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Sample records for disintegrating tablets compared

  1. Determination of the in vitro disintegration profile of rapidly disintegrating tablets and correlation with oral disintegration.

    PubMed

    Abdelbary, G; Eouani, C; Prinderre, P; Joachim, J; Reynier, Jp; Piccerelle, Ph

    2005-03-23

    The assessment of the in vitro disintegration profile of rapidly disintegrating tablets (RDT) is very important in the evaluation and the development of new formulations of this type. So far neither the US Pharmacopoeia nor the European Pharmacopoeia has defined a specific disintegration test for RDT; currently, it is only possible to refer to the tests on dispersible or effervescent tablets for the evaluation of RDT's disintegration capacity. In the present study, we have evaluated the disintegration profile of RDT manufactured by main commercialised technologies, using the texture analyser (TA). In order to simulate as much as possible the oral disintegration of these dosage forms, a new operating structure was developed. This structure mimics the situation in the patient's mouth and provides a gradual elimination of the detached particles during the disintegration process. The obtained time-distance profiles or disintegration profiles enabled the calculation of certain quantitative values as the disintegration onset (t1) and the total disintegration time (t2). These values were used in the characterisation of the effect of test variables as the disintegration medium and temperature on the disintegration time of RDT. Moreover, the oral disintegration time of the same products was evaluated by 14 healthy volunteers. Results obtained when artificial saliva at 37 degrees C was employed as disintegration medium were used to correlate the in vitro (t2) and oral disintegration times. Excellent correlation was found and in addition, we were able to achieve a qualitative measure of the mouthfeel by comparing the thickness of the tablets and the penetration distance obtained from the disintegration profile. This method also permitted the discrimination between different RDT, where differences in the disintegration mechanism were reflected on the disintegration profile achieved for each tablet. PMID:15725551

  2. Formulation design of fast disintegrating tablets using disintegrant blends.

    PubMed

    Shirsand, S B; Suresh, Sarasija; Swamy, P V; Para, M S; Nagendra Kumar, D

    2010-01-01

    In the present work, fast disintegrating tablets of prochlorperazine maleate were designed with a view to enhance patient compliance by direct compression method. In this method, crospovidone (up to 3% w/w) and croscarmellose sodium (up to 5% w/w) in combination were used as superdisintegrants. Since disintegrants complement each other, accelerating the disintegration process when used together. Estimation of prochlorperazine maleate in the prepared tablet formulations was carried out by extracting the drug with methanol and measuring the absorbance at 254.5nm. The prepared formulations were further evaluated for hardness, friability, drug content uniformity, in vitro dispersion time, wetting time and water absorption ratio. Based on in vitro dispersion time (approximately 12 s), one promising formulation was tested for in vitro drug release pattern in phosphate buffer pH 6.8 and short-term stability (at 40 degrees /70% RH for 3 mo), drug-excipient interaction (IR spectroscopy) were studied. Among the formulations tested, formulation DCPC(4) containing 5% w/w of croscarmellose sodium and 3% w/w of crospovidone as superdisintegrant emerged as the overall best (t(50%) 7.0 min) based on drug release characteristics in pH 6.8 phosphate buffer compared to commercial conventional tablet formulation (t(50%) 17.4 min). Short-term stability studies on the promising formulation indicated that there were no significant changes in drug content and in vitro dispersion time (p<0.05). PMID:20582206

  3. Effect of a Disintegration Mechanism on Wetting, Water Absorption, and Disintegration Time of Orodispersible Tablets

    PubMed Central

    Pabari, RM; Ramtoola, Z

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of disintegration mechanism of various types of disintegrants on the absorption ratio (AR), wetting time (WT), and disintegration time (DT) of orodispersible tablets (ODTs). ODTs were prepared by direct compression using mannitol as filler and disintegrants selected from a range of swellable, osmotic, and porous disintegrants. Tablets formed were characterized for their water AR, WT, and DT. The porosity and mechanical strength of the tablets were also measured. Results show that the DT of formulated ODTs was directly related to the WT and was a function of the disintegration mechanism of the disintegrant used. The lowest WT and DT were observed for tablets formulated using the osmotic disintegrant sodium citrate and these tablets also showed the lowest AR and porosity. The wetting and disintegration of tablets containing the highly swellable disintegrant, sodium starch glycollate, was slowest despite their high water AR and high tablet porosity. Rapid wetting and disintegration of ODTs were therefore not necessarily related to the porosity of the tablets. PMID:23112534

  4. Functionality of disintegrants and their mixtures in enabling fast disintegration of tablets by a quality by design approach.

    PubMed

    Desai, Parind Mahendrakumar; Er, Patrick Xuan Hua; Liew, Celine Valeria; Heng, Paul Wan Sia

    2014-10-01

    Investigation of the effect of disintegrants on the disintegration time and hardness of rapidly disintegrating tablets (RDTs) was carried out using a quality by design (QbD) paradigm. Ascorbic acid, aspirin, and ibuprofen, which have different water solubilities, were chosen as the drug models. Disintegration time and hardness of RDTs were determined and modeled by executing combined optimal design. The generated models were validated and used for further analysis. Sodium starch glycolate, croscarmellose sodium, and crospovidone were found to lengthen disintegration time when utilized at high concentrations. Sodium starch glycolate and crospovidone worked synergistically in aspirin RDTs to decrease disintegration time. Sodium starch glycolate-crospovidone mixtures, as well as croscarmellose sodium-crospovidone mixtures, also decreased disintegration time in ibuprofen RDTs at high compression pressures as compared to the disintegrants used alone. The use of sodium starch glycolate in RDTs with highly water soluble active ingredients like ascorbic acid slowed disintegration, while microcrystalline cellulose and crospovidone drew water into the tablet rapidly and quickened disintegration. Graphical optimization analysis demonstrated that the RDTs with desired disintegration times and hardness can be formulated with a larger area of design space by combining disintegrants at difference compression pressures. QbD was an efficient and effective paradigm in understanding formulation and process parameters and building quality in to RDT formulated systems. PMID:24848762

  5. Design and evaluation of microwave-treated orally disintegrating tablets containing polymeric disintegrant and mannitol.

    PubMed

    Sano, Syusuke; Iwao, Yasunori; Noguchi, Shuji; Kimura, Susumu; Itai, Shigeru

    2013-05-01

    Microwave (MW) treatment was used to develop a formulation process for the preparation of wet molded orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) consisting of mannitol and polymeric disintegrant with improved hardness and disintegration properties. The wet molded tablets were prepared in accordance with the conventional methods and subsequently heated by MW irradiation to induce the swelling of the tablet. Croscarmellose sodium, crospovidone, and low-substituted hydroxypropylcellulose (L-HPC) were evaluated for their use with this technology. NBD-020, which is a grade of L-HPC, provided the better hardness and disintegration results. In addition, the crystalline forms of mannitol impacted on hardness and disintegration properties of the ODT upon MW irradiation. The effects of the disintegrant ratio, ? and ? crystalline mannitol ratio, amount of water, and compression force on the ODT properties were evaluated using the design of experiment method. MW-induced swelling was enhanced by an increase in the disintegrant ratio. Although the hardness of the tablet increased following MW treatment, the disintegration time became less than that of the MW-untreated tablets as the ?-mannitol ratios increased. Taken together, the results indicated that the polymeric disintegrant greatly improved the properties of the molded tablets in combination with MW treatment. PMID:23524122

  6. Fast disintegrating tablets: Opportunity in drug delivery system

    PubMed Central

    Parkash, Ved; Maan, Saurabh; Deepika; Yadav, Shiv Kumar; Hemlata; Jogpal, Vikas

    2011-01-01

    Fast disintegrating tablets (FDTs) have received ever-increasing demand during the last decade, and the field has become a rapidly growing area in the pharmaceutical industry. Oral drug delivery remains the preferred route for administration of various drugs. Recent developments in the technology have prompted scientists to develop FDTs with improved patient compliance and convenience. Upon introduction into the mouth, these tablets dissolve or disintegrate in the mouth in the absence of additional water for easy administration of active pharmaceutical ingredients. The popularity and usefulness of the formulation resulted in development of several FDT technologies. FDTs are solid unit dosage forms, which disintegrate or dissolve rapidly in the mouth without chewing and water. FDTs or orally disintegrating tablets provide an advantage particularly for pediatric and geriatric populations who have difficulty in swallowing conventional tablets and capsules. This review describes various formulations and technologies developed to achieve fast dissolution/dispersion of tablets in the oral cavity. In particular, this review describes in detail FDT technologies based on lyophilization, molding, sublimation, and compaction, as well as approaches to enhancing the FDT properties, such as spray drying and use of disintegrants. In addition, taste-masking technologies, experimental measurements of disintegration times, and dissolution are also discussed. PMID:22247889

  7. Disintegrants combination: development and optimization of a cefadroxil fast disintegrating tablet.

    PubMed

    Rahim, Najia; Naqvi, Syed Baqir-Shyum; Bibi, Rehana; Iffat, Wajiha; Shakeel, Sadia; Muhammad, Iyad Naeem

    2014-09-01

    Fast Disintegrating Tablets (FDTs) is a rapidly growing dosage form preferred for special population (pediatric, geriatric and psychotic patients). It is also developed with the aim of improving bioavailability and patient compliance. During the present study, cefadroxil fast disintegrating tablets formulations (n=9) were designed and optimized by central composite design with two independent variables (croscarmellose and crospovidone) using design expert® software. The effects of independent variables on formulation properties such as friability, hardness, in vitro dispersion and disintegration were assessed by drawing response surface graphs with design expert® software. Tablets were assessed for pharmacopeial and non-pharmacopeial parameters to ensure the quality of compressed tablets. Among all formulations, F3, F8 and F9 have shown better results. The formulation F9 containing 15mg croscarmellose and 33.075mg crospovidone showed good pharmacotechnical attributes as well as shelf life. F 9 showed improved dissolution with t90% of> 2 min and will lead to better bioavailability. PMID:25176230

  8. Investigation of Formulation and Process of Lyophilised Orally Disintegrating Tablet (ODT) Using Novel Amino Acid Combination

    PubMed Central

    AlHusban, Farhan; ElShaer, Amr M.; Kansara, Jiteen H.; Smith, Alan M.; Grover, Liam M.; Perrie, Yvonne; Mohammed, Afzal R.

    2010-01-01

    Lyophilised orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) have achieved a great success in overcoming dysphagia associated with conventional solid dosage forms. However, the extensive use of saccharides within the formulation limits their use in treatment of chronic illnesses. The current study demonstrates the feasibility of using combination of proline and serine to formulate zero sacharide ODTs and investigates the effect of freezing protocol on sublimation rate and tablets characteristics. The results showed that inclusion of proline and serine improved ODT properties when compared to individual counterparts. Additionally, annealing the ODTs facilitated the sublimation process and shortened the disintegration time.

  9. Tablet disintegration studied by high-resolution real-time magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Quodbach, Julian; Moussavi, Amir; Tammer, Roland; Frahm, Jens; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The present work employs recent advances in high-resolution real-time magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to investigate the disintegration process of tablets containing disintegrants. A temporal resolution of 75 ms and a spatial resolution of 80 × 80 µm with a section thickness of only 600 µm were achieved. The histograms of MRI videos were quantitatively analyzed with MATLAB. The mechanisms of action of six commercially available disintegrants, the influence of relative tablet density, and the impact of disintegrant concentration were examined. Crospovidone seems to be the only disintegrant acting by a shape memory effect, whereas the others mainly swell. A higher relative density of tablets containing croscarmellose sodium leads to a more even distribution of water within the tablet matrix but hardly impacts the disintegration kinetics. Increasing the polacrilin potassium disintegrant concentration leads to a quicker and more thorough disintegration process. Real-time MRI emerges as valuable tool to visualize and investigate the process of tablet disintegration. PMID:24475490

  10. Fabrication and optimization of fast disintegrating tablets employing interpolymeric chitosan-alginate complex and chitin as novel superdisintegrants.

    PubMed

    Goel, Honey; Tiwary, Ashok K; Rana, Vikas

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to optimize the formulation of fast disintegrating tablets (FDTs) of ondansetron HCl containing novel superdisintegrants, possessing sufficient mechanical strength and disintegration time comparable to those containing crospovidone or croscarmellose sodium. The FDTs were formulated using a novel superdisintegrant (chitosan-alginate (1:1) interpolymer complex and chitin) to achieve a sweet tasting disintegrating system. The results revealed that chitin (5-20%) increased the porosity and decreased the DT of tablets. At higher concentrations chitin maintained tablet porosity even at 5.5 kg crushing strength. Ondansetron HCl was found to antagonize the wicking action of glycine. Further, evaluation of the mechanism of disintegration revealed that glycine transported the aqueous medium to different parts of the tablets while the chitosan-alginate complex swelled up due to transfer of moisture from glycine. This phenomenon resulted in breakage of the tablet within seconds. For preparing optimized FDTs, the reduced model equations generated from Box-Behnken design (BBD) were solved after substituting the known disintegration time of FDTs containing superdisintegrants in the reduced model equations. The results suggested that excipient system under investigation not only improved the disintegration time but also made it possible to prepare FDTs with higher crushing strength as compared to tablets containing known superdisintegrants. PMID:21796940

  11. Formulation and evaluation of taste-masked levocetirizine dihydrochloride orally disintegrating tablets.

    PubMed

    Devireddy, Srinivas Reddy; Gonugunta, Chandra Sekhara Rao; Veerareddy, Prabhakar Reddy

    2009-01-01

    Orally disintegrating tablets of levocetirizine dihydrochloride were formulated with different superdisintegrants (sodium starch glycollate, croscarmellose sodium, and crospovidone) using mannitol as a diluent. Tulsion-335, Indion-204, and poly kyron T-134 cation exchange resins were used as taste-masking agents. The drug and resin complex was prepared by the kneading method. Ten formulations were prepared with varying combinations of superdisintegrants and ion-exchange resins by the wet granulation technique, using polyvinylpyrrolidone K-30 as the binder. The prepared tablets were evaluated for degree of taste masking, weight variation, hardness, friability, in vitro and in vivo disintegration time, content uniformity, and water absorption ratio. Dissolution studies were performed in two dissolution media: 0.1N HCl and distilled water. The corresponding dissolution rates were compared with the marketed formulation. Differential scanning calorimetry studies were carried out on the drug-resin complexes. Prepared tablets were good in appearance and showed acceptable results for hardness and friability. In vitro and in vivo disintegration times for the optimum formulation (F-1) were found to be 22 and 55 s, respectively. Relatively acceptable taste was achieved with both Indion-204 and Tulsion-335. Rapid disintegration time was achieved in tablets containing crosspovidone as the superdisintegrant. Dissolution studies indicated the formation of the complex of drug and resin. Differential scanning calorimetry studies indicated the formation of drug-resin complex. PMID:20169858

  12. Development and evaluation of orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) containing Ibuprofen granules prepared by hot melt extrusion.

    PubMed

    Gryczke, Andreas; Schminke, Silke; Maniruzzaman, Mohammed; Beck, Julien; Douroumis, Dennis

    2011-09-01

    In the current study Ibuprofen was embedded in a methacrylate copolymer (Eudragit® EPO) matrix to produce solid dispersions by hot-melt extrusion (HME) processing. The obtained granules were incorporated in orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs). The tablets were developed by varying the ratio of superdisintegrants such as sodium croscarmellose and crosslinked polyvinylpyrrolidone grades while a direct compression process was used to compress the ODTs under various compaction forces to optimize tablet robustness. The properties of the compressed tablets which included porosity, hardness, friability and dissolution profiles were further evaluated and compared with Nurofen® Meltlet ODTs. The taste and sensory evaluation in human volunteers demonstrated excellence in masking the bitter active and improved tablet palatability. PMID:21592751

  13. [Preparation of orally disintegrating tablets for masking of unpleasant taste: comparison with corrective-adding methods].

    PubMed

    Kawano, Yayoi; Ito, Akihiko; Sasatsu, Masanaho; Machida, Yoshiharu

    2010-01-01

    Many orally disintegrating tablets have recently been developed to improve oral ingestion and usability and are widely administered clinically, resulting in improved quality of life for patients. Since orally disintegrating tablets rapidly disintegrate in the mouth, the masking of unpleasant taste is important. We investigated the masking of the taste of furosemide (FU) as a model drug with correctives and prepared orally disintegrating tablets. Using maltitol (MA) as a corrective, granules were prepared employing mixing, coating, and mixing/coating methods using a desktop granulator. Each preparation was subjected to tasting. The taste was masked well when granules were prepared by the mixing and mixing/coating methods. Tablets were prepared from these granules with mannitol and crystalline cellulose added as fillers. Tablets made from granules prepared by the mixing and mixing/coating methods showed appropriate strength and disintegrated rapidly. When the amount of MA was increased in the mixing method, the disintegration time was prolonged, and thus the amount should be determined considering both taste masking and disintegration property. The results showed that orally disintegrating tablets of insoluble drugs with an unpleasant taste such as FU should be prepared with the taste masked employing the methods used in this study. PMID:20046069

  14. Response surface methodology to optimize novel fast disintegrating tablets using ? cyclodextrin as diluent.

    PubMed

    Late, Sameer G; Banga, Ajay K

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this work was to apply response surface approach to investigate main and interaction effects of formulation parameters in optimizing novel fast disintegrating tablet formulation using ? cyclodextrin as a diluent. The variables studied were diluent (? cyclodextrin, X (1)), superdisintegrant (Croscarmellose sodium, X (2)), and direct compression aid (Spray dried lactose, X (3)). Tablets were prepared by direct compression method on B2 rotary tablet press using flat plain-face punches and characterized for weight variation, thickness, disintegration time (Y (1)), and hardness (Y (2)). Disintegration time was strongly affected by quadratic terms of ? cyclodextrin, croscarmellose sodium, and spray-dried lactose. The positive value of regression coefficient for ? cyclodextrin suggested that hardness increased with increased amount of ? cyclodextrin. In general, disintegration of tablets has been reported to slow down with increase in hardness. However in the present study, higher concentration of ? cyclodextrin was found to improve tablet hardness without increasing the disintegration time. Thus, ? cyclodextrin is proposed as a suitable diluent to achieve fast disintegrating tablets with sufficient hardness. Good correlation between the predicted values and experimental data of the optimized formulation validated prognostic ability of response surface methodology in optimizing fast disintegrating tablets using ? cyclodextrin as a diluent. PMID:21086083

  15. A novel approach to optimize and formulate fast disintegrating tablets for nausea and vomiting.

    PubMed

    Goel, Honey; Vora, Nishant; Rana, Vikas

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to optimize and formulate fast disintegrating tablets (FDTs) for nausea and vomiting using aminoacetic acid, carmellose and sodium alginate with enough mechanical strength. Ondansetron HCl (water soluble) or domperidone (water insoluble) drug were added to FDTs and their disintegration behaviour was evaluated. Plackett Burman Screening Design was used to screen the independent active process variables [concentration of aminoacetic acid (X (1)), concentration of carmellose (X (2)) and tablet crushing strength (X (3))] which were found to actively influence the dependent variables [disintegration time in the mouth (DT), wetting time (WT), and water absorption ratio (WAR)] for both the drugs. Also, the coefficients of active variables (DT, WT and WAR) of FDTs containing domperidone was found to be significantly different (P < 0.05) from the coefficients of active factors (X (1), X (2) and X (3)) containing ondansetron HCl FDTs. Further, FDTs containing domperidone was prepared according to central composite design for estimating the effect of active factors (X (1), X (2), X (3)) in extended spherical domain. The regression analysis of quadratic fit revealed that DT, WT and WAR were 98% correlated with active factors (X (1), X (2) or X (3)). The optimized domperidone FDTs were further compared with superdisintegrants (croscarmellose sodium or crospovidone). The data revealed that optimized domperidone FDTs were better than domperidone FDTs containing croscarmellose or crospovidone. Hence, this novel excipients combination can be used for delivery of water insoluble drugs in place of superdisintegrants. PMID:18584333

  16. Oral Disintegration Tablets of Stavudine for HIV Management: A New Technological Approach

    PubMed Central

    Sankar, V.; Ramakrishna, B.; Devi, P. Shalini; Karthik, S.

    2012-01-01

    Stavudine oral disintegration tablets were formulated to minimize the bitter taste and to reduce the first-pass hepatic metabolism. The various precompression parameters like the angle of repose, bulk density, compressibility index and Hausner's ratio were determined for the powder blend. In this study, 14 formulations of stavudine oral disintegration tablet were prepared by direct compression method. The tablets were evaluated for weight variation, percentage friability, disintegration time, hardness, wetting time and water absorption ratio. The in vitro dissolution study results of the batch S1 (stavudine+crospovidone+sodium starch glycollate) are encouraging as highest dissolution rate (99.2% in 100 min) and lowest time of disintegration (56 s) was achieved. The in vivo drug release studies were carried out in rabbits and the relative bioavailability of formulation S1 was found to be 2.83 times greater than that of conventional tablets. PMID:23798782

  17. Design of fast disintegrating tablets of prochlorperazine maleate by effervescence method.

    PubMed

    Shirsand, S B; Suresh, Sarasija; Para, M S; Swamy, P V

    2009-07-01

    In the present work, fast disintegrating tablets of prochlorperazine maleate were designed with a view to enhance patient compliance by effervescent method. In this method, mixtures of sodium bicarbonate and anhydrous citric acid in different ratios along with crospovidone (2-10% w/w), croscarmellose sodium (2-10% w/w) were used as superdisintegrants. Estimation of prochlorperazine maleate in the prepared tablet formulations was carried out by extracting the drug with methanol and measuring the absorbance at 254.5 nm. The prepared formulations were further evaluated for hardness, friability, drug content uniformity and in vitro dispersion time. Based on in vitro dispersion time (approximately 13-21 s), two promising formulations (one from each super-disintegrant) were tested for in vitro drug release pattern in pH 6.8 phosphate buffer, short-term stability (at 40 degrees /75% relative humidity for 3 mo) and drug-excipient interaction (IR spectroscopy). Among the two promising formulations, the formulation containing 10% w/w of crospovidone and mixture of 20% w/w sodium bicarbonate and 15% w/w of citric acid emerged as the overall best formulation (t(50%) 6 min) based on drug release characteristics in pH 6.8 phosphate buffer compared to commercial conventional tablet formulation (t(50%) 17.4 min). Short-term stability studies on the promising formulations indicated that there are no significant changes in drug content and in vitro dispersion time (p<0.05). PMID:20502555

  18. Fast disintegrating crystalline solid dispersions of simvastatin for incorporation into orodispersible tablets

    PubMed Central

    Pabari, Ritesh M; Jamil, Asha; Kelly, John G; Ramtoola, Zebunnissa

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Spray dried solid dispersion (SDP) of crystalline simvastatin (SIM) in a fast disintegrating matrix of superdisintegrants was studied as a method to enhance SIM dispersibility, rheology, compactibility and compressibility for incorporation into orodispersible tablets (ODTs). Materials and Methods: The superdisintegrants investigated were crospovidone (CP), sodium starch glycollate (SSG) and calcium silicate (CS) were spray dried with simvastatin to form SDPs. Results: The SDPs were characterized and the median particle size of SDPs was similar or greater than the SIM, contributing to good rheology of SDPs, while the low bulk density of SDPs indicated a high compactibility. Interestingly electron micrographs for SDPs showed a CP or CS carrier coating of the SIM crystals, contributing to its rheology. Thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction confirmed that SIM was crystalline in the SDPs and no interaction between SIM and any of the carrier(s) was shown by Fourier transform-infra red. Drug content analysis showed a SIM content of 90-95% in SDPs containing CP or CS, while a higher SIM content of 143% was found in SDP containing SSG. When formulated as ODTs, blend containing SIM SDPs in CP showed ease of tableting, regardless of the turret speed. In comparison, tablet blend consisting of a physical mix (PM) of SIM and CP could only be tableted at the lower turret speed of 7 rpm. ODTs formulated using SIM SDPs in CP showed a higher extent of dissolution, compared to the ODTs containing corresponding PM or the commercially available SIM Zocor® tablets (ANOVA, P < 0.05). Conclusion: SDP using disintegrants as carriers may offer an alternative formulation approach for ODTs of poorly soluble drugs. PMID:25006549

  19. Development and evaluation of cetirizine HCl taste-masked oral disintegrating tablets.

    PubMed

    Douroumis, Dionysios Dennis; Gryczke, Andreas; Schminke, Silke

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of the current study was to mask the taste of cetirizine HCl and to incorporate the granules produced in oral disintegrating tablets (ODT). The bitter, active substance was coated by fluidized bed coating using Eudragit® RL30-D at levels between 15% and 40% w/w. The ODTs were developed by varying the ratio of superdisintegrants such as sodium croscarmellose, crospovidone grades and low substituted hydroxypropyl cellulose (L-HPC). A direct compression process was used to compress the ODTs under various compaction forces to optimize tablet robustness. The properties of the compressed tablets including porosity, hardness, friability and dissolution profiles were further investigated. The in vitro and in vivo evaluation of the tablet disintegration times showed almost identical rapid disintegration below 10 s at the optimal levels of each superdisintegrant. Finally, the taste and sensory evaluation in human volunteers demonstrated excellence in masking the bitter active and tablet palatability. PMID:21181510

  20. Orally fast disintegrating tablets: developments, technologies, taste-masking and clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yourong; Yang, Shicheng; Jeong, Seong Hoon; Kimura, Susumu; Park, Kinam

    2004-01-01

    Fast disintegrating tablets (FDTs) have received ever-increasing demand during the last decade, and the field has become a rapidly growing area in the pharmaceutical industry. Upon introduction into the mouth, these tablets dissolve or disintegrate in the mouth in the absence of additional water for easy administration of active pharmaceutical ingredients. The popularity and usefulness of the formulation resulted in development of several FDT technologies. This review describes various formulations and technologies developed to achieve fast dissolution/dispersion of tablets in the oral cavity. In particular, this review describes in detail FDT technologies based on lyophilization, molding, sublimation, and compaction, as well as approaches to enhancing the FDT properties, such as spray-drying, moisture treatment, sintering, and use of sugar-based disintegrants. In addition, taste-masking technologies, experimental measurements of disintegration times, and clinical studies are also discussed. PMID:15658933

  1. A new apparatus for real-time assessment of the particle size distribution of disintegrating tablets.

    PubMed

    Quodbach, Julian; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study is the introduction of a novel apparatus that is capable of continuously measuring the particle size reduction of disintegrating tablets and analysis of the obtained results. The apparatus is constructed such that no particles pass directly through the pumping system. Thereby, the overall energy input into the particle suspension is reduced, and continuous measurement is possible without rapid destruction of the generated particles. The detected particle sizes at the beginning and at the end of the measurement differ greatly, depending on the applied disintegrant. The median particle sizes at the end of the measurement vary between 621.5 and 178.0 ?m for different disintegrants. It is demonstrated that the particle size reduction follows an exponential function and that the fit parameters can be used to describe the disintegration behavior. A strong correlation between the median particle size of crospovidone disintegrants and generated particle size of the tablets is observed. This could be due to a more homogeneous distribution of the disintegrant particles in the tablets. Similar trends are observed for sodium starch glycolate and croscarmellose sodium. The new apparatus provides an innovative method to describe disintegrant effectiveness and efficiency. PMID:25223505

  2. Risperidone oral disintegrating mini-tablets: A robust-product for pediatrics.

    PubMed

    El-Say, Khalid M; Ahmed, Tarek A; Abdelbary, Maged F; Ali, Bahaa E; Aljaeid, Bader M; Zidan, Ahmed S

    2015-12-01

    This study was aimed at developing risperidone oral disintegrating mini-tablets (OD-mini-tablets) as age-appropriate formulations and to assess their suitability for infants and pediatric use. An experimental Box-Behnken design was applied to assure high quality of the OD-mini-tablets and reduce product variability. The design was employed to understand the influence of the critical excipient combinations on the production of OD-mini-tablets and thus guarantee the feasibility of obtaining products with dosage form uniformity. The variables selected were mannitol percent in Avicel (X1), swelling pressure of the superdisintegrant (X2), and the surface area of Aerosil as a glidant (X3). Risperidone-excipient compatibilities were investigated using FTIR and the spectra did not display any interaction. Fifteen formulations were prepared and evaluated for preand post-compression characteristics. The prepared ODmini- tablet batches were also assessed for disintegration in simulated salivary fluid (SSF, pH 6.2) and in reconstituted skimmed milk. The optimized formula fulfilled the requirements for crushing strength of 5 kN with minimal friability, disintegration times of 8.4 and 53.7 s in SSF and skimmed milk, respectively. This study therefore proposes the risperidone OD-mini-tablet formula having robust mechanical properties, uniform and precise dosing of medication with short disintegration time suitable for pediatric use. PMID:26677895

  3. Effects of plantain and corn starches on the mechanical and disintegration properties of paracetamol tablets.

    PubMed

    Akin-Ajani, Olufunke D; Itiola, Oludele A; Odeku, Oluwatoyin A

    2005-01-01

    The effects of plantain starch obtained from the unripe fruit of the plant Musa paradisiaca L. (Musaceae) on the mechanical and disintegration properties of paracetamol tablets have been investigated in comparison with the effects of corn starch BP using a 2(3) factorial experimental design. The individual and combined effects of nature of starch binder (N), concentration of starch binder (C), and the relative density of tablet (RD) on the tensile strength (TS), brittle fracture index (BFI), and disintegration time (DT) of the tablets were investigated. The ranking of the individual effects on TS was RD > C > N, on BFI was C > RD > N and on DT was N > C > RD. The ranking for the interaction effects on TS and DT was N-C > N-RD > C-RD, while that on BFI was N-C > C-RD > N-RD. Changing nature of starch from a "low" (plantain starch) to a "high" (corn starch) level, increasing the concentration of starch binding agent from 2.5% to 10.0% wt/wt, and increasing relative density of the tablet from 0.80 to 0.90, led to increase in the values of TS and DT, but a decrease in BFI. Thus, tablets containing plantain starch had lower tensile strength and disintegration time values than those containing corn starch, but showed better ability to reduce the lamination and capping tendency in paracetamol tablet formulation. The interaction between N and C was significantly (P < .001) higher than those between N and RD and between C and RD. There is therefore the need to carefully choose the nature (N) and concentration (C) of starch used as binding agent in tablet formulations to obtain tablets of desired bond strength and disintegration properties. Furthermore, plantain starch could be useful as an alternative binding agent to cornstarch, especially where faster disintegration is required and the problems of lamination and capping are of particular concern. PMID:16354005

  4. Orally disintegrating films and mini-tablets-innovative dosage forms of choice for pediatric use.

    PubMed

    Preis, Maren

    2015-04-01

    Oral drug delivery is a non-invasive and therefore a very convenient route of administration. Orally disintegrating dosage forms, like soluble films and (mini-)tablets, appear promising for use in the pediatric population. New guidance for the development of pediatric medicines has been published, which provides considerations on how pediatric products should be designed. However, most of the considerations leave a lot of room for interpretations. Bearing in mind the different aspects discussed in the latest guideline, the use of orally disintegrating films and tablets, in particular, small-sized tablets, is discussed and reflected upon by providing evidence from the scientific literature. The available dosage forms for children are various and examples of currently licensed products for use in the pediatric population were compiled. Aspects such as the appropriateness for pediatrics, the choice of excipients, the opportunities for modified drug release preparations or fixed-dose combinations, the acceptability and palatability, and also limitations were discussed with respect to the new dosage forms of orally disintegrating films and mini-tablets. This paper points out that innovation in pediatric medicines are planned and should be encouraged; however, supported by the regulatory guidance, only general considerations are provided. Nevertheless, the guideline summarizes multiple points to consider during the development of medicines for pediatric use. Considering the scientific evidence and the regulatory guidance, orally disintegrating dosage forms, like soluble films and (mini-)tablets, offer an innovative solution for pediatric drug delivery. PMID:25739913

  5. Design, development, and optimization of orally disintegrating tablets of etoricoxib using vacuum-drying approach.

    PubMed

    Patel, Dharmesh; Shah, Mohit; Shah, Sunny; Shah, Tejal; Amin, Avani

    2008-01-01

    Etoricoxib is a cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) inhibitor that selectively inhibits the COX-2 enzyme and decreases the incidences of side effects associated with these agents. It is commonly prescribed for acute pain, gouty arthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Conventional tablets of etoricoxib are not capable of rapid action, which is required for faster drug effect onset and immediate relief from pain. Thus, the aim of the present investigation is to formulate orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) of etoricoxib. A combination of the superdisintegrants with a sublimation technique was used to prepare the tablets. Tablets were prepared using a direct compression method employing superdisintegrants such as low substituted hydroxylpropyl methyl cellulose (L-HPMC), low substituted hydroxyl-propyl cellulose (L-HPC), crospovidone, croscarmellose sodium, and sodium starch glycolate. Tablets of etoricoxib prepared using L-HPC exhibited the least friability and disintegration time (approximately 65 s). To decrease the disintegration time further, a sublimation technique was used along with the superdisintegrants for the preparation of ODTs. The use of sublimating agents including camphor, menthol, and thymol was explored. The addition of camphor lowered the disintegration time (approximately 30 s) further, but the percent friability was increased. A 3(2) full factorial design was employed to study the joint influence of the amount of superdisintegrant (L-HPC) and the amount of sublimating agent (camphor) on the percent of friability and the disintegration time. The results of multiple linear regression analysis revealed that for obtaining an effective ODT of etoricoxib, higher percentages of L-HPC and camphor should be used. Checkpoint batches were prepared to validate the evolved mathematical model. A response surface plot is also presented to graphically represent the effect of the independent variables on the percent of friability and the disintegration time. The approach using the optimization technique helped to produce a detailed understanding of the effects of formulation parameters. PMID:18661871

  6. Formulation development of stronger and quick disintegrating tablets: a crucial effect of chitin.

    PubMed

    Goel, Honey; Kaur, Gurpreet; Tiwary, Ashok K; Rana, Vikas

    2010-05-01

    A well known superdisintegrant like croscarmellose sodium or crospovidone loses their quick disintegration property when compressed at more than 4 kg tablet crushing strength (TCS). Therefore, the objective of the present work was to develop a disintegrating system that could be used for preparing fast disintegrating tablets (FDTs) of highly water soluble drug, metoclopramide, without compromising on the mechanical strength, irrespective of the TCS used for compressing the granules. For this purpose disintegrating system consisting of chitosan-alginate (CTN-ALG) complex (1:1): glycine and chitin was developed. The results revealed that when CTN-ALG and glycine were mixed in the ratio of 30:70, the granules exhibited a minimum water sorption time and maximum effective pore radius (R(eff.p)). The addition of chitin (5-10% w/w) into this mixture further enhanced the R(eff.p). Further, increase in the concentration of chitin from 10% to 20% w/w did not produce any significant effect (p>0.05) on the R(eff.p). The FDTs prepared by using CTN-ALG:glycine (30:70) and chitin exhibited increased porosity and lower disintegration time (DT). Further, chitin was found to neutralize the effect of TCS on DT of FDTs. This property of chitin was also observed in FDTs prepared by using croscarmellose sodium (5% w/w) or crospovidone (5% w/w). The reduction in DT of FDTs by chitin was also observed in tablets prepared without the drug. Hence, the effect was not influenced by the solubility component present in the tablets. Overall, the results suggested incorporation of chitin (5-10% w/w) while preparing FDTs of metoclopramide to enhanced the disintegration without compromising their mechanical strength of the tablets. PMID:20460872

  7. Direct compression of cushion-layered ethyl cellulose-coated extended release pellets into rapidly disintegrating tablets without changes in the release profile.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Armin; Körber, Martin; Bodmeier, Roland

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and optimize a segregation-free ethyl cellulose-coated extended release multiparticulate formulation to be compressed into tablets without affecting the drug release. Standard tableting excipients (e.g., microcrystalline cellulose, lactose or sorbitol) were layered onto ethyl cellulose-coated propranolol hydrochloride pellets to form a cushion layer in order to eliminate segregation problems normally resulting from particle size difference between coated pellets and excipient powders and second to protect the integrity of the brittle ethyl cellulose coating during compression. The disintegration behavior of the tablets depended strongly on the composition of the cushion layer. Rapid tablet disintegration was obtained with microcrystalline cellulose and the disintegrant sodium croscarmellose. However, the drug release from these cushion-layered pellets still increased upon compression. Incorporation of a glidant into the cushion layer or between the cushion layer and the ethyl cellulose coating reduced the compression effect on drug release markedly. Glidant-containing formulations showed a delayed deformation and damage of the ethyl cellulose-coated pellet upon mechanical stress. In summary, cushion layer based on microcrystalline cellulose facilitated segregation-free compression of a highly compression-sensitive extended release ethyl cellulose-coated pellets into fast-disintegrating and hard tablets without compromising the release properties of the multiparticulates. Directly compressible cushion-layered pellets protected the pellet coating significantly better from damages during tabletting when compared to the conventional compression of blends of coated pellets and excipient powders. PMID:23892153

  8. Development and evaluation of artemether taste masked rapid disintegrating tablets with improved dissolution using solid dispersion technique.

    PubMed

    Shah, Punit P; Mashru, Rajashree C

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to mask the intensely bitter taste of artemether (ARM) and to formulate a rapid-disintegrating tablet (RDT) of the taste-masked drug. Taste masking was done by solid dispersion with mono amino glycyrrhyzinate pentahydrate (GLY) by solvent evaporation method. To characterize and formulate taste masked rapid disintegrating tablets (RDTs) of ARM, the 1:1M solid dispersion was selected based on bitterness score. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) were performed to identify the physicochemical interaction between drug and carrier, hence its effect on dissolution. RDTs were evaluated for weight variation, disintegration time, hardness and friability. In vitro drug release studies were performed for RDTs at pH 1.2 and 6.8. Bitterness score was evaluated using mini-column method and compared with gustatory sensation test. FTIR spectroscopy and DSC showed no interaction while XRPD showed amorphization of ARM in GLY solid dispersion. RDTs prepared using solid dispersion, (RDT3), showed faster disintegration (within 28 s) and complete bitter taste masking of ARM. In addition, RDT3 exhibited better dissolution profile at both pH 1.2 and 6.8, than RDTs prepared from pure ARM (RDT5). Taste evaluation of RDTs in human volunteers rated tasteless with a score of 0 to RDT3 and 3 to RDT5. Mini-column revealed that RDT5 showed increase in number of persons who sensed bitterness with increased amount of ARM release while RDT3 sensed no bitterness. Thus, results conclusively demonstrated successful masking of taste and rapid disintegration of the formulated tablets in the oral cavity with improved dissolution. PMID:18431657

  9. Development and optimization of dextromethorphan hydrobromide oral disintegrating tablets: effect of formulation and process variables.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, Haitham Fady; Ibrahim, Mohamed Abbas; Sakr, Adel

    2013-01-01

    Orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs), which disintegrate rapidly (<1?min) in the mouth and do not require water for administration, have become a very popular dosage form. The study aims to develop a simple and inexpensive method of manufacturing ODTs of a sparingly water-soluble drug, Dextromethorphan hydrobromide. Two factors, three levels (3(2)) full factorial design was used to optimize the diluent, microcrystalline cellulose (X(1)) and superdisintegrant, croscarmellose sodium (X(2)) concentrations. Disintegration time, hardness and T(50) values for all the formulations varied from 12.5 to 152.6 s, 3.58 to 4.92 kp and 0.8 to 2.8?min, respectively. The results indicated that the selected variables have a strong influence on disintegration time, hardness and T(50) of the ODTs. The manufactured ODTs formula composed of 30% microcrystalline cellulose in combination with 3% croscarmellose sodium was chosen as optimized formula, as it showed the lowest disintegration time (12.5?±?1.22 s), low T(50) (0.8?min.) and hard tablets (4.92?±?0.28 kp) amongst other tested ODTs formulations. Hardness of DM ODTs was not affected by changing the type of superdisintegrant and lubricant. The disintegration time was significantly (p < 0.05) increased by using sodium starch glycolate instead of croscarmellose sodium. PMID:22881389

  10. Development of Corn Starch-Neusilin UFL2 Conjugate as Tablet Superdisintegrant: Formulation and Evaluation of Fast Disintegrating Tablets

    PubMed Central

    Juneja, Prateek; Kaur, Birender; Odeku, Oluwatoyin A.; Singh, Inderbir

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, corn Starch-Neusilin UFL2 conjugates were prepared by physical, chemical, and microwave methods with the aim of using the conjugates as tablet superdisintegrant. Various powder tests, namely, angle of repose, bulk density, tapped density, Hausner's ratio, Carr's index, swelling index, and powder porosity were conducted on the samples. The conjugates were characterized by ATR-FTIR, XRD, DSC, and SEM techniques. Heckel and Kawakita models were applied to carry out compression studies for the prepared conjugates. Fast disintegrating tablets of domperidone were prepared using corn starch and corn Starch-Neusilin UFL2 conjugates as tablet superdisintegrants in different concentrations. Conjugates were found to possess good powder flow and tabletting properties. Heckel analysis indicated that the conjugates prepared by microwave method showed the slowest onset of plastic deformation while Kawakita analysis indicated that the conjugates prepared by microwave method exhibited the highest amount of total plastic deformation. The study revealed that the corn Starch-Neusilin UFL2 conjugates possess improved powder flow properties and could be a promising superdisintegrant for preparing fast disintegrating tablet. Also, the results sugessted that the microwave method was found to be most effective for the preparation of corn Starch-Neusilin UFL2 conjugates. PMID:25328710

  11. Development of novel fast-disintegrating tablets by direct compression using sucrose stearic acid ester as a disintegration-accelerating agent.

    PubMed

    Koseki, Takuma; Onishi, Hiraku; Takahashi, Yuri; Uchida, Minoru; Machida, Yoshiharu

    2008-10-01

    It was attempted to produce novel furosemide (FS) fast-disintegrating tablets by direct compression. The combination of FS, microcrystalline cellulose, croscarmellose sodium and xylitol was used as the basic formulation, and sucrose stearic acid ester (SSE) was chosen as an additional additive. The tablets with SSE were prepared by the simple addition of SSE, using a lyophilized mixture of FS and SSE or using a FS/SSE mixture obtained by evaporation of their ethanol solution. Only the tablets, produced using the FS/SSE mixture obtained by organic solvent (ethanol) evaporation, showed hardness of more than 30 N and a disintegration time of less than 20 s, which were the properties suitable for fast-disintegrating tablets. These properties were considered to result from well-mixed and fine-powdered SSE and FS. PMID:18827375

  12. Formulation Development and Evaluation of Fast Disintegrating Tablet of Cetirizine Hydrochloride: A Novel Drug Delivery for Pediatrics and Geriatrics

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Deepak; Singh, Mankaran; Kumar, Dinesh; Singh, Gurmeet

    2014-01-01

    Recent developments in fast disintegrating tablets have brought convenience in dosing to pediatric and elderly patients who have trouble in swallowing tablets. The objective of the present study was to prepare the fast disintegrating tablet of Cetirizine Hydrochloride for allergic and respiratory disorders. As precision of dosing and patient's compliance become important prerequisite for a long-term treatment, there is a need to develop a formulation for this drug which overcomes problems such as difficulty in swallowing, inconvenience in administration while travelling, and patient's acceptability. Hence, the present investigation was undertaken with a view to develop a fast disintegrating tablet of Cetirizine Hydrochloride which offers a new range of products having desired characteristics and intended benefits. Superdisintegrants such as Sodium Starch Glycolate were optimized. Different binders were optimized along with optimized superdisintegrant concentration. The tablets were prepared by direct compression technique. The tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, weight variation, wetting time, disintegration time and uniformity of content. Optimized formulation was evaluated by in vitro dissolution test, drug excipient compatibility and accelerated stability study. It was concluded that fast disintegrating tablets of Cetirizine Hydrochloride were formulated successfully with desired characteristics which disintegrated rapidly, provide rapid onset of action, and enhance the patient convenience and compliance. PMID:26556203

  13. The Disintegration Process in Microcrystalline Cellulose Based Tablets, Part 1: Influence of Temperature, Porosity and Superdisintegrants

    PubMed Central

    Yassin, Samy; Goodwin, Daniel J; Anderson, Andrew; Sibik, Juraj; Wilson, D Ian; Gladden, Lynn F; Zeitler, J Axel

    2015-01-01

    Disintegration performance was measured by analysing both water ingress and tablet swelling of pure microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and in mixture with croscarmellose sodium using terahertz pulsed imaging (TPI). Tablets made from pure MCC with porosities of 10% and 15% showed similar swelling and transport kinetics: within the first 15 s, tablets had swollen by up to 33% of their original thickness and water had fully penetrated the tablet following Darcy flow kinetics. In contrast, MCC tablets with a porosity of 5% exhibited much slower transport kinetics, with swelling to only 17% of their original thickness and full water penetration reached after 100 s, dominated by case II transport kinetics. The effect of adding superdisintegrant to the formulation and varying the temperature of the dissolution medium between 20°C and 37°C on the swelling and transport process was quantified. We have demonstrated that TPI can be used to non-invasively analyse the complex disintegration kinetics of formulations that take place on timescales of seconds and is a promising tool to better understand the effect of dosage form microstructure on its performance. By relating immediate-release formulations to mathematical models used to describe controlled release formulations, it becomes possible to use this data for formulation design. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 104:3440–3450, 2015 PMID:26073446

  14. The Disintegration Process in Microcrystalline Cellulose Based Tablets, Part 1: Influence of Temperature, Porosity and Superdisintegrants.

    PubMed

    Yassin, Samy; Goodwin, Daniel J; Anderson, Andrew; Sibik, Juraj; Wilson, D Ian; Gladden, Lynn F; Zeitler, J Axel

    2015-10-01

    Disintegration performance was measured by analysing both water ingress and tablet swelling of pure microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and in mixture with croscarmellose sodium using terahertz pulsed imaging (TPI). Tablets made from pure MCC with porosities of 10% and 15% showed similar swelling and transport kinetics: within the first 15 s, tablets had swollen by up to 33% of their original thickness and water had fully penetrated the tablet following Darcy flow kinetics. In contrast, MCC tablets with a porosity of 5% exhibited much slower transport kinetics, with swelling to only 17% of their original thickness and full water penetration reached after 100 s, dominated by case II transport kinetics. The effect of adding superdisintegrant to the formulation and varying the temperature of the dissolution medium between 20°C and 37°C on the swelling and transport process was quantified. We have demonstrated that TPI can be used to non-invasively analyse the complex disintegration kinetics of formulations that take place on timescales of seconds and is a promising tool to better understand the effect of dosage form microstructure on its performance. By relating immediate-release formulations to mathematical models used to describe controlled release formulations, it becomes possible to use this data for formulation design. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 104:3440-3450, 2015. PMID:26073446

  15. Formulation and Evaluation of a Novel Matrix-Type Orally Disintegrating Ibuprofen Tablet

    PubMed Central

    Tayebi, Hoda; Mortazavi, Seyed Alireza

    2011-01-01

    Orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) are capable of turning quickly into a liquid dosage form in contact with the saliva, thus possessing the advantages of both the solid dosage forms particularly stability and liquid dosage forms specially ease of swallowing and pre-gastric absorption of drug. The aim of this study was to prepare a novel matrix-type buccal fast disintegrating ibuprofen tablet formulation using special polymers, water soluble excipients, super-disintegrants and quickly soluble granules. For this purpose different tablet formulations of ibuprofen were prepared. The amount of ibuprofen in each formulation was 100 mg. Eight groups of formulation were prepared (A-H series), accounting for a total number of 45 formulations. Formulations prepared were examined in terms of different physicochemical tests including powder/granule flowability, appearance, thickness, uniformity of weight, hardness, friability and disintegration time. Results of formulation F22a (in series F), was found to be acceptable, making it the chosen formulation for further studies. Then, by adding various flavorants and sweeteners to this formulation, complementary series of formulations, named G and H, were prepared. Following the comparison of their taste with each other through asking 10 volunteers, the most suitable formulation regarding the taste, being formulation F22s, was chosen as the ultimate formulation. This formulation had PVP, ibuprofen and croscarmellose as the intra-granular components and xylitol and saccharin as the extra-granular ingredients. Formulation F22s was found to be acceptable in terms of physicochemical tests conducted, showing quick disintegration within the buccal cavity, appropriate hardness and rather low friability. Hence formulation F22s was selected as the final formulation. PMID:24250378

  16. Evaluation of Rapidly Disintegrating Vaginal Tablets of Tenofovir, Emtricitabine and Their Combination for HIV-1 Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Meredith R.; Peet, M. Melissa; Davis, Sarah; Doncel, Gustavo F.; Friend, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Vaginal tablets are being developed as an alternative to gels as an inexpensive, discreet dosage form for the administration of microbicides. This work describes the pharmacokinetic (PK) evaluation of rapidly disintegrating vaginal tablets containing tenofovir (TFV, 10 mg), emtricitabine (FTC, 10 mg), and the combination of TFV and FTC (10 mg each) under in vitro and in vivo conditions, and in direct comparison to the clinical TFV 1% gel, a microbicide product in Phase III clinical testing. The PK of TFV and FTC from tablets were also evaluated in female rabbits following intravaginal administration. Direct comparison of a single dose of TFV tablets (intact or predissolved at 10 mg/mL) and TFV 1% gel showed no differences in the vaginal PK of TFV between groups; however systemic bioavailability of TFV was significantly higher from the gel. When rabbits were dosed either once or daily for seven days with intact tablets of TFV, FTC, or the combination of TFV/FTC, vaginal and systemic concentrations of TFV and FTC were unaffected by co-formulation. Moreover, plasma PK parameters were similar following a single dose or seven once-daily doses. Tissue concentrations of TFV and FTC in the cranial vagina 4 h after administration ranged between 104 and 105 ng/g. Concentrations of TFV-diphospate (TFV-DP, the active metabolite) were also high (over 103 ng/g or about 3000 to 6000 fmol/mg) in the cranial vagina 4 h after administration and similar to those measured following administration of TFV 1% gel. These data demonstrate that rapidly disintegrating vaginal tablets may be a suitable topical microbicide dosage form providing similar vaginal TFV PK to that of TFV 1% gel. The data also support co-administration of FTC with TFV in a single vaginal tablet to create a combination microbicide in a simple and inexpensive dosage form. PMID:25494201

  17. Formulation and Evaluation of Mouth Disintegrating Tablets of Atenolol and Atorvastatin

    PubMed Central

    Sarfraz, R. M.; Khan, H. U.; Mahmood, A.; Ahmad, M.; Maheen, S.; Sher, M.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, mouth-disintegrating tablets of atenolol and atorvastatin combination were formulated using superdisintegrants to impart fast disintegration. Fifteen formulations were prepared based on different concentrations of two superdisintegrants, croscarmellose sodium and Kyron-T134. Three different techniques such as direct compression, effervescent and sublimation were used to study the effect of manufacturing processes, nature and concentration of superdisintegrants on various features of these tablets. Five formulations were made using each method. Precompression studies like bulk density, tapped density, angle of repose, Carr's compressibility index, Hausner's ratio and compatibility studies such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry were performed. Various features such as hardness, thickness, diameter, weight variation, friability, disintegration time, dissolution studies, wetting time, wetting volume, water absorption ratio, modified disintegration, uniformity of contents and stability were evaluated. Finally results were statistically analyzed by the application of one way ANOVA test. Formulation F13 containing Kyron-T134 (6%) and croscarmellose sodium (2%) was found to be the best among all fifteen formulations prepared in all aspects evaluated. Sublimation method is found to be the best among three methods of preparation used. PMID:25767322

  18. Formulation and evaluation of mouth disintegrating tablets of atenolol and atorvastatin.

    PubMed

    Sarfraz, R M; Khan, H U; Mahmood, A; Ahmad, M; Maheen, S; Sher, M

    2015-01-01

    In this study, mouth-disintegrating tablets of atenolol and atorvastatin combination were formulated using superdisintegrants to impart fast disintegration. Fifteen formulations were prepared based on different concentrations of two superdisintegrants, croscarmellose sodium and Kyron-T134. Three different techniques such as direct compression, effervescent and sublimation were used to study the effect of manufacturing processes, nature and concentration of superdisintegrants on various features of these tablets. Five formulations were made using each method. Precompression studies like bulk density, tapped density, angle of repose, Carr's compressibility index, Hausner's ratio and compatibility studies such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry were performed. Various features such as hardness, thickness, diameter, weight variation, friability, disintegration time, dissolution studies, wetting time, wetting volume, water absorption ratio, modified disintegration, uniformity of contents and stability were evaluated. Finally results were statistically analyzed by the application of one way ANOVA test. Formulation F13 containing Kyron-T134 (6%) and croscarmellose sodium (2%) was found to be the best among all fifteen formulations prepared in all aspects evaluated. Sublimation method is found to be the best among three methods of preparation used. PMID:25767322

  19. Formulation strategy and evaluation of nanocrystal piroxicam orally disintegrating tablets manufacturing by freeze-drying.

    PubMed

    Lai, Francesco; Pini, Elena; Corrias, Francesco; Perricci, Jacopo; Manconi, Maria; Fadda, Anna Maria; Sinico, Chiara

    2014-06-01

    Piroxicam (PRX) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug characterized by a poor water solubility and consequently by a low oral bioavailability. In this work, different nanocrystal orally disintegrating tablets (ODT) were prepared to enhance piroxicam dissolution rate and saturation solubility. PRX nanocrystals were prepared by means of high pressure homogenization technique using poloxamer 188 as stabilizer. Three different ODTs were prepared with the same nanosuspension using different excipients in order to study their effect on the PRX dissolution properties. PRX nanocrystal size and zeta potential were determined by photon correlation spectroscopy. Additional characterization of PRX nanocrystal ODT was carried out by infrared spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffractometry, differential scanning calorimetry. Dissolution study was performed in distilled water (pH 5.5) and compared with PRX coarse suspension ODT, PRX/poloxamer 188 physical mixture, bulk PRX samples and a PRX commercial ODT. All PRX nanocrystal ODT formulations showed a higher drug dissolution rate than coarse PRX ODT. PRX nanocrystal ODT prepared using gelatin or croscarmellose as excipient showed a higher PRX dissolution rate compared with the commercial formulation and ODT prepared using xanthan gum. Overall results confirmed that improved PRX dissolution rate is due to the increased surface-to-volume ratio due to the nanosized drug particle but also revealed the important role of different excipients used. PMID:24680963

  20. Nanocrystals as tool to improve piroxicam dissolution rate in novel orally disintegrating tablets.

    PubMed

    Lai, F; Pini, E; Angioni, G; Manca, M L; Perricci, J; Sinico, C; Fadda, A M

    2011-11-01

    In this paper, orally disintegrating tablets (ODT) were prepared using nanocrystal formulations in order to optimise dissolution properties of lipophilic, poorly soluble drug piroxicam (PRX). Different nanocrystal formulations were prepared using a high pressure homogenisation technique and poloxamer 188 as stabiliser. Characterisation of PRX nanocrystal ODT was carried out by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray powder diffractometry (XRPD), differential scanning calorimetry and photon correlation spectroscopy. Dissolution study of PRX ODT was performed in distilled water (pH 5.5) and was compared to that of PRX coarse suspension ODT, PRX/poloxamer 188 physical mixture and bulk PRX samples. The XRPD and FTIR studies demonstrated that the homogenisation process led to a polymorphic transition from form I (bulk commercial PRX) to form III and monohydrate form of the nanocrystals. All ODT formulations prepared using PRX nanosuspensions showed a higher PRX dissolution rate compared with the ODT prepared with the coarse PRX. Since the solubility of the different PRX polymorphic forms increased only slightly from bulk PRX (form I) to monohydrate, form II and form III, we can conclude that the improvement in PRX dissolution rate is mainly caused by the increased surface-to-volume ratio due to the submicron dimension of the drug particles. PMID:21820052

  1. Formulation and In-vitro Evaluation of Orally Disintegrating Tablets of Olanzapine-2-Hydroxypropyl-?-Cyclodextrin Inclusion Complex.

    PubMed

    Ajit Shankarrao, Kulkarni; Dhairysheel Mahadeo, Ghadge; Pankaj Balavantrao, Kokate

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to design orally disintegrating tablets of Olanzapine and to complex Olanzapine with 2-hydroxypropyl-?- cyclodextrin with special emphasis on disintegration and dissolution studies. Phase solubility studies demonstrated the formation of 1:1 molar inclusion complex by kneading method. Tablets were prepared by using superdisintegrants namely, sodium starch glycolate, croscarmellose sodium, crospovidone, tulsion 339, and indion 414. Complex was characterized using infrared spectroscopy, drug content estimation, saturated solubility study, diffrerential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffractometry. 5% w/w croscarmellose sodium showed the minimum disintegration time 39 ± 1.76 sec and in-vitro drug release 99.19 ± 0.18% within 6 min. In general, solubility of Olanzapine can be improved by complexing with 2-hydroxypropyl-?- cyclodextrin. Croscarmellose sodium can be used for faster disintegration of tablets. PMID:24381598

  2. Freeze drying of orally disintegrating tablets containing taste masked naproxen sodium granules in blisters.

    PubMed

    Stange, Ulrike; Führling, Christian; Gieseler, Henning

    2014-09-15

    Abstract Orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) were freeze dried in blisters using the Lyostar® II SMART™ Freeze Dryer Technology. ODT formulations either without non-water soluble particles (placebo) or containing large fractions (717?mg) of taste-masked naproxen sodium (NaS) granules were freeze dried. The process data revealed differences between ODTs with and without embedded granules in the pressure rise curves as well as in the shelf (inlet) temperature adjustments during freeze-drying. Pressure rise curves of the placebo ODTs from eight hours process time showed no distinct temperature-dominated part, and the last optimization step of the shelf temperature to achieve -24.4?°C might be prone to errors. The final shelf temperature of ODTs containing granules was -23.3?°C. The detection of primary drying endpoints using SMART™ Technology or comparative pressure measurements was reliable for both ODT formulations, whereas the application of thermocouples resulted in premature endpoint indication. Product resistance of ODTs containing granules was generally elevated in comparison to ODTs without granules, but increased only slightly over the course of the drying process. In summary, the developed freeze-drying cycle was found applicable for production of elegant ODTs with incorporated taste masked NaS granules. PMID:25220888

  3. Evidence-Based Nanoscopic and Molecular Framework for Excipient Functionality in Compressed Orally Disintegrating Tablets

    PubMed Central

    Al-khattawi, Ali; Alyami, Hamad; Townsend, Bill; Ma, Xianghong; Mohammed, Afzal R.

    2014-01-01

    The work investigates the adhesive/cohesive molecular and physical interactions together with nanoscopic features of commonly used orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) excipients microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and D-mannitol. This helps to elucidate the underlying physico-chemical and mechanical mechanisms responsible for powder densification and optimum product functionality. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) contact mode analysis was performed to measure nano-adhesion forces and surface energies between excipient-drug particles (6-10 different particles per each pair). Moreover, surface topography images (100 nm2–10 µm2) and roughness data were acquired from AFM tapping mode. AFM data were related to ODT macro/microscopic properties obtained from SEM, FTIR, XRD, thermal analysis using DSC and TGA, disintegration testing, Heckel and tabletability profiles. The study results showed a good association between the adhesive molecular and physical forces of paired particles and the resultant densification mechanisms responsible for mechanical strength of tablets. MCC micro roughness was 3 times that of D-mannitol which explains the high hardness of MCC ODTs due to mechanical interlocking. Hydrogen bonding between MCC particles could not be established from both AFM and FTIR solid state investigation. On the contrary, D-mannitol produced fragile ODTs due to fragmentation of surface crystallites during compression attained from its weak crystal structure. Furthermore, AFM analysis has shown the presence of extensive micro fibril structures inhabiting nano pores which further supports the use of MCC as a disintegrant. Overall, excipients (and model drugs) showed mechanistic behaviour on the nano/micro scale that could be related to the functionality of materials on the macro scale. PMID:25025427

  4. Formulation of cyclodextrin inclusion complex-based orally disintegrating tablet of eslicarbazepine acetate for improved oral bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Desai, Samixa; Poddar, Aditi; Sawant, Krutika

    2016-01-01

    The present investigation was aimed towards developing a beta-cyclodextrin (?-CD) solid dispersion (SD) based orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) of eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL), for improving the dissolution and providing fast onset of anti-epileptic action. Optimum ratio of ESL and ?-CD was determined by Job's plot. Thereafter, solid dispersions were prepared by solvent evaporation method and evaluated for yield, assay, Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and in vitro dissolution. Optimized SD was compressed into ODT by direct compression using super disintegrants and evaluated for wetting time, drug content, in vitro drug release and in vivo studies. The results of DSC, FTIR and XRD analysis supported the formation of inclusion complex. An improved dissolution with 99.95±2.80% drug release in 60min was observed in comparison to 24.85±2.96% release from a plain drug suspension. Tablets with crosspovidone as a super disintegrant showed the least disintegration time of 24.66±1.52s and higher in vitro drug release against marketed tablets. In vivo studies indicated that the formulated tablets had 2 times higher bioavailability than marketed tablets. Thus, the developed ?-CD-ESL SD-ODT could provide faster onset of action and higher bioavailability, which would be beneficial in case of epileptic seizures. PMID:26478377

  5. Development of orally disintegrating tablets comprising controlled-release multiparticulate beads

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Melperone is an atypical antipsychotic agent that has shown a wide spectrum of neuroleptic properties, particularly effective in the treatment of senile dementia and Parkinson’s-associated psychosis, and is marketed in Europe as an immediate-release (IR) tablet and syrup. An orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) dosage form would be advantageous for patients who experience difficulty in swallowing large tablets or capsules or those who experience dysphagia. Controlled-release (CR) capsule and ODT formulations containing melperone HCl were developed with target in vitro release profiles suitable for a once-daily dosing regimen. Both dosage forms allow for the convenient production of dose-proportional multiple strengths. Two ODT formulations exhibiting fast and medium release profiles and one medium release profile capsule formulation (each 50?mg) were tested in vivo using IR syrup as the reference. The two medium release formulations were shown to be bioequivalent to each other and are suitable for once-daily dosing. Based on the analytical and organoleptic test results, as well as the blend uniformity and in-process compression data at various compression forces using coated beads produced at one-tenth (1/10) commercial scale, both formulations in the form of CR capsules and CR ODTs have shown suitability for progression into further clinical development. PMID:22356215

  6. Preparation and evaluation of novel directly-compressed fast-disintegrating furosemide tablets with sucrose stearic acid ester.

    PubMed

    Koseki, Takuma; Onishi, Hiraku; Takahashi, Yuri; Uchida, Minoru; Machida, Yoshiharu

    2009-06-01

    Fast-disintegrating tablets of furosemide (FS) were prepared by the novel direct compression method. FS, microcrystalline cellulose (MC), croscarmellose sodium (CC), xylitol (XL) and sucrose stearic acid esters (SSEs) with an hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) of 16, 15 and 11, named S1670, S1570 and S1170, were used. An FS/SSE/MC mixed powder was obtained by solvent evaporation of a suspension of MC in ethanol solution containing FS and SSE, and the resultant mixed powder was mixed with CC and XL, and directly compressed. The tablets with hardness of more than 40 N and disintegration time of less than 20 s were obtained at the addition of SSE at 0--0.5% (w/w). A tablet with S1670 at 0.1% (w/w), named TA2, dissolved faster than a commercial FS tablet, Lasix. TA2 tended to show higher plasma concentration than Lasix after intragastric administration to rats. It was demonstrated that the present direct compression using homogeneous FS/S1670/MC powder mixture could give an excellent fast-disintegrating tablet of FS. PMID:19483329

  7. In vitro and in vivo correlation of disintegration and bitter taste masking using orally disintegrating tablet containing ion exchange resin-drug complex.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong-Il; Cho, Sang-Min; Cui, Jing-Hao; Cao, Qing-Ri; Oh, Euichaul; Lee, Beom-Jin

    2013-10-15

    Although the taste-masking of bitter drug using ion exchange resin has been recognized, in vitro testing using an electronic tongue (e-Tongue) and in vivo bitterness test by human panel test was not fully understood. In case of orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) containing bitter medicine, in vitro and in vivo disintegration is also importance for dosage performance. Donepezil hydrochloride was chosen as a model drug due to its bitterness and requires rapid disintegration for the preparation of ODT. In this study, ion exchange resin drug complex (IRDC) at three different ratios (1:2, 1:1, 2:1) was prepared using a spray-drying method and then IRDC-loaded ODT containing superdisintegrants (crospovidone, croscarmellose sodium, and sodium starch glycolate) were prepared by the direct compression method. The physical properties and morphologies were then characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (PXRD) and electrophoretic laser scattering (ELS), respectively. The in vitro taste-masking efficiency was measured with an electronic tongue (e-Tongue). In vivo bitterness scale was also evaluated by human volunteers and then we defined new term, "bitterness index (BI)" to link in vitro e-Tongue. There was a good correlation of IRDC between in vitro e-Tongue values and in vivo BI. Furthermore, IRDC-loaded ODT showed good in vitro/in vivo correlation in the disintegration time. The optimal IRDC-loaded ODTs displayed similar drug release profiles to the reference tablet (Aricept(®) ODT) in release media of pH 1.2, pH 4.0, pH 6.8 and distilled water but had significantly better palatability in vivo taste-masking evaluation. The current IRDC-loaded ODT according to the in vitro and in vivo correlation of disintegration and bitter taste masking could provide platforms in ODT dosage formulations of donepezil hydrochloride for improved patient compliances. PMID:23933050

  8. Fast Disintegrating Combination Tablet of Taste Masked Levocetrizine Dihydrochloride and Montelukast Sodium: Formulation Design, Development, and Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, M. M.; Gupta, Niraj; Chauhan, Bhupendra S.; Pandey, Shweta

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to prepare fast disintegrating combination tablet of taste masked Levocetrizine dihydrochloride and Montelukast sodium by using direct compression method. To prevent bitter taste and unacceptable odour of the Levocetrizine dihydrochloride drug, the drug was taste masked with ion exchange resins like Kyron-T-104 and Tulsion-412. Among the two resins, Kyron-T-104 was selected for further studies because of high drug loading capacity, low cost, and better drug release profile. An ion exchange resin complex was prepared by the batch technique and various parameters; namely, resin activation, drug: resin ratio, pH, temperature, and stirring time, and swelling time were optimized to successfully formulate the tasteless drug resin complex (DRC). The tablets were prepared using microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) PH 102 as diluent along with crospovidone (CP), croscarmellose sodium (CCM), and sodium starch glycolate (SSG) as a superdisintegrants. The tablets were evaluated for weight variation, hardness, friability, wetting time, water absorption ratio, disintegration time (DT), and dissolution study and it was concluded that the tablet formulation prepared with 2% SSG + CCS showed better disintegration time in comparison with other formulation and good drug release. The stability studies were carried out for the optimized batch for three months and it showed acceptable results. PMID:26556198

  9. Fast Disintegrating Combination Tablet of Taste Masked Levocetrizine Dihydrochloride and Montelukast Sodium: Formulation Design, Development, and Characterization.

