in Beagle dogs to compare the absorption for tablets of silybin nanocrystals and silybin meglumine. In vivo absorption of nanocrystal silybin tablet in Beagle dogs was determined. X-ray powder diffraction results indicated that silybin existed in a crystalline state after homogenization. In vivo absorption study in rats showed that the peroral absorption of silybin was enhanced remarkably by decreasing particle size. In vivo absorption of nanocrystal silybin tablet in Beagle dogs was comparable with that of the commercially available tablet of the water-soluble salt form of silybin. In conclusion, it is possible to increase the bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs by preparing its water-soluble derivative. PMID:24495272

  17. Formulation and Bioequivalence of Two Valsartan Tablets After a Single Oral Administration

    PubMed Central

    Zaid, Abdel Naser; Cortesi, Rita; Qaddomi, Aiman; Khammash, Saed

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the quality of Valzan® tablet (160 mg, valsartan immediate release test formulation) by comparing its pharmacokinetic parameters with Diovan® tablet (160 mg, valsartan reference formulation). Valzan® tablets were prepared according to a dry granulation method (roll compaction). To assess the bioequivalence of Valzan® tablets a randomized, two-way, crossover, bioequivalence study was performed in 24 healthy male volunteers. The selected volunteers were divided into two groups of 12 subjects. One group was treated with the reference formulation (Diovan®) and the other one with the generic Valzan®, with a cross-over after the drug washout period of 14 days. Blood samples were collected at fixed time intervals and valsartan concentrations were determined by a validated HPLC assay method. The pharmacokinetic parameters AUC0–48, AUC0–?, Cmax, Tmax, Ke and T1/2 were determined for both the tablets and were compared statistically to evaluate the bioequivalence between the two brands of valsartan, using the statistical model recommended by the FDA. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) did not show any significant difference between the two formulations and 90% confidence intervals (CI) fell within the acceptable range for bioequivalence. Based on this statistical evaluation it was concluded that the test tablets (Valzan®) is well formulated, since it exhibits pharmacokinetic profile comparable to the reference brand Diovan®. PMID:21617777

  18. Design and optimization of bilayered tablet of Hydrochlorothiazide using the Quality-by-Design approach

    PubMed Central

    Dholariya, Yatin N; Bansod, Yogesh B; Vora, Rahul M; Mittal, Sandeep S; Shirsat, Ajinath Eknath; Bhingare, Chandrashekhar L

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study is to develop an optimize bilayered tablet using Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) as a model drug candidate using quality by design (QbD) approach. Introduction and Method: The bilayered tablet gives biphasic drug release through loading dose; prepared using croscarmellose sodium a superdisintegrant and maintenance dose using several viscosity grades of hydrophilic polymers. The fundamental principle of QbD is to demonstrate understanding and control of pharmaceutical processes so as to deliver high quality pharmaceutical products with wide opportunities for continuous improvement. Risk assessment was carried out and subsequently 22 factorial designs in duplicate was selected to carry out design of experimentation (DOE) for evaluating the interactions and effects of the design factors on critical quality attribute. The design space was obtained by applying DOE and multivariate analysis, so as to ensure desired disintegration time (DT) and drug release is achieved. Bilayered tablet were evaluated for hardness, thickness, friability, drug content uniformity and in vitro drug dissolution. Result: Optimized formulation obtained from the design space exhibits DT of around 70 s, while DR T95% (time required to release 95% of the drug) was about 720 min. Kinetic studies of formulations revealed that erosion is the predominant mechanism for drug release. Conclusion: From the obtained results; it was concluded that independent variables have a significant effect over the dependent responses, which can be deduced from half normal plots, pareto charts and surface response graphs. The predicted values matched well with the experimental values and the result demonstrates the feasibility of the design model in the development and optimization of HCTZ bilayered tablet. PMID:25006554

  19. Theoretical investigations into the influence of the position of a breaking line on the tensile failure of flat, round, bevel-edged tablets using finite element methodology (FEM) and its practical relevance for industrial tablet strength testing.

    PubMed

    Podczeck, Fridrun; Newton, J Michael; Fromme, Paul

    2014-12-30

    Flat, round tablets may have a breaking ("score") line. Pharmacopoeial tablet breaking load tests are diametral in their design, and industrially used breaking load testers often have automatic tablet feeding systems, which position the tablets between the loading platens of the machine with the breaking lines in random orientation to the applied load. The aim of this work was to ascertain the influence of the position of the breaking line in a diametral compression test using finite element methodology (FEM) and to compare the theoretical results with practical findings using commercially produced bevel-edged, scored tablets. Breaking line test positions at an angle of 0°, 22.5°, 45°, 67.5° and 90° relative to the loading plane were studied. FEM results obtained for fully elastic and elasto-plastic tablets were fairly similar, but they highlighted large differences in stress distributions depending on the position of the breaking line. The stress values at failure were predicted to be similar for tablets tested at an angle of 45° or above, whereas at lower test angles the predicted breaking loads were up to three times larger. The stress distributions suggested that not all breaking line angles would result in clean tensile failure. Practical results, however, did not confirm the differences in the predicted breaking loads, but they confirmed differences in the way tablets broke. The results suggest that it is not advisable to convert breaking loads obtained on scored tablets into tablet tensile strength values, and comparisons between different tablets or batches should carefully consider the orientation of the breaking line with respect to the loading plane, as the failure mechanisms appear to vary. PMID:25455775

  20. Cell disintegration by laser-induced transient microbubbles and its simultaneous monitoring by interferometry.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Jörg; Brinkmann, Ralf

    2006-01-01

    Selective retina treatment (SRT) is a novel short pulsed laser therapy of several retinal diseases associated with a decreased metabolism at the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). The range of laser pulse energies is small, in which the desired selective RPE disintegration is achieved without adverse effects to the neural retina. Thus, a real-time dosimetry control is required. We investigated a noninvasive interferometric technique able to monitor microbubble formation around the intracellular melanin granula, which is the origin of the desired RPE damage. A porcine ex vivo RPE model was irradiated by single pulses (350 ns1.7 mus) of a neodymium: yttrium lithium fluoride laser (527 nm). The specimen was simultaneously probed by a Michelson interferometer (helium neon-laser: 633 nm) and by a hydrophone. Cell viability assays (Calcein-AM) were performed after irradiation. At threshold radiant exposure for cell death (ED(50)=129+/-5 mJ cm2 for 350 ns; ED50=180+/-5 mJ cm2 for 1.7 mus), the interferometric transients changed due to microbubble formation. No major differences in the bubble dynamics were observed between both pulse durations. An algorithm to determine cell death from the interferometric transients showed less than 10% false positive or false negative results for the applied laser expositions compared to the viability assay. Interferometry is a reliable noncontact technique to monitor RPE disintegration and may serve as real-time dosimetry control during SRT. PMID:16965140

  1. Cell disintegration by laser-induced transient microbubbles and its simultaneous monitoring by interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, Jörg; Brinkmann, Ralf

    2006-07-01

    Selective retina treatment (SRT) is a novel short pulsed laser therapy of several retinal diseases associated with a decreased metabolism at the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). The range of laser pulse energies is small, in which the desired selective RPE disintegration is achieved without adverse effects to the neural retina. Thus, a real-time dosimetry control is required. We investigated a noninvasive interferometric technique able to monitor microbubble formation around the intracellular melanin granula, which is the origin of the desired RPE damage. A porcine ex vivo RPE model was irradiated by single pulses (350 ns/1.7 µs) of a neodymium: yttrium lithium fluoride laser (527 nm). The specimen was simultaneously probed by a Michelson interferometer (helium neon-laser: 633 nm) and by a hydrophone. Cell viability assays (Calcein-AM) were performed after irradiation. At threshold radiant exposure for cell death (ED50=129+/-5 mJ/cm2 for 350 ns; ED50=180+/-5 mJ/cm2 for 1.7 µs), the interferometric transients changed due to microbubble formation. No major differences in the bubble dynamics were observed between both pulse durations. An algorithm to determine cell death from the interferometric transients showed less than 10% false positive or false negative results for the applied laser expositions compared to the viability assay. Interferometry is a reliable noncontact technique to monitor RPE disintegration and may serve as real-time dosimetry control during SRT.

  2. Cyclodextrin-containing poly(ethyleneoxide) tablets for the delivery of poorly soluble drugs: potential as buccal delivery system.

    PubMed

    Cappello, Brunella; De Rosa, Giuseppe; Giannini, Lucia; La Rotonda, Maria Immacolata; Mensitieri, Giuseppe; Miro, Agnese; Quaglia, Fabiana; Russo, Roberto

    2006-08-17

    The aim of this work was to develop a tablet for the buccal delivery of the poorly soluble drug carvedilol (CAR), based on poly(ethyleneoxide) (PEO) as bioadhesive sustained-release platform and hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPbetaCD) as modulator of drug release. As first, PEO tablets loaded with CAR/HPbetaCD binary systems with different dissolution properties were tested for CAR and HPbetaCD release features and compared to PEO tablets containing only CAR. When the drug was incorporated as CAR/HPbetaCD freeze-dried product, all CAR content was released from the tablet in about 10 h, displaying a constant release regimen after a transient. The effect of HPbetaCD incorporation on the release mechanism, was rationalized on the basis of the interplay of different physical phenomena: erosion and swelling of the tablet, drug dissolution, drug counter-diffusion and complex formation. In the second part of the study, the potential of HPbetaCD-containing PEO tablets as buccal delivery system for CAR was tested. It was found that the incorporation of HPbetaCD in the tablet did not alter significantly its good adhesion properties. The feasibility of buccal administration of CAR was assessed by permeation experiments on pig excised mucosa. The amount of CAR permeated from PEO tablet was higher in the case of HPbetaCD-containing tablets, the maximum value being obtained for CAR/HPbetaCD freeze-dried system. Our results demonstrate that, when the tablet is employed as transmucosal system, the role of drug dissolution enhancement in the hydrated tablet is much more relevant than in solution for increasing the delivery rate. PMID:16650700

  3. Lattice-Boltzmann Simulation of Tablet Dissolution in Complex Hydrodynamic Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jiaolong; Sun, Ning; Park, Taeshin; Ko, Glen H.; Gersappe, Dilip

    2015-03-01

    Using the Lattice-Boltzmann method, we developed a 3D model to study the tablet dissolution process in a complex hydrodynamic environment involving spatially varying velocity and shear forces. The results show that a turbulent flow is formed in the region above the tablet, which has been obtained by visualization experiments. The dissolution profiles were obtained by incorporating detailed kinetics, showing good agreement with case studies from literature. After studying the influence of the paddle speed and the size of the system, we simulated the dissolution process for multicomponent tablets. Our results indicate how the hydrodynamic environment would affect the dissolution process by changing the local concentration of components near the tablet as well as by the particle erosion under high fluid velocity. Since the code was successfully parallelized, the simulation for comparatively large systems is possible now.

  4. Bioequivalence testing of a new tablet formulation of generic fluoxetine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Jovanovi?; V. KILIBARDAI; S. DORDEVICI; M. JOVANOVICz; J. JOVIC-STOSICz; D. Srdi?; T. Kneževi?

    2006-01-01

    Summary  The pharmacokinetics and relative bioavailability of fluoxetine capsules (reference) and tablets (test) were compared in 24\\u000a healthy subjects of both sexes after a single 20 mg oral dose of fluoxetine (as a hydrochloride salt).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a A randomized, crossover design with a 2-week wash-out period between each dose was applied. Serum samples, obtained before\\u000a dosing and at various appropriate time points up

  5. External validity of childhood disintegrative disorder in comparison with autistic disorder.

    PubMed

    Kurita, Hiroshi; Osada, Hirokazu; Miyake, Yuko

    2004-06-01

    To examine the external validity of DSM-IV childhood disintegrative disorder (CDD), 10 children (M = 8.2 yrs) with CDD and 152 gender- and age-matched children with autistic disorder (AD) were compared on 24 variables. The CDD children had a significantly higher rate of epilepsy, significantly less uneven intellectual functioning, and a tendency of greater abnormality in auditory responsiveness than AD children, to validate CDD externally. Their short-term outcome, as shown in the degree of retardation, was not worse than the AD children, which is in disagreement with previous studies reporting worse outcomes in CDD than autism. These results need to be verified by a long-term prospective study that compares CDD and AD patients from infancy. PMID:15264502

  6. Bioequivalence study of 400 and 100 mg imatinib film-coated tablets in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Ostrowicz, Andrzej; Miko?ajczak, Przemys?aw L; Wierzbicka, Marzena; Boguradzki, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the bioavailability of a generic product of 100 mg and 400 mg imatinib film-coated tablets (test) as compared to that of a branded product (reference) at the same strength to determine bioequivalence. The secondary objective of the study was to evaluate tolerability of both products. An open-label, randomized, crossover, two-period, single-dose, comparative study was conducted in 43 (Imatynib-Biofarm 100 mg film-coated tablet) and in 42 (Imatynib-Biofarm 400 mg film-coated tablet), brand name Imatenil, Caucasian healthy volunteers in fed conditions. A single oral dose administration of the test or reference product was separated by 14-day washout period. The imatinib and its metabolite N-desmethyl imatinib concentrations were determined using a validated LC MS/MS method. The results of the single-dose study in healthy volunteers indicated that the film-coated tablets of Imatynib-Biofarm 100 mg and 400 mg film-coated tablets manufactured by Biofarm Sp. z o.o. (test products) are bioequivalent to those of Glivec 100 mg and 400 mg film-coated tablets manufactured by Novartis Pharma GmbH (reference products). Both products in the two doses of imatinib were well tolerated. PMID:25362813

  7. Simulation of roller compaction with subsequent tableting and characterization of lactose and microcrystalline cellulose.

    PubMed

    Hein, Stephanie; Picker-Freyer, Katharina M; Langridge, John

    2008-01-01

    Tablets are by far the most common solid oral dosage forms, and many drugs need to be granulated before they can be tableted. Increasingly roller compaction is being used as a dry granulation technique; however it is a very time and material intensive method. Thus some mini roller compactors and simulations of the roller compaction process have been developed as a means of studying the technique at small scale. An important factor in the selection of materials for roller compaction is their ability to be recompressed into tablets after the initial roller compaction and milling steps. In this paper the roller compaction process was simulated on the basis of some models by Gereg and Cappola (2002) and Zinchuk et al. (2004). An eccentric tableting machine was used to make compacts from alpha-lactose monohydrate, anhydrous beta-lactose, spray-dried lactose and microcrystalline cellulose at different maximum relative densities (rho rel,max 0.6-0.9). These compacts were milled immediately to granules with a rotary granulator. The properties of the granules were analyzed and compared to the properties of the original powders. These granules and powders were then tableted at different maximum relative densities (rho rel,max 0.75-0.95) and their properties including elastic recovery, crushing force and 3D-model were analyzed. The properties of the tablets made from the granules were compared to the properties of the tablets made from the powders to determine which excipients are most suitable for the roller compaction process. The study showed that anhydrous beta-lactose is the preferred form of lactose for use in roller compaction since compaction did not affect tablet crushing force to a large extent. With the simulation of roller compaction process one is able to find qualified materials for use in roller compaction without the necessity of a great deal of material and time. PMID:18728996

  8. Tablet PCs: A Physical Educator's New Clipboard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nye, Susan B.

    2010-01-01

    Computers in education have come a long way from the abacus of 5,000 years ago to the desktop and laptop computers of today. Computers have transformed the educational environment, and with each new iteration of smaller and more powerful machines come additional advantages for teaching practices. The Tablet PC is one. Tablet PCs are fully…

  9. Enhancing Student Performance Using Tablet Computers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enriquez, Amelito G.

    2010-01-01

    Tablet PCs have the potential to change the dynamics of classroom interaction through wireless communication coupled with pen-based computing technology that is suited for analyzing and solving engineering problems. This study focuses on how tablet PCs and wireless technology can be used during classroom instruction to create an Interactive…

  10. Pharmaceutical Tablet Inspection Emil Sauer Lynge

    E-print Network

    Pharmaceutical Tablet Inspection Emil Sauer Lynge Kongens Lyngby 2012 IMM-B.Sc.-2012-06 #12;Summary (English) The goal of this thesis is to investigate, how an industrial machine vision solution can implementation. The results thus only reects the explanatory power of the tablets spectral response. A method

  11. Putting Tablet PCs to the Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amirian, Susan

    2004-01-01

    Like many educators, the author and her colleagues (five faculty members and two IT techs) in the department of Media Communications and Technology at East Stroudsburg University in Pennsylvania were interested to find out the status of tablet PCs in education. Microsoft listed 10 manufacturers of tablet PCs following two forms: the slate and the…

  12. Effectiveness of vaginal tablets containing lactobacilli versus pH tablets on vaginal health and inflammatory cytokines: a randomized, double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Hemalatha, R; Mastromarino, P; Ramalaxmi, B A; Balakrishna, N V; Sesikeran, B

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of lactobacilli on vaginal health and proinflammatory cytokines. Sixty-seven patients with bacterial vaginosis (BV), 50 with intermediate flora and 42 with normal vaginal flora were enrolled in this double-blind study. The subjects were randomized to receive probiotic lactobacilli vaginal tablets (L. brevis CD2, L. salivarius subsp. salicinius, L. plantarum) or the vaginal pH tablet (active comparator). Cervico-vaginal lavage was collected to measure the concentrations of IL-1?, TNF? and IL-6 by ELISA. Neutral sphingomyelinase activity was also quantified in both arms before and after treatment. The probiotic vaginal tablet was well tolerated and no side effects were reported. The study demonstrated a cure rate of nearly 80 %; i.e., 32 % of the women could restore normal vaginal flora and 47 % had improved Nugent score, whereas 20 % of the subjects did not clear BV in the first follow-up (after 8 days treatment). The pH tablet containing pH lowering compounds induced resolution of BV and restoration of normal vaginal flora in 74 % and 26 %, respectively. The lactobacilli tablet was found to be better than the pH tablet in preventing BV in healthy subjects. A significant reduction in IL-1? and IL-6 vaginal cytokines was observed after treatment with lactobacilli, while the active comparator did not have any effect on local proinflammatory cytokines. Vaginal neutral sphingomyelinase activity was not modified in either group. Vaginal tablets containing lactobacilli can cure BV and reduce vaginal inflammatory response. PMID:22777592

  13. Brief report: childhood disintegrative disorder as a likely manifestation of vitamin B12 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Savita; Subodh, B N; Parakh, Preeti; Lahariya, Sanjay

    2013-09-01

    Childhood disintegrative disorder is a rare disorder, characterized by regression of acquired skills after a period of normal development. The case of childhood disintegrative disorder presented here was found to have vitamin B12 deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia on extensive evaluation to find a probable cause for regression. This case illustrates the need for a thorough evaluation of all cases of childhood disintegrative disorder so that treatable causes of regression, like vitamin B12 deficiency, are not missed. PMID:23334842

  14. Studies on the compressibility of wax matrix granules of acetaminophen and their admixtures with various tableting bases.

    PubMed

    Uhumwangho, M U; Okor, R S

    2006-04-01

    Matrix granules of acetaminophen have been formed by a melt granulation process whereby the acetaminophen powder was triturated with the melted wax--goat wax, glyceryl monostearate or carnuba wax. The compressibility of the matrix granules and their admixture, with diluent granules (lactose, alpha-cellulose or microcrystalline cellulose) was investigated. The granules were compressed to tablets at a constant load (30 arbitrary units on the load scale) of a manesty single punch machine. Resulting tablets were evaluated for tensile strength (T) and disintegration times (DT). Granule flow was determined by measuring their angle of repose when allowed to fall freely on a level surface. Matrix granules prepared by melt granulation with goat wax or glyceryl monostearate were too sticky and therefore did not flow at all. They were also poorly compressible (T values = 0.20MN/m2). Inclusion of the diluent remarkably improved granule flow property and compressibility. The T values of the tablets (measure of compressibility) increased from about 0.24 to 0.65 MN/m2 during increase in diluent (lactose) content from 20 to 80 %w/w. Microcrystalline cellulose and alpha-cellulose were more effective than lactose in promoting compressibility of the granules. By contrast the matrix granules formed with carnuba wax were free flowing (angle of repose, 18.60). Addition of the diluent further improved flowability slightly. The matrix granules (without a diluent) were readily compressible (T value, 1.79MN/m2). Addition of the diluent (80%w/w) reduced T values (MN/m2) slightly to 1.32 (lactose), 1.48 (alpha-cellulose) and 1.74 (microcrystalline cellulose). Tablets of the matrix granules only, disintegrated rapidly within 3 minutes. DT was further reduced to <30 s by addition of any of the diluents. The indication is that the inclusion of the diluents studied can be used to improve the compressibility of the otherwise poorly compressible matrix granules. Based on the flowability, compressibility, and disintegration data, carnuba wax proved most promising in the melt granulation of the test drug for sustained release applications. PMID:16751119

  15. Gastric emptying of enteric-coated tablets

    SciTech Connect

    Park, H.M.; Chernish, S.M.; Rosenek, B.D.; Brunelle, R.L.; Hargrove, B.; Wellman, H.N.

    1984-03-01

    To evaluate the gastric emptying time of pharmaceutical dosage forms in a clinical setting, a relatively simple dual-radionuclide technique was developed. Placebo tablets of six different combinations of shape and size were labeled with indium-111 DTPA and enteric coated. Six volunteers participated in a single-blind and crossover study. Tablets were given in the morning of a fasting stomach with 6 oz of water containing /sup 99m/Tc pertechnetate and continuously observed with a gamma camera. A scintigraph was obtained each minute. The results suggested that the size, shape, or volume of the tablet used in this study had no significant effect in the rate of gastric emptying. The tablets emptied erratically and unpredictably, depending upon their time of arrival in the stomach in relation to the occurrence of interdigestive myoelectric contractions. The method described is a relatively simple and accurate technique to allow one to follow the gastric emptying of tablets.

