The present work was aimed at formulation development, evaluation and comparative study of the effects of superdisintegrants in Cefixime 50 mg oral disintegrating tablets. The superdisintegrants used for the present study were sodium starch glycolate and crosscarmellose sodium. The formulated tablets were evaluated for various tableting properties, like hardness, thickness, friability, weight variation, disintegration time and dissolution rate. Comparative evaluation of the above-mentioned parameters established the superiority of the tablets formulated with crosscarmellose sodium to those formulated with sodium starch glycolate.
Remya, KS; Beena, P; Bijesh, PV; Sheeba, A
Drug delivery systems are becoming increasingly sophisticated as pharmaceutical scientists acquire a better understanding of the physicochemical and biochemical parameters pertinent to their performance. Over the past three decades, orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) have gained considerable attention as a preferred alternative to conventional tablets and capsules due to better patient compliance. ODTs are solid dosage forms containing medicinal substances which
Jaysukh J Hirani; Dhaval A Rathod; Kantilal R Vadalia
This guidance provides pharmaceutical manufacturers of new and generic drug products with an Agency perspective on the definition of an orally disintegrating tablet (ODT)which is a different dosage form than, for example, a chewable tablet or a tablet tha...
Nisoldipine is a calcium channel blocker with low and variable oral bioavailability. This was attributed to slow dissolution and presystemic metabolism. Accordingly, the objective of this work was to enhance the dissolution rate of nisoldipine to formulate fast disintegrating tablets with rapid dissolution. Binary solid dispersions (SD) were prepared for the drug with hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose E5 (HPMC), polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), Pluronic F68 or polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG 6000). SD formation increased the dissolution rate compared to pure drug with the corresponding physical mixtures failing to provide the same dissolution enhancement. This indicates that the SD enhanced dissolution is not due to the solubilizing effect of the polymer and can be due to physical change in the drug crystal which was confirmed by thermal analysis. SD with HPMC and PVP were selected for preparation of fast disintegrating tablets as they liberated most of the drug in the first 5?min. HPMC-based tablets disintegrated rapidly and released most of the drug in the first 2?min which correlated with the corresponding SD. In contrast, PVP-based tablets disintegrated slowly with gradual dissolution. This can be attributed to the binding effect of PVP. The study developed fast disintegrating tablet for intra-oral administration. PMID:23841582
El Maghraby, Gamal M; Elsergany, Ramy N
In the present study, fast disintegrating tablets were designed with a view to enhance patient compliance. In this method, the hull of Hordeum vulgare, cross carmellose sodium, and sodium starch glycolate were used as superdisintegrants (4 and 6%), along with microcrystalline cellulose and mannitol, to enhance mouth feel. The prepared batches of tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, drug content uniformity, wetting time, water absorption ratio and in vitro dispersion time. Based on the in vitro dispersion time, the formulations were tested for the in vitro drug release pattern. Tablets having H. vulgare hull showed the release profile comparable to those tablets having sodium starch glycolate and cross carmellose sodium. PMID:21897660
Rajpurohit, H; Sharma, P; Sharma, S; Purohit, S; Bhandari, A
In the present study, fast disintegrating tablets were designed with a view to enhance patient compliance. In this method, the hull of Hordeum vulgare, cross carmellose sodium, and sodium starch glycolate were used as superdisintegrants (4 and 6%), along with microcrystalline cellulose and mannitol, to enhance mouth feel. The prepared batches of tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, drug content uniformity, wetting time, water absorption ratio and in vitro dispersion time. Based on the in vitro dispersion time, the formulations were tested for the in vitro drug release pattern. Tablets having H. vulgare hull showed the release profile comparable to those tablets having sodium starch glycolate and cross carmellose sodium.
Rajpurohit, H; Sharma, P; Sharma, S; Purohit, S; Bhandari, A
The aims of the present research were to mask the intensely bitter taste of sumatriptan succinate and to formulate orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) of the taste masked drug. Taste masking was performed by coating sumatriptan succinate with Eudragit EPO using spray drying technique. The resultant microspheres were evaluated for thermal analysis, yield, particle size, entrapment efficiency and in vitro taste masking. The tablets were formulated by mixing the taste masked microspheres with different types and concentrations of superdisintegrants and compressed using direct compression method followed by sublimation technique. The prepared tablets were evaluated for weight variation, thickness, hardness, friability, drug content, water content, in vitro disintegration time and in vitro drug release. All the tablet formulations disintegrated in vitro within 37-410 s. The optimized formulation containing 5% Kollidon CL-SF released more than 90% of the drug within 15 min and the release was comparable to that of commercial product (Suminat®). In human volunteers, the optimized formulation was found to have a pleasant taste and mouth feel and disintegrated in the oral cavity within 41 s. The optimized formulation was found to be stable and bioequivalent with Suminat®. PMID:21804234
Sheshala, Ravi; Khan, Nurzalina; Darwis, Yusrida
The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of disintegration mechanism of various types of disintegrants on the absorption ratio (AR), wetting time (WT), and disintegration time (DT) of orodispersible tablets (ODTs). ODTs were prepared by direct compression using mannitol as filler and disintegrants selected from a range of swellable, osmotic, and porous disintegrants. Tablets formed were characterized for their water AR, WT, and DT. The porosity and mechanical strength of the tablets were also measured. Results show that the DT of formulated ODTs was directly related to the WT and was a function of the disintegration mechanism of the disintegrant used. The lowest WT and DT were observed for tablets formulated using the osmotic disintegrant sodium citrate and these tablets also showed the lowest AR and porosity. The wetting and disintegration of tablets containing the highly swellable disintegrant, sodium starch glycollate, was slowest despite their high water AR and high tablet porosity. Rapid wetting and disintegration of ODTs were therefore not necessarily related to the porosity of the tablets.
Pabari, RM; Ramtoola, Z
The compendial method of evaluation of orodispersible tablets (ODT) is the same disintegration test as for conventional tablets. Since it does not reflect the disintegration process in the oral cavity, alternative methods are proposed that are more related to in vivo conditions, e.g. modified dissolution paddle apparatus, texture analyzer, rotating shaft apparatus, CCD camera application, or wetting time and water absorption ratio measurement. In this study, three different co-processed excipients for direct compression of orally disintegrating tablets were compared (Ludiflash, Pharmaburst, F-Melt). The properties of the prepared tablets such as tensile strength, friability, wetting time and water absorption ratio were evaluated. Disintegration time was measured using the pharmacopoeial method and the novel apparatus constructed by the authors. The apparatus was based on the idea of Narazaki et al., however it has been modified. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was applied for the analysis of the disintegration mechanism of prepared tablets. The research has shown the significant effect of excipients, compression force, temperature, volume and kind of medium on the disintegration process. The novel apparatus features better correlation of disintegration time with in vivo results (R(2) = 0.9999) than the compendial method (R(2) = 0.5788), and presents additional information on the disintegration process, e.g. swelling properties. PMID:22881600
Brniak, Witold; Jachowicz, Renata; Krupa, Anna; Skorka, Tomasz; Niwinski, Krzysztof
A method is described for determining the time course of tabled disintegration. It involves a numerical analysis of the experimental dissolution profile of a tablet and the dissolution characteristics of the primary drug particles in the tablet. The disintegration profile is determined for an acetaminophen tablet to demonstrate the application of the method. Tablet dissolution is simulated with the disintegration-dissolution model, and the interrelationship between the two fundamental processes is studied theoretically by varying the parameters describing the two processes. PMID:925944
Nelson, K G; Wang, L Y
Medication nonadherence, especially in psychiatric disorders, has been associated with treatment failure and other negative outcomes. Orally disintegrating formulations have been developed as an alternative to improve medication adherence. This report reviews the properties, efficacy, and safety profile of olanzapine as an orally disintegrating tablet, and explores their association with medication compliance compared with standard oral formulation. Medical literature, published on orally disintegrating formulation of olanzapine identified using Pubmed and EMBASE, was used. Additional references were identified from the reference lists of published articles. Bibliographical information, including contributory unpublished data, was also requested from the company developing the drug. Studies evaluating the biostability, biodisposability, pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety of orally disintegrating olanzapine as treatment of patients with psychiatric disorders were reviewed. Measurement tools included the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Clinical Global Impressions-Severity (CGI-S), Simpson-Angus Scale (SAS), Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale, and Nursing Assessment of Medication Acceptance (NAMA). Orally disintegrating olanzapine, an effective atypical antipsychotic with an acceptable safety profile, can facilitate the burden of treatment on patients and caregivers due to its ease of administration. This is especially important in diseases such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, which can be chronic and require long-term treatment. PMID:18801113
San, Luis; Casillas, Marta; Ciudad, Antonio; Gilaberte, Inmaculada
The objective of this study was to prepare hyoscine butylbromide (a drug with bitter taste) tablets that can rapidly disintegrate in saliva. The granules were prepared by the extrusion method using aminoalkyl methacrylate copolymers (Eudragit E-100). The drugs dissolved rapidly in medium at pH 1.2 in a dissolution test while none of the drugs dissolved from the granules (% of dissolved < 5%) even after 8 h at pH 6.8. Rapidly disintegrating tablets were prepared using prepared taste-masked granules and a mixture of excipients consisting of crystalline cellulose (Avicel PH-102) and low substituted hydroxypropylcellulose (L-HPC, LH-11).The granules and excipients were mixed well (mixingratio by weight, crystalline cellulose: L-HPC, was 8:2) with 1% magnesium stearate as a lubricant and subsequently compressed at 500-1,500 kgf in a single-punch tableting machine. The prepared tablets (compressed at 500 kgf) containing the taste-masked granules have significant strength (crushing strength was 3.5 kg), and a rapid disintegration time (within 30 sec) was observed in the saliva of healthy volunteers. None of the volunteers sensed any bitter taste after the disintegration of the tablet that contained the taste-masked granules. The results confirmed that rapidly disintegrating tablets can be prepared using these taste-masked granules and excipients that are commonly used in tablet preparation. PMID:22504365
Khattab, I S; Zaghloul1, A A; Afouna, M I
The aim of this study was to formulate cost effective taste-masked orally disintegrating tablets of ondansetron, a bitter drug using different superdisintegrants by a wet granulation technique. Microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel) as a diluent and disintegrant in addition to aspartame as a sweetener were used in all formulations. The prepared tablets were evaluated for weight variation, thickness, hardness, friability, drug content, water content, in vitro disintegration time and in vitro drug release. The tablets' hardness was maintained in the range of 2-3 kg and friability was <1% for all batches. All tablet formulations disintegrated rapidly in vitro within 5.83 to 33.0 sec. The optimized formulation containing 15% Polyplasdone XL-10 released more than 90% of drug within 5 min and the release was comparable to that of a commercial product. In human volunteers, optimized formulation was found to have a pleasant taste and mouth feel and they disintegrated in the oral cavity within 12 sec. The stability results were also satisfactory. A pharmacokinetic study with the optimized formulation was performed in comparison with a reference (Zofer MD 8®) and they were found to be bioequivalent. In conclusion, a cost effective ondansetron orally disintegrating tablet was successfully prepared with acceptable hardness, desirable taste and rapid disintegration in the oral cavity. PMID:22139694
Sheshala, Ravi; Khan, Nurzalina; Chitneni, Mallikarjun; Darwis, Yusrida
Fast disintegrating tablets (FDTs) have received ever-increasing demand during the last decade, and the field has become a rapidly growing area in the pharmaceutical industry. Oral drug delivery remains the preferred route for administration of various drugs. Recent developments in the technology have prompted scientists to develop FDTs with improved patient compliance and convenience. Upon introduction into the mouth, these tablets dissolve or disintegrate in the mouth in the absence of additional water for easy administration of active pharmaceutical ingredients. The popularity and usefulness of the formulation resulted in development of several FDT technologies. FDTs are solid unit dosage forms, which disintegrate or dissolve rapidly in the mouth without chewing and water. FDTs or orally disintegrating tablets provide an advantage particularly for pediatric and geriatric populations who have difficulty in swallowing conventional tablets and capsules. This review describes various formulations and technologies developed to achieve fast dissolution/dispersion of tablets in the oral cavity. In particular, this review describes in detail FDT technologies based on lyophilization, molding, sublimation, and compaction, as well as approaches to enhancing the FDT properties, such as spray drying and use of disintegrants. In addition, taste-masking technologies, experimental measurements of disintegration times, and dissolution are also discussed.
Parkash, Ved; Maan, Saurabh; Deepika; Yadav, Shiv Kumar; Hemlata; Jogpal, Vikas
Fast disintegrating tablets (FDTs) have received ever-increasing demand during the last decade, and the field has become a rapidly growing area in the pharmaceutical industry. Oral drug delivery remains the preferred route for administration of various drugs. Recent developments in the technology have prompted scientists to develop FDTs with improved patient compliance and convenience. Upon introduction into the mouth, these tablets dissolve or disintegrate in the mouth in the absence of additional water for easy administration of active pharmaceutical ingredients. The popularity and usefulness of the formulation resulted in development of several FDT technologies. FDTs are solid unit dosage forms, which disintegrate or dissolve rapidly in the mouth without chewing and water. FDTs or orally disintegrating tablets provide an advantage particularly for pediatric and geriatric populations who have difficulty in swallowing conventional tablets and capsules. This review describes various formulations and technologies developed to achieve fast dissolution/dispersion of tablets in the oral cavity. In particular, this review describes in detail FDT technologies based on lyophilization, molding, sublimation, and compaction, as well as approaches to enhancing the FDT properties, such as spray drying and use of disintegrants. In addition, taste-masking technologies, experimental measurements of disintegration times, and dissolution are also discussed. PMID:22247889
Parkash, Ved; Maan, Saurabh; Deepika; Yadav, Shiv Kumar; Hemlata; Jogpal, Vikas
An analysis of the disintegration-dissolution sequence of drug release from a tablet leads to a mathematical expression relating disintegration to the dissolution profile of the tablet and the dissolution rate of the primary drug particles in the tablet. The equation describing the disintegration of an acetaminophen tablet is determined to demonstrate the application of the theory. PMID:619120
Nelson, K G; Wang, L Y
As our society is becoming increasingly aged, the development of an appropriate dosage form for the elderly patients is mostly desirable. A novel fast-disintegrating tablet was investigated in this study as a user-friendly dosage form for the aged. Advantages of this formulation have sufficient hardness and can be manufactured by commonly used equipment. Saccharides can be divided into high- and low-compressibility categories, and an appropriate material for fast-disintegrating tablets was created by taking advantage of this fact. To improve the compressibility of low-compressibility saccharides, particle modification was conducted by coating and granulating a low-compressibility saccharide with a high one to enable the production of a fast-disintegrating tablet. Another discovery was that the high-compressibility saccharide used as a binder solution was present in an amorphous state after the granulation process. The crystal change from amorphous to crystal state intentionally by a conditioning process after compression enabled to increase tablet hardness by strengthening adhesion between particles. The conditioning process made it possible to achieve sufficient hardness while maintaining the fast disintegration time. As a result, this fast-disintegrating tablet that can be manufactured by commonly used equipment, can be used for the dosing of a wide range drugs. PMID:16257154
Mizumoto, Takao; Masuda, Yoshinori; Yamamoto, Takeshi; Yonemochi, Estuo; Terada, Katsuhide
The objective of the study was to develop a mathematical model for predicting the disintegration time of fast disintegrating tablets (FDTs) by estimating the powder characteristics of powder blend prior to compression. A combination of chitosan-alginate complex and glycine in the ratio of 50:50 was used for preparing FDTs. The developed mathematical model allowed water sorption time (WST), effective pore radius (R(eff.p)) and swelling Index (SI) of powder mixture as well as tablet crushing strength to be successfully correlated with disintegration time (DT) of FDTs. The predicted model showed that disintegration time of FDTs to be directly correlated with powder characteristics and inversely correlated with tablet crushing strength. Furthermore, a correlation of 0.97 was obtained when DT of FDTs was compared with SI/(WST * R(eff.p)). This correlation was not affected by inclusion of water soluble (ondansetron hydrochloride or metaclopramide hydrochloride) or water insoluble (domperidone) drugs in the powder blend or FDTs. These observations indicated the versatility of the mathematical model in predicting the disintegration time of FDTs by evaluating the selected characteristics of the powder blends without actually preparing the FDTs. PMID:20028210
Goel, H; Arora, A; Tiwary, A K; Rana, V
Fast dissolving disintegrating tablets (FDDTs) containing different dosages of melatonin have been manufactured for administration to a specific target population: pediatric patients, having potential difficulties taking other oral forms. The lower dosages (3 and 5mg) are intended for epileptic children, migraine prevention, neurodevelopmental disability, sleep disorders and blindness. Dosages of 10 and 60 mg are intended for Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Two FDDT groups have been designed, one which has excipients for direct compression and others having direct compression and effervescent excipients. Tablets have been produced having disintegration times of less than 25s and with friability and hardness values that require no special storage or packaging conditions. PMID:24699354
Muñoz, H; Castan, H; Clares, B; Ruiz, M A
In the present work, fast disintegrating tablets of prochlorperazine maleate were designed with a view to enhance patient compliance by direct compression method. In this method mucilage of Plantago ovata and crospovidone were used as superdisintegrants (2-8% w/w) along with microcrystalline cellulose (20-60% w/w) and directly compressible mannitol (Pearlitol SD 200) to enhance mouth feel. The prepared batches of tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, drug content uniformity, wetting time, water absorption ratio and in vitro dispersion time. Based on in vitro dispersion time (approximately 8 s), the two formulations were tested for the in vitro drug release pattern (in pH 6.8 phosphate buffer), short-term stability (at 40°/75% relative humidity for 3 mo) and drug-excipient interaction (IR spectroscopy). Among the two promising formulations, the formulation prepared by using 8% w/w of Plantago ovata mucilage and 60% w/w of microcrystalline cellulose emerged as the overall best formulation (t50% 3.3 min) based on the in vitro drug release characteristics compared to conventional commercial tablets formulation (t50% 17.4 min). Short-term stability studies on the formulations indicated that there are no significant changes in drug content and in vitro dispersion time (p<0.05).
Shirsand, S. B.; Suresh, Sarasija; Para, M. S.; Swamy, P. V.; Kumar, D. Nagendra
In the present work, fast disintegrating tablets of prochlorperazine maleate were designed with a view to enhance patient compliance by direct compression method. In this method mucilage of Plantago ovata and crospovidone were used as superdisintegrants (2-8% w/w) along with microcrystalline cellulose (20-60% w/w) and directly compressible mannitol (Pearlitol SD 200) to enhance mouth feel. The prepared batches of tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, drug content uniformity, wetting time, water absorption ratio and in vitro dispersion time. Based on in vitro dispersion time (approximately 8 s), the two formulations were tested for the in vitro drug release pattern (in pH 6.8 phosphate buffer), short-term stability (at 40 degrees /75% relative humidity for 3 mo) and drug-excipient interaction (IR spectroscopy). Among the two promising formulations, the formulation prepared by using 8% w/w of Plantago ovata mucilage and 60% w/w of microcrystalline cellulose emerged as the overall best formulation (t(50%) 3.3 min) based on the in vitro drug release characteristics compared to conventional commercial tablets formulation (t(50%) 17.4 min). Short-term stability studies on the formulations indicated that there are no significant changes in drug content and in vitro dispersion time (p<0.05). PMID:20177454
Shirsand, S B; Suresh, Sarasija; Para, M S; Swamy, P V; Kumar, D Nagendra
Many orally disintegrating tablets have recently been developed to improve oral ingestion and usability and are widely administered clinically, resulting in improved quality of life for patients. Since orally disintegrating tablets rapid- ly disintegrate in the mouth, the masking of unpleasant taste is important. We investigated the masking of the taste of furosemide (FU) as a model drug with correctives
Yayoi KAWANO; Akihiko ITO; Masanaho SASATSU; Yoshiharu MACHIDA
The objective of the present work was to optimize the formulation of fast disintegrating tablets (FDTs) of ondansetron HCl containing novel superdisintegrants, possessing sufficient mechanical strength and disintegration time comparable to those containing crospovidone or croscarmellose sodium. The FDTs were formulated using a novel superdisintegrant (chitosan-alginate (1:1) interpolymer complex and chitin) to achieve a sweet tasting disintegrating system. The results revealed that chitin (5-20%) increased the porosity and decreased the DT of tablets. At higher concentrations chitin maintained tablet porosity even at 5.5 kg crushing strength. Ondansetron HCl was found to antagonize the wicking action of glycine. Further, evaluation of the mechanism of disintegration revealed that glycine transported the aqueous medium to different parts of the tablets while the chitosan-alginate complex swelled up due to transfer of moisture from glycine. This phenomenon resulted in breakage of the tablet within seconds. For preparing optimized FDTs, the reduced model equations generated from Box-Behnken design (BBD) were solved after substituting the known disintegration time of FDTs containing superdisintegrants in the reduced model equations. The results suggested that excipient system under investigation not only improved the disintegration time but also made it possible to prepare FDTs with higher crushing strength as compared to tablets containing known superdisintegrants. PMID:21796940
Goel, Honey; Tiwary, Ashok K; Rana, Vikas
Abstract Objective: To mask the bitterness of Chlorpheniramine Maleate via encapsulating drug into Eudragit EPO microparticles, and then incorporate these microparticles into orally disintegrating films (ODF) and orally disintegrating tablets (ODT) for pediatric uses. Methods: Spray drying of water-in-oil emulsion was utilized to encapsulate Chlorpheniramine Maleate into Eudragit EPO microparticles. Based on an orthogonal experimental design L9 (3(3)), polynomial regression models were developed to evaluate correlation between microparticle properties (encapsulation efficiency and drug release) and variables (X1: weight ratio of polymer to drug, X2: volume ratio of oil to water and X3: Q-flow of spray dryer). ODF and ODT formulations were evaluated including weight variation, content uniformity, tensile strength, disintegration time, friability and dissolution profiles. The bitterness taste test was evaluated in 10 adult volunteers. Results and discussion: From polynomial regression analysis, the best values of variables leading to the optimized microparticles were X1?=?10, X2?=?3 and X3?=?45. The optimized microparticles were incorporated into ODF and ODT with satisfactory weight and drug content uniformity, and acceptable physical strength. Both dosage forms disintegrated immediately (less than 40?s) in simulated saliva solutions. The outcome of taste-masking test indicated that microparticles alleviated drug bitterness significantly; bitterness was not discernible with microparticles incorporated in ODT, whereas only slight bitterness was detected from microparticles incorporated into ODF. Conclusion: Both ODF and ODT are shown to be suitable vehicles for taste masked Chlorpheniramine Maleate microparticles with potential for pediatric uses. PMID:23621768
Lou, Hao; Liu, Min; Qu, Wen; Hu, Zheyi; Brunson, Ed; Johnson, James; Almoazen, Hassan
Efficacy and tolerability of sumatriptan tablets in a fast-disintegrating, rapid-release formulation for the acute treatment of migraine: Results of a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled study
Background: Sumatriptan tablets have been developed in a fast-disintegrating, rapid-release formulation designed to facilitate tablet disintegration and drug dispersion and to potentially mitigate the effects of gastric stasis that can accompany migraine.Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of sumatriptan 50- and 100-mg tablets in a fast-disintegrating, rapid-release formulation compared with those of placebo in patients
Johannes Carpay; Jean Schoenen; Faiz Ahmad; Frances Kinrade; Diane Boswell
Food intake may delay tablet disintegration. Current in vitro methods have little predictive potential to account for such effects. The effect of a variety of factors on the disintegration of immediate release tablets in the gastrointestinal tract has been identified. They include viscosity of the media, precipitation of food constituents on the surface of the tablet and reduction of water diffusivity in the media as well as changes in the hydrodynamics in the surrounding media of the solid dosage form. In order to improve the predictability of food affecting the disintegration of a dosage form, tablet disintegration in various types of a liquefied meal has been studied under static vs. dynamic (agitative) conditions. Viscosity, water diffusivity, osmolality and Reynolds numbers for the different media were characterized. A quantitative model is introduced which predicts the influence of the Reynolds number in the tablet disintegration apparatus on the disintegration time. Viscosity, water diffusivity and media flow velocity are shown to be important factors affecting dosage form disintegration. The results suggest the necessity of considering these parameters when designing a predictive model for simulating the in vivo conditions. Based on these experiments and knowledge on in vivo hydrodynamics in the GI tract, it is concluded that the disintegration tester under current pharmacopoeial conditions is operated in an unphysiological mode and no bioprediction may be derived. Recommendations regarding alternative mode of operation are made. PMID:24036239
Radwan, Asma; Wagner, Manfred; Amidon, Gordon L; Langguth, Peter
Recent developments in fast disintegrating tablets have brought convenience in dosing to pediatric and elderly patients who have trouble in swallowing tablets. The objective of the present study was to prepare the fast disintegrating tablet of salbutamol sulphate for respiratory disorders for pediatrics. As precision of dosing and patient's compliance become important prerequisites for a long-term treatment, there is a need to develop a formulation for this drug which overcomes problems such as difficulty in swallowing, inconvenience in administration while travelling, and patient's acceptability. Hence, the present investigation were undertaken with a view to develop a fast disintegrating tablet of salbutamol sulphate which offers a new range of products having desired characteristics and intended benefits. Superdisintegrants such as sodium starch glycolate was optimized. Different binders were optimized along with optimized superdisintegrant concentration. The tablets were prepared by direct compression technique. The tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, weight variation, wetting time, disintegration time, and uniformity of content. Optimized formulation was evaluated by in vitro dissolution test, drug-excipient compatibility, and accelerated stability study. It was concluded that fast disintegrating tablets of salbutamol sulphate were formulated successfully with desired characteristics which disintegrated rapidly; provided rapid onset of action; and enhanced the patient convenience and compliance.
Poly(acrylic acid) superporous hydrogel (SPH) microparticles possessing a unique porous structure were used as a wicking agent to decrease disintegration time of fast-disintegrating tablets (FDTs). The compression behaviour of poly(acrylic acid) SPH microparticles was evaluated using the Kawakita equation. Effects of various SPH microparticle sizes and a 19-run fractional factorial design were evaluated. The factorial design was based on four factors consisting of ketoprofen, SPH microparticle, filler, and tableting pressure, and each factor contained three levels on the disintegration time and tensile strength of the prepared FDTs. The poly(acrylic acid) SPH microparticles existed in an amorphous state and swelled approximately 80-times in distilled water and 50-times in pH 6.8 0.2 M phosphate buffer. The compressibility of SPH microparticles increased significantly as the microparticle size increased. The FDTs made of SPH microparticles in the range of 75-106 microm showed the fastest disintegration time and higher tensile strength. SPH microparticle, tableting pressure and ketoprofen had significant effects on disintegration time and tensile strength of ketoprofen FDTs. The FDTs that were prepared with 2.5% w/w SPH microparticles of 75-106 microm at 63 MPa pressure possessed a tensile strength of 84.4 +/- 4.1 N cm(-2) and disintegrated in 15.0 +/- 2.0 s. It was concluded that the poly(acrylic acid) SPH microparticles could serve as a good super-disintegrant decreasing the disintegration time of FDTs. PMID:15099437
Yang, Shicheng; Fu, Yurong; Jeong, Seong Hoon; Park, Kinam
The aim of this study was to optimize and formulate fast disintegrating tablets (FDTs) for nausea and vomiting using aminoacetic acid, carmellose and sodium alginate with enough mechanical strength. Ondansetron HCl (water soluble) or domperidone (water insoluble) drug were added to FDTs and their disintegration behaviour was evaluated. Plackett Burman Screening Design was used to screen the independent active process variables [concentration of aminoacetic acid (X (1)), concentration of carmellose (X (2)) and tablet crushing strength (X (3))] which were found to actively influence the dependent variables [disintegration time in the mouth (DT), wetting time (WT), and water absorption ratio (WAR)] for both the drugs. Also, the coefficients of active variables (DT, WT and WAR) of FDTs containing domperidone was found to be significantly different (P < 0.05) from the coefficients of active factors (X (1), X (2) and X (3)) containing ondansetron HCl FDTs. Further, FDTs containing domperidone was prepared according to central composite design for estimating the effect of active factors (X (1), X (2), X (3)) in extended spherical domain. The regression analysis of quadratic fit revealed that DT, WT and WAR were 98% correlated with active factors (X (1), X (2) or X (3)). The optimized domperidone FDTs were further compared with superdisintegrants (croscarmellose sodium or crospovidone). The data revealed that optimized domperidone FDTs were better than domperidone FDTs containing croscarmellose or crospovidone. Hence, this novel excipients combination can be used for delivery of water insoluble drugs in place of superdisintegrants. PMID:18584333
Goel, Honey; Vora, Nishant; Rana, Vikas
The aim of this study was to optimize and formulate fast disintegrating tablets (FDTs) for nausea and vomiting using aminoacetic acid, carmellose and sodium alginate with enough mechanical strength. Ondansetron HCl (water soluble) or domperidone (water insoluble) drug were added to FDTs and their disintegration behaviour was evaluated. Plackett Burman Screening Design was used to screen the independent active process variables [concentration of aminoacetic acid (X1), concentration of carmellose (X2) and tablet crushing strength (X3)] which were found to actively influence the dependent variables [disintegration time in the mouth (DT), wetting time (WT), and water absorption ratio (WAR)] for both the drugs. Also, the coefficients of active variables (DT, WT and WAR) of FDTs containing domperidone was found to be significantly different (P?0.05) from the coefficients of active factors (X1, X2 and X3) containing ondansetron HCl FDTs. Further, FDTs containing domperidone was prepared according to central composite design for estimating the effect of active factors (X1, X2, X3) in extended spherical domain. The regression analysis of quadratic fit revealed that DT, WT and WAR were 98% correlated with active factors (X1, X2 or X3). The optimized domperidone FDTs were further compared with superdisintegrants (croscarmellose sodium or crospovidone). The data revealed that optimized domperidone FDTs were better than domperidone FDTs containing croscarmellose or crospovidone. Hence, this novel excipients combination can be used for delivery of water insoluble drugs in place of superdisintegrants.
Goel, Honey; Vora, Nishant
We investigated the pharmacokinetic behavior of orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) containing perphenazine/hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin inclusion complex (PPZ/HP-beta-CD) in rabbits and evaluated their bioequivalence with conventional tablets. In this study, a simple, sensitive and accurate high performance liquid chromatography method was developed for the determination of perphenazine concentration in rabbit plasma. The pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by non-compartmental methods and the bioequivalence between PPZ/HP-beta-CD ODTs with conventional tablets was determined by calculating 90% confidence interval (CI) for the ratio of logarithmic transformed C(max), AUC(0-t), AUC(0-infinity) values. The pharmacokinetic parameters of test ODTs and reference tablets were as follows: C(max), 82.86 and 62.71 ng/mL; AUC(0-24), 480 and 397.56 ng/mL/h; AUC(0-infinity), 505 and 400.12 ng/mL/h; T(max), 1.04 and 3.83h. The relative bioavailabilities of two formulations for AUC(0-t) and AUC(0-infinity) were 120.77% and 126.37%, respectively. The 90% CI statistical analysis demonstrated the two formulations were not bioequivalence. In conclusion, the ODTs showed faster absorption and higher peak concentration when compared with conventional tablets, which suggests ODTs could be promising oral formulations for PPZ. PMID:24273883
Wang, Ling; Xiao, Yan-Yu; Chen, Ming-Lei; Zeng, Fan; Zong, Li
Gelatin is a principal excipient used as a binder in the formulation of lyophilized orally disintegrating tablets. The current study focuses on exploiting the physicochemical properties of gelatin by varying formulation parameters to determine their influence on orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) characteristics. Process parameters, namely pH and ionic strength of the formulations, and ball milling were investigated to observe their effects on excipient characteristics and tablet formation. The properties and characteristics of the formulations and tablets which were investigated included: glass transition temperature, wettability, porosity, mechanical properties, disintegration time, morphology of the internal structure of the freeze-dried tablets, and drug dissolution. The results from the pH study revealed that adjusting the pH of the formulation away from the isoelectric point of gelatin, resulted in an improvement in tablet disintegration time possibly due to increase in gelatin swelling resulting in greater tablet porosity. The results from the ionic strength study revealed that the inclusion of sodium chloride influenced tablet porosity, tablet morphology and the glass transition temperature of the formulations. Data from the milling study showed that milling the excipients influenced formulation characteristics, namely wettability and powder porosity. The study concludes that alterations of simple parameters such as pH and salt concentration have a significant influence on formulation of ODT.
Jones, Rhys J.; Rajabi-Siahboomi, Ali; Levina, Marina; Perrie, Yvonne; Mohammed, Afzal R.
Gelatin is a principal excipient used as a binder in the formulation of lyophilized orally disintegrating tablets. The current study focuses on exploiting the physicochemical properties of gelatin by varying formulation parameters to determine their influence on orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) characteristics. Process parameters, namely pH and ionic strength of the formulations, and ball milling were investigated to observe their effects on excipient characteristics and tablet formation. The properties and characteristics of the formulations and tablets which were investigated included: glass transition temperature, wettability, porosity, mechanical properties, disintegration time, morphology of the internal structure of the freeze-dried tablets, and drug dissolution. The results from the pH study revealed that adjusting the pH of the formulation away from the isoelectric point of gelatin, resulted in an improvement in tablet disintegration time possibly due to increase in gelatin swelling resulting in greater tablet porosity. The results from the ionic strength study revealed that the inclusion of sodium chloride influenced tablet porosity, tablet morphology and the glass transition temperature of the formulations. Data from the milling study showed that milling the excipients influenced formulation characteristics, namely wettability and powder porosity. The study concludes that alterations of simple parameters such as pH and salt concentration have a significant influence on formulation of ODT. PMID:24310589
Jones, Rhys J; Rajabi-Siahboomi, Ali; Levina, Marina; Perrie, Yvonne; Mohammed, Afzal R
In the present work, fast disintegrating tablets of prochlorperazine maleate were designed with a view to enhance patient compliance by effervescent method. In this method, mixtures of sodium bicarbonate and anhydrous citric acid in different ratios along with crospovidone (2-10% w/w), croscarmellose sodium (2-10% w/w) were used as superdisintegrants. Estimation of prochlorperazine maleate in the prepared tablet formulations was carried out by extracting the drug with methanol and measuring the absorbance at 254.5 nm. The prepared formulations were further evaluated for hardness, friability, drug content uniformity and in vitro dispersion time. Based on in vitro dispersion time (approximately 13-21 s), two promising formulations (one from each super-disintegrant) were tested for in vitro drug release pattern in pH 6.8 phosphate buffer, short-term stability (at 40°/75% relative humidity for 3 mo) and drug-excipient interaction (IR spectroscopy). Among the two promising formulations, the formulation containing 10% w/w of crospovidone and mixture of 20% w/w sodium bicarbonate and 15% w/w of citric acid emerged as the overall best formulation (t50% 6 min) based on drug release characteristics in pH 6.8 phosphate buffer compared to commercial conventional tablet formulation (t50% 17.4 min). Short-term stability studies on the promising formulations indicated that there are no significant changes in drug content and in vitro dispersion time (p<0.05).
Shirsand, S. B.; Suresh, Sarasija; Para, M. S.; Swamy, P. V.
Aim: Spray dried solid dispersion (SDP) of crystalline simvastatin (SIM) in a fast disintegrating matrix of superdisintegrants was studied as a method to enhance SIM dispersibility, rheology, compactibility and compressibility for incorporation into orodispersible tablets (ODTs). Materials and Methods: The superdisintegrants investigated were crospovidone (CP), sodium starch glycollate (SSG) and calcium silicate (CS) were spray dried with simvastatin to form SDPs. Results: The SDPs were characterized and the median particle size of SDPs was similar or greater than the SIM, contributing to good rheology of SDPs, while the low bulk density of SDPs indicated a high compactibility. Interestingly electron micrographs for SDPs showed a CP or CS carrier coating of the SIM crystals, contributing to its rheology. Thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction confirmed that SIM was crystalline in the SDPs and no interaction between SIM and any of the carrier(s) was shown by Fourier transform-infra red. Drug content analysis showed a SIM content of 90-95% in SDPs containing CP or CS, while a higher SIM content of 143% was found in SDP containing SSG. When formulated as ODTs, blend containing SIM SDPs in CP showed ease of tableting, regardless of the turret speed. In comparison, tablet blend consisting of a physical mix (PM) of SIM and CP could only be tableted at the lower turret speed of 7 rpm. ODTs formulated using SIM SDPs in CP showed a higher extent of dissolution, compared to the ODTs containing corresponding PM or the commercially available SIM Zocor® tablets (ANOVA, P < 0.05). Conclusion: SDP using disintegrants as carriers may offer an alternative formulation approach for ODTs of poorly soluble drugs.
Pabari, Ritesh M; Jamil, Asha; Kelly, John G; Ramtoola, Zebunnissa
The aim of this study was to prepare fast-disintegrating tablets (FDTs) of diclofenac potassium with sufficient integrity as well as a pleasant taste, using two different fillers and binders: Tablettose 70(®) and Di-Pac(®). Tablets were made with direct compression method. Tablet properties such as porosity, hardness, and disintegration time were determined. Diclofenac potassium determinations were carried out using a validated spectrophotometric method for the analysis of drug. Furthermore, in vivo experiments were carried out to compare the analgesic effect and the time to relieve migraine headache between the commercial tablets and FDTs of diclofenac potassium against placebo. Results showed that FDTs of diclofenac potassium with durable structure and desirable taste can be prepared using both fillers and binders but tablets prepared with Di-Pac had a better taste so the tablet formulation containing Di-Pac was chosen for in vivo experiments. Placebo controlled in vivo trial demonstrated that 50 mg diclofenac potassium, administered as a single dose of FDTs or commercial tablets, was effective in relieving the pain and both of them were superior to placebo. PMID:20704458
Comoglu, Tansel; Dogan, Aysegul; Comoglu, Selcuk; Basci, Nursabah
Fast disintegrating tablets (FDTs) have received ever-increasing demand during the last decade, and the field has become a rapidly growing area in the pharmaceutical industry. Upon introduction into the mouth, these tablets dissolve or disintegrate in the mouth in the absence of additional water for easy administration of active pharmaceutical ingredients. The popularity and usefulness of the formulation resulted in development of several FDT technologies. This review describes various formulations and technologies developed to achieve fast dissolution/dispersion of tablets in the oral cavity. In particular, this review describes in detail FDT technologies based on lyophilization, molding, sublimation, and compaction, as well as approaches to enhancing the FDT properties, such as spray-drying, moisture treatment, sintering, and use of sugar-based disintegrants. In addition, taste-masking technologies, experimental measurements of disintegration times, and clinical studies are also discussed. PMID:15658933
Fu, Yourong; Yang, Shicheng; Jeong, Seong Hoon; Kimura, Susumu; Park, Kinam
To determine the effect of chitosan, starch powder, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), Avicel PH 101 powder, Avicel PH 102 granules as a function of different concentrations on the solubility, disintegration and hence dissolution of furosemide from immediate release tablet dosage forms. The tablets were prepared by the wet granulation method and evaluated for hardness, friability, disintegration and in vitro dissolution. Chitosan 7% w/w showed the fastest disintegration of furosemide tablets among the other disintegrants studied. This was attributed to its highest swelling properties and velocity constant of water uptake. The step of adding chitosan during tablet preparation had a great effect on the physical properties and dissolution profiles of the prepared tablets with external addition of chitosan showed best results compared to best results comparing to internal-external or internal addition. The most appropriate force of compression was 4ton/cm(2). The selected formula F15 containing 7% w/w chitosan was successful and showed a high significant (p<0.001) enhancement in disintegration and dissolution behaviors of furosemide tablets in comparison with the commercially available Furosemide ® tablets. These results were supported by the simulated data where F15 formula showed the highest plasma concentration C-max 1.89mcg/mL after 0.5 hr compared to C-max 1.05mcg/mL after 1hr for the reference. The present study demonstrated that chitosan is a very good candidate to be used as a tablet disintegrant and was able to enhance the dissolution of poorly absorbable drugs. PMID:23009999
Rasool, Bazigha Kadhim Abdul; Fahmy, Sahar Abdelsattar; Galeel, Omar Waleed Abdul
Fast disintegrating tablets of lorazepam were prepared by effervescent method with a view to enhance patient compliance. A 32 full factorial design was applied to investigate the combined effect of two formulation variables: amount of crospovidone and mixture of sodium bicarbonate, citric acid and tartaric acid (effervescent material) on in vitro dispersion time. Crospovidone (2-8% w/w) was used as superdisintegrant and mixture of sodium bicarbonate, citric acid and tartaric acid (6-18% w/w) was used as effervescent material, along with directly compressible mannitol to enhance mouth feel. The tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, thickness, drug content uniformity and in vitro dispersion time. Based on in vitro dispersion time (approximately 13 s); the formulation containing 8% w/w crospovidone and 18% w/w mixture of sodium bicarbonate, citric acid and tartaric acid was found to be promising and tested for in vitro drug release pattern (in pH 6.8 phosphate buffer), short-term stability and drug-excipient interaction. Surface response plots are presented to graphically represent the effect of independent variables (concentrations of crospovidone and effervescent material) on the in vitro dispersion time. The validity of the generated mathematical model was tested by preparing two extra-design check point formulations. The optimized tablet formulation was compared with conventional marketed tablet for drug release profiles. This formulation showed nearly eleven-fold faster drug release (t50% 2.8 min) compared to the conventional commercial tablet formulation (t50% >30 min). Short-term stability studies on the formulation indicated that there were no significant changes in drug content and in vitro dispersion time (P<0.05).
Shirsand, S. B.; Suresh, Sarasija; Jodhana, L. S.; Swamy, P. V.