    PubMed

    Gupta, M M; Gupta, Niraj; Chauhan, Bhupendra S; Pandey, Shweta

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to prepare fast disintegrating combination tablet of taste masked Levocetrizine dihydrochloride and Montelukast sodium by using direct compression method. To prevent bitter taste and unacceptable odour of the Levocetrizine dihydrochloride drug, the drug was taste masked with ion exchange resins like Kyron-T-104 and Tulsion-412. Among the two resins, Kyron-T-104 was selected for further studies because of high drug loading capacity, low cost, and better drug release profile. An ion exchange resin complex was prepared by the batch technique and various parameters; namely, resin activation, drug: resin ratio, pH, temperature, and stirring time, and swelling time were optimized to successfully formulate the tasteless drug resin complex (DRC). The tablets were prepared using microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) PH 102 as diluent along with crospovidone (CP), croscarmellose sodium (CCM), and sodium starch glycolate (SSG) as a superdisintegrants. The tablets were evaluated for weight variation, hardness, friability, wetting time, water absorption ratio, disintegration time (DT), and dissolution study and it was concluded that the tablet formulation prepared with 2% SSG + CCS showed better disintegration time in comparison with other formulation and good drug release. The stability studies were carried out for the optimized batch for three months and it showed acceptable results. PMID:26556198

  10. Preparation of spherical crystal agglomerates of naproxen containing disintegrant for direct tablet making by spherical crystallization technique.

    PubMed

    Nokhodchi, A; Maghsoodi, M

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to obtain directly compressible agglomerates of naproxen containing disintegrant by spherical crystallization technique. Acetone-water containing hydroxypropyl celloluse (HPC) and disintegrant was used as the crystallization system. In this study croscarmellose sodium (Ac-Di-Sol) was employed as disintegrant. The agglomerates were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), powder X-ray diffraction (XRPD), and scanning electron microscopy and were evaluated for flow, packing and tableting properties and drug release. The growth of particle size and the spherical form of the agglomerates resulted in formation of products with good flow and packing properties. The improved compaction properties of the agglomerated crystals were due to their fragmentation occurred during compression. DSC and XRPD studies showed that naproxen particles, crystallized in the presence of HPC and Ac-Di-Sol did not undergo structural modifications. The dissolution rate of naproxen from tablets made of naproxen-(Ac-Di-Sol) agglomerates was enhanced significantly because of including the disintegrant in to the particles. This was attributed to an increase in the surface area of the practically water insoluble drug is exposed to the dissolution medium. In conclusion the spherical crystallization technique developed in this study is suitable for obtaining agglomerates of drug with disintegrant. PMID:18446461

  11. Formulation and evaluation of primaquine phosphate taste-masked rapidly disintegrating tablet.

    PubMed

    Shah, Punit P; Mashru, Rajashree C

    2008-10-01

    This work investigates the complete bitter-taste-masking of primaquine phosphate (PRM) using a solid dispersion with mono ammonium glycyrrhyzinate pentahydrate (GLY). This work also describes the preparation of rapidly disintegrating tablets (RDTs) of PRM by a direct compression method using superdisintegrant, croscarmellose sodium. A solid dispersion was prepared by the solvent evaporation method. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were performed to identify the physicochemical interaction between drug and carrier, hence its effect on dissolution. In-vitro drug release studies were performed for RDTs at both pH 1.2 and 6.8. Bitterness score was evaluated using a human gustatory sensation test. FTIR spectroscopy and DSC showed no interaction of PRM in GLY solid dispersion. RDTs prepared from solid dispersion showed complete bitter-taste-masking of PRM. RDTs containing solid dispersion exhibited a better dissolution profile, at both pH 1.2 and 6.8, than pure PRM. Thus, the solid dispersion technique can be successfully used for complete bitter taste masking of PRM. PMID:18812020

  12. Application of the BCS biowaiver approach to assessing bioequivalence of orally disintegrating tablets with immediate release formulations.

    PubMed

    Ono, Asami; Sugano, Kiyohiko

    2014-11-20

    The aim of this study was to compare the dissolution profiles of oral disintegrating tablets (ODTs) and immediate release (IR) formulations in order to experimentally validate the regulatory biowaiver scheme (BWS) for biopharmaceutical classification system (BCS) class III drugs. We examined six drugs that show clinical bioequivalence between the ODTs and IR formulations: taltirelin, olopatadine, droxidopa, famotidine, fexofenadine, and hydrochlorothiazide. The dissolution profiles of these drugs were evaluated using the compendium paddle apparatus at pH 1.2 and 6.8. Taltirelin and olopatadine showed very rapid dissolution and met the dissolution criteria in the BWS, whereas droxidopa, famotidine, fexofenadine, and hydrochlorothiazide did not. Furthermore, in the case of famotidine, fexofenadine, and hydrochlorothiazide, the ODTs and IR formulations showed dissimilar dissolution profiles. The dose-to-solubility ratio (D:S) of these drugs was larger than that of the other drugs. The results of this study suggest that extension of the BCS-BWS to ODTs and IR formulations of BCS class III drugs is appropriate. Furthermore, for BCS class III drugs with relatively high D:S, clinical bioequivalence would be achievable even when two formulations showed different dissolution profiles in vitro. PMID:25151946

  13. Effects of pigeon pea and plantain starches on the compressional, mechanical, and disintegration properties of paracetamol tablets.

    PubMed

    Dare, Kunle; Akin-Ajani, Dorothy O; Odeku, Oluwatoyin A; Itiola, Oludele A; Odusote, Omotunde M

    2006-03-01

    A study has been made of the effects of pigeon pea starch obtained from the plant Cajanus cajan (L) Millisp. (family Fabaceae) and plantain starch obtained from the unripe fruit of Musa paradisiaca L. (family Musaceae) on the compressional, mechanical, and disintegration properties of paracetamol tablets in comparison with official corn starch BP. Analysis of compressional properties was done by using density measurements, and the Heckel and Kawakita equations, whereas the mechanical properties of the tablets were evaluated by using tensile strength (T--a measure of bond strength) and brittle fracture index (BFI--a measure of lamination tendency). The ranking for the mean yield pressure, P(y), for the formulations containing the different starches was generally corn < pigeon pea < plantain starch while the ranking for P(k), an inverse measure of the amount of plasticity, was pigeon pea < plantain < corn starch, which indicated that formulations containing corn starch generally exhibited the fastest onset of plastic deformation, whereas those formulations containing pigeon pea starch exhibited the highest amount of plastic deformation during tableting. The tensile strength of the tablets increased with increase in concentration of the starches while the Brittle Fracture Index decreased. The ranking for T was pigeon pea > plantain > corn starch while the ranking for BFI was corn > plantain > pigeon pea starch. The bonding capacity of the formulations was in general agreement with the tensile strength results. The disintegration time (DT) of the formulation increased with concentration of plantain and corn starches but decreased with concentration of pigeon pea starch. The general ranking of DT values was plantain < pigeon pea < corn starch. Notably, formulations containing pigeon pea starch exhibited the highest bond strength and lowest brittleness, suggesting the usefulness of pigeon pea starch in producing strong tablets with minimal lamination tendency. Plantain starch, on the other hand, would be more useful where faster disintegration of tablet is desired. The results show that the starches could be useful in various formulations depending on the intended use of the tablets with the implication that the experimental starches can be developed for commercial purposes. PMID:16556540

  14. Enhancement of Solubility of Lamotrigine by Solid Dispersion and Development of Orally Disintegrating Tablets Using 32 Full Factorial Design

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Jatinderpal; Garg, Rajeev; Gupta, Ghanshyam Das

    2015-01-01

    Present investigation deals with the preparation and evaluation of orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) of lamotrigine using ?-cyclodextrin and PVP-K30 as polymers for the preparation of solid dispersion which help in enhancement of aqueous solubility of this BCS CLASS-II drug and sodium starch glycolate (SSG) and crospovidone as a superdisintegrating agent, to reduce disintegration time. The ODTs were prepared by direct compression method. Nine formulations were developed with different ratios of superdisintegrating agents. All the formulations were evaluated for disintegration time, weight variation, hardness, friability, drug content uniformity, wetting time, and in vitro drug release study. In vitro drug release study was performed using United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) type 2 dissolution test apparatus employing paddle stirrer at 50?rpm using 900?mL of 0.1?N HCl maintained at 37°C ± 0.5°C as the dissolution medium. On the basis of evaluation parameters formulations were prepared using ?-CD 1?:?1 solid dispersion. Then 32 full factorial design was applied using SSG and crospovidone in different ratios suggested by using design expert 8.0.7.1 and optimized formulation was prepared using amount of SSG and crospovidone as suggested by the software. The optimized formulation prepared had disintegrating time of 15?s, wetting time of 24?s, and % friability of 0.55. PMID:26634173

  15. Potential use of 2-hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin for preparation of orally disintegrating tablets containing dl-alpha-tocopheryl acetate, an oily drug.

    PubMed

    Motoyama, Keiichi; Nagatomo, Kiyoshi; Abd Elazim, Soliman Osama; Hirayama, Fumitoshi; Uekama, Kaneto; Arima, Hidetoshi

    2009-11-01

    To expand the application of a drug in orally disintegrating tablets, the potential use of beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CyD) and 2-hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HP-beta-CyD) as excipients for the tablets containing dl-alpha-tocopheryl acetate (VE), an oily drug, was evaluated. HP-beta-CyD, not beta-CyD, solubilized VE in water through the formation of higher order of complexes at the molar ratio of 1 : 2 (VE : HP-beta-CyD). When prepared under the optimal preparation conditions, the VE tablets containing lactose and 5% (w/w) of HP-beta-CyD, not beta-CyD, had high hardness more than 4 kg and rapid disintegration within 100 s both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, VE tablets containing lactose and 5% (w/w) of HP-beta-CyD, not beta-CyD, maintained the high hardness and rapid disintegration under the accelerated stability test using different conditions for 4 weeks. Therefore, these results suggest the potential use of HP-beta-CyD, not beta-CyD, as an excipient for orally disintegrating tablets containing VE, an oily drug, in the molding method. PMID:19881268

  16. Formulation, preparation, and evaluation of novel orally disintegrating tablets containing taste-masked naproxen sodium granules and naratriptan hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Stange, Ulrike; Führling, Christian; Gieseler, Henning

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and manufacture novel freeze-dried orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) for migraine therapy containing taste-masked naproxen sodium and naratriptan hydrochloride. The formulation was optimized based on freeze-drying of sucrose solutions with different binders (hydroxyethylstarch, sodium alginate, methylcellulose, and gelatin) and varying amounts of Eudragit® E-coated naproxen sodium granules. Excellent product performance of the ODTs in terms of hardness and disintegration time (<10 s) independent of the mass of particles embedded was found for the solution consisting of sucrose and hydroxyethylstarch. Poloxamer 188, menthol flavor, naratriptan hydrochloride, and taste-masked naproxen sodium granules corresponding to 200 mg of naproxen were then added, and the final batches of ODTs for migraine therapy were produced. The ODTs were fully characterized, and subsequently stored for 1 month at room temperature and at 40°C. The amount of free naproxen sodium after freeze-drying and storage was below the threshold bitterness value, and the coating remained intact. Additionally, the particle size distribution of taste-masked granules was preserved, and more than 90 % naproxen sodium was released after 30 min. Naratriptan hydrochloride was dissolved immediately after disintegration, hence facilitating buccal absorption of the active pharmaceutical ingredient. PMID:24532095

  17. Risperidone solid dispersion for orally disintegrating tablet: its formulation design and non-destructive methods of evaluation.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Ziyaur; Zidan, Ahmed S; Khan, Mansoor A

    2010-11-15

    The focus of present investigation was to assess the utility of non-destructive techniques in the evaluation of risperidone solid dispersions (SD) with methyl-?-cyclodextrin (MBCD) and subsequent incorporation of the SD into orally disintegrating tablets (ODT) for a faster release of risperidone. The SD was prepared by a solvent evaporation method and evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), near infrared spectroscopy (NIR), NIR-chemical imaging (NIR-CI), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). DSC and XRD analysis indicated that crystallinity of SD has reduced significantly. FTIR showed no interaction between risperidone and MBCD. Partial least square (PLS) was applied to the NIR data for the construction of chemometric models to determine both components of the SD. Good correlations were obtained for calibration and prediction as indicated by correlation coefficients >0.9965. The model was more accurate and less biased in predicting the MBCD than risperidone as indicated by its lower mean accuracy and mean bias values. SD-3 (risperidone:MBCD, 1:3) was incorporated into ODT tablets containing diluent (D-mannitol, FlowLac(®) 100 or galenIQ™-721) and superdisintegrant (Kollidon(®) CL-SF, Ac-Di-Sol or sodium starch glycolate). Disintegration time, T(50) and T(90) were decreased in the formulations containing mannitol and Kollidon(®) CL-SF, but increased with galenIQ™-721 and sodium starch glycolate, respectively. NIR-CI images confirmed the homogeneity of SD and ODT formulations. PMID:20801200

  18. Characterising the Disintegration Properties of Tablets in Opaque Media Using Texture Analysis

    E-print Network

    Scheuerle, Rebekah L.; Gerrard, Stephen E.; Kendall, Richard A.; Tuleu, Catherine; Slater, Nigel K. H.; Mahbubani, Krishnaa T.

    2015-03-16

    ) (Gerrard, Orlu-Gul, et al., 2013) (Hart et al., 2014) (Sokal et al., 2013). 109 When worn by a mother during breastfeeding, an insert, such as a tablet, is held within the NSDS 110 5 and releases an API into breast milk consumed by the infant... formulations for use in a nipple shield 359 delivery system, a novel method for delivery of life-saving medications or nutrients to breastfeeding 360 infants. Various supplemental or therapeutic tablet formulations could be studied in human milk 361...

  19. Formulation Development and Evaluation of Fast Disintegrating Tablets of Salbutamol Sulphate, Cetirizine Hydrochloride in Combined Pharmaceutical Dosage Form: A New Era in Novel Drug Delivery for Pediatrics and Geriatrics

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Deepak; Singh, Gurmeet; Kumar, Dinesh; Singh, Mankaran

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to prepare the fast disintegrating tablet of Salbutamol Sulphate, Cetirizine Hydrochloride in combined tablet dosage form for respiratory disorders such as bronchitis, asthma, and coughing for pediatrics and geriatrics. The tablets were prepared by direct compression technique. Superdisintegrant such as Sodium Starch Glycolate was optimized as 4% on the basis of least disintegration time. Different binders such as MCC and PVP K-30 were optimized along with optimized superdisintegrant concentration. 1% MCC was selected as optimum binder concentration on the basis of least disintegration time. The tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, weight variation, wetting time, disintegration time, and drug content uniformity. Optimized formulation was further evaluated by in vitro dissolution test, drug-excipient compatibility, and accelerated stability study. Percent weight variation and content uniformity were within the acceptable limit. The friability was less than 1%. The wetting time and disintegration time were practically good for all formulations. FTIR studies and accelerated stability study showed that there was no interaction between the drug and excipients. It was concluded that, by employing commonly available pharmaceutical excipients such as superdisintegrants, hydrophilic and swellable excipients and proper filler, a fast disintegrating tablet of Salbutamol Sulphate, Cetirizine Hydrochloride in combined tablet dosage form, were formulated successfully with desired characteristics. PMID:25810924

  20. Influence of different types of low substituted hydroxypropyl cellulose on tableting, disintegration, and floating behaviour of floating drug delivery systems

    PubMed Central

    Diós, Péter; Pernecker, Tivadar; Nagy, Sándor; Pál, Szilárd; Dévay, Attila

    2014-01-01

    The object of the present study is to evaluate the effect of application of low-substituted hydroxypropyl cellulose (L-HPC) 11 and B1 as excipients promoting floating in gastroretentive tablets. Directly compressed tablets were formed based on experimental design. Face-centred central composite design was applied with two factors and 3 levels, where amount of sodium alginate (X1) and L-HPC (X2) were the numerical factors. Applied types of L-HPCs and their 1:1 mixture were included in a categorical factor (X3). Studied parameters were floating lag time, floating time, floating force, swelling behaviour of tablets and dissolution of paracetamol, which was used as a model active substance. Due to their physical character, L-HPCs had different water uptake and flowability. Lower flowability and lower water uptake was observed after 60 min at L-HPC 11 compared to L-HPC B1. Shorter floating times were detected at L-HPC 11 and L-HPC mixtures with 0.5% content of sodium alginate, whereas alginate was the only significant factor. Evaluating results of drug release and swelling studies on floating tablets revealed correlation, which can serve to help to understand the mechanism of action of L-HPCs in the field development of gastroretentive dosage forms. PMID:26702261

  1. Analysis of small intestinal transit and colon arrival times of non-disintegrating tablets administered in the fasted state.

    PubMed

    Pišlar, Mitja; Brelih, Hana; Mrhar, Aleš; Bogataj, Marija

    2015-07-30

    In this study individual data on tablet gastrointestinal transit times (i.e. gastric emptying, small intestinal transit, ileocecal junction residence, and colon arrival times) were obtained from literature in order to present and analyze their distributions and relationships. The influence of the time of food intake after tablet administration in fasted state on gastrointestinal transit times was additionally evaluated. There were 114 measurements from subjects who received the first meal at 4h after tablet administration. Approximately 32% of the tablets arrived into the colon before the meal intake at 4h. An evident increase in the frequency of colon arrival of tablets within 40min after the meal intake at 4h post-dose was observed, where approximately 39% of all tablets arrived into the colon. This is in accordance with findings described in literature where a meal ingested several hours post-dose accelerates tablet transit through the terminal ileum and shortens the transit through the small intestine. The median (min, max) of gastric emptying, small intestinal transit, and colon arrival times in the group where the first meal intake was at 4h post-dose is 35 (0,192), 215 (60,544), and 254 (117,604) minutes, respectively. The dependence of colon arrival times on gastric emptying times was described by the nonparametric regression curve, and compared with the presumed interval of colon arrival times, calculated by summation of observed gastric emptying times and frequently cited small intestinal transit time interval, i.e. 3-4h. For shorter gastric emptying times the trend of colon arrival times was within the presumed interval. At short gastric emptying times many observation points are also within the presumed interval since this interval coincides with short period after meal intake at 4h post-dose. Additionally, in numerous occasions relatively long ileocecal junction residence times were obtained, which may be important information from the point of view of drug absorption. The findings of gastrointestinal transit times are important and should be taken into consideration when predicting the in vivo performance of dosage forms after oral administration. PMID:25769525

  2. Robust Vaginal Colonization of Macaques with a Novel Vaginally Disintegrating Tablet Containing a Live Biotherapeutic Product to Prevent HIV Infection in Women

    PubMed Central

    Lagenaur, Laurel A.; Swedek, Iwona; Lee, Peter P.; Parks, Thomas P.

    2015-01-01

    MucoCept is a biotherapeutic for prevention of HIV-1 infection in women and contains a human, vaginal Lactobacillus jensenii that has been genetically enhanced to express the HIV-1 entry inhibitor, modified cyanovirin-N (mCV-N). The objective of this study was to develop a solid vaginal dosage form that supports sustained vaginal colonization of the MucoCept Lactobacillus at levels previously shown, with freshly prepared cultures, to protect macaques from SHIV infection and to test this formulation in a macaque vaginal colonization model. Vaginally disintegrating tablets were prepared by lyophilizing the formulated bacteria in tablet-shaped molds, then packaging in foil pouches with desiccant. Disintegration time, potency and stability of the tablets were assessed. For colonization, non-synchronized macaques were dosed vaginally with either one tablet or five tablets delivered over five days. Vaginal samples were obtained at three, 14, and 21 days post-dosing and cultured to determine Lactobacillus colonization levels. To confirm identity of the MucoCept Lactobacillus strain, genomic DNA was extracted from samples on days 14 and 21 and a strain-specific PCR was performed. Supernatants from bacteria were tested for the presence of the mCV-N protein by Western blot. The tablets were easy to handle, disintegrated within two minutes, potent (5.7x1011 CFU/g), and stable at 4°C and 25°C. Vaginal administration of the tablets to macaques resulted in colonization of the MucoCept Lactobacillus in 66% of macaques at 14 days post-dosing and 83% after 21 days. There was no significant difference in colonization levels for the one or five tablet dosing regimens (p=0.88 Day 14, p=0.99 Day 21). Strain-specific PCR confirmed the presence of the bacteria even in culture-negative macaques. Finally, the presence of mCV-N protein was confirmed by Western blot analysis using a specific anti-mCV-N antibody. PMID:25875100

  3. Comparative stability of repackaged metoprolol tartrate tablets.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yongsheng; Gupta, Abhay; Carlin, Alan S; Faustino, Patrick J; Lyon, Robbe C; Ellison, Christopher D; Rothman, Barry; Khan, Mansoor A

    2010-01-29

    The stability of metoprolol tartrate tablets packaged in original high density polyethylene containers and repackaged in USP Class A unit-dose blister packs was investigated. Studies were conducted at 25 degrees C/60% relative humidity (RH) for 52 weeks and at 40 degrees C/75% RH for 13 weeks. The potency, dissolution, water content, loss on drying and hardness of the drug products were analyzed. Results indicated no differences in the stability between the tablets in both packages stored under 25 degrees C/60% RH. No difference in potency was found in both packages under either condition. However, a significant weight increase due to moisture uptake was observed for the repackaged tablets stored under 40 degrees C/75% RH. The weight increase was accompanied by a decrease in tablet hardness (6.5-0 kp) and a increase in dissolution rate (51-92%) in 5 min. Near-infrared (NIR) chemical imaging also monitored moisture uptake of the tablet non-invasively through the package. The observed changes in product stability may adversely affect the products bioavailability profile, even though the potency of the active drug remained within USP specification range of 90-110%. Study results suggest product quality can be negatively impacted even when using USP Class A repackaging materials. PMID:19879937

  4. The Effects of Screw Configuration and Polymeric Carriers on Hot-Melt Extruded Taste-Masked Formulations Incorporated into Orally Disintegrating Tablets

    PubMed Central

    Morott, Joseph T.; Pimparade, Manjeet; Park, Jun-Bom; Worley, Chelsea P.; Majumdar, Soumyajit; Lian, Zhuoyang; Pinto, Elanor; Bi, Yunxia; Durig, Thomas; Repka, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    The primary aim of this research was to produce successfully taste masked formulations of Sildenafil Citrate (SC) using hot-melt extrusion (HME) technology. Multiple screw configurations and polymeric carriers were evaluated for their effects on taste masking efficiency, which was assessed by both E-tongue analysis and in vitro dissolution in simulated salivary fluid (SSF, pH 6.8 artificial saliva). The screw configurations were further assessed for their effects on the morphology of the API using PXRD, FT-IR and mid-infrared chemical imaging. It was determined that the screw configuration had a profound effect on the taste masking efficiency of the formulations as a result of altering the physical state of the API. Selected extruded formulations using ethylcellulose (EC) with a pore former were further formulated into orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs), which were optimized by varying the grade and percentage of the superdisintegrant used. An optimized disintegration time of approximately 8 seconds was achieved. The final ODT formulation exhibited excellent taste masking properties with over 85% drug release in gastric media as well as physical tablet properties. Interestingly, friability, which tends to be a common concern when formulating ODTs, was well within the acceptable limits (<1%) for common tablets. PMID:25410968

  5. [Involvement of zinc in taste disturbance occurring during treatment for malignant tumor in the chest and the effects of polaprezinc oral disintegrating tablets (a retrospective study)].

    PubMed

    Nakata, Yoko; Hirashima, Tomonori; Kondou, Yoko; Tokuoka, Yoshie; Imazato, Hitomi; Iwata, Kaori; Oomori, Yukari; Yamato, Akihiro; Shimizu, Saburou; Nagao, Sadako; Matsui, Kaoru; Abe, Noriko

    2008-06-01

    We analyzed the correlation between serum zinc levels and taste disturbance, and between patient backgrounds and serum zinc levels or taste disturbance, and evaluated the effects of polaprezinc oral disintegrating tablets on taste disturbance in 29 patients with lung cancer and one patient with malignant pleural mesothelioma who were receiving chemotherapy. Taste disturbance developed in 11 (36.7%) out of 30 patients. Serum zinc levels significantly correlated with taste disturbance (p=0.0227). Serum zinc levels were significantly lower (p=0.0235) and taste disturbance tended to be more frequent (p=0.0625) in males. Polaprezinc improved taste disturbance in 5 of 8 patients. PMID:18633224

  6. Optimization of Fast Dissolving Etoricoxib Tablets Prepared by Sublimation Technique

    PubMed Central

    Patel, D. M.; Patel, M. M.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to develop fast dissolving tablets of etoricoxib. Granules containing etoricoxib, menthol, crospovidone, aspartame and mannitol were prepared by wet granulation technique. Menthol was sublimed from the granules by exposing the granules to vacuum. The porous granules were then compressed in to tablets. Alternatively, tablets were first prepared and later exposed to vacuum. The tablets were evaluated for percentage friability and disintegration time. A 32 full factorial design was applied to investigate the combined effect of 2 formulation variables: amount of menthol and crospovidone. The results of multiple regression analysis indicated that for obtaining fast dissolving tablets; optimum amount of menthol and higher percentage of crospovidone should be used. A surface response plots are also presented to graphically represent the effect of the independent variables on the percentage friability and disintegration time. The validity of a generated mathematical model was tested by preparing a checkpoint batch. Sublimation of menthol from tablets resulted in rapid disintegration as compared with the tablets prepared from granules that were exposed to vacuum. The optimized tablet formulation was compared with conventional marketed tablets for percentage drug dissolved in 30 min (Q30) and dissolution efficiency after 30 min (DE30). From the results, it was concluded that fast dissolving tablets with improved etoricoxib dissolution could be prepared by sublimation of tablets containing suitable subliming agent. PMID:20390084

  7. Terbutaline slow-release tablets in children with bronchial asthma. Effect and pharmacokinetics compared with plain terbutaline tablets.

    PubMed

    Wettrell, G; Anehus, S; Hattevig, G; Kjellman, B

    1986-08-01

    The effect of terbutaline sulphate in slow-release (SR) tablets (Bricanyl Depot), 5 mg twice daily, was compared with that of terbutaline sulphate in ordinary tablets (Bricanyl), 2.5 mg three times daily, in a double-blind, randomized, cross-over study during 2 consecutive weeks in 10 asthmatic children. Plasma concentrations and urinary excretion of terbutaline were measured at various times during both treatment periods. The SR tablets produced a higher mean plasma concentration in the morning and a smaller peak-trough variation over the day than the ordinary ones. No differences between the two treatments were observed concerning FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 s). Tremor, measured with an opto-electronic tremorgraph, was about the same for two treatments and not significantly different from tremor seen in healthy children. The reported side effects were less frequent in the SR tablet period. PMID:3789327

  8. Formulation and evaluation of nanocrystalline cellulose as a potential disintegrant.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chengyu; Huang, Huijin; Jia, Min; Jin, Shanshan; Zhao, Wenjing; Cha, Ruitao

    2015-10-01

    Disintegrant is a typical excipient that improves the solubility, dissolution and bioavailability of drug. In this study, the application of nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) as a potential disintegrant in the preparation of tablet was investigated. Angle of repose of NCC was 44.26° which was between L-HPC and MCC suggesting a good fluidity of NCC. Swelling property of NCC was between CMS-Na and MCC indicating that NCC was of good absorbent ability. Carbonate calcium tablet of which NCC was used as a disintegrant exhibited fastest disintegration time than known disintegrants. The disintegration and dissolution tests demonstrated that NCC showed effective disintegrant properties, e.g. consistently fast disintegration, rapid dissolution, and effectiveness at low concentrations. Thus, we believe that NCC has a great potential as a disintegrant in tablets. PMID:26076627

  9. Leaching of indium from obsolete liquid crystal displays: Comparing grinding with electrical disintegration in context of LCA

    SciTech Connect

    Dodbiba, Gjergj; Nagai, Hiroki; Wang Lipang; Okaya, Katsunori; Fujita, Toyohisa

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two pre-treatment methods, prior to leaching of indium from obsolete LCD modules, were described. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conventional grinding and electrical disintegration have been evaluated and compared in the context of LCA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Experimental data on the leaching capacity for indium and the electricity consumption of equipment were inputted into the LCA model in order to compare the environmental performance of each method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An estimate for the environmental performance was calculated as the sum of six impact categories. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electrical disintegration method outperforms conventional grinding in all impact categories. - Abstract: In order to develop an effective recycling system for obsolete Liquid Crystal Displays (LCDs), which would enable both the leaching of indium (In) and the recovery of a pure glass fraction for recycling, an effective liberation or size-reduction method would be an important pre-treatment step. Therefore, in this study, two different types of liberation methods: (1) conventional grinding, and (2) electrical disintegration have been tested and evaluated in the context of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). In other words, the above-mentioned methods were compared in order to find out the one that ensures the highest leaching capacity for indium, as well as the lowest environmental burden. One of the main findings of this study was that the electrical disintegration was the most effective liberation method, since it fully liberated the indium containing-layer, ensuring a leaching capacity of 968.5 mg-In/kg-LCD. In turn, the estimate for the environmental burden was approximately five times smaller when compared with the conventional grinding.

  10. A New Test Unit for Disintegration End-Point Determination of Orodispersible Films.

    PubMed

    Low, Ariana; Kok, Si Ling; Khong, Yuet Mei; Chan, Sui Yung; Gokhale, Rajeev

    2015-11-01

    No standard time or pharmacopoeia disintegration test method for orodispersible films (ODFs) exists. The USP disintegration test for tablets and capsules poses significant challenges for end-point determination when used for ODFs. We tested a newly developed disintegration test unit (DTU) against the USP disintegration test. The DTU is an accessory to the USP disintegration apparatus. It holds the ODF in a horizontal position, allowing top-view of the ODF during testing. A Gauge R&R study was conducted to assign relative contributions of the total variability from the operator, sample or the experimental set-up. Precision was compared using commercial ODF products in different media. Agreement between the two measurement methods was analysed. The DTU showed improved repeatability and reproducibility compared to the USP disintegration system with tighter standard deviations regardless of operator or medium. There is good agreement between the two methods, with the USP disintegration test giving generally longer disintegration times possibly due to difficulty in end-point determination. The DTU provided clear end-point determination and is suitable for quality control of ODFs during product developmental stage or manufacturing. This may facilitate the development of a standardized methodology for disintegration time determination of ODFs. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 104:3893-3903, 2015. PMID:26296236

  11. A fixed-dose combination tablet of gemigliptin and metformin sustained release has comparable pharmacodynamic, pharmacokinetic, and tolerability profiles to separate tablets in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang-In; Lee, Howard; Oh, Jaeseong; Lim, Kyoung Soo; Jang, In-Jin; Kim, Jeong-Ae; Jung, Jong Hyuk; Yu, Kyung-Sang

    2015-01-01

    Background In type 2 diabetes mellitus, fixed-dose combination (FDC) can provide the complementary benefits of correction of multiple pathophysiologic defects such as dysfunctions in glycemic or metabolic control while improving compliance compared with separate tablets taken together. The objective of the study reported here was to compare the pharmacodynamic (PD), pharmacokinetic (PK), and tolerability profiles of gemigliptin and extended-release metformin (metformin XR) between FDC and separate tablets. Methods A randomized, open-label, single-dose, two-way, two-period, crossover study was conducted in 28 healthy male volunteers. Two FDC tablets of gemigliptin/metformin 25/500 mg or separate tablets of gemigliptin (50 mg ×1) and metformin XR (500 mg ×2) were orally administered in each period. Serial blood samples were collected up to 48 hours post-dose to determine dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) activity using spectrophotometric assay and concentrations of gemigliptin and metformin using tandem mass spectrometry. Geometric mean ratios (GMRs) of FDC to separate tablet formulations and their 90% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to compare the PD and PK parameters between the two formulations. Tolerability was assessed throughout the study. Results The plasma DPP-4 activity–time curves of the FDC and the separate tablets almost overlapped, leading to a GMR (90% CI) of the FDC to separate tablets for the plasma DPP-4 activity and its maximum inhibition of 1.00 (0.97–1.04) and 0.92 (0.82–1.05), respectively. Likewise, all of the GMRs (90% CIs) of FDC to separate tablets for the area under the plasma concentration–time curve and maximum plasma concentration of gemigliptin and metformin fell entirely within the conventional bioequivalence range of 0.80–1.25. Both the FDC and separate tablets were well tolerated. Conclusion The PD, PK, and tolerability profiles of gemigliptin and metformin XR in FDC and separate tablets were found to be comparable. The FDC tablet of gemigliptin and metformin sustained release can be a convenient therapeutic option in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus requiring a combination approach. PMID:25678778

  12. Comparative static curing versus dynamic curing on tablet coating structures.

    PubMed

    Gendre, Claire; Genty, Muriel; Fayard, Barbara; Tfayli, Ali; Boiret, Mathieu; Lecoq, Olivier; Baron, Michel; Chaminade, Pierre; Péan, Jean Manuel

    2013-09-10

    Curing is generally required to stabilize film coating from aqueous polymer dispersion. This post-coating drying step is traditionally carried out in static conditions, requiring the transfer of solid dosage forms to an oven. But, curing operation performed directly inside the coating equipment stands for an attractive industrial application. Recently, the use of various advanced physico-chemical characterization techniques i.e., X-ray micro-computed tomography, vibrational spectroscopies (near infrared and Raman) and X-ray microdiffraction, allowed new insights into the film-coating structures of dynamically cured tablets. Dynamic curing end-point was efficiently determined after 4h. The aim of the present work was to elucidate the influence of curing conditions on film-coating structures. Results demonstrated that 24h of static curing and 4h of dynamic curing, both performed at 60°C and ambient relative humidity, led to similar coating layers in terms of drug release properties, porosity, water content, structural rearrangement of polymer chains and crystalline distribution. Furthermore, X-ray microdiffraction measurements pointed out different crystalline coating compositions depending on sample storage time. An aging mechanism might have occur during storage, resulting in the crystallization and the upward migration of cetyl alcohol, coupled to the downward migration of crystalline sodium lauryl sulfate within the coating layer. Interestingly, this new study clearly provided further knowledge into film-coating structures after a curing step and confirmed that curing operation could be performed in dynamic conditions. PMID:23792043

  13. Effect of repeated compaction of tablets on tablet properties and work of compaction using an instrumented laboratory tablet press.

    PubMed

    Gamlen, Michael John Desmond; Martini, Luigi G; Al Obaidy, Kais G

    2015-01-01

    The repeated compaction of Avicel PH101, dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCP) powder, 50:50 DCP/Avicel PH101 and Starch 1500 was studied using an instrumented laboratory tablet press which measures upper punch force, punch displacement and ejection force and operates using a V-shaped compression profile. The measurement of work compaction was demonstrated, and the test materials were ranked in order of compaction behaviour Avicel PH101?>?DCP/Avicel PH101?>?Starch?>?DCP. The behaviour of the DCP/Avicel PH101 mixture was distinctly non-linear compared with the pure components. Repeated compaction and precompression had no effect on the tensile fracture strength of Avicel PH101 tablets, although small effects on friability and disintegration time were seen. Repeated compaction and precompression reduced the tensile strength and the increased disintegration time of the DCP tablets, but improved the strength and friability of Starch 1500 tablets. Based on the data reported, routine laboratory measurement of tablet work of compaction may have potential as a critical quality attribute of a powder blend for compression. The instrumented press was suitable for student use with minimal supervisor input. PMID:24171692

  14. Importance of excipient wettability on tablet characteristics prepared by moisture activated dry granulation (MADG).

    PubMed

    Takasaki, Hiroshi; Yonemochi, Etsuo; Messerschmid, Roman; Ito, Masanori; Wada, Koichi; Terada, Katsuhide

    2013-11-01

    For moisture activated dry granulation (MADG), microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) or silicon dioxide is recommended for the moisture absorption stage. The aim of this study was to assess the suitability of alternative excipients as moisture absorbents with regard to the disintegration mechanism of resulting lactose based placebo formulations. Beside high and low moisture MCC grades, the additions of magnesium aluminometasilicate (MAMS), pregelatinized starch (S1500), crospovidone (Kollidon CL) and carmellose calcium (ECG 505) were evaluated. High shear granulation (HSG) was conducted as a reference process. The overall disintegration time of all tablets produced by MADG was significantly faster whereas hardness yield and mass-variability were equal or superior compared to the HSG process. Powder wettability of the different moisture absorbents was identified to be a key driver for rapid disintegration, whereas tablet porosity had only a minor influence on the target hardness of the tablets. PMID:23994013

  15. Towards a real time release approach for manufacturing tablets using NIR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Pestieau, Aude; Krier, Fabrice; Thoorens, Grégory; Dupont, Anaďs; Chavez, Pierre-François; Ziemons, Eric; Hubert, Philippe; Evrard, Brigitte

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to use the near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) as a process analytical tool to evaluate the conformity of paracetamol tablets in terms of four Pharmacopoeia tests (content uniformity, hardness, disintegration time, friability) and to control in-line blend uniformity. Tablets were manufactured by direct compression. Three different active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) concentrations were manufactured and three different compaction pressures were used. Intact tablets were analysed by transmission mode with NIRS prior to European Pharmacopoeia tests that were used as reference methods. Partial least square (PLS) regression was selected to build the prediction NIR models for content uniformity, tablet hardness and disintegration time. The prediction of NIR content uniformity and tablet hardness methods were validated using the accuracy profile approach. The values of the root mean squared error of calibration (RMSEC) and the root mean squared error of prediction (RMSEP) for the disintegration time indicated the robustness and the global accuracy of the NIR model. Regarding the tablet friability test, the classification was based on K-nearest neighbours (KNN). Then tablet NIR analyses successfully allowed the prediction of their conformity. Compared to the time consuming Pharmacopoeia reference methods, the benefit of this nondestructive method is significant, especially for reducing batch release time. PMID:24880992

  16. Formulation and Evaluation of Taste Masked Mouth Dissolving Tablets of Levocetirizine Hydrochloride

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vijay; Chopra, Himansu

    2012-01-01

    Aim of this research work was to develop mouth dissolving tablet that disintegrates rapidly in mouth by using tasteless complex of Levocetirizine and Tulsion-335. Effect of different parameters such as swelling time, resin activation, drug resin ratio as well as stirring time was optimized by taste and percentage drug loading. Formulated DRC (Drug Resin Complex) was characterized by infrared spectroscopy, thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction pattern. Tablets were formulated by wet granulation with PVP as binder, Sodium Starch Glycolate (SSG) and Crospovidone as super disintegrants. In these batches optimum hardness was achieved but disintegration time was found to be very high as ? 70 second, so further trials were planned by using different superdisintegrants such as Croscarmellose sodium, Sodium Starch Glycolate (SSG) as well as Crospovidone by wet granulation method. Tablets formulated with 7.5% crospovidone showed comparatively low disintegration time (25 sec), wetting time (20 sec) and friability (0.60 %) than the other batches. In present study we optimized the conditions required for maximum drug loading of Levocetirizine with Tulsion-335. Among different superdisintergants, crospovidone was found suitable with drug-resin complex to get the low disintegration time, wetting time and friability of tablets. PMID:24250469

  17. Formulation and evaluation of taste masked mouth dissolving tablets of levocetirizine hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vijay; Chopra, Himansu

    2012-01-01

    Aim of this research work was to develop mouth dissolving tablet that disintegrates rapidly in mouth by using tasteless complex of Levocetirizine and Tulsion-335. Effect of different parameters such as swelling time, resin activation, drug resin ratio as well as stirring time was optimized by taste and percentage drug loading. Formulated DRC (Drug Resin Complex) was characterized by infrared spectroscopy, thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction pattern. Tablets were formulated by wet granulation with PVP as binder, Sodium Starch Glycolate (SSG) and Crospovidone as super disintegrants. In these batches optimum hardness was achieved but disintegration time was found to be very high as ? 70 second, so further trials were planned by using different superdisintegrants such as Croscarmellose sodium, Sodium Starch Glycolate (SSG) as well as Crospovidone by wet granulation method. Tablets formulated with 7.5% crospovidone showed comparatively low disintegration time (25 sec), wetting time (20 sec) and friability (0.60 %) than the other batches. In present study we optimized the conditions required for maximum drug loading of Levocetirizine with Tulsion-335. Among different superdisintergants, crospovidone was found suitable with drug-resin complex to get the low disintegration time, wetting time and friability of tablets. PMID:24250469

  18. Formulation and evaluation of aceclofenac mouth-dissolving tablet

    PubMed Central

    Solanki, Shailendra Singh; Dahima, Rashmi

    2011-01-01

    Aceclofenac has been shown to have potent analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities similar to indomethacin and diclofenac, and due to its preferential Cox-2 blockade, it has a better safety than conventional Non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAIDs) with respect to adverse effect on gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems. Aceclofenac is superior from other NSAIDs as it has selectivity for Cox-2, a beneficial Cox inhibitor is well tolerated, has better Gastrointestinal (GI) tolerability and improved cardiovascular safety when compared with other selective Cox-2 inhibitor. To provide the patient with the most convenient mode of administration, there is need to develop a fast-disintegrating dosage form, particularly one that disintegrates and dissolves/disperses in saliva and can be administered without water, anywhere, any time. Such tablets are also called as “melt in mouth tablet.” Direct compression, freeze drying, sublimation, spray drying, tablet molding, disintegrant addition, and use of sugar-based excipients are technologies available for mouth-dissolving tablet. Mouth-dissolving tablets of aceclofenac were prepared with two different techniques, wet granulation and direct compression, in which different formulations were prepared with varying concentration of excipients. These tablets were evaluated for their friability, hardness, wetting time, and disintegration time; the drug release profile was studied in buffer Phosphate buffered Saline (PBS) pH 7.4. Direct compression batch C3 gave far better dissolution than the wet granulation Batch F2, which released only 75.37% drug, and C3, which released 89.69% drug in 90 minutes. PMID:22171305

  19. Attractiveness of reformulated OxyContin(R) tablets: assessing comparative preferences and tampering potential.

    PubMed

    Sellers, Edward M; Perrino, Peter J; Colucci, Salvatore V; Harris, Stephen C

    2013-09-01

    Reformulated OxyContin® (oxycodone HCl controlled-release or ORF) was developed as a tamper and abuse-deterrent product, to reduce the risk of product abuse, misuse and their consequences. This noninterventional single-session study asked participants who were medically-healthy recreational opioid users, aged 18 years and older, to consider how they would use commonly available supplies to tamper with placebo ORF and placebo original OxyContin (OC) tablets, and how they would assess the attractiveness of tampering and abusing ORF tablets, as compared with other opioid formulations. Participants provided information on past opioid use, and they assessed the properties of five nonhypothetical oxycodone products and two hypothetical oxycodone products. Participants provided feedback on tampering preferences, preferred tamper methods for each product, overall tampering potential and product preferences. We had 30 participants (27 males and 3 females; mean age 35 years, range 18-51) complete both the interview and tampering sessions. Participants judged OC as the most attractive, valuable, desirable and most likely to be tampered with, from among all opioid products studied. By contrast, they rated ORF as the least attractive, least valuable, least desirable, and least likely to be tampered with among all the nonhypothetical opioid products studied. These results suggested that recreational drug abusers view ORF tablets as tamper-deterrent products. PMID:23784739

  20. Gastrointestinal transit of model mini-tablet controlled release oral dosage forms in fasted human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Podczeck, F; Course, N; Newton, J M; Short, M B

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the gastrointestinal transit of multiple unit, small diameter (3.2 mm), non-disintegrating tablets of differing densities with results previously reported in the same volunteers in the fasted state for larger diameter (6.6 and 12.2 mm) tablets. The gastrointestinal transit was observed with gamma-scintigraphy at various intervals over a 9-h period to give an accurate assessment of the transit characteristics. The value for the median emptying time of the first light tablet was significantly shorter than that for the dense tablet, but the total emptying time and the time for the last tablet to empty for both sets of tablets were not statistically different. The value of the median time for initial and final emptying of the small tablets from the stomach was significantly longer than that for the larger diameter tablets. The 9-h time limit of the observations limited the estimation of the time taken to enter the caecum and consequently the small intestine transit times. There was clear evidence that for the dense tablets of all sizes, the value for the small intestine transit time was longer than the 3-4 h reported in the literature. The only tablet system to enter the caecum within the time limit of the study was the normal density 12.2-mm tablets. PMID:17637188

  1. Novel approach of aceclofenac fast dissolving tablet.

    PubMed

    Dave, Vivek; Yadav, Sachdev; Sharma, Swapnil; Vishwakarma, Pushpendra; Ali, Nasir

    2015-01-01

    Fast disintegrating tablets (FDTs) have received ever increasing demand during the last decade, and the ?eld has become a hastily growing area in the pharmaceutical industry. Upon introduction into the mouth, these tablets dissolve or disintegrate in the mouth in the absence of additional water for easy administration of active pharmaceutical ingredients. Aceclofenac, an NSAID, has been recommended orally for the treatment of bone and connective tissue disorder and thus the formulation of the same resulted in development of several FDT technologies. The present aim is to formulate a tablet which disintegrate and dissolve rapidly and give its rapid onset of action: analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory action. Besides, the conventional tablets also show poor patient compliance an attempt had been made to formulate for FDT of aceclofenac by using various super disintegrants like sodium starch glycolate, croscarmellose sodium and crosspovidone (polyplasdone XL) and PEG 6000 followed by novel technique. The tablets were evaluated for friability, hardness, weight variation, disintegration time, wetting time, in vitro dissolution studies and drug content studies. It was concluded that the batch which was prepared by using combination of crosspovidone and sodium starch glycolate as a super disintegrant shows excellent disintegration time, enhance dissolution rate, taste masking and hence lead to improve efficacy and bioavailability of drug. PMID:25553683

  2. An easy-to-use approach for determining the disintegration ability of disintegrants by analysis of available surface area.

    PubMed

    Iwao, Yasunori; Tanaka, Shoko; Uchimoto, Takeaki; Noguchi, Shuji; Itai, Shigeru

    2013-05-01

    With the aim of directly predicting the functionality and mechanism of disintegrants during the disintegration and dissolution of tablets, we investigated an analysis method based on available surface area, which is the surface area of a drug in a formulation in direct contact with the external solvent during dissolution. We evaluated the following disintegrants in this study: sodium starch glycolate (Glycolys), crospovidone (Kollidon CL), carboxymethylcellulose calcium (CMC-Ca), low-substituted hydroxypropylcellulose (L-HPC), and croscarmellose sodium (Ac-Di-Sol). When disintegrant was added to a 50% ethenzamide tablet formulation, an increase in the dissolution rate dependent on disintegrant concentration was observed, according to the type of disintegrant. In addition, the available surface area also differed between disintegrants. For Glycolys, CMC-Ca, and Ac-Di-Sol, a rapid increase in available surface area and a large increase in maximum available surface area (Smax) were observed due to high swellability and wicking, even when the disintegrant concentration was only 1.0%. In contrast, for Kollidon CL and LH-21, a gradual increase in available surface area was observed, depending on the disintegrant concentration. To evaluate the disintegrant ability, ?tmax and ?Smax were calculated by subtracting peak time (tmax) at 5.0% from that at 1.0% and subtracting Smax at 1.0% from that at 5.0%, respectively, and it was found that the water absorption ratio had strong negative correlations with ?tmax and ?Smax. Therefore, this study demonstrates that analysis of only available surface area and parameters thereby obtained can directly provide useful information, especially about the disintegration ability of disintegrants. PMID:23518366

  3. Formulation and Characterization of Oral Mucoadhesive Chlorhexidine Tablets Using Cordia myxa Mucilage

    PubMed Central

    Moghimipour, Eskandar; Aghel, Nasrin; Adelpour, Akram

    2012-01-01

    Background The dilution and rapid elimination of topically applied drugs due to the flushing action of saliva is a major difficulty in the effort to eradicate infections of oral cavity. Utilization a proper delivery system for incorporation of drugs has a major impact on drug delivery and such a system should be formulated for prolonged drug retention in oral cavity. Objectives The aim of the present study was the use of mucilage of Cordia myxa as a mucoadhesive material in production of chlorhexidine buccal tablets and its substitution for synthetic polymers such as HPMC. Materials and Methods The influence of mucilage concentration on the physicochemical responses (hardness, friability, disintegration time, dissolution, swelling, and muco-adhesiveness strength) was studied and swelling of mucilage and HPMC were compared. The evaluated responses included pharmacopoeial characteristics of tablets, the force needed to separate tablets from mucosa, and the amount of water absorbed by tablets. Results In comparison to HPMC, the rise of mucilage concentration in the formulations increased disintegration time, drug dissolution rate, and reduced MDT. Also, compared to 30% HPMC, muco-adhesiveness strength of buccal tablets containing 20% mucilage was significantly higher. Conclusions It can be concluded that the presence of Cordia myxa powdered mucilage may significantly affect the tablet characteristics, and increasing in muco-adhesiveness may be achieved by using 20% w/w mucilage. PMID:24624170

  4. Locust bean gum as superdisintegrant--formulation and evaluation of nimesulide orodispersible tablets.

    PubMed

    Malik, Karan; Arora, Gurpreet; Singh, Inderbir

    2011-01-01

    Orodispersible tablets disperse instantaneously in the mouth so that they can be swallowed without the aid of water. The aim of the present study was to formulate nimesulide orodispersible tablets using locust bean gum as a natural superdisintegrant. The gum was evaluated for powder flow properties, swelling index and loss on drying. Excellent powder flow properties were observed, swelling index was found to be 20 which indicated appreciable capability of locust bean gum to be used as superdisintegrant. The prepared tablets were evaluated against standard superdisintegrant i.e. cross-carmellose sodium. Disintegration time of tablets containing 10 % locust bean gum was found to be 13 seconds. The prepared batches were also evaluated for wetting time, water absorption ratio, effective pore radius, porosity, in vitro and in vivo disintegration time, in vitro release and stability studies. Wetting time was found to reduce from 19 +/- 2 to 11 +/- 3 sec (A1-A4) and 51 +/- 2 to 36 +/- 3 sec (B1-B4). Effective pore radius and porosity were found to be increase with increase in polymer concentration. The superdisintegrant property of locust bean gum may be due to concentration dependent wicking action leading to formation of porous structure which disintegrates the tablet within seconds. In-vivo results were complementary to in-vitro disintegration time results. The in-vitro release studies were compared against marketed nimesulide fast dissolving tablets (Nimulid MD). Stability studies showed that there was no significant change in hardness, friability, tensile strength and assay of the prepared formulations. The f2 values (in comparison with Nimulid MD) of 92.27 and 98.19 were obtained with A3 and A4 batches respectively. PMID:21739929

  5. Dissolution testing of sublingual tablets: a novel in vitro method.

    PubMed

    Rachid, Ousama; Rawas-Qalaji, Mutasem; Simons, F Estelle R; Simons, Keith J

    2011-06-01

    In the sublingual (SL) cavity, compared with the gastrointestinal tract, tablets are subjected to minimal physiological agitation, and a limited volume of saliva is available to facilitate disintegration and dissolution. None of the official compendial dissolution apparatuses and methods simulate these SL conditions. In this study, a custom-made dissolution apparatus was constructed, and a novel in vitro method that simulates SL conditions was evaluated. Several epinephrine 40 mg SL tablet formulations under development and two commercial SL tablets, isosorbide dinitrate 5 mg and nitroglycerin 0.6 mg, were studied. The dissolution medium was 2 mL of distilled water at 25°C. Dissolution was measured at 60 and 120 s. The novel in vitro method was validated for accuracy, reproducibility, and discrimination capability, and was compared with the official US Pharmacopeia (USP) dissolution method using apparatus 2 (Paddle). The data obtained following the novel in vitro method were accurate and reproducible. This method was capable of detecting minor changes in SL formulations that could not be detected using other in vitro tests. Results from the official USP dissolution method and our novel in vitro method were significantly different (p < 0.05). Results reflecting the dissolution of rapidly disintegrating tablets using simulated SL conditions were obtained using the novel in vitro dissolution method. PMID:21523516

  6. A new application of WT-ANN method to control the preparation process of metformin hydrochloride tablets by near infrared spectroscopy compared to PLS.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jia; Luo, Wei; Wang, Xuekai; Qiang cheng; Sun, Chaoguo; Li, Hui

    2013-06-01

    NIR spectroscopy was an effective expeditious and nondestructive technique to analyze various physical and chemical parameters of interest to the pharmaceutical industry. This paper proposed wavelet transform-artificial neural network (WT-ANN) to determinate mean particle size of metformin hydrochloride granulation process, tablet compression force, tablet hardness, tablet active content with two pretreatment method, standard normal variate (SNV) and multiplicative scatter correction (MSC). The proposed WT-ANN method which was applied to control the preparation process of metformin hydrochloride tablets was feasible and demonstrated more accurate as an available non-linear method compared to traditional methods such as partial least squares (PLS). PMID:23587532

  7. Formulation and In Vitro Evaluation of Ofloxacin Tablets using Natural Gums as Binders

    PubMed Central

    Mistry, Amisha K.; Nagda, Chirag D.; Nagda, Dhruti C.; Dixit, Bharat C.; Dixit, Ritu B.

    2014-01-01

    Natural gums are economical, easily available, and useful as tablet binders. In the present investigation, an attempt was made to formulate Ofloxacin tablets using three natural binders, namely Acacia arabica, Hibiscus esculentus, and xanthan gum. Such six batches of Ofloxacin tablets were prepared by using different types and amounts of the natural binders by the wet granulation method. The tablets were analyzed for their hardness, friability, and weight variation, and in vitro release was performed in a phosphate buffer at pH 6.8. The prepared tablets were also evaluated for their various release kinetics and similarity factors f2. The physical properties of the tablets containing the natural binders showed sufficient hardness, desirable disintegration time, and low friability. Their better percentage of drug release was observed as compared to the marketed formulation showing more than 85% drug release within 45 minutes. The in vitro release data was well-fitted into zero-order and the values of release exponent ‘n’ were between 0.303 and 0.514. The high similarity factor f2 of 64.50 was achieved with the best batch in comparison to the marketed tablets. The results obtained indicated that the gum Acacia arabica performed as well as gelatin compared to the other binders for the Ofloxacin tablet formulation. PMID:24959411

  8. Formulation of orodispersible tablets of ondansetron HCl: investigations using glycine-chitosan mixture as superdisintegrant.

    PubMed

    Goel, Honey; Vora, Nishant; Tiwary, Ashok K; Rana, Vikas

    2009-05-01

    The objective of this investigation was to prepare orodispersible tablets (ODTs) of ondansetron HCl using a direct compression method. A combination of glycine and chitosan was used as a disintegrating system and these tablets were compared for mechanical strength and disintegration time with those containing superdisintegrants. The Plackett-Burman screening design was used to screen the independent variables [concentration of glycine (X(1)), concentration of chitosan (X(2)), concentration of ondansetron HCl (X(3)) and tablet crushing strength (X(4))] which were found to actively influence the dependent variables [disintegration time in the oral cavity (DT), wetting time (WT), and water absorption ratio (WAR)]. Further, a central composite design was used to formulate additional ODTs of ondansetron HCl for estimating response in the extended spherical domain. The regression analysis (performed using Statistica-7.0) of quadratic fit revealed that DT or WT and WAR were 99% and 98% correlated with active factors (X(1), X(2) or X(3)), respectively. The data showed that disintegration time of optimized ondansetron HCl ODTs was not significantly different (p<0.05) from ODTs prepared using Croscarmellose sodium or Crospovidone. PMID:19420882

  9. Desktop 3D printing of controlled release pharmaceutical bilayer tablets.

    PubMed

    Khaled, Shaban A; Burley, Jonathan C; Alexander, Morgan R; Roberts, Clive J

    2014-01-30

    Three dimensional (3D) printing was used as a novel medicine formulation technique for production of viable tablets capable of satisfying regulatory tests and matching the release of standard commercial tablets. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC 2208) (Methocel™ K100M Premium) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) (Carbopol(®) 974P NF) were used as a hydrophilic matrix for a sustained release (SR) layer. Hypromellose(®) (HPMC 2910) was used as a binder while microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) (Pharmacel(®) 102) and sodium starch glycolate (SSG) (Primojel(®)) were used as disintegrants for an immediate release (IR) layer. Commercial guaifenesin bi-layer tablets (GBT) were used as a model drug (Mucinex(®)) for this study. There was a favourable comparison of release of the active guaifenesin from the printed hydrophilic matrix compared with the commercially available GBT. The printed formulations were also evaluated for physical and mechanical properties such as weight variation, friability, hardness and thickness as a comparison to the commercial tablet and were within acceptable range as defined by the international standards stated in the United States Pharmacopoeia (USP). All formulations (standard tablets and 3D printed tablets) showed Korsmeyer-Peppas n values between 0.27 and 0.44 which indicates Fickian diffusion drug release through a hydrated HPMC gel layer. PMID:24280018

  10. Preparation and evaluation of medicinal carbon tablets with different saccharides as binders.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kenta; Ito, Akihiko; Machida, Yoshiharu

    2009-10-01

    Medicinal carbon (MC) tablets were prepared with several saccharides to improve the formability and absorption ability of MC tablets made with maltitol (MT). The MC tablets were made by the wet granule compression method, in which maltitol, xylitol (XYL), mannitol (MAN), and sorbitol (SOR) were used as binders. Granule and tablet formability, tablet strength, disintegration, and MC adsorption potential were evaluated for each formulation. Acetaminophen (AA) was used in checking effect of binders on adsorption. Due to low water solubility, MAN was added only up to 30% (w/w) of MC; in greater concentrations, the tablet could not be formed. However, tablets formed easily when using XYL or SOR at 120% (w/w) of the MC amount. This result was similar for MT. The XYL, SOR, and MT tablets displayed sufficient hardness and rapid disintegration. The tensile strength of the SOR tablets exceeded that of the MT tablets, which in turn had greater tensile strength than the XYL tablets. In addition, the XYL tablets disintegrated more quickly than the MT tablets, which disintegrated more quickly than the SOR tablets. The MC adsorption capacity was slightly decreased by XYL and SOR, but to a lesser extent than the decrease caused by MT. Overall, XYL and SOR were superior to MT as binding agents for preparation of MC tablets. Therefore, we recommend preparing the tablets with XYL or SOR as a binder using the wet granule compression method to produce a compact dosage form of MC. PMID:19801858

  11. Novel levocetirizine HCl tablets with enhanced palatability: synergistic effect of combining taste modifiers and effervescence technique

    PubMed Central

    Labib, Gihan S

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Levocetirizine HCl, a second-generation piperazine derivative and H1-selective antihistaminic agent, possesses few side effects. The first objective of the study was to compare and evaluate the taste-masking effect of different ratios of 2-hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin and mannitol on levocetirizine HCl using an inclusion complex and solid dispersion, respectively. The second objective was to study the possibility of preparing and evaluating effervescent tablets from the best-chosen taste-masked blends for the purpose of their use either as orodispersible tablets or as water-soluble effervescent tablets, according to patients’ will. Materials and methods Prepared taste-masked blends were prepared and subjected to palatability, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry studies. Tablets containing different percentages of effervescent mixtures were prepared by direct compression on the selected taste-modified blends. Evaluation tests were conducted, including flowability and compressibility on the precompressed blends and hardness, friability, wetting time, effervescent time, in vitro, in vivo disintegration time, and in vitro dissolution study on the compressed tablets. Formulated tablets were evaluated and compared to marketed orodispersible tablets for mouth feel and palatability. Results All prepared tablets showed convenient physical and palatability properties compared to the selected brand. The in vitro drug-release study revealed fast release of levocetirizine HCl within 5 minutes from all prepared tablets. Conclusion Levocetirizine HCl effervescent tablets are likely to increase patient compliance with drug administration. Moreover, the use of these effervescent tablets in an orodispersible dosage form can improve oral drug bioavailability and act as an attractive pediatric dosage form. PMID:26379426

  12. Orally disintegrating olanzapine review: effectiveness, patient preference, adherence, and other properties

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, William; Treuer, Tamas; Karagianis, Jamie; Ascher-Svanum, Haya; Harrison, Gavan

    2012-01-01

    Orally disintegrating olanzapine (ODO) is a rapid-dissolving formulation of olanzapine which disintegrates in saliva almost immediately, developed as a convenient and adherence-enhancing alternative to the standard olanzapine-coated tablet (SOT). Clinical studies, which form the basis of this review, have shown ODO and SOT to have similar efficacy and tolerability profiles. However, ODO appears to have a number of advantages over SOT in terms of adherence, patient preference, and reduction in nursing burden. Overall, the existing clinical data suggests that compared to SOT, ODO is not only well-suited for difficult-to-treat, agitated, and/or nonadherent patients but, due to its potential ability to improve adherence and greater patient preference, may also be an appropriate formulation for the majority of patients for which olanzapine is the antipsychotic of choice. PMID:22346347

  13. Childhood disintegrative disorder

    MedlinePLUS

    ... had already learned The condition is similar to autistic disorder ( autism ). ... such as childhood schizophrenia or pervasive developmental disorder (autism). The most important sign of childhood disintegrative disorder ...

  14. Development and Evaluation of Melt-in-Mouth Tablets of Metoclopramide Hydrochloride Using Novel Co-processed Superdisintegrants

    PubMed Central

    Ladola, M. K.; Gangurde, A. B.

    2014-01-01

    In the present investigation, a novel multifunctional co-processed superdisintegrants consisting of crospovidone and Kyron T-314 were fabricated by solvent evaporation method to develop melt-in-mouth tablets of metoclopramide hydrochloride with a view to enhance patient compliance by direct compression method. The simple physical blends and co-processed mixture of superdisintegrants were characterized for angle of repose, bulk density, tapped density, Carr's index, Hausner's ratio and compatibility studies by FTIR spectroscopy. Melt-in-mouth tablets of metoclopramide hydrochloride were prepared using the physical blends and co-processed mixture of superdisinterants and were evaluated for hardness, friability, in vitro disintegration time, in vitro dispersion time, wetting time, water absorption ratio, drug content, in vitro drug release and accelerated stability study at 40±2° temperature and 75±5% relative humidity. Among the tablets evaluated, formulation F-X prepared by adding co-processed superdisintegrants in ratio of 1:1 showed minimum in vitro dispersion time of 9.71±0.021 s, in vitro disintegration time of 5.70±0.117 s and higher amount of drug release of 99.695±0.29% at the end of 1 min. Formulation F-X was emerged as the overall best formulation based on drug release characteristics in pH 6.8 phosphate buffer compared with the tablets obtained from conventional method of manufacture as well as with marketed preparation. Analysis of drug release data indicated that formulation F-X followed first order kinetics. This study revealed that the co-processed mixture of superdisintegrants have excellent flow properties, high compressibility, render low disintegration time to tablets and have better binding properties as compared to physical blends of superdisintegrants. These materials can be a good substitute for inert superdisintegrants, which are normally used in tablet manufacturing. PMID:25425756

  15. Mechanism of disintegration during metal dusting

    SciTech Connect

    Katsman, A.; Klinger, L.; Levin, L.A.; Werber, T.