  16. Disintegration of graphene nanoribbons in large electrostatic fields.

    PubMed

    Huang, Haiming; Li, Zhibing; Kreuzer, H J; Wang, Weiliang

    2014-08-14

    The deformation and disintegration of a graphene nanoribbon under external electrostatic fields are investigated by first principle quantum mechanical calculations to establish its stability range. Zigzag edges terminated by various functional groups are considered. By analyzing the phonon spectrum, the critical fracture field for each edge structure is obtained. It is found that different terminal groups on the zigzag graphene nanoribbons lead to different fracture patterns at different fracture fields. The failure mechanism is demonstrated to involve both the carbon bond alternation feature across the ribbon and the terminal group electronegativity. PMID:24963886

  17. Energy trapping and shock disintegration in a composite granular medium

    E-print Network

    C. Daraio; V. F. Nesterenko; E. B. Herbold; S. Jin

    2005-09-24

    Granular materials demonstrate a strongly nonlinear behavior influencing the wave propagation in the medium. We report the first experimental observation of impulse energy confinement and the resultant disintegration of shock and solitary waves. The medium consists of alternating ensambles of high-modulus vs orders of magnitude lower modulus chains of different masses. The trapped energy is contained within the "softer" portions of the composite chain and is slowly released in the form of weak, separated pulses over an extended period of time. This effect is enhanced by using a specific group assembly and superimposed force.

  18. Formulation and evaluation of microsphere based oro dispersible tablets of itopride hcl

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of the present work is to mask the intensely bitter taste of Itopride HCl and to formulate an Oro dispersible tablet (ODT) of the taste-masked drug by incorporation of microspheres in the tablets for use in specific populations viz. pediatrics, geriatrics and patients experiencing difficulty in swallowing. Methods With this objective in mind, microspheres loaded with Itopride HCl were prepared by solvent evaporation method using acetone as solvent for pH-sensitive polymer, Eudragit EPO and light liquid paraffin as the encapsulating medium. The prepared microspheres were characterized with regard to yield, drug content, flow properties, particle size and size distribution, surface features, in vitro drug release and taste. The ODTs so prepared from these microspheres were evaluated for hardness, thickness, weight variation, friability, disintegration time, drug content, wetting time, water absorption ratio, moisture uptake, in vitro dispersion, in vitro disintegration, in vitro drug release and stability. Results The average size of microspheres was found to be satisfactory in terms of the size and size distribution. Microspheres prepared were of a regular spherical shape. Comparison of the dissolution profiles of microspheres in different pH media showed that microspheres having drug: polymer ratio of 1:2 produced a retarding effect in simulated salivary fluid (pH 6.8) and were further used for formulation into ODTs after addition of suitable amounts of excipients such as superdisintegrant, diluent, sweetener and flavor of directly compressible grade. Conclusions Effective taste-masking was achieved for Itopride HCl by way of preparation of microspheres and ODTs of acceptable characteristics. PMID:23351176

  19. Bromocriptine tablet of self-microemulsifying system adsorbed onto porous carrier to stimulate lipoproteins secretion for brain cellular uptake.

    PubMed

    Thongrangsalit, Sirigul; Phaechamud, Thawatchai; Lipipun, Vimolmas; Ritthidej, Garnpimol C

    2015-07-01

    Both low solubility and high hepatic metabolism cause low oral bioavailability of bromocriptine mesylate (BM) leading to very low drug amount in brain. Self-microemulsion (SME) tablets were developed to improve solubility, stimulate lipoprotein synthesis to promote lymphatic transport, avoid hepatic metabolism and target drug to brain. SME liquid containing castor oil, Tween(®) 80 and Cremophor(®) EL was prepared and then adsorbed onto solid carries, Aerosil(®)200, Aeroperl(®)300 or NeusilinUS2(®), yielding SME powders. The optimal ratios of SME liquid to carriers determined from flowability and scanning electron photomicrographs before tableting were 1.5:1, 2:1 and 2.5:1 for Aerosil(®)200, Aeroperl(®)300 and NeusilinUS2(®), respectively. Only Aeroperl(®)300 SME tablet had comparable dissolution to BM commercial tablet. From in vitro study in Caco-2 cells, fluorescein loaded SME tablet showed higher uptake than fluorescein loaded in either oil or surfactant. Although significantly lower amount of drug was permeated from SME tablet than from commercial tablet, higher drug uptake was obviously observed (P<0.05). In addition, higher lipoprotein synthesis expressing as content of apolipoprotein B (apo-B) found in secreted chylomicron resulted in higher drug uptake in co-culture of brain endothelial cells (bEnd.3) and astrocytes (CTX TNA2) from drug loaded SME tablet when compared to commercial tablet (P<0.05) due to binding of apo-B to LDL receptors expressed on the surface of endothelial cells. Therefore, tablet of SME adsorbed onto porous carrier potentially delivered BM to brain via lymphatic transport by increasing the lipoprotein synthesis. PMID:25988280

  20. [Tramadol/acetaminophen combination tablets].

    PubMed

    Yokotsuka, Shoko; Kato, Jitsu

    2013-07-01

    Tramadol/acetaminophen fixed-dose combination tablets (Tramse) combine tramadol, a centrally acting week opioid analgesic, with low-dose acetaminophen. The action of tramadol may be described as a weak agonist at the mu-opioid receptor, inhibition of serotonin reuptake, and inhibition of noradrenaline reuptake. The second component in these tablets, acetaminophen mainly appears to act through central mechanism. Chronic pain may be broadly classified into nociceptive, neuropathic and mixed. Tramset may exert additive or synergic benefits in treating the multiple mechanism of pain. Clinical studies have revealed its efficacy and safety for a variety of pain condition such as chronic low back pain, rheumatoid arthritis, fibromyalgia and painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy. It is expected that Tramset is going to induce pain relief and to improve disturbance of daily life in patients with intractable chronic pain. However overuse of Tramset may induce severe adverse effects such as addiction, abuse and hepatotoxicity. Therefore clinician should continuously assess pain intensity, activity of daily life, mode of its consumption, and adverse effects after prescription. PMID:23905401

  1. A novel multi-unit tablet for treating circadian rhythm diseases.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qi; Gong, Yinhua; Shi, Yun; Jiang, Liqun; Zheng, Chunli; Ge, Liang; Liu, Jianping; Zhu, Jiabi

    2013-06-01

    This study aimed to develop and evaluate a novel multi-unit tablet that combined a pellet with a sustained-release coating and a tablet with a pulsatile coating for the treatment of circadian rhythm diseases. The model drug, isosorbide-5-mononitrate, was sprayed on microcrystalline cellulose (MCC)-based pellets and coated with Eudragit(®) NE30D, which served as a sustained-release layer. The coated pellets were compressed with cushion agents (a mixture of MCC PH-200/ MCC KG-802/PC-10 at a ratio of 40:40:20) at a ratio of 4:6 using a single-punch tablet machine. An isolation layer of OpadryII, swellable layer of HPMC E5, and rupturable layer of Surelease(®) were applied using a conventional pan-coating process. Central-composite design-response surface methodology was used to investigate the influence of these coatings on the square of the difference between release times over a 4 h time period. Drug release studies were carried out on formulated pellets and tablets to investigate the release behaviors, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to monitor the pellets and tablets and their cross-sectional morphology. The experimental results indicated that this system had a pulsatile dissolution profile that included a lag period of 4 h and a sustained-release time of 4 h. Compared to currently marketed preparations, this tablet may provide better treatment options for circadian rhythm diseases. PMID:23649996

  2. Electrohydrodynamic Liquid Disintegration in Micro-, Meso- and Nanoscopic Dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vertes, Akos

    2008-11-01

    The electrohydrodynamic dispersion of liquids spans length scales from 1 mm to 1 nm and involves temporal variations from 1 s to 10 ps. The disintegration mechanisms are diverse and, due to the differences in the dominating forces, vary on the micro-, meso- and nanoscale extending to lower boundaries of 1 ?m, 10 nm and 1 nm, respectively. Using fast imaging, spray current measurements, phase Doppler anemometry and molecular dynamics calculations, we followed the behavior of electrified liquids in the three most common geometries, spherical, pendant drop and slender jet, with dimensions ranging from 100 ?m to 1 nm. Microscale disintegration involves jet ejection from conical surface deformations, jet breakup due to varicose, kink and ramified jet instabilities, and asymmetric droplet fission resulting in side jets. As the liquid dimensions shift from the microscopic dimensions where the processes are governed by the surface tension and the Maxwell stress, to the meso- and nanoscale, thermal fluctuations become increasingly important. The presence of charges in nanodroplets leads to enhanced surface fluctuations, the formation of extreme protrusions and eventually solvated ion evaporation. Charging of slender nanojets results in longer shape relaxation times along with the fission of systems charged below the Rayleigh limit. In collaboration with Jelena Lusic and Peter Nemes, George Washington University.

  3. Soot particle disintegration and detection using two laserELFFS

    SciTech Connect

    Stipe, Christopher B.; Lucas, Donald; Koshland, Catherine P.; Sawyer, Robert F.

    2004-11-17

    A two laser technique is used to study laser-particle interactions and the disintegration of soot by high power UV light. Two separate 20 ns laser pulses irradiate combustion generated soot nanoparticles with 193 nm photons. The first laser pulse, from 0 to 14.7 J/cm{sup 2}, photofragments the soot particles and electronically excites the liberated carbon atoms. The second laser pulse, held constant at 13 J/cm{sup 2}, irradiates the remaining particle fragments and other products of the first laser pulse. The atomic carbon fluorescence at 248 nm produced by the first laser pulse increases linearly with laser fluence from 1 to 6 J/cm{sup 2}. At higher fluences, the signal from atomic carbon signal saturates. The carbon fluorescence from the second laser pulse decreases as the fluence from the first laser increases, ultimately approaching zero as first laser fluence approaches 10 J/cm{sup 2}, suggesting that the particles fully disintegrate at high laser fluences. We use an energy balance parameter, called the photon-atom ratio (PAR), to aid in understanding laser-particle interactions. These results help define the regimes where photofragmentation fluorescence methods quantitatively measure total soot concentrations.

  4. Psychiatric morbidity in disintegrative psychosis and infantile autism: A long-term follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Mouridsen, S E; Rich, B; Isager, T

    1999-01-01

    In order to study the validity of disintegrative psychosis (DP), the authors compared 13 patients given this diagnosis in childhood with a control group of 39 patients with infantile autism (IA) matched for sex, age, IQ and social class on measures of psychiatric morbidity. Almost the same proportion of the two groups had been admitted to a psychiatric hospital during a 22-year follow-up period. However, there was a slight tendency (statistically nonsignificant) for the DP group to utilize the psychiatric health care system more frequently than the IA group. They had more admissions and stayed longer in hospital than patients with IA suggesting that they had more psychiatric symptoms than the IA group. The original IA diagnoses were confirmed fairly consistently during the follow-up period, while the DP group was given more heterogenous diagnoses. No diagnosis of schizophrenia was made in either group. PMID:10364726

  5. Formulation Development of Morphine Sulfate Sustained-Release Tablets and Its Bioequivalence Study in Healthy Thai Volunteers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Detpon Preechagoon; Viroj Sumyai; Suvatna Chulavatnatol; Poj Kulvanich; Thanee Tessiri; Khanittha Tontisirin; Thaned Pongjanyakul; Verawan Uchaipichat; Sirikul Aumpon; Chaiyasit Wongvipaporn

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop morphine sulfate sustained-release tablet formulations and to evaluate the bioequivalence\\u000a compared with a commercial brand. The physicochemical properties of the formulated and commercial tablets were determined\\u000a and compared. The bioequivalence investigation was carried out in 15 healthy male volunteers who received a single dose in\\u000a a randomized two-way crossover design. After dosing,

  6. Terahertz technology: a boon to tablet analysis.

    PubMed

    Wagh, M P; Sonawane, Y H; Joshi, O U

    2009-05-01

    The terahertz gap has a frequency ranges from approximately 0.3 THz to approximately 10 THz in the electromagnetic spectrum which is in between microwave and infrared. The terahertz radiations are invisible to naked eye. In comparison with x-ray they are intrinsically safe, non-destructive and non-invasive. Terahertz spectroscopy enables 3D imaging of structures and materials, and the measurement of the unique spectral fingerprints of chemical and physical forms. Terahertz radiations are produced by a dendrimer based high power terahertz source and spectroscopy technologies. It resolves many of the questions left unanswered by complementary techniques, such as optical imaging, Raman and infrared spectra. In the pharmaceutical industries it enables nondestructive, internal, chemical analysis of tablets, capsules, and other dosage forms. Tablet coatings are a major factor in drug bioavailability. Therefore tablet coatings integrity and uniformity are of crucial importance to quality. Terahertz imaging gives an unparalleled certainty about the integrity of tablet coatings and the matrix performance of tablet cores. This article demonstrates the potential of terahertz pulse imaging for the analysis of tablet coating thickness by illustrating the technique on tablets. PMID:20490288

  7. Terahertz Technology: A Boon to Tablet Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wagh, M. P.; Sonawane, Y. H.; Joshi, O. U.

    2009-01-01

    The terahertz gap has a frequency ranges from ?0.3 THz to ?10 THz in the electromagnetic spectrum which is in between microwave and infrared. The terahertz radiations are invisible to naked eye. In comparison with x-ray they are intrinsically safe, non-destructive and non-invasive. Terahertz spectroscopy enables 3D imaging of structures and materials, and the measurement of the unique spectral fingerprints of chemical and physical forms. Terahertz radiations are produced by a dendrimer based high power terahertz source and spectroscopy technologies. It resolves many of the questions left unanswered by complementary techniques, such as optical imaging, Raman and infrared spectra. In the pharmaceutical industries it enables nondestructive, internal, chemical analysis of tablets, capsules, and other dosage forms. Tablet coatings are a major factor in drug bioavailability. Therefore tablet coatings integrity and uniformity are of crucial importance to quality. Terahertz imaging gives an unparalleled certainty about the integrity of tablet coatings and the matrix performance of tablet cores. This article demonstrates the potential of terahertz pulse imaging for the analysis of tablet coating thickness by illustrating the technique on tablets. PMID:20490288

  8. Comparison of the bioavailability and tolerability of fixed-dose combination glimepiride\\/metformin 2\\/500-mg tablets versus separate tablets: A single-dose, randomized-sequence, open-label, two-period crossover study in healthy Korean volunteers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Namyi Gu; Bo-Hyung Kim; HyouYoung Rhim; Jae-Yong Chung; Jung-Ryul Kim; Hyun-Suk Shin; Seo-Hyun Yoon; Joo-Youn Cho; Sang-Goo Shin; In-Jin Jang; Kyung-Sang Yu

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study compared the bioavailability and tolerability of a fixed-dose combination (FDC) tablet of glimepiride\\/metformin 2\\/500 mg and glimepiride 2-mg + metformin 500-mg tablets administered separately in healthy Korean subjects.Methods: In this single-dose, open-label, 2-period crossover study, healthy Korean volunteers were randomly assigned to receive, in 1 of 2 randomized sequences, an FDC tablet of glimepiride\\/metformin 2\\/500 mg (test)

  9. Downstream processing of polymer-based amorphous solid dispersions to generate tablet formulations.

    PubMed

    Démuth, B; Nagy, Z K; Balogh, A; Vigh, T; Marosi, G; Verreck, G; Van Assche, I; Brewster, M E

    2015-05-30

    Application of amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) is considered one of the most promising approaches to increase the dissolution rate and extent of bioavailability of poorly water soluble drugs. Such intervention is often required for new drug candidates in that enablement, bioavailability is not sufficient to generate a useful product. Importantly, tableting of ASDs is often complicated by a number of pharmaceutical and technological challenges including poor flowability and compressibility of the powders, compression-induced phase changes or phase separation and slow disintegration due to the formation of a gelling polymer network (GPN). The design principles of an ASD-based system include its ability to generate supersaturated systems of the drug of interest during dissolution. These metastable solutions can be prone to precipitation and crystallization reducing the biopharmaceutical performance of the dosage form. The main aim of the research in this area is to maintain the supersaturated state and optimally enhance bioavailability, meaning that crystallization should be delayed or inhibited during dissolution, as well as in solid phase (e.g., during manufacturing and storage). Based on the expanding use of ASD technology as well as their downstream processing, there is an acute need to summarize the results achieved to this point to better understand progress and future risks. The aim of this review is to focus on the conversion of ASDs into tablets highlighting results from various viewpoints. PMID:25827903

  10. Brief Report: Childhood Disintegrative Disorder as a Likely Manifestation of Vitamin B12 Deficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malhotra, Savita; Subodh, B. N.; Parakh, Preeti; Lahariya, Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    Childhood disintegrative disorder is a rare disorder, characterized by regression of acquired skills after a period of normal development. The case of childhood disintegrative disorder presented here was found to have vitamin B12 deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia on extensive evaluation to find a probable cause for regression. This case…

  11. Absolute bioavailability of a new high dose methylprednisolone tablet formulation.

    PubMed

    Groenewoud, G; Hundt, H K; Luus, H G; Müller, F O; Schall, R

    1994-12-01

    This was a single-blind, single-dose, randomized crossover study to determine the absolute bioavailability of Medrol, a new high dose (100 mg) methylprednisolone tablet product, by comparing it with 100 mg methylprednisolone from an intravenous formulation, Solu-Medrol. Fourteen healthy, non-smoking, Caucasian male volunteers took part. On treatment days volunteers remained recumbent for 4 hours after drug administration, with food and fluid intake standardized over this period. Serial blood samples were drawn over a 14-hour period after drug administration. Plasma methylprednisolone concentrations were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. The geometric means of AUCi.v. and AUCtablet were 4,049 and 3,334 ng.h/ml, respectively. The absolute bioavailability of the tablet product was 82%, which is in agreement with published data for other oral dosage forms of methylprednisolone. Volunteers displayed the expected rise in peripheral blood neutrophil count, but no other clinically relevant changes in hematology or clinical chemistry were observed. No adverse drug reactions were recorded. It is concluded that the tablet product can be used as a substitute for parenteral methylprednisolone in situations requiring high-dose therapy. PMID:7881703

  12. Childhood disintegrative disorder: distinction from autistic disorder and predictors of outcome.

    PubMed

    Rosman, N Paul; Bergia, Berta M

    2013-12-01

    Childhood disintegrative disorder, a rare, relentlessly progressive neurologic disorder, first described by Heller in 1908, remains a condition of great interest. It has long been debated whether it is a discrete disorder or simply a late-onset variant of childhood autism. We have studied 6 cases of childhood disintegrative disorder, collected over 8 years, and followed for 2.5 to 22 years (mean 8.6 years). Childhood disintegrative disorder begins later in life than autism, and following a period of entirely normal development; the regression is more global and more severe than in autism; seizures are more frequent than in autism, yet demonstrable organicity in childhood disintegrative disorder is decidedly rare. Lastly, the prognosis is usually much worse than in autism, but in those cases with neither seizures nor epileptiform activity on electroencephalography (EEG), the outcome may be more favorable. Childhood disintegrative disorder should be viewed as a condition distinct from childhood autism. PMID:23340080

  13. Disintegration of excess activated sludge--evaluation and experience of full-scale applications.

    PubMed

    Zábranská, J; Dohányos, M; Jenícek, P; Kutil, J

    2006-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge can be improved by introducing a disintegration of excess activated sludge as a pretreatment process. The disintegration brings a deeper degradation of organic matter and less amount of output sludge for disposal, a higher production of biogas and consequently energy yield, in some cases suppression of digesters foaming and better dewaterability. The full-scale application of disintegration by a lysate-thickening centrifuge was monitored long term in three different WWTPs. The evaluation of contribution of disintegration to biogas production and digested sludge quality was assessed and operational experience is discussed. Increment of specific biogas production was evaluated in the range of 15-26%, organic matter in digested sludge significantly decreased to 48-49%. Results proved that the installation of a disintegrating centrifuge in WWTPs of different sizes and conditions would be useful and beneficial. PMID:16889259

  14. Comparison of cortisol exposures and pharmacodynamic adrenal steroid responses to hydrocortisone suspension vs. commercial tablets.

