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1

Evaluation of quick disintegrating calcium carbonate tablets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this investigation was to develop a rapidly disintegrating calcium carbonate (CC) tablet by direct compression\\u000a and compare it with commercially available calcium tablets. CC tablets were formulated on a Carver press using 3 different\\u000a forms of CC direct compressed granules (Cal-Carb 4450®, Cal-Carb 4457®, and Cal-Carb 4462®). The breaking strength was measured using a Stokes-Monsanto hardness tester.

Hector Fausett; Charles Gayser Jr; Alekha K. Dash

2000-01-01

2

Formulation design of fast disintegrating tablets using disintegrant blends.  

PubMed

In the present work, fast disintegrating tablets of prochlorperazine maleate were designed with a view to enhance patient compliance by direct compression method. In this method, crospovidone (up to 3% w/w) and croscarmellose sodium (up to 5% w/w) in combination were used as superdisintegrants. Since disintegrants complement each other, accelerating the disintegration process when used together. Estimation of prochlorperazine maleate in the prepared tablet formulations was carried out by extracting the drug with methanol and measuring the absorbance at 254.5nm. The prepared formulations were further evaluated for hardness, friability, drug content uniformity, in vitro dispersion time, wetting time and water absorption ratio. Based on in vitro dispersion time (approximately 12 s), one promising formulation was tested for in vitro drug release pattern in phosphate buffer pH 6.8 and short-term stability (at 40 degrees /70% RH for 3 mo), drug-excipient interaction (IR spectroscopy) were studied. Among the formulations tested, formulation DCPC(4) containing 5% w/w of croscarmellose sodium and 3% w/w of crospovidone as superdisintegrant emerged as the overall best (t(50%) 7.0 min) based on drug release characteristics in pH 6.8 phosphate buffer compared to commercial conventional tablet formulation (t(50%) 17.4 min). Short-term stability studies on the promising formulation indicated that there were no significant changes in drug content and in vitro dispersion time (p<0.05). PMID:20582206

Shirsand, S B; Suresh, Sarasija; Swamy, P V; Para, M S; Nagendra Kumar, D

2010-01-01

3

Fast disintegrating tablets of nisoldipine for intra-oral administration.  

PubMed

Nisoldipine is a calcium channel blocker with low and variable oral bioavailability. This was attributed to slow dissolution and presystemic metabolism. Accordingly, the objective of this work was to enhance the dissolution rate of nisoldipine to formulate fast disintegrating tablets with rapid dissolution. Binary solid dispersions (SD) were prepared for the drug with hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose E5 (HPMC), polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), Pluronic F68 or polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG 6000). SD formation increased the dissolution rate compared to pure drug with the corresponding physical mixtures failing to provide the same dissolution enhancement. This indicates that the SD enhanced dissolution is not due to the solubilizing effect of the polymer and can be due to physical change in the drug crystal which was confirmed by thermal analysis. SD with HPMC and PVP were selected for preparation of fast disintegrating tablets as they liberated most of the drug in the first 5?min. HPMC-based tablets disintegrated rapidly and released most of the drug in the first 2?min which correlated with the corresponding SD. In contrast, PVP-based tablets disintegrated slowly with gradual dissolution. This can be attributed to the binding effect of PVP. The study developed fast disintegrating tablet for intra-oral administration. PMID:23841582

El Maghraby, Gamal M; Elsergany, Ramy N

2014-09-01

4

Hordeum Vulgare Hull in the Design of Fast Disintegrating Tablets  

PubMed Central

In the present study, fast disintegrating tablets were designed with a view to enhance patient compliance. In this method, the hull of Hordeum vulgare, cross carmellose sodium, and sodium starch glycolate were used as superdisintegrants (4 and 6%), along with microcrystalline cellulose and mannitol, to enhance mouth feel. The prepared batches of tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, drug content uniformity, wetting time, water absorption ratio and in vitro dispersion time. Based on the in vitro dispersion time, the formulations were tested for the in vitro drug release pattern. Tablets having H. vulgare hull showed the release profile comparable to those tablets having sodium starch glycolate and cross carmellose sodium. PMID:21897660

Rajpurohit, H; Sharma, P; Sharma, S; Purohit, S; Bhandari, A

2011-01-01

5

Evaluation of coprocessed disintegrants produced from tapioca starch and mannitol in orally disintegrating paracetamol tablet.  

PubMed

The study evaluated two novel coprocessed excipients (with two methods) as disintegrants in an orally disintegrating paracetamol tablet formulation. The tablets produced were assessed for mechanical properties with the use of friability and tensile strength while the release properties were assessed with wetting time, water absorption ratio, disintegration time and dissolution profile. The results obtained showed that the methods of coprocessing and disintegrant incorporation influenced the activities of the disintegrants. The novel disintegrant enhanced the mechanical properties of the tablets containing them as shown by lower friability and higher tensile strength of the tablets. The result further showed that the rate and amount of water absorbed, type of disintegrant and the method of disintegrant incorporation influenced the total amount of paracetamol released. The study concluded that the novel disintegrants will be effective in the formulation of orally disintegrating paracetamol tablets. PMID:25362809

Adeoye, Oluwatomide; Alebiowu, Gbenga

2014-01-01

6

Mimosa pudica seed mucilage: isolation; characterization and evaluation as tablet disintegrant and binder.  

PubMed

In the present study Mimosa pudica seed mucilage was isolated, characterized and evaluated as tablet binder and disintegrant. Several properties of mucilage like high swelling index and gelling nature prompted us to explore its applications as disintegrating and binding agent. Disintegrant properties were evaluated by formulating directly compressed hydrochlorothiazide tablets containing 1%-10% (w/w) of seed mucilage as disintegrant and compared with the standard disintegrants. The disintegration time of mucilage containing tablets was found to be in the order of 3%>1%>5%>7.5%>10%. On comparative evaluation with standard disintegrants, it was observed that the order of disintegration of tablets was Ac-Di-Soldisintegration time studies. The binding and granulating properties of mucilage were evaluated by formulating the paracetamol tablets using the Mimosa mucilage at 6%, 8%, and 10% (w/w) concentration as the binder and compared with tablets prepared using PVP-K25 (1.7%, w/w) and acacia (6.8%, w/w) as the binder. Mimosa mucilage at 10% (w/w) concentration provided tablets with adequate hardness and friability. In conclusion, M. pudica seed mucilage is a potential tablet disintegrant and binder. PMID:23500434

Ahuja, Munish; Kumar, Ashok; Yadav, Parvinder; Singh, Kuldeep

2013-06-01

7

Effect of a Disintegration Mechanism on Wetting, Water Absorption, and Disintegration Time of Orodispersible Tablets  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of disintegration mechanism of various types of disintegrants on the absorption ratio (AR), wetting time (WT), and disintegration time (DT) of orodispersible tablets (ODTs). ODTs were prepared by direct compression using mannitol as filler and disintegrants selected from a range of swellable, osmotic, and porous disintegrants. Tablets formed were characterized for their water AR, WT, and DT. The porosity and mechanical strength of the tablets were also measured. Results show that the DT of formulated ODTs was directly related to the WT and was a function of the disintegration mechanism of the disintegrant used. The lowest WT and DT were observed for tablets formulated using the osmotic disintegrant sodium citrate and these tablets also showed the lowest AR and porosity. The wetting and disintegration of tablets containing the highly swellable disintegrant, sodium starch glycollate, was slowest despite their high water AR and high tablet porosity. Rapid wetting and disintegration of ODTs were therefore not necessarily related to the porosity of the tablets. PMID:23112534

Pabari, RM; Ramtoola, Z

2012-01-01

8

Functionality of disintegrants and their mixtures in enabling fast disintegration of tablets by a quality by design approach.  

PubMed

Investigation of the effect of disintegrants on the disintegration time and hardness of rapidly disintegrating tablets (RDTs) was carried out using a quality by design (QbD) paradigm. Ascorbic acid, aspirin, and ibuprofen, which have different water solubilities, were chosen as the drug models. Disintegration time and hardness of RDTs were determined and modeled by executing combined optimal design. The generated models were validated and used for further analysis. Sodium starch glycolate, croscarmellose sodium, and crospovidone were found to lengthen disintegration time when utilized at high concentrations. Sodium starch glycolate and crospovidone worked synergistically in aspirin RDTs to decrease disintegration time. Sodium starch glycolate-crospovidone mixtures, as well as croscarmellose sodium-crospovidone mixtures, also decreased disintegration time in ibuprofen RDTs at high compression pressures as compared to the disintegrants used alone. The use of sodium starch glycolate in RDTs with highly water soluble active ingredients like ascorbic acid slowed disintegration, while microcrystalline cellulose and crospovidone drew water into the tablet rapidly and quickened disintegration. Graphical optimization analysis demonstrated that the RDTs with desired disintegration times and hardness can be formulated with a larger area of design space by combining disintegrants at difference compression pressures. QbD was an efficient and effective paradigm in understanding formulation and process parameters and building quality in to RDT formulated systems. PMID:24848762

Desai, Parind Mahendrakumar; Er, Patrick Xuan Hua; Liew, Celine Valeria; Heng, Paul Wan Sia

2014-10-01

9

Effect of temperature and humidity on the disintegration time of packaged paracetamol tablet formulations.  

PubMed

A study of the effect of various temperature and humidity conditions on the disintegration time of different brands of packaged paracetamol tablet formulations has been made over a period of six months. Under all the storage conditions paracetamol tablets show an increase in disintegration time ranging from 9.1 to 65.5% (200 mg tablets) and 1.2 to 150.0% (500 mg tablets) on increasing the temperature from 25 to 45 degrees C (75% RH). The increase in disintegration time on increasing the temperature from 25 to 45 degrees C (100% RH) ranges from 14.3 to 157.7% (200 mg tablets) and 15.3 to 92.3% (500 mg tablets). The overall increase in disintegration time from 25-45 degrees C at 75% and 100% RH is 36.4 to 564% (200 mg tablets) and 10.0 to 140.5% (500 mg tablets) and 101.3 to 122.9% (200 mg tablets) and 2.6 to 46.8% (500 mg tablets) respectively. These results indicate that PVC/PVDC/Al foil packaging cause relatively less change in disintegration time of the tablets compared to that of the polycoated paper and viscose film. PMID:16414742

Ahmad, I; Shaikh, R H

1994-01-01

10

Fast disintegrating tablets: Opportunity in drug delivery system  

PubMed Central

Fast disintegrating tablets (FDTs) have received ever-increasing demand during the last decade, and the field has become a rapidly growing area in the pharmaceutical industry. Oral drug delivery remains the preferred route for administration of various drugs. Recent developments in the technology have prompted scientists to develop FDTs with improved patient compliance and convenience. Upon introduction into the mouth, these tablets dissolve or disintegrate in the mouth in the absence of additional water for easy administration of active pharmaceutical ingredients. The popularity and usefulness of the formulation resulted in development of several FDT technologies. FDTs are solid unit dosage forms, which disintegrate or dissolve rapidly in the mouth without chewing and water. FDTs or orally disintegrating tablets provide an advantage particularly for pediatric and geriatric populations who have difficulty in swallowing conventional tablets and capsules. This review describes various formulations and technologies developed to achieve fast dissolution/dispersion of tablets in the oral cavity. In particular, this review describes in detail FDT technologies based on lyophilization, molding, sublimation, and compaction, as well as approaches to enhancing the FDT properties, such as spray drying and use of disintegrants. In addition, taste-masking technologies, experimental measurements of disintegration times, and dissolution are also discussed. PMID:22247889

Parkash, Ved; Maan, Saurabh; Deepika; Yadav, Shiv Kumar; Hemlata; Jogpal, Vikas

2011-01-01

11

Disintegrants combination: development and optimization of a cefadroxil fast disintegrating tablet.  

PubMed

Fast Disintegrating Tablets (FDTs) is a rapidly growing dosage form preferred for special population (pediatric, geriatric and psychotic patients). It is also developed with the aim of improving bioavailability and patient compliance. During the present study, cefadroxil fast disintegrating tablets formulations (n=9) were designed and optimized by central composite design with two independent variables (croscarmellose and crospovidone) using design expert® software. The effects of independent variables on formulation properties such as friability, hardness, in vitro dispersion and disintegration were assessed by drawing response surface graphs with design expert® software. Tablets were assessed for pharmacopeial and non-pharmacopeial parameters to ensure the quality of compressed tablets. Among all formulations, F3, F8 and F9 have shown better results. The formulation F9 containing 15mg croscarmellose and 33.075mg crospovidone showed good pharmacotechnical attributes as well as shelf life. F 9 showed improved dissolution with t90% of> 2 min and will lead to better bioavailability. PMID:25176230

Rahim, Najia; Naqvi, Syed Baqir-Shyum; Bibi, Rehana; Iffat, Wajiha; Shakeel, Sadia; Muhammad, Iyad Naeem

2014-09-01

12

Tensile strength and disintegration of tableted silicified microcrystalline cellulose: influences of interparticle bonding.  

PubMed

The effects of some material variables (particle size and moisture content) on the tensile strength and disintegration time of tableted standard microcrystalline cellulose (MCC, Avicel) and a silicified brand (SMCC, Prosolv) were studied. Three particle size fractions were employed, after equilibration in three levels of environmental relative humidity (RH%), and the tensile strength and disintegration time were determined at different levels of total tablet porosity or packing fraction (p(f)). The MCC grade or silicification affects the moisture sorption and the packing during tapping as well as the particle deformation (yield pressure, P(y)) during tableting. There was a slight increase in the tensile strength but a marked increase in the disintegration time of Prosolv compared with Avicel in the p(f) range 0.7-0.9, which corresponds the range for pharmaceutical tablets. These increases are explained in terms of the range and magnitude of the interparticle forces developed and the interparticle separation. Despite the higher moisture content of Prosolv after equilibration compared with Avicel, compression of Prosolv results in higher P(y), in tablets of higher energy of interparticle bonding, longer interparticle separation, and extended disintegration compared with Avicel. The incorporated SiO(2) is thought to play the role of barrier or sink for the moisture sorbed, but only for RH up to 52%, which is a moisture content range less than twice that of tightly bound water. At higher RH (72%), the incorporated SiO(2) does not increase the P(y), but reduces the energy of interparticle bonding and the interparticle separation because of its probable saturation. The latter, in turn, results in more extended disintegration times due to reduced uptake of water into the tablets and to the probable reduction of water available for the deployment of the microcrystalline cellulose activity as disintegrant. PMID:12820153

Kachrimanis, Kyriakos; Nikolakakis, Ioannis; Malamataris, Stavros

2003-07-01

13

Comparative disintegrant activities of breadfruit starch and official corn starch  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Comparative evaluation of starch powder extracted from breadfruit (Artocarpus communis, Frost) as tablet disintegrant was made with corn starch BP using a 2×4 factorial experiment in a randomized complete block design. Two factors (type of starch: 2 i.e. breadfruit and corn) at four levels (concentrations of starch disintegrant: 4 i.e. 2.5%, 5%, 7.5% and 10%) were studied. One (1)

Sarafadeen A. Adebayo; Eugenie Brown-Myrie; Oludele A. Itiola

2008-01-01

14

Tablet disintegration studied by high-resolution real-time magnetic resonance imaging.  

PubMed

The present work employs recent advances in high-resolution real-time magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to investigate the disintegration process of tablets containing disintegrants. A temporal resolution of 75 ms and a spatial resolution of 80 × 80 µm with a section thickness of only 600 µm were achieved. The histograms of MRI videos were quantitatively analyzed with MATLAB. The mechanisms of action of six commercially available disintegrants, the influence of relative tablet density, and the impact of disintegrant concentration were examined. Crospovidone seems to be the only disintegrant acting by a shape memory effect, whereas the others mainly swell. A higher relative density of tablets containing croscarmellose sodium leads to a more even distribution of water within the tablet matrix but hardly impacts the disintegration kinetics. Increasing the polacrilin potassium disintegrant concentration leads to a quicker and more thorough disintegration process. Real-time MRI emerges as valuable tool to visualize and investigate the process of tablet disintegration. PMID:24475490

Quodbach, Julian; Moussavi, Amir; Tammer, Roland; Frahm, Jens; Kleinebudde, Peter

2014-01-01

15

Effects of Magnesium Hydroxide on Disintegration Time and Dissolution Rate of Diclofenac Sodium Plain Tablet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of magnesium hydroxide (MH) on disintegration time (DT) and dissolution profile of diclofenac sodium (DS) plain tablet. The tablets of DS were formulated with conventionally used excipients and investigational agent Mg (OH) 2 . Different parameters of tablets like hardness, thickness, friability, and disintegration time and dissolution rate were determined

Miazi MMH; Choudhury MMA; Rahman MH

2007-01-01

16

Development and evaluation of orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) containing Ibuprofen granules prepared by hot melt extrusion.  

PubMed

In the current study Ibuprofen was embedded in a methacrylate copolymer (Eudragit® EPO) matrix to produce solid dispersions by hot-melt extrusion (HME) processing. The obtained granules were incorporated in orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs). The tablets were developed by varying the ratio of superdisintegrants such as sodium croscarmellose and crosslinked polyvinylpyrrolidone grades while a direct compression process was used to compress the ODTs under various compaction forces to optimize tablet robustness. The properties of the compressed tablets which included porosity, hardness, friability and dissolution profiles were further evaluated and compared with Nurofen® Meltlet ODTs. The taste and sensory evaluation in human volunteers demonstrated excellence in masking the bitter active and improved tablet palatability. PMID:21592751

Gryczke, Andreas; Schminke, Silke; Maniruzzaman, Mohammed; Beck, Julien; Douroumis, Dennis

2011-09-01

17

Preparation of cross-linked carboxymethyl jackfruit starch and evaluation as a tablet disintegrant.  

PubMed

The main purposes of this study are to prepare cross-linked carboxymethyl jackfruit starch (CL-CMJF) and to evaluate its pharmaceutical property as a tablet disintegrant. CL-CMJF was prepared by a dual carboxymethyl-crosslinking reaction in a flask containing jackfruit seed starch (JFS), chloroacetic acid (CAA), sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium trimetaphosphate (STMP). The reaction was carried out using methanol as a solvent for 60 min at 70°C and at JFS:CAA:NaOH:STMP ratio of 1.0:0.29:0.28:0.07. The obtained CL-CMJF, with degree of substitution and degree of crosslinking calculated to be 0.34 and 0.06, respectively, was insoluble but swellable in water. Rheological study revealed a decreased in solution viscosity compared to the non-crosslinked CMJF. The water uptake of CL-CMJF was 23 times higher than that of native starch and was comparable to that of a commercial superdisintegrant, sodium starch glycolate (SSG). The swelling ability of CL-CMRS was similar to that of crosscarmellose sodium (CCS), another commercial superdisintegrant. Disintegration test of aspirin tablets containing 2%w/w of JFS, CL-CMJF, SSG and CCS showed disintegration times in the order of SSG < CCS ~ CL-CMJF < JFS. The results suggested that CL-CMJF could be developed as a tablet disintegrant. PMID:21959799

Kittipongpatana, Nisit; Suwakon, Janta; Kittipongpatana, Ornanong

2011-10-01

18

Stability of benzocaine formulated in commercial oral disintegrating tablet platforms.  

PubMed

Pharmaceutical excipients contain reactive groups and impurities due to manufacturing processes that can cause decomposition of active drug compounds. The aim of this investigation was to determine if commercially available oral disintegrating tablet (ODT) platforms induce active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) degradation. Benzocaine was selected as the model API due to known degradation through ester and primary amino groups. Benzocaine was either compressed at a constant pressure, 20 kN, or at pressure necessary to produce a set hardness, i.e., where a series of tablets were produced at different compression forces until an average hardness of approximately 100 N was achieved. Tablets were then stored for 6 months under International Conference on Harmonization recommended conditions, 25°C and 60% relative humidity (RH), or under accelerated conditions, 40°C and 75% RH. Benzocaine degradation was monitored by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Regardless of the ODT platform, no degradation of benzocaine was observed in tablets that were kept for 6 months at 25°C and 60% RH. After storage for 30 days under accelerated conditions, benzocaine degradation was observed in a single platform. Qualitative differences in ODT platform behavior were observed in physical appearance of the tablets after storage under different temperature and humidity conditions. PMID:23990120

Köllmer, Melanie; Popescu, Carmen; Manda, Prashanth; Zhou, Leon; Gemeinhart, Richard A

2013-12-01

19

The preparation of orally disintegrating tablets using a hydrophilic waxy binder.  

PubMed

The demand for rapidly disintegrating tablets (RDT) has been growing during the last decade especially for elderly and children who have swallowing difficulties. The problem of certain RDT is their low physical resistance and high friability. This work describes a new approach to prepare RDT with sufficient mechanical integrity, involving the use of a hydrophilic waxy binder (Superpolystate, PEG-6-stearate). Superpolystate is a waxy material with a melting point of 33-37 degrees C and an HLB value of 9. So it will not only act as a binder and increase the physical resistance of tablets but will also help the disintegration of the tablets as it melts in the mouth and solublises rapidly leaving no residues. The incorporation of Superpolystate in the formulation of RDT was realised by means of two different granulation methods: wet granulation by using an emulsion of this waxy binder as granulating liquid and melt granulation where the molten form of the binder was used. Granule size distributions of both wet and melt granules of crystallised Paracetamol and D-mannitol were compared using laser light diffractometer. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to examine their morphological characteristics. The potential of the intragranular addition of croscarmellose sodium as a disintegrating agent was also evaluated. The subsequent step encompassed the preparation and the evaluation of the tablets, including the effect of the extragranular introduction of croscarmellose sodium. An improvement in tablet hardness and friability was observed with both granulation methods where we were able to obtain RDT with a disintegration time of 40 +/- 2 s and a hardness of 47.9 +/- 2.5N. PMID:15196646

Abdelbary, G; Prinderre, P; Eouani, C; Joachim, J; Reynier, J P; Piccerelle, Ph

2004-07-01

20

Evaluation of the palatabilities in 10 different famotidine orally disintegrating tablets by combination of disintegration device and taste sensor.  

PubMed

Abstract The purpose of this study was to evaluate the palatabilities of the original and nine generic versions of famotidine orally disintegrating tablets (FODTs) by means of disintegration times and bitterness intensities determined using in combination disintegration device and taste sensor comparison of human gustatory sensation tests. The disintegration times were determined using a new disintegration testing equipment for ODTs, the OD-mate and bitterness intensities were determined using the SA501C taste-sensing system. The disintegration time and bitterness of each FODT was evaluated in gustatory sensation tests. There was a good correlation between the disintegration times of 10 FODTs estimated in human gustatory testing and those found using the OD-mate. The bitterness intensities of FODTs at 10, 20 and 30?s after starting the disintegration using the OD-mate and the values determined by the taste sensor were highly correlated with the bitterness intensities determined in gustatory sensation testing. A combination of the OD-mate and the SA501C was capable of predicting the palatabilities, disintegration properties and bitterness intensity of FODTs. PMID:25196898

Yoshida, Miyako; Hazekawa, Mai; Haraguchi, Tamami; Uchida, Takahiro

2014-09-01

21

Bio-predictive tablet disintegration: effect of water diffusivity, fluid flow, food composition and test conditions.  

PubMed

Food intake may delay tablet disintegration. Current in vitro methods have little predictive potential to account for such effects. The effect of a variety of factors on the disintegration of immediate release tablets in the gastrointestinal tract has been identified. They include viscosity of the media, precipitation of food constituents on the surface of the tablet and reduction of water diffusivity in the media as well as changes in the hydrodynamics in the surrounding media of the solid dosage form. In order to improve the predictability of food affecting the disintegration of a dosage form, tablet disintegration in various types of a liquefied meal has been studied under static vs. dynamic (agitative) conditions. Viscosity, water diffusivity, osmolality and Reynolds numbers for the different media were characterized. A quantitative model is introduced which predicts the influence of the Reynolds number in the tablet disintegration apparatus on the disintegration time. Viscosity, water diffusivity and media flow velocity are shown to be important factors affecting dosage form disintegration. The results suggest the necessity of considering these parameters when designing a predictive model for simulating the in vivo conditions. Based on these experiments and knowledge on in vivo hydrodynamics in the GI tract, it is concluded that the disintegration tester under current pharmacopoeial conditions is operated in an unphysiological mode and no bioprediction may be derived. Recommendations regarding alternative mode of operation are made. PMID:24036239

Radwan, Asma; Wagner, Manfred; Amidon, Gordon L; Langguth, Peter

2014-06-16

22

Formulation Development and Evaluation of Fast Disintegrating Tablets of Salbutamol Sulphate for Respiratory Disorders  

PubMed Central

Recent developments in fast disintegrating tablets have brought convenience in dosing to pediatric and elderly patients who have trouble in swallowing tablets. The objective of the present study was to prepare the fast disintegrating tablet of salbutamol sulphate for respiratory disorders for pediatrics. As precision of dosing and patient's compliance become important prerequisites for a long-term treatment, there is a need to develop a formulation for this drug which overcomes problems such as difficulty in swallowing, inconvenience in administration while travelling, and patient's acceptability. Hence, the present investigation were undertaken with a view to develop a fast disintegrating tablet of salbutamol sulphate which offers a new range of products having desired characteristics and intended benefits. Superdisintegrants such as sodium starch glycolate was optimized. Different binders were optimized along with optimized superdisintegrant concentration. The tablets were prepared by direct compression technique. The tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, weight variation, wetting time, disintegration time, and uniformity of content. Optimized formulation was evaluated by in vitro dissolution test, drug-excipient compatibility, and accelerated stability study. It was concluded that fast disintegrating tablets of salbutamol sulphate were formulated successfully with desired characteristics which disintegrated rapidly; provided rapid onset of action; and enhanced the patient convenience and compliance. PMID:23956881

Sharma, Deepak

2013-01-01

23

Preparation and evaluation of an orally fast disintegrating tablet formulation containing a hydrophobic drug.  

PubMed

Orally fast disintegrating tablets (FDTs or ODTs) have received ever-increasing demand during the last decade, and the field has become a rapidly growing area in the pharmaceutical industry. Upon introduction into the mouth, these tablets dissolve or disintegrate in the mouth in the absence of additional water for easy administration of active pharmaceutical ingredients. Although the FDT area has passed its infancy, as shown by a large number of commercial products on the market, there are still many aspects to improve in the FDT formulations. Despite advances in the FDT technologies, formulation of hydrophobic drugs is still a challenge, especially when the amount of drug is high. In this study, a new solution is being developed to incorporate higher doses of a model hydrophobic drug; meloxicam, without affecting the fast disintegrating properties of the formulation. In order to enhance the solubilization of meloxicam in FDT formulations, ? cyclodextrin inclusion complex of the drug is prepared and FDTs containing meloxicam--? cyclodextrin inclusion complex (F1 A and F2 A) were compared and evaluated with the FDTs containing pure meloxicam (F1 and F2) by means of in vitro quality control tests. PMID:24295202

Comoglu, Tansel; Unal, Burcu

2015-01-01

24

Oral Disintegration Tablets of Stavudine for HIV Management: A New Technological Approach.  

PubMed

Stavudine oral disintegration tablets were formulated to minimize the bitter taste and to reduce the first-pass hepatic metabolism. The various precompression parameters like the angle of repose, bulk density, compressibility index and Hausner's ratio were determined for the powder blend. In this study, 14 formulations of stavudine oral disintegration tablet were prepared by direct compression method. The tablets were evaluated for weight variation, percentage friability, disintegration time, hardness, wetting time and water absorption ratio. The in vitro dissolution study results of the batch S1 (stavudine+crospovidone+sodium starch glycollate) are encouraging as highest dissolution rate (99.2% in 100 min) and lowest time of disintegration (56 s) was achieved. The in vivo drug release studies were carried out in rabbits and the relative bioavailability of formulation S1 was found to be 2.83 times greater than that of conventional tablets. PMID:23798782

Sankar, V; Ramakrishna, B; Devi, P Shalini; Karthik, S

2012-11-01

25

Design of fast disintegrating tablets of prochlorperazine maleate by effervescence method.  

PubMed

In the present work, fast disintegrating tablets of prochlorperazine maleate were designed with a view to enhance patient compliance by effervescent method. In this method, mixtures of sodium bicarbonate and anhydrous citric acid in different ratios along with crospovidone (2-10% w/w), croscarmellose sodium (2-10% w/w) were used as superdisintegrants. Estimation of prochlorperazine maleate in the prepared tablet formulations was carried out by extracting the drug with methanol and measuring the absorbance at 254.5 nm. The prepared formulations were further evaluated for hardness, friability, drug content uniformity and in vitro dispersion time. Based on in vitro dispersion time (approximately 13-21 s), two promising formulations (one from each super-disintegrant) were tested for in vitro drug release pattern in pH 6.8 phosphate buffer, short-term stability (at 40 degrees /75% relative humidity for 3 mo) and drug-excipient interaction (IR spectroscopy). Among the two promising formulations, the formulation containing 10% w/w of crospovidone and mixture of 20% w/w sodium bicarbonate and 15% w/w of citric acid emerged as the overall best formulation (t(50%) 6 min) based on drug release characteristics in pH 6.8 phosphate buffer compared to commercial conventional tablet formulation (t(50%) 17.4 min). Short-term stability studies on the promising formulations indicated that there are no significant changes in drug content and in vitro dispersion time (p<0.05). PMID:20502555

Shirsand, S B; Suresh, Sarasija; Para, M S; Swamy, P V

2009-07-01

26

Fast disintegrating crystalline solid dispersions of simvastatin for incorporation into orodispersible tablets  

PubMed Central

Aim: Spray dried solid dispersion (SDP) of crystalline simvastatin (SIM) in a fast disintegrating matrix of superdisintegrants was studied as a method to enhance SIM dispersibility, rheology, compactibility and compressibility for incorporation into orodispersible tablets (ODTs). Materials and Methods: The superdisintegrants investigated were crospovidone (CP), sodium starch glycollate (SSG) and calcium silicate (CS) were spray dried with simvastatin to form SDPs. Results: The SDPs were characterized and the median particle size of SDPs was similar or greater than the SIM, contributing to good rheology of SDPs, while the low bulk density of SDPs indicated a high compactibility. Interestingly electron micrographs for SDPs showed a CP or CS carrier coating of the SIM crystals, contributing to its rheology. Thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction confirmed that SIM was crystalline in the SDPs and no interaction between SIM and any of the carrier(s) was shown by Fourier transform-infra red. Drug content analysis showed a SIM content of 90-95% in SDPs containing CP or CS, while a higher SIM content of 143% was found in SDP containing SSG. When formulated as ODTs, blend containing SIM SDPs in CP showed ease of tableting, regardless of the turret speed. In comparison, tablet blend consisting of a physical mix (PM) of SIM and CP could only be tableted at the lower turret speed of 7 rpm. ODTs formulated using SIM SDPs in CP showed a higher extent of dissolution, compared to the ODTs containing corresponding PM or the commercially available SIM Zocor® tablets (ANOVA, P < 0.05). Conclusion: SDP using disintegrants as carriers may offer an alternative formulation approach for ODTs of poorly soluble drugs. PMID:25006549

Pabari, Ritesh M; Jamil, Asha; Kelly, John G; Ramtoola, Zebunnissa

2014-01-01

27

The Influence of Formulation and Manufacturing Process Parameters on the Characteristics of Lyophilized Orally Disintegrating Tablets  

PubMed Central

Gelatin is a principal excipient used as a binder in the formulation of lyophilized orally disintegrating tablets. The current study focuses on exploiting the physicochemical properties of gelatin by varying formulation parameters to determine their influence on orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) characteristics. Process parameters, namely pH and ionic strength of the formulations, and ball milling were investigated to observe their effects on excipient characteristics and tablet formation. The properties and characteristics of the formulations and tablets which were investigated included: glass transition temperature, wettability, porosity, mechanical properties, disintegration time, morphology of the internal structure of the freeze-dried tablets, and drug dissolution. The results from the pH study revealed that adjusting the pH of the formulation away from the isoelectric point of gelatin, resulted in an improvement in tablet disintegration time possibly due to increase in gelatin swelling resulting in greater tablet porosity. The results from the ionic strength study revealed that the inclusion of sodium chloride influenced tablet porosity, tablet morphology and the glass transition temperature of the formulations. Data from the milling study showed that milling the excipients influenced formulation characteristics, namely wettability and powder porosity. The study concludes that alterations of simple parameters such as pH and salt concentration have a significant influence on formulation of ODT. PMID:24310589

Jones, Rhys J.; Rajabi-Siahboomi, Ali; Levina, Marina; Perrie, Yvonne; Mohammed, Afzal R.

2011-01-01

28

Preparation and evaluation of taste-masked donepezil hydrochloride orally disintegrating tablets.  

PubMed

The purpose of this research was to prepare and evaluate a non-bitter donepezil hydrochloride (DH) orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) for enhanced patient compliance. Taste masking was done by preparing microspheres with different ratios of drug and Eudragit EPO using spray drying method. The entrapment of the drug into microspheres was confirmed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray powder diffraction. It was found that microspheres with a drug-polymer ratio of 1 : 2 could mask the taste obviously by inhibiting the release of DH in simulated salivary fluid. Microspheres-loaded tablets containing Polyplasdone NF and Low substituted Hydroxypropyl Cellulose (L-HPC) both at a 10% level showed rapid disintegration, in vitro (15.5 s) and in vivo (19.8 s), which were faster than that of marketed tablets (36.7, 41.3 s, respectively). Results from taste evaluation in human volunteers revealed that the ODTs with taste-masked microspheres had significantly enhanced palatability. Dissolution in vitro and pharmacokinetics in rats were evaluated for the tested ODTs compared to the donepezil hydrochloride commercial product (ARICEPT). Both tablets showed comparable dissolution patterns in vitro and similar area under curve from 0 to 24 h (AUC(0-24)), C(max) and T(max) of DH in vivo to each other, suggesting that the tested ODTs might give the similar drug efficacy in rats compared to that of ARICEPT. Thus, it was concluded that DH ODTs with masked taste were obtained by Eudragit EPO-based microspheres, drug loaded microspheres neither decreased the bioavailability nor delayed the release of DH. PMID:20686233

Yan, Yi-Dong; Woo, Jong Soo; Kang, Joon Heok; Yong, Chul Soon; Choi, Han-Gon

2010-01-01

29

Orally disintegrating films and mini-tablets-innovative dosage forms of choice for pediatric use.  

PubMed

Oral drug delivery is a non-invasive and therefore a very convenient route of administration. Orally disintegrating dosage forms, like soluble films and (mini-)tablets, appear promising for use in the pediatric population. New guidance for the development of pediatric medicines has been published, which provides considerations on how pediatric products should be designed. However, most of the considerations leave a lot of room for interpretations. Bearing in mind the different aspects discussed in the latest guideline, the use of orally disintegrating films and tablets, in particular, small-sized tablets, is discussed and reflected upon by providing evidence from the scientific literature. The available dosage forms for children are various and examples of currently licensed products for use in the pediatric population were compiled. Aspects such as the appropriateness for pediatrics, the choice of excipients, the opportunities for modified drug release preparations or fixed-dose combinations, the acceptability and palatability, and also limitations were discussed with respect to the new dosage forms of orally disintegrating films and mini-tablets. This paper points out that innovation in pediatric medicines are planned and should be encouraged; however, supported by the regulatory guidance, only general considerations are provided. Nevertheless, the guideline summarizes multiple points to consider during the development of medicines for pediatric use. Considering the scientific evidence and the regulatory guidance, orally disintegrating dosage forms, like soluble films and (mini-)tablets, offer an innovative solution for pediatric drug delivery. PMID:25739913

Preis, Maren

2015-04-01

30

Predicting orally disintegrating tablets formulations of ibuprophen tablets: an application of the new SeDeM-ODT expert system.  

PubMed

This article provides a new innovative tool for pharmaceutical preformulation to predict whether a disintegrant excipient or mixture of powder containing API+excipients is suitable to obtain a bucodispersible tablet by direct compression or not. This innovative tool is the new model SeDeM-ODT that provides the Index of Good Compressibility and Bucodispersibility (IGCB index), which is based on the previous SeDeM expert system that indicates the aptitude of a powder to be compressed. The IGCB index is composed of six main factors (from 15 pharmaceutical raw parameters), which indicate whether a mixture of powder has the aptitude to be compressed by direct compression and at the same time indicates whether these tablets are suitable to be used as a bucodispersible tablet (disintegration time lower than 3 min). PMID:22245156

Aguilar-Díaz, Johnny Edward; García-Montoya, Encarna; Suñe-Negre, José María; Pérez-Lozano, Pilar; Miñarro, Montserrat; Ticó, José Ramón

2012-04-01

31

Direct compression of cushion-layered ethyl cellulose-coated extended release pellets into rapidly disintegrating tablets without changes in the release profile.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to develop and optimize a segregation-free ethyl cellulose-coated extended release multiparticulate formulation to be compressed into tablets without affecting the drug release. Standard tableting excipients (e.g., microcrystalline cellulose, lactose or sorbitol) were layered onto ethyl cellulose-coated propranolol hydrochloride pellets to form a cushion layer in order to eliminate segregation problems normally resulting from particle size difference between coated pellets and excipient powders and second to protect the integrity of the brittle ethyl cellulose coating during compression. The disintegration behavior of the tablets depended strongly on the composition of the cushion layer. Rapid tablet disintegration was obtained with microcrystalline cellulose and the disintegrant sodium croscarmellose. However, the drug release from these cushion-layered pellets still increased upon compression. Incorporation of a glidant into the cushion layer or between the cushion layer and the ethyl cellulose coating reduced the compression effect on drug release markedly. Glidant-containing formulations showed a delayed deformation and damage of the ethyl cellulose-coated pellet upon mechanical stress. In summary, cushion layer based on microcrystalline cellulose facilitated segregation-free compression of a highly compression-sensitive extended release ethyl cellulose-coated pellets into fast-disintegrating and hard tablets without compromising the release properties of the multiparticulates. Directly compressible cushion-layered pellets protected the pellet coating significantly better from damages during tabletting when compared to the conventional compression of blends of coated pellets and excipient powders. PMID:23892153

Hosseini, Armin; Körber, Martin; Bodmeier, Roland

2013-12-01

32

Impact of active ingredients on the swelling properties of orally disintegrating tablets prepared by microwave treatment.  

PubMed

The impact of different active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) loading on the properties of orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) prepared according to our previously reported microwave (MW) treatment process was evaluated using famotidine (FAM), acetaminophen (AAP), and ibuprofen (IBU). None of the APIs interrupted the tablet swelling during the MW treatment and the tablet hardness were improved by more than 20 N. MW treatment, however, led to a significant increase in the disintegration time of the ODTs containing IBU, but it had no impact on that of the ODTs containing FAM or AAP. This increased disintegration time of the ODTs containing IBU was attributed to the relatively low melting point of IBU (Tm=76 °C), with the IBU particles melting during the MW treatment to form agglomerates, which interrupted the penetration of water into the tablets and delayed their disintegration. The effects of the MW treatment on the chemical stability and dissolution properties of ODTs were also evaluated. The results revealed that MW treatment did not promote the degradations of FAM and AAP or delay their release from the ODTs, while dissolution of the ODTs containing IBU delayed by MW treatment. Based on these results, the MW method would be applicable to the preparation of ODTs containing APIs with melting points higher than 110 °C. PMID:24709215

Sano, Syusuke; Iwao, Yasunori; Kimura, Susumu; Noguchi, Shuji; Itai, Shigeru

2014-07-01

33

Development of Corn Starch-Neusilin UFL2 Conjugate as Tablet Superdisintegrant: Formulation and Evaluation of Fast Disintegrating Tablets  

PubMed Central

In the present study, corn Starch-Neusilin UFL2 conjugates were prepared by physical, chemical, and microwave methods with the aim of using the conjugates as tablet superdisintegrant. Various powder tests, namely, angle of repose, bulk density, tapped density, Hausner's ratio, Carr's index, swelling index, and powder porosity were conducted on the samples. The conjugates were characterized by ATR-FTIR, XRD, DSC, and SEM techniques. Heckel and Kawakita models were applied to carry out compression studies for the prepared conjugates. Fast disintegrating tablets of domperidone were prepared using corn starch and corn Starch-Neusilin UFL2 conjugates as tablet superdisintegrants in different concentrations. Conjugates were found to possess good powder flow and tabletting properties. Heckel analysis indicated that the conjugates prepared by microwave method showed the slowest onset of plastic deformation while Kawakita analysis indicated that the conjugates prepared by microwave method exhibited the highest amount of total plastic deformation. The study revealed that the corn Starch-Neusilin UFL2 conjugates possess improved powder flow properties and could be a promising superdisintegrant for preparing fast disintegrating tablet. Also, the results sugessted that the microwave method was found to be most effective for the preparation of corn Starch-Neusilin UFL2 conjugates. PMID:25328710

Juneja, Prateek; Kaur, Birender; Odeku, Oluwatoyin A.; Singh, Inderbir

2014-01-01

34

Effect of granule properties on rough mouth feel and palatability of orally disintegrating tablets.  

PubMed

In this study, we evaluated the palatability of orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) containing core granules with different particle sizes, coating, and types of materials using visual analog scales (VAS). Tableting the core granules into ODTs reduced rough mouth feel and improved overall palatability compared to the ingestion of core granules alone. Moreover, the evaluation performed immediately after spitting out ODTs demonstrated differences in rough mouth feel between ODTs containing placebo and core granules. Rough mouth feel was found to be significantly more intense with core granules with particle sizes ?200?m. Since ODTs may contain taste-masked particles, palatability of ODTs containing coated core granules was also evaluated. Although coating with polymers impairs palatability, it was improved by coating the outer layer with d-mannitol. The effects on palatability of materials constituting core granules were also evaluated, with reduced rough mouth feel observed with core granules composed of water-soluble additives. Based on these data, receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed to determine the threshold VAS scores at which the subjects felt roughness and discomfort. In addition, the threshold particle size of the core granule contained within the ODT required for feeling roughness was determined to be 244?m. This study elucidated the effect of the properties of masking particles on the rough mouth feel and palatability of ODTs. PMID:25681720

Kimura, Shin-Ichiro; Uchida, Shinya; Kanada, Ken; Namiki, Noriyuki

2015-04-30

35

Orally disintegrating tablet of novel salt of antiepileptic drug: formulation strategy and evaluation.  

PubMed

The aim of present research was to design and evaluate orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) of novel lamotrigine-cyclamate salt. Box-Behnken response surface methodology was selected to design the optimized formulation. The independent factors selected were tablet hardness (X1), disintegrant (X2) and lubricant (X3) levels, and responses chosen were disintegration time (DT, Y1), friability (Y2), T50 (Y3), and T90 (Y4). The tablets were also characterized for drug uniformity by near infrared chemical imaging (NIR-CI) and taste masking evaluation by electronic tongue. All the selected independent variables were statistically (p<0.05) effect the Y1 while Y2, Y3, and Y4 affected only by X2. The optimized ODT was found to meet the regulatory requirement of DT and friability specification. The NIR-CI images indicated uniform distribution of active and inactive ingredients within the tablets. The electronic tongue results were analyzed by principle component analysis (PCA). It indicated that novel salt of lamotrigine and its ODT formulation have a taste similar to cyclamic acid which is indicated by close proximity on PCA score plot, lower Euclidean distance, and high discrimination index values. Furthermore, these parameters were very close to ODT placebo formulation. On the other hand, lamotrigine, its ODT, and placebo formulation were far from each other. In summary, lamotrigine salt provides another avenue for pediatric friendly formulation for children and will enhance patience compliance. PMID:23800704

Rahman, Ziyaur; Siddiqui, Akhtar; Khan, Mansoor A

2013-11-01

36

Formulation and evaluation of a novel matrix-type orally disintegrating Ibuprofen tablet.  

PubMed

Orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) are capable of turning quickly into a liquid dosage form in contact with the saliva, thus possessing the advantages of both the solid dosage forms particularly stability and liquid dosage forms specially ease of swallowing and pre-gastric absorption of drug. The aim of this study was to prepare a novel matrix-type buccal fast disintegrating ibuprofen tablet formulation using special polymers, water soluble excipients, super-disintegrants and quickly soluble granules. For this purpose different tablet formulations of ibuprofen were prepared. The amount of ibuprofen in each formulation was 100 mg. Eight groups of formulation were prepared (A-H series), accounting for a total number of 45 formulations. Formulations prepared were examined in terms of different physicochemical tests including powder/granule flowability, appearance, thickness, uniformity of weight, hardness, friability and disintegration time. Results of formulation F22a (in series F), was found to be acceptable, making it the chosen formulation for further studies. Then, by adding various flavorants and sweeteners to this formulation, complementary series of formulations, named G and H, were prepared. Following the comparison of their taste with each other through asking 10 volunteers, the most suitable formulation regarding the taste, being formulation F22s, was chosen as the ultimate formulation. This formulation had PVP, ibuprofen and croscarmellose as the intra-granular components and xylitol and saccharin as the extra-granular ingredients. Formulation F22s was found to be acceptable in terms of physicochemical tests conducted, showing quick disintegration within the buccal cavity, appropriate hardness and rather low friability. Hence formulation F22s was selected as the final formulation. PMID:24250378

Tayebi, Hoda; Mortazavi, Seyed Alireza

2011-01-01

37

Evaluation of Rapidly Disintegrating Vaginal Tablets of Tenofovir, Emtricitabine and Their Combination for HIV-1 Prevention  

PubMed Central

Vaginal tablets are being developed as an alternative to gels as an inexpensive, discreet dosage form for the administration of microbicides. This work describes the pharmacokinetic (PK) evaluation of rapidly disintegrating vaginal tablets containing tenofovir (TFV, 10 mg), emtricitabine (FTC, 10 mg), and the combination of TFV and FTC (10 mg each) under in vitro and in vivo conditions, and in direct comparison to the clinical TFV 1% gel, a microbicide product in Phase III clinical testing. The PK of TFV and FTC from tablets were also evaluated in female rabbits following intravaginal administration. Direct comparison of a single dose of TFV tablets (intact or predissolved at 10 mg/mL) and TFV 1% gel showed no differences in the vaginal PK of TFV between groups; however systemic bioavailability of TFV was significantly higher from the gel. When rabbits were dosed either once or daily for seven days with intact tablets of TFV, FTC, or the combination of TFV/FTC, vaginal and systemic concentrations of TFV and FTC were unaffected by co-formulation. Moreover, plasma PK parameters were similar following a single dose or seven once-daily doses. Tissue concentrations of TFV and FTC in the cranial vagina 4 h after administration ranged between 104 and 105 ng/g. Concentrations of TFV-diphospate (TFV-DP, the active metabolite) were also high (over 103 ng/g or about 3000 to 6000 fmol/mg) in the cranial vagina 4 h after administration and similar to those measured following administration of TFV 1% gel. These data demonstrate that rapidly disintegrating vaginal tablets may be a suitable topical microbicide dosage form providing similar vaginal TFV PK to that of TFV 1% gel. The data also support co-administration of FTC with TFV in a single vaginal tablet to create a combination microbicide in a simple and inexpensive dosage form. PMID:25494201

Clark, Meredith R.; Peet, M. Melissa; Davis, Sarah; Doncel, Gustavo F.; Friend, David R.

2014-01-01

38

Formulation and evaluation of mouth disintegrating tablets of atenolol and atorvastatin.  

PubMed

In this study, mouth-disintegrating tablets of atenolol and atorvastatin combination were formulated using superdisintegrants to impart fast disintegration. Fifteen formulations were prepared based on different concentrations of two superdisintegrants, croscarmellose sodium and Kyron-T134. Three different techniques such as direct compression, effervescent and sublimation were used to study the effect of manufacturing processes, nature and concentration of superdisintegrants on various features of these tablets. Five formulations were made using each method. Precompression studies like bulk density, tapped density, angle of repose, Carr's compressibility index, Hausner's ratio and compatibility studies such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry were performed. Various features such as hardness, thickness, diameter, weight variation, friability, disintegration time, dissolution studies, wetting time, wetting volume, water absorption ratio, modified disintegration, uniformity of contents and stability were evaluated. Finally results were statistically analyzed by the application of one way ANOVA test. Formulation F13 containing Kyron-T134 (6%) and croscarmellose sodium (2%) was found to be the best among all fifteen formulations prepared in all aspects evaluated. Sublimation method is found to be the best among three methods of preparation used. PMID:25767322

Sarfraz, R M; Khan, H U; Mahmood, A; Ahmad, M; Maheen, S; Sher, M

2015-01-01

39

Formulation and Evaluation of Mouth Disintegrating Tablets of Atenolol and Atorvastatin  

PubMed Central

In this study, mouth-disintegrating tablets of atenolol and atorvastatin combination were formulated using superdisintegrants to impart fast disintegration. Fifteen formulations were prepared based on different concentrations of two superdisintegrants, croscarmellose sodium and Kyron-T134. Three different techniques such as direct compression, effervescent and sublimation were used to study the effect of manufacturing processes, nature and concentration of superdisintegrants on various features of these tablets. Five formulations were made using each method. Precompression studies like bulk density, tapped density, angle of repose, Carr's compressibility index, Hausner's ratio and compatibility studies such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry were performed. Various features such as hardness, thickness, diameter, weight variation, friability, disintegration time, dissolution studies, wetting time, wetting volume, water absorption ratio, modified disintegration, uniformity of contents and stability were evaluated. Finally results were statistically analyzed by the application of one way ANOVA test. Formulation F13 containing Kyron-T134 (6%) and croscarmellose sodium (2%) was found to be the best among all fifteen formulations prepared in all aspects evaluated. Sublimation method is found to be the best among three methods of preparation used. PMID:25767322

Sarfraz, R. M.; Khan, H. U.; Mahmood, A.; Ahmad, M.; Maheen, S.; Sher, M.