    1996-10-01

    The process of catastrophic carburization known as metal dusting, whereby a solid metallic material is converted into fine particles in a carburizing atmosphere, was analyzed. It was shown that this conversion is the result of plastic deformation and subsequent fracture accompanying diffusional phase formation in the near-surface layer. The process is controlled by internal stresses arising during phase transformation. Competition between stress generation and relaxation may result in attaining the ultimate strength in the near-surface layer and its fracture. Such a mechanism of metal disintegration may occur in a certain temperature interval depending on the kinetic and geometrical parameters of the system--the diffusivities of the alloy`s components, the ratio between specific volumes of the new and the old phases, and the ultimate plastic strain. The temperature interval for disintegration of carbon steel, the rate of disintegration, and the period of the disintegration cycle, were evaluated and compared with experimental data.

  16. Development of Fast Dispersible Aceclofenac Tablets: Effect of Functionality of Superdisintegrants

    PubMed Central

    Setty, C. Mallikarjuna; Prasad, D. V. K.; Gupta, V. R. M.; Sa, B.

    2008-01-01

    Aceclofenac, a non-steroidal antiinflammatory drug, is used for posttraumatic pain and rheumatoid arthritis. Aceclofenac fast-dispersible tablets have been prepared by direct compression method. Effect of superdisintegrants (such as, croscarmellose sodium, sodium starch glycolate and crospovidone) on wetting time, disintegration time, drug content, in vitro release and stability parameters has been studied. Disintegration time and dissolution parameters (t50% and t80%) decreased with increase in the level of croscarmellose sodium. Where as, disintegration time and dissolution parameters increased with increase in the level of sodium starch glycolate in tablets. However, the disintegration time values did not reflect in the dissolution parameter values of crospovidone tablets and release was dependent on the aggregate size in the dissolution medium. Stability studies indicated that tablets containing superdisintegrants were sensitive to high humidity conditions. It is concluded that fast-dispersible aceclofenac tablets could be prepared by direct compression using superdisintegrants. PMID:20046709

  17. Development of fast dispersible aceclofenac tablets: effect of functionality of superdisintegrants.

    PubMed

    Setty, C Mallikarjuna; Prasad, D V K; Gupta, V R M; Sa, B

    2008-01-01

    Aceclofenac, a non-steroidal antiinflammatory drug, is used for posttraumatic pain and rheumatoid arthritis. Aceclofenac fast-dispersible tablets have been prepared by direct compression method. Effect of superdisintegrants (such as, croscarmellose sodium, sodium starch glycolate and crospovidone) on wetting time, disintegration time, drug content, in vitro release and stability parameters has been studied. Disintegration time and dissolution parameters (t(50%) and t(80%)) decreased with increase in the level of croscarmellose sodium. Where as, disintegration time and dissolution parameters increased with increase in the level of sodium starch glycolate in tablets. However, the disintegration time values did not reflect in the dissolution parameter values of crospovidone tablets and release was dependent on the aggregate size in the dissolution medium. Stability studies indicated that tablets containing superdisintegrants were sensitive to high humidity conditions. It is concluded that fast-dispersible aceclofenac tablets could be prepared by direct compression using superdisintegrants. PMID:20046709

  18. A pilot human pharmacokinetic study and influence of formulation factors on orodispersible tablet incorporating meloxicam solid dispersion using factorial design.

    PubMed

    Aboelwafa, Ahmed A; Fahmy, Rania H

    2012-01-01

    Meloxicam (MLX) suffers from poor aqueous solubility leading to slow absorption following oral administration; hence, immediate release MLX tablet is unsuitable in the treatment of acute pain. This study aims to overcome such a drawback by increasing MLX solubility and dissolution using PEG solid dispersion (SD), then, to investigate the feasibility of incorporating the SD into orodispersible tablets (ODTs). A 2(3) full factorial design was employed to investigate the influence of three formulation variables on MLX ODTs. The selected factors: camphor (X(1)) as pore-forming material, and croscarmellose sodium (X(2)) as superdisintegrant, showed significant positive influence, while PEG content (X(3)) was proved to negatively affect both disintegration and wetting times. In addition, isomalt increased disintegration and wetting times when compared to mannitol as diluents. The pharmacokinetic assessment of the optimum ODT formulation in healthy human subjects proved that the faster MLX dissolution by using PEG solid dispersion at pH 6.8 resulted in more rapid absorption of MLX. The rate of absorption of MLX from ODT was significantly faster (p?=?0.030) with a significantly higher peak plasma concentration (P?=?0.037) when compared to the marketed immediate release MLX tablet with a mean oral disintegration time of 17?±?3 s. PMID:20550483

  19. Release Kinetics of Papaverine Hydrochloride from Tablets with Different Excipients

    PubMed Central

    Kasperek, Regina; Polski, Andrzej; Zimmer, ?ukasz; Poleszak, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The influence of excipients on the disintegration times of tablets and the release of papaverine hydrochloride (PAP) from tablets were studied. Ten different formulations of tablets with PAP were prepared by direct powder compression. Different binders, disintegrants, fillers, and lubricants were used as excipients. The release of PAP was carried out in the paddle apparatus using 0.1 N HCl as a dissolution medium. The results of the disintegration times of tablets showed that six formulations can be classified as fast dissolving tablets (FDT). FDT formulations contained Avicel PH 101, Avicel PH 102, mannitol, (3-lactose, PVP K 10, gelatinized starch (CPharmGel), Prosolv Easy Tab, Prosolv SMCC 90, magnesium stearate, and the addition of disintegrants such as AcDiSol and Kollidon CL. Drug release kinetics were estimated by the zero- and first-order, Higuchi release rate, and Korsmeyer-Peppas models. Two formulations of the tablets containing PVP (K10) (10%), CPharmGel (10% and 25%), and Prosolv Easy Tab (44% and 60%) without the addition of a disintegrant were well-fitted to the kinetics models such as the Higuchi and zero-order, which are suitable for controlled- or sustained-release. PMID:25853076

  20. Influence of mechanical disintegration on the microbial growth of aerobic sludge biomass: A comparative study of ultrasonic and shear gap homogenizers by oxygen uptake measurements.

    PubMed

    Divyalakshmi, P; Murugan, D; Sivarajan, M; Saravanan, P; Lajapathi Rai, C

    2015-11-01

    Wastewater treatment plant incorporates physical, chemical and biological processes to treat and remove the contaminants. The main drawback of conventional activated sludge process is the huge production of excess sludge, which is an unavoidable byproduct. The treatment and disposal of excess sludge costs about 60% of the total operating cost. The ideal way to reduce excess sludge production during wastewater treatment is by preventing biomass formation within the aerobic treatment train rather than post treatment of the generated sludge. In the present investigation two different mechanical devices namely, Ultrasonic and Shear Gap homogenizers have been employed to disintegrate the aerobic biomass. This study is intended to restrict the multiplication of microbial biomass and at the same time degrade the organics present in wastewater by increasing the oxidative capacity of microorganisms. The disintegrability on biomass was determined by biochemical methods. Degree of inactivation provides the information on inability of microorganisms to consume oxygen upon disruption. The soluble COD quantifies the extent of release of intra cellular compounds. The participation of disintegrated microorganism in wastewater treatment process was carried out in two identical respirometeric reactors. The results show that Ultrasonic homogenizer is very effective in the disruption of microorganisms leading to a maximum microbial growth reduction of 27%. On the other hand, Shear gap homogenizer does not favor the sludge growth reduction rather it facilitates the growth. This study also shows that for better microbial growth reduction, floc size reduction alone is not sufficient but also microbial disruption is essential. PMID:25866205

  1. Influence of Prosolv and Prosolv:Mannitol 200 direct compression fillers on the physicomechanical properties of atorvastatin oral dispersible tablets.

    PubMed

    Gowda, Veeran; Pabari, Ritesh M; Kelly, John G; Ramtoola, Zebunnissa

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of Prosolv® and Prosolv®: Mannitol 200 direct compression (DC) fillers on the physicomechanical characteristics of oral dispersible tablets (ODTs) of crystalline atorvastatin calcium. ODTs were formulated by DC and were analyzed for weight uniformity, hardness, friability, drug content, disintegration and dissolution. Three disintegration time (DT) test methods; European Pharmacopoeia (EP) method for conventional tablets (Method 1), a modification of this method (Method 2) and the EP method for oral lyophilisates (Method 3) were compared as part of this study. All ODTs showed low weight variation of <2.5%. Prosolv® only ODTs showed the highest tablet hardness of ? 73 N, hardness decreased with increasing mannitol content. Friability of all formulations was <1% although friability of Prosolv®:Mannitol ODTs was higher than for pure Prosolv®. DT of all ODTs was <30 s. Method 2 showed the fastest DT. Method 3 was non-discriminatory giving a DT of 13-15 s for all formulations. Atorvastatin dissolution from all ODTs was >60% within 5 min despite the drug being crystalline. Prosolv® and Prosolv®:Mannitol-based ODTs are suitable for ODT formulations by DC to give ODTs with high mechanical strength, rapid disintegration and dissolution. PMID:24397821

  2. Comparing the Therapeutic Effects of Garlic Tablet and Oral Metronidazole on Bacterial Vaginosis: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadzadeh, Farnaz; Dolatian, Mahrokh; Jorjani, Masoome; Alavi Majd, Hamid; Borumandnia, Nasrin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is one of the most common gynecological infections during reproductive age. Although metronidazole is one of the most effective medications recommended as the first-line treatment, it has various side effects. Because of the side effects and contraindications of some chemical medicines, using herbs has been investigated in treating BV. Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of garlic tablet (Garsin) and oral metronidazole in clinical treatment of the BV in women referred to Resalat Health Center, affiliated with Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, in 2013. Patients and Methods: This randomized clinical trial was conducted on 120 married women aged 18 to 44 years who were diagnosed with BV by Amsel’s clinical criteria and Gram staining. Enrolled women were randomly allocated to two groups of 60 patients and were treated with either garlic tablet or oral metronidazole for seven days. Amsel’s criteria and Gram stain were assessed seven to ten days after beginning the treatment period and side effects were registered. Results: Amsel’s criteria were significantly decreased after treatment with garlic or metronidazole (70% and 48.3%, respectively; P < 0.001). Therapeutic effects of garlic on BV were similar to that of metronidazole (63.3% and 48.3%, respectively; P = 0.141). There were significant differences between the two treatment groups in terms of side effects; metronidazole was associated with more complications (P = 0.032). Conclusions: This study reveals that garlic could be a suitable alternative for metronidazole in treatment of BV in those interested in herbal medicines or those affected by side effects of metronidazole. PMID:25237588

  3. Meta-Analysis of Studies Comparing Single and Multi-Tablet Fixed Dose Combination HIV Treatment Regimens.

    PubMed

    Clay, P G; Nag, S; Graham, C M; Narayanan, S

    2015-10-01

    Availability of a single source review of once-daily fixed-dose single tablet regimen (STR) and multiple tablet fixed-dose regimen (MTR) would optimally inform healthcare providers and policy makers involved in the management of population with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).We conducted a meta-analysis of published literature to compare patient adherence, clinical, and cost outcomes of STR to MTR.Published literature in English between 2005 and 2014 was searched using Embase, PubMed (Medline in-process), and ClinicalTrials.Gov databases. Two-level screening was undertaken by 2 independent researchers to finalize articles for evidence synthesis. Adherence, efficacy, safety, tolerability, healthcare resource use (HRU), and costs were assessed comparing STR to MTR. A random-effects meta-analysis was performed and heterogeneity examined using meta-regression.Thirty-five articles were identified for qualitative evidence synthesis, of which 9 had quantifiable data for meta-analysis (4 randomized controlled trials and 5 observational studies). Patients on STR were significantly more adherent when compared to patients on MTR of any frequency (odds ratio [OR]: 2.37 [95% CI: 1.68, 3.35], P?comparable between STR and MTR. Several studies reported significant reduction in HRU and costs among STR group versus MTR.Study depicted comparable tolerability, safety (All-SAE and Grade 3-4 AE), and mortality and fewer Grade 3 to 4 lab abnormalities and better viral load suppression and adherence among patients on FDC-containing STR versus MTR; literature depicted favorable HRU and costs for STRs.These findings may help decision makers especially in resource-poor settings to plan for optimal HIV disease management when the choice of both STRs and MTRs are available. PMID:26496277

  4. Meta-Analysis of Studies Comparing Single and Multi-Tablet Fixed Dose Combination HIV Treatment Regimens

    PubMed Central

    Clay, P.G.; Nag, S.; Graham, C.M.; Narayanan, S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Availability of a single source review of once-daily fixed-dose single tablet regimen (STR) and multiple tablet fixed-dose regimen (MTR) would optimally inform healthcare providers and policy makers involved in the management of population with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We conducted a meta-analysis of published literature to compare patient adherence, clinical, and cost outcomes of STR to MTR. Published literature in English between 2005 and 2014 was searched using Embase, PubMed (Medline in-process), and ClinicalTrials.Gov databases. Two-level screening was undertaken by 2 independent researchers to finalize articles for evidence synthesis. Adherence, efficacy, safety, tolerability, healthcare resource use (HRU), and costs were assessed comparing STR to MTR. A random-effects meta-analysis was performed and heterogeneity examined using meta-regression. Thirty-five articles were identified for qualitative evidence synthesis, of which 9 had quantifiable data for meta-analysis (4 randomized controlled trials and 5 observational studies). Patients on STR were significantly more adherent when compared to patients on MTR of any frequency (odds ratio [OR]: 2.37 [95% CI: 1.68, 3.35], P?comparable between STR and MTR. Several studies reported significant reduction in HRU and costs among STR group versus MTR. Study depicted comparable tolerability, safety (All-SAE and Grade 3–4 AE), and mortality and fewer Grade 3 to 4 lab abnormalities and better viral load suppression and adherence among patients on FDC-containing STR versus MTR; literature depicted favorable HRU and costs for STRs. These findings may help decision makers especially in resource-poor settings to plan for optimal HIV disease management when the choice of both STRs and MTRs are available. PMID:26496277

  5. Clinical utility of orally disintegrating olanzapine in Chinese patients with schizophrenia: a review of effectiveness, patient preference, adherence, and other properties

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jingping; Ou, Jianjun; Xue, Haibo; Liu, Li; Montgomery, William; Treuer, Tamas

    2014-01-01

    The primary objective of this systematic review was to examine the evidence for the efficacy, effectiveness, and safety of orally disintegrating olanzapine in Chinese populations. A systematic literature search was conducted using databases covering international and Chinese journals, ClinicalTrials.gov, and internal and external trial registries at Eli Lilly and Company using search terms related to target countries (People’s Republic of China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan) and orally disintegrating olanzapine treatment. A publication and one clinical study report were retrieved. The clinical study showed orally disintegrating olanzapine and the standard oral tablet to have similar efficacy and tolerability profiles. A bioequivalence study has shown that orally disintegrating olanzapine and the standard oral tablet have similar pharmacokinetic profiles. Orally disintegrating olanzapine and the standard oral tablet have similar efficacy and tolerability profiles. PMID:24600225

  6. Clinical utility of orally disintegrating olanzapine in Chinese patients with schizophrenia: a review of effectiveness, patient preference, adherence, and other properties.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jingping; Ou, Jianjun; Xue, Haibo; Liu, Li; Montgomery, William; Treuer, Tamas

    2014-01-01

    The primary objective of this systematic review was to examine the evidence for the efficacy, effectiveness, and safety of orally disintegrating olanzapine in Chinese populations. A systematic literature search was conducted using databases covering international and Chinese journals, ClinicalTrials.gov, and internal and external trial registries at Eli Lilly and Company using search terms related to target countries (People's Republic of China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan) and orally disintegrating olanzapine treatment. A publication and one clinical study report were retrieved. The clinical study showed orally disintegrating olanzapine and the standard oral tablet to have similar efficacy and tolerability profiles. A bioequivalence study has shown that orally disintegrating olanzapine and the standard oral tablet have similar pharmacokinetic profiles. Orally disintegrating olanzapine and the standard oral tablet have similar efficacy and tolerability profiles. PMID:24600225

  7. Lallemantia reylenne seeds as superdisintegrant: Formulation and evaluation of nimesulide orodispersible tablets

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Karan; Arora, Gurpreet; Singh, Inderbir; Arora, Sandeep

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Orodispersible tablets also known as fast dissolving tablets disintegrate instantaneously within the mouth and thus can be consumed without water. The present study was aimed to formulate orodispersible tablets of nimesulide by using Lallemantia reylenne seeds as natural superdisintegrant. Materials and Methods: Powdered lallemantia seeds were characterized for powder flow properties (bulk density, tapped density, carr's consolidation index, hausner ratio, angle of repose), swelling index, viscosity, pH, and loss on drying. The prepared tablets were evaluated for different tablet parametric tests, wetting time, water absorption ratio, effective pore radius, porosity, packing fraction, in vitro and in vivo disintegration time, in vitro dissolution and stability studies. Results and Discussion: Increase in Lallementia reylenne concentration had an appreciable effect on tablet hardness and friability which clearly indicated binding potential of the seeds. Water absorption ratio increased with increase in Lallemantia reylenne concentration from batch A1 to A4. Water uptake coupled natural polymer swelling could be the most probable mechanism for concentration dependent reduction in disintegration time by the Lallemantia reylenne seeds. Porosity of the formulated tablets was found to increase from batch A1-A4. The in vitro disintegration results were in line with in vivo disintegration results. Conclusion: It could be concluded that Lallemantia reylenne seeds could be used as natural superdisintegrant in the formulation of orodispersible tablets. PMID:23071942

  8. DISSOLUTION PROPERTIES AND KINETIC STUDY OF SULFADIMIDINE AND TRIMETHOPRIM TABLETS CONTAINING FOUR DIFFERENT SUPERDISINTEGRANTS.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, ?ukasz; Kasperek, Regina; Poleszak, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the effect of four superdisintegrants such as croscarmellose sodium (Ac-Di-Sol), crospovidone (Kollidon CL and with smaller particle sizes Kollidon CL-F), sodium starch glycolate (Explotab) in combination with ?-lactose and microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel PH-102) as base excipients exhibiting properties of directly compressed tablets and increasing the disintegration and the dissolution rate of sulfadimidine sodium (SDD-Na) and trimethoprim (TMP). All tablets were prepared by direct compression method and superdisintegrants were used at 2% for all formulations. The tablets were evaluated with regard to uniformity of weight, hardness, friability, drug content, disintegration time and dissolution properties. Dissolution properties such as t50% and t80% (time to release 50 and 80% of drug), DP3045 (percent of drug dissolved in 30 and 45 min) and the dissolution rate constant value (K) were considered in comparing the dissolution results. The results showed that crospovidone (Kollidon CL) provides the shortest disintegration time and the fastest rate of dissolution for both TMP and SDD-Na. The kinetic study of the dissolution data reveals that in vitro release profiles of TMP and SDD-Na can be best explained by first order model or by Higuchi model. The obtained data were plotted into Korsmeyer-Peppas equation to find out the confirmed diffusion mechanism. For TMP release, the values of the release exponent are beyond the limits of Korsmeyer model, so-called, power law. For SDD-Na release, exponent values are characteristic for anomalous transport (non-Fickian) or the value of the release exponent is beyond the limits of Korsmeyer model. PMID:26642686

  9. Design and evaluation of fast dissolving tablets of clonazepam.

    PubMed

    Shirsand, S B; Suresh, Sarasija; Swamy, P V; Kumar, D Nagendra; Rampure, M V

    2008-11-01

    In the present work, fast dissolving tablets of clonazepam were prepared by direct compression method with a view to enhance patient compliance. Three super-disintegrants, viz., crospovidone, croscarmellose sodium and sodium starch glycolate in different ratios with microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel PH-102) along with directly compressible mannitol (Pearlitol SD 200) to enhance mouth feel. The prepared batches of tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, drug content uniformity, wetting time, water absorption ratio and in vitro dispersion time. Based on in vitro dispersion time (approximately 13 s), three formulations were tested for the in vitro drug release pattern (in pH 6.8 phosphate buffer), short-term stability (at 40°/75% relative humidity for 6 mo) and drug-excipient interaction (IR spectroscopy). Among the three promising formulations, the formulation prepared by using 10% w/w of crospovidone and 35% w/w of microcrystalline cellulose emerged as the overall best formulation (t(50%) 1.8 min) based on the in vitro drug release characteristics compared to conventional commercial tablet formulation (t(50%) 16.4 min). Short-term stability studies on the formulations indicated that there were no significant changes in drug content and in vitro dispersion time (P<0.05). PMID:21369444

  10. Fast Dissolving Tablets of Fexofenadine HCl by Effervescent Method.

    PubMed

    Nagendrakumar, D; Raju, S A; Shirsand, S B; Para, M S; Rampure, M V

    2009-03-01

    In the present work, fast dissolving tablets of fexofenadine HCl were prepared by effervescent method with a view to enhance patient compliance. Three super-disintegrants viz., crospovidone, croscarmellose sodium and sodium starch glycolate along with sodium bicarbonate and anhydrous citric acid in different ratios were used and directly compressible mannitol (Pearlitol SD 200) to enhance mouth feel. The prepared batches of tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, drug content uniformity and in vitro dispersion time. Based on the in vitro dispersion time (approximately 20 s), three formulations were tested for in vitro drug release pattern in pH 6.8 phosphate buffer, short-term stability at 40 degrees /75% RH for 3 mo and drug-excipient interaction (IR spectroscopy). Among the three promising formulations, the formulation ECP(3) containing 8% w/w of crospovidone and mixture of 24% w/w sodium bicarbonate 18% w/w of anhydrous citric acid emerged as the best (t(50%) 4 min) based on the in vitro drug release characteristics compared to conventional commercial tablet formulation (t(50%) 15 min). Short-term stability studies on the formulations indicated that there are no significant changes in drug content and in vitro dispersion time (P<0.05). PMID:20336204

  11. Isolation and characterization of jackfruit mucilage and its comparative evaluation as a mucoadhesive and controlled release component in buccal tablets

    PubMed Central

    Sabale, Vidya; Patel, Vandana; Paranjape, Archana

    2012-01-01

    Background: The purpose of the present research work was to extract jackfruit mucilage, use it as a mucoadhesive agent, and to develop extended release buccoadhesive tablets with an intention to avoid hepatic first-pass metabolism, by enhancing residence time in the buccal cavity. Materials and Methods: The mucilage was isolated from the jackfruit pulp by the aqueous extraction method and characterized for various physiochemical parameters as well as for its adhesive properties. Three batches of tablets were prepared (wet granulation method) and evaluated containing three mucoadhesive components: Methocel K4M, Carbopol 974P, and isolated jackfruit mucilage using chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM) as a model drug and changing the proportion of the mucoadhesive component (1:2:3), resulting in nine different formulations. Results: The results of the study indicate that the isolated mucilage had good physicochemical and morphological characteristics, granules and tablets conformed to the Pharmacopoeial specifications, and in vitro release studies showed the sustained action of drug with increasing concentration of the isolated natural mucoadhesive agent in the formulations. Permeability studies indicated that changing the mucoadhesive component, permeability behavior was not statistically different (P > 0.05). FTIR and UV spectroscopy studies between mucilage and CPM suggested the absence of a chemical interaction between CPM and jackfruit mucilage. Conclusion: The developed mucoadhesive tablets for buccal administration containing natural mucilage (MF3) have a potential for the sustained action of drug release. Thus, mucoadhesive tablets for controlled release were successfully developed using natural jackfruit mucilage. PMID:23119234

  12. Disintegration of a Liquid Jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haenlein, A

    1932-01-01

    This report presents an experimental determination of the process of disintegration and atomization in its simplest form, and the influence of the physical properties of the liquid to be atomized on the disintegration of the jet. Particular attention was paid to the investigation of the process of atomization.

  13. Benefits of a physician-facing tablet presentation of patient symptom data: comparing paper and electronic formats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Providing patient information to physicians in usable form is of high importance. Electronic presentation of patient data may have benefits in efficiency and error rate reduction for these physician facing interfaces. Using a cancer symptom measurement tool (the MD Anderson Symptom Inventory (MDASI)) we assessed the usability of patient data in its raw paper form and compared that to presentation on two electronic presentation formats of different sizes. Methods In two separate experiments, undergraduates completed two identical six-part questionnaires on two twenty-patient MDASI data sets. In Experiment 1, participants completed one questionnaire using a paper packet and the other questionnaire using an in-house designed iPad application. In Experiment 2, MDASI data was evaluated using an iPad and iPod Touch. Participants assessed the usability of the devices directly after use. In a third experiment, medical professionals evaluated the paper and iPad interfaces in order to validate the findings from Experiment 1. Results Participants were faster and more accurate answering questions about patients when using the iPad. The results from the medical professionals were similar. No appreciable accuracy, task time, or usability differences were observed between the iPad and iPod Touch. Conclusions Overall, the use of our tablet interface increased the accuracy and speed that users could extract pertinent information from a multiple patient MDASI data set compared to paper. Reducing the size of the interface did not negatively affect accuracy, speed, or usability. Generalization of the results to other physician facing interfaces is discussed. PMID:24004844

  14. Comparative effectiveness of Di'ao Xin Xue Kang capsule and Compound Danshen tablet in patients with symptomatic chronic stable angina.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yanan; Hu, Siyuan; Li, Guoxin; Xue, Jie; Li, Zhuoming; Liu, Xiangling; Yang, Xiyan; Dong, Bo; Wang, Donghai; Wang, Xiaofeng; Liu, Shurong; Liu, Jun; Chen, Bingwei; Wang, Liying; Liu, Songshan; Chen, Qiguang; Shen, Chunti; Wang, Zhong; Wang, Yongyan

    2014-01-01

    A high proportion of patients with stable angina remains symptomatic despite multiple treatment options. Di'ao Xinxuekang (XXK) capsule and Compound Danshen (CDS) tablet have been approved for treating angina pectoris for more than 20 years in China. We compare the anti-anginal effectiveness of XXK capsule and CDS tablet in patients with symptomatic chronic stable angina. A randomized, multicenter, double-blind, parallel-group, superiority trial was conducted in 4 study sites. 733 patients with symptomatic chronic stable angina were included in the full analysis set. The primary outcomes were the proportion of patients who were angina-free and the proportion of patients with normal electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings during 20 weeks treatment. Compared with CDS, XXK significantly increased the proportion of angina-free patients, but no significant difference was noted in the proportion of patients with normal ECG recordings. Weekly angina frequency and nitroglycerin use were significantly reduced with XXK versus CDS at week 20. Moreover, XXK also improved the quality of life of angina patients as measured by the SAQ score and Xueyu Zheng (a type of TCM syndrome) score. We demonstrate that XXK capsule is more effective for attenuating anginal symptoms and improving quality of life in patients with symptomatic chronic stable angina, compared with CDS tablet. PMID:25394847

  15. Comparative Effectiveness of Di'ao Xin Xue Kang Capsule and Compound Danshen Tablet in Patients With Symptomatic Chronic Stable Angina

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yanan; Hu, Siyuan; Li, Guoxin; Xue, Jie; Li, Zhuoming; Liu, Xiangling; Yang, Xiyan; Dong, Bo; Wang, Donghai; Wang, Xiaofeng; Liu, Shurong; Liu, Jun; Chen, Bingwei; Wang, Liying; Liu, Songshan; Chen, Qiguang; Shen, Chunti; Wang, Zhong; Wang, Yongyan

    2014-01-01

    A high proportion of patients with stable angina remains symptomatic despite multiple treatment options. Di'ao Xinxuekang (XXK) capsule and Compound Danshen (CDS) tablet have been approved for treating angina pectoris for more than 20 years in China. We compare the anti-anginal effectiveness of XXK capsule and CDS tablet in patients with symptomatic chronic stable angina. A randomized, multicenter, double-blind, parallel-group, superiority trial was conducted in 4 study sites. 733 patients with symptomatic chronic stable angina were included in the full analysis set. The primary outcomes were the proportion of patients who were angina-free and the proportion of patients with normal electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings during 20 weeks treatment. Compared with CDS, XXK significantly increased the proportion of angina-free patients, but no significant difference was noted in the proportion of patients with normal ECG recordings. Weekly angina frequency and nitroglycerin use were significantly reduced with XXK versus CDS at week 20. Moreover, XXK also improved the quality of life of angina patients as measured by the SAQ score and Xueyu Zheng (a type of TCM syndrome) score. We demonstrate that XXK capsule is more effective for attenuating anginal symptoms and improving quality of life in patients with symptomatic chronic stable angina, compared with CDS tablet. PMID:25394847

  16. In Vitro Evaluation of Domperidone Mouth Dissolving Tablets

    PubMed Central

    Patra, S.; Sahoo, R.; Panda, R. K.; Himasankar, K.; Barik, B. B.

    2010-01-01

    In the present research work mouth dissolving tablets of domperidone were developed with superdisintegrants like crospovidone, croscarmellose sodium and sodium starch glycollate in various concentrations like 3%, 4% and 6% w/w by direct compression method. All formulations were evaluated for physical characteristics of compressed tablets such as weight variation, hardness, friability, content uniformity, in vitro disintegration time, wetting time and in vitro dissolution study. Among all, the formulation F3 (containing 6% w/w concentration of crospovidone) was considered to be the best formulation, having disintegration time of 9 s, wetting time of 15 s and in vitro drug release of 99.22% in 15 min. PMID:21969764

  17. In vitro evaluation of domperidone mouth dissolving tablets.

    PubMed

    Patra, S; Sahoo, R; Panda, R K; Himasankar, K; Barik, B B

    2010-11-01

    In the present research work mouth dissolving tablets of domperidone were developed with superdisintegrants like crospovidone, croscarmellose sodium and sodium starch glycollate in various concentrations like 3%, 4% and 6% w/w by direct compression method. All formulations were evaluated for physical characteristics of compressed tablets such as weight variation, hardness, friability, content uniformity, in vitro disintegration time, wetting time and in vitro dissolution study. Among all, the formulation F3 (containing 6% w/w concentration of crospovidone) was considered to be the best formulation, having disintegration time of 9 s, wetting time of 15 s and in vitro drug release of 99.22% in 15 min. PMID:21969764

  18. Mechanical disintegration of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Lehne, G; Müller, A; Schwedes, J

    2001-01-01

    Mechanical disintegration can be used for an accelerated and improved anaerobic digestion of excess sludge. The hydrolysis is the limiting step of this process. Mechanical disintegration can be used to disrupt the cell walls and to cause the release of the organic material from the cells. Particle size analysis describes the size reduction but is not suitable for characterising the release of the organic material and the cell disruption. Two biochemical methods were developed for these phenomena. One of the parameters provides information about the disruption of micro-organisms, the other one gives information about the release of organic material. Different ultrasonic homogenizers, a high pressure homogenizer and stirred ball mills were used for disintegration experiments using various parameters. The influences of a mechanical disintegration on the particle size and of the energy intensity on the disintegration were investigated. Further investigations had to detect the influence of the solid content on the disintegration results. For sludge with a higher solid content better results in terms of energy consumption could be achieved. An optimum of the bead diameter and the stress intensity in stirred ball mills could be detected. A comparison of the results of different methods of sludge disintegration shows that the investigated ultrasonic homogenizers are inferior to a high pressure homogenizer and a stirred ball mill in terms of energy consumption. PMID:11379090

  19. Assessing Student Writing on Tablets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Laurie Laughlin; Orr, Aline; Kong, Xiaojing; Lin, Chow-Hong

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing expectation that schools should be able to use tablets for a range of instructional and assessment purposes. This article considers the comparability of student writing on tablets and laptops to ensure that writing assessment is conducted in a way that is fair to all students. Data were collected from a sample of 826 students…

  20. Design and evaluation of fast dissolving tablets containing diclofenac sodium using fenugreek gum as a natural superdisintegrant

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, M. Uday; Babu, M. Kishore

    2014-01-01

    Objective To formulate diclofenac sodium as fast dissolving tablets (FDTs) using fenugreek gum as a natural superdisintegrant which also possess anti-inflammatory activity. Methods An attempt was made to extract the fenugreek gum and evaluated it for various physicochemical characterizations. The swelling index and viscosity of fenugreek gum was 221% and 293.4 mpa.s respectively. FDTs of diclofenac sodium was formulated by direct compression technique using different concentrations (1%-6%, w/w) of fenugreek gum as a natural superdisintegrant and compared with renowned synthetic superdisintegrants like sodium starch glycolate and croscarmellose sodium. The anti-inflammatory activity of a formulation was evaluated with carrageenan induced experimental rats. Results The formulated tablets were evaluated for various physical tests like weight variation, friability, hardness and results complied with the limits. The drug release from all the formulations ascertained first order kinetics. Among all the formulations F3 containing fenugreek gum with the concentration of 6% produced least disintegrating time 21 seconds resulting in higher drug release rate 93.74% at the end of 25 min. Hence, it was considered as optimized formulation. The present study revealed that the fenugreek gum as a natural superdisintegrant showed better disintegrating property than the most widely used synthetic superdisintegrants like sodium starch glycolate and croscarmellose sodium in the formulations of FDTs. Conclusions The results suggested that the fenugreek gum act as a good super disintegrating agent and it showed promising additive anti-inflammatory activity with diclofenac sodium. PMID:25183106

  1. A comparative study of calcium absorption following a single serving administration of calcium carbonate powder versus calcium citrate tablets in healthy premenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haiyuan; Bua, Peter; Capodice, Jillian

    2014-01-01

    Background Calcium is an essential mineral often taken as a daily, long-term nutritional supplement. Data suggests that once-daily dosing is important with regard to long-term compliance of both drugs and nutritional supplements. Objective This study was undertaken to compare the bioavailability of a single serving of two calcium supplements in healthy, premenopausal women. Design A two-period, crossover bioavailability study of a single serving of calcium citrate tablets (two tablets=500 mg calcium) versus a single serving of calcium carbonate powder (one packet of powder=1,000 mg calcium) was performed in healthy women aged between 25 and 45. All subjects were on a calcium-restricted diet 7 days prior to testing and fasted for 12 h before being evaluated at 0, 1, 2, and 4 h after oral administration of the test agents. Blood measurements for total and ionized calcium and parathyroid hormone were performed and adverse events were monitored. Results Twenty-three women were evaluable with a mean age of 33.2±8.71. Results showed that administration of a single serving of a calcium carbonate powder resulted in greater absorption in total and ionized calcium versus a single serving of calcium citrate tablets at 4 h (4.25±0.21 vs. 4.16±0.16, p=0.001). There were minimal side effects and no reported serious adverse events. Conclusions This study shows that a single serving of a calcium carbonate powder is more bioavailable than a single serving of calcium citrate tablets. This may be beneficial for long-term compliance. PMID:24772062

  2. Tablet Weaving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kren, Margo

    1976-01-01

    Article described a weaving technique called tablet weaving, an ancient textile process that provides opportunity for making a variety of items, such as guitar straps, belts, and decorative bands. (Author/RK)

  3. Development of oral dispersible tablets containing prednisolone nanoparticles for the management of pediatric asthma

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi-Dan; Liang, Zhong-Yuan; Cen, Yan-Yan; Zhang, He; Han, Mei-Gui; Tian, Yun-Qiao; Zhang, Jie; Li, Shu-Jun; Yang, Da-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to develop oral dispersible tablets containing prednisolone (PDS)-loaded chitosan nanoparticles using microcrystalline cellulose (MCC 101), lactose, and croscarmellose sodium (CCS). The PDS-loaded chitosan nanoparticles were formulated by ionotropic external gelation technique in order to enhance the solubility of PDS in salivary pH. Prepared nanoparticles were used for the development of oral fast disintegrating tablets by direct compression method. The prepared tablets were evaluated for disintegration time (DT), in vitro drug release (DR), thickness, weight variation, drug content uniformity, friability, and hardness. The effect of concentrations of the dependent variables (MCC, lactose, CCS) on DT and in vitro DR was studied. Fast disintegrating tablets of PDS can be prepared by using MCC, CCS, and lactose with enhanced solubility of PDS. The minimum DT was found to be 15 seconds, and the maximum DR within 30 minutes was 98.50%. All independent variables selected for the study were statistically significant. Oral fast disintegrating tablets containing PDS nanoparticles could be the better choice for the pediatric patients that would result in better patient compliance. From this study, it can be concluded that fast disintegrating tablets could be a potential drug delivery technology for the management of asthma in pediatrics. PMID:26640367

  4. Development of oral dispersible tablets containing prednisolone nanoparticles for the management of pediatric asthma.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Dan; Liang, Zhong-Yuan; Cen, Yan-Yan; Zhang, He; Han, Mei-Gui; Tian, Yun-Qiao; Zhang, Jie; Li, Shu-Jun; Yang, Da-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to develop oral dispersible tablets containing prednisolone (PDS)-loaded chitosan nanoparticles using microcrystalline cellulose (MCC 101), lactose, and croscarmellose sodium (CCS). The PDS-loaded chitosan nanoparticles were formulated by ionotropic external gelation technique in order to enhance the solubility of PDS in salivary pH. Prepared nanoparticles were used for the development of oral fast disintegrating tablets by direct compression method. The prepared tablets were evaluated for disintegration time (DT), in vitro drug release (DR), thickness, weight variation, drug content uniformity, friability, and hardness. The effect of concentrations of the dependent variables (MCC, lactose, CCS) on DT and in vitro DR was studied. Fast disintegrating tablets of PDS can be prepared by using MCC, CCS, and lactose with enhanced solubility of PDS. The minimum DT was found to be 15 seconds, and the maximum DR within 30 minutes was 98.50%. All independent variables selected for the study were statistically significant. Oral fast disintegrating tablets containing PDS nanoparticles could be the better choice for the pediatric patients that would result in better patient compliance. From this study, it can be concluded that fast disintegrating tablets could be a potential drug delivery technology for the management of asthma in pediatrics. PMID:26640367

  5. Non-wood Fibre Production of Microcrystalline Cellulose from Sorghum caudatum: Characterisation and Tableting Properties

    PubMed Central

    Ohwoavworhua, F. O.; Adelakun, T. A.

    2010-01-01

    The microcrystalline cellulose is an important ingredient in pharmaceutical, food, cosmetic and other industries. In this study, the microcrystalline cellulose, obtained from the stalk of Sorghum caudatum was evaluated for its physical and tableting characteristics with a view to assessing its usefulness in pharmaceutical tableting. The microcrystalline cellulose, obtained from the stalk of Sorghum caudatum, obtained by sodium hydroxide delignification followed by sodium hypochlorite bleaching and acid hydrolysis was examined for its physicochemical and tableting properties in comparison with those of the well-known commercial microcrystalline cellulose grade, Avicel PH 101. The extraction yield of this microcrystalline cellulose, obtained from the stalk of Sorghum caudatum was approximately 19%. The cellulose material was composed of irregularly shaped fibrous cellulose particles and had a moisture content of 6.2% and total ash of 0.28%. The true density was 1.46. The flow indices showed that the microcrystalline cellulose, obtained from the stalk of Sorghum caudatum flowed poorly. The hydration, swelling and moisture sorption capacities were 3.9, 85 and 24%, respectively. Tablets resulting from these cellulose materials were found to be without surface defects, sufficiently hard and having disintegration time within 15 min. The study revealed that the microcrystalline cellulose, obtained from the stalk of Sorghum caudatum compares favourably with Avicel PH 101 and conformed to official requirement specified in the British Pharmacopoeia 1993 for microcrystalline cellulose. PMID:21188036

  6. Taste Masked Microspheres of Ofloxacin: Formulation and Evaluation of Orodispersible Tablets

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Karan; Arora, Gurpreet; Singh, Inderbir

    2011-01-01

    Ofloxacin is a synthetic chemotherapeutic antibiotic used for treatment of a variety of bacterial infections, but therapy suffers from low patients’ compliance due to its unpleasant taste. This study was aimed to develop taste masked microspheres of ofloxacin using Eudragit and to prepare orodispersible tablets of the formulated microspheres using natural superdisintegrant. Taste masking Eudragit E100 microspheres were prepared by solvent evaporation technique with an entrapment efficiency ranging from 69.54 ± 1.98 to 86.52 ± 2.25%. DSC revealed no interaction between the drug and polymer. Microspheres prepared at a drug/polymer ratio of 1:4 and 1:5 revealed sufficient flow properties and better taste masking as compared to other ratios. Drug loaded microspheres were formulated as orodispersible tablets using locust bean gum as a natural superdisintegrant offering the advatages of biocompatibility and biodegrad-ability. The wetting time, water absorption ratio and in-vitro disintegration time of the tablets were found to range between 19 ± 2 to 10 ± 3 seconds, 59.11 ± 0.65 to 85.76 ± 0.96 and 22 ± 2 to 10 ± 2 seconds, respectively. The in-vitro ofloxacin release was about 97.25% within 2h. The results obtained from the study suggested the use of eudragit polymer for preparing ofloxacin loaded microspheres with an aim to mask the bitter taste of the drug and furthermore orodispersible tablets could be formulated using locust bean gum as a natural superdisintegrant. PMID:21886910

  7. Comparative Application of PLS and PCR Methods to Simultaneous Quantitative Estimation and Simultaneous Dissolution Test of Zidovudine - Lamivudine Tablets.

    PubMed

    Üstünda?, Özgür; Dinç, Erdal; Özdemir, Nurten; Tilkan, M Günseli

    2015-01-01

    In the development strategies of new drug products and generic drug products, the simultaneous in-vitro dissolution behavior of oral dosage formulations is the most important indication for the quantitative estimation of efficiency and biopharmaceutical characteristics of drug substances. This is to force the related field's scientists to improve very powerful analytical methods to get more reliable, precise and accurate results in the quantitative analysis and dissolution testing of drug formulations. In this context, two new chemometric tools, partial least squares (PLS) and principal component regression (PCR) were improved for the simultaneous quantitative estimation and dissolution testing of zidovudine (ZID) and lamivudine (LAM) in a tablet dosage form. The results obtained in this study strongly encourage us to use them for the quality control, the routine analysis and the dissolution test of the marketing tablets containing ZID and LAM drugs. PMID:26085428

  8. Comparative Bioavailability and Tolerability of Single and Multiple Doses of 2 Diclofenac Sodium Sustained-Release Tablet Formulations in Fasting, Healthy Chinese Male Volunteers?

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Xue-Jia; Yu, Ye; Chen, Fen; Lu, Yong-Ning

    2013-01-01

    Background Diclofenac is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug used for the treatment of patients with osteoarthritis. Objectives Our primary objective was to compare bioavailability and tolerability of a generic sustained-release tablet with the established reference sustained-release tablet of diclofenac sodium in a fasting, healthy Chinese male population. Methods A randomized, open-label, single- and multiple-dose study design was used. After the single dose, volunteers received diclofenac sodium sustained-release tablet once daily for 5 days. In the single-dose phase, blood samples were collected from 0 to 36 hours after drug administration. In the multiple-dose phase, samples were obtained before drug administration at 8:00 am on Days 3 and 4 to determine Cmin,ss of diclofenac sodium; on Day 5, samples were collected from 0 to 36 hours. Adverse events were monitored via subject interview, vital signs, and blood sampling. Results Twenty-four Chinese male volunteers were enrolled. The pharmacokinetic parameters (mean [SD]) for diclofenac after single dose of 75 and 100 mg were: Cmax 473.5 [179.5] and 546.6 [154.9] ng/mL; AUC0–? 3841.2 [1402.3], and 5019.1 [2,314.0] ng·h/mL; Tmax 4.9 [2.4], and 4.3 [2.2] hours; t1/2 5.9 [2.5], and 6.0 [2.2] hours. Mean [SD] values after multiple doses of 75 and 100 mg were: Cmax,ss 525.6 [127.4] and 650.5 [167.0] ng/mL, Cmin,ss 33.9 [20.9] and 62.9 [34.9] ng/mL, AUCss 4316.3 [633.0] and 5335.1 [1291.9] ng·h/mL, Cav,ss 179.8 [26.4] and 222.3 [53.8] ng/mL, Tmax 5.1 [1.8] and 4.5 [0.9] hours and t1/2 5.2 [2.9] and 5.5 [2.8] hours, respectively. Conclusions This diclofenac sodium 75 mg tablet has features compatible with the 100 mg sustained-release tablet and appeared to be well tolerated. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: 2010L01969 PMID:24465044

  9. Accuracy of tablet splitting: Comparison study between hand splitting and tablet cutter

    PubMed Central

    Habib, Walid A.; Alanizi, Abdulaziz S.; Abdelhamid, Magdi M.; Alanizi, Fars K.

    2013-01-01

    Background Tablet splitting is often used in pharmacy practice to adjust the administered doses. It is also used as a method of reducing medication costs. Objective To investigate the accuracy of tablet splitting by comparing hand splitting vs. a tablet cutter for a low dose drug tablet. Methods Salbutamol tablets (4 mg) were chosen as low dose tablets. A randomly selected equal number of tablets were split by hand and a tablet cutter, and the remaining tablets were kept whole. Weight variation and drug content were analysed for salbutamol in 0.1 N HCl using a validated spectrophotometric method. The percentages by which each whole tablet’s or half-tablet’s drug content and weight difference from sample mean values were compared with USP specification ranges for drug content. The %RSD was also calculated in order to determine whether the drugs met USP specification for %RSD. The tablets and half tablets were scanned using electron microscopy to show any visual differences arising from splitting. Results 27.5% of samples differed from sample mean values by a percentage that fell outside of USP specification for weight, of which 15% from the tablet cutter and 25% from those split by hand fell outside the specifications. All whole tablets and half tablets met the USP specifications for drug content but the variation of content between the two halves reached 21.3% of total content in case of hand splitting, and 7.13% only for the tablet cutter. The %RSDs for drug content and weight met the USP specification for whole salbutamol tablets and the half tablets which were split by tablet cutter. The halves which were split by hand fell outside the specification for %RSD (drug content = 6.43%, weight = 8.33%). The differences were visually clear in the electron microscope scans. Conclusion Drug content variation in half-tablets appeared to be attributable to weight variation occurring during the splitting process. This could have serious clinical consequences for medications with a narrow therapeutic-toxic range. On the basis of our results, we recommend to avoid tablet splitting whenever possible or the use of an accurate tablet splitting device when splitting cannot be avoided. PMID:25473334

  10. Formulation and optimization of potassium iodide tablets.

    PubMed

    Al-Achi, Antoine; Patel, Binit

    2015-01-01

    The use of potassium iodide (KI) as a protective agent against accidental radioactive exposure is well established. In this study, we aimed to prepare a KI tablet formulation using a direct compression method. We utilized Design of Experiment (DoE)/mixture design to define the best formulation with predetermined physical qualities as to its dissolution, hardness, assay, disintegration, and angle of repose. Based on the results from the DoE, the formulation had the following components (%w/w): Avicel 48.70%, silicon dioxide 0.27%, stearic acid (1.00%), magnesium stearate 2.45%, and dicalcium phosphate 18.69%, in addition to potassium iodide 28.89% (130 mg/tablet). This formulation was scaled-up using two tablet presses, a single-punch press and a rotary mini tablet press. The final scaled-up formulation was subjected to a variety of quality control tests, including photo-stability testing. The results indicate that potassium iodide tablets prepared by a rotary mini tablet press had good pharmaceutical characteristics and a shelf-life of 25 days when stored at room temperature protected from light. PMID:25685048

  11. Incompatibility of croscarmellose sodium with alkaline excipients in a tablet formulation.

    PubMed

    Bindra, Dilbir S; Stein, Daniel; Pandey, Preetanshu; Barbour, Nancy

    2014-05-01

    The objective of the current work was to study an observed incompatibility between croscarmellose sodium and basic excipients in a tablet formulation. Significant dissolution slowdown was observed for alkaline tablet compositions of an acid-labile drug containing croscarmellose sodium (CCS) as a disintegrant. The severity of the dissolution slowdown was directly proportional to both the degree of alkalinity and the level of CCS in the tablet formulation. It is postulated that the ester cross-links in CCS were partially or fully hydrolyzed under basic conditions (pH values >9) forming by-products of increased water solubility. This increase in the level of water-soluble polymer can lead to the formation of a viscous barrier in the tablet upon moisture uptake, thus slowing down its dissolution. The dissolution slowdown was not observed for a similar alkaline tablet preparation containing crospovidone as a disintegrant. PMID:23528069

  12. Preparation and optimization of mouth/orally dissolving tablets using a combination of glycine, carboxymethyl cellulose and sodium alginate: a comparison with superdisintegrants.

    PubMed

    Vora, Nishant; Rana, Vikas

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to prepare metoclopramide HCl mouth/orally dissolving tablets (MDTs) using glycine, carboxy methyl cellulose and sodium alginate with sufficient mechanical integrity and disintegration time comparable to superdisintegrants. Application of Plackett-Burman design revealed that concentration of glycine (X(1)), concentration of carboxy methyl cellulose (X(2)) and tablet crushing strength (X(4)) were found to actively influence the dependent variables (disintegration time in oral cavity (DT), wetting time (WT), porosity (P(0)) and water absorption ratio (WA). Additional MDTs were prepared utilizing central composite design for estimating extended effect in a spherical domain. The regression statistics (performed using Statistica(R)-7.0) of quadratic model revealed that DT, WT, P(0) were 97% correlated with active factors (X(1), X(2) or X(4)). The results revealed that optimized MDTs were capable of simulating DT comparable to MDTs containing croscarmellose sodium or crospovidone. Further, it can be envisaged that optimized MDTs were found to be superior to MDTs containing croscarmellose sodium or crospovidone in terms of friability and tablet crushing strength. PMID:18484492

  13. Formulation and evaluation of mouth dissolving tablets of cinnarizine.

    PubMed

    Patel, B P; Patel, J K; Rajput, G C; Thakor, R S

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop mouth dissolve tablets of cinnarizine by effervescent, superdisintegrant addition and sublimation methods. All the three formulations were evaluated for disintegration time, hardness and friability, among these superdisintegrant addition method showed lowest disintegration time; hence it was selected for further studies. Further nine batches (B1-B9) were prepared by using crospovidone, croscarmellose sodium and L-HPC in different concentrations such as 5, 7.5 and 10%. All the formulations were evaluated for weight variation, hardness, friability, drug content, in vitro disintegration time, wetting time, in vitro dissolution. Formulation with 10% L-HPC showed the less disintegration time (25.3 s) and less wetting time (29.1 s). In vitro dissolution studies showed total drug release at the end of 6 min. PMID:21218071

  14. The Disintegration of Teacher Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baines, Lawrence A.

    2010-01-01

    The disintegration of teacher certification programs in the united States holds an eerie similarity to the recent meltdown of American financial institutions. Similarly, the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, whose purported purpose was to ensure that all students get highly qualified teachers (HQT), has had an unintentionally devastating effect on…

  15. A quality-by-design study for an immediate-release tablet platform: examining the relative impact of active pharmaceutical ingredient properties, processing methods, and excipient variability on drug product quality attributes.

    PubMed

    Kushner, Joseph; Langdon, Beth A; Hicks, Ian; Song, Daniel; Li, Fasheng; Kathiria, Lalji; Kane, Anil; Ranade, Gautam; Agarwal, Kam

    2014-02-01

    The impact of filler-lubricant particle size ratio variation (3.4-41.6) on the attributes of an immediate-release tablet was compared with the impacts of the manufacturing method used (direct compression or dry granulation) and drug loading (1%, 5%, and 25%), particle size (D[4,3]: 8-114 ?m), and drug type (theophylline or ibuprofen). All batches were successfully manufactured, except for direct compression of 25% drug loading of 8 ?m (D[4,3]) drug, which exhibited very poor flow properties. All manufactured tablets possessed adequate quality attributes: tablet weight uniformity <4% RSD, tablet potency: 94%-105%, content uniformity <6% RSD, acceptance value ? 15, solid fraction: 0.82-0.86, tensile strength >1 MPa, friability ? 0.2% weight loss, and disintegration time < 4 min. The filler-lubricant particle size ratio exhibited the greatest impact on blend and granulation particle size and granulation flow, whereas drug property variation dominated blend flow, ribbon solid fraction, and tablet quality attributes. Although statistically significant effects were observed, the results of this study suggest that the manufacturability and performance of this immediate-release tablet formulation is robust to a broad range of variation in drug properties, both within-grade and extra-grade excipient particle size variations, and the choice of manufacturing method. PMID:24375069

  16. Evaluation of citrus fibers as a tablet excipient.

    PubMed

    Cespi, Marco; Bonacucina, Giulia; Roberts, Matthew; Hanson, Samuel; Jones, Stephen; Makevica, Elina; Casettari, Luca; Palmieri, Giovanni Filippo

    2014-04-01

    The consumption of fibers is associated with many health benefits, such as a reduction of cardiovascular and gastrointestinal diseases, control of body weight, and prevention of diabetes. Despite the widespread use of fiber supplements such as capsules or tablets, there is an almost complete lack of information concerning the technological properties of functional fibers used in nutraceutical formulations. The aim of this work was to characterize the technological properties of citrus fibers necessary for their use as a processing aid in tableting. The results obtained showed that citrus fibers share many properties of other polysaccharides used as tableting excipients, such as thermal behavior and compaction mechanism, together with an appreciable tabletability. However, the most interesting properties resulted from their disintegration power. Citrus fibers behaved in a similar manner to the well-known super disintegrant croscarmellose sodium and resulted to be little susceptible to their concentration, to lubricant type, and lubricant concentration. Thus, this work supports the idea of a potential use of citrus fibers as "active" substances and processing aid in the tableting of nutraceutical products and also as functional excipient in pharmaceutical tablets formulation. PMID:24306677

  17. Design and Comparative Evaluation of In-vitro Drug Release, Pharmacokinetics and Gamma Scintigraphic Analysis of Controlled Release Tablets Using Novel pH Sensitive Starch and Modified Starch- acrylate Graft Copolymer Matrices

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Pankaj; Ganure, Ashok Laxmanrao; Subudhi, Bharat Bhushan; Shukla, Shubhanjali

    2015-01-01

    The present investigation deals with the development of controlled release tablets of salbutamol sulphate using graft copolymers (St-g-PMMA and Ast-g-PMMA) of starch and acetylated starch. Drug excipient compatibility was spectroscopically analyzed via FT-IR, which confirmed no interaction between drug and other excipients. Formulations were evaluated for physical characteristics like hardness, friability, weight variations, drug release and drug content analysis which satisfies all the pharmacopoeial requirement of tablet dosage form. Release rate of a model drug from formulated matrix tablets were studied at two different pH namely 1.2 and 6.8, spectrophotometrically. Drug release from the tablets of graft copolymer matrices is profoundly pH-dependent and showed a reduced release rate under acidic conditions as compared to the alkaline conditions. Study of release mechanism by Korsmeyer’s model with n values between 0.61-0.67, proved that release was governed by both diffusion and erosion. In comparison to starch and acetylated starch matrix formulations, pharmacokinetic parameters of graft copolymers matrix formulations showed a significant decrease in Cmax with an increase in tmax, indicating the effect of dosage form would last for longer duration. The gastro intestinal transit behavior of the formulation was determined by gamma scintigraphy, using 99mTc as a marker in healthy rabbits. The amount of radioactive tracer released from the labelled tablets was minimal when the tablets were in the stomach, whereas it increased as tablets reached to intestine. Thus, in-vitro and in-vivo drug release studies of starch-acrylate graft copolymers proved their controlled release behavior with preferential delivery into alkaline pH environment. PMID:26330856

  18. FDA-Approved Natural Polymers for Fast Dissolving Tablets

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Md Tausif; Parvez, Nayyar; Sharma, Pramod Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Oral route is the most preferred route for administration of different drugs because it is regarded as safest, most convenient, and economical route. Fast disintegrating tablets are very popular nowadays as they get dissolved or facilely disintegrated in mouth within few seconds of administration without the need of water. The disadvantages of conventional dosage form, especially dysphagia (arduousness in swallowing), in pediatric and geriatric patients have been overcome by fast dissolving tablets. Natural materials have advantages over synthetic ones since they are chemically inert, non-toxic, less expensive, biodegradable and widely available. Natural polymers like locust bean gum, banana powder, mango peel pectin, Mangifera indica gum, and Hibiscus rosa-sinenses mucilage ameliorate the properties of tablet and utilized as binder, diluent, and superdisintegrants increase the solubility of poorly water soluble drug, decrease the disintegration time, and provide nutritional supplement. Natural polymers are obtained from the natural origin and they are cost efficacious, nontoxic, biodegradable, eco-friendly, devoid of any side effect, renewable, and provide nutritional supplement. It is proved from the studies that natural polymers are more safe and efficacious than the synthetic polymers. The aim of the present article is to study the FDA-approved natural polymers utilized in fast dissolving tablets. PMID:26556207

  19. FDA-Approved Natural Polymers for Fast Dissolving Tablets.

    PubMed

    Alam, Md Tausif; Parvez, Nayyar; Sharma, Pramod Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Oral route is the most preferred route for administration of different drugs because it is regarded as safest, most convenient, and economical route. Fast disintegrating tablets are very popular nowadays as they get dissolved or facilely disintegrated in mouth within few seconds of administration without the need of water. The disadvantages of conventional dosage form, especially dysphagia (arduousness in swallowing), in pediatric and geriatric patients have been overcome by fast dissolving tablets. Natural materials have advantages over synthetic ones since they are chemically inert, non-toxic, less expensive, biodegradable and widely available. Natural polymers like locust bean gum, banana powder, mango peel pectin, Mangifera indica gum, and Hibiscus rosa-sinenses mucilage ameliorate the properties of tablet and utilized as binder, diluent, and superdisintegrants increase the solubility of poorly water soluble drug, decrease the disintegration time, and provide nutritional supplement. Natural polymers are obtained from the natural origin and they are cost efficacious, nontoxic, biodegradable, eco-friendly, devoid of any side effect, renewable, and provide nutritional supplement. It is proved from the studies that natural polymers are more safe and efficacious than the synthetic polymers. The aim of the present article is to study the FDA-approved natural polymers utilized in fast dissolving tablets. PMID:26556207

  20. Surfactants modify the release from tablets made of hydrophobically modified poly (acrylic acid)?

    PubMed Central

    Knöös, Patrik; Onder, Sebla; Pedersen, Lina; Piculell, Lennart; Ulvenlund, Stefan; Wahlgren, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Many novel pharmaceutically active substances are characterized by a high hydrophobicity and a low water solubility, which present challenges for their delivery as drugs. Tablets made from cross-linked hydrophobically modified poly (acrylic acid) (CLHMPAA), commercially available as Pemulen™, have previously shown promising abilities to control the release of hydrophobic model substances. This study further investigates the possibility to use CLHMPAA in tablet formulations using ibuprofen as a model substance. Furthermore, surfactants were added to the dissolution medium in order to simulate the presence of bile salts in the intestine. The release of ibuprofen is strongly affected by the presence of surfactant and/or buffer in the dissolution medium, which affect both the behaviour of CLHMPAA and the swelling of the gel layer that surrounds the disintegrating tablets. Two mechanisms of tablet disintegration were observed under shear, namely conventional dissolution of a soluble tablet matrix and erosion of swollen insoluble gel particles from the tablet. The effects of surfactant in the surrounding medium can be circumvented by addition of surfactant to the tablet. With added surfactant, tablets that may be insusceptible to the differences in bile salt level between fasted or fed states have been produced, thus addressing a central problem in controlled delivery of hydrophobic drugs. In other words CLHMPAA is a potential candidate to be used in tablet formulations for controlled release with poorly soluble drugs. PMID:25755999

  1. Numerical Simulation on Zonal Disintegration in Deep Surrounding Rock Mass

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xuguang; Wang, Yuan; Mei, Yu; Zhang, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Zonal disintegration have been discovered in many underground tunnels with the increasing of embedded depth. The formation mechanism of such phenomenon is difficult to explain under the framework of traditional rock mechanics, and the fractured shape and forming conditions are unclear. The numerical simulation was carried out to research the generating condition and forming process of zonal disintegration. Via comparing the results with the geomechanical model test, the zonal disintegration phenomenon was confirmed and its mechanism is revealed. It is found to be the result of circular fracture which develops within surrounding rock mass under the high geostress. The fractured shape of zonal disintegration was determined, and the radii of the fractured zones were found to fulfill the relationship of geometric progression. The numerical results were in accordance with the model test findings. The mechanism of the zonal disintegration was revealed by theoretical analysis based on fracture mechanics. The fractured zones are reportedly circular and concentric to the cavern. Each fracture zone ruptured at the elastic-plastic boundary of the surrounding rocks and then coalesced into the circular form. The geometric progression ratio was found to be related to the mechanical parameters and the ground stress of the surrounding rocks. PMID:24592166

  2. Nano and Microparticulate Chitosan Based System for Formulation of Carvedilol Rapid Melt Tablet

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Ravindra; Pande, Vishal; Sonawane, Raju

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: In the present study rapid melt tablets (RMT’s) of carvedilol were prepared by using ionotropic-gelated chitosan nanoparticles using a spray-drying method. Carvedilol is beta-adrenergic antagonist and its oral bioavailability is about 25-35% because of first pass metabolism. Methods: The spray-dried microparticles were formulated into RMT’s using a wet granulation process. The Formulation and optimization of carvedilol loaded RMTs using nano and microparticulate chitosan based system (NMCS) was done by using 32 factorial designs. Results: Drug entrapment efficiency of about 64.9 % (w/w) and loading capacity of 14.44% (w/w) were achieved for the microparticles, which were ranged from 1 ?m to 4 ?m in diameter. Results of disintegration tests showed that the formulated RMTs could be completely dissolved within 40 seconds. Dissolution studies suggested that Carvedilol is released more slowly from tablets made using the microencapsulation process compared with tablets containing Carvedilol that is free or in the form of nanoparticles. Conclusion: Results shown that the development of new RMTs designed with crosslinked microparticle might be a rational way to overcome the unwanted taste of conventional RMTs and the side effects related to Carvedilol intrinsic characteristics. The development of Carvedilol NMCS using ludiflash as RMTs could be used as a promising approach for improving the solubility and oral bioavailability of water insoluble drug. PMID:26236654

  3. Preparation and evaluation of orodispersible tablets of pheniramine maleate by effervescent method.

    PubMed

    Swamy, P V; Divate, S P; Shirsand, S B; Rajendra, P

    2009-03-01

    In the present work, orodispersible tablets of pheniramine maleate were designed with a view to enhance patient compliance by effervescent method. In the effervescent method, mixture of sodium bicarbonate and tartaric acid (each of 12% w/w concentration) were used along with super disintegrants, i.e., pregelatinized starch, sodium starch glycolate, croscarmellose sodium and crospovidone. The prepared batches of tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, drug content uniformity and in vitro dispersion time. Based on in vitro dispersion time (approximately 60 s), three formulations were tested for in vitro drug release pattern (in pH 6.8 phosphate buffer), short-term stability (at 40+/-2 degrees /75+/-5% RH for 3 mo) and drug-excipient interaction (IR spectroscopy). Among three promising formulations, formulation ECP(4) containing 4% w/w crospovidone and mixture of sodium bicarbonate and tartaric acid (each of 12% w/w) emerged as the overall best formulation (t(70%) = 1.65 min) based on the in vitro drug release characteristics compared to commercial conventional tablet formulation. Short-term stability studies on the formulations indicated no significant changes in the drug content and in vitro dispersion time (P < 0.05). PMID:20336216

  4. Formulation Design and Optimization of Orodispersible Tablets of Quetiapine Fumarate by Sublimation Method.

    PubMed

    Kalyankar, P; Panzade, P; Lahoti, S

    2015-01-01

    The objective of present study was to formulate directly compressible orodispersible tablets of quetiapine fumarate by sublimation method with a view to enhance patient compliance. A full 3(2) factorial design was used to investigate the effect of two variables viz., concentration of Indion 414 and camphor. Indion 414 (3-5 % w/w) was used as superdisintegrant and camphor (5-15 % w/w) as subliming agent. The tablets were evaluated for thickness, weight variation, hardness, friability, content uniformity, wetting time, porosity, in vitro disintegration time and in vitro drug release. The formulation containing 5% w/w of Indion 414 and 5% w/w camphor was emerged as promising based on evaluation parameters. The disintegration time for optimized formulation was 18.66 s. The tablet surface was evaluated for presence of pores by scanning electron microscopy before and after sublimation. Differential scanning colorimetric study did not indicate any drug excipient incompatibility, either during mixing or after compression. The effect of independent variables on disintegration time, % drug release and friability is presented graphically by surface response plots. Short-term stability studies on the optimized formulation indicated no significant changes in drug content and in vitro disintegration time. The directly compressible orodispersible tablets of quetiapine fumarate with lower friability, greater drug release and shorter disintegration times were obtained using Indion 414 and camphor at optimum concentrations. PMID:26180271

  5. Formulation Design and Optimization of Orodispersible Tablets of Quetiapine Fumarate by Sublimation Method

    PubMed Central

    Kalyankar, P.; Panzade, P.; Lahoti, S.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of present study was to formulate directly compressible orodispersible tablets of quetiapine fumarate by sublimation method with a view to enhance patient compliance. A full 32 factorial design was used to investigate the effect of two variables viz., concentration of Indion 414 and camphor. Indion 414 (3-5 % w/w) was used as superdisintegrant and camphor (5-15 % w/w) as subliming agent. The tablets were evaluated for thickness, weight variation, hardness, friability, content uniformity, wetting time, porosity, in vitro disintegration time and in vitro drug release. The formulation containing 5% w/w of Indion 414 and 5% w/w camphor was emerged as promising based on evaluation parameters. The disintegration time for optimized formulation was 18.66 s. The tablet surface was evaluated for presence of pores by scanning electron microscopy before and after sublimation. Differential scanning colorimetric study did not indicate any drug excipient incompatibility, either during mixing or after compression. The effect of independent variables on disintegration time, % drug release and friability is presented graphically by surface response plots. Short-term stability studies on the optimized formulation indicated no significant changes in drug content and in vitro disintegration time. The directly compressible orodispersible tablets of quetiapine fumarate with lower friability, greater drug release and shorter disintegration times were obtained using Indion 414 and camphor at optimum concentrations. PMID:26180271

  6. Sufentanil Sublingual Tablet System vs. Intravenous Patient-Controlled Analgesia with Morphine for Postoperative Pain Control: A Randomized, Active-Comparator Trial

    PubMed Central

    Melson, Timothy I; Boyer, David L; Minkowitz, Harold S; Turan, Alparslan; Chiang, Yu-Kun; Evashenk, Mark A; Palmer, Pamela P

    2014-01-01

    Background Problems with intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IV PCA) are well known, including invasive route of delivery and pump programming errors. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate patient satisfaction with a novel sublingual sufentanil PCA system (sufentanil sublingual tablet system 15 mcg with a 20-minute lockout interval; SSTS) to IV PCA morphine sulfate 1 mg with a 6-minute lockout interval (IV PCA MS) for the management of acute postoperative pain. Methods This was a randomized, open-label, 48-hour non-inferiority study with optional extension to 72 hours at 26 U.S. sites enrolling patients scheduled for elective major open abdominal or orthopedic (hip or knee replacement) surgery. The primary outcome measure was the proportion of patients who responded “good” or “excellent” (collectively “success”) at the 48-hour timepoint on the Patient Global Assessment of method of pain control (PGA48). Results A total of 357 patients received study drug and 78.5% vs. 65.6% of patients achieved PGA48 “success” for SSTS vs. IV PCA MS, respectively, demonstrating non-inferiority (P < 0.001 using the one-side Z-test against the non-inferiority margin) as well as statistical superiority for treatment effect (P = 0.007). Patients using SSTS reported more rapid onset of analgesia and patient and nurse ease of care and satisfaction scores were higher than IV PCA MS. Adverse events were similar between the 2 groups; however, SSTS had fewer patients experiencing oxygen desaturations below 95% compared to IV PCA MS (P = 0.028). Conclusions Sufentanil sublingual tablet system is a promising new analgesic technology that may address some of the concerns with IV PCA. PMID:25155134

  7. Physicochemical characterization and evaluation of buccal adhesive tablets containing omeprazole.

    PubMed

    Yong, C S; Jung, J H; Rhee, J D; Kim, C K; Choi, H G

    2001-05-01

    The objective of this study was to develop an effective omeprazole buccal adhesive tablet with excellent bioadhesive force and good drug stability in human saliva. The omeprazole buccal adhesive tablets were prepared with various bioadhesive polymers, alkali materials, and croscarmellose sodium. Their physicochemical properties, such as bioadhesive force and drug stability in human saliva, were investigated. The release and bioavailability of omeprazole delivered by the buccal adhesive tablets were studied. As bioadhesive additives for the omeprazole tablet, a mixture of sodium alginate and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) was selected. The omeprazole tablets prepared with bioadhesive polymers alone had bioadhesive forces suitable for a buccal adhesive tablet, but the stability of omeprazole in human saliva was not satisfactory. Among alkali materials, only magnesium oxide could be an alkali stabilizerfor omeprazole buccal adhesive tablets due to its strong waterproofing effect. Croscarmellose sodium enhanced the release of omeprazole from the tablets; however, it decreased the bioadhesive forces and stability of omeprazole tablets in human saliva. The tablet composed of omeprazole/sodium alginate/HPMC/magnesium oxide/croscarmellose sodium (20/24/6/50/10 mg) could be attached on the human cheek without disintegration, and it enhanced the stability of omeprazole in human saliva for at least 4 h and gave fast release of omeprazole. The plasma concentration of omeprazole in hamsters increased to a maximum of 370 ng/ml at 45 min after buccal administration and continuously maintained a high level of 146-366 ng/ml until 6 h. The buccal bioavailability of omeprazole in hamsters was 13.7% +/- 3.2%. These results demonstrate that the omeprazole buccal adhesive tablet would be useful for delivery of an omeprazole that degrades very rapidly in acidic aqueous medium and undergoes hepatic first-pass metabolism after oral administration. PMID:11448052

  8. Development and optimization of carvedilol orodispersible tablets: enhancement of pharmacokinetic parameters in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Aljimaee, Yazeed HM; El-Helw, Abdel-Rahim M; Ahmed, Osama AA; El-Say, Khalid M

    2015-01-01

    Background Carvedilol (CVD) is used for the treatment of essential hypertension, heart failure, and systolic dysfunction after myocardial infarction. Due to its lower aqueous solubility and extensive first-pass metabolism, the absolute bioavailability of CVD does not exceed 30%. To overcome these drawbacks, the objective of this work was to improve the solubility and onset of action of CVD through complexation with hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin and formulation of the prepared complex as orodispersible tablets (ODTs). Methods Compatibility among CVD and all tablet excipients using differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, complexation of CVD with different polymers, and determination of the solubility of CVD in the prepared complexes were first determined. A Box-Behnken design (BBD) was used to study the effect of tablet formulation variables on the characteristics of the prepared tablets and to optimize preparation conditions. According to BBD design, 15 formulations of CVD-ODTs were prepared by direct compression and then evaluated for their quality attributes. The relative pharmacokinetic parameters of the optimized CVD-ODTs were compared with those of the marketed CVD tablet. A single dose, equivalent to 2.5 mg/kg CVD, was administered orally to New Zealand white rabbits using a double-blind, randomized, crossover design. Results The solubility of CVD was improved from 7.32 to 22.92 mg/mL after complexation with hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin at a molar ratio of 1:2 (CVD to cyclodextrin). The formulated CVD-ODTs showed satisfactory results concerning tablet hardness (5.35 kg/cm2), disintegration time (18 seconds), and maximum amount of CVD released (99.72%). The pharmacokinetic data for the optimized CVD-ODT showed a significant (P<0.05) increase in maximum plasma concentration from 363.667 to 496.4 ng/mL, and a shortening of the time taken to reach maximum plasma concentration to 2 hours in comparison with the marketed tablet. Conclusion The optimized CVD-ODTs showed improved oral absorption of CVD and a subsequent acceleration of clinical effect, which is favored for hypertensive and cardiac patients. PMID:25834396

  9. Feasability of a new process to produce fast disintegrating pellets as novel multiparticulate dosage form for pediatric use.