    PubMed

    Sarafoglou, Kyriakie; Gonzalez-Bolanos, Maria T; Zimmerman, Cheryl L; Boonstra, Timothy; Yaw Addo, O; Brundage, Richard

    2015-04-01

    The Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guidelines on congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) recommend against using hydrocortisone suspension based on a study that examined a commercial suspension. Our objective was to examine the absorption of an extemporaneously prepared hydrocortisone suspension and compare it to tablets. Secondary objectives were to evaluate the 17-hydroxyprogesterone and androstenedione adrenal steroid responses. Using a parallel design, 34 children diagnosed with CAH received either suspension (n?=?9; median age 1.8 years) or tablets (n?=?25; median age 7.5 years). Patients were given their usual morning hydrocortisone formulation and dose; 12 serial blood samples were obtained and the area under the curve (AUC) was calculated. The mg/m(2) dose-normalized cortisol AUCs were no different in the suspension and tablet groups (P?=?·06), nor was there a significant difference in the C(max) or T(max) (P?=?.08 and P?=?.41, respectively). Although there were no differences in the 17-hydroxyprogesterone change-from-baseline AUCs, baseline concentrations, or the nadir concentrations when comparing suspension and tablet formulations, the androstenedione values were significantly lower as expected in the younger aged suspension group. Our results offer compelling evidence that an extemporaneously prepared hydrocortisone suspension provides comparable cortisol exposures to commercially available tablet formulations in children and can be used to safely and effectively treat CAH. PMID:25385533

  15. Tablets for Timely Design Documentation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Brown, Cordelia

    One of the biggest challenges we have experienced in supervising digital systems senior design projects is the quality and completeness of the individual lab notebooks. Of the five outcomes we continuously track for this capstone course, the lab notebooks have consistently received the lowest quantitative scores. A significant improvement was achieved three years ago when we transitioned from carbon paper and pen notebooks to on-line (HTML) notebooks. Many teams took advantage of (and put to good use) the ability to post digital pictures of prototyping setups, provide hyperlinks to all their device datasheets, post their latest schematics and software listings for evaluation, and post video clips of their project in action (as verification of their project success criteria). The primary drawback has been the need for students to be in front of a networked computer to make lab notebook entries; consequently, the notebook updates still tended to be done in spurts (typically after the fact) rather than in real time. Project work (and inspiration), in fact, does not always occur in a lab setting, where networked computers are readily available, nor does it occur when all team members are working in the same physical location. Our hypothesis is that equipping each project team with wireless Tablet PCs should not only significantly improve the spontaneity (and regularity) with which the on-line lab notebooks are updated, but also facilitate collaboration among team members working on the design project at different locations. An HP Technology for Teaching Grant has provided a critical mass of Tablet PCs to test this hypothesis. A description of how the equipment provided is being utilized, along with a discussion of the preliminary results obtained, is presented in this paper.

  16. Comparison of cefpodoxime proxetil release and antimicrobial activity from tablet formulations: complexation with hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin in the presence of water soluble polymer.

    PubMed

    Gundogdu, Evren; Koksal, Cinel; Karasulu, Ercument

    2012-06-01

    This study aims to prove the complexation of cefpodoxime proxetil (CP) by hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin (HP-?-CD) in the presence of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (Na CMC), and makes a comparison of commercial tablets by dissolution and antimicrobial activity studies. The CP--HP-?-CD complex was prepared by kneading method and characterized by SEM, FTIR and DSC. The solubility method was used to investigate the effect of HP-?-CD and Na CMC on the solubility of CP. The complex tablets were prepared using direct compression method. Dissolution studies were performed with complex tablets and commercial tablets in pH 1.2, 4.5, 6.8 and 7.4 buffer solutions. It was observed that complexation occurred in all formulations, and HP-?-CD is able to increase CP solubility and dissolution rate of CP was improved from complex tablets, when compared with commercial tablets. Furthermore, the antimicrobial activity studies revealed that the CP--HP-?-CD complex and complex tablets were shown to have more effective antimicrobial activity than commercial tablets. It is evident from the results that complexation with HP-?-CD in the presence of Na CMC is feasible way to prepare a more efficient tablet formulation with improved dissolution and antimicrobial activity. PMID:22010782

  17. Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems: Tablet Chlorination 

    E-print Network

    Lesikar, Bruce J.

    2008-10-23

    Wastewater that is sprayed onto lawns must first be disinfected to prevent odors and remove disease-causing organisms. This publication explains how tablet chlorinators disinfect wastewater and gives tips on how to maintain them....

  18. Universal scaling laws for the disintegration of electrified drops

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Robert T.; Sambath, Krishnaraj; Harris, Michael T.; Basaran, Osman A.

    2013-01-01

    Drops subjected to strong electric fields emit charged jets from their pointed tips. The disintegration of such jets into a spray consisting of charged droplets is common to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, printing and coating processes, and raindrops in thunderclouds. Currently, there exist conflicting theories and measurements on the size and charge of these small electrospray droplets. We use theory and simulation to show that conductivity can be tuned to yield three scaling regimes for droplet radius and charge, a finding missed by previous studies. The amount of charge that electrospray droplets carry determines whether they are coulombically stable and charged below the Rayleigh limit of stability or are unstable and hence prone to further explosions once they are formed. Previous experiments reported droplet charge values ranging from 10% to in excess of . Simulations unequivocally show that electrospray droplets are coulombically stable at the instant they are created and that there exists a universal scaling law for droplet charge, . PMID:23487744

  19. Childhood disintegrative disorder: should it be considered a distinct diagnosis?

    PubMed

    Hendry, C N

    2000-01-01

    First termed Dementia Infantilis by Theodore Heller in 1908, Childhood Disintegrative Disorder (CDD) has had a history longer than that of Autistic Disorder. Presently, CDD is classified as a Pervasive Developmental Disorder in the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. The characteristics most often cited as distinguishing CDD from Autistic Disorder, another one of the Pervasive Developmental Disorders, is the age of onset and evidence of normal development prior to the presence of symptomatology. Otherwise, the behavioral symptoms of CDD and Autistic Disorder are strikingly similar. The purpose of this article is to provide a historical background on CDD, examine the evolution of diagnostic criteria, review the existing literature pertaining to the disorder, and, finally, to draw conclusions regarding the validity of CDD as a distinct diagnosis with reference to current and alternative classification approaches. PMID:10660829

  20. High functioning autism and Childhood Disintegrative Disorder in half brothers.

    PubMed

    Zwaigenbaum, L; Szatmari, P; Mahoney, W; Bryson, S; Bartolucci, G; MacLean, J

    2000-04-01

    Childhood Disintegrative Disorder (CDD) is grouped with autism as a subtype of Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) in ICD-10 and DSM-IV. This is the first report of autism and CDD cosegregating within a sibship. J. P. and M. P. are half-brothers with the same mother. J. P. is an 18-year-old with impairments in communication, social reciprocity, and stereotypies and was diagnosed with autism. M. P. is a 7-year-old who developed normally to 2 years 4 months. He then underwent a profound regression, becoming nonverbal and socially withdrawn, and lost adaptive skills. Investigations did not reveal any neurodegenerative process. M. P. was diagnosed with CDD. The rarity of the two conditions suggests a shared transmissible mechanism. The implications for autism/PDD genetic studies are discussed. PMID:10832776

  1. The social psychology of disintegrative shaming in education.

    PubMed

    Brown, Joel H; Clarey, Amy M

    2012-01-01

    Despite considerable research concerning drug education and zero tolerance policies, few have examined their combined youth impact. Comprehensive and nationally recognized mixed method evidence is drawn from 77 school districts and 118 schools in the Drug, Alcohol and Tobacco Education (DATE) evaluation. For the first time it is found that the combined negative impact of traditional prevention and intervention efforts--e.g., Life Skills Training (LST) and zero tolerance policies-are so serious that they extend into the wider conditions of educational achievement. Findings are explained by the social psychological processes of "disintegrative shaming," where young people are to be shamed into abstinence and experiencing or witnessing school removal rather than help when needed. With more research needed the negative effects of traditional prevention and intervention-particularly salient among disproportionately affected urban/minority youth-suggest that related efforts be reconsidered together as well as part of mainstream education. PMID:23185840

  2. An open-label, randomized bioavailability study with alternative methods of administration of crushed ticagrelor tablets in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Renli; Carlson, Glenn; Hsia, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare the bioavailability and safety profile of crushed ticagrelor tablets suspended in water and administered orally or via nasogastric tube, with that of whole tablets administered orally. Methods: In this single-center, open-label, randomized, three-treatment crossover study, 36 healthy volunteers were randomized to receive a single 90-mg dose of ticagrelor administered orally as a whole tablet or as crushed tablets suspended in water and given orally or via a nasogastric tube into the stomach, with a minimum 7-day wash-out between treatments. Plasma concentrations of ticagrelor and AR-C124910XX were assessed at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16, 24, 36, and 48 hours post-ticagrelor dose for pharmacokinetic analyses. Safety and tolerability was assessed throughout the study. Results: At 0.5 hours postdose, plasma concentrations of ticagrelor and AR-C124910XX were higher with crushed tablets administered orally (148.6 ng/mL and 13.0 ng/mL, respectively) or via nasogastric tube (264.6 ng/mL and 28.6 ng/mL, respectively) compared with whole-tablet administration (33.3 ng/mL and 5.2 ng/mL, respectively). A similar trend was observed at 1 hour postdose. Ticagrelor tmax was shorter following crushed vs. whole-tablet administration (1 vs. 2 hours, respectively). Geometric mean ratios between treatments for AUC and Cmax were contained within the bioequivalence limits of 80 – 125% for ticagrelor and AR-C124910XX. All treatments were generally well tolerated. Conclusions: Ticagrelor administered as a crushed tablet is bioequivalent to whole-tablet administration, independent of mode of administration (oral or via nasogastric tube), and resulted in increased plasma concentrations of ticagrelor and AR-C124910XX at early timepoints. PMID:25500486

  3. Clinical Chemical Reagent Tablet Weight Distribution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Melvin Gindler; Robert T. Ishizaki

    A study of the weights of 121 tablets, intended for clinical chemical purposes,showed a normal distribution, with 95% of the tablets being within ±8% of the mean weight (21.8 mg.). The substrate is pH 10.2 (370), falling about 0.6 pH units when serum is added. T1HE1tE APPEAR TO BE virtually no published studies OH the weight (list ributiOllof tabletsintended for

  4. A new brittleness index for compacted tablets.

    PubMed

    Sonnergaard, Jørn M

    2013-12-01

    A dimensionless index that quantifies the brittle or ductile character of tablets is presented. The work of failure (WOF) of crushed or broken flat tablets is calculated by numerical integration of the force-displacement measurement in a flexure tester. The ratio between WOF and the crushing force (F) corrected for the diameter of the tablet (D) is proposed to express the brittle/ductile index (BDI). [Formula: see text] This dimensionless index quantitatively denotes the brittle/ductile character of the compacted material as the normalized deformation in percentage of a cylindrical tablet at the breaking point. For ideal brittle materials, the BDI value will be 0 and for complete plastic deformation, that is, a total compression of the tablet without fracture, BDI will be 100. The validity and discriminative power is demonstrated on mixtures of microcrystalline cellulose and lactose. The robust measure of brittleness with an acceptable accuracy is obtained with only a minor influence of the tablet diameter and the speed of platen. PMID:24258281

  5. Development of gastro-resistant tablets for the protection and intestinal delivery of Lactobacillus fermentum CECT 5716.

    PubMed

    Villena, María José Martín; Lara-Villoslada, Ferderico; Martínez, María Adolfina Ruiz; Hernández, María Encarnación Morales

    2015-06-20

    Different studies have attributed health benefits to Lactobacillus fermentum CECT 5716. However, the main problem associated with probiotics, is their low resistance to environmental and technological factors. Actually, probiotics are marketed as capsules or sachets, but few probiotic tablets exist. The aim of this study was to design tablets made out of functional polymers (formula 1: methocel K-15-sodium alginate; formula 2: Eudragit(®) L-100-sodium alginate; formula 3: cellulose acetate phthalate) that improve the stability and survival of probiotics. Rigid tablets were produced through direct compression with a bacterial content of 10(9)CFU/tablet (9logCFU). Tablets were shown to improve the survival of cells when exposed to an acidic medium as compared to free cells. Eudragit(®) L-100-sodium alginate was found to be the most suitable excipient for the protection of probiotic within gastric conditions, resulting in the survival of 10(9)CFU (9logCFU) after 2h of incubation. Finally, these tablets were found to be stable over 6 months when stored at 4°C. No significant differences were reported between the number of cells at time cero and after 6 months of storage at 4°C (p>0.05). In conclusion, direct compression using Eudragit(®) L-100-sodium alginate seems to be a suitable to produce probiotics tablets and could confer protection during passage trough stomach and storage. PMID:25843758

  6. 21 CFR 520.1872 - Praziquantel, pyrantel pamoate, and febantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Praziquantel, pyrantel pamoate, and febantel tablets. 520.1872 Section 520.1872 Food and...Praziquantel, pyrantel pamoate, and febantel tablets. (a) Specifications . Each tablet or chewable tablet contains either:...

  7. 21 CFR 520.1872 - Praziquantel, pyrantel pamoate, and febantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Praziquantel, pyrantel pamoate, and febantel tablets. 520.1872 Section 520.1872 Food and...Praziquantel, pyrantel pamoate, and febantel tablets. (a) Specifications . Each tablet or chewable tablet contains either:...

  8. 21 CFR 520.82b - Aminopropazine fumarate, neomycin sulfate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Aminopropazine fumarate, neomycin sulfate tablets. 520.82b Section 520.82b Food...Aminopropazine fumarate, neomycin sulfate tablets. (a) Specifications. The drug is in tablet form. Each tablet contains both...

  9. 21 CFR 520.82b - Aminopropazine fumarate, neomycin sulfate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Aminopropazine fumarate, neomycin sulfate tablets. 520.82b Section 520.82b Food...Aminopropazine fumarate, neomycin sulfate tablets. (a) Specifications. The drug is in tablet form. Each tablet contains both...

  10. Impaired oesophageal transit of capsule versus tablet formulations in the elderly.

    PubMed Central

    Perkins, A C; Wilson, C G; Blackshaw, P E; Vincent, R M; Dansereau, R J; Juhlin, K D; Bekker, P J; Spiller, R C

    1994-01-01

    Drug induced oesophageal injury is an important and preventable cause of iatrogenic injury. In most cases the injury is considered to be due to mucosal contact from formulations lodged in the oesophagus. A scintigraphic study was performed comparing the oesophageal transit of enteric coated tablets with similar sized and shaped gelatin capsules, using a population of elderly healthy volunteers similar in age (50-79 years) to the population most likely to be receiving regular treatment. Twenty three volunteers injected the radiolabelled tablet or capsule with 50 ml of water while sitting on two separate occasions according to a randomisation schedule. Oesophageal transit was assessed by gamma scintigraphy. Gastric residence was also assessed in 11 of 23 subjects. While the tablet was readily cleared from the oesophagus, mean transit time 4.3 seconds (range 1.0-14.0), the capsule often showed a comparatively prolonged holdup, mean transit time 20.9 seconds (range 1.5-174.5). Ten of 11 tablets emptied from the stomach intact, while all 11 capsules broke up in the stomach. Gelatin capsules showed a clear tendency to remain within the oesophagus of healthy elderly volunteers, while similar sized enteric coated tablets did not. These studies show the importance of assessing oesophageal transit when designing the formulation of drugs with a potential for oesophageal injury. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:7959187

  11. Development of novel fast-dissolving tacrolimus solid dispersion-loaded prolonged release tablet.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jung Hyun; Kim, Yong-Il; Kim, Dong-Wuk; Yousaf, Abid Mehmood; Kim, Jong Oh; Woo, Jong Soo; Yong, Chul Soon; Choi, Han-Gon

    2014-04-11

    The goal of this research was to develop a novel prolonged release tablet bioequivalent to the commercial sustained release capsule. A number of tacrolimus-loaded fast-dissolving solid dispersions containing various amounts of DOSS were prepared using the spray drying technique. Their solubility, dissolution and pharmacokinetics in rats were studied. DOSS increased drug solubility and dissolution in the solid dispersions. Compared with the drug powder, the solubility, dissolution and bioavailability of tacrolimus with the fast-dissolving solid dispersion containing tacrolimus/HP-?-CD/DOSS in the weight ratio of 5:40:4 were boosted by approximately 700-, 30- and 2-fold, respectively. Several tablet formulations were accomplished with this solid dispersion in combination with various ratios of HPMC/ethylcellulose. The release behaviour and pharmacokinetic studies in beagle dogs were assessed compared with the commercial prolonged release capsule. A decrease in HPMC/ethylcellulose ratios reduced the dissolution of tacrolimus from the tablets. Particularly, the tacrolimus-loaded prolonged release tablet consisting of fast-dissolving tacrolimus solid dispersion, HPMC, ethylcellulose and talc at the weight ratio of 20:66:112:2 exhibited a dissolution profile similar to that produced by the commercial prolonged release capsule. Furthermore, there were no significant differences in the AUC, Cmax, Tmax and MRT values between them in beagle dogs. Consequently, this tacrolimus-loaded prolonged release tablet might be bioequivalent to the tacrolimus-loaded commercial capsule. PMID:24388864

  12. Investigation of excipient type and level on drug release from controlled release tablets containing HPMC.

    PubMed

    Williams, Robert O; Reynolds, Thomas D; Cabelka, Tim D; Sykora, Matthew A; Mahaguna, Vorapann

    2002-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of excipient type and level on the release of alprazolam formulated in controlled release matrix tablets containing hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC). Each tablet formulation contained alprazolam, HPMC (Methocel K4MP), excipients, and magnesium stearate. The soluble excipients investigated were lactose monohydrate, sucrose, and dextrose, and the insoluble excipients included dicalcium phosphate dihydrate, dicalcium phosphate anhydrous, and calcium sulfate dihydrate. The similarity factor (f2 factor) was used to compare the dissolution profile of each formulation. The insoluble excipients, especially dicalcium phosphate dihydrate, caused the drug to be released at a slower rate and to a lesser extent than the soluble excipients. Soluble excipients created a more permeable hydrated gel layer for drug release, increased the porosity resulting in faster diffusion of drug, and increased the rate of tablet erosion. Use of binary mixtures of lactose monohydrate and dicalcium phosphate dihydrate produced release profiles of intermediate duration. Rapid drug dissolution was obtained when only 9.1% w/w of lactose monohydrate was present in the tablet formulation. Only when the dicalcium phosphate dihydrate level was sufficiently high (36.5% w/w) was the release rate and extent decreased. It was demonstrated that the type and level of excipient influenced the rate and extent of drug release from controlled release tablets containing HPMC. The release mechanism of alprazolam from each tablet formulation was described by either the Hixson-Crowell cube root kinetics equation or Peppas's equation. However, the different excipient types investigated did not influence the release mechanism of alprazolam from the final tablets. PMID:12066573

  13. Conventional vs. Tablet Computer-Based Patient Education following Lung Transplantation – A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Suhling, Hendrik; Rademacher, Jessica; Zinowsky, Imke; Fuge, Jan; Greer, Mark; Warnecke, Gregor; Smits, Jacqueline M.; Bertram, Anna; Haverich, Axel; Welte, Tobias; Gottlieb, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Background Accurate immunosuppression is of critical importance in preventing rejection, while avoiding toxicity following lung transplantation. The mainstay immunosuppressants are calcineurin inhibitors, which require regular monitoring due to interactions with other medications and diet. Adherence to immunosuppression and patient knowledge is vital and can be improved through patient education. Education using tablet-computers was investigated. Objective To compare tablet-PC education and conventional education in improving immunosuppression trough levels in target range 6 months after a single education. Secondary parameters were ratio of immunosuppression level measurements divided by per protocol recommended measurements, time and patient satisfaction regarding education. Design Single-centre, open labelled randomised controlled trial. Participants Patients >6 months after lung-transplantation with <50% of calcineurin inhibitor trough levels in target range. Intervention Tablet-pc education versus personal, nurse-led education. Measurements Calcineurin inhibitor levels in target range 6 months after education, level variability, interval adherence, knowledge and adherence was studied. As outcome parameter, renal function was measured and adverse events registered. Results Sixty-four patients were 1:1 randomised for either intervention. Levels of immunosuppression 6 months after education were equal (tablet-PC 58% vs. conventional 48%, p?=?0.27), both groups improved in achieving a CNI trough level within target range by either education method (delta tablet-PC 29% vs. conventional 20%). In all patients, level variability decreased (?20.4%), whereas interval adherence remained unchanged. Knowledge about immunosuppression improved by 7% and compliance tests demonstrated universal improvements with no significant difference between groups. Conclusion Education is a simple, effective tool in improving adherence to immunosuppression. Tablet-PC education was non-inferior to conventional education. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01398488 http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01398488?term=gottlieb+tablet+pc+education&rank=1. PMID:24608864

  14. Enhanced methane production from anaerobic digestion of disintegrated and deproteinized excess sludge.

    PubMed

    Cui, Rong; Jahng, Deokjin

    2006-04-01

    To improve biogas yield and methane content in anaerobic digestion of excess sludge from the wastewater treatment plant, the sludge was disintegrated by using various methods (sonication, alkaline and thermal treatments). Since disintegrated sludge contains a high concentration of soluble proteins, the resulting metabolite, ammonia, may inhibit methane generation. Therefore, the effects of protein removal from disintegrated sludge on methane production were also studied. As a result, an obvious enhancement of biogas generation was observed by digesting disintegrated sludge (biogas yield increased from 15 to 36 ml/g COD(added).day for the raw excess sludge and the sonicated sludge, respectively). The quality of biogas was also improved by removing proteins from the disintegrated sludge. About 50% (w/w) of soluble proteins were removed from the suspension of disintegrated sludge by salting out using 35 g MgCl(2) x 6H(2)O/l and also by isoelectric point precipitation at pH 3.3. For deproteinized sludge, methane production increased by 19%, and its yield increased from 145 ml/g COD(removed) to 325 ml/g COD(removed). Therefore, the yield and quality of biogas produced from digestion of excess sludge can be enhanced by disintegrating the sludge and subsequent protein removal. PMID:16614889

  15. Bioequivalence study of atorvastatin tablets.

    PubMed

    Koytchev, Rossen; Ozalp, Yildiz; Erenmemisoglu, Aydin; van der Meer, Mike John; Alpan, Recep Serdar