2015-01-01

40

Orally disintegrating mini-tablets (ODMTs)--a novel solid oral dosage form for paediatric use.  

PubMed

The new European regulations on paediatric medicines and recent WHO recommendations have induced an increased need for research into novel child-appropriate dosage forms. The aim of this study was the development of orally disintegrating mini-tablets (ODMTs) as a suitable dosage form for paediatric patients. The suitability of five commercially available ready-to-use tableting excipients, Ludiflash, Parteck ODT, Pearlitol Flash, Pharmaburst 500 and Prosolv ODT, to be directly compressed into mini-tablets, with 2 mm in diameter, was examined. All of the excipients are based on co-processed mannitol. Drug-free ODMTs and ODMTs with a child-appropriate dose of hydrochlorothiazide were investigated. ODMTs could be produced with all investigated excipients. ODMTs with a sufficient crushing strength >7 N and a low friability <1% could be obtained, as well as ODMTs with a short simulated wetting test-time <5 s. ODMTs made of Ludiflash showed the best results with crushing strengths from 7.8 N up to 11.8 N and excellent simulated wetting test-times from 3.1 s to 5.0 s. For each excipient, ODMTs with accordance to the pharmacopoeial specification content uniformity could be obtained. The promising results indicate that orally disintegrating mini-tablets may serve as a novel platform technology for paediatrics in future. PMID:21324357

Stoltenberg, I; Breitkreutz, J

2011-08-01

41

Formulation strategy and evaluation of nanocrystal piroxicam orally disintegrating tablets manufacturing by freeze-drying.  

PubMed

Piroxicam (PRX) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug characterized by a poor water solubility and consequently by a low oral bioavailability. In this work, different nanocrystal orally disintegrating tablets (ODT) were prepared to enhance piroxicam dissolution rate and saturation solubility. PRX nanocrystals were prepared by means of high pressure homogenization technique using poloxamer 188 as stabilizer. Three different ODTs were prepared with the same nanosuspension using different excipients in order to study their effect on the PRX dissolution properties. PRX nanocrystal size and zeta potential were determined by photon correlation spectroscopy. Additional characterization of PRX nanocrystal ODT was carried out by infrared spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffractometry, differential scanning calorimetry. Dissolution study was performed in distilled water (pH 5.5) and compared with PRX coarse suspension ODT, PRX/poloxamer 188 physical mixture, bulk PRX samples and a PRX commercial ODT. All PRX nanocrystal ODT formulations showed a higher drug dissolution rate than coarse PRX ODT. PRX nanocrystal ODT prepared using gelatin or croscarmellose as excipient showed a higher PRX dissolution rate compared with the commercial formulation and ODT prepared using xanthan gum. Overall results confirmed that improved PRX dissolution rate is due to the increased surface-to-volume ratio due to the nanosized drug particle but also revealed the important role of different excipients used. PMID:24680963

Lai, Francesco; Pini, Elena; Corrias, Francesco; Perricci, Jacopo; Manconi, Maria; Fadda, Anna Maria; Sinico, Chiara

2014-06-01

42

Formulation and In-vitro Evaluation of Orally Disintegrating Tablets of Olanzapine-2-Hydroxypropyl-?-Cyclodextrin Inclusion Complex  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to design orally disintegrating tablets of Olanzapine and to complex Olanzapine with 2-hydroxypropyl-?- cyclodextrin with special emphasis on disintegration and dissolution studies. Phase solubility studies demonstrated the formation of 1:1 molar inclusion complex by kneading method. Tablets were prepared by using superdisintegrants namely, sodium starch glycolate, croscarmellose sodium, crospovidone, tulsion 339, and indion 414. Complex was characterized using infrared spectroscopy, drug content estimation, saturated solubility study, diffrerential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffractometry. 5% w/w croscarmellose sodium showed the minimum disintegration time 39 ± 1.76 sec and in-vitro drug release 99.19 ± 0.18% within 6 min. In general, solubility of Olanzapine can be improved by complexing with 2-hydroxypropyl-?- cyclodextrin. Croscarmellose sodium can be used for faster disintegration of tablets. PMID:24381598

Ajit Shankarrao, Kulkarni; Dhairysheel Mahadeo, Ghadge; Pankaj Balavantrao, Kokate

2010-01-01

43

Evidence-based nanoscopic and molecular framework for excipient functionality in compressed orally disintegrating tablets.  

PubMed

The work investigates the adhesive/cohesive molecular and physical interactions together with nanoscopic features of commonly used orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) excipients microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and D-mannitol. This helps to elucidate the underlying physico-chemical and mechanical mechanisms responsible for powder densification and optimum product functionality. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) contact mode analysis was performed to measure nano-adhesion forces and surface energies between excipient-drug particles (6-10 different particles per each pair). Moreover, surface topography images (100 nm2-10 µm2) and roughness data were acquired from AFM tapping mode. AFM data were related to ODT macro/microscopic properties obtained from SEM, FTIR, XRD, thermal analysis using DSC and TGA, disintegration testing, Heckel and tabletability profiles. The study results showed a good association between the adhesive molecular and physical forces of paired particles and the resultant densification mechanisms responsible for mechanical strength of tablets. MCC micro roughness was 3 times that of D-mannitol which explains the high hardness of MCC ODTs due to mechanical interlocking. Hydrogen bonding between MCC particles could not be established from both AFM and FTIR solid state investigation. On the contrary, D-mannitol produced fragile ODTs due to fragmentation of surface crystallites during compression attained from its weak crystal structure. Furthermore, AFM analysis has shown the presence of extensive micro fibril structures inhabiting nano pores which further supports the use of MCC as a disintegrant. Overall, excipients (and model drugs) showed mechanistic behaviour on the nano/micro scale that could be related to the functionality of materials on the macro scale. PMID:25025427

Al-Khattawi, Ali; Alyami, Hamad; Townsend, Bill; Ma, Xianghong; Mohammed, Afzal R

2014-01-01

44

Evidence-Based Nanoscopic and Molecular Framework for Excipient Functionality in Compressed Orally Disintegrating Tablets  

PubMed Central

The work investigates the adhesive/cohesive molecular and physical interactions together with nanoscopic features of commonly used orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) excipients microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and D-mannitol. This helps to elucidate the underlying physico-chemical and mechanical mechanisms responsible for powder densification and optimum product functionality. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) contact mode analysis was performed to measure nano-adhesion forces and surface energies between excipient-drug particles (6-10 different particles per each pair). Moreover, surface topography images (100 nm2–10 µm2) and roughness data were acquired from AFM tapping mode. AFM data were related to ODT macro/microscopic properties obtained from SEM, FTIR, XRD, thermal analysis using DSC and TGA, disintegration testing, Heckel and tabletability profiles. The study results showed a good association between the adhesive molecular and physical forces of paired particles and the resultant densification mechanisms responsible for mechanical strength of tablets. MCC micro roughness was 3 times that of D-mannitol which explains the high hardness of MCC ODTs due to mechanical interlocking. Hydrogen bonding between MCC particles could not be established from both AFM and FTIR solid state investigation. On the contrary, D-mannitol produced fragile ODTs due to fragmentation of surface crystallites during compression attained from its weak crystal structure. Furthermore, AFM analysis has shown the presence of extensive micro fibril structures inhabiting nano pores which further supports the use of MCC as a disintegrant. Overall, excipients (and model drugs) showed mechanistic behaviour on the nano/micro scale that could be related to the functionality of materials on the macro scale. PMID:25025427

Al-khattawi, Ali; Alyami, Hamad; Townsend, Bill; Ma, Xianghong; Mohammed, Afzal R.

2014-01-01

45

Gastrointestinal transit and disintegration of enteric coated magnetic tablets assessed by ac biosusceptometry.  

PubMed

The oral administration is a common route in the drug therapy and the solid pharmaceutical forms are widely used. Although much about the performance of these formulations can be learned from in vitro studies using conventional methods, evaluation in vivo is essential in product development. The knowledge of the gastrointestinal transit and how the physiological variables can interfere with the disintegration and drug absorption is a prerequisite for development of dosage forms. The aim of this work was to employing the ac biosusceptometry (ACB) to monitoring magnetic tablets in the human gastrointestinal tract and to obtain the magnetic images of the disintegration process in the colonic region. The ac biosusceptometry showed accuracy in the quantification of the gastric residence time, the intestinal transit time and the disintegration time (DT) of the magnetic formulations in the human gastrointestinal tract. Moreover, ac biosusceptometry is a non-invasive technique, radiation-free and harmless to the volunteers, as well as an important research tool in the pharmaceutical, pharmacological and physiological investigations. PMID:16188432

Corá, Luciana A; Romeiro, Fernando G; Américo, Madileine F; Oliveira, Ricardo Brandt; Baffa, Oswaldo; Stelzer, Murilo; Miranda, José Ricardo de Arruda

2006-01-01

46

Characterization, optimisation and process robustness of a co-processed mannitol for the development of orally disintegrating tablets.  

PubMed

This is a study to fully assess a commercially available co-processed mannitol for its usefulness as an off-the-shelf excipient for developing orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) by direct compression on a pilot scale (up to 4 kg). This work encompassed material characterization, formulation optimisation and process robustness. Overall, this co-processed mannitol possessed favourable physical attributes including low hygroscopicity and compactibility. Two design-of-experiments (DoEs) were used to screen and optimise the placebo formulation. Xylitol and crospovidone concentrations were found to have the most significant impact on disintegration time (p < 0.05). Higher xylitol concentrations retarded disintegration. Avicel PH102 promoted faster disintegration than PH101, at higher levels of xylitol. Without xylitol, higher crospovidone concentrations yielded faster disintegration and reduced tablet friability. Lubrication sensitivity studies were later conducted at two fill loads, three levels for lubricant concentration and number of blend rotations. Even at 75% fill load, the design space plot showed that 1.5% lubricant and 300 blend revolutions were sufficient to manufacture ODTs with ? 0.1% friability and disintegrated within 15 s. This study also describes results using a modified disintegration method based on the texture analyzer as an alternative to the USP method. PMID:22582882

Soh, Josephine Lay Peng; Grachet, Maud; Whitlock, Mark; Lukas, Timothy

2013-02-01

47

Coated dextrin microcapsules of amlodipine incorporable into orally disintegrating tablets for geriatric patients.  

PubMed

To improve oral absorption and patient compliance when using amlodipine, novel coated dextrin microcapsules incorporable into orally disintegrating tablets (ODT's) were investigated. Amlodipine-loaded dextrin microcapsules (ADM) were prepared by spray-drying a mixture of amlodipine free base dissolved in ethanol and aqueous dextrin solution. The ADM were suspended in Eudragit(®) EPO solution in ethanol and subsequently spray-dried to collect coated ADM (CADM). The ADM or CADM were blended with ODT excipients and then directly compressed into ODTs. The ADM and CADM used were both spherical with smooth surfaces and had mean particle sizes of 13.3 and 18.5?m, respectively. Amlodipine was dispersed in an amorphous state and was readily encapsulated within ADM or CADM. Unlike the ADM, the tableted CADM remained intact without rupture during tableting, which was consistent with no loss of ethanol (0.82%) entrapped in the ODTs containing the CADM (ODTs-CADM). The amlodipine content appeared to be uniformly maintained as designed in all the dextrin microcapsules and ODTs. The ODTs-CADM compressed with 3kp of hardness showed acceptable ODT characteristics: fast disintegration time (29.8s) and low friability (0.1%). Drug dissolution from the ODTs-CADM was much faster than that of amlodipine free base itself at both pH 1.2 and 6.8 over the tested time. CADM demonstrated significantly higher plasma concentrations (2.7 fold in AUC0-24h and 2.5 fold in Cmax) in SD rats than did amlodipine free base. These results indicate that CADM substantially increased the oral absorption of amlodipine and can be incorporated into ODTs while maintaining their original physicochemical features. The dextrin microcapsules coated using Eudragit(®) EPO may be applied to the development of an amlodipine ODT formulation for improving geriatric patient compliance. PMID:25458788

Jang, Dong-Jin; Bae, Soo Kyung; Oh, Euichaul

2014-10-01

48

Development of orally disintegrating tablets comprising controlled-release multiparticulate beads  

PubMed Central

Melperone is an atypical antipsychotic agent that has shown a wide spectrum of neuroleptic properties, particularly effective in the treatment of senile dementia and Parkinson’s-associated psychosis, and is marketed in Europe as an immediate-release (IR) tablet and syrup. An orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) dosage form would be advantageous for patients who experience difficulty in swallowing large tablets or capsules or those who experience dysphagia. Controlled-release (CR) capsule and ODT formulations containing melperone HCl were developed with target in vitro release profiles suitable for a once-daily dosing regimen. Both dosage forms allow for the convenient production of dose-proportional multiple strengths. Two ODT formulations exhibiting fast and medium release profiles and one medium release profile capsule formulation (each 50?mg) were tested in vivo using IR syrup as the reference. The two medium release formulations were shown to be bioequivalent to each other and are suitable for once-daily dosing. Based on the analytical and organoleptic test results, as well as the blend uniformity and in-process compression data at various compression forces using coated beads produced at one-tenth (1/10) commercial scale, both formulations in the form of CR capsules and CR ODTs have shown suitability for progression into further clinical development. PMID:22356215

2012-01-01

49

Application of face centred central composite design to optimise compression force and tablet diameter for the formulation of mechanically strong and fast disintegrating orodispersible tablets.  

PubMed

A two factor, three level (3(2)) face centred, central composite design (CCD) was applied to investigate the main and interaction effects of tablet diameter and compression force (CF) on hardness, disintegration time (DT) and porosity of mannitol based orodispersible tablets (ODTs). Tablet diameters of 10, 13 and 15 mm, and CF of 10, 15 and 20 kN were studied. Results of multiple linear regression analysis show that both the tablet diameter and CF influence tablet characteristics. A negative value of regression coefficient for tablet diameter showed an inverse relationship with hardness and DT. A positive value of regression coefficient for CF indicated an increase in hardness and DT with increasing CF as a result of the decrease in tablet porosity. Interestingly, at the larger tablet diameter of 15 mm, while hardness increased and porosity decreased with an increase in CF, the DT was resistant to change. The optimised combination was a tablet of 15 mm diameter compressed at 15 kN showing a rapid DT of 37.7s and high hardness of 71.4N. Using these parameters, ODTs containing ibuprofen showed no significant change in DT (ANOVA; p>0.05) irrespective of the hydrophobicity of the ibuprofen. PMID:22465631

Pabari, Ritesh M; Ramtoola, Zebunnissa

2012-07-01

50

Bioequivalence assay between orally disintegrating and conventional tablet formulations in healthy volunteers.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate bioequivalence of two commercial 8 mg tablet formulations of ondansetrona available in the Brazilian market. In this study, a simple, rapid, sensitive and selective liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method is described for the determination of ondansetron in human plasma samples. The method was validated over a concentration range of 2.5-60 ng/ml and used in a bioequivalence trial between orally disintegrating and conventional tablet ondansetron formulations, to assess its usefulness in this kind of study. Vonau flash (Biolab Sanus Farmacêutica, Brazil, as test formulations) and Zofran (GlaxoSmithKline, Brazil, as reference formulation) were evaluated following a single 8 mg dose to 23 healthy volunteers of both genders. The dose was administered after an overnight fast according to a two-way crossover design. Bioequivalence between the products was determinated by calculating 90% confidence interval (90% CI) for the ratio of C(max), AUC(0-t) and AUC(0-infinity) values for the test and reference products, using logarithmically transformed data. The 90% confidence interval for the ratio of C(max) (87.5-103.8%), AUC(0-t) (89.3-107.2%) and AUC(0-infinity) (89.7-106.0%) values for the test and reference products is within the 80-125% interval, proposed by FDA, EMEA and ANVISA. It was concluded that two ondansetron formulations are bioequivalent in their rate and extent of absorption. PMID:18848869

Armando, Yara Popst; Schramm, Simone Grigoleto; Silva, Marina de Freitas; Kano, Eunice Kazue; Koono, Eunice Emiko Mori; Porta, Valentina; Serra, Cristina Helena dos Reis

2009-01-21

51

Preparation and evaluation of orally disintegrating tablets containing vitamin e as a model fat-soluble drug.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to develop orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) containing fat-soluble drugs that disintegrate rapidly while having appropriate tablet strength. We chose vitamin E (VE) as a model drug; d-?-tocopheryl acetate, as the oily VE (VE-OI), and d-?-tocopheryl acid succinate, as the powder VE (VE-PO), were used. The oily VE was added directly to ODTs (VE-OI ODTs) and also used for the preparation of two types of VE granule, i.e., granules prepared using adsorption to calcium silicate (VE-FL granules) and granules prepared using spray-drying with gelatin (VE-SD granules); each type of granule was added to ODTs (VE-FL ODTs and VE-SD ODTs). Powder VE was added directly to ODTs (VE-PO ODTs). Various VE ODTs were prepared using these four additional methods with varying amounts of VE per tablet and were evaluated with respect to their manufacturability, physicochemical characteristics, and stability. It was demonstrated that a tablet porosity of 30% to 35% and tensile strength of 7?kg/cm(2) or greater are required to provide VE ODTs with rapid disintegration and appropriate tablet strength, and that VE-SD granules and powder VE are suitable forms of VE to be added. When stability tests of VE-SD ODTs and VE-PO ODTs were performed, VE-PO ODTs exhibited prolongation of disintegration time and increased tensile strength, whereas VE-SD ODTs showed none of these changes. These changes were thought to be attributable to a decrease in the pore size of VE-PO ODTs resulting from the softening and migration of powder VE under hot storage conditions. PMID:25757486

Ikematsu, Yasuyuki; Uchida, Shinya; Namiki, Noriyuki

2015-01-01

52

Formulation and evaluation of meloxicam oral disintegrating tablet with dissolution enhanced by combination of cyclodextrin and ion exchange resins.  

PubMed

Abstract Context: The bitter taste of drug is masked by the exchange of ionized drugs with counter ions of ion exchange resin, forming "resinate". Cyclodextrin reduces the unpleasant taste and enhances the drug solubility by encapsulating drug molecules into its central cavity. Objective: Oral disintegrating tablets (ODTs) using the combination of ion exchange resin and cyclodextrin was developed, to mask the bitter taste and enhance drug dissolution. Methods: Meloxicam (MX) was selected as a model drug. Formulations containing various forms of MX (free drug, MX-loaded resin or resinate, complexes of MX and 2-hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin (HP?CD) or MX/HP?CD complexes, and a mixture of resinate and MX/HP?CD complexes) were made by direct compression. The ODTs were evaluated for weight variation, thickness, diameter, hardness, friability, disintegration time, wetting time, MX content, MX release, degree of bitter taste and stability. Results and discussion: The tablet hardness was ?3?kg/in(2), and the friability was <1%. Tablets formulated with resinate and the mixture of resinate and MX/HP?CD complexes disintegrated rapidly within 60?s, which is the acceptable limit for ODTs. These results were corresponded to the in vivo disintegration and wetting times. However, only tablets containing the mixture of resinate and MX/HP?CD complexes provided complete MX dissolution and successfully masked the bitter taste. In addition, this tablet was stable at least 6 months. Conclusions: The combination of ion exchange resin and cyclodextrin could be used in ODTs to mask the bitter taste and enhance the dissolution of drugs that are weakly soluble in water. PMID:24865111

Samprasit, Wipada; Akkaramongkolporn, Prasert; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait; Rojanarata, Theerasak; Opanasopit, Praneet

2014-05-28

53

Seletos 1 COMPARING NATIVE AND CROSS-PLATFORM DEVELOPMENT TABLET  

E-print Network

Seletos 1 COMPARING NATIVE AND CROSS-PLATFORM DEVELOPMENT TABLET ENVIRONMENTS BASED Term 2012 #12;Seletos 2 ABSTRACT Software development on tablet devices is very important. The leading tablet devices on the market are Google's Android tablet and Apple's iPad tablet. We

Miles, Will

54

Bioequivalence of Ondansetron Oral Soluble Film 8 mg (ZUPLENZ) and Ondansetron Orally Disintegrating Tablets 8 mg (ZOFRAN) in Healthy Adults.  

PubMed

Oral formulations of ondansetron are used to prevent nausea and vomiting associated with chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgery. An oral soluble film formulation of ondansetron (OND OSF) was developed using MonoSol Rx's proprietary PharmFilm technology and was formulated to dissolve rapidly on the tongue, without the need for water. This product provides an oral antiemetic treatment option for patients who experience difficulty swallowing. The purpose of this study was to compare the bioequivalence of OND OSF 8 mg (ZUPLENZ, Monosol Rx, Warren, NJ) with ondansetron orally disintegrating tablets (OND ODT) 8 mg (ZOFRAN, GlaxoSmithKline, Research Triangle Park). In 3 individual open-label, randomized studies, healthy adult subjects received a single dose of OND OSF 8 mg and a single dose of OND ODT 8 mg, under fasted conditions (study 1, n = 48), fed conditions (study 2, n = 48), and fasted with and without water (study 3, n = 18). Each dosing period was followed by a 3- or 7-day washout period. Ondansetron pharmacokinetics were assessed predose to 24 hours postdose for the single 8-mg doses of OND OSF and OND ODT. All analyses were conducted on natural log-transformed pharmacokinetic parameters for OND OSF and OND ODT. Under both fasted and fed conditions, the 90% confidence interval for the comparisons of OND OSF and OND ODT plasma ondansetron area under the curve from time 0 to the last measured concentration (AUC0-t), area under the concentration vs. time curve from time 0 to infinity (AUC0-?), and maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) were within the 80%-125% range, indicating bioequivalence between the formulations. With features designed to make it portable and easy to take, OND OSF 8 mg provides an alternative treatment option, particularly for patients with dysphagia and others who find it difficult to take oral tablets. PMID:25581856

Dadey, Eric

2015-01-01

55

Assessment of disintegrant efficacy with fractal dimensions from real-time MRI.  

PubMed

An efficient disintegrant is capable of breaking up a tablet in the smallest possible particles in the shortest time. Until now, comparative data on the efficacy of different disintegrants is based on dissolution studies or the disintegration time. Extending these approaches, this study introduces a method, which defines the evolution of fractal dimensions of tablets as surrogate parameter for the available surface area. Fractal dimensions are a measure for the tortuosity of a line, in this case the upper surface of a disintegrating tablet. High-resolution real-time MRI was used to record videos of disintegrating tablets. The acquired video images were processed to depict the upper surface of the tablets and a box-counting algorithm was used to estimate the fractal dimensions. The influence of six different disintegrants, of different relative tablet density, and increasing disintegrant concentration was investigated to evaluate the performance of the novel method. Changing relative densities hardly affect the progression of fractal dimensions, whereas an increase in disintegrant concentration causes increasing fractal dimensions during disintegration, which are also reached quicker. Different disintegrants display only minor differences in the maximal fractal dimension, yet the kinetic in which the maximum is reached allows a differentiation and classification of disintegrants. PMID:25234864

Quodbach, Julian; Moussavi, Amir; Tammer, Roland; Frahm, Jens; Kleinebudde, Peter

2014-11-20

56

Comparing alkaline and thermal disintegration characteristics for mechanically dewatered sludge.  

PubMed

Thermal drying is one of the advanced technologies ultimately providing an alternative method of sludge disposal. In this study, the drying kinetics of mechanically dewatered sludge (MDS) after alkaline and thermal disintegration have been studied. In addition, the effect of total organic carbon (TOC) on specific resistance to filtration and sludge bound water content were also investigated on freshly collected sludge samples. The combined effect of pH and TOC on the thermal sludge drying rate for MDS was modelled using the two-factorial experimental design method. Statistical assessment of the obtained results proposed that sludge drying potential has increased exponentially for both increasing temperature and lime dosage. Execution of curve fitting algorithms also implied that drying profiles for raw and alkaline-disintegrated sludge were well fitted to the Henderson and Pabis model. The activation energy of MDS decreased from 28.716 to 11.390 kJ mol(-1) after disintegration. Consequently, the unit power requirement for thermal drying decreased remarkably from 706 to 281 W g(-1) H2O. PMID:22329149

Tunçal, Tolga

2011-10-01

57

Formulation Development and Evaluation of Fast Disintegrating Tablets of Salbutamol Sulphate, Cetirizine Hydrochloride in Combined Pharmaceutical Dosage Form: A New Era in Novel Drug Delivery for Pediatrics and Geriatrics  

PubMed Central

The objective of the present study was to prepare the fast disintegrating tablet of Salbutamol Sulphate, Cetirizine Hydrochloride in combined tablet dosage form for respiratory disorders such as bronchitis, asthma, and coughing for pediatrics and geriatrics. The tablets were prepared by direct compression technique. Superdisintegrant such as Sodium Starch Glycolate was optimized as 4% on the basis of least disintegration time. Different binders such as MCC and PVP K-30 were optimized along with optimized superdisintegrant concentration. 1% MCC was selected as optimum binder concentration on the basis of least disintegration time. The tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, weight variation, wetting time, disintegration time, and drug content uniformity. Optimized formulation was further evaluated by in vitro dissolution test, drug-excipient compatibility, and accelerated stability study. Percent weight variation and content uniformity were within the acceptable limit. The friability was less than 1%. The wetting time and disintegration time were practically good for all formulations. FTIR studies and accelerated stability study showed that there was no interaction between the drug and excipients. It was concluded that, by employing commonly available pharmaceutical excipients such as superdisintegrants, hydrophilic and swellable excipients and proper filler, a fast disintegrating tablet of Salbutamol Sulphate, Cetirizine Hydrochloride in combined tablet dosage form, were formulated successfully with desired characteristics. PMID:25810924

Sharma, Deepak; Singh, Gurmeet; Kumar, Dinesh; Singh, Mankaran

2015-01-01

58

Robust Vaginal Colonization of Macaques with a Novel Vaginally Disintegrating Tablet Containing a Live Biotherapeutic Product to Prevent HIV Infection in Women  

PubMed Central

MucoCept is a biotherapeutic for prevention of HIV-1 infection in women and contains a human, vaginal Lactobacillus jensenii that has been genetically enhanced to express the HIV-1 entry inhibitor, modified cyanovirin-N (mCV-N). The objective of this study was to develop a solid vaginal dosage form that supports sustained vaginal colonization of the MucoCept Lactobacillus at levels previously shown, with freshly prepared cultures, to protect macaques from SHIV infection and to test this formulation in a macaque vaginal colonization model. Vaginally disintegrating tablets were prepared by lyophilizing the formulated bacteria in tablet-shaped molds, then packaging in foil pouches with desiccant. Disintegration time, potency and stability of the tablets were assessed. For colonization, non-synchronized macaques were dosed vaginally with either one tablet or five tablets delivered over five days. Vaginal samples were obtained at three, 14, and 21 days post-dosing and cultured to determine Lactobacillus colonization levels. To confirm identity of the MucoCept Lactobacillus strain, genomic DNA was extracted from samples on days 14 and 21 and a strain-specific PCR was performed. Supernatants from bacteria were tested for the presence of the mCV-N protein by Western blot. The tablets were easy to handle, disintegrated within two minutes, potent (5.7x1011 CFU/g), and stable at 4°C and 25°C. Vaginal administration of the tablets to macaques resulted in colonization of the MucoCept Lactobacillus in 66% of macaques at 14 days post-dosing and 83% after 21 days. There was no significant difference in colonization levels for the one or five tablet dosing regimens (p=0.88 Day 14, p=0.99 Day 21). Strain-specific PCR confirmed the presence of the bacteria even in culture-negative macaques. Finally, the presence of mCV-N protein was confirmed by Western blot analysis using a specific anti-mCV-N antibody. PMID:25875100

Lagenaur, Laurel A.; Swedek, Iwona; Lee, Peter P.; Parks, Thomas P.

2015-01-01

59

The effects of screw configuration and polymeric carriers on hot-melt extruded taste-masked formulations incorporated into orally disintegrating tablets.  

PubMed

The primary aim of this research was to produce successfully taste masked formulations of Sildenafil Citrate (SC) using hot-melt extrusion (HME) technology. Multiple screw configurations and polymeric carriers were evaluated for their effects on taste masking efficiency, which was assessed by both E-tongue analysis and in vitro dissolution in simulated salivary fluid (SSF, pH 6.8 artificial saliva). The screw configurations were further assessed for their effects on the morphology of the API using PXRD, FT-IR and mid-infrared chemical imaging. It was determined that the screw configuration had a profound effect on the taste masking efficiency of the formulations as a result of altering the physical state of the API. Selected extruded formulations using ethylcellulose (EC) with a pore former were further formulated into orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs), which were optimized by varying the grade and percentage of the superdisintegrant used. An optimized disintegration time of approximately 8 seconds was achieved. The final ODT formulation exhibited excellent taste masking properties with over 85% drug release in gastric media as well as physical tablet properties. Interestingly, friability, which tends to be a common concern when formulating ODTs, was well within the acceptable limits (<1%) for common tablets. PMID:25410968

Morott, Joseph T; Pimparade, Manjeet; Park, Jun-Bom; Worley, Chelsea P; Majumdar, Soumyajit; Lian, Zhuoyang; Pinto, Elanor; Bi, Yunxia; Durig, Thomas; Repka, Michael A

2015-01-01

60

Evaluation of the disintegration properties of microcrystalline cellulose II and commercial disintegrants.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to assess the disintegration properties of cellulose II excipients named as spray-dried cellulose II (SDCII) and non spray-dried cellulose II (MCCII) in comparison with commercial disintegrants. Swelling and water sorption characteristics were determined by conventional methods. The swelling values, water uptake and percentage of compact volume expansion all suggested that SDCII and MCCII compacts disintegrate by a wicking mechanism similar to that of Polyplasdone-XL, whereas a swelling mechanism dominates for Primojel and Ac-Di-Sol. With commercial binders, SDCII, MCCII and Polyplasdone-XL produced strong, but fast disintegrating tablets. At high levels, their performance as a disintegrant was superior compared to Primojel and Ac-Di-Sol. Disintegration times of the pure excipients revealed SDCII and MCCII to be comparable to Polyplasdone-XL, but faster than Primojel and Ac-Di-Sol. Ibuprofen tablets prepared using disintegrants at all levels released 80% of the drug within 60 min. SDCII and MCCII offer potential for use as a disintegrant in the design and development of solid dosage forms. PMID:22822537

Rojas, J; Kumar, V

2012-06-01

61

[Involvement of zinc in taste disturbance occurring during treatment for malignant tumor in the chest and the effects of polaprezinc oral disintegrating tablets (a retrospective study)].  

PubMed

We analyzed the correlation between serum zinc levels and taste disturbance, and between patient backgrounds and serum zinc levels or taste disturbance, and evaluated the effects of polaprezinc oral disintegrating tablets on taste disturbance in 29 patients with lung cancer and one patient with malignant pleural mesothelioma who were receiving chemotherapy. Taste disturbance developed in 11 (36.7%) out of 30 patients. Serum zinc levels significantly correlated with taste disturbance (p=0.0227). Serum zinc levels were significantly lower (p=0.0235) and taste disturbance tended to be more frequent (p=0.0625) in males. Polaprezinc improved taste disturbance in 5 of 8 patients. PMID:18633224

Nakata, Yoko; Hirashima, Tomonori; Kondou, Yoko; Tokuoka, Yoshie; Imazato, Hitomi; Iwata, Kaori; Oomori, Yukari; Yamato, Akihiro; Shimizu, Saburou; Nagao, Sadako; Matsui, Kaoru; Abe, Noriko

2008-06-01

62

A comparative study of Neo Sampoon, Ortho Vaginal Tablets and Emko Vaginal Tablets in Accra, Ghana.  

PubMed

Neo Sampoon is an effervescent contraceptive vaginal tablet manufactured in Japan that contains 60 mg of the spermicide menfegol. Ortho Vaginal Tablets (OVT) and Emko Vaginal Tablets (EVT), both containing 100 mg of the spermicide nonoxynol-9, were manufactured in the USA. The three products were compared in a randomized clinical trial conducted at the family planning clinics of the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital and the Kotobaabi Polyclinic in Accra, Ghana. Three-hundred volunteers participated. At 12 months, the life-table pregnancy rates were 9.6, 11.3 and 12.5 per 100 women in the Neo Sampoon, OVT and EVT groups, respectively (p greater than 0.10). More EVT than Neo Sampoon or OVT users discontinued because of discomfort as well as for other product-related reasons (p less than 0.01). The most common reason for discontinuation was the temporary absence of sexual partner, with more than 40% of the women overall terminating for this reason. The 12-month life-table continuation rates per 100 women were higher for the Neo Sampoon group (62.4) than the OVT group (48.6) or the EVT group (38.5) (p less than 0.01). The effectiveness of the three products seems to be similar, but Neo Sampoon and OVT appear to be more acceptable than EVT in this Ghanaian population. PMID:3002720

Lamptey, P; Klufio, C; Smith, S C; Feldblum, P J

1985-11-01

63

Comparative Tabletting behavior of Carbamazepine granules with spherical agglomerated crystals prepared by spherical crystallization technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to prepare Spherical agglomerates of Carbamazepine by Quesi-Emulsion Solvent Diffusion system (QESDS) with Ethanol-Chloroform-Water system. Granules were prepared by wet granulation method with different excipients.The prepared agglomerates were evaluated for flowability, compressibility, wettability, packability and solubility. Tablets were prepared and evaluated for tensile strength, hardness, friability, disintegration time and dissolution rate. Formulate, evaluate and

Yadav VB; Yadav AV

64

A Randomized, Multicenter Study Comparing the Safety and Efficacy of Sodium Phosphate Tablets With 2L Polyethylene Glycol Solution Plus Bisacodyl Tablets for Colon Cleansing  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE:The safety and efficacy of NaP tablets have not been compared with 2L PEG lavage solution. A multicenter, investigator-blinded study was conducted to compare the colon-cleansing efficacy of a new NaP tablet formulation with that of 2L PEG solution plus bisacodyl tablets in adults undergoing colonoscopy.METHODS:A total of 481 patients were randomized to receive either 32 tablets (48 g) of

John F. Johanson; John W. Popp; Lawrence B. Cohen; Sandra R. Lottes; William P. Forbes; Kelli Walker; Edwin Carter; Bing Zhang; Martin Rose

2007-01-01

65

Comparative evaluation of the in vitro efficacy of lanthanum carbonate chewable tablets.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were to systematically evaluate the effects of pH levels, phosphate concentrations, and tablet integrity on the phosphate binding profiles of lanthanum carbonate chewable tablets, and to compare the in vitro phosphate binding efficacy of one reference and two test products of lanthanum carbonate chewable tablets. Langmuir equation was utilized to calculate the binding constants k1 and k2 . The phosphate binding to the tablets of lanthanum carbonate product was pH dependent, with a faster binding rate at low pH. The crushed tablets bind phosphate more rapid. Compared with the whole tablets, the kinetic binding profiles from the crushed tablets were less variable under all conditions for both test and reference products. The phosphate level has a significant impact on the phosphate binding for both whole and crushed tablets under all pH conditions, with more binding at higher phosphate concentration. The phosphate binding profiles displayed significant difference among the products. For a crushed tablet, the phosphate binding to lanthanum reached equilibrium within 8 h under all conditions. The 90% confidence interval for the k2 ratio (test/reference) was well within the 80%-125% under all pH conditions. However, the k1 ratio varies from 54% to 144%. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 102:1370-1381, 2013. PMID:23334989

Yang, Yongsheng; Bykadi, Srikant; Carlin, Alan S; Shah, Rakhi B; Yu, Lawrence X; Khan, Mansoor A

2013-04-01

66

Leaching of indium from obsolete liquid crystal displays: Comparing grinding with electrical disintegration in context of LCA  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two pre-treatment methods, prior to leaching of indium from obsolete LCD modules, were described. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conventional grinding and electrical disintegration have been evaluated and compared in the context of LCA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Experimental data on the leaching capacity for indium and the electricity consumption of equipment were inputted into the LCA model in order to compare the environmental performance of each method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An estimate for the environmental performance was calculated as the sum of six impact categories. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electrical disintegration method outperforms conventional grinding in all impact categories. - Abstract: In order to develop an effective recycling system for obsolete Liquid Crystal Displays (LCDs), which would enable both the leaching of indium (In) and the recovery of a pure glass fraction for recycling, an effective liberation or size-reduction method would be an important pre-treatment step. Therefore, in this study, two different types of liberation methods: (1) conventional grinding, and (2) electrical disintegration have been tested and evaluated in the context of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). In other words, the above-mentioned methods were compared in order to find out the one that ensures the highest leaching capacity for indium, as well as the lowest environmental burden. One of the main findings of this study was that the electrical disintegration was the most effective liberation method, since it fully liberated the indium containing-layer, ensuring a leaching capacity of 968.5 mg-In/kg-LCD. In turn, the estimate for the environmental burden was approximately five times smaller when compared with the conventional grinding.

Dodbiba, Gjergj, E-mail: dodbiba@sys.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of System Innovation, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo (Japan); Nagai, Hiroki; Wang Lipang; Okaya, Katsunori; Fujita, Toyohisa [Department of System Innovation, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo (Japan)

2012-10-15

67

Neem gum as a binder in a formulated paracetamol tablet with reference to Acacia gum BP.  

PubMed

This study determined the physical, compressional, and binding properties of neem gum (NMG) obtained from the trunk of Azadirachta indica (A Juss) in a paracetamol tablet formulation in comparison with official Acacia gum BP (ACA). The physical and flow properties were evaluated using density parameters: porosity, Carr's index, Hausner's ratio, and flow rate. Compressional properties were analyzed using Heckel and Kawakita equations. The tensile strength, brittle fracture index, and crushing strength-friability/disintegration time ratio were used to evaluate the mechanical properties of paracetamol tablets while the drug release properties of the tablets were assessed using disintegration time and dissolution times. Tablet formulations containing NMG exhibited faster onset and higher amount of plastic deformation during compression than those containing ACA. Neem gum produced paracetamol tablets with lower mechanical strength; however, the tendency of the tablets to cap or laminate was lower when compared to those containing ACA. Inclusion of NMG improved the balance between binding and disintegration properties of paracetamol tablets produced than those containing ACA. Neem gum produced paracetamol tablets with lower disintegration and dissolution times than those containing ACA. PMID:24500339

Ogunjimi, Abayomi Tolulope; Alebiowu, Gbenga

2014-04-01

68

Differences in In Vitro Disintegration Time among Canadian Brand and Generic Bisphosphonates.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to compare the disintegration times among Canadian-marketed brand (alendronate 70?mg, alendronate 70?mg plus vitamin D 5600?IU, and risedronate 35?mg) and generic (Novo-alendronate 70?mg and Apo-alendronate 70?mg) once-weekly dosed bisphosphonates. All disintegration tests were performed with a Vanderkamp Disintegration Tester. Disintegration was deemed to have occurred when no residue of the tablet, except fragments of insoluble coating or capsule shell, was visible. Eighteen to 20 samples were tested for each bisphosphonate group. The mean (±standard deviation) disintegration times were significantly (P < 0.05) faster for Apo-alendronate (26 ± 5.6 seconds) and Novo-alendronate (13 ± 1.1 seconds) as compared to brand alendronate (147 ± 50.5 seconds), brand alendronate plus vitamin D (378 ± 60.5 seconds), or brand risedronate (101 ± 20.6 seconds). The significantly faster disintegration of the generic tablets as compared to the brand bisphosphonates may have concerning safety and effectiveness implications for patients administering these therapies. PMID:25349772

Olszynski, Wojciech P; Adachi, Jonathan D; Davison, K Shawn

2014-01-01

69

Differences in In Vitro Disintegration Time among Canadian Brand and Generic Bisphosphonates  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to compare the disintegration times among Canadian-marketed brand (alendronate 70?mg, alendronate 70?mg plus vitamin D 5600?IU, and risedronate 35?mg) and generic (Novo-alendronate 70?mg and Apo-alendronate 70?mg) once-weekly dosed bisphosphonates. All disintegration tests were performed with a Vanderkamp Disintegration Tester. Disintegration was deemed to have occurred when no residue of the tablet, except fragments of insoluble coating or capsule shell, was visible. Eighteen to 20 samples were tested for each bisphosphonate group. The mean (±standard deviation) disintegration times were significantly (P < 0.05) faster for Apo-alendronate (26 ± 5.6 seconds) and Novo-alendronate (13 ± 1.1 seconds) as compared to brand alendronate (147 ± 50.5 seconds), brand alendronate plus vitamin D (378 ± 60.5 seconds), or brand risedronate (101 ± 20.6 seconds). The significantly faster disintegration of the generic tablets as compared to the brand bisphosphonates may have concerning safety and effectiveness implications for patients administering these therapies. PMID:25349772

Olszynski, Wojciech P.; Adachi, Jonathan D.; Davison, K. Shawn

2014-01-01

70

Hot-Stage Microscopy for Determination of API Particles in a Formulated Tablet  

PubMed Central

Although methods exist to readily determine the particle size distribution (PSD) of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) before its formulation into a final product, the primary challenge is to develop a method to determine the PSD of APIs in a finished tablet. To address the limitations of existing PSD methods, we used hot-stage microscopy to observe tablet disintegration during temperature change and, thus, reveal the API particles in a tablet. Both mechanical and liquid disintegration were evaluated after we had identified optimum milling time for mechanical disintegration and optimum volume of water for liquid disintegration. In each case, hot-stage micrographs, taken before and after the API melting point, were compared with image analysis software to obtain the PSDs. Then, the PSDs of the APIs from the disintegrated tablets were compared with the PSDs of raw APIs. Good agreement was obtained, thereby confirming the robustness of our methodology. The availability of such a method equips pharmaceutical scientists with an in vitro assessment method that will more reliably determine the PSD of active substances in finished tablets. PMID:25136629

Šimek, Michal; Grünwaldová, Veronika; Kratochvíl, Bohumil

2014-01-01

71

Hot-stage microscopy for determination of API particles in a formulated tablet.  

PubMed

Although methods exist to readily determine the particle size distribution (PSD) of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) before its formulation into a final product, the primary challenge is to develop a method to determine the PSD of APIs in a finished tablet. To address the limitations of existing PSD methods, we used hot-stage microscopy to observe tablet disintegration during temperature change and, thus, reveal the API particles in a tablet. Both mechanical and liquid disintegration were evaluated after we had identified optimum milling time for mechanical disintegration and optimum volume of water for liquid disintegration. In each case, hot-stage micrographs, taken before and after the API melting point, were compared with image analysis software to obtain the PSDs. Then, the PSDs of the APIs from the disintegrated tablets were compared with the PSDs of raw APIs. Good agreement was obtained, thereby confirming the robustness of our methodology. The availability of such a method equips pharmaceutical scientists with an in vitro assessment method that will more reliably determine the PSD of active substances in finished tablets. PMID:25136629

Simek, Michal; Grünwaldová, Veronika; Kratochvíl, Bohumil

2014-01-01

72

The influence of granulation on super disintegrant performance.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to identify the causes of efficiency loss of super disintegrants following granulation or reworking. Two processes, precompression and prewetting, were proposed to simulate the processes during dry and wet granulation, respectively. The disintegration efficiency of the resulting disintegrant granules was tested in model formulations composed of dicalcium phosphate and lactose with the unprocessed disintegrants as controls. No significant difference was shown in the intrinsic swelling and the water uptake abilities of all super disintegrants following dry granulation. However, a significant decrease was observed for both Primojel and Polyplasdone XL10 in the rate of water being absorbed into the tablet matrix following wet granulation, but not for Ac-Di-Sol. United States Pharmacopeia (USP) disintegration testing without disc revealed a significant increase in disintegration time for tablets formulated with dry granulated Primojel and Polyplasdone XL10 and all wet granulated disintegrants. The increase in particle size following granulation appears to be the cause of the loss in disintegration efficiency. In conclusion, Ac-Di-Sol is less affected by both precompression and prewetting. The efficiency of Primojel and Polyplasdone XL10 is highly dependent on their particle size. Descreasing the particle size tends to increase their efficiency. Due to the size increase following granulation, a higher addition level of super disintegrant is required to ensure fast and uniform disintegration of tablets prepared by granulation. PMID:16544908

Zhao, Na; Augsburger, Larry L

2006-02-01

73

A fixed-dose combination tablet of gemigliptin and metformin sustained release has comparable pharmacodynamic, pharmacokinetic, and tolerability profiles to separate tablets in healthy subjects  

PubMed Central

Background In type 2 diabetes mellitus, fixed-dose combination (FDC) can provide the complementary benefits of correction of multiple pathophysiologic defects such as dysfunctions in glycemic or metabolic control while improving compliance compared with separate tablets taken together. The objective of the study reported here was to compare the pharmacodynamic (PD), pharmacokinetic (PK), and tolerability profiles of gemigliptin and extended-release metformin (metformin XR) between FDC and separate tablets. Methods A randomized, open-label, single-dose, two-way, two-period, crossover study was conducted in 28 healthy male volunteers. Two FDC tablets of gemigliptin/metformin 25/500 mg or separate tablets of gemigliptin (50 mg ×1) and metformin XR (500 mg ×2) were orally administered in each period. Serial blood samples were collected up to 48 hours post-dose to determine dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) activity using spectrophotometric assay and concentrations of gemigliptin and metformin using tandem mass spectrometry. Geometric mean ratios (GMRs) of FDC to separate tablet formulations and their 90% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to compare the PD and PK parameters between the two formulations. Tolerability was assessed throughout the study. Results The plasma DPP-4 activity–time curves of the FDC and the separate tablets almost overlapped, leading to a GMR (90% CI) of the FDC to separate tablets for the plasma DPP-4 activity and its maximum inhibition of 1.00 (0.97–1.04) and 0.92 (0.82–1.05), respectively. Likewise, all of the GMRs (90% CIs) of FDC to separate tablets for the area under the plasma concentration–time curve and maximum plasma concentration of gemigliptin and metformin fell entirely within the conventional bioequivalence range of 0.80–1.25. Both the FDC and separate tablets were well tolerated. Conclusion The PD, PK, and tolerability profiles of gemigliptin and metformin XR in FDC and separate tablets were found to be comparable. The FDC tablet of gemigliptin and metformin sustained release can be a convenient therapeutic option in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus requiring a combination approach. PMID:25678778

Park, Sang-In; Lee, Howard; Oh, Jaeseong; Lim, Kyoung Soo; Jang, In-Jin; Kim, Jeong-Ae; Jung, Jong Hyuk; Yu, Kyung-Sang

2015-01-01

74

Effects of automated external lubrication on tablet properties and the stability of eprazinone hydrochloride.  

PubMed

We investigated the advantages of an external lubrication technique for tableting. A newly developed external lubricating system was applied to tableting in a rotary tablet press using magnesium stearate. The resulting tablets were compared with tablets produced by the conventional internal lubrication method, in which lubricant is blended before tableting. As a model API, we chose eprazinone hydrochloride, because it is easily hydrolyzed by alkaline lubricant. The amount of lubricant required to prevent sticking with external lubrication was only 1/13th of that required with internal lubrication. External lubrication increased tablet crushing strength by 40%, without prolonging tablet disintegration time, and improved the residual ratio of eprazinone hydrochloride in tablets stored under stress conditions for 4 weeks by 10%. The distribution of lubricant on the surface of externally lubricated tablets was observed by scanning electron microscopy after the preparation by focused ion beam milling. The lubricant had formed a layer on the tablet surface. At the central part of the tablet surface, this layer was much thinner than at the edges, and remained extremely thin even when there was excess magnesium stearate. This is the first report to describe the distribution of lubricant on the surface of externally lubricated tablets. PMID:19059327

Yamamura, Takahiro; Ohta, Tomoaki; Taira, Toshinari; Ogawa, Yutaka; Sakai, Yasuyuki; Moribe, Kunikazu; Yamamoto, Keiji

2009-03-31

75

Disintegrating Mercuries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Short-period exoplanets can have dayside surface temperatures surpassing 2000 K, hot enough to vaporize rock. Small enough planets can evaporate completely. We discuss the observations and theory underlying disintegrating planets such as KIC 12557548b --- which may have been stripped down to its iron core. Thermal evaporation models assert that the catastrophic disintegration phase lasts only a small fraction of a planet's life, and therefore predict that for every object like KIC 12557548b, there should be many near-quiescent progenitors with sub-day periods whose hard-surface transits may be detectable. Unresolved issues with the theory of mass loss will be highlighted, including the related inverse problem of in-situ formation of rocky bodies.

