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Sample records for disintegrins integrin selective

  1. The disintegrin domain of ADAM9: a ligand for multiple β1 renal integrins

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Renal tubular epithelial cells in all nephron segments express a distinct member of the metalloprotease-disintegrin family, ADAM9 (a disintegrin and metalloprotease 9), in a punctate basolateral distribution co-localized to the β1 integrin chain [Mahimkar, Baricos, Visaya, Pollock and Lovett (2000) J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 11, 595–603]. Discrete segments of the nephron express several defined β1 integrins, suggesting that ADAM9 interacts with multiple renal integrins and thereby regulates epithelial cell–matrix interactions. Intact ADAM9 and a series of deletion constructs sequentially lacking the metalloprotease domain and the disintegrin domain were assembled as chimaeras with a C-terminal GFP (green fluorescent protein) tag. Stable expression of the ADAM9/GFP protein on the surface of HEK-293 cells (human embryonic kidney 293 cells) significantly decreased adhesion to types I and IV collagen, vitronectin and laminin, but had little effect on adhesion to fibronectin. Expression of the disintegrin/cysteine-rich/GFP construct yielded a similar, but more marked pattern of decreased adhesion. Expression of the cysteine-rich/GFP construct had no effect on adhesion, indicating that the disintegrin domain was responsible for the competitive inhibition of cell–matrix binding. To define the specific renal tubular β1 integrins interacting with the ADAM9 disintegrin domain, a recombinant GST (glutathione S-transferase)-disintegrin protein was used as a substrate in adhesion assays in the presence or absence of specific integrin-blocking antibodies. Inclusion of antibodies to α1, α3, α6, αv and β1 blocked adhesion of HEK-293 cells to GST-disintegrin protein. Immobilized GST-disintegrin domain perfused with renal cortical lysates specifically recovered the α3, α6, αv and β1 integrin chains by Western analysis. It is concluded that ADAM9 is a polyvalent ligand, through its disintegrin domain, for multiple renal integrins of the β1 class. PMID:15361064

  2. Sequence-Specific Interaction between the Disintegrin Domain of Mouse ADAM 3 and Murine Eggs: Role of β1 Integrin-associated Proteins CD9, CD81, and CD98

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Yuji; Bigler, Dora; Ito, Yasuhiko; White, Judith M.

    2001-01-01

    ADAM 3 is a sperm surface glycoprotein that has been implicated in sperm-egg adhesion. Because little is known about the adhesive activity of ADAMs, we investigated the interaction of ADAM 3 disintegrin domains, made in bacteria and in insect cells, with murine eggs. Both recombinant proteins inhibited sperm-egg binding and fusion with potencies similar to that which we recently reported for the ADAM 2 disintegrin domain. Alanine scanning mutagenesis revealed a critical importance for the glutamine at position 7 of the disintegrin loop. Fluorescent beads coated with the ADAM 3 disintegrin domain bound to the egg surface. Bead binding was inhibited by an authentic, but not by a scrambled, peptide analog of the disintegrin loop. Bead binding was also inhibited by the function-blocking anti-α6 monoclonal antibody (mAb) GoH3, but not by a nonfunction blocking anti-α6 mAb, or by mAbs against either the αv or β3 integrin subunits. We also present evidence that in addition to the tetraspanin CD9, two other β1-integrin-associated proteins, the tetraspanin CD81 as well as the single pass transmembrane protein CD98 are expressed on murine eggs. Antibodies to CD9 and CD98 inhibited in vitro fertilization and binding of the ADAM 3 disintegrin domain. Our findings are discussed in terms of the involvement of multiple sperm ADAMs and multiple egg β1 integrin-associated proteins in sperm-egg binding and fusion. We propose that an egg surface “tetraspan web” facilitates fertilization and that it may do so by fostering ADAM–integrin interactions. PMID:11294888

  3. Snake Venom Disintegrin Inhibits the Activation of Toll-Like Receptors and Alleviates Sepsis through Integrin alphaVbeta3 Blockade

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Chun-Chieh; Chuang, Woei-Jer; Chung, Ching-Hu; Chang, Chien-Hsin; Peng, Hui-Chin; Huang, Tur-Fu

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial infection-induced sepsis is the leading cause of septic inflammatory disease. Rhodostomin (Rn), a snake venom disintegrin, was previously reported to interact with the αVβ3 integrin and the TLR4 on phagocyte in attenuating LPS-induced endotoxemia. In this report, we further evaluated the effects of Rn on TLR2-activated monocytes and its in vivo efficacy. Rn effectively suppressed the adhesion, migration, and cytokine release of Pam3CSK4-activated THP-1 cells. Rn specifically bound to integrin αVβ3 of TLR2-activated THP-1. Integrin αV and Akt siRNA transfection both restrained Pam3CSK4-elicited cytokine release. Rn decreased the Pam3CSK4-induced phosporylation of MAPKs, degradation of IκB and activation of FAK, Akt, c-Src and Syk. The Pam3CSK4-induced translocation of MyD88, a central adaptor of TLR2, to the cell membrane was also inhibited by Rn treatment. In the polymicrobial inflammatory caecal ligation and puncture model, Rn significantly reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine release, alleviated tissue injury and elevated survival rate in vivo. Taken together, in addition to inhibiting the activation of TLR4, Rn exhibits anti-inflammatory activity through antagonizing the activation of phagocytes and interrupting the crosstalk between αVβ3 and TLR2-dependent signaling pathways. PMID:26987407

  4. Competitive Interactions of Collagen and a Jararhagin-derived Disintegrin Peptide with the Integrin α2-I Domain*

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Lester J.; Bobkov, Andrey A.; Smith, Jeffrey W.; Marassi, Francesca M.

    2008-01-01

    Integrin α2β1 is a major receptor required for activation and adhesion of platelets, through the specific recognition of collagen by the α2-I domain (α2-I), which binds fibrillar collagen via Mg2+-bridged interactions. The crystal structure of a truncated form of the α2-I domain, bound to a triple helical collagen peptide, revealed conformational changes suggestive of a mechanism where the ligand-bound I domain can initiate and propagate conformational change to the full integrin complex. Collagen binding by α2-I and fibrinogen-dependent platelet activity can be inhibited by snake venom polypeptides. Here we describe the inhibitory effect of a short cyclic peptide derived from the snake toxin metalloprotease jararhagin, with specific amino acid sequence RKKH, on the ability of α2-I to bind triple helical collagen. Isothermal titration calorimetry measurements showed that the interactions of α2-I with collagen or RKKH peptide have similar affinities, and NMR chemical shift mapping experiments with 15N-labeled α2-I, and unlabeled RKKH peptide, indicate that the peptide competes for the collagen-binding site of α2-I but does not induce a large scale conformational rearrangement of the I domain. PMID:18417478

  5. Selective integrin endocytosis is driven by interactions between the integrin α-chain and AP2.

    PubMed

    De Franceschi, Nicola; Arjonen, Antti; Elkhatib, Nadia; Denessiouk, Konstantin; Wrobel, Antoni G; Wilson, Thomas A; Pouwels, Jeroen; Montagnac, Guillaume; Owen, David J; Ivaska, Johanna

    2016-02-01

    Integrins are heterodimeric cell-surface adhesion molecules comprising one of 18 possible α-chains and one of eight possible β-chains. They control a range of cell functions in a matrix- and ligand-specific manner. Integrins can be internalized by clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) through β subunit-based motifs found in all integrin heterodimers. However, whether specific integrin heterodimers can be selectively endocytosed was unknown. Here, we found that a subset of α subunits contain an evolutionarily conserved and functional YxxΦ motif directing integrins to selective internalization by the most abundant endocytic clathrin adaptor, AP2. We determined the structure of the human integrin α4-tail motif in complex with the AP2 C-μ2 subunit and confirmed the interaction by isothermal titration calorimetry. Mutagenesis of the motif impaired selective heterodimer endocytosis and attenuated integrin-mediated cell migration. We propose that integrins evolved to enable selective integrin-receptor turnover in response to changing matrix conditions. PMID:26779610

  6. Disintegrins from Hematophagous Sources

    PubMed Central

    Assumpcao, Teresa C. F.; Ribeiro, José M. C.; Francischetti, Ivo M. B.

    2012-01-01

    Bloodsucking arthropods are a rich source of salivary molecules (sialogenins) which inhibit platelet aggregation, neutrophil function and angiogenesis. Here we review the literature on salivary disintegrins and their targets. Disintegrins were first discovered in snake venoms, and were instrumental in our understanding of integrin function and also for the development of anti-thrombotic drugs. In hematophagous animals, most disintegrins described so far have been discovered in the salivary gland of ticks and leeches. A limited number have also been found in hookworms and horseflies, and none identified in mosquitoes or sand flies. The vast majority of salivary disintegrins reported display a RGD motif and were described as platelet aggregation inhibitors, and few others as negative modulator of neutrophil or endothelial cell functions. This notably low number of reported disintegrins is certainly an underestimation of the actual complexity of this family of proteins in hematophagous secretions. Therefore an algorithm was created in order to identify the tripeptide motifs RGD, KGD, VGD, MLD, KTS, RTS, WGD, or RED (flanked by cysteines) in sialogenins deposited in GenBank database. The search included sequences from various blood-sucking animals such as ticks (e.g., Ixodes sp., Argas sp., Rhipicephalus sp., Amblyommasp.), tabanids (e.g., Tabanus sp.), bugs (e.g., Triatoma sp., Rhodnius prolixus), mosquitoes (e.g., Anopheles sp., Aedes sp., Culex sp.), sand flies (e.g., Lutzomyia sp., Phlebotomus sp.), leeches (e.g., Macrobdella sp., Placobdella sp.) and worms (e.g., Ancylostoma sp.). This approach allowed the identification of a remarkably high number of novel putative sialogenins with tripeptide motifs typical of disintegrins (>450 sequences) whose biological activity remains to be verified. This database is accessible online as a hyperlinked worksheet and displays biochemical, taxonomic, and gene ontology aspects for each putative disintegrin. It is also freely

  7. Crystal structure of schistatin, a disintegrin homodimer from saw-scaled viper (Echis carinatus) at 2.5 A resolution.

    PubMed

    Bilgrami, Sameeta; Tomar, Shailly; Yadav, Savita; Kaur, Punit; Kumar, Janesh; Jabeen, Talat; Sharma, Sujata; Singh, Tej P