    2004-09-01

    The study was designed to evaluate the relative bioavailability of two formulations of atorvastatin (CAS 134523-03-8). A bioequivalence study was carried out in 24 healthy male volunteers who received four 10 mg tablets of the test formulation (Kolestor) and the same dose of the originator product. The trial was performed according to an open, crossover design with a wash-out period of 7 days in one study center. Blood samples were taken up to 48 h post dose, the plasma was separated and the concentrations of atorvastatin were determined by HPLC-MS-MS method. The mean Cmax were 16.37 ng/mL and 17.05 ng/mL, while the mean AUC0-t were 103.61 ng x h/mL and 102.55 ng x h/mL for the test and reference formulations, respectively. The mean AUC0-inf were 118.10 ng x h/mL and 117.13 ng x h/mL for the test and reference formulations, respectively. The median tmax was 0.67 h for both the test tablet and the reference product. The mean t(1/2 el) was 11.85 h for the test formulation and 13.28 h for the reference formulation. No significant differences of pharmacokinetic parameters between the two studied formulations were found. The 90% confidence intervals for the primary target parameters, intra-individual ratios of AUC0-t and Cmax of atorvastatin, were between 0.85 and 1.05 (AUC0-t) and between 0.84 and 1.23 (Cmax), respectively, and thus within the acceptance ranges. Concerning the secondary parameter tmax the 90% confidence interval for the intra-individual differences was between -0.17 and 0.17 h. In the light of the present study it can be concluded that the two evaluated atorvastatin formulations, i.e. test formulation of atorvastatin and reference preparation are bioequivalent in terms of the rate and extent of absorption. PMID:15497662

  16. Film-coated matrix mini-tablets for the extended release of a water-soluble drug.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Faiezah A A; Roberts, Matthew; Seton, Linda; Ford, James L; Levina, Marina; Rajabi-Siahboomi, Ali R

    2015-04-01

    Extended release (ER) of water-soluble drugs from hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) matrix mini-tablets (mini-matrices) is difficult to achieve due to the large surface area to volume ratio of the mini matrices. Therefore, the aims of this study were to control the release of a water-soluble drug (theophylline) from mini-matrices by applying ER ethylcellulose film coating (Surelease®), and to assess the effects of Surelease®:pore former (Opadry®) ratio and coating load on release rates. Mini-matrices containing 40%w/w HPMC K100M CR were coated with 100:0, 85:15, 80:20, 75:25 or 70:30 Surelease®:Opadry® to different coating weight gains (6-20%). Non-matrix mini-tablets were also produced and coated with 80:20 Surelease®:Opadry® to different coating weight gains. At low coating weight gains, nonmatrix mini-tablets released the entire drug within 0.5?h, while at high coating weight gains only a very small amount (<5%) of drug was released after 12?h. The gel formation of HPMC prevented disintegration of mini-matrices at low coating weight gains but contributed to rupture of the film even at high coating weight gains. As a result, drug release from mini-matrices was slower than that from nonmatrix mini-tablets at low coating weight gains, yet faster at high coating weight gains. An increase in the lag time of drug release from mini-matrices was observed as the concentration of Opadry® reduced or the coating weight gain increased. This study has demonstrated the possibility of extending the release of a water-soluble drug from HPMC mini-matrices by applying ER film coating with appropriate levels of pore former and coating weight gains to tailor the release rate. PMID:24564797

  17. Hybrid alkali-hydrodynamic disintegration of waste-activated sludge before two-stage anaerobic digestion process.

    PubMed

    Grübel, Klaudiusz; Suschka, Jan

    2015-05-01

    The first step of anaerobic digestion, the hydrolysis, is regarded as the rate-limiting step in the degradation of complex organic compounds, such as waste-activated sludge (WAS). The aim of lab-scale experiments was to pre-hydrolyze the sludge by means of low intensive alkaline sludge conditioning before applying hydrodynamic disintegration, as the pre-treatment procedure. Application of both processes as a hybrid disintegration sludge technology resulted in a higher organic matter release (soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD)) to the liquid sludge phase compared with the effects of processes conducted separately. The total SCOD after alkalization at 9 pH (pH in the range of 8.96-9.10, SCOD?=?600 mg O2/L) and after hydrodynamic (SCOD?=?1450 mg O2/L) disintegration equaled to 2050 mg/L. However, due to the synergistic effect, the obtained SCOD value amounted to 2800 mg/L, which constitutes an additional chemical oxygen demand (COD) dissolution of about 35 %. Similarly, the synergistic effect after alkalization at 10 pH was also obtained. The applied hybrid pre-hydrolysis technology resulted in a disintegration degree of 28-35 %. The experiments aimed at selection of the most appropriate procedures in terms of optimal sludge digestion results, including high organic matter degradation (removal) and high biogas production. The analyzed soft hybrid technology influenced the effectiveness of mesophilic/thermophilic anaerobic digestion in a positive way and ensured the sludge minimization. The adopted pre-treatment technology (alkalization?+?hydrodynamic cavitation) resulted in 22-27 % higher biogas production and 13-28 % higher biogas yield. After two stages of anaerobic digestion (mesophilic conditions (MAD)?+?thermophilic anaerobic digestion (TAD)), the highest total solids (TS) reduction amounted to 45.6 % and was received for the following sample at 7 days MAD?+?17 days TAD. About 7 % higher TS reduction was noticed compared with the sample after 9 days MAD?+?15 days TAD. Similar results were obtained for volatile solids (VS) reduction after two-stage anaerobic digestion. The highest decrease of VS was obtained when the first stage, the mesophilic digestion which lasted 7 days, was followed by thermophilic digestion for 17 days. PMID:25318422

  18. Tramadol extended-release tablets.

    PubMed

    Hair, Philip I; Curran, Monique P; Keam, Susan J

    2006-01-01

    Tramadol is a synthetic, centrally acting opioid analgesic. An extended-release tablet formulation of tramadol (tramadol ER) allows gradual release of the active drug, permitting once-daily administration. Tramadol ER administered once daily is equivalent in bioavailability to immediate-release tramadol administered four times daily, with prolonged absorption and lower peak plasma concentrations. Tramadol ER was significantly more effective than placebo in the treatment of moderate to moderately severe chronic pain in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee and/or hip in randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. In a flexible-dose trial in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee, the mean reduction from baseline in pain intensity scores over 12 weeks was significantly greater in recipients of tramadol ER than in placebo recipients. In a fixed-dose trial in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee and/or hip, the mean improvements from baseline in the pain and physical function subscale scores of the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index over 12 weeks were significantly greater in tramadol ER than placebo recipients. Common adverse events reported in patients with moderate to moderately severe chronic pain treated with tramadol ER 100-300 mg once daily were dizziness (excluding vertigo), nausea, constipation, somnolence and flushing. PMID:17100415

  19. Physical mechanical and tablet formation properties of hydroxypropylcellulose: in pure form and in mixtures.

    PubMed

    Picker-Freyer, Katharina M; Dürig, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC) in pure form and in excipient mixtures and to relate its physical and chemical properties to tablet binder functionality. The materials used were Klucel hydroxypropylcellulose grades ranging from low to high molecular weight (80-1000 kDa) of regular particle size (250 microm mean size) and fine particle size (80 microm mean size). These were compared with microcrystalline cellulose, spray-dried lactose, and dicalcium phosphate dihydrate. Thermal behavior of HPC was analyzed by modulated temperature differential scanning calorimetry (MTDSC). Tablets of the pure materials and of dry blends with 4% low viscosity, fine particle HPC and 30% high viscosity, fine particle HPC were produced on an instrumented eccentric tableting machine at 3 relative humidities. The 3-dimensional (3-D) model with the parameters time plasticity d, pressure plasticity e, and the twisting angle omega, the inverse of fast elastic decompression was compared with the Heckel method for characterization of compaction. Elastic recovery and compactibility were also studied. The results show that HPC tablet formation is characterized by high plastic deformation. The d, e, and omega values were markedly higher as compared with the reference materials. Plasticity was highest for the fine particle size HPC types. Maximum compactibility was observed for low molecular weight, fine particle size HPC. Tableting of the mixtures showed deformation, which was strongly influenced by HPC. Plasticity and crushing force of formed tablets was increased. In conclusion, HPC is characterized by strong plastic deformation properties, which are molecular weight and particle size dependent. PMID:18181552

  20. Formulation and evaluation of sustained release matrix tablet of rabeprazole using wet granulation technique

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Ruqaiyah; Ashraf, Md Shamim; Afzal, Muhammad; Kazmi, Imran; Jahangir, Mohammed Asadullah; Singh, Rajbala; Chandra, Ramesh; Anwar, Firoz

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Rabeprazole, a member of substituted benzimidazoles, inhibits the final step in gastric acid secretions. This drug claims to cause fastest acid separation (due to higher pKa), and more rapidly converts to the active species to aid gastric mucin synthesis. The most significant pharmacological action of Rabeprazole is dose dependent suppression of gastric acid secretion; without anticholinergic or H2-blocking action. It completely abolishes the hydrochloric acid secretion as it is powerful inhibitor of gastric acid. Rabeprazole is acid labile and hence commonly formulated as an enteric coated tablet. The absorption of rabeprazole occurs rapidly as soon as tablet leaves the stomach. Aim: In the present study an attempt was made to formulate and evaluate Rabeprazole sustained release matrix tablet using wet granulation technique incorporating various polymers like HPMC-E15, Carbopol934, and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC). Materials and Methods: The Formulated tablets were evaluated for different physicochemical properties like rheological properties, weight variation, thickness, hardness, % friability, in vitro release studies and drug content. Results: Studies revealed that all the physicochemical parameters comply with the official standards. The in vitro release studies exhibits the release up to 90%, over a prolonged period of time which confirms the extended release profile of formulation, having better bioavailability as well as decreased dosing frequency with reduced doses. Conclusion: The sustained release matrix tablets of rabiprazole shown better bioavailability, efficacy and potency, when compared with official standards. PMID:25035637

  1. Effect of agar—gelatin compositions on the release of salbutamol tablets

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Anita; Tahir, Abu; Kaloti, Mandeep; Ali, Javed; Bohidar, Himadri B

    2011-01-01

    The study was designed for the development of salbutamol-modified release tablet using various polymer composition of agar, gelatin A and gelatin B. The purpose is to observe the role of polymer composition on the modified dissolution rate of salbutamol. Pre-formulation trials were initiated by comprising different ratios of polymer blend in the tablets. Formulations were optimized based on their invitro release performed in enzyme free simulated gastric fluid (0.1 N HCl, pH 1.2). Dissolution profiles of tablets were compared among the tablets made of agar, gelatin A, gelatin B and their blends agar-gelatin A, agar-gelatin B, gelatin A-gelatin B and agar-gelatin A-gelatin B in 1:1 ratio. Polymer compositions were fixed based on our desired sustaining activity of the tablet which showed a biphasic release profile with immediate release followed by sustained release. Polymer blends were more effective in controlling drug release. The better controlling behavior of polymer blends was explained by specific interaction between polymer components, their network structure and polymer–drug interaction. PMID:23071927

  2. Ultrasonic determination of Young's moduli of the coat and core materials of a drug tablet.

    PubMed

    Akseli, Ilgaz; Becker, Douglas C; Cetinkaya, Cetin

    2009-03-31

    Many modern tablet presses have system controls that monitor the force exerted to compress the solid oral dosage forms; however this data provides only limited information about the mechanical state of the tablet due to various process and materials uncertainties. A contact pulse/echo ultrasonic scheme is presented for the determination of the local Young's moduli of the coat and the core materials of enteric-coated and monolayer coated tablets. The Young's modulus of a material compacted into solid dosage can be related to its mechanical hardness and, consequently, its dissolution rate. In the current approach, short ultrasonic pulses are generated by the active element of a delay line transducer and are launched into the tablet. The waveforms reflected from the tablet coat-core interface are captured by the same transducer and are processed for determining the reflection and transmission coefficients of the interface from partially overlapping echoes. The Young's moduli of the coat and the core materials are then extracted from these coefficients. The results are compared to those obtained by an air-coupled acoustic excitation study, and good agreement is found. The described measurement technique provides greater insight into the local physical properties of the solid oral dosage form and, as a result, has the potential to provide better hardness-related performance predictability of compacts. PMID:19059326

  3. A new approach for preparing a controlled release ketoprofen tablets by using beeswax.

    PubMed

    Uner, Melike; Gönüllü, Umit; Yener, Gülgün; Altinkurt, Turan

    2005-01-01

    Solid lipid ketoprofen micropellets (SLKM) at different drug/beeswax ratios [(1:1) and (1:2)] were prepared by emulsion congealing technique and then compressed into tablets. Ketoprofen in solid state was incorporated into the melted beeswax at 90 degrees C and the mixture was emulsified in the hot aqueous Tween 80 solution by stirring at a constant rate. The SLKM were obtained by cooling the coarse emulsion down to room temperature and filtering. Drug entrapment efficiency and particle size analysis by laser diffractometry (LD) were determined, and existence of a drug-lipid interaction was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) on the SLKM, before being compressed into the tablets by direct compression method. Finally, in vitro release studies were performed and the release kinetics of the waxy tablets were calculated. A commercial ketoprofen retard tablet (reference: Profenid Retard 200 mg) was also examined to compare the release properties. While the data obtained from DSC were indicating absence of drug-lipid interaction in the SLKM, it was determined that 28.62% (+/-2.08), 38.60% (+/-1.91) and 47.00% (+/-1.82) of ketoprofen was released from the tablets containing (1:2) and (1:1) SLKM and Profenid Retard 200 mg in pH 7.4 phosphate buffer solution after 8 h, respectively. PMID:15652365

  4. SANCTUARY : asymmetric interfaces for game-based tablet learning

    E-print Network

    Haas, Jason M. (Jason Matthew)

    2013-01-01

    This thesis describes the production of Sanctuary, a multiplayer learning game to be played on two tablet computers. Sanctuary's principle innovation is the splitting of the user interface onto two tablets, separating ...

  5. 21 CFR 520.2610 - Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine tablets. 520.2610 Section 520...DRUGS § 520.2610 Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine tablets. (a) Specifications...of trimethoprim and 25 milligrams of sulfadiazine), 120 milligrams (20...

  6. 21 CFR 520.2610 - Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine tablets. 520.2610 Section 520...DRUGS § 520.2610 Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine tablets. (a) Specifications...of trimethoprim and 25 milligrams of sulfadiazine), 120 milligrams (20...

  7. 21 CFR 520.2610 - Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine tablets. 520.2610 Section 520...DRUGS § 520.2610 Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine tablets. (a) Specifications...of trimethoprim and 25 milligrams of sulfadiazine), 120 milligrams (20...

  8. 21 CFR 520.2610 - Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine tablets. 520.2610 Section 520...DRUGS § 520.2610 Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine tablets. (a) Specifications...of trimethoprim and 25 milligrams of sulfadiazine), 120 milligrams (20...

  9. 21 CFR 520.2610 - Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine tablets. 520.2610 Section 520...DRUGS § 520.2610 Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine tablets. (a) Specifications...of trimethoprim and 25 milligrams of sulfadiazine), 120 milligrams (20...

  10. 21 CFR 520.62 - Aminopentamide hydrogen sulphate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Aminopentamide hydrogen sulphate tablets. 520.62 Section...ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.62 Aminopentamide hydrogen sulphate tablets. (a) Chemical name...Dimethylamino)-2,2-diphenylvaleramide hydrogen sulfate. (b) Specifications....

  11. [Modern polymers in matrix tablets technology].

    PubMed

    Zimmer, ?ukasz; Kasperek, Regina; Poleszak, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Matrix tablets are the most popular method of oral drug administration, and polymeric materials have been used broadly in matrix formulations to modify and modulate drug release rate. The main goal of the system is to extend drug release profiles to maintain a constant in vivo plasma drug concentration and a consistent pharmacological effect. Polymeric matrix tablets offer a great potential as oral controlled drug delivery systems. Cellulose derivatives, like hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) are often used as matrix formers. However, also other types of polymers can be used for this purpose including: Kollidon SR, acrylic acid polymers such as Eudragits and Carbopols. Nevertheless, polymers of natural origin like: carragens, chitosan and alginates widely used in the food and cosmetics industry are now coming to the fore of pharmaceutical research and are used in matrix tablets technology. Modern polymers allow to obtain matrix tablets by 3D printing, which enables to develop new formulation types. In this paper, the polymers used in matrix tablets technology and examples of their applications were described. PMID:25739125

  12. Interpretation of Benefit-Risk of Enoxaparin as Comparator in the RECORD Program: Rivaroxaban Oral Tablets (10 milligrams) for Use in Prophylaxis in Deep Vein Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolism in Patients Undergoing Hip or Knee Replacement Surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Van Thiel; Evi Kalodiki; Rakesh Wahi; Evan Litinas; Wasimul Haque; Gundu Rao

    2009-01-01

    The Regulation of Coagulation in Major Orthopedic surgery reducing the Risk of DVT and PE (RECORD) clinical program of rivaroxaban consists of 4 phase III clinical trials comparing rivaroxaban with enoxaparin for the prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients undergoing either total hip or total knee replacement surgery. Despite the comprehensive and extensive nature of this program, it had

  13. Comparative bioavailability and tolerability of a single 20-mg dose of two fluoxetine hydrochloride dispersible tablet formulations in fasting, healthy Chinese male volunteers: An open-label, randomized-sequence, two-period crossover study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shaojun Shi; Yani Liu; Jianhong Wu; Zhongfang Li; Yan Zhao; Dafang Zhong; Fandian Zeng

    2010-01-01

    Background: The proprietary formulation of fluoxetine hydrochloride is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor class. Pharmacokinetic studies investigating the bioequivalence of generic and branded formulations are needed to market generic fluoxetine in China.Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the bioavailability and tolerability of the proposed generic formulation with the established reference formulation of fluoxetine hydrochloride

  14. Improving anaerobic and aerobic degradation by ultrasonic disintegration of biomass.

    PubMed

    Neis, Uwe; Nickel, Klaus; Lundén, Anna

    2008-11-01

    Biological cell lysis is known to be the rate-limiting step of anaerobic biosolids degradation. Due to the slow pace by which this reaction occurs, it is necessary to equip treatment plants with large digesters or alternatively incorporate technological aids. High-power ultrasound used to disintegrate bacterial cells has been utilized as a pre-treatment process prior to anaerobic digestion. Through this application, as seen on pilot- and full-scales, it is possible to attain up to 30% more biogas, an increase in VS-destruction of up to 30% and a reduced sludge mass for disposal. Utilizing ultrasound technology in aerobic applications is a new and innovative approach. Improved denitrification through a more readily available internal carbon source, and less excess sludge mass can be traced to the positive effects that sonication of sludge has on the overall biological wastewater treatment process. Reference full-scale installations suggest that the technology is both technically feasible and economically sound. PMID:18821241

  15. Producing Magnesium Metallic Glass By Disintegrated Melt Deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Shanthi, M. [Sch. of Mech. and Aerospace Eng., Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Gupta, M. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Jarfors, A. E. W. [Sch. of Mech. and Aerospace Eng., Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology, Singapore 638075 (Singapore); Tan, M. J. [Sch. of Mech. and Aerospace Eng., Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2011-01-17

    Bulk metallic glasses are new class of engineering materials that exhibit high resistance to crystallization in the under cooled liquid state. The development of bulk metallic glasses of thickness 1cm or less has opened new doors for fundamental studies of both liquid state and glass transition previously not feasible in metallic materials. Moreover, bulk metallic glasses exhibit superior hardness, strength, specific strength, and elastic strain limit, along with good corrosion and wear resistance. Thus they are potential candidates in various sports, structural, engineering and medical applications. Among several BMGs investigated, magnesium-based BMGs have attracted considerable attention because of their low density and superior mechanical properties. The major drawback of this magnesium based BMGs is poor ductility. This can be overcome by the addition of ductile particles/reinforcement to the matrix. In this study, a new technique named disintegrated melt deposition technique was used to synthesize magnesium based BMGs. Rods of different sizes are cast using the current method. Mechanical characterization studies revealed that the amorphous rods produced by the current technique showed superior mechanical properties.

  16. Orally disintegrating films containing propolis: properties and release profile.

    PubMed

    Borges, Josiane Gonçalves; De Carvalho, Rosemary Aparecida

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this work was the production and characterization of orally disintegrating films of gelatin and hydrolyzed collagen containing the ethanol extract of propolis. The films were produced by casting with different concentrations of hydrolyzed collagen with and without the extract. The mechanical properties, mucoadhesive properties, swelling degree, in vitro release kinetics, stability of active compounds, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and antimicrobial activity of the films were evaluated. The films with the highest concentration of hydrolyzed collagen were less resistant and more elastic, and films containing the extract were more resistant than the control. In addition, the films with the extract showed higher mucoadhesion, which is important for ensuring the release of active compounds in the oral cavity. Generally, all formulations showed a high swelling capacity, which may have contributed to the quick release also demonstrated by the release kinetics model. Interactions between the extract compounds and the polymeric matrix were observed by FTIR spectroscopy, which may have contributed to an improvement in the mechanical properties. Films containing the extract had good stability and effective antimicrobial properties against Staphylococcus aureus, which shows that these films can potentially be used to release active compounds in the oral mucosa. PMID:25631489

  17. Pore size distribution in tablets measured with a morphological sieve.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yu San; van Vliet, Lucas J; Frijlink, Henderik W; van der Voort Maarschalk, Kees

    2007-09-01

    Porosity and pore structure are important characteristics of tablets, since they influence mechanical strength and many other properties. This paper proposes an alternative method for the characterization of pore structure based on image analysis of SEM micrographs. SEM images were made of sodium chloride tablets made with three different particle sizes. The pore size distribution in these images was determined with a technique referred to as a morphological sieve. The results were compared to the pore size distributions as obtained with mercury porosimetry. The SEM images display small cracks inside the grains and small 'floating' grains inside the pore space. As these artifacts are induced in sample preparation, they need to be identified and removed from the images before analysis. The influence of the size of the discarded structures on the total porosity and the pore size distribution was investigated. The small 'floating' grains prevented the determination of the size of large pores, but had a negligible effect on the porosity. The removal of small cracks inside the grains had no effect on the pore size distribution but a large effect on the porosity. Based on the comparison of these results with the experimentally determined porosity, a maximum size for the structures that were to be removed was determined. The resulting pore size distributions were in the same order of magnitude as the results obtained with mercury porosimetry. Both methods display a comparable relative shift of the pore size distributions to larger sizes for tablets with increasing particle size. Therefore, it can be concluded this image analysis technique is a good method for the characterization of pore structure. PMID:17580106

  18. Visual deficits in a patient with `kaleidoscopic disintegration of the visual world'

    E-print Network

    Vaina, Lucia M.