A well known superdisintegrant like croscarmellose sodium or crospovidone loses their quick disintegration property when compressed at more than 4 kg tablet crushing strength (TCS). Therefore, the objective of the present work was to develop a disintegrating system that could be used for preparing fast disintegrating tablets (FDTs) of highly water soluble drug, metoclopramide, without compromising on the mechanical strength, irrespective of the TCS used for compressing the granules. For this purpose disintegrating system consisting of chitosan-alginate (CTN-ALG) complex (1:1): glycine and chitin was developed. The results revealed that when CTN-ALG and glycine were mixed in the ratio of 30:70, the granules exhibited a minimum water sorption time and maximum effective pore radius (R(eff.p)). The addition of chitin (5-10% w/w) into this mixture further enhanced the R(eff.p). Further, increase in the concentration of chitin from 10% to 20% w/w did not produce any significant effect (p>0.05) on the R(eff.p). The FDTs prepared by using CTN-ALG:glycine (30:70) and chitin exhibited increased porosity and lower disintegration time (DT). Further, chitin was found to neutralize the effect of TCS on DT of FDTs. This property of chitin was also observed in FDTs prepared by using croscarmellose sodium (5% w/w) or crospovidone (5% w/w). The reduction in DT of FDTs by chitin was also observed in tablets prepared without the drug. Hence, the effect was not influenced by the solubility component present in the tablets. Overall, the results suggested incorporation of chitin (5-10% w/w) while preparing FDTs of metoclopramide to enhanced the disintegration without compromising their mechanical strength of the tablets. PMID:20460872
Goel, Honey; Kaur, Gurpreet; Tiwary, Ashok K; Rana, Vikas
The aim of this study was to develop and optimize a segregation-free ethyl cellulose-coated extended release multiparticulate formulation to be compressed into tablets without affecting the drug release. Standard tableting excipients (e.g., microcrystalline cellulose, lactose or sorbitol) were layered onto ethyl cellulose-coated propranolol hydrochloride pellets to form a cushion layer in order to eliminate segregation problems normally resulting from particle size difference between coated pellets and excipient powders and second to protect the integrity of the brittle ethyl cellulose coating during compression. The disintegration behavior of the tablets depended strongly on the composition of the cushion layer. Rapid tablet disintegration was obtained with microcrystalline cellulose and the disintegrant sodium croscarmellose. However, the drug release from these cushion-layered pellets still increased upon compression. Incorporation of a glidant into the cushion layer or between the cushion layer and the ethyl cellulose coating reduced the compression effect on drug release markedly. Glidant-containing formulations showed a delayed deformation and damage of the ethyl cellulose-coated pellet upon mechanical stress. In summary, cushion layer based on microcrystalline cellulose facilitated segregation-free compression of a highly compression-sensitive extended release ethyl cellulose-coated pellets into fast-disintegrating and hard tablets without compromising the release properties of the multiparticulates. Directly compressible cushion-layered pellets protected the pellet coating significantly better from damages during tabletting when compared to the conventional compression of blends of coated pellets and excipient powders. PMID:23892153
Hosseini, Armin; Körber, Martin; Bodmeier, Roland
Lornoxicam is a non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug with analgesic properties and belongs to the class oxicams. It is extremely bitter in taste. The purpose of this research was to develop a bitterless oral disintegrating tablet of Lornoxicam. Taste masking was done by complexing Lornoxicam with aminoalkyl methacrylate copolymer (Eudragit EPO) in different ratios. In vitro release profile obtained at pH
Rajesh S. Jadon; Swadesh Nayak; Sabita Amlan; Vikas Deep Vaidya; Prashant Khemariya; Sandip Sumbhate
The impact of different active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) loading on the properties of orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) prepared according to our previously reported microwave (MW) treatment process was evaluated using famotidine (FAM), acetaminophen (AAP), and ibuprofen (IBU). None of the APIs interrupted the tablet swelling during the MW treatment and the tablet hardness were improved by more than 20N. MW treatment, however, led to a significant increase in the disintegration time of the ODTs containing IBU, but it had no impact on that of the ODTs containing FAM or AAP. This increased disintegration time of the ODTs containing IBU was attributed to the relatively low melting point of IBU (Tm=76°C), with the IBU particles melting during the MW treatment to form agglomerates, which interrupted the penetration of water into the tablets and delayed their disintegration. The effects of the MW treatment on the chemical stability and dissolution properties of ODTs were also evaluated. The results revealed that MW treatment did not promote the degradations of FAM and AAP or delay their release from the ODTs, while dissolution of the ODTs containing IBU delayed by MW treatment. Based on these results, the MW method would be applicable to the preparation of ODTs containing APIs with melting points higher than 110°C. PMID:24709215
Sano, Syusuke; Iwao, Yasunori; Kimura, Susumu; Noguchi, Shuji; Itai, Shigeru
Oral administration is the most convenient route for drug therapy. The knowledge of the gastrointestinal transit and specific site for drug delivery is a prerequisite for development of dosage forms. The aim of this work was to demonstrate that is possible to monitor the disintegration process of film-coated magnetic tablets by multi-sensor alternate current Biosusceptometry (ACB) in vivo and in
Luciana A. Corá; Madileine F. Américo; Ricardo Brandt Oliveira; Oswaldo Baffa; Rogério Moraes; Fernando G. Romeiro; José Ricardo A. Miranda
The objective of this study was to determine if the orally disintegrating tablet formulation of olanzapine, Zyprexa Zydis, would facilitate antipsychotic medication compliance in acutely ill, non-compliant patients. Eighty-five acutely ill patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder who met medication non-compliance criteria received open-label olanzapine orally disintegrating tablets (1020 mgd) for up to 6 wk. Improvement in medication compliance was assessed using various rating scales to measure changes in psychopathology, medication-taking and compliance attitudes, and nursing care burden. Safety variables were also measured. Significant improvement from baseline was demonstrated in the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total score at Week 1 and subsequently (p0.001). Significant improvement from baseline was also seen in various scales measuring medication compliance, attitude, and nursing care burden (p0.05). Olanzapine orally disintegrating tablets were well-tolerated. Olanzapine orally disintegrating tablets may benefit acutely ill, non-compliant schizophrenic patients by facilitating acceptance of active antipsychotic drug therapy. PMID:12890301
Kinon, Bruce J; Hill, Angela L; Liu, Hong; Kollack-Walker, Sara
Despite recent success, many fast-disintegrating tablets (FDTs) still face problems of low mechanical strength, poor mouth-feel and higher disintegration times. This study aimed to optimise FDTs using a progressive three-stage approach. A series of hardness, fracturability and disintegration time tests were performed on the formulations at each stage. During Stage I, tablets were prepared in concentrations between 2% and 5% w/w, and were formulated at each concentration as single and combination bloom strength gelatin (BSG) using 75 and 225 BSGs. Analysis revealed that both hardness and disintegration time increased with an increase in gelatin concentration. A combination (5% gelatin) FDT comprising a 50:50 ratio of 75:225 BSGs (hardness: 13.7+/-0.9 N and disintegration time: 24.1+/-0.6s) was judged the most ideal, and was carried forward to Stage II: the addition of the saccharides sorbitol, mannitol and sucrose in concentrations between 10% and 80% w/w. The best properties were exhibited by mannitol-containing formulations (50%-hardness: 30.9+/-2.8 N and disintegration time: 13.3+/-2.1s), which were carried forward to the next stage: the addition of viscosity-modifying polymers to improve mouth-feel and aid pre-gastric retention. Addition of carbopol 974P-NF resulted in the enhancement of viscosity with a compromise of the hardness of the tablet, whereas Pluronic F127 (6%) showed an increase in disintegration time and viscosity with retention of mechanical properties. PMID:19073253
Chandrasekhar, Rahul; Hassan, Zahra; Alhusban, Farhan; Smith, Alan M; Mohammed, Afzal R
It was attempted to produce novel furosemide (FS) fast-disintegrating tablets by direct compression. The combination of FS, microcrystalline cellulose, croscarmellose sodium and xylitol was used as the basic formulation, and sucrose stearic acid ester (SSE) was chosen as an additional additive. The tablets with SSE were prepared by the simple addition of SSE, using a lyophilized mixture of FS and SSE or using a FS/SSE mixture obtained by evaporation of their ethanol solution. Only the tablets, produced using the FS/SSE mixture obtained by organic solvent (ethanol) evaporation, showed hardness of more than 30 N and a disintegration time of less than 20 s, which were the properties suitable for fast-disintegrating tablets. These properties were considered to result from well-mixed and fine-powdered SSE and FS. PMID:18827375
Koseki, Takuma; Onishi, Hiraku; Takahashi, Yuri; Uchida, Minoru; Machida, Yoshiharu
The aim of this study was to improve the solubility and oral bioavailability of clozapine (CLZ), a poorly water-soluble drug subjected to substantial first-pass metabolism, employing cyclodextrin complexation technique. The inclusion complexes were prepared by an evaporation method. Phase solubility studies, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray powder diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used to evaluate the complexation of CLZ with hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin (HP-?-CD) and the formation of true inclusion complexes. Characterization and dissolution studies were carried out to evaluate the orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) containing CLZ/HP-?-CD complexes prepared by direct compression. Finally, the bioavailability studies of the prepared ODTs were performed by oral administration to rabbits. The ODTs showed a higher in vitro dissolution rate and bioavailability compared with the commercial tablets. It is evident from the results herein that the developed ODTs provide a promising drug delivery system in drug development, owing to their excellent performance of a rapid onset of action, improved bioavailability, and good patient compliance. PMID:23649995
Zeng, Fan; Wang, Ling; Zhang, Wenjing; Shi, Kejing; Zong, Li
The aim of present research was to design and evaluate orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) of novel lamotrigine-cyclamate salt. Box-Behnken response surface methodology was selected to design the optimized formulation. The independent factors selected were tablet hardness (X1), disintegrant (X2) and lubricant (X3) levels, and responses chosen were disintegration time (DT, Y1), friability (Y2), T50 (Y3), and T90 (Y4). The tablets were also characterized for drug uniformity by near infrared chemical imaging (NIR-CI) and taste masking evaluation by electronic tongue. All the selected independent variables were statistically (p<0.05) effect the Y1 while Y2, Y3, and Y4 affected only by X2. The optimized ODT was found to meet the regulatory requirement of DT and friability specification. The NIR-CI images indicated uniform distribution of active and inactive ingredients within the tablets. The electronic tongue results were analyzed by principle component analysis (PCA). It indicated that novel salt of lamotrigine and its ODT formulation have a taste similar to cyclamic acid which is indicated by close proximity on PCA score plot, lower Euclidean distance, and high discrimination index values. Furthermore, these parameters were very close to ODT placebo formulation. On the other hand, lamotrigine, its ODT, and placebo formulation were far from each other. In summary, lamotrigine salt provides another avenue for pediatric friendly formulation for children and will enhance patience compliance. PMID:23800704
Rahman, Ziyaur; Siddiqui, Akhtar; Khan, Mansoor A
The purpose of this study was to investigate the applicability of our newly developed technology (RACTAB® technology) for preparing orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) containing enteric-coated particles. Tamsulosin hydrochloride (TAM) was used as a model drug contained in the enteric-coated particles. Enteric-coated particles containing TAM (ECP-T) were prepared by spray coating a mixture of TAM with controlled-release materials. ECP-T was then mixed with rapidly disintegrating granules (RDGs), which were prepared using the suspension spray-coating method, and was tableted to form ODTs (ODTRAC). ODTRAC was evaluated for its hardness, thickness, internal structure (X-ray-CT scanning), functional properties (controlled-release profile), and in vivo disintegration time. Since RDGs with micronized ethylcellulose (MEC) increased tablet hardness by increasing the contact frequency between granules, ODTRAC containing ECP-T exhibited high hardness (>50?N) and low friability (<0.5%) with a relatively low compression force. After tableting, the structure of ECP-T in ODTRAC remained intact and no damage was observed on the surface. ECP-T recovered from ODTRAC showed the same dissolution profile of TAM in Japanese Pharmacopoeia (JP) 1st and JP 2nd media as that of intact ECP-T, which indicated that the tableting process did not affect the acid-resistibility of the particle. In addition, ODTRAC rapidly disintegrated in vivo (< 30?s), even at a high compression force (at 9 kN). These findings clearly suggest that RACTAB® technology is a useful approach to prepare ODTs containing enteric-coated particles. PMID:24789923
Okuda, Yutaka; Okamoto, Yasunobu; Irisawa, Yosuke; Okimoto, Kazuto; Osawa, Takashi; Yamashita, Shinji
The tensile strengths and disintegration times of paracetamol and oxytetracycline tablets at room temperature are higher when they have been prepared at high temperatures, e.g. 85 degrees, than at room temperature or below, e.g.--20 degrees. The activation energies of the two materials, 3 and 1 k cal mol-1 (13 and 4kJmol-1) respectively, were derived from plots of log tensile strength and log disintegration time versus the reciprocal of the absolute temperature. The results have been explained in terms of sintering theory and the formation of welded bonds between particles. PMID:19574
Pilpel, N; Esezobo, S
The new European regulations on paediatric medicines and recent WHO recommendations have induced an increased need for research into novel child-appropriate dosage forms. The aim of this study was the development of orally disintegrating mini-tablets (ODMTs) as a suitable dosage form for paediatric patients. The suitability of five commercially available ready-to-use tableting excipients, Ludiflash, Parteck ODT, Pearlitol Flash, Pharmaburst 500 and Prosolv ODT, to be directly compressed into mini-tablets, with 2 mm in diameter, was examined. All of the excipients are based on co-processed mannitol. Drug-free ODMTs and ODMTs with a child-appropriate dose of hydrochlorothiazide were investigated. ODMTs could be produced with all investigated excipients. ODMTs with a sufficient crushing strength >7 N and a low friability <1% could be obtained, as well as ODMTs with a short simulated wetting test-time <5 s. ODMTs made of Ludiflash showed the best results with crushing strengths from 7.8 N up to 11.8 N and excellent simulated wetting test-times from 3.1 s to 5.0 s. For each excipient, ODMTs with accordance to the pharmacopoeial specification content uniformity could be obtained. The promising results indicate that orally disintegrating mini-tablets may serve as a novel platform technology for paediatrics in future. PMID:21324357
Stoltenberg, I; Breitkreutz, J
Complex formation between drugs and ion-exchange resins was investigated and the effects of coating by various aqueous polymeric dispersions on the complexes were evaluated for developing new sustained-release fast-disintegrating tablets (FDTs). Complexes of ion-exchange resin and dextromethorphan, a model drug, were prepared using different particle sizes of the resins. Aqueous colloidal dispersions of ethylcellulose (EC) and poly(vinyl acetate) (Kollicoat SR30D) were used for fluid-bed coating. Based on drug loading, release profiles, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images, the coated particles were granulated with suitable tablet excipients and then compressed into the tablets. Drug release profiles and SEM pictures were compared before and after the manufacturing processes. As the particle size of resins increased, the drug loading and release rate decreased due to the reduced effective diffusion coefficient and surface area. Higher coating level decreased the release rate further. In contrast to EC, Kollicoat SR30D coated particles could be compressed into tablets without any rupture or cracks on the coating since the mechanical properties of the polymer was more resistant to the manufacturing processes. This resulted in no significant changes in release rates. SEM showed the mechanical strength of the polymers affected the morphological change after compression. When the drug release profiles were applied into Boyd model and Higuchi equation, the linear relationship was observed, indicating that the diffusion within the resin matrix is the rate-controlling step. PMID:18164882
Jeong, Seong Hoon; Park, Kinam
The work investigates the adhesive/cohesive molecular and physical interactions together with nanoscopic features of commonly used orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) excipients microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and D-mannitol. This helps to elucidate the underlying physico-chemical and mechanical mechanisms responsible for powder densification and optimum product functionality. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) contact mode analysis was performed to measure nano-adhesion forces and surface energies between excipient-drug particles (6-10 different particles per each pair). Moreover, surface topography images (100 nm210 µm2) and roughness data were acquired from AFM tapping mode. AFM data were related to ODT macro/microscopic properties obtained from SEM, FTIR, XRD, thermal analysis using DSC and TGA, disintegration testing, Heckel and tabletability profiles. The study results showed a good association between the adhesive molecular and physical forces of paired particles and the resultant densification mechanisms responsible for mechanical strength of tablets. MCC micro roughness was 3 times that of D-mannitol which explains the high hardness of MCC ODTs due to mechanical interlocking. Hydrogen bonding between MCC particles could not be established from both AFM and FTIR solid state investigation. On the contrary, D-mannitol produced fragile ODTs due to fragmentation of surface crystallites during compression attained from its weak crystal structure. Furthermore, AFM analysis has shown the presence of extensive micro fibril structures inhabiting nano pores which further supports the use of MCC as a disintegrant. Overall, excipients (and model drugs) showed mechanistic behaviour on the nano/micro scale that could be related to the functionality of materials on the macro scale.
Al-khattawi, Ali; Alyami, Hamad; Townsend, Bill; Ma, Xianghong; Mohammed, Afzal R.
In this study, in order to address the problems with manufacturing orally rapidly disintegrating tablets (ODT) containing functional (taste masking or controlled release) coated particles, such as the low compactability of coated particles and the rupture of coated membrane during compression, a novel ODT containing taste-masked coated particles (TMP) in the center of the tablets were prepared using one-step dry-coated tablets (OSDrC) technology. As a reference, physical-mixture tablets (PM) were prepared by a conventional tableting method, and the properties of the tablets and the effect of compression on the characteristics of TMP were evaluated. OSDrC was found to have higher tensile strength and far lower friability than PM, but the oral disintegration time of OSDrC is slightly longer than that of PM following high compression pressure. Consequently, OSDrC approaches the target tablet properties of ODT, whereas PM does not. The deformation of TMP in OSDrC due to compression is slight, and the release rate of acetaminophen (AAP) from OSDrC is the same as from TMP. However, TMP on the surface of PM are considerably deformed, and the release rate of AAP from PM is faster than from TMP. These findings suggest that OSDrC technology is a useful approach for preparing ODT containing functional coated particles. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the elastic recovery of tablets can affect differences in the properties of OSDrC, PM and placebo tablets (PC). PMID:21963629
Kondo, Keita; Niwa, Toshiyuki; Ozeki, Yuichi; Ando, Masaki; Danjo, Kazumi
The oral administration is a common route in the drug therapy and the solid pharmaceutical forms are widely used. Although much about the performance of these formulations can be learned from in vitro studies using conventional methods, evaluation in vivo is essential in product development. The knowledge of the gastrointestinal transit and how the physiological variables can interfere with the disintegration and drug absorption is a prerequisite for development of dosage forms. The aim of this work was to employing the ac biosusceptometry (ACB) to monitoring magnetic tablets in the human gastrointestinal tract and to obtain the magnetic images of the disintegration process in the colonic region. The ac biosusceptometry showed accuracy in the quantification of the gastric residence time, the intestinal transit time and the disintegration time (DT) of the magnetic formulations in the human gastrointestinal tract. Moreover, ac biosusceptometry is a non-invasive technique, radiation-free and harmless to the volunteers, as well as an important research tool in the pharmaceutical, pharmacological and physiological investigations. PMID:16188432
Corá, Luciana A; Romeiro, Fernando G; Américo, Madileine F; Oliveira, Ricardo Brandt; Baffa, Oswaldo; Stelzer, Murilo; Miranda, José Ricardo de Arruda
Melperone is an atypical antipsychotic agent that has shown a wide spectrum of neuroleptic properties, particularly effective in the treatment of senile dementia and Parkinson's-associated psychosis, and is marketed in Europe as an immediate-release (IR) tablet and syrup. An orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) dosage form would be advantageous for patients who experience difficulty in swallowing large tablets or capsules or those who experience dysphagia. Controlled-release (CR) capsule and ODT formulations containing melperone HCl were developed with target in vitro release profiles suitable for a once-daily dosing regimen. Both dosage forms allow for the convenient production of dose-proportional multiple strengths. Two ODT formulations exhibiting fast and medium release profiles and one medium release profile capsule formulation (each 50?mg) were tested in vivo using IR syrup as the reference. The two medium release formulations were shown to be bioequivalent to each other and are suitable for once-daily dosing. Based on the analytical and organoleptic test results, as well as the blend uniformity and in-process compression data at various compression forces using coated beads produced at one-tenth (1/10) commercial scale, both formulations in the form of CR capsules and CR ODTs have shown suitability for progression into further clinical development. PMID:22356215
Venkatesh, Gopi M; Stevens, Phillip J; Lai, Jin-Wang
This study aimed to evaluate the taste and mouth feel of newly designed orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) of pioglitazone, which is a typical type 2 diabetes medicine with an unpleasant taste, using a visual analog scale (VAS) analysis. The ODTs were subjected to either of these 2 taste-masking procedures: a physical masking procedure that included coating the inactive core granules with mixture of pioglitazone and Eudragit(®) E PO, followed by mixing the granules with aspartame and other excipients to form the tablet (physical masking ODT); or a gustatory masking procedure that involved blending pioglitazone with both sodium chloride and aspartame, followed by mixing the blend with other excipients to form the tablet (gustatory masking ODT). From the results of the VAS analysis, physical masking could suppress the bitterness but not the astringent; therefore, the overall palatability of the ODT was considered not improved. In contrast, gustatory masking significantly suppressed both the bitterness and astringent, and offered a slight sweetness; therefore, the overall palatability of the ODT was considered improved. In conclusion, VAS is a useful tool to evaluate the taste of ODTs and that gustatory masking can effectively mask the unpleasant taste of pioglitazone ODT. PMID:23419665
Nakano, Yoshinori; Maeda, Arisa; Uchida, Shinya; Namiki, Noriyuki
Fast-dissolving effervescent tablets (FETs) were prepared by the modification of nonreactive liquid-based wet granulation technique. Effervescent systems are not stable in the presence of trace amount of moisture, and elimination or inactivation of free water is the key to stability apart from manufacturing in controlled humidity environment. Our main objective of the project was to develop FETs of glibenclamide based on highly plastic granules that can be compressed at low pressure to form fast-melting pharmaceutical tablets. In this study, we have screened various acid and carbonate sources for the effervescent system. Citric acid was coated with plastic materials such as polyethylene glycol (PEG), which provide a physical barrier to the reaction. The inherent hygroscopic nature of PEG could decrease the affinity for moisture of effervescent mixtures and can provide a stabilizing effect. Sodium bicarbonate was blended with sugar alcohol like mannitol, which would give a protective coating. PEG 1000 melts at body temperature (approximately 37 degrees C) and thereby does not delay the reaction between the acid source and base. The present formulation using citric acid-sodium bicarbonate and citric acid-sodium glycine carbonate tablet with PEG and mannitol was found to have better reaction properties and reaction stability than does the standard citric acid-sodium bicarbonate tablet. FETs of glibenclamide might aid in dissolution due to increase in microenvironmental pH around the granules and saliva. Sensory study on disintegration time and mouth feel attributes ranked the present formulation based on grittiness, chalkiness, and overall preference as best. PMID:18821151
Jacob, Shery; Shirwaikar, Arun; Nair, Anroop
Although the taste-masking of bitter drug using ion exchange resin has been recognized, in vitro testing using an electronic tongue (e-Tongue) and in vivo bitterness test by human panel test was not fully understood. In case of orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) containing bitter medicine, in vitro and in vivo disintegration is also importance for dosage performance. Donepezil hydrochloride was chosen as a model drug due to its bitterness and requires rapid disintegration for the preparation of ODT. In this study, ion exchange resin drug complex (IRDC) at three different ratios (1:2, 1:1, 2:1) was prepared using a spray-drying method and then IRDC-loaded ODT containing superdisintegrants (crospovidone, croscarmellose sodium, and sodium starch glycolate) were prepared by the direct compression method. The physical properties and morphologies were then characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (PXRD) and electrophoretic laser scattering (ELS), respectively. The in vitro taste-masking efficiency was measured with an electronic tongue (e-Tongue). In vivo bitterness scale was also evaluated by human volunteers and then we defined new term, "bitterness index (BI)" to link in vitro e-Tongue. There was a good correlation of IRDC between in vitro e-Tongue values and in vivo BI. Furthermore, IRDC-loaded ODT showed good in vitro/in vivo correlation in the disintegration time. The optimal IRDC-loaded ODTs displayed similar drug release profiles to the reference tablet (Aricept(®) ODT) in release media of pH 1.2, pH 4.0, pH 6.8 and distilled water but had significantly better palatability in vivo taste-masking evaluation. The current IRDC-loaded ODT according to the in vitro and in vivo correlation of disintegration and bitter taste masking could provide platforms in ODT dosage formulations of donepezil hydrochloride for improved patient compliances. PMID:23933050
Kim, Jong-Il; Cho, Sang-Min; Cui, Jing-Hao; Cao, Qing-Ri; Oh, Euichaul; Lee, Beom-Jin
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the taste masking potential of novel solid dispersions (SDs) using Eudragit® EPO as the excipient when incorporated into the orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) for delivering a highly soluble drug with an extremely bitter taste. The pyridostigmine bromides (PB) SDs (PBSDs) were prepared by solvent evaporation-deposition method. The physicochemical properties of PBSDs were investigated by means of differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy. The dissolution test showed that only about 8% of PB was released from PBSDs in the simulated salivary fluid in 30 s. Therefore, PBSDs were considered taste-masked and selected for formulation of PBODTs. A central composite design was employed for process optimization. Multiple linear regression analysis for process optimization revealed that the optimal PBODTs were obtained, when the microcrystalline cellulose and crospovidone were 17.16 and 5.55 (%, w/w), respectively, and the average in vivo disintegration time was 25 s. The bitterness threshold of PB was examined by a sensory test, and the threshold value was set as 3?mg in each tablet. Taste evaluation of PBODTs in 18 volunteers revealed considerable taste masking with bitterness below the threshold value. PBODTs also revealed rapid drug release (around 99%, 2?min) in the simulated gastric fluid. The mean PB plasma concentration-time profiles of PBODTs and that of the commercial tablets were comparable, with closely similar pattern. Bioequivalence assessment results demonstrated that PBODTs and the commercial tablets were bioequivalent. In conclusion, PBODTs are prepared successfully, with taste masking and rapid disintegration in the oral cavity. PMID:22994163
Tan, Qunyou; Zhang, Li; Liu, Guodong; He, Dan; Yin, Huafeng; Wang, Hong; Wu, Jianyong; Liao, Hong; Zhang, Jingqing
Pharmacokinetic and bioequivalence comparison between orally disintegrating and conventional tablet formulations of flurbiprofen: A single-dose, randomized-sequence, open-label, two-period crossover study in healthy chinese male volunteers
Background: Flurbiprofen, an NSAID, is used for the treatment of inflammation and pain caused by rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis as well as soft-tissue injuries. A new orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) of flurbiprofen has recently been developed; this study was conducted to provide support for this drug to obtain marketing authorization in China.Objective: The aim of the study was to compare
Yan-Mei Liu; Gang-Yi Liu; Yun Liu; Shui-Jun Li; Jing-Ying Jia; Meng-Qi Zhang; Chuan Lu; Yong-Mei Zhang; Xue-Ning Li; Chen Yu
Primary nocturnal enuresis is a prevalent childhood condition that can persist into adulthood. Desmopressin is an antidiuretic available as orally disintegrating lyophilisate (melt) or solid tablet. Recent findings suggesting different food interactions and clinical characteristics, including compliance, between desmopressin melt and tablet motivated a post hoc analysis of a previously reported randomised, crossover study. The efficacy of desmopressin melt compared with tablet was evaluated using the International Children's Continence Society (ICCS) responder definitions. Compliance was further analysed using detailed criteria, and the association between efficacy and compliance was examined. In total, 221 patients aged 5-15 years, already receiving desmopressin tablets were randomised to the treatment sequence melt (120/240 ?g)/tablet (0.2/0.4 mg) or tablet/melt in two consecutive 3-week periods. The probability of being a responder (partial or full) during either period was significantly more likely with desmopressin melt compared with tablet (odds ratio, 2.0; confidence intervals, 1.07-3.73; p?=?0.03). There was no period effect on compliance in the tablet/melt sequence and no difference in the number of completely compliant patients in each formulation group; however, more patients were >75 % compliant in period 1 compared with period 2 in the melt/tablet sequence. Increased compliance was associated with greater reductions in the number of wet nights for both formulations. Conclusions: Desmopressin melt, compared with tablet, improves the probability of being a responder. Switching from tablet to melt formulation increased patient compliance. Increased compliance was associated with increased efficacy. Switching to desmopressin melt may benefit patients with suboptimal responses to desmopressin tablet. PMID:23677249
Juul, Kristian Vinter; Van Herzeele, Charlotte; De Bruyne, Pauline; Goble, Sandra; Walle, Johan Vande; Nørgaard, Jens Peter
The purpose of this study was to develop and manufacture novel freeze-dried orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) for migraine therapy containing taste-masked naproxen sodium and naratriptan hydrochloride. The formulation was optimized based on freeze-drying of sucrose solutions with different binders (hydroxyethylstarch, sodium alginate, methylcellulose, and gelatin) and varying amounts of Eudragit® E-coated naproxen sodium granules. Excellent product performance of the ODTs in terms of hardness and disintegration time (<10 s) independent of the mass of particles embedded was found for the solution consisting of sucrose and hydroxyethylstarch. Poloxamer 188, menthol flavor, naratriptan hydrochloride, and taste-masked naproxen sodium granules corresponding to 200 mg of naproxen were then added, and the final batches of ODTs for migraine therapy were produced. The ODTs were fully characterized, and subsequently stored for 1 month at room temperature and at 40°C. The amount of free naproxen sodium after freeze-drying and storage was below the threshold bitterness value, and the coating remained intact. Additionally, the particle size distribution of taste-masked granules was preserved, and more than 90 % naproxen sodium was released after 30 min. Naratriptan hydrochloride was dissolved immediately after disintegration, hence facilitating buccal absorption of the active pharmaceutical ingredient. PMID:24532095
Stange, Ulrike; Führling, Christian; Gieseler, Henning
Abstract Context: Starch obtained from different botanical sources exhibit different characteristics due to variation in amylase-amylopectin ratio, which results in different binder substrate interactions. Objective: The present study characterized Echinochloa colona (L.) Link (Poaceae) starch and evaluated its compressional characteristics for use as tablet excipient against commonly used maize, sorghum, and cassava starch. Materials and methods: Three experimental design studies were performed to determine the effects of the maize starch and povidone on physical properties of paracetamol (250?mg) tablets. The effect of superdisintegrants sodium starch glycolate and croscarmellose sodium on the optimized composition obtained in the preceding experiments was evaluated in two factorial experimental studies. The maize starch in the optimum formulations was replaced with difra, sorghum, and cassava starch, and tablets prepared from these starches were compared for their compressional characteristics, lubrication sensitivity, moisture uptake, and drug release. Results: Tablets prepared from maize starch and povidone (30:9, w/w) blend which was previously mixed for 8?min disintegrated (DT) in 10?min. Superdisintegrants decreased DT of tablets significantly (p?0.05) to 2.2?min. The Hausner ratios of co-processed mixtures containing sorghum, maize, and difra starch were 1.19, 1.21, and 1.26, respectively, with equilibrium moisture content of 8-9%. The DT of sorghum and difra starch formulations which related directly to their higher hydration capacity (difra?>?sorghum?>?maize starch) and swelling property was 1.5?min and 2.5?min, respectively, with a friability of 0.32%. The effect of lubrication on the DT and friability of tablets containing maize and difra starch was significant (p?0.05). However, more than 90% drug was released in vitro dissolution studies. Conclusion: Difra starch can replace maize and sorghum starch as tablet excipient. PMID:24552302
Abdallah, Daud Baraka; Charoo, Naseem Ahmad; Elgorashi, Abubakr Suliman
The focus of present investigation was to assess the utility of non-destructive techniques in the evaluation of risperidone solid dispersions (SD) with methyl-?-cyclodextrin (MBCD) and subsequent incorporation of the SD into orally disintegrating tablets (ODT) for a faster release of risperidone. The SD was prepared by a solvent evaporation method and evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), near infrared spectroscopy (NIR), NIR-chemical imaging (NIR-CI), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). DSC and XRD analysis indicated that crystallinity of SD has reduced significantly. FTIR showed no interaction between risperidone and MBCD. Partial least square (PLS) was applied to the NIR data for the construction of chemometric models to determine both components of the SD. Good correlations were obtained for calibration and prediction as indicated by correlation coefficients >0.9965. The model was more accurate and less biased in predicting the MBCD than risperidone as indicated by its lower mean accuracy and mean bias values. SD-3 (risperidone:MBCD, 1:3) was incorporated into ODT tablets containing diluent (D-mannitol, FlowLac(®) 100 or galenIQ-721) and superdisintegrant (Kollidon(®) CL-SF, Ac-Di-Sol or sodium starch glycolate). Disintegration time, T(50) and T(90) were decreased in the formulations containing mannitol and Kollidon(®) CL-SF, but increased with galenIQ-721 and sodium starch glycolate, respectively. NIR-CI images confirmed the homogeneity of SD and ODT formulations. PMID:20801200
Rahman, Ziyaur; Zidan, Ahmed S; Khan, Mansoor A
Gatifloxacin Sesquihydrate is a Broad Spectrum Antimicrobial agent active against Gram Positive and Gram Negative Organism. It is slightly bitter in taste. In the present study an attempt has been made to prepare bitterless fast dissolving tablet of Gatifloxacin Sesquihydrate using Indion 204, Indion 214, Indion 234, Tulsion 335 (ion exchange resin) as a taste masking agent. X-ray powder diffractometry,
P. S. Gangane; K. G. Mahajan; H. S. Sawarkar; V. S. Adhao
Fast disintegrating capsules for administration in the oral cavity were prepared either by perforation or by vacuum-drying of conventional hard capsules. When compared to other fast disintegrating dosage forms (e.g. lyophilized sponges or tablets), these capsules have various advantages, in particular, a high drug loading capacity and no compression steps. The disintegration time of conventional hard gelatin capsules (HGC) was
Mesut Ciper; Roland Bodmeier
The purpose of this research was to mask the intensely bitter taste of ondansetron HCl and to formulate a rapiddisintegrating\\u000a tablet (RDT) of the taste-maske drug. Taste masking was done by complexing ondansetron HCl with aminoalkyl methacrylate copolymer\\u000a (Eudragit EPO) in different ratios by the precipitation method. Drug-polymer complexes (DPCs) were tested for drug content,\\u000a in vitro taste in simulated
Shagufta Khan; Prashant Kataria; Premchand Nakhat; Pramod Yeole
An open-label study was performed to investigate the clinical efficacy and tolerability of olanzapine orally disintegrating tablets (Zyprexa Zydis) in ameliorating excitement symptoms in the acute phase of schizophrenia. Fifty-three patients meeting DSM-IV criteria for first-episode schizophrenia and treated with olanzapine monotherapy were evaluated with regard to their clinical improvement, behavioural response to medication, and extrapyramidal side effects using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale Excited Component (PANSS-EC), Nursing Assessment of Medication Acceptance (NAMA), and Drug-Induced Extra-Pyramidal Symptoms Scale (DIEPSS), respectively. Scores of PANSS-EC were significantly reduced after 3 days of olanzapine administration. A reduction in NAMA scores was also observed 7 days after administration of olanzapine. The DIEPSS score was unaffected by olanzapine administration. These results suggest that olanzapine orally disintegrating tablets are effective and well-tolerated for treatment excitement in the acute phase of schizophrenic patients. In addition, it is possible that adherence to medications is improved by using olanzapine orally disintegrating tablets. PMID:19707954
Hori, Hikaru; Ueda, Nobuhisa; Yoshimura, Reiji; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Wani, Kenta; Etoh, Yoshinori; Haraga, Kensuke; Kitahara, Junichi; Nakamura, Jun
The purpose of this study was to propose a method of determining the exact value of disintegrant ratio in a binary drug-disintegrant compacted mixture for a minimum disintegration time in the case of spherical particles. Disintegration is a limiting factor in dissolution process of compact for low water soluble active ingredients. As disintegration time is shortest at a certain ratio of disintegrant, a calculation of this value is important for solid dosage from design to enhance disintegration and dissolution process. According to percolation theory, a minimum disintegration time corresponds to the formation of a continuous water-conducting cluster through the entire tablet. The critical volumetric ratio at which the cluster is formed is named percolation threshold and has the value of 0.16 for random close packed (RCP) sphere systems. RCP systems where chosen as the best model for compacts consisting of spherical particles. Two cases for water diffusion through the tablet were identified, according to geometrical considerations between disintegrant and drug particles. These cases determine if disintegrant particles can have a contact between each other within the compact and thus if porosity and disintegrant volume are included in the continuous cluster. An equation for both cases is presented in the form of piecewise function to determine the minimal disintegrant volumetric ratio for a binary drug/disintegrant compact in order to achieve a minimum disintegration time. Disintegration tests were performed with tablets at different ratios of modified corn starch mixed with caffeine or paracetamol powders. Estimated and experimental optimal ratio were compared showing coefficient R(2) = 0.96. PMID:17879295
Krausbauer, Etienne; Puchkov, Maxim; Betz, Gabriele; Leuenberger, Hans
Fast-disintegration technologies have encountered increased interest from industries in the past decades. In order to orientate the formulators to the choice of the best disintegrating agent, the most common disintegrants were selected and their ability to quickly disintegrate direct compressed tablets was evaluated. For this study, a central composite design was used. The main factors included were the concentration of disintegrant (X1) and the compression force (X2). These factors were studied for tablets containing either Zeparox or Pearlitol 200 as soluble diluents and six different disintegrants: L-HPC LH11 and LH31, Lycatab PGS, Vivasol, Kollidon CL, and Explotab. Their micromeritics properties were previously determined. The response variables were disintegration time (Y1), tensile strength (Y2), and porosity (Y3). Whatever the diluent, the longest disintegration time is obtained with Vivasol as the disintegrant, while Kollidon CL leads to the shortest disintegration times. Exception for Lycatab PGS and L-HPC LH11, formulations with Pearlitol 200 disintegrate faster. Almost the same results are obtained with porosity: no relevant effect of disintegrant concentration is observed, since porosity is mainly correlated to the compression force. In particular, highest values are obtained with Zeparox as the diluent when compared to Pearlitol 200 and, as the type of disintegrant is concerned, no difference is observed. Tensile strength models have been all statistically validated and are all highly dependent on the compression force. Lycatab PGS concentration does not affect disintegration time, mainly increased by the increase of compression pressure. When Pearlitol 200 is used with Vivasol, disintegration time is more influenced by the disintegrant concentration than by the compression pressure, an increase in concentration leading to a significant and relevant increase of the disintegration time. With Zeparox, the interaction between the two controlled variables is more complex: there is no effect of compression force on the disintegration time for a small amount of disintegrant, but a significant increase for higher concentrations. With Kollidon CL, the main factor influencing the disintegration time is the compression force, rather than the disintegrant concentration. Increasing both the compression force and the disintegrant concentration leads to an increase of the disintegration time. For lower Kollidon CL percentages, the compression pressure increases dramatically the tablet disintegration. With the Explotab, whatever the increase of compression force, the disintegrant concentration leads to an increase of the disintegration time. According to Student's t-test, only the compression force significantly and strongly influences the disintegration time when Pearlitol 200 is used. A slight interaction and some trends nevertheless appear: above 150 MPa, increasing the disintegrant concentration leads to a shortened disintegration time, below this limit the opposite effect is observed. PMID:15704862
Di Martino, Piera; Martelli, Sante; Wehrlé, Pascal
A study has been carried out to investigate the effect of humidity on the disintegrant property of alpha-cellulose in paracetamol tablets. The disintegrant alpha-cellulose or maize starch (for comparative studies) was incorporated intragranularly or extragranularly. The tablets were prepared by a wet granulation technique and then exposed to relative humidities (RH) 1%, 78% and 100% at an ambient temperature of 28 to 30 degrees C for various time intervals up to 2 weeks. They were evaluated for disintegration time, hardness and moisture uptake. Tablets stored under RH% and 78% disintegrated within 15 minutes while those containing alpha-cellulose stored at RH 100% for a period > or = 24 h failed to disintegrate within 60 minutes. The time taken for this conversion from disintegrating to non-disintegrating tablets varied with disintegrant concentrations and its mode of incorporation. Tablets containing maize starch did not display this moisture effect. The observation is thought to relate to the gelling of the alpha-cellulose particles upon moisture sorption. Thus, high relative humidities impair the disintegrant property of alpha-cellulose, which underlines the need to prevent such tablets from moisture. PMID:16022492
Uhumwangho, Michael U; Okor, Roland S
We analyzed the correlation between serum zinc levels and taste disturbance, and between patient backgrounds and serum zinc levels or taste disturbance, and evaluated the effects of polaprezinc oral disintegrating tablets on taste disturbance in 29 patients with lung cancer and one patient with malignant pleural mesothelioma who were receiving chemotherapy. Taste disturbance developed in 11 (36.7%) out of 30 patients. Serum zinc levels significantly correlated with taste disturbance (p=0.0227). Serum zinc levels were significantly lower (p=0.0235) and taste disturbance tended to be more frequent (p=0.0625) in males. Polaprezinc improved taste disturbance in 5 of 8 patients. PMID:18633224
Nakata, Yoko; Hirashima, Tomonori; Kondou, Yoko; Tokuoka, Yoshie; Imazato, Hitomi; Iwata, Kaori; Oomori, Yukari; Yamato, Akihiro; Shimizu, Saburou; Nagao, Sadako; Matsui, Kaoru; Abe, Noriko
The dissolution characteristics of melt granulations of paracetamol in capsule and tablet dosage form were compared to determine whether the dissolution characteristics of the granules can be actualized by formulating them as rapidly disintegrating tablets. The term melt granulation refers here to the wax-matrix granules that were formed by triturating the drug powder (paracetamol) with a melted carnauba wax. The matrix granules were admixed with diluents (lactose, alpha-cellulose or microcrystalline cellulose) also in granular form to prevent size separation during encapsulation or tableting. The granules were filled into hard gelatin capsules (mean content weight, 500 +/- 6.2 mg) or tableted (mean weight 500 +/- 5.1 mg, and tensile strength 1.36 +/- 0.2 to 1.7 +/- 0.3 MN/m2). The capsules and tablets were subjected to disintegration and in vitro dissolution tests. The dissolution data were analyzed on the basis of zero, first order rate kinetics and Higuchi square root of time relationship. The results showed that the dissolution profiles were generally consistent with a first order rate kinetics (r = 0.95). The first order dissolution rate constants of capsules and tablets of the matrix granules only (without diluents) were 0.31 +/- 0.02 min(-1) and 0.20 +/- 0.03 min(-1), respectively, indicating faster dissolution from the capsules. Therefore, the dissolution characteristics of the matrix particles were not intact after tableting. Addition of diluents to the capsule formulations had no effect on dissolution rates, whereas in the tablets, dissolution rates increased. For instance, inclusion of a diluent up to 50% w/w in the tablets increased the dissolution rate constants to 0.34 +/- 0.04 min(-1) (lactose), 0.42 +/- 0.02 min(-1) (alpha-cellulose), and 0.46 +/- 0.03 min(-1) (microcrystalline cellulose). Thus, alpha-cellulose and microcrystalline cellulose produced greater enhancer effect on the tablet dissolution rates compared to lactose. Both the capsules and the tablets disintegrated rapidly within 2 to 3 minutes. The dissolution enhancer effect of the diluents in the tablets only, relates to the aqueous swelling of the disintegrated particles. PMID:17665854
Uhumwangho, Michael U; Okor, Roland S
Central diabetes insipidus (CDI) is associated with arginine vasopressin (AVP) deficiency with resultant polyuria and polydipsia. Intranasal desmopressin provides physiological replacement but oral formulations are preferred for their ease of administration. This study aimed to demonstrate the efficacy and safety of desmopressin orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) in the treatment of Japanese patients with CDI, and confirm that antidiuresis is maintained on switching from intranasal desmopressin to desmopressin ODT. A total of 20 patients aged 6-75 years with CDI were included in this 4-week multicenter, open-label study. Following observation, patients switched from intranasal desmopressin to desmopressin ODT with titration to optimal dose over ?5 days at the study site. Following three consecutive doses with stable patient fluid balance, patients were discharged with visits at Weeks 2 and 4. Following titration from intranasal desmopressin to ODT, the mean 24-hour urine volume was unchanged, indicating similar antidiuresis with both formulations. The proportion of patients with endpoint measurements (urine osmolality, 24-hour urine volume, hourly diuresis rate and urine-specific gravity) within normal range at Days 1-2 (intranasal desmopressin) and Week 4 (desmopressin ODT) was similar. The mean daily dose ratio of intranasal desmopressin to desmopressin ODT (Week 4) was 1:24 but a wide range was observed across individuals to maintain adequate antidiuretic effect. Hyponatraemia was generally mild and managed by dose titration. Desmopressin ODT achieved sufficient antidiuretic control compared to intranasal therapy and was well tolerated over long-term treatment. The wide range of intranasal:ODT dose ratios underline the importance of individual titration. PMID:23811987
Arima, Hiroshi; Oiso, Yutaka; Juul, Kristian Vinter; Nørgaard, Jens Peter
In this study we compared the efficacy of orally disintegrating tablets (ODT) and IV ondansetron for preventing spinal morphine-induced pruritus and postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in healthy young male patients. Patients who received bupivacaine with 0.20 mg morphine for spinal anesthesia were randomly assigned to the ODT group (ODT ondansetron 8 mg, n = 50), the IV group (4 mg ondansetron IV, n = 50), or the placebo group (n = 50). Each individual was assessed for pruritus, postoperative nausea and vomiting, and pain at 0, 2, 6, 12, 18, and 24 h after surgery using three distinct visual analog scales. The frequencies of postoperative nausea and vomiting and frequencies of requirement for rescue antiemetic and antipruritic were recorded. There were no significant differences among the three groups with respect to incidence or severity of PONV or postoperative pain visual analog scale scores. The incidences of pruritus in the ODT (56%) and IV (66%) groups were significantly different from that in the placebo group (86%) (P < 0.02 for both). Only the ODT group had significantly lower mean pruritus visual analog scale scores at 0, 2, 6, and 12 h postsurgery than the placebo group (P < 0.023 for all). The frequency of requirement for rescue antipruritic was significantly less in the ODT group than the placebo group (P = 0.013). Both ODT ondansetron 8 mg and IV ondansetron 4 mg are more effective than placebo for preventing spinal morphine-induced pruritus, but neither form of this agent reduces spinal morphine-induced postoperative nausea and vomiting in this patient group. PMID:16243989
Pirat, Arash; Tuncay, Senay F; Torgay, Adnan; Candan, Selim; Arslan, Gulnaz
Background We conducted a phase I study to estimate the maximum tolerated dose and describe the dose-limiting toxicities and pharmacokinetics of oral capecitabine rapidly disintegrating tablets given concurrently with radiation therapy to children with newly diagnosed brainstem or high-grade gliomas. Methods Children 321 y with newly diagnosed intrinsic brainstem or high-grade gliomas were eligible for enrollment. The starting dose was 500 mg/m2, given twice daily, with subsequent cohorts enrolled at 650 mg/m2 and 850 mg/m2 using a 3 + 3 phase I design. Children received capecitabine at the assigned dose daily for 9 wks starting from the first day of radiation therapy (RT). Following a 2-wk break, patients received 3 courses of capecitabine 1250 mg/m2 twice daily for 14 days followed by a 7-day rest. Pharmacokinetic sampling was performed in consenting patients. Six additional patients with intrinsic brainstem gliomas were enrolled at the maximum tolerated dose to further characterize the pharmacokinetic and toxicity profiles. Results Twenty-four patients were enrolled. Twenty were fully assessable for toxicity. Dose-limiting toxicities were palmar plantar erythroderma (grades 2 and 3) and elevation of alanine aminotransferase (grades 2 and 3). Systemic exposure to capecitabine and metabolites was similar to or slightly lower than predicted based on adult data. Conclusions Capecitabine with concurrent RT was generally well tolerated. The recommended phase II capecitabine dose when given with concurrent RT is 650 mg/m2, administered twice daily. A phase II study to evaluate the efficacy of this regimen in children with intrinsic brainstem gliomas is in progress (PBTC-030).
Kilburn, Lindsay B.; Kocak, Mehmet; Schaedeli Stark, Franziska; Meneses-Lorente, Georgina; Brownstein, Carrie; Hussain, Sazzad; Chintagumpala, Murali; Thompson, Patrick A.; Gururangan, Sri; Banerjee, Anuradha; Paulino, Arnold C.; Kun, Larry; Boyett, James M.; Blaney, Susan M.