    2004-08-13

    This is the first structure of a biological homodimer of disintegrin. Disintegrins are a class of small (4-14 kDa) proteins that bind to transmembrane integrins selectively. The present molecule is the first homodimer that has been isolated from the venom of Echis carinatus. The monomeric chain contains 64 amino acid residues. The three-dimensional structure of schistatin has been determined by the multiple isomorphous replacement method. It has been refined to an R-factor of 0.190 using all the data to 2.5 A resolution. The two subunits of the disintegrin homodimer are related by a 2-fold crystallographic symmetry. Thus, the crystallographic asymmetric unit contains a monomer of disintegrin. The monomer folds into an up-down topology with three sets of antiparallel beta-strands. The structure is well ordered with four intramolecular disulfide bonds. the two monomers are firmly linked to each other through two intermolecular disulfide bridges at their N termini together with several other interactions. This structure has corrected the error in the disulfide bond pattern of the two intermolecular disulfide bridges that was reported earlier using chemical methods. Unique sequence and structural features of the schistatin monomers suggest that they have the ability to bind well with both alphaIIb beta3 and alphav beta3 integrins. The N termini anchored two chains of the dimer diverge away at their C termini exposing the Arg-Gly-Asp motif into opposite directions thus enhancing their binding efficiency to integrins. This is one of the unique features of the present disintegrin homodimer and seems to be responsible for the clustering of integrin molecules. The homodimer binds to integrins apparently with a higher affinity than the monomers and also plays a role in the signaling pathway. PMID:15317139

  8. A family of cellular proteins related to snake venom disintegrins.

    PubMed Central

    Weskamp, G; Blobel, C P

    1994-01-01

    Disintegrins are short soluble integrin ligands that were initially identified in snake venom. A previously recognized cellular protein with a disintegrin domain was the guinea pig sperm protein PH-30, a protein implicated in sperm-egg membrane binding and fusion. Here we present peptide sequences that are characteristic for several cellular disintegrin-domain proteins. These peptide sequences were deduced from cDNA sequence tags that were generated by polymerase chain reaction from various mouse tissue and a mouse muscle cell line. Northern blot analysis with four sequence tags revealed distinct mRNA expression patterns. Evidently, cellular proteins containing a disintegrin domain define a superfamily of potential integrin ligands that are likely to function in important cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. Images PMID:8146185

  9. Arg-Tyr-Asp (RYD) and Arg-Cys-Asp (RCD) motifs in dendroaspin promote selective inhibition of beta1 and beta3 integrins.

    PubMed Central

    Wattam, B; Shang, D; Rahman, S; Egglezou, S; Scully, M; Kakkar, V; Lu, X

    2001-01-01

    Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) is a unique minimal integrin-binding sequence that is found within several glycoprotein ligands. This sequence has also been found in snake-venom anti-platelet proteins, including the disintegrins and dendroaspin, a natural variant of short-chain neurotoxins isolated from the venom of Dendroaspis jamesonii. In the present study, the motifs RYD and RCD were introduced into the dendroaspin scaffold to replace RGD. Both motifs in dendroaspin caused inhibition of ADP-induced platelet aggregation with IC(50) values of 200 and 300 nM respectively, similar to that of the wild-type RGD motif (170 nM). In comparison with wild-type dendroaspin, both RYD- and RCD-containing dendroaspins were more selective in the inhibition of the adhesion of K562 cells to laminin rather than to fibrinogen and fibronectin, even though they were 10-30-fold less potent at inhibiting K562 cell (containing alpha(5)beta(1) integrin) adhesion to laminin compared with wild-type. Interestingly, the RYD motif produced a similar IC(50) value to the RGD motif at inhibiting A375-SM cell (beta(3) integrin) adhesion to collagen, whereas the RCD motif was approx. 2-6-fold less potent compared with either RGD or RYD. These findings show that the selectivity of dendroaspin binding to beta(1) and beta(3) integrins can be modulated by the introduction of alternative cell recognition sequences. PMID:11336631

  10. Modulation of RGD sequence motifs regulates disintegrin recognition of alphaIIb beta3 and alpha5 beta1 integrin complexes. Replacement of elegantin alanine-50 with proline, N-terminal to the RGD sequence, diminishes recognition of the alpha5 beta1 complex with restoration induced by Mn2+ cation.

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, S; Aitken, A; Flynn, G; Formstone, C; Savidge, G F

    1998-01-01

    Several recent studies have demonstrated that the amino acid residues flanking the RGD sequence of high-affinity ligands modulate their specificity of interaction with integrin complexes. The present study has addressed the role of the residues flanking the RGD sequence in regulating the recognition by disintegrin of the alphaIIb beta3 and alpha5beta1 complexes by construction of a panel of recombinant molecules of Elegantin (the platelet aggregation inhibitor from the venom of Trimerasurus elegans) expressing specific RGD sequence motifs. Wild-type Elegantin (ARGDNP) and several variants including Eleg. AM (ARGDMP), Eleg. PM (PRGDMP) and Eleg. PN (PRGDNP) were expressed as glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion proteins in Escherichia coli. The inhibitory efficacies of the panel of Elegantin variants were analysed in platelet adhesion assays with substrates immobilized with fibrinogen and fibronectin. Elegantin molecules containing an Ala residue N-terminal to the RGD sequence (wild-type Elegantin and Eleg. AM) showed strong inhibitory activity towards alphaIIbbeta3-dependent platelet adhesion on fibronectin, whereas a Pro residue in this position (Eleg. PM and Kistrin, the inhibitor from the venom of Calloselasma rhodostoma) engendered lower activity. The decreased activity could not be attributed to a decrease in the affinity of the disintegrin for the alphaIIb beta3 complex because both Eleg. AM and Eleg. PM had similar Kd (app) values. In contrast, Elegantin molecules into which a Met residue was introduced in place of the Asn residue C-terminal to the RGD sequence showed 10-13-fold elevated inhibitory activity towards platelet adhesion on fibrinogen and this was maintained with either a Pro or Ala residue N-terminal to the RGD sequence. In experiments with the alpha5 beta1 complex on K562 cells, the inhibitory efficacies of the panel of Elegantin molecules were analysed under two different cation conditions. First, in the presence of Ca2+/Mg2+, K562 cell

  11. Importance of interaction between nerve growth factor and α9β1 integrin in glial tumor angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Erin M.; Kim, Richard; Del Valle, Luis; Weaver, Michael; Sheffield, Joel; Lazarovici, Philip; Marcinkiewicz, Cezary

    2012-01-01

    NGF is a growth factor for which the role in the promotion of angiogenesis is still not completely understood. We found that NGF promotes the pathological neovascularization process in glioma through a direct interaction with α9β1 integrin, which is up-regulated on microvascular endothelial cells in cancer tissue. We propagated gHMVEC primary cells using a new method of immune-selection, and these cells demonstrated α9β1 integrin-dependent binding of NGF in a cell adhesion assay. Moreover, NGF induced gHMVEC proliferation and chemotaxis inhibited by specific blockers of α9β1 integrin, such as MLD-disintegrins and monoclonal antibody Y9A2. A Matrigel tube formation assay revealed that NGF significantly increased capillary-like growth from gHMVEC to a level comparable to treatment with VEGF. The snake venom disintegrin, VLO5, inhibited the agonistic effect of both growth factors, whereas the effect of Y9A2 was not statistically significant. Angiogenesis exogenously induced by NGF  was also α9β1-integrin dependent in an embryonic quail CAM system. However, angiogenesis pathologically induced by developing glioma in this system was only sensitive for inhibition with MLD-disintegrin, suggesting a more complex effect of cancer cells on the neovascularization process. The anti-angiogenic effect of MLD-disintegrins is probably related to their pro-apoptotic ability induced in activated tumoral endothelial cells. Therefore, the molecular basis of these disintegrins may be useful for developing new angiostatic pharmaceuticals for application in cancer therapy. PMID:22611032

  12. Stable Peptides Instead of Stapled Peptides: Highly Potent αvβ6-Selective Integrin Ligands.

    PubMed

    Maltsev, Oleg V; Marelli, Udaya Kiran; Kapp, Tobias G; Di Leva, Francesco Saverio; Di Maro, Salvatore; Nieberler, Markus; Reuning, Ute; Schwaiger, Markus; Novellino, Ettore; Marinelli, Luciana; Kessler, Horst

    2016-01-22

    The αvβ6 integrin binds the RGD-containing peptide of the foot and mouth disease virus with high selectivity. In this study, the long binding helix of this ligand was downsized to an enzymatically stable cyclic peptide endowed with sub-nanomolar binding affinity toward the αvβ6 receptor and remarkable selectivity against other integrins. Computational studies were performed to disclose the molecular bases underlying the high binding affinity and receptor subtype selectivity of this peptide. Finally, the utility of the ligand for use in biomedical studies was also demonstrated here. PMID:26663660

  13. Crystal structure of the disintegrin heterodimer from saw-scaled viper (Echis carinatus) at 1.9 A resolution.

    PubMed

    Bilgrami, Sameeta; Yadav, Savita; Kaur, Punit; Sharma, Sujata; Perbandt, Markus; Betzel, Christian; Singh, Tej P

    2005-08-23

    Disintegrins constitute a family of potent polypeptide inhibitors of integrins. Integrins are transmembrane heterodimeric molecules involved in cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions. They are involved in many diseases such as cancer and thrombosis. Thus, disintegrins have a great potential as anticancer and antithrombotic agents. A novel heterodimeric disintegrin was isolated from the venom of saw-scaled viper (Echis carinatus) and was crystallized. The crystals diffracted to 1.9 A resolution and belonged to space group P4(3)2(1)2. The data indicated the presence of a pseudosymmetry. The structure was solved by applying origin shifts to the disintegrin homodimer schistatin solved in space group I4(1)22 with similar cell dimensions. The structure refined to the final R(cryst)/R(free) factors of 0.213/0.253. The notable differences are observed between the loops, (Gln39-Asp48) containing the important Arg42-Gly43-Asp44, of the present heterodimer and schistatin. These differences are presumably due to the presence of two glycines at positions 43 and 46 that allow the molecule to adopt variable conformations. A comparative analysis of the surface-charge distributions of various disintegrins showed that the charge distribution on monomeric disintegrins occurred uniformly over the whole surface of the molecule, while in the dimeric disintegrins, the charge is distributed only on one face. Such a feature may be important in the binding of two integrins to a single dimeric disintegrin. The phylogenetic analysis developed on the basis of amino acid sequence and three-dimensional structures indicates that the protein diversification and evolution presumably took place from the medium disintegrins and both the dimeric and short disintegrins evolved from them. PMID:16101289

  14. Integrin activation state determines selectivity for novel recognition sites in fibrillar collagens.

    PubMed

    Siljander, Pia R-M; Hamaia, Samir; Peachey, Anthony R; Slatter, David A; Smethurst, Peter A; Ouwehand, Willem H; Knight, C Graham; Farndale, Richard W