    Visual deficits in a patient with `kaleidoscopic disintegration of the visual world' L. M. Vainaa and a failure to `pull objects together into a whole.' She described her condition as a `kaleidoscopic disinteg

  19. 21 CFR 520.2345b - Tetracycline tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tetracycline tablets. 520.2345b Section 520.2345b Food...ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2345b Tetracycline tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 100, 250, or 500 milligrams of...

  20. 21 CFR 520.2345b - Tetracycline tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tetracycline tablets. 520.2345b Section 520.2345b Food...ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2345b Tetracycline tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 100, 250, or 500 milligrams of...

  1. Instructor Use of Tablet PCs in a College Pre-Calculus Course: Implementation & Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connelly Stockton, Julianna; Gregory, Peter

    2012-01-01

    A group of six math instructors used tablet PCs to teach their individual sections of a high enrollment gateway Pre-Calculus course in a diverse urban four-year college. Student performance in the experimental sections were compared to those in 31 other sections in terms of student retention, pass rates, and score on the department-wide…

  2. Preparation and characterization of novel fast disintegrating capsules (Fastcaps) for administration in the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Ciper, Mesut; Bodmeier, Roland

    2005-10-13

    The objective of this study was to prepare novel capsule-based fast disintegrating dosage forms for the oral cavity (Fastcaps). First, cast films were prepared from various additive-containing gelatin solutions and evaluated with respect to disintegration time and mechanical properties in order to identify suitable formulations for the capsule preparation. The disintegration time of films decreased with decreasing bloom strength and could be further decreased by the addition of sugars or PEGs. Fast disintegrating capsules were successfully prepared by a dipping process, whereby parameters such as the viscosity and temperature of the dipping solution and the dipping velocity of the steel pins were optimized. The required viscosity range of the dipping solution for Fastcap manufacturing was 500-600 cP. The addition of the hydrophilic additives (xylitol, sorbitol or PEG 1500) did not significantly affect the viscosity and gelation temperature of the dipping solution. The in vitro disintegration of Fastcaps (30-45 s) was twice as rapid as the one of regular hard gelatin capsules. In vivo, Fastcaps disintegrated rapidly (9-13 s) and their content was spread throughout the oral cavity within seconds. Lactose and/or microcrystalline cellulose were suitable fillers for Fastcaps. The mechanical properties of Fastcaps were similar to commercially available gelatin capsules, which assures good processability and handling. PMID:16111845

  3. Three-dimensional modeling to determine properties of tableting materials on rotary machines using a rotary tableting machine simulator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katharina M Picker

    2000-01-01

    A new three-dimensional modeling technique of tableting data has been used for data measured with a rotary tableting machine simulator. The use of the tableting machine simulator is helpful in this case because a scale up or a change of equipment is easily possible. The model substances used were hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC 15.000), microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel PH 101), dicalcium phosphate

  4. Comparative Efficacy of an Imidacloprid/Flumethrin Collar (Seresto(®)) and an Oral Fluralaner Chewable Tablet (Bravecto (®)) against Tick (Dermacentor variabilis and Amblyomma americanum) Infestations on Dogs: a Randomised Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Ohmes, Cameon M; Hostetler, Joe; Davis, Wendell L; Settje, Terry; McMinn, Amy; Everett, William R

    2015-08-01

    This controlled laboratory study demonstrated the residual speed of efficacy of an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar (Seresto(®), Bayer) for the control of ticks (Dermacentor variabilis, Amblyomma americanum) at 6 and 12 hours post-infestation on dogs when compared to oral fluralaner (Bravecto(®), Merck). Dogs were randomised by pre-treatment tick counts: Group 1) imidacloprid 10 % (w/w)/flumethrin 4.5 % (w/w) collar, 2) fluralaner (dosage 25.1 - 49.4 mg/kg), and 3) non-treated controls. Ticks (50/species/dog) were infested on days 3, 14, 21, 28, 42, and 56 followed by 50 D. variabilis on days 70 and 84. Live and dead attached ticks were counted 6 and 12 hours later. Efficacy against both species at 6 and 12 hours for Group 1 was 94 - 100 %. Efficacy for Group 2 against both species at 6 hours was 4 - 69 %; efficacy at 12 hours was 8 - 100 %. Live (attached and non-attached) tick counts at 6 hours in Group 1 were significantly lower (p ? 0.05) than counts in Group 2 and 3 on all days. At 12 hours, live counts were significantly lower (p ? 0.05) in Group 1 than Group 2 for D. variabilis from days 56 - 84 and for A. americanum from days 28 - 56. There were significantly fewer (p ? 0.05) total ticks (total live and dead attached) on dogs in Group 1 compared to Group 2 and 3 at all time points. This study demonstrated that an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar was highly efficacious (94 - 100 %) at repelling and killing ticks on dogs at 6 and 12 hours post-infestation and was more efficacious than fluralaner as early as 6 hours post-infestation on all challenge days. PMID:26152411

  5. Soy polysaccharide as a novel superdisintegrant in sildenafil citrate sublingual tablets: preparation, characterization, and in vivo evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Hosny, Khaled Mohamed; Mosli, Hisham Ahmed; Hassan, Ali Habiballah

    2015-01-01

    Sildenafil citrate (SC), a drug used to treat erectile dysfunction, is available in tablet form but has three major problems. First, the drug displays inadequate aqueous solubility, which delays the onset of its action. Second, the drug undergoes extensive first-pass metabolism, resulting in a low (40%) bioavailability. Third, the gastrointestinal effects of SC include dyspepsia and a burning sensation. The aim of this research was to prepare SC as a sublingual tablet utilizing soy polysaccharide as novel superdisintegrant to mitigate the abovementioned problems. The solubility of SC in various hydrophilic carrier solutions was estimated in order to prepare the drug as a coprecipitate. Sublingual tablets were prepared and evaluated for hardness, friability, drug content, wetting time, water absorption ratio, in vitro dispersion time, dissolution rate, and stability study. The pharmacokinetic study of the tablets was carried out on healthy volunteers. The results indicated that the co-precipitation of SC with polyvinylpyrollidone K30 enhanced the solubility of SC by more than eight folds. The tablet contained 8% soy polysaccharide as a superdisintegrant and provided a wetting time of 25 seconds, and in vitro dispersion times of 55 seconds. The drug release was found to be 95.6%. The prepared SC sublingual tablet also exhibited a rapid onset of action, and its bioavailability was enhanced 1.68-fold compared with that of the marketed tablets. It can be concluded that SC sublingual tablet is a promising formulation that results in higher solubility, faster dispersion and onset of action, higher release rate, and higher systemic bioavailability. PMID:25624751

  6. INCREASE IN SINGLE-TABLET REGIMEN USE AND ASSOCIATED IMPROVEMENTS IN ADHERENCE-RELATED OUTCOMES IN HIV-INFECTED WOMEN

    PubMed Central

    HANNA, DAVID B.; HESSOL, NANCY A.; GOLUB, ELIZABETH T.; COCOHOBA, JENNIFER M.; COHEN, MARDGE H.; LEVINE, ALEXANDRA M.; WILSON, TRACEY E.; YOUNG, MARY; ANASTOS, KATHRYN; KAPLAN, ROBERT C.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The use of single-tablet ART regimens and its implications on adherence among HIV-infected women have not been well-described. Methods Participants were enrolled in the Women’s Interagency HIV Study (WIHS), a longitudinal study of HIV infection in U.S. women. We examined semiannual trends in single-tablet regimen use and ART adherence, defined as self-reported 95% adherence in the past 6 months, during 2006–2013. In a nested cohort study, we assessed the comparative effectiveness of a single-tablet versus a multiple-tablet regimen with respect to adherence, virologic suppression, quality of life, and AIDS-defining events, using propensity score matching to account for demographic, behavioral, and clinical confounders. We also examined these outcomes in a subset of women switching from a multiple- to single-tablet regimen, using a case-crossover design. Results 15,523 person-visits, representing 1,727 women (53% black, 29% Hispanic, 25% IDU, median age 47), were included. Use of single-tablet regimens among ART users increased from 7% in 2006 to 27% in 2013; adherence increased from 78% to 85% during the same period (both p<0.001). Single-tablet regimen use was significantly associated with increased adherence (adjusted RR 1.05, 95% CI 1.03–1.08) and virologic suppression (RR 1.06, 95% CI 1.01–1.11), while associations with improved quality of life and fewer AIDS-defining events did not achieve statistical significance. Similar findings were observed among the subset of switchers. Conclusion Single-tablet regimen use was associated with increased adherence and virologic suppression. Despite this, 15% of women prescribed ART were still not optimally adherent; additional interventions are needed to maximize therapeutic benefits. PMID:24326606

  7. Soy polysaccharide as a novel superdisintegrant in sildenafil citrate sublingual tablets: preparation, characterization, and in vivo evaluation.

    PubMed

    Hosny, Khaled Mohamed; Mosli, Hisham Ahmed; Hassan, Ali Habiballah

    2015-01-01

    Sildenafil citrate (SC), a drug used to treat erectile dysfunction, is available in tablet form but has three major problems. First, the drug displays inadequate aqueous solubility, which delays the onset of its action. Second, the drug undergoes extensive first-pass metabolism, resulting in a low (40%) bioavailability. Third, the gastrointestinal effects of SC include dyspepsia and a burning sensation. The aim of this research was to prepare SC as a sublingual tablet utilizing soy polysaccharide as novel superdisintegrant to mitigate the abovementioned problems. The solubility of SC in various hydrophilic carrier solutions was estimated in order to prepare the drug as a coprecipitate. Sublingual tablets were prepared and evaluated for hardness, friability, drug content, wetting time, water absorption ratio, in vitro dispersion time, dissolution rate, and stability study. The pharmacokinetic study of the tablets was carried out on healthy volunteers. The results indicated that the co-precipitation of SC with polyvinylpyrollidone K30 enhanced the solubility of SC by more than eight folds. The tablet contained 8% soy polysaccharide as a superdisintegrant and provided a wetting time of 25 seconds, and in vitro dispersion times of 55 seconds. The drug release was found to be 95.6%. The prepared SC sublingual tablet also exhibited a rapid onset of action, and its bioavailability was enhanced 1.68-fold compared with that of the marketed tablets. It can be concluded that SC sublingual tablet is a promising formulation that results in higher solubility, faster dispersion and onset of action, higher release rate, and higher systemic bioavailability. PMID:25624751

  8. Pharmacokinetic and Safety Analyses of Tenofovir and Tenofovir-Emtricitabine Vaginal Tablets in Pigtailed Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Lara E.; Friend, David R.; Garber, David A.; McNicholl, Janet M.; Hendry, R. Michael; Doncel, Gustavo F.

    2014-01-01

    Vaginal rapidly disintegrating tablets (RDTs) containing tenofovir (TFV) or TFV and emtricitabine (FTC) were evaluated for safety and pharmacokinetics in pigtailed macaques. Two separate animal groups (n = 4) received TFV (10 mg) or TFV-FTC (10 mg each) RDTs, administered near the cervix. A third group (n = 4) received 1 ml TFV gel. Blood plasma, vaginal tissue biopsy specimens, and vaginal fluids were collected before and after product application at 0, 0.5, 1, 4, and 24 h. A disintegration time of <30 min following vaginal application of the RDTs was noted, with negligible effects on local inflammatory cytokines, vaginal pH, and microflora. TFV pharmacokinetics were generally similar for both RDTs and gel, with peak median concentrations in vaginal tissues and vaginal secretions being on the order of 104 to 105 ng/g (147 to 571 ?M) and 106 ng/g (12 to 34 mM), respectively, at 1 to 4 h postdose. At 24 h, however, TFV vaginal tissue levels were more sustained after RDT dosing, with median TFV concentrations being approximately 1 log higher than those with gel dosing. FTC pharmacokinetics after combination RDT dosing were similar to those of TFV, with peak median vaginal tissue and fluid levels being on the order of 104 ng/g (374 ?M) and 106 ng/g (32 mM), respectively, at 1 h postdose with levels in fluid remaining high at 24 h. RDTs are a promising alternative vaginal dosage form, delivering TFV and/or FTC at levels that would be considered inhibitory to simian-human immunodeficiency virus in the macaque vaginal microenvironment over a 24-h period. PMID:24566178

  9. Enhanced bioavailability of buspirone hydrochloride via cup and core buccal tablets: formulation and in vitro/in vivo evaluation.

    PubMed

    Kassem, Mohamed A A; Elmeshad, Aliaa N; Fares, Ahmed R

    2014-03-10

    This work aims to prepare sustained release buccal mucoadhesive tablets of buspirone hydrochloride (BH) to improve its systemic bioavailability. The tablets were prepared according to 5×3 factorial design where polymer type was set at five levels (carbopol, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, sodium alginate, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and guar gum), and polymer to drug ratio at three levels (1:1, 2:1 and 3:1). Mucoadhesion force, ex vivo mucoadhesion time, percent BH released after 8 h (Q8h) and time for release of 50% BH (T(??%)) were chosen as dependent variables. Additional BH cup and core buccal tablets were prepared to optimize BH release profile and make it uni-directional along with the tablets mucoadhesion. Tablets were evaluated in terms of content uniformity, weight variation, thickness, diameter, hardness, friability, swelling index, surface pH, mucoadhesion strength and time and in vitro release. Cup and core formula (CA10) was able to adhere to the buccal mucosa for 8h, showed the highest Q8h (97.91%) and exhibited a zero order drug release profile. Pharmacokinetic study of formula CA10 in human volunteers revealed a 5.6 fold increase in BH bioavailability compared to the oral commercial Buspar® tablets. Conducting level A in vitro/in vivo correlation showed good correlation (r²=0.9805) between fractions dissolved in vitro and fractions absorbed in vivo. PMID:24412520

  10. Liquisolid technique as a new approach to sustain propranolol hydrochloride release from tablet matrices.

    PubMed

    Javadzadeh, Yousef; Musaalrezaei, Leila; Nokhodchi, Ali

    2008-10-01

    It is suggested here that liquisolid technique has the potential to be optimized for the reduction of drug dissolution rate and thereby production of sustained release systems. In the present study, propranolol hydrochloride was dispersed in polysorbate 80 as the liquid vehicle. Then a binary mixture of carrier-coating materials (Eudragit RL or RS as the carrier and silica as the coating material) was added to the liquid medication under continuous mixing in a mortar. The final mixture was compressed using the manual tableting machine. The effect of drug concentration, loading factor, thermal treating and aging on release profile of propranolol hydrochloride from liquisolid compacts were investigated at two pH values (1.2 and 6.8). The release rate of propranolol HCl from liquisolid compacts was compared to the release of propranolol HCl from conventional tablets. X-ray crystallography and DSC were used to investigate the formation of any complex between drug and excipients or any crystallinity changes during the manufacturing process. Propranolol HCl tablets prepared by liquisolid technique showed greater retardation properties in comparison with conventional matrix tablets. This investigation provided evidence that polysorbate 80 (Tween 80) has important role in sustaining the release of drug from liquisolid matrices, and a reduction of T(g) of the polymer can be the reason for the release prolongation of liquisolid tablets. The results also showed that wet granulation had remarkable impact on release rate of propranolol HCl from liquisolid compacts, reducing the release rate of drug from liquisolid compacts. The results showed that aging (liquisolid tablets were kept at 25 degrees C/75% relative humidity for 6 months) had no effect on hardness and dissolution profile of drug. The kinetics studies revealed that most of the liquisolid formulations followed the zero-order release pattern. X-ray crystallography and DSC ruled out any changes in crystallinity or complex formation during the manufacturing process of liquisolid formulations. PMID:18647643

  11. Preparation and characterisation of Kolliphor® P 188 and P 237 solid dispersion oral tablets containing the poorly water soluble drug disulfiram.

    PubMed

    Ramadhani, Nisrina; Shabir, Mehwish; McConville, Christopher

    2014-11-20

    The oral route of administration is the most common and preferred route of drug delivery due to its ease of administration, cost-effectiveness and flexibility in design. However, limited aqueous solubility of the active pharmaceutical ingredient can result in poor bioavailability, which is a major issue for the pharmaceutical industry. Increasing numbers of new drugs are falling into class II of the Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS), where they have a low solubility and high tissue permeability, meaning that bioavailability is solubility dependent. Here we demonstrate the development and characterisation of solid dispersion oral tablets, containing the poorly water-soluble drug disulfiram, prepared using both the hot melt and solvent evaporation methods and manufactured from two different polymers, Kolliphor(®) P 188 and P 237, specifically designed for the manufacture of solid dispersions. This paper demonstrates that the disulfiram solid dispersions tablets have an enhanced release rate of disulfiram compared to the control tablets. The Kolliphor(®) P 188 polymer control tablets released approximately 48.8% of their disulfiram content over 8h, with the solvent evaporated tablets releasing approximately 65.8%, while the 60 and 80 °C hot melt tablets released approximately 73.2 and 100% of their disulfiram content respectively. A similar trend was seen with Kolliphor(®) P 237 as the control tablets released approximately 50.5% of their disulfiram content over 8h, while the solvent evaporated tablets released approximately 79.5% and the 60 and 80 °C hot melt tablets released 100.2 and 100.3% respectively. Depending on what method and polymer is used to manufacture the solid dispersions the disulfiram is either maintained completely or partially in its amorphous state and it is this which enhances its solubility and release rate from the tablets. The disulfiram in the Kolliphor(®) P 188 solvent evaporated and 60 °C hot melt tablets retained 50.5 and 44.1% of its crystallinity, while the disulfiram in the 80 °C hot melt tablets was completely amorphous. Whereas the disulfiram in the Kolliphor(®) P 237 solvent evaporated tablets retained 45.2% crystallinity, while the disulfiram in both of the hot melt tablets was completely in its amorphous form. PMID:25218186

  12. You May Now Open Your Test Tablets...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2012-01-01

    Tony Alpert, chief operating officer for the Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium (SBAC), ponders whether to allow tablet computers--and particularly iPads--to be used for summative testing online. As Alpert points out, not only would student cheating compromise the validity of the individual student's test event, "worse yet, it could expose…

  13. Using Tablet Technology for University Lectures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chester, Victoria

    2008-01-01

    Tablet PCs provide numerous benefits over traditional electronically projected lectures that use software such as PowerPoint. Flexibility and spontaneity can be achieved by editing or creating notes in real-time. The input pen or stylus is a very useful tool, especially for courses that involve the extensive use of equations or mathematical…

  14. Touch Tablet Surprises: A Preschool Teacher's Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shifflet, Rena; Toledo, Cheri; Mattoon, Cassandra

    2012-01-01

    A year and a half ago, Rena, Cheri, and Cassandra were introduced to each other by a colleague because they shared an interest in exploring the impact newer technologies have on learning in early childhood classrooms. They meet regularly to share ideas and information on how to incorporate tablets using best practices. Cassandra's preschool…

  15. MEASUREMENT OF BOUNDARIES USING A DIGITIZER TABLET

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perimeter is the most error prone of the primary measurements (length, perimeter and area) made when using a device such as a digitizer tablet to trace profiles on micrographs. o allow for minimization of this error an expression is developed relating the error in the perimet...

  16. 21 CFR 520.531 - Cythioate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...510.600(c) of this chapter for use of 30-mg tablet. (c) Special considerations. Cythioate is a cholinesterase inhibitor. Do not use this product in animals simultaneously with or within a few days before or after treatment with or...

  17. Graphics Tablet for the BBC Microcomputer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whale, R.

    1984-01-01

    Describes an inexpensive solution to the problem of transferring pictures onto a television screen using the analog part of the Model "B" BBC Microcomputer. Instruction for building the graphics tablet (which can easily be constructed by secondary students), program listing for required software, and documentation are included. (JN)

  18. Problems of powder flow in tabletting processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Hersey

    1965-01-01

    Summary The flow of non-compacted granules in the tablet machine hopper is discussed with relevance to the unit dose of drug, which is required to be dispensed. The various factors used to describe powder flow such as angle of repose, interparticulate cohesion and friction, flow through apertures, bulk density and die fillability are considered. The effects of humidity and of

  19. Effect of compression pressure, preservative, and storage with potassium chloride on the microbiological quality of tablets formulated with Terminalia randii Gum (Combretaceae).