The results of the testing of calcium acetate tablets, produced by direct compression and by wet granulation (Ph. Jug. IV) are presented. Tablet hardness, friability and disintegration were determined. The best properties were observed in the tablets produced with maize starch. This procedure is fast and simple, and compound tablets of calcium acetate fulfill the current requirements for this type of preparation. PMID:11521467
Obrenovic, D; Gazikalovic, E; Ognjanovic, J; Nidzovic Z, Z
Ondansetron tablets contain ondansetron base as the hydrochloride dihydrate, lactose, microcrystalline cellulose, starch and magnesium stearate. Tablets sampled at the beginning and end of the compression process have good content uniformity and drug content, showing that there is no segregation or loss of the drug substance during tabletting. The release of drug substance is related to the tablet disintegration time. Tablets with disintegration times of 3 and 10 min release 85% of the drug substance in approximately 6 and 20 min respectively. Satisfactory bioavailability has been demonstrated. The tablets have good stability, and have a shelf life of 2 years when stored below 30 degrees C. PMID:2533901
Leak, R E; Woodford, J D
The aim of this study was to utilize high-speed video imaging for understanding the disintegrability of compacts and disintegrant action upon wetting. High-speed video imaging was used to visualize the disintegration of compacts and effect of wetting on free disintegrant particles. Acquired images were processed using MATLAB, and changes in the compact area and instantaneous motion of compacted particles on contact with water were analyzed. The capillary action of compacts was also determined for various disintegrants. Finally, the breakdown behavior of compacts prepared with selected disintegrants was analyzed at different compression forces to evaluate recovery of compaction strain. Water-insoluble inert diluent, dicalcium phosphate, was used as a comparator. The results from this visualization study provided an in-depth understanding of the disintegrant behavior of free and compacted disintegrant particles upon wetting. The mechanisms of swelling, capillary action, disruption of particle-particle bonds and strain recovery were successfully monitored by video imaging. The disintegration of compacts containing crospovidone appeared to be less influenced by swelling or wicking action. The influence of compression force on the disintegration of selected disintegrants confirmed that strain recovery is the dominant mechanism for the disintegrant action of crospovidone. PMID:22422140
Desai, Parind Mahendrakumar; Liew, Celine Valeria; Heng, Paul Wan Sia
The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of using dates syrup as a tablet binder. Dates syrup (40%, 50%, 60% w\\/w dates syrup:water) was utilized for the granulation of sodium bicarbonate and calcium carbonate as examples for water-soluble and water-insoluble materials; correspondingly. Those two materials represent examples of bulky drugs as well. Starch paste (10% w\\/w starch
Fars Kaed Alanazi
This investigation was carried out to evaluate the bioavailability of the generic product of digoxin 0.25 mg (cardixin) relative to a reference product, lanoxin (0.25 mg) tablets. The two formulations were found to be similar in in vitro assay (dissolution) as stipulated by USP XXIII. The comparison is carried out on 12 healthy male volunteers, who received a single dose (0.25 mg) of
Lobna F. Wahman
(1) The mean cumulative urinary digoxin excretion over 8 days was compared in 8 healthy volunteers after single doses of digoxin administered as 3 Lanoxin tablets of 0.25 mg, 3 digoxin tablets of 0.2 mg, 12 Lanoxicaps without sorbitol of 0.05 mg, 6 Lanoxicaps without sorbitol of 0.1 mg digoxin, 3 Lanoxicaps without sorbitol of 0.2 mg and 3 Lanoxicaps
J. O'Grady; B. F. Johnson; Carole Bye
With economies of scale, a vertically integrated firm can lower its upstream cost by supplying downstream competitors. The competitors may strategically choose not to purchase from the integrated firm, unless the latter's price for the intermediate good is sufficiently lower than those of alternative suppliers. In a simple model of dynamic scale economies through learning by doing, equilibrium vertical disintegration
\\u000a In addition to the active drug, medicinal products often contain a number of other substances, e.g. for improving bioavailability such as disintegrants (e.g. starch), for taste masking and lubrication to ease swallowing (e.g. coats of sugar, cellulose,\\u000a polymers in film-coated tablets), or simply substances which facilitate production such as binders (e.g. cellulose derivatives),\\u000a glidants (colloidal silica) or diluents (lactose, crystalline
Comparative bioavailability of two formulations of diltiazem (Dilzene, CAS 42399-41-7), a calcium antagonist, was evaluated on 10 healthy volunteers (5 males and 5 females) in a cross-over study. A single dose of 120 mg of diltiazem was administered to the volunteers in the form of either two 60-mg tablets or a 120 mg controlled-release tablet. Plasma concentrations of diltiazem over a 24-h time interval were determined by HPLC analysis. Results of this investigation demonstrate that the controlled-release formulation of diltiazem has a lower Cmax value when compared to the 60 mg conventional tablet formulation, but a longer tmax and a superimposable AUC. PMID:1586376
De Bernardis, E; Candido, P; Lorefice, R; Picari, M; Rizza, V
For moisture activated dry granulation (MADG), microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) or silicon dioxide is recommended for the moisture absorption stage. The aim of this study was to assess the suitability of alternative excipients as moisture absorbents with regard to the disintegration mechanism of resulting lactose based placebo formulations. Beside high and low moisture MCC grades, the additions of magnesium aluminometasilicate (MAMS), pregelatinized starch (S1500), crospovidone (Kollidon CL) and carmellose calcium (ECG 505) were evaluated. High shear granulation (HSG) was conducted as a reference process. The overall disintegration time of all tablets produced by MADG was significantly faster whereas hardness yield and mass-variability were equal or superior compared to the HSG process. Powder wettability of the different moisture absorbents was identified to be a key driver for rapid disintegration, whereas tablet porosity had only a minor influence on the target hardness of the tablets. PMID:23994013
Takasaki, Hiroshi; Yonemochi, Etsuo; Messerschmid, Roman; Ito, Masanori; Wada, Koichi; Terada, Katsuhide
The pharmacokinetics of teriflunomide [CAS No. 163451-81-8], the metabolite of leflunomide [CAS No. 75706-12-6] has been evaluated in adult human volunteers after oral administration of tablet formulation. However, no published data is available regarding the bioavailability of this in the Indian population. In light of the above, a study was designed to carry out a bioequivalence study of 2 preparations of leflunomide 20 mg in healthy Indian male volunteers.24 healthy male volunteers (age, 25±4.1 years; weight, 57.58±7.01 kg) were enrolled in this study. Each subject received a test and reference formulation in a single dose, fasting 2 period, 2 way crossover study with a wash out period of 4 weeks. Analysis of teriflunomide from plasma samples was done by a simple and sensitive HPLC method using UV detection developed in our laboratory. An analysis of variance was performed on the pharmacokinetic parameters Cmax, AUC0-t, AUC0-? using GLM procedures in which sources of variation were subject, formulation, and period.The results indicated that there are no statistically significant differences between the 2 products in either the mean concentration-time profiles or in the obtained pharmacokinetic parameters. 90% confidence limits for the log transformed data of Cmax, AUC0-t, AUC0-?. were within the acceptable range of 0.80-1.25.The results indicate that the 2 products are bioequivalent in terms of rate and extent of drug absorption. Both the preparations were well tolerated with no adverse reactions throughout the study. PMID:22278631
Agarwal, S; Das, A; Ghosh, D; Sarkar, A K; Chattaraj, T K; Pal, T K
The aim of this work was to compare the dissolution behaviour of six diclofenac sodium prolonged release tablets of different brands obtained from the national market. The formulations contain the same amount of drug substance but different types and\\/or amount of excipients. The influence of these differences in formulation on the release characteristics of the dosage forms was evaluated on
Paola Bertocchi; Eleonora Antoniella; Luisa Valvo; Stefano Alimonti; Adriana Memoli
The bioavailability of two dipyridamol tablet formulations of (Dipyridamole from Tolidaru and Persantin from Boehringer) was compared in 14 healthy male volunteers who received a single dose of 25 mg of the test (T) and the reference (R) products in a randomized balanced 2- way crossover design. Plasma samples were obtained over a 16 h interval and dipyridamole concentrations determined
Davood Beiki; Mohsen Amini; Reza Dowlatabadi; Morteza Pirali
Various cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) created by refining and microfluidization, in combination with enzymatic or 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO) oxidized pretreatment were compared. The morphological properties, degree of polymerization, and crystallinity for the obtained nanofibrils, as well as physical and mechanical properties of the corresponding films were evaluated. Compared to refining, intense microfluidization contributed greater separation of nanofibril bundles, which led to an enhancement of mechanical strength and transparency for the resultant film. The selected enzymatic pre-treatments produced shortened fibers due to preferential hydrolysis of amorphous cellulose and, in combination with mechanical treatments, resulted in short and stiff cellulose nanocrystal (CNC)-like materials. Despite films from these CNC-like fibrils having inferior tensile strength, their tensile modulus and transparency were significantly improved compared to CNFs prepared without pre-treatment. The unique fiber morphology and high crystallinity potentially offer a green and ecologically friendly alternative for the preparation of CNCs and CNFs as part of an integrated biorefinery approach. PMID:23769541
Qing, Yan; Sabo, Ronald; Zhu, J Y; Agarwal, Umesh; Cai, Zhiyong; Wu, Yiqiang
Oral solid rapidly-disintegrating dosage form has aroused general concern increasingly because of its characteristics about convenient taking, rapid absorption, high bioavailability and not serious adverse drug reaction. This article introduced its mechanism, which was rapid disintegration, fast dissolution or the promoting dissolving action of supplementary material. This dosage form included dispersible tablets, fast dissolving tablets, fast releasing tablets, droppills, granules and tablets by solid dispersible technology, quick-liquefying chewable tablets and dry elixir. It will become a new way for promoting bioavailability in traditional Chinese medicine difficultly-dissolving composition, create up a new dosage form for treating emergency case by traditional Chinese medicine and give a new thinking for studying new supplementary materials. In brief, oral solid rapidly-disintegrating dosage form will have good prospect in the field of traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:15714807
Shen, Lan; Lin, Xiao; Xu, De-sheng; Feng, Yi
The efficacy of several formulations of activated charcoal (AC) was compared by measuring the intestinal absorption of a solution of 1 g paracetamol administered 2 min before administration of 5 g AC as suspension (200 ml), tablets (40 of 125 mg) or capsules (25 of 200 mg). The suspension medium without AC was used as the control treatment. Based on the results of a pilot experiment, an 8 subject panel was used in a two 4 x 4 Latin square design. All treatments with AC resulted in a statistically significant decrease in paracetamol absorption compared to the control treatment. The suspension was considerably and significantly more effective than the tablets or capsules. Treatment with tablets was slightly but significantly more effective than capsules. The intake of large numbers of tablets and capsules was difficult. In the hospital AC suspensions are available. For first aid elsewhere, at home, at the working place or in the general practitioner's surgery a preservable and easily redispersible AC formulation would be preferable to the present solid forms. PMID:2076744
Remmert, H P; Olling, M; Slob, W; van der Giesen, W F; van Dijk, A; Rauws, A G
Aim of this research work was to develop mouth dissolving tablet that disintegrates rapidly in mouth by using tasteless complex of Levocetirizine and Tulsion-335. Effect of different parameters such as swelling time, resin activation, drug resin ratio as well as stirring time was optimized by taste and percentage drug loading. Formulated DRC (Drug Resin Complex) was characterized by infrared spectroscopy, thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction pattern. Tablets were formulated by wet granulation with PVP as binder, Sodium Starch Glycolate (SSG) and Crospovidone as super disintegrants. In these batches optimum hardness was achieved but disintegration time was found to be very high as ? 70 second, so further trials were planned by using different superdisintegrants such as Croscarmellose sodium, Sodium Starch Glycolate (SSG) as well as Crospovidone by wet granulation method. Tablets formulated with 7.5% crospovidone showed comparatively low disintegration time (25 sec), wetting time (20 sec) and friability (0.60 %) than the other batches. In present study we optimized the conditions required for maximum drug loading of Levocetirizine with Tulsion-335. Among different superdisintergants, crospovidone was found suitable with drug-resin complex to get the low disintegration time, wetting time and friability of tablets. PMID:24250469
Sharma, Vijay; Chopra, Himansu
In the present study, cross linked sodium carboxymethylated pea starch (SCPS) was synthesized and evaluated as tablet superdisintegrant in diclofenac sodium based tablets. SCPS was synthesized using native pea starch with monochloroacetic acid and NaOH in microwave radiation environment. Finally the dried product was cross-linked with phosphorous oxychloride, which produced granular highly swellable starch. SCPS with degree of substitution of 0.34 was formed and it was further evaluated as superdisintegrant in diclofenac sodium based tablets. Diclofenac sodium tablets were prepared by direct compression method with 2, 4, 6 and 8%w/w of SCPS as superdisintegrant and further comparatively evaluated for in vitro disintegration and dissolution study with Sodium starch glycolate containing tablets as reference. The results revealed that SCPS could be a promising superdisintegrant for immediate release tablets in concentration dependant manner. PMID:21235480
Singh, Akhilesh V; Singh, Anudwipa; Nath, Lila K
A paper disc method (AB Biodisk, Sweden) and a tablet method (Neo-Sensitabs, A\\/S Rosco, Denmark) for antibiotic sensitivity testing of bacteria were compared. About three fourths of the bacterial strains could be classified in the same sensitivity groups when tested with the two methods. When discrepancies were noted, they were mostly of minor size.Copyright © 1978 S. Karger AG, Basel
Halvor Rollag jr.; Tore Midtvedt
Purpose : The objective of this work was to prepare and evaluate fast dissolving tablets of the nutraceutical, freeze dried Aloe vera gel. Methods: Fast dissolving tablets of the nutraceutical, freeze-dried Aloe vera gel, were prepared by dry granulation method. The tablets were evaluated for crushing strength, disintegration time, wetting time, friability, drug content and drug release. A 3 2
Jyotsana Madan; AK Sharma; Ramnik Singh
Bi-layer tablets have been developed to achieve controlled delivery of different drugs with pre-defined release profiles. However, the production of such tablets has been facing great difficulties as the layered tablets are prone to fracture. In this paper, the compaction behaviour of binary mixtures and bilayer tablets of two common pharmaceutical excipients, Microcrystalline cellulose and lactose, is investigated. The effects
Chuan-Yu Wu; Jonathan P. K. Seville
Fast-dissolving drug-delivery systems were first developed in the late 1970s as an alternative to tablets, capsules, and syrups for pediatric and geriatric patients who experience difficulties swallowing traditional oral solid dosage forms. In response to this need, a variety of orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) formats were commercialized, which disintegrate within 1 min when placed in the mouth without drinking water or chewing. Oral drug delivery technology has improved from conventional dosage forms to modified release dosage forms to ODT to the recent oral disintegrating films (ODF). Oral disintegrating film or strip that employs a water dissolving polymer which allows the dosage form to quickly hydrate by saliva, adhere to mucosa, and disintegrate within a few seconds, dissolve and releases medication for oromucosal absorption when placed on the tongue or oral cavity. Oral strip technology provides an alternate route for drugs with first pass metabolism. This review give details of materials used in ODF, manufacturing aspects, technologies, evaluation tests and marketed products. PMID:22920576
Nagaraju, T; Gowthami, R; Rajashekar, M; Sandeep, S; Mallesham, M; Sathish, D; Kumar, Y Shravan
Background and the purpose of the study The relative in vivo bioavailability and in vitro dissolution studies of three chemically equivalent amiodarone generic products in healthy volunteers was evaluated in three separate occasions. The possibility of a correlation between in vitro and in vivo performances of these tablet formulations was also evaluated. Methods The bioequivalence studies were conducted based on a single dose, two-sequence, cross over randomized design. The bioavailability was compared using AUC072, AUC08, Cmax and Tmax. Similarity factor, dissolution efficiency (DE), and mean dissolution time (MDT) was used to compare the dissolution profiles. Polynomial linear correlation models were tested using either MDT vs mean residence time (MRT) or fraction of the drug dissolved (FRD) vs fraction of the drug absorbed (FRA). Results Significant differences were found in the dissolution performances of the tested formulations and therefore they were included in the development of the correlation. The 90% confidence intervals of the log-transformed AUC0-72, AUC08, and Cmax of each two formulations in each bioequivalence studies were within the acceptable range of 80125%. Differences were not observed between the untransformed Tmax values. Poor correlation was found between MRT and MDT of the products. A point-to-point correlation which is essential for a reliable correlation was not obtained between pooled FRD and FRA. The dissolution condition which was used for amiodarone tablets failed for formulations which were bioequivalent in vivo and significant difference between the dissolution characteristics of products (f2<50) did not reflect their in vivo properties. Major conclusions Bioequivalence studies should be considered as the only acceptable way to ensure the interchangeability and in vivo equivalence of amiodarone generic drug products. The dissolution conditions used of the present study could be used for routine and in-process quality control of amiodarone tablet formulations.
Levothyroxine is a narrow therapeutic index, and to avoid adverse effect associated with under or excessive dosage, the dose response is carefully titrated. The tablets are marketed with a score providing an option to split. However, there are no systematic studies evaluating the effect of splitting on dose accuracy, and current study was undertaken to evaluate effects of splitting and potential causes for uniformity failures by measuring assay and content uniformity in whole and split tablets. Stability was evaluated by assaying drug for a period of 8 weeks. Effect of formulation factors on splittability was evaluated by a systematic investigation of formulation factors by preparing levothyroxine tablets in house by varying the type of excipients (binder, diluent, disintegrant, glidant) or by varying the processing factors (granulating liquid, mixing type, compression pressure). The tablets were analyzed using novel analytical tool such as near infrared chemical imaging to visualize the distribution of levothyroxine. Assay was not significantly different for whole versus split tablets irrespective of method of splitting (hand or splitter), and splitting also had no measurable impact on the stability. Split tablets either by hand or splitter showed higher rate of content uniformity failures as compared to whole tablets. Tablet splitter produced more fragmentation and, hence, more content uniformity and friability failures. Chemical imaging data revealed that the distribution of levothyroxine was heterogeneous and was dependent on type of binder and the process used in the manufacture of tablets. Splitting such tablets could prove detrimental if sub- or super-potency becomes an issue.
Shah, Rakhi B.; Collier, Jarrod S.; Sayeed, Vilayat A.; Bryant, Arthur; Habib, Muhammad J.
With the aim of directly predicting the functionality and mechanism of disintegrants during the disintegration and dissolution of tablets, we investigated an analysis method based on available surface area, which is the surface area of a drug in a formulation in direct contact with the external solvent during dissolution. We evaluated the following disintegrants in this study: sodium starch glycolate (Glycolys), crospovidone (Kollidon CL), carboxymethylcellulose calcium (CMC-Ca), low-substituted hydroxypropylcellulose (L-HPC), and croscarmellose sodium (Ac-Di-Sol). When disintegrant was added to a 50% ethenzamide tablet formulation, an increase in the dissolution rate dependent on disintegrant concentration was observed, according to the type of disintegrant. In addition, the available surface area also differed between disintegrants. For Glycolys, CMC-Ca, and Ac-Di-Sol, a rapid increase in available surface area and a large increase in maximum available surface area (Smax) were observed due to high swellability and wicking, even when the disintegrant concentration was only 1.0%. In contrast, for Kollidon CL and LH-21, a gradual increase in available surface area was observed, depending on the disintegrant concentration. To evaluate the disintegrant ability, ?tmax and ?Smax were calculated by subtracting peak time (tmax) at 5.0% from that at 1.0% and subtracting Smax at 1.0% from that at 5.0%, respectively, and it was found that the water absorption ratio had strong negative correlations with ?tmax and ?Smax. Therefore, this study demonstrates that analysis of only available surface area and parameters thereby obtained can directly provide useful information, especially about the disintegration ability of disintegrants. PMID:23518366
Iwao, Yasunori; Tanaka, Shoko; Uchimoto, Takeaki; Noguchi, Shuji; Itai, Shigeru
Fourteen of 23 dogs developing patent Trichuris vulpis infections by 120 days p.i. with 5000 embryonated eggs were allocated into three groups. One group was treated with flubendazole 220 mg chewable tablets (Flubenol) at the recommended dose regimen once daily for 3 days. The second group was given the recommended single treatment with a tablet containing 150 mg febantel, 144 mg pyrantel embonate and 50 mg praziquantel in combination (Drontal Plus). The third group remained untreated. All dogs were necropsied for worm counts 10 or 11 days after (first) treatment. No worms were recovered from the flubendazole treated dogs resulting in a significant worm count reduction of 100%. In contrast, 2 of 5 animals treated with the combination of febantel, pyrantel embonate and praziquantel remained infected; the geometric mean worm burden was reduced by 99.4% as compared to the control group but did not differ significantly from those of the controls. PMID:14650738
Prelezov, P N; Bauer, C
"Jingo Lida et. al. 2011 formulated pulsatile drug delivery system based on an impermeable copiously. A pulsatile copiously was prepared by sealing a 5-aminosalicylic acid rapid-disintegrating tablet inside an impermeable copiously body with a konjac glucomannan (Kam)?hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPC)?locates plug. The drug delivery system showed a typical pulsatile release profile with a lag time followed by a rapid release phase. The lag time was determined by the Kam"
Did you mean: "Jingo Lida et. al. 2011 formulated pulsatile drug delivery system based on an impermeable copiously. A pulsatile copiously was prepared by sealing a 5-aminosalicylic acid rapid-disintegrating tablet inside an impermeable copiously body with a konjac glucomannan (Kam)?hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPC)?locates plug. The drug delivery system showed a typical pulsatile release profile with a lag time followed by a rapid release phase. The lag time was determined by the Kam" ?
The relative oral bioavailability of alkylamides from two different Echinacea dosage forms (liquid and tablet) were compared in a small two-way crossover study in humans (n=3). The liquid preparation investigated contained a mixture of Echinacea purpurea root (300 mg/ml) and Echinacea angustifolia root (200 mg/ml) extracted in 60% ethanol. The tablet preparation investigated was also a mixture of E. purpurea root (675 mg/tablet) and E. angustifolia root (600 mg/tablet), but was prepared from the dried 60% ethanolic extracts of these two Echinacea species. Alkylamides were found to be rapidly absorbed and measurable in plasma from both preparations. No significant differences in the tetraene alkylamide pharmacokinetic parameters for T(1/2), AUC(t-lin) and C(max) in the two different preparations were found. T(max) increased from 20 min for the liquid to 30 min for the tablet, which is not unexpected as the tablet required time for disintegration before absorption could occur. These results suggested that there was no significant difference in the bioavailability of alkylamides from the liquid and tablet Echinacea formulations. Furthermore, the results also indicated that the absorption site and any alkylamide loss due to digestive processes were similar in both preparations. PMID:17289362
Matthias, A; Addison, R S; Agnew, L L; Bone, K M; Watson, K; Lehmann, R P
Recently, a novel type of multipurpose excipient (MPE) with high binding characteristics and high fluidity has been developed. In this study, the capabilities of MPEs (Ludipress and Microcelac) were compared with those of excipients in general use. Also, the effects on powder and tableting characteristics of the physical properties and contents of active ingredients were examined in tablets prepared with these MPEs by the direct compression method. Multipurpose excipients mixed with adjuvants such as fillers, binders, lubricants, disintegrants, and the like show superior fluidity and compressibility. Tablets containing very small amounts of highly active ingredients with little dispersion were prepared. However, with increases in active ingredient content, each of the physical properties was affected strongly by the properties of the active ingredient. Tablets with appropriate hardness and disintegration characteristics could be prepared by mixing of different types of MPEs. PMID:10434130
Goto, K; Sunada, H; Danjo, K; Yonezawa, Y
Orally disintegrating olanzapine (ODO) is a rapid-dissolving formulation of olanzapine which disintegrates in saliva almost immediately, developed as a convenient and adherence-enhancing alternative to the standard olanzapine-coated tablet (SOT). Clinical studies, which form the basis of this review, have shown ODO and SOT to have similar efficacy and tolerability profiles. However, ODO appears to have a number of advantages over SOT in terms of adherence, patient preference, and reduction in nursing burden. Overall, the existing clinical data suggests that compared to SOT, ODO is not only well-suited for difficult-to-treat, agitated, and/or nonadherent patients but, due to its potential ability to improve adherence and greater patient preference, may also be an appropriate formulation for the majority of patients for which olanzapine is the antipsychotic of choice.
Montgomery, William; Treuer, Tamas; Karagianis, Jamie; Ascher-Svanum, Haya; Harrison, Gavan
We investigated the hydrodynamic flows around tablets during several pharmacopeial dissolution tests: the rotating basket (RB), paddle (PD), flow-through cell (FT), and disintegration (DI) tests. The determination of hydrodynamic flow was based on the dissolution rate of United States Pharmacopeial salicylic acid nondisintegrating calibrators, and showed that, compared with the PD and RB methods, the FT method produced a lower hydrodynamic flow value whereas the DI method produced a higher value. The hydrodynamic flows during the PD and RB tests appeared to be similar at the same rotational speed, although the flow patterns around the tablet differed; with the RB method, homogeneous dissolution occurred from all surfaces of the tablet, while with the PD method, dissolution from the lower surface was slower. The use of a sinker seemed to enhance dissolution from the lower surface. Such differences in hydrodynamic flow could explain the apparently different dissolution behaviors of disintegrating prednisone and nondisintegrating acetaminophen tablets when assessed by the PD and RB methods. These differences in hydrodynamic flow between in vitro tests should be considered when choosing dissolution tests for studying in vitro/in vivo relationships and for quality control purposes. PMID:12149957
Morihara, M; Aoyagi, N; Kaniwa, N; Katori, N; Kojim, S
Childhood disintegrative disorder (CDD) is a clinical syndrome characterized by disintegration of mental functions and regression of acquired language and intellectual functions after a period of normal development typically of 3 to 4 years. Although recognized for many years, research on this condition is less advanced than that in autism. Epidemiological data are limited but the condition is much less
Savita Malhotra; Nitin Gupta
Natural gums are economical, easily available, and useful as tablet binders. In the present investigation, an attempt was made to formulate Ofloxacin tablets using three natural binders, namely Acacia arabica, Hibiscus esculentus, and xanthan gum. Such six batches of Ofloxacin tablets were prepared by using different types and amounts of the natural binders by the wet granulation method. The tablets were analyzed for their hardness, friability, and weight variation, and in vitro release was performed in a phosphate buffer at pH 6.8. The prepared tablets were also evaluated for their various release kinetics and similarity factors f2. The physical properties of the tablets containing the natural binders showed sufficient hardness, desirable disintegration time, and low friability. Their better percentage of drug release was observed as compared to the marketed formulation showing more than 85% drug release within 45 minutes. The in vitro release data was well-fitted into zero-order and the values of release exponent 'n' were between 0.303 and 0.514. The high similarity factor f2 of 64.50 was achieved with the best batch in comparison to the marketed tablets. The results obtained indicated that the gum Acacia arabica performed as well as gelatin compared to the other binders for the Ofloxacin tablet formulation. PMID:24959411
Mistry, Amisha K; Nagda, Chirag D; Nagda, Dhruti C; Dixit, Bharat C; Dixit, Ritu B
Natural gums are economical, easily available, and useful as tablet binders. In the present investigation, an attempt was made to formulate Ofloxacin tablets using three natural binders, namely Acacia arabica, Hibiscus esculentus, and xanthan gum. Such six batches of Ofloxacin tablets were prepared by using different types and amounts of the natural binders by the wet granulation method. The tablets were analyzed for their hardness, friability, and weight variation, and in vitro release was performed in a phosphate buffer at pH 6.8. The prepared tablets were also evaluated for their various release kinetics and similarity factors f2. The physical properties of the tablets containing the natural binders showed sufficient hardness, desirable disintegration time, and low friability. Their better percentage of drug release was observed as compared to the marketed formulation showing more than 85% drug release within 45 minutes. The in vitro release data was well-fitted into zero-order and the values of release exponent n were between 0.303 and 0.514. The high similarity factor f2 of 64.50 was achieved with the best batch in comparison to the marketed tablets. The results obtained indicated that the gum Acacia arabica performed as well as gelatin compared to the other binders for the Ofloxacin tablet formulation.
Mistry, Amisha K.; Nagda, Chirag D.; Nagda, Dhruti C.; Dixit, Bharat C.; Dixit, Ritu B.
Significant improvements in self-reported gastrointestinal tolerability, quality of life, patient satisfaction, and adherence with lopinavir/ritonavir tablet formulation compared with soft gel capsules
Background The tablet formulation of ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (LPV/r; Kaletra®) has many advantages over the soft gel capsule (SGC) formulation, including lower pill count, no refrigeration requirement, and no dietary restrictions. These advantages may help improve patient compliance and therefore increase adherence to treatment. However, there are limited data regarding patient preferences and only recently was the comparative efficacy and tolerability data of LPV/r SGC versus tablet formulation presented at an international conference. To address this deficit, we conducted a market research survey to assess potential tolerability benefits, patient satisfaction, changes in adherence, and formulation preference in patients switching from SGCs to the tablet formulation. Data from 332 patients who switched from LPV/r SGCs twice-daily (BID) to tablets BID and 41 patients who switched from LPV/r SGCs BID or once daily (QD) to tablets QD were analyzed. Results Switching from SGCs to a tablet formulation of LPV/r was associated with increased patient satisfaction, tolerability and self-reported adherence to treatment; gastrointestinal side effects were reduced. In addition, respondents indicated that they preferred the tablet formulation to the SGC. Conclusion The LPV/r tablet formulation provides HIV-infected patients with multiple benefits over the SGC in terms of tolerability and convenience. Additional assessments to further define the tolerability profile of the LPV/r tablet, including studies using once-daily dosing, are warranted.
Schrader, Shannon; Chuck, Susan K; Rahn, Laurie W; Parekh, Paras; Emrich, Katherine G
The objective of this work is to produce chewable tablets out of Echinacea purpurea liquid extract (1:1) and ascorbic acid: to create the technology, to select methods of analysis and to examine stability. The paper describes the technology of tablets: a method of condensation is chosen; the influence of additional substances over tableting is established; pressing characteristics of tableting mixtures are examined. The quality of tablets is evaluated in terms of appearance and technological rates: average tablet mass, hardness against pressure, hardness against wearing, time of disintegration, and speed of ascorbic acid secretion. The identity of ascorbic acid, ferments and hydroxycinamon acid was established. Quantities of ascorbic and chicory acids were defined. The tablets produced were named "Askoeziuofito" tablets. The name consists of abbreviated terms of ascorbic acid, Echinacea plant and phytochemical preparation. PMID:14617854
Bernatoniene, Jurga; Savickiene, Nijole; Savickas, Ar?nas; Bernatonis, Domininkas
The purpose of this research was to study mucoadhesive bilayer buccal tablets of propranolol hydrochloride using the bioadhesive polymers sodium alginate (Na-alginate) and Carbopol 934P (CP) along with ethyl cellulose as an impermeable backing layer. The tablets were evaluated for weight variation, thickness, hardness, friability, surface pH, mucoadhesive strength, swelling index, in vitro drug release, ex vivo drug permeation, ex vivo mucoadhesion, and in vivo pharmacodynamics in rabbits. Tablets containing Na-alginate and CP in the ratio of 5:1 (F2) had the maximum percentage of in vitro drug release without disintegration in 12 hours. The swelling index was proportional to Na-alginate content and inversely proportional to CP content. The surface pH of all tablets was found to be satisfactory (7.0 +/- 1.5), close to neutral pH; hence, buccal cavity irritation should not occur with these tablets. The mechanism of drug release was found to be non-Fickian diffusion and followed zero-order kinetics. The formulation F4 was optimized based on good bioadhesive strength (28.9 +/- 0.99 g) and sustained in vitro drug permeation (68.65% +/- 3.69% for 12 hours). The behavior of formulation F4 was examined in human saliva, and both the drug and the buccal tablet were found to be stable. The formulation F4 was applied to rabbit oral mucosa for in vivo studies. The formulation inhibited isoprenaline-induced tachycardia. The studies conducted in rabbits confirmed the sustained release as compared with intravenous administration. PMID:17915827
Patel, Vishnu M; Prajapati, Bhupendra G; Patel, Harsha V; Patel, Karshanbhi M
Direct tableting is simpler and more cost-effective from the point of view of good manufacturing practice (GMP) than wet granulation or dry compacting. Moreover, the use of dry plant extracts in the process of direct tableting, omitting granulation, decreases the possibility of biological activity loss of active substances. Thus, pharmaceutical industry uses this particular process more and more frequently. Only few therapeutic substances form under compression tablets meeting current requirements. Very often addition of auxiliary substances appears to be indispensable. The aim of this study was to obtain uncoated tablets by the method of direct tableting with the use of selected auxiliary substances. Dry extract from Solidago virgaurea L. was the study material. Shrimp chitosan, silicified microcrystalline cellulose (Prosolv), polyvinylpyrrolidone, calcium carbonate and sodium stearyl fumarate were used as auxiliary substances. Eleven tablet batches were manufactured in a reciprocating instrumented tableting machine (Ewreka). The produced tablets were subjected to morphological tests comprising the tablet size, determination of batching accuracy (determination of mass uniformity of individual tablets), test of mechanical resistance (crushing strength), determination of disintegration time. The statistical hardness of the manufactured tablets was also estimated. Pharmaceutical availability tests were performed of the biologically active substances released from tablets to the acceptor fluid. The study was based on general and detailed regulations of Polish Pharmacopoeia VII (PP VII). The obtained results allow to conclude that the applied auxiliary substances appeared to be useful in adequate proportions in manufacturing tablets containing dry extract from Solidago virgaurea L. The properties of the obtained batches of tablets were in majority consistent with the current requirements. The applied method provides technological reproducibility and high durability of the drug. These tablets as compared to available herbal mixtures and aqueous extracts can be a more comfortable form of a drug. PMID:20099736
Background: Opioid\\/acetaminophen (APAP) combination analgesics are widely prescribed for the relief of moderate pain. Tramadol is a synthetic analgesic that has been shown to be effective both alone and in combination with APAP.Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy and tolerability of tramadol\\/APAP tablets with codeine\\/APAP capsules.Methods: This 4-week, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, active-control, double-dummy, multicenter trial
William S Mullican; Joseph R Lacy
Summary This randomized, six-treatment, six-period, six sequence, single dose, crossover pharmacokinetic study assessed the effect\\u000a of different types of food on the bioavailability of 500-mg cefaclor extended release tablet in 23 healthy male volunteers.\\u000a A single dose of cefaclor extended release 500-mg tablet was administered at six occasions: after overnight fasting, after\\u000a two vegetarian (high-fat and low-fat), two non-vegetarian (high-fat and
B. A. H. KHANI; T. AHMEDI; S. KARIMI; T. Monif; N. Saha; P. L. Sharma
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential of cellulose nanofibers (also referred as microfibrillated cellulose, nanocellulose, nanofibrillated, or nanofibrillar cellulose) as novel tabletting material. For this purpose, physical and mechanical properties of spray-dried cellulose nanofibers (CNF) were examined, and results were compared to those of two commercial grades of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), Avicel PH101 and Avicel PH102, which are the most commonly and widely used direct compression excipients. Chemically, MCC and CNF are almost identical, but their physical characteristics, like mechanical properties and surface-to-volume ratio, differ remarkably. The novel material was characterized with respect to bulk and tapped as well as true density, moisture content, and flow properties. Tablets made of CNF powder and its mixtures with MCC with or without paracetamol as model compound were produced by direct compression and after wet granulation. The tensile strength of the tablets made in a series of applied pressures was determined, and yield pressure values were calculated from the measurements. With CNF, both wet granulation and direct compression were successful. During tablet compression, CNF particles were less prone to permanent deformation and had less pronounced ductile characteristics. Disintegration and dissolution studies showed slightly faster drug release from direct compression tablets with CNF, while wet granulated systems did not have any significant difference. PMID:22005956
Kolakovic, Ruzica; Peltonen, Leena; Laaksonen, Timo; Putkisto, Kaisa; Laukkanen, Antti; Hirvonen, Jouni
The breaking up of comets into separate pieces, each with its own tail, was seen many times by astronomers of the past. The phenomenon was in sharp contrast to the idea of the eternal and unchangeable celestial firmament and was commonly believed to be an omen of impending disaster, especially for comets with tails stretching across half the sky. It is only now that we have efficient enough space exploration tools to see comet nuclei and even - in the particular case of small comet Hartley-2 in 2010 - to watch their disintegration stage. There are also other suspected candidates for disintegration in the vast family of comet nuclei and other Solar System bodies.
Ksanfomality, Leonid V.
Summary A bioequivalence study of two oral formulations of 20\\/12.5 mg tablets of enalapril\\/hydrochlorothiazide was carried out in\\u000a 20 healthy male volunteers according to a single dose, two-sequence, crossover randomized design. One washout period of nine\\u000a days was observed between the two periods. Multiple samples were collected over 96 hours post-dosing. Bioavailability was\\u000a evaluated on the basis of plasma concentrations of
Manuela T. Maya; Nuno J. Goncalves; Nuno E. Silva; Augusto E. P. Filipe; José A. Morais; M. C. Caturla; M. Rovira
The aim of this study was to prepare bi-layer tablet of Metoclopramide Hydrochloride (MTH) and Ibuprofen (IB) for the effective treatment of migraine. MTH and IB were formulated as immediate and sustained release layer respectively. MTH was formulated as immediate release layer by using various disintegrants like Ac-Di-Sol, Polyplasdone XL, Explotab, Agar and Gellan Gum. Treated form of gellan gum and agar was prepared and compared for their disintegrant efficiency with other disintegrants. IB was formulated as sustained release layer using hydrophilic matrix (hydroxypropylmethylcellulose [HPMC K4M]). The effect of concentration of hydrophilic matrix (HPMC K4M), binder (polyvinylpyrollidone [PVP K30]) and buffer (sodium bicarbonate) on IB release was studied. The dissolution study of sustained release layer showed that an increasing amount of HPMC or PVP K30 results in reduced IB release. The inclusion of buffer (sodium bicarbonate) enhanced the release of IB from sustained release layer. The rational for formulation of bi-layer tablet of these two drugs in combination was (1) MTH increases the absorption of acidic non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) by increasing gastric motility. So sequential release of MTH (as immediate release) and IB (as sustained release) was suitable for treatment of migraine. (2) MTH was degraded when prolonged contact with acidic NSAID. Bi-layer tablet was suitable for preventing direct contact of these two drugs and thus to maximize the efficacy of combination of two drugs for migraine.
Shiyani, Bhavesh; Surana, Sanjay
This article reviews what is known about childhood distintegrative disorder (CDD), a clinical syndrome characterized by disintegration of mental functions and regression of acquired language and intellectual functions after a period (usually 3-4 years) of normal development. It reviews the condition's epidemiology, onset and progression,
Malhotra, Savita; Gupta, Nitin
Changes in lipids and lopinavir plasma concentrations were examined in 40 HIV-patients exposed to lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg BID, formulated as tablets and as capsules. Triglycerides and total/HDL-cholesterol ratio were significantly lower with tablets than with capsules. Lopinavir concentrations were higher with tablets than with capsules. PMID:19601866
Morello, Judit; Soriano, Vincent; Blanco, Francisco; Rubio, Antonio J; Jiménez-Nácher, Inmaculada; Rodríguez-Nóvoa, Sonia
Liquisolid technique has been widely used to enhance the dissolution of poorly water soluble drugs. The present investigation is on formulation of liquisolid tablets of fenofibrate, a lipid lowering agent. Liquisolid formulation was prepared by applying central composite design (CCD) to optimize various formulation parameters. Amounts of PEG 600 (X1), Avicel PH 102 (X2), and Aerosil 200 (X3) were selected as independent variables while the angle of repose, hardness, disintegration time, and T90% (time required to release 90% drug) of liquisolid tablets were selected as dependent variables. Optimization of formulation was done by multiple linear regression analysis. The results indicated amounts of PEG 600 and Aviel PH 102 show greater effect on dependant variables. In vitro dissolution of fenofibrate in liquisolid formulations was enhanced compared to the pure form. To conclude, Liquisolid technique is a promising strategy in improving dissolution of poorly water soluble fenofibrate. PMID:24712439
Patel, Tejas; Patel, L D; Suhagia, B N; Soni, Tejal; Patel, Tushar
An investigation in the bioequivalence of a new tablet formulation with 5 mg isosorbide dinitrate (CAS 87-33-2, ISDN 5 von ct) was performed in a two-way cross-over study with 18 subjects. The relative bioavailability with respect to a reference preparation for AUC related to isosorbide dinitrate was 107.5% and for Cmax 112.5%. A positive decision for bioequivalence derived from the usual confidence intervals for both parameters related to isosorbide dinitrate and the metabolites isosorbide-2-nitrate and isosorbide-5-nitrate, respectively. The difference in tmax showed no clinical relevance. The new formulation was bioequivalent to the reference. PMID:9281301
Metzner, J E; Buchberger, D; Häring, N; Läuter, J
Objective To assess the in vitro-in vivo correlation of immediate release formulation of pioglitazone 30 mg film coated tablet. Methods In vitro release data were obtained for test and reference formulation using the USP paddle method (Apparatus 2) at 50 r/min and with the temperature of 37 °C in the dissolution medium of 0.1 mol/L hydrochloric acid of pH 1.2. Twelve healthy volunteers were administered both test and reference pioglitazone 30 mg tablet orally and blood samples were collected over 24 h period. In vivo drug concentrations were analyzed by a simple, fast and precise reverse phase binary HPLC method with UV detection to establish a correlation between in vitro release and in vivo absorption data. Results Similarity factor (f2) and dissimilarity factor (f1) were determined for the time intervals of 5, 10, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 105 and 120 min and the obtained values were 65.17%, 59.37%, 63.62%, 66.61%, 68.89%, 70.73%, 72.27%, 73.59%, 74.65% and 75.67% for f2 and 9.43%, 9.00%, 5.42%, 3.86%, 3.07%, 2.56%, 2.20%, 1.94%, 1.82% and 1.65% for f1 at respective time intervals. Mean dissolution time for test and reference products were obtained at 3.06 and 3.40 min respectively. f2 and f1 values obtained were within the acceptable range f2 (50%-100%) and f1 (<15%). Conclusions Comparison of dissolution profiles corroborate that the test and reference formulations are similar and there is no linear in vitro-in vivo correlation.
Saha, Sajal Kumar; Chowdhury, A. K. Azad; Bachar, Sitesh Chandra; Das, Sreedam Chandra; Kuddus, Ruhul H.; Uddin, Md Aftab
The primary objective of this systematic review was to examine the evidence for the efficacy, effectiveness, and safety of orally disintegrating olanzapine in Chinese populations. A systematic literature search was conducted using databases covering international and Chinese journals, ClinicalTrials.gov, and internal and external trial registries at Eli Lilly and Company using search terms related to target countries (Peoples Republic of China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan) and orally disintegrating olanzapine treatment. A publication and one clinical study report were retrieved. The clinical study showed orally disintegrating olanzapine and the standard oral tablet to have similar efficacy and tolerability profiles. A bioequivalence study has shown that orally disintegrating olanzapine and the standard oral tablet have similar pharmacokinetic profiles. Orally disintegrating olanzapine and the standard oral tablet have similar efficacy and tolerability profiles.
Zhao, Jingping; Ou, Jianjun; Xue, Haibo; Liu, Li; Montgomery, William; Treuer, Tamas
The primary objective of this systematic review was to examine the evidence for the efficacy, effectiveness, and safety of orally disintegrating olanzapine in Chinese populations. A systematic literature search was conducted using databases covering international and Chinese journals, ClinicalTrials.gov, and internal and external trial registries at Eli Lilly and Company using search terms related to target countries (People's Republic of China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan) and orally disintegrating olanzapine treatment. A publication and one clinical study report were retrieved. The clinical study showed orally disintegrating olanzapine and the standard oral tablet to have similar efficacy and tolerability profiles. A bioequivalence study has shown that orally disintegrating olanzapine and the standard oral tablet have similar pharmacokinetic profiles. Orally disintegrating olanzapine and the standard oral tablet have similar efficacy and tolerability profiles. PMID:24600225
Zhao, Jingping; Ou, Jianjun; Xue, Haibo; Liu, Li; Montgomery, William; Treuer, Tamas
A simple validated high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay was developed for determination of diflunisal and naproxen in human plasma samples. This is to compare the bioavailability of diflunisal-naproxen fixed-dose combination (FDC) with their separate dosage forms. The in vitro dissolution study was adopted to compare the dissolution behavior of FDC with respect to separate marketed tablets. In vivo study was conducted according to a single-center, randomized, single-dose, laboratory-blinded, 2 Way, Cross-Over Study with a washout period of 10 days. Under fasting conditions, 24 healthy Egyptian male volunteers were randomly allocated to receive a single oral dose of either one FDC tablet or co-administration of two separate diflunisal and naproxen marketed tablets. Plasma samples were obtained over a 72-h interval and analyzed for diflunisal and naproxen by reversed phase liquid chromatography with UV detection. The pharmacokinetic parameters Cmax, AUC0-t, AUC0-?, tmax, and t1/2 were determined from plasma concentration-time profiles. The 90% confidence intervals for the ratio of log transformed values of Cmax, AUC0-t, and AUCt-? of the 2 treatments were within the acceptable range (0.8-1.25) for bioequivalence. From pharmacokinetic and in vitro studies perspectives, 1 FDC tablet demonstrated similar relative bioavailability with the 2 individual -reference tablets. PMID:23444169
Helmy, S A; El Bedaiwy, H M
The subject of satellite disintegration is examined in detail. Elements of the orbits of individual fragments, determined by DOD space surveillance systems, are used to accurately predict the time and place of fragmentation. Dual time independent and time dependent analyses are performed for simulated and real breakups. Methods of statistical mechanics are used to study the evolution of the fragment clouds. The fragments are treated as an ensemble of non-interacting particles. A solution of Liouville's equation is obtained which enables the spatial density to be calculated as a function of position, time and initial velocity distribution.
Dasenbrock, R. R.; Kaufman, B.; Heard, W. B.
A formulation containing cellulose acetate phthalate for preparing enteric-coated granules was developed with the use of granulation and microencapsulation techniques. Drug release from tablets or tabletted microcapsules was measured in a disintegration apparatus and an in vitro variable-pH release simulator of the flow type. The release mechanism for the tablets or tabletted microcapsules was determined with the Higuchi matrix model,
Shan-Yang Lin; Y. Kawashima
Eight formulations were developed containing ibuprofen in the form of orally disintegrating tablets. To prevent bitter taste and side effects of the drug, the drug was associated with Phospholipon 80H, a saturated lecithin, by wet granulation. The granules were then coated using different film forming agents (Kollicoat SR 30, Amprac 01, Kollidon 90F, Eudragit RD 100) obtaining four lots 1-4. Coated granules were then formulated with a sweetener (Aspartame), a mannitol-based diluent (Pearlitol SD 200) and Kollidon CL (1-4K) or Explotab (1-4E) were added as superdisintegrants and compacted under low compression force. The eight lots of tablets, 1-4K and 1-4E, were assessed if suitable as oral disintegrating tablets by determination of a range of technological parameters. Wetting and disintegregation time matched with the requirements of EP IV Ed., for almost all these formulations. Dissolution profiles suggested that the combined action of the hydrophobic lecithin and the coating delay the release of the drug from tablets with respect to when it is free or in the form of simple granules. By an appropriate combination of excipients it was thus possible to obtain orally disintegrating tablets and a delayed release of ibuprofen using simple and conventional techniques. PMID:18182280
Fini, Adamo; Bergamante, Valentina; Ceschel, Gian Carlo; Ronchi, Celestino; de Moraes, Carlos Alberto Fonseca
Aim: Orodispersible tablets also known as fast dissolving tablets disintegrate instantaneously within the mouth and thus can be consumed without water. The present study was aimed to formulate orodispersible tablets of nimesulide by using Lallemantia reylenne seeds as natural superdisintegrant. Materials and Methods: Powdered lallemantia seeds were characterized for powder flow properties (bulk density, tapped density, carr's consolidation index, hausner ratio, angle of repose), swelling index, viscosity, pH, and loss on drying. The prepared tablets were evaluated for different tablet parametric tests, wetting time, water absorption ratio, effective pore radius, porosity, packing fraction, in vitro and in vivo disintegration time, in vitro dissolution and stability studies. Results and Discussion: Increase in Lallementia reylenne concentration had an appreciable effect on tablet hardness and friability which clearly indicated binding potential of the seeds. Water absorption ratio increased with increase in Lallemantia reylenne concentration from batch A1 to A4. Water uptake coupled natural polymer swelling could be the most probable mechanism for concentration dependent reduction in disintegration time by the Lallemantia reylenne seeds. Porosity of the formulated tablets was found to increase from batch A1-A4. The in vitro disintegration results were in line with in vivo disintegration results. Conclusion: It could be concluded that Lallemantia reylenne seeds could be used as natural superdisintegrant in the formulation of orodispersible tablets.
Malik, Karan; Arora, Gurpreet; Singh, Inderbir; Arora, Sandeep
The development, stability, and disintegration of liquid sheets issuing from a two-dimensional air-assisted nozzle is studied. Detailed measurements of mean drop size and velocity are made using a phase Doppler particle analyzer. Without air flow the liquid sheet converges toward the axis as a result of surface tension forces. With airflow a quasi-two-dimensional expanding spray is formed. The air flow causes small variations in sheet thickness to develop into major disturbances with the result that disruption starts before the formation of the main break-up region. In the two-dimensional variable geometry air-blast atomizer, it is shown that the air flow is responsible for the formation of large, ordered, and small chaotic 'cell' structures.
Mansour, Adel; Chigier, Norman
In the present study, an attempt had been made to prepare dispersible tablets of Aceclofenac using Salicornia fruticosa (L.) mucilage powder as disintegrant. Specifications for herbal raw materials and finished products were set according to Committee for Proprietary Medicinal Products. Mucilage extracted from the aerial parts of Salicornia fruticosa were subjected to toxicity studies for its safety and preformulation studies
Ravi Kumar; M. B. Patil; Sachin R. Patil; Mahesh S. Paschapur
Abstract Context: Chitosan does not rank highly regarding its employment as tablet filler due to certain limitations. Undesirable properties that limit its utilization as excipient in solid dosage forms include its hydration propensity that negatively affects tablet stability, strength and disintegration. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the physical stability of chitosan powder, mixtures, granules and tablets under accelerated conditions such as elevated temperatures and humidity over different periods of time. Methods: Selected physico-chemical properties of pure chitosan powder, physical mixtures of chitosan with Kollidon® VA64 (BASF, Ludwigshafen, Germany), chitosan granules, as well as tablets were evaluated under conditions of elevated humidity and temperature. Results and discussion: The physical stability of chitosan tablets exhibited sensitivity towards varying exposure conditions. It was furthermore evident that the presence of moisture (sorbed water) had a marked influence on the physical stability of chitosan powder and tablets. It was evident that the presence of Kollidon® VA64 as well as the method of inclusion of this binder influenced the properties of chitosan tablets. The physical stability of chitosan powder deteriorated to a greater extent compared to that of the chitosan tablets, which were subjected to the same conditions. Conclusion: It is recommended that tablets containing chitosan should be stored at a temperature not exceeding 25?°C as well as at a relatively low humidity (<60%) to prevent deterioration of physical properties. Direct compression of chitosan granules which contained 5%w/w Kollidon® VA64 produced the best formulation in terms of physical stability at the different conditions. PMID:23596972
Viljoen, Joe M; Steenekamp, Jan H; Marais, Andries F; Kotzé, Awie F
This study is aimed to design and optimize a sublingual tablet formulation of physostigmine salicylate, an effective drug in Alzheimer's disease and nerve gas poisoning, by means of the D-optimal experimental design methodology. Polyvinyl pyrrolidone, lactose, starch 1500 and sodium starch glycolate were used in the formulations as independent variables. Tablets were prepared by the direct compression method and evaluated for their physical properties (tablet hardness, disintegration time and friability), which were regarded as responses in a D-optimal design. Due to the significance of the special cubic model for data fitted, compared to other models, it was used to examine the obtained results. Response surface plots were plotted to study the tablet properties and the optimized overlay plot was generated based on the results and targets considered for the responses. After verification of the optimum checkpoint formulations, an optimized formulation was chosen due to its desirable physical properties and closely observed and predicted values. Drug assay, content uniformity of the dosage unit, drug dissolution and accelerated stability studies were done on the optimum formulation as further experiments. All the obtained results complied with the requirements of a sublingual tablet formulation. PMID:19819826
Bolourchian, Noushin; Hadidi, Naghmeh; Foroutan, Seyed Mohsen; Shafaghi, Bijan
In vitro dissolution studies for solid oral dosage forms have recently widened the scope to a variety of special dosage forms such as suspensions. For class II drugs, like Ibuprofen, it is very important to have discriminative methods for different formulations in physiological conditions of the gastrointestinal tract, which will identify different problems that compromise the drug bioavailability. In the present work, two agitation speeds have been performed in order to study ibuprofen suspension dissolution. The suspensions have been characterised relatively to particle size, density and solubility. The dissolution study was conducted using the following media: buffer pH 7.2, pH 6.8, 4.5 and 0.1 M HCl. For quantitative analysis, the UV/Vis spectrophotometry was used because this methodology had been adequately validated. The results show that 50 rpm was the adequate condition to discriminate the dissolution profile. The suspension kinetic release was found to be dependent on pH and was different compared to tablet release profile at the same experimental conditions. The ibuprofen release at pH 1.0 was the slowest.
Rivera-Leyva, J. C.; Garcia-Flores, M.; Valladares-Mendez, A.; Orozco-Castellanos, L. M.; Martinez-Alfaro, M.
In the present study, Mouth Dissolving Tablets (MDTs) of aceclofenac were formulated by direct compression technique. Sodium starch glycolate and crospovidone were employed as superdisintegrants in various concentrations like 2%, 3% and 4% w/w. All prepared tablets were evaluated for weight variation, hardness, drug content, friability, disintegration time, in vitro wetting time and percent drug release. MDTs containing 4% w/w concentration of crospovidone give best results and is therefore considered as the best formula. It has shown 30 s disintegration time, 25 s wetting time and 79.34% in vitro release of drug in 25 min. PMID:24596037
Shobhit, Shobhit; Gupta, Satish Kumar
In the present work, fast dissolving tablets of clonazepam were prepared by direct compression method with a view to enhance patient compliance. Three super-disintegrants, viz., crospovidone, croscarmellose sodium and sodium starch glycolate in different ratios with microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel PH-102) along with directly compressible mannitol (Pearlitol SD 200) to enhance mouth feel. The prepared batches of tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, drug content uniformity, wetting time, water absorption ratio and in vitro dispersion time. Based on in vitro dispersion time (approximately 13 s), three formulations were tested for the in vitro drug release pattern (in pH 6.8 phosphate buffer), short-term stability (at 40°/75% relative humidity for 6 mo) and drug-excipient interaction (IR spectroscopy). Among the three promising formulations, the formulation prepared by using 10% w/w of crospovidone and 35% w/w of microcrystalline cellulose emerged as the overall best formulation (t50% 1.8 min) based on the in vitro drug release characteristics compared to conventional commercial tablet formulation (t50% 16.4 min). Short-term stability studies on the formulations indicated that there were no significant changes in drug content and in vitro dispersion time (P<0.05).
Shirsand, S. B.; Suresh, Sarasija; Swamy, P. V.; Kumar, D. Nagendra; Rampure, M. V.
In the present work, fast dissolving tablets of fexofenadine HCl were prepared by effervescent method with a view to enhance patient compliance. Three super-disintegrants viz., crospovidone, croscarmellose sodium and sodium starch glycolate along with sodium bicarbonate and anhydrous citric acid in different ratios were used and directly compressible mannitol (Pearlitol SD 200) to enhance mouth feel. The prepared batches of tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, drug content uniformity and in vitro dispersion time. Based on the in vitro dispersion time (approximately 20 s), three formulations were tested for in vitro drug release pattern in pH 6.8 phosphate buffer, short-term stability at 40°/75% RH for 3 mo and drug-excipient interaction (IR spectroscopy). Among the three promising formulations, the formulation ECP3 containing 8% w/w of crospovidone and mixture of 24% w/w sodium bicarbonate 18% w/w of anhydrous citric acid emerged as the best (t50% 4 min) based on the in vitro drug release characteristics compared to conventional commercial tablet formulation (t50% 15 min). Short-term stability studies on the formulations indicated that there are no significant changes in drug content and in vitro dispersion time (P<0.05).