Chiang, Eugene

2015-01-01

76

Effect of repeated compaction of tablets on tablet properties and work of compaction using an instrumented laboratory tablet press.  

PubMed

The repeated compaction of Avicel PH101, dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCP) powder, 50:50 DCP/Avicel PH101 and Starch 1500 was studied using an instrumented laboratory tablet press which measures upper punch force, punch displacement and ejection force and operates using a V-shaped compression profile. The measurement of work compaction was demonstrated, and the test materials were ranked in order of compaction behaviour Avicel PH101?>?DCP/Avicel PH101?>?Starch?>?DCP. The behaviour of the DCP/Avicel PH101 mixture was distinctly non-linear compared with the pure components. Repeated compaction and precompression had no effect on the tensile fracture strength of Avicel PH101 tablets, although small effects on friability and disintegration time were seen. Repeated compaction and precompression reduced the tensile strength and the increased disintegration time of the DCP tablets, but improved the strength and friability of Starch 1500 tablets. Based on the data reported, routine laboratory measurement of tablet work of compaction may have potential as a critical quality attribute of a powder blend for compression. The instrumented press was suitable for student use with minimal supervisor input. PMID:24171692

Gamlen, Michael John Desmond; Martini, Luigi G; Al Obaidy, Kais G

2015-01-01

77

Importance of excipient wettability on tablet characteristics prepared by moisture activated dry granulation (MADG).  

PubMed

For moisture activated dry granulation (MADG), microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) or silicon dioxide is recommended for the moisture absorption stage. The aim of this study was to assess the suitability of alternative excipients as moisture absorbents with regard to the disintegration mechanism of resulting lactose based placebo formulations. Beside high and low moisture MCC grades, the additions of magnesium aluminometasilicate (MAMS), pregelatinized starch (S1500), crospovidone (Kollidon CL) and carmellose calcium (ECG 505) were evaluated. High shear granulation (HSG) was conducted as a reference process. The overall disintegration time of all tablets produced by MADG was significantly faster whereas hardness yield and mass-variability were equal or superior compared to the HSG process. Powder wettability of the different moisture absorbents was identified to be a key driver for rapid disintegration, whereas tablet porosity had only a minor influence on the target hardness of the tablets. PMID:23994013

Takasaki, Hiroshi; Yonemochi, Etsuo; Messerschmid, Roman; Ito, Masanori; Wada, Koichi; Terada, Katsuhide

2013-11-01

78

A Prospective Randomized Trial Comparing 2 Lithotriptors for Stone Disintegration and Induced Renal Trauma  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeWe compare the efficacy and resulting kidney trauma of the HM3 (Dornier Medical Systems, Inc., Marietta, Georgia) and Lithostar Plus (Siemens, Issaquah, Washington) lithotriptors in a prospective randomized trial treating calix and renal pelvis stones.

SAMUEL F. GRABER; HANSJÖRG DANUSER; WERNER W. HOCHREITER; URS E. STUDER

2003-01-01

79

Efficacy of oral powder compared with chewable tablets for lanthanum carbonate administration in hemodialysis patients.  

PubMed

Lanthanum carbonate (LC) has been administered in a chewable tablet form for patients with hyperphosphatemia undergoing dialysis. However, some patients have difficulty chewing the tablets. LC oral powder has recently been released in Japan. The purpose of this study was to clarify the efficacy of LC oral powder form compared with that of chewable tablet form. The efficacy and safety of LC oral powder was retrospectively assessed in hemodialysis patients who switched from chewable tablet form to oral powder form without dose modification. Thirty-six patients (mean age, 66.8 ± 10.5 years; male, 64%; 39% with diabetes; mean duration of dialysis treatment, 99.2 ± 95.6 months) were enrolled in this study between June and July of 2012. Changes in clinical data and adverse events after the switch to oral powder form were investigated. The average dose of LC was 1180 ± 520 mg/day. Serum phosphorus levels were significantly decreased after the switch from chewable tablet form to oral powder form (5.3 ± 1.7 mg/dL at baseline vs. 4.9 ± 1.2 mg/dL at after 1 month after, P = 0.038). In contrast, no significant differences were observed in serum calcium and parathyroid hormone levels. Furthermore, no significant differences were evident in weight gain after the switch to oral powder form (2.5 ± 1.2 kg at baseline vs. 2.4 ± 1.1 kg at 1 month after the switch, P = 0.29). No serious adverse events were recorded. Our results suggest that LC is more effective in oral powder form than chewable tablet form for hemodialysis patients. PMID:24134326

Sakurada, Tsutomu; Oishi, Daisuke; Shibagaki, Yugo; Yasuda, Takashi; Kimura, Kenjiro

2013-10-01

80

Development of Indapamide Sustained Release Tablet using Methocel K15 MCR and a Comparative Study with a Reference Product  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indapamide, a low-dose thiazide-type diuretic, is used for the treatment of essential hypertension. In this study, we developed an indapamide sustained release formulation using Methocel K15 MCR (a modified hydroxypropyl methylcellulose), lactose and magnesium stearate considering technical feasibility and performed a comparative study with the release pattern of the reference product, Natrilix SR ® tablet. The tablets showed sustained release

B. M. Rahman; M. I. I. Wahed; M. S. Amran; P. Khondkar; M. M. Rahman; M. R. Islam; M. Ahmed

2008-01-01

81

Towards a real time release approach for manufacturing tablets using NIR spectroscopy.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to use the near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) as a process analytical tool to evaluate the conformity of paracetamol tablets in terms of four Pharmacopoeia tests (content uniformity, hardness, disintegration time, friability) and to control in-line blend uniformity. Tablets were manufactured by direct compression. Three different active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) concentrations were manufactured and three different compaction pressures were used. Intact tablets were analysed by transmission mode with NIRS prior to European Pharmacopoeia tests that were used as reference methods. Partial least square (PLS) regression was selected to build the prediction NIR models for content uniformity, tablet hardness and disintegration time. The prediction of NIR content uniformity and tablet hardness methods were validated using the accuracy profile approach. The values of the root mean squared error of calibration (RMSEC) and the root mean squared error of prediction (RMSEP) for the disintegration time indicated the robustness and the global accuracy of the NIR model. Regarding the tablet friability test, the classification was based on K-nearest neighbours (KNN). Then tablet NIR analyses successfully allowed the prediction of their conformity. Compared to the time consuming Pharmacopoeia reference methods, the benefit of this nondestructive method is significant, especially for reducing batch release time. PMID:24880992

Pestieau, Aude; Krier, Fabrice; Thoorens, Grégory; Dupont, Anaïs; Chavez, Pierre-François; Ziemons, Eric; Hubert, Philippe; Evrard, Brigitte

2014-09-01

82

Fast Dissolving Tablets of Aloe Vera Gel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose : The objective of this work was to prepare and evaluate fast dissolving tablets of the nutraceutical, freeze dried Aloe vera gel. Methods: Fast dissolving tablets of the nutraceutical, freeze-dried Aloe vera gel, were prepared by dry granulation method. The tablets were evaluated for crushing strength, disintegration time, wetting time, friability, drug content and drug release. A 3 2

Jyotsana Madan; AK Sharma; Ramnik Singh

83

Fine-Particle ethylcellulose as a tablet binder in direct compression, immediate-release tablets.  

PubMed

Ethylcellullose has traditionally been used in tablets as a binder in an alcohol solution form. In the present study, fine-particle ethylcellulose (FPEC) was used as a binder to manufacture immediate-release tablets by the direct compression technique. The binding potential of FPEC is compared to that of commercially available coarse-particle ethylcellulose at the same viscosity grade and to that of hydrophilic binders. The compression force setting was kept constant for all batches. The concentration of the binder was varied from 5% to 25%. Acetaminophen was used as a model drug because capping is a problem frequently observed during high-speed compaction and further processing of acetaminophen tablets. In this study, there would be an increase in the contact area with FPEC and hence greater bond formation. This greater bond formation should be able to reduce the problem of capping in tablets containing highly elastic materials such as acetaminophen. Tablets were evaluated based on the following tests: weight variation, extent of capping, hardness, friability, disintegration, and dissolution. Based on the results of these tests, FPEC proved to be an effective binder for directly compressed acetaminophen tablets. The 10% and 15% formulations of FPEC passed all the tests and also produced the hardest tablets. PMID:11694010

Desai, R P; Neau, S H; Pather, S I; Johnston, T P

2001-08-01

84

A five way crossover human volunteer study to compare the pharmacokinetics of paracetamol following oral administration of two commercially available paracetamol tablets and three development tablets containing paracetamol in combination with sodium bicarbonate or calcium carbonate.  

PubMed

This report concerns a single dose randomized five way crossover study to compare the pharmacokinetics of paracetamol from two commercially available paracetamol (500 mg) tablets and three different development paracetamol (500 mg) tablet formulations containing either sodium bicarbonate (400 mg), sodium bicarbonate (630 mg) or calcium carbonate (375 mg). The results demonstrated that addition of sodium bicarbonate (630 mg) to paracetamol tablets, increased the rate of absorption of paracetamol relative to conventional paracetamol tablets and soluble paracetamol tablets. Addition of sodium bicarbonate (400 mg) to paracetamol tablets increased the absorption rate of paracetamol relative to conventional paracetamol tablets, but there was no difference in the rate of absorption compared to soluble paracetamol tablets. Inclusion of calcium carbonate (375 mg) to paracetamol tablets had no effect on absorption kinetics compared to the conventional paracetamol tablet. The faster absorption observed for the sodium bicarbonate formulations may be as a result of an increase in gastric emptying rate leading to faster transport of paracetamol to the small intestine where absorption takes place. PMID:10799813

Grattan, T; Hickman, R; Darby-Dowman, A; Hayward, M; Boyce, M; Warrington, S

2000-05-01

85

Tablet preformulations of indomethacin-loaded mesoporous silicon microparticles.  

PubMed

In this study, indomethacin-loaded thermally oxidized mesoporous silicon microparticles (TOPSi-IMC) were formulated into tablets with excipients in order to improve the dissolution and permeability properties of the poorly soluble drug. Formulations of TOPSi-IMC particles and excipients were prepared at different TOPSi-IMC particle ratios (25, 30 and 35%). The formulations were compressed by direct compression technique with a single punch tablet machine. For comparison, a formulation containing the bulk IMC (indomethacin) and the same excipients without thermally oxidized mesoporous silicon microparticles particles (TOPSi) was prepared and compressed into tablets. The TOPSi-IMC tablets were characterised according to weight, thickness, crushing strength, disintegration time and dissolution rate. The results of this study show that TOPSi-IMC particles can be compressed to a conventional tablet. The release rate of the drug and its permeation across intestinal cells model (Caco-2) from TOPSi-IMC tablets was improved compared to the bulk IMC tablets. The dissolution rate and permeability of IMC from the tablets decreased with increasing ratio of the TOPSi-IMC particles in the formulation. The phenomenon is, presumably, a result of the loss of unique pore structure of the particles due to deformation of the particles under the compression load. PMID:22063301

Tahvanainen, Maria; Rotko, Tanja; Mäkilä, Ermei; Santos, Hélder A; Neves, Diogo; Laaksonen, Timo; Kallonen, Aki; Hämäläinen, Keijo; Peura, Marko; Serimaa, Ritva; Salonen, Jarno; Hirvonen, Jouni; Peltonen, Leena

2012-01-17

86

Proniosomal oral tablets for controlled delivery and enhanced pharmacokinetic properties of acemetacin.  

PubMed

Free-flowing proniosomal powders of acemetacin (AC) were prepared using the slurry method and maltodextrin as carrier. Positively charged proniosomes composed of 70:20:10 of Span 60/cholesterol (Chol)/stearylamine (SA), respectively, were successively compressed into tablets using direct compression method. The tablets were characterized for weight variability, friability, hardness, drug content uniformity, and dissolution properties. The in vivo evaluation of the prepared proniosomes (powder or tablet forms) after oral administration was investigated by the determination of AC and its active metabolite indomethacin (IND) in the blood of albino rabbits. Results indicated that the increase of Chol from 10% to 20% markedly reduced the efflux of the drug. Further Chol addition from 30% to 50% led to increased AC release rates. The proniosome tablets of AC showed greater hardness and disintegration time and less friability than AC plain tablets. The dissolution of proniosomal tablets indicated a lower drug release percentage compared to powdered proniosomes and AC plain tablets. The mean pharmacokinetic parameters of AC and IND from different formulations indicated increased t 1/2 and area under the curve (AUC) of both AC and IND for proniosomal tablets compared with both proniosomal powders and AC plain tablets. This study suggested the formulation of AC proniosomal powder into tablets to control and extend its pharmacologic effects. PMID:25319057

Shehata, Tamer M; Abdallah, Marwa H; Ibrahim, Mahmoud Mokhtar

2015-04-01

87

Comparison of Echinacea alkylamide pharmacokinetics between liquid and tablet preparations.  

PubMed

The relative oral bioavailability of alkylamides from two different Echinacea dosage forms (liquid and tablet) were compared in a small two-way crossover study in humans (n=3). The liquid preparation investigated contained a mixture of Echinacea purpurea root (300 mg/ml) and Echinacea angustifolia root (200 mg/ml) extracted in 60% ethanol. The tablet preparation investigated was also a mixture of E. purpurea root (675 mg/tablet) and E. angustifolia root (600 mg/tablet), but was prepared from the dried 60% ethanolic extracts of these two Echinacea species. Alkylamides were found to be rapidly absorbed and measurable in plasma from both preparations. No significant differences in the tetraene alkylamide pharmacokinetic parameters for T(1/2), AUC(t-lin) and C(max) in the two different preparations were found. T(max) increased from 20 min for the liquid to 30 min for the tablet, which is not unexpected as the tablet required time for disintegration before absorption could occur. These results suggested that there was no significant difference in the bioavailability of alkylamides from the liquid and tablet Echinacea formulations. Furthermore, the results also indicated that the absorption site and any alkylamide loss due to digestive processes were similar in both preparations. PMID:17289362

Matthias, A; Addison, R S; Agnew, L L; Bone, K M; Watson, K; Lehmann, R P

2007-09-01

88

Novel approach of aceclofenac fast dissolving tablet.  

PubMed

Fast disintegrating tablets (FDTs) have received ever increasing demand during the last decade, and the ?eld has become a hastily growing area in the pharmaceutical industry. Upon introduction into the mouth, these tablets dissolve or disintegrate in the mouth in the absence of additional water for easy administration of active pharmaceutical ingredients. Aceclofenac, an NSAID, has been recommended orally for the treatment of bone and connective tissue disorder and thus the formulation of the same resulted in development of several FDT technologies. The present aim is to formulate a tablet which disintegrate and dissolve rapidly and give its rapid onset of action: analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory action. Besides, the conventional tablets also show poor patient compliance an attempt had been made to formulate for FDT of aceclofenac by using various super disintegrants like sodium starch glycolate, croscarmellose sodium and crosspovidone (polyplasdone XL) and PEG 6000 followed by novel technique. The tablets were evaluated for friability, hardness, weight variation, disintegration time, wetting time, in vitro dissolution studies and drug content studies. It was concluded that the batch which was prepared by using combination of crosspovidone and sodium starch glycolate as a super disintegrant shows excellent disintegration time, enhance dissolution rate, taste masking and hence lead to improve efficacy and bioavailability of drug. PMID:25553683

Dave, Vivek; Yadav, Sachdev; Sharma, Swapnil; Vishwakarma, Pushpendra; Ali, Nasir

2015-01-01

89

Effect of intergranular versus intragranular cornstarch on tablet friability and in vitro dissolution.  

PubMed

The effect of blending dry cornstarch versus wet granulation with the drug and other excipients on friability and in vitro dissolution of a ticlopidine hydrochloride tablet formulation was studied. The friability of the tablets was reduced by wet granulating cornstarch with the drug and other excipients compared with the dry blending. The dissolution rate and the tablet-to-tablet variability was improved by incorporating cornstarch in the wet-granulation stage. The lactose placebo tablets, which were wet granulated with either a binder solution or without a binder, also showed reduced tablet friability due to the incorporation of cornstarch in the wet-granulation step. Examination of the tablet cross sections under the scanning electron microscope indicated clumping of starch grains when starch was blended in the dry form. Starch grains were well embedded in the other materials of the tablet and not readily visible when starch was wet granulated with the other excipients. This results in better bonding, fewer weak points, and better homogeneity of the starch disintegrator within the tablet, which accounts for better friability and improved dissolution. PMID:6631709

Chowhan, Z T; Yang, I C

1983-09-01

90

78 FR 15956 - Guidance for Industry on Tablet Scoring: Nomenclature, Labeling, and Data for Evaluation...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Agency's concerns with splitting a tablet included variations in the tablet content, weight, disintegration, or dissolution, which can...included standards for content uniformity, weight variation, and loss of mass-- while the United...

2013-03-13

91

76 FR 53909 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Tablet Scoring: Nomenclature, Labeling, and Data for Evaluation...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Agency's concerns with splitting a tablet included variations in the tablet content, weight, disintegration, or dissolution, which can...included standards for content uniformity, weight variation, and loss of mass-- while the United...

2011-08-30

92

Comparison of properties of tablets and energy profile of compaction of two spray-dried lactoses.  

PubMed

The paper compared two spray-dried lactoses Flowlac 100 and SuperTab 14SD from the standpoint of tensile strength and disintegration time of tablets, the effect of an addition of the lubricant magnesium stearate and silicified microcrystalline cellulose on these properties, and also from the standpoint of the energy profile of compression. The comparison of the values was performed at the compression force of 15 kN. The strength of tablets was higher in the case of SuperTab 14SD, an increase in the concentration of magnesium stearate did not decrease tablet strength. Prosolv SMCC 90 increased the strength of tablets and made it equal for both lactoses, but it also increased the sensitivity to the added lubricant. The disintegration time of tablets was shorter in the case of SuperTab 14SD, an increased concentration of magnesium stearate prolonged it, and an addition of Prosolv SMCC 90 shortened it and made it equal for both lactoses. From the energy standpoint, the maximal energy was higher in the case of SuperTab 14SD, an addition of Prosolv SMCC 90 increased it and again made it equal for both lactoses. The differences in the values of the maximal energy were primarily due to the values of the energy for friction and the energy accumulated by the tablet after compression, and there was no marked difference in the values of the energy of decompression. SuperTab 14SD showed a higher plasticity than Flowlac 100. PMID:23610968

Muzíková, Jitka; Sináglová, Pavla

2013-01-01

93

Formulation and In Vitro Evaluation of Ofloxacin Tablets using Natural Gums as Binders.  

PubMed

Natural gums are economical, easily available, and useful as tablet binders. In the present investigation, an attempt was made to formulate Ofloxacin tablets using three natural binders, namely Acacia arabica, Hibiscus esculentus, and xanthan gum. Such six batches of Ofloxacin tablets were prepared by using different types and amounts of the natural binders by the wet granulation method. The tablets were analyzed for their hardness, friability, and weight variation, and in vitro release was performed in a phosphate buffer at pH 6.8. The prepared tablets were also evaluated for their various release kinetics and similarity factors f2. The physical properties of the tablets containing the natural binders showed sufficient hardness, desirable disintegration time, and low friability. Their better percentage of drug release was observed as compared to the marketed formulation showing more than 85% drug release within 45 minutes. The in vitro release data was well-fitted into zero-order and the values of release exponent 'n' were between 0.303 and 0.514. The high similarity factor f2 of 64.50 was achieved with the best batch in comparison to the marketed tablets. The results obtained indicated that the gum Acacia arabica performed as well as gelatin compared to the other binders for the Ofloxacin tablet formulation. PMID:24959411

Mistry, Amisha K; Nagda, Chirag D; Nagda, Dhruti C; Dixit, Bharat C; Dixit, Ritu B

2014-06-01

94

Formulation and In Vitro Evaluation of Ofloxacin Tablets using Natural Gums as Binders  

PubMed Central

Natural gums are economical, easily available, and useful as tablet binders. In the present investigation, an attempt was made to formulate Ofloxacin tablets using three natural binders, namely Acacia arabica, Hibiscus esculentus, and xanthan gum. Such six batches of Ofloxacin tablets were prepared by using different types and amounts of the natural binders by the wet granulation method. The tablets were analyzed for their hardness, friability, and weight variation, and in vitro release was performed in a phosphate buffer at pH 6.8. The prepared tablets were also evaluated for their various release kinetics and similarity factors f2. The physical properties of the tablets containing the natural binders showed sufficient hardness, desirable disintegration time, and low friability. Their better percentage of drug release was observed as compared to the marketed formulation showing more than 85% drug release within 45 minutes. The in vitro release data was well-fitted into zero-order and the values of release exponent ‘n’ were between 0.303 and 0.514. The high similarity factor f2 of 64.50 was achieved with the best batch in comparison to the marketed tablets. The results obtained indicated that the gum Acacia arabica performed as well as gelatin compared to the other binders for the Ofloxacin tablet formulation. PMID:24959411

Mistry, Amisha K.; Nagda, Chirag D.; Nagda, Dhruti C.; Dixit, Bharat C.; Dixit, Ritu B.

2014-01-01

95

Orally disintegrating olanzapine review: effectiveness, patient preference, adherence, and other properties  

PubMed Central

Orally disintegrating olanzapine (ODO) is a rapid-dissolving formulation of olanzapine which disintegrates in saliva almost immediately, developed as a convenient and adherence-enhancing alternative to the standard olanzapine-coated tablet (SOT). Clinical studies, which form the basis of this review, have shown ODO and SOT to have similar efficacy and tolerability profiles. However, ODO appears to have a number of advantages over SOT in terms of adherence, patient preference, and reduction in nursing burden. Overall, the existing clinical data suggests that compared to SOT, ODO is not only well-suited for difficult-to-treat, agitated, and/or nonadherent patients but, due to its potential ability to improve adherence and greater patient preference, may also be an appropriate formulation for the majority of patients for which olanzapine is the antipsychotic of choice. PMID:22346347

Montgomery, William; Treuer, Tamas; Karagianis, Jamie; Ascher-Svanum, Haya; Harrison, Gavan

2012-01-01

96

Childhood disintegrative disorder  

MedlinePLUS

... had already learned The condition is similar to autistic disorder ( autism ). ... such as childhood schizophrenia or pervasive developmental disorder (autism). The most important sign of childhood disintegrative disorder ...

97

Efficacy and safety of sodium phosphate tablets compared with PEG solution in colon cleansing: Two identically designed, randomized, controlled, parallel group, multicenter phase III trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Liquid purgatives for cleansing before colonoscopy often are poorly tolerated. A sodium phosphate tablet has been developed to provide equivalent efficacy with better patient tolerance. These 2 studies compare the safety, efficacy, and patient acceptance of the tablet (Visicol) to a polyethylene glycol (PEG) solution in adults undergoing colonoscopy. Methods: Two identically designed, randomized, investigator-blinded, multicenter trials were performed.

David Kastenberg; Richard Chasen; Cuckoo Choudhary; Dennis Riff; Stephen Steinberg; Eric Weiss; Lawrence Wruble

2001-01-01

98

Desktop 3D printing of controlled release pharmaceutical bilayer tablets.  

PubMed

Three dimensional (3D) printing was used as a novel medicine formulation technique for production of viable tablets capable of satisfying regulatory tests and matching the release of standard commercial tablets. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC 2208) (Methocel™ K100M Premium) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) (Carbopol(®) 974P NF) were used as a hydrophilic matrix for a sustained release (SR) layer. Hypromellose(®) (HPMC 2910) was used as a binder while microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) (Pharmacel(®) 102) and sodium starch glycolate (SSG) (Primojel(®)) were used as disintegrants for an immediate release (IR) layer. Commercial guaifenesin bi-layer tablets (GBT) were used as a model drug (Mucinex(®)) for this study. There was a favourable comparison of release of the active guaifenesin from the printed hydrophilic matrix compared with the commercially available GBT. The printed formulations were also evaluated for physical and mechanical properties such as weight variation, friability, hardness and thickness as a comparison to the commercial tablet and were within acceptable range as defined by the international standards stated in the United States Pharmacopoeia (USP). All formulations (standard tablets and 3D printed tablets) showed Korsmeyer-Peppas n values between 0.27 and 0.44 which indicates Fickian diffusion drug release through a hydrated HPMC gel layer. PMID:24280018

Khaled, Shaban A; Burley, Jonathan C; Alexander, Morgan R; Roberts, Clive J

2014-01-30

99

[Tableting technology of a dry extract from Solidago virgaurea L. with the use of silicified microcrystalline cellulose (Prosolv) and other selected auxiliary substances].  

PubMed

Direct tableting is simpler and more cost-effective from the point of view of good manufacturing practice (GMP) than wet granulation or dry compacting. Moreover, the use of dry plant extracts in the process of direct tableting, omitting granulation, decreases the possibility of biological activity loss of active substances. Thus, pharmaceutical industry uses this particular process more and more frequently. Only few therapeutic substances form under compression tablets meeting current requirements. Very often addition of auxiliary substances appears to be indispensable. The aim of this study was to obtain uncoated tablets by the method of direct tableting with the use of selected auxiliary substances. Dry extract from Solidago virgaurea L. was the study material. Shrimp chitosan, silicified microcrystalline cellulose (Prosolv), polyvinylpyrrolidone, calcium carbonate and sodium stearyl fumarate were used as auxiliary substances. Eleven tablet batches were manufactured in a reciprocating instrumented tableting machine (Ewreka). The produced tablets were subjected to morphological tests comprising the tablet size, determination of batching accuracy (determination of mass uniformity of individual tablets), test of mechanical resistance (crushing strength), determination of disintegration time. The statistical hardness of the manufactured tablets was also estimated. Pharmaceutical availability tests were performed of the biologically active substances released from tablets to the acceptor fluid. The study was based on general and detailed regulations of Polish Pharmacopoeia VII (PP VII). The obtained results allow to conclude that the applied auxiliary substances appeared to be useful in adequate proportions in manufacturing tablets containing dry extract from Solidago virgaurea L. The properties of the obtained batches of tablets were in majority consistent with the current requirements. The applied method provides technological reproducibility and high durability of the drug. These tablets as compared to available herbal mixtures and aqueous extracts can be a more comfortable form of a drug. PMID:20099736

Marczyi?ski, Zbigniew

2009-01-01

100

A comparative study between conventional pan coater and quasi-continuous small batch coater on the stability of tablets containing acetylsalicylic acid.  

PubMed

The Supercell coater was developed as an in-line small batch tablet coater which uses air-fluidization for tablet coating. Coating time is very much reduced, with improved heat and mass transfer. It was hypothesized that the quasi-continuous Supercell coating process was more suitable for the aqueous coating of tablets containing moisture-sensitive drugs. Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) was used as the model drug in this study. The extent of ASA degradation in Supercell coating was compared against that of tablets coated using the conventional pan coater. Less than 0.3% of ASA was degraded at the end of the coating process using either coater. The extent of ASA degradation was found to be more pronounced during storage. The Supercell coated tablets exhibited comparable or smaller percentage of ASA degradation than the pan coated tablets at the end of a storage period of 6months under accelerated stability conditions (40°C/75% RH) and 3years under ambient conditions (25°C/50% RH). The extent and rate of ASA degradation during storage were dependent on the processing conditions employed during Supercell coating. Increase in temperature generally led to a reduction in ASA degradation, while increase in spray rate and coating level caused more degradation. Greater extent of ASA degradation was observed on the surface of pan coated tablets compared with Supercell coated tablets due to greater moisture contact and the slower and wetter coating process. Changes to the processing conditions also influenced the residual moisture content (0.55-2.86%) of the tablets. However, no direct correlation between the residual moisture content of the tablets after coating and the extent of ASA degradation during storage was found. PMID:25448074

Cahyadi, Christine; Chan, Lai Wah; Heng, Paul Wan Sia

2015-02-01

101

Tramadol\\/acetaminophen combination tablets and codeine\\/acetaminophen combination capsules for the management of chronic pain: a comparative trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Opioid\\/acetaminophen (APAP) combination analgesics are widely prescribed for the relief of moderate pain. Tramadol is a synthetic analgesic that has been shown to be effective both alone and in combination with APAP.Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy and tolerability of tramadol\\/APAP tablets with codeine\\/APAP capsules.Methods: This 4-week, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, active-control, double-dummy, multicenter trial

William S Mullican; Joseph R Lacy

2001-01-01

102

Studies on cyclodextrin polymer. Part 1: The effect of CDP on indomethacin tablet formulation.  

PubMed

Cyclodextrin polymer (CDP), which is a cross-linked derivative of beta-cyclodextrin, has been used as binder and disintegrating agent in tablet formulation. In this study different tablet formulations of indomethacin, which is a nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drug were prepared by direct compression method. Corn starch, lactose and Esma-Spreng were used besides CDP as disintegrating agent. The hardness, friability, disintegration time and dissolution rate of the tablet were determined. The data were also evaluated kinetically. It was found that CDP is a good disintegrating agent and significantly increased the dissolution rate of the poorly soluble indomethacin. PMID:3174808

Tarimci, N; Celebi, N

1988-05-01

103

Evaluation of the comparative effectiveness of fluoride mouthrinsing, fluoride tablets, and both procedures in combination: interim findings after five years.  

PubMed

This article presents five-year interim findings of an eight-year clinical trial designed to compare the relative caries-preventive benefits of weekly fluoride mouthrinsing, daily fluoride tablet administration, and both procedures combined. Children in kindergarten and first grade residing in Springfield, Ohio, a nonfluoridated community, were assigned randomly in school to one of three groups that (1) rinses once a week in school with a 0.2 percent neutral NaF solution; (2) chews, rinses with, and then swallows daily in school a neutral 2.2 mg NaF tablet; or (3) carries out both procedures. At baseline (1981), 1,640 participants were examined clinically using the DMF surface index. After five years, 789 children were available for reexamination. Findings show that subjects in the combination group experienced a mean caries increment of 1.47 DMFS, 16.5 percent lower than the mean score of 1.76 DMFS for children in the tablet group and 31.3 percent lower than the 2.14 DMFS for those in the rinse group. Only the difference in incremental caries scores between the combined fluoride procedure and the fluoride rinse was statistically significant (P less than .05). Despite the finding of an additive caries-preventive benefit among children who followed the combined regimen, it would be premature to judge which procedure is best before results of the final examinations become known. PMID:2295997

Driscoll, W S; Nowjack-Raymer, R; Heifetz, S B; Li, S H; Selwitz, R H

1990-01-01

104

Comparative efficacy and safety of long-acting risperidone and risperidone oral tablets  

Microsoft Academic Search

A double-blind study of long-acting injectable risperidone and oral risperidone tablets was conducted in 640 patients with schizophrenia. All patients received flexible doses of 1–6 mg of oral risperidone for 8 weeks. Doses were stable during weeks 5–8. At the end of week 8, symptomatically stable patients were randomly assigned to receive long-acting risperidone (active injections, dummy oral) or continued

Pierre Chue; Marielle Eerdekens; Ilse Augustyns; Bernard Lachaux; Peter Mol?an; Lars Eriksson; H. Pretorius; Anthony S. David

2005-01-01

105

Formulation and evaluation of bi-layer tablet of metoclopramide hydrochloride and ibuprofen.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to prepare bi-layer tablet of Metoclopramide Hydrochloride (MTH) and Ibuprofen (IB) for the effective treatment of migraine. MTH and IB were formulated as immediate and sustained release layer respectively. MTH was formulated as immediate release layer by using various disintegrants like Ac-Di-Sol, Polyplasdone XL, Explotab, Agar and Gellan Gum. Treated form of gellan gum and agar was prepared and compared for their disintegrant efficiency with other disintegrants. IB was formulated as sustained release layer using hydrophilic matrix (hydroxypropylmethylcellulose [HPMC K(4)M]). The effect of concentration of hydrophilic matrix (HPMC K(4)M), binder (polyvinylpyrollidone [PVP K(30)]) and buffer (sodium bicarbonate) on IB release was studied. The dissolution study of sustained release layer showed that an increasing amount of HPMC or PVP K(30) results in reduced IB release. The inclusion of buffer (sodium bicarbonate) enhanced the release of IB from sustained release layer. The rational for formulation of bi-layer tablet of these two drugs in combination was (1) MTH increases the absorption of acidic non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) by increasing gastric motility. So sequential release of MTH (as immediate release) and IB (as sustained release) was suitable for treatment of migraine. (2) MTH was degraded when prolonged contact with acidic NSAID. Bi-layer tablet was suitable for preventing direct contact of these two drugs and thus to maximize the efficacy of combination of two drugs for migraine. PMID:18612830

Shiyani, Bhavesh; Gattani, Surendra; Surana, Sanjay

2008-01-01

106

Formulation of the extract of the stem bark of Alstonia boonei as tablet dosage form  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To formulate the extracts of the stem bark of Alstonia boonei, an important antimalarial herb, into tablet dosage form. Methods: Tablets were formulated using direct compression and wet granulation methods. The mechanical properties of the tablets were assessed using crushing strength and friability and the crushing strength:friability ratio (CSFR) while drug release properties were evaluated using disintegration and dissolution

SO Majekodunmi; OA Adegoke; OA Odeku

107

Use of aerosil for tableting some hydrophobic medicinal preparations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In view of the properties mentioned above, in this work we used aerosil for the preparation of tablets of Ethoxide, Nigeksin, and Methisazone with disintegration properties satisfying the requirements of GFX. (Aerosil has been approved for use as a filler for the tableting of medicinal preparations by the Pharmacological Committee of the Ministry of Health, April 5, 1968, Report No.

L. P. Volkovinskaya; N. A. Koroleva; E. A. Ivanovskaya; A. M. Pozharskaya

1970-01-01

108

Disintegration of Atomic Nuclei  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE epoch-making results as to the disintegration of atomic nuclei recently obtained in the Cavendish Laboratory serve to recall the experiments of Prof. J. N. Collie and his fellow-workers made twenty years ago. In some of these experiments it was thought that helium and neon were produced by sending powerful electric discharges through exhausted tubes. Sir William Ramsay observed the

H. S. Allen

1932-01-01

109

Double Beta-Disintegration  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the Fermi theory of beta-disintegration the probability of simultaneous emission of two electrons (and two neutrinos) has been calculated. The result is that this process occurs sufficiently rarely to allow a half-life of over 1017 years for a nucleus, even if its isobar of atomic number different by 2 were more stable by 20 times the electron mass.

M. Goeppert-Mayer

1935-01-01

110

3D simulation of internal tablet strength during tableting.  

PubMed

This study presents a new approach to model powder compression during tableting. The purpose of this study is to introduce a new discrete element simulation model for particle-particle bond formation during tablet compression. This model served as the basis for calculating tablet strength distribution during a compression cycle. Simulated results were compared with real tablets compressed from microcrystalline cellulose/theophylline pellets with various compression forces. Simulated and experimental compression forces increased similarly. Tablet-breaking forces increased with the calculated strengths obtained from the simulations. The calculated bond strength distribution inside the tablets showed features similar to those of the density and pressure distributions in the literature. However, the bond strength distributions at the center of the tablets varied considerably between individual tablets. PMID:21541828

Siiriä, Simo Matti; Antikainen, Osmo; Heinämäki, Jyrki; Yliruusi, Jouko

2011-06-01

111

Release Kinetics of Papaverine Hydrochloride from Tablets with Different Excipients  

PubMed Central

Abstract The influence of excipients on the disintegration times of tablets and the release of papaverine hydrochloride (PAP) from tablets were studied. Ten different formulations of tablets with PAP were prepared by direct powder compression. Different binders, disintegrants, fillers, and lubricants were used as excipients. The release of PAP was carried out in the paddle apparatus using 0.1 N HCl as a dissolution medium. The results of the disintegration times of tablets showed that six formulations can be classified as fast dissolving tablets (FDT). FDT formulations contained Avicel PH 101, Avicel PH 102, mannitol, (3-lactose, PVP K 10, gelatinized starch (CPharmGel), Prosolv Easy Tab, Prosolv SMCC 90, magnesium stearate, and the addition of disintegrants such as AcDiSol and Kollidon CL. Drug release kinetics were estimated by the zero- and first-order, Higuchi release rate, and Korsmeyer-Peppas models. Two formulations of the tablets containing PVP (K10) (10%), CPharmGel (10% and 25%), and Prosolv Easy Tab (44% and 60%) without the addition of a disintegrant were well-fitted to the kinetics models such as the Higuchi and zero-order, which are suitable for controlled- or sustained-release.

Kasperek, Regina; Polski, Andrzej; Zimmer, ?ukasz; Poleszak, Ewa

2014-01-01

112

Influence of Prosolv and Prosolv:Mannitol 200 direct compression fillers on the physicomechanical properties of atorvastatin oral dispersible tablets.  

PubMed

Abstract The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of Prosolv® and Prosolv®: Mannitol 200 direct compression (DC) fillers on the physicomechanical characteristics of oral dispersible tablets (ODTs) of crystalline atorvastatin calcium. ODTs were formulated by DC and were analyzed for weight uniformity, hardness, friability, drug content, disintegration and dissolution. Three disintegration time (DT) test methods; European Pharmacopoeia (EP) method for conventional tablets (Method 1), a modification of this method (Method 2) and the EP method for oral lyophilisates (Method 3) were compared as part of this study. All ODTs showed low weight variation of <2.5%. Prosolv® only ODTs showed the highest tablet hardness of ?73?N, hardness decreased with increasing mannitol content. Friability of all formulations was <1% although friability of Prosolv®:Mannitol ODTs was higher than for pure Prosolv®. DT of all ODTs was <30?s. Method 2 showed the fastest DT. Method 3 was non-discriminatory giving a DT of 13-15?s for all formulations. Atorvastatin dissolution from all ODTs was >60% within 5?min despite the drug being crystalline. Prosolv® and Prosolv®:Mannitol-based ODTs are suitable for ODT formulations by DC to give ODTs with high mechanical strength, rapid disintegration and dissolution. PMID:24397821

Gowda, Veeran; Pabari, Ritesh M; Kelly, John G; Ramtoola, Zebunnissa

2014-01-01

113

Upper gastrointestinal tract transit times of tablet and drinkable solution formulations of alendronate: a bioequivalence and a quantitative, randomized study using video deglutition.  

PubMed

The bioequivalence and upper digestive tract transit time of a drinkable solution of 70 mg/100 mL alendronate was compared to reference tablets. A randomized, single- dose, two-way crossover study of the rate of urinary recovery of alendronate during 36 h (AE((0-36 h))) by HPLC, in 104 healthy young male volunteers, showed that AE((0-36 h)) and the maximum excretion rate (R (max)) were within the accepted range of bioequivalence 81.8-105.7 and 81.7-106.2, respectively. To characterize the oesophageal passage time of the two alendronate formulations, we performed a randomized, controlled study, in 24 healthy men and women (mean 52 years old), who took the formulations standing or lying down, by an X-ray video deglutition system. When taken in the standing position, both formulations had equal mean transit times from mouth to stomach and tablet disintegration but data dispersion was significantly smaller with the liquid form. When taken in lying position, drinkable alendronate had shorter and less variable median transit times compared to the tablets. These results show that the drinkable alendronate formulation is bioequivalent to the tablets and may be advantageous in patients in whom the transit or disintegration of the tablets is impaired. PMID:22923328

Gómez Acotto, Claudia; Antonelli, Carlos; Flynn, Damien; McDaid, Dennis; Roldán, Emilio J A

2012-11-01

114

Clinical utility of orally disintegrating olanzapine in Chinese patients with schizophrenia: a review of effectiveness, patient preference, adherence, and other properties  

PubMed Central

The primary objective of this systematic review was to examine the evidence for the efficacy, effectiveness, and safety of orally disintegrating olanzapine in Chinese populations. A systematic literature search was conducted using databases covering international and Chinese journals, ClinicalTrials.gov, and internal and external trial registries at Eli Lilly and Company using search terms related to target countries (People’s Republic of China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan) and orally disintegrating olanzapine treatment. A publication and one clinical study report were retrieved. The clinical study showed orally disintegrating olanzapine and the standard oral tablet to have similar efficacy and tolerability profiles. A bioequivalence study has shown that orally disintegrating olanzapine and the standard oral tablet have similar pharmacokinetic profiles. Orally disintegrating olanzapine and the standard oral tablet have similar efficacy and tolerability profiles. PMID:24600225

Zhao, Jingping; Ou, Jianjun; Xue, Haibo; Liu, Li; Montgomery, William; Treuer, Tamas

2014-01-01

115

Clinical utility of orally disintegrating olanzapine in Chinese patients with schizophrenia: a review of effectiveness, patient preference, adherence, and other properties.  

PubMed

The primary objective of this systematic review was to examine the evidence for the efficacy, effectiveness, and safety of orally disintegrating olanzapine in Chinese populations. A systematic literature search was conducted using databases covering international and Chinese journals, ClinicalTrials.gov, and internal and external trial registries at Eli Lilly and Company using search terms related to target countries (People's Republic of China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan) and orally disintegrating olanzapine treatment. A publication and one clinical study report were retrieved. The clinical study showed orally disintegrating olanzapine and the standard oral tablet to have similar efficacy and tolerability profiles. A bioequivalence study has shown that orally disintegrating olanzapine and the standard oral tablet have similar pharmacokinetic profiles. Orally disintegrating olanzapine and the standard oral tablet have similar efficacy and tolerability profiles. PMID:24600225

Zhao, Jingping; Ou, Jianjun; Xue, Haibo; Liu, Li; Montgomery, William; Treuer, Tamas

2014-01-01

116

Comparing the Therapeutic Effects of Garlic Tablet and Oral Metronidazole on Bacterial Vaginosis: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial  

PubMed Central

Background: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is one of the most common gynecological infections during reproductive age. Although metronidazole is one of the most effective medications recommended as the first-line treatment, it has various side effects. Because of the side effects and contraindications of some chemical medicines, using herbs has been investigated in treating BV. Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of garlic tablet (Garsin) and oral metronidazole in clinical treatment of the BV in women referred to Resalat Health Center, affiliated with Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, in 2013. Patients and Methods: This randomized clinical trial was conducted on 120 married women aged 18 to 44 years who were diagnosed with BV by Amsel’s clinical criteria and Gram staining. Enrolled women were randomly allocated to two groups of 60 patients and were treated with either garlic tablet or oral metronidazole for seven days. Amsel’s criteria and Gram stain were assessed seven to ten days after beginning the treatment period and side effects were registered. Results: Amsel’s criteria were significantly decreased after treatment with garlic or metronidazole (70% and 48.3%, respectively; P < 0.001). Therapeutic effects of garlic on BV were similar to that of metronidazole (63.3% and 48.3%, respectively; P = 0.141). There were significant differences between the two treatment groups in terms of side effects; metronidazole was associated with more complications (P = 0.032). Conclusions: This study reveals that garlic could be a suitable alternative for metronidazole in treatment of BV in those interested in herbal medicines or those affected by side effects of metronidazole. PMID:25237588

Mohammadzadeh, Farnaz; Dolatian, Mahrokh; Jorjani, Masoome; Alavi Majd, Hamid; Borumandnia, Nasrin

2014-01-01

117

Some physical properties of tabletted seed of Garcinia kola (HECKEL).  

PubMed

The formulation of Garcinia kola seeds into tablet dosage form and evaluation of some physical properties of the tablets are presented. A chemical assay was conducted on the dry, powdered seeds as well as the crude aqueous extract of the seeds. The dry powdered seeds contain 0.003% of flavonoids while the crude extract contained 0.007% of flavonoids based on rutin used as the standard. The powdered material (50 mg) and crude extract (10 mg) were formulated into tablets using the wet granulation method. Named binders were evaluated in these formulations. The various tablet parameters were evaluated, namely: weight variation, thickness and diameter, hardness, friability, disintegration time, dissolution profile and content uniformity. The results indicated that the tablets had good disintegration time, dissolution and hardness/friability profiles. Tablets formulated with starch had the best disintegration properties but were consequently very friable. Tablets formulated from 10 mg of the crude extract needed a larger proportion of diluents, which affected the tablet properties. PMID:15187382

Onunkwo, G C; Egeonu, H C; Adikwu, M U; Ojile, J E; Olowosulu, A K

2004-06-01

118

Comparison of childhood disintegrative disorder and disintegrative psychosis not diagnosed as childhood disintegrative disorder.  

PubMed

To clarify the difference of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edn; DSM-IV) childhood disintegrative disorder (CDD) from International Classification of Diseases (9th revision; ICD-9) disintegrative psychosis (DP), 10 CDD children (mean age, 7.7 years) and 18 DP children (mean, 6.5 years) not diagnosed as CDD divided into DSM-IV autistic disorder (DP-AD; n = 11) and pervasive developmental disorders not otherwise specified (DP-PDDNOS; n = 7) were compared on 31 variables not directly related to the normalcy before regression. The CDD, DP-AD, and DP-PDDNOS groups did not differ significantly in 28 variables. The DP-PDDNOS group met significantly a smaller number of items in criterion A of DSM-IV autistic disorder criteria than the CDD and DP-AD groups, both of which did not differ significantly in this respect. The CDD group tended to be more abnormal in auditory responsiveness and verbal communication than the DP-PDDNOS group. While CDD is distinct from DP-PDDNOS, its validity apart from AD with regression remains to be studied. PMID:15823168

Kurita, Hiroshi; Koyama, Tomonori; Osada, Hirokazu

2005-04-01

119

Satellite disintegration dynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The subject of satellite disintegration is examined in detail. Elements of the orbits of individual fragments, determined by DOD space surveillance systems, are used to accurately predict the time and place of fragmentation. Dual time independent and time dependent analyses are performed for simulated and real breakups. Methods of statistical mechanics are used to study the evolution of the fragment clouds. The fragments are treated as an ensemble of non-interacting particles. A solution of Liouville's equation is obtained which enables the spatial density to be calculated as a function of position, time and initial velocity distribution.

Dasenbrock, R. R.; Kaufman, B.; Heard, W. B.

1975-01-01

120

Lallemantia reylenne seeds as superdisintegrant: Formulation and evaluation of nimesulide orodispersible tablets  

PubMed Central

Aim: Orodispersible tablets also known as fast dissolving tablets disintegrate instantaneously within the mouth and thus can be consumed without water. The present study was aimed to formulate orodispersible tablets of nimesulide by using Lallemantia reylenne seeds as natural superdisintegrant. Materials and Methods: Powdered lallemantia seeds were characterized for powder flow properties (bulk density, tapped density, carr's consolidation index, hausner ratio, angle of repose), swelling index, viscosity, pH, and loss on drying. The prepared tablets were evaluated for different tablet parametric tests, wetting time, water absorption ratio, effective pore radius, porosity, packing fraction, in vitro and in vivo disintegration time, in vitro dissolution and stability studies. Results and Discussion: Increase in Lallementia reylenne concentration had an appreciable effect on tablet hardness and friability which clearly indicated binding potential of the seeds. Water absorption ratio increased with increase in Lallemantia reylenne concentration from batch A1 to A4. Water uptake coupled natural polymer swelling could be the most probable mechanism for concentration dependent reduction in disintegration time by the Lallemantia reylenne seeds. Porosity of the formulated tablets was found to increase from batch A1-A4. The in vitro disintegration results were in line with in vivo disintegration results. Conclusion: It could be concluded that Lallemantia reylenne seeds could be used as natural superdisintegrant in the formulation of orodispersible tablets. PMID:23071942

Malik, Karan; Arora, Gurpreet; Singh, Inderbir; Arora, Sandeep

2011-01-01

121

Phase transformation in thiamine hydrochloride tablets: Influence on tablet microstructure, physical properties, and performance.  

PubMed

The objective of this article was to monitor phase transformation in thiamine hydrochloride, from a nonstoichiometric hydrate (NSH) to a hemihydrate (HH), in stored tablets, prepared both by direct compression and wet granulation, and to relate the storage-induced phase transformation with changes in tablet microstructure, physical properties, and performance. Raman spectroscopy revealed complete NSH ? HH transformation in tablets, within 30 h of storage at 40°C/75% relative humidity. When the tablets were prepared by wet granulation of NSH alone, there was a marked increase in both tablet volume and hardness on storage. However, when microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) was included in granulation, the resulting stored tablets also exhibited a pronounced increase in disintegration time. In contrast, tablets prepared by dry processing via compression of a NSH-MCC physical mixture did not exhibit any changes in properties, despite the in situ solid form conversion. Scanning electron microscopy revealed growth of needle-like HH crystals in all stored tablets and mercury porosimetry revealed considerable changes in the pore size distribution during storage. Longer storage led to crystal growth (Ostwald ripening), causing further gradual but less dramatic changes in properties. The phase transformation and the complex interparticulate associations in the tablet influenced the changes in tablet microstructure, compact physical properties, and product behavior. PMID:22213350

Chakravarty, Paroma; Suryanarayanan, Raj; Govindarajan, Ramprakash

2012-04-01

122

Disintegration of a Liquid Jet  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents an experimental determination of the process of disintegration and atomization in its simplest form, and the influence of the physical properties of the liquid to be atomized on the disintegration of the jet. Particular attention was paid to the investigation of the process of atomization.