    2004-11-12

    Only three recognition motifs, GFOGER, GLOGER, and GASGER, all present in type I collagen, have been identified to date for collagen-binding integrins, such as alpha(2)beta(1). Sequence alignment was used to investigate the occurrence of related motifs in other human fibrillar collagens, and located a conserved array of novel GER motifs within their triple helical domains. We compared the integrin binding properties of synthetic triple helical peptides containing examples of such sequences (GLSGER, GMOGER, GAOGER, and GQRGER) or the previously identified motifs. Recombinant inserted (I) domains of integrin subunits alpha(1), alpha(2) and alpha(11) all bound poorly to all motifs other than GFOGER and GLOGER. Similarly, alpha(2)beta(1) -containing resting platelets adhered well only to GFOGER and GLOGER, while ADP-activated platelets, HT1080 cells and two active alpha(2)I domain mutants (E318W, locked open) bound all motifs well, indicating that affinity modulation determines the sequence selectivity of integrins. GxO/SGER peptides inhibited platelet adhesion to collagen monomers with order of potency F >/= L >/= M > A. These results establish GFOGER as a high affinity sequence, which can interact with the alpha(2)I domain in the absence of activation and suggest that integrin reactivity of collagens may be predicted from their GER content. PMID:15345717

  15. Disintegrins from Snake Venoms and their Applications in Cancer 
Research and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Macêdo, Jéssica Kele Arruda; Fox, Jay W.; Castro, Mariana de Souza

    2015-01-01

    Integrins regulate diverse functions in cancer pathology and in tumor cell development and contribute to important processes such as cell shape, survival, proliferation, transcription, angiogenesis, migration, and invasion. A number of snake venom proteins have the ability to interact with integrins. Among these are the disintegrins, a family of small, non-enzymatic, and cysteine-rich proteins found in the venom of numerous snake families. The venom proteins may have a potential role in terms of novel therapeutic leads for cancer treatment. Disintegrin can target specific integrins and as such it is conceivable that they could interfere in important processes involved in carcinogenesis, tumor growth, invasion and migration. Herein we present a survey of studies involving the use of snake venom disintegrins for cancer detection and treatment. The aim of this review is to highlight the relationship of integrins with cancer and to present examples as to how certain disintegrins can detect and affect biological processes related to cancer. This in turn will illustrate the great potential of these molecules for cancer research. Furthermore, we also outline several new approaches being created to address problems commonly associated with the clinical application of peptide-based drugs such as instability, immunogenicity, and availability. PMID:26031306

  16. αvβ3- or α5β1-Integrin-Selective Peptidomimetics for Surface Coating.

    PubMed

    Mas-Moruno, Carlos; Fraioli, Roberta; Rechenmacher, Florian; Neubauer, Stefanie; Kapp, Tobias G; Kessler, Horst

    2016-06-13

    Engineering biomaterials with integrin-binding activity is a very powerful approach to promote cell adhesion, modulate cell behavior, and induce specific biological responses at the surface level. The aim of this Review is to illustrate the evolution of surface-coating molecules in this field: from peptides and proteins with relatively low integrin-binding activity and receptor selectivity to highly active and selective peptidomimetic ligands. In particular, we will bring into focus the difficult challenge of achieving selectivity between the two closely related integrin subtypes αvβ3 and α5β1. The functionalization of surfaces with such peptidomimetics opens the way for a new generation of highly specific cell-instructive surfaces to dissect the biological role of integrin subtypes and for application in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. PMID:27258759

  17. Selective Detection of RGD-Integrin Binding in Cancer Cells Using Tip Enhanced Raman Scattering Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Lifu; Wang, Hao; Schultz, Zachary D

    2016-06-21

    Ligand-receptor interactions play important roles in many biological processes. Cyclic arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) containing peptides are known to mimic the binding domain of extracellular matrix protein fibronectin and selectively bind to a subset of integrin receptors. Here we report the tip enhanced Raman scattering (TERS) detection of RGD-functionalized nanoparticles bound to integrins produces a Raman scattering signal specific to the bound protein. These results demonstrate that this method can detect and differentiate between two different integrins (α5β1 and αvβ3) bound to RGD-conjugated gold nanoparticles both on surfaces and in a cancer cell membrane. In situ measurements of RGD nanoparticles bound to purified α5β1 and αvβ3 receptors attached to a glass surface provide reference spectra for a multivariate regression model. The TERS spectra observed from nanoparticles bound to cell membranes are analyzed using this regression model and the identity of the receptor can be determined. The ability to distinguish between receptors in the cell membrane provides a new tool to chemically characterize ligand-receptor recognition at molecular level and provide chemical perspective on the molecular recognition of membrane receptors. PMID:27189228

  18. Inhibition of lung tumor colonization and cell migration with the disintegrin crotatroxin 2 isolated from the venom of Crotalus atrox.

    PubMed

    Galán, Jacob A; Sánchez, Elda E; Rodríguez-Acosta, Alexis; Soto, Julio G; Bashir, Sajid; McLane, Mary Ann; Paquette-Straub, Carrie; Pérez, John C

    2008-06-01

    Disintegrins are low molecular weight proteins (4-15 kDa) with an RGD binding region at their binding loop. Disintegrin and disintegrin-like proteins are found in the venom of four families of snakes: Atractaspididae, Elapidae, Viperidae, and Colubridae. This report describes the biological activity of a disintegrin, crotatroxin 2, isolated by a three-step chromatography procedure from the venom of the Western diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox). The intact molecular mass for crotatroxin 2 was 7.384 kDa and 71 amino acids. Crotatroxin 2 inhibited human whole blood platelet aggregation with an IC(50) of 17.5 nM, inhibited cell (66.3p) migration by 63%, and inhibited experimental lung tumor colonization in BALB/c mice at 1000 microg/kg. Our data suggest that while crotatroxin 2 inhibits platelet aggregation, cancer cell migration, and lung tumor colonization, it is done via different integrins. PMID:18387648

  19. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of disintegrin (schistatin) from saw-scaled viper (Echis carinatus).

    PubMed

    Tomar, S; Yadav, S; Chandra, V; Kumar, P; Singh, T P

    2001-11-01

    This is the first report of crystallographic data on a disintegrin molecule from any source. The heterodimeric disintegrin with a molecular weight of 14 kDa from Echis carinatus venom is a potent antagonist of alpha4 integrins. The intact disintegrin, containing two subunits A and B, was isolated and purified using affinity and ion-exchange columns. It has been crystallized using 1.6 M ammonium sulfate as a precipitating agent. The crystals grew to dimensions of 0.25 x 0.20 x 0.20 mm and diffracted to 2.5 A resolution. The crystals belong to space group I4(1)22, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 91.7, c = 55.1 A. Assuming a molecular weight of 14 kDa, a V(M) of 2.1 A(3) Da(-1) is obtained for one molecule of disintegrin in the asymmetric unit. PMID:11679739

  20. The disintegrin tzabcanin inhibits adhesion and migration in melanoma and lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Saviola, Anthony J; Burns, Patrick D; Mukherjee, Ashis K; Mackessy, Stephen P

    2016-07-01

    Integrins play an essential role in cancer survival and invasion, and they have been major targets in drug development and design. Disintegrins are small (4-16kDa) viperid snake venom proteins that exhibit a canonical integrin-binding site (often RGD). These non-enzymatic proteins inhibit integrin-mediated cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions, making them potential candidates as therapeutics in cancer and numerous other human disorders. The present study examined the cytotoxic, anti-adhesion, and anti-migration effects of a recently characterized disintegrin, tzabcanin, towards melanoma (A-375) and lung (A-549) cancer cell lines. Tzabcanin inhibits adhesion of both cells lines to vitronectin and exhibited very weak cytotoxicity towards A-375 cells; however, it had no effect on cell viability of A-549 cells. Further, tzabcanin significantly inhibited migration of both cell lines in cell scratch/wound healing assays. Flow cytometric analysis indicates that both A-375 and A-549 cell lines express integrin αvβ3, a critical integrin in tumor motility and invasion, and a major receptor of the extracellular matrix protein vitronectin. Flow cytometric analysis also identified αvβ3 as a binding site of tzabcanin. These results suggest that tzabcanin may have utility in the development of anticancer therapies, or may be used as a biomarker to detect neoplasms that over-express integrin αvβ3. PMID:27060015

  1. Disintegrins of Crotalus simus tzabcan venom: Isolation, characterization and evaluation of the cytotoxic and anti-adhesion activities of tzabcanin, a new RGD disintegrin.

    PubMed

    Saviola, Anthony J; Modahl, Cassandra M; Mackessy, Stephen P

    2015-09-01

    Disintegrins are small non-enzymatic proteins common in the venoms of many viperid snakes. These proteins have received significant attention due to their ability to inhibit platelet aggregation and cell adhesion, making them model compounds in drug development and design investigations. The present study used a combination of molecular and proteomic techniques to screen the venom of the Middle American Rattlesnake (Crotalus simus tzabcan) for novel disintegrins. Six disintegrin isoforms were identified, and the most abundant, named tzabcanin, was further isolated and characterized. Tzabcanin consists of 71 amino acids, has a mass of 7105 Da (by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry) and contains the canonical RGD binding domain. Tzabcanin was not cytotoxic to MCF-7 cells but showed weak cytotoxicity to Colo-205 cells following a 24 h incubation period. Tzabcanin inhibited cell adhesion of both cell lines to immobilized fibronectin and vitronectin, and cell adhesion to immobilized tzabcanin was inhibited when cells were incubated with a cation chelator (EDTA), indicating that integrin-tzabcanin binding is specific. This study provides a detailed analysis of the purification and characterization of tzabcanin and provides sequence and mass data for the multiple disintegrins present in the venom of C. s. tzabcan. PMID:26163300

  2. High-Affinity Self-Reactive Human Antibodies by Design and Selection: Targeting the Integrin Ligand Binding Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbas, Carlos F., III; Languino, Lucia R.; Smith, Jeffrey W.

    1993-11-01

    A strategy for the design and selection of human antibodies that bind receptors is described. We have demonstrated the validity of the approach by producing semisynthetic human antibodies that bind integrins α_vβ_3 and αIIbβ_3 with high affinity (10-10 M). The selected antibodies mimic the integrins' natural ligands as demonstrated by their ability to compete with these ligands and Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD)-containing peptides for binding to the integrins. Furthermore, the antibodies bind in a cation-dependent fashion and are functional in cell adhesion assays. Antibodies that are high-affinity inhibitors of cell adhesion receptors should be of use in assessing receptor function and dissecting mechanisms of adhesion. Semisynthetic human antibodies that target integrins are potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of a number of diseases including thrombosis and metastasis. Furthermore, antibodies that are optimized to bind by a single complementarity determining region may be important lead compounds for the design of small molecule pharmaceuticals.