Nagendrakumar, D.; Raju, S. A.; Shirsand, S. B.; Para, M. S.; Rampure, M. V.
In the present work, fast dissolving tablets of clonazepam were prepared by direct compression method with a view to enhance patient compliance. Three super-disintegrants, viz., crospovidone, croscarmellose sodium and sodium starch glycolate in different ratios with microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel PH-102) along with directly compressible mannitol (Pearlitol SD 200) to enhance mouth feel. The prepared batches of tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, drug content uniformity, wetting time, water absorption ratio and in vitro dispersion time. Based on in vitro dispersion time (approximately 13 s), three formulations were tested for the in vitro drug release pattern (in pH 6.8 phosphate buffer), short-term stability (at 40°/75% relative humidity for 6 mo) and drug-excipient interaction (IR spectroscopy). Among the three promising formulations, the formulation prepared by using 10% w/w of crospovidone and 35% w/w of microcrystalline cellulose emerged as the overall best formulation (t(50%) 1.8 min) based on the in vitro drug release characteristics compared to conventional commercial tablet formulation (t(50%) 16.4 min). Short-term stability studies on the formulations indicated that there were no significant changes in drug content and in vitro dispersion time (P<0.05). PMID:21369444
Shirsand, S B; Suresh, Sarasija; Swamy, P V; Kumar, D Nagendra; Rampure, M V
In the present work, fast dissolving tablets of fexofenadine HCl were prepared by effervescent method with a view to enhance patient compliance. Three super-disintegrants viz., crospovidone, croscarmellose sodium and sodium starch glycolate along with sodium bicarbonate and anhydrous citric acid in different ratios were used and directly compressible mannitol (Pearlitol SD 200) to enhance mouth feel. The prepared batches of tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, drug content uniformity and in vitro dispersion time. Based on the in vitro dispersion time (approximately 20 s), three formulations were tested for in vitro drug release pattern in pH 6.8 phosphate buffer, short-term stability at 40 degrees /75% RH for 3 mo and drug-excipient interaction (IR spectroscopy). Among the three promising formulations, the formulation ECP(3) containing 8% w/w of crospovidone and mixture of 24% w/w sodium bicarbonate 18% w/w of anhydrous citric acid emerged as the best (t(50%) 4 min) based on the in vitro drug release characteristics compared to conventional commercial tablet formulation (t(50%) 15 min). Short-term stability studies on the formulations indicated that there are no significant changes in drug content and in vitro dispersion time (P<0.05). PMID:20336204
Nagendrakumar, D; Raju, S A; Shirsand, S B; Para, M S; Rampure, M V
Background: The purpose of the present research work was to extract jackfruit mucilage, use it as a mucoadhesive agent, and to develop extended release buccoadhesive tablets with an intention to avoid hepatic first-pass metabolism, by enhancing residence time in the buccal cavity. Materials and Methods: The mucilage was isolated from the jackfruit pulp by the aqueous extraction method and characterized for various physiochemical parameters as well as for its adhesive properties. Three batches of tablets were prepared (wet granulation method) and evaluated containing three mucoadhesive components: Methocel K4M, Carbopol 974P, and isolated jackfruit mucilage using chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM) as a model drug and changing the proportion of the mucoadhesive component (1:2:3), resulting in nine different formulations. Results: The results of the study indicate that the isolated mucilage had good physicochemical and morphological characteristics, granules and tablets conformed to the Pharmacopoeial specifications, and in vitro release studies showed the sustained action of drug with increasing concentration of the isolated natural mucoadhesive agent in the formulations. Permeability studies indicated that changing the mucoadhesive component, permeability behavior was not statistically different (P > 0.05). FTIR and UV spectroscopy studies between mucilage and CPM suggested the absence of a chemical interaction between CPM and jackfruit mucilage. Conclusion: The developed mucoadhesive tablets for buccal administration containing natural mucilage (MF3) have a potential for the sustained action of drug release. Thus, mucoadhesive tablets for controlled release were successfully developed using natural jackfruit mucilage.
Sabale, Vidya; Patel, Vandana; Paranjape, Archana
Background\\/Objectives:The apparent widespread extent of zinc (Zn) deficiency in developing countries and the efficacy of oral Zn supplements as an adjunct to oral rehydration therapy make oral Zn supplementation an increasingly important modality in clinical medicine and public health. In this study we aimed to compare the relative bioavailability of oral doses of 30 mg of Zn in two dosing
N W Solomons; M-E Romero-Abal; G Weiss; B Michalke; K Sch?mann
Comparative efficacy of two indigenous herbal extracts, (Trigonella foenum-graecum seed & Coccinia indica leaves) with the commonly used drug Glimepiride were studied. Healthy young rats (n=30) of both sexes weighting between 150 to 200 gm were selected and divided into six equal groups, as A (Control), B (diabetic), experimental diabetic groups were- C, D, E and F, treated with combined
P. C. Das; M. Mostofa; A. K. Sarkar; M. Ali
The aim of the study was to evaluate the suitability of alginates for Soft Tableting. For this purpose the compaction properties of alginates, varying in molecular weight, guluronic acid/mannuronic acid ratio and salt, were investigated and compared to MCC. Based on the mechanical properties, the suitability of the tested excipients for Soft Tableting was predicted. In order to test the prediction the tested materials were used to tablet enteric coated pellets, which served as a pressure sensitive material. The tableting behaviour was analysed by the 3-D modeling technique. The tablet properties were analysed by determining the elastic recovery and the compactibility. Alginates in general deformed elastically. The compression behaviour depended on the chemical composition of the alginates with sodium alginates being more elastic than potassium alginates. Tablets containing alginates with low guluronic acid content exhibited higher elasticity than tablets with alginates having a low mannuronic acid content. The plasticity of potassium alginates was higher than for sodium alginates. However, the plasticity of all tested alginates was lower than the plasticity of MCC. The compactibility of the tested alginates was sufficient. The proposed prediction, which states that tableting excipients with higher elasticity are more suitable for tableting sensitive materials than plastic excipients, was valid for the tested materials. The elastic alginates inflicted less damage on the pellets than the plastic MCC. Thus, all alginates were more appropriate for tableting pressure sensitive materials than MCC. PMID:18992337
Schmid, Wolfgang; Picker-Freyer, Katharina M
The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of liquid loadable tablets (LLT) to be loaded with a self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) containing cyclosporine (CyA). LLT were prepared by direct compression of the porous carrier magnesium aluminometasilicate and subsequently loaded with SMEDDS by a simple absorption method. SMEDDS was evaluated regarding visual appearance and droplet size distribution after dispersion in aqueous media. The developed SMEDDS was found to be similar to Neoral. LLT were characterized before and after loading regarding weight variation, tablet hardness, disintegration time, and in vitro drug release. It was found that LLT with high porosities suitable for liquid loading and further processing could be prepared. Adding a tablet disintegrant was found to improve in vitro drug release. Additionally, the volume-based loading capacity of LLT was evaluated and found to be comparable to soft gelatin and hard two-piece capsules. Furthermore, the pharmacokinetic performance of CyA from loaded LLT was tested in two PK-studies in dogs. Absorption of CyA from SMEDDS loaded into LLT was found in the first study to be significantly lower than the absorption of CyA from SMEDDS filled into a capsule. However, addition of a superdisintegrant improved the absorption markedly. The bioavailability of CyA from SMEDDS loaded into disintegrating LLT was found in the second study to be at the same level as from capsule formulation. In conclusion, the LLT technology is therefore seen as a promising alternative way of achieving a solid dosage form from liquid drug delivery systems. PMID:19936938
Sander, Camilla; Holm, Per
The aim of this work was to formulate Alstonia boonei dried stem bark powder into tablets by wet granulation method using acacia, gelatine and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose as binders at concentrations of 1, 2, 4 and 8% w/w. The phytochemistry of the stem bark of Alstonia boonei was evaluated. The micromeritic properties of the granules prepared were studied. The tablets were evaluated using the necessary official and unofficial tests. The results of the phytochemical analysis showed that alkaloids, tannins, steroids, saponins, glycosides, flavonoids and terpenoids were present while anthroquinones and acidcompounds were absent. Micromeritic studies showed that Alstonia boonei granules had good flowability. The formulated tablets complied with British Pharmacopoeial specification for weight uniformity, hardness (?5 kgf) and tablet friability (<1%). For disintegration test, tablets formulated with gelatine and acacia at concentrations of 1, 2 and 4% w/w complied with Pharmacopoeial specification. However, tablets formulated with SCMC (1-8% w/w) and 8% w/w of acacia and gelatine failed the disintegration tests (Disintegration time more than 15 min). PMID:24019574
Chime, Salome A; Ugwuoke, E C; Onyishi, I V; Brown, S A; Onunkwo, G C
The aim of this work was to formulate Alstonia boonei dried stem bark powder into tablets by wet granulation method using acacia, gelatine and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose as binders at concentrations of 1, 2, 4 and 8% w/w. The phytochemistry of the stem bark of Alstonia boonei was evaluated. The micromeritic properties of the granules prepared were studied. The tablets were evaluated using the necessary official and unofficial tests. The results of the phytochemical analysis showed that alkaloids, tannins, steroids, saponins, glycosides, flavonoids and terpenoids were present while anthroquinones and acidcompounds were absent. Micromeritic studies showed that Alstonia boonei granules had good flowability. The formulated tablets complied with British Pharmacopoeial specification for weight uniformity, hardness (?5 kgf) and tablet friability (<1%). For disintegration test, tablets formulated with gelatine and acacia at concentrations of 1, 2 and 4% w/w complied with Pharmacopoeial specification. However, tablets formulated with SCMC (1-8% w/w) and 8% w/w of acacia and gelatine failed the disintegration tests (Disintegration time more than 15 min).
Chime, Salome A.; Ugwuoke, E. C.; Onyishi, I. V.; Brown, S. A.; Onunkwo, G. C.
The objective of this study was to investigate the properties of granules and tablets with carbamazepine which were prepared employing a fluidized hot-melt granulation (FHMG) technique. The FHMG process was carried out at 65°C. Macrogol 6000 (PEG 6000) was used as a binder at the content 10% (w/w) of the granulated mass. Granules containing up to 70% (w/w) of the drug and 20-90% (w/w) of a filler (lactose, mannitol, calcium hydrogen phosphate (Di-Cafos), pregelatinized starch, and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC)) were produced. When the drug content was 30% (w/w), the yield of the process was satisfying (>95%) and flowability of the granules was better than placebo granules or drug-loaded granules prepared by wet granulation. Type of a filler had strong impact on physical properties of granules, and size distribution of the particles was the most homogenous when lactose or Di-Cafos were used. The FHMG technique enabled preparation of granules with better compressability compared with the wet-granulated product or with non-granulated powders. Tablets with shorter disintegration time than 10 min were obtained with 2.0% crospovidone added as a disintegrant. In comparison to tablets prepared from the wet-granulated mass, employment of the FHMG method resulted in tablets with faster dissolution of carbamazepine (more than 80% of the drug released within 15 min). This was achieved with mannitol or lactose/MCC, as fillers. PMID:21948307
Kraciuk, Rados?aw; Sznitowska, Malgorzata
Objective To formulate diclofenac sodium as fast dissolving tablets (FDTs) using fenugreek gum as a natural superdisintegrant which also possess anti-inflammatory activity. Methods An attempt was made to extract the fenugreek gum and evaluated it for various physicochemical characterizations. The swelling index and viscosity of fenugreek gum was 221% and 293.4 mpa.s respectively. FDTs of diclofenac sodium was formulated by direct compression technique using different concentrations (1%-6%, w/w) of fenugreek gum as a natural superdisintegrant and compared with renowned synthetic superdisintegrants like sodium starch glycolate and croscarmellose sodium. The anti-inflammatory activity of a formulation was evaluated with carrageenan induced experimental rats. Results The formulated tablets were evaluated for various physical tests like weight variation, friability, hardness and results complied with the limits. The drug release from all the formulations ascertained first order kinetics. Among all the formulations F3 containing fenugreek gum with the concentration of 6% produced least disintegrating time 21 seconds resulting in higher drug release rate 93.74% at the end of 25 min. Hence, it was considered as optimized formulation. The present study revealed that the fenugreek gum as a natural superdisintegrant showed better disintegrating property than the most widely used synthetic superdisintegrants like sodium starch glycolate and croscarmellose sodium in the formulations of FDTs. Conclusions The results suggested that the fenugreek gum act as a good super disintegrating agent and it showed promising additive anti-inflammatory activity with diclofenac sodium.
Kumar, M. Uday; Babu, M. Kishore
Residual solvents in methylenedioxymethamphetamine tablets as a source of strategic information and as a tool for comparative analysis: the development and application of a static headspace gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method.
Various solvents can be used in the synthesis of the illicit synthetic drug methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, commonly known as Ecstasy). In the crystallization process, traces of those solvents can be trapped inside crystals; during the following tabletting process, the solvent traces remain present in the tablets. The forensic investigation of tablets for solvents may increase knowledge of production methods and contribute to a possible choice of monitoring or regulating certain organic solvents. Further, the identification and quantification of solvents in MDMA tablets may contribute to the chemical characterization of illicit tablets for comparative examination. The methods of analysis of volatile components in illicit MDMA tablets described so far are often based on solid-phase micro extraction (SPME). To avoid several disadvantages of SPME, a quantitative static headspace method was developed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS); for quantification, the standard addition method appeared to be advantageous. The residual solvents in 155 MDMA tablets were analysed and 150 of them were quantified. PMID:21338020
Visser, H A A H; Visser-van Leeuwen, M; Huizer, H
The aim of this investigation was to develop a novel multifunctional co-processed diluent consisting of microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel PH 102), crospovidone (Polyplasdone XL) and polyethylene glycol 4000. Colloidal silicon dioxide and talc were also incorporated as minor components in the diluent to improve tableting properties. Melt granulation was adopted for preparation of co-processed diluent. Percentage of Avicel PH 102, Polyplasdone XL and polyethylene glycol 4000 were selected as independent variables and disintegration time was chosen as a dependent variable in simplex lattice design. The co-processed diluent was characterised for angle of repose, bulk density, tapped density, Carr's index, percentage of fines and dilution potential study. Acetaminophen and metformin were used as poorly compressible model drugs for preparation of tablets. The blend of granules of drug and extra-granular co-processed diluent exhibited better flow as compared to the blend of drug granules and physical mixture of diluents blend. The diluent exhibited satisfactory tableting properties. The tablets exhibited fairly rapid drug release. In conclusion, melt granulation is proposed as a method of preparing co-processed diluent. The concept can be used to bypass patents on excipient manufacturing.
Gohel, M. C.; Patel, T. M.; Parikh, R. K.; Parejiya, P. B.; Barot, B. S.; Ramkishan, A.
Ofloxacin is a synthetic chemotherapeutic antibiotic used for treatment of a variety of bacterial infections, but therapy suffers from low patients compliance due to its unpleasant taste. This study was aimed to develop taste masked microspheres of ofloxacin using Eudragit and to prepare orodispersible tablets of the formulated microspheres using natural superdisintegrant. Taste masking Eudragit E100 microspheres were prepared by solvent evaporation technique with an entrapment efficiency ranging from 69.54 ± 1.98 to 86.52 ± 2.25%. DSC revealed no interaction between the drug and polymer. Microspheres prepared at a drug/polymer ratio of 1:4 and 1:5 revealed sufficient flow properties and better taste masking as compared to other ratios. Drug loaded microspheres were formulated as orodispersible tablets using locust bean gum as a natural superdisintegrant offering the advatages of biocompatibility and biodegrad-ability. The wetting time, water absorption ratio and in-vitro disintegration time of the tablets were found to range between 19 ± 2 to 10 ± 3 seconds, 59.11 ± 0.65 to 85.76 ± 0.96 and 22 ± 2 to 10 ± 2 seconds, respectively. The in-vitro ofloxacin release was about 97.25% within 2h. The results obtained from the study suggested the use of eudragit polymer for preparing ofloxacin loaded microspheres with an aim to mask the bitter taste of the drug and furthermore orodispersible tablets could be formulated using locust bean gum as a natural superdisintegrant.
Malik, Karan; Arora, Gurpreet; Singh, Inderbir
The disintegration of Gaâ·Â³ was studied using gamma ray ; spectrometers, both alone and in coincidence, and by the absorption of the beta ; rays in coincidence with the most prominent gamma ray in the scintillation ; spectrometer. It was found that there were two gamma rays: one with an energy of ; 310 kev and intensity of about 90%
L. Marquez; E. W. Cybulska; N. L. Costa; I. G. Almeida; J. Goldemberg
The objective of the current work was to study an observed incompatibility between croscarmellose sodium and basic excipients in a tablet formulation. Significant dissolution slowdown was observed for alkaline tablet compositions of an acid-labile drug containing croscarmellose sodium (CCS) as a disintegrant. The severity of the dissolution slowdown was directly proportional to both the degree of alkalinity and the level of CCS in the tablet formulation. It is postulated that the ester cross-links in CCS were partially or fully hydrolyzed under basic conditions (pH values >9) forming by-products of increased water solubility. This increase in the level of water-soluble polymer can lead to the formation of a viscous barrier in the tablet upon moisture uptake, thus slowing down its dissolution. The dissolution slowdown was not observed for a similar alkaline tablet preparation containing crospovidone as a disintegrant. PMID:23528069
Bindra, Dilbir S; Stein, Daniel; Pandey, Preetanshu; Barbour, Nancy
Oral sustained\\/controlled release multiple unit dosage forms are becoming more popular when compared to single unit dosage forms. With regard to the final dosage form, the multiparticulates are usually formulated into single unit dosage forms such as filling them into hard gelatin capsules or compacting them into tablets. Although there is abundant literature available on the preparation of pellets and
We have developed fast-disintegrating tablets comprising starch-based pellets and excipient granules for intravaginal drug delivery. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the intravaginal disintegration, distribution and retention behavior of these tablets in sheep and women using colposcopy as visualization technique. One tablet was administered to each study subject (n = 6) and repeated colposcopy examination was performed over a 48?h and 24?h period in sheep and women, respectively. Colposcopy in sheep indicated that in vivo tablet disintegration was initiated within 30?min of vaginal administration and that due to disintegration of the pellets themselves, the formulation was transformed into a gel-like mass which distributed throughout the entire vaginal cavity within 2-4?h. In vivo tablet disintegration after intravaginal administration to women was complete within 4?h, whereby the formulation gradually spread throughout the vaginal cavity as complete covering was observed after 12 and 24?h. The persistent retention (up to 24 and 48?h in women and sheep, respectively) confirmed the long retention time of this vaginal formulation. PMID:23009084
Mehta, Samata; Verstraelen, Hans; Vandaele, Leen; Mehuys, Els; Remon, Jean Paul; Vervaet, Chris
The possibilities for disintegration of a cometary nucleus by collision with meteoroid streams, pre- dicted by one of authors (Guliyev, 2010) are considered in three zones of the Solar System. A list of disintegrating comets consisting of 118 cases has been made by the authors. The list contains data about observed cases of comet splitting, comet twins, and data about disappeared comets. Testing the comet parameters by applying the methods of mathematical statistics confirms the hypothesis underlying this article. The frequency of passing through the three zones where there might be a collapse of a proto-comet is rather high for the proto-comets of the Sun-grazer group. The results of the statistical analysis of comet outbursts yields additional arguments in favor of our hypothesis.
Guliyev, Ayyub S.; Poladova, Ulviyya J.
The aim of this study is to limit the hurdles generated by the presence of a surfactant, i.e., sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS),\\u000a in effervescent detergent tablets containing a chlorine provider. The results are highlighted by investigating the tablets\\u000a functional characteristics (mechanical strength, disintegration time). A second objective is to increase the surfactant content\\u000a of the tablet in order to improve
Florence Chantraine; Marylène Viana; Christelle Pouget; Nelly Brielles; Olivier Mondain-Monval; Paul Branlard; Gilles Rubinstenn; Dominique Chulia
The present invention relates to a verification method for tracking and tracing tablets, particularly pharmaceutical tablets. It further relates to a visible secure marking or information that is a part of such tablet (10). The invention further relates to tablets suitable for such verification method, processes for manufacturing such tablets, and methods for reading the information.
The consumption of fibers is associated with many health benefits, such as a reduction of cardiovascular and gastrointestinal diseases, control of body weight, and prevention of diabetes. Despite the widespread use of fiber supplements such as capsules or tablets, there is an almost complete lack of information concerning the technological properties of functional fibers used in nutraceutical formulations. The aim of this work was to characterize the technological properties of citrus fibers necessary for their use as a processing aid in tableting. The results obtained showed that citrus fibers share many properties of other polysaccharides used as tableting excipients, such as thermal behavior and compaction mechanism, together with an appreciable tabletability. However, the most interesting properties resulted from their disintegration power. Citrus fibers behaved in a similar manner to the well-known super disintegrant croscarmellose sodium and resulted to be little susceptible to their concentration, to lubricant type, and lubricant concentration. Thus, this work supports the idea of a potential use of citrus fibers as "active" substances and processing aid in the tableting of nutraceutical products and also as functional excipient in pharmaceutical tablets formulation. PMID:24306677
Cespi, Marco; Bonacucina, Giulia; Roberts, Matthew; Hanson, Samuel; Jones, Stephen; Makevica, Elina; Casettari, Luca; Palmieri, Giovanni Filippo
The present study aimed to formulate orodispersible tablets of flutamide (FTM) to increase its bioavailability. Orodispersible tablets were prepared by direct compression technique using three different approaches namely; super-disintegration, effervescence and sublimation. Different combined approaches were proposed and evaluated to optimize tablet characteristics. Sodium starch glycolate (SSG) was used as the superdisintegrant. The prepared powder mixtures were subjected to both pre and post compression evaluation parameters including; IR spectroscopy, micromeritics properties, tablet hardness, friability, wetting time, disintegration time and in-vitro drug release. IR studies indicated that there was no interaction between the drug and the excipients used except Ludipress. The results of micromeritics studies revealed that all formulations were of acceptable to good flowability. Tablet hardness and friability indicated good mechanical strength. Wetting and dispersion times decreased from 46 to 38 s by increasing the SSG concentration from 3.33 to 6.66% w/w in tablets prepared by superdisintegration method. The F8 formulation which was prepared by combined approaches of effervescence and superdisintegrant addition gave promising results for tablet disintegration and wetting times but failed to give faster dissolution rate. The incorporation of 1:5 solid dispersion of FTM: PEG 6000 instead of the pure drug in the same formulation increased the drug release rate from 73.12 to 96.99% after 15 min. This increase in the dissolution rate may be due to the amorphization of the drug during the solid dispersion preparation. The presence of the amorphous form of the drug was shown in the IR spectra. PMID:24493974
Elkhodairy, Kadria A; Hassan, Maha A; Afifi, Samar A
Generic fixed-dose combinations of antiretrovirals are frequently prescribed for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus infection. A randomized, 2-way study was conducted in 24 fasting, healthy, Indian male subjects to assess bioequivalence between a single combination tablet containing lamivudine, stavudine, and nevirapine (treatment A) with respect to separate marketed tablets administered simultaneously (treatment B). Each subject received treatments A and B separated by 19 days of a drug-free washout period. Plasma concentrations of antiretrovirals, determined by a validated liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry assay, were used to assess pharmacokinetic parameters such as maximum observed plasma concentration and area under the plasma concentration curve. Pharmacokinetic parameters were comparable for either treatment. As geometric mean ratios (% treatment A/treatment B) of log-transformed parameters of area under the plasma concentration curve and plasma concentration, as well as their resultant 90% confidence intervals, were within 80% to 125% and 75% to 133%, respectively, 2 treatments were considered bioequivalent in the extent and rate of absorption. Both treatments exhibited similar tolerability under fasting conditions. PMID:15703362
Narang, Vishal S; Lulla, Amar; Malhotra, Geena; Purandare, Shrinivas
Conclusions Optimization of CSD and CMC-Na in tablet formulations containing a high dose of SDE fromM ilicifolia was performed by central composite design (CCD) and response surface methodology (RSM). The study demonstrated that CSD affected\\u000a mainly the hardness and friability, while CMC-Na modified the disintegration times. The optimum formula for minimum disintegration\\u000a time and friability, and maximum crushing strength, was found
Luiz Alberto Lira Soares; George González Ortega; Pedro Ros Petrovick; Peter Christian Schmidt
Distortions of the experience of time are central to some types of dissociative experiences. In this study, we investigated the relationship between a self-report measure of temporal disintegration and symptoms of dissociation in depersonalization disorder (DPD). Fifty-two DPD and thirty non-clinical control participants were administered the Dissociative Experience Scale (DES) and Temporal Integration Inventory (TII). The DPD group had significantly higher TII scores than the control group. Within the DPD group, there was a significant positive correlation between DES total score and TII total score, and between TII-time distinction subscale score and TII-agency subscale score. In the DPD group, TII scores were not associated with age of onset or duration of illness. Of the three dissociative domains of absorption, amnesia, and depersonalization/derealization, only absorption was a significant predictor of TII total and subscale scores by stepwise linear regression analyses. We conclude that the experience of temporal disintegration in DPD is not directly related to the core symptoms of depersonalization/derealization, but exists when the depersonalized experience involves more prominent absorption. PMID:17409052
Simeon, Daphne; Hwu, Ruth; Knutelska, Margaret
Magnesium stearate (MS) is the most commonly used lubricant in pharmaceutical industry. During blending, MS particles form a thin layer on the surfaces of the excipient and drug particles prohibiting the bonding from forming between the particles. This hydrophobic layer decreases the tensile strength of tablets and prevents water from penetrating into the tablet restraining the disintegration and dissolution of the tablets. Although overlubrication of the powder mass during MS blending is a well-known problem, the lubricant distribution in tablets has traditionally been challenging to measure. There is currently no adequate analytical method to investigate this phenomenon. In this study, the distribution of MS in microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) tablets was investigated using three different blending scales. The crushing strength of the tablets was used as a secondary response, as its decrease is known to result from the overlubrication. In addition, coating of the MCC particles by MS in intact tablets was detected using Raman microscopic mapping. MS blending was more efficient in larger scales. Raman imaging was successfully applied to characterize MS distribution in MCC tablets despite low concentration of MS. The Raman method can provide highly valuable visual information about the proceeding of the MS blending process. However, the measuring set-up has to be carefully planned to establish reliable and reproducible results. PMID:23378252
Lakio, Satu; Vajna, Balázs; Farkas, István; Salokangas, Henri; Marosi, György; Yliruusi, Jouko
In the present work, orodispersible tablets of pheniramine maleate were designed with a view to enhance patient compliance by effervescent method. In the effervescent method, mixture of sodium bicarbonate and tartaric acid (each of 12% w/w concentration) were used along with super disintegrants, i.e., pregelatinized starch, sodium starch glycolate, croscarmellose sodium and crospovidone. The prepared batches of tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, drug content uniformity and in vitro dispersion time. Based on in vitro dispersion time (approximately 60 s), three formulations were tested for in vitro drug release pattern (in pH 6.8 phosphate buffer), short-term stability (at 40±2°/75±5% RH for 3 mo) and drug-excipient interaction (IR spectroscopy). Among three promising formulations, formulation ECP4 containing 4% w/w crospovidone and mixture of sodium bicarbonate and tartaric acid (each of 12% w/w) emerged as the overall best formulation (t70% = 1.65 min) based on the in vitro drug release characteristics compared to commercial conventional tablet formulation. Short-term stability studies on the formulations indicated no significant changes in the drug content and in vitro dispersion time (P < 0.05).
Swamy, P. V.; Divate, S. P.; Shirsand, S. B.; Rajendra, P.
The useful life of the wire probe in an ultrasonic kidney stone disintegration instrument is enhanced and prolonged by attaching the wire of the wire probe to the tip of an ultrasonic transducer by means of a clamping arrangement. Additionally, damping material is applied to the wire probe in the form of a damper tube through which the wire probe passes in the region adjacent the transducer tip. The damper tube extends outwardly from the transducer tip a predetermined distance, terminating in a resilient soft rubber joint. Also, the damper tube is supported intermediate its length by a support member. The damper system thus acts to inhibit lateral vibrations of the wire in the region of the transducer tip while providing little or no damping to the linear vibrations imparted to the wire by the transducer.
Angulo, E. D. (inventor)
Objective To perform a bioequivalence study of clozapine tablets between Clozaril ? tablet (Novartis), the innovator product, and Clopaze ? tablet (Pharminar, Thailand). Method The study was performed in 12 healthy male volunteers for a single 100 mg dose of clozapine tablet. Randomized cross over design was used. Blood samples were collected before and after drug administration for 24 hours
Wandee Taesotikul; Sayam Kaewvichit; Chokchai Wongsinsup; Kittipong Sanichwankul; Wanida Pumpaisalchai
The purpose of this research was to develop mouth dissolve tablets of nimesulide. Granules containing nimesulide, camphor,\\u000a crospovidone, and lactose were prepared by wet granulation technique. Camphor was sublimed from the dried granules by exposure\\u000a to vacuum. The porous granules were then compressed. Alternatively, tablets were first prepared percentage friability, wetting\\u000a time, and disintegration time. In the investigation, a 32
Mukesh Gohel; Madhabhai Patel; Avani Amin; Ruchi Agrawal; Rikita Dave; Nehal Bariya
Rizatriptan (MAXALTTM, a registered trademark of Merck & Co. Inc.) is a selective 5-HT1B\\/1D receptor agonist with rapid oral absorption and early onset of action in the acute treatment of migraine. This randomized, open-label, crossover outpatient study assessed the preference of 481 patients for rizatriptan 10-mg rapidly disintegrating tablets versus sumatriptan (IMIGRANTM, a registered trademark of GlaxoWellcome PLC) 50-mg tablets
Julio Pascual; Gennaro Bussone; Jose Fernando Hernandez; Christopher Allen; Krupa Patel
Tablet characteristics of tensile strength and disintegration time were predicted using residual stress distribution, simulated by the finite element method (FEM). The Drucker-Prager Cap (DPC) model was selected as the method for modeling the mechanical behavior of pharmaceutical powders composed of lactose (LAC), cornstarch (CS), and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC). The DPC model was calibrated using a direct shear test and analysis of the hardening law of the powder. The constructed DPC model was fed into the analysis using the FEM, and the mechanical behavior of pharmaceutical powders during compaction was analyzed using the FEM. The results revealed that the residual stress distribution of the tablets was uniform when the compression force increased. In particular, the residual stress distribution of tablets composed of equal amounts of LAC, CS, and MCC was more uniform than the tablets composed of 67% LAC and 33% CS, with no MCC. The tensile strength and disintegration time were predicted accurately from the residual stress distribution of tablets using multiple linear regression analysis and partial least squares regression analysis. This suggests that the residual stress distribution of tablets is related closely to the tensile strength and disintegration time. PMID:23897300
Hayashi, Yoshihiro; Miura, Takahiro; Shimada, Takuya; Onuki, Yoshinori; Obata, Yasuko; Takayama, Kozo
The present study was an attempt to formulate and evaluate enteric coated tablets for esomeprazole magnesium trihydrate. Different core tablets were prepared and formulation (F-1) was selected for further enteric coating, based on the disintegration time. Seal coating was applied to achieve 3% weight gain using opadry®. Enteric coating was carried out using different polymers like Eudragit L-30 D-55, hydroxy propyl methylcellulose phthalate, cellulose acetate phthalate and Acryl-EZE® to achieve 5% weight gain. Disintegration studies showed that the formulations failed in 0.1 N HCl media. Hence the quantity of enteric coating was increased to 8% w/w. In vitro analysis of the developed tablets was carried out. Results from disintegration time and dissolution rate studies indicate that all the esomeprazole enteric tablets prepared possess good integrity, desirable for enteric coated tablets. Among the polymers studied, the methacrylic polymers exhibited better dissolution rate than the cellulose polymers. Stability studies indicate that the prepared formulations were stable for a period of three months. This study concluded that enteric coated tablets of esomeprazole can be prepared using any of the enteric coating polymer studied using a minimal weight gain of 8%. PMID:24825991
Nair, Anroop B; Gupta, Rachna; Kumria, Rachna; Jacob, Shery; Attimarad, Mahesh
Metformin/Gliclazide extended release tablets were formulated with Eudragit NE30D by wet granulation technique. Two batches were prepared in order to study influence of drug polymer ratio on the tablet formation and in vitro drug release. The formulated tablets were characterized by disintegration time, hardness, friability, thickness, weight variation, and in vitro drug release. The percentage of polymer, with respect to Metformin/Gliclazide, required to produce tablets with acceptable qualities was 9 to 13.45. The percentage of polymer below this range released the drug immediately and above this range produced granules not suitable for tablet formation. The quantity of Metformin/Gliclazide present in the tablets and the release medium were estimated by a validated HPLC method. The formulated tablets had acceptable physicochemical characters and released the drug over 6-8 h. The data obtained from in vitro release studies were fitted with various kinetic models and was found to follow Higuchi kinetics. PMID:12419917
Arno, Enose Appavoo; Anand, Prithiviraj; Bhaskar, Kesavan; Ramachandran, Somasundaram; Saravanan, Muniyandy; Vinod, Radhakrishnan
The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the physical stability and solubility of the liquid crystalline form of fenoprofen calcium as pure drug and in a proprietary tablet formulation (Nalfon), and to investigate if a simple heat treatment of a proprietary tablet containing fenoprofen calcium may lead to a physically stable formulation with enhanced dissolution rate and apparent solubility. The liquid crystalline form of fenoprofen calcium (thermotropic mesophase) was prepared by heating the crystalline drug to 125 degrees C to remove the water of crystallisation. Differential scanning calorimetry investigation revealed an endothermic peak at 89 degrees C upon heating (liquid crystal formation) attributable to water loss from the crystalline dihydrate. The liquid crystalline order was maintained upon cooling. No interference of tablet excipients with the thermal behaviour of the drug in the tablet formulation was observed. The crystalline dihydrate and liquid crystalline forms of fenoprofen calcium could be differentiated by diffuse reflectance infra-red spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction, both as pure drug and in tablet formulation. The supercooled liquid crystal (thermotropic reversed hexagonal phase) alone and in preheated and ground tablets was physically stable when stored in a dry environment or at 33% relative humidities (RH) at both 20 and 40 degrees C for 2 months. At 40 degrees C and 75% RH the supercooled mesophase extensively converted to the crystalline dihydrate within 6 days. Liquid crystalline fenoprofen calcium stored at 20 degrees C and 75% RH showed only partial dihydrate conversion after 2 months of storage. The solubility of the crystalline dihydrate alone and from the tablet formulation was 2.8+/-0.2 mg/ml and 3.0+/-0.2 mg/ml (mean+/-s.d.), respectively, (not significantly different), whereas the maximum solubility of the liquid crystal was 5.0+/-0.3 mg/ml (mean+/-s.d.) and 6.9+/-0.6 mg/ml (mean+/-s.d.), respectively (significantly different). The difference in maximum solubility between the crystalline dihydrate form of fenoprofen calcium and the fenoprofen calcium mesophase was highly significant, for both the pure drugs and the tablet formulations. The dissolution rate of the liquid crystalline fenoprofen calcium in preheated, intact tablets was significantly lower than that of the crystalline form in non-preheated tablets. Gross visual changes and scanning electron microscopy indicated that the disintegration properties of the tablet may be detrimentally effected by heating the tablet to 125 degrees C, diminishing the beneficial effect of improved solubility of the liquid crystal. The study has shown that conversion of the crystalline form of fenoprofen calcium to the liquid crystal can enhance the apparent solubility of the pure drug and the drug in presence of tablet excipients, but that the conversion should be performed before tablet formulation in order to increase dissolution of this poorly water-soluble drug. PMID:12429493
Patterson, James; Bary, Andrew; Rades, Thomas
The value of tablets and paper discs as reservoirs of antimicrobial agents for use in sensitivity testing was compared. Antibiotics that were unstable in paper discs showed no demonstrable loss of activity in tablets over a period of 50 days under adverse storage conditions. The antibiotic content of commercially prepared tablets is very high in comparison with the accepted content
D F Brown; D Kothari
Background Allergy immunotherapy tablets (AITs) are administered by the patients in their homes and the medical compliance and persistence may therefore be poorer than for subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) administered by physicians. Purpose: to compare medical compliance and persistence for AIT and SCIT treatments in Swedish patients with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (ARC). Methods Two products for the treatment of grass pollen induced ARC were investigated: a SCIT treatment (Alutard SQ, Phleum pratense, 100,000 SQ-U/mL) and an AIT treatment (Grazax, Phleum pratense 75,000 SQ-T/2,800 BAU), ALK, Denmark). Data were drawn from the Prescribed Drug Registry 20072009, the National Board of Health and Welfare in Sweden. Data on patients treated and number of packages sold were used to calculate the compliance and persistence for each of the 2 products, for patients who started treatment in 2007. Compliance calculated as the duration of treatment estimated from the number of packages sold (assuming 100% compliance), divided by the actual duration of treatment (the time estimated from the first to the last observed prescription, plus the duration of the last package). Persistence: calculated as the percentage of patients who continued their treatment in 2009 with at least initiation of 1 treatment package or vial in 2009. Results Grass AIT treatment was started by 636 patients and the grass SCIT treatment by 354 patients in 2007. The persistence of treatment in 2009 was 55% for grass AIT treatment and 57% for grass SCIT treatment. The estimated average duration of treatment was 2.34 years for grass AIT and 2.47 for grass SCIT at cut-off 31 December 2009. The average number of tablets used per patient during this period was 770. For grass SCIT treatment the average number of up-dosing kits used was 1.07 and the average number of maintenance vials was 3.26 (5 injections per vial). This corresponded to a compliance of 90% for grass AIT and 82% for grass SCIT. Conclusions Compliance to treatment for grass ait and grass scit treatments were both high (>80%) and comparable. The persistence of swedish patients was comparable for grass AIT and grass SCIT treatments during the period 2007 to 2009.
Andreasen, Jakob N?rgaard; Lawton, Simon; Baech, Sussi Boberg; Svardc, Mikael
Consciousness is discontinuous. The transition from the raw output of parallel, distributed processors into the unified, serial content of consciousness is not instantaneous. Consciousness is divided into discrete cycles, yet appears to be continuous. The continuity requires temporal integration. The simplest mechanism is the calculation of the direction and magnitude of change from one conscious cycle to the next and then the fusion of these conscious vectors with the content of subsequent cycles. This mechanism, while putative, has supporting evidence. It is based on the same mechanism as motion vision, in which motion vectors are calculated in MT/V5 and then fused with discrete images. Moreover, it is based on the known separation of cognitive timing in the brain, in which temporal integrity is maintained in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the rest of the content of consciousness is maintained in the rest of the cortex. In fact, limited activity of the PFC matches the predicted effects of the absence of conscious vectors: thoughts strobe and consciousness disintegrates into a series of discrete cycles. The PFC, for example, is one of the primary brain regions deactivated during dreaming, when thoughts shift without any awareness of the transitions. In addition, the PFC is immature in infants, when there is no memory of the experience of consciousness because there is no temporal integrity to assemble the discrete cycles into a coherent experience. Without temporal integration, the human brain is an advanced biological computer, but is not sentient. PMID:17630226
The aim of this study was to prepare fast-dissolving tablets of meloxicam after its complexation with ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) and to investigate the effect of using different superdisintegrants on the disintegration and release of meloxicam from the tablets. A complex of meloxicam with ?-CD was prepared by spray drying and then compressed in the form of tablets utilizing the direct compression technique. Three superdisintegrants were employed at various levels - sodium starch glycolate, croscarmellose sodium, and crospovidone. Co-spray dried micro-crystalline cellulose and mannitol (Avicel HFE-102) were used as diluents in the tablets. Prior to compression, the pre-compression parameters showed satisfactory flow properties. Post-compression parameters showed that all tablet formulations had acceptable mechanical properties. Wetting and disintegration times were prolonged by increasing the level of sodium starch glycolate in the tablets. This was attributed to the formation of a viscous gel layer around the tablets by sodium starch glycolate whereas this effect was not observed with croscarmellose sodium and crospovidone. Dissolution studies showed fast release of meloxicam except in tablets containing a high level of sodium starch glycolate. Complexation of meloxicam with ?-CD significantly improved the solubility of the drug and improved the mechanical properties of tablets produced by direct compression. PMID:21406346
Obaidat, Aiman A; Obaidat, Rana M
The objective of the current study was to develop a method to blind commercially available Wellbutrin SR 150 mg sustained-release tablets for a clinical study. Overcoating was selected as the most appropriate blinding method. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (Opadry II) containing red iron oxide and titanium dioxide was applied to the Wellbutrin tablets at coating levels ranging from 0.5% to 4% weight gain. When compared against the uncoated product, no significant differences in drug release were noted over an 8-hr period. Matching placebo tablets, prepared using specially designed tablet tooling, were coated with the same cellulosic polymer that was used for the active. The coated active and placebo tablets were virtually indistinguishable. To test the applicability of this overcoating technique for blinding other controlled release products, the same procedure was used to coat Glucotrol XL 5 mg tablets and Theo-Dur 200 mg tablets. The debossing on the Theo-Dur tablets and the laser-drilled hole on the surface of the Glucotrol tablets prevented blinding. The Theo-Dur tablets were mechanically weak and not able to withstand the coating process. Dissolution testing revealed significantly higher amounts of drug were released from the blinded Glucotrol tablets compared to the unblinded product at the 12 hr time point. The findings from this study suggest that overcoating with pigmented hydroxypropyl methylcellulose may not be useful for blinding all controlled-release tablets. PMID:12602488
Felton, Linda A; Wiley, Cody J
Mefenamic acid (MA), a poorly water-soluble drug, was used as a model substance to investigate granules and tablet characteristics to be optimized for the loading volume of MA (0-74.1% v/v) in the formulation including lactose monohydrate/maize starch (7/3) as excipients. The compactibility of granules increased with loading volume of MA. This was related to the brittle behavior of MA during compression and the increase of intragranular pore volume of granules. The minimum disintegration time (266+/-8.3 s) was found in the tablet that was composed of 55.1% v/v MA and 13.6% v/v maize starch. The determination of the critical concentration of disintegrant (% v/v) required for a minimum disintegration time is suggested to be useful for solid dosage form design. PMID:18161636
Kimura, Go; Betz, Gabriele; Leuenberger, Hans
Mefenamic acid (MA), a poorly water-soluble drug, was used as a model substance to investigate granules and tablet characteristics to be optimized for the loading volume of MA (0-74.1% v/v) in the formulation including lactose monohydrate/maize starch (7/3) as excipients. The compactibility of granules increased with loading volume of MA. This was related to the brittle behavior of MA during compression and the increase of intragranular pore volume of granules. The minimum disintegration time (266 +/- 8.3 s) was found in the tablet that was composed of 55.1% v/v MA and 13.6% v/v maize starch. The determination of the critical concentration of disintegrant (% v/v) required for a minimum disintegration time may be useful for solid dosage form design. PMID:18300100
Kimura, Go; Betz, Gabriele; Leuenberger, Hans
The purpose of this study was to compare the in vitro release and the in vivo pharmacokinetics of bilayer tablets with the conventional dispersible tablets of nimesulide. The tablets were administered to beagle dogs and the plasma levels of nimesulide were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-MS/MS. The pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using a noncompartmental model. The bilayer tablets showed a biphasic in vitro release pattern with initial burst release and sustained release following the quasi-Fickian diffusion-based release mechanism. The C(max), t(max), mean residence time (MRT), and area under the curve from 0 to 36 h were 10.8 ± 4.2 ?g/mL, 2.3 ± 1.0 h, 6.7 ± 2.1 h, 81.5 ± 26.7 ?g·h/mL for the bilayer tablets and 14.8 ± 5.8 ?g/mL, 2.7 ± 0.8 h, 5.6 ± 0.9 h, 95.4 ± 44.2 ?g·h/mL for the dispersible tablets. Compared with the dispersible tablets, the bilayer tablets have lower C(max), similar t(max), and longer MRT. The aforementioned pharmacokinetic parameters, especially the MRT demonstrated to be valuable for evaluating the biphasic characteristics. This study provides a promising in vivo evaluation method for the bilayer tablets with biphasic release pattern. PMID:22397600
Yang, M Y; Wang, Y L; Guo, J F; Shan, L; Li, Y; Bai, X Q; Fan, Y Z; Gao, C S
To investigate the possible use of waste products obtained after processing haddock, the present study prepared haddock bone calcium powder by NaOH and ethanol soaking (alkalinealcohol method) and prepared haddock bone calcium tablets using the powder in combination with appropriate excipients. The biological efficacy of the haddock bone calcium tablets was investigated using Wistar rats as an experiment model. Results show that the optimal parameters for the alkalinealcohol method are: NaOH concentration 1 mol/L, immersion time 30 h; ethanol concentration 60%, immersion time 15 h. A mixture of 2% polyvinylpyrrolidone in ethanol was used as an excipient at a ratio of 1:2 to full-cream milk powder, without the use of a disintegrating agent. This process provided satisfactory tablets in terms of rigidity and taste. Animal studies showed that the haddock bone calcium tablets at a dose of 2 g·kg-1·d-1 or 5g·kg-1·d-1 significantly increased blood calcium and phosphorus levels and bone calcium content in rats. Therefore, these tablets could be used for calcium supplementation and prevent osteoporosis. Although the reasons of high absorption in the rats fed with haddock bone calcium tablets are unclear, it is suggested that there are some factors, such as treatment with method of alkaline-alcohol or the added milk, may play positive roles in increasing absorption ratio.
Huo, Jiancong; Deng, Shanggui; Xie, Chao; Tong, Guozhong
In this study three model drugs (N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (NAG), anhydrous caffeine, and propranolol hydrochloride) were agglomerated with starch acetate (SA) by mixing the binary powders on a stainless steel (SS) plate. Agglomeration was induced by triboelectrification of the particles during mixing, and it was evaluated as a method to achieve controlled drug release rate. These agglomerates, mixed with different amounts of a disintegrant, were compressed into tablets whose dissolution characteristics were determined. Triboelectric measurements showed that when the drugs were in contact with SS, charges of the opposite polarity were generated to SA (+) and caffeine and NAG (-) promoting adhesion. Instead, propranolol HCl was charged with the same polarity as SA. SEM micrographs showed that smaller caffeine particles, in spite of their larger negative charge, agglomerated less efficiently with SA than larger NAG particles. This emphasizes the importance of particle size in the agglomeration process. Propranolol HCl did not form agglomerates with SA since their particle sizes and charges were identical. As a result, agglomeration of powders prior to tablet compression allows for modification and control of the release rate of the drugs from the SA matrix tablets as well as the tensile strength of the tablets. PMID:17075868
Mäki, Riikka; Suihko, Eero; Rost, Susanne; Heiskanen, Minna; Murtomaa, Matti; Lehto, Vesa-Pekka; Ketolainen, Jarkko
Objectives: The objectives of this study were to compare the pharmacokinetic parameters of ibuprofen administered as a suspension, chewable tablet, or tablet in children with cystic fibrosis and to determine the optimal blood sampling times for measuring ibuprofen peak concentrations. Study design: A single oral 20 mg\\/kg dose of ibuprofen was administered, and blood samples were obtained at 15, 30,
Christy S. Scott; George Z. Retsch-Bogart; Robert P. Kustra; Katie M. Graham; Bradley J. Glasscock; Philip C. Smith
Effect of incorporating pharmaceutical excipients on the in vitro release profiles and the release mechanism of monolithic hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (4000 cps) matrix tablets (m-HPMC tablets) in terms of mimicking the dual drug release character of bi-layered Tylenol® ER tablets was studied. We also compared the in vitro release profiles of optimized m-HPMC matrix tablet and Tylenol® ER tablet in water, pH
Qing-Ri Cao; Yun-Woong Choi; Jing-Hao Cui; Beom-Jin Lee
The purpose of this research was to improve the hygrpscopicity and poor flow properties of the crude dry extract of the seeds of Glinus lotoides and improve the disintegration time of the core-tablets for enteric coated formulation thereof. The liquid crude extract of the plant was adsorbed on granulated colloidal silicon dioxide (Aeroperl® 300 Pharma) at 30% w/w and the dry extract preparation (DEP) was dry-granulated with roller-compaction using Micro-Pactor®. Hygroscopicity, flow property and disintegration time were improved significantly due to the adsorption and granulation processes. Moreover, the DEP does not become mucilaginous even at higher relative humidity levels (above 65%). Oblong tablets (20?×?8.25 mm) containing 947 mg of the granulated DEP (equivalent to the traditional dose), 363 mg of Avicel® PH101 and 90 mg of Ac-di-Sol® as disintegrant were formulated using an instrumented eccentric tablet machine at 20 kN. The tablets showed a crushing strength of 195 N, a friability of 0.4% and disintegrated within 9 min. The tablets were then enteric coated using polymethacrylate co-polymers (Eudragit® L 100-55 and Kollicoat® MAE 100P). The coated tablets resisted disintegration or softening in simulated gastric fluid for a minimum of 2 h and disintegrated within 15 min in intestine simulated fluid at pH 6.8. In addition to controlling the release of the active agents, the enteric coating improved the strength and decreased friability of the core-tablets.