Haenlein, A

1932-01-01

123

Effect of silicification on the tableting performance of cellulose ii: a novel multifunctional excipient.  

PubMed

The effect of silicification on the tableting performance of microcrystalline cellulose II (MCCII) was assessed through coprocessing with fumed silica via spray drying and wet granulation at the 98:2, 95:5, 90:10 and 80:20 ratios. Compacts produced by spray drying and wet granulation rendered better tensile strength than MCCII. The Kawakita and Heckel models implied that silicification increased compressibility and decreased the plastic deforming behavior and densification by die filling at the early stage of compression for MCCII. It also decreased the sensitivity to hydrophobic lubricants such as magnesium stearate, especially for the spray-dried products due to the competing effect with magnesium stearate. Further, silicification decreased the high elastic recovery typical of MCCII due to the increase in specific surface area and fragmenting behavior which contributed to the formation of stronger compacts. Moreover, silicification did not affect the fast disintegrating properties and release rates of poorly soluble drugs such as griseofulvin formulated in tablets compared to those of Prosolv® SMCC 50 and Prosolv® SMCC 90. The new silicified materials are appropriate to formulate fast disintegrating tablets by direct compression. PMID:22689398

Rojas, John; Kumar, Vijay

2012-01-01

124

Comparative Studies on the Dissolution Profiles of Oral Ibuprofen Suspension and Commercial Tablets using Biopharmaceutical Classification System Criteria.  

PubMed

In vitro dissolution studies for solid oral dosage forms have recently widened the scope to a variety of special dosage forms such as suspensions. For class II drugs, like Ibuprofen, it is very important to have discriminative methods for different formulations in physiological conditions of the gastrointestinal tract, which will identify different problems that compromise the drug bioavailability. In the present work, two agitation speeds have been performed in order to study ibuprofen suspension dissolution. The suspensions have been characterised relatively to particle size, density and solubility. The dissolution study was conducted using the following media: buffer pH 7.2, pH 6.8, 4.5 and 0.1 M HCl. For quantitative analysis, the UV/Vis spectrophotometry was used because this methodology had been adequately validated. The results show that 50 rpm was the adequate condition to discriminate the dissolution profile. The suspension kinetic release was found to be dependent on pH and was different compared to tablet release profile at the same experimental conditions. The ibuprofen release at pH 1.0 was the slowest. PMID:23626386

Rivera-Leyva, J C; García-Flores, M; Valladares-Méndez, A; Orozco-Castellanos, L M; Martínez-Alfaro, M

2012-07-01

125

Comparative evaluation of drug release from aged prolonged polyethylene oxide tablet matrices: effect of excipient and drug type.  

PubMed

Abstract Polyethylene oxide (PEO) undergoes structural adjustments caused by elevated temperatures, which results in loss of its stability within direct compression tablets. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of filler solubility on the drug delivery process of matrix tablets containing drugs with different water-solubility properties and stored at elevated temperature. The results demonstrated that in the case of propranolol HCl (highly water-soluble) tablet matrices, soluble lactose promoted drug release, whereas, a stable release of drug was observed with insoluble DCP. A drug release pattern similar to the propranolol HCl formulation containing DCP was obtained for hydrophilic matrix tablets containing either lactose or DCP for the less water-soluble drug, zonisamide. In the case of the partially water-soluble drug, theophylline, formulated with lower molecular weight PEO 750, drug release increased considerably in the presence of both fillers with increasing storage time, however a stable release rate (similar to fresh samples) was observed in the case of higher molecular weight PEO 303 tablet matrices containing theophylline with either lactose or DCP. The hydration properties (e.g. solubility) of the diluents had a considerable effect on drug release behavior from various model matrices; this effect was dependent on both molecular weight of PEO and solubility of drug. PMID:25410967

Shojaee, Saeed; Kaialy, Waseem; Cumming, Kenneth Iain; Nokhodchi, Ali

2014-11-20

126

Isolation and characterization of jackfruit mucilage and its comparative evaluation as a mucoadhesive and controlled release component in buccal tablets  

PubMed Central

Background: The purpose of the present research work was to extract jackfruit mucilage, use it as a mucoadhesive agent, and to develop extended release buccoadhesive tablets with an intention to avoid hepatic first-pass metabolism, by enhancing residence time in the buccal cavity. Materials and Methods: The mucilage was isolated from the jackfruit pulp by the aqueous extraction method and characterized for various physiochemical parameters as well as for its adhesive properties. Three batches of tablets were prepared (wet granulation method) and evaluated containing three mucoadhesive components: Methocel K4M, Carbopol 974P, and isolated jackfruit mucilage using chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM) as a model drug and changing the proportion of the mucoadhesive component (1:2:3), resulting in nine different formulations. Results: The results of the study indicate that the isolated mucilage had good physicochemical and morphological characteristics, granules and tablets conformed to the Pharmacopoeial specifications, and in vitro release studies showed the sustained action of drug with increasing concentration of the isolated natural mucoadhesive agent in the formulations. Permeability studies indicated that changing the mucoadhesive component, permeability behavior was not statistically different (P > 0.05). FTIR and UV spectroscopy studies between mucilage and CPM suggested the absence of a chemical interaction between CPM and jackfruit mucilage. Conclusion: The developed mucoadhesive tablets for buccal administration containing natural mucilage (MF3) have a potential for the sustained action of drug release. Thus, mucoadhesive tablets for controlled release were successfully developed using natural jackfruit mucilage. PMID:23119234

Sabale, Vidya; Patel, Vandana; Paranjape, Archana

2012-01-01

127

Comparative Effectiveness of Di'ao Xin Xue Kang Capsule and Compound Danshen Tablet in Patients With Symptomatic Chronic Stable Angina  

PubMed Central

A high proportion of patients with stable angina remains symptomatic despite multiple treatment options. Di'ao Xinxuekang (XXK) capsule and Compound Danshen (CDS) tablet have been approved for treating angina pectoris for more than 20 years in China. We compare the anti-anginal effectiveness of XXK capsule and CDS tablet in patients with symptomatic chronic stable angina. A randomized, multicenter, double-blind, parallel-group, superiority trial was conducted in 4 study sites. 733 patients with symptomatic chronic stable angina were included in the full analysis set. The primary outcomes were the proportion of patients who were angina-free and the proportion of patients with normal electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings during 20 weeks treatment. Compared with CDS, XXK significantly increased the proportion of angina-free patients, but no significant difference was noted in the proportion of patients with normal ECG recordings. Weekly angina frequency and nitroglycerin use were significantly reduced with XXK versus CDS at week 20. Moreover, XXK also improved the quality of life of angina patients as measured by the SAQ score and Xueyu Zheng (a type of TCM syndrome) score. We demonstrate that XXK capsule is more effective for attenuating anginal symptoms and improving quality of life in patients with symptomatic chronic stable angina, compared with CDS tablet. PMID:25394847

Yu, Yanan; Hu, Siyuan; Li, Guoxin; Xue, Jie; Li, Zhuoming; Liu, Xiangling; Yang, Xiyan; Dong, Bo; Wang, Donghai; Wang, Xiaofeng; Liu, Shurong; Liu, Jun; Chen, Bingwei; Wang, Liying; Liu, Songshan; Chen, Qiguang; Shen, Chunti; Wang, Zhong; Wang, Yongyan

2014-01-01

128

Comparative effectiveness of Di'ao Xin Xue Kang capsule and Compound Danshen tablet in patients with symptomatic chronic stable angina.  

PubMed

A high proportion of patients with stable angina remains symptomatic despite multiple treatment options. Di'ao Xinxuekang (XXK) capsule and Compound Danshen (CDS) tablet have been approved for treating angina pectoris for more than 20 years in China. We compare the anti-anginal effectiveness of XXK capsule and CDS tablet in patients with symptomatic chronic stable angina. A randomized, multicenter, double-blind, parallel-group, superiority trial was conducted in 4 study sites. 733 patients with symptomatic chronic stable angina were included in the full analysis set. The primary outcomes were the proportion of patients who were angina-free and the proportion of patients with normal electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings during 20 weeks treatment. Compared with CDS, XXK significantly increased the proportion of angina-free patients, but no significant difference was noted in the proportion of patients with normal ECG recordings. Weekly angina frequency and nitroglycerin use were significantly reduced with XXK versus CDS at week 20. Moreover, XXK also improved the quality of life of angina patients as measured by the SAQ score and Xueyu Zheng (a type of TCM syndrome) score. We demonstrate that XXK capsule is more effective for attenuating anginal symptoms and improving quality of life in patients with symptomatic chronic stable angina, compared with CDS tablet. PMID:25394847

Yu, Yanan; Hu, Siyuan; Li, Guoxin; Xue, Jie; Li, Zhuoming; Liu, Xiangling; Yang, Xiyan; Dong, Bo; Wang, Donghai; Wang, Xiaofeng; Liu, Shurong; Liu, Jun; Chen, Bingwei; Wang, Liying; Liu, Songshan; Chen, Qiguang; Shen, Chunti; Wang, Zhong; Wang, Yongyan

2014-01-01

129

Formulation and evaluation of fast dissolving tablet containing domperidone ternary solid dispersion  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Fast dissolving tablet containing domperidone ternary solid dispersion was developed to improve the dissolution of drug and stability of solid dispersion. Materials and Methods: Binary and ternary solid dispersions were prepared by fusion method. They were characterized by solubility study, in vitro dissolution, dissolution efficiency, and stability study. The solid state properties of solid dispersions were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Ternary solid dispersion was successfully incorporated into fast dissolving tablet by direct compression method. Tablets were characterized for pre-compression parameters, post-compression parameters, and stability study. Results: Optimized ternary solid dispersion containing ratio 1:2:1.5 of drug: Gelucire 50/13: Poloxamer 188 gave maximum dissolution. The FTIR, DSC, and XRD studies of solid dispersions were confirmed the formation of solid dispersion. Ternary solid dispersion was more stable compared to binary solid dispersion at accelerated environment conditions for one month as confirmed by DSC study. Crospovidone as a superdisintegrant (4%) showed good result with disintegration time of 19 s and dissolution near to 100% in 0.1N HCL at 30 min. Conclusion: The studies indicated that the dissolution of drug and stability of solid dispersion was improved in the presence of ternary agent (surfactant) as compared to binary solid dispersion. It was concluded that fast dissolving tablet containing ternary solid dispersion was stable at accelerated environmental conditions for 1 month. PMID:25426438

Patel, Dasharath M.; Patel, Sweeti P.; Patel, Chhagan N.

2014-01-01

130

Effect of different excipients on the physical characteristics of granules and tablets with carbamazepine prepared with polyethylene glycol 6000 by fluidized hot-melt granulation (FHMG).  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to investigate the properties of granules and tablets with carbamazepine which were prepared employing a fluidized hot-melt granulation (FHMG) technique. The FHMG process was carried out at 65°C. Macrogol 6000 (PEG 6000) was used as a binder at the content 10% (w/w) of the granulated mass. Granules containing up to 70% (w/w) of the drug and 20-90% (w/w) of a filler (lactose, mannitol, calcium hydrogen phosphate (Di-Cafos), pregelatinized starch, and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC)) were produced. When the drug content was 30% (w/w), the yield of the process was satisfying (>95%) and flowability of the granules was better than placebo granules or drug-loaded granules prepared by wet granulation. Type of a filler had strong impact on physical properties of granules, and size distribution of the particles was the most homogenous when lactose or Di-Cafos were used. The FHMG technique enabled preparation of granules with better compressability compared with the wet-granulated product or with non-granulated powders. Tablets with shorter disintegration time than 10 min were obtained with 2.0% crospovidone added as a disintegrant. In comparison to tablets prepared from the wet-granulated mass, employment of the FHMG method resulted in tablets with faster dissolution of carbamazepine (more than 80% of the drug released within 15 min). This was achieved with mannitol or lactose/MCC, as fillers. PMID:21948307

Kraciuk, Rados?aw; Sznitowska, Malgorzata

2011-12-01

131

Design and evaluation of fast dissolving tablets containing diclofenac sodium using fenugreek gum as a natural superdisintegrant  

PubMed Central

Objective To formulate diclofenac sodium as fast dissolving tablets (FDTs) using fenugreek gum as a natural superdisintegrant which also possess anti-inflammatory activity. Methods An attempt was made to extract the fenugreek gum and evaluated it for various physicochemical characterizations. The swelling index and viscosity of fenugreek gum was 221% and 293.4 mpa.s respectively. FDTs of diclofenac sodium was formulated by direct compression technique using different concentrations (1%-6%, w/w) of fenugreek gum as a natural superdisintegrant and compared with renowned synthetic superdisintegrants like sodium starch glycolate and croscarmellose sodium. The anti-inflammatory activity of a formulation was evaluated with carrageenan induced experimental rats. Results The formulated tablets were evaluated for various physical tests like weight variation, friability, hardness and results complied with the limits. The drug release from all the formulations ascertained first order kinetics. Among all the formulations F3 containing fenugreek gum with the concentration of 6% produced least disintegrating time 21 seconds resulting in higher drug release rate 93.74% at the end of 25 min. Hence, it was considered as optimized formulation. The present study revealed that the fenugreek gum as a natural superdisintegrant showed better disintegrating property than the most widely used synthetic superdisintegrants like sodium starch glycolate and croscarmellose sodium in the formulations of FDTs. Conclusions The results suggested that the fenugreek gum act as a good super disintegrating agent and it showed promising additive anti-inflammatory activity with diclofenac sodium. PMID:25183106

Kumar, M. Uday; Babu, M. Kishore

2014-01-01

132

Formulation and Evaluation of Alstonia boonei Stem Bark Powder Tablets  

PubMed Central

The aim of this work was to formulate Alstonia boonei dried stem bark powder into tablets by wet granulation method using acacia, gelatine and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose as binders at concentrations of 1, 2, 4 and 8% w/w. The phytochemistry of the stem bark of Alstonia boonei was evaluated. The micromeritic properties of the granules prepared were studied. The tablets were evaluated using the necessary official and unofficial tests. The results of the phytochemical analysis showed that alkaloids, tannins, steroids, saponins, glycosides, flavonoids and terpenoids were present while anthroquinones and acidcompounds were absent. Micromeritic studies showed that Alstonia boonei granules had good flowability. The formulated tablets complied with British Pharmacopoeial specification for weight uniformity, hardness (?5 kgf) and tablet friability (<1%). For disintegration test, tablets formulated with gelatine and acacia at concentrations of 1, 2 and 4% w/w complied with Pharmacopoeial specification. However, tablets formulated with SCMC (1-8% w/w) and 8% w/w of acacia and gelatine failed the disintegration tests (Disintegration time more than 15 min). PMID:24019574

Chime, Salome A.; Ugwuoke, E. C.; Onyishi, I. V.; Brown, S. A.; Onunkwo, G. C.

2013-01-01

133

Formulation and Evaluation of Alstonia boonei Stem Bark Powder Tablets.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to formulate Alstonia boonei dried stem bark powder into tablets by wet granulation method using acacia, gelatine and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose as binders at concentrations of 1, 2, 4 and 8% w/w. The phytochemistry of the stem bark of Alstonia boonei was evaluated. The micromeritic properties of the granules prepared were studied. The tablets were evaluated using the necessary official and unofficial tests. The results of the phytochemical analysis showed that alkaloids, tannins, steroids, saponins, glycosides, flavonoids and terpenoids were present while anthroquinones and acidcompounds were absent. Micromeritic studies showed that Alstonia boonei granules had good flowability. The formulated tablets complied with British Pharmacopoeial specification for weight uniformity, hardness (?5 kgf) and tablet friability (<1%). For disintegration test, tablets formulated with gelatine and acacia at concentrations of 1, 2 and 4% w/w complied with Pharmacopoeial specification. However, tablets formulated with SCMC (1-8% w/w) and 8% w/w of acacia and gelatine failed the disintegration tests (Disintegration time more than 15 min). PMID:24019574

Chime, Salome A; Ugwuoke, E C; Onyishi, I V; Brown, S A; Onunkwo, G C

2013-03-01

134

Relative bioavailability of iron and folic acid from a new powdered supplement compared to a traditional tablet in pregnant women  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Deficiencies of iron and folic acid during pregnancy can lead to adverse outcomes for the fetus, thus supplements are recommended. Adherence to current tablet-based supplements is documented to be poor. Recently a powdered form of micronutrients has been developed which may decrease side-effects and thus improve adherence. However, before testing the efficacy of the supplement as an alternate choice

Brenda Hartman-Craven; Anna Christofides; Deborah L O'Connor

2009-01-01

135

Relative bioavailability of iron and folic acid from a new powdered supplement compared to a traditional tablet in pregnant women  

PubMed Central

Background Deficiencies of iron and folic acid during pregnancy can lead to adverse outcomes for the fetus, thus supplements are recommended. Adherence to current tablet-based supplements is documented to be poor. Recently a powdered form of micronutrients has been developed which may decrease side-effects and thus improve adherence. However, before testing the efficacy of the supplement as an alternate choice for supplementation during pregnancy, the bioavailability of the iron needs to be determined. Our objective was to measure the relative bioavailability of iron and folic acid from a powdered supplement that can be sprinkled on semi-solid foods or beverages versus a traditional tablet supplement in pregnant women. Methods Eighteen healthy pregnant women (24 – 32 weeks gestation) were randomized to receive the supplements in a crossover design. Following ingestion of each supplement, the changes (over baseline) in serum iron and folate over 8 hours were determined. The powdered supplement contained 30 mg of iron as micronized dispersible ferric pyrophosphate with an emulsifier coating and 600 ?g folic acid; the tablet contained 27 mg iron from ferrous fumarate and 1000 ?g folic acid. Results Overall absorption of iron from the powdered supplement was significantly lower than the tablet (p = 0.003). There was no difference in the overall absorption of folic acid between supplements. Based on the differences in the area under the curve and doses, the relative bioavailability of iron from powdered supplement was lower than from the tablet (0.22). Conclusion The unexpected lower bioavailability of iron from the powdered supplement is contrary to previously published reports. However, since pills and capsules are known to be poorly accepted by some women during pregnancy, it is reasonable to continue to explore alternative micronutrient delivery systems and forms of iron for this purpose. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00789490 PMID:19635145

Hartman-Craven, Brenda; Christofides, Anna; O'Connor, Deborah L; Zlotkin, Stanley

2009-01-01

136

A comparative study of calcium absorption following a single serving administration of calcium carbonate powder versus calcium citrate tablets in healthy premenopausal women  

PubMed Central

Background Calcium is an essential mineral often taken as a daily, long-term nutritional supplement. Data suggests that once-daily dosing is important with regard to long-term compliance of both drugs and nutritional supplements. Objective This study was undertaken to compare the bioavailability of a single serving of two calcium supplements in healthy, premenopausal women. Design A two-period, crossover bioavailability study of a single serving of calcium citrate tablets (two tablets=500 mg calcium) versus a single serving of calcium carbonate powder (one packet of powder=1,000 mg calcium) was performed in healthy women aged between 25 and 45. All subjects were on a calcium-restricted diet 7 days prior to testing and fasted for 12 h before being evaluated at 0, 1, 2, and 4 h after oral administration of the test agents. Blood measurements for total and ionized calcium and parathyroid hormone were performed and adverse events were monitored. Results Twenty-three women were evaluable with a mean age of 33.2±8.71. Results showed that administration of a single serving of a calcium carbonate powder resulted in greater absorption in total and ionized calcium versus a single serving of calcium citrate tablets at 4 h (4.25±0.21 vs. 4.16±0.16, p=0.001). There were minimal side effects and no reported serious adverse events. Conclusions This study shows that a single serving of a calcium carbonate powder is more bioavailable than a single serving of calcium citrate tablets. This may be beneficial for long-term compliance. PMID:24772062

Wang, Haiyuan; Bua, Peter; Capodice, Jillian

2014-01-01

137

Tablet Weaving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Article described a weaving technique called tablet weaving, an ancient textile process that provides opportunity for making a variety of items, such as guitar straps, belts, and decorative bands. (Author/RK)

Kren, Margo

1976-01-01

138

Preparation and evaluation of sublingual tablets of zolmitriptan  

PubMed Central

Aim: Zolmitriptan is a 5-HT receptor agonist (1B/1D). It is used in the acute treatment of migraine having low bioavailability about 40% orally due to hepatic first pass metabolism. The purpose of the present research was to formulate fast acting sublingual tablets of zolmitriptan. Materials and Methods: Sublingual tablets were prepared using ispaghula husk powder, gellan gum, sodium alginate as super disintegrating polymers and citric acid, tartaric acid and camphor as permeation enhancers by direct compressible technique and evaluated for weight variation, thickness, friability, content uniformity, hardness, disintegration time, wetting time, in-vitro drug release, in-vitro and ex-vivo permeation study. Stability study of optimized formulation was performed as per ICH (International Conference on Harmonisation) guideline. Results: The in-vitro disintegration time of the optimized formulation (D5) was 9 ± 2 s and all formulations showed 100% of dissolution within 6 ± 2 min. Formulation containing 4% of gellan gum (D5) showed highest disintegration and 2% of citric acid formulation (P3) showed highest permeation 88% within 30 min and ex-vivo permeation was 52% within 30 min. Optimized formulation was stable for 1 month during stability study as per ICH guideline. Conclusion: The sublingual tablet formulation gives better results using natural super disintegrant for fast onset of action. PMID:24678459

Prajapati, Shailesh T; Patel, Manoj V; Patel, Chhaganbhai N

2014-01-01

139

Comparative Bioavailability and Tolerability of Single and Multiple Doses of 2 Diclofenac Sodium Sustained-Release Tablet Formulations in Fasting, Healthy Chinese Male Volunteers?  

PubMed Central

Background Diclofenac is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug used for the treatment of patients with osteoarthritis. Objectives Our primary objective was to compare bioavailability and tolerability of a generic sustained-release tablet with the established reference sustained-release tablet of diclofenac sodium in a fasting, healthy Chinese male population. Methods A randomized, open-label, single- and multiple-dose study design was used. After the single dose, volunteers received diclofenac sodium sustained-release tablet once daily for 5 days. In the single-dose phase, blood samples were collected from 0 to 36 hours after drug administration. In the multiple-dose phase, samples were obtained before drug administration at 8:00 am on Days 3 and 4 to determine Cmin,ss of diclofenac sodium; on Day 5, samples were collected from 0 to 36 hours. Adverse events were monitored via subject interview, vital signs, and blood sampling. Results Twenty-four Chinese male volunteers were enrolled. The pharmacokinetic parameters (mean [SD]) for diclofenac after single dose of 75 and 100 mg were: Cmax 473.5 [179.5] and 546.6 [154.9] ng/mL; AUC0–? 3841.2 [1402.3], and 5019.1 [2,314.0] ng·h/mL; Tmax 4.9 [2.4], and 4.3 [2.2] hours; t1/2 5.9 [2.5], and 6.0 [2.2] hours. Mean [SD] values after multiple doses of 75 and 100 mg were: Cmax,ss 525.6 [127.4] and 650.5 [167.0] ng/mL, Cmin,ss 33.9 [20.9] and 62.9 [34.9] ng/mL, AUCss 4316.3 [633.0] and 5335.1 [1291.9] ng·h/mL, Cav,ss 179.8 [26.4] and 222.3 [53.8] ng/mL, Tmax 5.1 [1.8] and 4.5 [0.9] hours and t1/2 5.2 [2.9] and 5.5 [2.8] hours, respectively. Conclusions This diclofenac sodium 75 mg tablet has features compatible with the 100 mg sustained-release tablet and appeared to be well tolerated. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: 2010L01969 PMID:24465044

Zhai, Xue-Jia; Yu, Ye; Chen, Fen; Lu, Yong-Ning

2013-01-01

140

Comparison of neurofuzzy logic and decision trees in discovering knowledge from experimental data of an immediate release tablet formulation.  

PubMed

Understanding of the cause-effect relationships between formulation ingredients, process conditions and product properties is essential for developing a quality product. However, the formulation knowledge is often hidden in experimental data and not easily interpretable. This study compares neurofuzzy logic and decision tree approaches in discovering hidden knowledge from an immediate release tablet formulation database relating formulation ingredients (silica aerogel, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose and sodium carboxymethylcellulose) and process variables (dwell time and compression force) to tablet properties (tensile strength, disintegration time, friability, capping and drug dissolution at various time intervals). Both approaches successfully generated useful knowledge in the form of either "if then" rules or decision trees. Although different strategies are employed by the two approaches in generating rules/trees, similar knowledge was discovered in most cases. However, as decision trees are not able to deal with continuous dependent variables, data discretisation procedures are generally required. PMID:17459671

Shao, Q; Rowe, R C; York, P

2007-06-01

141

Incompatibility of croscarmellose sodium with alkaline excipients in a tablet formulation.  

PubMed

The objective of the current work was to study an observed incompatibility between croscarmellose sodium and basic excipients in a tablet formulation. Significant dissolution slowdown was observed for alkaline tablet compositions of an acid-labile drug containing croscarmellose sodium (CCS) as a disintegrant. The severity of the dissolution slowdown was directly proportional to both the degree of alkalinity and the level of CCS in the tablet formulation. It is postulated that the ester cross-links in CCS were partially or fully hydrolyzed under basic conditions (pH values >9) forming by-products of increased water solubility. This increase in the level of water-soluble polymer can lead to the formation of a viscous barrier in the tablet upon moisture uptake, thus slowing down its dissolution. The dissolution slowdown was not observed for a similar alkaline tablet preparation containing crospovidone as a disintegrant. PMID:23528069

Bindra, Dilbir S; Stein, Daniel; Pandey, Preetanshu; Barbour, Nancy

2014-05-01

142

Development of fixed dose combination tablets containing zidovudine and lamivudine for paediatric applications.  

PubMed

In view of the lack of suitable paediatric antiretroviral formulations on the market, a novel fixed dose combination (FDC) tablet containing 300mg zidovudine (AZT) and 160mg lamivudine (3TC) was developed to improve dosing accuracy and allow flexible drug dosing in function of the body weight of paediatric HIV patients as recommended by WHO. Rectangular tablets with multiple fraction bars were designed and each tablet can be broken into 8 subunits, each subunit containing a drug dose corresponding to a body weight of 5kg. These fast-disintegrating subunits can easily be administered to children after dispersion in a liquid or mixing with food. In vitro quality control of the FDC tablets was determined and a crossover bioavailability study using 18 adult volunteers was performed after oral administration of the novel FDC tablet and a Duovir tablet. The results of the study showed that the novel tablets as well as its subunits disintegrated fast (<20s). After 30min dissolution, AZT and 3TC released from Duovir and the novel tablets was above 95%, the similarity factors f2 were above 50 for both AZT and 3TC. A tablet breakability test showed low weight variability (125.1+/-5mg, R.S.D.=4.4%), with limited weight loss (0.3%). There was no significant difference in pharmacokinetic parameters (C(max), t(max) and AUC(0-12h) values) between Duovir and the novel tablets formulated for paediatric applications. PMID:19059324

Kayitare, E; Vervaet, C; Ntawukulilyayo, J D; Seminega, B; Bortel, Van; Remon, J P

2009-03-31

143

A multicentric, open label, randomised, postmarketing efficacy study comparing multidose of lincomycin hydrochloride capsule 500 mg with multidose cefpodoxime proxetil tablet 200 mg in patients with tonsillitis, sinusitis.  

PubMed

Tonsillitis causes considerable short and medium term morbidity, and can be recurrent. Sinusitis can be acute (less than 4 weeks), subacute (4-8 weeks) or chronic (8 weeks or more). To study the comparative efficacy and safety of multidose treatments of lincomycin hydrochloride 500 mg capsules against cefpodoxime proxetil 200 mg tablets on its outcome in the Indian scenario are the aims and objective of the study. A total of 41 tonsillitis, sinusitis cases of either gender aged above 18 years were enrolled in the study. The diagnosis of sonsillitis, sinusitis was made based on examination of symptoms and throat swab. A randomised treatment of either lincomycin hydrochloride 500 mg capsules or cefpodoxime proxetil 200 mg tablets twice daily for five days alongwith other concomitant medications depending on related symptoms was given to 40 patients. At the end of study, all patients were re-evaluated and the response rate was assessed. The most common clinical symptoms were body temperature, headache, throat pain, postnasal discharge, mucopus, odynophagia, sinus tenderness, nasal congestion, pharyngeal congestion and tonsillar congestion. The overall response rate of lincomycin hydrochloride in all the symptoms except headache was more effective than cefpodoxime proxetil. Out of 100% (n = 20) patients in each group, 67.89% in lincomycin and 52.27% in cefpodoxime patients achieved complete relief, in all the clinical symptoms. The study suggests that lincomycin hydrochloride capsules, a conventional antibiotic indicates effective treatment for relief from tonsillitis and sinusitis, as compared to new third generation antibiotic. PMID:23741829

Kothadiya, Ajay

2012-08-01

144

A comprehensive in vitro and in vivo evaluation of thiolated matrix tablets as a gastroretentive delivery system.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of thiolated matrix tablets for gastroretentive delivery systems. Poly(acrylic acid)-cysteine (PAA-Cys) and chitosan-4-thiobuthylamidine (chitosan-TBA) were evaluated as anionic and cationic thiolated polymers and riboflavin was used as a model drug. Tablets were prepared by direct compression and each formulation was characterized in terms of disintegration, swelling, mucoadhesion, and drug release properties. Thereafter, the gastric residence times of tablets were determined with in vivo study in rats. The resulting PAA-Cys and chitosan-TBA conjugates displayed 172.80 ± 30.33 and 371.11 ± 72.74 µmol free thiol groups, respectively. Disintegration studies demonstrated the stability of thiolated tablets up to 24 h, whereas tablets prepared with unmodified PAA and chitosan disintegrated within a time period of 1 h. Mucoadhesion studies showed that mucoadhesion work of PAA-Cys and chitosan-TBA tablets were 1.341- and 2.139-times higher than unmodified ones. The mucoadhesion times of PAA, PAA-Cys, chitosan, and chitosan-TBA tablets were 1.5 ± 0.5, 21 ± 1, 1 ± 0.5, 17 ± 1 h, respectively. These results confirm the theory that thiol groups react with mucin glycoproteins and form covalent bonds to the mucus layer. Release studies indicated that a controlled release was provided with thiolated tablets up to 24 h. These promising in vitro results of thiolated tablets were proved with in vivo studies. The thiolated tablets showed a gastroretention time up to 6 h, whereas unmodified tablets completely disintegrated within 1 h in rat stomach. Consequently, the study suggests that thiolated matrix tablets might be promising formulations for gastroretentive delivery systems. PMID:21463156

Senyigit, Zeynep Ay; Vetter, Anja; Guneri, Tamer; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

2011-08-01

145

A quality-by-design study for an immediate-release tablet platform: examining the relative impact of active pharmaceutical ingredient properties, processing methods, and excipient variability on drug product quality attributes.  

PubMed

The impact of filler-lubricant particle size ratio variation (3.4-41.6) on the attributes of an immediate-release tablet was compared with the impacts of the manufacturing method used (direct compression or dry granulation) and drug loading (1%, 5%, and 25%), particle size (D[4,3]: 8-114 ?m), and drug type (theophylline or ibuprofen). All batches were successfully manufactured, except for direct compression of 25% drug loading of 8 ?m (D[4,3]) drug, which exhibited very poor flow properties. All manufactured tablets possessed adequate quality attributes: tablet weight uniformity <4% RSD, tablet potency: 94%-105%, content uniformity <6% RSD, acceptance value ? 15, solid fraction: 0.82-0.86, tensile strength >1 MPa, friability ? 0.2% weight loss, and disintegration time < 4 min. The filler-lubricant particle size ratio exhibited the greatest impact on blend and granulation particle size and granulation flow, whereas drug property variation dominated blend flow, ribbon solid fraction, and tablet quality attributes. Although statistically significant effects were observed, the results of this study suggest that the manufacturability and performance of this immediate-release tablet formulation is robust to a broad range of variation in drug properties, both within-grade and extra-grade excipient particle size variations, and the choice of manufacturing method. PMID:24375069

Kushner, Joseph; Langdon, Beth A; Hicks, Ian; Song, Daniel; Li, Fasheng; Kathiria, Lalji; Kane, Anil; Ranade, Gautam; Agarwal, Kam

2014-02-01

146

Metformin powder formulation compared to metformin tablets on glycemic control and on treatment satisfaction in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate if the new metformin powder formulation improves the treatment satisfaction in patients with type 2 diabetes, in a case-control clinical trial. We enrolled 602 subjects in therapy with metformin in tablets formulation and instructed them to take the same dose of metformin in the new powder formulation. At baseline, and after 6 months since the assumption of metformin powder, each patient answered the following questionnaires: the SF-36 Health Survey, the Diabetes Quality Of Life questionnaire Modified (DQOL/Mod), and the Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire (DTSQ). We also assessed the following at baseline, at 3 and 6 months: fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and postprandial glucose (PPG), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c ), fasting plasma insulin (FPI), and homeostasis model assessment index of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). We observed a statistically significant reduction in HbA1c , FPG, PPG, FPI, and HOMA-IR (P?compared to the tablets formulation. In conclusion, metformin powder formulation seems to be more appropriate for the treatment of diabetic patients. The improvement of glycemic control suggests a better adherence to the powder formulation. PMID:25328091

Derosa, Giuseppe; Romano, Davide; Bianchi, Lucio; D'Angelo, Angela; Maffioli, Pamela

2015-04-01

147

Numerical Simulation on Zonal Disintegration in Deep Surrounding Rock Mass  

PubMed Central

Zonal disintegration have been discovered in many underground tunnels with the increasing of embedded depth. The formation mechanism of such phenomenon is difficult to explain under the framework of traditional rock mechanics, and the fractured shape and forming conditions are unclear. The numerical simulation was carried out to research the generating condition and forming process of zonal disintegration. Via comparing the results with the geomechanical model test, the zonal disintegration phenomenon was confirmed and its mechanism is revealed. It is found to be the result of circular fracture which develops within surrounding rock mass under the high geostress. The fractured shape of zonal disintegration was determined, and the radii of the fractured zones were found to fulfill the relationship of geometric progression. The numerical results were in accordance with the model test findings. The mechanism of the zonal disintegration was revealed by theoretical analysis based on fracture mechanics. The fractured zones are reportedly circular and concentric to the cavern. Each fracture zone ruptured at the elastic-plastic boundary of the surrounding rocks and then coalesced into the circular form. The geometric progression ratio was found to be related to the mechanical parameters and the ground stress of the surrounding rocks. PMID:24592166

Chen, Xuguang; Wang, Yuan; Mei, Yu; Zhang, Xin

2014-01-01

148

Formulation and optimization of orodispersible tablets of flutamide.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to formulate orodispersible tablets of flutamide (FTM) to increase its bioavailability. Orodispersible tablets were prepared by direct compression technique using three different approaches namely; super-disintegration, effervescence and sublimation. Different combined approaches were proposed and evaluated to optimize tablet characteristics. Sodium starch glycolate (SSG) was used as the superdisintegrant. The prepared powder mixtures were subjected to both pre and post compression evaluation parameters including; IR spectroscopy, micromeritics properties, tablet hardness, friability, wetting time, disintegration time and in-vitro drug release. IR studies indicated that there was no interaction between the drug and the excipients used except Ludipress. The results of micromeritics studies revealed that all formulations were of acceptable to good flowability. Tablet hardness and friability indicated good mechanical strength. Wetting and dispersion times decreased from 46 to 38 s by increasing the SSG concentration from 3.33 to 6.66% w/w in tablets prepared by superdisintegration method. The F8 formulation which was prepared by combined approaches of effervescence and superdisintegrant addition gave promising results for tablet disintegration and wetting times but failed to give faster dissolution rate. The incorporation of 1:5 solid dispersion of FTM: PEG 6000 instead of the pure drug in the same formulation increased the drug release rate from 73.12 to 96.99% after 15 min. This increase in the dissolution rate may be due to the amorphization of the drug during the solid dispersion preparation. The presence of the amorphous form of the drug was shown in the IR spectra. PMID:24493974

Elkhodairy, Kadria A; Hassan, Maha A; Afifi, Samar A

2014-01-01

149

Impact of physicochemical environment on the super disintegrant functionality of cross-linked carboxymethyl sodium starch: insight on formulation precautions.  

PubMed

The aim of this work is to improve the understanding of the physicochemical mechanisms involved in the functionality of cross-linked carboxymethyl sodium starch (CCSS) as a tablet super disintegrant (SD). The behavior and properties of this SD (medium uptake, disintegration times, particle size, and rheology) was investigated in a wetting medium of different physicochemical properties. In particular, the relative permittivity (dielectric constant) of these media was intentionally modified for evaluating its effect on CCSS properties. Results showed different swelling behaviors of CCSS particles according to the relative permittivity of the tested media and allow to propose two underlying mechanisms that explain CCSS functionality. Both the intra-particular swelling and the inter-particular repulsion are affected by the relative permittivity of the media. Finally, disintegration test performed on tablets specially formulated with mannitol (used commonly as an excipient and known to modify relative permittivity) confirmed that the functionality of CCSS and therefore the disintegration of the tablet can be altered according to the mannitol content. PMID:25348810

Delalonde, Michèle; Fitouri, Raja; Ruiz, Emilie; Bataille, Bernard; Sharkawi, Tahmer

2015-04-01

150

Surfactants modify the release from tablets made of hydrophobically modified poly (acrylic acid).  

PubMed

Many novel pharmaceutically active substances are characterized by a high hydrophobicity and a low water solubility, which present challenges for their delivery as drugs. Tablets made from cross-linked hydrophobically modified poly (acrylic acid) (CLHMPAA), commercially available as Pemulen™, have previously shown promising abilities to control the release of hydrophobic model substances. This study further investigates the possibility to use CLHMPAA in tablet formulations using ibuprofen as a model substance. Furthermore, surfactants were added to the dissolution medium in order to simulate the presence of bile salts in the intestine. The release of ibuprofen is strongly affected by the presence of surfactant and/or buffer in the dissolution medium, which affect both the behaviour of CLHMPAA and the swelling of the gel layer that surrounds the disintegrating tablets. Two mechanisms of tablet disintegration were observed under shear, namely conventional dissolution of a soluble tablet matrix and erosion of swollen insoluble gel particles from the tablet. The effects of surfactant in the surrounding medium can be circumvented by addition of surfactant to the tablet. With added surfactant, tablets that may be insusceptible to the differences in bile salt level between fasted or fed states have been produced, thus addressing a central problem in controlled delivery of hydrophobic drugs. In other words CLHMPAA is a potential candidate to be used in tablet formulations for controlled release with poorly soluble drugs. PMID:25755999

Knöös, Patrik; Onder, Sebla; Pedersen, Lina; Piculell, Lennart; Ulvenlund, Stefan; Wahlgren, Marie

2013-01-01

151

Surfactants modify the release from tablets made of hydrophobically modified poly (acrylic acid)?  

PubMed Central

Many novel pharmaceutically active substances are characterized by a high hydrophobicity and a low water solubility, which present challenges for their delivery as drugs. Tablets made from cross-linked hydrophobically modified poly (acrylic acid) (CLHMPAA), commercially available as Pemulen™, have previously shown promising abilities to control the release of hydrophobic model substances. This study further investigates the possibility to use CLHMPAA in tablet formulations using ibuprofen as a model substance. Furthermore, surfactants were added to the dissolution medium in order to simulate the presence of bile salts in the intestine. The release of ibuprofen is strongly affected by the presence of surfactant and/or buffer in the dissolution medium, which affect both the behaviour of CLHMPAA and the swelling of the gel layer that surrounds the disintegrating tablets. Two mechanisms of tablet disintegration were observed under shear, namely conventional dissolution of a soluble tablet matrix and erosion of swollen insoluble gel particles from the tablet. The effects of surfactant in the surrounding medium can be circumvented by addition of surfactant to the tablet. With added surfactant, tablets that may be insusceptible to the differences in bile salt level between fasted or fed states have been produced, thus addressing a central problem in controlled delivery of hydrophobic drugs. In other words CLHMPAA is a potential candidate to be used in tablet formulations for controlled release with poorly soluble drugs.

Knöös, Patrik; Onder, Sebla; Pedersen, Lina; Piculell, Lennart; Ulvenlund, Stefan; Wahlgren, Marie

2013-01-01

152

Investigation of vitamin and mineral tablets and capsules on the Canadian market  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: The goal of this study was to investigate the disintegrating properties of tablets and capsules containing minerals and vitamins commercially available on the Canadian market and to review their label information. METHODS: The labels were examined for product-related information. The first disintegration test stage was performed using Simulated Intestinal Fluid (SIF) pH 6.8 for 20 minutes. Products which did

Raimar Löbenberg; Wayne Steinke

2006-01-01

153

Preparation and evaluation of dual-mode floating gastroretentive tablets containing itraconazole.  

PubMed

The aims of the present study were to prepare new dual-mode floating gastroretentive tablets (DF-GRT) containing itraconazole (ITR) and to evaluate influence of the dosage forms on pharmacokinetic parameters of ITR. The solubility of ITR was enhanced around 200 times (from 1.54 to 248.38?µg/mL) by preparing solid dispersion (SD) with hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose. Buoyancy of DF-GRT containing ITR-SD was established by both camphor sublimation and gas generation. Camphor sublimation decreased density of DF-GRT by making pores in tablet matrix, which led to elimination of lag time for floating. Carbon dioxide generated by sodium bicarbonate and citric acid helped to maintain buoyancy of DF-GRT. Therefore DF-GRT floated on the medium without lag time until disintegrated entirely during in vitro release study. They released 89.11% of the drug at 2?h. Residual camphor was <0.5?wt% after sublimation. The pharmacokinetics of DF-GRT was evaluated in six miniature pigs and compared to immediate release tablets (IRT). Mean AUC ratio of GRT/IRT was 1.36 but there was no statistical difference between AUC values. However delayed tmax, increased MRT and equivalent Cmax of DF-GRT supposed it could be a promising tool for gastroretentive drug delivery system containing ITR. PMID:24245857

Kim, Ju-Young; Rhee, Yun-Seok; Park, Chun-Woong; Ha, Jung-Myung; Park, Eun-Seok

2014-11-01

154

Sufentanil Sublingual Tablet System vs. Intravenous Patient-Controlled Analgesia with Morphine for Postoperative Pain Control: A Randomized, Active-Comparator Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Problems with intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IV PCA) are well known, including invasive route of delivery and pump programming errors. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate patient satisfaction with a novel sublingual sufentanil PCA system (sufentanil sublingual tablet system 15 mcg with a 20-minute lockout interval; SSTS) to IV PCA morphine sulfate 1 mg with a 6-minute lockout interval (IV PCA MS) for the management of acute postoperative pain. Methods This was a randomized, open-label, 48-hour non-inferiority study with optional extension to 72 hours at 26 U.S. sites enrolling patients scheduled for elective major open abdominal or orthopedic (hip or knee replacement) surgery. The primary outcome measure was the proportion of patients who responded “good” or “excellent” (collectively “success”) at the 48-hour timepoint on the Patient Global Assessment of method of pain control (PGA48). Results A total of 357 patients received study drug and 78.5% vs. 65.6% of patients achieved PGA48 “success” for SSTS vs. IV PCA MS, respectively, demonstrating non-inferiority (P < 0.001 using the one-side Z-test against the non-inferiority margin) as well as statistical superiority for treatment effect (P = 0.007). Patients using SSTS reported more rapid onset of analgesia and patient and nurse ease of care and satisfaction scores were higher than IV PCA MS. Adverse events were similar between the 2 groups; however, SSTS had fewer patients experiencing oxygen desaturations below 95% compared to IV PCA MS (P = 0.028). Conclusions Sufentanil sublingual tablet system is a promising new analgesic technology that may address some of the concerns with IV PCA. PMID:25155134

Melson, Timothy I; Boyer, David L; Minkowitz, Harold S; Turan, Alparslan; Chiang, Yu-Kun; Evashenk, Mark A; Palmer, Pamela P

2014-01-01

155

Oxytetracycline tablet formulations: the influence of excipients and the method of granulation.  

PubMed

The proportion of microcrystalline cellulose and alginic acid present as excipients in the dry mix for an oxytetracycline dihydrate tablet formulation, prepared by a conventional wet granulation process, has been shown to influence granule formation and properties. Granule size distributions have varied widely due perhaps to variation in binder distribution. Granulating with water was equally satisfactory to granulating with a PVP solution. Slugged granules produced robust tablets, which disintegrated and dissolved rapidly. PMID:6698

Chalmers, A A; Elworthy, P H

1976-03-01

156

Development and optimization of carvedilol orodispersible tablets: enhancement of pharmacokinetic parameters in rabbits  

PubMed Central

Background Carvedilol (CVD) is used for the treatment of essential hypertension, heart failure, and systolic dysfunction after myocardial infarction. Due to its lower aqueous solubility and extensive first-pass metabolism, the absolute bioavailability of CVD does not exceed 30%. To overcome these drawbacks, the objective of this work was to improve the solubility and onset of action of CVD through complexation with hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin and formulation of the prepared complex as orodispersible tablets (ODTs). Methods Compatibility among CVD and all tablet excipients using differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, complexation of CVD with different polymers, and determination of the solubility of CVD in the prepared complexes were first determined. A Box-Behnken design (BBD) was used to study the effect of tablet formulation variables on the characteristics of the prepared tablets and to optimize preparation conditions. According to BBD design, 15 formulations of CVD-ODTs were prepared by direct compression and then evaluated for their quality attributes. The relative pharmacokinetic parameters of the optimized CVD-ODTs were compared with those of the marketed CVD tablet. A single dose, equivalent to 2.5 mg/kg CVD, was administered orally to New Zealand white rabbits using a double-blind, randomized, crossover design. Results The solubility of CVD was improved from 7.32 to 22.92 mg/mL after complexation with hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin at a molar ratio of 1:2 (CVD to cyclodextrin). The formulated CVD-ODTs showed satisfactory results concerning tablet hardness (5.35 kg/cm2), disintegration time (18 seconds), and maximum amount of CVD released (99.72%). The pharmacokinetic data for the optimized CVD-ODT showed a significant (P<0.05) increase in maximum plasma concentration from 363.667 to 496.4 ng/mL, and a shortening of the time taken to reach maximum plasma concentration to 2 hours in comparison with the marketed tablet. Conclusion The optimized CVD-ODTs showed improved oral absorption of CVD and a subsequent acceleration of clinical effect, which is favored for hypertensive and cardiac patients. PMID:25834396

Aljimaee, Yazeed HM; El-Helw, Abdel-Rahim M; Ahmed, Osama AA; El-Say, Khalid M

2015-01-01

157

Apparatus for disintegrating kidney stones  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The useful life of the wire probe in an ultrasonic kidney stone disintegration instrument is enhanced and prolonged by attaching the wire of the wire probe to the tip of an ultrasonic transducer by means of a clamping arrangement. Additionally, damping material is applied to the wire probe in the form of a damper tube through which the wire probe passes in the region adjacent the transducer tip. The damper tube extends outwardly from the transducer tip a predetermined distance, terminating in a resilient soft rubber joint. Also, the damper tube is supported intermediate its length by a support member. The damper system thus acts to inhibit lateral vibrations of the wire in the region of the transducer tip while providing little or no damping to the linear vibrations imparted to the wire by the transducer.

Angulo, E. D. (inventor)

1984-01-01

158

Evaluation of starches obtained from four Dioscorea species as binding agent in chloroquine phosphate tablet formulations  

PubMed Central

Starches obtained from four Dioscorea species namely Dioscorea dumetorum (Bitter), Dioscorea oppositifolia (Chinese), Dioscorea alata (Water), and Dioscorea rotundata (White) have been evaluated as binding agents in chloroquine phosphate tablet formulations in comparison with official corn starch. The compressional properties of the formulations were analyzed using density measurements and the Heckel and Kawakita equations. The mechanical properties of the tablets were assessed using tensile strength, brittle fracture index (BFI), and friability tests while the drug release properties of the tablets were assessed using disintegration and dissolution times. The results indicate that the four starches vary considerably in their physicochemical properties. The ranking for the tensile strength and the disintegration and dissolution times for the formulations was Chinese > Bitter > Corn > White > Water while the ranking was reversed for BFI and friability. The results suggest that Water, White, and Corn could be useful when faster disintegration time of tablets is desired while Chinese and Bitter could be more useful when bond strength is of concern and in minimizing the problems of lamination and capping in tablet formulation. PMID:23960747

Okunlola, Adenike; Odeku, Oluwatoyin A.