    PubMed

    Hoang Thi, Thanh Huong; Lhafidi, Siham; Carneiro, Simone Pinto; Flament, Marie-Pierre

    2015-12-30

    Novel orally disintegrating system based on multiparticulate form was developed, offering an alternative to encounter major issues in the design of dosage form for pediatric patients, i.e., the difficulty in swallowing large solid dosage form (tablet or capsule), and the requirement to cover a broad range of doses for different age groups. Microcrystalline cellulose-based pellets containing acetaminophen were prepared via extrusion/spheronization followed by freeze-drying. The in vitro disintegration behavior of these pellets was quantitatively measured with a texture analyzer. Mercury intrusion and gas adsorption techniques, scanning electron microscopy of pellet surface and cross-section were performed in order to characterize their internal porous structure. Pellets characteristics such as size distribution, sphericity, friability and drug release were also determined. The developing process was able to produce pellets containing high drug loading (25, 50 and up to 75%, w/w) with good sphericity (aspect ratio ?1) and low friability. The pellets exhibited an instantaneous disintegration upon contact with water, which was indicated by two parameters: the disintegration onset was approximating to 0, and the disintegration time less than 5s. The fast disintegration behavior is correlated with the pellet internal structure characterized by a capillary network with pore diameter varying from 0.1 to 10?m. Such a structure not only ensured a rapid disintegration but it also offers to freeze-dried pellets adequate mechanical properties in comparison with conventional freeze-dried forms. Due to pellet disintegration, fast dissolution of acetaminophen was achieved, i.e., more than 90% of drug released within 15min. This novel multiparticulate system offers novel age-appropriate dosage form for pediatric population owing to their facility of administration (fast disintegration) and dosing flexibility (divided and reduced-size solid form). PMID:26403385

  10. Internal solitary waves: propagation, deformation and disintegration

    E-print Network

    Internal solitary waves: propagation, deformation and disintegration Roger Grimshaw1 , Tatiana-amplitude, horizontally propagating internal solitary waves. Typically these waves occur in regions of variable bottom the propagation, deformation and disintegration of internal solitary waves as they propagate over the continental

  11. Development and evaluation of fast-dissolving tablets of meloxicam-?-cyclodextrin complex prepared by direct compression.

    PubMed

    Obaidat, Aiman A; Obaidat, Rana M

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to prepare fast-dissolving tablets of meloxicam after its complexation with ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) and to investigate the effect of using different superdisintegrants on the disintegration and release of meloxicam from the tablets. A complex of meloxicam with ?-CD was prepared by spray drying and then compressed in the form of tablets utilizing the direct compression technique. Three superdisintegrants were employed at various levels - sodium starch glycolate, croscarmellose sodium, and crospovidone. Co-spray dried micro-crystalline cellulose and mannitol (Avicel HFE-102) were used as diluents in the tablets. Prior to compression, the pre-compression parameters showed satisfactory flow properties. Post-compression parameters showed that all tablet formulations had acceptable mechanical properties. Wetting and disintegration times were prolonged by increasing the level of sodium starch glycolate in the tablets. This was attributed to the formation of a viscous gel layer around the tablets by sodium starch glycolate whereas this effect was not observed with croscarmellose sodium and crospovidone. Dissolution studies showed fast release of meloxicam except in tablets containing a high level of sodium starch glycolate. Complexation of meloxicam with ?-CD significantly improved the solubility of the drug and improved the mechanical properties of tablets produced by direct compression. PMID:21406346

  12. Apparatus for disintegrating kidney stones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angulo, E. D. (inventor)

    1984-01-01

    The useful life of the wire probe in an ultrasonic kidney stone disintegration instrument is enhanced and prolonged by attaching the wire of the wire probe to the tip of an ultrasonic transducer by means of a clamping arrangement. Additionally, damping material is applied to the wire probe in the form of a damper tube through which the wire probe passes in the region adjacent the transducer tip. The damper tube extends outwardly from the transducer tip a predetermined distance, terminating in a resilient soft rubber joint. Also, the damper tube is supported intermediate its length by a support member. The damper system thus acts to inhibit lateral vibrations of the wire in the region of the transducer tip while providing little or no damping to the linear vibrations imparted to the wire by the transducer.

  13. Characterization of norfloxacine release from tablet coated with a new pH-sensitive polymer, P-4135F.

    PubMed

    Hu, Z; Shimokawa, T; Ohno, T; Kimura, G; Mawatari, S S; Kamitsuna, M; Yoshikawa, Y; Masuda, S; Takada, K

    1999-01-01

    A new pH-sensitive polymer, P-4135F, was evaluated as a colon delivery device for norfloxacine (NFLX) which is used for the therapy of patients with Vero toxin-producing Escherichia coli gastroenteritis. P-4135F has a dissolution threshold pH of 7.2 which is higher than the conventional pH-sensitive polymers, Eudragit S100 and L100. To compare the dissolution site of P-4135F coated tablets with other enteric polymer coatings, mini-tablets containing sodium fluorescein (FL) as a model drug were prepared by coating them with the three polymers. After oral administration of FL mini-tablets to rats, the first-appearance time, Ti, of FL into the systemic circulation was measured. The Tis were 0.7+/-0.2 h for Eudragit L100, 1.8+/-0.4 h for S100 and 2.0+/-0.3 h for P-4135F. Direct inspection of the dissolution process of the FL mini-tablets after oral administration to rats was performed by abdominal incision studies. All of the coated FL mini-tablets started to dissolve in the rat ileum. The dissolution sites were identified to be proximal to the ileocecal junction for P-4135F, at the middle part of the ileum for Eudragit S100 and at the proximal part of the ileum for Eudragit L100. NFLX tablets with different membrane thicknesses of P-4135F were prepared and were orally administered to beagle dogs. The colon delivery efficiency was evaluated by measuring the Ti of NFLX into the systemic circulation. The mean Tis were 1.33+/-0.33 h for 56.8+/-0.5 microm membranes, 3.75+/-0.25 h for 64.6+/-0.7 microm membranes, 4.00+/-1.00 h for 70.5+/-0.5 microm membranes and 3.00+/-1.00 h for 74.9+/-0.4 microm membranes. By comparing the Ti, 4.33+/-0.33 h, obtained after oral administration of NFLX in a pressure-controlled colon delivery capsule, and the colon arrival time, 3.5+/-0.3 h, determined by a sulfasalazine test in beagle dogs. P-4135F coated NFLX tablets appeared to dissolve and disintegrate before reaching the colon. Studies using rats and beagle dogs have suggested that P-4135F dissolves in the lower part of the small intestine, i.e., the ileum. These studies also suggest that this new polymer will be useful for the delivery of NFLX to the lower part of the small intestine. PMID:10680978

  14. A mini review of scientific and pharmacopeial requirements for the disintegration test.

    PubMed

    Donauer, Nina; Löbenberg, Raimar

    2007-12-10

    Disintegration is a performance test for oral dosage forms that is described in the United States Pharmacopeia (USP), the European Pharmacopeia (EP) and the Japanese Pharmacopeia (JP, chapter 14, 2001). This review lists changes that have been made since the USP 23 and compares them to those in the USP 30, EP 5.3 and JP XIV. The differences between the disintegration test methods in the three pharmacopeias are discussed. Examples are provided where disintegration can be used as a performance test for ensuring the drug release. PMID:17935916

  15. Evaluation of starches obtained from four Dioscorea species as binding agent in chloroquine phosphate tablet formulations

    PubMed Central

    Okunlola, Adenike; Odeku, Oluwatoyin A.

    2011-01-01

    Starches obtained from four Dioscorea species namely Dioscorea dumetorum (Bitter), Dioscorea oppositifolia (Chinese), Dioscorea alata (Water), and Dioscorea rotundata (White) have been evaluated as binding agents in chloroquine phosphate tablet formulations in comparison with official corn starch. The compressional properties of the formulations were analyzed using density measurements and the Heckel and Kawakita equations. The mechanical properties of the tablets were assessed using tensile strength, brittle fracture index (BFI), and friability tests while the drug release properties of the tablets were assessed using disintegration and dissolution times. The results indicate that the four starches vary considerably in their physicochemical properties. The ranking for the tensile strength and the disintegration and dissolution times for the formulations was Chinese > Bitter > Corn > White > Water while the ranking was reversed for BFI and friability. The results suggest that Water, White, and Corn could be useful when faster disintegration time of tablets is desired while Chinese and Bitter could be more useful when bond strength is of concern and in minimizing the problems of lamination and capping in tablet formulation. PMID:23960747

  16. Preparation and biological efficacy of haddock bone calcium tablets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Jiancong; Deng, Shanggui; Xie, Chao; Tong, Guozhong

    2010-03-01

    To investigate the possible use of waste products obtained after processing haddock, the present study prepared haddock bone calcium powder by NaOH and ethanol soaking (alkalinealcohol method) and prepared haddock bone calcium tablets using the powder in combination with appropriate excipients. The biological efficacy of the haddock bone calcium tablets was investigated using Wistar rats as an experiment model. Results show that the optimal parameters for the alkalinealcohol method are: NaOH concentration 1 mol/L, immersion time 30 h; ethanol concentration 60%, immersion time 15 h. A mixture of 2% polyvinylpyrrolidone in ethanol was used as an excipient at a ratio of 1:2 to full-cream milk powder, without the use of a disintegrating agent. This process provided satisfactory tablets in terms of rigidity and taste. Animal studies showed that the haddock bone calcium tablets at a dose of 2 g·kg-1·d-1 or 5g·kg-1·d-1 significantly increased blood calcium and phosphorus levels and bone calcium content in rats. Therefore, these tablets could be used for calcium supplementation and prevent osteoporosis. Although the reasons of high absorption in the rats fed with haddock bone calcium tablets are unclear, it is suggested that there are some factors, such as treatment with method of alkaline-alcohol or the added milk, may play positive roles in increasing absorption ratio.

  17. Randomized Clinical Trial Comparing the Pharmacokinetics of Standard- and Increased-Dosage Lopinavir-Ritonavir Coformulation Tablets in HIV-Positive Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Estrela, Rita de Cássia Elias; Veloso, Valdiléa Gonçalves; Cattani, Vitória Berg; Yanavich, Carolyn; Velasque, Luciane; Torres, Thiago Silva; Marins, Luana Monteiro Spindola; Pilotto, José Henrique; Joăo, Esaú Custódio; Gonçalves, José Carlos Saraiva; Grinsztejn, Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    A lopinavir-ritonavir (LPV/r)-based regimen is recommended during pregnancy to reduce the risk of HIV mother-to-child transmission, but the appropriate dose is controversial. We compared the pharmacokinetics of standard and increased LPV/r doses during pregnancy. This randomized, open-label prospective study enrolled 60 pregnant women between gestational weeks 14 and 30. The participants received either the standard dose (400/100 mg twice a day [BID]) or increased dose (600/150 mg BID) of LPV/r tablets during pregnancy and the standard dose for 6 weeks after childbirth. Pharmacokinetics analysis was performed using a high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. Adherent participants who received the standard dose presented minimum LPV concentrations of 4.4, 4.3, and 6.1 ?g/ml in the second and third trimesters and postpartum, respectively. The increased-dose group exhibited values of 7.9, 6.9, and 9.2 ?g/ml at the same three time points. Although LPV exposure was significantly higher in the increased-dose group, the standard dose produced therapeutic levels of LPV against wild-type virus in all adherent participants, except one patient in the third trimester; 50%, 37.5%, and 25%, and 0%, 15%, and 0% of the participants in the standard- and increased-dose groups failed to achieve therapeutic levels against resistant viruses during the second and third trimesters and after childbirth, respectively. After 12 weeks of treatment and after childbirth, all adherent participants achieved undetectable HIV viral loads, and their babies (49/54) were uninfected. No serious drug-related adverse events were observed. We conclude that the standard dose is appropriate for use during pregnancy and that an increased dose may be necessary for women harboring resistant HIV. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT00605098.) PMID:24614377

  18. A double-blind comparative study of Chinese herbal medicine Jinlianqingre Effervescent Tablets in combination with conventional therapy for the treatment of uncomplicated hand, foot, and mouth disease.

    PubMed

    He, L-Y; Zhang, G-L; Yan, S-Y; Liu, Y; Zhao, C-S; Wang, X-L; Li, Y; Mi, Y-Q; Liu, Y-M; Li, C-P; Kou, Y-H; Li, Y; Chang, K; Meng, X-L; Sun, X-J; Zhao, T; Li, J; Wang, Y-Y; Liu, B-Y

    2014-08-01

    Chinese herbal medicine Jinlianqingre Effervescent Tablets (JET) are the recommended control measure for uncomplicated hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) by the Ministry of Health of China. However, high-quality evidence to support this recommendation is limited. A total of 288 patients ranging in age from 1 to 13 years were randomly assigned to JET in combination with conventional therapy (mainly including the reduction of temperature by applying physical cooling paste or warm bathing), or conventional therapy with placebo group for 7 days. The objective was to test the hypothesis that JET combination therapy is more effective than conventional therapy for uncomplicated HFMD. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was designed. Our study showed that, compared with conventional therapy, the median time to fever resolution was significantly shorter in the JET combination therapy (8 vs. 80 h; p?

  19. Pharmacokinetics of ketorolac tromethamine compression-coated tablets for colon delivery.

    PubMed

    Vemula, Sateesh Kumar; Veerareddy, Prabhakar Reddy; Devadasu, Venkat Ratnam

    2014-08-01

    Present research efforts are focused in developing compression-coated ketorolac tromethamine tablets to improve the drug levels in colon by retarding the drug release in the stomach and small intestine. To achieve this objective, core tablets containing ketorolac tromethamine were prepared by direct compression and compression coated with sodium alginate. The developed tablets were evaluated for physical properties, in vitro drug release, X-ray imaging, and pharmacokinetic studies in human volunteers. Based on the in vitro drug release study, the optimized formulation showed very little drug release (6.75?±?0.49 %) in the initial lag period of 5 h, followed by progressive release up to 97.47?±?0.93 % within 24 h. The X-ray imaging of tablets in human volunteers showed that the tablets reached the colon without disintegrating in the upper gastrointestinal tract. From the pharmacokinetic study, the C max of colon-targeted tablets was 3,486.70 ng/ml at T max 10 h, whereas in the case of immediate-release tablets, the C max of 4,506.31 ng/ml at T max 2 h signifies the ability of compression-coated tablets to target the colon. In conclusion, compression-coated tablets are suitable to deliver ketorolac tromethamine to the colon. PMID:25787064

  20. Evaluation of hot-melt extrusion and injection molding for continuous manufacturing of immediate-release tablets.

    PubMed

    Melocchi, Alice; Loreti, Giulia; Del Curto, Maria Dorly; Maroni, Alessandra; Gazzaniga, Andrea; Zema, Lucia

    2015-06-01

    The exploitation of hot-melt extrusion and injection molding for the manufacturing of immediate-release (IR) tablets was preliminarily investigated in view of their special suitability for continuous manufacturing, which represents a current goal of pharmaceutical production because of its possible advantages in terms of improved sustainability. Tablet-forming agents were initially screened based on processability by single-screw extruder and micromolding machine as well as disintegration/dissolution behavior of extruded/molded prototypes. Various polymers, such as low-viscosity hydroxypropylcellulose, polyvinyl alcohol, polyvinyl alcohol-polyethylene glycol graft copolymer, various sodium starch glycolate grades (e.g., Explotab(®) CLV) that could be processed with no need for technological aids, except for a plasticizer, were identified. Furthermore, the feasibility of both extruded and molded IR tablets from low-viscosity hydroxypropylcellulose or Explotab(®) CLV was assessed. Explotab(®) CLV, in particular, showed thermoplastic properties and a very good aptitude as a tablet-forming agent, starting from which disintegrating tablets were successfully obtained by either techniques. Prototypes containing a poorly soluble model drug (furosemide), based on both a simple formulation (Explotab(®) CLV and water/glycerol as plasticizers) and formulations including dissolution/disintegration adjuvants (soluble and effervescent excipients) were shown to fulfill the USP 37 dissolution requirements for furosemide tablets. PMID:25761921

  1. Model Test of Anchoring Effect on Zonal Disintegration in Deep Surrounding Rock Masses

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xu-Guang; Zhang, Qiang-Yong; Wang, Yuan; Liu, De-Jun; Zhang, Ning

    2013-01-01

    The deep rock masses show a different mechanical behavior compared with the shallow rock masses. They are classified into alternating fractured and intact zones during the excavation, which is known as zonal disintegration. Such phenomenon is a great disaster and will induce the different excavation and anchoring methodology. In this study, a 3D geomechanics model test was conducted to research the anchoring effect of zonal disintegration. The model was constructed with anchoring in a half and nonanchoring in the other half, to compare with each other. The optical extensometer and optical sensor were adopted to measure the displacement and strain changing law in the model test. The displacement laws of the deep surrounding rocks were obtained and found to be nonmonotonic versus the distance to the periphery. Zonal disintegration occurs in the area without anchoring and did not occur in the model under anchoring condition. By contrasting the phenomenon, the anchor effect of restraining zonal disintegration was revealed. And the formation condition of zonal disintegration was decided. In the procedure of tunnel excavation, the anchor strain was found to be alternation in tension and compression. It indicates that anchor will show the nonmonotonic law during suppressing the zonal disintegration. PMID:23997683

  2. The Trouble with Tablets.

    PubMed

    Espinoza, Kathy

    2015-09-01

    The biggest recommendation is to get your tablet screen up. This can be done by using a case or a tablet stand. Avoid using the tablet on your lap because posture follows vision. If you must use it on your lap, try placing it on a pillow to raise its height and reduce dangerous neck flexion. Whenever possible, set the tablet on a table rather than holding it with your hands because hands and forearms fatigue quickly. Consider finding an external keyboard that can be separated from the tablet screen. This way, you can set the tablet on a higher surface to elevate the screen and have a lower keyboard to eliminate some of the wrist extension when keying. PMID:26495616

  3. Evaluation of enteric-coated tablets as a whole cell inactivated vaccine candidate against Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Sonsire; Ańo, Gemma; Castańo, Jorge; Pino, Yadira; Uribarri, Evangelina; Riverón, Luis A; Cedré, Bárbara; Valmaseda, Tania; Falero, Gustavo; Pérez, José L; Infante, Juan F; García, Luis G; Solís, Rosa L; Sierra, Gustavo; Talavera, Arturo

    2013-01-01

    A vaccine candidate against cholera was developed in the form of oral tablets to avoid difficulties during application exhibited by current whole cell inactivated cholera vaccines. In this study, enteric-coated tablets were used to improve the protection of the active compound from gastric acidity. Tablets containing heat-killed whole cells of Vibrio cholerae strain C7258 as the active pharmaceutical compound was enteric-coated with the polymer Kollicoat(®) MAE-100P, which protected them efficiently from acidity when a disintegration test was carried out. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) anti-lipopolysaccharide (LPS) inhibition test and Western blot assay revealed the presence of V. cholerae antigens as LPS, mannose-sensitive haemagglutinin (MSHA) and outer membrane protein U (Omp U) in enteric-coated tablets. Immunogenicity studies (ELISA and vibriocidal test) carried out by intraduodenal administration in rabbits showed that the coating process of tablets did not affect the immunogenicity of V. cholerae-inactivated cells. In addition, no differences were observed in the immune response elicited by enteric-coated or uncoated tablets, particularly because the animal model and immunization route used did not allow discriminating between acid resistances of both tablets formulations in vivo. Clinical studies with volunteers will be required to elucidate this aspect, but the results suggest the possibility of using enteric-coated tablets as a final pharmaceutical product for a cholera vaccine. PMID:23492079

  4. Development of polymer-bound fast-dissolving metformin buccal film with disintegrants

    PubMed Central

    Haque, Shaikh Ershadul; Sheela, Angappan

    2015-01-01

    Fast-dissolving drug-delivery systems are considered advantageous over the existing conventional oral dosage forms like tablets, capsules, and syrups for being patient friendly. Buccal films are one such system responsible for systemic drug delivery at the desired site of action by avoiding hepatic first-pass metabolism. Metformin hydrochloride (Met), an antidiabetic drug, has poor bioavailability due to its high solubility and low permeability. The purpose of the study reported here was to develop a polymer-bound fast-dissolving buccal film of metformin to exploit these unique properties. In the study, metformin fast-dissolving films were prepared by the solvent-casting method using chitosan, a bioadhesive polymer. Further, starch, sodium starch glycolate, and microcrystalline cellulose were the disintegrants added to different ratios, forming various formulations (F1 to F7). The buccal films were evaluated for various parameters like weight variation, thickness, folding endurance, surface pH, content uniformity, tensile strength, and percentage of elongation. The films were also subjected to in vitro dissolution study, and the disintegration time was found to be less than 30 minutes for all formulations, which was attributed to the effect of disintegrants. Formulation F6 showed 92.2% drug release within 6 minutes due to the combined effect of sodium starch glycolate and microcrystalline cellulose. PMID:26491321

  5. Application and Characterization of Gum from Bombax buonopozense Calyxesas an Excipient in Tablet Formulation

    PubMed Central

    Ngwuluka, Ndidi C.; Kyari, Jehu; Taplong, John; Uwaezuoke, Onyinye J.

    2012-01-01

    This study was undertaken to explore gum from Bombax buonopozense calyxes as a binding agent in formulation of immediate release dosage forms using wet granulation method. The granules were characterized to assess the flow and compression properties and when compressed, non-compendial and compendial tests were undertaken to assess the tablet properties for tablets prepared with bombax gum in comparison with those prepared with tragacanth and acacia gums. Granules prepared with bombax exhibited good flow and compressible properties with angle of repose 28.60°, Carr’s compressibility of 21.30% and Hausner’s quotient of 1.27. The tablets were hard, but did not disintegrate after one hour. Furthermore, only 52.5% of paracetamol was released after one hour. The drug release profile followed zero order kinetics. Tablets prepared with bombax gum have the potential to deliver drugs in a controlled manner over a prolonged period at a constant rate. PMID:24300296

  6. Formulation Development of Spherical Crystal Agglomerates of Itraconazole for Preparation of Directly Compressible Tablets with Enhanced Bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Fadke, Janki; Desai, Jagruti; Thakkar, Hetal

    2015-12-01

    The objective of the present work was to formulate tablet dosage form of itraconazole with enhanced bioavailability. Spherical crystal agglomerates (SCA) of itraconazole prepared by quasi emulsification solvent diffusion method using Soluplus and polyethylene glycol 4000 (PEG 4000) showed increased solubility (540 ?g/ml) in 0.1 N hydrochloric acid as compared to pure drug (12 ?g/ml). A Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) study indicated compatibility of drug with the excipients. The developed SCA were spherical with smooth surface having an average size of 412 ?m. The significantly improved micromeritic properties compared to the plain drug suggested its suitability for direct compression. The antifungal activity of itraconazole was retained in the SCA form as evidenced from the results of the disc diffusion method. The optimized SCA formulation could be easily compressed into tablet with desirable characteristics of hardness (5 kg/cm(2)) and disintegration time (6.3 min). The in vitro dissolution studies showed significant difference in the dissolution profiles of pure drug (21%) and SCA formulation (85%) which was even greater than that of marketed preparation (75%). In vivo pharmacokinetic showed significant enhancement in C max and AUC0-t with relative bioavailability of 225%. The SCA formulation seems to be promising for enhancement of oral bioavailability of itraconazole. PMID:25991065

  7. Case studies in swelling polymeric gastric retentive tablets.

    PubMed

    Berner, Bret; Cowles, Verne E

    2006-07-01

    Swelling tablets administered in the fed state have been shown to provide therapeutic advantages in two marketed products, with the duration of delivery characterised with respect to food and tablet size. Metformin extended-release tablets are a diffusion-based swelling tablet demonstrating once-daily efficacy with good gastrointestinal solubility. Ciprofloxacin extended-release tablets are based on an erosional matrix that delivers the drug to the upper gastrointestinal tract over 6 h to provide once-daily efficacy with reduced incidences of nausea and diarrhoea. Furosemide extended-release tablets are another example of an erosional matrix designed to deliver furosemide to the duodenum and upper jejunum over 6 h to provide a more gradual diuresis and naturesis compared with the immediate-release product. PMID:16822228

  8. Calcification prevention tablets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsay, Geoffrey A.; Hasting, Michael A.; Gustavson, Michael A.

    1991-01-01

    Citric acid tablets, which slowly release citric acid when flushed with water, are under development by the Navy for calcification prevention. The citric acid dissolves calcium carbonate deposits and chelates the calcium. For use in urinals, a dispenser is not required because the tablets are non-toxic and safe to handle. The tablets are placed in the bottom of the urinal, and are consumed in several hundred flushes (the release rate can be tailored by adjusting the formulation). All of the ingredients are environmentally biodegradable. Mass production of the tablets on commercial tableting machines was demonstrated. The tablets are inexpensive (about 75 cents apiece). Incidences of clogged pipes and urinals were greatly decreased in long term shipboard tests. The corrosion rate of sewage collection pipe (90/10 Cu/Ni) in citric acid solution in the laboratory is several mils per year at conditions typically found in traps under the urinals. The only shipboard corrosion seen to date is of the yellow brass urinal tail pieces. While this is acceptable, the search for a nontoxic corrosion inhibitor is underway. The shelf life of the tablets is at least one year if stored at 50 percent relative humidity, and longer if stored in sealed plastic buckets.

  9. Pharmaceutical quality of seven generic Levodopa/Benserazide products compared with original Madopar® / Prolopa®

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background By definition, a generic product is considered interchangeable with the innovator brand product. Controversy exists about interchangeability, and attention is predominantly directed to contaminants. In particular for chronic, degenerative conditions such as in Parkinson’s disease (PD) generic substitution remains debated among physicians, patients and pharmacists. The objective of this study was to compare the pharmaceutical quality of seven generic levodopa/benserazide hydrochloride combination products marketed in Germany with the original product (Madopar® / Prolopa® 125, Roche, Switzerland) in order to evaluate the potential impact of Madopar® generics versus branded products for PD patients and clinicians. Methods Madopar® / Prolopa® 125 tablets and capsules were used as reference material. The generic products tested (all 100 mg/25 mg formulations) included four tablet and three capsule formulations. Colour, appearance of powder (capsules), disintegration and dissolution, mass of tablets and fill mass of capsules, content, identity and amounts of impurities were assessed along with standard physical and chemical laboratory tests developed and routinely practiced at Roche facilities. Results were compared to the original “shelf-life” specifications in use by Roche. Results Each of the seven generic products had one or two parameters outside the specifications. Deviations for the active ingredients ranged from +8.4% (benserazide) to ?7.6% (levodopa) in two tablet formulations. Degradation products were measured in marked excess (+26.5%) in one capsule formulation. Disintegration time and dissolution for levodopa and benserazide hydrochloride at 30 min were within specifications for all seven generic samples analysed, however with some outliers. Conclusions Deviations for the active ingredients may go unnoticed by a new user of the generic product, but may entail clinical consequences when switching from original to generic during a long-term therapy. Degradation products may pose a safety concern. Our results should prompt caution when prescribing a generic of Madopar®/Prolopa®, and also invite to further investigations in view of a more comprehensive approach, both pharmaceutical and clinical. PMID:23617953

  10. A new method for evaluating the bitterness of medicines in development using a taste sensor and a disintegration testing apparatus.

    PubMed

    Harada, Tsutomu; Uchida, Takahiro; Yoshida, Miyako; Kobayashi, Yoshikazu; Narazaki, Ryuichi; Ohwaki, Takayuki

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the usefulness and wide applicability of a taste sensor and a new disintegration testing apparatus in the development and/or evaluation of orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs). In this paper, we described methods for the effective utilization of a taste sensor in the development of a new medicine. First we predicted the taste of propiverine hydrochloride, a model drug substance whose taste is unknown, using a taste sensor. Then we screened masking agents for their ability to suppress the bitterness of propiverine hydrochloride, and manufactured ODTs of propiverine hydrochloride with various masking agents. The tastes of these ODTs were then evaluated in chronological order by combining the taste sensor with the new disintegration testing apparatus, ODT-101, to resemble the oral cavity. As a result, we were able to evaluate the taste of propiverine hydrochloride and the effectiveness of various masking agents in ODTs. The result using this combination of taste sensor and ODT-101 shows good agreement with the results of human gustatory sensation testing, thus demonstrating the usefulness and applicability of the taste sensor and disintegration testing apparatus, ODT-101, in the development of new medicine. PMID:20686251

  11. Equivalency of Paper versus Tablet Computer Survey Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravert, Russell D.; Gomez-Scott, Jessica; Donnellan, M. Brent

    2015-01-01

    Survey responses collected via paper surveys and computer tablets were compared to test for differences between those methods of obtaining self-report data. College students (N = 258) were recruited in public campus locations and invited to complete identical surveys on either paper or iPad tablet. Only minor homogeneity differences were found…

  12. Preformulation study of fiber formation and formulation of drug-loaded microfiber based orodispersible tablets for in vitro dissolution enhancement.

    PubMed

    Szabó, Péter; Kállai-Szabó, Barnabás; Sebe, István; Zelkó, Romána

    2014-12-30

    Preformulation study of rotary spun hydroxypropyl cellulose fibers was carried out using the combination of textural characterization of gels in the concentration range of 42-60% w/w and optical microscopic evaluation of formed fibers. High adhesiveness values resulted in bead formation at lower polymer concentration, meanwhile fiber formation was hindered when high adhesiveness values were associated with high polymer content. The optimum gel concentration for fiber formation was given to 50% w/w. Drug loaded microfibers were prepared using a model drug of biopharmaceutical drug classification system class II. Fibers were milled, sieved and mixed with tableting excipients in order to directly compress orodispersible tablets. Hardness, friability, in vitro disintegration time values complied with the pharmacopoeial requirements. In vitro dissolution profiles obtained from three distinct dissolution media (pH 1.0; 4.5; 6.8) were quite differentiated compared to the compressed physical mixture of the same composition. Difference and similarity factors confirmed that the drug dissolution from microfiber based formula was almost independent from the pH value of the media. X-ray diffraction patterns indicated that the drug embedded in microfibers was in amorphous state, and the decrease of o-Ps lifetime values suggested that fiber formation enabled the development of a more ordered fibrous system. PMID:25448565

  13. Combination of alkaline and microwave pretreatment for disintegration of meat processing wastewater sludge.

    PubMed

    Erden, G

    2013-01-01

    Meat processing wastewater sludge has high organic content but it is very slow to degrade in biological processes. Anaerobic digestion may be a good alternative for this type of sludge when the hydrolysis, known to be the rate-limiting step of biological sludge anaerobic degradation, could be eliminated by disintegration. This investigation deals with disintegration of meat processing wastewater sludge. Microwave (MW) irradiation and combined alkaline pretreatment and MW irradiation were applied to sludge for disintegration purposes. Disintegration performance of the methods was evaluated with disintegration degree based on total and dissolved organic carbon calculations (DD(TOC)), and the solubilization of volatile solids (S(VS)) in the pretreated sludge. Optimum conditions were found to be 140 degrees C and 30 min for MW irradiation using response surface methodology (RSM) and pH = 13 for combined pretreatment. While DD(TOC) was observed as 24.6% and 54.9, S(VS) was determined as 8.54% and 42.5% for MW pretreated and combined pretreated sludge, respectively. The results clearly show that pre-conditioning of sludge with alkaline pretreatment played an important role in enhancing the disintegration efficiency of subsequent MW irradiation. Disintegration methods also affected the anaerobic biodegradability and dewaterability of sludge. An increase of 23.6% in biogas production in MW irradiated sludge was obtained, comparing to the raw sludge at the end of the 35 days of incubation. This increase was observed as 44.5% combined pretreatment application. While MW pretreatment led to a little improvement of the dewatering performance of sludge, in combined pretreatment NaOH deteriorates the sludge dewaterability. PMID:23837322

  14. Material and tableting properties of Azadirachta indica gum with reference to official acacia gum.

    PubMed

    Ogunjimi, Abayomi T; Alebiowu, Gbenga

    2014-01-01

    This study determined the material and tableting properties of Azadirachta indica gum (NMG) relative to acacia gum (ACA). The morphological properties were assessed with size and shape factors of aspect ratio, roundness, irregularity and equivalent-circle-diameter. The tableting properties of the gums were determined using compressional characteristics, tensile strength (TS), brittle fracture index (BFI) and crushing-strength-friability/disintegration-time ratio (CSFR/DT). The results suggest that NMG possesses larger, irregular and more elongated particles than ACA. The onset and amount of plastic deformation occurring in NMG was faster and higher, respectively, than in ACA. The result shows that, although ACA tablets were stronger, their tendency to cap/laminate was higher than in NMG tablets. The NMG tablets possess lower DT than those of ACA, while the CSFR/DT result suggests that a better balance exists between the strength and weakness of NMG tablets. The study concluded that NMG can be a useful excipient in tablet formulation. PMID:24779199

  15. Pharmacokinetics of colon-specific pH and time-dependent flurbiprofen tablets.

    PubMed

    Vemula, Sateesh Kumar; Veerareddy, Prabhakar Reddy; Devadasu, Venkat Ratnam

    2015-09-01

    Present research deals with the development of compression-coated flurbiprofen colon-targeted tablets to retard the drug release in the upper gastro intestinal system, but progressively release the drug in the colon. Flurbiprofen core tablets were prepared by direct compression method and were compression coated using sodium alginate and Eudragit S100. The formulation is optimized based on the in vitro drug release study and further evaluated by X-ray imaging and pharmacokinetic studies in healthy humans for colonic delivery. The optimized formulation showed negligible drug release (4.33 ± 0.06 %) in the initial lag period followed by progressive release (100.78 ± 0.64 %) for 24 h. The X-ray imaging in human volunteers showed that the tablets reached the colon without disintegrating in the upper gastrointestinal tract. The C max of colon-targeted tablets was 12,374.67 ng/ml at T max 10 h, where as in case of immediate release tablets the C max was 15,677.52 ng/ml at T max 3 h, that signifies the ability of compression-coated tablets to target the colon. Development of compression-coated tablets using combination of time-dependent and pH-sensitive approaches was suitable to target the flurbiprofen to colon. PMID:24916715

  16. Continuous twin screw granulation: influence of process variables on granule and tablet quality.

    PubMed

    Vercruysse, J; Córdoba Díaz, D; Peeters, E; Fonteyne, M; Delaet, U; Van Assche, I; De Beer, T; Remon, J P; Vervaet, C

    2012-09-01

    The aim of the current study was to screen theophylline (125 mg) tablets manufactured via twin screw granulation in order to improve process understanding and knowledge of process variables that determine granule and tablet quality. A premix of theophylline anhydrate, ?-lactose monohydrate and PVP (ratio: 30/67.5/2.5,w/w) was granulated with demineralized water. Experiments were done using the high-shear wet granulation module (based on twin screw granulation) of the ConsiGma™-25 unit (a continuous tablet manufacturing system) for particle size enlargement. After drying, granules were compressed using a MODUL™ P tablet press (compression force: 10 kN, tablet diameter: 12 mm). Using a D-optimal experimental design, the effect of several process variables (throughput (10-25 kg/h), screw speed (600-950 rpm), screw configuration (number (2, 4, 6 and 12) and angle (30°, 60° and 90°) of kneading elements), barrel temperature (25-40°C) and method of binder addition (dry versus wet)) on the granulation process (torque and temperature increase in barrel wall), granule (particle size distribution, friability and flowability) and tablet (tensile strength, porosity, friability, disintegration time and dissolution) quality was evaluated. The results showed that the quality of granules and tablets can be optimized by adjusting specific process variables (number of kneading elements, barrel temperature and binder addition method) during a granulation process using a continuous twin screw granulator. PMID:22687571

  17. Pharmacokinetic Comparative Study of Gastrodin and Rhynchophylline after Oral Administration of Different Prescriptions of Yizhi Tablets in Rats by an HPLC-ESI/MS Method

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Zhaohui; Liang, Qionglin; Wang, Yiming; Luo, Guoan

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacokinetic characters of rhynchophylline (RIN), gastrodin (GAS), and gastrodigenin (p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol, HBA) were investigated after oral administration of different prescriptions of Yizhi: Yizhi tablets or effective parts of tianma (total saponins from Gastrodiae, EPT) and gouteng (rhynchophylla alkaloids, EPG). At different predetermined time points after administration, the concentrations of GAS, HBA, and RIN in rat plasma were determined by an HPLC-ESI/MS method, and the main pharmacokinetic parameters were investigated. The results showed that the pharmacokinetic parameters Cmax and AUC0–? (P < 0.05) were dramatically different after oral administration of different prescriptions of Yizhi. The data indicated that the pharmacokinetic processes of GAS, HBA, and RIN in rats would interact with each other or be affected by other components in Yizhi. The rationality of the compatibility of Uncaria and Gastrodia elata as a classic “herb pair” has been verified from the pharmacokinetic viewpoint. PMID:25610474

  18. Compressibility of tableting materials and properties of tablets with glyceryl behenate.

    PubMed

    Mužíková, Jitka; Muchová, Sandra; Komersová, Alena; Locha?, Václav

    2015-03-01

    The paper studies the compressibility of directly compressible tableting materials with dry binders, spray-dried lactose and microcrystalline cellulose, and glyceryl dibehenate at various concentrations. Compressibility was evaluated by means of the energy profile of compression and tensile strength of tablets. Release rate of the active ingredient, salicylic acid, from the tablets was also examined. In the case of microcrystalline cellulose, a higher concentration of glyceryl dibehenate increased the strength of tablets, while this did not occur in the case of spray-dried lactose. Increasing concentration of glyceryl dibehenate prolonged the release of salicylic acid; however, no statistically significant difference was found compared to the type of the dry binder used. PMID:25781708

  19. Abuse and diversion of buprenorphine sublingual tablets and film.

    PubMed

    Lavonas, Eric J; Severtson, S Geoffrey; Martinez, Erin M; Bucher-Bartelson, Becki; Le Lait, Marie-Claire; Green, Jody L; Murrelle, Lenn E; Cicero, Theodore J; Kurtz, Steven P; Rosenblum, Andrew; Surratt, Hilary L; Dart, Richard C

    2014-07-01

    Buprenorphine abuse is common worldwide. Rates of abuse and diversion of three sublingual buprenorphine formulations (single ingredient tablets; naloxone combination tablets and film) were compared. Data were obtained from the Researched Abuse, Diversion, and Addiction-Related Surveillance (RADARS) System Poison Center, Drug Diversion, Opioid Treatment (OTP), Survey of Key Informants' Patients (SKIP), and College Survey Programs through December 2012. To control for drug availability, event ratios (rates) were calculated quarterly, based on the number of patients filling prescriptions for each formulation ("unique recipients of a dispensed drug," URDD) and averaged and compared using negative binomial regression. Abuse rates in the OTP, SKIP, and College Survey Programs were greatest for single ingredient tablets, and abuse rates in the Poison Center Program and illicit diversion rates were greatest for the combination tablets. Combination film rates were significantly less than rates for either tablet formulation in all programs. No geographic pattern could be discerned. PMID:24680219

  20. Pulse release of doxazosin from hydroxyethylcellulose compression coated tablet: mechanistic and in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Nikhil; Guha, Arijit; Sahoo, Ranjan Kumar; Kuotsu, Ketousetuo

    2015-01-01

    Chronotherapeutically programmed hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC) based compression coated doxazosin tablets were prepared and the influence of disintegrants croscarmellose sodium, L-hydroxypropylcellulose (L-HPC), gellan gum on drug release and in vivo performance were investigated. Infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetric studies did not indicate any excipient incompatibility in the tablets. The disintegrants induced a continuous water influx resulting in a rapid expansion of the membrane. The subsequent formation of fractures into the coats leads to a fast drug release after an initial lag time. Release rates indicated that croscarmellose sodium and L-HPC were directly proportional to their concentration in the formulations. In vitro optimized croscarmellose sodium-HEC matrix showed significantly faster (p < 0.05) drug release (t90% = 46 min) after an initial lag of 243 min. Disintegrant-HEC blended matrices were found significantly superior (p < 0.05) in terms of in vitro release and bioavailability in comparison to plain HEC matrices. Drug release kinetics followed modified power law and Weibull model (r > 0.99). The mechanism involved in release was anomalous transport and super case II transport with matrix swelling. The pulsatile tablets showed no changes either in physicochemical appearance, drug content or in dissolution pattern during its accelerated stability studies. PMID:25179280

  1. Microstructural investigation of tablet compaction and tablet pharmacological properties

    E-print Network

    Mao, Kangyi

    2010-01-01

    In current tablet manufacturing processes, there is a knowledge gap concerning material transformation and the subsequent impact on tablet properties; this gap presents a barrier to rational formulation / process design. ...

  2. Axial strength test for round flat faced versus capsule shaped bilayer tablets.

    PubMed

    Franck, Jason; Abebe, Admassu; Keluskar, Rekha; Martin, Kyle; Majumdar, Antara; Kottala, Niranjan; Stamato, Howard

    2015-03-01

    There has been increasing interest in fixed dose combination (FDC) therapy. Multi-layer tablets are a popular choice among various technologies to deliver FDCs. In most cases, round flat faced tooling is used in testing tablets as they have the simplest geometry. However, shaped tooling is more common for commercial products and may have an effect on bilayer tablet strength. Capsule shaped bilayer tablets, similar to a commercial image, and holders conforming to the tablet topology, were compared with similar round flat faced bilayer tablets and their corresponding holders. Bilayer tablets were subjected to an axial test device, until fracture and the quantitative breaking force value was recorded. As the second layer compression force increases, regardless of holder design, an increase in breaking force occurs as expected. This consistent trend provides insight regarding the breaking force of capsule shaped bilayer tablets. The results of this study show that at lower second layer compression forces, tablet geometry does not significantly impact the results. However, at higher compression forces, a significant difference in breaking force between tablet geometries exists. Therefore, using a test geometry close to the final commercial tablet image is recommended to have the most accurate prediction for tablet breakage. PMID:24219774

  3. Comparative efficacy of a spot-on formulation containing emodepside and praziquantel (Profender ®, Bayer) and praziquantel and pyrantel oral tablets (Drontal ® for Cats) against experimental Ancylostoma ceylanicum infections in cats.

    PubMed

    Taweethavonsawat, Piyanan; Chungpivat, Sudchit; Watanapongchati, Supoj; Traub, Rebecca J; Schaper, Roland

    2013-01-16

    Ancylostoma ceylanicum is a common zoonotic hookworm of dogs and cats throughout Asia and has also been reported to occur within the Australasian region. The aim of this study to was to determine the efficacy of a spot-on formulation containing emodepside and praziquantel (Profender(®), Bayer) and praziquantel and pyrantel oral tablets (Drontal(®) for Cats, Bayer) against experimental A. ceylanicum infections in cats. Twenty-four kittens were each subcutaneously injected with 100 infective third-stage larvae of A. ceylanicum. Kittens were stratified by egg count and randomly allocated equally into control and two treatment groups. The first group were treated with emodepside 2.1%/praziquantel 8.6% (Profender®, Bayer) at the recommended label dose. The second group was treated with 80 mg pyrantel and 20mg praziquantel (Drontal(®) for Cats, Bayer) at the recommended label dose. The kittens in the control group were not treated. Egg counts were performed daily until the end of the study period and compared for the treated and control groups. No eggs were detected in the treated group of kittens within 4 days of treatment and faecal samples from this group remained negative throughout the rest of the study, resulting in a treatment efficacy (egg reduction) of 100% (P<0.0001). The egg counts remained high (993 ± 666 epg) in the untreated control group for the rest of the study period. This study demonstrated that both combination products containing topical emodepside/praziquantel (Profender(®), Bayer) and praziquantel/pyrantel oral tablets (Drontal(®) for Cats, Bayer) given at the recommended dose is highly effective against infection with A. ceylanicum in cats. PMID:23026558

  4. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of fast-dissolving tablets containing solid dispersion of lamotrigine

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Arti; Gundamaraju, Rohit

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Investigation of in vitro/in vivo behavior of fast-dissolving tablets containing solid dispersions (SDs) of lamotrigine (LM) was the aim and focus of the present research work. Material and Methods: The effect of various hydrophilic polymers on the aqueous solubility of LM was studied. Polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000) was selected as the vehicle and SDs were prepared by melting and solvent evaporation method (SEM). Evaluation of SD for dissolution indicated SVM was more appropriate as seen from an enhancement in drug dissolution. Infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and powder X-ray diffraction studies indicated a lack of physicochemical interaction between the drug and the carrier. A total of nine formulations were compressed into fast-dissolving tablets using Avicel pH 102 as a directly compressible filler and ac-di-sol, sodium starch glycolate and crospovidone as super disintegrates and evaluated for pre- and post-compression parameters and in vitro drug release. Results: Mathematical analysis of in vitro data suggested that first order was most suitable mathematical model for describing the optimized formulation. Stability studies indicated that the effect of storage was insignificant at 5% level of confidence. In vivo studies of pure drug, selected formulation and marketed product were carried out in male Wistar rats and pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters were calculated using PK function for Microsoft Excel. The best formulation has shown Tmax of 0.5 h which was highly significant (P < 0.05) when compared with pure drug and marketed formulation. The statistical significance was assessed by one way analysis of variance. Conclusion: Therefore, the SDs prepared by SEM using PEG 6000 as hydrophilic carrier can be successfully used for improvement of dissolution of LM and resulted in faster onset of action as indicated by in vivo studies. PMID:25599034

  5. Improvement of mechanical properties of pellet containing tablets by thermal treatment.

    PubMed

    Csobán, Zsombor; Kállai-Szabó, Barnabás; Kállai-Szabó, Nikolett; Sebe, István; Gordon, Péter; Antal, István

    2015-12-30

    Batches of partially spray-dried lactose tablets with three different initial tensile strength (?20N, ?35N, ?50N) were made. Changes along a 24h long thermal treatment at 100°C in tensile strength, friability, individual mass, water content, disintegration time, average free volume and wetting properties were evaluated. Caffeine containing gastroresistant pellets were gained by drug layering and filmcoating of inert microcrystalline cellulose pellet cores in fluid bed equipment. Shape, size, mechanical properties, drug content and dissolution profile of the coated pellets were determined. Batches of pellet containing tablets with three different pellet-filler ratios were compressed where partially spray-dried lactose was used as a filler-binder material.Characteristics of pellet containing tablets were evaluated before and after a 24h long thermal treatment at 100°C. Results shown that the poor initial mechanical properties (friability, tensile strength) were improved by thermal exposure while there were no remarkable alterations in drug release profiles. PMID:26475969

  6. Organic-aqueous crossover coating process for the desmopressin orally disintegrating microparticles.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ju-Young; Hwang, Kyu-Mok; Park, Chun-Woong; Rhee, Yun-Seok; Park, Eun-Seok

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to prepare desmopressin orally disintegrating microparticles (ODMs) using organic-aqueous crossover coating process which featured an organic sub-coating followed by an aqueous active coating. Sucrose beads and hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) were used as inert cores and a coating material, respectively. Characterizations including size distribution analysis, in-vitro release studies and in-vitro disintegration studies were performed. A pharmacokinetic study of the ODMs was also conducted in eight beagle dogs. It was found that sucrose beads should be coated using organic solvents to preserve their original morphology. For the active coating, the aqueous coating solution should be used for drug stability. When sucrose beads were coated using organic-aqueous crossover coating process, double-layer ODMs with round shapes were produced with detectable impurities below limit of US Pharmacopeia. The median size of ODMs was 195.6??m, which was considered small enough for a good mouthfeel. The ODMs dissolved in artificial saliva within 15?s because of hydrophilic materials including sucrose and HPC in the ODMs. Because of its fast-dissolving properties, 100% release of the drug was reached within 5?min. Pharmacokinetic parameters including Cmax and AUC24 indicated bioequivalence of the ODMs and the conventional immediate release tablets. Therefore, by using the organic-aqueous crossover coating process, double-layer ODMs were successively prepared with small size, round shapes and good drug stability. PMID:24252109

  7. CES 2011: Tablet Crazy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapp, David

    2011-01-01

    Ereaders are so last year. Tablets were the watchword at this year's annual Consumer Electronics Show (CES) in Las Vegas, January 6-9. This year, the show set new records, with some 2700 companies from around the world exhibiting at the multiple exhibition halls and 30,000 attendees gawking at the products. What did they see? There were still some…

  8. Development of Orodispersible Tablets of Candesartan Cilexetil-?-cyclodextrin Complex

    PubMed Central

    Sravya, Maddukuri; Deveswaran, Rajamanickam; Bharath, Srinivasan; Basavaraj, Basappa Veerbadraiah; Madhavan, Varadharajan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the use of inclusion complexation technique employing ?-cyclodextrin in improving the dissolution profile of candesartan cilexetil, a BCS class-II drug, and to formulate the inclusion complex into orodispersible tablets. The inclusion complexes were formed by physical mixing, kneading, coevaporation, and lyophilisation methods. Inclusion complexes were characterized by FTIR, DSC, XRD, NMR, and mass spectral studies. Inclusion complexes prepared using kneading, and lyophilisation techniques in the molar ratio 1?:?5 with ?-cyclodextrin were used for formulating orodispersible tablets by direct compression with different superdisintegrants like croscarmellose sodium, crospovidone, sodium starch glycolate, and low substituted hydroxypropyl cellulose in varying concentrations. The directly compressible powder was evaluated for precompression parameters, and the prepared orodispersible tablets were evaluated for postcompression parameters. Drug-excipient compatibility studies showed no interaction, and characterization proved the formation of inclusion complex. In vitro disintegration time was found to be within 3 minutes, and all the formulations showed complete drug release of 100% within 20 minutes. The optimized formulation was found to be stable after 6 months and showed no significant change in drug content. This work proved ?-cyclodextrins to be effective solubilizing agent in improving the solubility of poorly water soluble drugs. PMID:26555987

  9. Development of Orodispersible Tablets of Candesartan Cilexetil- ? -cyclodextrin Complex.

    PubMed

    Sravya, Maddukuri; Deveswaran, Rajamanickam; Bharath, Srinivasan; Basavaraj, Basappa Veerbadraiah; Madhavan, Varadharajan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the use of inclusion complexation technique employing ?-cyclodextrin in improving the dissolution profile of candesartan cilexetil, a BCS class-II drug, and to formulate the inclusion complex into orodispersible tablets. The inclusion complexes were formed by physical mixing, kneading, coevaporation, and lyophilisation methods. Inclusion complexes were characterized by FTIR, DSC, XRD, NMR, and mass spectral studies. Inclusion complexes prepared using kneading, and lyophilisation techniques in the molar ratio 1?:?5 with ?-cyclodextrin were used for formulating orodispersible tablets by direct compression with different superdisintegrants like croscarmellose sodium, crospovidone, sodium starch glycolate, and low substituted hydroxypropyl cellulose in varying concentrations. The directly compressible powder was evaluated for precompression parameters, and the prepared orodispersible tablets were evaluated for postcompression parameters. Drug-excipient compatibility studies showed no interaction, and characterization proved the formation of inclusion complex. In vitro disintegration time was found to be within 3 minutes, and all the formulations showed complete drug release of 100% within 20 minutes. The optimized formulation was found to be stable after 6 months and showed no significant change in drug content. This work proved ?-cyclodextrins to be effective solubilizing agent in improving the solubility of poorly water soluble drugs. PMID:26555987

  10. Development and evaluation of fixed dose bi therapy sublingual tablets for treatment stress hypertension and anxiety

    PubMed Central

    El-Nabarawi, Mohamed A.; Tayel, Saadia A.; Soliman, Nadia A.; Abo Enin, Hadel A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: A stress induced rise in the blood pressure. Some believe that patients with hypertension are characterized by a generalized state of increased anxiety. Aim: The purpose of this study is to prepare a fixed dose bi therapy using bisoprolol hemifumarate (BH) as antihypertensive drug and buspirone hydrochloride (BuHCl) as anxiolytic drug, which can be used to treat both diseases concomitantly. Using sublingual tablets is hopeful to improve the BuHCl poor oral bioavailability and to facilitate administration to patients experiencing problems with swallowing. Materials and Methods: A total of 5mg BH and 10mg BuHCl were selected based on compatibility study. A 3×22 full factorial design was adopted for the optimization of the tablets prepared by direct compression method. The effects of the filler type, the binder molecular weight, and the binder type were studied. The prepared formulae were evaluated according to their physical characters as hardness, friability, disintegration time (new modified method and in vivo disintegration time) and wetting properties. In vitro drugs dissolute, permeation through the buccal mucosa and the effect of storage were analyzed by a new valid high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. Bioavailability study of the selected formula study was carried out and followed by the clinical. Results: The optimized tablet formulation showed accepted average weight, hardness, wetting time, friability, content uniformity, disintegration time (less than 3 min). Maximum drug release could be achieved with in 10 min. In addition enhancing drug permeation through the buccal mucosa and, the maximum concentration of the drug that reached the blood was in the first 10 min which means a rapid onset of action and improved the extent of both drug's absorption. Conclusion: The results revealed that sublingual (F6) tablets containing both drugs would maintain rapid onset of action, and increase bioavailability. BuHCl with BH can be attributed to the marked decline in DBP and SBP. That led to a reduction in the MAP. PMID:24082695

  11. Severe arrhythmia induced by orally disintegrating aripiprazole tablets (Bosiqing®): a case report

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Qing; Quan, Wei; Jia, Xiaoni; Chen, Jianbo; Ma, Shanbo; Zhang, Xiaohong

    2015-01-01

    Psychotropic medications have been known to cause cardiac conduction disturbances. Not much is known about the cardiovascular side effects of newer atypical antipsychotics such as aripiprazole. A case of a 13-year-old girl with schizophrenia is presented. An analysis of the presented patient’s clinical history indicates the need for a detailed analysis of the severe arrhythmia induced by aripiprazole. This presented case report contains valuable guidelines that can be of assistance in the treatment of patients with aripiprazole. PMID:26677328

  12. In-line quantification of micronized drug and excipients in tablets by near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy: Real time monitoring of tabletting process.

    PubMed

    Karande, Atul D; Heng, Paul Wan Sia; Liew, Celine Valeria

    2010-08-30

    The objectives of this study were to assess the utility of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for simultaneous in-line quantification of the contents of drug and excipients in tablets and to monitor the tabletting process in real time. Direct compression tablet formulations comprising micronized chlorpheniramine maleate, lactose, microcrystalline cellulose and magnesium stearate were used. A custom built NIR setup was used for in-line spectral acquisition (980-1900nm with 1nm resolution) during the tabletting process. Calibration models using dynamic spectral acquisition were prepared and validated using design of experiment approach. During tabletting, stratified sampling of tablets was also carried out to compare the NIR prediction results and subsequent UV analysis results for drug content. The results obtained with calibration and validation statistics confirmed the accuracy of models used to predict contents of tablet components. Stratified sampling results for drug content did not exhibit any significant statistical variation. However, in-line quantification enabled the content analysis of individual tablets in the production batch and detection of content uniformity problems towards the end of the tabletting process. Furthermore, it provided the assurance of in-process content uniformity monitoring of the individual excipients during the tabletting process. PMID:20558264

  13. Nonlinear disintegration of the internal tide Karl R. Helfrich1

    E-print Network

    Nonlinear disintegration of the internal tide Karl R. Helfrich1 and Roger H. J. Grimshaw2 1 The disintegration of a first-mode internal tide into shorter solitary-like waves is considered. Because observations frequently show both tides and waves with amplitudes beyond the re- strictions of weakly nonlinear theory

  14. Pharmacokinetic comparison of a dextromethorphan-salbutamol combination tablet and a plain dextromethorphan tablet.

    PubMed

    Silvasti, M; Karttunen, P; Happonen, P; Mykkänen, M; Romppanen, T; Tukiainen, H

    1990-06-01

    We compared in this double-blind crossover study the bioavailability of dextromethorphan from a dextromethorphan-salbutamol combination tablet (Redol comp) and from a plain dextromethorphan tablet (Extuson) by determining dextrorphan concentrations after single-dose oral administration in 10 healthy volunteers. The absorption of salbutamol from the combined preparation was also determined. The absorption of dextromethorphan was slightly faster from the plain dextromethorphan preparation. The peak concentration of dextrorphan was achieved at 1.5 h after Extuson and at 2 h after Redol comp (1,053.0 +/- 366.5 ng/ml and 901.5 +/- 210.9 ng/ml, NS). AUC0-12 values of dextrorphan were 4,315.6 +/- 295.0 (ng/ml)h after Extuson and 3,983.8 +/- 205.6 (ng/ml)h after Redol comp (p less than 0.05). Salbutamol was well absorbed from the combined preparation and the peak concentration was achieved at 3 h (6.57 +/- 2.95 ng/ml). Four subjects reported side-effects typical for salbutamol after the combination tablet. No side-effects were reported after the plain dextromethorphan tablet. On the basis of the present study, we conclude that the absorption of dextromethorphan from the preparations tested is almost equal and the dextromethorphan-salbutamol combination can be administered in tablet form for the treatment of cough. PMID:2376428

  15. A disintegrating minor planet transiting a white dwarf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanderburg, Andrew; Johnson, John Asher; Rappaport, Saul; Bieryla, Allyson; Irwin, Jonathan; Lewis, John Arban; Kipping, David; Brown, Warren R.; Dufour, Patrick; Ciardi, David R.; Angus, Ruth; Schaefer, Laura; Latham, David W.; Charbonneau, David; Beichman, Charles; Eastman, Jason; McCrady, Nate; Wittenmyer, Robert A.; Wright, Jason T.