Gebre-Mariam, Tsige; Schmidt, Peter C.
A double-blind comparative study of Chinese herbal medicine Jinlianqingre Effervescent Tablets in combination with conventional therapy for the treatment of uncomplicated hand, foot, and mouth disease.
Chinese herbal medicine Jinlianqingre Effervescent Tablets (JET) are the recommended control measure for uncomplicated hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) by the Ministry of Health of China. However, high-quality evidence to support this recommendation is limited. A total of 288 patients ranging in age from 1 to 13 years were randomly assigned to JET in combination with conventional therapy (mainly including the reduction of temperature by applying physical cooling paste or warm bathing), or conventional therapy with placebo group for 7 days. The objective was to test the hypothesis that JET combination therapy is more effective than conventional therapy for uncomplicated HFMD. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was designed. Our study showed that, compared with conventional therapy, the median time to fever resolution was significantly shorter in the JET combination therapy (8 vs. 80 h; p?0.0001); the risk of fever resolution increased in the JET combination therapy [hazard ratio, 19.8; 95 % confidence interval (CI), 12.8 to 30.7]; the median healing time of rash or oral ulcer was significantly shorter in the JET combination therapy (14 vs. 74 h; p?0.0001); and the median symptom score for skin or oral mucosa lesions improved more rapidly in the JET combination therapy during the follow-up period. The median duration of hospital stay was 6 days in the JET combination therapy and 7 days in the conventional therapy (p?0.0001). No significant adverse events and complications were found in both groups. The addition of JET to conventional therapy reduced fever clearance time, healing time of skin or oral mucosa lesions, and duration of hospital stay in children with uncomplicated HFMD. PMID:24643639
He, L-Y; Zhang, G-L; Yan, S-Y; Liu, Y; Zhao, C-S; Wang, X-L; Li, Y; Mi, Y-Q; Liu, Y-M; Li, C-P; Kou, Y-H; Li, Y; Chang, K; Meng, X-L; Sun, X-J; Zhao, T; Li, J; Wang, Y-Y; Liu, B-Y
Domperidone is an anti-dopaminergic drug used for the treatment of nausea, vomiting and dyspepsia. It has also been used in Parkinson's disease. In this study, five different brands of Domeperidone tablets were selected from the local market for evaluation of their quality as the local market is occupied of many competitors for a single generic. The evaluation of Domperidone tablets was done using various pharmacopoeial and non-pharmacopoeial tests. All the test results fell within BP specified limits for all the selected brands i.e. the results for Brands A to E for weight variation, thickness and diameter were satisfactory and within limits. For Brands A to E, the results for hardness and friability were also satisfactory i.e. 4-10kg/cm2and 0.1-0.6% respectively. The results for Brands A to E for disintegration were 2-6 minutes; for dissolution and assay, the results were 89-92% and 95-99% respectively. The results of similarity factor (f2) also showed that all brands of Domperidone have comparative dissolution profiles. PMID:25015463
Khan, Muhammad Qamar; Razvi, Nighat; Anjum, Fakhsheena; Ghazal, Lubna; Siddiqui, Saeed Ahmed; Shoaib, Muhammad Harris
The value of tablets and paper discs as reservoirs of antimicrobial agents for use in sensitivity testing was compared. Antibiotics that were unstable in paper discs showed no demonstrable loss of activity in tablets over a period of 50 days under adverse storage conditions. The antibiotic content of commercially prepared tablets is very high in comparison with the accepted content of paper discs used in Britain, but not all of the agent is released from tablets during tests. Comparison of the size of zones of inhibition around tablets and standard paper discs indicated that the amount of the various agents released from the tablets varied between 2-6% and 69% of the stated content. In tests of the sensitivity of a range of common pathogenic organisms, the results obtained with the tablet method--when interpreted as recommended by the manufacturer--were generally similar to those obtained with a paper disc method commonly used in British laboratories. In 47% of tests with aminoglycoside antibiotics, however, strains sensitive by the disc method were 'intermediate' or resistant by the tablet method. As with paper discs, it was necessary to press the tablets on to the medium. With adjustment of the 'effective antibiotic content of tablets to bring it into line with the accepted content in paper discs, the stability of antibiotics in the tablets might make them an acceptable alternative to paper discs.
Brown, D F; Kothari, D
Background: Olanzapine is a psychotropic agent that belongs to the thienobenzodiazepine class.Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the bioequivalence of 2 commercial 10-mg tablet formulations of olanzapine by statistical analysis of the pharmacokinetic parameters Cmax, AUC from 0 to 72 hours after dosing (AUC0-72), and AUC0-? as required by the Egyptian health authority for the marketing of
Ahmed H. Elshafeey; Mohamed A. Elsherbiny; Mohsen M. Fathallah
A vaccine candidate against cholera was developed in the form of oral tablets to avoid difficulties during application exhibited by current whole cell inactivated cholera vaccines. In this study, enteric-coated tablets were used to improve the protection of the active compound from gastric acidity. Tablets containing heat-killed whole cells of Vibrio cholerae strain C7258 as the active pharmaceutical compound was enteric-coated with the polymer Kollicoat(®) MAE-100P, which protected them efficiently from acidity when a disintegration test was carried out. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) anti-lipopolysaccharide (LPS) inhibition test and Western blot assay revealed the presence of V. cholerae antigens as LPS, mannose-sensitive haemagglutinin (MSHA) and outer membrane protein U (Omp U) in enteric-coated tablets. Immunogenicity studies (ELISA and vibriocidal test) carried out by intraduodenal administration in rabbits showed that the coating process of tablets did not affect the immunogenicity of V. cholerae-inactivated cells. In addition, no differences were observed in the immune response elicited by enteric-coated or uncoated tablets, particularly because the animal model and immunization route used did not allow discriminating between acid resistances of both tablets formulations in vivo. Clinical studies with volunteers will be required to elucidate this aspect, but the results suggest the possibility of using enteric-coated tablets as a final pharmaceutical product for a cholera vaccine. PMID:23492079
Fernández, Sonsire; Año, Gemma; Castaño, Jorge; Pino, Yadira; Uribarri, Evangelina; Riverón, Luis A; Cedré, Bárbara; Valmaseda, Tania; Falero, Gustavo; Pérez, José L; Infante, Juan F; García, Luis G; Solís, Rosa L; Sierra, Gustavo; Talavera, Arturo
The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the usefulness and wide applicability of a taste sensor and a new disintegration testing apparatus in the development and/or evaluation of orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs). In this paper, we described methods for the effective utilization of a taste sensor in the development of a new medicine. First we predicted the taste of propiverine hydrochloride, a model drug substance whose taste is unknown, using a taste sensor. Then we screened masking agents for their ability to suppress the bitterness of propiverine hydrochloride, and manufactured ODTs of propiverine hydrochloride with various masking agents. The tastes of these ODTs were then evaluated in chronological order by combining the taste sensor with the new disintegration testing apparatus, ODT-101, to resemble the oral cavity. As a result, we were able to evaluate the taste of propiverine hydrochloride and the effectiveness of various masking agents in ODTs. The result using this combination of taste sensor and ODT-101 shows good agreement with the results of human gustatory sensation testing, thus demonstrating the usefulness and applicability of the taste sensor and disintegration testing apparatus, ODT-101, in the development of new medicine. PMID:20686251
Harada, Tsutomu; Uchida, Takahiro; Yoshida, Miyako; Kobayashi, Yoshikazu; Narazaki, Ryuichi; Ohwaki, Takayuki
This study was undertaken to explore gum from Bombax buonopozense calyxes as a binding agent in formulation of immediate release dosage forms using wet granulation method. The granules were characterized to assess the flow and compression properties and when compressed, non-compendial and compendial tests were undertaken to assess the tablet properties for tablets prepared with bombax gum in comparison with those prepared with tragacanth and acacia gums. Granules prepared with bombax exhibited good flow and compressible properties with angle of repose 28.60°, Carrs compressibility of 21.30% and Hausners quotient of 1.27. The tablets were hard, but did not disintegrate after one hour. Furthermore, only 52.5% of paracetamol was released after one hour. The drug release profile followed zero order kinetics. Tablets prepared with bombax gum have the potential to deliver drugs in a controlled manner over a prolonged period at a constant rate.
Ngwuluka, Ndidi C.; Kyari, Jehu; Taplong, John; Uwaezuoke, Onyinye J.
Meat processing wastewater sludge has high organic content but it is very slow to degrade in biological processes. Anaerobic digestion may be a good alternative for this type of sludge when the hydrolysis, known to be the rate-limiting step of biological sludge anaerobic degradation, could be eliminated by disintegration. This investigation deals with disintegration of meat processing wastewater sludge. Microwave (MW) irradiation and combined alkaline pretreatment and MW irradiation were applied to sludge for disintegration purposes. Disintegration performance of the methods was evaluated with disintegration degree based on total and dissolved organic carbon calculations (DD(TOC)), and the solubilization of volatile solids (S(VS)) in the pretreated sludge. Optimum conditions were found to be 140 degrees C and 30 min for MW irradiation using response surface methodology (RSM) and pH = 13 for combined pretreatment. While DD(TOC) was observed as 24.6% and 54.9, S(VS) was determined as 8.54% and 42.5% for MW pretreated and combined pretreated sludge, respectively. The results clearly show that pre-conditioning of sludge with alkaline pretreatment played an important role in enhancing the disintegration efficiency of subsequent MW irradiation. Disintegration methods also affected the anaerobic biodegradability and dewaterability of sludge. An increase of 23.6% in biogas production in MW irradiated sludge was obtained, comparing to the raw sludge at the end of the 35 days of incubation. This increase was observed as 44.5% combined pretreatment application. While MW pretreatment led to a little improvement of the dewatering performance of sludge, in combined pretreatment NaOH deteriorates the sludge dewaterability. PMID:23837322
Silica-lipid-mannitol hybrid (SLMH) microparticles have been developed that were compressible into high quality tablets suitable for oral dosing and delivery of poorly soluble drugs. SLMH tablets enable high lipid-loading levels (>40%) and retain the immediate release, enhanced lipase digestion and drug solubilisation performance. Specifically, we report formulation optimisation of SLMH microparticles and tablets using coumarin 102 (log P = 4.09) as a model Biopharmaceutics Classification System class II drug. SLMH tablets were acceptable according to standard British Pharmacopoeia friability, hardness and disintegration tests; this is not the case for conventional dry emulsions. Furthermore, in vitro dissolution and pancreatic-lipase-induced lipolysis studies under simulated intestinal conditions have demonstrated enzymatic-digestion-mediated drug solubilisation. SLMH microparticles and tablets are suitable as liquid lipid containing solid dosage forms for enhancing and controlling oral absorption of poorly soluble drugs. PMID:23242712
Bremmell, Kristen E; Tan, Angel; Martin, Amanda; Prestidge, Clive A
In the paper is presented an investigation of material disintegration by cavitating microjets. Cavitating microjet develops behind the micro-orifice at high flow speeds, when local pressure drop initiates a cavitation phenomenon. Described is a method and presented are selected results of experiments. Experiments were carried out with 2 micro-orifices at different flow conditions (cavitation number, distance between sample and micro-orifice). Experiments are based on flow visualisation as well as on a character of material displacement.
Kníat, B.; Mlkvik, M.; Oliak, R.
Abstract.?This paper surveys the recent political economy literature on countries' incentives to form international unions and/or to disintegrate in smaller jurisdictions. The main factors that affect these incentives are (i) economic integration, (ii) the international order, (iii) international spillovers and (iv) the institutional setting. Some implications are drawn for the current debate in Europe on the political effects of economic
This study was aimed to develop a stable enteric coated diclofenac sodium tablets using Sureteic without a subcoating layer. Diclofenac uncoated tablets were developed and manufactured through the non direct compression process. Sureteric white aqueous coating dispersion was used as enteric coating material. Sureteric is a special mixture of Polyvinyl Acetate Phthalate (Phthalavin (R), PVAP), plasticizers and other ingredients in a suitable optimized dry powder formulation. The obtained enteric coated tablets were subjected to disintegration and no sign of cracking was observed when they placed in a hydrochloric solution at pH 1.2, but they were completely disintegrated within 10 minutes when they putted in buffered solution at pH6.8. Dissolution test was also conducted by placing tablets in 0.1 M HCl for 2 hours and then 1 hour in phosphate buffer at pH 6.8. Less than 0.9% of drug was released in the acidic phase and up to 97% in the basic medium. These results show that Sureteric can be successfully used to produce diclofenac sodium enteric coated tablets in order to prevent its release in the stomach and facilitate immediate release of the drug in the duodenum. These findings suggest that aqueous enteric coating with Sureteric system is an easy and economical approach for preparing stable diclofenac sodium enteric coat without the use of a subcoating layer. PMID:22186310
Zaid, Abdel Naser
Disintegration of aerobic granular sludge (AGS) is a challenging issue in the long-term operation of an AGS system. Chemical oxygen demand (COD)-to-nitrogen (N) ratio (COD/N), often variable in industrial wastewaters, could be a destabilizing factor causing granule disintegration. This study investigates the impact of this ratio on AGS disintegration and identifies the key causes, through close monitoring of AGS changes in its physical and chemical characteristics, microbial community and treatment performance. For specific comparison, two lab-scale air-lift type sequencing batch reactors, one for aerobic granular and the other for flocculent sludge, were operated in parallel with three COD/N ratios (4, 2, 1) applied in the influent of each reactor. The decreased COD/N ratios of 2 and 1 strongly influenced the stability of AGS with regard to physical properties and nitrification efficiency, leading to AGS disintegration when the ratio was decreased to 1. Comparatively the flocculent sludge maintained relatively stable structure and nitrification efficiency under all tested COD/N ratios. The lowest COD/N ratio resulted in a large microbial community shift and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) reduction in both flocculent and granular sludges. The disintegration of AGS was associated with two possible causes: 1) reduction in net tyrosine production in the EPS and 2) a major microbial community shift including reduction in filamentous bacteria leading to the collapse of granule structure. PMID:24950459
Luo, Jinghai; Hao, Tianwei; Wei, Li; Mackey, Hamish R; Lin, Ziqiao; Chen, Guang-Hao
Citric acid tablets, which slowly release citric acid when flushed with water, are under development by the Navy for calcification prevention. The citric acid dissolves calcium carbonate deposits and chelates the calcium. For use in urinals, a dispenser is not required because the tablets are non-toxic and safe to handle. The tablets are placed in the bottom of the urinal, and are consumed in several hundred flushes (the release rate can be tailored by adjusting the formulation). All of the ingredients are environmentally biodegradable. Mass production of the tablets on commercial tableting machines was demonstrated. The tablets are inexpensive (about 75 cents apiece). Incidences of clogged pipes and urinals were greatly decreased in long term shipboard tests. The corrosion rate of sewage collection pipe (90/10 Cu/Ni) in citric acid solution in the laboratory is several mils per year at conditions typically found in traps under the urinals. The only shipboard corrosion seen to date is of the yellow brass urinal tail pieces. While this is acceptable, the search for a nontoxic corrosion inhibitor is underway. The shelf life of the tablets is at least one year if stored at 50 percent relative humidity, and longer if stored in sealed plastic buckets.
Lindsay, Geoffrey A.; Hasting, Michael A.; Gustavson, Michael A.
The usability of mechanical disintegration techniques for the reduction of excess sludge production in the activated sludge process was investigated. Using three different disintegration devices (ultrasonic homogeniser, stirred media mill, high pressure homogeniser) and different operational parameters of the disintegration, the effect of mechanical disintegration on the excess sludge production and on the effluent quality was studied within a continuously operated, laboratory scale wastewater treatment system with pre-denitrification. Depending on the operational conditions and the disintegration device used, a reduction of excess sludge production of up to 70% was achieved. A combination of mechanical disintegration with a membrane bioreactor process with high sludge age is more energy effective concerning reduction of sludge production than with a conventional activated sludge process at lower sludge ages. Depending on the disintegration parameters, the disintegration has no, or only minor, negative effect on the soluble effluent COD and on the COD-removal capacity of the activated sludge process. Nitrogen-removal was slightly deteriorated by the disintegration, whereas the system used was not optimised for nitrogen removal before disintegration was implemented. PMID:17087371
Strünkmann, G W; Müller, J A; Albert, F; Schwedes, J
The disintegration of 3250 square kilometers of Larsen B Ice Shelf in the Antarctic Peninsula within 5 weeks in 2002 provided the opportunity to establish a clear connection between the removal of ice shelves and the acceleration of their ice streams. Radar interferometry observations analyzed by Rignot et al.  revealed that glaciers flowed up to eight times faster after the collapse of Larsen B, while Scambos et al.  detected a lowering of ice stream surfaces by up to 38 m. The significance of these findings is heightened by the fact that neighboring ice streams with intact ice shelves remained largely unchanged. In this work, we use satellite radar interferometric observations of Larsen B obtained in 2000, which provide a near-complete coverage of ice velocity, to infer the spatial distribution of ice rigidity (flow law parameter B) before the disintegration by an inverse control method. Of particular interest is how the presence of rifts affected the distribution of ice rigidity and ice shelf flow patterns compared to the case of a non-rifted ice shelf. This work raises the prospect of using the inferred ice rheology patterns as proxy to predict whether other ice shelves are in the process of collapse, and refining forward numerical modeling by the application of parameter B as a distribution rather than a single averaged value. This work was performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cryospheric Sciences Program.
Khazendar, A.; Rignot, E.
The aim of the current study was to screen theophylline (125 mg) tablets manufactured via twin screw granulation in order to improve process understanding and knowledge of process variables that determine granule and tablet quality. A premix of theophylline anhydrate, ?-lactose monohydrate and PVP (ratio: 30/67.5/2.5,w/w) was granulated with demineralized water. Experiments were done using the high-shear wet granulation module (based on twin screw granulation) of the ConsiGma-25 unit (a continuous tablet manufacturing system) for particle size enlargement. After drying, granules were compressed using a MODUL P tablet press (compression force: 10 kN, tablet diameter: 12 mm). Using a D-optimal experimental design, the effect of several process variables (throughput (10-25 kg/h), screw speed (600-950 rpm), screw configuration (number (2, 4, 6 and 12) and angle (30°, 60° and 90°) of kneading elements), barrel temperature (25-40°C) and method of binder addition (dry versus wet)) on the granulation process (torque and temperature increase in barrel wall), granule (particle size distribution, friability and flowability) and tablet (tensile strength, porosity, friability, disintegration time and dissolution) quality was evaluated. The results showed that the quality of granules and tablets can be optimized by adjusting specific process variables (number of kneading elements, barrel temperature and binder addition method) during a granulation process using a continuous twin screw granulator. PMID:22687571
Vercruysse, J; Córdoba Díaz, D; Peeters, E; Fonteyne, M; Delaet, U; Van Assche, I; De Beer, T; Remon, J P; Vervaet, C
Studies have shown that when compressing drugs with low aqueous solubility, the solubility of diluents selected is very crucial as it influences the disintegration, dissolution and bioavailability of such drugs. Based on these reports, the present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of some commonly used hydrophilic tablet diluents (lactose, sucrose, mannitol and dextrose) on the in vitro release properties of griseofulvin from compressed tablets. Griseofulvin granules and tablets were prepared using the wet granulation method. Tablet properties evaluated as a function of the diluents used include, hardness, friability, dissolution profile and dissolution efficiency at 60 min. Results obtained indicated variability in griseofulvin release in the presence of the diluents. The relative enhanced dissolution effects of the four hydrophilic diluents is in the order of dextrose>sucrose>lactose>mannitol. All the griseofulvin tablet batches produced exhibited a better drug release (in terms of rate and extent of release) than a commercially available tablet sample of griseofulvin (Fulcin(®)). The results of the dissolution efficiency (DE60min) are 91.7, 83.5, 48.7, 35.3 and 15.6% for dextrose, sucrose, lactose, mannitol and fulcin(®), respectively. The overall results indicated that dextrose or sucrose can be utilised to improve the in vitro release profile and hence in vivo bioavailability of griseofulvin from compressed tablets. PMID:24591749
Umeh, O N C; Azegba, J C; Ofoefule, S I
This study determined the material and tableting properties of Azadirachta indica gum (NMG) relative to acacia gum (ACA). The morphological properties were assessed with size and shape factors of aspect ratio, roundness, irregularity and equivalent-circle-diameter. The tableting properties of the gums were determined using compressional characteristics, tensile strength (TS), brittle fracture index (BFI) and crushing-strength-friability/disintegration-time ratio (CSFR/DT). The results suggest that NMG possesses larger, irregular and more elongated particles than ACA. The onset and amount of plastic deformation occurring in NMG was faster and higher, respectively, than in ACA. The result shows that, although ACA tablets were stronger, their tendency to cap/laminate was higher than in NMG tablets. The NMG tablets possess lower DT than those of ACA, while the CSFR/DT result suggests that a better balance exists between the strength and weakness of NMG tablets. The study concluded that NMG can be a useful excipient in tablet formulation. PMID:24779199
Ogunjimi, Abayomi T; Alebiowu, Gbenga
Studies have shown that when compressing drugs with low aqueous solubility, the solubility of diluents selected is very crucial as it influences the disintegration, dissolution and bioavailability of such drugs. Based on these reports, the present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of some commonly used hydrophilic tablet diluents (lactose, sucrose, mannitol and dextrose) on the in vitro release properties of griseofulvin from compressed tablets. Griseofulvin granules and tablets were prepared using the wet granulation method. Tablet properties evaluated as a function of the diluents used include, hardness, friability, dissolution profile and dissolution efficiency at 60 min. Results obtained indicated variability in griseofulvin release in the presence of the diluents. The relative enhanced dissolution effects of the four hydrophilic diluents is in the order of dextrose>sucrose>lactose>mannitol. All the griseofulvin tablet batches produced exhibited a better drug release (in terms of rate and extent of release) than a commercially available tablet sample of griseofulvin (Fulcin®). The results of the dissolution efficiency (DE60min) are 91.7, 83.5, 48.7, 35.3 and 15.6% for dextrose, sucrose, lactose, mannitol and fulcin®, respectively. The overall results indicated that dextrose or sucrose can be utilised to improve the in vitro release profile and hence in vivo bioavailability of griseofulvin from compressed tablets.
Umeh, O. N. C.; Azegba, J. C.; Ofoefule, S. I.
Risedronate, an anti-osteoporotic drug, is associated with low patient compliance due to the upper gastrointestinal side-effects and stringent dosing regimes. This study aimed to prepare and characterize risedronate-loaded Eudragit® S100 microparticles and develop a final dosage form by the compression of microparticles using direct tableting excipients. Microparticles were prepared by spray-drying and presented yield of 54%, encapsulation efficiency higher than 90%, mean diameter of 3.3?µm, moisture content around 8% and exhibited spherical shape and poor flowability. At pH 1.2, 23% of risedronate was released from microparticles in 120?min, while at pH 6.8 the drug took 90?min to reach 99.5%. Microparticles were compressed into tablets using microcrystalline cellulose, magnesium stearate, colloidal silicon dioxide and 2 polyvinylpyrrolidone concentrations (5% and 15%). Tablets presented low variations in weight, thickness and drug content. Besides, the formulations showed sufficient hardness, low friability and disintegrated in less than 15 min. In acid medium, no more than 16% of the drug was released in 120?min, while in intestinal medium the formulations prolonged the risedronate release for 240?min. Finally, the developed tableted microparticles can be considered a promising dosage form for oral risedronate administration. PMID:23506303
Velasquez, Aline A; Mattiazzi, Juliane; Ferreira, Luana M; Pohlmann, Lauren; Silva, Cristiane B; Rolim, Clarice M B; Cruz, Letícia
The aim of this study was to prepare bi-layer tablet of Metoclopramide Hydrochloride (MTH) and Ibuprofen (IB) for the effective\\u000a treatment of migraine. MTH and IB were formulated as immediate and sustained release layer respectively. MTH was formulated\\u000a as immediate release layer by using various disintegrants like Ac-Di-Sol, Polyplasdone XL, Explotab, Agar and Gellan Gum.\\u000a Treated form of gellan gum
Bhavesh Shiyani; Surendra Gattani; Sanjay Surana
Background: Buprenorphine (Subutex) is the most abused opioid in Finland. In order to curb the abuse potential of this drug, many treatment centers and prisons crush Subutex tablets before administering them to patients. To date, there are no published studies comparing the efficacy and bioavailability of crushed and whole Subutex tablets. Methods: A total of 16 opioid-dependent patients stabilized on
Kaarlo Simojoki; Pirjo Lillsunde; Nicholas Lintzeris; Hannu Alho
Recently a commercial computer-controlled image analysis system (IAS) was introduced to measure automatically the diameters of inhibition zones in the agar diffusion test. However, there is little information on the precision of this method. In the present study clinical isolates of Salmonella spp. (N = 104), Escherichia coli (N = 100), Pasteurella spp. (N = 99), Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (N = 85), porcine streptococci (N = 100), and Staphylococcus aureus (N = 95) were tested in the agar diffusion test, using nineteen different antibiotics in tablets. All inhibition zone diameters were first measured by a laboratory technician and then by the IAS. Although the zone diameters of all bacteria-antibiotic combinations measured by the IAS and those measured by the laboratory technician showed a significant positive correlation, the size of the inhibition zone diameters measured by the technician and the IAS differed significantly in 59% of the combinations. However, these differences were very small and may have no clinical relevance. The IAS was also used to calculate minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC values) from the zone diameters. In 82% of the bacteria-antibiotic combinations MIC values calculated by the IAS showed a significant positive correlation with MIC values obtained with the reference agar dilution test. However, in 92% of the bacteria-antibiotic combinations, the calculated MIC values differed significantly from the reference values. In some cases these differences were so large that they could be of clinical relevance. The IAS was unable to measure the diameter of inhibition zones of porcine streptococci properly, due to poor contrast. We concluded that when tablets are used as antibiotic carriers the IAS accurately measures the diameter of inhibition zones for bacteria species that give good contrast between the agar and bacterial growth. MIC values determined with the IAS were only indicative of those determined with the reference agar dilution test. PMID:10427635
Mevius, D J; Veldman, K T; van der Pal, R H; van Zijderveld, F G
In this research, the tableting properties of ?-melibiose monohydrate were studied. Melibiose is a disaccharide which bears structural resemblance to lactose, because they both consist of galactose and glucose monosaccharide subunits. Compactibility and deformation behavior of two melibiose batches from different suppliers were studied and compared with ?-lactose monohydrate and some other typical tableting excipients. Differences in the deformation behavior were determined comparing the shape of the Heckel plots, the yield pressure values and the strain rate sensitivity (SRS) indexes. In addition, the effect of moisture on the tabletability was studied. According to the yield pressures and SRS indexes melibiose was concluded to be fragmenting, even at higher degree than lactose monohydrate. However, the overall deformation behavior of melibiose was found to be similar to that of lactose monohydrate. Increase in moisture content resulted in higher tensile strengths of tablets for both melibiose batches, but it seemed to have more effect on compactibility of the other batch. In conclusion, melibiose has potential to be used as an excipient in tablet formulations. PMID:23994759
Lakio, Satu; Sainio, Janne; Heljo, Petteri; Ervasti, Tuomas; Kivikero, Niina; Juppo, Anne
Buprenorphine abuse is common worldwide. Rates of abuse and diversion of three sublingual buprenorphine formulations (single ingredient tablets; naloxone combination tablets and film) were compared. Data were obtained from the Researched Abuse, Diversion, and Addiction-Related Surveillance (RADARS(®)) System Poison Center, Drug Diversion, Opioid Treatment (OTP), Survey of Key Informants' Patients (SKIP), and College Survey Programs through December 2012. To control for drug availability, event ratios (rates) were calculated quarterly, based on the number of patients filling prescriptions for each formulation ("unique recipients of a dispensed drug," URDD) and averaged and compared using negative binomial regression. Abuse rates in the OTP, SKIP, and College Survey Programs were greatest for single ingredient tablets, and abuse rates in the Poison Center Program and illicit diversion rates were greatest for the combination tablets. Combination film rates were significantly less than rates for either tablet formulation in all programs. No geographic pattern could be discerned. PMID:24680219
Lavonas, Eric J; Severtson, S Geoffrey; Martinez, Erin M; Bucher-Bartelson, Becki; Le Lait, Marie-Claire; Green, Jody L; Murrelle, Lenn E; Cicero, Theodore J; Kurtz, Steven P; Rosenblum, Andrew; Surratt, Hilary L; Dart, Richard C
The present research work was undertaken to optimize and formulate Promethazine Theoclate as a fast dissolving tablet using pore forming technology that disintegrates or dissolves rapidly and offer a suitable approach for the treatment of nausea and vomiting. Fast dissolving tablets of Promethazine Theoclate was prepared by increasing the solubility i.e. using beta-cyclodextrin, crospovidone, and menthol. A 3(3) full factorial design was employed to investigate the combined influence of these three independent variables, i.e., amount of menthol, crospovidone and beta-cyclodextrin on disintegration time, percentage friability and percentage drug release after 5 min. In the optimization study, multiple regression analysis has revealed that an optimum amount of menthol, crospovidone and beta-cyclodextrin gives a rapidly disintegrating/dissolving tablet. In order to prove the validity of the evolved mathematical model a checkpoint batch was also prepared. Optimized tablets were prepared with an optimum amount of beta-cyclodextrin, menthol and crospovidone which disintegrated in the 30 s, having friability 0.599% and released drug 89% after 5 min. PMID:20803123
Sharma, Shailesh; Sharma, Neelam; Das Gupta, Ghanshyam
Adhesive and cohesive properties of chlorpromazine hydrochloride (CP) crystals were modified to improve their powder processing, e.g., direct tabletting and microencapsulation, by agglomeration. Moreover, sustained-released gelling microcapsules of CP were devised to prolong the pharmacological effect. The spherical crystallization technique was applied to prepare agglomerates for direct tabletting and microencapsulation to use them as core materials. The ethanolic solution dissolving CP was poured into a stirred cyclohexane, yielding spherically agglomerated crystals. The resultant agglomerates were free-flowing and easily packable spheres with average diameters of 200 to 1000 microns. The agglomerates reserved the high compressibility of the original powder having a small particle size (14 microns). The compression behavior represented by Heckel's equation suggested that the agglomerates were disintegrated to individual primary crystals at low compression pressures, and then they were closely repacked and plastically deformed at higher pressures. After agglomeration, microencapsulation was continuously performed in the same batch by a phase separation method. Coacervate droplets produced by pouring cyclohexane into a dichloromethane solution, dissolving polyvinyl acetate as a coating polymer, were added to the crystallization system under stirring, to prepare the microcapsules. By filling the microcapsules in gelatin hard capsules or tabletting them, their drug release rates became retarded compared with the physical mixture treated in the same way, having the same formulation as the microcapsules. This phenomenon was due to the gelation of polyvinyl acetate of the microcapsules in the dissolution medium, whose glass transition temperature is very low. This novel sustained-release dosage form is termed "gelled microcapsules." PMID:8058601
Niwa, T; Takeuchi, H; Hino, T; Itoh, A; Kawashima, Y; Kiuchi, K
The dissolution enhancement advantages inherent to amorphous solid dispersions systems are often not fully realized once they are formulated into a solid dosage form. The objective of this study was to investigate the ability of inorganic salts to improve the dissolution rate of carbamazepine (CBZ) from tablets containing a high loading of a Soluplus®-based solid dispersion. Cloud point and viscometric studies were conducted on Soluplus® solutions to understand the effect of temperature, salt type and salt concentration on the aqueous solubility and gelling tendencies of Soluplus®, properties that can significantly impact dissolution performance. Studies indicated that Soluplus® exhibited a cloud point that was strongly dependent on the salt type and salt concentration present in the dissolving medium. The presence of kosmotropic salts dehydrated the polymer, effectively lowering the cloud point and facilitating formation of a thermoreversible hydrogel. The ability of ions to impact the cloud point and gel strength generally followed the rank order of the Hofmeister series. Solid dispersions of CBZ and Soluplus® were prepared by KinetiSol® Dispersing, characterized to confirm an amorphous composition was formed and incorporated into tablets at very high levels (70% w/w). Dissolution studies demonstrated the utility of including salts in tablets to improve dissolution properties. Tablets that did not contain a salt or those that included a chaotropic salt hydrated at the tablet surface and did not allow for sufficient moisture ingress into the tablet. Conversely, the inclusion of kosmotropic salts allowed for rapid hydration of the entire tablet and the formation of a gel structure with strength dependent on the type of salt utilized. Studies also showed that, in addition to allowing tablet hydration, potassium bicarbonate and potassium carbonate provided effervescence which effectively destroyed the gel network and allowed for rapid dissolution of CBZ. Subsequent dissolution studies in 0.1 N HCl showed that potassium bicarbonate was an effective tablet disintegrant at levels as low as 1% and provided for tablets that rapidly disintegrated over a wide range of applied compression forces, presumably due to synergy between the ability to form a weak hydrogel structure and carbon dioxide liberation. Similar dissolution performance was measured in pH 4.5 acetate buffer, despite reduced polymer solubility caused by kosmotropic salts in solution, demonstrating robustness. With the use of inorganic salts such as potassium bicarbonate, it may be possible to substantially improve disintegration and dissolution characteristics of tablets containing Soluplus®. PMID:23348153
Hughey, Justin R; Keen, Justin M; Miller, Dave A; Kolter, Karl; Langley, Nigel; McGinity, James W
The disintegration of drops in strong electric fields is believed to play an important part in the formation of thunderstorms, at least in those parts of them where no ice crystals are present. Zeleny showed experimentally that disintegration begins as a hydrodynamical instability, but his ideas about the mechanics of the situation rest on the implicit assumption that instability occurs
Disintegration tests with specimens of yellow sandstone showed that there exists an optimum amount of energy, which in electrical field in excess of the dielectric strength at solids, produces disintegration of material with minimum of energy per unit volume of the solids. This optimum energy absorbs during the one half of the pulse wave and generates the electrical breakdown and
U. Andres; I. Timoshkin
A noncontact/nondestructive air-coupled acoustic technique to be potentially used in mechanical property determination of bilayer tablets is presented. In the reported experiments, a bilayer tablet is vibrated via an acoustic field of an air-coupled transducer in a frequency range sufficiently high to excite several vibrational modes (harmonics) of the tablet. The tablet vibrational transient responses at a number of measurement points on the tablet are acquired by a laser vibrometer in a noncontact manner. An iterative computational procedure based on the finite element method is utilized to extract the Young's modulus, the Poisson's ratio, and the mass density values of each layer material of a bilayer tablet from a subset of the measured resonance frequencies. For verification purposes, a contact ultrasonic technique based on the time-of-flight data of the longitudinal (pressure) and transverse (shear) acoustic waves in each layer of a bilayer tablet is also utilized. The extracted mechanical properties from the air-coupled acoustic data agree well with those determined from the contact ultrasonic measurements. The mechanical properties of solid oral dosage forms have been shown to impact its mechanical integrity, disintegration profile and the release rate of the drug in the digestive tract, thus potentially affecting its therapeutic response. The presented nondestructive technique provides greater insight into the mechanical properties of the bilayer tablets and has the potential to identify quality and performance problems related to the mechanical properties of the bilayer tablets early on the production process and, consequently, reduce associated cost and material waste. PMID:20063078
Akseli, Ilgaz; Dey, Dipankar; Cetinkaya, Cetin
Written in ink on postcard-sized sheets of wood, the Vindolanda tablets constitute a fascinating record of life in Roman Britain in the area of northern England around Hadrian's Wall during the first and second centuries AD. The tablets and the accompanying visual and printed materials were brought online through the collaborative efforts of the Centre for the Study of Ancient Documents and the Academic Computing Development Team at Oxford University. Visitors unfamiliar with the world of Roman Britain would do well to go first to the Exhibition section which contains helpful areas devoted to the world of military life during this period, the tablets themselves, and the excavations at Vindolanda. The Reference section also provides a great deal of context to the commentaries contained on the tablets, providing information about the military units in the Roman army and important dates and events in early Roman Britain. The heart of the site is dedicated to the tablets themselves, which may be browsed by number or searched by such variables as title, author, English translation, or commentary.
Vitamin E tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate (TPGS) is known to enhance the bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs via solubility and permeability enhancement. Few studies have evaluated feasibility of formulating TPGS in conventional solid dosage forms such as tablets due to processing challenges resulting from its waxy nature and low melting point (approximately 37 degrees C). The objective of this study is to systematically investigate the tabletability of conventional high shear wet granulation (WG) formulations incorporated with Vitamin E TPGS. Impact of critical formulation variables such as levels of TPGS, hydroxypropyl cellulose (binder) and Prosolv (extragranular filler) on product quality attributes was studied using a full factorial experimental design. The potential influence of temperature elevation during processing was assessed through a heated die fitted onto a compaction simulator. Bilayer tabletability of the TPGS formulation was also assessed in combination with a secondary non-TPGS formulation. TPGS levels significantly impacted tensile strength (TS), disintegration time and dissolution. Heat sensitivity studies indicated that TS reduction upon exposure to heat was minimized by higher levels of extragranular fillers. Acceptable interfacial strength of bilayer tablets was achieved and tablets could be coated without the need for hydroalcoholic solutions. The study demonstrates preliminary feasibility to develop monolithic and bilayer coated tablet formulations containing up to 10% (w/w) TPGS for the given compound and drug load. Further studies are required to validate these findings at larger scales. PMID:20083178
Jin, Feiyan; Tatavarti, Aditya
?-Carrageenan is a novel pelletisation aid with high formulation robustness and quick disintegration leading to fast drug release unlike the matrix-like release from non-disintegrating microcrystalline cellulose pellets. Compression of pellets into tablets is cost effective. The feasibility of formulating multiparticulate tablets with coated ?-carrageenan pellets was investigated. Pellets containing a highly soluble drug in acid, namely bisacodyl and ?-carrageenan or MCC as pelletisation aid were prepared, enteric coated with a mixture of Kollicoat(®) MAE 30 DP and Eudragit(®) NE 30 D and compressed using silicified microcrystalline cellulose as embedding powder. The effect of coating level, type of pellet core, compression force and punch configurations on drug release were studied. A sufficient coating thickness for ?-carrageenan pellets was necessary to obtain multiparticulate tablets with adequate resistance in the acid stage regardless of the compression pressure used. While ?-carrageenan pellets and their tablets released over 80% of the drug during the neutral stage only about 20-24% was released from MCC pellets and their tablets. The type of punches used (oblong or round) did not significantly influence the drug release from the prepared tablets. Moreover, sufficient prolonged release properties were obtained with ?-carrageenan pellets containing theophylline as a model drug and coated with Kollicoat(®) SR 30 D using Kollicoat(®) IR as pore former. A lower coating level and higher amount of pore former were needed in case of theophylline pellets formulated with MCC as pelletisation aid. The sustained release properties of both coated pellet formulations were maintained after compression at different compression pressures. PMID:21335073
Ghanam, Dima; Kleinebudde, Peter
The North Carolina Community College System BioNetwork's interactive eLearning tools (IETs) are reusable chunks of training that can be deployed in a variety of courses or training programs. IETs are designed to enhance, not replace hands-on training. Learners are able to enter a hands-on lab experience better prepared and more confident. This particular IET is a Tablet Process Simulator in which visitors set up and run a tablet press in a virtual 3D environment. The tool requires the program to be downloaded and installed, and gives helpful installation instructions. Users will start by downloading a zip file to their computer.
Comparative efficacy of a spot-on formulation containing emodepside and praziquantel (Profender ®, Bayer) and praziquantel and pyrantel oral tablets (Drontal ® for Cats) against experimental Ancylostoma ceylanicum infections in cats.
Ancylostoma ceylanicum is a common zoonotic hookworm of dogs and cats throughout Asia and has also been reported to occur within the Australasian region. The aim of this study to was to determine the efficacy of a spot-on formulation containing emodepside and praziquantel (Profender(®), Bayer) and praziquantel and pyrantel oral tablets (Drontal(®) for Cats, Bayer) against experimental A. ceylanicum infections in cats. Twenty-four kittens were each subcutaneously injected with 100 infective third-stage larvae of A. ceylanicum. Kittens were stratified by egg count and randomly allocated equally into control and two treatment groups. The first group were treated with emodepside 2.1%/praziquantel 8.6% (Profender®, Bayer) at the recommended label dose. The second group was treated with 80 mg pyrantel and 20mg praziquantel (Drontal(®) for Cats, Bayer) at the recommended label dose. The kittens in the control group were not treated. Egg counts were performed daily until the end of the study period and compared for the treated and control groups. No eggs were detected in the treated group of kittens within 4 days of treatment and faecal samples from this group remained negative throughout the rest of the study, resulting in a treatment efficacy (egg reduction) of 100% (P<0.0001). The egg counts remained high (993 ± 666 epg) in the untreated control group for the rest of the study period. This study demonstrated that both combination products containing topical emodepside/praziquantel (Profender(®), Bayer) and praziquantel/pyrantel oral tablets (Drontal(®) for Cats, Bayer) given at the recommended dose is highly effective against infection with A. ceylanicum in cats. PMID:23026558
Taweethavonsawat, Piyanan; Chungpivat, Sudchit; Watanapongchati, Supoj; Traub, Rebecca J; Schaper, Roland
In this study, terahertz pulsed imaging (TPI) was employed to investigate the effect of the coating equipment (fluid bed and drum coater) on the structure of the applied film coating and subsequent dissolution behaviour. Six tablets from every batch coated with the same delayed release coating formulation under recommended process conditions (provided by the coating polymer supplier) were mapped individually to evaluate the effect of coating device on critical coating characteristics (coating thickness, surface morphology and density). Although the traditional coating quality parameter (weight gain) indicated no differences between both batches, TPI analysis revealed a lower mean coating thickness (CT) for tablets coated in the drum coater compared to fluid bed coated tablets (p<0.05). Moreover, drum coated tablets showed a more pronounced CT variation between the two sides and the centre band of the biconvex tablets, with the CT around the centre band being 22.5% thinner than the top and bottom sides for the drum coated tablets and 12.5% thinner for fluid bed coated tablets. The TPI analysis suggested a denser coating for the drum coated tablets. Dissolution testing confirmed that the film coating density was the drug release governing factor, with faster drug release for tablets coated in the fluid bed coater (98 ± 4% after 6h) compared to drum coated tablets (72 ± 6% after 6h). Overall, TPI investigation revealed substantial differences in the applied film coating quality between tablets coated in the two coaters, which in turn correlated with the subsequent dissolution performance. PMID:23563103
Haaser, Miriam; Naelapää, Kaisa; Gordon, Keith C; Pepper, Michael; Rantanen, Jukka; Strachan, Clare J; Taday, Philip F; Zeitler, J Axel; Rades, Thomas
Thiamine hydrochloride was granulated using an instrumented fluidized bed granulator (Hüttlin HKC 05-TJ). Granules consisting of pure thiamine hydrochloride were produced using an aqueous solution of thiamine hydrochloride as the granulating liquid. The effects of process variables such as inlet air temperature, spray rate, and amount of granulating liquid on granule properties are described. Particle size distributions of granules depended mainly on the amount of granulating liquid sprayed into the powder bed. Granules were tableted on a rotary tablet press at four different compression forces. Crushing strengths and disintegration times of all tablets were found to be very low after manufacture, but increased considerably after 4 months of storage at room temperature. Granular materials showed "caking" under the same storage conditions. These changes could be attributed to alterations of the polymorphic form of thiamine hydrochloride. The water-free form, being present directly after granulation, absorbs humidity very fast and is transformed into the monohydrate, which is stable at room temperature. Loss of water takes place during the drying phase of the granulation process and on storage of the substance at temperatures of 50 degrees C and 80 degrees C. During storage at room temperature while exposed to humidity, a transformation into the hemihydrate was observed. This polymorph is transformed during thermal analysis at about 190 degrees C to a water-free form that is stable at higher temperatures. PMID:11548854
Wöstheinrich, K; Schmidt, P C
An analysis of the multiplicity of 14 sources driving giant Herbig-Haro flows has revealed an observed binary frequency between 79% and 86%, of which half are higher order multiples. These sources represent the hitherto youngest sample of stars examined for binarity. I postulate that the dynamical decay of triple or multiple systems leads to strong outflow activity. It is well known that a large fraction of nonhierarchical triple systems rapidly break up and eject the lightest member. At the same time a closer binary in a highly eccentric orbit is formed. Massive disk truncation results, accompanied by large-scale accretion, with a consequent burst of outflow activity, which produces the observed giant HH bow shocks. Some of the material culled from the individual circumstellar disks may settle into a circumbinary disk around the newly bound stellar pair. The small remaining and truncated circumstellar disks are fed from the circumbinary disk through gas streams, and this as well as other dynamical effects cause the binary orbit to shrink. Gas streams together with disk interactions at periastron drive cyclic accretion modulated on an orbital timescale. As the stellar components gradually spiral toward each other, the increasingly frequent mass-loss events form chains of HH objects until eventually the binary has a semimajor axis of only 9-12 AU, at which point the closely spaced shocked ejecta appear as a finely collimated jet. Thus, such HH flows can be read as a fossil record of the evolution of orbital motions of a binary, newly formed in a triple disintegration event, as it shrinks from a typical separation of 100 AU or more to 10 AU or less. When the triple system disintegrates and a single star is ejected, the newly formed binary recoils, and as a result both components (star and close binary) leave their nascent envelope. While one component becomes visible as a T Tauri star, the other will be obscured for a while by the envelope and will appear as a bright near-infrared object. For typical parameters, this geometry persists for only 5000 yr or so. If the ejected star does not escape, cyclic motion of a hierarchical triple begins. This explains the so-called IRC binaries that are infrequently found in star-forming regions. The standard model of early stellar evolution states that young stars gradually and smoothly make the transitions from Class 0 through Class I and II objects to eventually become Class III objects. In contrast, stars born in multiple systems can abruptly transit from a Class 0 or I object to a visible T Tauri star. The main accretion phase may be terminated by the stochastic process of triple decay. Depending on the moment of triple disintegration, the ejected objects can range from stellar embryos, which will emerge as very low mass stars or even brown dwarfs, to essentially fully built-up stars. In this picture, the initial mass function toward its low-mass end has an important stochastic component that can only be described by the half-life of the decay processes. Because the ejected stars can take only limited circumstellar material with them, they will soon lose their classical T Tauri characteristics and join the halo of weak-line T Tauri stars that surround star-forming clouds. Differences in ejection may explain why two apparently similar T Tauri stars of about the same age can have major differences in the size of their circumstellar disks.
Ereaders are so last year. Tablets were the watchword at this year's annual Consumer Electronics Show (CES) in Las Vegas, January 6-9. This year, the show set new records, with some 2700 companies from around the world exhibiting at the multiple exhibition halls and 30,000 attendees gawking at the products. What did they see? There were still some
Two fourtreatment crossover studies were performed using 12 adult male volunteers in each with seven different commercially available prednisolone tablets. Plasma samples were assayed for prednisolone by a radioimmunoassay method. Statisacal analyses of the data, by analysis of variance for crossover design (ANOVA), showed no significant differences among the treatment averages at any of the sampling times except at 0.25
Aubrey V. Tembo; Margarette R. Hallmark; Ermelinda Sakmar; Hannelore G. Bachmaan; Donald J. Weidler; John G. Wagner
Objective: A stress induced rise in the blood pressure. Some believe that patients with hypertension are characterized by a generalized state of increased anxiety. Aim: The purpose of this study is to prepare a fixed dose bi therapy using bisoprolol hemifumarate (BH) as antihypertensive drug and buspirone hydrochloride (BuHCl) as anxiolytic drug, which can be used to treat both diseases concomitantly. Using sublingual tablets is hopeful to improve the BuHCl poor oral bioavailability and to facilitate administration to patients experiencing problems with swallowing. Materials and Methods: A total of 5mg BH and 10mg BuHCl were selected based on compatibility study. A 3×22 full factorial design was adopted for the optimization of the tablets prepared by direct compression method. The effects of the filler type, the binder molecular weight, and the binder type were studied. The prepared formulae were evaluated according to their physical characters as hardness, friability, disintegration time (new modified method and in vivo disintegration time) and wetting properties. In vitro drugs dissolute, permeation through the buccal mucosa and the effect of storage were analyzed by a new valid high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. Bioavailability study of the selected formula study was carried out and followed by the clinical. Results: The optimized tablet formulation showed accepted average weight, hardness, wetting time, friability, content uniformity, disintegration time (less than 3 min). Maximum drug release could be achieved with in 10 min. In addition enhancing drug permeation through the buccal mucosa and, the maximum concentration of the drug that reached the blood was in the first 10 min which means a rapid onset of action and improved the extent of both drug's absorption. Conclusion: The results revealed that sublingual (F6) tablets containing both drugs would maintain rapid onset of action, and increase bioavailability. BuHCl with BH can be attributed to the marked decline in DBP and SBP. That led to a reduction in the MAP.