2011-01-01

159

Development Strategies for Herbal Products Reducing the Influence of Natural Variance in Dry Mass on Tableting Properties and Tablet Characteristics  

PubMed Central

One “Quality by Design” approach is the focus on the variability of the properties of the active substance. This is crucially important for active substances that are obtained from natural resources such as herbal plant material and extracts. In this paper, we present various strategies for the development of herbal products especially taking into account the natural batch-to-batch variability (mainly of the dry mass) of tablets that contain a fixed amount of tincture. The following steps in the development have been evaluated for the outcome of the physico-chemical properties of the resulting tablets and intermediates: concentration of the tincture extracted from Echinacea fresh plant, loading of the concentrate onto an inert carrier, the respective wet granulation and drying step, including milling, and the adjuvant excipients for the tablet compression step. The responses that were investigated are the mean particle size of the dried and milled granulates, compaction properties and disintegration time of the tablets. Increased particle size showed a significant increase of the disintegration time and a decrease of the compaction properties. In addition, our results showed that the particle size has a great dependency on the ratio of liquid to carrier during the wet granulation process. Thus, the variability of the respective parameters tested was influenced by the performed strategies, which is how the tincture correlated to its dry mass and the relation of the amount of carrier used. In order to optimize these parameters, a strategy considering the above-mentioned points has to be chosen. PMID:24300367

Qusaj, Ylber; Leng, Andreas; Alshihabi, Firas; Krasniqi, Blerim; Vandamme, Thierry

2012-01-01

160

Preparation and biological efficacy of haddock bone calcium tablets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To investigate the possible use of waste products obtained after processing haddock, the present study prepared haddock bone calcium powder by NaOH and ethanol soaking (alkalinealcohol method) and prepared haddock bone calcium tablets using the powder in combination with appropriate excipients. The biological efficacy of the haddock bone calcium tablets was investigated using Wistar rats as an experiment model. Results show that the optimal parameters for the alkalinealcohol method are: NaOH concentration 1 mol/L, immersion time 30 h; ethanol concentration 60%, immersion time 15 h. A mixture of 2% polyvinylpyrrolidone in ethanol was used as an excipient at a ratio of 1:2 to full-cream milk powder, without the use of a disintegrating agent. This process provided satisfactory tablets in terms of rigidity and taste. Animal studies showed that the haddock bone calcium tablets at a dose of 2 g·kg-1·d-1 or 5g·kg-1·d-1 significantly increased blood calcium and phosphorus levels and bone calcium content in rats. Therefore, these tablets could be used for calcium supplementation and prevent osteoporosis. Although the reasons of high absorption in the rats fed with haddock bone calcium tablets are unclear, it is suggested that there are some factors, such as treatment with method of alkaline-alcohol or the added milk, may play positive roles in increasing absorption ratio.

Huo, Jiancong; Deng, Shanggui; Xie, Chao; Tong, Guozhong

2010-03-01

161

Absorption, Gastrointestinal Transit, and Tablet Erosion of Felodipine Extended-Release (ER) Tablets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gastrointestinal transit and tablet erosion of felodipine extended release (ER) tablets 10 mg were studied by gamma scintigraphy in eight healthy young males after administration under fasting and nonfasting conditions. Plasma concentrations of felodipine were also measured. Gastric emptying after administration together with food (mean, 3.2 hr) was slower in all subjects compared to emptying under fasting conditions (mean,

Bertil Abrahamsson; Magne Alpsten; Morgan Hugosson; Ulf E. Jonsson; Mats Sundgren; Agneta Svenheden; Jukka Tölli

1993-01-01

162

Comparative Study of the Anti-leukemic Effects of Imatinib Mesylate, Glivec™ Tablet and Its Generic Formulation, OHK9511.  

PubMed

Long-term treatment with imatinib mesylate (IM) allows patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) to live a near-normal lifespan. However, the fact that tyrosine kinase inhibitors, including IM, are extremely expensive is a major cause of poor adherence, resulting in disease relapse or drug resistance. Therefore, physicians are encouraged to prescribe generic drugs to reduce the financial burden of medical expenses. In Japan, only generic drugs that have a basic chemical structure and pharmacokinetic data that are the same as those of the original drug are approved. However, it is not mandatory to demonstrate that generic drugs have adequate biological effects. This is one of the reasons why Japanese hematologists do not often use generic IM. The aim of the present study was to compare the anti-leukemic effects of Glivec™ (a commercial IM) and its generic formulation, OHK9511. The IC50 values of OHK9511 and Glivec™ were comparable, and both induced similar levels of apoptosis in several CML cell lines. Furthermore, the overall survival of OHK9511-treated mice transplanted with BCR-ABL-positive cells was similar to that of mice treated with Glivec™. Although the experiments performed herein were basic, the results suggest that physicians should consider using generic IM. PMID:25757922

Yokoo, Masako; Kubota, Yasushi; Tabe, Yoko; Kimura, Shinya

2015-03-01

163

Comparative trial of tramadol/paracetamol and codeine/paracetamol combination tablets on the vigilance of healthy volunteers.  

PubMed

Combination of tramadol 37.5 mg/paracetamol 325 mg (a), or codeine 30 mg/paracetamol 500 mg (b) or 300 mg have similar pain efficacy but a difference has been suggested concerning their adverse events on vigilance. In clinical practice, combinations are usually given at the above-mentioned dosage three to four times a day. The aim of this study was to compare a single dose of these two combinations (a) and (b) in 24 healthy young volunteers on visual choice reaction time (CRT, ms). Results show a longer CRT (P < 0.05) (up to 4% of the control value 3 h post-dosing) and a higher report of somnolence in the codeine/paracetamol group compared with tramadol/paracetamol group (50% vs. 4% of the subjects). This observation is important and proves that even a single dosage of these largely used drugs may have a significant effect. This finding should be further investigated in elderly subjects who consume largely these drugs for chronic pain alleviation and who are more prone to this kind of adverse event. PMID:16313283

Pickering, Gisèle; Estrade, Marielle; Dubray, Claude

2005-12-01

164

Modifying drug release and tablet properties of starch acetate tablets by dry powder agglomeration.  

PubMed

In this study three model drugs (N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (NAG), anhydrous caffeine, and propranolol hydrochloride) were agglomerated with starch acetate (SA) by mixing the binary powders on a stainless steel (SS) plate. Agglomeration was induced by triboelectrification of the particles during mixing, and it was evaluated as a method to achieve controlled drug release rate. These agglomerates, mixed with different amounts of a disintegrant, were compressed into tablets whose dissolution characteristics were determined. Triboelectric measurements showed that when the drugs were in contact with SS, charges of the opposite polarity were generated to SA (+) and caffeine and NAG (-) promoting adhesion. Instead, propranolol HCl was charged with the same polarity as SA. SEM micrographs showed that smaller caffeine particles, in spite of their larger negative charge, agglomerated less efficiently with SA than larger NAG particles. This emphasizes the importance of particle size in the agglomeration process. Propranolol HCl did not form agglomerates with SA since their particle sizes and charges were identical. As a result, agglomeration of powders prior to tablet compression allows for modification and control of the release rate of the drugs from the SA matrix tablets as well as the tensile strength of the tablets. PMID:17075868

Mäki, Riikka; Suihko, Eero; Rost, Susanne; Heiskanen, Minna; Murtomaa, Matti; Lehto, Vesa-Pekka; Ketolainen, Jarkko

2007-02-01

165

Randomized Clinical Trial Comparing the Pharmacokinetics of Standard- and Increased-Dosage Lopinavir-Ritonavir Coformulation Tablets in HIV-Positive Pregnant Women  

PubMed Central

A lopinavir-ritonavir (LPV/r)-based regimen is recommended during pregnancy to reduce the risk of HIV mother-to-child transmission, but the appropriate dose is controversial. We compared the pharmacokinetics of standard and increased LPV/r doses during pregnancy. This randomized, open-label prospective study enrolled 60 pregnant women between gestational weeks 14 and 30. The participants received either the standard dose (400/100 mg twice a day [BID]) or increased dose (600/150 mg BID) of LPV/r tablets during pregnancy and the standard dose for 6 weeks after childbirth. Pharmacokinetics analysis was performed using a high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. Adherent participants who received the standard dose presented minimum LPV concentrations of 4.4, 4.3, and 6.1 ?g/ml in the second and third trimesters and postpartum, respectively. The increased-dose group exhibited values of 7.9, 6.9, and 9.2 ?g/ml at the same three time points. Although LPV exposure was significantly higher in the increased-dose group, the standard dose produced therapeutic levels of LPV against wild-type virus in all adherent participants, except one patient in the third trimester; 50%, 37.5%, and 25%, and 0%, 15%, and 0% of the participants in the standard- and increased-dose groups failed to achieve therapeutic levels against resistant viruses during the second and third trimesters and after childbirth, respectively. After 12 weeks of treatment and after childbirth, all adherent participants achieved undetectable HIV viral loads, and their babies (49/54) were uninfected. No serious drug-related adverse events were observed. We conclude that the standard dose is appropriate for use during pregnancy and that an increased dose may be necessary for women harboring resistant HIV. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT00605098.) PMID:24614377

Estrela, Rita de Cássia Elias; Veloso, Valdiléa Gonçalves; Cattani, Vitória Berg; Yanavich, Carolyn; Velasque, Luciane; Torres, Thiago Silva; Marins, Luana Monteiro Spindola; Pilotto, José Henrique; João, Esaú Custódio; Gonçalves, José Carlos Saraiva; Grinsztejn, Beatriz

2014-01-01

166

Effect of food on the comparative pharmacokinetics of modified-release morphine tablet formulations: Oramorph SR and MST Continus  

PubMed Central

The relative bioavailability and pharmacokinetic profiles of Oramorph SR (OSR) and MST Continus (MST), were evaluated by a randomized, four-way cross-over study in 24 healthy, male volunteers given single oral (30?mg) doses whilst fasting or after a high-fat breakfast. Mean Cmax, tmax, AUC(0,24h), AUC and tlag were significantly greater in fed compared with fasting subjects. Overall relative bioavailability of the two formulations (log AUC), was within the acceptable 80–125% limits for bioequivalence both fed and fasting. Mean fasting Cmax for OSR was greater than MST (P<0.05) but there was no difference between formulations in mean fed Cmax. No statistically significant difference between OSR and MST was found for other parameters nor in the incidence of adverse events. These results suggest that OSR and MST are bioequivalent and that if patients were to transfer between formulations, dosage adjustment would be unnecessary, irrespective of their meal schedules or food intake. PMID:8735684

DRAKE, J.; KIRKPATRICK, C. T.; ALIYAR, C. A.; CRAWFORD, F. E.; GIBSON, P.; HORTH, C. E.

1996-01-01

167

Pharmacokinetics of ketorolac tromethamine compression-coated tablets for colon delivery.  

PubMed

Present research efforts are focused in developing compression-coated ketorolac tromethamine tablets to improve the drug levels in colon by retarding the drug release in the stomach and small intestine. To achieve this objective, core tablets containing ketorolac tromethamine were prepared by direct compression and compression coated with sodium alginate. The developed tablets were evaluated for physical properties, in vitro drug release, X-ray imaging, and pharmacokinetic studies in human volunteers. Based on the in vitro drug release study, the optimized formulation showed very little drug release (6.75?±?0.49 %) in the initial lag period of 5 h, followed by progressive release up to 97.47?±?0.93 % within 24 h. The X-ray imaging of tablets in human volunteers showed that the tablets reached the colon without disintegrating in the upper gastrointestinal tract. From the pharmacokinetic study, the C max of colon-targeted tablets was 3,486.70 ng/ml at T max 10 h, whereas in the case of immediate-release tablets, the C max of 4,506.31 ng/ml at T max 2 h signifies the ability of compression-coated tablets to target the colon. In conclusion, compression-coated tablets are suitable to deliver ketorolac tromethamine to the colon. PMID:25787064

Vemula, Sateesh Kumar; Veerareddy, Prabhakar Reddy; Devadasu, Venkat Ratnam

2014-08-01

168

Model Test of Anchoring Effect on Zonal Disintegration in Deep Surrounding Rock Masses  

PubMed Central

The deep rock masses show a different mechanical behavior compared with the shallow rock masses. They are classified into alternating fractured and intact zones during the excavation, which is known as zonal disintegration. Such phenomenon is a great disaster and will induce the different excavation and anchoring methodology. In this study, a 3D geomechanics model test was conducted to research the anchoring effect of zonal disintegration. The model was constructed with anchoring in a half and nonanchoring in the other half, to compare with each other. The optical extensometer and optical sensor were adopted to measure the displacement and strain changing law in the model test. The displacement laws of the deep surrounding rocks were obtained and found to be nonmonotonic versus the distance to the periphery. Zonal disintegration occurs in the area without anchoring and did not occur in the model under anchoring condition. By contrasting the phenomenon, the anchor effect of restraining zonal disintegration was revealed. And the formation condition of zonal disintegration was decided. In the procedure of tunnel excavation, the anchor strain was found to be alternation in tension and compression. It indicates that anchor will show the nonmonotonic law during suppressing the zonal disintegration. PMID:23997683

Chen, Xu-Guang; Zhang, Qiang-Yong; Wang, Yuan; Liu, De-Jun; Zhang, Ning

2013-01-01

169

Evaluation and comparison of different brands of domperidone tablets available in Karachi, Pakistan.  

PubMed

Domperidone is an anti-dopaminergic drug used for the treatment of nausea, vomiting and dyspepsia. It has also been used in Parkinson's disease. In this study, five different brands of Domeperidone tablets were selected from the local market for evaluation of their quality as the local market is occupied of many competitors for a single generic. The evaluation of Domperidone tablets was done using various pharmacopoeial and non-pharmacopoeial tests. All the test results fell within BP specified limits for all the selected brands i.e. the results for Brands A to E for weight variation, thickness and diameter were satisfactory and within limits. For Brands A to E, the results for hardness and friability were also satisfactory i.e. 4-10kg/cm2and 0.1-0.6% respectively. The results for Brands A to E for disintegration were 2-6 minutes; for dissolution and assay, the results were 89-92% and 95-99% respectively. The results of similarity factor (f2) also showed that all brands of Domperidone have comparative dissolution profiles. PMID:25015463

Khan, Muhammad Qamar; Razvi, Nighat; Anjum, Fakhsheena; Ghazal, Lubna; Siddiqui, Saeed Ahmed; Shoaib, Muhammad Harris

2014-07-01

170

Formulation of a extended release tablet containing dexibuprofen.  

PubMed

Dexibuprofen, or S(+)-ibuprofen, is the pharmacologically effective enantiomer of racemic ibuprofen. Since dexibuprofen has a low melting point, the amorphous form having a high melting point was prepared with the fused solid dispersion method. With the fused solid dispersion of dexibuprofen, immediate release tablets, extended release tablets, and dual release tablets were compressed and their dissolution profiles compared. The dissolution profiles of the extended release and the dual release tablet depended on the amount of used release modulators (PEO 5,000,000). The release profiles of extended release tablets and extended release part of dual release tablets were well fitted to zero-order release model. The correlation coefficient ranged from 0.982 to 0.995. A pharmacokinetic evaluation where healthy volunteers took tablets of DRT-1 (300 mg) once and the reference drug, two tablets of conventional immediate release tablet (Daxfen, 300 mg), with a 6-h interval between them was studied. The 90% confidence interval for the ratio of the logarithmically transformed AUC (0-24 h), Cmax (0-6 h), and Cmax (6-24 h) values of the dual release tablet compared to those of the conventional immediate release tablet were calculated to be between 0.9176 and 1.0007, 0.9240 and 1.1968, and 0.8713 and 1.1414, respectively. When the immediate release tablet was taken two times with a six hour interval between doses it showed a bioequivalent effect to taking the dual release tablet once within 12 h. The Cmax was reached due to the rapid absorption of the immediate release portion of the dual release tablet and the AUC was maintained due to continuous absorption of the extended release portion. PMID:19099235

Yi, Hong Gi; Chi, Moon Hyuk; Kim, Yong-Il; Woo, Jong Soo; Park, Eun-Seok

2008-12-01

171

Formulation design of carbamazepine fast-release tablets prepared by melt granulation technique.  

PubMed

This work describes a new approach to prepare a fast-release dosage form for carbamazepine (CBZ), involving the use of melt granulation process in high shear mixer for the production of tablets. In particular, the granules containing CBZ were prepared using polyethylene glycol (PEG) 4000 as a melting binder and lactose monohydrate as a hydrophilic filler. The potential of the intragranular addition of crospovidone as a dissolution enhancer and a disintegrant agent was also evaluated. After the analysis of their solid state performed by means of X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), the granules were characterised from the technological and dissolution point of view. The subsequent step encompassed the preparation and the evaluation of the tablets, including the effect of the extragranular introduction of crospovidone. Besides the remarkable enhancement of drug dissolution rate of the granulates in comparison to physical mixtures and pure drug, no significant differences were found between the dissolution profiles of the granulates containing lactose or crospovidone. However, the difficult disintegration and bad dissolution performance of the tablets not containing intragranular crospovidone highlight the necessity of this disintegrant in the granulating mixture. Moreover, the extragranular addition of a small amount of crospovidone gave rise to a further amelioration of the disintegration and dissolution performances. PMID:12695011

Perissutti, Beatrice; Rubessa, Fulvio; Moneghini, Mariarosa; Voinovich, Dario

2003-04-30

172

External scintigraphy in monitoring the behavior of pharmaceutical formulations in vivo I: technique for acquiring high-resolution images of tablets  

SciTech Connect

A new method for monitoring tablet disintegration in vivo was developed. In this method, the tablets were labeled with a short-lived radionuclide, technetium 99m, and monitored by a gamma camera. Several innovations were introduced with this method. First, computer reconstruction algorithms were used to enhance the scintigraphic images of the disintegrating tablet in vivo. Second, the use of a four-pinhole collimator to acquire multiple views of the tablet resulted in high count rates and reduced acquisition times of the scintigraphic images. Third, the magnification of the scintigraphic images achieved by pinhole collimation led to significant improvement in resolution. Fourth, the radioinuclide was incorporated into the granulation so that the whole mass of the tablet was uniformly labeled with high levels of activity. This technique allowed the continuous monitoring of the disintegration process of tablets in vivo in experimental animals. Multiple pinhole collimation and the labeling process permitted the acquisition of quality scintigraphic images of the labeled tablet every 30 sec. The resolution of the method was tested in vitro and in vivo.

Theodorakis, M.C.; Simpson, D.R.; Leung, D.M.; Devous, M. Sr.

1983-02-01

173

A single-dose, randomized, two-way crossover study comparing two olanzapine tablet products in healthy adult male volunteers under fasting conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Olanzapine is a psychotropic agent that belongs to the thienobenzodiazepine class.Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the bioequivalence of 2 commercial 10-mg tablet formulations of olanzapine by statistical analysis of the pharmacokinetic parameters Cmax, AUC from 0 to 72 hours after dosing (AUC0-72), and AUC0-? as required by the Egyptian health authority for the marketing of

Ahmed H. Elshafeey; Mohamed A. Elsherbiny; Mohsen M. Fathallah

2009-01-01

174

Structural changes of polymer-coated microgranules and excipients on tableting investigated by microtomography using synchrotron X-ray radiation.  

PubMed

Multiple-unit tablets consisting of polymer-coated microgranules and excipients have a number of advantageous pharmaceutical properties. Polymer-coated microgranules are known to often lose their functionality because of damage to the polymer coating caused by tableting, and the mechanism of polymer coating damage as well as the structural changes of excipients upon tableting had been investigated but without in-situ visualization and quantitative analysis. To elucidate the mechanism of coating damage, the internal structures of multiple-unit tablets were investigated by X-ray computed microtomography using synchrotron X-rays. Cross sectional images of the tablets with sub-micron spatial resolution clearly revealed that void spaces remained around the compressed excipient particles in the tablets containing an excipient composed of cellulose and lactose (Cellactose(®) 80), whereas much smaller void spaces remained in the tablets containing an excipient made of sorbitol (Parteck(®) SI 150). The relationships between the void spaces and the physical properties of the tablets such as hardness and disintegration were investigated. Damage to the polymer coating in tablets was found mainly where polymer-coated microgranules were in direct contact with each other in both types of tablets, which could be attributed to the difference in hardness of excipient particles and the core of the polymer-coated microgranules. PMID:25660069

Kajihara, Ryusuke; Noguchi, Shuji; Iwao, Yasunori; Suzuki, Yoshio; Terada, Yasuko; Uesugi, Kentaro; Itai, Shigeru

2015-03-15

175

Finitely Additive Conditional Probabilities, Conglomerability and Disintegrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

For any finitely additive probability measure to be disintegrable, that is, to be an average with respect to some marginal distribution of a system of finitely additive conditional probabilities, it suffices, and is plainly necessary, that the measure be conglomerative, that is, that there be a conditional expectation such that the expectation of no random variable can be negative if

Lester E. Dubins

1975-01-01

176

Comparison of Echinacea alkylamide pharmacokinetics between liquid and tablet preparations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative oral bioavailability of alkylamides from two different Echinacea dosage forms (liquid and tablet) were compared in a small two-way crossover study in humans (n=3). The liquid preparation investigated contained a mixture of Echinacea purpurea root (300mg\\/ml) and Echinacea angustifolia root (200mg\\/ml) extracted in 60% ethanol. The tablet preparation investigated was also a mixture of E. purpurea root (675mg\\/tablet)

A. Matthias; R. S. Addison; L. L. Agnew; K. M. Bone; K. Watson; R. P. Lehmann

2007-01-01

177

Residual solvents in methylenedioxymethamphetamine tablets as a source of strategic information and as a tool for comparative analysis: the development and application of a static headspace gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various solvents can be used in the synthesis of the illicit synthetic drug methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, commonly known as Ecstasy). In the crystallization process, traces of those solvents can be trapped inside crystals; during the following tabletting process, the solvent traces remain present in the tablets. The forensic investigation of tablets for solvents may increase knowledge of production methods and contribute

H. A. A. H. VISSER; M. VISSER-VAN LEEUWEN; H. HUIZER

178

Teaching with Tablet PC's  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tablet PC's are traditional notebook computers with the ability to process digital ink by writing with a stylus. They have recently attracted attention as a potential tool for educational use. This paper describes the author's experience using the Tablet PC to conduct a CS1 course and a software engineering (SWE) course. The SWE course consisted primarily of PowerPoint lectures while

Kenrick Mock

2004-01-01

179

Development and stability evaluation of enteric coated Diclofenac sodium tablets using Sureteric.  

PubMed

This study was aimed to develop a stable enteric coated diclofenac sodium tablets using Sureteic without a subcoating layer. Diclofenac uncoated tablets were developed and manufactured through the non direct compression process. Sureteric white aqueous coating dispersion was used as enteric coating material. Sureteric is a special mixture of Polyvinyl Acetate Phthalate (Phthalavin (R), PVAP), plasticizers and other ingredients in a suitable optimized dry powder formulation. The obtained enteric coated tablets were subjected to disintegration and no sign of cracking was observed when they placed in a hydrochloric solution at pH 1.2, but they were completely disintegrated within 10 minutes when they putted in buffered solution at pH6.8. Dissolution test was also conducted by placing tablets in 0.1 M HCl for 2 hours and then 1 hour in phosphate buffer at pH 6.8. Less than 0.9% of drug was released in the acidic phase and up to 97% in the basic medium. These results show that Sureteric can be successfully used to produce diclofenac sodium enteric coated tablets in order to prevent its release in the stomach and facilitate immediate release of the drug in the duodenum. These findings suggest that aqueous enteric coating with Sureteric system is an easy and economical approach for preparing stable diclofenac sodium enteric coat without the use of a subcoating layer. PMID:22186310

Zaid, Abdel Naser

2012-01-01

180

Calcification prevention tablets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Citric acid tablets, which slowly release citric acid when flushed with water, are under development by the Navy for calcification prevention. The citric acid dissolves calcium carbonate deposits and chelates the calcium. For use in urinals, a dispenser is not required because the tablets are non-toxic and safe to handle. The tablets are placed in the bottom of the urinal, and are consumed in several hundred flushes (the release rate can be tailored by adjusting the formulation). All of the ingredients are environmentally biodegradable. Mass production of the tablets on commercial tableting machines was demonstrated. The tablets are inexpensive (about 75 cents apiece). Incidences of clogged pipes and urinals were greatly decreased in long term shipboard tests. The corrosion rate of sewage collection pipe (90/10 Cu/Ni) in citric acid solution in the laboratory is several mils per year at conditions typically found in traps under the urinals. The only shipboard corrosion seen to date is of the yellow brass urinal tail pieces. While this is acceptable, the search for a nontoxic corrosion inhibitor is underway. The shelf life of the tablets is at least one year if stored at 50 percent relative humidity, and longer if stored in sealed plastic buckets.

Lindsay, Geoffrey A.; Hasting, Michael A.; Gustavson, Michael A.

1991-01-01

181

Multi-finger Chords for Hand-held Tablets: Recognizable and Memorable  

E-print Network

Multi-finger Chords for Hand-held Tablets: Recognizable and Memorable Julie Wagner1,2 Eric-the-shelf hand-held tablets, and report on the detection accuracy. A between-subjects experiment comparing-command mapping; finger identification; hand-held tablet ACM Classification Keywords H.5.2. Information Interfaces

182

Impact of influent COD/N ratio on disintegration of aerobic granular sludge.  

PubMed

Disintegration of aerobic granular sludge (AGS) is a challenging issue in the long-term operation of an AGS system. Chemical oxygen demand (COD)-to-nitrogen (N) ratio (COD/N), often variable in industrial wastewaters, could be a destabilizing factor causing granule disintegration. This study investigates the impact of this ratio on AGS disintegration and identifies the key causes, through close monitoring of AGS changes in its physical and chemical characteristics, microbial community and treatment performance. For specific comparison, two lab-scale air-lift type sequencing batch reactors, one for aerobic granular and the other for flocculent sludge, were operated in parallel with three COD/N ratios (4, 2, 1) applied in the influent of each reactor. The decreased COD/N ratios of 2 and 1 strongly influenced the stability of AGS with regard to physical properties and nitrification efficiency, leading to AGS disintegration when the ratio was decreased to 1. Comparatively the flocculent sludge maintained relatively stable structure and nitrification efficiency under all tested COD/N ratios. The lowest COD/N ratio resulted in a large microbial community shift and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) reduction in both flocculent and granular sludges. The disintegration of AGS was associated with two possible causes: 1) reduction in net tyrosine production in the EPS and 2) a major microbial community shift including reduction in filamentous bacteria leading to the collapse of granule structure. PMID:24950459

Luo, Jinghai; Hao, Tianwei; Wei, Li; Mackey, Hamish R; Lin, Ziqiao; Chen, Guang-Hao

2014-10-01

183

Optimization of disintegration behavior of biodegradable poly (hydroxy butanoic acid) copolymer mulch films in soil environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biodegradation of polymeric films used for mulch film applications in agriculture not only eliminates problems of sorting out and disposal of plastics films, but also ensures increased yields in crop growth and cost reduction. One such polymer which is completely biodegradable in the soil is poly 3-hydroxy butanoic acid copolymer, which is a promising alternative to non-biodegradable incumbent polyethylene mulch films. The purpose of mulch film made of poly 3-hydroxy butanoic acid copolymers is to sustain itself during the crop growth and disintegrate and eventually biodegrade back to nature after the crop cycle is over. The disintegration phase of the biodegradation process was evaluated for poly 3-hydroxy butanoic acid copolymer incorporated with no additive, antimicrobial additives, varying amount of crystallinities, another biodegradable polymer, and in different soils, with or without varying soil moisture content. The tools used for quantification were weight loss and visual observation. The test method was standardized using repeatability tests. The onset of disintegration was optimized with addition of right anti-microbial additives, higher crystallinity of film, blending with other biodegradable polymers, compared to virgin poly 3-hydroxy butanoic acid copolymer film. The onset of disintegration time was reduced when soil moisture content was reduced. After the onset of disintegration, the polymer film was physically and mechanically deteriorated, withering away in soil, which is possible to tailor with the crop growth cycle.

Mahajan, Viabhav

184

Preformulation study of fiber formation and formulation of drug-loaded microfiber based orodispersible tablets for in vitro dissolution enhancement.  

PubMed

Preformulation study of rotary spun hydroxypropyl cellulose fibers was carried out using the combination of textural characterization of gels in the concentration range of 42-60% w/w and optical microscopic evaluation of formed fibers. High adhesiveness values resulted in bead formation at lower polymer concentration, meanwhile fiber formation was hindered when high adhesiveness values were associated with high polymer content. The optimum gel concentration for fiber formation was given to 50% w/w. Drug loaded microfibers were prepared using a model drug of biopharmaceutical drug classification system class II. Fibers were milled, sieved and mixed with tableting excipients in order to directly compress orodispersible tablets. Hardness, friability, in vitro disintegration time values complied with the pharmacopoeial requirements. In vitro dissolution profiles obtained from three distinct dissolution media (pH 1.0; 4.5; 6.8) were quite differentiated compared to the compressed physical mixture of the same composition. Difference and similarity factors confirmed that the drug dissolution from microfiber based formula was almost independent from the pH value of the media. X-ray diffraction patterns indicated that the drug embedded in microfibers was in amorphous state, and the decrease of o-Ps lifetime values suggested that fiber formation enabled the development of a more ordered fibrous system. PMID:25448565

Szabó, Péter; Kállai-Szabó, Barnabás; Sebe, István; Zelkó, Romána

2014-12-30

185

Pharmacokinetic comparison of the buprenorphine sublingual liquid and tablet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Buprenorphine is a ? opioid partial agonist being developed as a treatment for opioid dependence. Buprenorphine, usually administered as a sublingual liquid, is now being developed as a sublingual tablet for clinical use. The present study compared participants’ plasma concentrations after daily maintenance on three buprenorphine liquid doses (2, 4 and 8 mg) and one tablet dose (8 mg). Fourteen

Kory J Schuh; Chris-Ellyn Johanson

1999-01-01

186

Bioavailability of Buprenorphine from Crushed and Whole Buprenorphine (Subutex) Tablets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Buprenorphine (Subutex) is the most abused opioid in Finland. In order to curb the abuse potential of this drug, many treatment centers and prisons crush Subutex tablets before administering them to patients. To date, there are no published studies comparing the efficacy and bioavailability of crushed and whole Subutex tablets. Methods: A total of 16 opioid-dependent patients stabilized on

Kaarlo Simojoki; Pirjo Lillsunde; Nicholas Lintzeris; Hannu Alho

2010-01-01

187

Effect of hydrophilic diluents on the release profile of griseofulvin from tablet formulations.  

PubMed

Studies have shown that when compressing drugs with low aqueous solubility, the solubility of diluents selected is very crucial as it influences the disintegration, dissolution and bioavailability of such drugs. Based on these reports, the present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of some commonly used hydrophilic tablet diluents (lactose, sucrose, mannitol and dextrose) on the in vitro release properties of griseofulvin from compressed tablets. Griseofulvin granules and tablets were prepared using the wet granulation method. Tablet properties evaluated as a function of the diluents used include, hardness, friability, dissolution profile and dissolution efficiency at 60 min. Results obtained indicated variability in griseofulvin release in the presence of the diluents. The relative enhanced dissolution effects of the four hydrophilic diluents is in the order of dextrose>sucrose>lactose>mannitol. All the griseofulvin tablet batches produced exhibited a better drug release (in terms of rate and extent of release) than a commercially available tablet sample of griseofulvin (Fulcin(®)). The results of the dissolution efficiency (DE60min) are 91.7, 83.5, 48.7, 35.3 and 15.6% for dextrose, sucrose, lactose, mannitol and fulcin(®), respectively. The overall results indicated that dextrose or sucrose can be utilised to improve the in vitro release profile and hence in vivo bioavailability of griseofulvin from compressed tablets. PMID:24591749

Umeh, O N C; Azegba, J C; Ofoefule, S I

2013-11-01

188

Material and tableting properties of Azadirachta indica gum with reference to official acacia gum.  

PubMed

This study determined the material and tableting properties of Azadirachta indica gum (NMG) relative to acacia gum (ACA). The morphological properties were assessed with size and shape factors of aspect ratio, roundness, irregularity and equivalent-circle-diameter. The tableting properties of the gums were determined using compressional characteristics, tensile strength (TS), brittle fracture index (BFI) and crushing-strength-friability/disintegration-time ratio (CSFR/DT). The results suggest that NMG possesses larger, irregular and more elongated particles than ACA. The onset and amount of plastic deformation occurring in NMG was faster and higher, respectively, than in ACA. The result shows that, although ACA tablets were stronger, their tendency to cap/laminate was higher than in NMG tablets. The NMG tablets possess lower DT than those of ACA, while the CSFR/DT result suggests that a better balance exists between the strength and weakness of NMG tablets. The study concluded that NMG can be a useful excipient in tablet formulation. PMID:24779199

Ogunjimi, Abayomi T; Alebiowu, Gbenga

2014-01-01

189

Pharmacokinetics of colon-specific pH and time-dependent flurbiprofen tablets.  

PubMed

Present research deals with the development of compression-coated flurbiprofen colon-targeted tablets to retard the drug release in the upper gastro intestinal system, but progressively release the drug in the colon. Flurbiprofen core tablets were prepared by direct compression method and were compression coated using sodium alginate and Eudragit S100. The formulation is optimized based on the in vitro drug release study and further evaluated by X-ray imaging and pharmacokinetic studies in healthy humans for colonic delivery. The optimized formulation showed negligible drug release (4.33 ± 0.06 %) in the initial lag period followed by progressive release (100.78 ± 0.64 %) for 24 h. The X-ray imaging in human volunteers showed that the tablets reached the colon without disintegrating in the upper gastrointestinal tract. The C max of colon-targeted tablets was 12,374.67 ng/ml at T max 10 h, where as in case of immediate release tablets the C max was 15,677.52 ng/ml at T max 3 h, that signifies the ability of compression-coated tablets to target the colon. Development of compression-coated tablets using combination of time-dependent and pH-sensitive approaches was suitable to target the flurbiprofen to colon. PMID:24916715

Vemula, Sateesh Kumar; Veerareddy, Prabhakar Reddy; Devadasu, Venkat Ratnam

2014-06-11

190

Risedronate-loaded Eudragit S100 microparticles formulated into tablets.  

PubMed

Risedronate, an anti-osteoporotic drug, is associated with low patient compliance due to the upper gastrointestinal side-effects and stringent dosing regimes. This study aimed to prepare and characterize risedronate-loaded Eudragit® S100 microparticles and develop a final dosage form by the compression of microparticles using direct tableting excipients. Microparticles were prepared by spray-drying and presented yield of 54%, encapsulation efficiency higher than 90%, mean diameter of 3.3?µm, moisture content around 8% and exhibited spherical shape and poor flowability. At pH 1.2, 23% of risedronate was released from microparticles in 120?min, while at pH 6.8 the drug took 90?min to reach 99.5%. Microparticles were compressed into tablets using microcrystalline cellulose, magnesium stearate, colloidal silicon dioxide and 2 polyvinylpyrrolidone concentrations (5% and 15%). Tablets presented low variations in weight, thickness and drug content. Besides, the formulations showed sufficient hardness, low friability and disintegrated in less than 15 min. In acid medium, no more than 16% of the drug was released in 120?min, while in intestinal medium the formulations prolonged the risedronate release for 240?min. Finally, the developed tableted microparticles can be considered a promising dosage form for oral risedronate administration. PMID:23506303

Velasquez, Aline A; Mattiazzi, Juliane; Ferreira, Luana M; Pohlmann, Lauren; Silva, Cristiane B; Rolim, Clarice M B; Cruz, Letícia

2014-05-01

191

A study on in-line tablet coating--the influence of compaction and coating on tablet dimensional changes.  

PubMed

Prior to coating, tablets are usually stored for a definite period to enable complete strain recovery and prevent subsequent volumetric expansion-related coating defects. In-line coating is defined as the coating of tablets immediately after compaction. In-line coating will be expected to improve manufacturing efficiencies. In this study, the possibility of in-line coating was studied by evaluating the influence of compaction and coating on tablet dimensional changes. The use of tapered dies for compaction was also evaluated. Two types of tablet coaters which presented different coating environments, namely the Supercell™ coater and pan coater, were employed for coating. The extent of tablet dimensional changes was studied in real time using optical laser sensors in a controlled environment. After compaction, tablet dimensional changes were found to be anisotropic. In contrast, coating resulted in isotropic volume expansion in both the axial and radial directions. Pan coating resulted in significantly greater tablet dimensional changes compared to Supercell™ coating. There was no significant difference in dimensional changes of tablets coated in line or after complete viscoelastic strain recovery for Supercell™ coating. However, significantly different dimensional changes were observed for pan coating. The use of tapered dies during compaction was found to result in more rapid viscoelastic strain recovery and also significantly reduced tablet dimensional changes when tablets were immediately coated after compaction using the pan coater. In conclusion, the Supercell™ coater appeared to be more suitable for in-line tablet coating, while tapered dies were beneficial in reducing tablet dimensional changes when the pan coater was employed for in-line coating. PMID:22585374

Cahyadi, C; Tan, B X; Chan, L W; Heng, P W S

2012-09-01

192

Modes of Disintegration of Solid Foods in Simulated Gastric Environment  

PubMed Central

A model stomach system was used to investigate disintegration of various foods in simulated gastric environment. Food disintegration modes and typical disintegration profiles are summarized in this paper. Mechanisms contributing to the disintegration kinetics of different foods were investigated as related to acidity, temperature, and enzymatic effect on the texture and changes in microstructure. Food disintegration was dominated by either fragmentation or erosion, depending on the physical forces acting on food and the cohesive force within the food matrix. The internal cohesive forces changed during digestion as a result of water penetration and acidic and enzymatic hydrolysis. When erosion was dominant, the disintegration data (weight retention vs. disintegration time) may be expressed with exponential, sigmoidal, and delayed-sigmoidal profiles. The different profiles are the result of competition among the rates of water absorption, texture softening, and erosion. A linear-exponential equation was used to describe the different disintegration curves with good fit. Acidity and temperature of gastric juice showed a synergistic effect on carrot softening, while pepsin was the key factor in disintegrating high-protein foods. A study of the change of carrot microstructure during digestion indicated that degradation of the pectin and cell wall was responsible for texture softening that contributed to the sigmoidal profile of carrot disintegration. PMID:20401314

Kong, Fanbin

2009-01-01

193

Pharmacokinetic Comparative Study of Gastrodin and Rhynchophylline after Oral Administration of Different Prescriptions of Yizhi Tablets in Rats by an HPLC-ESI/MS Method  

PubMed Central

Pharmacokinetic characters of rhynchophylline (RIN), gastrodin (GAS), and gastrodigenin (p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol, HBA) were investigated after oral administration of different prescriptions of Yizhi: Yizhi tablets or effective parts of tianma (total saponins from Gastrodiae, EPT) and gouteng (rhynchophylla alkaloids, EPG). At different predetermined time points after administration, the concentrations of GAS, HBA, and RIN in rat plasma were determined by an HPLC-ESI/MS method, and the main pharmacokinetic parameters were investigated. The results showed that the pharmacokinetic parameters Cmax and AUC0–? (P < 0.05) were dramatically different after oral administration of different prescriptions of Yizhi. The data indicated that the pharmacokinetic processes of GAS, HBA, and RIN in rats would interact with each other or be affected by other components in Yizhi. The rationality of the compatibility of Uncaria and Gastrodia elata as a classic “herb pair” has been verified from the pharmacokinetic viewpoint. PMID:25610474

Ge, Zhaohui; Liang, Qionglin; Wang, Yiming; Luo, Guoan

2014-01-01

194

Integration of Trade and Disintegration of Production in the Global Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The last few decades have seen a spectacular integration of the global economy through trade. The rising integration of world markets has brought with it a disintegration of the production process, however, in which manufacturing or services activities done abroad are combined with those performed at home. The author compares several different measures of foreign outsourcing and argues that they

Robert C. Feenstra

1998-01-01

195

Microstructural investigation of tablet compaction and tablet pharmacological properties  

E-print Network

In current tablet manufacturing processes, there is a knowledge gap concerning material transformation and the subsequent impact on tablet properties; this gap presents a barrier to rational formulation / process design. ...

Mao, Kangyi

2010-01-01

196

The use of inorganic salts to improve the dissolution characteristics of tablets containing Soluplus®-based solid dispersions.  

PubMed

The dissolution enhancement advantages inherent to amorphous solid dispersions systems are often not fully realized once they are formulated into a solid dosage form. The objective of this study was to investigate the ability of inorganic salts to improve the dissolution rate of carbamazepine (CBZ) from tablets containing a high loading of a Soluplus®-based solid dispersion. Cloud point and viscometric studies were conducted on Soluplus® solutions to understand the effect of temperature, salt type and salt concentration on the aqueous solubility and gelling tendencies of Soluplus®, properties that can significantly impact dissolution performance. Studies indicated that Soluplus® exhibited a cloud point that was strongly dependent on the salt type and salt concentration present in the dissolving medium. The presence of kosmotropic salts dehydrated the polymer, effectively lowering the cloud point and facilitating formation of a thermoreversible hydrogel. The ability of ions to impact the cloud point and gel strength generally followed the rank order of the Hofmeister series. Solid dispersions of CBZ and Soluplus® were prepared by KinetiSol® Dispersing, characterized to confirm an amorphous composition was formed and incorporated into tablets at very high levels (70% w/w). Dissolution studies demonstrated the utility of including salts in tablets to improve dissolution properties. Tablets that did not contain a salt or those that included a chaotropic salt hydrated at the tablet surface and did not allow for sufficient moisture ingress into the tablet. Conversely, the inclusion of kosmotropic salts allowed for rapid hydration of the entire tablet and the formation of a gel structure with strength dependent on the type of salt utilized. Studies also showed that, in addition to allowing tablet hydration, potassium bicarbonate and potassium carbonate provided effervescence which effectively destroyed the gel network and allowed for rapid dissolution of CBZ. Subsequent dissolution studies in 0.1 N HCl showed that potassium bicarbonate was an effective tablet disintegrant at levels as low as 1% and provided for tablets that rapidly disintegrated over a wide range of applied compression forces, presumably due to synergy between the ability to form a weak hydrogel structure and carbon dioxide liberation. Similar dissolution performance was measured in pH 4.5 acetate buffer, despite reduced polymer solubility caused by kosmotropic salts in solution, demonstrating robustness. With the use of inorganic salts such as potassium bicarbonate, it may be possible to substantially improve disintegration and dissolution characteristics of tablets containing Soluplus®. PMID:23348153

Hughey, Justin R; Keen, Justin M; Miller, Dave A; Kolter, Karl; Langley, Nigel; McGinity, James W

2013-03-12

197

A newly developed lubricant, chitosan laurate, in the manufacture of acetaminophen tablets.  

PubMed

To study the usefulness of chitosan laurate (CS-LA), a newly developed chitosan salt, as a lubricant, lubrication properties such as the pressure transmission ratio and ejection force were determined at different concentrations of CS-LA in tableting. In addition, tablet properties such as the tensile strength, disintegration time, and dissolution behavior, were also determined. When CS-LA was mixed at concentrations of 0.1%-3.0%, the pressure transmission ratio was increased in a concentration-dependent manner, and the value at a CS-LA concentration of 3% was equal to that of magnesium stearate (Mg-St), a widely used lubricant. Additionally, a reduction in the ejection force was observed at a concentration from 1%, proving that CS-LA has good lubrication performance. A prolonged disintegration time and decreased tensile strength, which are known disadvantages of Mg-St, were not observed with CS-LA. Furthermore, with CS-LA, retardation of dissolution of the drug from the tablets was not observed. Conjugation of CS with LA was found to be quite important for both lubricant and tablet properties. In conclusion, CS-LA should be useful as an alternative lubricant to Mg-St. PMID:25667982

Bani-Jaber, Ahmad; Kobayashi, Asuka; Yamada, Kyohei; Haj-Ali, Dana; Uchimoto, Takeaki; Iwao, Yasunori; Noguchi, Shuji; Itai, Shigeru

2015-04-10

198

Effects of various excipients on tizanidine hydrochloride tablets prepared by direct compression.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to assess the effects of various excipients in 10 different Tizanidine hydrochloride tablet dosage forms that were prepared by direct compression method (DC). Various excipients are available for DC method; we selected those excipients that are used commonly in tablet manufacturing. The excipients used included lactose anhydrous, di-basic calcium phosphate anhydrous, starch, talc, sodium carboxy methyl cellulose, polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), silicon dioxide (Aerosil), stearic acid, magnesium stearate and microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel). These tablets were then evaluated by performing different pharmacopoeial and non-pharmacopoeial tests (i.e. diameter, hardness, thickness, weight variation, disintegration and assay). It was observed that Formulations B, D and H of Tizanidine hydrochloride gave best results within USP specified limits for the tests employed among all the formulations whereas Formulations F and G showed poor friability, disintegration and dissolution profiles rendering starch in combination of talc and sodium carboxy-methyl cellulose unsuitable for Tizanidine hydrochloride tablet formulations. With the present approach, more studies can be designed using other active ingredients and excipients to get an optimal and cost effective product. PMID:25176379

Khan, Lubna Ghazal; Razvi, Nighat; Anjum, Fakhsheena; Siddiqui, Saeed Ahmed; Ghayas, Sana

2014-09-01

199

Axial strength test for round flat faced versus capsule shaped bilayer tablets.  

PubMed

Abstract There has been increasing interest in fixed dose combination (FDC) therapy. Multi-layer tablets are a popular choice among various technologies to deliver FDCs. In most cases, round flat faced tooling is used in testing tablets as they have the simplest geometry. However, shaped tooling is more common for commercial products and may have an effect on bilayer tablet strength. Capsule shaped bilayer tablets, similar to a commercial image, and holders conforming to the tablet topology, were compared with similar round flat faced bilayer tablets and their corresponding holders. Bilayer tablets were subjected to an axial test device, until fracture and the quantitative breaking force value was recorded. As the second layer compression force increases, regardless of holder design, an increase in breaking force occurs as expected. This consistent trend provides insight regarding the breaking force of capsule shaped bilayer tablets. The results of this study show that at lower second layer compression forces, tablet geometry does not significantly impact the results. However, at higher compression forces, a significant difference in breaking force between tablet geometries exists. Therefore, using a test geometry close to the final commercial tablet image is recommended to have the most accurate prediction for tablet breakage. PMID:24219774

Franck, Jason; Abebe, Admassu; Keluskar, Rekha; Martin, Kyle; Majumdar, Antara; Kottala, Niranjan; Stamato, Howard

2015-03-01

200

Vindolanda Tablets Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Written in ink on postcard-sized sheets of wood, the Vindolanda tablets constitute a fascinating record of life in Roman Britain in the area of northern England around Hadrian's Wall during the first and second centuries AD. The tablets and the accompanying visual and printed materials were brought online through the collaborative efforts of the Centre for the Study of Ancient Documents and the Academic Computing Development Team at Oxford University. Visitors unfamiliar with the world of Roman Britain would do well to go first to the Exhibition section which contains helpful areas devoted to the world of military life during this period, the tablets themselves, and the excavations at Vindolanda. The Reference section also provides a great deal of context to the commentaries contained on the tablets, providing information about the military units in the Roman army and important dates and events in early Roman Britain. The heart of the site is dedicated to the tablets themselves, which may be browsed by number or searched by such variables as title, author, English translation, or commentary.

201

In vitro and in vivo evaluation of fast-dissolving tablets containing solid dispersion of lamotrigine  

PubMed Central

Aim: Investigation of in vitro/in vivo behavior of fast-dissolving tablets containing solid dispersions (SDs) of lamotrigine (LM) was the aim and focus of the present research work. Material and Methods: The effect of various hydrophilic polymers on the aqueous solubility of LM was studied. Polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000) was selected as the vehicle and SDs were prepared by melting and solvent evaporation method (SEM). Evaluation of SD for dissolution indicated SVM was more appropriate as seen from an enhancement in drug dissolution. Infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and powder X-ray diffraction studies indicated a lack of physicochemical interaction between the drug and the carrier. A total of nine formulations were compressed into fast-dissolving tablets using Avicel pH 102 as a directly compressible filler and ac-di-sol, sodium starch glycolate and crospovidone as super disintegrates and evaluated for pre- and post-compression parameters and in vitro drug release. Results: Mathematical analysis of in vitro data suggested that first order was most suitable mathematical model for describing the optimized formulation. Stability studies indicated that the effect of storage was insignificant at 5% level of confidence. In vivo studies of pure drug, selected formulation and marketed product were carried out in male Wistar rats and pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters were calculated using PK function for Microsoft Excel. The best formulation has shown Tmax of 0.5 h which was highly significant (P < 0.05) when compared with pure drug and marketed formulation. The statistical significance was assessed by one way analysis of variance. Conclusion: Therefore, the SDs prepared by SEM using PEG 6000 as hydrophilic carrier can be successfully used for improvement of dissolution of LM and resulted in faster onset of action as indicated by in vivo studies. PMID:25599034

Mohan, Arti; Gundamaraju, Rohit

2015-01-01

202

Tabletability assessment of conventional formulations containing Vitamin E tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate.  