    2015-10-01

    Most stars become white dwarfs after they have exhausted their nuclear fuel (the Sun will be one such). Between one-quarter and one-half of white dwarfs have elements heavier than helium in their atmospheres, even though these elements ought to sink rapidly into the stellar interiors (unless they are occasionally replenished). The abundance ratios of heavy elements in the atmospheres of white dwarfs are similar to the ratios in rocky bodies in the Solar System. This fact, together with the existence of warm, dusty debris disks surrounding about four per cent of white dwarfs, suggests that rocky debris from the planetary systems of white-dwarf progenitors occasionally pollutes the atmospheres of the stars. The total accreted mass of this debris is sometimes comparable to the mass of large asteroids in the Solar System. However, rocky, disintegrating bodies around a white dwarf have not yet been observed. Here we report observations of a white dwarf--WD 1145+017--being transited by at least one, and probably several, disintegrating planetesimals, with periods ranging from 4.5 hours to 4.9 hours. The strongest transit signals occur every 4.5 hours and exhibit varying depths (blocking up to 40 per cent of the star's brightness) and asymmetric profiles, indicative of a small object with a cometary tail of dusty effluent material. The star has a dusty debris disk, and the star's spectrum shows prominent lines from heavy elements such as magnesium, aluminium, silicon, calcium, iron, and nickel. This system provides further evidence that the pollution of white dwarfs by heavy elements might originate from disrupted rocky bodies such as asteroids and minor planets.

  16. A disintegrating minor planet transiting a white dwarf.

    PubMed

    Vanderburg, Andrew; Johnson, John Asher; Rappaport, Saul; Bieryla, Allyson; Irwin, Jonathan; Lewis, John Arban; Kipping, David; Brown, Warren R; Dufour, Patrick; Ciardi, David R; Angus, Ruth; Schaefer, Laura; Latham, David W; Charbonneau, David; Beichman, Charles; Eastman, Jason; McCrady, Nate; Wittenmyer, Robert A; Wright, Jason T

    2015-10-22

    Most stars become white dwarfs after they have exhausted their nuclear fuel (the Sun will be one such). Between one-quarter and one-half of white dwarfs have elements heavier than helium in their atmospheres, even though these elements ought to sink rapidly into the stellar interiors (unless they are occasionally replenished). The abundance ratios of heavy elements in the atmospheres of white dwarfs are similar to the ratios in rocky bodies in the Solar System. This fact, together with the existence of warm, dusty debris disks surrounding about four per cent of white dwarfs, suggests that rocky debris from the planetary systems of white-dwarf progenitors occasionally pollutes the atmospheres of the stars. The total accreted mass of this debris is sometimes comparable to the mass of large asteroids in the Solar System. However, rocky, disintegrating bodies around a white dwarf have not yet been observed. Here we report observations of a white dwarf--WD 1145+017--being transited by at least one, and probably several, disintegrating planetesimals, with periods ranging from 4.5 hours to 4.9 hours. The strongest transit signals occur every 4.5 hours and exhibit varying depths (blocking up to 40 per cent of the star's brightness) and asymmetric profiles, indicative of a small object with a cometary tail of dusty effluent material. The star has a dusty debris disk, and the star's spectrum shows prominent lines from heavy elements such as magnesium, aluminium, silicon, calcium, iron, and nickel. This system provides further evidence that the pollution of white dwarfs by heavy elements might originate from disrupted rocky bodies such as asteroids and minor planets. PMID:26490620

  17. Numerical evaluation of the capping tendency of microcrystalline cellulose tablets during a diametrical compression test.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Ryoichi; Chen, Yuan; Horiguchi, Akio; Takagaki, Keisuke; Nishi, Junichi; Konishi, Akira; Shirakawa, Yoshiyuki; Sugimoto, Masaaki; Narisawa, Shinji

    2015-09-30

    Capping is one of the major problems that occur during the tabletting process in the pharmaceutical industry. This study provided an effective method for evaluating the capping tendency during diametrical compression test using the finite element method (FEM). In experiments, tablets of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) were compacted with a single tabletting machine, and the capping tendency was determined by visual inspection of the tablet after a diametrical compression test. By comparing the effects of double-radius and single-radius concave punch shapes on the capping tendency, it was observed that the capping tendency of double-radius tablets occurred at a lower compaction force compared with single-radius tablets. Using FEM, we investigated the variation in plastic strain within tablets during the diametrical compression test and visualised it using the output variable actively yielding (AC YIELD) of ABAQUS. For both single-radius and double-radius tablets, a capping tendency is indicated if the variation in plastic strain was initiated from the centre of tablets, while capping does not occur if the variation began from the periphery of tablets. The compaction force estimated by the FEM analysis at which the capping tendency was observed was in reasonable agreement with the experimental results. PMID:26188313

  18. The mobility of rock avalanches: disintegration, entrainment and deposition - a conceptual approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapp, Sibylle; Mamot, Philipp; Krautblatter, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Massive rock slope failures cause more than 60% of all catastrophic landslide disasters. Failures usually progress through three consecutive phases: detachment, disintegration and flow. While significant advances have been achieved in modelling Rock Avalanche Phase 1 "Detachment" and Phase 3 "Flow", the crucial link between both during Phase 2 "Disintegration", is still poorly understood. Disintegration of the detached rock mass is often initiated by its first major impact with the ground surface. This is a preliminary setup of a PhD project in which we aim at understanding the importance of disintegration and on site conditions at the impact site on fluidization and mobilization. The TUM Landslides Group is experienced in near surface geophysics of rockwalls and under Alpine conditions and has also developed laboratory experience in testing resistivity and P-/S-wave velocity of anisotropic and fractured rocks in the laboratory. In addition, there is a more than ten year experience in the analysis of different magnitudes of rock slope failure. Many of these studies took part in the Wetterstein Mountains and close to the Zugspitze. In this project we plan to compare one very small (Steingerümpel, Rein valley, Germany, with 0.003 kmł) and two larger test sites (Eibsee, Zugspitze area, Germany, with 0.3 kmł and Flims, Grisons, Switzerland, with 12 kmł) situated in limestone rocks. From our preliminary work we know that the Steingerümpel bergsturz shows a low degree of fracturing in spite of a high impact; the latter ones are high-magnitude rock slope failures which both partially collapsed into a lake and were highly disintegrated and fluidized. We intend to use the smaller Eibsee rock avalanche as a training site where we can try to understand the full dynamics of the flow using sedimentology, geophysics and surface geomorphology which indicated compressive and extensional flow, superelevation and runups. Regarding entrainment processes, we will carry out a seismic investigation of the Eibsee lake floor, assuming an impact of the Eibsee rock avalanche with a former paleo-lake, thereby entraining fine grained lake sediments. Furthermore, we apply these insights to the 12 kmł large Flims rock avalanche which is also partly fluidized and partly highly disintegrated in limestone with similar geomechanical properties. Here we demonstrate a conceptual approach for deciphering the disintegration impact on different magnitudes of rock avalanches. We want to show how they can be applied to constrain realistic flow models, and finally, how the latter can be used to better understand the mobilization and anticipation of highly mobile rock avalanches.

  19. Bilayer tablets of atorvastatin calcium and nicotinic acid: formulation and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Nirmal, Jayabalan; Saisivam, Srinivasan; Peddanna, Chintalapati; Muralidharan, Selvadurai; Godwinkumar, Sundaram; Nagarajan, Muthuraja

    2008-10-01

    The objective of the study is to formulate bilayer tablets consisting of atorvastatin calcium (AT) as an immediate release layer and nicotinic acid (NA) as an extended release layer. The immediate release layer was prepared using super disintegrant croscarmellose sodium and extended release layer using hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC K100M). Both the matrix and bilayer tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, weight variation, thickness, and drug content uniformity and subjected to in vitro drug release studies. The amount of AT and NA released at different time intervals were estimated by HPLC method. The bilayer tablets showed no significant change either in physical appearance, drug content or in dissolution pattern after storing at 40 degrees C/75% relative humiding (RH) for 3 months. The release of the drug from the tablet was influenced by the polymer content and it was much evident from thermogravimetry/differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA) analysis. The results indicated that the bilayer tablets could be a potential dosage form for delivering AT and NA. PMID:18827389

  20. Formulation, development, and performance evaluation of metoclopramide HCl oro-dispersible sustained release tablet.

    PubMed

    Kasliwal, Nikhil; Negi, Jeetendra Singh; Jugran, Vandana; Jain, Rahul

    2011-10-01

    The present study was undertaken to develop and evaluate an oro-dispersible, sustained release tablet of metoclopramide HCl. The technology was comprised of developing sustained release microparticles, and compression of resultant microspheres into a fast dispersible tablet by direct compression. The microspheres of metoclopramide HCl were prepared by an emulsification-solvent evaporation method using ethylcellulose as the matrix polymer. The prepared microspheres were evaluated for morphology, particle size, entrapment efficiency, and in vitro drug release characteristics. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated spherical particles with a mean diameter of 81.27 ± 5.87 ?m and the drug encapsulation efficiency was found to be 70.15 ± 3.06%. The process and formulation variables such as rotation speed, polymer concentration, and drug concentration influenced the drug encapsulation efficiency and in vitro drug release. Optimized microspheres were compressed into tablets which were comprised of metoclopramide HCl microspheres, 53% (w/v) of D-mannitol granules, 7% (w/w) of Polyplasdone XL 10, and 0.5% (w/w) of calcium stearate. The tablets demonstrated a hardness of 59 ± 3 N, friability of 0.21% and disintegration time of 27 ± 3 sec. The formulations were subjected to stability studies as per ICH guidelines and were found to be stable after a 6 month study. In vivo experiments conducted in rats demonstrated that a constant level of metoclopramide HCl in plasma could be maintained for up to 20 h at a suitable concentration for antiemetic activity. An appropriate combination of excipients made it possible to obtain orally disintegrating sustained release tablets of metoclopramide HCl using simple and conventional techniques. PMID:22076769

  1. Developing a mapping tool for tablets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, Alan; Collins, Nathan; Krus, Mike

    2014-05-01

    Digital field mapping offers significant benefits when compared with traditional paper mapping techniques in that it provides closer integration with downstream geological modelling and analysis. It also provides the mapper with the ability to rapidly integrate new data with existing databases without the potential degradation caused by repeated manual transcription of numeric, graphical and meta-data. In order to achieve these benefits, a number of PC-based digital mapping tools are available which have been developed for specific communities, eg the BGS•SIGMA project, Midland Valley's FieldMove®, and a range of solutions based on ArcGIS® software, which can be combined with either traditional or digital orientation and data collection tools. However, with the now widespread availability of inexpensive tablets and smart phones, a user led demand for a fully integrated tablet mapping tool has arisen. This poster describes the development of a tablet-based mapping environment specifically designed for geologists. The challenge was to deliver a system that would feel sufficiently close to the flexibility of paper-based geological mapping while being implemented on a consumer communication and entertainment device. The first release of a tablet-based geological mapping system from this project is illustrated and will be shown as implemented on an iPad during the poster session. Midland Valley is pioneering tablet-based mapping and, along with its industrial and academic partners, will be using the application in field based projects throughout this year and will be integrating feedback in further developments of this technology.

  2. Separation of the Components of a Commercial Analgesic Tablet: A Two-Week Sequence Comparing Purification by Two-Base Extraction and Column Chromatography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revell, Kevin D.

    2011-01-01

    A new laboratory experiment is described in which students compare two benchtop separation methods to isolate the three active components of the commercial analgesic Excedrin. In the two-week sequence, aspirin, acetaminophen, and caffeine are separated using either a two-base liquid-liquid extraction or silica column chromatography. Students then…

  3. Formulation and evaluation of time-controlled triple-concentric mefenamic acid tablets for rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Patel, Pooja; Madan, Parshotam; Lin, Senshang

    2014-05-01

    A triple-concentric time-controlled release mefenamic acid (MA) tablet was developed using Carbopol and Ethocel polymers. The burst dose was programed to release immediately after an ingestion of tablet to be followed by a lag period of 2-4?h, and thereafter an 8?h controlled release of MA from core tablet. Core tablets were prepared using Carbopols 971P, 974P, 71G or 907 at various concentrations. The core tablet provided a controlled release of MA and the release rate decreased with increasing polymer concentration. Highly cross-linked Carbopol 974P released MA at a faster rate compared to release from Carbopol 971P with medium degree of cross-linking. Carbopols 71G and 971P exhibited essentially similar release rates. Carbopol 907, a linear polymer, showed fastest release of MA. The extent of uptake of dissolution medium by core tablets was inversely related to the rate of release of MA from the tablets. Compression coating of core tablet with Ethocel provided the lag period to delay release of MA from core tablet. Increase in lateral coating thickness decreased MA release and increased lag period. Compression forces applied during compression coating with Ethocel for lag period, and immediate-release MA coating for burst release did not affect the integrity of core tablet. PMID:23611159

  4. Tablet PCs: The Write Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milner, Jacob

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the transforming effects of tablet PCs in the classroom. As 1-to-1 computing becomes the goal on K-12 campuses, school districts are turning to this newer, pen-based technology. Saint Mary's School's new Lenovo ThinkPad X41 tablet PCs had transformed the way Saint Mary's teachers did their jobs. Teachers created outlines for…

  5. Solid formulations by a nanocrystal approach: critical process parameters regarding scale-ability of nanocrystals for tableting applications.

    PubMed

    Tuomela, Annika; Laaksonen, Timo; Laru, Johanna; Antikainen, Osmo; Kiesvaara, Juha; Ilkka, Jukka; Oksala, Olli; Rönkkö, Seppo; Järvinen, Kristiina; Hirvonen, Jouni; Peltonen, Leena

    2015-05-15

    Nanocrystallization is among the foremost drug delivery platform approaches for the commercial development of poorly soluble drugs. There exists an urge to enable a universal shift of the production of the solid nanocrystal formulations from laboratory scale to industrially feasible scale. The success of any formulation development depends on its transferability to large scale manufacture. The objectives of the study were to increase the nanocrystallization batch size and to screen and optimize parameters for industrially feasible itraconazole (ITC) and indomethacin (IND) nanocrystal composition for tablet formulation. Thus, ITC and IND were transformed into nanocrystal suspensions, using an increased batch size of a wet milling process, freeze-dried, and further developed into both direct compression (DC) and granulated (G) tableting masses. According to the investigated powder and tablet properties (true density, flowability, dose uniformity, maximum upper punch force, crushing strength, dissolution and disintegration) and stability testings, it was clear that the amount of the nanocrystals in the solid tablet formulation is critical in order to fully utilize the benefits of the nanocrystals, i.e., fast dissolution, and to produce high-quality tablets. The DC designs of both the model drugs with compositions including 40% of freeze-dried nanocrystalline drug powder outperformed the corresponding granulated tablets in all parameters after the stability surveillance. PMID:25746735

  6. Comparative effects of milbemycin oxime-based and febantel-pyrantel embonate-based anthelmintic tablets on Toxocara canis egg shedding in naturally infected pups.

    PubMed

    Schenker, R; Cody, R; Strehlau, G; Alexander, D; Junquera, P

    2006-04-30

    The effect of two treatment programmes on egg shedding in dogs naturally infected with Toxocara canis, one based on a milbemycin oxime-praziquantel-lufenuron combination (SENTINEL) Spectrum; Group 1) and the other based on a febantel-pyrantel embonate-praziquantel combination (DRONTAL) Plus; Group 2), was compared in a study involving 104 suckling pups from three different kennels. The animals in Group 1 were treated at a minimum milbemycin oxime dose of 0.5 mg/kg bw starting at 2 weeks of age and subsequently every 4 weeks until reaching 26 weeks of age. The animals in Group 2 were treated every 2 weeks from week 2 until week 12 of age and then once at week 26 at a minimum febantel and pyrantel embonate dose of 15.0 and 14.4 mg/kg bw, respectively. Toxocara egg counts were determined fortnightly starting at 2 weeks of age and continuing until 26 weeks of age for every pup. Any adverse drug event was recorded during the trial. Both treatment programmes significantly reduced the zoonotic Toxocara egg shedding and were well tolerated by the pups. The pups in Group 1 showed lower average faecal egg counts and were found more frequently shedding no eggs than the pups in Group 2. PMID:16490320

  7. Mini-tablets versus pellets as promising multiparticulate modified release delivery systems for highly soluble drugs.

    PubMed

    Gaber, Dina M; Nafee, Noha; Abdallah, Osama Y

    2015-07-01

    Whether mini-tablets (tablets, diameters ?6mm) belong to single- or multiple-unit dosage forms is still questionable. Accordingly, Pharmacopoeial evaluation procedures for mini-tablets are lacking. In this study, the aforementioned points were discussed. Moreover, their potential for oral controlled delivery was assessed. The antidepressant venlafaxine hydrochloride (Vx), a highly soluble drug undergoing first pass effect, low bioavailability and short half-life was selected as a challenging payload. In an attempt to weigh up mini-tablets versus pellets as multiparticulate carriers, Vx-loaded mini-tablets were compared to formulated pellets of the same composition and the innovator Effexor(®)XR pellets. Formulations were prepared using various polymer hydrogels in the core and ethyl cellulose film coating with increasing thickness. Mini-tablets (diameter 2mm) showed extended Vx release (<60%, 8h). Indeed, release profiles comparable to Effexor(®)XR pellets were obtained. Remarkably higher coating thickness was required for pellets to provide equivalent retardation. Ethyl cellulose in the core ensured faster release due to polymer migration to the surface and pore formation in the coat. mini-tablets showed higher stability to pellets upon storage. Industrially speaking, mini-tablets proved to be superior to pellets in terms of manufacturing, product quality and economical aspects. Results point out the urgent need for standardized evaluation procedures for mini-tablets. PMID:25869450

  8. A phytosterol enriched refined extract of Brassica campestris L. pollen significantly improves benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in a rat model as compared to the classical TCM pollen preparation Qianlie Kang Pule'an Tablets.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruwei; Kobayashi, Yuta; Lin, Yu; Rauwald, Hans Wilhelm; Fang, Ling; Qiao, Hongxiang; Kuchta, Kenny

    2015-01-15

    In Qinghai Province, the Brassica campestris L. pollen preparation Qianlie Kang Pule'an Tablet (QKPT) is traditionally used for BPH therapy. However, in QKPT the content of supposedly active phytosterols is relatively low at 2.59%, necessitating high doses for successful therapy. Therefore, a phytosterol enriched (4.54%) refined extract of B. campestris pollen (PE) was developed and compared with QKPT in a BPH rat model. Six groups of rats (n=8 each), namely sham-operated distilled water control, castrated distilled water control, castrated QKPT 2.0g/kg, castrated PE 0.1g/kg, castrated PE 0.2g/kg, and castrated PE 0.4g/kg, were intragastrically treated with the respective daily doses. Testosterone propionate (0.3mg/day) was administered to all castrated rats, while the sham-operated group received placebo injections. After 30 days, the animals were sacrificed and prostates as well as seminal vesicles excised and weighted in order to calculate prostate volume index (PVI) as well as prostate index (PI) and seminal vesicle index (SVI), defined as organ weight in g per 100g body weight. Compared with sham-operated controls, PI (p<0.01), PVI (p<0.01), and SVI (p<0.01) were all significantly increased in all castrated, testosterone treated rats. After treatment with PE at 0.4 and 0.2g/kg or QKPT at 2.0g/kg per day, both indices were significantly reduced (p<0.01) as compared to the castrated distilled water control. For PE at 0.1g/kg per day only PI was significantly reduced (p<0.05). At the highest PE concentration of 0.4g/kg per day both PI and SVI were also significantly reduced when compared to the QKPT group (p<0.05). Both PE and QKPT demonstrated curative effects against BPH in the applied animal model. In its highest dose at 0.4g/kg per day, PE was clearly superior to QKPT. PMID:25636883

  9. A disintegrating minor planet transiting a white dwarf

    E-print Network

    Vanderburg, Andrew; Rappaport, Saul; Bieryla, Allyson; Irwin, Jonathan; Lewis, John Arban; Kipping, David; Brown, Warren R; Dufour, Patrick; Ciardi, David R; Angus, Ruth; Schaefer, Laura; Latham, David W; Charbonneau, David; Beichman, Charles; Eastman, Jason; McCrady, Nate; Wittenmyer, Robert A; Wright, Jason T

    2015-01-01

    White dwarfs are the end state of most stars, including the Sun, after they exhaust their nuclear fuel. Between 1/4 and 1/2 of white dwarfs have elements heavier than helium in their atmospheres, even though these elements should rapidly settle into the stellar interiors unless they are occasionally replenished. The abundance ratios of heavy elements in white dwarf atmospheres are similar to rocky bodies in the Solar system. This and the existence of warm dusty debris disks around about 4% of white dwarfs suggest that rocky debris from white dwarf progenitors' planetary systems occasionally pollute the stars' atmospheres. The total accreted mass can be comparable to that of large asteroids in the solar system. However, the process of disrupting planetary material has not yet been observed. Here, we report observations of a white dwarf being transited by at least one and likely multiple disintegrating planetesimals with periods ranging from 4.5 hours to 4.9 hours. The strongest transit signals occur every 4.5 ...

  10. Formulation and stability evaluation of extemporaneously prepared atenolol capsules from crushed atenolol tablets.

    PubMed

    Zaid, Abdel Naser; Malkieh, Numan; Kharoaf, Maher; Abu Ghoush, Abeer; Al-Ramahi, Rowa'

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to formulate a 25-mg atenolol capsule starting from a commercial 100-mg atenolol tablet, given the fact that this strength is not available in Palestine and also because 50-mg atenolol tablets failed the splitting uniformity test of the European Pharmacopoeia, and to evaluate the chemical stability and dissolution behavior of the obtained capsules so as to ensure a high-quality product. A high-performance liquid chromatographic system was used for the analysis and quantification of atenolol in the samples studied. Samples of atenoIol for analysis were prepared as reported by the United States Pharmacopeia monograph. Disintegration and dissolution tests were performed according to the United States Pharmacopeia. The high-performance liquid chromatography assay indicated that the 25-mg atenolol capsules were stable for four months when stored at ambient temperature conditions. The disintegration time for all atenolol capsules was within the United States Pharmacopeia limits of 15 minutes. Atenolol release profile showed that approximately 90% of atenolol dissolved after 10 minutes. This study is important for patients who need to take one half of a 50-mg tablet, but for whom the splitting process doesn't give equal halves, and also for modifying the dose for patients with renal or hepatic problems. Therefore, it is possible for the community pharmacist to crush atenolol 100-mg tablets and refill them in new capsules with each containing a precise amount of atenolol, calculated according to body surface area and kidney and liver functions without affecting the chemical stability of the active ingredient nor its dissolution profile and also have a cost effective dosage form. PMID:23050394

  11. Nanoscale toughening mechanism of nacre tablet.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ning; Yang, Shengfeng; Xiong, Liming; Hong, Yu; Chen, Youping

    2016-01-01

    Nacre has attracted widespread interest because its unique hierarchical structure, which is assembled by 95wt% brittle aragonite and 5wt% soft organic materials, leads to several orders of improvement in fracture toughness. Apart from the well proposed toughening mechanisms such as mineral bridges and tablets interlocks, the organic materials including biopolymers between tablets and proteins exist within a tablet can also potentially improve the toughness. In this work, we employ a novel approach combining steered molecular dynamics (SMD) and classical molecular dynamics (MD) to build a model of mineral-protein composite to mimic nacre tablet. The critical role of protein in improving the fracture toughness of nacre is investigated for the first time. MD simulations of single crystalline aragonite, polycrystalline aragonite and mineral-protein composite under uniaxial tensile loading are performed, and the obtained constitutive responses are compared with experimental measurements of nacre under tension. It is shown that the fracture toughness of mineral-protein composite is significantly larger than that of single crystalline or polycrystalline aragonite. Detailed atomic configuration analyses reveal that the fracture of individual computer model is governed by its unique failure mechanisms. Dislocation motion and phase transformation are observed during the failure of single crystalline aragonite. Polycrystalline aragonite fails by the inter-granular cleavage, as well as phase transformation within grain. It is surprisingly noted that other than the stretching of protein chains on grain boundaries, intra-granular fracture is triggered in mineral-protein composites. Proteins serve as strong glue between the inorganic nanograins. It is believed that the strong electrostatic interaction between protein and aragonite nanograins, combined with the remarkable plastic ductility of protein lead to the intra-granular failure, which consequently enhance the fracture toughness of the whole specimen. PMID:26327454

  12. Mechanical sludge disintegration: providing an alternative carbon source for nutrient removal.

    PubMed

    Kampas, P; Parsons, S A; Pearce, P; Ledoux, S; Vale, P; Churchley, J; Cartmell, E

    2007-04-01

    The primary driver for efficient biological nutrient removal (BNR) in activated sludge treatment is the sufficient supply of soluble carbon. Several methods have been proposed to increase available carbon sources and enhance BNR. This study examines the effect of ultrasonic equipment and mechanical disintegration technologies on surplus activated sludge (SAS), to release additional soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) and volatile fattty acids (VFA), as a carbon food source for BNR. A laboratory sonicator with a maximum power of 550W, a 3KW SONIX radial horn and a deflaker declared to be used in the paper industry were investigated. All caused significant release of SCOD, up to 48 fold. The maximum concentration of VFA reached (from 0-1 mg 1(-1)), was 530 mg 1(-1). To assess the likely impact to BNR, batch (21) anaerobic lab tests examining the use of disintegrated sludge on phosphorus and nitrogen removal were completed. Phosphorus removal was estimated by observing the phosphate release under anaerobic conditions and up to 460% more release was observed relative to controls. In addition, denitrification rates were improved by over 106%. Ultrasonic and mechanical disintegration technologies have been shown to release soluble carbon for BNR, with subsequent laboratory nitrogen and phosphorus removal efficiencies observed to be comparable to acetate. PMID:17500322

  13. A novel approach to sustained pseudoephedrine release: differentially coated mini-tablets in HPMC capsules.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Makoto; Abe, Kenichi; Hashizume, Minoru; Kawamura, Masao

    2008-07-01

    We developed and optimized a novel pseudoephedrine hydrochloride (PSE) sustained-release dosage form. The system comprises immediate-release mini-tablets (IRMT) and sustained-release mini-tablets (SRMT) contained in a hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) capsule. The IRMT contained PSE, excipients and low-substituted hydroxypropyl cellulose (a disintegrant), and the tablets were coated with HPMC, a water-soluble polymer. IRMT prepared with varying amounts of low-substituted hydroxypropyl cellulose all dissolved completely within the first 60min, so low-substituted hydroxypropyl cellulose content does not greatly influence PSE release. The SRMT contained only PSE and excipients, and were coated with a mixture of HPMC and the water-insoluble polymer ethylcellulose. The PSE release profile for the SRMT could be controlled by varying the thickness of the coat, and the lag time could be controlled by varying the amount of ethylcellulose present in the polymer coat. PSE was released immediately from our encapsulated mini-tablet system and release was sustained over an extended period of time: the PSE in the IRMT dissolved within 60min, whereas the PSE in the SRMT was released over 8-10h. This system can be modified to yield various extended drug-release profiles, thereby harnessing the benefits of both SRMT and IRMT. PMID:18467046

  14. Development of a chewable tablet from Dugdh?malaky?di Yoga: An Ayurvedic preparation

    PubMed Central

    Santhosh, S. B.; Ambi, Arun B.; Hiremath, R. R.; Mannur, V. S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: ?malaki (Embelica officinalis Gaertn.) is one of the most celebrated herbs in the Indian system of traditional medicine. It is one of the best Ras?yana-s (health promoting) drug. In Dugdh?malaky?di yoga, ?malaki (Embelica officinalis Gaertn.) powder is administered along with milk in case of svarabha?ga (hoarseness of voice). Here an attempt is made to convert this formulation into chewable tablet without altering its property to improve its palatability, shelf life and fixation of proper therapeutic dose. Methodology: Chewable tablets were prepared by wet granulation method. Here, ?malaki powder was prepared initially and it was mixed with additives and preservatives. Granules were prepared from this mixture by adding binding agent, finally compressed in to tablets. Results and Conclusion: The physico-chemical analysis of ?malaki standard are: Foreign Matter-Nil, Acid insoluble Ash-0.51%w/w, Water soluble Ash-2.01% w/w, Alcoholic Extractives-44.48%, Aqueous Extractives 67.52%, pH-3.1, Moisture content-8.19%. Quality control test for chewable tablet was carried out and found satisfactory with general characteristics of tablet viz. hardness 1.8, disintegration time 15-20 min, friability 0.5%, weight variation +/- 3%. The TLC of ?malaki powder showed 3 spots with Rf value 0.14, 0.4, and 0.73 and the chewable tablets showed 2 spots with Rf value 0.31 and 0.89 under 254 nm. The adaptation of modern techniques or methods to convert the Ayurvedic formulations without altering its therapeutic property is necessary to made them suitable for the present trends of newer drug delivery dosage forms. PMID:23929992

  15. Influence of pH modifiers on the dissolution and stability of hydrochlorothiazide in the bi- and three-layer tablets.

    PubMed

    Blatnik, Sandra Urek; Dreu, Rok; Sr?i?, Stanko

    2015-12-01

    During the past few years, the studies of bi- and multi-layered tablets increased due to the consumption of several different drugs per day by a patient and requests for appropriate patient compliance. The demographic shift toward older population increases the use of combination therapy as polypharmacy. Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ), as a model drug, is most commonly used in the treatment of hypertension, congestive heart failure and as a diuretic. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of the local environment on dissolution and stability behaviour of HCTZ in fixed multilayered tablet combinations, which are commonly used in polypharmacy. For this purposes, three different systems were introduced: (i) two conventional tablets (HCTZ and pH modifying placebo), (ii) 2-layer tablets (HCTZ, pH modifying placebo) and (iii) 3-layer tablets (HCTZ, barrier and pH modifying placebo). Disintegration of tablets, dissolution of HCTZ from tablets and HCTZ related substances were monitored for all systems. Results showed that there was a significant difference between dissolution profiles of the conventional two-tablet system (HCTZ tablet and pH modifying tablet) and the 2-layer and 3-layer tablets, which include the pH modifying layer. In the case of the conventional two-tablets system, 85 % of HCTZ was dissolved in less than 15 minutes. The dissolution profiles of HCTZ from 2-layered and 3-layered tablets showed a decrease in the dissolution rate. In addition, during the stability studies, it has been confirmed that the typical degradation product of HCTZ is formed, impurity B (4-amino-6-chloro-1,3-benzenedisulfonamide), which implies formation of formaldehyde as hydrolytic impurity not reported in the Ph. Eur. (16). Both impurities are particularly raised in 2-layered tablets with alkaline and neutral placebo layers. Stability of HCTZ was improved in the case of the 3-layer tablet, where the intermediate separation layer of glycerol monostearate was present. It is presumed that the HCTZ dissolution rate was decreased due to formation of non-soluble substances as a result of HCTZ degradation in the presence of alkaline layer. PMID:26677896

  16. Evaluating Tablet Computers as a Survey Tool in Rural Communities

    PubMed Central

    Newell, Steve M.; Logan, Henrietta L.; Guo, Yi; Marks, John G.; Shepperd, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Although tablet computers offer advantages in data collection over traditional paper-and-pencil methods, little research has examined whether the 2 formats yield similar responses, especially with underserved populations. We compared the 2 survey formats and tested whether participants’ responses to common health questionnaires or perceptions of usability differed by survey format. We also tested whether we could replicate established paper-and-pencil findings via tablet computer. Methods We recruited a sample of low-income community members living in the rural southern United States. Participants were 170 residents (black = 49%; white = 36%; other races and missing data = 15%) drawn from 2 counties meeting Florida’s state statutory definition of rural with 100 persons or fewer per square mile. We randomly assigned participants to complete scales (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Inventory and Regulatory Focus Questionnaire) along with survey format usability ratings via paper-and-pencil or tablet computer. All participants rated a series of previously validated posters using a tablet computer. Finally, participants completed comparisons of the survey formats and reported survey format preferences. Findings Participants preferred using the tablet computer and showed no significant differences between formats in mean responses, scale reliabilities, or in participants’ usability ratings. Conclusions Overall, participants reported similar scales responses and usability ratings between formats. However, participants reported both preferring and enjoying responding via tablet computer more. Collectively, these findings are among the first data to show that tablet computers represent a suitable substitute among an underrepresented rural sample for paper-and-pencil methodology in survey research. PMID:25243953

  17. Astronomy Learning Activities for Tablets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilachowski, Catherine A.; Morris, Frank

    2015-08-01

    Four web-based tools allow students to manipulate astronomical data to learn concepts in astronomy. The tools are HTML5, CSS3, Javascript-based applications that provide access to the content on iPad and Android tablets. The first tool “Three Color” allows students to combine monochrome astronomical images taken through different color filters or in different wavelength regions into a single color image. The second tool “Star Clusters” allows students to compare images of stars in clusters with a pre-defined template of colors and sizes in order to produce color-magnitude diagrams to determine cluster ages. The third tool adapts Travis Rector’s “NovaSearch” to allow students to examine images of the central regions of the Andromeda Galaxy to find novae. After students find a nova, they are able to measure the time over which the nova fades away. A fourth tool, Proper Pair, allows students to interact with Hipparcos data to evaluate close double stars are physical binaries or chance superpositions. Further information and access to these web-based tools are available at www.astro.indiana.edu/ala/.

  18. The effect of chitosan on the stability and morphological parameters of tablets with Epilobium parviflorum Schreb. extract.

    PubMed

    Marczy?ski, Zbigniew; Bodek, Kazimiera Henryka

    2007-01-01

    The study is a continuation of research on manufacturing oral solid drug form containing extract from Epilobium parviflorum Schreb. This study aims at investigating the usefulness of selected high-molecular substances with particular consideration of chitosan (Ch), silicified microcrystalline cellulose (Prosolv) and croscarmellose sodium (Vivasol) as a carrier of E. parviflorum Schreb. extract in oral solid drug form in the process of direct tableting. In one series the alternative technological process (with initial granulation) was applied. The polymer carriers of extract were selected so as to obtain shorter disintegration time in relation to the earlier published studies and stability after longer time of storage. The effect of chitosan was estimated on selected morphological parameters of practical relevance during storage. The obtained results allow to state that the applied high-molecular adjuvant substances proved to be useful in adequate proportions in the production of tablets from dry extract from Epilobium parviflorum Schreb. through direct pressing of the tablet mass. The tablet properties in all series were in accordance with obligatory standards also after longer time of storage (12-month). The tablets formed from E. parviflorum Schreb. extract with chitosan can be included into preparations of sustained release time of the biologically active substances. PMID:18251200

  19. Evidence for Gas from a Disintegrating Extrasolar Asteroid

    E-print Network

    Xu, S; Dufour, P; Zuckerman, B

    2015-01-01

    We report high-resolution spectroscopic observations of WD 1145+017 -- a white dwarf that recently has been found to be transitted by multiple asteroid-sized objects within its tidal radius. We have discovered numerous circumstellar absorption lines with linewidths of $\\sim$ 300 km s$^{-1}$ from Mg, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe and Ni, possibly from several gas streams produced by collisions among the actively disintegrating objects. The atmosphere of WD 1145+017 is polluted with 11 heavy elements, including O, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, V:, Cr, Mn, Fe and Ni. Evidently, we are witnessing the active disintegration and subsequent accretion of an extrasolar asteroid.

  20. Role of effective interaction in nuclear disintegration processes

    E-print Network

    D. N. Basu

    2003-05-07

    A simple superasymmetric fission model using microscopically calculated nuclear potentials has shown itself to be outstandingly successful in describing highly asymmetric spontaneous disintegration of nuclei into two composite nuclear fragments. The nuclear interaction potentials required to describe these nuclear decay processes have been calculated by double folding the density distribution functions of the two fragments with a realistic effective interaction. The microscopic nucleus-nucleus potential thus obtained, along with the Coulomb interaction potential and the minimum centrifugal barrier required for the spin-parity conservation, has been used successfully for the lifetime calculations of these nuclear disintegration processes.

  1. Design of bilayer tablets using modified Dioscorea starches as novel excipients for immediate and sustained release of aceclofenac sodium

    PubMed Central

    Okunlola, Adenike

    2015-01-01

    Bilayer tablets of aceclofenac sodium were developed using carboxymethylated white yam (Dioscorea rotundata) starch (CWY) for a fast release layer (2.5, 5.0, and 7.5% w/w), and acid-hydrolyzed bitter yam (Dioscorea dumetorum) starch (ABY) for a sustaining layer (27% w/w). Sodium starch glycolate (SSG) and hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) were used as standards. The starches were characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), particle size, swelling power, densities and flow analyses. Mechanical properties of the tablets were evaluated using crushing strength and friability while release properties were evaluated using disintegration and dissolution times. Distinctive fingerprint differences between the native and modified starches were revealed by FT-IR. Carboxymethylation produced starches of significantly (p < 0.05) higher swelling and flow properties while acid-modification produced starches of higher compressibility. Bilayer tablets containing ABY had significantly higher crushing strength and lower friability values (p < 0.05) than those containing HPMC. Crushing strength increased while friability values decreased with increase in CWY. Generally tablets containing the modified Dioscorea starches gave faster (p < 0.05) disintegration times and produced an initial burst release to provide the loading dose of the drug from the immediate-release layer followed by sustained release (300 ± 7.56–450 ± 11.55 min). The correlation coefficient (R2) and chi-square (?2) test were employed as error analysis methods to determine the best-fitting drug release kinetic equations. In vitro dissolution kinetics generally followed the Higuchi and Hixson-Crowell models via a non-Fickian diffusion-controlled release. Carboxymethylated white yam starch and acid-modified bitter yam starch could serve as cheaper alternative excipients in bilayer tablet formulations for immediate and sustained release of drugs respectively, particularly where high mechanical strength is required. PMID:25628566

  2. Development of early mathematical skills with a tablet intervention: a randomized control trial in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Pitchford, Nicola J.

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of educational interventions is necessary prior to wide-scale rollout. Yet very few rigorous studies have been conducted on the effectiveness of tablet-based interventions, especially in the early years and in developing countries. This study reports a randomized control trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a tablet intervention for supporting the development of early mathematical skills in primary school children in Malawi. A total sample of 318 children, spanning Standards 1–3, attending a medium-sized urban primary school, were randomized to one of three groups: maths tablet intervention, non-maths tablet control, and standard face-to-face practice. Children were pre-tested using tablets at the start of the school year on two tests of mathematical knowledge and a range of basic skills related to scholastic progression. Class teachers then delivered the intervention over an 8-weeks period, for the equivalent of 30-min per day. Technical support was provided from the local Voluntary Service Overseas (VSO). Children were then post-tested on the same assessments as given at pre-test. A final sample of 283 children, from Standards 1–3, present at both pre- and post-test, was analyzed to investigate the effectiveness of the maths tablet intervention. Significant effects of the maths tablet intervention over and above standard face-to-face practice or using tablets without the maths software were found in Standards 2 and 3. In Standard 3 the greater learning gains shown by the maths tablet intervention group compared to both of the control groups on the tablet-based assessments transferred to paper and pencil format, illustrating generalization of knowledge gained. Thus, tablet technology can effectively support early years mathematical skills in developing countries if the software is carefully designed to engage the child in the learning process and the content is grounded in a solid well-constructed curriculum appropriate for the child’s developmental stage. PMID:25954236

  3. Development of early mathematical skills with a tablet intervention: a randomized control trial in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Pitchford, Nicola J

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of educational interventions is necessary prior to wide-scale rollout. Yet very few rigorous studies have been conducted on the effectiveness of tablet-based interventions, especially in the early years and in developing countries. This study reports a randomized control trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a tablet intervention for supporting the development of early mathematical skills in primary school children in Malawi. A total sample of 318 children, spanning Standards 1-3, attending a medium-sized urban primary school, were randomized to one of three groups: maths tablet intervention, non-maths tablet control, and standard face-to-face practice. Children were pre-tested using tablets at the start of the school year on two tests of mathematical knowledge and a range of basic skills related to scholastic progression. Class teachers then delivered the intervention over an 8-weeks period, for the equivalent of 30-min per day. Technical support was provided from the local Voluntary Service Overseas (VSO). Children were then post-tested on the same assessments as given at pre-test. A final sample of 283 children, from Standards 1-3, present at both pre- and post-test, was analyzed to investigate the effectiveness of the maths tablet intervention. Significant effects of the maths tablet intervention over and above standard face-to-face practice or using tablets without the maths software were found in Standards 2 and 3. In Standard 3 the greater learning gains shown by the maths tablet intervention group compared to both of the control groups on the tablet-based assessments transferred to paper and pencil format, illustrating generalization of knowledge gained. Thus, tablet technology can effectively support early years mathematical skills in developing countries if the software is carefully designed to engage the child in the learning process and the content is grounded in a solid well-constructed curriculum appropriate for the child's developmental stage. PMID:25954236

  4. Functional assessment of four types of disintegrants and their effect on the spironolactone release properties.

    PubMed

    Rojas, John; Guisao, Santiago; Ruge, Vanesa

    2012-12-01

    Spironolactone is a drug derived from sterols that exhibits an incomplete oral absorption due to its low water solubility and slow dissolution rate. In this study, formulations of spironolactone with four disintegrants named as croscarmellose sodium, crospovidone, sodium starch glycolate and microcrystalline cellulose II (MCCII) were conducted. The effect of those disintegrants on the tensile strength, disintegration time and dissolution rate of spironolactone-based compacts was evaluated using a factorial design with three categorical factors (filler, lubricant, and disintegrant). The swelling values, water uptake and water sorption studies of these disintegrants all suggested that MCCII compacts disintegrate by a wicking mechanism similar to that of crospovidone, whereas a swelling mechanism was dominant for sodium starch glycolate and croscarmellose sodium. The disintegration time of MCCII and sodium starch glycolate remained unchanged with magnesium stearate. However, this lubricant delayed the disintegration time of crospovidone and croscarmellose sodium. MCCII presented the fastest disintegration time independent of the medium and lubricant employed. The water sorption ratio and swelling values determined sodium starch glycolate followed by croscarmellose sodium as the largest swelling materials, whereas crospovidone and MCCII where the least swelling disintegrants. The swelling property of sodium starch glycolate and croscarmellose sodium was strongly affected by the medium pH. The disintegration time of spironolactone compacts was faster when starch was used as a filler due to the formation of soft compacts. In this case, the type of filler employed rather than the disintegrant had a major effect on the disintegration and dissolution times of spironolactone. PMID:22899380

  5. 21 CFR 520.312 - Carnidazole tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Conditions of use —(1) Amount. Adult pigeons: 1 tablet (10 milligrams); newly weaned pigeons: 1/2 tablet (5 milligrams). (2...trichomoniasis (canker) in ornamental and homing pigeons. (3) Limitations. Not for...

  6. 21 CFR 520.312 - Carnidazole tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Conditions of use —(1) Amount. Adult pigeons: 1 tablet (10 milligrams); newly weaned pigeons: 1/2 tablet (5 milligrams). (2...trichomoniasis (canker) in ornamental and homing pigeons. (3) Limitations. Not for...

  7. 21 CFR 520.312 - Carnidazole tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Conditions of use —(1) Amount. Adult pigeons: 1 tablet (10 milligrams); newly weaned pigeons: 1/2 tablet (5 milligrams). (2...trichomoniasis (canker) in ornamental and homing pigeons. (3) Limitations. Not for...

  8. 21 CFR 520.312 - Carnidazole tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Conditions of use —(1) Amount. Adult pigeons: 1 tablet (10 milligrams); newly weaned pigeons: 1/2 tablet (5 milligrams). (2...trichomoniasis (canker) in ornamental and homing pigeons. (3) Limitations. Not for...

  9. 21 CFR 520.312 - Carnidazole tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Conditions of use (1) Amount. Adult pigeons: 1 tablet (10 milligrams); newly weaned pigeons: 1/2 tablet (5 milligrams). (2...trichomoniasis (canker) in ornamental and homing pigeons. (3) Limitations. Not for...

  10. 21 CFR 520.1380 - Methocarbamol tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...DRUGS § 520.1380 Methocarbamol tablets. (a) Chemical name. 3-(O-Methoxyphenoxy)-1,2-propanediol 1-carbamate. (b) Specifications. Each tablet contains 500 milligrams of methocarbamol. (c) Sponsor. See No. 000856...

  11. 21 CFR 520.1380 - Methocarbamol tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...DRUGS § 520.1380 Methocarbamol tablets. (a) Chemical name. 3-(O-Methoxyphenoxy)-1,2-propanediol 1-carbamate. (b) Specifications. Each tablet contains 500 milligrams of methocarbamol. (c) Sponsor. See No. 000856...

  12. 21 CFR 520.1380 - Methocarbamol tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...DRUGS § 520.1380 Methocarbamol tablets. (a) Chemical name. 3-(O-Methoxyphenoxy)-1,2-propanediol 1-carbamate. (b) Specifications. Each tablet contains 500 milligrams of methocarbamol. (c) Sponsor. See No. 000856...

  13. Galileo's Telescopy and Jupiter's Tablet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usher, P. D.

    2003-12-01

    A previous paper (BAAS 33:4, 1363, 2001) reported on the dramatic scene in Shakespeare's Cymbeline that features the descent of the deity Jupiter. The paper suggested that the four ghosts circling the sleeping Posthumus denote the four Galilean moons of Jupiter. The god Jupiter commands the ghosts to lay a tablet upon the prone Posthumus, but says that its value should not be overestimated. When Posthumus wakens he notices the tablet, which he calls a "book." Not only has the deity's "tablet" become the earthling's "book," but it appears that the book has covers which Posthumus evidently recognizes because without even opening the book he ascribes two further properties to it: rarity, and the very property that Jupiter had earlier attributed, viz. that one must not read too much into it. The mystery deepens when the Jovian gift undergoes a second metamorphosis, to "label." With the help of the OED, the potentially disparate terms "tablet," "book," and "label," may be explained by terms appropriate either to supernatural or worldly beings. "Tablet" may recognize the Mosaic artifact, whereas "book" and "label" are probably mundane references to Galileo's Sidereus Nuncius which appeared shortly before Cymbeline. The message of the Olympian god indicates therefore that the book is unique even as its contents have limited value. The first property celebrates the fact that Galileo's book is the first of its kind, and the second advises that all results except the discovery of Jupiter's moons have been reported earlier, in Hamlet.

  14. Characterization of omega-3 tablets.

    PubMed

    Vestland, Tina Lien; Jacobsen, Řyvind; Sande, Sverre Arne; Myrset, Astrid Hilde; Klaveness, Jo

    2016-04-15

    Omega-3 nutraceuticals are extensively used as health supplements worldwide. Various administration forms for delivery of omega-3 are available. However, the niche omega-3 tablets have so far remained unexplored. In this work tablets containing 25-40% (w/w) omega-3 oil as triglycerides or ethyl esters were prepared utilizing a direct compaction grade powder with ?-cyclodextrin as encapsulating agent. It was found that powders with up to 35% (w/w) triglyceride oil and 30% (w/w) ethyl ester oil, respectively, can be directly compressed into tablets of excellent quality. Physical properties of omega-3 containing powders and tablets are described. The powder X-ray diffractograms of the powders and crushed tablets show evidence of the formation of new crystalline phases not present in ?-cyclodextrin. In addition, (1)H NMR data suggest that the ethyl esters form inclusion complexes with ?-cyclodextrin. Compaction of other, commercially available, omega-3 powders was performed as a comparison and deemed unsuccessful. PMID:26616980

  15. Development of mini-tablets with 1mm and 2mm diameter.

    PubMed

    Tissen, Corinna; Woertz, Katharina; Breitkreutz, Joerg; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2011-09-15

    The feasibility of formulating mini-tablets with 1mm diameter on a rotary-die press in comparison to mini-tablets of 2mm was investigated. To gain insight into the production of 1mm mini-tablets, three model drugs of different compression characteristics were chosen, namely quinine hydrochloride, ibuprofen and spray-dried gentian extract. A high drug load in combination with robust and reproducible mechanical properties was requested. Depending on the individual drug substance, mini-tablets were produced by direct compression or after roll-compaction/dry granulation. The tensile strength, mass, and their variation coefficients were determined to assess the mechanical properties of the tablets. The content uniformity and the dissolution behavior of selected batches were analyzed. For the first time 1mm mini-tablets could be successfully produced by direct compression (90% quinine hydrochloride; 90% dried gentian extract) and after roll compaction (70% ibuprofen). Depending on the applied compression pressure, 1mm mini-tablets with quinine hydrochloride exhibited robust mechanical properties (e.g. median tensile strength of 2.02N/mm(2)) with equal or lower variance of distribution compared to the 2mm compacts. With respect to content uniformity of dosage forms, 1mm mini-tablets containing 80% quinine hydrochloride met the requirements of the European Pharmacopeia (AV=6.8). PMID:21726616

  16. Pharmaceutical and pharmacokinetic characterization of a novel sublingual buprenorphine/naloxone tablet formulation in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Andreas; Hjelmström, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Context Bitter taste, as well as dissolve time, presents a significant challenge for the acceptability of formulations for oral transmucosal drug delivery. Objective To characterize a novel sublingual tablet formulation of buprenorphine/naloxone with regards to pharmacokinetics, dissolve time and formulation acceptability. Methods Dry mixing techniques were employed to produce a small and fast dissolving buprenorphine/naloxone sublingual tablet formulation, OX219 (Zubsolv®), using sucralose and menthol as sweetener and flavor to mask the bitter taste of the active ingredients. Two cross-over studies were performed in healthy volunteers to evaluate pharmacokinetics, dissolve time and acceptability of OX219 5.7/1.4?mg tablets compared to the commercially available buprenorphine/naloxone formulations Suboxone® tablets and films (8/2?mg). Results Buprenorphine exposure was equivalent in OX219 and Suboxone tablets. Sublingual dissolve times were significantly shorter for OX219 than for Suboxone tablets and were similar to Suboxone films. The OX219 formulation received significantly higher subjective ratings for taste and overall acceptability than both Suboxone formulations. OX219 was preferred over Suboxone tablet and film formulations by 77.4% and 88.9% of subjects, respectively. Conclusions A sublingual tablet formulation with an improved acceptability has been successfully developed. PMID:24099551

  17. Preparation and Evaluation of Microencapsulated Fast Melt Tablets of Ambroxol Hydrochloride

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, S.; Shirwaikar, A.

    2009-01-01

    Natural resources in general and plant materials in particular are receiving more attention due to their safety as pharmaceutical excipients. Present work assessed the potential of a natural polysaccharide, pectin to mask the bitter taste of ambroxol hydrochloride, by microencapsulation technique, and its possibility to formulate as a fast disintegrating dosage form. Taste masking is an important developmental challenge in fast dissolving drug delivery system since it dissolves or disintegrates in the patient's mouth in close proximity to the taste buds. The prepared microspheres by emulsion solvent evaporation technique possessed good sphericity, smooth surface morphology, uniform and narrow size distribution (10-90 ?m), when analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, laser diffraction and optical microscopy. Method of preparation has influenced the particle size and drug loading efficiency. Drug-polymer compatibility was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thin layer chromatography. DSC and X-ray diffraction studies revealed that the drug was dispersed inside the microspheres in the form of an insoluble matrix. The formation of microspheres was affected by glass transition temperature of the polymer, surfactant, type of plasticizers, volume of internal phase, stirrer speed etc. Fast dissolving tablets were prepared by the modification of melt granulation technique. The resulting granules were found to melt fast at body temperature, have smooth mouth feel and good physical stability. This study demonstrated that pectin could be a right choice in developing patient favored formulations for bitter drugs and can be utilized in fast disintegrating dosage forms as well. PMID:20490294

  18. Tablet vs. Paper: The Effect on Learners' Reading Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dundar, Hakan; Akcayir, Murat

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare primary school 5th-class students' electronic text reading performance, reading speed and reading comprehension with tablet PCs and printed books. This study examined a sample of 20 students. The students were randomly divided into two groups, a control group and a treatment group. The control group students…

  19. Formulation and In Vitro, In Vivo Evaluation of Effervescent Floating Sustained-Release Imatinib Mesylate Tablet

    PubMed Central

    Kadivar, Ali; Kamalidehghan, Behnam; Javar, Hamid Akbari; Davoudi, Ehsan Taghizadeh; Zaharuddin, Nurul Dhania; Sabeti, Bahareh; Chung, Lip Yong; Noordin, Mohamed Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Imatinib mesylate is an antineoplastic agent which has high absorption in the upper part of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Conventional imatinib mesylate (Gleevec) tablets produce rapid and relatively high peak blood levels and requires frequent administration to keep the plasma drug level at an effective range. This might cause side effects, reduced effectiveness and poor therapeutic management. Therefore, floating sustained-release Imatinib tablets were developed to allow the tablets to be released in the upper part of the GIT and overcome the inadequacy of conventional tablets. Methodology Floating sustained-release Imatinib mesylate tablets were prepared using the wet granulation method. Tablets were formulated using Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose (HPMC K4M), with Sodium alginate (SA) and Carbomer 934P (CP) as release-retarding polymers, sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) as the effervescent agent and lactose as a filler. Floating behavior, in vitro drug release, and swelling index studies were conducted. Initial and total drug release duration was compared with a commercial tablet (Gleevec) in 0.1 N HCl (pH 1.2) at 37 ± 0.5°C for 24 hours. Tablets were then evaluated for various physical parameters, including weight variation, thickness, hardness, friability, and drug content. Consequently, 6 months of physical stability studies and in vitro gastro-retentive studies were conducted. Results and Discussion Statistical data analysis revealed that tablets containing a composition of 14.67% w/w HPMC K4M, 10.67%, w/w Na alginate, 1.33%, w/w Carbomer 934P and 9.33%, w/w NaHCO3 produced the most favorable formulation to develop 24-hour sustained-release tablets with optimum floating behavior and satisfactory physicochemical characteristics. Furthermore, in vitro release study revealed that the formulated SR tablet had significantly lower Cmax and higher Tmax compared to the conventional tablet (Gleevec). Thus, formulated SR tablets preserved persistent concentration of plasma up to 24 hours. Conclusion In conclusion, in order to suggest a better drug delivery system with constant favorable release, resulting in optimized absorption and less side effects, formulated CP-HPMC-SA based imatinib mesylate floating sustained-release tablets can be a promising candidate for cancer chemotherapy. PMID:26035710

  20. Plenary Speeches: Is the Second Language Acquisition Discipline Disintegrating?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulstijn, Jan H.

    2013-01-01

    After characterizing the study of second language acquisition (SLA) from three viewpoints, I try to answer the question, raised by DeKeyser (2010), of whether the SLA field is disintegrating. In answering this question, I first propose a distinction between SLA as the relatively fundamental academic discipline and SLA as the relatively applied…

  1. When Autism Strikes: Families Cope with Childhood Disintegrative Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catalano, Robert A.

    This book examines childhood disintegrative disorder, which is seen to be a disorder apart from autism although it has sometimes been called "late onset autism". The condition is characterized by sudden onset and severe developmental regression between 3 and 5 years of age after previously normal development. The long-term outcome is usually…

  2. Cultural Disintegration Perpetuated through Substance Abuse among American Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Laurence Armand

    Alcohol, perhaps more than any other factor, symbolizes the degree of cultural disintegration experienced by American Indians today. It has been recognized as a symptom of the numerous cultural adjustments forced upon American Indians since white contact. Indeed, alcohol among Indian groups was prohibited for a far longer period than the…

  3. Principles of Tablet Computing for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katzan, Harry, Jr.

    2015-01-01

    In the study of modern technology for the 21st century, one of the most popular subjects is tablet computing. Tablet computers are now used in business, government, education, and the personal lives of practically everyone--at least, it seems that way. As of October 2013, Apple has sold 170 million iPads. The success of tablets is enormous and has…

  4. 21 CFR 520.1870 - Praziquantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1870 Praziquantel tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains: (1) 34 milligrams (mg) praziquantel. (2) 11.5 or 23 mg praziquantel. (b... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Praziquantel tablets. 520.1870 Section...

  5. Touch Screen Tablets and Emergent Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Michelle M.; Neumann, David L.

    2014-01-01

    The use of touch screen tablets by young children is increasing in the home and in early childhood settings. The simple tactile interface and finger-based operating features of tablets may facilitate preschoolers' use of tablet application software and support their educational development in domains such as literacy. This article reviews…

  6. Scaffolding Equals Success in Teaching Tablet PCs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickerson, Jeremy; Williams, Scott; Browning, J. B.

    2009-01-01

    After many years of using the mouse and keyboard as the primary means of computer input, people are seeing a strong surge into a new generation of input technologies such as tablet PCs. As more professionals adopt tablet PCs for use in the workplace, there is a subsequent increased demand for tablet PC instruction in the classroom. Examples of…

  7. Mathematics Instruction and the Tablet PC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fister, K. Renee; McCarthy, Maeve L.

    2008-01-01

    The use of tablet PCs in teaching is a relatively new phenomenon. A cross between a notebook computer and a personal digital assistant (PDA), the tablet PC has all of the features of a notebook with the additional capability that the screen can also be used for input. Tablet PCs are usually equipped with a stylus that allows the user to write on…

  8. 21 CFR 520.928 - Firocoxib tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Firocoxib tablets. 520.928 Section 520.928 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.928 Firocoxib tablets. (a) Specifications. Each chewable tablet contains 57...

  9. Instability of Misoprostol Tablets Stored Outside the Blister: A Potential Serious Concern for Clinical Outcome in Medical Abortion

    PubMed Central

    Berard, Veronique; Fiala, Christian; Cameron, Sharon; Bombas, Teresa; Parachini, Mirella; Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Misoprostol (Cytotec) is recognised to be effective for many gynaecological indications including termination of pregnancy, management of miscarriage and postpartum haemorrhage. Although not licensed for such indications, it has been used for these purposes by millions of women throughout the world. Misoprostol tablets are most often packaged as multiple tablets within an aluminium strip, each within an individual alveolus. When an alveolus is opened, tablets will be exposed to atmospheric conditions. Objective To compare the pharmaco technical characteristics (weight, friability), water content, misoprostol content and decomposition product content (type A misoprostol, type B misoprostol and 8-epi misoprostol) of misoprostol tablets Cytotec (Pfizer) exposed to air for periods of 1 hour to 720 hours (30 days), to those of identical non exposed tablets. Methods Four hundred and twenty (420) tablets of Cytotec (Pfizer) were removed from their alveoli blister and stored at 25°C/60% relative humidity. Water content, and misoprostol degradation products were assayed in tablets exposed from 1 to 720 hours (30 days). Comparison was made with control tablets (N?=?60) from the same batch stored in non-damaged blisters. Statistical analyses were carried out using Fisher’s exact test for small sample sizes. Results By 48 hours, exposed tablets demonstrated increased weight (+4.5%), friability (+1 300%), and water content (+80%) compared to controls. Exposed tablets also exhibited a decrease in Cytotec active ingredient dosage (?5.1% after 48 hours) and an increase in the inactive degradation products (+25% for type B, +50% for type A and +11% for 8-epi misoprostol after 48 hours) compared to controls. Conclusion Exposure of Cytotec tablets to ‘typical’ European levels of air and humidity results in significant time-dependent changes in physical and biological composition that could impact adversely upon clinical efficacy. Health professionals should be made aware of the degradation of misoprostol with inappropriate storage of misoprostol tablets. PMID:25502819

  10. Experimental analysis of tablet properties for discrete element modeling of an active coating process.

    PubMed

    Just, Sarah; Toschkoff, Gregor; Funke, Adrian; Djuric, Dejan; Scharrer, Georg; Khinast, Johannes; Knop, Klaus; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2013-03-01

    Coating of solid dosage forms is an important unit operation in the pharmaceutical industry. In recent years, numerical simulations of drug manufacturing processes have been gaining interest as process analytical technology tools. The discrete element method (DEM) in particular is suitable to model tablet-coating processes. For the development of accurate simulations, information on the material properties of the tablets is required. In this study, the mechanical parameters Young's modulus, coefficient of restitution (CoR), and coefficients of friction (CoF) of gastrointestinal therapeutic systems (GITS) and of active-coated GITS were measured experimentally. The dynamic angle of repose of these tablets in a drum coater was investigated to revise the CoF. The resulting values were used as input data in DEM simulations to compare simulation and experiment. A mean value of Young's modulus of 31.9 MPa was determined by the uniaxial compression test. The CoR was found to be 0.78. For both tablet-steel and tablet-tablet friction, active-coated GITS showed a higher CoF compared with GITS. According to the values of the dynamic angle of repose, the CoF was adjusted to obtain consistent tablet motion in the simulation and in the experiment. On the basis of this experimental characterization, mechanical parameters are integrated into DEM simulation programs to perform numerical analysis of coating processes. PMID:23354469

  11. Comparison of relative (mouse-like) and absolute (tablet-like) interaction with a large stereoscopic work-space

    E-print Network

    Dodgson, Neil

    Comparison of relative (mouse-like) and absolute (tablet-like) interaction with a large to that obtained with a 2D mouse and 2D screen. Both statistical analysis and participants' feedback indicated mode (mouse) is far more prevalent than absolute mode (tablet). We also compared head-tracking against

  12. Using Tablets as Tools for Learner-Generated Drawings in the Context of Teaching the Kinetic Theory of Gases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehtinen, A.; Viiri, J.

    2014-01-01

    Even though research suggests that the use of drawings could be an important part of learning science, learner-generated drawings have not received much attention in physics classrooms. This paper presents a method for recording students' drawings and group discussions using tablets. Compared to pen and paper, tablets offer unique benefits,…

  13. Disintegration of rocks based on magnetically isolated high voltage discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Mengbing; Jiang, Jinbo; Huang, Guoliang; Liu, Jun; Li, Chengzu

    2013-02-01

    Recently, a method utilizing pulsed power technology for disintegration of rocks arouses great interest of many researchers. In this paper, an improved method based on magnetic switch and the results shown that the uniform dielectrics like plastic can be broken down in water is presented, and the feasible mechanism explaining the breakdown of solid is proposed and proved experimentally. A high voltage pulse of 120 kV, rise time 0.2 ?s was used to ignite the discharging channel in solids. When the plasma channel is formed in the solid, the resistance of the channel is quiet small; even if a relatively low voltage is applied on the channel on this occasion, it will produce high current to heat the plasma channel rapidly, and eventually disintegrate the solids. The feasibility of promising industrial application in the drilling and demolition of natural and artificial solid materials by the method we presented is verified by the experiment result in the paper.

  14. Disintegration of Carbon Dioxide Molecules in a Microwave Plasma Torch

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Hyoung S.; Uhm, Han S.; Hong, Yong C.; Choi, Eun H.