El-Nabarawi, Mohamed A.; Tayel, Saadia A.; Soliman, Nadia A.; Abo Enin, Hadel A.
Chitosan and its half-acetylated derivative have been compared as excipients in mucoadhesive tablets containing ibuprofen. Initially the powder formulations containing the polymers and the drug were prepared by either co-spray drying or physical co-grinding. Polymer-drug interactions and the degree of drug crystallinity in these formulations were assessed by infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. Tablets were prepared and their swelling and dissolution properties were studied in media of various pHs. Mucoadhesive properties of ibuprofen-loaded and drug-free tablets were evaluated by analysing their detachment from pig gastric mucosa over a range of pHs. Greater polymer-drug interactions were seen for spray-dried particles compared to co-ground samples and drug loading into chitosan-based microparticles (41%) was greater than the corresponding half-acetylated samples (32%). Swelling and drug release was greater with the half-acetylated chitosan tablets than tablets containing the parent polymer and both tablets were mucoadhesive, the extent of which was dependent on substrate pH. The results illustrate the potential sustained drug delivery benefits of both chitosan and its half-acetylated derivative as mucoadhesive tablet excipients. PMID:22842627
Sogias, Ioannis A; Williams, Adrian C; Khutoryanskiy, Vitaliy V
4 The Risk of Severe Treatment Related Adverse Events is Significantly Lower in Children Compared to Adults When Treated With Standardized Timothy Grass Allergy Immunotherapy Tablets: Post Hoc Analysis of 7 Clinical Trials
Background Allergy immunotherapy tablets (AIT) provides a safer and more convenient alternative to subcutaneous specific immunotherapy treatment. However, severe adverse events occur infrequently. These events are rare and therefore pooled safety data from 1 phase II/III and 6 phase III clinical trials (5 in adults, 2 in children (517 years)) with grass AIT (Grazax, Phleum pratense 75,000 SQ-T/2800 BAU, ALK, Denmark) were analysed. Method All trials were randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled multi-centre trials. Subjects suffered from grass pollen induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis with or without asthma, had positive skin prick test and specific IgE to Phleum pratense. Subjects received once-daily sublingual treatment with grass AIT or placebo for approximately 24 weeks. The 5 adult trials comprised 2095 treated subjects (AIT = 1060, placebo = 1035) and the 2 children trials comprised 597 treated subjects (AIT = 301, placebo = 296). Adverse events were assessed by the investigator as treatment-related (possible or probable) or unlikely related and for seriousness. Application site-related events were defined as adverse events in relation to the oral cavity. Results In the adult trials, 71% of AIT-treated subjects reported treatment-related adverse events compared to 24% for placebo. In the children trials the corresponding numbers were 63% for AIT and 27% for placebo. Of the AIT-treated subjects 2 children (0.7%) and 32 adults (3.0%) experienced severe treatment-related events. The odds for severe events was 4.7 times lower in children compared to adults (odds-ratio with 95% CI, 0.22 [0.025-0.85], P = 0.019). Both AIT-treated children (0.7%) and 18 (1.7%) of the AIT-treated adults experienced severe treatment-related events that were application site-related. The odds for having severe related application site adverse events was 2.6 times lower in children compared to adults (odds-ratio with 95% CI, 0.39 [0.04-1.63], P = 0.27, not statistically significant). No serious treatment-related adverse events were reported. Conclusion This pooled analysis of over 2000 subjects in 7 clinical trials shows that the risk of experiencing severe treatment-related adverse events was significantly lower in children compared to adults when treated with of Timothy grass allergy immunotherapy tablets. This analysis provides evidence that Timothy grass AIT is an important and safe immunotherapy treatment option in children with grass pollen induced rhinoconjunctivitis.
Andersen, Jens Strodl; Fejerskov, Peter Astrup; Nolte, Hendrik
The objective of the present study is to compare the guar gum-based colon-targeted tablets of 5-fluorouracil against an immediate release tablet by in vitro dissolution and in vivo pharmacokinetic studies in human volunteers. Twelve healthy volunteers participated in the study. 5-Fluorouracil was administered at a dose of 50 mg both in immediate release tablet and colon-targeted tablet. On oral administration
Y. S. R Krishnaiah; V Satyanarayana; B Dinesh Kumar; R. S Karthikeyan; P Bhaskar
A comprehensive relativistic treatment of polarization observables in deuteron photo- and electro-disintegration is presented from a unified standpoint. A discussion of necessary and sufficient measurements needed for a complete determination of all trans...
V. Dmitrasinovic F. Gross
Continuous manufacturing methods offer economic and quality advantages when compared with batch manufacturing methods. In continuous manufacturing, one requires real time assurance of quality of product via the implementation of PAT tools. This study focuses on an in-line near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopic method for determining the drug content of powder mixtures and tablets during a continuous tableting process. Tablets consisting of acetaminophen (20-30%), lactose (69.07-78.93%) and magnesium stearate (0.93-1.07%) were prepared in a continuous direct compression line that consisted of two loss-in-weight feeders, one for acetaminophen and one for premixed lactose and magnesium stearate, and a continuous mixer followed by a rotary tablet press. NIR spectroscopy was applied to the continuous mixer and tablet press to perform a 100% product check at full tableting speed. The UV-spectrophotometric method was used as an off-line reference method to determine the acetaminophen content in the samples. The powder mixture and tablet samples were taken during the process for the calibration of continuous mixer and tablet press, respectively. For the continuous mixer, model creation with the PLS method yielded R-Square and RMSEC (root mean square error of calibration) values of 0.975% and 0.56%, respectively. For the tablet press, the corresponding R-Square and RMSEC values were 0.943% and 0.75%, respectively. A test run demonstrated good predictability in the estimation of the API content in the powder mixtures and tablets during the continuous tableting process. For the continuous mixer and tablet press, the RMSEP (root mean square error of prediction) values were 0.96% and 1.37%, respectively. This study demonstrates that an NIR instrument capable of fast spectra acquisition can be a valuable tool for the in-line monitoring of the continuous mixing and tableting processes. PMID:23313622
Järvinen, Kristiina; Hoehe, Wolfgang; Järvinen, Maiju; Poutiainen, Sami; Juuti, Mikko; Borchert, Sven
The pretreatment of waste activated sludge by ultrasonic disintegration was studied in order to improve the anaerobic sludge stabilization. The ultrasound frequency was varied within a range from 41 to 3217kHz. The impact of different ultrasound intensities and treatment times was examined. Sludge disintegration was most significant at low frequencies. Low-frequency ultrasound creates large cavitation bubbles which upon collapse initiate
A Tiehm; K Nickel; M Zellhorn; U Neis
The long overdue disintegration/purification work of detonation nanodiamond (discovered 40 years ago) is in good progress. Here are described features of two novel processes adopted, stirred media milling and diamond carbon analysis. Contamination with bead material provides serious problem in the milling and preventive ways are discussed. Black color that appears as the disintegration proceeds is introduced. Necessity and principles of diamond analysis by integrated X-ray diffraction intensities and theoretically attainable highest purity are discussed.
Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled and active-controlled study to assess the relative abuse potential of oxycodone HCl-niacin tablets compared with oxycodone alone in nondependent, recreational opioid users
Background Abuse-deterrent formulations attempt to address public health and societal concerns regarding opioid abuse. Oxycodone HCl-niacin tablets combine oxycodone HCl with niacin and functional inactive excipients to create potential barriers to oral, intranasal, and intravenous abuse. This study compared the relative abuse potential of oral immediate-release oxycodone HCl-niacin with that of oral immediate-release oxycodone HCl and placebo in nondependent, recreational opioid users. Methods Forty-nine participants received oxycodone HCl-niacin 40/240 mg and 80/480 mg, oxycodone 40 mg and 80 mg, and placebo in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled and active-controlled, five-way crossover study. Primary endpoints based on a bipolar 100 mm visual analog scale for drug liking were area under effect curve (AUE01h, AUE02h, AUE03h), peak disliking, and effect at 0.5 hours post-dose (E0.5h). Other endpoints included take drug again assessment, overall drug liking, and pupillometry. Results There were statistically significant differences between oxycodone HCl-niacin and oxycodone HCl doses for all primary endpoints (P < 0.0001, all comparisons), suggesting reduced abuse potential with oxycodone HCl-niacin. Take drug again and overall drug liking showed greater liking of oxycodone alone. Oxycodone HCl-niacin 80/480 mg had consistently lower liking assessments than oxycodone HCl-niacin 40/240 mg, suggesting a dose-response to the aversive effects of niacin. Opioid-related adverse events were similar for equivalent oxycodone doses. The treatment-emergent adverse events most specifically associated with oxycodone HCl-niacin (ie, skin-burning sensation, warmth, and flushing) were consistent with the expected vasocutaneous effects of niacin. No serious adverse events were reported. Conclusion Oxycodone HCl-niacin tablets may, in a dose-dependent manner, decrease the potential for oral abuse of oxycodone without unexpected adverse events or clinically signifi-cant differences in safety parameters compared with oxycodone alone. Although statistically powered, the small size of the study sample and the characteristics of its participants may not be generalizable to the population that abuses prescription opioid medications.
Webster, Lynn R; Rolleri, Robert L; Pixton, Glenn C; Sommerville, Kenneth W
...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Firocoxib tablets. 520.928 Section 520...FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS Â§ 520.928 Firocoxib tablets. (a) Specifications ...tablet contains 57 or 227 milligrams (mg) firocoxib. (b) Sponsor . See No....
...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Firocoxib tablets. 520.928 Section 520...FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS Â§ 520.928 Firocoxib tablets. (a) Specifications ...tablet contains 57 or 227 milligrams (mg) firocoxib. (b) Sponsor . See No....
The objective of the study is to formulate bilayer tablets consisting of atorvastatin calcium (AT) as an immediate release layer and nicotinic acid (NA) as an extended release layer. The immediate release layer was prepared using super disintegrant croscarmellose sodium and extended release layer using hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC K100M). Both the matrix and bilayer tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, weight variation, thickness, and drug content uniformity and subjected to in vitro drug release studies. The amount of AT and NA released at different time intervals were estimated by HPLC method. The bilayer tablets showed no significant change either in physical appearance, drug content or in dissolution pattern after storing at 40 degrees C/75% relative humiding (RH) for 3 months. The release of the drug from the tablet was influenced by the polymer content and it was much evident from thermogravimetry/differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA) analysis. The results indicated that the bilayer tablets could be a potential dosage form for delivering AT and NA. PMID:18827389
Nirmal, Jayabalan; Saisivam, Srinivasan; Peddanna, Chintalapati; Muralidharan, Selvadurai; Godwinkumar, Sundaram; Nagarajan, Muthuraja
Aim This study was to compare bioavailability of two gliclazide sustained release tablets in 18 healthy male volunteers and to evaluate the bioequivalence between the test and the reference tablets. Methods The study was conducted in the crossover, random, two-treatment, two-period design. RE-HPLC method with UV-detection was used to determine the plasma drug concentration. Results The pharmacokinetic parameters obtained after
Jia-Feng Yang; Guang-Li Wei; Rong Lu; Chang-Xiao Liu; Bao-Zzhong Zheng; Ping Feng
Rationale Oral glucose has been found to decrease tobacco craving among abstaining smokers. One study has demon- strated an effect of glucose on short-term abstinence. There is a need to examine any long-term benefit of glucose on abstinence. Objectives To assess whether glucose tablets improve 6-month continuous abstinence rates compared with low- calorie placebo tablets. Methods Smokers attempting to stop
Robert West; Sylvia May; Andy McEwen; Hayden McRobbie; Peter Hajek; Eleni Vangeli
Digital field mapping offers significant benefits when compared with traditional paper mapping techniques in that it provides closer integration with downstream geological modelling and analysis. It also provides the mapper with the ability to rapidly integrate new data with existing databases without the potential degradation caused by repeated manual transcription of numeric, graphical and meta-data. In order to achieve these benefits, a number of PC-based digital mapping tools are available which have been developed for specific communities, eg the BGSSIGMA project, Midland Valley's FieldMove®, and a range of solutions based on ArcGIS® software, which can be combined with either traditional or digital orientation and data collection tools. However, with the now widespread availability of inexpensive tablets and smart phones, a user led demand for a fully integrated tablet mapping tool has arisen. This poster describes the development of a tablet-based mapping environment specifically designed for geologists. The challenge was to deliver a system that would feel sufficiently close to the flexibility of paper-based geological mapping while being implemented on a consumer communication and entertainment device. The first release of a tablet-based geological mapping system from this project is illustrated and will be shown as implemented on an iPad during the poster session. Midland Valley is pioneering tablet-based mapping and, along with its industrial and academic partners, will be using the application in field based projects throughout this year and will be integrating feedback in further developments of this technology.
Vaughan, Alan; Collins, Nathan; Krus, Mike
Two types of the carnauba wax-based lipophilic matrix tablet using spray-dried granules (SDT) or directly compressible powdered mixtures (DCT) were prepared for sustained release. The model drug was a highly water-soluble potassium citrate and loaded about 74% of the total tablet weight. The SDT slowly eroded and disintegrated during the release study without showing sustained release when the hydrophilic excipients were added. In contrast, the DCT was more efficient for sustained release. The release rate decreased with increasing carnauba wax concentration. In particular, the sustained release rate was markedly pronounced when the lipophilic stearyl alcohol and stearic acid were combined with the carnauba wax. The surface of the intact DCT appeared to be smooth and rusty. The DCT rose to the surface from the bottom of the vessel during the release test, and numerous pores and cracks with no signs of disintegration were also observed after the release test. The release profile was dependent on the formulation composition and preparation method of the matrix tablet. Diffusion-controlled leaching through the channels of the pores and cracks of the lipophilic matrix tablet (DCT) is a key to the sustained release. PMID:17532156
Cao, Qing-Ri; Kim, Tae-Wan; Lee, Beom-Jin
The present study was undertaken to find out the potential of gum from Moringa oleifera to act as a binder and release retardant in tablet formulations. The effect of calcium sulphate dihydrate (water insoluble) and lactose (water soluble) diluent on the release of propranolol hydrochloride was studied. The DSC thermograms of drug, gum and mixture of gum/drug indicated no chemical interaction. Tablets (F1, F2, F3, and F4) were prepared containing calcium sulphate dihydrate as diluent, propranolol hydrochloride as model drug using 10%, 8%, 6% and 4% w/v of gum solution as binder. Magnesium stearate was used as lubricant. Physical and technological properties of granules and tablets like flow rate, Carr index, Hausner ratio, angle of repose, hardness, friability and disintegration time were determined and found to be satisfactory. Tablets were prepared by wet granulation method containing calcium sulphate dihydrate as excipient, propranolol hydrochloride as model drug using 10%, 20% and 30% of gum as release retardant, magnesium stearate was used as lubricant. Similarly tablets were prepared replacing lactose with calcium sulphate dihydrate. Despite of the widely varying physico-chemical characteristics of the excipients, the drug release profiles were found to be similar. The drug release increased with increasing proportions of the excipient and decreased proportion of the gum irrespective of the solubility characteristics of the excipient. The values of release exponent n are between 0.37 and 0.54. This implies that the release mechanism is Fickian. There is no evidence that the dissolution or erosion of the excipient has got any effect on the release of the drug. The t50% values for tablets containing calcium sulphate dihydrate were on an average 10%-15% longer than the tablets containing lactose as excipient. These relatively small differences in t50% values suggest that the nature of excipient used appeared to play a minor role in regulating the release, while the gum content was a major factor.
Panda, D. S.; Choudhury, N. S. K.; Yedukondalu, M.; Si, S.; Gupta, R.
Setting In most developing countries, paediatric tuberculosis is treated with split tablets leading to potential inaccuracy in the dose delivery and drug exposure. There is no data on the quality of first-line drugs content in split fixed-dose combination tablets. Objective To determine Isoniazid, Pyrazinamide and Rifampicin content uniformity in split FDC tablets used in the treatment of childhood tuberculosis. Design Drug contents of 15 whole tablets, 30 half tablets and 36 third tablets were analysed by high performance liquid chromatography. The content uniformity was assessed by comparing drug content measured in split portions with their expected amounts and the quality of split portions was assessed applying qualitative specifications for whole tablets. Results All whole tablets measurements fell into the USP proxy for the three drugs. But a significant number of half and third portions was found outside the tolerated variation range and the split formulation failed the requirements for content uniformity. To correct for the inaccuracy of splitting the tablets into equal portions, a weight-adjustment strategy was used but this did not improve the findings. Conclusion In split tablets the content of the three drugs is non-uniform and exceeded the USP recommendations. There is an absolute need to make child-friendly formulations available for the treatment of childhood tuberculosis.
Pouplin, Thomas; Phuong, Pham Nguyen; Toi, Pham Van; Nguyen Pouplin, Julie; Farrar, Jeremy
The objective of the present study was to investigate the use of propranololmagnesium aluminium silicate intercalated complexes as drug reservoirs in hydroxypropylmethylcellulose tablets. The matrix tablets containing the complexes were prepared and characterised with respect to propranolol release and were subsequently compared with those loading propranolol or a propranololmagnesium aluminium silicate physical mixture. Additionally, the effects of varying viscosity grades of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, compression pressures and calcium acetate incorporation on the drug release characteristics of the complex-loaded tablets were also examined. The results showed that the complex-loaded tablets have higher tablet hardness than those containing propranolol or a physical mixture. The drug release from the complex-loaded tablets followed a zero-order release kinetic, whereas an anomalous transport was found in the propranolol or physical mixture tablets. The drug release rate of the complex tablet significantly decreased with increasing hydroxypropylmethylcellulose viscosity grade. Increase in the compression pressure caused a decrease in the drug release rate of the tablets. Furthermore, the incorporation of calcium ions could accelerate propranolol release, particularly in acidic medium, because calcium ions could be exchanged with propranolol molecules intercalated in the silicate layers of magnesium aluminium silicate. These findings suggest that propranolol-magnesium aluminium silicate intercalated complexes show strong potential for use as drug reservoirs in matrix tablets intended for modifying drug release.
Pongjanyakul, T.; Rojtanatanya, S.
Therapeutic strategies based on oral delivery of bilayer (and multilayer) tablets are gaining more acceptance among brand and generic products due to a confluence of factors including advanced delivery strategies, patient compliance and combination therapy. Successful manufacturing of these ever more complex systems needs to overcome a series of challenges from formulation design to tablet press monitoring and control. This article provides an overview of the state-of-the-art of bilayer tablet technology, highlighting the main benefits of this type of oral dosage forms while providing a description of current challenges and advances toward improving manufacturing practices and product quality. Several aspects relevant to bilayer tablet manufacturing are addressed including material properties, lubrication, layer ordering, layer thickness, layer weight control, as well as first and final compression forces. A section is also devoted to bilayer tablet characterization that present additional complexities associated with interfaces between layers. The available features of the manufacturing equipment for bilayer tablet production are also described indicating the different strategies for sensing and controls offered by bilayer tablet press manufacturers. Finally, a roadmap for bilayer tablet manufacturing is advanced as a guideline to formulation design and selection of process parameters and equipment. PMID:24370841
Abebe, Admassu; Akseli, Ilgaz; Sprockel, Omar; Kottala, Niranjan; Cuitiño, Alberto M
The bioavailability of digoxin generic tablets manufactured in Korea (formulations A & B) were compared to a standard (formulation\\u000a C; Lanoxin brand digoxin, Burroughs Wellcome, USA) in 12 healthy Korean male volunteers (mean age 31.4 years) in a single\\u000a dose, randomized, complete block crossover study. Using a Latin square design, each of the subjects was randomized to the\\u000a order number
Chi Ho Lee; Yun Ju Park; Charies D. Sands; Daniel W. Jones; John M. Trang
Floating matrix tablets of atenolol were developed to prolong gastric residence time and increase drug bioavailability. Atenolol was chosen as a model drug because it is poorly absorbed from the lower gastrointestinal tract. The tablets were prepared by direct compression technique, using polymers such as hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC K15M, K4M), guargum (GG), and sodium carboxymethylcellulose (SCMC), alone or in combination, and other standard excipients. Tablets were evaluated for physical characteristics viz. hardness, swelling index, floating capacity, thickness, and weight variation. Further, tablets were evaluated for in vitro release characteristics for 8 hr. The effect of effervescent on buoyancy and drug release pattern was also studied. In vitro release mechanism was evaluated by linear regression analysis. GG- and SCMC-based matrix tablets showed significantly greater swelling indices compared with other batches. The tablets exhibited controlled and prolonged drug release profiles while floating over the dissolution medium. PMID:16093202
Srivastava, A K; Wadhwa, Saurabh; Ridhurkar, D; Mishra, B
...nitenpyram tablets and flavored milbemycin/lufenuron tablets as in paragraph (d)(1...of this section with either flavored lufenuron tablets as in Â§ 520.1288(c)(1) of this chapter or flavored milbemycin and lufenuron tablets as in Â§...
...nitenpyram tablets and flavored milbemycin/lufenuron tablets as in paragraph (d)(1...of this section with either flavored lufenuron tablets as in Â§ 520.1288(c)(1) of this chapter or flavored milbemycin and lufenuron tablets as in Â§...
Bioequivalence of two tablet formulations of 70 mg alendronate (CAS 121268-17-5) was assessed in a single-dose, open-label, randomised, fasted state crossover trial, with a washout period of 21 days, in 80 healthy subjects. Urine samples were collected up to +36 h post dosing and the concentrations of alendronic acid were assessed using a high-performance liquid chromatographic method with pre-derivatization and fluorescence detection (HPLC/FL) method. The 90 % confidence intervals (90 % CI) obtained for Ae0-36 (cumulative urinary excretion) and Rmax (maximum rate of urinary excretion) were 98.67-118.99 % and 102.22-122.46 %, respectively. The intra-subject coefficient of variation was between 32-35 % for both parameters. No relevant tolerability problems were detected. Both formulations can be considered bioequivalent. In vitro testing was performed to confirm the adequacy of the quality control conditions and no significant differences were detected neither in the disintegration test nor in the dissolution tests conducted in HCl 0.1 N and H2O and thus in these conditions the lack of statistically significant differences in vitro was accompanied by in vivo bioequivalence. PMID:16572922
Almeida, Susana; Almeida, Ana; Filipe, Augusto; Penedo, Clarisse; Rocha, Alexandre; Lainesse, Audrey; Vallée, François
Background Oral and vaginal preparations of tenofovir as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection have demonstrated variable efficacy in men and women prompting assessment of variation in drug concentration as an explanation. Knowledge of tenofovir concentration and its active form, tenofovir diphosphate, at the putative vaginal and rectal site of action and its relationship to concentrations at multiple other anatomic locations may provide key information for both interpreting PrEP study outcomes and planning future PrEP drug development. Objective MTN-001 was designed to directly compare oral to vaginal steady-state tenofovir pharmacokinetics in blood, vaginal tissue, and vaginal and rectal fluid in a paired cross-over design. Methods and Findings We enrolled 144 HIV-uninfected women at 4 US and 3 African clinical research sites in an open label, 3-period crossover study of three different daily tenofovir regimens, each for 6 weeks (oral 300 mg tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, vaginal 1% tenofovir gel [40 mg], or both). Serum concentrations after vaginal dosing were 56-fold lower than after oral dosing (p<0.001). Vaginal tissue tenofovir diphosphate was quantifiable in ?90% of women with vaginal dosing and only 19% of women with oral dosing. Vaginal tissue tenofovir diphosphate was ?130-fold higher with vaginal compared to oral dosing (p<0.001). Rectal fluid tenofovir concentrations in vaginal dosing periods were higher than concentrations measured in the oral only dosing period (p<0.03). Conclusions Compared to oral dosing, vaginal dosing achieved much lower serum concentrations and much higher vaginal tissue concentrations. Even allowing for 100-fold concentration differences due to poor adherence or less frequent prescribed dosing, vaginal dosing of tenofovir should provide higher active site concentrations and theoretically greater PrEP efficacy than oral dosing; randomized topical dosing PrEP trials to the contrary indicates that factors beyond tenofovirs antiviral effect substantially influence PrEP efficacy. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00592124
Hendrix, Craig W.; Chen, Beatrice A.; Guddera, Vijayanand; Hoesley, Craig; Justman, Jessica; Nakabiito, Clemensia; Salata, Robert; Soto-Torres, Lydia; Patterson, Karen; Minnis, Alexandra M.; Gandham, Sharavi; Gomez, Kailazarid; Richardson, Barbra A.; Bumpus, Namandje N.
Solid dispersion technique has been developed many years for improving solubility of water-insoluble drugs, aiming to achieve a better oral bioavailability. However, this technique exhibits many inconveniences when used for large-scale tableting procedures. The objective of current research work was to develop cilnidipine solid dispersions (SDs) to improve the dissolution behaviors of this water-insoluble drug. Moreover, an innovative granulation method was designed to simplify the traditional tableting technology used in solid dispersion technique. Three different kinds of polymers, polyethylene glycol (PEG), polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and poloxamer, were used as carriers to prepare solid dispersions. The interactions in the solid state were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and FT-IR spectroscopy. The designed granulation method was employed to prepare solid dispersion tablets and the formulation was optimized through investigating the dissolution behaviors. The results indicated PEG solid dispersion showed the best effect both on physical characterizations and dissolution studies. Furthermore, all type of solid dispersions significantly improved the dissolution rates when compared to pure drug and its corresponding physical mixture (PM). The solid dispersion tablets prepared in simplified tableting method exhibited better operability, stability and dissolution behavior than the tablets prepared in traditional ways, which brought more opportunities to solid dispersion technique for industrial production. PMID:23625441
Hu, Liandong; Song, Weihua; Niu, Feng; Jiao, Kuiliang; Jia, Zheng
We prepared and evaluated imperatorin (IMP) sustained-release tablets. IMP is an active compound in Angelica dahuricae, a Chinese herbal medicine. We used different polymers, such as hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC K4M, K15M, and K100M), carbopol 934P, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC-Na), and their combinations to prepare the matrix tablets and achieve the desired sustained release profile. The in vitro release profiles of these formulations were examined and fit to various kinetic release models. We also tested the effects of polymer combination ratios on the in vitro release rate. In vivo studies were performed for the optimized formulation in six beagle dogs, and pharmacokinetic parameters were compared with plain IMP tablets. IMP sustained-release tablets exhibited a more sustained plasma concentration than the plain tablets, with a relative bioavailability of 127.25%. The in vitro releases rates and in vivo absorption correlated for the initial 8 hours. These results demonstrate that the sustained-release tablet system can effectively control the release of IMP. PMID:20803124
Pan, Jingjing; Lu, Wen; Li, Changhui; Wang, Sicen; He, Langchong
The objective of present study was to prepare and characterize Bilayer tablet formulation containing Metformin HCl in extended release matrix form and Pioglitazone HCl in immediate release form for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Different formulations containing Metformin HCl were manufactured using 32 factorial designs. Influence of hydrophilic carrier, hydrophobic polymer on drug release was studied. Immediate release layer of Pioglitazone was optimized using different super disintegrants. All formulations were evaluated for percentage drug release. Optimization results indicated that release rate of Metformin is directly proportional to the levels of Eudragit S 100 and PEG 6000. Results confirmed that Bilayer tablet formulation containing extended release of Metformin HCl and immediate release of Pioglitazone HCl could be developed by using melt granulation technique.
Patel, Dhruvita; Patel, Ankita; Solanki, Trupti
The objective of the present study was to develop "once daily" sustained release tablets of aceclofenac by direct compression using hydroxypropyl methylcellulose-K4M (HPMC). The solubility studies of aceclofenac were conducted to select suitable dissolution media. The drug-excipient mixtures were subjected to preformulation studies. The tablets were subjected to physicochemical, in vitro drug release and stability studies. Preclinical (anti-inflammatory, analgesic, pharmacokinetic and toxicity studies) and clinical pharmacokinetic studies were conducted for optimized tablets. Based on the preformulation results, microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), dicalcium phosphate and spray dried lactose (SDL) were selected as directly compressible vehicles. Because of the incompatibility with aceclofenac, SDL was excluded from the study. The physicochemical properties of tablets were found within the limits. By comparing the dissolution profiles with the marketed product, the tablet containing HPMC (45%) and MCC (30%) along with talc and magnesium stearate (1% w/w, each) (Tablet B7) was considered as a better formulation. This tablet exhibited almost similar drug release profile in different dissolution media as that of marketed tablet. Tablet B7 was stable in accelerated conditions for 6 months. The composition of this tablet showed almost similar preclinical pharmacological activities compared to marketed tablet composition and did not exhibit any toxicity in rats and mice with respect to tested haematological and biochemical parameters along with body weight, food and water intake. The pharmacokinetic study in healthy human volunteers indicated that B7 tablet produced an extended drug release of drug upto 24 h as that of marketed product with almost identical pharmacokinetic parameters. PMID:17366745
Mutalik, S; Naha, A; Usha, A N; Ranjith, A K; Musmade, P; Manoj, K; Anju, P; Prasanna, S
The effect of two treatment programmes on egg shedding in dogs naturally infected with Toxocara canis, one based on a milbemycin oxime-praziquantel-lufenuron combination (SENTINEL) Spectrum; Group 1) and the other based on a febantel-pyrantel embonate-praziquantel combination (DRONTAL) Plus; Group 2), was compared in a study involving 104 suckling pups from three different kennels. The animals in Group 1 were treated at a minimum milbemycin oxime dose of 0.5 mg/kg bw starting at 2 weeks of age and subsequently every 4 weeks until reaching 26 weeks of age. The animals in Group 2 were treated every 2 weeks from week 2 until week 12 of age and then once at week 26 at a minimum febantel and pyrantel embonate dose of 15.0 and 14.4 mg/kg bw, respectively. Toxocara egg counts were determined fortnightly starting at 2 weeks of age and continuing until 26 weeks of age for every pup. Any adverse drug event was recorded during the trial. Both treatment programmes significantly reduced the zoonotic Toxocara egg shedding and were well tolerated by the pups. The pups in Group 1 showed lower average faecal egg counts and were found more frequently shedding no eggs than the pups in Group 2. PMID:16490320
Schenker, R; Cody, R; Strehlau, G; Alexander, D; Junquera, P
...Ivermectin, fenbendazole, and praziquantel tablets. 520.1200 Section 520.1200 Food...Ivermectin, fenbendazole, and praziquantel tablets. (a) Specifications . Each chewable tablet contains either: (1) 68...
...false Diethylcarbamazine citrate, oxibendazole chewable tablets. 520.623 Section 520.623 Food and Drugs...623 Diethylcarbamazine citrate, oxibendazole chewable tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet...
...false Diethylcarbamazine citrate, oxibendazole chewable tablets. 520.623 Section 520.623 Food and Drugs...623 Diethylcarbamazine citrate, oxibendazole chewable tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet...
Comparative study of the continuous wavelet transform, derivative and partial least squares methods applied to the overlapping spectra for the simultaneous quantitative resolution of ascorbic acid and acetylsalicylic acid in effervescent tablets
The simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of ascorbic acid (AA) and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) in effervescent tablets in the presence of the overlapping spectra was accomplished by the continuous wavelet transform (CWT), derivative spectrophotometry (DS) and partial least squares (PLS) approaches without using any chemical pre-treatment. CWT and DS calibration equations for AA and ASA were obtained by measuring the CWT and
Erdal Dinç; Abdil Ozdemir; Dumitru Baleanu
Bilayer tablets are generating great interest recently as they can achieve controlled delivery of different drugs with pre-defined release profiles. However, the production of such tablets has been facing great challenges as the layered tablets are prone to delaminate or fracture in the individual layers due to insufficient bonding strength of layers and adhesion at the interfaces. This paper will provide an insight into the role of interfacial topography on the performance of the bilayer tablets. In this study, two widely used pharmaceutical excipients: microcrystalline cellulose and lactose were investigated. Bilayer tablets were manufactured with a range of first and second layer compression forces. A crack of known dimensions was introduced at the interface to investigate the crack propagation mechanisms upon axially loading the bilayer tablet, and to determine the stress intensity factor (K(I)) of the interface (will be discussed in a separate paper). The results indicated that a strong dependency of the strength of bilayer tablets and mode of crack propagation on the material and compaction properties. The results showed that the strength of bilayer tablets increased with the increase of interfacial roughness, and the first layer and second layer forces determined the magnitude of interfacial roughness for both plastic and brittle materials. Further, the results also indicated that layer sequence and compaction forces played a key role in influencing the strength of the bilayer tablets. For the same (first and second layer) force combination, interfacial strength is higher for the tablets made of brittle material in the first layer. It was observed that interfacial strength decreased with the increase of lubricant concentration. The studies showed that the effect of lubricant (i.e. reduction in compact strength with the increase of lubricant concentration) on the strength of compacts is higher for tablets made of plastic material as compared to the tablets made of brittle material. PMID:22728259
Kottala, Niranjan; Abebe, Admassu; Sprockel, Omar; Akseli, Ilgaz; Nikfar, Faranak; Cuitiño, Alberto M
Biomucoadhesive vaginal tablets are modern formulations used in current therapy to achieve controlled release of the active substance at the application site by maintaining the pharmaceutical preparation at that level. This can be achieved by using mucoadhesive substances with different mechanical and physical-chemical properties. Two cellulose derivatives of different viscosity, Metolose 90 SH 4000 and Metolose 90 SH 100000, and two types of polyacrylates with different cross linking degrees, Carbopol 71, low degree of cross linking, and Carbopol 974, high degree of cross linking were used. In a previous study twelve original formulations of bioadhesive vaginal tablets containing 100 mg 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)/tablet (F1-F12) were formulated, prepared and analyzed. The pharmacotechnical characterization of the bioadhesive vaginal tablets containing 5-FU was performed by determining their specific quality characteristics. For the optimization of formulations, the influence of formulation factors on some quality characteristics (mechanical strength, friability, disintegration time) which may be influenced by the nature and amount of auxiliary substances used was studied by SPSS statistical software and statistical analysis ANOVA tests. The results are in favor of formulations F1, F2 containing 20-30% Carbopol 71 and of 37-47% Microcelac. PMID:24505926
Cojocaru, Ileana; Palade, Laura; Popovici, Iuliana; Georgescu, Gabriela; Bîrsan, Magdalena
We developed and optimized a novel pseudoephedrine hydrochloride (PSE) sustained-release dosage form. The system comprises immediate-release mini-tablets (IRMT) and sustained-release mini-tablets (SRMT) contained in a hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) capsule. The IRMT contained PSE, excipients and low-substituted hydroxypropyl cellulose (a disintegrant), and the tablets were coated with HPMC, a water-soluble polymer. IRMT prepared with varying amounts of low-substituted hydroxypropyl cellulose all dissolved completely within the first 60min, so low-substituted hydroxypropyl cellulose content does not greatly influence PSE release. The SRMT contained only PSE and excipients, and were coated with a mixture of HPMC and the water-insoluble polymer ethylcellulose. The PSE release profile for the SRMT could be controlled by varying the thickness of the coat, and the lag time could be controlled by varying the amount of ethylcellulose present in the polymer coat. PSE was released immediately from our encapsulated mini-tablet system and release was sustained over an extended period of time: the PSE in the IRMT dissolved within 60min, whereas the PSE in the SRMT was released over 8-10h. This system can be modified to yield various extended drug-release profiles, thereby harnessing the benefits of both SRMT and IRMT. PMID:18467046
Ishida, Makoto; Abe, Kenichi; Hashizume, Minoru; Kawamura, Masao
Background: ?malaki (Embelica officinalis Gaertn.) is one of the most celebrated herbs in the Indian system of traditional medicine. It is one of the best Ras?yana-s (health promoting) drug. In Dugdh?malaky?di yoga, ?malaki (Embelica officinalis Gaertn.) powder is administered along with milk in case of svarabha?ga (hoarseness of voice). Here an attempt is made to convert this formulation into chewable tablet without altering its property to improve its palatability, shelf life and fixation of proper therapeutic dose. Methodology: Chewable tablets were prepared by wet granulation method. Here, ?malaki powder was prepared initially and it was mixed with additives and preservatives. Granules were prepared from this mixture by adding binding agent, finally compressed in to tablets. Results and Conclusion: The physico-chemical analysis of ?malaki standard are: Foreign Matter-Nil, Acid insoluble Ash-0.51%w/w, Water soluble Ash-2.01% w/w, Alcoholic Extractives-44.48%, Aqueous Extractives 67.52%, pH-3.1, Moisture content-8.19%. Quality control test for chewable tablet was carried out and found satisfactory with general characteristics of tablet viz. hardness 1.8, disintegration time 15-20 min, friability 0.5%, weight variation +/- 3%. The TLC of ?malaki powder showed 3 spots with Rf value 0.14, 0.4, and 0.73 and the chewable tablets showed 2 spots with Rf value 0.31 and 0.89 under 254 nm. The adaptation of modern techniques or methods to convert the Ayurvedic formulations without altering its therapeutic property is necessary to made them suitable for the present trends of newer drug delivery dosage forms.
Santhosh, S. B.; Ambi, Arun B.; Hiremath, R. R.; Mannur, V. S.
Orally disintegrating systems have carved a niche amongst the oral drug delivery systems due to the highest component of compliance they enjoy in patients especially the geriatrics and pediatrics. In addition, patients suffering from dysphagia, motion sickness, repeated emesis and mental disorders prefer these medications because they cannot swallow large quantity of water. Further, drugs exhibiting satisfactory absorption from the
Honey Goel; Parshuram Rai; Vikas Rana; Ashok K. Tiwary
After characterizing the study of second language acquisition (SLA) from three viewpoints, I try to answer the question, raised by DeKeyser (2010), of whether the SLA field is disintegrating. In answering this question, I first propose a distinction between SLA as the relatively fundamental academic discipline and SLA as the relatively applied
Hulstijn, Jan H.
During the past 20 years, a significant body of literature has emerged focusing on the application of Dabrowski's theory of positive disintegration (TPD) to the study of gifted individuals. Although much of this literature is prescriptive, some research reports spanning this time period are available. A perusal of research on TPD's applicability
Mendaglio, Sal; Tillier, William
The processes of nucleation, aggregation, annealing, and disintegration of clusters of non-Brownian paramagnetic beads in a vibrofluidized system are experimentally investigated. The interaction among the beads is induced by a magnetic seed composed of two dipoles allocated outside the container cell. We observe a clearly differentiated nucleation stage, whose evolution (nucleation time versus acceleration strength) follows a power law. Thereafter, the beads aggregate forming 2D disordered clusters around the nucleus. Both processes (nucleation and aggregation) are determined by the competition between magnetic forces and the drag produced by a thermal bath created by glass particles. Once the agglomerates reach a final state (shape and length), they are annealed by increasing and decreasing the granular temperature. We found that the fractal dimension and the lacunarity index clearly describe the structural variations of the clusters. Our discussion on this phenomenon is addressed, making a rough analogy with the glass transition in a super-cooled liquid. Finally, we study the disintegration of the clusters as a function of time and the density of the surrounding gas. The question is not if, but how they disintegrate upon removing the external field; we find that the disintegration follows an exponential decay.
González-Gutiérrez, Jorge; Carrillo-Estrada, J. L.; Ruiz-Suárez, J. C.
The basic principles of the characteristic disintegration of iron in ion ; bombandment were solved. It is shown that it is a matter of a section of slip ; bands, which are made visible by ion bombardment. The visualization is in direct ; relationship with the age of the iron. Its origin comes from the ; presence of carbon and
A. Masin; V. Havel
This research is aimed at studying the underlying dynamics of, and identifying the conditions that control, the disintegration of the internal tide into large-amplitude internal solitary-like waves with emphasis on the tides and waves in the South China S...
K. R. Helfrich
Databases of transitional states obtained from Direct Numerical simulations (DNS) of temporal, supercritical mixing layers for two species systems, O2/H2 and C7H16/N2, are analyzed to elucidate species-specific turbulence aspects and features of fluid disintegration.
Okong'o, N.; Bellan, J.
Trimetazidine dihydrochloride is an effective anti-anginal agent; however, it is freely soluble in water and suffers from a relatively short half-life. To solve this encumbrance, it is a prospective candidate for fabricating trimetazidine extended-release formulations. Trimetazidine extended-release floating tablets were prepared using different hydrophilic matrix forming polymers including HPMC 4000 cps, carbopol 971P, polycarbophil, and guar gum. The tablets were fabricated by dry coating technique. In vitro evaluation of the prepared tablets was performed by the determination of the hardness, friability, content uniformity, and weight variation. The floating lag time and floating duration were also evaluated. Release profile of the prepared tablets was performed and analyzed. Furthermore, a stability study of the floating tablets was carried out at three different temperatures over 12 weeks. Finally, in vivo bioavailability study was done on human volunteers. All tablet formulas achieved <0.5 min of floating lag time, more than 12 h of floating duration, and extended t1/2. The drug release in all formulas followed zero-order kinetics. T4 and T8 tablets contained the least polymer concentration and complied with the dissolution requirements for controlled-release dosage forms. These two formulas were selected for further stability studies. T8 exhibited longer expiration date and was chosen for in vivo studies. T8 floating tablets showed an improvement in the drug bioavailability compared to immediate-release tablets (Vastrel® 20 mg).
Abdelbary, Ahmed; El-Gazayerly, Omaima N.; Ali, Adel A.
In this research an evaluation has been made of the different ways of contents based image retrieval of logos of drug tablets. On a database of 432 illicitly produced tablets (mostly containing MDMA), we have compared different retrieval methods. Two of these methods were available from commercial packages, QBIC and Imatch, where the implementation of the contents based image retrieval
Zeno Geradts; Huub Hardy; Anneke Poortman; Jurrien Bijhold
There is a need to investigate processes that enable sludge re-use while enhancing sewage treatment efficiency. Mechanically disintegrated thickened surplus activated sludge (SAS) and fermented primary sludge were compared for their capacity to produce a carbon source suitable for BNR by completing nutrient removal predictive tests. Mechanically disintegration of SAS using a deflaker enhanced volatile fatty acids (VFAs) content from 92 to 374 mg l(-1) (4.1-fold increase). In comparison, primary sludge fermentation increased the VFAs content from 3.5 g l(-1) to a final concentration of 8.7 g l(-1) (2.5-fold increase). The carbon source obtained from disintegration and fermentation treatments improved phosphate (PO(4)-P) release and denitrification by up to 0.04 mg NO(3)-Ng(-1)VSS min(-1) and 0.031 mg PO(4)-Pg(-1)VSS min(-1), respectively, in comparison to acetate (0.023 mg NO(3)-Ng(-1)VSS min(-1)and 0.010 mg PO(4)-Pg(-1)VSS min(-1)). Overall, both types of sludge were suitable for BNR but disintegrated SAS displayed lower carbon to nutrient ratios of 8 for SCOD:PO(4)-P and 9 for SCOD:NO(3)-N. On the other hand, SAS increased the concentration of PO(4)-P in the settled sewage by a further 0.97 g PO(4)-P kg(-1)SCOD indicating its potential negative impact towards nutrient recycling in the BNR process. PMID:19932559
Soares, Ana; Kampas, Pantelis; Maillard, Sarah; Wood, Elizabeth; Brigg, Jon; Tillotson, Martin; Parsons, Simon A; Cartmell, Elise
In this current study, we present a modified hydrodynamic cavitation device that combines an electric field to substitute for the chemical addition. A modified HC system is basically an orifice plate and crisscross pipe assembly, in which the crisscross pipe imparts some turbulence, which creates collision events. This study shows that for maximizing disintegration, combining HC system, which called electric field-assisted modified orifice plate hydrodynamic cavitation (EFM-HC) in this study, with an electric field is important. Various HC systems were compared in terms of disintegration of WAS, and, among them, the EFM-HC system exhibited the best performance with the highest disintegration efficiency of 47.0±2.0% as well as the destruction of WAS morphological characteristics. The experimental results clearly show that a conventional HC system was successfully modified. In addition, electric field has a great potential for efficient disintegration of WAS for as a additional option in a combination treatment. This study suggests continued research in this field may lead to an appropriate design for commercial use. PMID:24798225
Jung, Kyung-Won; Hwang, Min-Jin; Yun, Yeo-Myeong; Cha, Min-Jung; Ahn, Kyu-Hong
A bioequivalence study of ranitidine tablets was conducted according to the Korean Guidline for the Bioequivalence Test using\\u000a twelve healthy male subjects. The plasma concentration-time curves of ranitidine from the test and reference tablets showed\\u000a profound multiple peak phenomenon in each, subject as reported earlier. However, the area under the plasma concentration-time\\u000a curve (AUC) and the maximum plasma concentration at
Chang-Koo Shimw; Jae-Sun Hong; Chang-Ki Lee; Ik-Soo Han; Kwang-Sik Choi
This study developed and evaluated a colon-specific pulsatile capsule with tablet of self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS). This system is based on an impermeable capsule containing a rapid-disintegrating curcumin-loaded SMEDDS tablet inside it, and a highly methoxylated pectin (H-pectin)/lactose tablet plugged in the capsule mouth. The SMEDDS tablet enhanced the solubility of curcumin, a water-insoluble drug. An in vitro release study of the pulsatile capsule showed a typical pulsatile release profile with a specific lag time. The lag time, which determines the efficiency of colon-specific delivery, could be regulated by varying the H-pectin/lactose ratio. Pectinase and rat cecal contents added to the release medium significantly shortened the erosion time, which proved that the H-pectin plug is sensitive to enzyme degradation. These results show that the pulsatile capsule with SMEDDS tablet has potential for the colon-specific delivery of water-insoluble drugs. PMID:23399280
Huang, Yuanrui; Tian, Rui; Hu, Wenjing; Jia, Yuntao; Zhang, Jingqing; Jiang, Huiming; Zhang, Liangke
A 2(3) factorial design was used in order to evaluate the influence of some adjuvants on the dissolution profile of tablets containing high doses of Maytenus ilicifolia spray-dried extract. Tablets were prepared on a single punch tablet press using 15 mm flat punches by individual direct compression of 650 mg from each formulation containing 375 mg of the spray-dried extract. The factors investigated were disintegrant (croscarmellose sodium or sodium starch glycolate), lubricant (colloidal silicon dioxide or magnesium stearate) and filler/binder (microcrystalline cellulose or lactose). The dissolution profiles were analyzed to determine the dissolution kinetics, the dissolution half-lives (t50%), the similarity factor (f2) and the dissolution efficiency (DE %), which was selected as the response criteria to evaluate the factorial design. The results revealed that in spite of the high content of spray-dried powder in the tablets, the dissolution profiles of the extract did depend on the adjuvant used. The filler/binder had the most important effect on the dissolution efficiency of the tablets. PMID:11593994
de Souza, T P; Bassani, V L; González Ortega, G; dalla Costa, T C; Petrovick, P R
In this study, we investigated molecular-level variation of tablets caused by grinding and its effect on their actual moisture absorbability. Model tablets contained acetaminophen as an active pharmaceutical ingredient and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) as an excipient. Different levels of grinding were applied during the tablet formulation to intentionally cause the structural variation of the MCC. The moisture absorbability of tablets showed obvious variation depending on the grinding time, and the corresponding change in near-infrared spectra was readily captured. The detailed analysis of the variation of the band frequencies (i.e., wavenumber) revealed that the grinding process substantially disintegrates the crystalline and generates a glassy amorphous structure of MCC, which is a requirement to absorb water molecules. Consequently, it is very likely that the change of the moisture absorbability of the tablets is closely related to the development of the amorphous structure. These results indicate that the pharmaceutical product performances can be influenced by the physical properties of the excipient, which in turn can be controlled by the grinding process. PMID:25014717
Awa, Kimie; Shinzawa, Hideyuki; Ozaki, Yukihiro
Magnetic marker monitoring (MMM) is a new technique for visualizing transit and disintegration of solid oral dosage forms through the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The aim of this work was to develop a modeling approach for gaining information from MMM studies using data from a food interaction study with felodipine extended-release (ER) formulation. The interrelationship between tablet location in the GI tract, in vivo drug release, and felodipine disposition was modeled. A Markov model was developed to describe the tablet's movement through the GI tract. Tablet location within the GI tract significantly affected drug release and absorption through the gut wall. Food intake decreased the probability of tablet transition from the stomach, decreased the rate with which released felodipine left the stomach, and increased the fraction absorbed across the gut wall. In conclusion, the combined information of tablet location in the GI tract, in vivo drug release, and plasma concentration can be utilized in a mechanistically informative way with integrated modeling of data from MMM studies. PMID:19387437
Bergstrand, M; Söderlind, E; Weitschies, W; Karlsson, M O
The study is a continuation of research on manufacturing oral solid drug form containing extract from Epilobium parviflorum Schreb. This study aims at investigating the usefulness of selected high-molecular substances with particular consideration of chitosan (Ch), silicified microcrystalline cellulose (Prosolv) and croscarmellose sodium (Vivasol) as a carrier of E. parviflorum Schreb. extract in oral solid drug form in the process of direct tableting. In one series the alternative technological process (with initial granulation) was applied. The polymer carriers of extract were selected so as to obtain shorter disintegration time in relation to the earlier published studies and stability after longer time of storage. The effect of chitosan was estimated on selected morphological parameters of practical relevance during storage. The obtained results allow to state that the applied high-molecular adjuvant substances proved to be useful in adequate proportions in the production of tablets from dry extract from Epilobium parviflorum Schreb. through direct pressing of the tablet mass. The tablet properties in all series were in accordance with obligatory standards also after longer time of storage (12-month). The tablets formed from E. parviflorum Schreb. extract with chitosan can be included into preparations of sustained release time of the biologically active substances. PMID:18251200
Marczy?ski, Zbigniew; Bodek, Kazimiera Henryka
The current research work involves preparation of fast dissolving tablets of Aceclofenac by direct compression method using different concentrations of Lepidium sativum mucilage as natural superdisintegrant. A two-factor three-level (32) factorial design is being used to optimize the formulation. Nine formulation batches (D1D9) were prepared accordingly. Two factors as independent variables (X1-amount of ?-cyclodextrin and X2-amount of Lepidium sativum mucilage) were taken with three levels (+1, 0, ?1). The levels of two factors were selected on the basis of preliminary experiments conducted and their effect on three dependent variables (disintegration time, wetting time, and in vitro drug release) was studied along with their % prediction error. All the active blends were evaluated for postcompression parameters (angle of repose, Carr's index, Hausner ratio, etc.) and the tablets were evaluated for postcompression parameters (weight variation, hardness, and friability, wetting time, disintegration time, water absorption ratio, and in vitro drug release studies). The optimum batch was further used for SEM and stability studies. Formulation D5 was selected by the Design-Expert software which exhibited DT (15.5?sec), WT (18.94?sec), and in vitro drug release (100%) within 15 minutes.