  3. A small molecule induces integrin β4 nuclear translocation and apoptosis selectively in cancer cells with high expression of integrin β4

    PubMed Central

    Liu, ShuYan; Ge, Di; Chen, LiNa; Zhao, Jing; Su, Le; Zhang, ShangLi; Miao, JunYing; Zhao, BaoXiang

    2016-01-01

    Increased integrin β4 (ITGB4) level is accompanied by malignant progression of multiple carcinomas. However, selective therapeutic strategies against cancer cells expressing a high level of ITGB4 have not been reported. Here, for the first time, we report that a chiral small molecule, SEC, selectively promotes apoptosis in cancer cells expressing a high level of ITGB4 by inducing ITGB4 nuclear translocation. Nuclear ITGB4 can bind to the ATF3 promoter region and activate the expression of ATF3, then upregulate the downstream pro-apoptosis genes. Furthermore, SEC promoted the binding of annexin A7 (ANXA7) to ITGB4 and increased ANXA7 GTPase activity. Activated ANXA7 promoted ITGB4 nuclear translocation by triggering ITGB4 phosphorylation at Y1494. SEC also inhibited the growth of xenograft tumors in the avian embryo model. We identified a small molecule, SEC, with selective pro-apoptosis effects on cancer cells with high expression of ITGB4, both in vitro and in vivo, by triggering the binding of ITGB4 and ANXA7, ITGB4 nuclear trafficking, and pro-apoptosis gene expression. PMID:26918348

  4. Isolation and characterization of four medium-size disintegrins from the venoms of Central American viperid snakes of the genera Atropoides, Bothrops, Cerrophidion and Crotalus.

    PubMed

    Angulo, Yamileth; Castro, Adriana; Lomonte, Bruno; Rucavado, Alexandra; Fernández, Julián; Calvete, Juan J; Gutiérrez, José María

    2014-12-01

    Four disintegrins were isolated from the venoms of the Central American viperid snakes Atropoides mexicanus (atropoimin), Bothrops asper (bothrasperin), Cerrophidion sasai (sasaimin), and Crotalus simus (simusmin). Purifications were performed by reverse-phase HPLC. The four disintegrins have biochemical characteristics, i.e. molecular mass and location of Cys, which allow their classification within the group of medium-size disintegrins. All of them present the canonical RGD sequence, which determines their interaction with integrins in cell membranes. The disintegrins inhibited ADP and collagen-induced human platelet aggregation, with similar IC50s in the nM range. In addition, disintegrins inhibited the adhesion of an endothelial cell line and a melanoma cell line to the extracellular matrix proteins type I collagen, laminin, fibronectin, and vitronectin, albeit showing variable ability to exert this activity. This study expands the inventory of this family of viperid venom proteins, and reports, for the first time, disintegrins from the venoms of species of the genera Atropoides and Cerrophidion. PMID:25457103

  5. Integrin activation

    PubMed Central

    Ginsberg, Mark H.

    2014-01-01

    Integrin-mediated cell adhesion is important for development, immune responses, hemostasis and wound healing. Integrins also function as signal transducing receptors that can control intracellular pathways that regulate cell survival, proliferation, and cell fate. Conversely, cells can modulate the affinity of integrins for their ligands a process operationally defined as integrin activation. Analysis of activation of integrins has now provided a detailed molecular understanding of this unique form of “inside-out” signal transduction and revealed new paradigms of how transmembrane domains (TMD) can transmit long range allosteric changes in transmembrane proteins. Here, we will review how talin and mediates integrin activation and how the integrin TMD can transmit these inside out signals. [BMB Reports 2014; 47(12): 655-659] PMID:25388208

  6. Integrin receptors play a role in the internalin B-dependent entry of Listeria monocytogenes into host cells.

    PubMed

    Auriemma, Clementina; Viscardi, Maurizio; Tafuri, Simona; Pavone, Luigi Michele; Capuano, Federico; Rinaldi, Laura; Della Morte, Rossella; Iovane, Giuseppe; Staiano, Norma

    2010-09-01

    Listeria monocytogenes enters non-phagocytic cells by binding its surface proteins inlA (internalin) and inlB to the host's E-cadherin and Met, respectively. The two internalins play either separate or cooperative roles in the colonization of infected tissues. Here, we studied bacterial uptake into HeLa cells using an L. monocytogenes mutant strain (DeltainlA) carrying a deletion in the gene coding for inlA. The DeltainlA mutant strain showed the capability to invade HeLa cells. The monoclonal anti-beta(3)- and anti-beta(1)-integrin subunit antibodies prevented bacterial uptake into the cells, while the anti-beta(2)- and anti-beta(4)-integrin subunit antibodies failed to affect L. monocytogenes entry into HeLa cells. Three structurally distinct disintegrins (kistrin, echistatin and flavoridin) also inhibited bacterial uptake, showing different potencies correlated to their selective affinity for the beta(3)- and beta(1)-integrin subunits. In addition to inducing Met phosphorylation, infection of cells by the L. monocytogenes DeltainlA mutant strain promoted the tyrosine phosphorylation of the focal adhesion-associated proteins FAK and paxillin. Our findings provide the first evidence that beta(3)- and beta(1)-integrin receptors play a role in the inlB-dependent internalization of L. monocytogenes into host cells. PMID:20526749

  7. Small Cause, Great Impact: Modification of the Guanidine Group in the RGD Motif Controls Integrin Subtype Selectivity.

    PubMed

    Kapp, Tobias G; Fottner, Maximilian; Maltsev, Oleg V; Kessler, Horst

    2016-01-22

    Due to its unique role as a hydrogen-bond donor and its positive charge, the guanidine group is an important pharmacophoric group and often used in synthetic ligands. The chemical modification of the guanidine group is often considered to destroy its function. Herein, we show that the N-methylation, N-alkylation, or N-acylation of the guanidine group can be used to modify the receptor subtype specificity of the integrin ligand cilengitide. Using the αvβ6/α5β1-biselective ligand c(isoDGRkphg) and the αvβ6-specific ligand c(FRGDLAFp(NMe)K(Ac) as examples, we show that the binding affinities of the ligands can be fine-tuned by this method to enhance the selectivity for αvβ6. Furthermore, we describe a new strategy for the functionalization of integrin ligands. By introducing longer N-alkylguanidine and N-acylguanidine groups, we are able to simultaneously identify a hitherto unknown anchoring point and enhance the subtype selectivity of the ligand. PMID:26663700

  8. Recombinant disintegrin domain of ADAM15 inhibits the proliferation and migration of Bel-7402 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hou, Y.; Chu, M.; Du, F.F.; Lei, J.Y.; Chen, Y.; Zhu, R.Y.; Gong, X.H.; Ma, X.; Jin, J.

    2013-06-14

    Highlights: •rhddADAM15 inhibited the proliferation and migration of Bel-7402 cells. •rhddADAM15 inhibited growth and metastasis of Bel-7402 cells in zebrafish xenograft. •rhddADAM15 induced apoptosis in Bel-7402 cells and somatic cells of zebrafish. •Cell-cycle in Bel-7402 cells showed a partial G{sub 2}/S arrest. •Activity of caspases 8, 9 and 3 was increased in rhddADAM15-treated Bel-7402 cells. -- Abstract: ADAM15 (A Disintegrin And Metalloproteinase 15), a transmembrane protein containing seven domains, interacts with some integrins via its disintegrin domain and overexpresses in many solid tumors. In this study, the effect of the recombinant human disintegrin domain (rhddADAM15) on the proliferation and migration of Bel-7402 cells was evaluated in vitro and in vivo in zebrafish xenografts. rhddADAM15 (4 μM) severely inhibited the proliferation and migration of Bel-7402 cells, inducing a partial G{sub 2}/S arrest and morphological nucleus changes of apoptosis. Moreover, the activity of caspases 8, 9 and 3 in Bel-7402 cells was increased. In addition, the zebrafish was used as a model for apoptosis-induction and tumor-xenograft. rhddADAM15 (1 pM) inhibited the growth and metastasis of Bel-7402 cell xenografts in zebrafish and a lower concentration (0.1 pM) induced severe apoptosis in the somatic cells of zebrafish. In conclusion, our data identified rhddADAM15 as a potent inhibitor of tumor growth and metastasis, making it a promising tool for use in anticancer treatment.

  9. Differential Expression Levels of Integrin α6 Enable the Selective Identification and Isolation of Atrial and Ventricular Cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Wiencierz, Anne Maria; Kernbach, Manuel; Ecklebe, Josephine; Monnerat, Gustavo; Tomiuk, Stefan; Raulf, Alexandra; Christalla, Peter; Malan, Daniela; Hesse, Michael; Bosio, Andreas; Fleischmann, Bernd K.; Eckardt, Dominik

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Central questions such as cardiomyocyte subtype emergence during cardiogenesis or the availability of cardiomyocyte subtypes for cell replacement therapy require selective identification and purification of atrial and ventricular cardiomyocytes. However, current methodologies do not allow for a transgene-free selective isolation of atrial or ventricular cardiomyocytes due to the lack of subtype specific cell surface markers. Methods and Results In order to develop cell surface marker-based isolation procedures for cardiomyocyte subtypes, we performed an antibody-based screening on embryonic mouse hearts. Our data indicate that atrial and ventricular cardiomyocytes are characterized by differential expression of integrin α6 (ITGA6) throughout development and in the adult heart. We discovered that the expression level of this surface marker correlates with the intracellular subtype-specific expression of MLC-2a and MLC-2v on the single cell level and thereby enables the discrimination of cardiomyocyte subtypes by flow cytometry. Based on the differential expression of ITGA6 in atria and ventricles during cardiogenesis, we developed purification protocols for atrial and ventricular cardiomyocytes from mouse hearts. Atrial and ventricular identities of sorted cells were confirmed by expression profiling and patch clamp analysis. Conclusion Here, we introduce a non-genetic, antibody-based approach to specifically isolate highly pure and viable atrial and ventricular cardiomyocytes from mouse hearts of various developmental stages. This will facilitate in-depth characterization of the individual cellular subsets and support translational research applications. PMID:26618511

  10. Disintegrin-like domain of glycoprotein B regulates Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus infection of cells.