    2015-01-01

    A pure carbon dioxide torch is generated by making use of 2.45?GHz microwave. Carbon dioxide gas becomes the working gas and produces a stable carbon dioxide torch. The torch volume is almost linearly proportional to the microwave power. Temperature of the torch flame is measured by making use of optical spectroscopy and thermocouple. Two distinctive regions are exhibited, a bright, whitish region of high-temperature zone and a bluish, dimmer region of relatively low-temperature zone. Study of carbon dioxide disintegration and gas temperature effects on the molecular fraction characteristics in the carbon dioxide plasma of a microwave plasma torch under atmospheric pressure is carried out. An analytical investigation of carbon dioxide disintegration indicates that substantial fraction of carbon dioxide molecules disintegrate and form other compounds in the torch. For example, the normalized particle densities at center of plasma are given by nCO2/nN?=?6.12?×?10?3, nCO/nN?=?0.13, nC/nN?=?0.24, nO/nN?=?0.61, nC2/nN?=?8.32?×?10?7, nO2/nN?=?5.39?×?10?5, where nCO2, nCO, nC, nO, nC2, and nO2 are carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, carbon and oxygen atom, carbon and oxygen molecule densities, respectively. nN is the neutral particle density. Emission profiles of the oxygen and carbon atom radicals and the carbon monoxide molecules confirm the theoretical predictions of carbon dioxide disintegration in the torch. PMID:26674957

  15. Disintegration of Carbon Dioxide Molecules in a Microwave Plasma Torch.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Hyoung S; Uhm, Han S; Hong, Yong C; Choi, Eun H

    2015-01-01

    A pure carbon dioxide torch is generated by making use of 2.45?GHz microwave. Carbon dioxide gas becomes the working gas and produces a stable carbon dioxide torch. The torch volume is almost linearly proportional to the microwave power. Temperature of the torch flame is measured by making use of optical spectroscopy and thermocouple. Two distinctive regions are exhibited, a bright, whitish region of high-temperature zone and a bluish, dimmer region of relatively low-temperature zone. Study of carbon dioxide disintegration and gas temperature effects on the molecular fraction characteristics in the carbon dioxide plasma of a microwave plasma torch under atmospheric pressure is carried out. An analytical investigation of carbon dioxide disintegration indicates that substantial fraction of carbon dioxide molecules disintegrate and form other compounds in the torch. For example, the normalized particle densities at center of plasma are given by nCO2/nN?=?6.12?×?10(-3), nCO/nN?=?0.13, nC/nN?=?0.24, nO/nN?=?0.61, nC2/nN?=?8.32?×?10(-7), nO2/nN?=?5.39?×?10(-5), where nCO2, nCO, nC, nO, nC2, and nO2 are carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, carbon and oxygen atom, carbon and oxygen molecule densities, respectively. nN is the neutral particle density. Emission profiles of the oxygen and carbon atom radicals and the carbon monoxide molecules confirm the theoretical predictions of carbon dioxide disintegration in the torch. PMID:26674957

  16. Family disintegration in Latin America: the consequences for children.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, L

    1982-12-01

    A federal study on children conducted by Brazil's Chamber of Deputies in 1975 concluded that some 25 million children, 40% of the total population below the age of 18 years, could be classified as disadvantaged. By 1980 this figure was estimated to have grown by an additional 3 million. An estimated 11 million of the disadvantaged children were literally destitute and homeless. They have been abandoned by their impoverished parents to a precarious life on the streets of the major cities of Brazil. The parents of many such abandoned children are recent migrants from rural areas. Unable to find adequate work and too poor to partake of health and other services, such families slip slowly into a state of destitution and disarray. The children end up on the streets where they are abused, exploited, and drawn into lives of crime and violence. Abandoned children are not the only young victims of the imbalances in Brazilian society. As many as 80% of Brazil's children suffer from some degree of malnutrition. Infant mortality is 84 deaths/1000 compared to an average of 12/1000 for Western Europe. In the Western hemisphere, several nations with lower per capita incomes have made greater progress in reducing infant and child mortality. These facts point up the fallacy of confusing economic growth with development. Economic growth is quantitative, mechanical, and materialistic. Development is organic and includes social dimensions, such as the educational, nutritional, and health status of the population. The problem of the disadvantaged children in Brazil is a problem of families and of the stresses placed on them by rapid, disorienting changes in social, economic, political, and cultural systems. The loss of the traditional functions of the family in the process of technological evolution has throughout modern history placed great strains on the family. This historical tendency toward family disintegration is greatly aggravated throughout the countries of the 3rd and 4th worlds by 3 factors: the pace of economic and social change has become very rapid, breaking down the traditional social institutions before new ones arise; the benefits of economic growth are unevenly distributed; and continued high rates of unwanted fertility have consumed the resources of individual families and of society as a whole. The complex problems that afflict the Latin American countries have no short-term or medium term solutions. Some strengths that would strengthen the socio-familial system in Latin American countries are listed. PMID:12264597

  17. High-throughput NIR-chemometric methods for determination of drug content and pharmaceutical properties of indapamide tablets.

    PubMed

    Tomuta, Ioan; Rus, Lucia; Iovanov, Rares; Rus, Luca Liviu

    2013-10-01

    This paper describes the development, validation and application of NIR-chemometric methods for API content and pharmaceutical characterization (disintegration time and crushing strength) of indapamide intact tablets. Development of the method for chemical characterization was performed on samples corresponding to 80, 90, 100, 110 and 120% of indapamide content and for pharmaceutical characterization on samples prepared at nine different compression forces (covering the interval 7-45 kN). NIR spectra of prepared tablets were recorded in transmission mode, and partial least-squares followed by leave-one-out cross-validation were used to develop models for the prediction of the drug content and the pharmaceutical properties of tablets. All developed models were validated in terms of trueness, precision and accuracy. No statistical differences were found between results predicted by NIR-chemometric methods and the ones determined by reference methods. Therefore, the developed NIR-chemometric methods meet the requirements of a high-throughput method for the determination of drug content, pharmaceutical properties of indapamide tablets. PMID:23347649

  18. Methods for the practical determination of the mechanical strength of tablets--from empiricism to science.

    PubMed

    Podczeck, Fridrun

    2012-10-15

    This review aims to awake an interest in the determination of the tensile strength of tablets of various shapes using a variety of direct and indirect test methods. The United States Pharmacopoeia monograph 1217 (USP35/NF30, 2011) has provided a very good approach to the experimental determination of and standards for the mechanical strength of tablets. Building on this monograph, it is hoped that the detailed account of the various methods provided in this review will encourage industrial and academic scientists involved in the development and manufacture of tablet formulations to take a step forward and determine the tensile strength of tablets, even if these are not simply flat disc-shaped or rectangular. To date there are a considerable number of valid test configurations and stress equations available, catering for many of the various shapes of tablets on the market. The determination of the tensile strength of tablets should hence replace the sole determination of a breaking force, because tensile strength values are more comparable and suggestions for minimum and/or maximum values are available. The review also identifies the gaps that require urgent filling. There is also a need for further analysis using, for example, Finite Element Method, to provide correct stress solutions for tablets of differing shapes, but this also requires practical experiments to find the best loading conditions, and theoretical stress solutions should be verified with practical experiments. PMID:22776803

  19. Formulation Design and Optimization of Fast Dissolving Clonazepam Tablets

    PubMed Central

    Shirsand, S. B.; Suresh, Sarasija; Swamy, P. V.

    2009-01-01

    Fast dissolving tablets of clonazepam were prepared by direct compression method with a view to enhance patient compliance. A 32 full factorial design was applied to investigate the combined effect of two formulation variables: amount of crospovidone and microcrystalline cellulose. Crospovidone (2-8% w/w) was used as superdisintegrant and microcrystalline cellulose (20-40% w/w) was used as diluent, along with directly compressible mannitol to enhance mouth feel. The tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, thickness, drug content uniformity, in vitro dispersion time, wetting time and water absorption ratio. Based on in vitro dispersion time (approximately 16 s); the formulation containing 2% w/w crospovidone and 40% w/w microcrystalline cellulose was found to be promising and tested for in vitro drug release pattern (in pH 6.8 phosphate buffer). Short-term stability (at 40°/75% relative humidity for 3 mo) and drug-excipient interaction. Surface response plots are presented to graphically represent the effect of independent variables on the invitro dispersion time. The validity of the generated mathematical model was tested by preparing two extra-design checkpoints. The optimized tablet formulation was compared with conventional commercial tablet formulation for drug release profiles. This formulation showed nearly five-fold faster drug release (t50% 3.5 min) compared to the conventional commercial tablet formulation (t50% 16.4 min). Short-term stability studies on the formulation indicated that there are no significant changes in drug content and in vitro dispersion time (P<0.05). PMID:20502581

  20. White matter disintegration in cluster headache

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies in primary headache disorders showed microstructural alterations in the white matter as measured by diffusion imaging. However these investigations are not in full agreement and some of those, especially in cluster headache, restricted the analysis to only a limited number of diffusion parameters. Therefore, in the current study we examined white matter microstructure in cluster headache patients. Methods Diffusion weighted MRI images with 60 directions were acquired from thirteen patients with cluster headache and sixteen age-matched healthy controls. Tract based spatial statistics were used to compare white matter integrity in the core of the fibre bundles. Correlation of the diffusion parameters with cumulative number of headache days was examined. Results There was a significant increment of the mean, axial and perpendicular diffusivity in widespread white matter regions in the frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital lobes. Reduced fractional anisotropy was found in the corpus callosum and some frontal and parietal white matter tracts mainly in the contralateral side of the pain. Axial diffusivity showed negative correlation to the number of the headache attacks. Conclusions The in vivo analysis of microstructural alterations in cluster headache provides important features of the disease, which might offer a deeper insight into the pathomechanism of the disease. PMID:23883140

  1. DISINTEGRATING ASTEROID P/2013 R3

    SciTech Connect

    Jewitt, David; Li, Jing; Agarwal, Jessica; Weaver, Harold; Mutchler, Max; Larson, Stephen

    2014-03-20

    Splitting of the nuclei of comets into multiple components has been frequently observed but, to date, no main-belt asteroid has been observed to break up. Using the Hubble Space Telescope, we find that main-belt asteroid P/2013 R3 consists of 10 or more distinct components, the largest up to 200 m in radius (assumed geometric albedo of 0.05) each of which produces a coma and comet-like dust tail. A diffuse debris cloud with total mass ?2 × 10{sup 8} kg further envelopes the entire system. The velocity dispersion among the components, ?V ? 0.2-0.5 m s{sup –1}, is comparable to the gravitational escape speeds of the largest members, while their extrapolated plane-of-sky motions suggest a break up between 2013 February and September. The broadband optical colors are those of a C-type asteroid. We find no spectral evidence for gaseous emission, placing model-dependent upper limits to the water production rate ?1 kg s{sup –1}. Breakup may be due to a rotationally induced structural failure of the precursor body.

  2. 21 CFR 520.1696d - Penicillin V tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Penicillin V tablets. 520.1696d Section...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1696d Penicillin V tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains penicillin V potassium equivalent to 125...

  3. 21 CFR 520.1696d - Penicillin V tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Penicillin V tablets. 520.1696d Section...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1696d Penicillin V tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains penicillin V potassium equivalent to 125...

  4. 21 CFR 520.1696d - Penicillin V potassium tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Penicillin V potassium tablets. 520.1696d Section...DRUGS § 520.1696d Penicillin V potassium tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains penicillin V potassium equivalent to 125...

  5. 21 CFR 520.1696d - Penicillin V potassium tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Penicillin V potassium tablets. 520.1696d Section...DRUGS § 520.1696d Penicillin V potassium tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains penicillin V potassium equivalent to 125...

  6. 21 CFR 520.1696d - Penicillin V potassium tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Penicillin V potassium tablets. 520.1696d Section...DRUGS § 520.1696d Penicillin V potassium tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains penicillin V potassium equivalent to 125...

  7. 21 CFR 520.1284 - Sodium liothyronine tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium liothyronine tablets. 520.1284 Section...DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1284 Sodium liothyronine tablets. (a) Specifications. Sodium liothyronine tablets consist of...

  8. 21 CFR 520.1284 - Sodium liothyronine tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium liothyronine tablets. 520.1284 Section...DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1284 Sodium liothyronine tablets. (a) Specifications. Sodium liothyronine tablets consist of...

  9. 21 CFR 520.1284 - Sodium liothyronine tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium liothyronine tablets. 520.1284 Section...DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1284 Sodium liothyronine tablets. (a) Specifications. Sodium liothyronine tablets consist of...

  10. 21 CFR 520.1284 - Sodium liothyronine tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium liothyronine tablets. 520.1284 Section...DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1284 Sodium liothyronine tablets. (a) Specifications. Sodium liothyronine tablets consist of...

  11. 21 CFR 520.1284 - Sodium liothyronine tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium liothyronine tablets. 520.1284 Section...DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1284 Sodium liothyronine tablets. (a) Specifications. Sodium liothyronine tablets consist of...

  12. Effect of simulated precompression, compression pressure and tableting speed on an offline diffuse transmittance and reflectance near-infrared spectral information of model intact caffeine tablets.

    PubMed

    Vranic, Branko Z; Vandamme, Thierry F

    2015-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is used in the pharmaceutical industry for monitoring drug content during the tablet manufacturing process. It is of critical importance to understand the effect of process factors on NIRS performance. Design of Experiments (DoE) methodology was applied in this work for the systematic study of the effects of compression pressure, precompression pressure and tableting speed on an average Euclidean distance (AED), which reflects spectral features of the tablets, and root mean-squared error of prediction (RMSEP) as key performance indicator of NIRS calibration models. Caffeine tablets were manufactured in 17 experimental runs in accordance with D-optimal design. Developed diffuse transmittance (DT) and diffuse reflectance (DR) calibration models were tested on five independent test sets to confirm the conclusions of the DoE. Compression pressure and tableting speed have shown significant effect on the studied responses in DT mode, whereas all three studied factors have shown a significant effect in DR mode. Significant factors were considered in the development of the global calibration models. The authors suggest further study of RMSEP and AED responses to draw reliable conclusions on the effects of tableting process factors. The global calibration model in DT mode has shown superior performance compared to DR mode. PMID:25118591

  13. 21 CFR 520.804 - Enalapril tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Enalapril tablets. 520.804 Section 520.804 Food... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.804 Enalapril tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains either 1.0, 2.5, 5.0, 10.0, or 20.0 milligrams of enalapril maleate....

  14. 21 CFR 520.804 - Enalapril tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enalapril tablets. 520.804 Section 520.804 Food... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.804 Enalapril tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains either 1.0, 2.5, 5.0, 10.0, or 20.0 milligrams of enalapril maleate....

  15. Theoretical investigations into the influence of the position of a breaking line on the tensile failure of flat, round, bevel-edged tablets using finite element methodology (FEM) and its practical relevance for industrial tablet strength testing.

    PubMed

    Podczeck, Fridrun; Newton, J Michael; Fromme, Paul

    2014-12-30

    Flat, round tablets may have a breaking ("score") line. Pharmacopoeial tablet breaking load tests are diametral in their design, and industrially used breaking load testers often have automatic tablet feeding systems, which position the tablets between the loading platens of the machine with the breaking lines in random orientation to the applied load. The aim of this work was to ascertain the influence of the position of the breaking line in a diametral compression test using finite element methodology (FEM) and to compare the theoretical results with practical findings using commercially produced bevel-edged, scored tablets. Breaking line test positions at an angle of 0°, 22.5°, 45°, 67.5° and 90° relative to the loading plane were studied. FEM results obtained for fully elastic and elasto-plastic tablets were fairly similar, but they highlighted large differences in stress distributions depending on the position of the breaking line. The stress values at failure were predicted to be similar for tablets tested at an angle of 45° or above, whereas at lower test angles the predicted breaking loads were up to three times larger. The stress distributions suggested that not all breaking line angles would result in clean tensile failure. Practical results, however, did not confirm the differences in the predicted breaking loads, but they confirmed differences in the way tablets broke. The results suggest that it is not advisable to convert breaking loads obtained on scored tablets into tablet tensile strength values, and comparisons between different tablets or batches should carefully consider the orientation of the breaking line with respect to the loading plane, as the failure mechanisms appear to vary. PMID:25455775

  16. Content uniformity of potent drugs in tablets.

    PubMed

    Orr, N A; Sallam, E A

    1978-12-01

    The type of distribution of low dosage drugs that occurs in batches of commercially available tablets has been examined. The uniformity of content of ethinyloestradiol tablets 10 micrograms B.P. from different sources, assessed by single tablet assay showed that three batches exhibited some positive skewness and one marked positive skewness. At the high level of dilution required, the mixing theory indicates that particles of drug must be very fine if acceptable content uniformity is to be obtained. Cohesion of particles impairs the efficiency of the mixing process. It is shown theoretically that unless the drug is dispersed into its component particles the shape of the distribution curve for the content of drug per tablet, in a batch of tablets, will be positively skewed. The relation between the tensile strength of the powdered drug and the degree of skewness of the drug content is also discussed. A positively skewed distribution for tablets containing a small amount of potent drug is unacceptable because this can lead to the presence of relatively large doses of drug in a single tablet. Where one unexpectedly high result occurs in the quality control of the content uniformity of tablets containing potent drugs it is suggested that sufficient single tablet assays be performed to allow the shape of the distribution curve to be assessed. A test for skewness should be included in compendial standards. PMID:32236

  17. Design and optimization of bilayered tablet of Hydrochlorothiazide using the Quality-by-Design approach

    PubMed Central

    Dholariya, Yatin N; Bansod, Yogesh B; Vora, Rahul M; Mittal, Sandeep S; Shirsat, Ajinath Eknath; Bhingare, Chandrashekhar L

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study is to develop an optimize bilayered tablet using Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) as a model drug candidate using quality by design (QbD) approach. Introduction and Method: The bilayered tablet gives biphasic drug release through loading dose; prepared using croscarmellose sodium a superdisintegrant and maintenance dose using several viscosity grades of hydrophilic polymers. The fundamental principle of QbD is to demonstrate understanding and control of pharmaceutical processes so as to deliver high quality pharmaceutical products with wide opportunities for continuous improvement. Risk assessment was carried out and subsequently 22 factorial designs in duplicate was selected to carry out design of experimentation (DOE) for evaluating the interactions and effects of the design factors on critical quality attribute. The design space was obtained by applying DOE and multivariate analysis, so as to ensure desired disintegration time (DT) and drug release is achieved. Bilayered tablet were evaluated for hardness, thickness, friability, drug content uniformity and in vitro drug dissolution. Result: Optimized formulation obtained from the design space exhibits DT of around 70 s, while DR T95% (time required to release 95% of the drug) was about 720 min. Kinetic studies of formulations revealed that erosion is the predominant mechanism for drug release. Conclusion: From the obtained results; it was concluded that independent variables have a significant effect over the dependent responses, which can be deduced from half normal plots, pareto charts and surface response graphs. The predicted values matched well with the experimental values and the result demonstrates the feasibility of the design model in the development and optimization of HCTZ bilayered tablet. PMID:25006554

  18. Mild disintegration of the green microalgae Chlorella vulgaris using bead milling.

    PubMed

    Postma, P R; Miron, T L; Olivieri, G; Barbosa, M J; Wijffels, R H; Eppink, M H M

    2015-05-01

    In this work, the mild disintegration of the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris for the release of intracellular products has been studied. By means of bead milling the microalgae suspensions were successfully disintegrated at different biomass concentrations (25-145 gDW kg(-1)) over a range of agitator speeds (6-12 m s(-1)). In all cases over 97% of cell disintegration was achieved resulting in a release of water soluble proteins. A clear optimum rate of disintegration and protein release was observed at an agitator speed of 9-10 m s(-1) regardless of the biomass concentration. Selective extraction of water soluble proteins was observed as proteins released sooner than cell disintegration took place. Proteins could be released at 85% lower energy input than for cell disintegration resulting in specific energy consumptions well below 2.5 kWh kgDW(-1). PMID:25280602

  19. Compaction behavior and deformation mechanism of directly compressible textured mannitol in a rotary tablet press simulator.

    PubMed

    Tarlier, Nicolas; Soulairol, Ian; Bataille, Bernard; Baylac, Gilles; Ravel, Patrice; Nofrerias, Isaac; Lefčvre, Philippe; Sharkawi, Tahmer

    2015-11-10

    Textured mannitol powder is widely used as a pharmaceutical excipient for tablet compaction. In order to choose the right tableting parameters, it is necessary to understand its mechanical behavior during deformation under industrial tableting conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mechanical behavior during deformation of a textured mannitol using a rotary tablet press simulator. Mean yield pressure (Py) obtained by Heckel modeling, Walker coefficients (W) and Stress Rate Sensitivity (SRS) were compared to reference excipients, known for either their plastic (microcrystalline cellulose) or fragmentary (lactose and dibasic calcium phosphate) deformation behavior. Py, W and SRS values showed that the studied textured mannitol has a fragmentary deformation mechanism. Furthermore, this mechanical behavior was not sensitive to lubrication, which is characteristic of fragmentary excipients. PMID:26363108

  20. A Disintegrating Minor Planet Transiting a White Dwarf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanderburg, Andrew; Johnson, John Asher; Rappaport, Saul; Bieryla, Allyson; Irwin, Jonathan; Lewis, John; Charbonneau, David; Latham, David W.; Ciardi, David; Schaefer, Laura; Kipping, David; Angus, Ruth; Eastman, Jason; Wright, Jason; McCrady, Nate; Wittenmyer, Robert; Dufour, Patrick

    2015-12-01

    Over the past decade, evidence has accumulated suggesting that the photospheres of many white dwarfs are polluted by the remnants of small rocky bodies leftover from the progenitors' planetary systems. The evidence for this scenario is typically indirect and circumstantial. We report observations of a disintegrating minor planet transiting a polluted white dwarf. The transits are 5 minutes long, up to 40% deep, have an asymmetric profile and highly variable transit depths. This system provides strong corroborating evidence for the planet accretion model for white dwarf pollution and lets us watch the destruction of a solar system in real time.

  1. Development and evaluation of a novel modified-release pellet-based tablet system for the delivery of loratadine and pseudoephedrine hydrochloride as model drugs.

    PubMed

    Zeeshan, Farrukh; Bukhari, Nadeem Irfan

    2010-06-01

    Modified-release multiple-unit tablets of loratadine and pseudoephedrine hydrochloride with different release profiles were prepared from the immediate-release pellets comprising the above two drugs and prolonged-release pellets containing only pseudoephedrine hydrochloride. The immediate-release pellets containing pseudoephedrine hydrochloride alone or in combination with loratadine were prepared using extrusion-spheronization method. The pellets of pseudoephedrine hydrochloride were coated to prolong the drug release up to 12 h. Both immediate- and prolonged-release pellets were filled into hard gelatin capsule and also compressed into tablets using inert tabletting granules of microcrystalline cellulose Ceolus KG-801. The in vitro drug dissolution study conducted using high-performance liquid chromatography method showed that both multiple-unit capsules and multiple-unit tablets released loratadine completely within a time period of 2 h, whereas the immediate-release portion of pseudoephedrine hydrochloride was liberated completely within the first 10 min of dissolution study. On the other hand, the release of pseudoephedrine hydrochloride from the prolonged release coated pellets was prolonged up to 12 hr and followed zero-order release kinetic. The drug dissolution profiles of multiple-unit tablets and multiple-unit capsules were found to be closely similar, indicating that the integrity of pellets remained unaffected during the compression process. Moreover, the friability, hardness, and disintegration time of multiple-unit tablets were found to be within BP specifications. In conclusion, modified-release pellet-based tablet system for the delivery of loratadine and pseudoephedrine hydrochloride was successfully developed and evaluated. PMID:20496016

  2. Studies on the compressibility of wax matrix granules of acetaminophen and their admixtures with various tableting bases.

    PubMed

    Uhumwangho, M U; Okor, R S

    2006-04-01

    Matrix granules of acetaminophen have been formed by a melt granulation process whereby the acetaminophen powder was triturated with the melted wax--goat wax, glyceryl monostearate or carnuba wax. The compressibility of the matrix granules and their admixture, with diluent granules (lactose, alpha-cellulose or microcrystalline cellulose) was investigated. The granules were compressed to tablets at a constant load (30 arbitrary units on the load scale) of a manesty single punch machine. Resulting tablets were evaluated for tensile strength (T) and disintegration times (DT). Granule flow was determined by measuring their angle of repose when allowed to fall freely on a level surface. Matrix granules prepared by melt granulation with goat wax or glyceryl monostearate were too sticky and therefore did not flow at all. They were also poorly compressible (T values = 0.20MN/m2). Inclusion of the diluent remarkably improved granule flow property and compressibility. The T values of the tablets (measure of compressibility) increased from about 0.24 to 0.65 MN/m2 during increase in diluent (lactose) content from 20 to 80 %w/w. Microcrystalline cellulose and alpha-cellulose were more effective than lactose in promoting compressibility of the granules. By contrast the matrix granules formed with carnuba wax were free flowing (angle of repose, 18.60). Addition of the diluent further improved flowability slightly. The matrix granules (without a diluent) were readily compressible (T value, 1.79MN/m2). Addition of the diluent (80%w/w) reduced T values (MN/m2) slightly to 1.32 (lactose), 1.48 (alpha-cellulose) and 1.74 (microcrystalline cellulose). Tablets of the matrix granules only, disintegrated rapidly within 3 minutes. DT was further reduced to <30 s by addition of any of the diluents. The indication is that the inclusion of the diluents studied can be used to improve the compressibility of the otherwise poorly compressible matrix granules. Based on the flowability, compressibility, and disintegration data, carnuba wax proved most promising in the melt granulation of the test drug for sustained release applications. PMID:16751119

  3. 21 CFR 520.312 - Carnidazole tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... this chapter. (c) Conditions of use(1) Amount. Adult pigeons: 1 tablet (10 milligrams); newly weaned pigeons: 1/2 tablet (5 milligrams). (2) Indications for use. For treating trichomoniasis (canker) in ornamental and homing pigeons. (3) Limitations. Not for use in pigeons intended for human food. Consult...

  4. 21 CFR 520.312 - Carnidazole tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... this chapter. (c) Conditions of use—(1) Amount. Adult pigeons: 1 tablet (10 milligrams); newly weaned pigeons: 1/2 tablet (5 milligrams). (2) Indications for use. For treating trichomoniasis (canker) in ornamental and homing pigeons. (3) Limitations. Not for use in pigeons intended for human food. Consult...

  5. 21 CFR 520.312 - Carnidazole tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... this chapter. (c) Conditions of use—(1) Amount. Adult pigeons: 1 tablet (10 milligrams); newly weaned pigeons: 1/2 tablet (5 milligrams). (2) Indications for use. For treating trichomoniasis (canker) in ornamental and homing pigeons. (3) Limitations. Not for use in pigeons intended for human food. Consult...

  6. 21 CFR 520.312 - Carnidazole tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... this chapter. (c) Conditions of use—(1) Amount. Adult pigeons: 1 tablet (10 milligrams); newly weaned pigeons: 1/2 tablet (5 milligrams). (2) Indications for use. For treating trichomoniasis (canker) in ornamental and homing pigeons. (3) Limitations. Not for use in pigeons intended for human food. Consult...

  7. 21 CFR 520.312 - Carnidazole tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... this chapter. (c) Conditions of use—(1) Amount. Adult pigeons: 1 tablet (10 milligrams); newly weaned pigeons: 1/2 tablet (5 milligrams). (2) Indications for use. For treating trichomoniasis (canker) in ornamental and homing pigeons. (3) Limitations. Not for use in pigeons intended for human food. Consult...

  8. 21 CFR 520.1380 - Methocarbamol tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methocarbamol tablets. 520.1380 Section 520.1380 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1380 Methocarbamol tablets. (a) Chemical name....

  9. 21 CFR 520.1380 - Methocarbamol tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Methocarbamol tablets. 520.1380 Section 520.1380 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1380 Methocarbamol tablets. (a) Chemical name....

  10. Enhancing Student Performance Using Tablet Computers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enriquez, Amelito G.

    2010-01-01

    Tablet PCs have the potential to change the dynamics of classroom interaction through wireless communication coupled with pen-based computing technology that is suited for analyzing and solving engineering problems. This study focuses on how tablet PCs and wireless technology can be used during classroom instruction to create an Interactive…

  11. Tablet PCs: A Physical Educator's New Clipboard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nye, Susan B.

    2010-01-01

    Computers in education have come a long way from the abacus of 5,000 years ago to the desktop and laptop computers of today. Computers have transformed the educational environment, and with each new iteration of smaller and more powerful machines come additional advantages for teaching practices. The Tablet PC is one. Tablet PCs are fully…

  12. Putting Tablet PCs to the Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amirian, Susan

    2004-01-01

    Like many educators, the author and her colleagues (five faculty members and two IT techs) in the department of Media Communications and Technology at East Stroudsburg University in Pennsylvania were interested to find out the status of tablet PCs in education. Microsoft listed 10 manufacturers of tablet PCs following two forms: the slate and the…

  13. 21 CFR 520.2088 - Roxarsone tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... period. Withdraw 5 days before slaughter. Use as sole source of organic arsenic. (ii) Growing chickens—(a.... Withdraw 5 days before slaughter. Use as sole source of organic arsenic. (b)(1) Specifications. Each tablet... slaughter. Use as sole source of organic arsenic. (ii) (c)(1) Specifications. Each tablet contains...

  14. 21 CFR 520.2088 - Roxarsone tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... period. Withdraw 5 days before slaughter. Use as sole source of organic arsenic. (ii) Growing chickens—(a.... Withdraw 5 days before slaughter. Use as sole source of organic arsenic. (b)(1) Specifications. Each tablet... slaughter. Use as sole source of organic arsenic. (ii) (c)(1) Specifications. Each tablet contains...

  15. In Vivo Disintegration of Four Different Luting Agents

    PubMed Central

    Gemalmaz, Deniz; Pameijer, Cornelis H.; Latta, Mark; Kuybulu, Ferah; Alcan, Toros

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the disintegration of luting agents. An intraoral sample holder was made having four holes of 1.4?mm diameter and 2?mm depth. The holder was soldered onto the buccal surface of an orthodontic band, which was cemented to the first upper molar in 12 patients, average age 26 years. The holes were filled with a zinc phosphate (Phosphate Kulzer), a glass ionomer (Ketac Cem), a resin-modified-glass ionomer (Fuji Plus), and a resin cement (Calibra). Impressions were made at baseline, and 6, 12, and 18 months from which epoxy replicas were made, which were scanned with an optical scanner. Total volume loss was calculated. The rank order of mean volume loss was as follows: Phosphate cement > Ketac Cem = Fuji Plus = Calibra. Cement type and time had statistically significant effects on volume loss of cements (P < 0.001). Under in vivo conditions, zinc phosphate cement disintegrated the most, whereas no significant difference was observed for glass ionomer and resin-based cements. As intraoral conditions are considerably less aggressive than experimental laboratory conditions, the erosion behavior of glass ionomer cement was found to be similar to the resin-based cements in contradiction to previous laboratory results. PMID:22007219

  16. Soot particle disintegration and detection using two laserELFFS

    SciTech Connect

    Stipe, Christopher B.; Lucas, Donald; Koshland, Catherine P.; Sawyer, Robert F.

    2004-11-17

    A two laser technique is used to study laser-particle interactions and the disintegration of soot by high power UV light. Two separate 20 ns laser pulses irradiate combustion generated soot nanoparticles with 193 nm photons. The first laser pulse, from 0 to 14.7 J/cm{sup 2}, photofragments the soot particles and electronically excites the liberated carbon atoms. The second laser pulse, held constant at 13 J/cm{sup 2}, irradiates the remaining particle fragments and other products of the first laser pulse. The atomic carbon fluorescence at 248 nm produced by the first laser pulse increases linearly with laser fluence from 1 to 6 J/cm{sup 2}. At higher fluences, the signal from atomic carbon signal saturates. The carbon fluorescence from the second laser pulse decreases as the fluence from the first laser increases, ultimately approaching zero as first laser fluence approaches 10 J/cm{sup 2}, suggesting that the particles fully disintegrate at high laser fluences. We use an energy balance parameter, called the photon-atom ratio (PAR), to aid in understanding laser-particle interactions. These results help define the regimes where photofragmentation fluorescence methods quantitatively measure total soot concentrations.

  17. The forensic aspects of contemporary disintegrating rifle bullets.

    PubMed

    Haag, Lucien C

    2013-03-01

    A relatively new type of rifle bullet has appeared in the last few years that contains no lead and rapidly disintegrates into very small particles and jacket fragments immediately upon entry into soft tissue. These bullets are intended for use by 'varmint' hunters in high-velocity centerfire rifles where the effect on such animals as prairie dogs, gophers, ground hogs, and other similarly sized animals is nothing short of explosive. The shooting of much larger animals to include human beings will typically result in nonperforating wounds with short wound paths. X-ray views of a decedent or gunshot victim will lack any recognizable bullet or projectile. Only 1 jacket fragment among the many present in the wound tract is suitable for subsequent firearms identification purposes, namely, the small copper disc that represents the base or heel of the bullet jacket. This small circular fragment bears vestiges of the rifling marks of the responsible firearm.This article will aid the forensic pathologist in recognizing gunshot wounds produced by these atypical bullets and the importance of recovering the base portion of the disintegrated bullet jacket. PMID:23361072

  18. Microspheres and tablet in capsule system: A novel chronotherapeutic system of ketorolac tromethamine for site and time specific delivery

    PubMed Central

    Shahi, Priya; Kumari, Neeraj; Pathak, Kamla

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to develop a novel delivery system of ketorolac tromethamine (KT) for dual pulse release based on microspheres and tablet in capsule system (MATICS) as a treatment modality for rheumatoid arthritis. The design consisted of an impermeable hard gelatin capsule body, in which a core tablet was (second pulse) placed in the bottom and sealed with a hydrogel plug (HP2). The body was locked with enteric coated cap filled with KT microspheres (first pulse). The microspheres for first pulse were selected by screening the formulations (M1–M6), and M1 with least particle size of 96.38 ± 0.05 ?m, highest drug loading of 25.10% ± 0.28% and maximum CDR of 89.32% ± 0.21% was adjudged as the best formulation. The HP2 tablet was selected based on its capability for maintaining a lag period of 6 h. The selection criterion of the second pulse (core tablet: T3) was its disintegration time of 4.02 ± 0.53 min and CDR of 99.10% ± 0.32% in 30 min. All the optimized formulations were assembled in accordance with the proposed design to form pulsatile MATICS and evaluated for in vitro release. MATICS displayed delayed sustained CDR of 80.15% in 8 h from the first pulse (microspheres) after a lag time of 2 h, followed by 97.05% KT release from second pulse (core tablet) in simulated colonic fluid within 10 h. Conclusively, in vitro pulsatile release was a rational combination of delayed sustained and immediate release of KT that has the potential to combat the pain at night and morning stiffness. Incorporation of two pulses in one system offers a reduction in dose frequency and better pain management. PMID:26258058

  19. Active content determination of pharmaceutical tablets using near infrared spectroscopy as Process Analytical Technology tool.

    PubMed

    Chavez, Pierre-François; Sacré, Pierre-Yves; De Bleye, Charlotte; Netchacovitch, Lauranne; Mantanus, Jérôme; Motte, Henri; Schubert, Martin; Hubert, Philippe; Ziemons, Eric

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to develop Near infrared (NIR) methods to determine the active content of non-coated pharmaceutical tablets manufactured from a proportional tablet formulation. These NIR methods intend to be used for the monitoring of the active content of tablets during the tableting process. Firstly, methods were developed in transmission and reflection modes to quantify the API content of the lowest dosage strength. Secondly, these methods were fully validated for a concentration range of 70-130% of the target active content using the accuracy profile approach based on ?-expectation tolerance intervals. The model using the transmission mode showed a better ability to predict the right active content compared to the reflection one. However, the ability of the reflection mode to quantify the API content in the highest dosage strength was assessed. Furthermore, the NIR method based on the transmission mode was successfully used to monitor at-line the tablet active content during the tableting process, providing better insight of the API content during the process. This improvement of control of the product quality provided by this PAT method is thoroughly compliant with the Quality by Design (QbD) concept. Finally, the transfer of the transmission model from the off-line to an on-line spectrometer was efficiently investigated. PMID:26452969

  20. 21 CFR 520.1284 - Sodium liothyronine tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium liothyronine tablets. 520.1284 Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1284 Sodium liothyronine tablets. (a) Specifications. Sodium liothyronine tablets consist of tablets intended for...

  1. [Studies on formulation and bioavailability of benorilate tablets].

    PubMed

    Chen, J; Tu, X D

    1994-01-01

    A new formulation tablet B was developed and compared with tablet A with the purpose of improving the bioavailability of benorilate by reducing its particle size. The dissolution rate in vitro was determined by paddle method and using surfactant solution medium. The plasma concentrations of hydrolyzates which are salicylic acid and paracetamol from benorilate in vivo were measured by HPLC. The dissolution rates of ground and unground drug are 0.0337 min-1 and 0.0152 min-1 (P < 0.001) respectively. Compared with tablet A, the cumulative dissolution percentage of B is higher. The mean dissolution time of B and A are 15.77 min and 42.25 min (P < 0.001) respectively. The study in vivo showed that the Cmax, Tp and AUC of salicylic acid for these two formulations have no significant difference (P > 0.1). The relative bioavailability of B to A is 125.59%. Their in vivo process fits one-compartment model and first order elimination. PMID:7900541

  2. Brief Report: Childhood Disintegrative Disorder as a Likely Manifestation of Vitamin B12 Deficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malhotra, Savita; Subodh, B. N.; Parakh, Preeti; Lahariya, Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    Childhood disintegrative disorder is a rare disorder, characterized by regression of acquired skills after a period of normal development. The case of childhood disintegrative disorder presented here was found to have vitamin B12 deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia on extensive evaluation to find a probable cause for regression. This case…

  3. Physical disintegration of toilet papers in wastewater systems: experimental analysis and mathematical modeling.

    PubMed

    Eren, Beytullah; Karadagli, Fatih

    2012-03-01

    Physical disintegration of representative toilet papers was investigated in this study to assess their disintegration potential in sewer systems. Characterization of toilet papers from different parts of the world indicated two main categories as premium and average quality. Physical disintegration experiments were conducted with representative products from each category according to standard protocols with improvements. The experimental results were simulated by mathematical model to estimate best-fit values of disintegration rate coefficients and fractional distribution ratios. Our results from mathematical modeling and experimental work show that premium products release more amounts of small fibers and disintegrate more slowly than average ones. Comparison of the toilet papers with the tampon applicators studied previously indicates that premium quality toilet papers present significant potential to persist in sewer pipes. Comparison of turbulence level in our experimental setup with those of partial flow conditions in sewer pipes indicates that drains and small sewer pipes are critical sections where disintegration of toilet papers will be limited. For improvement, requirements for minimum pipe slopes may be increased to sustain transport and disintegration of flushable products in small pipes. In parallel, toilet papers can be improved to disintegrate rapidly in sewer systems, while they meet consumer expectations. PMID:22295936

  4. Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation of Hydrodynamics and Stresses in the PhEur/USP Disintegration Tester Under Fed and Fasted Fluid Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kindgen, Sarah; Wachtel, Herbert; Abrahamsson, Bertil; Langguth, Peter

    2015-09-01

    Disintegration of oral solid dosage forms is a prerequisite for drug dissolution and absorption and is to a large extent dependent on the pressures and hydrodynamic conditions in the solution that the dosage form is exposed to. In this work, the hydrodynamics in the PhEur/USP disintegration tester were investigated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Particle image velocimetry was used to validate the CFD predictions. The CFD simulations were performed with different Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids, representing fasted and fed states. The results indicate that the current design and operating conditions of the disintegration test device, given by the pharmacopoeias, are not reproducing the in vivo situation. This holds true for the hydrodynamics in the disintegration tester that generates Reynolds numbers dissimilar to the reported in vivo situation. Also, when using homogenized US FDA meal, representing the fed state, too high viscosities and relative pressures are generated. The forces acting on the dosage form are too small for all fluids compared to the in vivo situation. The lack of peristaltic contractions, which generate hydrodynamics and shear stress in vivo, might be the major drawback of the compendial device resulting in the observed differences between predicted and in vivo measured hydrodynamics. PMID:26017815

  5. Terahertz Technology: A Boon to Tablet Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wagh, M. P.; Sonawane, Y. H.; Joshi, O. U.

    2009-01-01

    The terahertz gap has a frequency ranges from ?0.3 THz to ?10 THz in the electromagnetic spectrum which is in between microwave and infrared. The terahertz radiations are invisible to naked eye. In comparison with x-ray they are intrinsically safe, non-destructive and non-invasive. Terahertz spectroscopy enables 3D imaging of structures and materials, and the measurement of the unique spectral fingerprints of chemical and physical forms. Terahertz radiations are produced by a dendrimer based high power terahertz source and spectroscopy technologies. It resolves many of the questions left unanswered by complementary techniques, such as optical imaging, Raman and infrared spectra. In the pharmaceutical industries it enables nondestructive, internal, chemical analysis of tablets, capsules, and other dosage forms. Tablet coatings are a major factor in drug bioavailability. Therefore tablet coatings integrity and uniformity are of crucial importance to quality. Terahertz imaging gives an unparalleled certainty about the integrity of tablet coatings and the matrix performance of tablet cores. This article demonstrates the potential of terahertz pulse imaging for the analysis of tablet coating thickness by illustrating the technique on tablets. PMID:20490288

  6. Field evaluation of the efficacy and safety of emodepside plus praziquantel tablets (Profender tablets for dogs) against naturally acquired nematode and cestode infections in dogs.

    PubMed

    Altreuther, Gertraut; Radeloff, Isabelle; LeSueur, Christophe; Schimmel, Annette; Krieger, Klemens J

    2009-08-01

    A controlled, blinded and randomised multicentre field study evaluated the efficacy and safety of a new anthelmintic tablet formulation containing emodepside plus praziquantel (Profender tablets for dogs) in the treatment of gastrointestinal nematode and cestode infections in dogs in France, Germany, Portugal and Slovakia. Dogs positive for nematodes and/or cestodes (demonstrated by faecal egg counts and/or the presence of proglottids) were treated with emodepside plus praziquantel tablets (n = 239) or the reference product containing milbemycin oxime and praziquantel (Milbemax [n = 115]) at the recommended dose rate. Two faecal samples collected between 7 and 13 days after treatment were evaluated for proglottids, nematode and cestode eggs. No suspected adverse drug reactions were observed in the study. The following parasite species were identified: Trichuris vulpis, Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, Uncinaria stenocephala, Ancylostoma caninum, Dipylidium caninum, Taeniidae and Mesocestoides spp. Geometric mean nematode egg counts in dogs treated with emodepside plus praziquantel tablets were reduced by 99.9 % compared with a reduction of 99.6 % for the reference product. Statistical analysis demonstrated noninferiority of investigational versus reference product (p = 0.0342). None of the dogs treated with emodepside plus praziquantel or reference product remained positive for cestodes after treatment. The study demonstrated that emodepside plus praziquantel tablets are safe and highly efficacious against a broad spectrum of nematodes and cestodes under field conditions. PMID:19575222

  7. Comparison of cortisol exposures and pharmacodynamic adrenal steroid responses to hydrocortisone suspension vs. commercial tablets.

    PubMed

    Sarafoglou, Kyriakie; Gonzalez-Bolanos, Maria T; Zimmerman, Cheryl L; Boonstra, Timothy; Yaw Addo, O; Brundage, Richard

    2015-04-01

    The Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guidelines on congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) recommend against using hydrocortisone suspension based on a study that examined a commercial suspension. Our objective was to examine the absorption of an extemporaneously prepared hydrocortisone suspension and compare it to tablets. Secondary objectives were to evaluate the 17-hydroxyprogesterone and androstenedione adrenal steroid responses. Using a parallel design, 34 children diagnosed with CAH received either suspension (n?=?9; median age 1.8 years) or tablets (n?=?25; median age 7.5 years). Patients were given their usual morning hydrocortisone formulation and dose; 12 serial blood samples were obtained and the area under the curve (AUC) was calculated. The mg/m(2) dose-normalized cortisol AUCs were no different in the suspension and tablet groups (P?=?·06), nor was there a significant difference in the C(max) or T(max) (P?=?.08 and P?=?.41, respectively). Although there were no differences in the 17-hydroxyprogesterone change-from-baseline AUCs, baseline concentrations, or the nadir concentrations when comparing suspension and tablet formulations, the androstenedione values were significantly lower as expected in the younger aged suspension group. Our results offer compelling evidence that an extemporaneously prepared hydrocortisone suspension provides comparable cortisol exposures to commercially available tablet formulations in children and can be used to safely and effectively treat CAH. PMID:25385533

  8. [Effect of taixian tablet on hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis].

    PubMed

    Duan, K; Zheng, G; Li, B

    1998-05-01

    Eighty syrian hamsters were divided into 4 equal groups. The right buccal pouches of hamsters in group I and group II were painted three times weekly with 0.5% DMBA dissolved in acetone, but the hamsters in group I received 0.45 g Taixian tablet daily by mouth. The animals in group III only received 0.45 g Taixian tablet daily and group IV was control group. After 9, 12 weeks, animals were killed with their pouches excised, and tumors were counted and measured. The results showed; 1. Comparing with group II, the malignant rate of group I was lower after 9 weeks and the tumor volume was smaller after 12 weeks (P < 0.01); 2. It was found histologically many inflammatory cells locating in the epithelial layer and lamina propria of group I after 9 weeks, while only a few inflammatory cells in group II. The high differentiated squamous cell carcinoma could be seen in group I and group II after 12 weeks, but no abnormal changes in cervical lymphnodes and organs (lung, liver, spleen, et al) of all animals in 4 groups. It suggests that Taixian tablet can restrain the development of oral carcinogenesis. PMID:12214411

  9. Formulation design and optimization of fast dissolving clonazepam tablets by sublimation method.

    PubMed

    Shirsand, S B; Suresh, Sarasija; Kusumdevi, V; Swamy, P V

    2011-09-01

    Fast dissolving tablets of clonazepam were prepared by sublimation method with a view to enhance patient compliance. A 3(2) full factorial design was applied to investigate the combined effect of two formulation variables: amount of croscarmellose sodium and camphor. Croscarmellose sodium (2-8% w/w) was used as superdisintegrant and camphor (20-40% w/w) was used as subliming agent, to increase the porosity of the tablets, since it helps water to penetrate into the tablets, along with directly compressible mannitol to enhance mouth feel. The tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, thickness, drug content uniformity, in vitro dispersion time, wetting time and water absorption ratio. Based on in vitro dispersion time (approximately 11 s); the formulation containing 5% w/w croscarmellose sodium and 40% w/w camphor was found to be promising and tested for in vitro drug release pattern (in pH 6.8 phosphate buffer). Short-term stability (at 40°/75% relative humidity for 3 mo) and drug-excipient interaction. Surface response plots are presented to graphically represent the effect of independent variables on the in vitro dispersion time. The validity of the generated mathematical model was tested by preparing two extra-design checkpoints. The optimized tablet formulation was compared with conventional commercial tablet formulation for drug release profiles. This formulation showed nearly nine-fold faster drug release (t(50%) 1.8 min) compared to the conventional commercial tablet formulation (t(50%) 16.4 min). Short-term stability studies on the formulation indicated that there are no significant changes in drug content and in vitro dispersion time (P<0.05). PMID:22923860

  10. Exploring the potential of a highly compressible microcrystalline cellulose as novel tabletting excipient in the compaction of extended-release coated pellets containing an extremely water-soluble model drug.

    PubMed

    Zeeshan, F; Peh, K K; Tan, Y T F

    2009-01-01

    Compaction of controlled-release coated pellets into tablets is challenging because of the fusion of pellets and the rupturing of coated film. The difficulty in compaction intensifies with the use of extremely water-soluble drugs. Therefore, the present study was conducted to prepare and compact pellets containing pseudoephedrine hydrochloride as an extremely water-soluble model drug. The pellets were produced using an extrusion-spheronization technique. The drug-loaded pellets were coated to extend the drug release up to 12-h employing various polymers, and then they were compressed into tablets using microcrystalline cellulose Ceolus KG-801 as a novel tabletting excipient. The in vitro drug release studies of coated pellets and tablets were undertaken using the USP basket method in dissolution test apparatus I. The amount of drug released was analyzed at a wavelength of 215 nm. The combined coatings of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and Kollicoat SR-30D yielded 12-h extended-release pellets with drug release independent of pH of dissolution medium following zero-order kinetics. The drug release from the tablets prepared using inert Celous KG-801 granules as tabletting excipient was found faster than that of coated pellets. However, a modification in drug release rate occurred with the incorporation of inert Ceolus KG-801 pellets. The drug dissolution profile from tablets containing 40% w/w each of coated pellets and inert granules along with 20% w/w inert pellets was found to be closely similar to that of coated pellets. Furthermore, the friability, tensile strength, and disintegration time of the tablets were within the USP specifications. PMID:19554454

  11. An open-label, randomized bioavailability study with alternative methods of administration of crushed ticagrelor tablets in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Renli; Carlson, Glenn; Hsia, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare the bioavailability and safety profile of crushed ticagrelor tablets suspended in water and administered orally or via nasogastric tube, with that of whole tablets administered orally. Methods: In this single-center, open-label, randomized, three-treatment crossover study, 36 healthy volunteers were randomized to receive a single 90-mg dose of ticagrelor administered orally as a whole tablet or as crushed tablets suspended in water and given orally or via a nasogastric tube into the stomach, with a minimum 7-day wash-out between treatments. Plasma concentrations of ticagrelor and AR-C124910XX were assessed at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16, 24, 36, and 48 hours post-ticagrelor dose for pharmacokinetic analyses. Safety and tolerability was assessed throughout the study. Results: At 0.5 hours postdose, plasma concentrations of ticagrelor and AR-C124910XX were higher with crushed tablets administered orally (148.6 ng/mL and 13.0 ng/mL, respectively) or via nasogastric tube (264.6 ng/mL and 28.6 ng/mL, respectively) compared with whole-tablet administration (33.3 ng/mL and 5.2 ng/mL, respectively). A similar trend was observed at 1 hour postdose. Ticagrelor tmax was shorter following crushed vs. whole-tablet administration (1 vs. 2 hours, respectively). Geometric mean ratios between treatments for AUC and Cmax were contained within the bioequivalence limits of 80 – 125% for ticagrelor and AR-C124910XX. All treatments were generally well tolerated. Conclusions: Ticagrelor administered as a crushed tablet is bioequivalent to whole-tablet administration, independent of mode of administration (oral or via nasogastric tube), and resulted in increased plasma concentrations of ticagrelor and AR-C124910XX at early timepoints. PMID:25500486

  12. Tracking of crystalline-amorphous transition of carvedilol in rotary spun microfibers and their formulation to orodispersible tablets for in vitro dissolution enhancement.

    PubMed

    Szabó, Péter; Sebe, István; Stiedl, Bernadett; Kállai-Szabó, Barnabás; Zelkó, Romána

    2015-11-10

    Physicochemical characterization of microfibers including powder X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and positron annihilation spectroscopy were used to track the crystalline-amorphous transition of carvedilol during formulation and stability testing. The applied methods unanimously indicated the amorphous transition of carvedilol in the course of rotary spinning, furthermore a supramolecular ordering of chains of polymer matrix was revealed out by positron annihilation spectroscopy. The accelerated stability study (40±2°C/75±5% RH, for 4 weeks) indicated a large stress tolerance capacity of fibers, since only a partial crystallization of the active compound was observable at the last sampling point. To demonstrate possible utilization of microfibers, orodispersible tablets containing 10mg of carvedilol were successfully prepared by direct compression applying common tableting excipients. All of the investigated tablet parameters (hardness, friability, in vitro disintegration time) complied with the pharmacopoeial requirements. The performed dissolution (pH 1.0 and 6.8) study indicated that the drug dissolution from the microfiber based formula was rapid, complete and independent from the pH of the applied media, while the dissolution from the control tablets, containing crystalline carvedilol was incomplete and was strongly influenced by the pH of the applied media. PMID:26280924

  13. Pharmaceutical tablet compaction : product and process design

    E-print Network

    Pore, Mridula

    2009-01-01

    This thesis explores how tablet performance is affected by microstructure, and how microstructure can be controlled by selection of excipients and compaction parameters. A systematic strategy for formulation and process ...

  14. Dell recommends Windows. Dell Venue 7 tablet

    E-print Network

    Azad, Abdul-Majeed

    * Super Sale Shop. Save. Enjoy the rewards.* Join Dell Advantage for free and get 10% back in rewards tablet* . Take advantage of this student offer with the purchase of a PC for $699.99 or more. Shop your

  15. Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems: Tablet Chlorination 

    E-print Network

    Lesikar, Bruce J.

    2008-10-23

    Wastewater that is sprayed onto lawns must first be disinfected to prevent odors and remove disease-causing organisms. This publication explains how tablet chlorinators disinfect wastewater and gives tips on how to maintain them....

  16. 21 CFR 520.370 - Cefpodoxime tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.370 Cefpodoxime tablets...S. aureus , Streptococcus canis (group G, -hemolytic), Escherichia coli...

  17. 21 CFR 520.370 - Cefpodoxime tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.370 Cefpodoxime tablets...S. aureus , Streptococcus canis (group G, -hemolytic), Escherichia coli...

  18. 21 CFR 520.370 - Cefpodoxime tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.370 Cefpodoxime tablets...S. aureus , Streptococcus canis (group G, -hemolytic), Escherichia coli...

  19. 21 CFR 520.370 - Cefpodoxime tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.370 Cefpodoxime tablets...S. aureus , Streptococcus canis (group G, -hemolytic), Escherichia coli...

  20. 21 CFR 520.370 - Cefpodoxime tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.370 Cefpodoxime tablets...S. aureus , Streptococcus canis (group G, -hemolytic), Escherichia coli...

  1. Development of gastro-resistant tablets for the protection and intestinal delivery of Lactobacillus fermentum CECT 5716.

    PubMed

    Villena, María José Martín; Lara-Villoslada, Ferderico; Martínez, María Adolfina Ruiz; Hernández, María Encarnación Morales

    2015-06-20

    Different studies have attributed health benefits to Lactobacillus fermentum CECT 5716. However, the main problem associated with probiotics, is their low resistance to environmental and technological factors. Actually, probiotics are marketed as capsules or sachets, but few probiotic tablets exist. The aim of this study was to design tablets made out of functional polymers (formula 1: methocel K-15-sodium alginate; formula 2: Eudragit(®) L-100-sodium alginate; formula 3: cellulose acetate phthalate) that improve the stability and survival of probiotics. Rigid tablets were produced through direct compression with a bacterial content of 10(9)CFU/tablet (9logCFU). Tablets were shown to improve the survival of cells when exposed to an acidic medium as compared to free cells. Eudragit(®) L-100-sodium alginate was found to be the most suitable excipient for the protection of probiotic within gastric conditions, resulting in the survival of 10(9)CFU (9logCFU) after 2h of incubation. Finally, these tablets were found to be stable over 6 months when stored at 4°C. No significant differences were reported between the number of cells at time cero and after 6 months of storage at 4°C (p>0.05). In conclusion, direct compression using Eudragit(®) L-100-sodium alginate seems to be a suitable to produce probiotics tablets and could confer protection during passage trough stomach and storage. PMID:25843758

  2. Bioavailability of ibuprofen from matrix mini-tablets based on a mixture of starch and microcrystalline wax.

    PubMed

    De Brabander, C; Vervaet, C; Görtz, J P; Remon, J P; Berlo, J A

    2000-11-01

    The bioavailability of ibuprofen from matrix mini-tablets based on microcrystalline wax and a starch derivative was tested. An oral dose of 300 mg of ibuprofen was administered to healthy volunteers (n=8) in a randomized cross-over study design either as a commercial matrix formulation (Ibu-Slow 600) or as mini-tablets (filled into hard gelatin capsules). The mini-tablets consisted of 60% ibuprofen, 15% Paracera M (wax), 22.5% DDWM (starch) and 2.5% triacetin (lubricant). t50% of the in vitro release was 4.5 and 5 h for the mini-tablet and Ibu-slow formulations, respectively. Both formulations behaved in vivo as sustained-release formulation; their HVDt50%Cmax value was determined at 5.6 and 5.1 h for the mini-tablet and Ibu-slow formulations, respectively. A significantly higher value of Cmax was seen for the mini-tablet formulation, resulting in a relative bioavailability of 116 +/- 22.6% compared to the Ibu-slow matrix. These data demonstrate that the experimental mini-tablets can be used to formulate sustained-release dosage forms. PMID:11203270

  3. Leveraging elevated temperature and particle size reduction to extract API from various tablet formulations.

    PubMed

    Nickerson, Beverly; Arikpo, William B; Berry, Mark R; Bobin, Vincent J; Houck, Timothy L; Mansour, Hany L; Warzeka, John

    2008-06-01

    Several sample preparation techniques were evaluated for extracting active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) from immediate release (IR) and controlled release (CR) tablet formulations. These techniques utilized either elevated temperature [e.g., accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and microwave assisted extraction (MAE)] or particle size reduction [e.g., ball mill and homogenizer/Tablet Processing Workstation II (TPWII)]. Results were compared for equivalence to those obtained with the existing standard method for each formulation. For the CR formulations, sample preparation times were significantly reduced when using these techniques compared to the standard method. Advantages and limitations associated with each technique are discussed. PMID:18280688

  4. Terbutaline slow-release tablets in children with asthma. A comparison with t.i.d. beta 2-agonist therapy.

    PubMed

    Croner, S; Gustafsson, M; Kjellman, N I; Säwedal, L

    1986-07-01

    The effects of 5 mg slow-release terbutaline sulphate tablets (Bricanyl Depot) given twice daily were compared with those of ordinary oral beta 2-agonist treatment given three times daily. The study was open, randomized and cross-over and was carried out over 8 weeks in 18 children with bronchial asthma. Compared with ordinary medication, the slow-release tablets obtained higher morning expiratory peak flow values and an improvement in the asthma symptoms during the night and during exercise (P less than 0.05). No differences were found in side effects in spite of a higher total daily dose during the period with terbutaline slow-release tablets. The slow-release tablets were preferred by 15 of 18 children and their families when the effects, side effects and dosage were evaluated. PMID:2876658

  5. Electronic acquisition of OSCE performance using tablets

    PubMed Central

    Hochlehnert, Achim; Schultz, Jobst-Hendrik; Möltner, Andreas; T?mb?l, Sevgi; Brass, Konstantin; Jünger, Jana

    2015-01-01

    Background: Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs) often involve a considerable amount of resources in terms of materials and organization since the scores are often recorded on paper. Computer-assisted administration is an alternative with which the need for material resources can be reduced. In particular, the use of tablets seems sensible because these are easy to transport and flexible to use. Aim: User acceptance concerning the use of tablets during OSCEs has not yet been extensively investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate tablet-based OSCEs from the perspective of the user (examiner) and the student examinee. Method: For two OSCEs in Internal Medicine at the University of Heidelberg, user acceptance was analyzed regarding tablet-based administration (satisfaction with functionality) and the subjective amount of effort as perceived by the examiners. Standardized questionnaires and semi-standardized interviews were conducted (complete survey of all participating examiners). In addition, for one OSCE, the subjective evaluation of this mode of assessment was gathered from a random sample of participating students in semi-standardized interviews. Results: Overall, the examiners were very satisfied with using tablets during the assessment. The subjective amount of effort to use the tablet was found on average to be “hardly difficult”. The examiners identified the advantages of this mode of administration as being in particular the ease of use and low rate of error. During the interviews of the examinees, acceptance for the use of tablets during the assessment was also detected. Discussion: Overall, it was found that the use of tablets during OSCEs was well accepted by both examiners and examinees. We expect that this mode of assessment also offers advantages regarding assessment documentation, use of resources, and rate of error in comparison with paper-based assessments; all of these aspects should be followed up on in further studies. PMID:26483854

  6. 21 CFR 520.531 - Cythioate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cythioate tablets. 520.531 Section 520.531 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.531 Cythioate tablets. (a) (b) Sponsors. See No. 000859 in § 510.600(c)...

  7. Formulation and Characterization of Acetaminophen Nanoparticles in Orally Disintegrating Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AI-Nemrawi, Nusaiba K.

    The purpose of this study is to prepare acetaminophen loaded nanoparticles to be cast directly, while still in the emulsion form, into Orally Disintegrating Films (ODF). By casting the nanoparticles in the films, we expected to keep the particles in a stable form where the nanoparticles would be away from each other to prevent their aggregation. Once the films are applied on the buccal mucosa, they are supposed to dissolve within seconds, releasing the nanoparticles. Then the nanoparticles could be directly absorbed through the mucosa to the blood stream and deliver acetaminophen there. The oral cavity mucosa is one of the most attractive sites for systemic drug delivery due to its high permeability and blood supply. Furthermore, it is robust and shows short recovery times after stress or damage, and the drug bypasses first pass effect and avoids presystemic elimination in the GI tract. Nanoencapsulation increases drug efficacy, specificity, tolerability and therapeutic index. These Nanocapsules have several advantages in the protection of premature degradation and interaction with the biological environment, enhancement of absorption into a selected tissue, bioavailability, retention time and improvement of intracellular penetration. The most important characteristics of nanoparticles are their size, encapsulation efficiency (EE), zeta potential (surface charge), and the drug release profiles. Unfortunately, nanoparticles tend to precipitate or aggregate into larger particles within a short time after preparation or during storage. Some solutions for this problem were mentioned in literature including lyophilization and spray drying. These methods are usually expensive and give partial solutions that might have secondary problems; such as low re-dispersion efficacy of the lyophilized NPs. Furthermore, most of the formulations of NPs are invasive or topical. Few formulas are available to be given orally. Fast disintegrating films (ODFs) are rapidly gaining interest in the pharmaceutical industry. These thin films are designed to dissolve within a few seconds without the need for water or chewing. The introduction of fast disintegrating dosage forms has solved some problems encountered in the administration of drugs to pediatric and elderly patients. This convenience provides both marketing advantages and higher patient compliance. Acetaminophen was chosen to be the model drug due to its safety. The amount of acetaminophen in each film is much below the therapeutic dose, but the purpose of using acetaminophen is to be an analytical tracer only. Films were formulated using hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) as film forming polymer, polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG) as a plasticizer and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a NPs stabilizer. First of all, the effect of different Methocel grades and concentration, PEG 400 concentration and PVA 80% concentration on the films were determined. Ingredients that gave best physico-mechanical properties to the films were used in the formulation of ODFs that are loaded with the NPs. Nanoparticles were prepared by the emulsion-solvent evaporation method where acetone phase containing the drug and NPs forming polymers were added to water phase containing other additives. Three types of NPs were prepared: empty, loaded and loaded in ODF dispersion. The size, polydispersity index (PI), zeta potential and drug entrapment efficacy (EE) of NPs were measured. The effect of addition rate, agitation rate, viscosity of the continuous phase, PVA hydrolization, PLGA polymerization and the PLGA to PVA ratio on NPs properties was investigated. The nanoemulsions were cast to form films which were studied in vitro and ex-vivo. Furthermore, the mechanism of drug appearance in the receiver of a Franz cell was explored. Films were placed on a pork buccal membrane using a Franz cell and samples were withdrawn at specific time intervals. Samples were divided into two portions; one of them was extracted while the other was not extracted before analysis. The amount of drug in extracted and non-extracted samples was di

  8. Hybrid alkali-hydrodynamic disintegration of waste-activated sludge before two-stage anaerobic digestion process.

    PubMed

    Grübel, Klaudiusz; Suschka, Jan

    2015-05-01

    The first step of anaerobic digestion, the hydrolysis, is regarded as the rate-limiting step in the degradation of complex organic compounds, such as waste-activated sludge (WAS). The aim of lab-scale experiments was to pre-hydrolyze the sludge by means of low intensive alkaline sludge conditioning before applying hydrodynamic disintegration, as the pre-treatment procedure. Application of both processes as a hybrid disintegration sludge technology resulted in a higher organic matter release (soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD)) to the liquid sludge phase compared with the effects of processes conducted separately. The total SCOD after alkalization at 9 pH (pH in the range of 8.96-9.10, SCOD?=?600 mg O2/L) and after hydrodynamic (SCOD?=?1450 mg O2/L) disintegration equaled to 2050 mg/L. However, due to the synergistic effect, the obtained SCOD value amounted to 2800 mg/L, which constitutes an additional chemical oxygen demand (COD) dissolution of about 35 %. Similarly, the synergistic effect after alkalization at 10 pH was also obtained. The applied hybrid pre-hydrolysis technology resulted in a disintegration degree of 28-35%. The experiments aimed at selection of the most appropriate procedures in terms of optimal sludge digestion results, including high organic matter degradation (removal) and high biogas production. The analyzed soft hybrid technology influenced the effectiveness of mesophilic/thermophilic anaerobic digestion in a positive way and ensured the sludge minimization. The adopted pre-treatment technology (alkalization?+?hydrodynamic cavitation) resulted in 22-27% higher biogas production and 13-28% higher biogas yield. After two stages of anaerobic digestion (mesophilic conditions (MAD)?+?thermophilic anaerobic digestion (TAD)), the highest total solids (TS) reduction amounted to 45.6% and was received for the following sample at 7 days MAD?+?17 days TAD. About 7% higher TS reduction was noticed compared with the sample after 9 days MAD?+?15 days TAD. Similar results were obtained for volatile solids (VS) reduction after two-stage anaerobic digestion. The highest decrease of VS was obtained when the first stage, the mesophilic digestion which lasted 7 days, was followed by thermophilic digestion for 17 days. PMID:25318422

  9. A laboratory scale model of abrupt ice-shelf disintegration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macayeal, D. R.; Boghosian, A.; Styron, D. D.; Burton, J. C.; Amundson, J. M.; Cathles, L. M.; Abbot, D. S.

    2010-12-01

    An important mode of Earth’s disappearing cryosphere is the abrupt disintegration of ice shelves along the Peninsula of Antarctica. This disintegration process may be triggered by climate change, however the work needed to produce the spectacular, explosive results witnessed with the Larsen B and Wilkins ice-shelf events of the last decade comes from the large potential energy release associated with iceberg capsize and fragmentation. To gain further insight into the underlying exchanges of energy involved in massed iceberg movements, we have constructed a laboratory-scale model designed to explore the physical and hydrodynamic interactions between icebergs in a confined channel of water. The experimental apparatus consists of a 2-meter water tank that is 30 cm wide. Within the tank, we introduce fresh water and approximately 20-100 rectangular plastic ‘icebergs’ having the appropriate density contrast with water to mimic ice. The blocks are initially deployed in a tight pack, with all blocks arranged in a manner to represent the initial state of an integrated ice shelf or ice tongue. The system is allowed to evolve through time under the driving forces associated with iceberg hydrodynamics. Digitized videography is used to quantify how the system of plastic icebergs evolves between states of quiescence to states of mobilization. Initial experiments show that, after a single ‘agitator’ iceberg begins to capsize, an ‘avalanche’ of capsizing icebergs ensues which drives horizontal expansion of the massed icebergs across the water surface, and which stimulates other icebergs to capsize. A surprise initially evident in the experiments is the fact that the kinetic energy of the expanding mass of icebergs is only a small fraction of the net potential energy released by the rearrangement of mass via capsize. Approximately 85 - 90 % of the energy released by the system goes into water motion modes, including a pervasive, easily observed seich mode of the tank. This experimental result confirms observational experience with the full-scale system in Greenlandic fjords, where fjord-bound seiches are commonly generated in the wake of calving and ice-mélange movement. We explore parameter ranges and aspects of initial iceberg stability as a means of understanding what thresholds that may exist in the stability of real ice shelves.