    PubMed

    Oluremi, Bolaji Bosede; Bamiro, Oluyemisi Adebowale; Idowu, Abel Olusola; Oduneye, Olayinka Annegret

    2012-10-01

    Gums are used as binders in tablets and also as emulsion stabilisers, suspending agents and thickeners in syrups. The need for other natural gums apart from the conventional gums to be employed as binding agents in tablets formulation led to this study. A gum obtained from the incised trunk of Terminalia randii (Combretaceae) was evaluated for the effect of compression pressure, methyl paraben preservative and storage with potassium chloride, on the microbial load of tablets formulated with the gum. The microbial load was determined by surface spread method on the processed gum at suitable dilutions, and tablets formulated from the gum at different compression pressures. The formulated tablets were evaluated for microbial load, also when stored in potassium chloride for 8 and 12 weeks with and without preservation with 1% Methyl Paraben. In each case the compressed tablets were incubated in 0.1% peptone water as control. The microbial load recorded reflected generally, reduction in microbial counts in tablets formulated with the gum as a binder both in terms of compression at different pressures and when the different compression pressures were associated with or without 1% methyl paraben in the presence of potassium chloride. Comparatively, the processed gum showed higher microbial load than the pressure compressed tablets. Besides the different compression pressures, duration of storage was also found to cause reduction of microbial load, particularly in the formulated tablets compressed with methyl paraben stored in potassium chloride such that after 8 weeks, the microbial load was zero. The studies showed that compression pressures and duration of storage caused marked reduction in microbial load of the tablets formulated with the processed gum of Terminalia randii as a binder. PMID:23009993

  20. The natural history of somatic morbidity in disintegrative psychosis and infantile autism: a validation study.

    PubMed

    Mouridsen, S E; Rich, B; Isager, T

    1999-10-01

    In order to study the validity of disintegrative psychosis (DP) as defined in ICD-9, we compared the natural history of somatic morbidity of 13 patients given this diagnosis in childhood with a control group of 39 patients with infantile autism (IA) matched for gender, age, IQ and social class. Average follow-up time was 22 and 23 (11-33) years, respectively. Significantly more DP patients (85 versus 41%) had been admitted to a non-psychiatric hospital during the follow-up period. They also had significantly more admissions (3.6 versus 1.0) and stayed longer in hospital (78 versus 4 days) than patients with IA. Three of the DP individuals had an associated medical disorder and made extensive use of somatic services during the follow-up period. Altogether the DP group had utilised the medical health care system more than patients with IA suggesting that they had more medical symptoms than the IA group. On the whole our findings suggest that individuals with DP and IA should be conceptualised as essentially distinct and should be studied separately as regards aetiology, pathophysiology, course and treatment. PMID:10522520

  1. Epilepsy in disintegrative psychosis and infantile autism: a long-term validation study.

    PubMed

    Mouridsen, S E; Rich, B; Isager, T

    1999-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the validity of disintegrative psychosis (DP) as defined in the ICD-9. The history of epilepsy in 13 subjects with DP was compared with that of 39 subjects with infantile autism (IA) who were matched for sex, age, IQ, and socioeconomic status (SES). The average follow-up time was 22 and 23 years (range 11 to 33 years). A significant difference was found between the DP and IA groups in terms of incidence of epilepsy, 77% versus 33% respectively. The peak period of onset of epilepsy occurred before puberty in both groups. Different types of epilepsy were seen, but the psychomotor variant accounted for 50% in the DP group, while 46% of the IA group had the psychomotor and 62% had the grand mal variant. The types are not mutually exclusive. Individuals without epilepsy had significantly higher IQ scores than those with epilepsy, but only within the IA group. The increased risk of developing epilepsy in the DP group is most likely a reflection of an underlying early brain pathology probably present in most individuals with DP. On the whole our findings can be seen as a contribution to the validation of DP as separate from IA, as these two conditions could be distinguished in terms of the way they develop with reference to epilepsy. PMID:10075096

  2. Formulation and in vitro evaluation of bilayer tablets of nebivolol hydrochloride and nateglinide for the treatment of diabetes and hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ryakala, Harika; Dineshmohan, S; Ramesh, Alluri; Gupta, V R M

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension are two common diseases that often coexist. The most common cause of death in the diabetic patient is heart disease. In the present investigation we combine Nebivolol and Nateglinide for better patient compliance. IR layer was formulated using various superdisintegrants like Crospovidone, Croscarmellose sodium, and sodium starch glycolate and SR layer was formulated using polymers and gums like HPMC E15, ethyl cellulose, Gaur gum, and Xanthan gum. The disintegration and dissolution study of both layers showed that inclusion of surfactant (sodium lauryl sulphate) to the tablet formulation (IR) and dissolution medium (SR) enhanced the release of drugs from both layers. Kinetic studies of optimized IR layer (NBL8) and SR layer (N9) showed good linearity with regression coefficient of 0.9714 (Higuchi model) and 0.9931 (zero order kinetics), respectively. The above results reveal that the optimized IR layer of Nebivolol (NBL8) and SR layer of Nateglinide (N9) might be suitable for the treatment of diabetes and hypertension by sequential release of the two drugs in a bilayer tablet. IR-immediate release, SR-sustain release, NBL8-Nebivolol 8, N9-Nateglinide 9. PMID:25648606

  3. Tablets Vision Inspection Approach Using Fourier Descriptors and Support Vector Machines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peng Zhao; Shutao Li

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, an efficient approach for tablets vision inspection is proposed, which can detect missing and broken individual tablets in each blister after they are sealed. The images of tablets in blister can be obtained clearly using multi-lights. From these images the regions of tablets are segmented through thresholding method, and the tablets' shape contours are obtained by Canny

  4. Single-dose evaluation of safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of newly formulated hydromorphone immediate-release and hydrophilic matrix extended-release tablets in healthy Japanese subjects without co-administration of an opioid antagonist.

    PubMed

    Toyama, Kaoru; Uchida, Naoki; Ishizuka, Hitoshi; Sambe, Takehiko; Kobayashi, Shinichi

    2015-09-01

    This single dose, open-label study investigated the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of single oral doses of newly formulated immediate-release (IR) and hydrophilic matrix extended-release (ER) hydromorphone tablets in healthy Japanese subjects without co-administration of an opioid antagonist under fasting and fed conditions. Plasma and urinary concentrations of hydromorphone and metabolites were measured by liquid-chromatography tandem mass-spectroscopy. Following administration of the ER tablet, plasma concentrations of hydromorphone slowly increased with a median tmax of 5.0?h and the Cmax decreased to 37% of the IR tablet, while the AUC0-inf was comparable with that of the IR tablet when administered at the same dose. The degree of fluctuation in the plasma concentration for the ER tablet was much lower than that of the IR tablet and certain levels of plasma concentrations were maintained after 24?h of ER dosing. The AUC0-inf and Cmax increased with food for both IR and ER tablets. The AUC0-inf of hydromorphone-3-glucoside was one-tenth of that of hydromorphone-3-glucuronide. A single oral administration of the hydromorphone tablets would be well-tolerated in healthy Japanese subjects despite a lack of co-administration of an opioid antagonist and the newly developed ER hydromorphone tablets may have the appropriate PK characteristics for once-daily dosing. PMID:25807927

  5. Photo-Disintegration of the Iron Nucleus in Fractured Magnetite Rocks with Magnetostriction

    E-print Network

    A. Widom; J. Swain; Y. N. Srivastava

    2013-06-25

    There has been considerable interest in recent experiments on iron nuclear disintegrations observed when rocks containing such nuclei are crushed and fractured. The resulting nuclear transmutations are particularly strong for the case of magnetite rocks, i.e. loadstones. We argue that the fission of the iron nucleus is a consequence of photo-disintegration. The electro-strong coupling between electromagnetic fields and nuclear giant dipole resonances are central for producing observed nuclear reactions. The large electron energies produced during the fracture of piezomagnetic rocks are closely analogous to the previously discussed case of the fracture of piezoelectric rocks. In both cases electro-weak interactions can produce neutrons and neutrinos from energetic protons and electrons thus inducing nuclear transmutations. The electro-strong condensed matter coupling discussed herein represents new many body collective nuclear photo-disintegration effects.

  6. Effect of moisture on disintegration kinetics during anaerobic digestion of complex organic substrates.

    PubMed

    Liotta, Flavia; d'Antonio, Giuseppe; Esposito, Giovanni; Fabbricino, Massimiliano; Frunzo, Luigi; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Lens, Piet N L; Pirozzi, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    The role of the moisture content and particle size (PS) on the disintegration of complex organic matter during the wet anaerobic digestion (AD) process was investigated. A range of total solids (TS) from 5% to 11.3% and PS from 0.25 to 15 mm was evaluated using carrot waste as model complex organic matter. The experimental results showed that the methane production rate decreased with higher TS and PS. A modified version of the AD model no.1 for complex organic substrates was used to model the experimental data. The simulations showed a decrease of the disintegration rate constants with increasing TS and PS. The results of the biomethanation tests were used to calibrate and validate the applied model. In particular, the values of the disintegration constant for various TS and PS were determined. The simulations showed good agreement between the numerical and observed data. PMID:24396037

  7. Novel gastroretentive sustained-release tablet of tacrolimus based on self-microemulsifying mixture: in vitro evaluation and in vivo bioavailability test

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan-ping; Gan, Yong; Zhang, Xin-xin

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To develop a novel gastroretentive drug delivery system based on a self-microemulsifying (SME) lipid mixture for improving the oral absorption of the immunosuppressant tacrolimus. Methods: Liquid SME mixture, composed of Cremophor RH40 and monocaprylin glycerate, was blended with polyethylene oxide, chitosan, polyvinylpyrrolidone and mannitol, and then transformed into tablets via granulation, with ethanol as the wetting agent. The tablets were characterized in respect of swelling, bioadhesive and SME properties. In vitro dissolution was conducted using an HCl buffer at pH 1.2. Oral bioavailability of the tablets was examined in fasted beagle dogs. Results: The tablet could expand to 13.5 mm in diameter and 15 mm in thickness during the initial 20 min of contact with the HCl buffer at pH 1.2. The bioadhesive strength was as high as 0.98±0.06 N/cm2. The SME gastroretentive sustained-release tablets preserved the SME capability of the liquid SME formations under transmission electron microscope. The drug-release curve was fit to the zero-order release model, which was helpful in reducing fluctuations in blood concentration. Compared with the commercially available capsules of tacrolimus, the relative bioavailability of the SME gastroretentive sustained-release tablets was 553.4%±353.8%. Conclusion: SME gastroretentive sustained-release tablets can enhance the oral bioavailability of tacrolimus with poor solubility and a narrow absorption window. PMID:21927013

  8. Pharmacokinetics of desmopressin administered as tablet and oral lyophilisate formulation in children with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis.

    PubMed

    De Bruyne, Pauline; De Guchtenaere, Ann; Van Herzeele, Charlotte; Raes, Ann; Dehoorne, Jo; Hoebeke, Piet; Van Laecke, Erik; Vande Walle, Johan

    2014-02-01

    Desmopressin 120 ?g oral lyophilisate and 200 ?g tablet are considered bioequivalent, based on extrapolation of studies in a limited number of adults and on one dose-finding study of desmopressin oral lyophilisate in children. However, no comparative pharmacokinetic study in children was executed confirming this statement. No data are available on the influence of food intake on the bioavailability of desmopressin tablet in a pediatric setting, although studies in adults have documented that food intake results in a significantly lower desmopressin plasma concentration. In this study, we analyzed plasma concentrations of desmopressin oral lyophilisate and tablet with concomitant food intake. Twenty-three children with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (mean age, 12.7 years) were recruited. Two tests were performed on two separate days in identical conditions with a standardized food and fluid intake. Desmopressin was administered as desmopressin tablet or desmopressin oral lyophilisate immediately after a meal. Desmopressin plasma concentration was measured at 1 h, 2 h, and 6 h postdosing. No significant difference in plasma concentration of 120 ?g desmopressin oral lyophilisate and 200 ?g tablet was demonstrated, even with concomitant food intake. A significant difference in variability was found, identifying a smaller variance for desmopressin oral lyophilisate plasma concentrations at all time points. This study demonstrates comparable plasma levels for desmopressin oral lyophilisate, despite the lower dose. The dosage for desmopressin oral lyophilisate is more predictable due to the significantly smaller variance. Therefore, desmopressin oral lyophilisate seems more suitable, especially in the younger age group for which time interval between dinner and drug administration is limited. PMID:23989967

  9. Randomized controlled trial of sodium phosphate tablets vs polyethylene glycol solution for colonoscopy bowel cleansing

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Yoon Suk; Lee, Chang Kyun; Kim, Hyo Jong; Eun, Chang Soo; Han, Dong Soo; Park, Dong Il

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To compare efficacy, patient compliance, acceptability, satisfaction, safety, and adenoma detection rate of sodium phosphate tablets (NaP, CLICOLONTM) to a standard 4 L polyethylene glycol (PEG) solution for bowel cleansing for adults undergoing colonoscopy. METHODS: In this multicenter, randomized, prospective, investigator-blind study, the relatively young (19-60 years) healthy outpatients without comorbidity were randomly assigned to one of two arms. All colonoscopy were scheduled in the morning. The NaP group was asked to take 4 tablets, 5 times the evening before and 4 tablets, 3 times early on the morning of the colonoscopy. The PEG group was asked to ingest 2 L of solution the evening before and 2 L early in the morning of the procedure. Adequacy of bowel preparation was scored using the Boston bowel preparation scale. RESULTS: No significant differences were observed between the NaP group (n = 158) and PEG group (n = 162) in bowel cleansing quality (adequate preparation 93.0% vs 92.6%, P = 0.877), patient compliance (P = 0.228), overall adverse events (63.3% vs 69.1%, P = 0.269), or adenoma detection rate (34.8% vs 35.2%, P = 0.944). Patient acceptability, satisfaction, and patient rating of taste were higher in the NaP group than in the PEG group (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: NaP tablets, compared with PEG solution, produced equivalent colon cleansing, did not cause more side effects, and had better patient acceptability and satisfaction in the relatively young (age < 60 years) healthy individuals without comorbidity. An oral tablet formulation could make bowel preparation less burdensome, resulting in greater patient participation in screening programs. PMID:25400471

  10. Development of modified-release tablets of zolpidem tartrate by biphasic quick/slow delivery system.

    PubMed

    Mahapatra, Anjan Kumar; Sameeraja, N H; Murthy, P N

    2015-06-01

    Zolpidem tartrate is a non-benzodiazepine analogue of imidazopyridine of sedative and hypnotic category. It has a short half-life with usual dosage regimen being 5 mg, two times a day, or 10 mg, once daily. The duration of action is considered too short in certain circumstances. Thus, it is desirable to lengthen the duration of action. The formulation design was implemented by preparing extended-release tablets of zolpidem tartrate using the biphasic delivery system technology, where sodium starch glycolate acts as a superdisintegrant in immediate-release part and hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose as a release retarding agent in extended-release core. Tablets were prepared by direct compression. Both the core and the coat contained the drug. The pre-compression blends were evaluated for angle of repose, bulk density, and compressibility index. The tablets were evaluated for thickness, hardness, weight variation test, friability, and in vitro release studies. No interaction was observed between zolpidem tartrate and excipients from the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry analysis. The results of all the formulations prepared were compared with reference product Stilnoct®. Optimized formulations showed release patterns that match the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) guidelines for zolpidem tartrate extended-release tablets. The mechanism of drug release was studied using different mathematical models, and the optimized formulation has shown Fickian diffusion. Accelerated stability studies were performed on the optimized formulation. PMID:25391273

  11. Validated method for the determination of piroxicam by capillary zone electrophoresis and its application to tablets.

    PubMed

    Dal, Ar?n Gül; Oktayer, Zeynep; Do?rukol-Ak, Dilek

    2014-01-01

    Simple and rapid capillary zone electrophoretic method was developed and validated in this study for the determination of piroxicam in tablets. The separation of piroxicam was conducted in a fused-silica capillary by using 10?mM borate buffer (pH 9.0) containing 10% (v/v) methanol as background electrolyte. The optimum conditions determined were 25?kV for separation voltage and 1?s for injection time. Analysis was carried out with UV detection at 204?nm. Naproxen sodium was used as an internal standard. The method was linear over the range of 0.23-28.79?µg/mL. The accuracy and precision were found to be satisfied within the acceptable limits (<2%). The LOD and LOQ were found to be 0.07 and 0.19?µg/mL, respectively. The method described here was applied to tablet dosage forms and the content of a tablet was found in the limits of USP-24 suggestions. To compare the results of capillary electrophoretic method, UV spectrophotometric method was developed and the difference between two methods was found to be insignificant. The capillary zone electrophoretic method developed in this study is rapid, simple, and suitable for routine analysis of piroxicam in pharmaceutical tablets. PMID:25295220

  12. Automated pharmaceutical tablet coating layer evaluation of optical coherence tomography images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markl, Daniel; Hannesschläger, Günther; Sacher, Stephan; Leitner, Michael; Khinast, Johannes G.; Buchsbaum, Andreas

    2015-03-01

    Film coating of pharmaceutical tablets is often applied to influence the drug release behaviour. The coating characteristics such as thickness and uniformity are critical quality parameters, which need to be precisely controlled. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) shows not only high potential for off-line quality control of film-coated tablets but also for in-line monitoring of coating processes. However, an in-line quality control tool must be able to determine coating thickness measurements automatically and in real-time. This study proposes an automatic thickness evaluation algorithm for bi-convex tables, which provides about 1000 thickness measurements within 1?s. Beside the segmentation of the coating layer, optical distortions due to refraction of the beam by the air/coating interface are corrected. Moreover, during in-line monitoring the tablets might be in oblique orientation, which needs to be considered in the algorithm design. Experiments were conducted where the tablet was rotated to specified angles. Manual and automatic thickness measurements were compared for varying coating thicknesses, angles of rotations, and beam displacements (i.e. lateral displacement between successive depth scans). The automatic thickness determination algorithm provides highly accurate results up to an angle of rotation of 30°. The computation time was reduced to 0.53?s for 700 thickness measurements by introducing feasibility constraints in the algorithm.

  13. A computerized tablet with visual feedback of hand position for functional magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Karimpoor, Mahta; Tam, Fred; Strother, Stephen C.; Fischer, Corinne E.; Schweizer, Tom A.; Graham, Simon J.

    2015-01-01

    Neuropsychological tests behavioral tasks that very commonly involve handwriting and drawing are widely used in the clinic to detect abnormal brain function. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) may be useful in increasing the specificity of such tests. However, performing complex pen-and-paper tests during fMRI involves engineering challenges. Previously, we developed an fMRI-compatible, computerized tablet system to address this issue. However, the tablet did not include visual feedback of hand position (VFHP), a human factors component that may be important for fMRI of certain patient populations. A real-time system was thus developed to provide VFHP and integrated with the tablet in an augmented reality display. The effectiveness of the system was initially tested in young healthy adults who performed various handwriting tasks in front of a computer display with and without VFHP. Pilot fMRI of writing tasks were performed by two representative individuals with and without VFHP. Quantitative analysis of the behavioral results indicated improved writing performance with VFHP. The pilot fMRI results suggest that writing with VFHP requires less neural resources compared to the without VFHP condition, to maintain similar behavior. Thus, the tablet system with VFHP is recommended for future fMRI studies involving patients with impaired brain function and where ecologically valid behavior is important. PMID:25859201

  14. Testing lyoequivalency for three commercially sustained-release tablets containing diltiazem hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Maswadeh, Hamzah A; Al-Hanbali, Othman A; Kanaan, Reem A; Shakya, Ashok K; Maraqa, Anwar

    2010-01-01

    In vitro release kinetics of three commercially available sustained release tablets (SR) diltiazem hydrochloride were studied at pH 1.1 for 2 h and for another 6 h at pH 6.8 using the USP dissolution apparatus with the paddle assemble. The kinetics of the dissolution process was studied by analyzing the dissolution data using five kinetic equations: the zero-order equation, the first-order equation, the Higuchi square root equation, the Hixson-Crowell cube root law and the Peppas equation. Analyses of the dissolution kinetic data for diltiazem hydrochloride commercial SR tablets showed that both Dilzacard and Dilzem SR tablets released drug by Non-Fickian (Anomalous transport) release with release exponent (n) equal to 0.59 and 0.54, respectively, which indicate the summation of both diffusion and dissolution controlled drug release. Bi-Tildiem SR tablets released drug by super case II (n = 1.29) which indicate zero-order release due to the dissolution of polymeric matrix and relaxation of the polymer chain. This finding was also in agreement with results obtained from application of zero-order and Hixson-Crowell equations. A dissolution profile comparative study was done to test the lyoequivelancy of the three products by using the mean dissolution time (MDT), dissimilarity factor f1 and similarity factor f2. Results showed that the three products are different and not lyoequivalent. PMID:20210085

  15. Analysis of ecstasy tablets using capillary electrophoresis with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection.