Kaur, Lovleen; Bala, Rajni; Kanojia, Neha; Nagpal, Manju; Dhingra, Gitika Arora
Controlled-release (CR) tablet formulation of olanzapine was developed using a binary mixture of Methocel® K100 LV-CR and Ethocel® standard 7FP premium by the dry granulation slugging method. Drug release kinetics of CR tablet formulations F1, F2, and F3, each one suitably compressed for 9-, 12-, and 15-kg hardness, were determined in a dissolution media of 0.1 N HCl (pH 1.5) and phosphate buffer (pH 6.8) using type II dissolution apparatus with paddles run at 50 rpm. Ethocel® was found to be distinctly controlling drug release, whereas the hardness of tablets and pH of the dissolution media did not significantly affect release kinetics. The CR test tablets containing 30% Methocel® and 60% Ethocel® (F3) with 12-kg hardness exhibited pH-independent zero-order release kinetics for 24 h. In vivo performance of the CR test tablet and conventional reference tablet were determined in rabbit serum using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrochemical detector. Bioavailability parameters including Cmax, Tmax, and AUC048 h of both tablets were compared. The CR test tablets produced optimized Cmax and extended Tmax (P?0.05). A good correlation of drug absorption in vivo and drug release in vitro (R2?=?0.9082) was observed. Relative bioavailability of the test tablet was calculated as 94%. The manufacturing process employed was reproducible and the CR test tablets were stable for 6 months at 40?±?2°C/75?±?5% relative humidity. It was concluded that the CR test tablet formulation successfully developed may improve tolerability and patient adherence by reducing adverse effects.
Subhan, Fazal; Rauf, Khalid
Natural resources in general and plant materials in particular are receiving more attention due to their safety as pharmaceutical excipients. Present work assessed the potential of a natural polysaccharide, pectin to mask the bitter taste of ambroxol hydrochloride, by microencapsulation technique, and its possibility to formulate as a fast disintegrating dosage form. Taste masking is an important developmental challenge in fast dissolving drug delivery system since it dissolves or disintegrates in the patient's mouth in close proximity to the taste buds. The prepared microspheres by emulsion solvent evaporation technique possessed good sphericity, smooth surface morphology, uniform and narrow size distribution (10-90 ?m), when analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, laser diffraction and optical microscopy. Method of preparation has influenced the particle size and drug loading efficiency. Drug-polymer compatibility was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thin layer chromatography. DSC and X-ray diffraction studies revealed that the drug was dispersed inside the microspheres in the form of an insoluble matrix. The formation of microspheres was affected by glass transition temperature of the polymer, surfactant, type of plasticizers, volume of internal phase, stirrer speed etc. Fast dissolving tablets were prepared by the modification of melt granulation technique. The resulting granules were found to melt fast at body temperature, have smooth mouth feel and good physical stability. This study demonstrated that pectin could be a right choice in developing patient favored formulations for bitter drugs and can be utilized in fast disintegrating dosage forms as well.
Jacob, S.; Shirwaikar, A.
Natural resources in general and plant materials in particular are receiving more attention due to their safety as pharmaceutical excipients. Present work assessed the potential of a natural polysaccharide, pectin to mask the bitter taste of ambroxol hydrochloride, by microencapsulation technique, and its possibility to formulate as a fast disintegrating dosage form. Taste masking is an important developmental challenge in fast dissolving drug delivery system since it dissolves or disintegrates in the patient's mouth in close proximity to the taste buds. The prepared microspheres by emulsion solvent evaporation technique possessed good sphericity, smooth surface morphology, uniform and narrow size distribution (10-90 mum), when analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, laser diffraction and optical microscopy. Method of preparation has influenced the particle size and drug loading efficiency. Drug-polymer compatibility was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thin layer chromatography. DSC and X-ray diffraction studies revealed that the drug was dispersed inside the microspheres in the form of an insoluble matrix. The formation of microspheres was affected by glass transition temperature of the polymer, surfactant, type of plasticizers, volume of internal phase, stirrer speed etc. Fast dissolving tablets were prepared by the modification of melt granulation technique. The resulting granules were found to melt fast at body temperature, have smooth mouth feel and good physical stability. This study demonstrated that pectin could be a right choice in developing patient favored formulations for bitter drugs and can be utilized in fast disintegrating dosage forms as well. PMID:20490294
Jacob, S; Shirwaikar, A
Recently, a method utilizing pulsed power technology for disintegration of rocks arouses great interest of many researchers. In this paper, an improved method based on magnetic switch and the results shown that the uniform dielectrics like plastic can be broken down in water is presented, and the feasible mechanism explaining the breakdown of solid is proposed and proved experimentally. A high voltage pulse of 120 kV, rise time 0.2 ?s was used to ignite the discharging channel in solids. When the plasma channel is formed in the solid, the resistance of the channel is quiet small; even if a relatively low voltage is applied on the channel on this occasion, it will produce high current to heat the plasma channel rapidly, and eventually disintegrate the solids. The feasibility of promising industrial application in the drilling and demolition of natural and artificial solid materials by the method we presented is verified by the experiment result in the paper.
He, Mengbing; Jiang, Jinbo; Huang, Guoliang; Liu, Jun; Li, Chengzu
Highlights the emerging technologies of e-books, electronic versions of texts, and the Tablet PC, a new hybrid laptop computer and personal digital assistant that features a writing tablet and stylus-based input/navigation. (Author/VWL)
...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Marbofloxacin tablets. 520.1310 Section 520...FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS Â§ 520.1310 Marbofloxacin tablets. (a) Specifications ...50, 100, or 200 milligrams (mg) marbofloxacin. (b) Sponsor. See No....
...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Marbofloxacin tablets. 520.1310 Section 520...FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS Â§ 520.1310 Marbofloxacin tablets. (a) Specifications ...50, 100, or 200 milligrams (mg) marbofloxacin. (b) Sponsor. See No....
...DRUGS Â§ 520.1380 Methocarbamol tablets. (a) Chemical name. 3-(O-Methoxyphenoxy)-1,2-propanediol 1-carbamate. (b) Specifications. Each tablet contains 500 milligrams of methocarbamol. (c) Sponsor. See No. 000856...
Rumen-stable devices ensure a protection of active ingredients against chemical degradation and bacterial fermentation processes that occur in the rumen. These systems should also provide postruminal bioavailability and controlled release of the active ingredient. The objective of this study was the preparation of bilayer tablets as rumen-stable delivery systems, designed for the oral administration of active ingredients (folic acid) to ruminants. The tablets are composed of two layers: layer A ("high-density layer") constituted by poly (epsilon-caprolactone) mixed with iron powder and characterized by sufficient density to avoid rumination; layer B ("release layer"), containing folic acid (25 mg), poly (epsilon-caprolactone) or polymethylmethacrylates (Eudragit RS and RL) designed to be rumen-stable and to target a controlled release of folic acid in the intestinal tract. In vitro rumen-protection tests were performed in buffer systems at pH 5.5 and pH 2.0, simulating a ruminal and abomasal environment, to verify the stability of bilayer tablets at these conditions. In vitro release tests were carried out in phosphate buffer at pH 7.4, to study the release behavior of the dosage forms in the intestinal environment. A preliminary in vivo test was carried out with radiographic images made after administration of the tablets to sheep, to evaluate their capacity to be retained in the reticulum-rumen. The amount of iron powder used provides a density of about 2.3 g/cm3 to the whole tablet. The tablets having layer B constituted by poly (epsilon-caprolactone) or Eudragit RS do not disintegrate in buffer media at pH 5.5 and pH 2.0, and they are characterized by a sustained release at pH 7.4. Radiological preliminary tests show that these prepared bilayer tablets are able to be retained in the reticulum-rumen tract of the sheep. PMID:15458237
Sanna, Vanna; Gavini, Elisabetta; Giunchedi, Paolo
The extended antisymmetrized molecular dynamics (AMD) wave function is used to study the two-body nuclear electro-disintegration. The final-state interactions are included using the Glauber multiple scattering approximation. Non-relativistic nuclear charge and current operators are employed when calculating longitudinal and transverse nuclear response functions. It is found that the AMD model gives a very good description of experimental data for the 4He response functions.
Rampho, G. J.; Sofianos, S. A.; Oryu, S.; Watanabe, T.
A previous paper (BAAS 33:4, 1363, 2001) reported on the dramatic scene in Shakespeare's Cymbeline that features the descent of the deity Jupiter. The paper suggested that the four ghosts circling the sleeping Posthumus denote the four Galilean moons of Jupiter. The god Jupiter commands the ghosts to lay a tablet upon the prone Posthumus, but says that its value should not be overestimated. When Posthumus wakens he notices the tablet, which he calls a "book." Not only has the deity's "tablet" become the earthling's "book," but it appears that the book has covers which Posthumus evidently recognizes because without even opening the book he ascribes two further properties to it: rarity, and the very property that Jupiter had earlier attributed, viz. that one must not read too much into it. The mystery deepens when the Jovian gift undergoes a second metamorphosis, to "label." With the help of the OED, the potentially disparate terms "tablet," "book," and "label," may be explained by terms appropriate either to supernatural or worldly beings. "Tablet" may recognize the Mosaic artifact, whereas "book" and "label" are probably mundane references to Galileo's Sidereus Nuncius which appeared shortly before Cymbeline. The message of the Olympian god indicates therefore that the book is unique even as its contents have limited value. The first property celebrates the fact that Galileo's book is the first of its kind, and the second advises that all results except the discovery of Jupiter's moons have been reported earlier, in Hamlet.
Usher, P. D.
The purpose of this study was to develop a once daily sustained release tablet of aceclofenac using chitosan and an enteric coating polymer (hydroxypropyl methylcellulose phthalate or cellulose acetate phthalate). Overall sustained release for 24 h was achieved by preparing a double-layer tablet in which the immediate release layer was formulated for a prompt release of the drug and the sustained release layer was designed to achieve a prolonged release of drug. The preformulation studies like IR spectroscopic and differential scanning calorimetry showed the absence of drug-excipient interactions. The tablets were found within the permissible limits for various physicochemical parameters. Scanning electron microscopy was used to visualize the surface morphology of the tablets and to confirm drug release mechanisms. Good equivalence in the drug release profile was observed when drug release pattern of the tablet containing chitosan and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose phthalate (M-7) was compared with that of marketed tablet. The optimized tablets were stable at accelerated storage conditions for 6 months with respect to drug content and physical appearance. The results of pharmacokinetic studies in human volunteers showed that the optimized tablet (M-7) exhibited no difference in the in vivo drug release in comparison with marketed tablet. No significant difference between the values of pharmacokinetic parameters of M-7 and marketed tablets was observed (p > 0.05; 95% confidence intervals). However the clinical studies in large scale and, long term and extensive stability studies at different conditions are required to confirm these results. PMID:18500561
Mutalik, Srinivas; Manoj, Krishnan; Reddy, Meka Sreenivasa; Kushtagi, Pralhad; Usha, Achutha Nayak; Anju, Parambil; Ranjith, Averineni Kumar; Udupa, Nayanabhirama
The rate and extent of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid absorption from pharmacokinetically enhanced extended release (ER) tablets is strongly influenced by the intake conditions. In order to investigate the cause of the food effects, a pharmacokinetic study with simultaneous imaging of the in vivo behaviour of the ER tablets by magnetic marker monitoring (MMM) was performed. Under fasting conditions the amoxicillin AUC (1854+/-280microg min ml(-1)) was significantly lower than after intake at the beginning of the breakfast (2452+/-354microg min ml(-1)) or after the breakfast (2605+/-446microg min ml(-1)). In contrast, clavulanic acid AUC was well comparable after tablet intake under fasting conditions and intake at the beginning of a breakfast (191+/-46 and 189+/-44microg min ml(-1), respectively) but significantly lower following a breakfast (126+/-71microg min ml(-1)). The localization data showed that the reduced bioavailability of amoxicillin under fasting conditions is due to early gastric emptying in combination with poor absorption from deeper parts of the small intestine. Prolonged gastric residence of clavulanic acid caused by intragastric tablet deposition in the proximal stomach was identified as the reason for the decreased bioavailability of clavulanic acid after tablet intake following the meal. PMID:18582572
Weitschies, W; Friedrich, C; Wedemeyer, R S; Schmidtmann, M; Kosch, O; Kinzig, M; Trahms, L; Sörgel, F; Siegmund, W; Horkovics-Kovats, S; Schwarz, F; Raneburger, J; Mönnikes, H
A three-treatment, single-dose, crossover bioequivalence study was conducted in healthy volunteers to compare urinary drug recovery following administration of hydrochlorothiazide tablets, the currently marketed capsule formulation of triamterene and hydrochlorothiazide (Dyazide), and a new tablet preparation of these active ingredients (Maxzide). No significant differences were observed in the urinary recovery of hydrochlorothiazide after the administration of hydrochlorothiazide tablets and Maxzide tablets. However, only about one-half as much hydrochlorothiazide was recovered following the administration of Dyazide capsules. Similarly, the urinary recovery of triamterene and the sulfate ester of hydroxy-triamterene after administration of Dyazide capsules was approximately one-half the levels observed after giving the new tablet formulation. The clinical consequences of the limited bioavailability of the active ingredients of Dyazide are discussed. PMID:6496560
Blume, C D; Williams, R L; Upton, R A; Lin, E T; Benet, L Z
The introduction of bilayer tablets into the pharmaceutical industry has enabled the development of pre-determined release profiles of active ingredients. During production, however, these bilayer tablets have the tendency to fracture by capping, thought to be caused by internal tensile stresses normal to the plane of fracture. Bi-layered tablets of the widely used excipient microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) have been manufactured
S. J. Inman; B. J. Briscoe; K. G. Pitt
The use of tablet PCs in teaching is a relatively new phenomenon. A cross between a notebook computer and a personal digital assistant (PDA), the tablet PC has all of the features of a notebook with the additional capability that the screen can also be used for input. Tablet PCs are usually equipped with a stylus that allows the user to write on
Fister, K. Renee; McCarthy, Maeve L.
Summary: Tablet is a lightweight, high-performance graphical viewer for next generation sequence assemblies and alignments. Supporting a range of input assembly formats, Tablet provides high- quality visualizations showing data in packed or stacked views, al- lowing instant access and navigation to any region of interest, and whole contig overviews and data summaries. Tablet is both multi- core aware and memory-efficient,
Iain Milne; Micha Bayer; Linda Cardle; Paul Shaw; Gordon Stephen; Frank Wright; David Marshall
After many years of using the mouse and keyboard as the primary means of computer input, people are seeing a strong surge into a new generation of input technologies such as tablet PCs. As more professionals adopt tablet PCs for use in the workplace, there is a subsequent increased demand for tablet PC instruction in the classroom. Examples of
Dickerson, Jeremy; Williams, Scott; Browning, J. B.
Indomethacin (IDM) was encapsulated in gelatin-cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP) microcapsules (A) by complex coacervation method and in CAP microcapsules (B) by simple coacervation method. Microcapsules A and B, having mean diameters of 38.24 and 35.74 microm, respectively, were used to prepare sustained-release tablets A and B. The activation energy of thermal degradation for tablets A and B was calculated based on differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to be 258.9 and 284.8 kcal/mol, respectively. In vitro release profiles showed no burst effect and release t(1/2) of the two sustained-release tablets were found to be 41.30+/-1.86 and 33.25+/-2.84 min, respectively, while that of IDM plain tablets C was 6.30+/-0.39 min (P<0.01). In vitro release of IDM from tablets A and B could be described by Higuchi equation and zero-order kinetics, respectively. After per os (po) administration with physiological saline, their irritation to rat stomach was obviously reduced in comparison with tablets C. Pharmacokinetic study in rabbits showed that t(max) was delayed and C(max) lowered compared with tablets C and the values of AUC(0-24 h) of the three tablets were very close. PMID:17081709
Lu, Bin; Wen, Rong; Yang, Hong; He, Yingju
Many drivers tend to foster the development of renewable energy production in wastewater treatment plants as many expectations rely upon energy recovery from sewage sludge, for example through biogas use. This paper is focused on the assessment of grease waste (GW) as an adequate substrate for co-digestion with municipal sludge, as it has a methane potential of 479-710 LCH(4)/kg VS, as well as the evaluation of disintegration technologies as a method to optimize the co-digestion process. With this objective three different pre-treatments have been selected for evaluation: thermal hydrolysis, ultrasound and enzymatic treatment. Results have shown that co-digestion processes without pre-treatment had a maximum increment of 128% of the volumetric methane productivity when GW addition was 23% inlet (at 20 days of HRT and with an OLR of 3.0 kg COD/m(3)d), compared with conventional digestion of sewage sludge alone. Concerning the application of the selected disintegration technologies, all pre-treatments showed improvements in terms of methane yield (51.8, 89.5 and 57.6% more for thermal hydrolysis, ultrasound and enzymatic treatment, respectively, compared with non-pretreated wastes), thermal hydrolysis of GW and secondary sludge being the best configuration as it improved the solubilization of the organic matter and the hydrodynamic characteristics of digestates. PMID:22233897
Bouchy, L; Pérez, A; Camacho, P; Rubio, P; Silvestre, G; Fernández, B; Cano, R; Polanco, M; Díaz, N
The aim of this study was to develop a new fast-disintegrating tablet formulation containing 1?mg tacrolimus for sublingual application. First, solid dispersions containing tacrolimus (2.5%, 5% and 10% w/w) incorporated in Ac-Di-Sol(®) and carriers (inulin 1.8?kDa and 4?kDa, and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) K30) were prepared by freeze drying. Subsequently, a tablet formulation composed of a mixture of the solid dispersions, Ac-Di-Sol(®), mannitol, Avicel(®) PH-101 and sodium stearyl fumarate was optimized concerning drug load in the solid dispersions and the type of carrier. Tablet weight was kept constant at 75?mg by adjusting the amount of Avicel(®) PH-101. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) results indicated the absence of the drug in the crystalline state, which was confirmed by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). These results suggest that tacrolimus incorporated in all of the solid dispersions was fully amorphous. Dissolution of the tablets containing solid dispersions with a low drug load highly depends on the type of carrier and increased in the order: PVP K30 < inulin 4?kDa < inulin 1.8?kDa. Solid dispersions with a drug load of 10% w/w incorporated in the carriers yielded optimal formulations. In addition, the physicochemical characteristics and the dissolution behavior of the tablet formulation containing inulin 1.8 kDa-based solid dispersions with a drug load of 10% w/w did not change after storage at 20°C/45%RH for 6 months indicating excellent storage stability. PMID:21961909
Srinarong, Parinda; Pham, Bao T; Holen, Maru; van der Plas, Afke; Schellekens, Reinout C A; Hinrichs, Wouter L J; Frijlink, Henderik W
Background Previous studies in primary headache disorders showed microstructural alterations in the white matter as measured by diffusion imaging. However these investigations are not in full agreement and some of those, especially in cluster headache, restricted the analysis to only a limited number of diffusion parameters. Therefore, in the current study we examined white matter microstructure in cluster headache patients. Methods Diffusion weighted MRI images with 60 directions were acquired from thirteen patients with cluster headache and sixteen age-matched healthy controls. Tract based spatial statistics were used to compare white matter integrity in the core of the fibre bundles. Correlation of the diffusion parameters with cumulative number of headache days was examined. Results There was a significant increment of the mean, axial and perpendicular diffusivity in widespread white matter regions in the frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital lobes. Reduced fractional anisotropy was found in the corpus callosum and some frontal and parietal white matter tracts mainly in the contralateral side of the pain. Axial diffusivity showed negative correlation to the number of the headache attacks. Conclusions The in vivo analysis of microstructural alterations in cluster headache provides important features of the disease, which might offer a deeper insight into the pathomechanism of the disease.
The study aimed to compare the kinetics of two novel combination drug products for Female Sexual Interest/Arousal Disorder (FSIAD). Thirteen women received testosterone via the sublingual route followed 2.5 hours later by a buspirone tablet, versus a single combination tablet swallowed at once. The first clinical prototype consisted of a sublingual solution containing testosterone (0.5 mg) complexed with cyclodextrin and a tablet containing 10 mg buspirone, in a gelatin capsule to ensure blinding during the clinical studies. The innovative fixed-combination tablet consists of an inner-core component of 10 mg buspirone coated with a polymeric time-delay coating and an outer polymeric coating containing testosterone with hydroxypropyl-beta cyclodextrin. We observed an immediate testosterone pulse absorption from both formulations. We also demonstrated that there was adequate absorption of buspirone (>80 % relative to the conventional tablet) and a time delay in release of buspirone of 3.3 hours, close to the 3.0 hours of the reference formulation that showed clinical efficacy in early proof-of-principle studies. The newly developed combination tablet fulfils its design criteria and is a convenient tablet for further clinical studies in FSIAD. PMID:24849043
van Rooij, Kim; de Leede, Leo; Frijlink, Henderik W; Bloemers, Jos; Poels, Saskia; Koppeschaar, Hans; Olivier, Berend; Tuiten, Adriaan
Ten calcium phosphates suitable for direct compression (dibasic calcium phosphate dihydrate, dibasic calcium phosphate anhydrous and hydroxylapatite) were investigated with respect to their compressional behaviour. Except for Di-Cafos A all products gave tablets with sufficient to good mechanical strength. Nevertheless, there were differences between the products. All tablets prepared from the different products showed a high friability. This seems to be a problem of the calcium phosphates in general. On the other hand, the influence of magnesium stearate on the mechanical strength of the tablets was negligible for all products investigated. Moreover, a considerable effect of the particle size on the tensile strength of the tablets was found. The ejection forces and residual pressures were high in general, but critical only in the case of hydroxylapatites. Heckel plots were used to differentiate between plastic deformation and brittle fracture of the particles. In the case of calcium phosphates the slope of the Heckel plots indicated the hardness of the particles rather than their deformation behaviour. PMID:8348107
Schmidt, P C; Herzog, R
Multi-drug tablets of amlodipine besylate and atenolol were prepared as either mono-layer (mixed matrix) or bilayer tablets containing each drug in a separate layer by using similar excipients and processing. Each tablet batch was packed in strip and blister packs and kept under accelerated temperature and humidity conditions. The stability of two tablet and packaging types was compared by HPLC analysis after 0, 1, 3 and 4.5 months and expressed as the content of intact amlodipine and atenolol. The content of atenolol did not decline regardless of tablet and packaging type. Amlodipine content in bi-layer tablets decreased to about 95 and 88% when packed in strips and blisters, respectively. When prepared as mono-layer tablets, the content decreased to 72 and 32%, respectively.The study revealed that the bi-layer tablet formulation was more stable than the mono-layer type. Further, the stability was increased when the tablets were packed in aluminium strips as compared to PVC blisters. PMID:19103566
Aryal, Sajjan; Skalko-Basnet, Natasa
The objective of the study was to develop guar gum matrix tablets for oral controlled release of water-soluble diltiazem hydrochloride. Matrix tablets of diltiazem hydrochloride, using various viscosity grades of guar gum in 2 proportions, were prepared by wet granulation method and subjected to in vitro drug release studies. Diltiazem hydrochloride matrix tablets containing either 30% wt/wt low-viscosity (LM1), 40% wt/wt medium-viscosity (MM2), or 50% wt/wt high-viscosity (HM2) guar gum showed controlled release. The drug release from all guar gum matrix tablets followed first-order kinetics via Fickian-diffusion. Further, the results of in vitro drug release studies in simulated gastrointestinal and colonic fluids showed that HM2 tablets provided controlled release comparable with marketed sustained release diltiazem hydrochloride tablets (D-SR tablets). Guar gum matrix tablets HM2 showed no change in physical appearance, drug content, or in dissolution pattern after storage at 40 degrees C/relative humidity 75% for 6 months. When subjected to in vivo pharmacokinetic evaluation in healthy volunteers, the HM2 tablets provided a slow and prolonged drug release when compared with D-SR tablets. Based on the results of in vitro and in vivo studies it was concluded that that guar gum matrix tablets provided oral controlled release of water-soluble diltiazem hydrochloride. PMID:16353958
Al-Saidan, Saleh M; Krishnaiah, Yellela S R; Patro, Srinivas S; Satyanaryana, Vemulapalli
The tensile strength of model materials (dicalcium phosphate dihydrate, microcrystalline cellulose and pregelatinised starch) compacted to form tablets in the form of beams consisting of two layers of equal thickness has been determined by three-point loading. The values of the tensile strength of the materials were sometimes higher and sometimes lower than the tensile strength of beams of the same
F. Podczeck; K. R. Drake; J. M. Newton; I. Haririan
Coating of solid dosage forms is an important unit operation in the pharmaceutical industry. In recent years, numerical simulations of drug manufacturing processes have been gaining interest as process analytical technology tools. The discrete element method (DEM) in particular is suitable to model tablet-coating processes. For the development of accurate simulations, information on the material properties of the tablets is required. In this study, the mechanical parameters Young's modulus, coefficient of restitution (CoR), and coefficients of friction (CoF) of gastrointestinal therapeutic systems (GITS) and of active-coated GITS were measured experimentally. The dynamic angle of repose of these tablets in a drum coater was investigated to revise the CoF. The resulting values were used as input data in DEM simulations to compare simulation and experiment. A mean value of Young's modulus of 31.9 MPa was determined by the uniaxial compression test. The CoR was found to be 0.78. For both tablet-steel and tablet-tablet friction, active-coated GITS showed a higher CoF compared with GITS. According to the values of the dynamic angle of repose, the CoF was adjusted to obtain consistent tablet motion in the simulation and in the experiment. On the basis of this experimental characterization, mechanical parameters are integrated into DEM simulation programs to perform numerical analysis of coating processes. PMID:23354469
Just, Sarah; Toschkoff, Gregor; Funke, Adrian; Djuric, Dejan; Scharrer, Georg; Khinast, Johannes; Knop, Klaus; Kleinebudde, Peter
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are administered for pain relief from oral mucositis. However, the systemic administration of NSAIDs is limited due to systemic side effects. To avoid these side effects and treat local lesions effectively, a matrix type mucoadhesive tablet was developed. A mixture of hard fat, ethylcellulose (EC) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) was used as a matrix base, and indomethacin (IMC) was used as the principal agent. In tablets consisting of hard fat, EC and IMC, the drug release was sustained. In tablets consisting of hard fat, EC, considerable amounts of PEG and IMC, the drug release was relatively increased and IMC existed as the molecular phase or in an amorphous state. The in vitro adhesive force of the tablets consisting of hard fat, EC, considerable amounts of PEG and IMC was significantly increased as compared with the tablets consisting of hard fat and IMC. A significantly high tissue concentration and significantly low plasma concentration were observed after buccal administration of this matrix type mucoadhesive tablet as compared with that after oral administration of IMC. Thus, the matrix type mucoadhesive tablet has good potential as a preparation for the treatment of pain due to oral aphtha. PMID:23791737
Ikeuchi-Takahashi, Yuri; Sasatsu, Masanaho; Onishi, Hiraku
The deformation and disintegration of a graphene nanoribbon under external electrostatic fields are investigated by first principle quantum mechanical calculations to establish its stability range. Zigzag edges terminated by various functional groups are considered. By analyzing the phonon spectrum, the critical fracture field for each edge structure is obtained. It is found that different terminal groups on the zigzag graphene nanoribbons lead to different fracture patterns at different fracture fields. The failure mechanism is demonstrated to involve both the carbon bond alternation feature across the ribbon and the terminal group electronegativity. PMID:24963886
Huang, Haiming; Li, Zhibing; Kreuzer, H J; Wang, Weiliang
Childhood disintegrative disorder is a rare disorder, characterized by regression of acquired skills after a period of normal development. The case of childhood disintegrative disorder presented here was found to have vitamin B12 deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia on extensive evaluation to find a probable cause for regression. This case illustrates the need for a thorough evaluation of all cases of childhood disintegrative disorder so that treatable causes of regression, like vitamin B12 deficiency, are not missed. PMID:23334842
Malhotra, Savita; Subodh, B N; Parakh, Preeti; Lahariya, Sanjay
Various formulations with some matrix bases and corrigents were examined for development of oral chewable tablets which suppressed the bitter taste of acetaminophen, often used as an antipyretic for infants. Corn starch/lactose, cacao butter and hard fat (Witepsol H-15) were used for matrix bases, and sucrose, cocoa powder and commercial bitter-masking powder mixture made from lecithin (Benecoat BMI-40) were used for corrigents against bitter taste. The bitter taste intensity was evaluated using volunteers by comparison of test samples with standard solutions containing quinine at various concentrations. For the tablets made of matrix base and drug, Witepsol H-15 best inhibited the bitter taste of the drug, and the bitter strength tended to be suppressed with increase in the Witepsol H-15 amount. When the inhibitory effect on the bitter taste of acetaminophen solution was compared among the corrigents, each tended to suppress the bitter taste; especially, Benecoat BMI-40 exhibited a more inhibitory effect. Further, chewable tablets were made of one matrix base and one corrigent, and of one matrix base and two kinds of corrigents, their bitter taste intensities after chewing were compared. As a result, the tablets made of Witepsol H-15/Benecoat BMI-40/sucrose, of Witepsol H-15/cocoa powder/sucrose and of Witepsol H-15/sucrose best masked the bitter taste so that they were tolerable enough to chew and swallow. The dosage forms best masking bitter taste showed good release of the drug, indicating little change in bioavailability by masking. PMID:12527182
Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Onishi, Hiraku; Takahashi, Yuri; Iwata, Masanori; Machida, Yoshiharu
In this study 50 samples of ecstasy tablets seized in Iran during the period of 2007 through 2008 were examined and their physical characteristics (appearance, marking, scored/not scored, color, weight, diameter, thickness) were determined. In order to determine the chemical characteristics of these tablets, color tests (Marquis test, Simon's test, Chen's test and Gallic acid test), Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC), anion test, residual solvents, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) were carried out on the tablets. The range of tablets weight was 96-308 mg and the range of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) hydrochloride content in these tablets was 60-180 mg. No good correlation was found between the tablets weight and their MDMA contents. All of the tablets containing MDMA had this compound in hydrochloride form. Ketamine, phenmetrazine and ephedrine (or pseudoephedrine) were found in some of the tablets along with MDMA. No MDMA was found in 20% of the tablets. Some of these tablets contained compounds such as caffeine or tramadol as their active ingredient. PMID:24250345
Khajeamiri, Ali Reza; Kobarfard, Farzad; Ahmadkhaniha, Reza; Mostashari, Gelareh
In this study 50 samples of ecstasy tablets seized in Iran during the period of 2007 through 2008 were examined and their physical characteristics (appearance, marking, scored/not scored, color, weight, diameter, thickness) were determined. In order to determine the chemical characteristics of these tablets, color tests (Marquis test, Simons test, Chens test and Gallic acid test), Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC), anion test, residual solvents, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) were carried out on the tablets. The range of tablets weight was 96308 mg and the range of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) hydrochloride content in these tablets was 60180 mg. No good correlation was found between the tablets weight and their MDMA contents. All of the tablets containing MDMA had this compound in hydrochloride form. Ketamine, phenmetrazine and ephedrine (or pseudoephedrine) were found in some of the tablets along with MDMA. No MDMA was found in 20% of the tablets. Some of these tablets contained compounds such as caffeine or tramadol as their active ingredient.
Khajeamiri, Ali Reza; Kobarfard, Farzad; Ahmadkhaniha, Reza; Mostashari, Gelareh
Summary This cross-over study was conducted to compare serum phenytoin levels after chronic ingestion of phenytoin tablets with or without previous chewing. The phenytoin therapy was administered as 50 mg chewable Infatabs® tablets in a single morning dose of 200 mg. There was no significant difference between the two modes of ingestion as regards serum phenytoin levels measured at various
P. Bielmann; T. Levac
Nonhardened gelatin-acacia microcapsules were studied for encapsulation of microdroplets of oil solution containing a lipophilic drug as core material and ready disintegration with release of micro oil droplets in the gastrointestinal tract. Probucol and S-312-d, a Ca-channel blocker, were employed as model lipophilic drugs. Glyceryl tricaprylate and tricaprate mixture solutions containing these drugs were encapsulated according to the complex coacervation method and were recovered as free-flowing powders without any hardening (cross-linking) step. The microcapsules obtained were disintegrated, and the emulsion was reproduced within 3 min at 37 degrees C in the first or second test solution defined in the Japanese Pharmacopeia XII. When the microcapsules were stored as a powder at room temperature in a closed bottle, no significant change in their appearance or disintegration time upon rehydration was observed even after 1 year. Oral bioavailabilities of model drugs from the microcapsules were tested in rats and dogs and compared with those from other conventional formulations. Gastrointestinal absorption of both probucol and S-312-d from the microcapsules was remarkably more efficient than that from other formulations such as powders, granules, or oil solution. The proposed method for microencapsulation could be useful for powdering drug-containing oil solutions or O/W emulsions while maintaining excellent bioavailability. PMID:8415395
Jizomoto, H; Kanaoka, E; Sugita, K; Hirano, K
The purpose of the present study was to test a sustained release-tablet newly formulated with synthetic paraffin and compare its bioequivalence to that of the Imdur® Long-Acting tablet, based on the guidelines of the Korean Food and Drug Administration.Dissolution test was performed in 4 different dissolution media. A LC/MS/MS method of isosorbide 5-mononitrate in human plasma was validated. In vivo bioequivalence tests of the 2 isosorbide 5-mononitrate tablets were performed in both preprandial and postprandial states.A comparative dissolution test gave similar results for both tablets in all dissolution media tested: 40% dissolution in pH 1.2 at 2?h and 80% dissolution in pH 4.0, pH 6.8, or water at 10?h. In a bioequivalence study to compare 2 tablets, the mean total area under the curve (AUCt) and peak concentration (Cmax) in the fasted state were 8?476.0?ng?·?h/mL and 540.4?ng/mL, respectively, for the Imdur® Long Acting Tablet 60?mg, and 8?701.4?ng?·?h/mL and 564.2?ng/mL, respectively, for the test tablet. The mean AUCt and Cmax in the fed state were 8?793.5?ng?·?h/mL and 559.9?ng/mL, respectively, for the Imdur® Long-Acting tablet 60?mg, and 8?639.8?ng?·?h/mL and 617.9?ng/mL, respectively, for the test tablet. The 90% confidence intervals using log transformed data were within the acceptable range of 0.8?-?1.25.Based on these statistical analyses, we conclude that the test tablet is bioequivalent to the Imdur® Long-Acting tablet 60?mg in both the preprandial and postprandial states. PMID:23093481
Kim, Y-H; Choi, K-S; Kam, S-H; Lee, K-H; Park, J-S
Objective Lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra®) is first line therapy for pediatric HIV infection. In clinical practice, Kaletra® tablets are occasionally crushed for pediatric administration. This study compared lopinavir/ritonavir exposure between whole and crushed tablets in HIV-infected children. Design This was a randomized, open-label, cross-over study of pediatric patients taking lopinavir/ritonavir as part of their antiretroviral regimen. Each subject had two separate (within 30 days) steady-state 12-hour pharmacokinetic (PK) studies with crushed and whole 200/50 mg lopinavir/ritonavir tablets. Methods PK blood samples were drawn at 0 (pre-dose), 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12 hours post-dose. Lopinavir and ritonavir plasma concentrations measured by high performance liquid chromatography were used to calculate non-compartmental area under the concentration versus time curve (AUC) and clearance (CL/F). Wilcoxon signed-rank tests compared PK values between crushed and whole tablets. Results Twelve children, median age of 13 years (1016 years), took 550/138 mg/m2/day lopinavir/ritonavir divided every 12 hours. The median lopinavir AUC following crushed and whole tablets were 92 mg*hr/L and 144 mg*hr/L, respectively, with an AUC ratio of 0.55 (p=0.003). Median ritonavir AUC of crushed and whole tablets were 7 mg*hr/L and 13.3 mg*hr/L, respectively, with an AUC ratio of 0.53 (p=0.006). Conclusions Administration of crushed 200/50 mg lopinavir/ritonavir tablets to children significantly reduced lopinavir and ritonavir exposure with a decrease in AUC by 45% and 47%, respectively. The administration of crushed tablets would require higher doses and therapeutic drug monitoring to ensure adequate lopinavir exposure in patients requiring this practice. The use of crushed lopinavir/ritonavir tablets should be avoided, if possible.
Best, Brookie M.; Capparelli, Edmund V.; Diep, Huy; Rossi, Steven S.; Farrell, Michael J.; Williams, Elaine; Lee, Grace; van den Anker, John N.; Rakhmanina, Natella
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the disintegration of luting agents. An intraoral sample holder was made having four holes of 1.4?mm diameter and 2?mm depth. The holder was soldered onto the buccal surface of an orthodontic band, which was cemented to the first upper molar in 12 patients, average age 26 years. The holes were filled with a zinc phosphate (Phosphate Kulzer), a glass ionomer (Ketac Cem), a resin-modified-glass ionomer (Fuji Plus), and a resin cement (Calibra). Impressions were made at baseline, and 6, 12, and 18 months from which epoxy replicas were made, which were scanned with an optical scanner. Total volume loss was calculated. The rank order of mean volume loss was as follows: Phosphate cement > Ketac Cem = Fuji Plus = Calibra. Cement type and time had statistically significant effects on volume loss of cements (P < 0.001). Under in vivo conditions, zinc phosphate cement disintegrated the most, whereas no significant difference was observed for glass ionomer and resin-based cements. As intraoral conditions are considerably less aggressive than experimental laboratory conditions, the erosion behavior of glass ionomer cement was found to be similar to the resin-based cements in contradiction to previous laboratory results. PMID:22007219
Gemalmaz, Deniz; Pameijer, Cornelis H; Latta, Mark; Kuybulu, Ferah; Alcan, Toros
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the disintegration of luting agents. An intraoral sample holder was made having four holes of 1.4?mm diameter and 2?mm depth. The holder was soldered onto the buccal surface of an orthodontic band, which was cemented to the first upper molar in 12 patients, average age 26 years. The holes were filled with a zinc phosphate (Phosphate Kulzer), a glass ionomer (Ketac Cem), a resin-modified-glass ionomer (Fuji Plus), and a resin cement (Calibra). Impressions were made at baseline, and 6, 12, and 18 months from which epoxy replicas were made, which were scanned with an optical scanner. Total volume loss was calculated. The rank order of mean volume loss was as follows: Phosphate cement > Ketac Cem = Fuji Plus = Calibra. Cement type and time had statistically significant effects on volume loss of cements (P < 0.001). Under in vivo conditions, zinc phosphate cement disintegrated the most, whereas no significant difference was observed for glass ionomer and resin-based cements. As intraoral conditions are considerably less aggressive than experimental laboratory conditions, the erosion behavior of glass ionomer cement was found to be similar to the resin-based cements in contradiction to previous laboratory results.
Gemalmaz, Deniz; Pameijer, Cornelis H.; Latta, Mark; Kuybulu, Ferah; Alcan, Toros
A single-dose, randomized, open-label, two-period crossover bioequivalence study comparing a fixed-dose pediatric combination of lamivudine and stavudine tablet for oral suspension with individual liquid formulations in healthy adult male volunteers.
Lamivudine (CAS 134678-17-4) is a synthetic nucleoside analogue with activity against HIV-1 and HBV. Stavudine (CAS 3056-17-5) is a synthetic thymidine nucleoside analogue, active against the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Lamivudine and stavudine in combination with other antiretroviral (ARV) agents are indicated for the treatment of HIV infection. As there are no suitable pediatric ARVs, adult fixed-dose ARVs are commonly used in children. This practice poses concerns about dose inaccuracy, which may lead to resistance or toxicity. A new fixed-dose combination (FDC) tablet for oral suspension, containing lamivudine 40 mg and stavudine 10 mg has been developed. An open-label, balanced, randomised, two-treatment, two-period, two-sequence, single-dose, crossover bioequivalence study was conducted following administration of a fixed-dose combination of lamivudine and stavudine tablet for oral suspension (test formulation) and innovator products (reference formulations) in healthy, adult, male human subjects under fasting condition. Multiple blood samples were collected up to 36 h post dose. Plasma concentrations of lamivudine and stavudine were assayed using validated high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry analytical method. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using non-compartmental analysis and bioequivalence was assessed using a mixed effect ANOVA model. The ratio of the least-square means (FDC to individual products) and 90% confidence intervals (CIs) of AUC(0-t), AUC(0-infinity) and C(max) for lamivudine and stavudine were all within 80.00-125.00%, suggesting a similar rate and extent of ARVs exposure in the bloodstream. The FDC and individual products were equally safe and well tolerated. The current FDC of lamivudine and stavudine is expected to provide a similar efficacy/safety profile as co-administration of the individual products, a better adherence to treatment, and considerable cost savings in the treatment of HIV in children. PMID:19338141
Monif, Tausif; Reyar, Simrit; Tiwari, Hari Krishan; Tippabhotla, Sudhakar Koundinya; Khuroo, Arshad; Thudi, Nageshwar Rao; Ahmed, Sarfaraz; Raghuvanshi, Rajeev
The tableting characteristics of micro-aggregated egg albumin particles containing paracetamol were evaluated and compared with non-micro-encapsulated paracetamol and coagulated egg albumin particles. Mean yield pressure values of micro-aggregated egg albumin particles containing paracetamol and coagulated egg albumin particles were 30.5 and 49.3 MPa, respectively, which were lower than the mean yield pressure obtained for paracetamol (97.5 MPa). Paracetamol tablets obtained with micro-aggregated egg albumin particles did not show the capping characteristic of conventional paracetamol tablets. Crushing strength of paracetamol tablets obtained with egg micro-aggegated particles was similar to that obtained using paracetamol granulated with povidone and gelatin as binders at 3 and 6% (w/w) concentrations. Drug release from the paracetamol tablets depends on the choice of excipients. Crospovidone showed good protective characteristics for the tableting of micro-aggregated particles. Crushing strength of paracetamol tablets formed from egg albumin-coated particles could be increased using crospovidone or microcrystalline cellulose as fillers and was decreased by the use of magnesium stearate. Nevertheless, magnesium stearate was useful to decrease the ejection force. PMID:7602464
Torrado-Durán, J J; Torrado, S; Cadórniga, R; Augsburger, L L
The aims of this study were to choose a suitable adsorbent of self-microemulsion and to develop a fine solid self-microemulsifying dispersible tablets for promoting the dissolution and oral bioavailability of celastrol. Solubility test, self-emulsifying grading test, droplet size analysis and ternary phase diagrams test were performed to screen and optimize the composition of liquid celastrol self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS). Then microcrystalline cellulose KG 802 was added as a suitable adsorbent into the optimized liquid celastrol-SMEDDS formulation to prepare the dispersible tablets by wet granulation compression method. The optimized formulation of celastrol-SMEDDS dispersible tablets was finally determinated by the feasibility of the preparing process and redispersibility. The in vitro study showed that the dispersible tablets could disperse in the dispersion medium within 3min with the average particle size of 25.32±3.26nm. In vivo pharmacokinetic experiments of rats, the relative bioavailability of celastrol SMEDDS and SMEDDS dispersible tablets compared to the 0.4% CMC-Na suspension was 569±7.07% and 558±6.77%, respectively, while there were no significant difference between the SMEDDS and SMEDDS dispersible tablets. The results suggest the potential use of SMEDDS dispersible tablets for the oral delivery of poorly water-soluble terpenes drugs, such as celastrol. PMID:24929011
Qi, Xiaole; Qin, Jiayi; Ma, Ning; Chou, Xiaohua; Wu, Zhenghong
Metoprolol tartrate sustained-release tablets (100 mg) were prepared using xanthan/guar gums and also hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) carboxymethyl-Cellulose (CMC) polymers by direct compression method. Physical characteristics of the tablets and water uptake in addition to their dissolution profiles were compared with standard (Lopressor SR) tablets. Dissolution test was performed in the phosphate buffer solution (pH 6.8) and the samples were analyzed spectrophotometerically in 275.7 nm. Dissolution studies showed that formulations containing 100 and 80% of HPMC, 100% of guar, and 20% of xanthan followed the Higuchi model, while those containing 60 and 40% HPMC and 100 and 80% xanthan followed a zero-order model. The tablets with 40% xanthen followed a Hixon-Crowell model. In cellulose derivatives the highest MDT and dissolution efficiency until 8 hr (DE8%) belonged to tablets with 40% HPMC, increasing the amount of CMC decreased the drug release rate, and formulations containing 60 and 40% of HPMC had the USP dissolution standards. While, in the gum formulations, the highest mean dissolution time and the lowest DE(8)% belonged to tablets with 100% xanthan, increasing the xanthan decreased the release rate of metoprolol, and formulations containing 80 and 100% xanthan had the USP dissolution standards. Results showed that natural gums are suitable for production of sustained-release tablets of metoprolol. PMID:16423799
Varshosaz, Jaleh; Tavakoli, Nasser; Eram, S Ali
Tablet devices have recently been used in radiological image interpretation because they have a display resolution comparable to desktop LCD monitors. We identified a need to examine tablet display performance prior to their use in preliminary interpretation of radiological images. We compared the spatial and contrast resolution of a commercially available tablet display with a diagnostic grade 2 megapixel monochrome LCD using a contrast detail phantom. We also recorded reporting discrepancies, using the ACR RADPEER system, between preliminary interpretation of 100 emergency CT brain examinations on the tablet display and formal review on a diagnostic LCD. The iPad display performed inferiorly to the diagnostic monochrome display without the ability to zoom. When the software zoom function was enabled on the tablet device, comparable contrast detail phantom scores of 163 vs 165 points were achieved. No reporting discrepancies were encountered during the interpretation of 43 normal examinations and five cases of acute intracranial hemorrhage. There were seven RADPEER2 (understandable) misses when using the iPad display and 12 with the diagnostic LCD. Use of software zoom in the tablet device improved its contrast detail phantom score. The tablet allowed satisfactory identification of acute CT brain findings, but additional research will be required to examine the cause of "understandable" reporting discrepancies that occur when using tablet devices. PMID:22173819
Mc Laughlin, Patrick; Neill, Siobhan O; Fanning, Noel; Mc Garrigle, Anne Marie; Connor, Owen J O; Wyse, Gerry; Maher, Michael M
...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Levamisole hydrochloride effervescent tablets...FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS Â§ 520.1242e Levamisole hydrochloride effervescent tablets...Each tablet contains 907 milligrams of levamisole hydrochloride. (b) Sponsor....
...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pyrantel pamoate chewable tablets. 520.2041 Section 520.2041 Food and Drugs...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS Â§ 520.2041 Pyrantel pamoate chewable tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet...