  10. Producing Magnesium Metallic Glass By Disintegrated Melt Deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Shanthi, M.; Gupta, M.; Jarfors, A. E. W.; Tan, M. J.

    2011-01-17

    Bulk metallic glasses are new class of engineering materials that exhibit high resistance to crystallization in the under cooled liquid state. The development of bulk metallic glasses of thickness 1cm or less has opened new doors for fundamental studies of both liquid state and glass transition previously not feasible in metallic materials. Moreover, bulk metallic glasses exhibit superior hardness, strength, specific strength, and elastic strain limit, along with good corrosion and wear resistance. Thus they are potential candidates in various sports, structural, engineering and medical applications. Among several BMGs investigated, magnesium-based BMGs have attracted considerable attention because of their low density and superior mechanical properties. The major drawback of this magnesium based BMGs is poor ductility. This can be overcome by the addition of ductile particles/reinforcement to the matrix. In this study, a new technique named disintegrated melt deposition technique was used to synthesize magnesium based BMGs. Rods of different sizes are cast using the current method. Mechanical characterization studies revealed that the amorphous rods produced by the current technique showed superior mechanical properties.

  11. Coincidence charged-current neutrino-induced deuteron disintegration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, O.; Donnelly, T. W.; Van Orden, J. W.; Ford, W. P.

    2015-09-01

    Deuteron disintegration by charged-current neutrino (CC ? ) scattering offers the possibility to determine the energy of the incident neutrino by measuring in coincidence two of the three resulting particles: a charged lepton (usually a muon) and two protons, where we show that this channel can be isolated from all others—for instance, from those with a pion in the final state. We discuss the kinematics of the process for several detection scenarios, both in terms of kinematic variables that are natural from a theoretical point of view and others that are better matched to experimental situations. The deuteron structure is obtained from a relativistic model (involving an approximation to the Bethe-Salpeter equation) as an extension of a previous, well-tested model used in deuteron electrodisintegration. We provide inclusive and coincidence (semi-inclusive) cross sections for a variety of kinematic conditions, using the plane-wave impulse approximation, introducing final-state hadronic exchange terms (plane-wave Born approximation) and final-state hadronic interactions (distorted-wave Born approximation).

  12. Formulation of a modified-release pregabalin tablet using hot-melt coating with glyceryl behenate.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Kyu Ho; Woo, Hye Seung; Kim, Chae Jin; Lee, Kyung Hwa; Jeon, Jun Young; Lee, Sang Young; Kang, Jae-Hoon; Lee, Sangkil; Choi, Young Wook

    2015-11-10

    A modified-release (MR) tablet of the anti-anxiety drug pregabalin (PRE) was prepared by hot-melt coating PRE with glyceryl behenate (GB) as a release retardant and compressing to form a matrix with microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) as a hydrophilic diluent. GB-coated PRE had a size in the range of 177-290?m with good to acceptable flowability. Tablet hardness decreased slightly as GB content increased. PRE release from the tablet matrices was successfully modified by altering the ratio of MCC and GB, and it was found that dissolution- or diffusion-controlled release depended on the amount of GB used. Drug release was pH-independent. An accelerated stability test on the most promising MR tablet at 40°C and 75% relative humidity for 6 months showed no significant changes in PRE content, and the occurrence of total impurities-including PRE-lactam-was within acceptable limits. After oral administration of the selected MR tablet or a commercial IR capsule (Lyrica) to healthy human volunteers, pharmacokinetic parameters including Tmax, Cmax, AUC0-24, and T1/2 were compared. The confidence interval of AUC0-24 was within the adequate range, but that of Cmax was inadequate. This study demonstrated the potential use of GB for PRE-containing MR formulations. PMID:26315121

  13. Dissolution of theophylline from film-coated slow release mini-tablets in various dissolution media.

    PubMed

    Fassihi, A R; Munday, D L

    1989-06-01

    The dissolution of an experimental formulation of film-coated slow release theophylline mini-tablets has been investigated using the USP paddle apparatus in test media at pH 1.2 (hydrochloric acid), pH 5.4 and 7.4 (phosphate buffers) at 37 degrees C. Monitoring of in-vitro theophylline release over 12 h, under identical hydrodynamic conditions, showed that the dissolution rate at pH 1.2 is substantially greater (95% of total drug content released in less than 10 h) than that in phosphate buffers. The maximum release after 12 h was approximately 20 and 30% of total drug content of the tablet at pH 5.4 and 7.4, respectively. However, in vivo bioavailability after oral administration of tablets to rabbits corresponded to over 95% of total drug, compared with the same dose administered intravenously. The retarded drug release during in-vitro dissolution in phosphate buffer was attributed to a possible interaction of phosphate ions with theophylline molecules at the tablet core-coat interface. These findings indicate that both rate and extent of theophylline release from the slow release coated mini-tablets are highly sensitive to phosphate buffers. The data also emphasize the usefulness of an animal model for assessment of in-vivo drug release and subsequent absorption, during the development of modified release dosage forms. PMID:2570830

  14. Controlled release reservoir mini tablets approach for controlling the drug release of Galantamine Hydrobromide.

    PubMed

    Khatavkar, Umesh Nandkumar; Shimpi, Shamkant Laxman; Kumar, K Jayaram; Deo, Kishor Dattatraya

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to explore and investigate the reservoir mini tablets approach to control the release of Galantamine Hydrobromide in comparison to desired release profile to the Innovator formulation Razadyne ER capsules as disclosed in US Patent 7,160,559 which is granted to Janseen Pharmaceutica NV. The core mini tablets were prepared using the direct compression and wet granulation methods. These core mini tablets were further coated with Galantamine Hydrobromide in two different portions; 70% as controlled release and 30% as immediate release and then filled in empty hard gelatin capsule shells. The dissolution profiles of each formulation were compared to those of Razadyne ER capsules and the mean dissolution time (MDT), dissolution efficiency (DE%) and dissolution similarity (f2 factor) were calculated. It was observed that core formulation plays an important role in controlling the drug release as well as maintaining pH independent drug release profile. The release mechanism of GAH from reservoir mini tablet formulation follows Higuchi and first order. These results imply that controlled release reservoir mini tablets which further filled into empty hard gelatin capsule shells can be a suitable method to formulate controlled release Galantamine hydrobromide. PMID:22697431

  15. Identity, Rationality, and Emotion in the Processes of State Disintegration and Reconstruction

    E-print Network

    Petersen, Roger D.

    I wish to address both a substantive and a methodological issue in this chapter. Substantively, I will discuss the process of state disintegration and reconstruction. Here, I will draw on the experience of Eastern Europe ...

  16. MULTIWAVELENGTH OBSERVATIONS OF THE CANDIDATE DISINTEGRATING SUB-MERCURY KIC 12557548B

    E-print Network

    Croll, Bryce J.

    We present multiwavelength photometry, high angular resolution imaging, and radial velocities of the unique and confounding disintegrating low-mass planet candidate KIC 12557548b. Our high angular resolution imaging, which ...

  17. Anticandidal efficacy of denture cleansing tablet, Triphala, Aloe vera, and Cashew leaf on complete dentures of institutionalized elderly.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Pooja J; Hegde, Vijaya; Gomes, Leslie

    2014-01-01

    With an increase in the number of dependent elderly, there is a need to introduce few natural products for denture cleansing, which are easily and economically available. Hence the aim of this study was to compare the anticandidal efficacy of denture cleansing tablet (sodium bicarbonate and sodium perborate monohydrate), Triphala (Phyllanthus emblica, Terminalia chebula and Terminalia belerica fruits powders in equal proportion), cashew leaf, Aloe vera and water (control) on complete dentures of institutionalized elderly. Study population consisted of 50 institutionalized elderly of Mangalore, Karnataka, with 10 in each group. Swabs were collected from the dentures before and after the use of denture cleansing tablet, Triphala, cashew leaf, Aloe vera, and water (control). Thereafter, the swabs were cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar and the total candida counts were determined. Denture cleansing tablet and Triphala Churna showed a statistically significant reduction in Candida counts (P < 0.05). Denture cleansing tablet and Triphala Churna were found to be more effective. PMID:24812470

  18. Anticandidal efficacy of denture cleansing tablet, Triphala, Aloe vera, and Cashew leaf on complete dentures of institutionalized elderly

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Pooja J.; Hegde, Vijaya; Gomes, Leslie

    2014-01-01

    With an increase in the number of dependent elderly, there is a need to introduce few natural products for denture cleansing, which are easily and economically available. Hence the aim of this study was to compare the anticandidal efficacy of denture cleansing tablet (sodium bicarbonate and sodium perborate monohydrate), Triphala (Phyllanthus emblica, Terminalia chebula and Terminalia belerica fruits powders in equal proportion), cashew leaf, Aloe vera and water (control) on complete dentures of institutionalized elderly. Study population consisted of 50 institutionalized elderly of Mangalore, Karnataka, with 10 in each group. Swabs were collected from the dentures before and after the use of denture cleansing tablet, Triphala, cashew leaf, Aloe vera, and water (control). Thereafter, the swabs were cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar and the total candida counts were determined. Denture cleansing tablet and Triphala Churna showed a statistically significant reduction in Candida counts (P < 0.05). Denture cleansing tablet and Triphala Churna were found to be more effective. PMID:24812470

  19. 21 CFR 520.62 - Aminopentamide hydrogen sulphate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Aminopentamide hydrogen sulphate tablets. 520.62 Section...ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.62 Aminopentamide hydrogen sulphate tablets. (a) Chemical name...Dimethylamino)-2,2-diphenylvaleramide hydrogen sulfate. (b) Specifications....

  20. 21 CFR 520.62 - Aminopentamide hydrogen sulphate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Aminopentamide hydrogen sulphate tablets. 520.62 Section...ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.62 Aminopentamide hydrogen sulphate tablets. (a) Chemical name...Dimethylamino)-2,2-diphenylvaleramide hydrogen sulfate. (b) Specifications....

  1. 21 CFR 520.62 - Aminopentamide hydrogen sulphate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Aminopentamide hydrogen sulphate tablets. 520.62 Section...ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.62 Aminopentamide hydrogen sulphate tablets. (a) Chemical name...Dimethylamino)-2,2-diphenylvaleramide hydrogen sulfate. (b) Specifications....

  2. 21 CFR 520.62 - Aminopentamide hydrogen sulphate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Aminopentamide hydrogen sulphate tablets. 520.62 Section...ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.62 Aminopentamide hydrogen sulphate tablets. (a) Chemical name...Dimethylamino)-2,2-diphenylvaleramide hydrogen sulfate. (b) Specifications....

  3. 21 CFR 520.1409 - Methylprednisolone, aspirin tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Methylprednisolone, aspirin tablets. 520.1409 Section 520... § 520.1409 Methylprednisolone, aspirin tablets. (a) Specifications. ...methylprednisolone and 300 milligrams of aspirin. (b) Sponsor. See No....

  4. 21 CFR 520.1409 - Methylprednisolone, aspirin tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Methylprednisolone, aspirin tablets. 520.1409 Section 520... § 520.1409 Methylprednisolone, aspirin tablets. (a) Specifications. ...methylprednisolone and 300 milligrams of aspirin. (b) Sponsor. See No....

  5. 21 CFR 520.1409 - Methylprednisolone, aspirin tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Methylprednisolone, aspirin tablets. 520.1409 Section 520... § 520.1409 Methylprednisolone, aspirin tablets. (a) Specifications. ...methylprednisolone and 300 milligrams of aspirin. (b) Sponsor. See No....

  6. 21 CFR 520.1409 - Methylprednisolone, aspirin tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Methylprednisolone, aspirin tablets. 520.1409 Section 520... § 520.1409 Methylprednisolone, aspirin tablets. (a) Specifications. ...methylprednisolone and 300 milligrams of aspirin. (b) Sponsor. See No....

  7. 21 CFR 520.62 - Aminopentamide hydrogen sulphate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Aminopentamide hydrogen sulphate tablets. 520.62 Section...ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.62 Aminopentamide hydrogen sulphate tablets. (a) Chemical name...Dimethylamino)-2,2-diphenylvaleramide hydrogen sulfate. (b) Specifications....

  8. SANCTUARY : asymmetric interfaces for game-based tablet learning

    E-print Network

    Haas, Jason M. (Jason Matthew)

    2013-01-01

    This thesis describes the production of Sanctuary, a multiplayer learning game to be played on two tablet computers. Sanctuary's principle innovation is the splitting of the user interface onto two tablets, separating ...

  9. 21 CFR 529.400 - Chlorhexidine tablets and suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Chlorhexidine tablets and suspension. (a) Specification. Each tablet and each 28-milliliter syringe of... water; or infuse one syringe of suspension into the uterus.1 (2) Indications for use. For prevention...

  10. Directly compressed mini matrix tablets containing ibuprofen: preparation and evaluation of sustained release.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Carla M; Sousa Lobo, José Manuel; Costa, Paulo; Pinto, Joăo F

    2006-01-01

    Directly compressed mini tablets were produced containing either hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) or ethylcellulose (EC) as release controlling agent. The dynamics of water uptake and erosion degree of polymer were investigated. By changing the polymer concentration, the ibuprofen release was modified. In identical quantities, EC produced a greater sustaining release effect than HPMC. Different grades of viscosity of HPMC did not modify ibuprofen release. For EC formulations, the contribution of diffusion was predominant in the ibuprofen release process. For HPMC preparations, the drug release approached zero-order during a period of 8 h. For comparative purposes, tablets with 10 mm diameter were produced. PMID:16455608

  11. [Modern polymers in matrix tablets technology].

    PubMed

    Zimmer, ?ukasz; Kasperek, Regina; Poleszak, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Matrix tablets are the most popular method of oral drug administration, and polymeric materials have been used broadly in matrix formulations to modify and modulate drug release rate. The main goal of the system is to extend drug release profiles to maintain a constant in vivo plasma drug concentration and a consistent pharmacological effect. Polymeric matrix tablets offer a great potential as oral controlled drug delivery systems. Cellulose derivatives, like hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) are often used as matrix formers. However, also other types of polymers can be used for this purpose including: Kollidon SR, acrylic acid polymers such as Eudragits and Carbopols. Nevertheless, polymers of natural origin like: carragens, chitosan and alginates widely used in the food and cosmetics industry are now coming to the fore of pharmaceutical research and are used in matrix tablets technology. Modern polymers allow to obtain matrix tablets by 3D printing, which enables to develop new formulation types. In this paper, the polymers used in matrix tablets technology and examples of their applications were described. PMID:25739125

  12. Instructor Use of Tablet PCs in a College Pre-Calculus Course: Implementation & Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connelly Stockton, Julianna; Gregory, Peter

    2012-01-01

    A group of six math instructors used tablet PCs to teach their individual sections of a high enrollment gateway Pre-Calculus course in a diverse urban four-year college. Student performance in the experimental sections were compared to those in 31 other sections in terms of student retention, pass rates, and score on the department-wide…

  13. 21 CFR 520.1409 - Methylprednisolone, aspirin tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Methylprednisolone, aspirin tablets. 520.1409... Methylprednisolone, aspirin tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 0.5 milligram of methylprednisolone and 300 milligrams of aspirin. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000009 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c)...

  14. 21 CFR 520.1409 - Methylprednisolone, aspirin tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Methylprednisolone, aspirin tablets. 520.1409... Methylprednisolone, aspirin tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 0.5 milligram of methylprednisolone and 300 milligrams of aspirin. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000009 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c)...

  15. 21 CFR 520.1409 - Methylprednisolone, aspirin tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Methylprednisolone, aspirin tablets. 520.1409... Methylprednisolone, aspirin tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 0.5 milligram of methylprednisolone and 300 milligrams of aspirin. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000009 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c)...

  16. 21 CFR 520.1409 - Methylprednisolone, aspirin tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Methylprednisolone, aspirin tablets. 520.1409... Methylprednisolone, aspirin tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 0.5 milligram of methylprednisolone and 300 milligrams of aspirin. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000009 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c)...

  17. 21 CFR 520.1409 - Methylprednisolone, aspirin tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methylprednisolone, aspirin tablets. 520.1409... Methylprednisolone, aspirin tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 0.5 milligram of methylprednisolone and 300 milligrams of aspirin. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000009 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c)...

  18. 21 CFR 520.1331 - Meclofenamic acid tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Meclofenamic acid tablets. 520.1331 Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1331 Meclofenamic acid tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains either 10 or 20 milligrams of meclofenamic acid....

  19. 21 CFR 520.1331 - Meclofenamic acid tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Meclofenamic acid tablets. 520.1331 Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1331 Meclofenamic acid tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains either 10 or 20 milligrams of meclofenamic acid....

  20. 21 CFR 520.1331 - Meclofenamic acid tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Meclofenamic acid tablets. 520.1331 Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1331 Meclofenamic acid tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains either 10 or 20 milligrams of meclofenamic acid....

  1. 21 CFR 520.1331 - Meclofenamic acid tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Meclofenamic acid tablets. 520.1331 Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1331 Meclofenamic acid tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains either 10 or 20 milligrams of meclofenamic acid....

  2. 21 CFR 520.2150a - Stanozolol tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Stanozolol tablets. 520.2150a Section 520.2150a Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2150a Stanozolol tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains...

  3. 21 CFR 520.1331 - Meclofenamic acid tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Meclofenamic acid tablets. 520.1331 Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1331 Meclofenamic acid tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains either 10 or 20 milligrams of meclofenamic acid....

  4. PRINT | ONLINE | MOBILE | TABLET | EVENTS THE AGE Media Kit 2015

    E-print Network

    Peters, Richard

    Total Audience: Print & Computer/Tablet/Mobile Web/App/PDF (net). Income(HH) Age 3,226,000 44% 56PRINT | ONLINE | MOBILE | TABLET | EVENTS MediaKit 2015 #12;THE AGE Media Kit 2015 2 PRINT | ONLINE | MOBILE | TABLET | EVENTS VISION Since its first publication on October 17, 1854, The Age has been serving

  5. 21 CFR 520.1696d - Penicillin V potassium tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Penicillin V potassium tablets. 520.1696d Section... Penicillin V potassium tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains penicillin V potassium equivalent to 125 milligrams (200,000 units) or 250 milligrams (400,000 units) of penicillin V. (b) Sponsors....

  6. 21 CFR 520.1696d - Penicillin V tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Penicillin V tablets. 520.1696d Section 520.1696d... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1696d Penicillin V tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains penicillin V potassium equivalent to 125 milligrams...

  7. 21 CFR 520.1696d - Penicillin V tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Penicillin V tablets. 520.1696d Section 520.1696d... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1696d Penicillin V tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains penicillin V potassium equivalent to 125 milligrams...

  8. 21 CFR 520.1696d - Penicillin V potassium tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Penicillin V potassium tablets. 520.1696d Section... Penicillin V potassium tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains penicillin V potassium equivalent to 125 milligrams (200,000 units) or 250 milligrams (400,000 units) of penicillin V. (b) Sponsors....

  9. 21 CFR 520.1446 - Milbemcyin oxime and lufenuron tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... oxime and lufenuron tablets. (a) Specifications—(1) Tablets containing: 2.3 milligrams (mg) milbemycin oxime and 46 mg lufenuron, 5.75 mg milbemycin oxime and 115 mg lufenuron, 11.5 mg milbemycin oxime and 230 mg lufenuron, or 23 mg milbemycin oxime and 460 mg lufenuron. (2) Flavored tablets containing:...

  10. 21 CFR 520.1446 - Milbemcyin oxime and lufenuron tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... oxime and lufenuron tablets. (a) Specifications—(1) Tablets containing: 2.3 milligrams (mg) milbemycin oxime and 46 mg lufenuron, 5.75 mg milbemycin oxime and 115 mg lufenuron, 11.5 mg milbemycin oxime and 230 mg lufenuron, or 23 mg milbemycin oxime and 460 mg lufenuron. (2) Flavored tablets containing:...

  11. 21 CFR 520.1446 - Milbemcyin oxime and lufenuron tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... oxime and lufenuron tablets. (a) Specifications—(1) Tablets containing: 2.3 milligrams (mg) milbemycin oxime and 46 mg lufenuron, 5.75 mg milbemycin oxime and 115 mg lufenuron, 11.5 mg milbemycin oxime and 230 mg lufenuron, or 23 mg milbemycin oxime and 460 mg lufenuron. (2) Flavored tablets containing:...

  12. On Disintegreation of Cometary Nuclei and Asteroids by Centrifugal Forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ksanfomality, Leonid V.

    2015-08-01

    Because rotation of celestial bodies creates centrifugal forces, it was conjectured that the dumbbell waist of some asteroids and cometary nuclei resulted from the action of these forces, and that the waist undergoes slow but continuous elongation, which should end in breaking the asteroid or cometary nucleus into fragments.The talk focuses on the destruction of asteroids and cometary nuclei, and specifically on the dynamic evolution of the nucleus of comet 103P/Hartley-2 and Itokawa asteroid. The results of the calculation show that the centrifugal force increases stronger than gravity in a narrower part of the nucleus, and the Hartley-2 nucleus is indeed in a state of approaching disintegration into two parts. The nucleus of comet Hartley-2 is a spectacular example of a celestial body in the process of observable destruction. In the case of no external disturbances, the two components of the celestial body will separate to a distance of less than 1 km. Asteroid Itokawa has an irregular shape, which makes it more difficult to approximate it with simple geometric shapes. Its length is so small that this asteroid could be displayed, for example, in Red Square in Moscow. The average density of Itokawa is 3 times the 103P/Hartley-2 density. The waist area resembles the waist of comet Hartley-2; seen in the middle of the asteroid. It was of interest to calculate stresses as in the case of cometary nuclei and to check to what extent the asteroid is stable with respect to centrifugal forces, especially because its rotation period is less by a factor of 1.5, while centrifugal forces under the same conditions are greater by a factor of 2.2.

  13. Soy polysaccharide as a novel superdisintegrant in sildenafil citrate sublingual tablets: preparation, characterization, and in vivo evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Hosny, Khaled Mohamed; Mosli, Hisham Ahmed; Hassan, Ali Habiballah

    2015-01-01

    Sildenafil citrate (SC), a drug used to treat erectile dysfunction, is available in tablet form but has three major problems. First, the drug displays inadequate aqueous solubility, which delays the onset of its action. Second, the drug undergoes extensive first-pass metabolism, resulting in a low (40%) bioavailability. Third, the gastrointestinal effects of SC include dyspepsia and a burning sensation. The aim of this research was to prepare SC as a sublingual tablet utilizing soy polysaccharide as novel superdisintegrant to mitigate the abovementioned problems. The solubility of SC in various hydrophilic carrier solutions was estimated in order to prepare the drug as a coprecipitate. Sublingual tablets were prepared and evaluated for hardness, friability, drug content, wetting time, water absorption ratio, in vitro dispersion time, dissolution rate, and stability study. The pharmacokinetic study of the tablets was carried out on healthy volunteers. The results indicated that the co-precipitation of SC with polyvinylpyrollidone K30 enhanced the solubility of SC by more than eight folds. The tablet contained 8% soy polysaccharide as a superdisintegrant and provided a wetting time of 25 seconds, and in vitro dispersion times of 55 seconds. The drug release was found to be 95.6%. The prepared SC sublingual tablet also exhibited a rapid onset of action, and its bioavailability was enhanced 1.68-fold compared with that of the marketed tablets. It can be concluded that SC sublingual tablet is a promising formulation that results in higher solubility, faster dispersion and onset of action, higher release rate, and higher systemic bioavailability. PMID:25624751

  14. INCREASE IN SINGLE-TABLET REGIMEN USE AND ASSOCIATED IMPROVEMENTS IN ADHERENCE-RELATED OUTCOMES IN HIV-INFECTED WOMEN

    PubMed Central

    HANNA, DAVID B.; HESSOL, NANCY A.; GOLUB, ELIZABETH T.; COCOHOBA, JENNIFER M.; COHEN, MARDGE H.; LEVINE, ALEXANDRA M.; WILSON, TRACEY E.; YOUNG, MARY; ANASTOS, KATHRYN; KAPLAN, ROBERT C.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The use of single-tablet ART regimens and its implications on adherence among HIV-infected women have not been well-described. Methods Participants were enrolled in the Women’s Interagency HIV Study (WIHS), a longitudinal study of HIV infection in U.S. women. We examined semiannual trends in single-tablet regimen use and ART adherence, defined as self-reported 95% adherence in the past 6 months, during 2006–2013. In a nested cohort study, we assessed the comparative effectiveness of a single-tablet versus a multiple-tablet regimen with respect to adherence, virologic suppression, quality of life, and AIDS-defining events, using propensity score matching to account for demographic, behavioral, and clinical confounders. We also examined these outcomes in a subset of women switching from a multiple- to single-tablet regimen, using a case-crossover design. Results 15,523 person-visits, representing 1,727 women (53% black, 29% Hispanic, 25% IDU, median age 47), were included. Use of single-tablet regimens among ART users increased from 7% in 2006 to 27% in 2013; adherence increased from 78% to 85% during the same period (both p<0.001). Single-tablet regimen use was significantly associated with increased adherence (adjusted RR 1.05, 95% CI 1.03–1.08) and virologic suppression (RR 1.06, 95% CI 1.01–1.11), while associations with improved quality of life and fewer AIDS-defining events did not achieve statistical significance. Similar findings were observed among the subset of switchers. Conclusion Single-tablet regimen use was associated with increased adherence and virologic suppression. Despite this, 15% of women prescribed ART were still not optimally adherent; additional interventions are needed to maximize therapeutic benefits. PMID:24326606

  15. Steady-state plasma levels of salicylate in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: effects of dosing interval and tablet strength.

    PubMed Central

    Keystone, E. C.; Paton, T. W.; Littlejohn, G.; Verdejo, A.; Piper, S.; Wright, L. A.; Goldsmith, C. H.

    1982-01-01

    Forty patients who were admitted to hospital with rheumatoid arthritis received a total of 3.9 g/d of enteric-coated acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) (Entrophen) according to one of four dosing schedules: group 1 (n = 13), three 325-mg tablets four times daily; group 2 (n = 11), two 650-mg tablets three times daily; group 3 (n = 10), three 650-mg tablets twice daily; and group 4 (n = 6), two 975-mg tablets twice daily. Five to seven days after the start of therapy, when steady-state plasma salicylate levels had been achieved, 10 blood samples, 1 per hour, were collected. Three healthy volunteers who received plain ASA formed a control group. There was little fluctuation in the salicylate levels over the sampling period, regardless of the dosing interval, and no significant difference in the fluctuations between the five groups. Likewise, there was no significant difference in the mean salicylate levels at each sampling time, regardless of the dosing interval or tablet strength. These results suggest that different tablet strengths of enteric-coated ASA and different dosing intervals produce comparable plasma salicylate levels. Less frequent dosing may improve patient acceptance of salicylate therapy in the treatment of arthritis. PMID:7093867

  16. Evaluation of novel immediate-/controlled-release tablets of isosorbide-5-mononitrate (5-ISMN): in vitro-in vivo correlation.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Jiang, Qingwei; Du, Lina; Li, Ying; Li, Miao

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop the novel immediate-controlled release (ICR) tablets of isosorbide-5-mononitrate (5-ISMN) composed of an osmotic pump tablet core coated with an immediate-release layer. The novel ICR tablets of 5-ISMN could release drug quickly and continuously through a semi-permeable membrane (SPM) composed of ethylcellulose (EC)/polyethylene glycol (PEG) 4000 and cellulose acetate (CA)/PEG4000. Release tended to decrease with storage time. However, the drug release rates changed little for the SPM composed of EC/PVP K30. The weight loss test also confirmed these results. The major release mechanism was diffusion according to the Higuchi equation. The relative bioavailability of the ICR tablets compared to the reference formulation in the single and multiple dose regiments were 90.9 and 111.2%, respectively. They were both bioequivalent to the reference formulation. In vitro-in vivo correlation (IVIVC) studies demonstrated that the dissolution in vitro simulated the absorption in vivo well. In general, 5-ISMN ICR tablets composed of an osmotic pump tablet core and an immediate-release layer may be promising in providing immediate and constant drug delivery with minimum fluctuations during long storage time. PMID:24640599

  17. Preparation and characterisation of Kolliphor® P 188 and P 237 solid dispersion oral tablets containing the poorly water soluble drug disulfiram.

    PubMed

    Ramadhani, Nisrina; Shabir, Mehwish; McConville, Christopher

    2014-11-20

    The oral route of administration is the most common and preferred route of drug delivery due to its ease of administration, cost-effectiveness and flexibility in design. However, limited aqueous solubility of the active pharmaceutical ingredient can result in poor bioavailability, which is a major issue for the pharmaceutical industry. Increasing numbers of new drugs are falling into class II of the Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS), where they have a low solubility and high tissue permeability, meaning that bioavailability is solubility dependent. Here we demonstrate the development and characterisation of solid dispersion oral tablets, containing the poorly water-soluble drug disulfiram, prepared using both the hot melt and solvent evaporation methods and manufactured from two different polymers, Kolliphor(®) P 188 and P 237, specifically designed for the manufacture of solid dispersions. This paper demonstrates that the disulfiram solid dispersions tablets have an enhanced release rate of disulfiram compared to the control tablets. The Kolliphor(®) P 188 polymer control tablets released approximately 48.8% of their disulfiram content over 8h, with the solvent evaporated tablets releasing approximately 65.8%, while the 60 and 80 °C hot melt tablets released approximately 73.2 and 100% of their disulfiram content respectively. A similar trend was seen with Kolliphor(®) P 237 as the control tablets released approximately 50.5% of their disulfiram content over 8h, while the solvent evaporated tablets released approximately 79.5% and the 60 and 80 °C hot melt tablets released 100.2 and 100.3% respectively. Depending on what method and polymer is used to manufacture the solid dispersions the disulfiram is either maintained completely or partially in its amorphous state and it is this which enhances its solubility and release rate from the tablets. The disulfiram in the Kolliphor(®) P 188 solvent evaporated and 60 °C hot melt tablets retained 50.5 and 44.1% of its crystallinity, while the disulfiram in the 80 °C hot melt tablets was completely amorphous. Whereas the disulfiram in the Kolliphor(®) P 237 solvent evaporated tablets retained 45.2% crystallinity, while the disulfiram in both of the hot melt tablets was completely in its amorphous form. PMID:25218186

  18. Quantitative transmission Raman spectroscopy of pharmaceutical tablets and capsules.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Jonas; Sparén, Anders; Svensson, Olof; Folestad, Staffan; Claybourn, Mike

    2007-11-01

    Quantitative analysis of pharmaceutical formulations using the new approach of transmission Raman spectroscopy has been investigated. For comparison, measurements were also made in conventional backscatter mode. The experimental setup consisted of a Raman probe-based spectrometer with 785 nm excitation for measurements in backscatter mode. In transmission mode the same system was used to detect the Raman scattered light, while an external diode laser of the same type was used as excitation source. Quantitative partial least squares models were developed for both measurement modes. The results for tablets show that the prediction error for an independent test set was lower for the transmission measurements with a relative root mean square error of about 2.2% as compared with 2.9% for the backscatter mode. Furthermore, the models were simpler in the transmission case, for which only a single partial least squares (PLS) component was required to explain the variation. The main reason for the improvement using the transmission mode is a more representative sampling of the tablets compared with the backscatter mode. Capsules containing mixtures of pharmaceutical powders were also assessed by transmission only. The quantitative results for the capsules' contents were good, with a prediction error of 3.6% w/w for an independent test set. The advantage of transmission Raman over backscatter Raman spectroscopy has been demonstrated for quantitative analysis of pharmaceutical formulations, and the prospects for reliable, lean calibrations for pharmaceutical analysis is discussed. PMID:18028700

  19. Pharmacokinetics and safety of posaconazole delayed-release tablets for invasive fungal infections

    PubMed Central

    Wiederhold, Nathan P

    2016-01-01

    Posaconazole is a broad-spectrum triazole antifungal agent with potent activity against various pathogenic fungi, including yeast and moulds. Clinical studies have demonstrated that this agent is efficacious as prophylaxis against invasive fungal infections in patients at high risk, and may also be useful as salvage therapy against invasive aspergillosis and mucormycosis. However, the bioavailability of posaconazole following administration by oral suspension, which was the only formulation clinically available for many years, is highly variable and negatively influenced by several factors. Because of this, many patients had subtherapeutic or undetectable posaconazole levels when the oral suspension was used. To overcome this limitation, a delayed-release tablet was developed and is now available for clinical use. Hot-melt extrusion technology is used to combine a pH-sensitive polymer with posaconazole to produce a formulation that releases the drug in the elevated pH of the intestine where absorption occurs rather than in the low-pH environment of the stomach. This results in enhanced bioavailability and increased posaconazole exposure. Studies in healthy volunteers have demonstrated significantly higher and more consistent exposures with the tablet formulation compared to the oral suspension. In addition, pharmacokinetic parameters following administration of the tablets were not significantly affected by medications that raise gastric pH or increase gastric motility, and the tablets could also be administered without regard to food. Similar results have also been found in patients at high risk for invasive fungal infections who have received posaconazole tablets. The tablet formulation also appears to be well tolerated to date, although data regarding clinical efficacy are needed.

  20. Pharmacokinetics and safety of posaconazole delayed-release tablets for invasive fungal infections.

    PubMed

    Wiederhold, Nathan P

    2016-01-01

    Posaconazole is a broad-spectrum triazole antifungal agent with potent activity against various pathogenic fungi, including yeast and moulds. Clinical studies have demonstrated that this agent is efficacious as prophylaxis against invasive fungal infections in patients at high risk, and may also be useful as salvage therapy against invasive aspergillosis and mucormycosis. However, the bioavailability of posaconazole following administration by oral suspension, which was the only formulation clinically available for many years, is highly variable and negatively influenced by several factors. Because of this, many patients had subtherapeutic or undetectable posaconazole levels when the oral suspension was used. To overcome this limitation, a delayed-release tablet was developed and is now available for clinical use. Hot-melt extrusion technology is used to combine a pH-sensitive polymer with posaconazole to produce a formulation that releases the drug in the elevated pH of the intestine where absorption occurs rather than in the low-pH environment of the stomach. This results in enhanced bioavailability and increased posaconazole exposure. Studies in healthy volunteers have demonstrated significantly higher and more consistent exposures with the tablet formulation compared to the oral suspension. In addition, pharmacokinetic parameters following administration of the tablets were not significantly affected by medications that raise gastric pH or increase gastric motility, and the tablets could also be administered without regard to food. Similar results have also been found in patients at high risk for invasive fungal infections who have received posaconazole tablets. The tablet formulation also appears to be well tolerated to date, although data regarding clinical efficacy are needed. PMID:26730212

  1. A Comparison of Tablet Computer and Paper-Based Questionnaires in Healthy Aging Research

    PubMed Central

    McAuley, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Background Digital questionnaire delivery offers many advantages to investigators and participants alike; however, evidence supporting digital questionnaire delivery via touchscreen device in the older adult population is lacking. Objective The objective of this study was to compare the use of tablet computer-delivered and printed questionnaires as vehicles for the collection of psychosocial data from older adults to determine whether this digital platform would be readily adopted by the sample, and to identify whether tablet delivery influences the content of data received. Methods The participants completed three questionnaires using both delivery methods, followed by a brief evaluation. Results A nonparametric one-sample binomial test indicated a significantly greater proportion of individuals preferred the tablet-delivered questionnaires (z=4.96, SE 3.428, P<.001). Paired sample t tests and Wilcoxon sign-rank tests indicated that measures collected by each method were not significantly different (all P?.273). Ease of use of the tablet interface and anxiety while completing the digital questionnaires were significantly correlated with preferences, (r s=.665, P<.001 and r s=.552, P<.001, respectively). Participants most frequently reported that the tablet delivery increased speed of use and improved data entry, although navigation was perceived as being more difficult. By comparison, participants felt that the paper packet was easier to read and navigate, but was slow and cumbersome, and they disliked the lack of dynamic features. Conclusions This study provides preliminary evidence suggesting that questionnaires delivered to older adults using contemporary tablet computers may be acceptable and do not substantively influence the content of the collected data. PMID:25048799

  2. Compressed mini-tablets as a biphasic delivery system.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Carla M; Lobo, José Manuel Sousa; Pinto, Joăo F; Costa, Paulo

    2006-10-12

    Compressed mini-tablets systems are presented as a biphasic delivery system designed for zero-order sustained drug release. The outer layer that fills the void spaces between the mini-tablets was formulated to release the drug in a very short time (fast release), while the mini-tablets provided a prolonged release. Different composition (HPMC or EC) and number (10 or 21) of mini-tablets were used to obtain different drug release rates. The in vitro performance of these systems showed the desired biphasic behaviour: the drug contained in the fast releasing phase (powder enrobing the mini-tablets) dissolved within the first 2 min, whereas the drug contained in the mini-tablets was released at different rates, depending up on formulation. Based on the release kinetic parameters calculated, it can be concluded that mini-tablets containing HPMC were particularly suitable approaching to zero-order (constant) release over 8h time periods. PMID:16828999

  3. Developing and Validating a Tablet Version of an Illness Explanatory Model Interview for a Public Health Survey in Pune, India

    PubMed Central

    Giduthuri, Joseph G.; Maire, Nicolas; Joseph, Saju; Kudale, Abhay; Schaetti, Christian; Sundaram, Neisha; Schindler, Christian; Weiss, Mitchell G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Mobile electronic devices are replacing paper-based instruments and questionnaires for epidemiological and public health research. The elimination of a data-entry step after an interview is a notable advantage over paper, saving investigator time, decreasing the time lags in managing and analyzing data, and potentially improving the data quality by removing the error-prone data-entry step. Research has not yet provided adequate evidence, however, to substantiate the claim of fewer errors for computerized interviews. Methodology We developed an Android-based illness explanatory interview for influenza vaccine acceptance and tested the instrument in a field study in Pune, India, for feasibility and acceptability. Error rates for tablet and paper were compared with reference to the voice recording of the interview as gold standard to assess discrepancies. We also examined the preference of interviewers for the classical paper-based or the electronic version of the interview and compared the costs of research with both data collection devices. Results In 95 interviews with household respondents, total error rates with paper and tablet devices were nearly the same (2.01% and 1.99% respectively). Most interviewers indicated no preference for a particular device; but those with a preference opted for tablets. The initial investment in tablet-based interviews was higher compared to paper, while the recurring costs per interview were lower with the use of tablets. Conclusion An Android-based tablet version of a complex interview was developed and successfully validated. Advantages were not compromised by increased errors, and field research assistants with a preference preferred the Android device. Use of tablets may be more costly than paper for small samples and less costly for large studies. PMID:25233212

  4. 21 CFR 520.1288 - Lufenuron tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... prevention and control of flea populations. (B) The concurrent use of flavored lufenuron tablets described in... § 520.1510(d)(1) of this chapter is indicated to kill adult fleas and prevent flea eggs from hatching...—(A) For the control of flea populations. (B) The concurrent use of flavored lufenuron...

  5. 21 CFR 520.1288 - Lufenuron tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... prevention and control of flea populations. (B) The concurrent use of flavored lufenuron tablets described in... § 520.1510(d)(1) of this chapter is indicated to kill adult fleas and prevent flea eggs from hatching...—(A) For the control of flea populations. (B) The concurrent use of flavored lufenuron...

  6. 21 CFR 520.1288 - Lufenuron tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... prevention and control of flea populations. (B) The concurrent use of flavored lufenuron tablets described in... § 520.1510(d)(1) of this chapter is indicated to kill adult fleas and prevent flea eggs from hatching...—(A) For the control of flea populations. (B) The concurrent use of flavored lufenuron...

  7. 21 CFR 520.1288 - Lufenuron tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... prevention and control of flea populations. (B) The concurrent use of flavored lufenuron tablets described in... § 520.1510(d)(1) of this chapter is indicated to kill adult fleas and prevent flea eggs from hatching...—(A) For the control of flea populations. (B) The concurrent use of flavored lufenuron...

  8. 21 CFR 520.1288 - Lufenuron tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... prevention and control of flea populations. (B) The concurrent use of flavored lufenuron tablets described in... § 520.1510(d)(1) of this chapter is indicated to kill adult fleas and prevent flea eggs from hatching...—(A) For the control of flea populations. (B) The concurrent use of flavored lufenuron...

  9. 21 CFR 520.1870 - Praziquantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Limitations —(A) If labeled only for use as in paragraph (c)(1)(ii)(A) of this section: Not intended for use in puppies less than 4 weeks of age. Consult your veterinarian before administering tablets to weak or debilitated animals and for...

  10. 21 CFR 520.1870 - Praziquantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Limitations —(A) If labeled only for use as in paragraph (c)(1)(ii)(A) of this section: Not intended for use in puppies less than 4 weeks of age. Consult your veterinarian before administering tablets to weak or debilitated animals and for...

  11. 21 CFR 520.1870 - Praziquantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Limitations —(A) If labeled only for use as in paragraph (c)(1)(ii)(A) of this section: Not intended for use in puppies less than 4 weeks of age. Consult your veterinarian before administering tablets to weak or debilitated animals and for...

  12. 21 CFR 520.1870 - Praziquantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Limitations —(A) If labeled only for use as in paragraph (c)(1)(ii)(A) of this section: Not intended for use in puppies less than 4 weeks of age. Consult your veterinarian before administering tablets to weak or debilitated animals and for...

  13. 21 CFR 520.1870 - Praziquantel tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Limitations —(A) If labeled only for use as in paragraph (c)(1)(ii)(A) of this section: Not intended for use in puppies less than 4 weeks of age. Consult your veterinarian before administering tablets to weak or debilitated animals and for...

  14. GRAPHIC INPUT TABLETS FOR PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BOOKER, C.A., JR.; AND OTHERS

    TO FACILITATE STUDENT-COMPUTER COMMUNICATION IN PROGRAMED INSTRUCTION, A MODIFICATION OF THE RAND TABLET, WHICH CONVERTS POSITION INFORMATION INTO ELECTRICAL SIGNALS, IS PROPOSED. MANUFACTURE OF THE DEVICE WOULD BE MORE ECONOMICAL, AND THE ELECTRONICS PACKAGE, REDESIGNED WITH INTEGRATED CIRCUITS, WOULD BE SMALLER AND MORE FLEXIBLE. MODIFICATION OF…

  15. Touch Tablet Surprises: A Preschool Teacher's Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shifflet, Rena; Toledo, Cheri; Mattoon, Cassandra

    2012-01-01

    A year and a half ago, Rena, Cheri, and Cassandra were introduced to each other by a colleague because they shared an interest in exploring the impact newer technologies have on learning in early childhood classrooms. They meet regularly to share ideas and information on how to incorporate tablets using best practices. Cassandra's preschool…

  16. Using Tablet Technology for University Lectures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chester, Victoria

    2008-01-01

    Tablet PCs provide numerous benefits over traditional electronically projected lectures that use software such as PowerPoint. Flexibility and spontaneity can be achieved by editing or creating notes in real-time. The input pen or stylus is a very useful tool, especially for courses that involve the extensive use of equations or mathematical…

  17. 21 CFR 520.928 - Firocoxib tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.928 Firocoxib tablets. (a... surgery. (2) Indications for use. For the control of pain and inflammation associated with osteoarthritis... surgery. (3) Limitations. Federal law restricts this drug to use by or on the order of a...

  18. 21 CFR 520.928 - Firocoxib tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.928 Firocoxib tablets. (a... surgery. (2) Indications for use. For the control of pain and inflammation associated with osteoarthritis... surgery. (3) Limitations. Federal law restricts this drug to use by or on the order of a...

  19. 21 CFR 520.531 - Cythioate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.531 Cythioate tablets. (a) (b...) Limitations. For oral use in dogs only. Do not use in greyhounds or in animals that are pregnant, sick, under stress, or recovering from surgery. Federal law restricts this drug to use by or on the order of...

  20. 21 CFR 520.928 - Firocoxib tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.928 Firocoxib tablets. (a... surgery. (2) Indications for use. For the control of pain and inflammation associated with osteoarthritis... surgery. (3) Limitations. Federal law restricts this drug to use by or on the order of a...

  1. 21 CFR 520.928 - Firocoxib tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.928 Firocoxib tablets. (a... surgery. (2) Indications for use. For the control of pain and inflammation associated with osteoarthritis... surgery. (3) Limitations. Federal law restricts this drug to use by or on the order of a...

  2. 21 CFR 520.531 - Cythioate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.531 Cythioate tablets. (a) (b...) Limitations. For oral use in dogs only. Do not use in greyhounds or in animals that are pregnant, sick, under stress, or recovering from surgery. Federal law restricts this drug to use by or on the order of...

  3. 21 CFR 520.531 - Cythioate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.531 Cythioate tablets. (a) (b...) Limitations. For oral use in dogs only. Do not use in greyhounds or in animals that are pregnant, sick, under stress, or recovering from surgery. Federal law restricts this drug to use by or on the order of...

  4. 21 CFR 520.531 - Cythioate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.531 Cythioate tablets. (a) (b...) Limitations. For oral use in dogs only. Do not use in greyhounds or in animals that are pregnant, sick, under stress, or recovering from surgery. Federal law restricts this drug to use by or on the order of...

  5. Cadmium-induced colony disintegration of duckweed (Lemna paucicostata Hegelm.) and as biomarker of phytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Li, T Y; Xiong, Z T

    2004-10-01

    The toxic effect of cadmium on Lemna paucicostata was investigated with hydroponic culture in a culture facility. Cadmium treatment (0.4-6.4 micromol L(-1) Cd) induced L. paucicostata to release daughter fronds from the mother frond before maturity, resulting in colony disintegration. The 8-h and 24-h EC(50) values for colony disintegration in L. paucicostata plants were 0.12 and 0.11 mg L(-1), respectively. The maximum permissible concentrations (MPCs) were 0.012 and 0.011 mg L(-1) accordingly (MPC = 10% x EC(50)). These values were lower than the values of most of these biomarkers in duckweed reported in the literature, suggesting that colony disintegration in L. paucicostata may serve as a sensitive biomarker for the phytotoxicity test. Nutrient concentrations (1/2, 1/10, 1/20, 1/40, and 0-fold concentrations of Hoagland's solution) and Cd salt form (CdCl(2) or CdSO(4)) did not have a significant effect on colony disintegration. In addition, resistance to Cd stress differed significantly among clones of the plants. Approximately 2% of colonies in the wild population of L. paucicostata were tolerant of cadmium. These results indicate that colony disintegration of L. paucicostata could be used as a sensitive, cost-effective, and valuable biomarker to assess the acute phytotoxicity of cadmium and other heavy metals. PMID:15327872

  6. Fluid-loading solutions and plasma volume: Astro-ade and salt tablets with water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortney, Suzanne M.; Seinmann, Laura; Young, Joan A.; Hoskin, Cherylynn N.; Barrows, Linda H.

    1994-01-01

    Fluid loading with salt and water is a countermeasure used after space flight to restore body fluids. However, gastrointestinal side effects have been frequently reported in persons taking similar quantities of salt and water in ground-based studies. The effectiveness of the Shuttle fluid-loading countermeasure (8 gms salt, 0.97 liters of water) was compared to Astro-ade (an isotonic electrolyte solution), to maintain plasma volume (PV) during 4.5 hrs of resting fluid restriction. Three groups of healthy men (n=6) were studied: a Control Group (no drinking), an Astro-ade Group, and a Salt Tablet Group. Changes in PV after drinking were calculated from hematocrit and hemoglobin values. Both the Salt Tablet and Astro-ade Groups maintained PV at 2-3 hours after ingestion compared to the Control Group, which had a 6 percent decline. Side effects (thirst, stomach cramping, and diarrhea) were noted in at least one subject in both the Astro-ade and Salt Tablet Groups. Nausea and vomiting were reported in one subject in the Salt Tablet Group. It was concluded that Astro-ade may be offered as an alternate fluid-loading countermeasure but further work is needed to develop a solution that is more palatable and has fewer side effects.

  7. Formulation and In Vitro Evaluation of Bilayer Tablets of Nebivolol Hydrochloride and Nateglinide for the Treatment of Diabetes and Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Ryakala, Harika; Dineshmohan, S.; Ramesh, Alluri; Gupta, V. R. M.

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension are two common diseases that often coexist. The most common cause of death in the diabetic patient is heart disease. In the present investigation we combine Nebivolol and Nateglinide for better patient compliance. IR layer was formulated using various superdisintegrants like Crospovidone, Croscarmellose sodium, and sodium starch glycolate and SR layer was formulated using polymers and gums like HPMC E15, ethyl cellulose, Gaur gum, and Xanthan gum. The disintegration and dissolution study of both layers showed that inclusion of surfactant (sodium lauryl sulphate) to the tablet formulation (IR) and dissolution medium (SR) enhanced the release of drugs from both layers. Kinetic studies of optimized IR layer (NBL8) and SR layer (N9) showed good linearity with regression coefficient of 0.9714 (Higuchi model) and 0.9931 (zero order kinetics), respectively. The above results reveal that the optimized IR layer of Nebivolol (NBL8) and SR layer of Nateglinide (N9) might be suitable for the treatment of diabetes and hypertension by sequential release of the two drugs in a bilayer tablet. IR-immediate release, SR-sustain release, NBL8-Nebivolol 8, N9-Nateglinide 9. PMID:25648606

  8. Formulation and in vitro evaluation of bilayer tablets of nebivolol hydrochloride and nateglinide for the treatment of diabetes and hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ryakala, Harika; Dineshmohan, S; Ramesh, Alluri; Gupta, V R M

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension are two common diseases that often coexist. The most common cause of death in the diabetic patient is heart disease. In the present investigation we combine Nebivolol and Nateglinide for better patient compliance. IR layer was formulated using various superdisintegrants like Crospovidone, Croscarmellose sodium, and sodium starch glycolate and SR layer was formulated using polymers and gums like HPMC E15, ethyl cellulose, Gaur gum, and Xanthan gum. The disintegration and dissolution study of both layers showed that inclusion of surfactant (sodium lauryl sulphate) to the tablet formulation (IR) and dissolution medium (SR) enhanced the release of drugs from both layers. Kinetic studies of optimized IR layer (NBL8) and SR layer (N9) showed good linearity with regression coefficient of 0.9714 (Higuchi model) and 0.9931 (zero order kinetics), respectively. The above results reveal that the optimized IR layer of Nebivolol (NBL8) and SR layer of Nateglinide (N9) might be suitable for the treatment of diabetes and hypertension by sequential release of the two drugs in a bilayer tablet. IR-immediate release, SR-sustain release, NBL8-Nebivolol 8, N9-Nateglinide 9. PMID:25648606

  9. The iPad tablet computer for mobile on-call radiology diagnosis? Auditing discrepancy in CT and MRI reporting.

    PubMed

    John, Sindhu; Poh, Angeline C C; Lim, Tchoyoson C C; Chan, Elizabeth H Y; Chong, Le Roy

    2012-10-01

    Tablet computers such as the iPad, which have a large format, improved graphic display resolution and a touch screen interface, may have an advantage compared to existing mobile devices such as smartphones and laptops for viewing radiological images. We assessed their potential for emergency radiology teleconsultation by reviewing multi-image CT and MRI studies on iPad tablet computers compared to Picture Archival and Communication Systems (PACS) workstations. Annonymised DICOM images of 79 CT and nine MRI studies comprising a range of common on-call conditions, reported on full-featured diagnostic PACS workstation by one Reporting Radiologist, were transferred from PACS to three iPad tablet computers running OsiriX HD v 2.02 DICOM software and viewed independently by three reviewing radiologists. Structured documentation was made of major findings (primary diagnosis or other clinically important findings), minor findings (incidental findings), and user feedback. Two hundred and sixty four readings (88 studies read by three reviewing radiologists) were compared, with 3.4 % (nine of 264) major discrepancies and 5.6 % (15 of 264) minor discrepancies. All reviewing radiologists reported favorable user experience but noted issues with software stability and limitations of image manipulation tools. Our results suggest that emergency conditions commonly encountered on CT and MRI can be diagnosed using tablet computers with good agreement with dedicated PACS workstations. Shortcomings in software and application design should be addressed if the potential of tablet computers for mobile teleradiology is to be fully realized. PMID:22562174

  10. Single-dose evaluation of safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of newly formulated hydromorphone immediate-release and hydrophilic matrix extended-release tablets in healthy Japanese subjects without co-administration of an opioid antagonist.

    PubMed

    Toyama, Kaoru; Uchida, Naoki; Ishizuka, Hitoshi; Sambe, Takehiko; Kobayashi, Shinichi

    2015-09-01

    This single dose, open-label study investigated the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of single oral doses of newly formulated immediate-release (IR) and hydrophilic matrix extended-release (ER) hydromorphone tablets in healthy Japanese subjects without co-administration of an opioid antagonist under fasting and fed conditions. Plasma and urinary concentrations of hydromorphone and metabolites were measured by liquid-chromatography tandem mass-spectroscopy. Following administration of the ER tablet, plasma concentrations of hydromorphone slowly increased with a median tmax of 5.0?h and the Cmax decreased to 37% of the IR tablet, while the AUC0-inf was comparable with that of the IR tablet when administered at the same dose. The degree of fluctuation in the plasma concentration for the ER tablet was much lower than that of the IR tablet and certain levels of plasma concentrations were maintained after 24?h of ER dosing. The AUC0-inf and Cmax increased with food for both IR and ER tablets. The AUC0-inf of hydromorphone-3-glucoside was one-tenth of that of hydromorphone-3-glucuronide. A single oral administration of the hydromorphone tablets would be well-tolerated in healthy Japanese subjects despite a lack of co-administration of an opioid antagonist and the newly developed ER hydromorphone tablets may have the appropriate PK characteristics for once-daily dosing. PMID:25807927

  11. Influence of the temperature on the cement disintegration in cement-retained implant restorations.

    PubMed

    Linkevicius, Tomas; Vindasiute, Egle; Puisys, Algirdas; Linkeviciene, Laura; Svediene, Olga

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the average disintegration temperature of three dental cements used for the cementation of the implant-supported prostheses. One hundred and twenty metal frameworks were fabricated and cemented on the prosthetic abutments with different dental cements. After heat treatment in the dental furnace, the samples were set for the separation to test the integration of the cement. Results have shown that resin-modified glass-ionomer cement (RGIC) exhibited the lowest disintegration temperature (p<0.05), but there was no difference between zinc phosphate cement (ZPC) and dual cure resin cement (RC) (p>0.05). Average separation temperatures: RGIC - 306 ± 23 °C, RC - 363 ± 71 °C, it could not be calculated for the ZPC due to the eight unseparated specimens. Within the limitations of the study, it could be concluded that RGIC cement disintegrates at the lowest temperature and ZPC is not prone to break down after exposure to temperature. PMID:23455980

  12. Mitochondrial Ca2+ influx targets cardiolipin to disintegrate respiratory chain complex II for cell death induction

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, M-S; Schwall, C T; Pazarentzos, E; Datler, C; Alder, N N; Grimm, S

    2014-01-01

    Massive Ca2+ influx into mitochondria is critically involved in cell death induction but it is unknown how this activates the organelle for cell destruction. Using multiple approaches including subcellular fractionation, FRET in intact cells, and in vitro reconstitutions, we show that mitochondrial Ca2+ influx prompts complex II of the respiratory chain to disintegrate, thereby releasing an enzymatically competent sub-complex that generates excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) for cell death induction. This Ca2+-dependent dissociation of complex II is also observed in model membrane systems, but not when cardiolipin is replaced with a lipid devoid of Ca2+ binding. Cardiolipin is known to associate with complex II and upon Ca2+ binding coalesces into separate homotypic clusters. When complex II is deprived of this lipid, it disintegrates for ROS formation and cell death. Our results reveal Ca2+ binding to cardiolipin for complex II disintegration as a pivotal step for oxidative stress and cell death induction. PMID:24948011

  13. Photo-Disintegration of the Iron Nucleus in Fractured Magnetite Rocks with Magnetostriction

    E-print Network

    A. Widom; J. Swain; Y. N. Srivastava

    2013-06-25

    There has been considerable interest in recent experiments on iron nuclear disintegrations observed when rocks containing such nuclei are crushed and fractured. The resulting nuclear transmutations are particularly strong for the case of magnetite rocks, i.e. loadstones. We argue that the fission of the iron nucleus is a consequence of photo-disintegration. The electro-strong coupling between electromagnetic fields and nuclear giant dipole resonances are central for producing observed nuclear reactions. The large electron energies produced during the fracture of piezomagnetic rocks are closely analogous to the previously discussed case of the fracture of piezoelectric rocks. In both cases electro-weak interactions can produce neutrons and neutrinos from energetic protons and electrons thus inducing nuclear transmutations. The electro-strong condensed matter coupling discussed herein represents new many body collective nuclear photo-disintegration effects.

  14. Large Eddy Simulation Study for Fluid Disintegration and Mixing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bellan, Josette; Taskinoglu, Ezgi

    2011-01-01

    A new modeling approach is based on the concept of large eddy simulation (LES) within which the large scales are computed and the small scales are modeled. The new approach is expected to retain the fidelity of the physics while also being computationally efficient. Typically, only models for the small-scale fluxes of momentum, species, and enthalpy are used to reintroduce in the simulation the physics lost because the computation only resolves the large scales. These models are called subgrid (SGS) models because they operate at a scale smaller than the LES grid. In a previous study of thermodynamically supercritical fluid disintegration and mixing, additional small-scale terms, one in the momentum and one in the energy conservation equations, were identified as requiring modeling. These additional terms were due to the tight coupling between dynamics and real-gas thermodynamics. It was inferred that if these terms would not be modeled, the high density-gradient magnitude regions, experimentally identified as a characteristic feature of these flows, would not be accurately predicted without the additional term in the momentum equation; these high density-gradient magnitude regions were experimentally shown to redistribute turbulence in the flow. And it was also inferred that without the additional term in the energy equation, the heat flux magnitude could not be accurately predicted; the heat flux to the wall of combustion devices is a crucial quantity that determined necessary wall material properties. The present work involves situations where only the term in the momentum equation is important. Without this additional term in the momentum equation, neither the SGS-flux constant-coefficient Smagorinsky model nor the SGS-flux constant-coefficient Gradient model could reproduce in LES the pressure field or the high density-gradient magnitude regions; the SGS-flux constant- coefficient Scale-Similarity model was the most successful in this endeavor although not totally satisfactory. With a model for the additional term in the momentum equation, the predictions of the constant-coefficient Smagorinsky and constant-coefficient Scale-Similarity models were improved to a certain extent; however, most of the improvement was obtained for the Gradient model. The previously derived model and a newly developed model for the additional term in the momentum equation were both tested, with the new model proving even more successful than the previous model at reproducing the high density-gradient magnitude regions. Several dynamic SGS-flux models, in which the SGS-flux model coefficient is computed as part of the simulation, were tested in conjunction with the new model for this additional term in the momentum equation. The most successful dynamic model was a "mixed" model combining the Smagorinsky and Gradient models. This work is directly applicable to simulations of gas turbine engines (aeronautics) and rocket engines (astronautics).

  15. Preparation of bilayer-core osmotic pump tablet by coating the indented core tablet.

    PubMed

    Liu, Longxiao; Xu, Xiangning

    2008-03-20

    In this paper, a bilayer-core osmotic pump tablet (OPT) which does not require laser drilling to form the drug delivery orifice is described. The bilayer-core consisted of two layers: (a) push layer and (b) drug layer, and was made with a modified upper tablet punch, which produced an indentation at the center of the drug layer surface. The indented tablets were coated by using a conventional pan-coating process. Although the bottom of the indentation could be coated, the side face of the indentation was scarcely sprayed by the coating solution and this part of the tablet remained at least partly uncoated leaving an aperture from which drug release could occur. Nifedipine was selected as the model drug. Sodium chloride was used as osmotic agent, polyvinylpyrrolidone as suspending agent and croscarmellose sodium as expanding agent. The indented core tablet was coated by ethyl cellulose as semipermeable membrane containing polyethylene glycol 400 for controlling the membrane permeability. The formulation of core tablet was optimized by orthogonal design and the release profiles of various formulations were evaluated by similarity factor (f(2)). It was found that the optimal OPT was able to deliver nifedipine at an approximate zero-order up to 24 h, independent on both release media and agitation rates. The preparation of bilayer-core OPT was simplified by coating the indented core tablet, by which sophisticated technology of the drug layer identification and laser drilling could be eliminated. It might be promising in the field of preparation of bilayer-core OPT. PMID:18068918

  16. Validated method for the determination of piroxicam by capillary zone electrophoresis and its application to tablets.

    PubMed

    Dal, Ar?n Gül; Oktayer, Zeynep; Do?rukol-Ak, Dilek

    2014-01-01

    Simple and rapid capillary zone electrophoretic method was developed and validated in this study for the determination of piroxicam in tablets. The separation of piroxicam was conducted in a fused-silica capillary by using 10?mM borate buffer (pH 9.0) containing 10% (v/v) methanol as background electrolyte. The optimum conditions determined were 25?kV for separation voltage and 1?s for injection time. Analysis was carried out with UV detection at 204?nm. Naproxen sodium was used as an internal standard. The method was linear over the range of 0.23-28.79?µg/mL. The accuracy and precision were found to be satisfied within the acceptable limits (<2%). The LOD and LOQ were found to be 0.07 and 0.19?µg/mL, respectively. The method described here was applied to tablet dosage forms and the content of a tablet was found in the limits of USP-24 suggestions. To compare the results of capillary electrophoretic method, UV spectrophotometric method was developed and the difference between two methods was found to be insignificant. The capillary zone electrophoretic method developed in this study is rapid, simple, and suitable for routine analysis of piroxicam in pharmaceutical tablets. PMID:25295220

  17. A sensitive spectrophotometric method for the determination of desloratadine in tablets.

    PubMed

    Ca?lar, Sena; Oztunç, Aysel

    2007-01-01

    A simple, rapid, and sensitive visible spectrophotometric method was developed, for the first time, for analysis of desloratadine (DE) in tablets. The method is based on the deep-blue colored TCNQ*- radical anion formed by interaction of the drug (n-donor) with 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ, pi-acceptor) in acetonitrile at ambient temperature. Optimum conditions for the reaction were investigated, absorbances were read at 843 nm, and the linearity range for concentrations of DE was found to be 1.5-13 microg/mL. The reaction product remains stable up to 8 h when kept at room temperature in the dark. The developed method was validated and successfully applied to the determination of DE in tablets. The tablets were also analyzed with a column liquid chromatography method reported in literature. The results from both methods were statistically compared by t- and F-tests. No significant difference was found for the means and standard deviations at 95% confidence level. Accuracy was examined through recovery studies. Being very simple and reliable, the method can be recommended for routine quality control analysis of DE in tablets. PMID:17474507

  18. Automated pharmaceutical tablet coating layer evaluation of optical coherence tomography images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markl, Daniel; Hannesschläger, Günther; Sacher, Stephan; Leitner, Michael; Khinast, Johannes G.; Buchsbaum, Andreas

    2015-03-01

    Film coating of pharmaceutical tablets is often applied to influence the drug release behaviour. The coating characteristics such as thickness and uniformity are critical quality parameters, which need to be precisely controlled. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) shows not only high potential for off-line quality control of film-coated tablets but also for in-line monitoring of coating processes. However, an in-line quality control tool must be able to determine coating thickness measurements automatically and in real-time. This study proposes an automatic thickness evaluation algorithm for bi-convex tables, which provides about 1000 thickness measurements within 1?s. Beside the segmentation of the coating layer, optical distortions due to refraction of the beam by the air/coating interface are corrected. Moreover, during in-line monitoring the tablets might be in oblique orientation, which needs to be considered in the algorithm design. Experiments were conducted where the tablet was rotated to specified angles. Manual and automatic thickness measurements were compared for varying coating thicknesses, angles of rotations, and beam displacements (i.e. lateral displacement between successive depth scans). The automatic thickness determination algorithm provides highly accurate results up to an angle of rotation of 30°. The computation time was reduced to 0.53?s for 700 thickness measurements by introducing feasibility constraints in the algorithm.