PubMed

Vitamin E tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate (TPGS) is known to enhance the bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs via solubility and permeability enhancement. Few studies have evaluated feasibility of formulating TPGS in conventional solid dosage forms such as tablets due to processing challenges resulting from its waxy nature and low melting point (approximately 37 degrees C). The objective of this study is to systematically investigate the tabletability of conventional high shear wet granulation (WG) formulations incorporated with Vitamin E TPGS. Impact of critical formulation variables such as levels of TPGS, hydroxypropyl cellulose (binder) and Prosolv (extragranular filler) on product quality attributes was studied using a full factorial experimental design. The potential influence of temperature elevation during processing was assessed through a heated die fitted onto a compaction simulator. Bilayer tabletability of the TPGS formulation was also assessed in combination with a secondary non-TPGS formulation. TPGS levels significantly impacted tensile strength (TS), disintegration time and dissolution. Heat sensitivity studies indicated that TS reduction upon exposure to heat was minimized by higher levels of extragranular fillers. Acceptable interfacial strength of bilayer tablets was achieved and tablets could be coated without the need for hydroalcoholic solutions. The study demonstrates preliminary feasibility to develop monolithic and bilayer coated tablet formulations containing up to 10% (w/w) TPGS for the given compound and drug load. Further studies are required to validate these findings at larger scales. PMID:20083178

Jin, Feiyan; Tatavarti, Aditya

2010-04-15

203

[Tablets and tablet production - with special reference to Icelandic conditions].  

PubMed

Modern tablet compression was instituted in England in 1844 by William Brockedon (1787-1854). The first tablets made according to Brockedon´s procedures contained watersoluble salts and were most likely compressed without expedients. In USA a watershed occurred around 1887 when starch (amylum maydis) was introduced to disperse tablets in aqueous milieu in order to corroborate bioavailability of drugs in the almentary canal. About the same time great advances in tablet production were introduced by the British firm Burroughs Wellcome and Co. In Denmark on the other hand tablet production remained on low scale until after 1920. As Icelandic pharmacies and drug firms modelled themselves mostly upon Danish firms tablet production was first instituted in Iceland around 1930. The first tablet machines in Iceland were hand-driven. More efficent machines came after 1945. Around 1960 three sizeable tablet producers were in Iceland; now there is only one. Numbers of individual tablet species (generic and proprietary) on the market rose from less than 10 in 1913 to 500 in 1965, with wide variations in numbers in between. Tablets have not wiped out other medicinal forms for peroral use but most new peroral drugs have been marketed in the form of tablets during the last decades. PMID:23695970

Skaftason, Jóhannes F; Jóhannesson, Thorkell

2013-04-01

204

Nonlinear disintegration of the internal tide Karl R. Helfrich1  

E-print Network

Nonlinear disintegration of the internal tide Karl R. Helfrich1 and Roger H. J. Grimshaw2 1 The disintegration of a first-mode internal tide into shorter solitary-like waves is considered. Because observations frequently show both tides and waves with amplitudes beyond the re- strictions of weakly nonlinear theory

205

Disintegration of Water Drops in an Electric Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

The disintegration of drops in strong electric fields is believed to play an important part in the formation of thunderstorms, at least in those parts of them where no ice crystals are present. Zeleny showed experimentally that disintegration begins as a hydrodynamical instability, but his ideas about the mechanics of the situation rest on the implicit assumption that instability occurs

Geoffrey Taylor

1964-01-01

206

Novel mechanism for J /? disintegration in relativistic heavy ion collisions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we discuss the possibility of J /? disintegration due to Z (3) domain walls that are expected to form in a QGP medium. These domain walls give rise to a localized color electric field, which disintegrates J /?, on interaction, by changing its color composition and simultaneously exciting it to higher states of cc ¯ system.

Atreya, Abhishek; Bagchi, Partha; Srivastava, Ajit M.

2014-09-01

207

Tablet Process Simulator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The North Carolina Community College System BioNetwork's interactive eLearning tools (IETs) are reusable chunks of training that can be deployed in a variety of courses or training programs. IETs are designed to enhance, not replace hands-on training. Learners are able to enter a hands-on lab experience better prepared and more confident. This particular IET is a Tablet Process Simulator in which visitors set up and run a tablet press in a virtual 3D environment. The tool requires the program to be downloaded and installed, and gives helpful installation instructions. Users will start by downloading a zip file to their computer.

208

Mechanistic investigation of food effect on disintegration and dissolution of BCS class III compound solid formulations: the importance of viscosity.  

PubMed

A negative food effect, i.e. a decrease in bioavailability upon the co-administration of compounds together with food, has been attributed particularly with high solubility/low permeability compounds (BCS class III). Different mechanisms have been proposed including intestinal dilution leading to a lower concentration gradient across the intestinal wall as well as binding of the active pharmaceutical ingredient to food components in the intestine and thereby decreasing the fraction of the dose available for absorption. These mechanisms refer primarily to the compound and not to the dosage form. An increase in viscosity of the dissolution fluid will in particular affect the absorption of BCS type III compounds with preferential absorption in the upper small intestine if the API release is delayed from the dosage form. The present study demonstrated that the increase in viscosity of the dissolution medium, following ingestion of a solid meal, may drastically reduce disintegration and dissolution. For that purpose the viscosity of the standard FDA meal was determined and simulated by solutions of HPMC in buffer. As model formulations, three commercially available tablets containing trospium chloride, a BCS class III m-cholinoreceptor antagonist was used. Trospium chloride drug products have been described to undergo a negative food effect of more than 80% following ingestion with food. The tablets showed prolonged disintegration times and reduced dissolution rates in viscous media, which could be attributed to changes in the liquid penetration rates. The effect was particularly significant for film-coated tablets relative to uncoated dosage forms. The results show the necessity of considering media viscosity when designing in vitro models of drug release for BCS type III drug formulations. PMID:22782559

Radwan, Asma; Amidon, Gordon L; Langguth, Peter

2012-10-01

209

Compressional behavior of a mixture of granules containing high load of Phyllanthus niruri spray-dried extract and granules of adjuvants: comparison between eccentric and rotary tablet machines.  

PubMed

The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the compressional behavior of granules containing high load of a Phyllanthus niruri spray-dried extract in eccentric (ETM) and rotary (RTM) tablet presses. Tablets were constituted by spray-dried extract granules (SDEG, 92%), excipient granules (EXCG, 7.92%), and magnesium stearate (0.08%). SDEG was obtained by dry granulation and EXCG, composed of microcrystalline cellulose (62.9%) and sodium starch glycolate (37.1%), by wet granulation. Particle size distribution was fixed between 0.250 and 0.850 mm. Tablets did not evidence any mechanical failures, such as lamination or capping, or anomalous weight variation in either tablet machine types. Upper and lower tablet surface photomicrographs from ETM and RTM tablets showed differences in porosity and texture. Different RTM speeds suggested the visco-plastic behavior of the formulation, since, by slowing down rotation speeds, the tensile strength of the tablets increased significantly, but the porosity and disintegration time were not affected. Tablets produced in RTM showed lower friability and porosity than ETM tablets, which did not reflect on higher tensile strength. The EXCG distribution at upper and lower surfaces from ETM and RTM tablets was quantified by image analysis and evaluated through statistical methods. Spray-dried extract release was not influenced by the type of equipment or operational conditions to which the compacts were submitted. Construction and operation differences between both tablet presses influenced the final product, since tablets with similar tensile strength, made by distinct tablet machines, exhibited different quality parameters. PMID:19662537

Spaniol, Bárbara; Bica, Vinicius Claudino; Ruppenthal, Lisias Rafael; Volpato, Maria Ramos; Petrovick, Pedro Ros

2009-01-01

210

The comet disintegration and meteor streams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Possibility of disintegration of proto-comet nucleus of sungraser comets in three zones of Solar System predicted by one of authors is considered. Testing of parameters of 118 split comets confirms the basic idea. Results of the statistical analysis of comet outbursts gave us additional argument in favor of this assumption. Almost twenty years have passed since, as a result of the search for host phases of isotopically unusual noble gases, the first discovery in 1987 of surviving pre-solar minerals (diamond and silicon carbide) in primitive meteorites. These were followed by others (graphite, refractory oxides, silicon nitride, and finally silicates) in the years since. Pre-solar grains occur in even higher abundance than in meteorites in interplanetary dust particles (IDPs). The result is a kind of `new astronomy' based on the study of pre-solar condensates with all the methods available in modern analytical laboratories.

Guliyev, A. S.; Poladova, U. J.

2015-03-01

211

Security Approaches in Using Tablet Computers for Primary Data Collection in Clinical Research  

PubMed Central

Next-generation tablets (iPads and Android tablets) may potentially improve the collection and management of clinical research data. The widespread adoption of tablets, coupled with decreased software and hardware costs, has led to increased consideration of tablets for primary research data collection. When using tablets for the Washington Heights/Inwood Infrastructure for Comparative Effectiveness Research (WICER) project, we found that the devices give rise to inherent security issues associated with the potential use of cloud-based data storage approaches. This paper identifies and describes major security considerations for primary data collection with tablets; proposes a set of architectural strategies for implementing data collection forms with tablet computers; and discusses the security, cost, and workflow of each strategy. The paper briefly reviews the strategies with respect to their implementation for three primary data collection activities for the WICER project.

Wilcox, Adam B.; Gallagher, Kathleen; Bakken, Suzanne

2013-01-01

212

Chitosan-based mucoadhesive tablets for oral delivery of ibuprofen.  

PubMed

Chitosan and its half-acetylated derivative have been compared as excipients in mucoadhesive tablets containing ibuprofen. Initially the powder formulations containing the polymers and the drug were prepared by either co-spray drying or physical co-grinding. Polymer-drug interactions and the degree of drug crystallinity in these formulations were assessed by infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. Tablets were prepared and their swelling and dissolution properties were studied in media of various pHs. Mucoadhesive properties of ibuprofen-loaded and drug-free tablets were evaluated by analysing their detachment from pig gastric mucosa over a range of pHs. Greater polymer-drug interactions were seen for spray-dried particles compared to co-ground samples and drug loading into chitosan-based microparticles (41%) was greater than the corresponding half-acetylated samples (32%). Swelling and drug release was greater with the half-acetylated chitosan tablets than tablets containing the parent polymer and both tablets were mucoadhesive, the extent of which was dependent on substrate pH. The results illustrate the potential sustained drug delivery benefits of both chitosan and its half-acetylated derivative as mucoadhesive tablet excipients. PMID:22842627

Sogias, Ioannis A; Williams, Adrian C; Khutoryanskiy, Vitaliy V

2012-10-15

213

Characterization of low crystallinity cellulose as a direct compression excipient: Effects of physicochemical properties of cellulose excipients on their tabletting characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A scale-up method for the preparation of a new excipient, low crystallinity powder cellulose (LCPC), was established. Physicochemical characterization of a series of LCPC materials was performed, and compared to the physicochemical properties of commercially existing cellulose excipients, microcrystalline cellulose (AvicelsRTM) and powdered celluloses (Solka Flocs RTM). Low crystallinity cellulose powders had high amorphous contents (>50%) and a low degree of polymerization (<40 anhydroglucose units). They were dense aggregates with porosity values less than 62%. Low crystallinity cellulose was found to contain cellulose II as the predominant polymorphic form in the crystalline regions. LCPC particles, obtained from larger scale preparations (>2 kg), typically showed low yield pressures (<75 MPa), high compressibility (>200 MPa), and intermediate compactability (250--600 MPa2) values. Mechanical characterization of the three types of cellulose materials, and the statistical models obtained for the results, indicated that a high porosity (>810%), a high average of amorphous content (>40%) and moisture content (>4%), and a low degree of polymerization (<150) significantly lowered the yield pressures, and significantly enhanced the compressibility and compactability. The bonding indices of microcrystalline celluloses (0.013 to 0.031) and LCPC materials (0.011 to 0.020) investigated indicated a ductile behavior. The LCPC compacts showed a higher brittle fracture propensity (0.42 to 0.55) as compared to the brittle fracture indices (0.02 to 0.19) seen for the Avicel RTM compacts. Heckel analysis of different particle size fractions of LCPC and the surface area results of the LCPC compacts indicated that the particles do not fragment on uniaxial compression. The rapid disintegration times (5 to 90 seconds) for LCPC tablets at low as well as high solid fractions suggest the high affinity of these materials to water, due to their high amorphous contents that expose a larger number of hydroxyl groups to water, compared to the more crystalline materials, such as microcrystalline celluloses, the tablets of which showed extremely long disintegration times (24 to 6000 seconds). The physicochemical and mechanical characterization of low crystallinity cellulose suggests it to be a promising direct compression excipient for immediate release tablet formulations.

Kothari, Sanjeev Hukmichand

214

Physicochemical and tablet properties of Cyperus alulatus rhizomes starch granules.  

PubMed

The starch extracted from rhizomes of Cyperus alulatus (CA) was characterized for its physicochemical, morphological and tableting properties. Rhizomes of CA yield a significant quantity of starch granules (CASG) i.e., 11.93%. CASG was characterized in terms of moisture, ash and amylose contents, solubility and swelling power, paste clarity and water retention capacity. The swelling power was found to be significantly improved with the increase in temperature. Scanning electron micrographs revealed that the granule's surface was smooth, the granules were spherical, mostly round, disc like, and the size range was 6.65-12.13?m. Finger print region in FTIR spectra confirmed its carbohydrate nature. The evaluated micromeritic properties of extracted granule's bulk density, tapped density, Carr's index, Hausner ratio, true density and porosity render unique practicability of CASG being used as an adjuvant in pharmaceutical solid dosage forms. Tablets prepared by using CASG showed higher mechanical strength and more disintegration time, which depicted the characteristic binding nature of the starch granules. As CASG is imparting better binding properties in less concentration and also it can be used in combination with the established starches to get the synergistic effect; this starch can be used commercially in the tablet preparation. PMID:25769783

Paramakrishnan, N; Jha, S; Kumar, K Jayaram

2015-05-01

215

Development and evaluation of fixed dose bi therapy sublingual tablets for treatment stress hypertension and anxiety  

PubMed Central

Objective: A stress induced rise in the blood pressure. Some believe that patients with hypertension are characterized by a generalized state of increased anxiety. Aim: The purpose of this study is to prepare a fixed dose bi therapy using bisoprolol hemifumarate (BH) as antihypertensive drug and buspirone hydrochloride (BuHCl) as anxiolytic drug, which can be used to treat both diseases concomitantly. Using sublingual tablets is hopeful to improve the BuHCl poor oral bioavailability and to facilitate administration to patients experiencing problems with swallowing. Materials and Methods: A total of 5mg BH and 10mg BuHCl were selected based on compatibility study. A 3×22 full factorial design was adopted for the optimization of the tablets prepared by direct compression method. The effects of the filler type, the binder molecular weight, and the binder type were studied. The prepared formulae were evaluated according to their physical characters as hardness, friability, disintegration time (new modified method and in vivo disintegration time) and wetting properties. In vitro drugs dissolute, permeation through the buccal mucosa and the effect of storage were analyzed by a new valid high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. Bioavailability study of the selected formula study was carried out and followed by the clinical. Results: The optimized tablet formulation showed accepted average weight, hardness, wetting time, friability, content uniformity, disintegration time (less than 3 min). Maximum drug release could be achieved with in 10 min. In addition enhancing drug permeation through the buccal mucosa and, the maximum concentration of the drug that reached the blood was in the first 10 min which means a rapid onset of action and improved the extent of both drug's absorption. Conclusion: The results revealed that sublingual (F6) tablets containing both drugs would maintain rapid onset of action, and increase bioavailability. BuHCl with BH can be attributed to the marked decline in DBP and SBP. That led to a reduction in the MAP. PMID:24082695

El-Nabarawi, Mohamed A.; Tayel, Saadia A.; Soliman, Nadia A.; Abo Enin, Hadel A.

2013-01-01

216

Comparison of relative (mouse-like) and absolute (tablet-like) interaction with a large stereoscopic work-space  

E-print Network

Comparison of relative (mouse-like) and absolute (tablet-like) interaction with a large mode (mouse) is far more prevalent than absolute mode (tablet). We also compared head-tracking against all participants strongly favoured head-tracking. Keywords: stereoscopic, mouse, tablet, interaction

Dodgson, Neil

217

CES 2011: Tablet Crazy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ereaders are so last year. Tablets were the watchword at this year's annual Consumer Electronics Show (CES) in Las Vegas, January 6-9. This year, the show set new records, with some 2700 companies from around the world exhibiting at the multiple exhibition halls and 30,000 attendees gawking at the products. What did they see? There were still some…

Rapp, David

2011-01-01

218

Rapidly absorbed orodispersible tablet containing molecularly dispersed felodipine for management of hypertensive crisis: development, optimization and in vitro/in vivo studies.  

PubMed

A liquisolid orodispersible tablet of felodipine, a BCS Class II drug, was developed to improve drug dissolution and absorption through the buccal mucosa for management of hypertensive crisis. A 24 full-factorial design was applied to optimize felodipine liquisolid systems (FLSs) having acceptable flow properties and possessing enhanced drug dissolution rates. Four formulation variables; The liquid type, X1 (PG or PEG), drug concentration, X2 (10% and 20%), type of coat, X3 (Aerosil® and Aeroperl®) and excipients ratio, X4 (10 and 20) were included in the design. The systems were assessed for dissolution and flow properties. Following optimization, the formulation components (X1, X2, X3 and X4) were PEG, 10%, Aerosil® and 20, respectively. The optimized FLS was compressed into felodipine liquisolid orodispersible tablet using Prosolv® as carrier material (FLODT-2). The in vitro and in vivo disintegration times of FLODT-2 were 9 and 7 s, respectively. The in vivo pharmacokinetic study using human volunteers showed a significant increase in dissolution and absorption rates of the formulation of FLODT-2 compared to soft gelatin capsules filled with felodipine solution in PEG under the same conditions. Our results proposed that the optimized FLODT formulation could be promising to manage hypertensive crisis. PMID:22339303

Basalious, Emad B; El-Sebaie, Wessam; El-Gazayerly, Omaima

2013-01-01

219

Validation of standard manufacturing procedure of Gu??c? sattva (aqueous extract of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers) and its tablets  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Gu??ci Sattva is a highly valued formulation among ayurvedic physicians, commonly recommended in conditions such as Jvara (fever), D?ha (burning sensation) and other conditions of Pitta predominance. In spite of its numerous medicinal attributes, no published work is available until date on manufacturing guidelines along with its quality control parameters. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study is to develop the standard manufacturing procedure for preparation of Gu??ci Sattva and its tablets. Materials and Methods: A total of 15 batches of Gu??ci Sattva were prepared in the laboratory. During its preparation, pharmaceutical findings and observations were systematically recorded. To maintain quality control, Gu??ci Sattva tablets were further subjected to analysis such as shape, diameter, width, hardness, weight variation, disintegration time (DT) and friability. Qualitative analysis to detect the presence of various functional groups and high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) profile were also carried out. Results and Conclusion: The average percentage of dried Sattva obtained was 3.8%. The tablets were prepared by direct compression method as per pharmacopoeal specifications. Optimum hardness, weight of tablets, DT and friability of Gu??ci Sattva tablets were found complying with official standards. Alkaloids, carbohydrates and starch were found present in Sattva tablets. Number of peaks obtained in HPTLC also corresponds to this finding. Data obtained by present study may be considered as standard for future studies. Conclusion: The average percentage of dried Sattva obtained was 3.8%. The tablets were prepared by direct compression method as per pharmacopoeal specifications. Optimum hardness, weight of tablets, DT and friability of Gu??ci Sattva tablets were found complying with official standards. Alkaloids, carbohydrates and starch were found present in Sattva tablets. Number of peaks obtained in HPTLC also corresponds to this finding. Data obtained by present study may be considered as standard for future studies. PMID:25161327

Sharma, Rohit; Amin, Hetal; Galib; Prajapati, P. K.

2013-01-01

220

Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled and active-controlled study to assess the relative abuse potential of oxycodone HCl-niacin tablets compared with oxycodone alone in nondependent, recreational opioid users  

PubMed Central

Background Abuse-deterrent formulations attempt to address public health and societal concerns regarding opioid abuse. Oxycodone HCl-niacin tablets combine oxycodone HCl with niacin and functional inactive excipients to create potential barriers to oral, intranasal, and intravenous abuse. This study compared the relative abuse potential of oral immediate-release oxycodone HCl-niacin with that of oral immediate-release oxycodone HCl and placebo in nondependent, recreational opioid users. Methods Forty-nine participants received oxycodone HCl-niacin 40/240 mg and 80/480 mg, oxycodone 40 mg and 80 mg, and placebo in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled and active-controlled, five-way crossover study. Primary endpoints based on a bipolar 100 mm visual analog scale for drug liking were area under effect curve (AUE0–1h, AUE0–2h, AUE0–3h), peak disliking, and effect at 0.5 hours post-dose (E0.5h). Other endpoints included take drug again assessment, overall drug liking, and pupillometry. Results There were statistically significant differences between oxycodone HCl-niacin and oxycodone HCl doses for all primary endpoints (P < 0.0001, all comparisons), suggesting reduced abuse potential with oxycodone HCl-niacin. Take drug again and overall drug liking showed greater liking of oxycodone alone. Oxycodone HCl-niacin 80/480 mg had consistently lower liking assessments than oxycodone HCl-niacin 40/240 mg, suggesting a dose-response to the aversive effects of niacin. Opioid-related adverse events were similar for equivalent oxycodone doses. The treatment-emergent adverse events most specifically associated with oxycodone HCl-niacin (ie, skin-burning sensation, warmth, and flushing) were consistent with the expected vasocutaneous effects of niacin. No serious adverse events were reported. Conclusion Oxycodone HCl-niacin tablets may, in a dose-dependent manner, decrease the potential for oral abuse of oxycodone without unexpected adverse events or clinically signifi-cant differences in safety parameters compared with oxycodone alone. Although statistically powered, the small size of the study sample and the characteristics of its participants may not be generalizable to the population that abuses prescription opioid medications. PMID:24474870

Webster, Lynn R; Rolleri, Robert L; Pixton, Glenn C; Sommerville, Kenneth W

2012-01-01

221

A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, factorial design study to evaluate the lipid-altering efficacy and safety profile of the ezetimibe\\/simvastatin tablet compared with ezetimibe and simvastatin monotherapy in patients with primary hypercholesterolemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety profile of ezetimibe\\/simvastatin(EZE\\/SIMVA) combination tablet, relative to ezetimibe (EZE) and simvastatin (SIMVA) monotherapy, in patients with primary hypercholesterolemia.

Harold E. Bays; Leiv Ose; Neil Fraser; Diane L. Tribble; Katherine Quinto; Robert Reyes; Amy O. Johnson-Levonas; Aditi Sapre; Steven R. Donahue

2004-01-01

222

Design and Optimization of Domperidone Fast Dissolving Tablet Using Central Composite Design.  

PubMed

The main aim of this work was to optimize fast dissolving tablet (FDT) formulation using response surface approach. The variables studied were sodium bicarbonate (X1), citric acid (X2), and superdisintegrant, Ac-Di-Sol (X3). The main aspect of present work was to develop FDT of Domperidone with fast disintegration and high mechanical strength. It was found that the response was affected by all the three factors studied. The statistical models were successfully used to prepare FDT of Domperidone with fast disintegration (31.08 seconds) and adequate hardness (4.1 kg/cm2). Pharmacokinetic studies in rats showed statistically insignificant difference (p>0.05) between Domperidone fast dissolving tablet (DFDT) and marketed product, concluded that optimized FDT was found to be bioequivalent with the marketed formulation. The values of Tmax were found to be 0.5 h and 0.75 h for DFDT and reference product, respectively. Conditioned place aversion study was performed on Swiss Albino mice and the study showed the better anti emetic potency of optimized FDT in nauseated condition over market product (p<0.05). Thus, the present investigation conclusively demonstrates the potential role in terms of rapid disintegration and high mechanical strength. PMID:25335985

Shailendra, Bhatt; Shailendra, Mandge; Manish, Jaimini; Singh, Tanwar Yuvraj; Priti, Trivedi

2014-10-21

223

21 CFR 520.312 - Carnidazole tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Carnidazole tablets. 520.312 Section 520.312 Food and...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.312 Carnidazole tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 10 milligrams of carnidazole....

2014-04-01

224

21 CFR 520.1380 - Methocarbamol tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Methocarbamol tablets. 520.1380 Section 520.1380 ...ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1380 Methocarbamol tablets. (a) Chemical name. 3-(O-Methoxyphenoxy...1-carbamate. (b) Specifications. Each tablet contains 500 milligrams of...

2013-04-01

225

21 CFR 520.1900 - Primidone tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Primidone tablets. 520.1900 Section 520.1900 Food and...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1900 Primidone tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 50 or 250 milligrams of...

2014-04-01

226

21 CFR 520.455 - Clomipramine tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Clomipramine tablets. 520.455 Section 520.455 Food and...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.455 Clomipramine tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 5, 20, 40, or 80 milligrams...

2013-04-01

227

21 CFR 520.1451 - Moxidectin tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Moxidectin tablets. 520.1451 Section 520.1451 Food and...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1451 Moxidectin tablets. (a) Specifications . Each tablet contains 30, 68, or 136 micrograms of...

2011-04-01

228

21 CFR 520.928 - Firocoxib tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Firocoxib tablets. 520.928 Section 520.928 Food...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.928 Firocoxib tablets. (a) Specifications . Each chewable tablet contains 57 or 227 milligrams (mg)...

2012-04-01

229

21 CFR 520.1900 - Primidone tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Primidone tablets. 520.1900 Section 520.1900 Food and...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1900 Primidone tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 50 or 250 milligrams of...

2010-04-01

230

21 CFR 520.928 - Firocoxib tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Firocoxib tablets. 520.928 Section 520.928 Food...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.928 Firocoxib tablets. (a) Specifications . Each chewable tablet contains 57 or 227 milligrams (mg)...

2013-04-01

231

21 CFR 520.581 - Dichlorophene tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dichlorophene tablets. 520.581 Section 520.581 Food and...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.581 Dichlorophene tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 1 gram of dichlorophene. (b)...

2012-04-01

232

21 CFR 520.1380 - Methocarbamol tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 false Methocarbamol tablets. 520.1380 Section 520.1380 ...ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1380 Methocarbamol tablets. (a) Chemical name. 3-(O-Methoxyphenoxy...1-carbamate. (b) Specifications. Each tablet contains 500 milligrams of...

2014-04-01

233

21 CFR 520.2088 - Roxarsone tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Roxarsone tablets. 520.2088 Section 520.2088 Food...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2088 Roxarsone tablets. (a)(1) Specifications. Each tablet contains 36 milligrams of roxarsone...

2013-04-01

234

21 CFR 520.1900 - Primidone tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Primidone tablets. 520.1900 Section 520.1900 Food and...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1900 Primidone tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 50 or 250 milligrams of...

2011-04-01

235

21 CFR 520.1451 - Moxidectin tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Moxidectin tablets. 520.1451 Section 520.1451 Food and...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1451 Moxidectin tablets. (a) Specifications . Each tablet contains 30, 68, or 136 micrograms of...

2013-04-01

236

21 CFR 520.1380 - Methocarbamol tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Methocarbamol tablets. 520.1380 Section 520.1380 ...ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1380 Methocarbamol tablets. (a) Chemical name. 3-(O-Methoxyphenoxy...1-carbamate. (b) Specifications. Each tablet contains 500 milligrams of...

2011-04-01

237

21 CFR 520.1870 - Praziquantel tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Praziquantel tablets. 520.1870 Section 520.1870 Food and...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1870 Praziquantel tablets. (a) Specifications . Each tablet contains: (1) 34 milligrams (mg)...

2012-04-01

238

21 CFR 520.312 - Carnidazole tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carnidazole tablets. 520.312 Section 520.312 Food and...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.312 Carnidazole tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 10 milligrams of carnidazole....

2010-04-01

239

21 CFR 520.1451 - Moxidectin tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Moxidectin tablets. 520.1451 Section 520.1451 Food and...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1451 Moxidectin tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 30, 68, or 136 micrograms of...

2014-04-01

240

21 CFR 520.312 - Carnidazole tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Carnidazole tablets. 520.312 Section 520.312 Food and...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.312 Carnidazole tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 10 milligrams of carnidazole....

2011-04-01

241

21 CFR 520.1451 - Moxidectin tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Moxidectin tablets. 520.1451 Section 520.1451 Food and...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1451 Moxidectin tablets. (a) Specifications . Each tablet contains 30, 68, or 136 micrograms of...

2010-04-01

242

21 CFR 520.1870 - Praziquantel tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Praziquantel tablets. 520.1870 Section 520.1870 Food and...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1870 Praziquantel tablets. (a) Specifications . Each tablet contains: (1) 34 milligrams (mg)...

2013-04-01

243

21 CFR 520.1870 - Praziquantel tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Praziquantel tablets. 520.1870 Section 520.1870 Food and...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1870 Praziquantel tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains: (1) 34 milligrams (mg)...

2014-04-01

244

21 CFR 520.1900 - Primidone tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Primidone tablets. 520.1900 Section 520.1900 Food and...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1900 Primidone tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 50 or 250 milligrams of...

2013-04-01

245

21 CFR 520.1310 - Marbofloxacin tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Marbofloxacin tablets. 520.1310 Section 520.1310 Food and...ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1310 Marbofloxacin tablets. (a) Specifications . Each tablet contains 25, 50, 100, or 200...

2012-04-01

246

21 CFR 520.1870 - Praziquantel tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Praziquantel tablets. 520.1870 Section 520.1870 Food and...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1870 Praziquantel tablets. (a) Specifications . Each tablet contains: (1) 34 milligrams (mg)...

2011-04-01

247

21 CFR 520.581 - Dichlorophene tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dichlorophene tablets. 520.581 Section 520.581 Food and...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.581 Dichlorophene tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 1 gram of dichlorophene. (b)...

2014-04-01

248

21 CFR 520.581 - Dichlorophene tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dichlorophene tablets. 520.581 Section 520.581 Food and...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.581 Dichlorophene tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 1 gram of dichlorophene. (b)...

2011-04-01

249

21 CFR 520.1451 - Moxidectin tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Moxidectin tablets. 520.1451 Section 520.1451 Food and...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1451 Moxidectin tablets. (a) Specifications . Each tablet contains 30, 68, or 136 micrograms of...

2012-04-01

250

21 CFR 520.312 - Carnidazole tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Carnidazole tablets. 520.312 Section 520.312 Food and...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.312 Carnidazole tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 10 milligrams of carnidazole....

2012-04-01

251

21 CFR 520.455 - Clomipramine tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Clomipramine tablets. 520.455 Section 520.455 Food and...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.455 Clomipramine tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 5, 20, 40, or 80 milligrams...

2014-04-01

252

21 CFR 520.928 - Firocoxib tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Firocoxib tablets. 520.928 Section 520.928 Food...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.928 Firocoxib tablets. (a) Specifications . Each chewable tablet contains 57 or 227 milligrams (mg)...

2010-04-01

253

21 CFR 520.1310 - Marbofloxacin tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Marbofloxacin tablets. 520.1310 Section 520.1310 Food and...ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1310 Marbofloxacin tablets. (a) Specifications . Each tablet contains 25, 50, 100, or 200...

2010-04-01

254

21 CFR 520.1900 - Primidone tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Primidone tablets. 520.1900 Section 520.1900 Food and...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1900 Primidone tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 50 or 250 milligrams of...

2012-04-01

255

21 CFR 520.455 - Clomipramine tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Clomipramine tablets. 520.455 Section 520.455 Food and...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.455 Clomipramine tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 5, 20, 40, or 80 milligrams...

2011-04-01

256

21 CFR 520.581 - Dichlorophene tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dichlorophene tablets. 520.581 Section 520.581 Food and...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.581 Dichlorophene tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 1 gram of dichlorophene. (b)...

2010-04-01

257

21 CFR 520.1310 - Marbofloxacin tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Marbofloxacin tablets. 520.1310 Section 520.1310 Food and...ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1310 Marbofloxacin tablets. (a) Specifications . Each tablet contains 25, 50, 100, or 200...

2011-04-01

258

21 CFR 520.928 - Firocoxib tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Firocoxib tablets. 520.928 Section 520.928 Food...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.928 Firocoxib tablets. (a) Specifications. Each chewable tablet contains 57 or 227 milligrams (mg)...

2014-04-01

259

21 CFR 520.312 - Carnidazole tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Carnidazole tablets. 520.312 Section 520.312 Food and...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.312 Carnidazole tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 10 milligrams of carnidazole....

2013-04-01

260

21 CFR 520.1380 - Methocarbamol tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Methocarbamol tablets. 520.1380 Section 520.1380 ...ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1380 Methocarbamol tablets. (a) Chemical name. 3-(O-Methoxyphenoxy...1-carbamate. (b) Specifications. Each tablet contains 500 milligrams of...

2012-04-01

261

21 CFR 520.455 - Clomipramine tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Clomipramine tablets. 520.455 Section 520.455 Food and...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.455 Clomipramine tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 5, 20, 40, or 80 milligrams...

2012-04-01

262

21 CFR 520.928 - Firocoxib tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Firocoxib tablets. 520.928 Section 520.928 Food...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.928 Firocoxib tablets. (a) Specifications . Each chewable tablet contains 57 or 227 milligrams (mg)...

2011-04-01

263

21 CFR 520.1310 - Marbofloxacin tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Marbofloxacin tablets. 520.1310 Section 520.1310 Food and...ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1310 Marbofloxacin tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 25, 50, 100, or 200...

2014-04-01

264

21 CFR 520.1870 - Praziquantel tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Praziquantel tablets. 520.1870 Section 520.1870 Food and...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1870 Praziquantel tablets. (a) Specifications . Each tablet contains: (1) 34 milligrams (mg)...

2010-04-01

265

21 CFR 520.581 - Dichlorophene tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dichlorophene tablets. 520.581 Section 520.581 Food and...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.581 Dichlorophene tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 1 gram of dichlorophene. (b)...

2013-04-01

266

Bioavailability of syrup and tablet formulations of cefetamet pivoxil.  

PubMed Central

Two studies examining the bioavailability of cefetamet pivoxil in healthy male subjects were conducted. In the first, the bioavailabilities of the 250-mg (M250) and M500 tablet formulations of cefetamet pivoxil to be marketed were compared with that of a tablet used in clinical trials. All products were given with food at a dose of 500 mg. In the second study, the bioavailability of the syrup formulation was evaluated under both fasting and nonfasting conditions and compared with that of the M500 tablet formulation given with food. The absolute bioavailabilities of the M500 and M250 tablets (55.0% +/- 8.0% and 55.7% +/- 7.0%, respectively) were not significantly different from that of the clinical-trial formulation (49.8% +/- 8.5%). The newer tablet formulations exhibited faster absorption as evidenced by higher peak concentrations (3.8 [M500] and 3.9 [M250] mg/liter compared with 3.2 mg/liter for the clinical-trial formulation), a shorter time to peak concentration, and a shorter mean absorption time. The syrup formulation was found to have significantly lower absolute bioavailability (37.9% +/- 6.0%) compared with that of the M500 tablet (58.4% +/- 9.0%) when both were given with food. Food had no significant effect on the bioavailability of the syrup, which averaged 34.0% +/- 8.6% under fasting conditions, although absorption was delayed by food (mean absorption time increased from 2.2 to 3.9 h). This contrasts with the results of previous studies documenting significant increases in tablet bioavailability with food. Despite the lower bioavailability of the syrup, unbound-cefetamet concentrations are expected to remain above the MICs for 90% of the strains tested for susceptible organisms for approximately 10 h of the usual 12-h dosing interval with both syrup and tablet formulations of cefetamet pivoxil given with food. PMID:8109939

Ducharme, M P; Edwards, D J; McNamara, P J; Stoeckel, K

1993-01-01

267

Crystallographic control on the substructure of nacre tablets.  

PubMed

Nacre tablets of mollusks develop two kinds of features when either the calcium carbonate or the organic portions are removed: (1) parallel lineations (vermiculations) formed by elongated carbonate rods, and (2) hourglass patterns, which appear in high relief when etched or in low relief if bleached. In untreated tablets, SEM and AFM data show that vermiculations correspond to aligned and fused aragonite nanogloblules, which are partly surrounded by thin organic pellicles. EBSD mapping of the surfaces of tablets indicates that the vermiculations are invariably parallel to the crystallographic a-axis of aragonite and that the triangles are aligned with the b-axis and correspond to the advance of the {010} faces during the growth of the tablet. According to our interpretation, the vermiculations appear because organic molecules during growth are expelled from the a-axis, where the Ca-CO3 bonds are the shortest. In this way, the subunits forming nacre merge uninterruptedly, forming chains parallel to the a-axis, whereas the organic molecules are expelled to the sides of these chains. Hourglass patterns would be produced by preferential adsorption of organic molecules along the {010}, as compared to the {100} faces. A model is presented for the nanostructure of nacre tablets. SEM and EBSD data also show the existence within the tablets of nanocrystalline units, which are twinned on {110} with the rest of the tablet. Our study shows that the growth dynamics of nacre tablets (and bioaragonite in general) results from the interaction at two different and mutually related levels: tablets and nanogranules. PMID:23933391

Checa, Antonio G; Mutvei, Harry; Osuna-Mascaró, Antonio J; Bonarski, Jan T; Faryna, Marek; Berent, Katarzyna; Pina, Carlos M; Rousseau, Marthe; Macías-Sánchez, Elena

2013-09-01

268

Effect of microwave irradiation on cellular disintegration of Gram positive and negative cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research investigated the effect of microwave irradiation (MWI) on cell disintegration in municipal secondary sludge\\u000a (MSS). A representative MSS Gram-positive bacterium (Bacillus subtilis) and Gram-negative bacteria (Acinetobacter calcoaceticus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) were pure cultured separately and treated using MWI. Compared to untreated controls, MWI significantly increased the soluble\\u000a chemical oxygen demand (COD) (1.8–4.0-fold), soluble protein concentration (1.1–1.8-fold), and soluble

Bi Wen Zhou; Seung Gu Shin; KwangHyun Hwang; Johng-Hwa Ahn; Seokhwan Hwang

2010-01-01

269

Ultrasonic waste activated sludge disintegration for improving anaerobic stabilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pretreatment of waste activated sludge by ultrasonic disintegration was studied in order to improve the anaerobic sludge stabilization. The ultrasound frequency was varied within a range from 41 to 3217kHz. The impact of different ultrasound intensities and treatment times was examined. Sludge disintegration was most significant at low frequencies. Low-frequency ultrasound creates large cavitation bubbles which upon collapse initiate

A Tiehm; K Nickel; M Zellhorn; U Neis

2001-01-01

270

Developing a mapping tool for tablets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Digital field mapping offers significant benefits when compared with traditional paper mapping techniques in that it provides closer integration with downstream geological modelling and analysis. It also provides the mapper with the ability to rapidly integrate new data with existing databases without the potential degradation caused by repeated manual transcription of numeric, graphical and meta-data. In order to achieve these benefits, a number of PC-based digital mapping tools are available which have been developed for specific communities, eg the BGS•SIGMA project, Midland Valley's FieldMove®, and a range of solutions based on ArcGIS® software, which can be combined with either traditional or digital orientation and data collection tools. However, with the now widespread availability of inexpensive tablets and smart phones, a user led demand for a fully integrated tablet mapping tool has arisen. This poster describes the development of a tablet-based mapping environment specifically designed for geologists. The challenge was to deliver a system that would feel sufficiently close to the flexibility of paper-based geological mapping while being implemented on a consumer communication and entertainment device. The first release of a tablet-based geological mapping system from this project is illustrated and will be shown as implemented on an iPad during the poster session. Midland Valley is pioneering tablet-based mapping and, along with its industrial and academic partners, will be using the application in field based projects throughout this year and will be integrating feedback in further developments of this technology.

Vaughan, Alan; Collins, Nathan; Krus, Mike

2014-05-01

271

Isoniazid, Pyrazinamide and Rifampicin Content Variation in Split Fixed-Dose Combination Tablets  

PubMed Central

Setting In most developing countries, paediatric tuberculosis is treated with split tablets leading to potential inaccuracy in the dose delivery and drug exposure. There is no data on the quality of first-line drugs content in split fixed-dose combination tablets. Objective To determine Isoniazid, Pyrazinamide and Rifampicin content uniformity in split FDC tablets used in the treatment of childhood tuberculosis. Design Drug contents of 15 whole tablets, 30 half tablets and 36 third tablets were analysed by high performance liquid chromatography. The content uniformity was assessed by comparing drug content measured in split portions with their expected amounts and the quality of split portions was assessed applying qualitative specifications for whole tablets. Results All whole tablets measurements fell into the USP proxy for the three drugs. But a significant number of half and third portions was found outside the tolerated variation range and the split formulation failed the requirements for content uniformity. To correct for the inaccuracy of splitting the tablets into equal portions, a weight-adjustment strategy was used but this did not improve the findings. Conclusion In split tablets the content of the three drugs is non-uniform and exceeded the USP recommendations. There is an absolute need to make child-friendly formulations available for the treatment of childhood tuberculosis. PMID:25004128

Pouplin, Thomas; Phuong, Pham Nguyen; Toi, Pham Van; Nguyen Pouplin, Julie; Farrar, Jeremy

2014-01-01

272

Evaluation of Gum of Moringa oleifera as a Binder and Release Retardant in Tablet Formulation.  

PubMed

The present study was undertaken to find out the potential of gum from Moringa oleifera to act as a binder and release retardant in tablet formulations. The effect of calcium sulphate dihydrate (water insoluble) and lactose (water soluble) diluent on the release of propranolol hydrochloride was studied. The DSC thermograms of drug, gum and mixture of gum/drug indicated no chemical interaction. Tablets (F1, F2, F3, and F4) were prepared containing calcium sulphate dihydrate as diluent, propranolol hydrochloride as model drug using 10%, 8%, 6% and 4% w/v of gum solution as binder. Magnesium stearate was used as lubricant. Physical and technological properties of granules and tablets like flow rate, Carr index, Hausner ratio, angle of repose, hardness, friability and disintegration time were determined and found to be satisfactory. Tablets were prepared by wet granulation method containing calcium sulphate dihydrate as excipient, propranolol hydrochloride as model drug using 10%, 20% and 30% of gum as release retardant, magnesium stearate was used as lubricant. Similarly tablets were prepared replacing lactose with calcium sulphate dihydrate. Despite of the widely varying physico-chemical characteristics of the excipients, the drug release profiles were found to be similar. The drug release increased with increasing proportions of the excipient and decreased proportion of the gum irrespective of the solubility characteristics of the excipient. The values of release exponent 'n' are between 0.37 and 0.54. This implies that the release mechanism is Fickian. There is no evidence that the dissolution or erosion of the excipient has got any effect on the release of the drug. The t(50%) values for tablets containing calcium sulphate dihydrate were on an average 10%-15% longer than the tablets containing lactose as excipient. These relatively small differences in t(50%) values suggest that the nature of excipient used appeared to play a minor role in regulating the release, while the gum content was a major factor. PMID:21394258

Panda, D S; Choudhury, N S K; Yedukondalu, M; Si, S; Gupta, R

2008-09-01

273

Non-contact weight measurement of flat-faced pharmaceutical tablets using terahertz transmission pulse delay measurements.  

PubMed

By measuring the time delay of a terahertz pulse traversing a tablet, and hence its effective refractive index, it is possible to non-invasively and non-destructively detect the weight of tablets made of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC). Two sets of MCC tablets were used in the study: Set A (training set) consisted of 13 tablets with nominally constant height but varying porosities, whereas Set B (test set) comprised of 21 tablets with nominally constant porosity but different heights. A linear correlation between the estimated absolute weight based on the terahertz measurement and the measured weight of both sets of MCC tablets was found. In addition, it was possible to estimate the height of the tablets by utilizing the estimated absolute weight and calculating the relative change of height of each tablet with respect to an ideal tablet. A good agreement between the experimental and the calculated results was found highlighting the potential of this technique for in-line sensing of the weight, porosity and the relative change in height of the tablets compared to a reference/ideal tablet. In this context, we propose a quantitative quality control method to assess the deviations in porosity of tablets immediately after compaction. PMID:25245546

Bawuah, Prince; Silfsten, Pertti; Ervasti, Tuomas; Ketolainen, Jarkko; Zeitler, J Axel; Peiponen, Kai-Erik

2014-12-10

274

Separation of the Components of a Commercial Analgesic Tablet: A Two-Week Sequence Comparing Purification by Two-Base Extraction and Column Chromatography  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new laboratory experiment is described in which students compare two benchtop separation methods to isolate the three active components of the commercial analgesic Excedrin. In the two-week sequence, aspirin, acetaminophen, and caffeine are separated using either a two-base liquid-liquid extraction or silica column chromatography. Students then…

Revell, Kevin D.

2011-01-01

275

Solid formulations by a nanocrystal approach: Critical process parameters regarding scale-ability of nanocrystals for tableting applications.  

PubMed

Nanocrystallization is among the foremost drug delivery platform approaches for the commercial development of poorly soluble drugs. There exists an urge to enable a universal shift of the production of the solid nanocrystal formulations from laboratory scale to industrially feasible scale. The success of any formulation development depends on its transferability to large scale manufacture. The objectives of the study were to increase the nanocrystallization batch size and to screen and optimize parameters for industrially feasible itraconazole (ITC) and indomethacin (IND) nanocrystal composition for tablet formulation. Thus, ITC and IND were transformed into nanocrystal suspensions, using an increased batch size of a wet milling process, freeze-dried, and further developed into both direct compression (DC) and granulated (G) tableting masses. According to the investigated powder and tablet properties (true density, flowability, dose uniformity, maximum upper punch force, crushing strength, dissolution and disintegration) and stability testings, it was clear that the amount of the nanocrystals in the solid tablet formulation is critical in order to fully utilize the benefits of the nanocrystals, i.e., fast dissolution, and to produce high-quality tablets. The DC designs of both the model drugs with compositions including 40% of freeze-dried nanocrystalline drug powder outperformed the corresponding granulated tablets in all parameters after the stability surveillance. PMID:25746735

Tuomela, Annika; Laaksonen, Timo; Laru, Johanna; Antikainen, Osmo; Kiesvaara, Juha; Ilkka, Jukka; Oksala, Olli; Rönkkö, Seppo; Järvinen, Kristiina; Hirvonen, Jouni; Peltonen, Leena

2015-05-15

276

Tablet PCs: The Write Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the transforming effects of tablet PCs in the classroom. As 1-to-1 computing becomes the goal on K-12 campuses, school districts are turning to this newer, pen-based technology. Saint Mary's School's new Lenovo ThinkPad X41 tablet PCs had transformed the way Saint Mary's teachers did their jobs. Teachers created outlines for…

Milner, Jacob

2006-01-01

277

Fabrication and Evaluation of Bi-layer Tablet Containing Conventional Paracetamol and Modified Release Diclofenac Sodium  

PubMed Central

The objectives of present investigation were to achieve immediate release of paracetamol and tailored release of diclofenac sodium from bi-layer tablets. A 23 full factorial design was adopted using the amount of polyethylene glycol, microcrystalline cellulose and crospovidone as independent variables for fabricating paracetamol tablets. Diclofenac sodium tablets were prepared using hydroxypropyl methylcellulose as a matrixing agent. The results of analysis of variance showed that the friability of paracetamol was distinctly influenced by the formulation variables. The in vitro drug release behaviour of diclofenac tablets was compared with a marketed formulation. The optimized formulations of paracetamol and diclofenac sodium were used for manufacturing of bi-layer tablets. The bi-layer tablets showed immediate release of paracetamol and modified release of diclofenac. PMID:20838522

Gohel, M. C.; Parikh, R. K.; Nagori, S. A.; Jethwa, B. A.

2010-01-01

278

Tablet PC and Computing Curriculum Initiative Evaluation of Tablet PC Supported Pedagogy  

E-print Network

Tablet PC and Computing Curriculum Initiative 2006 Evaluation of Tablet PC Supported Pedagogy http://www.cs.washington.edu/education/dl/presenter/ University of Washington Richard Anderson 2. Students write answers on slides on their tablets and send them to show on public display for discussion Classroom Interaction with Tablet PCs Classroom Presenter Tablet

Anderson, Richard

279

Powder compaction properties of sodium starch glycolate disintegrants.  