    PubMed

    Walker, Lia R; Hussein, Hosni A M; Akula, Shaw M

    2014-08-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) glycoprotein B (gB) is a lytic structural protein expressed on the envelope of mature virions and on the membrane of cells supporting lytic infection. In addition to this viral glycoprotein's interaction with integrins via its RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) motif, KSHV gB possesses a disintegrin-like domain (DLD), which binds integrins as well. Prior to this study, there has been minimal research involving the less common integrin-binding motif, DLD, of gB as it pertains to herpesvirus infection. By using phage display peptide library screening and molecular biology techniques, the DLD of KSHV gB was shown to interact specifically with non-RGD binding α9β1 integrins. Similarly, monitoring wild-type infection confirmed α9β1:DLD interactions to be critical to successful KSHV infection of human foreskin fibroblast (HFF) cells and human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC-d) compared with 293 cells. To further demonstrate the importance of the DLD of gB in KSHV infection, two recombinant virus constructs were generated using a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) system harbouring the KSHV genome (BAC36): BAC36ΔD-KSHV (lacking a functionally intact DLD of gB and containing an introduced tetracycline cassette) and BAC36.T-KSHV (containing an intact DLD sequence and an introduced tetracycline cassette). Accordingly, BAC36ΔD-KSHV presented significantly lower infection rates in HFF and HMVEC-d cells compared with the comparable infection rates achieved by wild-type BAC36-KSHV and BAC36.T-KSHV. Thus, the present report has delineated a critical role for the DLD of gB in KSHV infection, which may lead to a broader knowledge regarding the sophisticated mechanisms utilized by virus-encoded structural proteins in KSHV entry and infection. PMID:24814923

  11. Integrin Targeted Delivery of Chemotherapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kai; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2011-01-01

    Targeted delivery of chemotherapeutics is defined in the sense, that is, to maximize the therapeutic index of a chemotherapeutic agent by strictly localizing its pharmacological activity to the site or tissue of action. Integrins are a family of heterodimeric transmembrane glycoproteins involved in a wide range of cell-to-extracellular matrix (ECM) and cell-to-cell interactions. As cell surface receptors, integrins readily interact with extracellular ligands and play a vital role in angiogenesis, leukocytes function and tumor development, which sets up integrins as an excellent target for chemotherapy treatment. The peptide ligands containing the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD), which displays a strong binding affinity and selectivity to integrins, particularly to integrin αvβ3, have been developed to conjugate with various conventional chemotherapeutic agents, such as small molecules, peptides and proteins, and nanoparticle-carried drugs for integtrin targeted therapeutic studies. This review highlights the recent advances in integrin targeted delivery of chemotherapeutic agents with emphasis on target of integrin αvβ3, and describes the considerations for the design of the diverse RGD peptide-chemotherapeutics conjugates and their major applications. PMID:21547159

  12. A Disintegrin and Metalloprotease (ADAM): Historical Overview of Their Functions

    PubMed Central

    Giebeler, Nives; Zigrino, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Since the discovery of the first disintegrin protein from snake venom and the following identification of a mammalian membrane-anchored metalloprotease-disintegrin implicated in fertilization, almost three decades of studies have identified additional members of these families and several biochemical mechanisms regulating their expression and activity in the cell. Most importantly, new in vivo functions have been recognized for these proteins including cell partitioning during development, modulation of inflammatory reactions, and development of cancers. In this review, we will overview the a disintegrin and metalloprotease (ADAM) family of proteases highlighting some of the major research achievements in the analysis of ADAMs’ function that have underscored the importance of these proteins in physiological and pathological processes over the years. PMID:27120619

  13. A Disintegrin and Metalloprotease (ADAM): Historical Overview of Their Functions.

    PubMed

    Giebeler, Nives; Zigrino, Paola

    2016-04-01

    Since the discovery of the first disintegrin protein from snake venom and the following identification of a mammalian membrane-anchored metalloprotease-disintegrin implicated in fertilization, almost three decades of studies have identified additional members of these families and several biochemical mechanisms regulating their expression and activity in the cell. Most importantly, new in vivo functions have been recognized for these proteins including cell partitioning during development, modulation of inflammatory reactions, and development of cancers. In this review, we will overview the a disintegrin and metalloprotease (ADAM) family of proteases highlighting some of the major research achievements in the analysis of ADAMs' function that have underscored the importance of these proteins in physiological and pathological processes over the years. PMID:27120619

  14. Integrins in Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Koivisto, Leeni; Heino, Jyrki; Häkkinen, Lari; Larjava, Hannu

    2014-01-01

    Significance: Regulation of cell adhesions during tissue repair is fundamentally important for cell migration, proliferation, and protein production. All cells interact with extracellular matrix proteins with cell surface integrin receptors that convey signals from the environment into the nucleus, regulating gene expression and cell behavior. Integrins also interact with a variety of other proteins, such as growth factors, their receptors, and proteolytic enzymes. Re-epithelialization and granulation tissue formation are crucially dependent on the temporospatial function of multiple integrins. This review explains how integrins function in wound repair. Recent Advances: Certain integrins can activate latent transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1) that modulates wound inflammation and granulation tissue formation. Dysregulation of TGF-β1 function is associated with scarring and fibrotic disorders. Therefore, these integrins represent targets for therapeutic intervention in fibrosis. Critical Issues: Integrins have multifaceted functions and extensive crosstalk with other cell surface receptors and molecules. Moreover, in aberrant healing, integrins may assume different functions, further increasing the complexity of their functionality. Discovering and understanding the role that integrins play in wound healing provides an opportunity to identify the mechanisms for medical conditions, such as excessive scarring, chronic wounds, and even cancer. Future Directions: Integrin functions in acute and chronic wounds should be further addressed in models better mimicking human wounds. Application of any products in acute or chronic wounds will potentially alter integrin functions that need to be carefully considered in the design. PMID:25493210

  15. The Biomechanical Integrin

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Erin L.; Zaman, Muhammad H.

    2009-01-01

    The integrin lies at the center of our efforts to understand mechanotransduction in the human body. Over the past two decades, a wealth of information has yielded important insights into integrin structure and functioning in biochemical pathways; however, relatively little emphasis has been placed on mechanics. In this article, we review the current knowledge base of integrin mechanobiology by examining the role of integrins in stabilizing tissue structure, the mechanisms of integrin force transfer, the process of cell migration, and the pathology of cancer. In order to successfully address the gaps in cancer and other disease research going forward, future efforts of integrin mechanobiology must focus on examining cells in 3D environments and integrating our current understanding into computational models that predict the behavior of integrins in non-equilibrium interactions. PMID:19811786

  16. Tumor Targeting via Integrin Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Marelli, Udaya Kiran; Rechenmacher, Florian; Sobahi, Tariq Rashad Ali; Mas-Moruno, Carlos; Kessler, Horst

    2013-01-01

    Selective and targeted delivery of drugs to tumors is a major challenge for an effective cancer therapy and also to overcome the side-effects associated with current treatments. Overexpression of various receptors on tumor cells is a characteristic structural and biochemical aspect of tumors and distinguishes them from physiologically normal cells. This abnormal feature is therefore suitable for selectively directing anticancer molecules to tumors by using ligands that can preferentially recognize such receptors. Several subtypes of integrin receptors that are crucial for cell adhesion, cell signaling, cell viability, and motility have been shown to have an upregulated expression on cancer cells. Thus, ligands that recognize specific integrin subtypes represent excellent candidates to be conjugated to drugs or drug carrier systems and be targeted to tumors. In this regard, integrins recognizing the RGD cell adhesive sequence have been extensively targeted for tumor-specific drug delivery. Here we review key recent examples on the presentation of RGD-based integrin ligands by means of distinct drug-delivery systems, and discuss the prospects of such therapies to specifically target tumor cells. PMID:24010121

  17. The Disintegrin-like and Cysteine-rich domains of ADAM-9 Mediate Interactions between Melanoma Cells and Fibroblasts*

    PubMed Central

    Zigrino, Paola; Nischt, Roswitha; Mauch, Cornelia

    2011-01-01

    A characteristic of malignant cells is their capacity to invade their surrounding and to metastasize to distant organs. During these processes, proteolytic activities of tumor and stromal cells modify the extracellular matrix to produce a microenvironment suitable for their growth and migration. In recent years the family of ADAM proteases has been ascribed important roles in these processes. ADAM-9 is expressed in human melanoma at the tumor-stroma border where direct or indirect interactions between tumor cells and fibroblasts occur. To analyze the role of ADAM-9 for the interaction between melanoma cells and stromal fibroblasts, we produced the recombinant disintegrin-like and cysteine-rich domain of ADAM-9 (DC-9). Melanoma cells and human fibroblasts adhered to immobilized DC-9 in a Mn2+-dependent fashion suggesting an integrin-mediated process. Inhibition studies showed that adhesion of fibroblasts was mediated by several β1 integrin receptors independent of the RGD and ECD recognition motif. Furthermore, interaction of fibroblasts and high invasive melanoma cells with soluble recombinant DC-9 resulted in enhanced expression of MMP-1 and MMP-2. Silencing of ADAM-9 in melanoma cells significantly reduced cell adhesion to fibroblasts. Ablation of ADAM-9 in fibroblasts almost completely abolished these cellular interactions and melanoma cell invasion in vitro. In summary, these results suggest that ADAM-9 expression plays an important role in mediating cell-cell contacts between fibroblasts and melanoma cells and that these interactions contribute to proteolytic activities required during invasion of melanoma cells. PMID:21135106

  18. Analysis of transcripts encoding novel members of the mammalian metalloprotease-like, disintegrin-like, cysteine-rich (MDC) protein family and their expression in reproductive and non-reproductive monkey tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Perry, A C; Jones, R; Hall, L

    1995-01-01

    A number of sequence-related, cysteine-rich proteins containing metalloprotease-like and disintegrin-like domains (the MDC protein family), at least one of which has been shown to play a role in egg recognition during fertilization, are abundantly expressed in the mammalian male reproductive tract. In this paper we report the cloning and sequence analysis of three closely related isoforms of a novel member of this family which are expressed not only in the testis, but also in the liver, albeit at a lower level. Using a PCR-based approach we also demonstrate the presence of transcripts encoding additional, novel, disintegrin-containing proteins, in the liver and epididymis. We conclude that while some members of the MDC family are specific to the reproductive tract, suggesting functions peculiar to those tissues, others have a broader tissue distribution and may therefore play a more general role in integrin-mediated cell-cell recognition, adhesion or signalling. PMID:7492319

  19. Recombinant disintegrin (r-Cam-dis) from Crotalus adamanteus inhibits adhesion of human pancreatic cancer cell lines to laminin-1 and vitronectin.

    PubMed

    Suntravat, Montamas; Barret, Henriquez S; Jurica, Cameron A; Lucena, Sara E; Perez, John C; Sánchez, Elda E

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a malignant cancer common worldwide having poor prognosis, even when diagnosed at its early stage. Cell adhesion plays a critical role in cancer invasion and metastasis. Integrins are major mediators of cell adhesion and play an important role in invasion and metastatic growth of human pancreatic cancer cells. Snake disintegrins are the most potent ligands of several integrins and have potential therapeutic applications for cancers. We have previously cloned and expressed a new recombinant RGD-disintegrin from Crotalus adamanteus (r-Cam-dis). This recently published r-Cam-dis has an extra nine amino acids derived from the vector (SPGARGSEF) at the N-terminus end and has strong anti-platelet activity. However, this r-Cam-dis contains the contamination of the cleavage of the N-terminal end of the pET-43.1a cloning vector. In this study, we have cloned r-Cam-dis in a different cloning vector (pGEX-4T-1) showing five different amino acids (GSPEF) at the N-terminal part. This new r-Cam-dis was expressed and tested for inhibition of platelet aggregation, specific binding activity with seven different integrins, and inhibition of adhesion of three different pancreatic cancer cell lines on laminin-1 and vitronectin. The r-Cam-dis showed potent binding to αvβ3 integrin, but was moderate to weak with αvβ5, αvβ6, α2β1, and α6β1. Interestingly, the inhibition of r-Cam-dis on pancreatic cancer cell lines adhesion to laminin-1 was more effective than that to vitronectin. Based on our binding results to integrin receptors and previous adhesion studies using function-blocking monoclonal antibodies, it is suggested that r-Cam-dis could be inhibiting adhesion of pancreatic cancer cell lines through integrins α2β1, α6β1, αvβ5, and αvβ6. PMID:26045944

  20. Targeting the expression of integrin receptors in tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloch, Sharon; Liang, Kexian; Dorshow, Richard B.; Ye, Yunpeng; Achilefu, Samuel I.