    PubMed

    Porto, Suely K S S; Nogueira, Thiago; Blanes, Lucas; Doble, Philip; Sabino, Bruno D; do Lago, Claudimir L; Angnes, Lúcio

    2014-11-01

    A method for the identification of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP) was developed employing capillary electrophoresis (CE) with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (C(4) D). Sample extraction, separation, and detection of "Ecstasy" tablets were performed in <10 min without sample derivatization. The separation electrolyte was 20 mm TAPS/Lithium, pH 8.7. Average minimal detectable amounts for MDMA and mCPP were 0.04 mg/tablet, several orders of magnitude lower than the minimum amount encountered in a tablet. Seven different Ecstasy tablets seized in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, were analyzed by CE-C(4) D and compared against routine gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The CE method demonstrated sufficient selectivity to discriminate the two target drugs, MDMA and mCPP, from the other drugs present in seizures, namely amphepramone, fenproporex, caffeine, lidocaine, and cocaine. Separation was performed in <90 sec. The advantages of using C(4) D instead of traditional CE-UV methods for in-field analysis are also discussed. PMID:25039689

  16. Spray drying of a poorly water-soluble drug nanosuspension for tablet preparation: formulation and process optimization with bioavailability evaluation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei; Ni, Rui; Zhang, Xin; Li, Luk Chiu; Mao, Shirui

    2015-06-01

    Spray drying experiments of an itraconazole nanosuspension were conducted to generate a dry nanocrystal powder which was subsequently formulated into a tablet formulation for direct compression. The nanosuspension was prepared by high pressure homogenization and characterized for particle-size distribution and surface morphology. A central composite statistical design approach was applied to identify the optimal drug-to-excipient ratio and spray drying temperature. It was demonstrated that the spray drying of a nanosuspension with a mannitol-to-drug mass ratio of 4.5 and at an inlet temperature of 120?°C resulted in a dry powder with the smallest increase in particle size as compared with that of the nanosuspension. X-ray diffraction results indicated that the crystalline structure of the drug was not altered during the spray-drying process. The tablet formulation was identified by determining the micromeritic properties such as flowability and compressibility of the powder mixtures composed of the spray dried nanocrystal powder and other commonly used direct compression excipients. The dissolution rate of the nanocrystal tablets was significantly enhanced and was found to be comparable to that of the marketed Sporanox®. No statistically significant difference in oral absorption between the nanocrystal tablets and Sporanox® capsules was found. In conclusion, the nanosuspension approach is feasible to improve the oral absorption of a BCS Class II drug in a tablet formulation and capable of achieving oral bioavailability equivalent to other well established oral absorption enhancement method. PMID:24785575

  17. Biocidal Efficacy of a Flocculating Emergency Water Purification Tablet

    PubMed Central

    Powers, Edmund M.; Hernandez, C.; Boutros, S. N.; Harper, B. G.

    1994-01-01

    Chlor-Floc (CF) emergency water purification tablets were tested for bactericidal, virucidal, and cysticidal efficacy in water at temperatures ranging from 5 to 25°C. The minimal required log reduction was achieved for bacteria, Giardia muris, and rotavirus, but CF did not achieve the required log reduction of poliovirus at any of the temperatures or times investigated. The biocidal properties of the CF tablet were equivalent to if not greater than those of the Globaline iodine tablet, and the CF tablet was a more rapid cysticide under several potential use conditions. Therefore, it is a suitable substitute for iodine tablets for emergency purification of drinking water. Clarification of turbid waters was effective, but filtration through a cloth is necessary to prevent flocculated sediment from entering the canteen. The CF tablets met military requirements for emergency water purification and are safe and acceptable for use by the military. PMID:16349318

  18. Large Eddy Simulation Study for Fluid Disintegration and Mixing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bellan, Josette; Taskinoglu, Ezgi

    2011-01-01

    A new modeling approach is based on the concept of large eddy simulation (LES) within which the large scales are computed and the small scales are modeled. The new approach is expected to retain the fidelity of the physics while also being computationally efficient. Typically, only models for the small-scale fluxes of momentum, species, and enthalpy are used to reintroduce in the simulation the physics lost because the computation only resolves the large scales. These models are called subgrid (SGS) models because they operate at a scale smaller than the LES grid. In a previous study of thermodynamically supercritical fluid disintegration and mixing, additional small-scale terms, one in the momentum and one in the energy conservation equations, were identified as requiring modeling. These additional terms were due to the tight coupling between dynamics and real-gas thermodynamics. It was inferred that if these terms would not be modeled, the high density-gradient magnitude regions, experimentally identified as a characteristic feature of these flows, would not be accurately predicted without the additional term in the momentum equation; these high density-gradient magnitude regions were experimentally shown to redistribute turbulence in the flow. And it was also inferred that without the additional term in the energy equation, the heat flux magnitude could not be accurately predicted; the heat flux to the wall of combustion devices is a crucial quantity that determined necessary wall material properties. The present work involves situations where only the term in the momentum equation is important. Without this additional term in the momentum equation, neither the SGS-flux constant-coefficient Smagorinsky model nor the SGS-flux constant-coefficient Gradient model could reproduce in LES the pressure field or the high density-gradient magnitude regions; the SGS-flux constant- coefficient Scale-Similarity model was the most successful in this endeavor although not totally satisfactory. With a model for the additional term in the momentum equation, the predictions of the constant-coefficient Smagorinsky and constant-coefficient Scale-Similarity models were improved to a certain extent; however, most of the improvement was obtained for the Gradient model. The previously derived model and a newly developed model for the additional term in the momentum equation were both tested, with the new model proving even more successful than the previous model at reproducing the high density-gradient magnitude regions. Several dynamic SGS-flux models, in which the SGS-flux model coefficient is computed as part of the simulation, were tested in conjunction with the new model for this additional term in the momentum equation. The most successful dynamic model was a "mixed" model combining the Smagorinsky and Gradient models. This work is directly applicable to simulations of gas turbine engines (aeronautics) and rocket engines (astronautics).

  19. 76 FR 53909 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Tablet Scoring: Nomenclature, Labeling, and Data for Evaluation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ...subdivision for split tablets.\\1...Characteristics of Scored Tablets,'' Pharmacopeial Forum...functional scores on solid oral dosage form products to ensure the...both NDA and ANDA scored tablet products. To...

  20. 75 FR 81617 - Determination That TRANDATE (Labetalol Hydrochloride) Tablets, 300 Milligrams and 400 Milligrams...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ...That TRANDATE (Labetalol Hydrochloride) Tablets, 300 Milligrams and 400 Milligrams...that TRANDATE (labetalol hydrochloride) tablets, 300 milligrams (mg) and 400 mg, were...TRANDATE (labetalol hydrochloride) tablets, 300 mg and 400 mg, are the...

  1. 21 CFR 520.310 - Caramiphen ethanedisulfonate and ammonium chloride tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Caramiphen ethanedisulfonate and ammonium chloride tablets. 520.310 Section 520.310 Food and...Caramiphen ethanedisulfonate and ammonium chloride tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 10 milligrams of 5st caramiphen...

  2. 77 FR 2555 - Determination That PREZISTA (darunavir) Tablets, 300 Milligrams Was Not Withdrawn From Sale for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-18

    ...Determination That PREZISTA (darunavir) Tablets, 300 Milligrams Was Not Withdrawn From...determined that PREZISTA (darunavir) Tablets, 300 milligrams (mg), was not withdrawn...drug applications (ANDAs) for darunavir tablets, 300 mg, if all other legal and...

  3. 21 CFR 520.88g - Amoxicillin trihydrate and clavulanate potassium film-coated tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...trihydrate and clavulanate potassium film-coated tablets. 520.88g Section 520.88g Food and...trihydrate and clavulanate potassium film-coated tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains amoxicillin trihydrate and...

  4. 21 CFR 520.1805 - Piperazine phosphate with thenium closylate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Piperazine phosphate with thenium closylate tablets. 520.1805 Section 520.1805 Food...Piperazine phosphate with thenium closylate tablets. (a) Specifications. Each scored tablet contains the equivalent of 250...

  5. 78 FR 63228 - Determination That PARAFLEX (Chlorzoxazone) Tablets, 250 Milligrams, Was Not Withdrawn From Sale...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ...Determination That PARAFLEX (Chlorzoxazone) Tablets, 250 Milligrams, Was Not Withdrawn From...determined that PARAFLEX (Chlorzoxazone) Tablets, 250 milligrams (mg), was not withdrawn...ANDAs) for PARAFLEX (Chlorzoxazone) Tablets, 250 mg, if all other legal and...

  6. 77 FR 34063 - Certain Electronic Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Tablet Computers, and Components Thereof...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ...Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Tablet Computers, and Components Thereof Institution...devices, including mobile phones and tablet computers, and components thereof by...devices, including mobile phones and tablet computers, and components thereof...

  7. 76 FR 19997 - Determination That FENTORA (Fentanyl Citrate) Buccal Tablet, 300 Micrograms, Was Not Withdrawn...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-11

    ...That FENTORA (Fentanyl Citrate) Buccal Tablet, 300 Micrograms, Was Not Withdrawn From...that FENTORA (fentanyl citrate) buccal tablet, 300 micrograms (mcg), was not withdrawn...ANDAs) for fentanyl citrate buccal tablet, 300 mcg, if all other legal and...

  8. 21 CFR 520.310 - Caramiphen ethanedisulfonate and ammonium chloride tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Caramiphen ethanedisulfonate and ammonium chloride tablets. 520.310 Section 520.310 Food and...Caramiphen ethanedisulfonate and ammonium chloride tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 10 milligrams of 5st caramiphen...

  9. 76 FR 11488 - Determination That MEGACE (Megestrol Acetate) Tablets and Nine Other Drug Products Were Not...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ...Determination That MEGACE (Megestrol Acetate) Tablets and Nine Other Drug Products Were Not...amantadine hydrochloride (HCl)) Tablets and ANDA 84-935 for DEXEDRINE (dextroamphetamine sulfate) Tablets in the Federal Register of July...

  10. 75 FR 64310 - Determination That BUSPAR (Buspirone Hydrochloride) Tablets, 10 Milligrams, 15 Milligrams, and 30...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-19

    ...That BUSPAR (Buspirone Hydrochloride) Tablets, 10 Milligrams, 15 Milligrams, and...that BUSPAR (buspirone hydrochloride) Tablets, 10 milligrams (mg), 15 mg, and 30...drug. BUSPAR (buspirone hydrochloride) Tablets, 10 mg, 15 mg, and 30 mg, are...

  11. 77 FR 7583 - Determination That WILPO (phentermine hydrochloride) Tablets, 8 Milligrams, Was Not Withdrawn...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-13

    ...That WILPO (phentermine hydrochloride) Tablets, 8 Milligrams, Was Not Withdrawn From...that WILPO (phentermine hydrochloride) Tablets, 8 Milligrams (mg), was not withdrawn...ANDAs) for phentermine hydrochloride tablets, 8 mg, if all other legal and...

  12. 78 FR 47410 - Certain Wireless Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Tablets Institution of Investigation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-05

    ...Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Tablets Institution of Investigation AGENCY...devices, including mobile phones and tablets by reason of infringement of certain claims...devices, including mobile phones and tablets by reason of infringement of one or...

  13. 78 FR 69856 - Determination That BANZEL (Rufinamide) Tablet, 100 Milligrams, Was Not Withdrawn From Sale for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-21

    ...Determination That BANZEL (Rufinamide) Tablet, 100 Milligrams, Was Not Withdrawn From...determined that BANZEL (rufinamide) tablet, 100 milligrams (mg), was not withdrawn...applications (ANDAs) for rufinamide tablet, 100 mg, if all other legal and...

  14. 21 CFR 520.88g - Amoxicillin trihydrate and clavulanate potassium film-coated tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...trihydrate and clavulanate potassium film-coated tablets. 520.88g Section 520.88g Food and...trihydrate and clavulanate potassium film-coated tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains amoxicillin trihydrate and...

  15. 76 FR 44012 - Determination That NUVIGIL (Armodafinil) Tablets, 100 Milligrams and 200 Milligrams, Were Not...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ...Determination That NUVIGIL (Armodafinil) Tablets, 100 Milligrams and 200 Milligrams...determined that NUVIGIL (armodafinil) Tablets, 100 milligrams (mg) and 200 mg, were...applications (ANDAs) for armodafinil tablets, 100 mg and 200 mg, if all other...

  16. 75 FR 14444 - Determination That DIDREX (Benzphetamine Hydrochloride) Tablets, 25 Milligrams, Were Not...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-25

    ...DIDREX (Benzphetamine Hydrochloride) Tablets, 25 Milligrams, Were Not Withdrawn From...benzphetamine hydrochloride (HCl)) Tablets, 25 milligrams (mg), were not withdrawn...ANDAs) for benzphetamine HCl 25 mg tablets, if all other legal and regulatory...

  17. 78 FR 40484 - Determination That METADATE ER (Methylphenidate Hydrochloride) Extended-Release Tablet, 10...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-05

    ...Methylphenidate Hydrochloride) Extended-Release Tablet, 10 Milligrams, Was Not Withdrawn From...hydrochloride (HCl)) extended-release tablet, 10 milligrams (mg), was not withdrawn...methylphenidate HCl extended-release tablet, 10 mg, if all other legal and...

  18. 78 FR 40171 - Certain Wireless Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Tablets; Notice Of Receipt of Complaint...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-03

    ...Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Tablets; Notice Of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation...Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Tablets, DN 2964; the Commission is soliciting...devices, including mobile phones and tablets. The complaint names as respondents...

  19. 77 FR 27078 - Certain Electronic Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Tablet Computers, and Components Thereof...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-08

    ...Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Tablet Computers, and Components Thereof; Notice...Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Tablet Computers, and Components Thereof, DN...devices, including mobile phones and tablet computers, and components thereof....

  20. 77 FR 25720 - Determination That GRIFULVIN V (Griseofulvin Microcrystalline) Tablets, 250 Milligrams, Was Not...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-01

    ...GRIFULVIN V (Griseofulvin Microcrystalline) Tablets, 250 Milligrams, Was Not Withdrawn From...GRIFULVIN V (griseofulvin microcrystalline) tablets, 250 milligrams (mg), was not withdrawn...ANDAs) for griseofulvin microcrystalline tablets, 250 mg, if all other legal and...

  1. 77 FR 12309 - Determination That PHENURONE (Phenacemide) Tablet, 500 Milligrams, Was Not Withdrawn From Sale...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    ...Determination That PHENURONE (Phenacemide) Tablet, 500 Milligrams, Was Not Withdrawn From...determined that PHENURONE (phenacemide) Tablet, 500 milligrams (mg), was not withdrawn...applications (ANDAs) for phenacemide tablet, 500 mg, if all other legal and...

  2. Disintegration rate, gamma-ray emission probabilities and metastable half-life measurements of ??Ga.

    PubMed

    Dias, M S; Brancaccio, F; Toledo, F; Koskinas, M F

    2014-05-01

    The procedure for determining the (67)Ga disintegration rate by a primary method is described. The proposed triple 4??-? coincidence system consists of a thin window gas-flow 4? proportional counter (PC) coupled to a NaI(Tl) scintillator and a HPGe crystal. Independent pulse height and occurrence time information is provided for the three detector outputs by means of a Software Coincidence System. Separate spectrometry measurements with a n-type reversed electrode coaxial Ge detector (REGe) were performed for obtaining gamma-ray emission probabilities per decay. Accurate values of disintegration rate, gamma-ray emission probabilities and the metastable half-life were achieved. PMID:24290191

  3. Development of a mini-tablet of co-grinded prednisone-Neusilin complex for pediatric use.

    PubMed

    Lou, H; Liu, M; Wang, L; Mishra, S R; Qu, W; Johnson, J; Brunson, E; Almoazen, H

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to enhance the dissolution rate of prednisone by co-grinding with Neusilin to form a complex that can be incorporated into a mini-tablet formulation for pediatrics. Prednisone-Neusilin complex was co-grinded at various ratios (1:1, 1:3, 1:5, and 1:7). The physicochemical properties of the complex were characterized by various analytical techniques including: differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), particle size, surface area, solubility, and dissolution rate. The co-grinded prednisone-Neusilin complex (1:7) was blended with other excipients and was formulated into a 2-mm diameter mini-tablet. The mini-tablets were further evaluated for thickness, weight, content uniformity, and dissolution rate. To improve taste masking and stability, mini-tablets were coated by dip coating with Eudragit® EPO solution. DSC and XRPD results showed that prednisone was transformed from crystalline state into amorphous state after co-grinding with Neusilin. Particle size, surface area, and SEM results confirmed that prednisone was adsorbed to Neusilin's surface. Co-grinded prednisone-Neusilin complex (1:7) had a solubility of 0.24 mg/mL and 90% dissolved within 20 min as compared to crystalline prednisone which had a solubility of 0.117 mg/mL and 30% dissolved within 20 min. The mini-tablets containing co-grinded prednisone-Neusilin complex (1:7) exhibited acceptable physicochemical and mechanical properties including dissolution rate enhancement. These mini-tablets were successfully dip coated in Eudragit® EPO solution to mask the taste of the drug during swallowing. This work illustrates the potential use of co-grinded prednisone-Neusilin to enhance solubility and dissolution rate as well as incorporation into a mini-tablet formulation for pediatric use. PMID:23761262

  4. Chocolate tablet aspects of cytherean Meshkenet Tessera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raitala, J.

    1993-01-01

    Meshkenet Tessera structures were mapped from Magellan data and several resemblances to chocolate tablet boudinage were found. The complex fault sets display polyphase tectonic sequences of a few main deformation phases. Shear and tension have contributed to the areal deformation. Main faults cut the 1600-km long Meshkenet Tessera highland into bar-like blocks which have ridge and groove pattern oriented along or at high angles to the faults. The first approach to the surface block deformation is an assumption of initial parallel shear faulting followed by a chocolate tablet boudinage. Major faults which cut Meshkenet Tessera into rectangular blocks have been active repetitively while two progressive or superposed boudinage set formations have taken place at high angles during the relaxational or flattening type deformation of the area. Chocolate tablet boudinage is caused by a layer-parallel two-dimensional extension resulting in fracturing of the competent layer. Such structures, defined by two sets of boudin neck lines at right angles to each other, have been described by a number of authors. They develop in a flattening type of bulk deformation or during superposed deformation where the rock is elongated in two dimensions parallel to the surface. This is an attempt to describe and understand the formation and development of structures of Meshkenet Tessera which has complicated fault structures.

  5. The Clinical Assessment and Remote Administration Tablet

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Jessica A.; Lane, Susan R.; Bockholt, H. Jeremy; Calhoun, Vince D.

    2011-01-01

    Electronic data capture of case report forms, demographic, neuropsychiatric, or clinical assessments, can vary from scanning hand-written forms into databases to fully electronic systems. Web-based forms can be extremely useful for self-assessment; however, in the case of neuropsychiatric assessments, self-assessment is often not an option. The clinician often must be the person either summarizing or making their best judgment about the subject’s response in order to complete an assessment, and having the clinician turn away to type into a web browser may be disruptive to the flow of the interview. The Mind Research Network has developed a prototype for a software tool for the real-time acquisition and validation of clinical assessments in remote environments. We have developed the clinical assessment and remote administration tablet on a Microsoft Windows PC tablet system, which has been adapted to interact with various data models already in use in several large-scale databases of neuroimaging studies in clinical populations. The tablet has been used successfully to collect and administer clinical assessments in several large-scale studies, so that the correct clinical measures are integrated with the correct imaging and other data. It has proven to be incredibly valuable in confirming that data collection across multiple research groups is performed similarly, quickly, and with accountability for incomplete datasets. We present the overall architecture and an evaluation of its use. PMID:22207845

  6. Mapped Submarine Landforms in Pine Island Bay, West Antarctica, Indicate Past Ice Shelf Disintegration and Grounding line Retreat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakobsson, M.; Anderson, J. B.; Nitsche, F. O.; Dowdeswell, J. A.; Gyllencreutz, R.; Kirchner, N.; O'Regan, M. A.; Alley, R. B.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Mohammad, R.; Eriksson, B.; Fernandez-Vasquez, R. A.; Kirshner, A. E.; Minzoni, R. L.; Stolldorf, T. D.; Majewski, W.

    2010-12-01

    Swath bathymetry images from the inner part of Pine Island Bay reveal a well-organized subglacial drainage system carved into bedrock and the termination of a cross-shelf trough has been mapped on the outer shelf. The middle part of Pine Island Bay has, however, only been sparsely mapped due to persistent sea ice cover in the area. During the 2009/2010 austral summer the bay was virtually ice free, allowing detailed swath bathymetry mapping with the Swedish Icebreaker Oden covering 4,140 km2 of the middle part of the trough. When the ice sheet was grounded in Pine Island Trough (PIT), several common glacigenic landforms were produced including mega-scale glacial lineations (MSGL), indicating paleo-ice stream flow direction, and grounding line wedges marking the location where the ice stream's grounding line remained for a longer period. In addition, the multibeam data reveal two other landforms previously not described from this setting. The first of these are ridges oriented transverse the ice flow direction. They are on the order of 1-2 m from trough-to-peak and separated by about 60-200 m. They extend virtually across the entire width of PIT, but individual sets are separated by lineations that are spaced 50 to 500 m apart. The second feature comprises sediment mounds that terminate linear to curvilinear sets of ridges and furrows that are aligned parallel to the axis of the trough, similar to MSGL. These two feature sets are interpreted to indicate the disintegration of a former ice shelf in Pine Island Bay that extended from the paleo-ice stream in the PIT. The ridges mapped in PIT are referred to as “fishbone moraines” and the proposed formation model is that a former ice shelf in Pine Island Bay disintegrated, similarly as happened with Larsen A and B ice shelves, back to the grounding line where it breaks off, tilts landward and begins to drift seaward. With each tidal cycle the ice shelf remnant was lifted, moved seaward and then settling, squeezing sediment out to form a small ridge just behind the grounded edge of the ice shelf. The armada of icebergs from the disintegrated ice shelf moves seaward and ground in the outer trough, where they form sediment mounds, referred to as “plough moraines”. To test the fishbone moraine formation model, we examined the possible influence of spring/neap versus diurnal tides in regulating iceberg movement by comparing a tidal model with ridge spacing and height. Consistent with the tidal model, quasi-periodic fluctuations in ridge heights are observed, assuming fishbone ridges are formed daily, with higher ridges forming roughly every two weeks.