PubMed

The compaction behavior of three "as supplied" commercially available grades of sodium starch glycolate (SSG), Explotab, Primojel, and Vivastar P, was investigated at compression speeds of 0.17 and 30 mm/sec. The results suggested that the three "as supplied" materials exhibit different compression and compaction behavior. Primojel and Explotab exhibited similar compactibility, whereas Vivastar P produced compacts of poor integrity. This behavior was not mirrored in the compressibility of the powders, where Vivastar P and Explotab exhibited similar performance. The materials were studied using x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Carr's compressibility index, and swelling volume. In terms of material characteristics, all the products exhibited similar swelling in water. Primojel and Explotab retained most of the crystallographic order from the parent potato starch and exhibited comparable particle surface topographies. Vivastar P contained the lowest moisture level. However, it is not clear if the poor compactibility of Vivastar P is due to differences in moisture content, the reduced surface topography, or subtle differences in the SSG polymer structures (substitution, cross-linking, and crystallinity). Overall, even though the three commercial grades of sodium starch glycolate are successfully used as disintegrants, they do exhibit differences in their "as supplied" powder mechanical properties: Primojel and Explotab exhibit similar compactibility, whereas Vivastar P is poorly compactable but exhibits similar compressibility to Explotab. These observations may have implications when formulating poorly compactable or moisture-sensitive drugs. PMID:12378967

Edge, S; Steele, D F; Staniforth, J N; Chen, A; Woodcock, P M

2002-09-01

280

Preparation, characterization and tableting of cilnidipine solid dispersions.  

PubMed

Solid dispersion technique has been developed many years for improving solubility of water-insoluble drugs, aiming to achieve a better oral bioavailability. However, this technique exhibits many inconveniences when used for large-scale tableting procedures. The objective of current research work was to develop cilnidipine solid dispersions (SDs) to improve the dissolution behaviors of this water-insoluble drug. Moreover, an innovative granulation method was designed to simplify the traditional tableting technology used in solid dispersion technique. Three different kinds of polymers, polyethylene glycol (PEG), polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and poloxamer, were used as carriers to prepare solid dispersions. The interactions in the solid state were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and FT-IR spectroscopy. The designed granulation method was employed to prepare solid dispersion tablets and the formulation was optimized through investigating the dissolution behaviors. The results indicated PEG solid dispersion showed the best effect both on physical characterizations and dissolution studies. Furthermore, all type of solid dispersions significantly improved the dissolution rates when compared to pure drug and its corresponding physical mixture (PM). The solid dispersion tablets prepared in simplified tableting method exhibited better operability, stability and dissolution behavior than the tablets prepared in traditional ways, which brought more opportunities to solid dispersion technique for industrial production. PMID:23625441

Hu, Liandong; Song, Weihua; Niu, Feng; Jiao, Kuiliang; Jia, Zheng

2013-05-01

281

MTN-001: Randomized Pharmacokinetic Cross-Over Study Comparing Tenofovir Vaginal Gel and Oral Tablets in Vaginal Tissue and Other Compartments  

PubMed Central

Background Oral and vaginal preparations of tenofovir as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection have demonstrated variable efficacy in men and women prompting assessment of variation in drug concentration as an explanation. Knowledge of tenofovir concentration and its active form, tenofovir diphosphate, at the putative vaginal and rectal site of action and its relationship to concentrations at multiple other anatomic locations may provide key information for both interpreting PrEP study outcomes and planning future PrEP drug development. Objective MTN-001 was designed to directly compare oral to vaginal steady-state tenofovir pharmacokinetics in blood, vaginal tissue, and vaginal and rectal fluid in a paired cross-over design. Methods and Findings We enrolled 144 HIV-uninfected women at 4 US and 3 African clinical research sites in an open label, 3-period crossover study of three different daily tenofovir regimens, each for 6 weeks (oral 300 mg tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, vaginal 1% tenofovir gel [40 mg], or both). Serum concentrations after vaginal dosing were 56-fold lower than after oral dosing (p<0.001). Vaginal tissue tenofovir diphosphate was quantifiable in ?90% of women with vaginal dosing and only 19% of women with oral dosing. Vaginal tissue tenofovir diphosphate was ?130-fold higher with vaginal compared to oral dosing (p<0.001). Rectal fluid tenofovir concentrations in vaginal dosing periods were higher than concentrations measured in the oral only dosing period (p<0.03). Conclusions Compared to oral dosing, vaginal dosing achieved much lower serum concentrations and much higher vaginal tissue concentrations. Even allowing for 100-fold concentration differences due to poor adherence or less frequent prescribed dosing, vaginal dosing of tenofovir should provide higher active site concentrations and theoretically greater PrEP efficacy than oral dosing; randomized topical dosing PrEP trials to the contrary indicates that factors beyond tenofovir’s antiviral effect substantially influence PrEP efficacy. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00592124 PMID:23383037

Hendrix, Craig W.; Chen, Beatrice A.; Guddera, Vijayanand; Hoesley, Craig; Justman, Jessica; Nakabiito, Clemensia; Salata, Robert; Soto-Torres, Lydia; Patterson, Karen; Minnis, Alexandra M.; Gandham, Sharavi; Gomez, Kailazarid; Richardson, Barbra A.; Bumpus, Namandje N.

2013-01-01

282

Cyclodextrin complex osmotic tablet for glipizide delivery.  

PubMed

Poorly soluble glipizide was selected as the model drug to prepare osmotic pump tablets (OPT) with proper accessorial material after it was made an inclusion complex by kneading method in order to increase solubility. Polyethylene glycol 4000 (PEG4000) and cellulose acetate (CA) were selected as the coating materials, and acetone-water (95:5) co-solvent was employed as the coating medium. The effects of the osmotic promoting agent, diameter of the drug-releasing orifice, coating composition, and coat weight on the drug release profile were investigated. The drug release profile of the optimal formulation was compared with a commercialized push-pull osmotic tablet. The results indicated that glipizide-cyclodextrin inclusion complex OPT had excellent zero-order release characteristics in vitro. PMID:12378956

Gan, Yong; Pan, Weisan; Wei, Mingchun; Zhang, Ruhua

2002-09-01

283

In vitro and in vivo characteristics of prochlorperazine oral disintegrating film.  

PubMed

Oral disintegrating film containing prochlorperazine, a dopamine D(2) receptor antagonist with anti-emetic property, was newly developed using microcrystalline cellulose, polyethlene glycol and hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose as the base materials. The uniformity of dosage units of the preparation was acceptable according to the criteria of JP15 or USP27. The film showed an excellent stability at least for 8 weeks when stored at 40 degrees C and 75% in humidity. The dissolution test revealed a rapid disintegration property, in which most of prochlorperazine dissolved within 2 min after insertion into the medium. Subsequently, rats were used to compare pharmacokinetic properties of the film preparation applied topically into the oral cavity with those of oral administration of prochlorperazine solution. None of the parameters, including T(max), C(max), area under curves, clearance and steady-state distribution volume was significantly different between oral disintegrating film and oral solution. These findings suggest that the present prochlorperazine-containing oral film is potentially useful to control emesis induced by anti-cancer agents or opioid analgesics in patients who limit the oral intake. PMID:18992311

Nishimura, Misao; Matsuura, Katsuhiko; Tsukioka, Tadao; Yamashita, Hirotaka; Inagaki, Naoki; Sugiyama, Tadashi; Itoh, Yoshinori

2009-02-23

284

21 CFR 520.1199 - Ivermectin, pyrantel, and praziquantel tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Ivermectin, pyrantel, and praziquantel tablets. 520.1199 Section 520.1199 Food... Ivermectin, pyrantel, and praziquantel tablets. (a) Specifications . Each chewable tablet contains: (1) 34 micrograms...

2012-04-01

285

21 CFR 520.1200 - Ivermectin, fenbendazole, and praziquantel tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Ivermectin, fenbendazole, and praziquantel tablets. 520.1200 Section 520.1200 Food...Ivermectin, fenbendazole, and praziquantel tablets. (a) Specifications . Each chewable tablet contains either: (1) 68...

2013-04-01

286

21 CFR 520.1200 - Ivermectin, fenbendazole, and praziquantel tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Ivermectin, fenbendazole, and praziquantel tablets. 520.1200 Section 520.1200 Food...Ivermectin, fenbendazole, and praziquantel tablets. (a) Specifications . Each chewable tablet contains either: (1) 68...

2011-04-01

287

21 CFR 520.1200 - Ivermectin, fenbendazole, and praziquantel tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Ivermectin, fenbendazole, and praziquantel tablets. 520.1200 Section 520.1200 Food...Ivermectin, fenbendazole, and praziquantel tablets. (a) Specifications. Each chewable tablet contains either: (1) 68...

2014-04-01

288

21 CFR 520.1200 - Ivermectin, fenbendazole, and praziquantel tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Ivermectin, fenbendazole, and praziquantel tablets. 520.1200 Section 520.1200 Food...Ivermectin, fenbendazole, and praziquantel tablets. (a) Specifications . Each chewable tablet contains either: (1) 68...

2012-04-01

289

21 CFR 520.1199 - Ivermectin, pyrantel, and praziquantel tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Ivermectin, pyrantel, and praziquantel tablets. 520.1199 Section 520.1199 Food... Ivermectin, pyrantel, and praziquantel tablets. (a) Specifications . Each chewable tablet contains: (1) 34 micrograms...

2013-04-01

290

21 CFR 520.1199 - Ivermectin, pyrantel, and praziquantel tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Ivermectin, pyrantel, and praziquantel tablets. 520.1199 Section 520.1199 Food... Ivermectin, pyrantel, and praziquantel tablets. (a) Specifications. Each chewable tablet contains: (1) 34 micrograms...

2014-04-01

291

21 CFR 520.1199 - Ivermectin, pyrantel, and praziquantel tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Ivermectin, pyrantel, and praziquantel tablets. 520.1199 Section 520.1199 Food... Ivermectin, pyrantel, and praziquantel tablets. (a) Specifications . Each chewable tablet contains: (1) 34 micrograms...

2011-04-01

292

In vitro disintegration and dissolution and in vivo bioequivalence of two alendronate once-weekly formulations.  

PubMed

Bioequivalence of two tablet formulations of 70 mg alendronate (CAS 121268-17-5) was assessed in a single-dose, open-label, randomised, fasted state crossover trial, with a washout period of 21 days, in 80 healthy subjects. Urine samples were collected up to +36 h post dosing and the concentrations of alendronic acid were assessed using a high-performance liquid chromatographic method with pre-derivatization and fluorescence detection (HPLC/FL) method. The 90 % confidence intervals (90 % CI) obtained for Ae0-36 (cumulative urinary excretion) and Rmax (maximum rate of urinary excretion) were 98.67-118.99 % and 102.22-122.46 %, respectively. The intra-subject coefficient of variation was between 32-35 % for both parameters. No relevant tolerability problems were detected. Both formulations can be considered bioequivalent. In vitro testing was performed to confirm the adequacy of the quality control conditions and no significant differences were detected neither in the disintegration test nor in the dissolution tests conducted in HCl 0.1 N and H2O and thus in these conditions the lack of statistically significant differences in vitro was accompanied by in vivo bioequivalence. PMID:16572922

Almeida, Susana; Almeida, Ana; Filipe, Augusto; Penedo, Clarisse; Rocha, Alexandre; Lainesse, Audrey; Vallée, François

2006-01-01

293

Tablet Splitting: A Risky Practice  

MedlinePLUS

... the medicine slowly. Splitting these tablets destroys the coating, which means you might absorb the medicine too ... Continuing Education Inspections/Compliance State & Local Officials Consumers Industry Health Professionals FDA Archive Links on this page:

294

21 CFR 520.82a - Aminopropazine fumarate tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Aminopropazine fumarate tablets. 520.82a Section 520.82a Food...DRUGS § 520.82a Aminopropazine fumarate tablets. (a) Specifications. The drug is in tablet form. Each tablet contains...

2012-04-01

295

21 CFR 520.1284 - Sodium liothyronine tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 false Sodium liothyronine tablets. 520.1284 Section 520.1284 Food...DRUGS § 520.1284 Sodium liothyronine tablets. (a) Specifications. Sodium liothyronine tablets consist of tablets intended for oral...

2014-04-01

296

21 CFR 520.82a - Aminopropazine fumarate tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Aminopropazine fumarate tablets. 520.82a Section 520.82a Food...DRUGS § 520.82a Aminopropazine fumarate tablets. (a) Specifications. The drug is in tablet form. Each tablet contains...

2013-04-01

297

21 CFR 520.1284 - Sodium liothyronine tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Sodium liothyronine tablets. 520.1284 Section 520.1284 Food...DRUGS § 520.1284 Sodium liothyronine tablets. (a) Specifications. Sodium liothyronine tablets consist of tablets intended for oral...

2011-04-01

298

21 CFR 520.1284 - Sodium liothyronine tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Sodium liothyronine tablets. 520.1284 Section 520.1284 Food...DRUGS § 520.1284 Sodium liothyronine tablets. (a) Specifications. Sodium liothyronine tablets consist of tablets intended for oral...

2013-04-01

299

21 CFR 520.82a - Aminopropazine fumarate tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 false Aminopropazine fumarate tablets. 520.82a Section 520.82a Food...DRUGS § 520.82a Aminopropazine fumarate tablets. (a) Specifications. The drug is in tablet form. Each tablet contains...

2014-04-01

300

21 CFR 520.82a - Aminopropazine fumarate tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Aminopropazine fumarate tablets. 520.82a Section 520.82a Food...DRUGS § 520.82a Aminopropazine fumarate tablets. (a) Specifications. The drug is in tablet form. Each tablet contains...

2011-04-01

301

21 CFR 520.1284 - Sodium liothyronine tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Sodium liothyronine tablets. 520.1284 Section 520.1284 Food...DRUGS § 520.1284 Sodium liothyronine tablets. (a) Specifications. Sodium liothyronine tablets consist of tablets intended for oral...

2012-04-01

302

Accelerating the sludge disintegration potential of a novel bacterial strain Planococcus jake 01 by CaCl2 induced deflocculation.  

PubMed

The present study investigates the impacts of phase separated disintegration through CaCl2 (calcium chloride) mediated biosurfactant producing bacterial pretreatment. In the initial phase of the study, the flocs were disintegrated (deflocculation) with 0.06g/gSS of CaCl2. In the subsequent phase, the sludge biomass was disintegrated (cell disintegration) through potent biosurfactant producing new novel bacteria, Planococcus jake 01. The pretreatment showed that suspended solids reduction and chemical oxygen demand solubilization for deflocculated - bacterially pretreated sludge was found to be 17.14% and 14.14% which were comparatively higher than flocculated sludge (treated with bacteria alone). The biogas yield potential of deflocculated - bacterially pretreated, flocculated, and control sludges were observed to be 0.322(L/gVS), 0.225(L/gVS) and 0.145(L/gVS) respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first study to present the thorough knowledge of biogas production potential through a novel phase separated biosurfactant bacterial pretreatment. PMID:25459848

Kavitha, S; Saranya, T; Kaliappan, S; Adish Kumar, S; Yeom, Ick Tae; Rajesh Banu, J

2014-10-31

303

Larsen Iceshelf : Iceshelf Partial Disintegration and Iceberg Calving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visitors can study this account of the calving of the Larsen ice shelf and the disintegration of the ice shelf around James Ross Island that occured in Austral Summer of 1994-95. The account is in chronolgical order and is accompanied by photographs. Follow-up examinations from 1996-2002 and links to related material are provided.

2007-12-12

304

Case Study of Childhood Disintegrative Disorder--Heller's Syndrome.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the case of a 25-year-old male with childhood disintegrative disorder (CDD), or Heller's syndrome, in terms of differential diagnosis, progression of the disorder, and suggestions for home- and school-based interventions. Documents the progressive deterioration of cognitive and social competencies. (Contains 23 references.) (GCP)

Bray, Melissa A.; Kehle, Thomas J.; Theodore, Lea A.; Broudy, Matthew S.

2002-01-01

305

Cultural Disintegration Perpetuated through Substance Abuse among American Indians.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Alcohol, perhaps more than any other factor, symbolizes the degree of cultural disintegration experienced by American Indians today. It has been recognized as a symptom of the numerous cultural adjustments forced upon American Indians since white contact. Indeed, alcohol among Indian groups was prohibited for a far longer period than the…

French, Laurence Armand

306

Spatial Ice Rigidity Distribution Of Larsen B Before Its Disintegration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The disintegration of 3250 square kilometers of Larsen B Ice Shelf in the Antarctic Peninsula within 5 weeks in 2002 provided the opportunity to establish a clear connection between the removal of ice shelves and the acceleration of their ice streams. Radar interferometry observations analyzed by Rignot et al. [2004] revealed that glaciers flowed up to eight times faster after

A. Khazendar; E. Rignot

2005-01-01

307

Frequency dependence of shock wave foci and stone disintegration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Focused high amplitude ultrasonic shock pulses are used in lithotripsy for the disintegration of concrements. In the focal zone of a shock wave source like that of the Siemens Lithostar with a fundamental center frequency of .16 MHz, higher harmonics were created due to the nonlinear behavior of the propagation medium. The spectral components of the pulses were measured in

B. Granz; G. Kohler

1991-01-01

308

Plenary Speeches: Is the Second Language Acquisition Discipline Disintegrating?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After characterizing the study of second language acquisition (SLA) from three viewpoints, I try to answer the question, raised by DeKeyser (2010), of whether the SLA field is disintegrating. In answering this question, I first propose a distinction between SLA as the relatively fundamental academic discipline and SLA as the relatively applied…

Hulstijn, Jan H.

2013-01-01

309

The effect of chitosan on the stability and morphological parameters of tablets with Epilobium parviflorum Schreb. extract.  

PubMed

The study is a continuation of research on manufacturing oral solid drug form containing extract from Epilobium parviflorum Schreb. This study aims at investigating the usefulness of selected high-molecular substances with particular consideration of chitosan (Ch), silicified microcrystalline cellulose (Prosolv) and croscarmellose sodium (Vivasol) as a carrier of E. parviflorum Schreb. extract in oral solid drug form in the process of direct tableting. In one series the alternative technological process (with initial granulation) was applied. The polymer carriers of extract were selected so as to obtain shorter disintegration time in relation to the earlier published studies and stability after longer time of storage. The effect of chitosan was estimated on selected morphological parameters of practical relevance during storage. The obtained results allow to state that the applied high-molecular adjuvant substances proved to be useful in adequate proportions in the production of tablets from dry extract from Epilobium parviflorum Schreb. through direct pressing of the tablet mass. The tablet properties in all series were in accordance with obligatory standards also after longer time of storage (12-month). The tablets formed from E. parviflorum Schreb. extract with chitosan can be included into preparations of sustained release time of the biologically active substances. PMID:18251200

Marczy?ski, Zbigniew; Bodek, Kazimiera Henryka

2007-01-01

310

Tablet-Based Cardiac Arrest Documentation: A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

AIM OF THE STUDY Conventional, paper-based resuscitation transcripts are notoriously inaccurate, often lacking the precision that is necessary for recording a fast-paced resuscitation. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a tablet computer-based application could improve upon conventional practices for resuscitation documentation. METHODS Nurses used either the conventional paper code sheet or a tablet application during simulated resuscitation events. Recorded events were compared to a gold standard record generated from video recordings of the simulations and a CPR-sensing defibrillator/monitor. Events compared included defibrillations, medication deliveries, and other interventions. RESULTS During the study period, 199 unique interventions were observed in the gold standard record. Of these, 102 occurred during simulations recorded by the tablet application, 78 by the paper code sheet, and 19 during scenarios captured simultaneously by both documentation methods. These occurred over 18 simulated resuscitation scenarios, in which 9 nurses participated. The tablet application had a mean sensitivity of 88.0% for all interventions, compared to 67.9% for the paper code sheet (P = 0.001). The median time discrepancy was 3 s for the tablet, and 77 s for the paper code sheet when compared to the gold standard (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS Similar to prior studies, we found that conventional paper-based documentation practices are inaccurate, often misreporting intervention delivery times or missing their delivery entirely. However, our study also demonstrated that a tablet-based documentation method may represent a means to substantially improve resuscitation documentation quality, which could have implications for resuscitation quality improvement and research. PMID:24157630

Peace, Jack M.; Yuen, Trevor C.; Borak, Meredith H; Edelson, Dana P.

2013-01-01

311

Design of bilayer tablets using modified Dioscorea starches as novel excipients for immediate and sustained release of aceclofenac sodium  

PubMed Central

Bilayer tablets of aceclofenac sodium were developed using carboxymethylated white yam (Dioscorea rotundata) starch (CWY) for a fast release layer (2.5, 5.0, and 7.5% w/w), and acid-hydrolyzed bitter yam (Dioscorea dumetorum) starch (ABY) for a sustaining layer (27% w/w). Sodium starch glycolate (SSG) and hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) were used as standards. The starches were characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), particle size, swelling power, densities and flow analyses. Mechanical properties of the tablets were evaluated using crushing strength and friability while release properties were evaluated using disintegration and dissolution times. Distinctive fingerprint differences between the native and modified starches were revealed by FT-IR. Carboxymethylation produced starches of significantly (p < 0.05) higher swelling and flow properties while acid-modification produced starches of higher compressibility. Bilayer tablets containing ABY had significantly higher crushing strength and lower friability values (p < 0.05) than those containing HPMC. Crushing strength increased while friability values decreased with increase in CWY. Generally tablets containing the modified Dioscorea starches gave faster (p < 0.05) disintegration times and produced an initial burst release to provide the loading dose of the drug from the immediate-release layer followed by sustained release (300 ± 7.56–450 ± 11.55 min). The correlation coefficient (R2) and chi-square (?2) test were employed as error analysis methods to determine the best-fitting drug release kinetic equations. In vitro dissolution kinetics generally followed the Higuchi and Hixson-Crowell models via a non-Fickian diffusion-controlled release. Carboxymethylated white yam starch and acid-modified bitter yam starch could serve as cheaper alternative excipients in bilayer tablet formulations for immediate and sustained release of drugs respectively, particularly where high mechanical strength is required. PMID:25628566

Okunlola, Adenike

2015-01-01

312

Design of Controlled Release Non-erodible Polymeric Matrix Tablet Using Microwave Oven-assisted Sintering Technique  

PubMed Central

The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of sintering condition on matrix formation and subsequent drug release from polymer matrix tablet for controlled release. The present study highlights the use of a microwave oven for the sintering process in order to achieve more uniform heat distribution with reduction in time required for sintering. We could achieve effective sintering within 8 min which is very less compared to conventional hot air oven sintering. The tablets containing the drug (propranolol hydrochloride) and sintering polymer (eudragit S-100) were prepared and kept in a microwave oven at 540 watt, 720 watt and 900 watt power for different time periods for sintering. The sintered tablets were evaluated for various tablet characteristics including dissolution study. Tablets sintered at 900 watt power for 8 min gave better dissolution profile compared to others. We conclude that microwave oven sintering is better than conventional hot air oven sintering process in preparation of controlled release tablets. PMID:21897655

Patel, DM; Patel, BK; Patel, HA; Patel, CN

2011-01-01

313

Formulation Development and Optimization of Fast Dissolving Tablets of Aceclofenac Using Natural Superdisintegrant  

PubMed Central

The current research work involves preparation of fast dissolving tablets of Aceclofenac by direct compression method using different concentrations of Lepidium sativum mucilage as natural superdisintegrant. A two-factor three-level (32) factorial design is being used to optimize the formulation. Nine formulation batches (D1–D9) were prepared accordingly. Two factors as independent variables (X1-amount of ?-cyclodextrin and X2-amount of Lepidium sativum mucilage) were taken with three levels (+1, 0, ?1). The levels of two factors were selected on the basis of preliminary experiments conducted and their effect on three dependent variables (disintegration time, wetting time, and in vitro drug release) was studied along with their % prediction error. All the active blends were evaluated for postcompression parameters (angle of repose, Carr's index, Hausner ratio, etc.) and the tablets were evaluated for postcompression parameters (weight variation, hardness, and friability, wetting time, disintegration time, water absorption ratio, and in vitro drug release studies). The optimum batch was further used for SEM and stability studies. Formulation D5 was selected by the Design-Expert software which exhibited DT (15.5?sec), WT (18.94?sec), and in vitro drug release (100%) within 15 minutes. PMID:24944837

Kaur, Lovleen; Bala, Rajni; Kanojia, Neha; Nagpal, Manju; Dhingra, Gitika Arora

2014-01-01

314

Formulation development and optimization of fast dissolving tablets of aceclofenac using natural superdisintegrant.  

PubMed

The current research work involves preparation of fast dissolving tablets of Aceclofenac by direct compression method using different concentrations of Lepidium sativum mucilage as natural superdisintegrant. A two-factor three-level (3(2)) factorial design is being used to optimize the formulation. Nine formulation batches (D1-D9) were prepared accordingly. Two factors as independent variables (X 1-amount of ?-cyclodextrin and X 2-amount of Lepidium sativum mucilage) were taken with three levels (+1, 0, -1). The levels of two factors were selected on the basis of preliminary experiments conducted and their effect on three dependent variables (disintegration time, wetting time, and in vitro drug release) was studied along with their % prediction error. All the active blends were evaluated for postcompression parameters (angle of repose, Carr's index, Hausner ratio, etc.) and the tablets were evaluated for postcompression parameters (weight variation, hardness, and friability, wetting time, disintegration time, water absorption ratio, and in vitro drug release studies). The optimum batch was further used for SEM and stability studies. Formulation D5 was selected by the Design-Expert software which exhibited DT (15.5?sec), WT (18.94?sec), and in vitro drug release (100%) within 15 minutes. PMID:24944837

Kaur, Lovleen; Bala, Rajni; Kanojia, Neha; Nagpal, Manju; Dhingra, Gitika Arora

2014-01-01

315

An evaluation of butoconazole nitrate 2% site release vaginal cream (Gynazole-1) compared to fluconazole 150 mg tablets (Diflucan) in the time to relief of symptoms in patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: It is estimated that as many as 13 million cases of vulvovaginal infection occur in the United States annually, the majority of which are the result of Candida albicans infection. The symptoms of vulvovaginal infections are often painful and distressing to the patient. The objective of this study was to compare the time to symptomatic relief of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) with butoconazole nitrate 2% Site Release vaginal cream (Gynazole-1) and oral fluconazole 150 mg tablets (Diflucan). METHODS: This randomized, open-label, parallel study evaluated 181 female patients with moderate to severe symptoms of VVC. Patients were randomized to single-dose therapy with either butoconazole nitrate 2% Site Release vaginal cream or fluconazole. The primary outcome measure was the time to onset of first relief of symptoms. Secondary measures included the time to overall relief of symptoms and the reinfection rate over the first 30 days following treatment. The overall safety of both products was investigated through the collection of adverse event reports. RESULTS: The median time to first relief of symptoms occurred at 17.5 h for butoconazole patients as compared to 22.9 h for fluconazole patients (p < 0.001). The time at which 75% of patients experienced first relief of symptoms was 24.5 h versus 46.3 h for butoconazole and fluconazole, respectively (p < 0.001). By 12- and 24-h post-treatment, 44.4% and 72.8% of patients in the butoconazole treatment group reported first relief of symptoms versus 29.1% and 55.7% of patients in the fluconazole group (p = 0.044 and p = 0.024 respectively). In patients experiencing first relief of symptoms within 48 h of dosing, the median time to first relief of symptoms in the butoconazole treatment group was significantly shorter at 12.9 h compared to 20.7 h for the fluconazole treatment group (p = 0.048). There were no significant differences between the two groups with respect to time to total relief of symptoms or reoccurrence of infection within 30 days of treatment. Butoconazole therapy was shown to have fewer reported adverse events, including drug-related adverse events, than fluconazole therapy. Vulvovaginal pruritis and vulvovaginal burning were the most common drug-related adverse events attributed to butoconazole. Headache, diarrhea, nausea, upset stomach and skin sensitivity were the most common drug-related adverse events attributable to fluconazole. CONCLUSIONS: Single-dose butoconazole nitrate 2% Site Release vaginal cream provides statistically significant improvement in time to first relief of symptoms in the treatment of VVC compared to fluconazole. There is no difference between these two treatments with respect to total relief of symptoms or reinfection rate. Although there was no significant difference in the incidence of adverse events judged by the investigator to be treatment-related, butoconazole treatment did result in fewer patients experiencing adverse events than fluconazole. PMID:16338779

Seidman, Larry S; Skokos, Campbell K

2005-01-01

316

2557 (1 2556) 1 1182 ACARBOSE 50 MG COMPRESSED TAB. FOIL ACARBOSE TABLET TABLET 3.32  

E-print Network

TABLET TABLET 3.32 2 735 ACETAR 1000 ML ACETATED RINGERS INJECTION 1000 ML 44.00 3 2338 ACETAZOLAMIDE 250 MG COMPRESSED TAB. ACETAZOLAMIDE TABLET TABLET 1.75 4 1553 ACETYLCYSTEINE 100 MG GRANULE VIAL 214.00 12 962 ACYCLOVIR 200 MG COMPRESSED TAB. FOIL ACYCLOVIR TABLET TABLET 1.80 13 108 ACYCLOVIR

Laksanacharoen, Sathaporn

317

Safety and Colon-Cleansing Efficacy of a New Residue-Free Formulation of Sodium Phosphate Tablets  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE:A residue-free sodium phosphate tablet (RF-NaP) was formulated that lacks microcrystalline cellulose, which can appear as a whitish residue in the colon. A multicenter, randomized, investigator-blinded study was conducted to compare the colon-cleansing efficacy of 40 or 32 tablets of RF-NaP with the marketed 40-tablet NaP treatment regimen.METHODS:Eight hundred sixteen patients were randomized prior to colonoscopy to receive either 40

Douglas K. Rex; Howard Schwartz; Michael Goldstein; John Popp; Seymour Katz; Charles Barish; Robyn G. Karlstadt; Martin Rose; Kelli Walker; Sandra Lottes; Nancy Ettinger; Bing Zhang

2006-01-01

318

DEM simulation of continuous tablet coating: Effects of tablet shape and fill level on inter-tablet coating variability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tablet coating is a common pharmaceutical technique of applying a thin polymer-based film to a tablet or a granule containing active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). Inter- and intra-tablet variability of film coating is a critical issue in the production of solid oral dosage forms. In fact, inhomogeneity in the coating thickness can lead to significant variations in the delivery rate of

Daniele Suzzi; Gregor Toschkoff; Stefan Radl; Daniel Machold; Simon D. Fraser; Benjamin J. Glasser; Johannes G. Khinast

319

E-Books and the Tablet PC.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Highlights the emerging technologies of e-books, electronic versions of texts, and the Tablet PC, a new hybrid laptop computer and personal digital assistant that features a writing tablet and stylus-based input/navigation. (Author/VWL)

Goodwin-Jones, Bob

2003-01-01

320

Formulation and in vivo evaluation of diclofenac sodium sustained release matrix tablet: Effect of compression force.  

PubMed

In the present study, Diclofenac Sodium (DS) matrix tablets were prepared by direct compression method under different compression forces (5, 10, 15 and 20 KN), using ethylcellulose as matrix forming material. The produced tablets were characterized on the foundation of satisfactory tablet properties such as hardness, friability, drug content, weight variations and in vitro drug release rate. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction have been used to investigate any incompatibilities of the tablet's ingredients. Additionally, in vivo bioavailability has been investigated on beagle dogs. Data obtained revealed that, upon increasing compression force the in vitro drug release was sustained and the Tmax value was four hours (for formulations compressed at 15 and 20 kN) compared to the conventional voltarine® 50 tablets (Tmax value of 2 hours). PMID:25730790

Taha, Ehab Ibrahim; Shazly, Gamal Abdel-Ghany; Harisa, Gamaleldin Ibrahim; Barakat, Nahla Sedik; Al-Enazi, Fouza Kayem; Elbagory, Ibrahim Mostafa

2015-03-01

321

Effect of X-ray exposure on the pharmaceutical quality of drug tablets using X-ray inspection equipment.  

PubMed

Abstract Context: X-ray inspection equipment is widely used to detect missing materials and defective goods in opaque containers. Its application has been expanded to the pharmaceutical industry to detect the presence of drug tablets in aluminum foil press-through packaging. However, the effect of X-rays on the pharmaceutical quality of drug tablets is not well known. Objective: In this study, the effect of X-rays on the pharmaceutical quality of drug tablets was investigated. Methods: Exposure of acetaminophen, loxoprofen and mefenamic acid tablets to X-ray doses of 0.34?mGy (thrice the dose by X-ray scanning) to 300?Gy (maximum dose from our X-ray equipment) was demonstrated, and the samples were evaluated by formulation tests. Results: Exposure to X-rays did not affect the pharmaceutical quality of the drug content. The samples exposed to X-rays exhibited almost the same profile in formulation tests (dissolution test, disintegrating test and hardness test) as control samples (0?Gy). The combination of X-ray exposure with accelerated temperature and humidity tests (six months) also did not affect the pharmaceutical quality. The color change of light-sensitive drugs (nifedipine and furosemide tablets) after X-ray exposure was negligible (tablet color was remarkably changed by light from a D65 lamp. Conclusion: The X-ray scanning and X-ray exposure under our experimental conditions did not affect the pharmaceutical quality of drug tablets. PMID:24842380

Uehara, Kazuaki; Tagami, Tatsuaki; Miyazaki, Itaru; Murata, Norikazu; Takahashi, Yoshifumi; Ohkubo, Hiroshi; Ozeki, Tetsuya

2014-05-19

322

Preparation and Evaluation of Microencapsulated Fast Melt Tablets of Ambroxol Hydrochloride  

PubMed Central

Natural resources in general and plant materials in particular are receiving more attention due to their safety as pharmaceutical excipients. Present work assessed the potential of a natural polysaccharide, pectin to mask the bitter taste of ambroxol hydrochloride, by microencapsulation technique, and its possibility to formulate as a fast disintegrating dosage form. Taste masking is an important developmental challenge in fast dissolving drug delivery system since it dissolves or disintegrates in the patient's mouth in close proximity to the taste buds. The prepared microspheres by emulsion solvent evaporation technique possessed good sphericity, smooth surface morphology, uniform and narrow size distribution (10-90 ?m), when analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, laser diffraction and optical microscopy. Method of preparation has influenced the particle size and drug loading efficiency. Drug-polymer compatibility was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thin layer chromatography. DSC and X-ray diffraction studies revealed that the drug was dispersed inside the microspheres in the form of an insoluble matrix. The formation of microspheres was affected by glass transition temperature of the polymer, surfactant, type of plasticizers, volume of internal phase, stirrer speed etc. Fast dissolving tablets were prepared by the modification of melt granulation technique. The resulting granules were found to melt fast at body temperature, have smooth mouth feel and good physical stability. This study demonstrated that pectin could be a right choice in developing patient favored formulations for bitter drugs and can be utilized in fast disintegrating dosage forms as well. PMID:20490294

Jacob, S.; Shirwaikar, A.

2009-01-01

323

Biopharmaceutical evaluation of new slow release tablets obtained by hot tableting of coated pellets with tramadol hydrochloride.  

PubMed

This study was aimed at a biopharmaceutical evaluation of a new oral dosage form of tramadol hydrochloride (TH)--slow release tablets obtained by hot tableting of coated pellets, 100 mg (TP), compared to the conventional slow release tablets, Tramal Retard, 100 mg (TR). Both TP and TR formulations showed a similar release profile of TH (f2 was 71) in in vitro release studies. The in vivo study was a two-treatment, two-period, two-sequence, single-oral dose 100 mg, crossover design using rabbit model with the phases separated by a washout period of 14 days. It was shown that the amount of TH absorbed into the systemic circulation is similar for TP and TR (the 90% confidence intervals for the AUC(0-1), AUC(0-infinity) and ratios were 85-122 and 92-107%, respectively). However, after administration of slow release tablets obtained by hot tableting of coated pellets, a prolonged absorption and elimination processes and a smoother and more extended plasma profile of TH were observed. It can be assumed that the use of a new oral dosage form of TH in patients affects the extension of analgesia after single administration of the drug, with its gradual absorption into the systemic circulation. PMID:25362810

Szkutnik-Fiedler, Danuta; Sawicki, Wies?aw; Balcerkiewicz, Monika; Mazgalski, Jaros?aw; Grabowski, Tomasz; Grze?kowiak, Edmund

2014-01-01

324

Development of a rapidly dispersing tablet of a poorly wettable compound: formulation DOE and mechanistic study of effect of formulation excipients on wetting of celecoxib.  

PubMed

Celecoxib has extremely poor aqueous wettability and dispersibility. A dispersibility method was developed to study the effects of formulation excipients and processing methods on wetting of celecoxib. In this method, a tablet or powder was placed in water and the turbidity of the resulting "dynamic" suspension was measured. Higher turbidity values reflect better dispersibility. Results show that wet granulation facilitates better drug dispersion than does dry granulation or direct compression. Results from a screening formulation statistical design of experiments (DOE) show that sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), an anionic surfactant, gives higher celecoxib dispersibility than polysorbate 80, a neutral surfactant. Polyplasdone XL as a disintegrant results in better celecoxib dispersibility than sodium starch glycolate. The binder Kollidon 30 leads to better dispersibility, but slower disintegration than Kollidon 12. Jet-milling celecoxib with excipients not only improves dispersibility of the drug but also the ease of material handling. The method of microcrystalline cellulose addition does not significantly impact tablet properties. The effect of critical formulation variables on the wettability of celecoxib was further examined in prototype formulations. It is found that ionic surfactant resulted in better dispersibility than a neutral surfactant, probably due to charge dispersion. Kollidon 30 gives better drug dispersion than hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose and hydroxypropyl cellulose. This may be explained through a surface energy calculation, where the spreading coefficients between Kollidon 30 and celecoxib indicate formation of open porous granules in which pores can facilitate water uptake. The mode of disintegrant addition also impacts dispersibility of the drug. Dense granules were formed when the disintegrant, Polyplasdone, was added intra-granularly. As the extra-granular portion of the disintegrant increases, the dispersibility of the drug increases as well. The drug initial dispersibility (turbidity at 5 min during the dispersibility test) increases as the tablet porosity increases. A 3-factor face-centered experimental design was conducted to optimize the levels of surfactant (SLS), binder (Kollidon 30) and disintegrant (Polyplasdone). Within the range that was studied, the dispersibility of micronized drug increases as the amount of SLS and Kollidon 30 increases. The level of Polyplasdone has no significant impact on the dispersibility of micronized drug; however, higher levels of Polyplasdone lead to significantly harder tablets. PMID:18207339

He, Xiaorong; Barone, Michael R; Marsac, Patrick J; Sperry, David C

2008-04-01

325

Gastro-floating tablets of cephalexin: preparation and in vitro/in vivo evaluation.  

PubMed

Gastro-floating tablets of cephalexin were developed to prolong the residence time in major absorption sites. Gastro-floating tablets were prepared and optimized using hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC K100M) as matrix and sodium bicarbonate as a gas-forming agent. The properties of the tablets in terms of floating lag time, floating time and in vitro release were evaluated. Furthermore, in vivo pharmacokinetic study in fed and fasted beagle dogs was performed. The gastro-floating tablets had short floating lag time and exhibited a satisfactory sustained-release profile in vitro. Compared with conventional capsules, the gastro-floating tablets presented a sustained-release behavior with a relative bioavailability of 99.4%, while the reference sustained-release tablets gave a relative bioavailability of only 39.3%. Meanwhile, the food had significant effect on the pharmacokinetics of sustained-release tablets. It was concluded that the gastro-floating tablets had a sustained-release effect in vitro and in vivo, as well as desired pharmacokinetic properties in both fed and fasted conditions. PMID:23680730

Yin, Lifang; Qin, Chao; Chen, Kaisheng; Zhu, Chunli; Cao, Hui; Zhou, Jianping; He, Wei; Zhang, Qiang

2013-08-16

326

Unleashed: Web tablet integration into the home  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand how web access from a portable tablet appliance changes the way people use the Internet, MediaOne gave families pen-based tablet computers with a wireless connection to our high-speed data network. We used ethnographic and usability methods to understand how tablets would be integrated into household activities and to define user requirements for such devices. Participants viewed the tablet

Anne P. McClard; Patricia Somers

2000-01-01

327

Galileo's Telescopy and Jupiter's Tablet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A previous paper (BAAS 33:4, 1363, 2001) reported on the dramatic scene in Shakespeare's Cymbeline that features the descent of the deity Jupiter. The paper suggested that the four ghosts circling the sleeping Posthumus denote the four Galilean moons of Jupiter. The god Jupiter commands the ghosts to lay a tablet upon the prone Posthumus, but says that its value should not be overestimated. When Posthumus wakens he notices the tablet, which he calls a "book." Not only has the deity's "tablet" become the earthling's "book," but it appears that the book has covers which Posthumus evidently recognizes because without even opening the book he ascribes two further properties to it: rarity, and the very property that Jupiter had earlier attributed, viz. that one must not read too much into it. The mystery deepens when the Jovian gift undergoes a second metamorphosis, to "label." With the help of the OED, the potentially disparate terms "tablet," "book," and "label," may be explained by terms appropriate either to supernatural or worldly beings. "Tablet" may recognize the Mosaic artifact, whereas "book" and "label" are probably mundane references to Galileo's Sidereus Nuncius which appeared shortly before Cymbeline. The message of the Olympian god indicates therefore that the book is unique even as its contents have limited value. The first property celebrates the fact that Galileo's book is the first of its kind, and the second advises that all results except the discovery of Jupiter's moons have been reported earlier, in Hamlet.

Usher, P. D.

2003-12-01

328

Instability of Misoprostol Tablets Stored Outside the Blister: A Potential Serious Concern for Clinical Outcome in Medical Abortion  

PubMed Central

Introduction Misoprostol (Cytotec) is recognised to be effective for many gynaecological indications including termination of pregnancy, management of miscarriage and postpartum haemorrhage. Although not licensed for such indications, it has been used for these purposes by millions of women throughout the world. Misoprostol tablets are most often packaged as multiple tablets within an aluminium strip, each within an individual alveolus. When an alveolus is opened, tablets will be exposed to atmospheric conditions. Objective To compare the pharmaco technical characteristics (weight, friability), water content, misoprostol content and decomposition product content (type A misoprostol, type B misoprostol and 8-epi misoprostol) of misoprostol tablets Cytotec (Pfizer) exposed to air for periods of 1 hour to 720 hours (30 days), to those of identical non exposed tablets. Methods Four hundred and twenty (420) tablets of Cytotec (Pfizer) were removed from their alveoli blister and stored at 25°C/60% relative humidity. Water content, and misoprostol degradation products were assayed in tablets exposed from 1 to 720 hours (30 days). Comparison was made with control tablets (N?=?60) from the same batch stored in non-damaged blisters. Statistical analyses were carried out using Fisher’s exact test for small sample sizes. Results By 48 hours, exposed tablets demonstrated increased weight (+4.5%), friability (+1 300%), and water content (+80%) compared to controls. Exposed tablets also exhibited a decrease in Cytotec active ingredient dosage (?5.1% after 48 hours) and an increase in the inactive degradation products (+25% for type B, +50% for type A and +11% for 8-epi misoprostol after 48 hours) compared to controls. Conclusion Exposure of Cytotec tablets to ‘typical’ European levels of air and humidity results in significant time-dependent changes in physical and biological composition that could impact adversely upon clinical efficacy. Health professionals should be made aware of the degradation of misoprostol with inappropriate storage of misoprostol tablets. PMID:25502819

Berard, Veronique; Fiala, Christian; Cameron, Sharon; Bombas, Teresa; Parachini, Mirella; Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina

2014-01-01

329

21 CFR 520.531 - Cythioate tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cythioate tablets. 520.531 Section 520.531 Food...ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.531 Cythioate tablets. (a) [Reserved] (b) Sponsors...for use of 30- and 90-milligram (mg) tablets and see No. 053501 in §...

2014-04-01

330

21 CFR 520.1510 - Nitenpyram tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nitenpyram tablets. 520.1510 Section 520.1510 Food and...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1510 Nitenpyram tablets. (a) Specifications . Each tablet contains 11.4 or 57 milligrams (mg)...

2011-04-01

331

Touch Screen Tablets and Emergent Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of touch screen tablets by young children is increasing in the home and in early childhood settings. The simple tactile interface and finger-based operating features of tablets may facilitate preschoolers' use of tablet application software and support their educational development in domains such as literacy. This article reviews…

Neumann, Michelle M.; Neumann, David L.

2014-01-01

332

21 CFR 520.816 - Epsiprantel tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Epsiprantel tablets. 520.816 Section 520.816 Food and...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.816 Epsiprantel tablets. (a) Specifications . Each tablet contains either 12.5, 25, 50, or 100...

2013-04-01

333

21 CFR 520.816 - Epsiprantel tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Epsiprantel tablets. 520.816 Section 520.816 Food and...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.816 Epsiprantel tablets. (a) Specifications . Each tablet contains either 12.5, 25, 50, or 100...

2010-04-01

334

21 CFR 520.531 - Cythioate tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cythioate tablets. 520.531 Section 520.531 Food...ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.531 Cythioate tablets. (a) [Reserved] (b) Sponsors...for use of 30- and 90-milligram (mg) tablets and see No. 053501 in §...

2010-04-01

335

21 CFR 520.531 - Cythioate tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cythioate tablets. 520.531 Section 520.531 Food...ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.531 Cythioate tablets. (a) [Reserved] (b) Sponsors...for use of 30- and 90-milligram (mg) tablets and see No. 053501 in §...

2011-04-01

336

21 CFR 520.1510 - Nitenpyram tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nitenpyram tablets. 520.1510 Section 520.1510 Food and...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1510 Nitenpyram tablets. (a) Specifications . Each tablet contains 11.4 or 57 milligrams (mg)...

2012-04-01

337

21 CFR 520.816 - Epsiprantel tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Epsiprantel tablets. 520.816 Section 520.816 Food and...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.816 Epsiprantel tablets. (a) Specifications . Each tablet contains either 12.5, 25, 50, or 100...

2011-04-01

338

Tablet PC Enhanced Curricula University of Washington  

E-print Network

Tablet PC Enhanced Curricula University of Washington Richard Anderson http://www.cs.washington.edu/education/dl/presenter/ 2. Students write answers on slides on their tablets and send them back to the instructor Classroom · Tablet PC based classroom interaction system · Supports inking on slides to integrate slide based content

Anderson, Richard

339

21 CFR 520.531 - Cythioate tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cythioate tablets. 520.531 Section 520.531 Food...ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.531 Cythioate tablets. (a) [Reserved] (b) Sponsors...for use of 30- and 90-milligram (mg) tablets and see No. 053501 in §...

2013-04-01

340

21 CFR 520.1510 - Nitenpyram tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nitenpyram tablets. 520.1510 Section 520.1510 Food and...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1510 Nitenpyram tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 11.4 or 57 milligrams (mg)...

2014-04-01

341

21 CFR 520.1510 - Nitenpyram tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nitenpyram tablets. 520.1510 Section 520.1510 Food and...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1510 Nitenpyram tablets. (a) Specifications . Each tablet contains 11.4 or 57 milligrams (mg)...

2010-04-01

342

21 CFR 520.812 - Enrofloxacin tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Enrofloxacin tablets. 520.812 Section 520.812 Food and...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.812 Enrofloxacin tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains either 22.7, 68.0, or...

2011-04-01

343

21 CFR 520.812 - Enrofloxacin tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Enrofloxacin tablets. 520.812 Section 520.812 Food and...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.812 Enrofloxacin tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains either 22.7, 68.0, or...

2012-04-01

344

Mathematics Instruction and the Tablet PC  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of tablet PCs in teaching is a relatively new phenomenon. A cross between a notebook computer and a personal digital assistant (PDA), the tablet PC has all of the features of a notebook with the additional capability that the screen can also be used for input. Tablet PCs are usually equipped with a stylus that allows the user to write on…

Fister, K. Renee; McCarthy, Maeve L.

2008-01-01

345

21 CFR 520.816 - Epsiprantel tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Epsiprantel tablets. 520.816 Section 520.816 Food and...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.816 Epsiprantel tablets. (a) Specifications . Each tablet contains either 12.5, 25, 50, or 100...

2012-04-01

346

21 CFR 520.1510 - Nitenpyram tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nitenpyram tablets. 520.1510 Section 520.1510 Food and...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1510 Nitenpyram tablets. (a) Specifications . Each tablet contains 11.4 or 57 milligrams (mg)...

2013-04-01

347

21 CFR 520.812 - Enrofloxacin tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enrofloxacin tablets. 520.812 Section 520.812 Food and...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.812 Enrofloxacin tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains either 22.7, 68.0, or...