... 2009-04-01 false Stanozolol chewable tablets. 520.2150b Section 520.2150b...ANIMAL DRUGS Â§ 520.2150b Stanozolol chewable tablets. (a) Specifications. Each chewable tablet contains 2 milligrams of...
... 2010-04-01 false Stanozolol chewable tablets. 520.2150b Section 520.2150b...ANIMAL DRUGS Â§ 520.2150b Stanozolol chewable tablets. (a) Specifications. Each chewable tablet contains 2 milligrams of...
Mathematical models were developed to elucidate the relationships among process control parameters and the effect of these parameters on the performance of anoxic/oxic biological wastewater processes combined with sludge disintegrators (A/O-SD). The model equations were also applied for analyses of activated sludge processes hybrid with sludge disintegrators (AS-SD). Solubilization ratio of sludge in the sludge disintegrator, alpha, hardly affected sludge reduction efficiencies if the biomass was completely destructed to smaller particulates. On the other hand, conversion efficiency of non-biodegradable particulates to biodegradable particulates, beta, significantly affected sludge reduction efficiencies because beta was directly related to the accumulation of non-biodegradable particulates in bioreactors. When 30% of sludge in the oxic tank was disintegrated everyday and beta was 0.5, sludge reduction was expected to be 78% and 69% for the A/O-SD and AS-SD processes, respectively. Under this condition, the sludge disintegration number (SDN), which is the amount of sludge disintegrated divided by the reduced sludge, was calculated to be around 4. Due to the sludge disintegration, live biomass concentration decreased while other non-biodegradable particulates concentration increased. As a consequence, the real F/M ratio was expected to be much higher than the apparent F/M. The effluent COD was maintained almost constant for the range of sludge disintegration rate considered in this study. Nitrogen removal efficiencies of the A/O-SD process was hardly affected by the sludge disintegration until daily sludge disintegration reaches 40% of sludge in the oxic tank. Above this level of sludge disintegration, autotrophic biomass concentration decreases overly and TKN in the effluent increases abruptly in both the A/O-SD and AS-SD processes. Overall, the trends of sludge reduction and effluent quality according to operation parameters matched well with experimental results found in literatures. PMID:16061269
Yoon, Seong-Hoon; Lee, Sangho
Fast dissolving tablets of clonazepam were prepared by direct compression method with a view to enhance patient compliance. A 32 full factorial design was applied to investigate the combined effect of two formulation variables: amount of crospovidone and microcrystalline cellulose. Crospovidone (2-8% w/w) was used as superdisintegrant and microcrystalline cellulose (20-40% w/w) was used as diluent, along with directly compressible mannitol to enhance mouth feel. The tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, thickness, drug content uniformity, in vitro dispersion time, wetting time and water absorption ratio. Based on in vitro dispersion time (approximately 16 s); the formulation containing 2% w/w crospovidone and 40% w/w microcrystalline cellulose was found to be promising and tested for in vitro drug release pattern (in pH 6.8 phosphate buffer). Short-term stability (at 40°/75% relative humidity for 3 mo) and drug-excipient interaction. Surface response plots are presented to graphically represent the effect of independent variables on the invitro dispersion time. The validity of the generated mathematical model was tested by preparing two extra-design checkpoints. The optimized tablet formulation was compared with conventional commercial tablet formulation for drug release profiles. This formulation showed nearly five-fold faster drug release (t50% 3.5 min) compared to the conventional commercial tablet formulation (t50% 16.4 min). Short-term stability studies on the formulation indicated that there are no significant changes in drug content and in vitro dispersion time (P<0.05).
Shirsand, S. B.; Suresh, Sarasija; Swamy, P. V.
A nabumetone tablet in development (NabutonR) was tested for its bioequivalence to the reference tablet (UnitonR). Seventeen healthy Korean male subjects participated in this study. Each subject received a 1-g dose of nabumetone (2 tablets\\u000a each) in an unbalanced, randomized, two-way crossover investigation. Serum concentrations of 6-methoxy-2-naphthylacetic acid\\u000a (6-MNA), a major metabolite of nabumetone, were measured over 120 hr interval
Young-Joo Lee; Eun-Ju Jang; Jeong-Uk Lee; Yong-Hae Han; Suk-Jae Chung; Min-Hwa Lee; Chang-Koo Shim
Aim: The aim of the present study is to develop an optimize bilayered tablet using Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) as a model drug candidate using quality by design (QbD) approach. Introduction and Method: The bilayered tablet gives biphasic drug release through loading dose; prepared using croscarmellose sodium a superdisintegrant and maintenance dose using several viscosity grades of hydrophilic polymers. The fundamental principle of QbD is to demonstrate understanding and control of pharmaceutical processes so as to deliver high quality pharmaceutical products with wide opportunities for continuous improvement. Risk assessment was carried out and subsequently 22 factorial designs in duplicate was selected to carry out design of experimentation (DOE) for evaluating the interactions and effects of the design factors on critical quality attribute. The design space was obtained by applying DOE and multivariate analysis, so as to ensure desired disintegration time (DT) and drug release is achieved. Bilayered tablet were evaluated for hardness, thickness, friability, drug content uniformity and in vitro drug dissolution. Result: Optimized formulation obtained from the design space exhibits DT of around 70 s, while DR T95% (time required to release 95% of the drug) was about 720 min. Kinetic studies of formulations revealed that erosion is the predominant mechanism for drug release. Conclusion: From the obtained results; it was concluded that independent variables have a significant effect over the dependent responses, which can be deduced from half normal plots, pareto charts and surface response graphs. The predicted values matched well with the experimental values and the result demonstrates the feasibility of the design model in the development and optimization of HCTZ bilayered tablet.
Dholariya, Yatin N; Bansod, Yogesh B; Vora, Rahul M; Mittal, Sandeep S; Shirsat, Ajinath Eknath; Bhingare, Chandrashekhar L
Mucoadhesive chitosan (CS) and/or hydroxypropyl-methylcellulose (HPMC) tablets for gastric drug delivery of acyclovir (ACV) have been developed in order to improve the ACV oral bioavailability. Swelling, bioadhesive and dissolution studies were carried out in two acidic media (pH 1.5 and 4) in order to determine the tablets behaviour in both fed and fasted states. All the designed tablets showed good mucoadhesive properties on gastric mucosa due to the presence of CS and/or HPMC. In vitro dissolution of ACV from tablets was influenced by the swelling behaviour of each polymer. All data release of the studied tablets fitted to Hopfenberg model, which describes drug release from tablets displaying heterogeneous erosion. HPMC and CS/HPMC tablets revealed a sustained release for 24 h, but a complete dissolution of the tablets was not produced at this time. On the contrary, tablets which contained only CS as polymer were able to release the total amount of ACV for 4 h, due to the CS imbibition and erosion processes in pH 1.5 medium. These results allowed us to conclude that CS is the excipient to be chosen to obtain gastroretentive formulations, due to its demonstrated gastric compatibility. PMID:22863800
Ruiz-Caro, Roberto; Gago-Guillan, Manuel; Otero-Espinar, Francisco Javier; Veiga, María Dolores
Purpose: To compare the bioavailabil- ity of two clozapine formulations (100 mg Clozaril tablet from Novartis Pharmaceuticals UK Ltd., UK, as a Reference formulation and 100 mg Cloril tablet from Atlantic Laboratories Corp., Ltd., Thailand, as a Test formulation). The present study was conducted under real-life conditions in schizophrenic patients using a steady-state, multiple-dose, randomized crossover design to avoid the
Wongwiwat Tassaneeyakul; Suda Vannaprasaht; Arporn Tawalee; Siriporn Tiamkao; Veerapol Kukongviriyapan; Khon Kaen
Aims To examine the variation in the content of ecstasy tablets seized in the north-west of England during 2001 and to compare it to the UK average from 1991 to 2001. Measurements All tablets submitted to the Forensic Science Service in the north-west of England during 2001 were analysed by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). The
Jon C. Cole; Mike Bailey; Harry R. Sumnall; Graham F. Wagstaff; Les A. King
A randomized, two-way, crossover, bioequivalence study was conducted in 26 fasting, healthy, male volunteers to compare two brands of citalopram 40 mg tablets, Citol (Abdi Ibrahim ?laç San. ve Tic A.?., Istanbul, Turkey) as a test and Cipramil® (H. Lundbeck A\\/S, Copenhagen, Denmark) as a reference product. One tablet of either formulation was administered with low-carbonate water after 10 h
Luis Mendoza; Marián Hajdúchb; Hana Kekulováa; Xenia Svobodová; Vladimír Mihálb; Michal Svoboda; M. Hajdúch; V. Mihál
This thesis includes three essays. The first two essays show that after the unification in Italy there was a great degree of monetary, economic and financial disintegration. Essay 1 concentrates on one aspect of monetary disintegration: the persistence of local pre-unification currencies. The persistence of the paper ducats as medium of exchange and stores of value in the southern regions
Pia Di Girolamo
The aim of this study is to assess the quality of Valzan® tablet (160 mg, valsartan immediate release test formulation) by comparing its pharmacokinetic parameters with Diovan® tablet (160 mg, valsartan reference formulation). Valzan® tablets were prepared according to a dry granulation method (roll compaction). To assess the bioequivalence of Valzan® tablets a randomized, two-way, crossover, bioequivalence study was performed in 24 healthy male volunteers. The selected volunteers were divided into two groups of 12 subjects. One group was treated with the reference formulation (Diovan®) and the other one with the generic Valzan®, with a cross-over after the drug washout period of 14 days. Blood samples were collected at fixed time intervals and valsartan concentrations were determined by a validated HPLC assay method. The pharmacokinetic parameters AUC048, AUC0?, Cmax, Tmax, Ke and T1/2 were determined for both the tablets and were compared statistically to evaluate the bioequivalence between the two brands of valsartan, using the statistical model recommended by the FDA. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) did not show any significant difference between the two formulations and 90% confidence intervals (CI) fell within the acceptable range for bioequivalence. Based on this statistical evaluation it was concluded that the test tablets (Valzan®) is well formulated, since it exhibits pharmacokinetic profile comparable to the reference brand Diovan®.
Zaid, Abdel Naser; Cortesi, Rita; Qaddomi, Aiman; Khammash, Saed
Drops subjected to strong electric fields emit charged jets from their pointed tips. The disintegration of such jets into a spray consisting of charged droplets is common to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, printing and coating processes, and raindrops in thunderclouds. Currently, there exist conflicting theories and measurements on the size and charge of these small electrospray droplets. We use theory and simulation to show that conductivity can be tuned to yield three scaling regimes for droplet radius and charge, a finding missed by previous studies. The amount of charge that electrospray droplets carry determines whether they are coulombically stable and charged below the Rayleigh limit of stability or are unstable and hence prone to further explosions once they are formed. Previous experiments reported droplet charge values ranging from 10% to in excess of . Simulations unequivocally show that electrospray droplets are coulombically stable at the instant they are created and that there exists a universal scaling law for droplet charge, .
Collins, Robert T.; Sambath, Krishnaraj; Harris, Michael T.; Basaran, Osman A.
Despite considerable research concerning drug education and zero tolerance policies, few have examined their combined youth impact. Comprehensive and nationally recognized mixed method evidence is drawn from 77 school districts and 118 schools in the Drug, Alcohol and Tobacco Education (DATE) evaluation. For the first time it is found that the combined negative impact of traditional prevention and intervention efforts--e.g., Life Skills Training (LST) and zero tolerance policies-are so serious that they extend into the wider conditions of educational achievement. Findings are explained by the social psychological processes of "disintegrative shaming," where young people are to be shamed into abstinence and experiencing or witnessing school removal rather than help when needed. With more research needed the negative effects of traditional prevention and intervention-particularly salient among disproportionately affected urban/minority youth-suggest that related efforts be reconsidered together as well as part of mainstream education. PMID:23185840
Brown, Joel H; Clarey, Amy M
Modified-release multiple-unit tablets of loratadine and pseudoephedrine hydrochloride with different release profiles were prepared from the immediate-release pellets comprising the above two drugs and prolonged-release pellets containing only pseudoephedrine hydrochloride. The immediate-release pellets containing pseudoephedrine hydrochloride alone or in combination with loratadine were prepared using extrusion-spheronization method. The pellets of pseudoephedrine hydrochloride were coated to prolong the drug release up to 12 h. Both immediate- and prolonged-release pellets were filled into hard gelatin capsule and also compressed into tablets using inert tabletting granules of microcrystalline cellulose Ceolus KG-801. The in vitro drug dissolution study conducted using high-performance liquid chromatography method showed that both multiple-unit capsules and multiple-unit tablets released loratadine completely within a time period of 2 h, whereas the immediate-release portion of pseudoephedrine hydrochloride was liberated completely within the first 10 min of dissolution study. On the other hand, the release of pseudoephedrine hydrochloride from the prolonged release coated pellets was prolonged up to 12 hr and followed zero-order release kinetic. The drug dissolution profiles of multiple-unit tablets and multiple-unit capsules were found to be closely similar, indicating that the integrity of pellets remained unaffected during the compression process. Moreover, the friability, hardness, and disintegration time of multiple-unit tablets were found to be within BP specifications. In conclusion, modified-release pellet-based tablet system for the delivery of loratadine and pseudoephedrine hydrochloride was successfully developed and evaluated. PMID:20496016
Zeeshan, Farrukh; Bukhari, Nadeem Irfan
The drug distribution on the surface of hot-melt extruded, pre-mixed hot-melt extruded and direct compressed tablet formulations was characterized by using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and confocal Raman spectroscopy. Formulations of paracetamol (PMOL) and Compritol(®) (C-888) were extruded using hot-melt extrusion at different processing temperatures and formulation compositions before being compressed into tablets. EDX and confocal Raman spectroscopy were employed to map the drug and excipient distribution, both qualitatively and quantitatively, on the surface of the tablets. The results from EDX and confocal Raman studies confirmed better uniformity and distribution of PMOL in the pre-mixed extruded formulations compared to both hot-melt extruded formulations and those obtained by means of direct compression. The quantification of the drug composition on the surface of the tablets by both EDX and confocal Raman was in good agreement with the theoretically expected values. PMID:24836664
Scoutaris, Nikolaos; Vithani, Kapilkumar; Slipper, Ian; Chowdhry, Babur; Douroumis, Dennis
A simple, non-destructive, methodology based on FT-Raman spectroscopy was developed for the quantitative analysis of risperidone in commercially available film-coated tablets. A simple linear regression model was constructed based on standard tablets, prepared using the same manufacturing process as the commercially available. The tablets contained 0.27, 0.54, 1.08, 1.62, 2.16, 3.24 and 4.32 wt% risperidone. The most prominent Raman vibration of the active pharmaceutical ingredient at 1533 cm(-1), recorded using a home-made rotating system, was plotted against concentration. The model was tested on commercial film-coated tablets. The results were compared against those obtained by application of HPLC on the same samples. PMID:18359600
Orkoula, M G; Kontoyannis, C G
This paper investigates the link between product modularity and (dis)integration. A theoretic model benchmarks relative performance of (dis)integration for different degrees of modularity. As in existing work, (nearly) modular production processes befit disintegration while non-modular ones require integration. However, modularity and disintegration only lead to greater product differentiation if there is competition. Empirical evidence is then used to investigate, whether
MARKUS MICHAEL GEIPEL; Frank Schweitzer
Background The purpose of the present work is to mask the intensely bitter taste of Itopride HCl and to formulate an Oro dispersible tablet (ODT) of the taste-masked drug by incorporation of microspheres in the tablets for use in specific populations viz. pediatrics, geriatrics and patients experiencing difficulty in swallowing. Methods With this objective in mind, microspheres loaded with Itopride HCl were prepared by solvent evaporation method using acetone as solvent for pH-sensitive polymer, Eudragit EPO and light liquid paraffin as the encapsulating medium. The prepared microspheres were characterized with regard to yield, drug content, flow properties, particle size and size distribution, surface features, in vitro drug release and taste. The ODTs so prepared from these microspheres were evaluated for hardness, thickness, weight variation, friability, disintegration time, drug content, wetting time, water absorption ratio, moisture uptake, in vitro dispersion, in vitro disintegration, in vitro drug release and stability. Results The average size of microspheres was found to be satisfactory in terms of the size and size distribution. Microspheres prepared were of a regular spherical shape. Comparison of the dissolution profiles of microspheres in different pH media showed that microspheres having drug: polymer ratio of 1:2 produced a retarding effect in simulated salivary fluid (pH 6.8) and were further used for formulation into ODTs after addition of suitable amounts of excipients such as superdisintegrant, diluent, sweetener and flavor of directly compressible grade. Conclusions Effective taste-masking was achieved for Itopride HCl by way of preparation of microspheres and ODTs of acceptable characteristics.
...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Enrofloxacin tablets. 520.812 Section 520...FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS Â§ 520.812 Enrofloxacin tablets. (a) Specifications...68.0, or 136.0 milligrams of enrofloxacin. (b) Sponsor. See No....
...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enrofloxacin tablets. 520.812 Section 520...FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS Â§ 520.812 Enrofloxacin tablets. (a) Specifications...68.0, or 136.0 milligrams of enrofloxacin. (b) Sponsor. See No....
Tablet computers offer a new method of information management in veterinary medical education. With the tablet computer, students can annotate class notes using electronic ink, search for keywords, and convert handwriting to text as needed. Additional electronic learning resources, such as medical dictionaries and electronic textbooks, can be readily available. Eleven first-year veterinary students purchased tablet computers and participated in an investigation of their working methods and perceptions of the tablet computer as an educational tool. Most students found the technology useful. The small size and portability of the tablet allowed easy transport and use in a variety of environments. Most students adapted to electronic notetaking by the second week of classes; negative experiences with the tablet centered on a failure to become comfortable with taking notes and navigating on the computer as opposed to writing and searching on paper. A few performance-related problems, including short battery life, were reported. Tablet software allowed conversion of faculty course notes from a variety of original formats, meaning that instructors could maintain their original methods of note preparation. Adopting a consistent naming convention for files helped students to locate the files on their computers, and smaller file sizes helped with computer performance. Collaboration between students was fostered by tablet use, which offers possibilities for future development of collaborative learning environments. PMID:15834829
Eurell, Jo Ann C; Diamond, Nancy A; Buie, Brandon; Grant, David; Pijanowski, Gerald J
...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lufenuron tablets. 520.1288 Section 520...FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS Â§ 520.1288 Lufenuron tablets. (a) Specifications ...204.9, or 409.8 milligrams (mg) lufenuron for use as in paragraphs...
...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Lufenuron tablets. 520.1288 Section 520...FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS Â§ 520.1288 Lufenuron tablets. (a) Specifications ...204.9, or 409.8 milligrams (mg) lufenuron for use as in paragraphs...
Tablet PCs have the potential to change the dynamics of classroom interaction through wireless communication coupled with pen-based computing technology that is suited for analyzing and solving engineering problems. This study focuses on how tablet PCs and wireless technology can be used during classroom instruction to create an Interactive
Enriquez, Amelito G.
Like many educators, the author and her colleagues (five faculty members and two IT techs) in the department of Media Communications and Technology at East Stroudsburg University in Pennsylvania were interested to find out the status of tablet PCs in education. Microsoft listed 10 manufacturers of tablet PCs following two forms: the slate and the
For the treatment of chronic inflammation in the oral cavity, we attempted to develop bioadhesive tablets of bovine lactoferrin (B-LF) which has antibacterial properties and immune regulatory functions. B-LF tablets containing pectin, tamarind gum or carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) were prepared by direct compression. Tablets consisting of B-LF, pectin and xylitol passed through 60- or 100-mesh sieves were also prepared. The tablets containing CMC had insufficient bioadhesive force. Although the tablets containing tamarind gum showed the longest residence time in the oral cavity, an unpleasant taste gradually developed. The tablets containing pectin showed the highest value of bioadhesive force and the taste was acceptable. The characteristics of the B-LF tablets were improved by adding an appropriate amount of xylitol and using the ingredients sieved by a 100-mesh sieve. The therapeutic effect was evaluated by using rats with an ulcer on the oral mucosa. In the present study, swelling on the periphery of the ulcer was observed after administration of the B-LF tablets, and then the ulcer has reduced overall. PMID:17600641
Takahashi, Y; Takeda, C; Seto, I; Kawano, G; Machida, Y
Tablet coating thicknesses were estimated using several techniques such as weight gain and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), in comparison with acoustic microscopy and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Acoustic microscopy, used for the first time in such an application, is based on the physical phenomenon of ultrasound propagation through the materials and the echoes generated by their interfaces. Based on the time of flights (TOFs) of the echoes from the coating surface and the tablet, it is possible to calculate the coating thickness. In order to evaluate the accuracy and robustness of these methods, drug tablets were coated with Kollicoat SR polymer for several times, so that to prepare tablets with different coating thicknesses. Tablets with 3, 6 and 9 wt% coating material have been prepared and based on SEM micrographs it was found that the tablet coating thickness is 71.99 ± 1.2 ?m, 92.5 ± 1.7 ?m and 132.3 ± 2.1 ?m, respectively (SEM analysis). The tablet coating thicknesses measured with acoustic microscopy and infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, were in agreement with those obtained using SEM. This verifies that both techniques can be successfully applied for real time and non-destructive thickness measurements of tablet coating. Furthermore, both techniques, compared with SEM and weight gained measurements, are fast and fully automated. PMID:22982166
Bikiaris, D; Koutri, I; Alexiadis, D; Damtsios, A; Karagiannis, G
A comparative investigation of the surface properties of starch powders from three species of yam (Dioscorea spp.) was conducted, using corn starch BP as reference standard, with a view to assessing their usefulness as ingredients of tablets\\/capsule formulations.Significant differences were observed in the physicomechanical properties of the starches obtained from the various yam species. Granular diameter ranged from 5.4 ?m (Chinese
Cliff K. Riley; Sarafadeen A. Adebayo; Andrew O. Wheatley; Helen N. Asemota
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of lactobacilli on vaginal health and proinflammatory cytokines. Sixty-seven patients with bacterial vaginosis (BV), 50 with intermediate flora and 42 with normal vaginal flora were enrolled in this double-blind study. The subjects were randomized to receive probiotic lactobacilli vaginal tablets (L. brevis CD2, L. salivarius subsp. salicinius, L. plantarum) or the vaginal pH tablet (active comparator). Cervico-vaginal lavage was collected to measure the concentrations of IL-1?, TNF? and IL-6 by ELISA. Neutral sphingomyelinase activity was also quantified in both arms before and after treatment. The probiotic vaginal tablet was well tolerated and no side effects were reported. The study demonstrated a cure rate of nearly 80 %; i.e., 32 % of the women could restore normal vaginal flora and 47 % had improved Nugent score, whereas 20 % of the subjects did not clear BV in the first follow-up (after 8 days treatment). The pH tablet containing pH lowering compounds induced resolution of BV and restoration of normal vaginal flora in 74 % and 26 %, respectively. The lactobacilli tablet was found to be better than the pH tablet in preventing BV in healthy subjects. A significant reduction in IL-1? and IL-6 vaginal cytokines was observed after treatment with lactobacilli, while the active comparator did not have any effect on local proinflammatory cytokines. Vaginal neutral sphingomyelinase activity was not modified in either group. Vaginal tablets containing lactobacilli can cure BV and reduce vaginal inflammatory response. PMID:22777592
Hemalatha, R; Mastromarino, P; Ramalaxmi, B A; Balakrishna, N V; Sesikeran, B
Summary The pharmacokinetics and relative bioavailability of fluoxetine capsules (reference) and tablets (test) were compared in 24\\u000a healthy subjects of both sexes after a single 20 mg oral dose of fluoxetine (as a hydrochloride salt).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a A randomized, crossover design with a 2-week wash-out period between each dose was applied. Serum samples, obtained before\\u000a dosing and at various appropriate time points up
D. Jovanovi?; V. KILIBARDAI; S. DORDEVICI; M. JOVANOVICz; J. JOVIC-STOSICz; D. Srdi?; T. Kneevi?
Electrochemical method with salt as electrolyte has been studied to disintegrate the graphite matrix from the simulative high temperature gas-cooled reactor fuel elements. Ammonium nitrate was experimentally chosen as the appropriate electrolyte. The volume average diameter of disintegrated graphite fragments is about 100?m and the maximal value is less than 900?m. After disintegration, the weight of graphite is found to
Lifang Tian; Mingfen Wen; Linyan Li; Jing Chen
A quality control assessment of five brands of metformin hydrochloride tablets marketed in Nigeria [Glucophage (R) (Merck, Quetta), Metformin BDC (Bangkok labs, Bangkok), Metformin (Medopharm, India), Glucophage (R) (Ilsan), Glucophage (Lipha)] was carried out in order to determine the brands that are interchangeable or switchable. The disintegration time, dissolution rate and absolute drug content were determined in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF) without enzymes. The weight uniformity and hardness tests were also performed according to the official methods. A variation of the concept of dissolution efficiency (DE), known as predicted availability equivalent (PAE), was used to predict the likely in vivo bioavailability. Our results showed that all the five brands passed the uniformity of weight and disintegration tests. Dissolution efficiency was found to be higher in SGF than in SIF. In SGF, all the brands were bioequivalent. In SIF, all the brands, except Medopharm, were also bioequivalent. The study showed that four brands of metformin hydrochloride (Merck, BDC, Lipha and Ilsan) marketed in Nigeria are of acceptable standards and hence BDC, Lipha and Ilsan brands of glucophage are interchangeable with the innovator drug, glucophage R (Merck). PMID:15255340
Osadebe, P O; Akabogu, I C
Interaction between fed gastric media (Ensure Plus®) and different hypromellose based caffeine controlled release tablets: comparison and mechanistic study of caffeine release in fed and fasted media versus water using the USP dissolution apparatus 3.
The aim of the study was to investigate caffeine release in fed and fasted state media from three controlled release matrix tablets containing different HPMC viscosity grades. The biorelevant in vitro dissolution methods utilize the USP 3 dissolution apparatus and biorelevant media to simulate fed and fasted gastro-intestinal dissolution conditions. The effect of tablet reciprocation rate (dip speed) in dissolution media (10 and 15 dips per minute) and media (water, fed and fasted) on caffeine release rate from - and erosion rate of - 100, 4000 and 15,000 mPa s HPMC viscosity tablets was investigated using factorial designed experiments. Furthermore, the mechanism of release in Ensure Plus(®), a nutrition drink similar in composition to the FDA standard meal, was investigated by studying tablet swelling using texture analysis. Altering dip speed has negligible effect on release and erosion rates. Using fasted media instead of water slightly decreases caffeine release from 100 and 4000 mPa s HPMC viscosity tablets as well as erosion rates, while 15,000 mPa s tablets remain unaffected. Fed compared to fasted media decreases caffeine release rate, and the food effect is greater for the 100 mPa s viscosity tablets compared to the 4000 and 15,000 mPa s viscosity tablets. The investigation using texture analysis indicates that Ensure Plus(®) becomes rate-limiting for caffeine release from HPMC tablets by forming a hydrophobic barrier around the tablets. The barrier decreases tablet water permeation, which decreases erosion rate in 100 mPa s viscosity tablets, swelling in 15,000 mPa s viscosity tablets and caffeine release from both tablets. This observed interaction between Ensure Plus(®) and the HPMC tablets may translate into decreased drug release rate in the fed stomach, which may decrease the amount of drug available for absorption in the small intestine and thus reduce systemic drug exposure and maximum plasma concentration. PMID:24342711
Franek, Frans; Holm, Per; Larsen, Frank; Steffansen, Bente
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of lipophilic (Compritol® 888 ATO) and hydrophilic components (combination of HPMC and Avicel) on the release of carbamazepine from granules and corresponding tablet. Wet granulation followed by compression was employed for preparation of granules and tablets. The matrix swelling behavior was investigated. The dissolution profiles of each formulation were compared to those of Tegretol® CR tablets and the mean dissolution time (MDT), dissolution efficiency (DE %) and similarity factor (f2 factor) were calculated. It was found that increase in the concentration of HPMC results in reduction in the release rate from granules and achievement of zero-order is difficult from the granules. The amount of HPMC plays a dominant role for the drug release. The release mechanism of CBZ from matrix tablet formulations follows non-Fickian diffusion shifting to case II by the increase of HPMC content, indicating significant contribution of erosion. Increasing in drug loading resulted in acceleration of the drug release and in anomalous controlled-release mechanism due to delayed hydration of the tablets. These results suggest that wet granulation followed by compression could be a suitable method to formulate sustained release CBZ tablets.
Elbagory, Ibrahim M.; Almurshedi, Alanood S.
This study aimed to develop and evaluate a novel multi-unit tablet that combined a pellet with a sustained-release coating and a tablet with a pulsatile coating for the treatment of circadian rhythm diseases. The model drug, isosorbide-5-mononitrate, was sprayed on microcrystalline cellulose (MCC)-based pellets and coated with Eudragit(®) NE30D, which served as a sustained-release layer. The coated pellets were compressed with cushion agents (a mixture of MCC PH-200/ MCC KG-802/PC-10 at a ratio of 40:40:20) at a ratio of 4:6 using a single-punch tablet machine. An isolation layer of OpadryII, swellable layer of HPMC E5, and rupturable layer of Surelease(®) were applied using a conventional pan-coating process. Central-composite design-response surface methodology was used to investigate the influence of these coatings on the square of the difference between release times over a 4 h time period. Drug release studies were carried out on formulated pellets and tablets to investigate the release behaviors, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to monitor the pellets and tablets and their cross-sectional morphology. The experimental results indicated that this system had a pulsatile dissolution profile that included a lag period of 4 h and a sustained-release time of 4 h. Compared to currently marketed preparations, this tablet may provide better treatment options for circadian rhythm diseases. PMID:23649996
Liu, Qi; Gong, Yinhua; Shi, Yun; Jiang, Liqun; Zheng, Chunli; Ge, Liang; Liu, Jianping; Zhu, Jiabi
Panax notoginseng saponin (PNS) is the main active gradient of Chinese traditional medicine Panax notoginseng. Although its prominent therapeutic efficacy has been demonstrated by various researchers, the broader application is restricted by the low bioavailability of PNS. This article aims to discuss PNS's plasma pharmacokinetics after oral administration of bio-adhesive tablet of PNS to beagle dogs and improve its bioavailability in comparison with normal tablet. The bio-adhesive tablet was prepared according to our previous patent, using chitosan as main excipient. A simple and sensitive LC-MS/MS combined with solid-phase extraction (SPE) method for the analysis of PNS in dog's plasma was developed in our previous study, and was validated to apply in the pharmacokinetics study in this work. Three ingredients: Notoginsenoside R1 (R1), Ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1) and Ginsenoside Rb1 (Rb1) (Figure 1), were chosen as indicators of PNS to analyze it in vivo. Statistically significant increase (P < 0.05) in pharmacokinetic parameters of PNS including AUC and Tmax for R1, Rg1 and Rb1, Cmax for R1 and Rb1, MRT for Rg1 were obtained after oral administration of bio-adhesive tablet of PNS comparing with its normal tablet. The formulation modification of using chitosan to prepare bio-adhesive tablet for oral administration is effective in improving the bioavailability of PNS, thereby enhancing its potential therapeutic effect and broadening its clinical application.
The aim of this work is to improve the oral bioavailability of poorly water soluble drug, simvastatin (SV) through combining the advantages of self-nanoemulsifying systems (SNEs) and tablets. Ternary phase diagram was constructed using Labrafil, Tween 80 and Transcutol, in order to evaluate self-nanoemulsification domain. The particle size distribution and zeta potential of the prepared systems were evaluated using Malvern Zetasizer. Liquisolid powders were prepared using Aeroperl(®) as a coating material and Avicel(®) or Starch 1500 as carrier materials, the powder flow properties were then evaluated. Compressed SV SNE based tablets were evaluated regarding their physical characteristics, in-vitro release properties as well as in-vivo pharmacokinetic evaluation in six healthy human volunteers using a validated LC/MS/MS method. The in-vitro release results revealed that the developed SNE based tablets improved the release of SV significantly, compared to commercially available SV tablets (Zocor(®)). The optimal SV SNE tablet formulation was S3St10 (10% Labrafil, 60% Tween 80, and 30% Transcutol). The in-vivo evaluation of S3St10 revealed that rapid and enhanced absorption of SV could be obtained from the SNE based tablet, with a 1.5 fold increase in bioavailability than that obtained after administration of Zocor(®). Hence such an approach could be promising in improving the bioavailability of SV. PMID:22468935
Abdelbary, Ghada; Amin, Maha; Salah, Salwa
Risedronate sodium is an orally active antiresorptive agent and a member of the pyridinyl class of bisphosphonates. It has been approved for the treatment of Paget's disease of the bone and is under development as a chronic therapy for the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis. A novel cellulose film-coated tablet formulation was developed to optimize esophageal transit of this bisphosphonate. The aim of the present study was to compare the esophageal transit of the film-coated tablet formulation of risedronate with its original gelatin capsule dose form. A total of 25 elderly, healthy volunteers (mean 66 years), who were dysphagia-free, participated in this randomized cross-over study. On separate occasions, volunteers swallowed radiolabeled placebo formulations with 50 ml water. Dynamic images with participants in a sitting position were recorded for 10 min using a gamma camera. Scintigraphic imaging showed a delay in esophageal transit (greater than 15 s) in 28% of patients in the capsule group but in none of the tablet group (P<0.05). The mean transit times of the capsules and tablets were 23.8 and 3.3 s, respectively. Esophageal transit of film-coated tablets was faster than gelatin capsules, suggesting that film-coated tablets would be the appropriate formulation for all pivotal trials with risedronate and for subsequent commercialization. PMID:10486435
Perkins, A C; Wilson, C G; Frier, M; Vincent, R M; Blackshaw, P E; Dansereau, R J; Juhlin, K D; Bekker, P J; Spiller, R C
Background: Oral sustained release gastroretentive dosage forms offer many advantages for drugs having absorption from upper gastrointestinal tract and improve the bioavailability of medications that are characterized by narrow absorption window. The aim of current study was to design sustained release bioadhesive gastroretentive dosage form of ofloxacin. Materials and Methods: A 32 full factorial design was employed to systematically study the drug release profile and bioadhesive strength. Carbopol 934P and HPMC K100M were selected as the independent variables. Compatibility between drug and polymer was tested by fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. Tablets were prepared by direct compression and were evaluated for tablet characteristics, swelling study, adhesion strength, percent drug released, radiographic imaging study and stability study. The optimized formulation was then compared with marketed formulation (Oflin OD®). Results: Tablets prepared showed good tablet characteristics, optimum swelling property, and good adhesion strength with high detachment force. Most of the formulations including the optimized formulation followed Higuchi kinetics and the drug release mechanism was found to be anomalous. Radiographic image proved that tablet remains intact in its structural integrity and shape in stomach up to 24 h. The short-term accelerated stability testing was carried out for the optimized formulation, and results revealed that drug content, in-vitro dissolution and all other parameters were within acceptable limits. Conclusion: Thus, the prepared bioadhesive gastroretentive ofloxacin tablet may prove to be a potential candidate which increases the bioavailability of ofloxacin for any intragastric condition.
Gangurde, Hemant H; Chordiya, Mayur A; Tamizharasi, S; Senthilkumaran, K; Sivakumar, T
The aim of the current work was the design and evaluation of etodolac controlled porosity osmotic pump (CPOP) tablets exhibiting zero-order release kinetics. Variables influencing the design of (1) core tablets viz., (a) osmogent type (sodium chloride, potassium chloride, mannitol, and fructose) and (b) drug/osmogent ratio (1:0.25, 1:0.50, and 1:0.75), and (2) CPOP tablets viz., (a) coating solution composition, (b) weight gain percentage (1-5%, w/w), and (c) pore former concentration (5%, 10%, and 20%, v/v), were investigated. Statistical analysis and kinetic modeling of drug release data were estimated. Fructose-containing core tablets showed significantly (P < 0.05) more retarded drug release rates. An inverse correlation was observed between drug/fructose ratio and drug release rate. Coating of the optimum core tablets (F4) with a mixture of cellulose acetate solution (3%, w/v), diethyl phthalate, and polyethylene glycol 400 (85:10:5, v/v, respectively) till a 4% w/w weight gain enabled zero-order sustained drug delivery over 24 h. Scanning electron microscopy micrographs of coating membrane confirmed pore formation upon contact with dissolution medium. When compared to the commercial immediate-release Napilac® capsules, the optimum CPOP tablets (F4-34) provided enhanced bioavailability and extended duration of effective etodolac plasma concentration with minimum expected potential for side effects in healthy volunteers. PMID:21479749
Abd-Elbary, Ahmed; Tadros, Mina Ibrahim; Alaa-Eldin, Ahmed Adel
The aim of this study was to formulate extended release compression coated core tablets of fenoterol hydrobromide, a selective beta(2) adrenergic receptor agonist, in an attempt to prevent nocturnal asthma. Two hydrophilic polymers viz Kollidon SR, Polyox WSR 303 and a hydrophobic one (Precirol ATO5) were employed. Compression coated tablets were formulated by preparing a core tablet containing 7.5 mg drug and various amounts of polymer and Emcompress then compressed coated with the same polymeric materials. For comparison purpose different matrix tablets were also prepared employing the same polymers. In-vitro release studies were carried out at different pH (1.2 and 6.8). Pharmacokinetics of extended release tablets as well as commercially available immediate release tablets (Berotec) were studied after oral administration to beagle dogs using a new developed LC-MS/MS method with a lower limit of quantification of 1 ng/ml. Fenoterol release from compression coated tablets was significantly lower than matrix tablets. The mechanism of release was changed with the nature and content of polymer. The release pattern of drug from F16 containing 40 mg Kollidon SR divided in the core tablet (15 mg) and the rest in the compressed coat (25 mg) showed a typical zero order release kinetic that could extend drug release >10 h and reasonable time for 75% to be released (t(75)) (8.92 h). When compared to immediate release Berotec tablet the MRT was significantly extended from 7.03 +/- 0.76 to 10.93 +/- 1.25 h (P < 0.001) and HVD(t 50%Cmax) was also significantly extended from 2.71 +/- 0.68 to 6.81 +/- 0.67 h with expected prevention of nocturnal asthma. PMID:18770048
Elshafeey, Ahmed H; Sami, Elshaimaa I
The aim of this study was to formulate extended release compression coated core tablets of fenoterol hydrobromide, a selective ?2 adrenergic receptor agonist, in an attempt to prevent nocturnal asthma. Two hydrophilic polymers viz Kollidon® SR, Polyox® WSR 303 and a hydrophobic one (Precirol® ATO5) were employed. Compression coated tablets were formulated by preparing a core tablet containing 7.5 mg drug and various amounts of polymer and Emcompress® then compressed coated with the same polymeric materials. For comparison purpose different matrix tablets were also prepared employing the same polymers. In-vitro release studies were carried out at different pH (1.2 and 6.8). Pharmacokinetics of extended release tablets as well as commercially available immediate release tablets (Berotec®) were studied after oral administration to beagle dogs using a new developed LC-MS/MS method with a lower limit of quantification of 1 ng/ml. Fenoterol release from compression coated tablets was significantly lower than matrix tablets. The mechanism of release was changed with the nature and content of polymer. The release pattern of drug from F16 containing 40 mg Kollidon® SR divided in the core tablet (15 mg) and the rest in the compressed coat (25 mg) showed a typical zero order release kinetic that could extend drug release >10 h and reasonable time for 75% to be released (t75) (8.92 h). When compared to immediate release Berotec® tablet the MRT was significantly extended from 7.03?±?0.76 to 10.93?±?1.25 h (P?0.001) and HVDt 50%Cmax was also significantly extended from 2.71?±?0.68 to 6.81?±?0.67 h with expected prevention of nocturnal asthma.
Sami, Elshaimaa I.
Purpose. To evaluate the influence of co-administered vehicles on in vitro dissolution in simulated gastric fluid of crushed immediate release tablets as an indicator for potential drug bioavailability compromise. Methods. Release and dissolution of crushed amlodipine, atenolol, carbamazepine and warfarin tablets were tested with six foods and drinks that are frequently used in the clinical setting as mixers for crushed medications (water, orange juice, honey, yoghurt, strawberry jam and water thickened with Easythick powder) in comparison to whole tablets. Five commercial thickening agents (Easythick Advanced, Janbak F, Karicare, Nutilis, Viscaid) at three thickness levels were tested for their effect on the dissolution of crushed atenolol tablets. Results. Atenolol dissolution was unaffected by mixing crushed tablets with thin fluids or food mixers in comparison to whole tablets or crushed tablets in water, but amlodipine was delayed by mixing with jam. Mixing crushed warfarin and carbamazepine tablets with honey, jam or yoghurt caused them to resemble the slow dissolution of whole tablets rather than the faster dissolution of crushed tablets in water or orange juice. Crushing and mixing any of the four medications with thickened water caused a significant delay in dissolution. When tested with atenolol, all types of thickening agents at the greatest thickness significantly restricted dissolution, and products that are primarily based on xanthan gum also delayed dissolution at the intermediate thickness level. Conclusions. Dissolution testing, while simplistic, is a widely used and accepted method for comparing drug release from different formulations as an indicator for in vivo bioavailability. Thickened fluids have the potential to retard drug dissolution when used at the thickest levels. These findings highlight potential clinical implications of the addition of these agents to medications for the purpose of dose delivery and indicate that further investigation of thickened fluids and their potential to influence therapeutic outcomes is warranted. This article is open to POST-PUBLICATION REVIEW. Registered readers (see "For Readers") may comment by clicking on ABSTRACT on the issue's contents page. PMID:24934549
Manrique-Torres, Yady Juliana; Lee, Danielle J; Islam, Faiza; Nissen, Lisa M; Cichero, Julie A Y; Stokes, Jason R; Steadman, Kathryn J
This experiment tested the hypothesis that using near-infrared (IR) imaging spectrometry on tablets through blister packs permits the identification and composition of multiple individual tablets to be determined simultaneously. Aspirin was selected for this study because its breakdown mechanism is well understood. Near-IR cameras were used to collect thousands of spectra simultaneously from a field of packaged aspirin tablets. Tablets were selected by a principal component analysis selection algorithm. Graphs of the columns of the transformation matrix showed that salicylic acid and acetylsalicylic acid in the samples were modeled by the principal components. The bootstrap error-adjusted single-sample technique chemometric-imaging algorithm was used to draw probability-density contour plots that revealed tablet composition. Choice of color was used to represent constituent identity, whereas intensity represented concentration. The percentage of usable pixels in the indium antimonide (InSb) array was 99.9%. The SEP was 0.06% of the tablet mass for both water uptake and salicylic acid production. The number of tablets that a typical near-IR camera can currently analyze simultaneously was also estimated to be approximately 1300. PMID:14727884
Malik, I; Poonacha, M; Moses, J; Lodder, R A
The terahertz gap has a frequency ranges from approximately 0.3 THz to approximately 10 THz in the electromagnetic spectrum which is in between microwave and infrared. The terahertz radiations are invisible to naked eye. In comparison with x-ray they are intrinsically safe, non-destructive and non-invasive. Terahertz spectroscopy enables 3D imaging of structures and materials, and the measurement of the unique spectral fingerprints of chemical and physical forms. Terahertz radiations are produced by a dendrimer based high power terahertz source and spectroscopy technologies. It resolves many of the questions left unanswered by complementary techniques, such as optical imaging, Raman and infrared spectra. In the pharmaceutical industries it enables nondestructive, internal, chemical analysis of tablets, capsules, and other dosage forms. Tablet coatings are a major factor in drug bioavailability. Therefore tablet coatings integrity and uniformity are of crucial importance to quality. Terahertz imaging gives an unparalleled certainty about the integrity of tablet coatings and the matrix performance of tablet cores. This article demonstrates the potential of terahertz pulse imaging for the analysis of tablet coating thickness by illustrating the technique on tablets. PMID:20490288
Wagh, M P; Sonawane, Y H; Joshi, O U
Bulk metallic glasses are new class of engineering materials that exhibit high resistance to crystallization in the under cooled liquid state. The development of bulk metallic glasses of thickness 1cm or less has opened new doors for fundamental studies of both liquid state and glass transition previously not feasible in metallic materials. Moreover, bulk metallic glasses exhibit superior hardness, strength, specific strength, and elastic strain limit, along with good corrosion and wear resistance. Thus they are potential candidates in various sports, structural, engineering and medical applications. Among several BMGs investigated, magnesium-based BMGs have attracted considerable attention because of their low density and superior mechanical properties. The major drawback of this magnesium based BMGs is poor ductility. This can be overcome by the addition of ductile particles/reinforcement to the matrix. In this study, a new technique named disintegrated melt deposition technique was used to synthesize magnesium based BMGs. Rods of different sizes are cast using the current method. Mechanical characterization studies revealed that the amorphous rods produced by the current technique showed superior mechanical properties.
Shanthi, M. [Sch. of Mech. and Aerospace Eng., Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Gupta, M. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Jarfors, A. E. W. [Sch. of Mech. and Aerospace Eng., Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology, Singapore 638075 (Singapore); Tan, M. J. [Sch. of Mech. and Aerospace Eng., Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)
Short-period rocky extrasolar planets can have dayside temperatures surpassing 2000K, hot enough to sublimate rock and create a high-metallicity atmosphere. This atmosphere can escape via a thermal wind. As the atmosphere expands and cools, micron-sized dust can recondense out of the escaping high-Z gas. Dust absorbs a fraction of the incident starlight and heats the gas by gas-grain collisions. We present a hydrodynamic model of atmospheric escape from low-mass rocky planets that includes tidal gravity, variable grain condensation, and realistic heating and cooling of gas. We find that the mass loss rate depends so strongly on planet mass that the planet can lose the majority of its primordial mass within the last 1% of its lifetime. This calculation is of interest in light of the recently discovered planet candidate KIC 12557548b in the Kepler data. Stellar occultations for this source occur every 15.7 hours but vary in depth from a maximum of 1.3% to less than 0.2% in an apparently stochastic fashion. This source may represent a disintegrating rocky planet in its final death throes. Occultations are not caused by the planet itself, but by a time-variable dusty outflow enshrouding the planet. Our radiative/hydrodynamic calculations further secure this interpretation and give a planet mass 5 Gyr ago of 0.07 M?, and a mass of 0.01 M? today.
Chiang, Eugene; Perez-Becker, D.
The objectives of this study were to develop morphine sulfate sustained-release tablet formulations and to evaluate the bioequivalence\\u000a compared with a commercial brand. The physicochemical properties of the formulated and commercial tablets were determined\\u000a and compared. The bioequivalence investigation was carried out in 15 healthy male volunteers who received a single dose in\\u000a a randomized two-way crossover design. After dosing,
Detpon Preechagoon; Viroj Sumyai; Suvatna Chulavatnatol; Poj Kulvanich; Thanee Tessiri; Khanittha Tontisirin; Thaned Pongjanyakul; Verawan Uchaipichat; Sirikul Aumpon; Chaiyasit Wongvipaporn
The forced degradation of 11 ibuprofen tablet brands was carried out according to current industry best practices. The results indicated an incompatibility between ibuprofen and two common tablet excipients (polyethylene glycol and polysorbate 80) that were observed to accelerate the degradation of ibuprofen in tablets stored for three weeks at 70°C/75% RH. Studies of binary drug/excipient samples supported the conclusion. One degradant that was observed at increased levels was 4-isobutylacetophenone (4-IBAP), which is a known toxin. PMID:19941407
Cory, Wendy Clevenger; Harris, Corbyn; Martinez, Sabrina
Two-piece hard shell capsules made from hypromellose (or hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, HPMC) containing carrageenan as a gelling agent have been proposed as an alternative to conventional gelatin capsules for oral drug delivery. We have previously compared the disintegration of hypromellose(carrageenan) (Quali-V(®)) and gelatin capsules (Qualicaps) in fasted human subjects using the technique of gamma scintigraphy. This second study used the same technique with both fasted and fed human subjects. Size 0 capsules were filled with powder plugs made from lactose and did not contain croscarmellose as in the original study. The capsules were separately radiolabelled with indium-111 and technetium-99m. Both capsules were administered simultaneously with 180ml water to eight healthy male subjects following an overnight fast. Each volunteer was positioned in front of the gamma camera and sequential 60s images were acquired in a continuous manner for 30min. The mean (±S.D.) disintegration time in the fasted state for the hypromellose(carrageenan) capsules was 8±2min and for gelatin 7±3min. These results were not statistically different from the data in the original study and show that the removal of the croscarmellose had no effect on the results. The mean (±S.D.) disintegration time in the fed state for the hypromellose(carrageenan) capsules was 16±5min and for the gelatin capsules was 12±4min. There was no statistical difference between the hypromellose(carrageenan) and gelatin capsules in either the fed or fasted state. PMID:22214655
Jones, B E; Basit, A W; Tuleu, C