  7. Evaluating the toxicity of novel Zn-DTPA tablet formulation in dogs and rats.

    PubMed

    Shankar, Gita N; Potharaju, Suresh; Green, Carol E

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this research work is to evaluate toxicity of diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid zinc trisodium salt (Zn-DTPA) tablets, a novel oral solid dosage form containing permeation enhancers in beagle dogs and Sprague Dawley rats. (Zn-DTPA) in tablet dosage form was administered once daily for 7 days to beagle dogs at low (840?mg/dog/day), mid (2520?mg/dog/day), or high (7560?mg/dog/day). On day 8, all treated and control groups were necropsied. The novel Zn-DTPA tablet formulation showed rapid absorption with the T(max) at 1?h. Plasma concentrations as high as 270??g/mL were observed after 7 days of administration. Exposure to DTPA, based on area under the curve (AUC(last)) and maximum concentration (C(max)), was dose dependent but not dose proportional. No biologically relevant changes in hematology or clinical chemistry that were related to DTPA exposure were observed, and there were no changes in body weight in treated dogs compared with controls. Zn-DTPA was well tolerated, with minor toxicological effects of emesis and diarrhea, following oral tablet administration for 7 consecutive days. Based on the endpoints evaluated in this study, the maximum tolerated dose is considered to be greater than 7560?mg/dog/day (2535??mol/kg/day, 1325?mg/kg/day), and the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) is considered to be approximately 1325?mg/kg/day per oral when given to male and female beagle dogs. For rats, the NOAEL was estimated to be greater than 1000?mg/kg/day when administered by oral gavage of the crushed Zn-DTPA tablets as suspension once daily (qd) to male and female Sprague Dawley rats. PMID:24648048

  8. In-die ultrasonic and off-line air-coupled monitoring and characterization techniques for drug tablets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, J. D.; Kowalczyk, B. R.; Hancock, B. C.; Kaul, G.; Akseli, I.; Cetinkaya, C.

    2012-05-01

    Mechanical integrity and properties of drug tablets may adversely affect their therapeutic and structural functions. An embedded ultrasound monitoring system for tablet mechanical property monitoring during compaction and a non-contact/non-destructive off-line air-coupled technique for determining the mechanical properties of coated drug tablets are presented. In the compaction monitoring system, the change of ToF and the reflection coefficient for the upper-punch surface interface as a function of compaction pressure has been studied. In the air-coupled measurement approach, air-coupled excitation and laser interferometric detection are utilized and their effectiveness in characterizing the mechanical properties of a drug tablet by examining its vibrational resonance frequencies is demonstrated. An iterative computational procedure based on the finite element method and Newton's method is developed to extract the mechanical properties of the coated tablet from a subset of its measured resonance frequencies. The mechanical properties characterized by this technique are compared to those obtained by a contact ultrasonic method.

  9. Increased dissolution rate and oral bioavailability of hydrophobic drug glyburide tablets produced using supercritical CO? silica dispersion technology.

    PubMed

    Guan, Jibin; Han, Jihong; Zhang, Dong; Chu, Chunxia; Liu, Hongzhuo; Sun, Jin; He, Zhonggui; Zhang, Tianhong

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to design a silica-supported solid dispersion of a water-insoluble drug, glyburide, to increase its dissolution rate and oral absorption using supercritical fluid (SCF) technology. DSC and PXRD results indicated that the encapsulated drug in the optimal solid dispersion was in an amorphous state and the product was stable for 6 months. Glyburide was adsorbed onto the porous silica, as confirmed by the SEM images and BET analysis. Furthermore, FT-IR spectroscopy confirmed that there was no change in the chemical structure of glyburide after the application of SCF. The glyburide silica-based dispersion could also be compressed into tablet form. In vitro drug release analysis of the silica solid dispersion tablets demonstrated faster release of glyburide compared with the commercial micronized tablet. In an in vivo test, the AUC of the tablets composed of the new glyburide silica-based solid dispersion was 2.01 times greater than that of the commercial micronized glyburide tablets. In conclusion, SCF technology presents a promising approach to prepare silica-based solid dispersions of hydrophobic drugs because of its ability to increase their release and oral bioavailability. PMID:24184803

  10. Synthesis, microstructure and properties characterization of disintegrated melt deposited Mg\\/SiC composites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Gupta; M. O. Lai; D. Saravanaranganathan

    2000-01-01

    In the present study, elemental and silicon carbide reinforced magnesium materials were synthesized using an innovative disintegrated melt deposition method followed by hot extrusion. Microstructural characterization studies revealed the presence of minimal porosity and completely recrystallized matrix in all the unreinforced and reinforced samples. In the case of reinforced magnesium samples, a fairly uniform distribution of SiC particulates and good

  11. Disintegration of water molecules in a steam-plasma torch powered by microwaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhm, Han S.; Kim, Jong H.; Hong, Yong C.

    2007-07-01

    A pure steam torch is generated by making use of 2.45GHz microwave. Steam from a steam generator enters the discharge tube as a swirl gas at a temperature higher than 150°C. This steam becomes a working gas and produces a stable steam torch. The torch volume is almost linearly proportional to the microwave power. The temperature of the torch flame is measured by making use of optical spectroscopy and a thermocouple device. Two distinctive regions are exhibited, a bright, whitish region of a high-temperature zone and a reddish, dimmer region of a relatively low-temperature zone. The bright, whitish region is a typical torch based on plasma species and the reddish, dimmer region is hydrogen burning in oxygen. Study of water molecule disintegration and gas temperature effects on the molecular fraction characteristics in steam-plasma of a microwave plasma torch at the atmospheric pressure is carried out. An analytical investigation of water disintegration indicates that a substantial fraction of water molecules disintegrate and form other compounds at high temperatures in the steam-plasma torch. Emission profiles of the hydroxide radical and water molecules confirm the theoretical predictions of water disintegration in the torch.

  12. Disintegration of water molecules in a steam-plasma torch powered by microwaves

    SciTech Connect

    Uhm, Han S.; Kim, Jong H.; Hong, Yong C. [Department of Molecular Science and Technology, Ajou University, San 5 Wonchon-Dong, Youngtong-Gu, Suwon, 443-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-15

    A pure steam torch is generated by making use of 2.45 GHz microwave. Steam from a steam generator enters the discharge tube as a swirl gas at a temperature higher than 150 deg. C. This steam becomes a working gas and produces a stable steam torch. The torch volume is almost linearly proportional to the microwave power. The temperature of the torch flame is measured by making use of optical spectroscopy and a thermocouple device. Two distinctive regions are exhibited, a bright, whitish region of a high-temperature zone and a reddish, dimmer region of a relatively low-temperature zone. The bright, whitish region is a typical torch based on plasma species and the reddish, dimmer region is hydrogen burning in oxygen. Study of water molecule disintegration and gas temperature effects on the molecular fraction characteristics in steam-plasma of a microwave plasma torch at the atmospheric pressure is carried out. An analytical investigation of water disintegration indicates that a substantial fraction of water molecules disintegrate and form other compounds at high temperatures in the steam-plasma torch. Emission profiles of the hydroxide radical and water molecules confirm the theoretical predictions of water disintegration in the torch.

  13. American Journal of Botany 88(2): 348361. 2001. DISINTEGRATION OF THE SCROPHULARIACEAE1

    E-print Network

    Olmstead, Richard

    348 American Journal of Botany 88(2): 348­361. 2001. DISINTEGRATION OF THE SCROPHULARIACEAE1 AND PATRICK A. REEVES3 3 Department of Botany, Box 355325, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 78212 USA; and 7 Department of Botany and Microbiology, University of Oklahoma, 770 Van Vleet Oval

  14. Brief Report: Childhood Disintegrative Disorder--A Brief Examination of Eight Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homan, Kendra J.; Mellon, Michael W.; Houlihan, Daniel; Katusic, Maja Z.

    2011-01-01

    Childhood disintegrative disorder (CDD) is a rare condition characterized by distinct regression of developmental and behavioral functioning following a period of apparently normal development for at least 2 years. The purpose of this article is to present the developmental, behavioral, psychosocial, and medical histories of eight children who…

  15. Income Convergence during the Disintegration of the World Economy, 1919?39

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Branko Milanovic

    2003-01-01

    Some economists have argued that the process of disintegration of the world economy between the two world wars led to income divergence between the countries. This is in keeping with the view that economic integration leads to income convergence. The paper shows that the view that the period 1919?39 was associated with divergence of incomes among the rich countries is

  16. Effects of different sludge disintegration methods on sludge moisture distribution and dewatering performance.

    PubMed

    Jin, Lingyun; Zhang, Guangming; Zheng, Xiang

    2015-02-01

    A key step in sludge treatment is sludge dewatering. However, activated sludge is generally very difficult to be dewatered. Sludge dewatering performance is largely affected by the sludge moisture distribution. Sludge disintegration can destroy the sludge structure and cell wall, so as change the sludge floc structure and moisture distribution, thus affecting the dewatering performance of sludge. In this article, the disintegration methods were ultrasound treatment, K2FeO4 oxidation and KMnO4 oxidation. The degree of disintegration (DDCOD), sludge moisture distribution and the final water content of sludge cake after centrifuging were measured. Results showed that three disintegration methods were all effective, and K2FeO4 oxidation was more efficient than KMnO4 oxidation. The content of free water increased obviously with K2FeO4 and KMnO4 oxidations, while it decreased with ultrasound treatment. The changes of free water and interstitial water were in the opposite trend. The content of bounding water decreased with K2FeO4 oxidation, and increased slightly with KMnO4 oxidation, while it increased obviously with ultrasound treatment. The water content of sludge cake after centrifuging decreased with K2FeO4 oxidation, and did not changed with KMnO4 oxidation, but increased obviously with ultrasound treatment. In summary, ultrasound treatment deteriorated the sludge dewaterability, while K2FeO4 and KMnO4 oxidation improved the sludge dewaterability. PMID:25662234

  17. A Case Study of Childhood Disintegrative Disorder Using Systematic Analysis of Family Home Movies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palomo, Ruben; Thompson, Meagan; Colombi, Costanza; Cook, Ian; Goldring, Stacy; Young, Gregory S.; Ozonoff, Sally

    2008-01-01

    Childhood disintegrative disorder (CDD) is a rare pervasive developmental disorder that involves regression after a period of at least 2 years of typical development. This case study presents data from family home movies, coded by reliable raters using an objective coding system, to examine the trajectory of development in one child with a…

  18. Corticosteroid treatment of behaviour, language and motor regression in childhood disintegrative disorder.

    PubMed

    Mordekar, Santosh R; Prendergast, Michael; Chattopadhyay, Arup K; Baxter, Peter S

    2009-07-01

    Childhood disintegrative disorder (CDD) (ICD-10 F84.3) is defined by a period of normal development before onset followed by gradual loss of previously acquired skills with the development of characteristic abnormalities of social, communicative and behavioural functioning. We report two children with apparent CDD, who showed amelioration of behaviour, language and motor regression after corticosteroid treatment. PMID:18625572

  19. Two males with childhood disintegrative disorder: a prospective 14-year outcome study.

    PubMed

    Burd, L; Ivey, M; Barth, A; Kerbeshian, J

    1998-10-01

    A prospective 14-year outcome study of two children meeting DSM-IV criteria for childhood disintegrative disorder is presented. Their ages at first evaluation were 4 years 7 months and 6 years 3 months. Both are now adults and continue to have a severe pervasive developmental disorder, mental retardation, seizure disorder, and are non-verbal. Both require residential care. PMID:9851240

  20. Analysis of Behavioural Responding across Multiple Instructional Conditions for a Child with Childhood Disintegrative Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Stacy L.; Wheeler, John J.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of multiple instructional conditions on self-injury/aggression and on-task behaviours were assessed with a 9-year-old boy diagnosed with childhood disintegrative disorder. Behavioural responses were assessed as part of an educational evaluation to determine the occurrence of target behaviours in relation to varying degrees of…

  1. Anomalous Distribution of Nuclear Disintegration in Photographic Emulsions Exposed to Cosmic Rays: Double Stars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Leprince-Ringuet; J. Heidmann

    1948-01-01

    IN making systematic exploration of 640 cm.2 of Ilford plates of 100µ thickness exposed vertically to cosmic rays for three to six weeks at a height of 3,600 m., we have observed 2,250 nuclear disintegrations and have noticed an anomaly in their distribution.

  2. Psychiatrist Availability, Social Disintegration, and Suicide Deaths in U.S. Counties, 1990-1995

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kposowa, Augustine J.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have found that primary care resources are associated with various health outcomes. The primary purpose of the study was to test for associations between psychiatrist availability, social disintegration and suicide rates. Data utilized were from the 2002 Area Resource File on U.S. counties (N=3080). Suicide rates were averaged…

  3. Survey Research Adapting to a Population Increasingly Highly-Segmented, Socially-Disintegrated, and Heavily-

    E-print Network

    Wolfe, Patrick J.

    Survey Research Adapting to a Population Increasingly Highly-Segmented, Socially-Disintegrated, and Heavily- Tracked with Transaction Data: A Modest Proposal Robert Groves, U.S. Census Bureau Survey to increased costs of survey data collections. With fixed budgets, this has implied smaller respondent data

  4. Study on hydrodynamic cavitation disintegration for waste activated sludge The experimental investigation on the hydrodynamic cavitator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huang Yonggang; Zhu Tong; Hu Xiaomin

    2009-01-01

    It is very difficult and important to treat waste activated sludge. Above all, an effective process of sludge disintegration must be the key pretreatment, which will influence the effectiveness of the following treatment of waste activated sludge directly. A hydrodynamic cavitation system and two aerobic digestion reactor are made in the laboratory. The sludge from an MBR(membrane biologic reactor) which

  5. Paleontological Society Experimental Disintegration of Regular Echinoids: Roles of Temperature, Oxygen, and Decay

    E-print Network

    Boyce, C. Kevin

    Paleontological Society Experimental Disintegration of Regular Echinoids: Roles of Temperature. 16, No. 3 (Summer, 1990), pp. 247-271 Published by: Paleontological Society Stable URL: http@jstor.org. Paleontological Society is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to Paleobiology. http

  6. Development of a high-performance liquid chromatographic method for bioequivalence study of flavoxate tablets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ming-Thau Sheu; Geng-Cheng Yeh; Wen-Ting Ke; Hsiu-O Ho

    2001-01-01

    An improved HPLC method was developed for the concentration determination of the metabolite of flavoxate, 3-methyl-flavone-8-carboxylic acid (MFCA), in plasma in an attempt to compare two flavoxate tablet formulations. This HPLC method was validated by examining the precision and the accuracy for inter-day and intra-day runs in a linear concentration range of 0.1–24 ?g\\/ml. The coefficients of variation (C.V.) of

  7. An efficient multi-tier tablet server storage architecture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard P. Spillane; Pradeep J. Shetty; Erez Zadok; Sagar Dixit; Shrikar Archak

    2011-01-01

    Distributed, structured data stores such as Big Table, HBase, and Cassandra use a cluster of machines, each running a database-like software system called the Tablet Server Storage Layer or TSSL. A TSSL's performance on each node directly impacts the performance of the entire cluster. In this paper we introduce an efficient, scalable, multi-tier storage architecture for tablet servers. Our system

  8. Pore size distribution in tablets measured with a morphological sieve

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu San Wu; Lucas J. van Vliet; Henderik W. Frijlink; Kees van der Voort Maarschalk

    2007-01-01

    Porosity and pore structure are important characteristics of tablets, since they influence mechanical strength and many other properties. This paper proposes an alternative method for the characterization of pore structure based on image analysis of SEM micrographs. SEM images were made of sodium chloride tablets made with three different particle sizes. The pore size distribution in these images was determined

  9. The Practice of Splitting Tablets: Cost and Therapeutic Aspects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Bachynsky; Cheryl Wiens; Krystal Melnychuk

    2002-01-01

    Background: Tablet splitting is used in pharmacy practice to adjust the dose to be administered. It is also being advocated as a method of reducing prescription drug costs. Methods: The potential for using this practice as a cost-saving method was examined. The top 200 prescription products in Canada were evaluated for their potential for tablet splitting to reduce costs. The

  10. Tableau Economique: Teaching Economics with a Tablet Computer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Robert H., III

    2011-01-01

    The typical method of instruction in economics is chalk and talk. Economics courses often require writing equations and drawing graphs and charts, which are all best done in freehand. Unlike static PowerPoint presentations, tablet computers create dynamic nonlinear presentations. Wireless technology allows professors to write on their tablets and…

  11. Protecting Investments: Third-Party Warranty Coverage for Tablets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sands, Austin

    2012-01-01

    A year ago, only a handful of K-12 schools and universities had integrated tablets into their curricula. Today, not one week passes with out another iPad rollout announcement. The reasons that schools use tablets are as varied as the schools themselves. Hawaii Preparatory Academy uses iPads to encourage budding physicists, linguists, and…

  12. Commentary: Tablet PCs--Lightweights with a Teaching Punch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parslow, Graham R.

    2010-01-01

    Tablet (or slate) computers are a group of small portable computers that have two features in common, a touch screen and wireless connectivity to the web. At the 2010 Consumer Electronics show held in January in Las Vegas, this category of product caused the greatest interest ahead of the release of the Apple iPad (www.cesweb.org). The tablet PC…

  13. The Tablet PC for Faculty: A Pilot Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weitz, Rob R.; Wachsmuth, Bert; Mirliss, Danielle

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a pilot project with the purpose of evaluating the usefulness of tablet PCs for university professors. The focus is on the value of tablets primarily with respect to teaching and learning (and not for research or administrative work). Sixty-four professors, distributed across the various schools of a university, were provided…

  14. Tablet PC Technology for the Enhancement of Synchronous Distributed Education

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elliot Moore II; Tristan T. Utschig; Kevin A. Haas; Benjamin Klein; P. D. Yoder; Ying Zhang; Monson H. Hayes

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we describe how tablet PCs are being used at Georgia Tech Savannah (GTS) to improve student learning in a distributed classroom environment. The Tablet PC is an attractive technology for use in synchronous distributed learning environments because of its mobility, and its ability to not only serve as an effective note taking device but also as a

  15. Usability Evaluation of Eye Tracking on an Unmodified Common Tablet

    E-print Network

    Oleg, Komogortsev - Department of Computer Science, Texas State University

    devices such as cell phones and tablet PCs are potential candidates for the applica- tionUsability Evaluation of Eye Tracking on an Unmodified Common Tablet Abstract This paper describes the design, implementation, and usability evaluation of a neural network based eye tracking system

  16. POTENTIAL OF CARNUBA WAX IN AMELIORATING BRITTLE FRACTURE DURING TABLETING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    UHUMWANGHO MU; OKOR RS; ADOGAH JT

    Carnuba wax (as binder) forms hard tablets even at low compression load attributable to its high plasticity. The aim of the present study is to investigate its potential in ameliorating brittle fracture (i.e., lamination and capping) a problem often encountered during tableting. Granules of paracetamol (test drug) were made by triturating the drug powder with the melted wax or starch

  17. The Tablet PC classroom: Erasing borders, stimulating activity, enhancing communication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judy Sneller

    2007-01-01

    In fall 2006, South Dakota School of Mines & Technology launched a mandatory Tablet PC program for incoming students. As I prepared to teach my first all- tablet class, my reaction was mixed. Although the idea was exciting, facing a sea of computers on each student desk meant leaving my comfort zone and testing new classroom methods. Would this new

  18. Spelling Practice Intervention: A Comparison of Tablet PC and Picture Cards as Spelling Practice Methods for Students with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seok, Soonhwa; DaCosta, Boaventura; Yu, Byeong Min

    2015-01-01

    The present study compared a spelling practice intervention using a tablet personal computer (PC) and picture cards with three students diagnosed with developmental disabilities. An alternating-treatments design with a non-concurrent multiple-baseline across participants was used. The aims of the present study were: (a) to determine if…

  19. A Comparison of the Usage of Tablet PC, Lecture Capture, and Online Homework in an Introductory Chemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revell, Kevin D.

    2014-01-01

    Three emerging technologies were used in a large introductory chemistry class: a tablet PC, a lecture capture and replay software program, and an online homework program. At the end of the semester, student usage of the lecture replay and online homework systems was compared to course performance as measured by course grade and by a standardized…

  20. Tableting process optimisation with the application of fuzzy models.

    PubMed

    Belic, Ales; Skrjanc, Igor; Bozic, Damjana Zupancic; Vrecer, Franc

    2010-04-15

    A quality-by-design (QbD) principle, including process analytical technology, is becoming the principal idea in drug development and manufacturing. The implementation of QbD into product development and manufacturing requires larger resources, both human and financial, however, large-scale production can be established in a more cost-effective manner and with improved product quality. The objective of the present work was to study the influence of particle size distribution in powder mixture for tableting, and the settings of the compression parameters on the tablet quality described by the capping coefficient, standard deviations of mass and crushing strength of compressed tablets. Fuzzy models were used for modelling of the effects of the particle size distribution and the tableting machine settings on the tablet quality. The results showed that the application of mathematical models, based on the contemporary routinely measured quantities, can significantly improve the trial-and-error procedures. PMID:20096760