2010-04-01

348

Scaffolding Equals Success in Teaching Tablet PCs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After many years of using the mouse and keyboard as the primary means of computer input, people are seeing a strong surge into a new generation of input technologies such as tablet PCs. As more professionals adopt tablet PCs for use in the workplace, there is a subsequent increased demand for tablet PC instruction in the classroom. Examples of…

Dickerson, Jeremy; Williams, Scott; Browning, J. B.

2009-01-01

349

21 CFR 520.812 - Enrofloxacin tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Enrofloxacin tablets. 520.812 Section 520.812 Food and...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.812 Enrofloxacin tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains either 22.7, 68.0, or...

2013-04-01

350

21 CFR 520.816 - Epsiprantel tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Epsiprantel tablets. 520.816 Section 520.816 Food and...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.816 Epsiprantel tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains either 12.5, 25, 50, or 100...

2014-04-01

351

21 CFR 520.1616 - Orbifloxacin tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Orbifloxacin tablets. 520.1616 Section 520.1616 Food and...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1616 Orbifloxacin tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 5.7, 22.7, or 68...

2014-04-01

352

21 CFR 520.531 - Cythioate tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cythioate tablets. 520.531 Section 520.531 Food...ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.531 Cythioate tablets. (a) [Reserved] (b) Sponsors...for use of 30- and 90-milligram (mg) tablets and see No. 053501 in §...

2012-04-01

353

21 CFR 520.1616 - Orbifloxacin tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Orbifloxacin tablets. 520.1616 Section 520.1616 Food and...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1616 Orbifloxacin tablets. (a) Specifications . Each tablet contains 5.7, 22.7, or 68...

2011-04-01

354

Tablet - next generation sequence assembly visualization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: Tablet is a lightweight, high-performance graphical viewer for next generation sequence assemblies and alignments. Supporting a range of input assembly formats, Tablet provides high- quality visualizations showing data in packed or stacked views, al- lowing instant access and navigation to any region of interest, and whole contig overviews and data summaries. Tablet is both multi- core aware and memory-efficient,

Iain Milne; Micha Bayer; Linda Cardle; Paul Shaw; Gordon Stephen; Frank Wright; David Marshall

2010-01-01

355

Disintegration of rocks based on magnetically isolated high voltage discharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, a method utilizing pulsed power technology for disintegration of rocks arouses great interest of many researchers. In this paper, an improved method based on magnetic switch and the results shown that the uniform dielectrics like plastic can be broken down in water is presented, and the feasible mechanism explaining the breakdown of solid is proposed and proved experimentally. A high voltage pulse of 120 kV, rise time 0.2 ?s was used to ignite the discharging channel in solids. When the plasma channel is formed in the solid, the resistance of the channel is quiet small; even if a relatively low voltage is applied on the channel on this occasion, it will produce high current to heat the plasma channel rapidly, and eventually disintegrate the solids. The feasibility of promising industrial application in the drilling and demolition of natural and artificial solid materials by the method we presented is verified by the experiment result in the paper.

He, Mengbing; Jiang, Jinbo; Huang, Guoliang; Liu, Jun; Li, Chengzu

2013-02-01

356

Real-time microradiology of disintegration of iron ore sinteres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We first present real-time microradiology of disintegration of self-fluxing iron ore sinters in low temperature reduction using highly collimated synchrotron source. The experiments were performed on the 5C1 beamline at PLS (Pohang Light Source, Pohang, Korea), operating at 2.5 GeV. We used unmonochromatized ("white") light with no optical elements except beryllium windows. The images of the crack superimpose, on the two-dimensional projection of a three-dimensional phenomenon, suggest that cracks are always initiated from pores in the sinters and propagate along neighboring pores. Interestingly, cracking occurs mostly on macropores (>800 ?m), preferentially initiated from stress concentrated sites on pore surfaces. This dynamic study of the disintegration of sinters clearly shows that the crack initiation temperature is as low as 450 °C.

Kim, Jong Ryun; Kang, H. S.; Lee, Ho Jun; Je, Jung Ho; Jeong, S. K.; Tsai, W.-L.; Hsu, P. C.; Hwu, Y.

2003-01-01

357

Disintegration of Large Meteoroids in Earth's Atmosphere: Theoretical Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disintegration of large meteoroids, 1 m to 1 km in size, when affected by aerodynamic forces in flight is considered in this paper. Arguments are adduced that ablation is of secondary importance in comparison with mechanical processes of deformation and fragmentation. 2D hydrodynamic simulations using the free-Lagrangian method and the Eulerian method with a volume-of-fluid front tracking procedure have been

V. V. Svetsov; I. V. Nemtchinov; A. V. Teterev

1995-01-01

358

Histotripsy methods in mechanical disintegration of tissue: Towards clinical applications.  

PubMed

In high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) therapy, an ultrasound beam is focused within the body to locally affect the targeted site without damaging intervening tissues. The most common HIFU regime is thermal ablation. Recently there has been increasing interest in generating purely mechanical lesions in tissue (histotripsy). This paper provides an overview of several studies on the development of histotripsy methods toward clinical applications. Two histotripsy approaches and examples of their applications are presented. In one approach, sequences of high-amplitude, short (microsecond-long), focused ultrasound pulses periodically produce dense, energetic bubble clouds that mechanically disintegrate tissue. In an alternative approach, longer (millisecond-long) pulses with shock fronts generate boiling bubbles and the interaction of shock fronts with the resulting vapour cavity causes tissue disintegration. Recent preclinical studies on histotripsy are reviewed for treating benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), liver and kidney tumours, kidney stone fragmentation, enhancing anti-tumour immune response, and tissue decellularisation for regenerative medicine applications. Potential clinical advantages of the histotripsy methods are discussed. Histotripsy methods can be used to mechanically ablate a wide variety of tissues, whilst selectivity sparing structures such as large vessels. Both ultrasound and MR imaging can be used for targeting and monitoring the treatment in real time. Although the two approaches utilise different mechanisms for tissue disintegration, both have many of the same advantages and offer a promising alternative method of non-invasive surgery. PMID:25707817

Khokhlova, Vera A; Fowlkes, J Brian; Roberts, William W; Schade, George R; Xu, Zhen; Khokhlova, Tatiana D; Hall, Timothy L; Maxwell, Adam D; Wang, Yak-Nam; Cain, Charles A

2015-03-01

359

Disintegration (or not) of the nonlinear internal tide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The disintegration of a low-mode internal tide into high-frequency solitary-like waves is re-examined in the fully-nonlinear regime. As with weakly nonlinear models, the disintegration is inhibited by rotation. Using a two-layer fully-nonlinear long-wave model with rotation, it is shown that underlying periodic fully-nonlinear hydrostatic waves act as attractors that prevent the complete disintegration of a general (e.g. sinusoidal) initial tide. In the hydrostatic limit the initial tide will steepen to breaking, dissipate energy and eventually settle onto a nonlinear periodic solution. When weak nonhydrostatic dispersion is included, excess energy in the initial tide is shed as a packet of high-frequency waves; however, the underlying long tidal wave is the same. While qualitatively similar to results from weakly nonlinear theory, there are substantial quantitative differences related to the properties of both the underlying low and high-frequency waves. The periodic nonlinear tide solutions are extended to continuously stratified systems and it is shown via numerical solutions of the Euler equations that these tidal solutions are generally robust to weak nonhydrostatic effects.

Helfrich, Karl

2005-11-01

360

Development of a Bacillus sphaericus tablet formulation and its evaluation as a larvicide in the biological control of Culex quinquefasciatus.  

PubMed

This study aimed to analyze the final fermentation culture of Bacillus sphaericus 2362, standardize it and develop an active tablet formulation for use in urban mosquito breeding sites. It was performed in three phases: analysis and standardization of a B. sphaericus fermented culture; physical, chemical, and biological analysis of the active powder (solubility, residual humidity, particle size, resting angle, flowing off time, compacted density, and biological activity against Culex quinquefasciatus larvae); and the development of fast-disintegrating tablets. Five formulations with differing compositions were developed and a UV protector was added to the selected formulation. The formulation products with or without UV protector, as well as the active powder caused 100% larval mortality from 1 day to 2 months after a single treatment under simulated field conditions. These results show that the UV protector does not affect the initial larvicide activity of B. sphaericus, nor its persistence over a period of two months. PMID:16113893

Medeiros, Flávia P Morais de; Santos, Maria Alice Varjal de Melo; Regis, Leda; Rios, Eugênia M Maranhão; Rolim Neto, Pedro J

2005-07-01

361

Galileo's Telescopy and Jupiter's Tablet  

Microsoft Academic Search

A previous paper (BAAS 33:4, 1363, 2001) reported on the dramatic scene in Shakespeare's Cymbeline that features the descent of the deity Jupiter. The paper suggested that the four ghosts circling the sleeping Posthumus denote the four Galilean moons of Jupiter. The god Jupiter commands the ghosts to lay a tablet upon the prone Posthumus, but says that its value

P. D. Usher

2003-01-01

362

Using Tablets as Tools for Learner-Generated Drawings in the Context of Teaching the Kinetic Theory of Gases  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Even though research suggests that the use of drawings could be an important part of learning science, learner-generated drawings have not received much attention in physics classrooms. This paper presents a method for recording students' drawings and group discussions using tablets. Compared to pen and paper, tablets offer unique benefits,…

Lehtinen, A.; Viiri, J.

2014-01-01

363

Early pregnancy termination with intravaginally administered sodium chloride solution–moistened misoprostol tablets: Historical comparison with mifepristone and oral misoprostol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the abortifacient effect of intravaginally administered moistened misoprostol tablets with that of the combination regimen of mifepristone and oral misoprostol. Study Design: One hundred women at ?56 days’ gestation received 800 ?g misoprostol intravaginally in the form of sodium chloride solution–moistened tablets. The dose was repeated 24 hours later if a

John K. Jain; Karen R. Meckstroth; Daniel R. Mishell

1999-01-01

364

How suitable is the measurement of take-off forces for detection of sticking during direct compression of various ibuprofen tablet formulations?  

PubMed

Sticking of tablet formulations to punch surfaces is one of the most common problems observed during tablet manufacture. An inline method proposed for detection of sticking during compression is the measurement of take-off forces, which occur when tablets are detached from the lower punch surface. It has been postulated that the tablet take-off force is a direct indicator of the sticking tendency of a tablet formulation. In the present study, the take-off forces measured during direct compression of sticking ibuprofen tablet formulations were evaluated and compared to the sticking extent of these tablets quantified by HPLC analysis of ibuprofen. As expected, sticking to the lower punch was increased with an increase of the ibuprofen content in the investigated tablet formulations. However, data obtained from take-off force measurements did not correlate with the quantified amount of sticking. Although pronounced sticking was observed, the measured tablet take-off forces remained low even at high drug contents. These results indicate that the tablet take-off force is not a direct indicator of the sticking tendency of ibuprofen tablet formulations. It is suggested that the evaluation of take-off force data requires a differentiated approach. A new interpretation of take-off force data is presented in this paper. PMID:22931059

Saniocki, Ines; Sakmann, Albrecht; Leopold, Claudia S

2013-02-01

365

Formulation of zolmitriptan sublingual tablets prepared by direct compression with different polymers: in vitro and in vivo evaluation.  

PubMed

First-pass metabolism can be overcome by sublingual drug delivery, and quick drug entry into the systemic circulation can be obtained. In certain diseases such as migraine therapy, taking fast pharmacological response is an important criteria. In this study, zolmitriptan sublingual tablets were prepared by direct compression method using different mucoadhesive polymers such as hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose, chitosan and sodium carboxy methyl cellulose at a concentration range of 0.5-5% to reduce flushing action of saliva and provide enough time for drug to be absorbed. Tablets were evaluated for the physical properties, and optimum formulations were chosen for in vivo studies to carry on sheep model. The tablets disintegrated rapidly, and dissolution tests revealed that zolmitriptan was dissolved from the formulation within the compendial limits. This especially showed us that the concentration range of polymers is in acceptable limit. It was also concluded that microcrystalline cellulose, spray-dried lactose and sodium starch glycolate are the appropriate excipient and formulated in good proportions. In vivo studies indicated that formulation containing 5% chitosan has the maximum C(max) and AUC and minimum t(max) values (p<0.05). As a result, sublingual tablet administration of zolmitriptan formulated with appropriate excipients and especially with chitosan seems promising alternative to traditional routes. PMID:21352916

Bayrak, Ziya; Tas, Cetin; Tasdemir, Umut; Erol, Halil; Ozkan, Cansel Kose; Savaser, Ayhan; Ozkan, Yalcin

2011-08-01

366

Profiling of Ecstasy Tablets Seized in Iran  

PubMed Central

In this study 50 samples of ecstasy tablets seized in Iran during the period of 2007 through 2008 were examined and their physical characteristics (appearance, marking, scored/not scored, color, weight, diameter, thickness) were determined. In order to determine the chemical characteristics of these tablets, color tests (Marquis test, Simon’s test, Chen’s test and Gallic acid test), Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC), anion test, residual solvents, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) were carried out on the tablets. The range of tablets weight was 96–308 mg and the range of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) hydrochloride content in these tablets was 60–180 mg. No good correlation was found between the tablets weight and their MDMA contents. All of the tablets containing MDMA had this compound in hydrochloride form. Ketamine, phenmetrazine and ephedrine (or pseudoephedrine) were found in some of the tablets along with MDMA. No MDMA was found in 20% of the tablets. Some of these tablets contained compounds such as caffeine or tramadol as their active ingredient. PMID:24250345

Khajeamiri, Ali Reza; Kobarfard, Farzad; Ahmadkhaniha, Reza; Mostashari, Gelareh

2011-01-01

367

Emergency CT brain: preliminary interpretation with a tablet device: image quality and diagnostic performance of the Apple iPad.  

PubMed

Tablet devices have recently been used in radiological image interpretation because they have a display resolution comparable to desktop LCD monitors. We identified a need to examine tablet display performance prior to their use in preliminary interpretation of radiological images. We compared the spatial and contrast resolution of a commercially available tablet display with a diagnostic grade 2 megapixel monochrome LCD using a contrast detail phantom. We also recorded reporting discrepancies, using the ACR RADPEER system, between preliminary interpretation of 100 emergency CT brain examinations on the tablet display and formal review on a diagnostic LCD. The iPad display performed inferiorly to the diagnostic monochrome display without the ability to zoom. When the software zoom function was enabled on the tablet device, comparable contrast detail phantom scores of 163 vs 165 points were achieved. No reporting discrepancies were encountered during the interpretation of 43 normal examinations and five cases of acute intracranial hemorrhage. There were seven RADPEER2 (understandable) misses when using the iPad display and 12 with the diagnostic LCD. Use of software zoom in the tablet device improved its contrast detail phantom score. The tablet allowed satisfactory identification of acute CT brain findings, but additional research will be required to examine the cause of "understandable" reporting discrepancies that occur when using tablet devices. PMID:22173819

Mc Laughlin, Patrick; Neill, Siobhan O; Fanning, Noel; Mc Garrigle, Anne Marie; Connor, Owen J O; Wyse, Gerry; Maher, Michael M

2012-04-01

368

Preparation and pharmacokinetics study on gastro-floating sustained-release tablets of troxipide.  

PubMed

Abstract The purpose of this research aimed at preparing gastro-floating sustained-release tablets of troxipide and a further study on in vitro release and in vivo bioavailability. Under the circumstances of direct powder compression, the floating tablets were successfully prepared with HPMC as main matrix material, Carbopol as assistant matrix material, octadecanol as floating agent and sodium bicarbonate as foaming agent to float by gas-forming. The floating time and accumulative release amount as evaluation indexes were utilized to perform pre-experiment screening and single-factor test, respectively, while central composite design response surface method was applied for formulation optimization, followed by in vivo pharmacokinetic study in beagles after oral administration for floating tablets and commercial tablets used as the control. The results indicated that the floating sustained-release tablets held a better capability for floating and drug release and more satisfactory pharmacokinetic parameters, such as a lower Cmax, a prolonged Tmax, but an equivalent bioavailability calculated by AUC0-24 compared to commercial tablets. So a conclusion was finally drawn that the floating sustained-release tablets possessing a good release property could be suitable for demands of design. PMID:25190152

Gao, Yunyun; Gao, Yang; Yin, Fei; Wang, Mi; Wang, Zhenhong; Ye, Tiantian; Yang, Yonggang; Pan, W S; Yang, Xinggang

2014-09-01

369

Solid self-microemulsifying dispersible tablets of celastrol: formulation development, charaterization and bioavailability evaluation.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were to choose a suitable adsorbent of self-microemulsion and to develop a fine solid self-microemulsifying dispersible tablets for promoting the dissolution and oral bioavailability of celastrol. Solubility test, self-emulsifying grading test, droplet size analysis and ternary phase diagrams test were performed to screen and optimize the composition of liquid celastrol self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS). Then microcrystalline cellulose KG 802 was added as a suitable adsorbent into the optimized liquid celastrol-SMEDDS formulation to prepare the dispersible tablets by wet granulation compression method. The optimized formulation of celastrol-SMEDDS dispersible tablets was finally determinated by the feasibility of the preparing process and redispersibility. The in vitro study showed that the dispersible tablets could disperse in the dispersion medium within 3 min with the average particle size of 25.32 ± 3.26 nm. In vivo pharmacokinetic experiments of rats, the relative bioavailability of celastrol SMEDDS and SMEDDS dispersible tablets compared to the 0.4% CMC-Na suspension was 569 ± 7.07% and 558 ± 6.77%, respectively, while there were no significant difference between the SMEDDS and SMEDDS dispersible tablets. The results suggest the potential use of SMEDDS dispersible tablets for the oral delivery of poorly water-soluble terpenes drugs, such as celastrol. PMID:24929011

Qi, Xiaole; Qin, Jiayi; Ma, Ning; Chou, Xiaohua; Wu, Zhenghong

2014-09-10

370

A novel approach to crystallisation of nanodispersible microparticles by spray drying for improved tabletability.  

PubMed

High-dose API powders which are to be tableted by direct compression should have high compactibility and compressibility. This note reports on a novel approach to the manufacture of crystalline powders intended for direct compaction with improved compactibility and compressibility properties. The poorly compactable API, chlorothiazide, was spray dried from a water/acetone solvent mix producing additive-free nanocrystalline microparticles (NCMPs) of median particle size 3.5 ?m. Tablets compacted from NCMPs had tensile strengths ranging from 0.5 to 4.6 MPa (compared to 0.6-0.9 MPa for tablets of micronised CTZ) at compression forces ranging from 6 kN to 13 kN. NCMP tablets also had high porosities (34-20%) and large specific surface areas (4.4-4.8m(2)/g). The time taken for tablets made of NCMPs to erode was not statistically longer (p>0.05) than for tablets made of micronised CTZ. Fragmentation of NCMPs on compression was observed. The volume fraction of particles below 1 ?m present in the suspension recovered after erosion of NCMP tablets was 34.8±3.43%, while no nanosized particles were detected in the slurry after erosion of compacted micronised CTZ. PMID:22710254

Paluch, Krzysztof J; Tajber, Lidia; Adamczyk, Bo?ena; Corrigan, Owen I; Healy, Anne Marie

2012-10-15

371

The effect of sucralfate tablets vs. suspension on oral doxycycline absorption in dogs.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of concurrent sucralfate (tablet or suspension) on doxycycline pharmacokinetics and to determine the effects of delaying sucralfate by 2 h on doxycycline absorption. Five dogs were included in a crossover study receiving: doxycycline alone; doxycycline concurrently with sucralfate tablet; doxycycline followed 2 h by sucralfate tablet; doxycycline concurrently with sucralfate suspension; and doxycycline followed 2 h by sucralfate suspension. Doxycycline plasma concentrations were evaluated with liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. No interaction was seen when sucralfate was administered as a tablet. Sucralfate tablet fragments were frequently observed in some dogs' feces. The area under the curve (AUC) and maximum plasma concentration (CMAX ) were significantly lower (P < 0.001) in the concurrent sucralfate suspension group (AUC 7.2 h·?g/mL, CMAX 0.43 ?g/mL) than with doxycycline alone (AUC 36.0 h·?g/mL, CMAX 2.53 ?g/mL) resulting in a relative bioavailability of 20%. Delaying sucralfate suspension by 2 h after doxycycline administration resulted in no difference in doxycycline absorption as compared with doxycycline administration alone with a relative bioavailability of 74%. The lack of an interaction with sucralfate tablets suggests sucralfate should be administered as a suspension rather than tablet in dogs. PMID:25233871

KuKanich, K; KuKanich, B

2015-04-01

372

Mild disintegration of the green microalgae Chlorella vulgaris using bead milling.  

PubMed

In this work, the mild disintegration of the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris for the release of intracellular products has been studied. By means of bead milling the microalgae suspensions were successfully disintegrated at different biomass concentrations (25-145gDWkg(-1)) over a range of agitator speeds (6-12ms(-1)). In all cases over 97% of cell disintegration was achieved resulting in a release of water soluble proteins. A clear optimum rate of disintegration and protein release was observed at an agitator speed of 9-10ms(-1) regardless of the biomass concentration. Selective extraction of water soluble proteins was observed as proteins released sooner than cell disintegration took place. Proteins could be released at 85% lower energy input than for cell disintegration resulting in specific energy consumptions well below 2.5kWhkgDW(-1). PMID:25280602

Postma, P R; Miron, T L; Olivieri, G; Barbosa, M J; Wijffels, R H; Eppink, M H M

2015-05-01

373

Modified cellulose II powder: preparation, characterization, and tableting properties.  

PubMed

The reaction of UICEL-A/102, a cellulose II powder recently prepared from Avicel(R) PH-102 by treatment with an aqueous sodium hydroxide solution, with glutaraldehyde in 0.01 N HCl has been investigated to improve its binder properties, without adversely affecting the rapid disintegration characteristic. The results showed that UICEL-A/102 and glutaraldehyde when reacted in a 1:0.6 weight ratio at 100 degrees C for 8.5 h produces a product, (hereinafter referred to as UICEL-XL), that, compared to UICEL-A/102, had a lower degree of polymerization, higher crystallinity, lower bulk density, lower tapped density, and higher porosity. Further, it showed lower yield pressure and higher crushing strength, and tensile strength values, indicating that UICEL-XL is more compressible and compactable than the starting material, UICEL-A/102. A comparison of "in-die" and "out-of-die" Heckel data indicated UICEL-XL to be less elastic than UICEL-A/102. Both UICEL-XL and UICEL-A/102 showed similar moisture sorption isotherms, and their compacts disintegrated rapidly in water. In conclusion, the glutaraldehyde-treated cellulose II powder not only serves as good a disintegrant as the untreated cellulose powder but also possesses superior binder properties. PMID:17075860

de la Luz Reus Medina, Maria; Kumar, Vijay

2007-02-01

374

A single-dose, randomized, open-label, two-period crossover bioequivalence study comparing a fixed-dose pediatric combination of lamivudine and stavudine tablet for oral suspension with individual liquid formulations in healthy adult male volunteers.  

PubMed

Lamivudine (CAS 134678-17-4) is a synthetic nucleoside analogue with activity against HIV-1 and HBV. Stavudine (CAS 3056-17-5) is a synthetic thymidine nucleoside analogue, active against the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Lamivudine and stavudine in combination with other antiretroviral (ARV) agents are indicated for the treatment of HIV infection. As there are no suitable pediatric ARVs, adult fixed-dose ARVs are commonly used in children. This practice poses concerns about dose inaccuracy, which may lead to resistance or toxicity. A new fixed-dose combination (FDC) tablet for oral suspension, containing lamivudine 40 mg and stavudine 10 mg has been developed. An open-label, balanced, randomised, two-treatment, two-period, two-sequence, single-dose, crossover bioequivalence study was conducted following administration of a fixed-dose combination of lamivudine and stavudine tablet for oral suspension (test formulation) and innovator products (reference formulations) in healthy, adult, male human subjects under fasting condition. Multiple blood samples were collected up to 36 h post dose. Plasma concentrations of lamivudine and stavudine were assayed using validated high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry analytical method. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using non-compartmental analysis and bioequivalence was assessed using a mixed effect ANOVA model. The ratio of the least-square means (FDC to individual products) and 90% confidence intervals (CIs) of AUC(0-t), AUC(0-infinity) and C(max) for lamivudine and stavudine were all within 80.00-125.00%, suggesting a similar rate and extent of ARVs exposure in the bloodstream. The FDC and individual products were equally safe and well tolerated. The current FDC of lamivudine and stavudine is expected to provide a similar efficacy/safety profile as co-administration of the individual products, a better adherence to treatment, and considerable cost savings in the treatment of HIV in children. PMID:19338141

Monif, Tausif; Reyar, Simrit; Tiwari, Hari Krishan; Tippabhotla, Sudhakar Koundinya; Khuroo, Arshad; Thudi, Nageshwar Rao; Ahmed, Sarfaraz; Raghuvanshi, Rajeev

2009-01-01

375

Using NMR chemical shift imaging to monitor swelling and molecular transport in drug-loaded tablets of hydrophobically modified poly(acrylic acid): methodology and effects of polymer (in)solubility.  

PubMed

A new technique has been developed using NMR chemical shift imaging (CSI) to monitor water penetration and molecular transport in initially dry polymer tablets that also contain small low-molecular weight compounds to be released from the tablets. Concentration profiles of components contained in the swelling tablets could be extracted via the intensities and chemical shift changes of peaks corresponding to protons of the components. The studied tablets contained hydrophobically modified poly(acrylic acid) (HMPAA) as the polymer component and griseofulvin and ethanol as hydrophobic and hydrophilic, respectively, low-molecular weight model compounds. The water solubility of HMPAA could be altered by titration with NaOH. In the pure acid form, HMPAA tablets only underwent a finite swelling until the maximum water content of the polymer-rich phase, as confirmed by independent phase studies, had been reached. By contrast, after partial neutralization with NaOH, the polyacid became fully miscible with water. The solubility of the polymer affected the water penetration, the polymer release, and the releases of both ethanol and griseofulvin. The detailed NMR CSI concentration profiles obtained highlighted the clear differences in the disintegration/dissolution/release behavior for the two types of tablet and provided insights into their molecular origin. The study illustrates the potential of the NMR CSI technique to give information of importance for the development of pharmaceutical tablets and, more broadly, for the general understanding of any operation that involves the immersion and ultimate disintegration of a dry polymer matrix in a solvent. PMID:24106807

Knöös, Patrik; Topgaard, Daniel; Wahlgren, Marie; Ulvenlund, Stefan; Piculell, Lennart

2013-11-12

376

Energy trapping and shock disintegration in a composite granular medium.  

PubMed

We report the first experimental observation of impulse confinement and the disintegration of shock and solitary waves in one-dimensional strongly nonlinear composite granular materials. The chains consist of alternating ensembles of beads with high and low elastic moduli (more than 2 orders of magnitude difference) of different masses. The trapped energy is contained within the "softer" sections of the composite chain and is slowly released in the form of weak, separated pulses over an extended period of time. This effect is enhanced by using a specific group assembly and precompression. PMID:16486993

Daraio, C; Nesterenko, V F; Herbold, E B; Jin, S

2006-02-10

377

Energy trapping and shock disintegration in a composite granular medium  

E-print Network

Granular materials demonstrate a strongly nonlinear behavior influencing the wave propagation in the medium. We report the first experimental observation of impulse energy confinement and the resultant disintegration of shock and solitary waves. The medium consists of alternating ensambles of high-modulus vs orders of magnitude lower modulus chains of different masses. The trapped energy is contained within the "softer" portions of the composite chain and is slowly released in the form of weak, separated pulses over an extended period of time. This effect is enhanced by using a specific group assembly and superimposed force.

C. Daraio; V. F. Nesterenko; E. B. Herbold; S. Jin

2005-09-24

378

Search for shell disintegration in laser implosion experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The possibility of shell disintegration in thin-wall targets as indicated by mixing of target surface material into the compressing core in laser-induced implosions has been investigated. Aluminum coated glass microballoon targets were irradiated by a two-beam Nd:phosphate glass laser with laser power up to 250 GW on target. The occurrence of mixing in these exploding pusher implosions was determined by using spatially resolved X-ray spectroscopy. Mixing was not observed except for laser shots with an intentional prepulse (approximately 10 mJ, 1.5 nsec before the main pulse).

Tanaka, K.; Thorsos, E. I.

1979-12-01

379

21 CFR 520.2123a - Spectinomycin tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Spectinomycin tablets. 520.2123a Section 520.2123a Food...ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2123a Spectinomycin tablets. (a) Specifications . Each tablet contains spectinomycin dihydrochloride...

2013-04-01

380

21 CFR 520.784 - Doxylamine succinate tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Doxylamine succinate tablets. 520.784 Section 520.784 Food...DRUGS § 520.784 Doxylamine succinate tablets. (a) Specifications. The drug is in tablet form and contains doxylamine succinate...

2011-04-01

381

21 CFR 520.1720a - Phenylbutazone tablets and boluses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 false Phenylbutazone tablets and boluses. 520.1720a Section 520...ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1720a Phenylbutazone tablets and boluses. (a) Specifications . Each tablet contains 100, 200, or 400...

2011-04-01

382

21 CFR 520.623 - Diethylcarbamazine citrate, oxibendazole chewable tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Diethylcarbamazine citrate, oxibendazole chewable tablets. 520.623 Section 520.623 Food and...Diethylcarbamazine citrate, oxibendazole chewable tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains either 60, 120, or 180...

2013-04-01

383

21 CFR 520.1193 - Ivermectin tablets and chewables.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ivermectin tablets and chewables. 520.1193 Section...ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1193 Ivermectin tablets and chewables. (a) Specifications . (1) Each tablet or chewable contains 68, 136, or...

2011-04-01

384

21 CFR 520.2582 - Triflupromazine hydrochloride tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Triflupromazine hydrochloride tablets. 520.2582 Section 520.2582 Food and...520.2582 Triflupromazine hydrochloride tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains either 10 milligrams or 25...

2012-04-01

385

21 CFR 520.622c - Diethylcarbamazine citrate chewable tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Diethylcarbamazine citrate chewable tablets. 520.622c Section 520.622c Food...622c Diethylcarbamazine citrate chewable tablets. (a) Specifications. Each chewable tablet contains 30, 45, 60, 120, 150, or...

2012-04-01

386

21 CFR 520.2041 - Pyrantel pamoate chewable tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Pyrantel pamoate chewable tablets. 520.2041 Section 520.2041 Food and...DRUGS § 520.2041 Pyrantel pamoate chewable tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains pyrantel pamoate equivalent to...

2011-04-01

387

21 CFR 520.246 - Butorphanol tartrate tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Butorphanol tartrate tablets. 520.246 Section 520.246 Food and...ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.246 Butorphanol tartrate tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 1, 5, or 10 milligrams of...

2013-04-01

388

21 CFR 520.1720a - Phenylbutazone tablets and boluses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Phenylbutazone tablets and boluses. 520.1720a Section 520...ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1720a Phenylbutazone tablets and boluses. (a) Specifications . Each tablet contains 100, 200, or 400...

2013-04-01

389

21 CFR 520.2123a - Spectinomycin tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Spectinomycin tablets. 520.2123a Section 520.2123a Food...ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2123a Spectinomycin tablets. (a) Specifications . Each tablet contains spectinomycin dihydrochloride...

2011-04-01

390

21 CFR 520.434 - Chlorphenesin carbamate tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Chlorphenesin carbamate tablets. 520.434 Section 520.434 Food and...DRUGS § 520.434 Chlorphenesin carbamate tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 400 milligrams of chlorphenesin...

2011-04-01

391

21 CFR 520.1193 - Ivermectin tablets and chewables.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ivermectin tablets and chewables. 520.1193 Section...ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1193 Ivermectin tablets and chewables. (a) Specifications . (1) Each tablet or chewable contains 68, 136, or...

2013-04-01

392

21 CFR 520.2604 - Trimeprazine tartrate and prednisolone tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Trimeprazine tartrate and prednisolone tablets. 520.2604 Section 520.2604 Food and...2604 Trimeprazine tartrate and prednisolone tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains: trimeprazine tartrate, 5...

2012-04-01

393

21 CFR 520.1242e - Levamisole hydrochloride effervescent tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Levamisole hydrochloride effervescent tablets. 520.1242e Section 520.1242e Food...1242e Levamisole hydrochloride effervescent tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 907 milligrams of levamisole...

2011-04-01

394

21 CFR 520.246 - Butorphanol tartrate tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Butorphanol tartrate tablets. 520.246 Section 520.246 Food and...ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.246 Butorphanol tartrate tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 1, 5, or 10 milligrams of...

2011-04-01

395

21 CFR 520.2123a - Spectinomycin tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Spectinomycin tablets. 520.2123a Section 520.2123a Food...ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2123a Spectinomycin tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains spectinomycin dihydrochloride...

2014-04-01

396

21 CFR 520.863 - Ethylisobutrazine hydrochloride tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Ethylisobutrazine hydrochloride tablets. 520.863 Section 520.863 Food and...520.863 Ethylisobutrazine hydrochloride tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains either 10 milligrams or 50...

2013-04-01

397

21 CFR 520.2041 - Pyrantel pamoate chewable tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Pyrantel pamoate chewable tablets. 520.2041 Section 520.2041 Food and...DRUGS § 520.2041 Pyrantel pamoate chewable tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains pyrantel pamoate equivalent to...

2013-04-01

398

21 CFR 520.784 - Doxylamine succinate tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Doxylamine succinate tablets. 520.784 Section 520.784 Food...DRUGS § 520.784 Doxylamine succinate tablets. (a) Specifications. The drug is in tablet form and contains doxylamine succinate...

2013-04-01

399

21 CFR 520.863 - Ethylisobutrazine hydrochloride tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Ethylisobutrazine hydrochloride tablets. 520.863 Section 520.863 Food and...520.863 Ethylisobutrazine hydrochloride tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains either 10 milligrams or 50...

2011-04-01

400

21 CFR 520.1720a - Phenylbutazone tablets and boluses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-04-01 false Phenylbutazone tablets and boluses. 520.1720a Section 520...ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1720a Phenylbutazone tablets and boluses. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 100, 200, or 400...

2014-04-01

401

21 CFR 520.2041 - Pyrantel pamoate chewable tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Pyrantel pamoate chewable tablets. 520.2041 Section 520.2041 Food and...DRUGS § 520.2041 Pyrantel pamoate chewable tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains pyrantel pamoate equivalent to...

2012-04-01

402

21 CFR 520.1193 - Ivermectin tablets and chewables.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ivermectin tablets and chewables. 520.1193 Section...ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1193 Ivermectin tablets and chewables. (a) Specifications. (1) Each tablet or chewable contains 68, 136, or...

2014-04-01

403

21 CFR 520.1157 - Iodinated casein tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Iodinated casein tablets. 520.1157 Section 520.1157 Food...ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1157 Iodinated casein tablets. (a) Specifications. Each 1-gram tablet contains 25 milligrams of iodinated...

2011-04-01

404

21 CFR 520.2123a - Spectinomycin tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Spectinomycin tablets. 520.2123a Section 520.2123a Food...ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2123a Spectinomycin tablets. (a) Specifications . Each tablet contains spectinomycin dihydrochloride...

2012-04-01

405

21 CFR 520.623 - Diethylcarbamazine citrate, oxibendazole chewable tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Diethylcarbamazine citrate, oxibendazole chewable tablets. 520.623 Section 520.623 Food and...Diethylcarbamazine citrate, oxibendazole chewable tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains either 60, 120, or 180...

2012-04-01

406

21 CFR 520.1157 - Iodinated casein tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Iodinated casein tablets. 520.1157 Section 520.1157 Food...ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1157 Iodinated casein tablets. (a) Specifications. Each 1-gram tablet contains 25 milligrams of iodinated...

2013-04-01

407

21 CFR 520.622c - Diethylcarbamazine citrate chewable tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Diethylcarbamazine citrate chewable tablets. 520.622c Section 520.622c Food...622c Diethylcarbamazine citrate chewable tablets. (a) Specifications. Each chewable tablet contains 30, 45, 60, 120, 150, or...

2014-04-01

408

21 CFR 520.623 - Diethylcarbamazine citrate, oxibendazole chewable tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Diethylcarbamazine citrate, oxibendazole chewable tablets. 520.623 Section 520.623 Food and...Diethylcarbamazine citrate, oxibendazole chewable tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains either 60, 120, or 180...

2014-04-01

409

21 CFR 520.863 - Ethylisobutrazine hydrochloride tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 false Ethylisobutrazine hydrochloride tablets. 520.863 Section 520.863 Food and...520.863 Ethylisobutrazine hydrochloride tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains either 10 milligrams or 50...

2014-04-01

410

21 CFR 520.434 - Chlorphenesin carbamate tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 false Chlorphenesin carbamate tablets. 520.434 Section 520.434 Food and...DRUGS § 520.434 Chlorphenesin carbamate tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 400 milligrams of chlorphenesin...

2014-04-01

411

21 CFR 520.2098 - Selegiline hydrochloride tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 false Selegiline hydrochloride tablets. 520.2098 Section 520.2098 Food and...DRUGS § 520.2098 Selegiline hydrochloride tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains either 2, 5, 10, 15, or 30...

2014-04-01

412

21 CFR 520.784 - Doxylamine succinate tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Doxylamine succinate tablets. 520.784 Section 520.784 Food...DRUGS § 520.784 Doxylamine succinate tablets. (a) Specifications. The drug is in tablet form and contains doxylamine succinate...

2012-04-01

413

21 CFR 520.623 - Diethylcarbamazine citrate, oxibendazole chewable tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Diethylcarbamazine citrate, oxibendazole chewable tablets. 520.623 Section 520.623 Food and...Diethylcarbamazine citrate, oxibendazole chewable tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains either 60, 120, or 180...

2011-04-01

414

21 CFR 520.2610 - Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine tablets. 520.2610 Section 520.2610 Food and...520.2610 Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 30 milligrams (5...

2011-04-01

415

21 CFR 520.2610 - Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine tablets. 520.2610 Section 520.2610 Food and...520.2610 Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 30 milligrams (5...

2012-04-01

416

21 CFR 520.2123a - Spectinomycin tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Spectinomycin tablets. 520.2123a Section 520.2123a Food...ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2123a Spectinomycin tablets. (a) Specifications . Each tablet contains spectinomycin dihydrochloride...

2010-04-01

417

21 CFR 520.2582 - Triflupromazine hydrochloride tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Triflupromazine hydrochloride tablets. 520.2582 Section 520.2582 Food and...520.2582 Triflupromazine hydrochloride tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains either 10 milligrams or 25...

2013-04-01

418

21 CFR 520.1157 - Iodinated casein tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 false Iodinated casein tablets. 520.1157 Section 520.1157 Food...ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1157 Iodinated casein tablets. (a) Specifications. Each 1-gram tablet contains 25 milligrams of iodinated...

2014-04-01

419

21 CFR 529.400 - Chlorhexidine tablets and suspension.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 false Chlorhexidine tablets and suspension. 529.400 Section 529...ANIMAL DRUGS § 529.400 Chlorhexidine tablets and suspension. (a) Specification. Each tablet and each 28-milliliter syringe of...

2011-04-01

420

21 CFR 520.246 - Butorphanol tartrate tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Butorphanol tartrate tablets. 520.246 Section 520.246 Food and...ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.246 Butorphanol tartrate tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 1, 5, or 10 milligrams of...

2012-04-01

421

21 CFR 520.2610 - Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine tablets. 520.2610 Section 520.2610 Food and...520.2610 Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 30 milligrams (5...

2010-04-01

422

EXPERIENCE WITH TABLET PC VIDEO BASED HYBRID COURSEWORK IN  

E-print Network

EXPERIENCE WITH TABLET PC VIDEO BASED HYBRID COURSEWORK IN COMPUTER SCIENCE Jaspal Subhlok, Olin Keywords: Hybrid Learning, Online Learning, Video Lectures, Tablet PC Abstract Online learning, defined classroom interaction is detrimental to learning. Employing Tablet PCs with slide presentation

Subhlok, Jaspal

423

21 CFR 520.863 - Ethylisobutrazine hydrochloride tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Ethylisobutrazine hydrochloride tablets. 520.863 Section 520.863 Food and...520.863 Ethylisobutrazine hydrochloride tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains either 10 milligrams or 50...

2012-04-01

424

21 CFR 520.2041 - Pyrantel pamoate chewable tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 false Pyrantel pamoate chewable tablets. 520.2041 Section 520.2041 Food and...DRUGS § 520.2041 Pyrantel pamoate chewable tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains pyrantel pamoate equivalent to...

2014-04-01

425

21 CFR 520.784 - Doxylamine succinate tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Doxylamine succinate tablets. 520.784 Section 520.784 Food...DRUGS § 520.784 Doxylamine succinate tablets. (a) Specifications. The drug is in tablet form and contains doxylamine succinate...

2010-04-01

426

21 CFR 520.784 - Doxylamine succinate tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 false Doxylamine succinate tablets. 520.784 Section 520.784 Food...DRUGS § 520.784 Doxylamine succinate tablets. (a) Specifications. The drug is in tablet form and contains doxylamine succinate...

2014-04-01

427

21 CFR 520.2604 - Trimeprazine tartrate and prednisolone tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Trimeprazine tartrate and prednisolone tablets. 520.2604 Section 520.2604 Food and...2604 Trimeprazine tartrate and prednisolone tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains: trimeprazine tartrate, 5...

2013-04-01

428

21 CFR 520.2604 - Trimeprazine tartrate and prednisolone tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Trimeprazine tartrate and prednisolone tablets. 520.2604 Section 520.2604 Food and...2604 Trimeprazine tartrate and prednisolone tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains: trimeprazine tartrate, 5...

2014-04-01

429

21 CFR 520.434 - Chlorphenesin carbamate tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Chlorphenesin carbamate tablets. 520.434 Section 520.434 Food and...DRUGS § 520.434 Chlorphenesin carbamate tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 400 milligrams of chlorphenesin...

2013-04-01

430

21 CFR 520.1446 - Milbemcyin oxime and lufenuron tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Milbemcyin oxime and lufenuron tablets. 520.1446 Section 520.1446 Food...520.1446 Milbemcyin oxime and lufenuron tablets. (a) Specifications —(1) Tablets containing: 2.3 milligrams (mg)...

2012-04-01

431

21 CFR 520.1157 - Iodinated casein tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Iodinated casein tablets. 520.1157 Section 520.1157 Food...ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1157 Iodinated casein tablets. (a) Specifications. Each 1-gram tablet contains 25 milligrams of iodinated...

2012-04-01

432

21 CFR 520.434 - Chlorphenesin carbamate tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Chlorphenesin carbamate tablets. 520.434 Section 520.434 Food and...DRUGS § 520.434 Chlorphenesin carbamate tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 400 milligrams of chlorphenesin...

2010-04-01

433

21 CFR 520.1242e - Levamisole hydrochloride effervescent tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Levamisole hydrochloride effervescent tablets. 520.1242e Section 520.1242e Food...1242e Levamisole hydrochloride effervescent tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 907 milligrams of levamisole...

2014-04-01

434

21 CFR 520.863 - Ethylisobutrazine hydrochloride tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Ethylisobutrazine hydrochloride tablets. 520.863 Section 520.863 Food and...520.863 Ethylisobutrazine hydrochloride tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains either 10 milligrams or 50...

2010-04-01

435

21 CFR 520.246 - Butorphanol tartrate tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 false Butorphanol tartrate tablets. 520.246 Section 520.246 Food and...ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.246 Butorphanol tartrate tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 1, 5, or 10 milligrams of...

2014-04-01

436

21 CFR 520.622c - Diethylcarbamazine citrate chewable tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Diethylcarbamazine citrate chewable tablets. 520.622c Section 520.622c Food...622c Diethylcarbamazine citrate chewable tablets. (a) Specifications. Each chewable tablet contains 30, 45, 60, 120, 150, or...

2013-04-01

437

21 CFR 529.400 - Chlorhexidine tablets and suspension.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 false Chlorhexidine tablets and suspension. 529.400 Section 529...ANIMAL DRUGS § 529.400 Chlorhexidine tablets and suspension. (a) Specification. Each tablet and each 28-milliliter syringe of...

2012-04-01

438

21 CFR 520.2582 - Triflupromazine hydrochloride tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 false Triflupromazine hydrochloride tablets. 520.2582 Section 520.2582 Food and...520.2582 Triflupromazine hydrochloride tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains either 10 milligrams or 25...

2014-04-01

439

21 CFR 529.400 - Chlorhexidine tablets and suspension.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Chlorhexidine tablets and suspension. 529.400 Section 529...ANIMAL DRUGS § 529.400 Chlorhexidine tablets and suspension. (a) Specification. Each tablet and each 28-milliliter syringe of...

2010-04-01

440

21 CFR 520.1720a - Phenylbutazone tablets and boluses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Phenylbutazone tablets and boluses. 520.1720a Section 520...ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1720a Phenylbutazone tablets and boluses. (a) Specifications . Each tablet contains 100, 200, or 400...

2010-04-01

441

Prototyping Hybrid Musical Interactions on Tablet Devices Henri Palleis  

E-print Network

Prototyping Hybrid Musical Interactions on Tablet Devices Henri Palleis Ludwig interactions on tablet devices that combine tangible, touch and gestural input. Existing low the rapid exploration of hybrid musical interaction concepts on tablet devices with capacitive touchscreens

442

21 CFR 520.1193 - Ivermectin tablets and chewables.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ivermectin tablets and chewables. 520.1193 Section...ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1193 Ivermectin tablets and chewables. (a) Specifications . (1) Each tablet or chewable contains 68, 136, or...

2010-04-01

443

21 CFR 529.400 - Chlorhexidine tablets and suspension.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-04-01 false Chlorhexidine tablets and suspension. 529.400 Section 529...ANIMAL DRUGS § 529.400 Chlorhexidine tablets and suspension. (a) Specification. Each tablet and each 28-milliliter syringe of...

2014-04-01

444

21 CFR 520.2610 - Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 false Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine tablets. 520.2610 Section 520.2610 Food and...520.2610 Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 30 milligrams (5...

2014-04-01

445

21 CFR 520.434 - Chlorphenesin carbamate tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Chlorphenesin carbamate tablets. 520.434 Section 520.434 Food and...DRUGS § 520.434 Chlorphenesin carbamate tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 400 milligrams of chlorphenesin...

2012-04-01

446

21 CFR 520.1720a - Phenylbutazone tablets and boluses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 false Phenylbutazone tablets and boluses. 520.1720a Section 520...ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1720a Phenylbutazone tablets and boluses. (a) Specifications . Each tablet contains 100, 200, or 400...

2012-04-01

447

21 CFR 520.1193 - Ivermectin tablets and chewables.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ivermectin tablets and chewables. 520.1193 Section...ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1193 Ivermectin tablets and chewables. (a) Specifications . (1) Each tablet or chewable contains 68, 136, or...

2012-04-01

448

21 CFR 520.2582 - Triflupromazine hydrochloride tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Triflupromazine hydrochloride tablets. 520.2582 Section 520.2582 Food and...520.2582 Triflupromazine hydrochloride tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains either 10 milligrams or 25...

2011-04-01

449

21 CFR 529.400 - Chlorhexidine tablets and suspension.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Chlorhexidine tablets and suspension. 529.400 Section 529...ANIMAL DRUGS § 529.400 Chlorhexidine tablets and suspension. (a) Specification. Each tablet and each 28-milliliter syringe of...

2013-04-01

450

21 CFR 520.1446 - Milbemcyin oxime and lufenuron tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Milbemcyin oxime and lufenuron tablets. 520.1446 Section 520.1446 Food...520.1446 Milbemcyin oxime and lufenuron tablets. (a) Specifications —(1) Tablets containing: 2.3 milligrams (mg)...

2011-04-01

451

21 CFR 520.1696d - Penicillin V potassium tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Penicillin V potassium tablets. 520.1696d...ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1696d Penicillin V potassium tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains penicillin V potassium equivalent to...

2012-04-01

452

21 CFR 520.1696d - Penicillin V tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Penicillin V tablets. 520.1696d Section...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1696d Penicillin V tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains penicillin V potassium equivalent to 125...

2014-04-01

453

21 CFR 520.1696d - Penicillin V potassium tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Penicillin V potassium tablets. 520.1696d...ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1696d Penicillin V potassium tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains penicillin V potassium equivalent to...

2010-04-01

454

21 CFR 520.1696d - Penicillin V potassium tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Penicillin V potassium tablets. 520.1696d...ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1696d Penicillin V potassium tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains penicillin V potassium equivalent to...

2011-04-01

455

21 CFR 520.1696d - Penicillin V tablets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Penicillin V tablets. 520.1696d Section...NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1696d Penicillin V tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains penicillin V potassium equivalent to 125...