    2004-06-01

    Expression of integrin αvβ3 is upregulated in a number of cancers including colon, pancreas, lung and breast. Additionally, αvβ3 integrin expression has been linked to tumor metastasis and targeting this cell surface protein could provide a viable approach to image and evaluate the metastatic potential of tumors. Accordingly, we evaluated the selective retention of some near infrared (NIR) fluorescent probes in nude mice bearing A549 lung cancer xenograft that express αvβ3 integrin. Our preliminary results indicate that a novel NIR probe designed to target this integrin selectively accumulated in A549 tumor while other non-integrin specific probes were not retained in the tumor. Blocking studies show that tumor uptake of the probe is mediated by αvβ3 integrin receptor.

  1. Integrins and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Ganguly, Kirat Kumar; Pal, Sekhar; Moulik, Shuvojit; Chatterjee, Amitava

    2013-01-01

    Metastasis is a combination of biological events that makes the difference between cancer and other diseases. Metastasis requires flow of erroneous but precisely coordinated basic cellular activities like cell migration–invasion, cell survival–apoptosis, cell proliferation, etc. All of these processes require efficient regulation of cell attachment and detachment, which recruit integrin receptors in this flow of events. World literatures show several aspects of interrelation of integrins and metastasis. Integrin molecules are being used as prime target to battle metastasis. In this review we are collating the observations showing importance of integrin biology in regulation of metastasis and the strategies where integrin receptors are being used as targets to regulate metastasis. PMID:23563505

  2. cDNA cloning of a snake venom metalloproteinase from the eastern diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus), and the expression of its disintegrin domain with anti-platelet effects

    PubMed Central

    Suntravat, Montamas; Jia, Ying; Lucena, Sara E.; Sánchez, Elda E.; Pérez, John C.

    2013-01-01

    A 5′ truncated snake venom metalloproteinase was identified from a cDNA library constructed from venom glands of an eastern diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus). The 5′-rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) was used to obtain the 1865 bp full-length cDNA sequence of a snake venom metalloproteinase (CamVMPII). CamVMPII encodes an open reading frame of 488 amino acids, which includes a signal peptide, a pro-domain, a metalloproteinase domain, a spacer, and an RGD-disintegrin domain. The predicted amino acid sequence of CamVMPII showed a 91%, 90%, 83%, and 82% sequence homology to the P-II class enzymes of C. adamanteus metalloproteinase 2, C. atrox CaVMP-II, Gloydius halys agkistin, and Protobothrops jerdonii jerdonitin, respectively. Disintegrins are potent inhibitors of both platelet aggregation and integrin-dependent cell adhesion. Therefore, the disintegrin domain (Cam-dis) of CamVMPII was amplified by PCR, cloned into a pET-43.1a vector, and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21. Affinity purified recombinantly modified Cam-dis (r-Cam-dis) with a yield of 8.5 mg/L culture medium was cleaved from the fusion tags by enterokinase cleavage. r-Cam-dis was further purified by two-step chromatography consisting of HiTrap™ Benzamidine FF column, followed by Talon Metal affinity column with a final yield of 1 mg/L culture. r-Cam-dis was able to inhibit all three processes of platelet thrombus formation including platelet adhesion with an estimated IC50 of 1 nM, collagen- and ADP-induced platelet aggregation with the estimated IC50s of 18 and 6 nM, respectively, and platelet function on clot retraction. It is a potent anti-platelet inhibitor, which should be further investigated for drug discovery to treat stroke patients or patients with thrombotic disorders. PMID:23313448

  3. Integrin endosomal signalling suppresses anoikis.

    PubMed

    Alanko, Jonna; Mai, Anja; Jacquemet, Guillaume; Schauer, Kristine; Kaukonen, Riina; Saari, Markku; Goud, Bruno; Ivaska, Johanna

    2015-11-01

    Integrin-containing focal adhesions transmit extracellular signals across the plasma membrane to modulate cell adhesion, signalling and survival. Although integrins are known to undergo continuous endo/exocytic traffic, the potential impact of endocytic traffic on integrin-induced signals is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that integrin signalling is not restricted to cell-ECM adhesions and identify an endosomal signalling platform that supports integrin signalling away from the plasma membrane. We show that active focal adhesion kinase (FAK), an established marker of integrin-ECM downstream signalling, localizes with active integrins on endosomes. Integrin endocytosis positively regulates adhesion-induced FAK activation, which is early endosome antigen-1 and small GTPase Rab21 dependent. FAK binds directly to purified endosomes and becomes activated on them, suggesting a role for endocytosis in enhancing distinct integrin downstream signalling events. Finally, endosomal integrin signalling contributes to cancer-related processes such as anoikis resistance, anchorage independence and metastasis. PMID:26436690

  4. Mechanotransduction through Integrins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingber, Donald

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this project was to characterize the molecular mechanism by which cells recognize and respond to physical forces in their local environment. The project was based on the working hypothesis that cells sense mechanical stresses through cell surface integrin receptors and through their interconnections with the underlying cytoskeleton. Work completed and published in past funding period had provided direct support for this hypothesis. In particular, we demonstrated that application of mechanical stresses to activated integrin receptors (but not inactive integrins or other control transmembrane receptors) resulted in stress-dependent activation of the CAMP signaling pathway leading to gene transcription. We also showed that this form of mechanotransduction requires activation of heterotrimeric G proteins. In this grant, our specific aims included: 1) to characterize the signal processing capabilities of different integrins and other cell surface receptors, 2) to identify heterotrimeric G proteins that mediate CAMP signaling by stresses applied to integrins, 3) to identify molecules that mediate transmembrane mechanochemical coupling between integrins and G proteins, and 4) to use genome-wide gene expression profiling techniques to identify other genes and signaling pathways that are activated by mechanical forces transmitted over specific cell surface receptors. Elucidation of the mechanism by which cells sense mechanical stresses through integrins and translate them into a biochemical response should help us to understand the molecular basis of the cellular response to gravity as well as many other forms of mechanosensation and tissue regulation.

  5. Inhibition of integrin α2β1 ameliorates glomerular injury.

    PubMed

    Borza, Corina M; Su, Yan; Chen, Xiwu; Yu, Ling; Mont, Stacey; Chetyrkin, Sergei; Voziyan, Paul; Hudson, Billy G; Billings, Paul C; Jo, Hyunil; Bennett, Joel S; Degrado, William F; Eckes, Beate; Zent, Roy; Pozzi, Ambra

    2012-06-01

    Mesangial cells and podocytes express integrins α1β1 and α2β1, which are the two major collagen receptors that regulate multiple cellular functions, including extracellular matrix homeostasis. Integrin α1β1 protects from glomerular injury by negatively regulating collagen production, but the role of integrin α2β1 in renal injury is unclear. Here, we subjected wild-type and integrin α2-null mice to injury with adriamycin or partial renal ablation. In both of these models, integrin α2-null mice developed significantly less proteinuria and glomerulosclerosis. In addition, selective pharmacological inhibition of integrin α2β1 significantly reduced adriamycin-induced proteinuria, glomerular injury, and collagen deposition in wild-type mice. This inhibitor significantly reduced collagen synthesis in wild-type, but not integrin α2-null, mesangial cells in vitro, demonstrating that its effects are integrin α2β1-dependent. Taken together, these results indicate that integrin α2β1 contributes to glomerular injury by positively regulating collagen synthesis and suggest that its inhibition may be a promising strategy to reduce glomerular injury and proteinuria. PMID:22440900

  6. Inhibition of Integrin α2β1 Ameliorates Glomerular Injury

    PubMed Central

    Borza, Corina M.; Su, Yan; Chen, Xiwu; Yu, Ling; Mont, Stacey; Chetyrkin, Sergei; Voziyan, Paul; Hudson, Billy G.; Billings, Paul C.; Jo, Hyunil; Bennett, Joel S.; DeGrado, William F.; Eckes, Beate; Zent, Roy

    2012-01-01

    Mesangial cells and podocytes express integrins α1β1 and α2β1, which are the two major collagen receptors that regulate multiple cellular functions, including extracellular matrix homeostasis. Integrin α1β1 protects from glomerular injury by negatively regulating collagen production, but the role of integrin α2β1 in renal injury is unclear. Here, we subjected wild-type and integrin α2-null mice to injury with adriamycin or partial renal ablation. In both of these models, integrin α2-null mice developed significantly less proteinuria and glomerulosclerosis. In addition, selective pharmacological inhibition of integrin α2β1 significantly reduced adriamycin-induced proteinuria, glomerular injury, and collagen deposition in wild-type mice. This inhibitor significantly reduced collagen synthesis in wild-type, but not integrin α2-null, mesangial cells in vitro, demonstrating that its effects are integrin α2β1-dependent. Taken together, these results indicate that integrin α2β1 contributes to glomerular injury by positively regulating collagen synthesis and suggest that its inhibition may be a promising strategy to reduce glomerular injury and proteinuria. PMID:22440900

  7. β1 Integrin is an Adhesion Protein for Sperm Binding to Eggs

    PubMed Central

    Baessler, Keith A.; Lee, Younjoo; Sampson, Nicole S.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the role of β1 integrin in mammalian fertilization and the mode of inhibition of fertilinβ-derived polymers. We determined that polymers displaying the Glu-Cys-Asp peptide from the fertilinβ disintegrin domain mediate inhibition of mammalian fertilization through a β1 integrin receptor on the egg surface. Inhibition of fertilization is a consequence of competition with sperm binding to the cell surface, not activation of an egg-signaling pathway. The presence of the β1 integrin on the egg surface increases the rate of sperm attachment, but does not alter the total number of sperm that can attach or fuse to the egg. We conclude that the presence of β1 integrin enhances the initial adhesion of sperm to the egg plasma membrane and that subsequent attachment and fusion are mediated by additional egg and sperm proteins present in the β1 integrin complex. Therefore, the mechanisms by which sperm fertilize wild-type and β1 knockout eggs are different. PMID:19338281