  19. Validated Method for the Determination of Piroxicam by Capillary Zone Electrophoresis and Its Application to Tablets

    PubMed Central

    Dal, Ar?n Gül; Oktayer, Zeynep; Do?rukol-Ak, Dilek

    2014-01-01

    Simple and rapid capillary zone electrophoretic method was developed and validated in this study for the determination of piroxicam in tablets. The separation of piroxicam was conducted in a fused-silica capillary by using 10?mM borate buffer (pH 9.0) containing 10% (v/v) methanol as background electrolyte. The optimum conditions determined were 25?kV for separation voltage and 1?s for injection time. Analysis was carried out with UV detection at 204?nm. Naproxen sodium was used as an internal standard. The method was linear over the range of 0.23–28.79?µg/mL. The accuracy and precision were found to be satisfied within the acceptable limits (<2%). The LOD and LOQ were found to be 0.07 and 0.19?µg/mL, respectively. The method described here was applied to tablet dosage forms and the content of a tablet was found in the limits of USP-24 suggestions. To compare the results of capillary electrophoretic method, UV spectrophotometric method was developed and the difference between two methods was found to be insignificant. The capillary zone electrophoretic method developed in this study is rapid, simple, and suitable for routine analysis of piroxicam in pharmaceutical tablets. PMID:25295220

  20. Development of modified-release tablets of zolpidem tartrate by biphasic quick/slow delivery system.

    PubMed

    Mahapatra, Anjan Kumar; Sameeraja, N H; Murthy, P N

    2015-06-01

    Zolpidem tartrate is a non-benzodiazepine analogue of imidazopyridine of sedative and hypnotic category. It has a short half-life with usual dosage regimen being 5 mg, two times a day, or 10 mg, once daily. The duration of action is considered too short in certain circumstances. Thus, it is desirable to lengthen the duration of action. The formulation design was implemented by preparing extended-release tablets of zolpidem tartrate using the biphasic delivery system technology, where sodium starch glycolate acts as a superdisintegrant in immediate-release part and hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose as a release retarding agent in extended-release core. Tablets were prepared by direct compression. Both the core and the coat contained the drug. The pre-compression blends were evaluated for angle of repose, bulk density, and compressibility index. The tablets were evaluated for thickness, hardness, weight variation test, friability, and in vitro release studies. No interaction was observed between zolpidem tartrate and excipients from the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry analysis. The results of all the formulations prepared were compared with reference product Stilnoct®. Optimized formulations showed release patterns that match the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) guidelines for zolpidem tartrate extended-release tablets. The mechanism of drug release was studied using different mathematical models, and the optimized formulation has shown Fickian diffusion. Accelerated stability studies were performed on the optimized formulation. PMID:25391273

  1. A computerized tablet with visual feedback of hand position for functional magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Karimpoor, Mahta; Tam, Fred; Strother, Stephen C.; Fischer, Corinne E.; Schweizer, Tom A.; Graham, Simon J.

    2015-01-01

    Neuropsychological tests behavioral tasks that very commonly involve handwriting and drawing are widely used in the clinic to detect abnormal brain function. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) may be useful in increasing the specificity of such tests. However, performing complex pen-and-paper tests during fMRI involves engineering challenges. Previously, we developed an fMRI-compatible, computerized tablet system to address this issue. However, the tablet did not include visual feedback of hand position (VFHP), a human factors component that may be important for fMRI of certain patient populations. A real-time system was thus developed to provide VFHP and integrated with the tablet in an augmented reality display. The effectiveness of the system was initially tested in young healthy adults who performed various handwriting tasks in front of a computer display with and without VFHP. Pilot fMRI of writing tasks were performed by two representative individuals with and without VFHP. Quantitative analysis of the behavioral results indicated improved writing performance with VFHP. The pilot fMRI results suggest that writing with VFHP requires less neural resources compared to the without VFHP condition, to maintain similar behavior. Thus, the tablet system with VFHP is recommended for future fMRI studies involving patients with impaired brain function and where ecologically valid behavior is important. PMID:25859201

  2. Spray drying of a poorly water-soluble drug nanosuspension for tablet preparation: formulation and process optimization with bioavailability evaluation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei; Ni, Rui; Zhang, Xin; Li, Luk Chiu; Mao, Shirui

    2015-06-01

    Spray drying experiments of an itraconazole nanosuspension were conducted to generate a dry nanocrystal powder which was subsequently formulated into a tablet formulation for direct compression. The nanosuspension was prepared by high pressure homogenization and characterized for particle-size distribution and surface morphology. A central composite statistical design approach was applied to identify the optimal drug-to-excipient ratio and spray drying temperature. It was demonstrated that the spray drying of a nanosuspension with a mannitol-to-drug mass ratio of 4.5 and at an inlet temperature of 120?°C resulted in a dry powder with the smallest increase in particle size as compared with that of the nanosuspension. X-ray diffraction results indicated that the crystalline structure of the drug was not altered during the spray-drying process. The tablet formulation was identified by determining the micromeritic properties such as flowability and compressibility of the powder mixtures composed of the spray dried nanocrystal powder and other commonly used direct compression excipients. The dissolution rate of the nanocrystal tablets was significantly enhanced and was found to be comparable to that of the marketed Sporanox®. No statistically significant difference in oral absorption between the nanocrystal tablets and Sporanox® capsules was found. In conclusion, the nanosuspension approach is feasible to improve the oral absorption of a BCS Class II drug in a tablet formulation and capable of achieving oral bioavailability equivalent to other well established oral absorption enhancement method. PMID:24785575

  3. A comparison of the clinical and bronchodilating effects of plain and slow-release tablets of terbutaline at steady state.

    PubMed

    Pauwels, R; Elinck, W; Lamont, H; van der Straeten, M; Ljungholm, K

    1986-02-01

    The clinical efficacy, the bronchodilating effect and the side effects of two oral forms of terbutaline were compared in a double-blind, cross-over study involving ten patients with chronic reversible airways obstruction. The administration of plain-tablets, containing 2.5 mg terbutaline sulphate, three times daily at 6 h intervals was compared to the administration of slow-release (SR) tablets, containing 5 mg terbutaline sulphate, every 12 h. Each course of treatment lasted for 7 days. Treatment with SR-tablets resulted in significantly higher lung function values in the morning (PEFR at home and FEV1 at the lung function laboratory on day 7). There were no significant differences between the two forms with regard to symptom score, extra use of rimiterol aerosol, heart rate or blood pressure. The plasma terbutaline concentration in the morning of the seventh treatment day was significantly higher during SR-tablet treatment. The plasma terbutaline concentration curve showed a smaller peak/trough ratio for the SR-tablets. PMID:3513810

  4. 78 FR 1247 - Certain Electronic Devices, Including Wireless Communication Devices, Tablet Computers, Media...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-08

    ...Communication Devices, Tablet Computers, Media Players, and Televisions, and Components...communication devices, tablet computers, media players, and televisions, and components...communication devices, tablet computers, media players, and televisions, and...

  5. 75 FR 64310 - Determination That BUSPAR (Buspirone Hydrochloride) Tablets, 10 Milligrams, 15 Milligrams, and 30...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-19

    ...BUSPAR (Buspirone Hydrochloride) Tablets, 10 Milligrams, 15 Milligrams, and 30 Milligrams...BUSPAR (buspirone hydrochloride) Tablets, 10 milligrams (mg), 15 mg, and 30 mg...BUSPAR (buspirone hydrochloride) Tablets, 10 mg, 15 mg, and 30 mg, are the...

  6. 77 FR 18860 - Certain Consumer Electronics, Including Mobile Phones and Tablets; Notice of Receipt of Complaint...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... Certain Consumer Electronics, Including Mobile Phones and Tablets; Notice of Receipt of Complaint... complaint entitled Certain Consumer Electronics, Including Mobile Phones and Tablets, DN 2885; the... importation of certain consumer electronics, including mobile phones and tablets. The complaint names...

  7. 76 FR 24051 - In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices, Including Mobile Phones, Mobile Tablets, Portable...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-29

    ... In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices, Including Mobile Phones, Mobile Tablets, Portable Music... tablets, portable music players, and computers, and components thereof by reason of infringement of... importation of certain electronic devices, including mobile phones, mobile tablets, portable music...

  8. 77 FR 34063 - Certain Electronic Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Tablet Computers, and Components Thereof...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ... COMMISSION Certain Electronic Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Tablet Computers, and Components Thereof... devices, including mobile phones and tablet computers, and components thereof by reason of infringement of... certain electronics devices, including mobile phones and tablet computers, and components thereof...

  9. 78 FR 47410 - Certain Wireless Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Tablets Institution of Investigation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-05

    ...Certain Wireless Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Tablets Institution of Investigation...certain wireless devices, including mobile phones and tablets by reason of infringement...certain wireless devices, including mobile phones and tablets by reason of...

  10. 78 FR 40171 - Certain Wireless Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Tablets; Notice Of Receipt of Complaint...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-03

    ...Certain Wireless Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Tablets; Notice Of Receipt...Certain Wireless Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Tablets, DN 2964; the Commission...certain wireless devices, including mobile phones and tablets. The complaint...

  11. 77 FR 27078 - Certain Electronic Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Tablet Computers, and Components Thereof...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-08

    ...Electronic Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Tablet Computers, and Components...Electronic Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Tablet Computers, and Components...electronic devices, including mobile phones and tablet computers, and...

  12. 77 FR 18860 - Certain Consumer Electronics, Including Mobile Phones and Tablets; Notice of Receipt of Complaint...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ...Consumer Electronics, Including Mobile Phones and Tablets; Notice of Receipt...Consumer Electronics, Including Mobile Phones and Tablets, DN 2885; the Commission...consumer electronics, including mobile phones and tablets. The complaint...

  13. 77 FR 24514 - Certain Consumer Electronics, Including Mobile Phones and Tablets; Institution of Investigation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    ...Consumer Electronics, Including Mobile Phones and Tablets; Institution of Investigation...consumer electronics, including mobile phones and tablets, by reason of infringement...consumer electronics, including mobile phones and tablets, that infringe...

  14. The variability of ecstasy tablets composition in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Togni, Loraine R; Lanaro, Rafael; Resende, Rodrigo R; Costa, Jose L

    2015-01-01

    The content of ecstasy tablets has been changing over the years, and nowadays 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is not always present in the tablets. The aim of this study was to investigate the chemical composition in the seized tablets labeled as ecstasy. We analyzed samples from 150 different seizures made by Sao Paulo's State Police by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. MDMA was present in 44.7% of the analyzed samples, and another twenty different active substances were identified in these tablets, such as caffeine, 2C-B, piperazines, amphetamines, phencyclidine, and others. Methamphetamine was present in 22% of these samples. The results demonstrate a huge shift in the pattern of trafficking of synthetic drugs, where MDMA has been replaced in tablets mostly by illicit psychoactive substances, in a clear attempt to bypass the law. The great variability in the tablets composition may lead to an increased risk of drug poisoning. PMID:25125149

  15. Development of a mini-tablet of co-grinded prednisone-Neusilin complex for pediatric use.

    PubMed

    Lou, H; Liu, M; Wang, L; Mishra, S R; Qu, W; Johnson, J; Brunson, E; Almoazen, H

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to enhance the dissolution rate of prednisone by co-grinding with Neusilin to form a complex that can be incorporated into a mini-tablet formulation for pediatrics. Prednisone-Neusilin complex was co-grinded at various ratios (1:1, 1:3, 1:5, and 1:7). The physicochemical properties of the complex were characterized by various analytical techniques including: differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), particle size, surface area, solubility, and dissolution rate. The co-grinded prednisone-Neusilin complex (1:7) was blended with other excipients and was formulated into a 2-mm diameter mini-tablet. The mini-tablets were further evaluated for thickness, weight, content uniformity, and dissolution rate. To improve taste masking and stability, mini-tablets were coated by dip coating with Eudragit® EPO solution. DSC and XRPD results showed that prednisone was transformed from crystalline state into amorphous state after co-grinding with Neusilin. Particle size, surface area, and SEM results confirmed that prednisone was adsorbed to Neusilin's surface. Co-grinded prednisone-Neusilin complex (1:7) had a solubility of 0.24 mg/mL and 90% dissolved within 20 min as compared to crystalline prednisone which had a solubility of 0.117 mg/mL and 30% dissolved within 20 min. The mini-tablets containing co-grinded prednisone-Neusilin complex (1:7) exhibited acceptable physicochemical and mechanical properties including dissolution rate enhancement. These mini-tablets were successfully dip coated in Eudragit® EPO solution to mask the taste of the drug during swallowing. This work illustrates the potential use of co-grinded prednisone-Neusilin to enhance solubility and dissolution rate as well as incorporation into a mini-tablet formulation for pediatric use. PMID:23761262

  16. Effect of force feeder on tablet strength during compression.

    PubMed

    Narang, Ajit S; Rao, Venkatramana M; Guo, Hang; Lu, Jian; Desai, Divyakant S

    2010-11-30

    Mechanical strength of tablets is an important quality attribute, which depends on both formulation and process. In this study, the effect of process variables during compression on tablet tensile strength and tabletability (the ratio of tensile strength to compression pressure) was investigated using a model formulation. Increase in turret and force feeder speeds reduced tablet tensile strength and tabletability. Turret speed affected tabletability through changes in dwell time under the compression cam and the kinetics of consolidation of granules in the die cavity. The effect of force feeder was attributed to the shearing of the granulation, leading to its over-lubrication. A dimensionless equation was derived to estimate total shear imparted by the force feeder on the granulation in terms of a shear number. Scale-independence of the relationship of tabletability with the shear number was explored on a 6-station Korsch press, a 16-station Betapress, and a 35-station Korsch XL-400 press. The use of this relationship, the exact nature of which may be formulation dependent, during tablet development is expected to provide guidance to the scale-up and interchangeability of tablet presses. PMID:20816733

  17. Chocolate tablet aspects of cytherean Meshkenet Tessera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raitala, J.

    1993-01-01

    Meshkenet Tessera structures were mapped from Magellan data and several resemblances to chocolate tablet boudinage were found. The complex fault sets display polyphase tectonic sequences of a few main deformation phases. Shear and tension have contributed to the areal deformation. Main faults cut the 1600-km long Meshkenet Tessera highland into bar-like blocks which have ridge and groove pattern oriented along or at high angles to the faults. The first approach to the surface block deformation is an assumption of initial parallel shear faulting followed by a chocolate tablet boudinage. Major faults which cut Meshkenet Tessera into rectangular blocks have been active repetitively while two progressive or superposed boudinage set formations have taken place at high angles during the relaxational or flattening type deformation of the area. Chocolate tablet boudinage is caused by a layer-parallel two-dimensional extension resulting in fracturing of the competent layer. Such structures, defined by two sets of boudin neck lines at right angles to each other, have been described by a number of authors. They develop in a flattening type of bulk deformation or during superposed deformation where the rock is elongated in two dimensions parallel to the surface. This is an attempt to describe and understand the formation and development of structures of Meshkenet Tessera which has complicated fault structures.

  18. Brief Report: Childhood Disintegrative Disorder--A Brief Examination of Eight Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homan, Kendra J.; Mellon, Michael W.; Houlihan, Daniel; Katusic, Maja Z.

    2011-01-01

    Childhood disintegrative disorder (CDD) is a rare condition characterized by distinct regression of developmental and behavioral functioning following a period of apparently normal development for at least 2 years. The purpose of this article is to present the developmental, behavioral, psychosocial, and medical histories of eight children who…

  19. Survey Research Adapting to a Population Increasingly Highly-Segmented, Socially-Disintegrated, and Heavily-

    E-print Network

    Wolfe, Patrick J.

    Survey Research Adapting to a Population Increasingly Highly-Segmented, Socially-Disintegrated, and Heavily- Tracked with Transaction Data: A Modest Proposal Robert Groves, U.S. Census Bureau Survey to increased costs of survey data collections. With fixed budgets, this has implied smaller respondent data

  20. Disintegration of water molecules in a steam-plasma torch powered by microwaves

    SciTech Connect

    Uhm, Han S.; Kim, Jong H.; Hong, Yong C.

    2007-07-15

    A pure steam torch is generated by making use of 2.45 GHz microwave. Steam from a steam generator enters the discharge tube as a swirl gas at a temperature higher than 150 deg. C. This steam becomes a working gas and produces a stable steam torch. The torch volume is almost linearly proportional to the microwave power. The temperature of the torch flame is measured by making use of optical spectroscopy and a thermocouple device. Two distinctive regions are exhibited, a bright, whitish region of a high-temperature zone and a reddish, dimmer region of a relatively low-temperature zone. The bright, whitish region is a typical torch based on plasma species and the reddish, dimmer region is hydrogen burning in oxygen. Study of water molecule disintegration and gas temperature effects on the molecular fraction characteristics in steam-plasma of a microwave plasma torch at the atmospheric pressure is carried out. An analytical investigation of water disintegration indicates that a substantial fraction of water molecules disintegrate and form other compounds at high temperatures in the steam-plasma torch. Emission profiles of the hydroxide radical and water molecules confirm the theoretical predictions of water disintegration in the torch.

  1. Expression of the Transcriptional Repressor Protein Kid-1 Leads to the Disintegration of the Nucleolus*

    E-print Network

    Witzgall, Ralph - Naturwissenschaftliche Fakultät III

    Expression of the Transcriptional Repressor Protein Kid-1 Leads to the Disintegration, Massachusetts 02129 The rat Kid-1 gene codes for a 66-kDa protein with KRAB domains at the NH2 terminus and two a biochemical and functional analysis of the Kid-1 protein in transfected cells. The full-length Kid-1 protein

  2. Paleontological Society Experimental Disintegration of Regular Echinoids: Roles of Temperature, Oxygen, and Decay

    E-print Network

    Paleontological Society Experimental Disintegration of Regular Echinoids: Roles of Temperature. 16, No. 3 (Summer, 1990), pp. 247-271 Published by: Paleontological Society Stable URL: http@jstor.org. Paleontological Society is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to Paleobiology. http

  3. Enhancement of aerobic biodegradability potential of municipal waste activated sludge by ultrasonic aided bacterial disintegration.

    PubMed

    Kavitha, S; Jessin Brindha, G M; Sally Gloriana, A; Rajashankar, K; Yeom, Ick Tae; Rajesh Banu, J

    2016-01-01

    An investigation was performed to study the influence of ultrasonic aided bacterial disintegration on the aerobic degradability of sludge. In first phase of the study, effective floc disruption was achieved at an ultrasonic specific energy input of 2.45kJ/kg TS with 44.5mg/L of Extracellular Polymeric Substance (EPS) release including 0.035U/mL and 0.025U/mL protease and amylase activity respectively. In second phase, experimental outcomes revealed bacterial disintegration of floc disrupted-sludge showing a maximum solubilization of about 23% and was observed to be superior to bacterially disintegrated (11%) and control (6%), respectively. The result of aerobic biodegradability of ultrasonic aided bacterially pretreated sludge showed volatile solids (VS) degradation of about 40.2%. The kinetic study of aerobic biodegradability through non linear regression modelling reveals that floc disrupted sludge showed better biodegradability with decay constant of about 0.19d(-1) relatively higher than the control (0.14d(-1)) and bacterially disintegrated (0.17d(-1)) sludges. PMID:26479431

  4. American Journal of Botany 88(2): 348361. 2001. DISINTEGRATION OF THE SCROPHULARIACEAE1

    E-print Network

    Olmstead, Richard

    348 American Journal of Botany 88(2): 348­361. 2001. DISINTEGRATION OF THE SCROPHULARIACEAE1 AND PATRICK A. REEVES3 3 Department of Botany, Box 355325, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 78212 USA; and 7 Department of Botany and Microbiology, University of Oklahoma, 770 Van Vleet Oval

  5. Effects of different sludge disintegration methods on sludge moisture distribution and dewatering performance.

    PubMed

    Jin, Lingyun; Zhang, Guangming; Zheng, Xiang

    2015-02-01

    A key step in sludge treatment is sludge dewatering. However, activated sludge is generally very difficult to be dewatered. Sludge dewatering performance is largely affected by the sludge moisture distribution. Sludge disintegration can destroy the sludge structure and cell wall, so as change the sludge floc structure and moisture distribution, thus affecting the dewatering performance of sludge. In this article, the disintegration methods were ultrasound treatment, K2FeO4 oxidation and KMnO4 oxidation. The degree of disintegration (DDCOD), sludge moisture distribution and the final water content of sludge cake after centrifuging were measured. Results showed that three disintegration methods were all effective, and K2FeO4 oxidation was more efficient than KMnO4 oxidation. The content of free water increased obviously with K2FeO4 and KMnO4 oxidations, while it decreased with ultrasound treatment. The changes of free water and interstitial water were in the opposite trend. The content of bounding water decreased with K2FeO4 oxidation, and increased slightly with KMnO4 oxidation, while it increased obviously with ultrasound treatment. The water content of sludge cake after centrifuging decreased with K2FeO4 oxidation, and did not changed with KMnO4 oxidation, but increased obviously with ultrasound treatment. In summary, ultrasound treatment deteriorated the sludge dewaterability, while K2FeO4 and KMnO4 oxidation improved the sludge dewaterability. PMID:25662234

  6. Disintegration of water molecules in a steam-plasma torch powered by microwaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhm, Han S.; Kim, Jong H.; Hong, Yong C.

    2007-07-01

    A pure steam torch is generated by making use of 2.45GHz microwave. Steam from a steam generator enters the discharge tube as a swirl gas at a temperature higher than 150°C. This steam becomes a working gas and produces a stable steam torch. The torch volume is almost linearly proportional to the microwave power. The temperature of the torch flame is measured by making use of optical spectroscopy and a thermocouple device. Two distinctive regions are exhibited, a bright, whitish region of a high-temperature zone and a reddish, dimmer region of a relatively low-temperature zone. The bright, whitish region is a typical torch based on plasma species and the reddish, dimmer region is hydrogen burning in oxygen. Study of water molecule disintegration and gas temperature effects on the molecular fraction characteristics in steam-plasma of a microwave plasma torch at the atmospheric pressure is carried out. An analytical investigation of water disintegration indicates that a substantial fraction of water molecules disintegrate and form other compounds at high temperatures in the steam-plasma torch. Emission profiles of the hydroxide radical and water molecules confirm the theoretical predictions of water disintegration in the torch.

  7. Psychiatrist Availability, Social Disintegration, and Suicide Deaths in U.S. Counties, 1990-1995

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kposowa, Augustine J.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have found that primary care resources are associated with various health outcomes. The primary purpose of the study was to test for associations between psychiatrist availability, social disintegration and suicide rates. Data utilized were from the 2002 Area Resource File on U.S. counties (N=3080). Suicide rates were averaged…

  8. 75 FR 39025 - Determination That ACTONEL (Risendronate Sodium) Tablets, 75 Milligrams, and ACTONEL WITH CALCIUM...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ...Determination That ACTONEL (Risendronate Sodium) Tablets, 75 Milligrams, and ACTONEL WITH CALCIUM (Risendronate Sodium and Calcium Carbonate (Copackaged...determination that ACTONEL (risendronate sodium) Tablets, 75 milligrams (mg),...

  9. Application of absorption modeling to predict bioequivalence outcome of two batches of etoricoxib tablets.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Amitava; Kesisoglou, Filippos; Dogterom, Peter

    2015-02-01

    As part of the overall product development and manufacturing strategy, pharmaceutical companies routinely change formulation and manufacturing site. Depending on the type and level of change and the BCS class of the molecule, dissolution data and/or bioequivalence (BE) may be needed to support the change for immediate release dosage forms. In this report, we demonstrate that for certain weakly basic low-solubility molecules which rapidly dissolve in the stomach, absorption modeling could be used to justify a BE study waiver even when there is failure to show dissolution similarity under some conditions. The development of an absorption model for etoricoxib is described here, which was then used to a priori predict the BE outcome of tablet batches manufactured at two sites. Dissolution studies in 0.01 N HCl media (pH 2.0) had demonstrated similarity of etoricoxib tablets manufactured at two different sites. However, dissolution testing at pH 4.5 and pH 6.8 media failed to show comparability of the tablets manufactured at the two sites. Single simulations and virtual trials conducted using the 0.01 N HCl dissolution showed similarity in AUC and C max for all tablet strengths for batches manufactured at the two manufacturing sites. These predicted results were verified in a definitive bioequivalence study, which showed that both tablet batches were bioequivalent. Since the development of traditional in vitro-in vivo correlations (IVIVC) for immediate release (IR) products is challenging, in cases such as etoricoxib, absorption modeling could be used as an alternative to support waiver of a BE study. PMID:25182387

  10. Bioequivalence Study of Atorvastatin Tablets in Healthy Pakistani Volunteers.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Sohail; Arshad, Usman; Abbass, Nasir; Parvez, Irfan; Abbas, Ghulam; Mahmood, Wajahat

    2015-01-01

    A two way, randomized cross-over bioequivalence study was conducted to analyse the rate and extent of absorption of atorvastatin after a single dose of 80 mg atorvastatin as atorvastatin calcium tablets. The study was carried out using healthy male volunteers (N = 24). A high performance liquid chromatography method was employed to determine the level of drug in human plasma. It was concluded that the test and the reference drug exhibited comparable values of pharmacokinetic parameters. It was also concluded that since there was no significant difference between the rate and extent of absorption of the drug from the test and the reference formulations: these two formulations could thus be declared bioequivalent. PMID:25679187

  11. Comparison of directly compressed vitamin B12 tablets prepared from micronized rotary-spun microfibers and cast films.

    PubMed

    Sebe, István; Bodai, Zsolt; Eke, Zsuzsanna; Kállai-Szabó, Barnabás; Szabó, Péter; Zelkó, Romána

    2015-01-01

    Fiber-based dosage forms are potential alternatives of conventional dosage forms from the point of the improved extent and rate of drug dissolution. Rotary-spun polymer fibers and cast films were prepared and micronized in order to direct compress after homogenization with tabletting excipients. Particle size distribution of powder mixtures of micronized fibers and films homogenized with tabletting excipients were determined by laser scattering particle size distribution analyzer. Powder rheological behavior of the mixtures containing micronized fibers and cast films was also compared. Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy was applied for the microstructural characterization of micronized fibers and films. The water-soluble vitamin B12 release from the compressed tablets was determined. It was confirmed that the rotary spinning method resulted in homogeneous supramolecularly ordered powder mixture, which was successfully compressed after homogenization with conventional tabletting excipients. The obtained directly compressed tablets showed uniform drug release of low variations. The results highlight the novel application of micronized rotary-spun fibers as intermediate for further processing reserving the original favorable powder characteristics of fibrous systems. PMID:25190153

  12. Posture, Musculoskeletal Activities, and Possible Musculoskeletal Discomfort Among Children Using Laptops or Tablet Computers for Educational Purposes: A Literature Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binbo?a, Elif; Korhan, Orhan

    2014-10-01

    Educational ergonomics focuses on the interaction between educational performance and educational design. By improving the design or pointing out the possible problems, educational ergonomics can be utilized to have positive impacts on the student performance and thus on education process. Laptops and tablet computers are becoming widely used by school children and beginning to be used effectively for educational purposes. As the latest generation of laptops and tablet computers are mobile and lightweight compared to conventional personal computers, they support student-centred interaction-based learning. However, these technologies have been introduced into schools with minimal adaptations to furniture or attention to ergonomics. There are increasing reports of an association between increased musculoskeletal (MSK) problems in children and use of such technologies. Although children are among the users of laptops and tablet computers both in their everyday lives and at schools, the literature investigating MSK activities and possible MSK discomfort regarding children using portable technologies is limited. This study reviews the literature to identify published studies that investigated posture, MSK activities, and possible MSK discomfort among children using mobile technologies (laptops or tablet computers) for educational purposes. An electronic search of the literature published in English between January 1994 and January 2014 was performed in several databases. The literature search terms were identified and combined to search the databases. The search results that the resources investigating MSK outcomes of laptop or tablet use of children are very scarce. This review points out the research gaps in this field, and identifying areas for future studies.

  13. Gastroretentive pulsatile release tablets of lercanidipine HCl: development, statistical optimization, and in vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Gagganapalli Santhoshi; Nayak, Usha Yogendra; Deshpande, Praful Balavant; Mutalik, Srinivas

    2014-01-01

    The present study was aimed at the development of gastroretentive floating pulsatile release tablets (FPRTs) of lercanidipine HCl to enhance the bioavailability and treat early morning surge in blood pressure. Immediate release core tablets containing lercanidipine HCl were prepared and optimized core tablets were compression-coated using buoyant layer containing polyethylene oxide (PEO) WSR coagulant, sodium bicarbonate, and directly compressible lactose. FPRTs were evaluated for various in vitro physicochemical parameters, drug-excipient compatibility, buoyancy, swelling, and release studies. The optimized FPRTs were tested in vivo in New Zealand white rabbits for buoyancy and pharmacokinetics. DoE optimization of data revealed FPRTs containing PEO (20%?w/w) with coat weight 480?mg were promising systems exhibiting good floating behavior and lag time in drug release. Abdominal X-ray imaging of rabbits after oral administration of the tablets, confirmed the floating behavior and lag time. A quadratic model was suggested for release at 7th and 12th?h and a linear model was suggested for release lag time. The FPRT formulation improved pharmacokinetic parameters compared to immediate release tablet formulation in terms of extent of absorption in rabbits. As the formulation showed delay in drug release both in vitro and in vivo, nighttime administration could be beneficial to reduce the cardiovascular complications due to early morning surge in blood pressure. PMID:25525619

  14. Radial basis function neural networks in non-destructive determination of compound aspirin tablets on NIR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Ying; Mi, Hong; Zhao, Lingzhi; Ren, Yuqiu; Ren, Yulin

    2006-09-01

    The application of the second most popular artificial neural networks (ANNs), namely, the radial basis function (RBF) networks, has been developed for quantitative analysis of drugs during the last decade. In this paper, the two components (aspirin and phenacetin) were simultaneously determined in compound aspirin tablets by using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and RBF networks. The total database was randomly divided into a training set (50) and a testing set (17). Different preprocessing methods (standard normal variate (SNV), multiplicative scatter correction (MSC), first-derivative and second-derivative) were applied to two sets of NIR spectra of compound aspirin tablets with different concentrations of two active components and compared each other. After that, the performance of RBF learning algorithm adopted the nearest neighbor clustering algorithm (NNCA) and the criterion for selection used a cross-validation technique. Results show that using RBF networks to quantificationally analyze tablets is reliable, and the best RBF model was obtained by first-derivative spectra.

  15. Does handwriting on a tablet screen affect students' graphomotor execution? A comparison between Grades Two and Nine.

    PubMed

    Alamargot, Denis; Morin, Marie-France

    2015-12-01

    We sought to ascertain how handwriting with a plastic-tipped pen on the screen of a digital tablet affects graphomotor execution in students, compared with handwriting on paper with a ballpoint pen. We predicted that the modification to propriokinesthetic feedback induced by the screen/plastic tip combination would differently disturb younger and older students, who rely on perceptual feedback either to form letters (former) or to adjust movement execution (latter). Twenty-eight students from Grades Two and Nine were asked to handwrite the alphabet and their names and surnames under the two conditions. Kinematics were recorded using the tablet, controlled by Eye and Pen software. Results showed that handwriting on the tablet surface with a plastic-tipped pen primarily affected pen pauses in the second graders and pen movements in the ninth graders, suggesting a disturbance in segment trajectory calculation in the younger participants and reduced control of muscular adjustment in the older children. PMID:26298215

  16. Changes in key constituents of clonally propagated Artemisia annua L. during preparation of compressed leaf tablets for possible therapeutic use

    PubMed Central

    Weathers, Pamela J.; Towler, Melissa J.

    2014-01-01

    Artemisia annua L., long used as a tea infusion in traditional Chinese medicine, produces artemisinin. Although artemisinin is currently used as artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) against malaria, oral consumption of dried leaves from the plant showed efficacy and will be less costly than ACT. Many compounds in the plant have some antimalarial activity. Unknown, however, is how these plant components change as leaves are processed into tablets for oral consumption. Here we compared extracts from fresh and dried leaf biomass with compressed leaf tablets of A. annua. Using GC-MS, nineteen endogenous compounds, including artemisinin and several of its pathway metabolites, nine flavonoids, three monoterpenes, a coumarin, and two phenolic acids, were identified and quantified from solvent extracts to determine how levels of these compounds changed during processing. Results showed that compared to dried leaves, artemisinin, arteannuin B, artemisinic acid, chlorogenic acid, scopoletin, chrysoplenetin, and quercetin increased or remained stable with powdering and compression into tablets. Dihydroartemisinic acid, monoterpenes, and chrysoplenol-D decreased with tablet formation. Five target compounds were not detectable in any of the extracts of this cultivar. In contrast to the individually measured aglycone flavonoids, using the AlCl3 method, total flavonoids increased nearly fivefold during the tablet formation. To our knowledge this is the first study documenting changes that occurred in processing dried leaves of A. annua into tablets. These results will improve our understanding of the potential use of not only this medicinal herb, but also others to afford better quality control of intact plant material for therapeutic use. PMID:25228784

  17. A Comparison of the Usage of Tablet PC, Lecture Capture, and Online Homework in an Introductory Chemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revell, Kevin D.

    2014-01-01

    Three emerging technologies were used in a large introductory chemistry class: a tablet PC, a lecture capture and replay software program, and an online homework program. At the end of the semester, student usage of the lecture replay and online homework systems was compared to course performance as measured by course grade and by a standardized…

  18. Spelling Practice Intervention: A Comparison of Tablet PC and Picture Cards as Spelling Practice Methods for Students with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seok, Soonhwa; DaCosta, Boaventura; Yu, Byeong Min

    2015-01-01

    The present study compared a spelling practice intervention using a tablet personal computer (PC) and picture cards with three students diagnosed with developmental disabilities. An alternating-treatments design with a non-concurrent multiple-baseline across participants was used. The aims of the present study were: (a) to determine if…

  19. Usability Evaluation of Eye Tracking on an Unmodified Common Tablet

    E-print Network

    Oleg, Komogortsev - Department of Computer Science, Texas State University

    Usability Evaluation of Eye Tracking on an Unmodified Common Tablet Abstract This paper describes the design, implementation, and usability evaluation of a neural network based eye tracking system on an unmodified common tablet and discusses the challenges and implications of neural networks as an eye tracking

  20. 21 CFR 520.2150b - Stanozolol chewable tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Stanozolol chewable tablets. 520.2150b Section 520.2150b Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2150b Stanozolol chewable tablets. (a) Specifications....

  1. 21 CFR 520.390a - Chloramphenicol tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Chloramphenicol tablets. 520.390a Section 520.390a... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.390a Chloramphenicol tablets... chloramphenicol. (2) Sponsor. In § 510.600(c) of this chapter: No. 000010 for 100-, 250-, and 500-milligram and...

  2. 21 CFR 520.390a - Chloramphenicol tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chloramphenicol tablets. 520.390a Section 520.390a... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.390a Chloramphenicol tablets... chloramphenicol. (2) Sponsor. In § 510.600(c) of this chapter: No. 000010 for 100-, 250-, and 500-milligram and...

  3. 21 CFR 520.62 - Aminopentamide hydrogen sulphate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aminopentamide hydrogen sulphate tablets. 520.62 Section 520.62 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Aminopentamide hydrogen sulphate tablets. (a) Chemical name. 4-(Dimethylamino)-2,2-diphenylvaleramide...

  4. 21 CFR 520.62 - Aminopentamide hydrogen sulphate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aminopentamide hydrogen sulphate tablets. 520.62 Section 520.62 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Aminopentamide hydrogen sulphate tablets. (a) Chemical name. 4-(Dimethylamino)-2,2-diphenylvaleramide...

  5. 21 CFR 520.62 - Aminopentamide hydrogen sulphate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aminopentamide hydrogen sulphate tablets. 520.62 Section 520.62 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Aminopentamide hydrogen sulphate tablets. (a) Chemical name. 4-(Dimethylamino)-2,2-diphenylvaleramide...

  6. 21 CFR 520.62 - Aminopentamide hydrogen sulphate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aminopentamide hydrogen sulphate tablets. 520.62 Section 520.62 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Aminopentamide hydrogen sulphate tablets. (a) Chemical name. 4-(Dimethylamino)-2,2-diphenylvaleramide...

  7. 21 CFR 520.446 - Clindamycin capsules and tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... capsules and tablets. (a) Specifications(1) Each capsule contains the equivalent of 25, 75, 150, or 300 milligrams (mg) clindamycin as the hydrochloride salt. (2) Each tablet contains the equivalent of 25, 75, or 150 mg clindamycin as the hydrochloride salt. (3) Each capsule contains the equivalent of 25, 75,...

  8. Tableau Economique: Teaching Economics with a Tablet Computer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Robert H., III

    2011-01-01

    The typical method of instruction in economics is chalk and talk. Economics courses often require writing equations and drawing graphs and charts, which are all best done in freehand. Unlike static PowerPoint presentations, tablet computers create dynamic nonlinear presentations. Wireless technology allows professors to write on their tablets and…

  9. 21 CFR 520.446 - Clindamycin capsules and tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Clindamycin capsules and tablets. 520.446 Section 520.446 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.446 Clindamycin capsules and tablets. (a)...

  10. 21 CFR 520.1284 - Sodium liothyronine tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium liothyronine tablets. 520.1284 Section 520.1284 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1284 Sodium liothyronine tablets. (a) Specifications....

  11. 21 CFR 520.62 - Aminopentamide hydrogen sulphate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aminopentamide hydrogen sulphate tablets. 520.62 Section 520.62 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Aminopentamide hydrogen sulphate tablets. (a) Chemical name. 4-(Dimethylamino)-2,2-diphenylvaleramide...

  12. Luminescent ecstasy tablets. Authentication tool or cunning marketing tactic?

    PubMed

    Cox, M; Cook, M

    2015-04-01

    Forensic Science SA (FSSA) in combination with South Australia Police (SAPOL) has detected luminescent ecstasy tablets. This paper examines the emergence of luminescent ecstasy tablets and their potential role as an extra level of authentication for the user and/or as a marketing tactic aligned with their use at glow parties. PMID:25701154

  13. 21 CFR 520.1445 - Milbemycin oxime tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Milbemycin oxime tablets. 520.1445 Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1445 Milbemycin oxime... milbemycin oxime. (2) Cats. Each tablet contains 5.75, 11.5, or 23.0 milligrams of milbemycin oxime....

  14. 21 CFR 520.1445 - Milbemycin oxime tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Milbemycin oxime tablets. 520.1445 Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1445 Milbemycin oxime... milbemycin oxime. (2) Cats. Each tablet contains 5.75, 11.5, or 23.0 milligrams of milbemycin oxime....

  15. 21 CFR 520.1445 - Milbemycin oxime tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Milbemycin oxime tablets. 520.1445 Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1445 Milbemycin oxime... milbemycin oxime. (2) Cats. Each tablet contains 5.75, 11.5, or 23.0 milligrams of milbemycin oxime....

  16. 21 CFR 520.2610 - Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine tablets. 520.2610 Section 520.2610 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2610 Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine tablets....

  17. 21 CFR 520.434 - Chlorphenesin carbamate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chlorphenesin carbamate tablets. 520.434 Section 520.434 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.434 Chlorphenesin carbamate tablets. (a) Specifications....

  18. Commentary: Tablet PCs--Lightweights with a Teaching Punch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parslow, Graham R.

    2010-01-01

    Tablet (or slate) computers are a group of small portable computers that have two features in common, a touch screen and wireless connectivity to the web. At the 2010 Consumer Electronics show held in January in Las Vegas, this category of product caused the greatest interest ahead of the release of the Apple iPad (www.cesweb.org). The tablet PC…

  19. 21 CFR 520.1341 - Megestrol acetate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Megestrol acetate tablets. 520.1341 Section 520.1341 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1341 Megestrol acetate tablets. (a) Specifications. Each...

  20. Quantifying Curiosity and Exploratory Play on Touchscreen Tablets

    E-print Network

    Makous, Walter

    exploration changes as children mature, and how experience with touch- screen tablets affectsQuantifying Curiosity and Exploratory Play on Touchscreen Tablets Madeline Pelz1 , Amanda Yung1, Rochester, NY {mpelz, ckidd}@bcs.rochester.edu, ayung@cvs.rochester.edu ABSTRACT Children are driven

  1. Active Reading Behaviors in Tablet-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palilonis, Jennifer; Bolchini, Davide

    2015-01-01

    Active reading is fundamental to learning. However, there is little understanding about whether traditional active reading frameworks sufficiently characterize how learners study multimedia tablet textbooks. This paper explores the nature of active reading in the tablet environment through a qualitative study that engaged 30 students in an active…

  2. Liuweiwuling tablets attenuate acetaminophen-induced acute liver injury and promote liver regeneration in mice

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Yan-Chang; Li, Wen; Luo, Pan

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To explore the mechanism of protection against acetaminophen-induced acute liver injury by Liuweiwuling tablets. METHODS: Intraperitoneal injections of acetaminophen (250 mg/kg) were used to induce acute liver injury in male C57BL/6 mice. A total of 24 healthy mice were randomly assigned to two groups: an acute liver injury group (control group) and a Liuweiwuling tablet group. Mice were given Liuweiwuling tablets or a vehicle (PBS) orally prior to the administration of acetaminophen. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransaminase (AST) levels were measured at different time points within one week, and pathological examinations of liver tissues were performed 36 h after induction of acute liver injury. Serum inflammatory cytokines, such as high mobility group box protein B1 (HMGB1), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and interleukin IL-1?, were detected using an ELISA method according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Hepatic morphological changes at 36 h were assessed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in liver tissue was determined by Western blot analysis. The mRNA levels of hepatocyte proliferation markers (PCNA, CyclinD1 and p21) were detected by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: The levels of ALT/AST in the Liuweiwuling tablet group were decreased significantly at 6, 12 and 24 h compared to that of the control group (654.38 ± 120.87 vs 1566.17 ± 421.64, 1154.18 ± 477.72 vs 4654.84 ± 913.71 and 935.13 ± 252.34 vs 4553.75 ± 727.37, P < 0.01). Serum HMGB1 levels at 6 and 12 h for the Liuweiwuling tablet group were significantly lower than those of the control group (23.49 ± 3.89 vs 58.6 ± 3.65, 61.62 ± 13.07 vs 27.32 ± 5.97, P < 0.01). Furthermore, serum TNF-? and IL-1? levels at 12 h in the Liuweiwuling tablet group were also significantly lower than those of the control group (299.35 ± 50.61 vs 439.03 ± 63.59, 57.42 ± 12.98 vs 160.07 ± 49.87, P < 0.01). Centrilobular necrosis was evident in liver tissue of mice with acetaminophen-induced acute liver injury, but was almost abolished in the Liuweiwuling tablet group. The expression levels of PCNA and CyclinD1 were up-regulated in liver tissue in the Liuweiwuling tablet group (321.08 ± 32.87 vs 157.91 ± 21.52, 196.37 ± 25.39 vs 68.72 ± 11.27, P < 0.01); however, expression of p21 in liver tissue was down-regulated compared to that of the control group (40.26 ± 9.97 vs 138.24 ± 13.66, P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Liuweiwuling tablets can attenuate acute liver injury by decreasing inflammatory cytokine (HMGB1, TNF-? and IL-1?) levels and promoting liver regeneration. PMID:26185380

  3. Optimization of budesonide compression-coated tablets for colonic delivery.

    PubMed

    Yehia, Soad A; Elshafeey, Ahmed H; Sayed, Ibrahim; Shehata, Ahmed H

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to formulate budesonide (BUD) compression-coated tablets for colonic specific delivery. Pectin and guar gum were used as enzyme-dependent polymers. For comparison purposes, both pH- and time-dependent polymers were also tried. In vitro release studies were carried out at different pH (1.2, 6.8, and 7.4). Therapeutic efficacy of the prepared tablets compared to commercially available capsules and enema were evaluated in trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid-induced rabbit colitis model. In pH-dependent polymers, Eudragit (EUD) S100/EUD L100 (1:1) released 45.58% in the target area (colon). For time-dependent polymers, decreasing cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) ratio increased the release in both pH 6.8 and 7.4 till it reached 40.58% and 93.65%, respectively, for 25% CAB. In enzyme-dependent polymers, increasing pectin ratio to 75% retarded the release (4.59% in pH 6.8 and 54.45% in pH 7.4) which was significantly enhanced to 99.31% using pectinolytic enzyme. Formula F14 coated with 75% pectin significantly reduced the inflammatory cells in the connective tissue core of the colon of the treated group and significantly decreased myeloperoxidase activity (3.90 U/g tissue weight). This study proved that BUD compression-coated with 75% pectin may be beneficial in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:19199041

  4. Spectrophotometric Estimation of Risperidone in Tablets

    PubMed Central

    Jayanna, B. K.; Devaraj, T. D.; Roopa, K. P.; Nagendrappa, G.; Kumar, H. R. Arun; Gowda, N.

    2014-01-01

    A simple, rapid and highly sensitive spectrophotometric method is developed for the determination of risperidone in tablet formulation. The method is based on the oxidation of drug using potassium permanganate in alkaline medium and excess potassium permanganate oxidizes 1,10-phenanthroline Fe(II). The measurement of decrease in absorbance of 1,10-phenanthroline Fe (II) was done at 415 nm. The beer's law is obeyed in the concentration range of 5.0 to 40.0 ?g/ml and molar absorptivity is found to be 7.3932 × 104 l/mol/cm. The proposed method is well suited for the pharmaceutical formulations. PMID:25425761

  5. Ondansetron

    MedlinePLUS

    ... by your doctor.If you are taking the rapidly disintegrating tablet, remove the tablet from the package just before ... of reach of children. Store the tablets and rapidly disintegrating tablets away from light, at room temperature or in ...

  6. Hardness and Density Distributions of Pharmaceutical Tablets Measured by Terahertz Pulsed Imaging

    E-print Network

    Elliott, James

    Hardness and Density Distributions of Pharmaceutical Tablets Measured by Terahertz Pulsed Imaging) as a novel tool to quantify the hard- ness and surface density distribution of pharmaceutical tablets. Good these relate to tablet hardness. Numerical simulations of tablet surface density distribu- tion by finite

  7. A Tablet Computer for Young Children? Exploring Its Viability for Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Couse, Leslie J.; Chen, Dora W.

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the viability of tablet computers in early education by investigating preschool children's ease in acclimating to tablet technology and its defectiveness in engaging them to draw. A total of 41 three- to six-year-old children were videotaped while they used the tablets. The study found significant differences in level of tablet

  8. Quantification of atorvastatin calcium in tablets by FT-Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Mazurek, Sylwester; Szostak, Roman

    2009-01-15

    The FT-Raman quantification of atorvastatin calcium in tablets was performed using the partial least squares (PLS), principal component regression (PCR) and counter-propagation artificial neural networks (CP-ANN) methods. To compare the predictive abilities of the elaborated models, the relative standard errors of prediction (RSEP) were calculated. The application of PLS, PCR and 6x6 CP-ANN provided models of comparable quality. RSEP error values in the range of 1.9-2.8% for calibration and validation data sets were obtained for the three procedures applied. Four commercial products containing 10, 20 or 40 mg of atorvastatin calcium per tablet were successfully quantified. Concentrations found from the Raman data analysis correlate strongly with the declared values, with a recovery of 98.5-101.3%, and with the results of reference analysis, with the recovery of 98.9-102.1%, for the different models. The proposed procedure can be a fast, precise and convenient method of atorvastatin calcium quantification in commercial tablets. PMID:19062220

  9. Tablets and minitablets prepared from spray-dried SMEDDS containing naproxen.

    PubMed

    ?erpnjak, Katja; Pobirk, Alenka Zvonar; Vre?er, Franc; Gašperlin, Mirjana

    2015-11-10

    The purpose of this study was to compare different solidification techniques (i.e., adsorption technique, spray-drying process, high-shear granulation, fluid-bed granulation) for preparing solid SMEDDS powders by using solid carriers identified as appropriate and to produce a single (tablets) or multiunit (minitablets) solid dosage form based on prepared solid SMEDDS loaded with naproxen in a dissolved (6% w/w) or supersaturated (18% w/w) state. Among the solidification techniques and carriers tested, the powders produced using the spray-drying process and maltodextrin (MD) as a carrier exhibited the best self-microemulsifying properties, comparable with liquid SMEDDS. Furthermore, DoE (Design of Experiments) showed that pressure at the nozzle and pump speed (regulating feed flow rate) applied during spray drying had a major and significant influence on self-microemulsifying properties (mean droplet size and PDI) of the solid SMEDDS prepared. Furthermore, it was shown that compression of solid SMEDDS into (mini) tablets influences its self-microemulsifying properties in a negative direction. This resulted in lowering the dissolution profile of naproxen from tablets and minitablets in comparison with liquid and solid SMEDDS. However, all compressed SMEDDS formulations still had considerable influence on the dissolution profile and solubility enhancement of naproxen. PMID:26341323

  10. Simulation and mathematical analyses of AC electric field driven apoptosis via microtubule disintegration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Pawan K.

    2015-09-01

    The moderate intensity alternating current electric fields with frequencies ranging between a few tens of kilohertz and a few tens of megahertz, also known as tumor treating fields (TTFs) are utilized as a modality in the electrotherapeutic treatment of the cancer cells. The application of sub-MHz TTF on the cancer cell results in the inducement of higher electric field at the furrow between the daughter cells, and such apoptosis stimulating phenomenon is investigated through the Maxwell two-dimensional (2D) finite element simulations. A furrow distance of the order of size of the nucleus accounts for the intense electric field inducement disintegrating the microtubule via the processes of its surface disruption and tubulin dimer detachment. A simulation and mathematical analyses of the microtubule disintegration mechanism is formulated to ascertain one of the factors causing an apoptosis of the cancer cells, and consequently checking their proliferation.

  11. Tissue tablet method: an efficient tissue banking procedure applicable to both molecular analysis and frozen tissue microarray.

    PubMed

    Torata, Nobuhiro; Ohuchida, Kenoki; Akagawa, Shin; Cui, Lin; Kozono, Shingo; Mizumoto, Kazuhiro; Aishima, Shinichi; Oda, Yoshinao; Tanaka, Masao

    2014-01-01

    Frozen human tissues are necessary for research purposes, but tissue banking methods have not changed for more than a decade. Many institutions use cryovial tubes or plastic molds with an optimal cutting temperature compound. However, these methods are associated with several problems, such as samples sticking to one another and the need for a larger storing space. We established an efficient tissue freezing and storing procedure ("tissue tablet method") applicable to both molecular analysis and frozen tissue microarray. Tissue samples were chopped into tiny fragments and embedded into tablet-shaped frozen optimal cutting temperature compound using our original tissue-freezing plate. These tablets can be sectioned and stored in cryovial tubes. We compared the tissue quality of tablet-shaped samples with that of conventional optimal cutting temperature blocks and found no significant difference between them. Tissue microarray is a key method to utilize tissue-banking specimens. However, most tissue microarrays require the coring out of cylindrically shaped tissues from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue blocks. Antigenic changes and mRNA degradation are frequently observed with formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples. Therefore, we have applied tablet-shaped samples to construct frozen tissue microarrays with our original mounting base. Constructed tissue microarray sections showed good morphology without obvious artifact and good immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization results. These results suggest that the quality of arrayed samples was sufficiently appropriate for research purposes. In conclusion, the tissue tablet method and frozen tissue microarray procedure can save time, provides easy tissue handling and processing, and satisfies the demands of research methodologies and tissue banking. PMID:24321523

  12. Tablet-Based Strength-Balance Training to Motivate and Improve Adherence to Exercise in Independently Living Older People: Part 2 of a Phase II Preclinical Exploratory Trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Home-based exercise programs can improve physical functioning and health status of elderly people. Successful implementation of exercise interventions for older people presents major challenges and supporting elderly people properly while doing their home-based exercises is essential for training success. We developed a tablet-based system—ActiveLifestyle—that offers older adults a home-based strength-balance training program with incorporated motivation strategies and support features. Objective The goal was to compare 3 different home-based training programs with respect to their effect on measures of gait quality and physical performance through planned comparisons between (1) tablet-based and brochure-based interventions, (2) individual and social motivation strategies, and (3) active and inactive participants. Methods A total of 44 autonomous-living elderly people (mean 75, SD 6 years) were assigned to 3 training groups: social (tablet guided, n=14), individual (tablet guided, n=13), and brochure (brochure guided, n=17). All groups joined a 12-week progressive home-based strength-balance training program. Outcome measures were gait performance under single and dual task conditions, dual task costs of walking, falls efficacy, and physical performance as measured by the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB). Furthermore, active (?75% program compliance) and inactive (<75% program compliance) individuals were compared based on their characteristics and outcome measures. Results The tablet groups showed significant improvements in single and dual task walking, whereas there were no significant changes observable in the brochure group. Between-groups comparisons revealed significant differences for gait velocity (U=138.5; P=.03, r=.33) and cadence (U=138.5, P=.03 r=.34) during dual task walking at preferred speed in favor of the tablet groups. The brochure group had more inactive participants, but this did not reach statistical significance (U=167, P=.06, r=.29). The active participants outperformed the inactive participants in single and dual task walking, dual task costs of walking, and SPPB scores. Significant between-groups differences were seen between the tablet groups and the brochure group, in favor of the tablet groups. Conclusions A tablet-based strength-balance training program that allows monitoring and assisting autonomous-living older adults while training at home was more effective in improving gait and physical performance when compared to a brochure-based program. Social or individual motivation strategies were equally effective. The most prominent differences were observed between active and inactive participants. These findings suggest that in older adults a tablet-based intervention enhances training compliance; hence, it is an effective way to improve gait. PMID:24966165

  13. Tamarindus indica pectin blend film composition for coating tablets with enhanced adhesive force strength.

    PubMed

    Khurana, Rajneet; Singh, Kuldeep; Sapra, Bharti; Tiwary, A K; Rana, Vikas

    2014-02-15

    Tablet coating is the most useful method to improve tablet texture, odour and mask taste. Thus, the present investigation was aimed at developing an industrially acceptable aqueous tablet coating material. The physico-chemical, electrical and SEM investigations ensures that blending of Tamarindus indica (Linn.) pectin (TP) with chitosan gives water resistant film texture. Therefore, CH-TP (60:40) spray coated tablets were prepared. The evaluation of CH-TP coated tablets showed enhanced adhesive force strength (between tablet surface to coat) and negligible cohesive force strength (between two tablets) both evaluated using texture analyzer. The comparison of CH-TP coated tablets with Eudragit coated tablets further supported superiority of the former material. Thus, the findings pointed towards the potential of CH-TP for use as a tablet coating material in food as well as pharmaceutical industry. PMID:24507255

  14. Multiwavelength observations of the candidate disintegrating sub-Mercury KIC 12557548B , ,

    SciTech Connect

    Croll, Bryce; Rappaport, Saul; Levine, Alan M.; DeVore, John; Gilliland, Ronald L.; Star, Kimberly M.; Crepp, Justin R.; Howard, Andrew W.; Chiang, Eugene; Jenkins, Jon M.; Bonomo, Aldo S.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Isaacson, Howard

    2014-05-10

    We present multiwavelength photometry, high angular resolution imaging, and radial velocities of the unique and confounding disintegrating low-mass planet candidate KIC 12557548b. Our high angular resolution imaging, which includes space-based Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 (HST/WFC3) observations in the optical (?0.53 ?m and ?0.77 ?m), and ground-based Keck/NIRC2 observations in K' band (?2.12 ?m), allow us to rule out background and foreground candidates at angular separations greater than 0.''2 that are bright enough to be responsible for the transits we associate with KIC 12557548. Our radial velocity limit from Keck/HIRES allows us to rule out bound, low-mass stellar companions (?0.2 M {sub ?}) to KIC 12557548 on orbits less than 10 yr, as well as placing an upper limit on the mass of the candidate planet of 1.2 Jupiter masses; therefore, the combination of our radial velocities, high angular resolution imaging, and photometry are able to rule out most false positive interpretations of the transits. Our precise multiwavelength photometry includes two simultaneous detections of the transit of KIC 12557548b using Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope/Wide-field InfraRed Camera (CFHT/WIRCam) at 2.15 ?m and the Kepler space telescope at 0.6 ?m, as well as simultaneous null-detections of the transit by Kepler and HST/WFC3 at 1.4 ?m. Our simultaneous HST/WFC3 and Kepler null-detections provide no evidence for radically different transit depths at these wavelengths. Our simultaneous CFHT/WIRCam detections in the near-infrared and with Kepler in the optical reveal very similar transit depths (the average ratio of the transit depths at ?2.15 ?m compared with ?0.6 ?m is: 1.02 ± 0.20). This suggests that if the transits we observe are due to scattering from single-size particles streaming from the planet in a comet-like tail, then the particles must be ?0.5 ?m in radius or larger, which would favor that KIC 12557548b is a sub-Mercury rather than super-Mercury mass planet.

  15. Analysis and interpretation of 15 quarters of Kepler data of the disintegrating planet KIC 12557548 b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Werkhoven, T. I. M.; Brogi, M.; Snellen, I. A. G.; Keller, C. U.

    2014-01-01

    Context. The Kepler object KIC 12557548 shows irregular eclipsing behaviour with a constant 15.685 h period, but strongly varying transit depth. The object responsible for this is believed to be a disintegrating planet forming a trailing dust cloud transiting the star. A 1D model of an exponentially decaying dust tail was found to reproduce the average eclipse in intricate detail. Based on radiative hydrodynamic modelling, the upper limit for the planet mass was found to be twice the mass of the Moon. Aims: In this paper we fit individual eclipses, in addition to fitting binned light curves, to learn more about the process underlying the eclipse depth variation. Additionally, we put forward observational constraints that any model of this planet-star system will have to match. Methods: We manually de-correlated and de-trended 15 quarters of Kepler data, three of which were observed in short cadence mode. We determined the transit depth, egress depth, and stellar intensity for each orbit and search for dependencies between these parameters. We investigated the full orbit by comparing the flux distribution of a moving phase window of interest versus the out-of-eclipse flux distribution. We fit short cadence data on a per-orbit basis using a two-parameter tail model, allowing us to investigate potential dust tail property variations. Results: We find two quiescent spells of ~30 orbital periods each where the transit depth is <0.1%, followed by relatively deep transits. Additionally, we find periods of on-off behaviour where >0.5% deep transits are followed by apparently no transit at all. Apart from these isolated events we find neither significant correlation between consecutive transit depths nor a correlation between transit depth and stellar intensity. We find a three-sigma upper limit for the secondary eclipse of 4.9 × 10-5, consistent with a planet candidate with a radius of less than 4600 km. Using the short cadence data we find that a 1D exponential dust tail model is insufficient to explain the data. We improved our model to a 2D, two-component dust model with an opaque core and an exponential tail. Using this model we fit individual eclipses observed in short cadence mode. We find an improved fit of the data, quantifying earlier suggestions by Budaj (2013, A&A, 557, A72) of the necessity of at least two components. We find that deep transits have most absorption in the tail, and not in a disk-shaped, opaque coma, but the transit depth and the total absorption show no correlation with the tail length.

  16. Study of Spray Disintegration in Accelerating Flow Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nurick, W. H.

    1972-01-01

    An analytical and experimental investigation was conducted to perform "proof of principlem experiments to establish the effects of propellant combustion gas velocity on propella'nt atomization characteristics. The propellants were gaseous oxygen (GOX) and Shell Wax 270. The fuel was thus the same fluid used in earlier primary cold-flow atomization studies using the frozen wax method. Experiments were conducted over a range in L* (30 to 160 inches) at two contraction ratios (2 and 6). Characteristic exhaust velocity (c*) efficiencies varied from SO to 90 percent. The hot fire experimental performance characteristics at a contraction ratio of 6.0 in conjunction with analytical predictions from the drovlet heat-up version of the Distributed Energy Release (DER) combustion computer proDam showed that the apparent initial dropsize compared well with cold-flow predictions (if adjusted for the gas velocity effects). The results also compared very well with the trend in perfomnce as predicted with the model. significant propellant wall impingement at the contraction ratio of 2.0 precluded complete evaluation of the effect of gross changes in combustion gas velocity on spray dropsize.

  17. Two Distinct Steps for Spontaneous Generation of Subprotoplasts from a Disintegrated Bryopsis Cell

    PubMed Central

    Pak, Jun Yong; Solorzano, Carmen; Arai, Masayoshi; Nitta, Takeshi

    1991-01-01

    The unusual nature of protoplasm to generate subprotoplasts spontaneously from disintegrated Bryopsis cells was examined. Protoplasm extruded from algal cells aggregated rapidly in cell sap which was derived mainly from huge central vacuoles of the cells. Electron microscopic observations revealed extensive agglutination of algal cellular membranes in the protoplasmic masses, suggesting that this is of primary importance for the wound-healing ability of the alga. Seawater caused spheration of the resultant protoplasmic aggregates. Gelatinous sheaths were formed temporarily surrounding the spherical protoplasmic masses before reformation of cell membrane. Staining with phosphotungstic and chromic acids suggested that new cell membrane was formed by fusion of the disintegrated original cell membrane with cytoplasmic vesicles on the surfaces of the protoplasmic masses. Both pH and salts were found to be essentially important at the two steps of subprotoplast generation. The newly formed cell membranes were responsible for subsequent notable plasmolysis of the wounded cells in seawater. Thus, it is suggested that unicellular marine algae Bryopsis spp. naturally contain effective materials for agglutinating and fusing particular cellular membranes through the sequential aid of acidic cell sap and alkaline seawater after disintegration of the giant cells. ImagesFigure 1Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6 PMID:16668259

  18. Findings from Microgravity Experiments on Low-Speed Water Jet Disintegration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umemura, Akira; Kawanabe, Sho; Kojika, Hiroshi; Chen, Feng; Shinjo, Junji

    To validate our proposed atomization theory, a series of microgravity experiments were conducted for a water jet issued into an otherwise quiescent atmosphere. The present paper reports findings from the case of liquid Weber number being nearly equal to unity. The water contained in a syringe is pushed by a piston which moves at a constant speed. The initial overshoot of liquid issue speed produces a long water column, whose length is reduced at every instant of subsequent disintegration interacting with the nozzle exit. The balance between tip contraction speed and liquid issue speed, which is attained by the selection of the Weber number, enables us to observe the disintegration process in detail. It is revealed that the short-wave breakup mechanism is characterized as the local destabilization which takes place at the short neck part bridging the tip bulb and the upstream high pressure crest part and that the neck maintains the nature of propagative capillary wave until a final stage of disintegration.

  19. A novel rotation generator of hydrodynamic cavitation for waste-activated sludge disintegration.

    PubMed

    Petkovšek, Martin; Mlakar, Matej; Levstek, Marjetka; Stražar, Marjeta; Širok, Brane; Dular, Matevž

    2015-09-01

    The disintegration of raw sludge is very important for enhancement of the biogas production in anaerobic digestion process as it provides easily degradable substrate for microorganisms to perform maximum sludge treatment efficiency and stable digestion of sludge at lower costs. In the present study the disintegration was studied by using a novel rotation generator of hydrodynamic cavitation (RGHC). At the first stage the analysis of hydrodynamics of the RGHC were made with tap water, where the cavitation extent and aggressiveness was evaluated. At the second stage RGHC was used as a tool for pretreatment of a waste-activated sludge (WAS), collected from wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). In case of WAS the disintegration rate was measured, where the soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) and soluble Kjeldahl nitrogen were monitored and microbiological pictures were taken. The SCOD increased from initial 45 mg/L up to 602 mg/L and 12.7% more biogas has been produced by 20 passes through RGHC. The results were obtained on a pilot bioreactor plant, volume of 400 L. PMID:25596776

  20. Capsule shell material impacts the in vitro disintegration and dissolution behaviour of a green tea extract?

    PubMed Central

    Glube, Natalie; Moos, Lea von; Duchateau, Guus

    2013-01-01

    Purpose In vitro disintegration and dissolution are routine methods used to assess the performance and quality of oral dosage forms. The purpose of the current work was to determine the potential for interaction between capsule shell material and a green tea extract and the impact it can have on the release. Methods A green tea extract was formulated into simple powder-in-capsule formulations of which the capsule shell material was either of gelatin or HPMC origin. The disintegration times were determined together with the dissolution profiles in compendial and biorelevant media. Results All formulations disintegrated within 30?min, meeting the USP criteria for botanical formulations. An immediate release dissolution profile was achieved for gelatin capsules in all media but not for the specified HPMC formulations. Dissolution release was especially impaired for HPMCgell at pH 1.2 and for both HPMC formulations in FeSSIF media suggesting the potential for food interactions. Conclusions The delayed release from studied HPMC capsule materials is likely attributed to an interaction between the catechins, the major constituents of the green tea extract, and the capsule shell material. An assessment of in vitro dissolution is recommended prior to the release of a dietary supplement or clinical trial investigational product to ensure efficacy. PMID:25755998