  8. TspanC8 Tetraspanins and A Disintegrin and Metalloprotease 10 (ADAM10) Interact via Their Extracellular Regions

    PubMed Central

    Noy, Peter J.; Yang, Jing; Reyat, Jasmeet S.; Matthews, Alexandra L.; Charlton, Alice E.; Furmston, Joanna; Rogers, David A.; Rainger, G. Ed; Tomlinson, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    A disintegrin and metalloprotease 10 (ADAM10) is a ubiquitously expressed transmembrane metalloprotease that cleaves the extracellular regions from its transmembrane substrates. ADAM10 is essential for embryonic development and is implicated in cancer, Alzheimer, and inflammatory diseases. The tetraspanins are a superfamily of 33 four-transmembrane proteins in mammals, of which the TspanC8 subgroup (Tspan5, 10, 14, 15, 17, and 33) promote ADAM10 intracellular trafficking and enzymatic maturation. However, the interaction between TspanC8s and ADAM10 has only been demonstrated in overexpression systems and the interaction mechanism remains undefined. To address these issues, an antibody was developed to Tspan14, which was used to show co-immunoprecipitation of Tspan14 with ADAM10 in primary human cells. Chimeric Tspan14 constructs demonstrated that the large extracellular loop of Tspan14 mediated its co-immunoprecipitation with ADAM10, and promoted ADAM10 maturation and trafficking to the cell surface. Chimeric ADAM10 constructs showed that membrane-proximal stalk, cysteine-rich, and disintegrin domains of ADAM10 mediated its co-immunoprecipitation with Tspan14 and other TspanC8s. This TspanC8-interacting region was required for ADAM10 exit from the endoplasmic reticulum. Truncated ADAM10 constructs revealed differential TspanC8 binding requirements for the stalk, cysteine-rich, and disintegrin domains. Moreover, Tspan15was the only TspanC8 to promote cleavage of the ADAM10 substrate N-cadherin, whereas Tspan14 was unique in reducing cleavage of the platelet collagen receptor GPVI. These findings suggest that ADAM10 may adopt distinct conformations in complex with different TspanC8s, which could impact on substrate selectivity. Furthermore, this study identifies regions of TspanC8s and ADAM10 for potential interaction-disrupting therapeutic targeting. PMID:26668317

  9. Integrin endosomal signalling suppresses anoikis

    PubMed Central

    Alanko, Jonna; Mai, Anja; Jacquemet, Guillaume; Schauer, Kristine; Kaukonen, Riina; Saari, Markku; Goud, Bruno; Ivaska, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    Integrin containing focal adhesions (FAs) transmit extracellular signals across the plasma membrane to modulate cell adhesion, signalling and survival. Although integrins are known to undergo continuous endo/exocytic traffic, potential impact of endocytic traffic on integrin-induced signals is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that integrin signalling is not restricted to cell-ECM adhesions and identify an endosomal signalling platform that supports integrin signalling away from the plasma membrane. We show that active focal adhesion kinase (FAK), an established marker of integrin-ECM downstream signalling, localises with active integrins on endosomes. Integrin endocytosis positively regulates adhesion-induced FAK activation, which is early endosome antigen-1 (EEA1) and small GTPase Rab21 dependent. FAK binds directly to purified endosomes and becomes activated on them, suggesting a role for endocytosis in enhancing distinct integrin downstream signalling events. Finally, endosomal integrin signalling contributes to cancer-related processes such as anoikis resistance, anchorage-independence and metastasis. Integrins are heterodimeric cell surface adhesion receptors functioning as integrators of the extra-cellular matrix (ECM) driven cues, the cellular cytoskeleton and the cellular signalling apparatus 1.Upon adhesion, integrins trigger the formation of plasma-membrane proximal large mechanosensing and signal-transmitting protein clusters depicted as “adhesomes” 2, 3. In addition, integrins undergo constant endocytic traffic to facilitate focal adhesion turnover, cell migration, invasion and cytokinesis 4. For other receptor systems it is well established that endocytic membrane traffic regulates bioavailability of cell-surface molecules and therefore the intensity and/or specificity of receptor-initiated signals 5, 6. Although active integrins and their ligands have been detected in endosomes 7–9 and increased integrin recycling to the plasma membrane contributes

  10. Lamellipodial tension, not integrin/ligand binding, is the crucial factor to realise integrin activation and cell migration.

    PubMed

    Schulte, Carsten; Ferraris, Gian Maria Sarra; Oldani, Amanda; Galluzzi, Massimiliano; Podestà, Alessandro; Puricelli, Luca; de Lorenzi, Valentina; Lenardi, Cristina; Milani, Paolo; Sidenius, Nicolai

    2016-01-01

    The molecular clutch (MC) model proposes that actomyosin-driven force transmission permits integrin-dependent cell migration. To investigate the MC, we introduced diverse talin (TLN) and integrin variants into Flp-In™ T-Rex™ HEK293 cells stably expressing uPAR. Vitronectin variants served as substrate providing uPAR-mediated cell adhesion and optionally integrin binding. This particular system allowed us to selectively analyse key MC proteins and interactions, effectively from the extracellular matrix substrate to intracellular f-actin, and to therewith study mechanobiological aspects of MC engagement also uncoupled from integrin/ligand binding. With this experimental approach, we found that for the initial PIP2-dependent membrane/TLN/f-actin linkage and persistent lamellipodia formation the C-terminal TLN actin binding site (ABS) is dispensable. The establishment of an adequate MC-mediated lamellipodial tension instead depends predominantly on the coupling of this C-terminal TLN ABS to the actomyosin-driven retrograde actin flow force. This lamellipodial tension is crucial for full integrin activation eventually determining integrin-dependent cell migration. In the integrin/ligand-independent condition the frictional membrane resistance participates to these processes. Integrin/ligand binding can also contribute but is not necessarily required. PMID:26616200

  11. Integrating with integrins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, M. A.; Ingber, D. E.

    1994-01-01

    Our central claim is that signaling by integrins provides a mechanism by which signals generated in response to adhesion, soluble hormones, and mechanical forces can interact. Such interactions permit cells to integrate these different classes of external stimuli and hence to orchestrate an efficient response. This integrating function of integrins is likely to be essential for much of development and physiology, as well as complex pathologies such as cancer. Understanding in detail how these signals are transduced and processed is likely to be an important area of research in the near future.

  12. Glioma cell integrin expression and their interactions with integrin antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Mattern, Ralph-Heiko; Read, Susana B.; Pierschbacher, Michael D.; Sze, Chun-I; Eliceiri, Brian P.; Kruse, Carol A.

    2005-01-01

    Summary A panel of human glioma cell explants was screened for integrin expression by flow cytometry using ανβ-specific antibodies. A lower percentage of the glioma cells were positive for the ανβ3 (mean % positive = 20.8%) integrin, whereas higher percentages were positive for the ανβ5 (mean % positive = 72.7%), VLA5α (mean % positive = 87%) and VLAβ1 (mean % positive = 41.7%) integrins. A series of RGD peptides was designed, synthesized and tested for binding to integrin receptors. Based on the results of the binding to the isolated integrin receptors and the expression of integrins on glioma cell lines, a peptide that binds potently to the ανβ3, ανβ5 and α5β1 was selected for further investigations with regards to its effect on glioma cells. The peptide, Ac-c[(Pen)-Tyr(Me)-Ala-Arg-Gly-Asp-Asn-Tic-Cys]NH2 (RGD peptide), exhibited high potential for use in clinical intracranial administration since it had good stability in rat brain cell homogenates placed into artificial cerebrospinal fluid. Using an HPLC method for quantification of peptides in rat brain cell homogenates, we could demonstrate the half-life of the RGD peptide approximated 20 hr. Relative to a scrambled peptide control (non-RGD sequence, same amino acids), the experimental RGD peptide significantly decreased glioma cell proliferation of the entire panel of rat and human glioma cells tested. Adhesion of recently passaged glioma cells to glioma-derived extracellular matrix protein-coated plates was inhibited significantly by the RGD peptide. The peptide also reversed attachment of plated glioma cells. The RGD peptide caused some, but not substantial, glioma cell injury, as evidenced by a quantitative in vitro nuclear DNA morphologic assay and by a flow cytometric assay employing 7-amino actinomycin D (7AAD). We histologically monitored for toxicity caused by various doses of the RGD peptide infused repeatedly into normal cannulated rat brain. At safe doses, the experimental RGD

  13. Breaking the dogma of the metal-coordinating carboxylate group in integrin ligands: introducing hydroxamic acids to the MIDAS to tune potency and selectivity.

    PubMed

    Heckmann, Dominik; Laufer, Burkhardt; Marinelli, Luciana; Limongelli, Vittorio; Novellino, Ettore; Zahn, Grit; Stragies, Roland; Kessler, Horst

    2009-01-01

    A suitable substitute: All integrin receptors bind their ligands, which contain an aspartate residue, in the metal-ion- dependent adhesion site (MIDAS). So far all attempts to replace the carboxyl group of aspartate with other, pharmacologically favorable isosteric groups have failed. Now it has been shown that a hydroxamic acid group can replace the carboxyl group; the resulting ligand retains its high binding activity. The picture shows one such ligand in the binding site of alphavbeta3. PMID:19343753

  14. The disintegrin/metalloproteinase Adam10 is essential for epidermal integrity and Notch-mediated signaling

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Silvio; Niessen, Michaela T.; Prox, Johannes; Lüllmann-Rauch, Renate; Schmitz, Annika; Schwanbeck, Ralf; Blobel, Carl P.; Jorissen, Ellen; de Strooper, Bart; Niessen, Carien M.; Saftig, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The disintegrin and metalloproteinase Adam10 has been implicated in the regulation of key signaling pathways that determine skin morphogenesis and homeostasis. To address the in vivo relevance of Adam10 in the epidermis, we have selectively disrupted Adam10 during skin morphogenesis and in adult skin. K14-Cre driven epidermal Adam10 deletion leads to perinatal lethality, barrier impairment and absence of sebaceous glands. A reduction of spinous layers, not associated with differences in either proliferation or apoptosis, indicates that loss of Adam10 triggers a premature differentiation of spinous keratinocytes. The few surviving K14-Adam10-deleted mice and mice in which Adam10 was deleted postnatally showed loss of hair, malformed vibrissae, epidermal hyperproliferation, cyst formation, thymic atrophy and upregulation of the cytokine thymic stromal lymphopoetin (TSLP), thus indicating non cell-autonomous multi-organ disease resulting from a compromised barrier. Together, these phenotypes closely resemble skin specific Notch pathway loss-of-function phenotypes. Notch processing is indeed strongly reduced resulting in decreased levels of Notch intracellular domain fragment and functional Notch signaling. The data identify Adam10 as the major Site-2 processing enzyme for Notch in the epidermis in vivo, and thus as a central regulator of skin development and maintenance. PMID:21205794

  15. Integrins mediate adhesion of medulloblastoma cells to tenascin and activate pathways associated with survival and proliferation.

    PubMed

    Fiorilli, Paul; Partridge, Darren; Staniszewska, Izabela; Wang, Jin Y; Grabacka, Maja; So, Kelvin; Marcinkiewicz, Cezary; Reiss, Krzysztof; Khalili, Kamel; Croul, Sidney E

    2008-11-01

    Medulloblastoma spreads by leptomeningeal dissemination rather than by infiltration that characterizes other CNS tumors, eg, gliomas. This study represents an initial attempt to identify both the molecules that mediate medulloblastoma adhesion to leptomeninges and the pathways that are key to survival and proliferation of tumor following adhesion. As a first step in molecule identification, we produced adhesion of D283 medulloblastoma cells to the extracellular matrix (ECM) of H4 glioma cells in vitro. Within this context, D283 cells preferentially expressed the alpha9 and beta1 integrin subunits; antibody and disintegrin blockade of alpha9 and beta1 binding eliminated the adhesion. The H4 ECM was enriched in tenascin, a binding partner for the alpha9beta1 integrin heterodimer. Purified tenascin-C supported D283 cell adhesion. The adhesion was blocked by antibodies to alpha9 and beta1 integrin. In vivo data were similar; immunohistochemistry of primary human medulloblastomas with leptomeningeal extension demonstrated increased expression of alpha9 and beta1 integrins as well as tenascin at the interface of brain and leptomeningeal tumor. These data suggest that tumor-cell expressions of alpha9 and beta1 integrins in combination with extracellular tenascin are necessary for medulloblastoma adhesion to the leptomeninges. As a first step in the identification of pathways that mediate survival and proliferation of tumor following adhesion, we demonstrated that adhesion to H4 ECM was associated with survival and proliferation of D283 cells as well as activation of the MAPK pathway in a growth factor deficient environment. Antibody blockade of alpha9 and beta1 integrin binding that eliminated adhesion also eliminated the in vitro survival benefit. These data suggest that adhesion of medulloblastoma to the meninges is necessary for the survival and proliferation of these tumor cells at the secondary site. PMID:18794852

  16. The ADAMTS (A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase with Thrombospondin motifs) family.

    PubMed

    Kelwick, Richard; Desanlis, Ines; Wheeler, Grant N; Edwards, Dylan R

    2015-01-01

    The ADAMTS (A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase with Thrombospondin motifs) enzymes are secreted, multi-domain matrix-associated zinc metalloendopeptidases that have diverse roles in tissue morphogenesis and patho-physiological remodeling, in inflammation and in vascular biology. The human family includes 19 members that can be sub-grouped on the basis of their known substrates, namely the aggrecanases or proteoglycanases (ADAMTS1, 4, 5, 8, 9, 15 and 20), the procollagen N-propeptidases (ADAMTS2, 3 and 14), the cartilage oligomeric matrix protein-cleaving enzymes (ADAMTS7 and 12), the von-Willebrand Factor proteinase (ADAMTS13) and a group of orphan enzymes (ADAMTS6, 10, 16, 17, 18 and 19). Control of the structure and function of the extracellular matrix (ECM) is a central theme of the biology of the ADAMTS, as exemplified by the actions of the procollagen-N-propeptidases in collagen fibril assembly and of the aggrecanases in the cleavage or modification of ECM proteoglycans. Defects in certain family members give rise to inherited genetic disorders, while the aberrant expression or function of others is associated with arthritis, cancer and cardiovascular disease. In particular, ADAMTS4 and 5 have emerged as therapeutic targets in arthritis. Multiple ADAMTSs from different sub-groupings exert either positive or negative effects on tumorigenesis and metastasis, with both metalloproteinase-dependent and -independent actions known to occur. The basic ADAMTS structure comprises a metalloproteinase catalytic domain and a carboxy-terminal ancillary domain, the latter determining substrate specificity and the localization of the protease and its interaction partners; ancillary domains probably also have independent biological functions. Focusing primarily on the aggrecanases and proteoglycanases, this review provides a perspective on the evolution of the ADAMTS family, their links with developmental and disease mechanisms, and key questions for the future. PMID:26025392

  17. A Disintegrin and Metalloprotease with Thrombospondin Type I Motif 7

    PubMed Central

    Pi, Liya; Jorgensen, Marda; Oh, Seh-Hoon; Protopapadakis, Yianni; Gjymishka, Altin; Brown, Alicia; Robinson, Paulette; Liu, Chuanju; Scott, Edward W.; Schultz, Gregory S.; Petersen, Bryon E.

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic progenitor/oval cell (OC) activation occurs when hepatocyte proliferation is inhibited and is tightly associated with the fibrogenic response during severe liver damage. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is important for OC activation and contributes to the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis. By using the Yeast Two-Hybrid approach, we identified a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin repeat 7 (ADAMTS7) as a CTGF binding protein. In vitro characterization demonstrated CTGF binding and processing by ADAMTS7. Moreover, Adamts7 mRNA was induced during OC activation, after the implantation of 2-acetylaminofluorene with partial hepatectomy in rats or on feeding a 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine (DDC) diet in mice. X-Gal staining showed Adamts7 expression in hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α+ hepatocytes and desmin+ myofibroblasts surrounding reactive ducts in DDC-treated Adamts7−/− mice carrying a knocked-in LacZ gene. Adamts7 deficiency was associated with higher transcriptional levels of Ctgf and OC markers and enhanced OC proliferation compared to Adamts7+/+ controls during DDC-induced liver injury. We also observed increased α-smooth muscle actin and procollagen type I mRNAs, large fibrotic areas in α-smooth muscle actin and Sirius red staining, and increased production of hepatic collagen by hydroxyproline measurement. These results suggest that ADAMTS7 is a new protease for CTGF protein and a novel regulator in the OC compartment, where its absence causes CTGF accumulation, leading to increased OC activation and biliary fibrosis. PMID:25843683

  18. The disintegrin, trimucrin, suppresses LPS-induced activation of phagocytes primarily through blockade of NF-κB and MAPK activation.

    PubMed

    Hung, Yu-Chun; Hsu, Chun-Chieh; Chung, Ching-Hu; Huang, Tur-Fu

    2016-07-01

    In addition to antiplatelet activity, disintegrin, a small-mass RGD-containing polypeptide, has been shown to exert anti-inflammatory effects but the mechanism involved remains unclear. In this study, we report that trimucrin, a disintegrin from the venom of Trimeresurus mucrosquamatus, inhibits lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced stimulation of THP-1 and RAW 264.7 cells. We also investigate the underlying mechanism. Trimucrin decreased the release of proinflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), interleukin-6 (IL-6), nitric oxide, and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and inhibited the adhesion and migration of LPS-activated phagocytes. Trimucrin significantly blocked the expression of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB)-related downstream inducible enzymes such as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and COX-2. In addition, its anti-inflammatory effect was associated with the decreased mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation. Furthermore, trimucrin concentration dependently inhibited LPS-induced phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), PI3K, and Akt. Trimucrin also reversed the DNA-binding activity of NF-κB by suppressing the LPS-induced nuclear translocation of p65 and the cytosolic IκB release. Flow cytometric analyses showed that trimucrin bound to cells in a concentration-dependent manner. The anti-αVβ3 mAb also specifically decreased the binding of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated trimucrin. Binding assays demonstrated that integrin αVβ3 was the binding site for trimucrin on THP-1 and RAW 264.7 cells. In conclusion, we showed that trimucrin decreases the inflammatory reaction through the attenuation of iNOS expression and nitric oxide (NO) production by blocking MAP kinase and the NF-κB activation in LPS-stimulated THP-1 and RAW 264.7 cells. PMID:27030393

  19. Discoidin Domain Receptors Promote α1β1- and α2β1-Integrin Mediated Cell Adhesion to Collagen by Enhancing Integrin Activation

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Huifang; Bihan, Dominique; Chang, Francis; Huang, Paul H.; Farndale, Richard W.; Leitinger, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    The discoidin domain receptors, DDR1 and DDR2, are receptor tyrosine kinases that bind to and are activated by collagens. Similar to collagen-binding β1 integrins, the DDRs bind to specific motifs within the collagen triple helix. However, these two types of collagen receptors recognize distinct collagen sequences. While GVMGFO (O is hydroxyproline) functions as a major DDR binding motif in fibrillar collagens, integrins bind to sequences containing Gxx’GEx”. The DDRs are thought to regulate cell adhesion, but their roles have hitherto only been studied indirectly. In this study we used synthetic triple-helical collagen-derived peptides that incorporate either the DDR-selective GVMGFO motif or integrin-selective motifs, such as GxOGER and GLOGEN, in order to selectively target either type of receptor and resolve their contributions to cell adhesion. Our data using HEK293 cells show that while cell adhesion to collagen I was completely inhibited by anti-integrin blocking antibodies, the DDRs could mediate cell attachment to the GVMGFO motif in an integrin-independent manner. Cell binding to GVMGFO was independent of DDR receptor signalling and occurred with limited cell spreading, indicating that the DDRs do not mediate firm adhesion. However, blocking the interaction of DDR-expressing cells with collagen I via the GVMGFO site diminished cell adhesion, suggesting that the DDRs positively modulate integrin-mediated cell adhesion. Indeed, overexpression of the DDRs or activation of the DDRs by the GVMGFO ligand promoted α1β1 and α2β1 integrin-mediated cell adhesion to medium- and low-affinity integrin ligands without regulating the cell surface expression levels of α1β1 or α2β1. Our data thus demonstrate an adhesion-promoting role of the DDRs, whereby overexpression and/or activation of the DDRs leads to enhanced integrin-mediated cell adhesion as a result of higher integrin activation state. PMID:23284937

  20. α-Hemolysin enhances Staphylococcus aureus internalization and survival within mast cells by modulating the expression of β1 integrin.

    PubMed

    Goldmann, Oliver; Tuchscherr, Lorena; Rohde, Manfred; Medina, Eva

    2016-06-01

    Mast cells (MCs) are important sentinels of the host defence against invading pathogens. We previously reported that Staphylococcus aureus evaded the extracellular antimicrobial activities of MCs by promoting its internalization within these cells via β1 integrins. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanisms governing this process. We found that S. aureus responded to the antimicrobial mediators released by MCs by up-regulating the expression of α-hemolysin (Hla), fibronectin-binding protein A and several regulatory systems. We also found that S. aureus induced the up-regulation of β1 integrin expression on MCs and that this effect was mediated by Hla-ADAM10 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 10) interaction. Thus, deletion of Hla or inhibition of Hla-ADAM10 interaction significantly impaired S. aureus internalization within MCs. Furthermore, purified Hla but not the inactive HlaH35L induced up-regulation of β1 integrin expression in MCs in a dose-dependent manner. Our data support a model in which S. aureus counter-reacts the extracellular microbicidal mechanisms of MCs by increasing expression of fibronectin-binding proteins and by inducing Hla-ADAM10-mediated up-regulation of β1 integrin in MCs. The up-regulation of bacterial fibronectin-binding proteins, concomitantly with the increased expression of its receptor β1 integrin on the MCs, resulted in enhanced S. aureus internalization through the binding of fibronectin-binding proteins to integrin β1 via fibronectin. PMID:26595647

  1. The disulfide bond pattern of catrocollastatin C, a disintegrin-like/cysteine-rich protein isolated from Crotalus atrox venom.

    PubMed Central

    Calvete, J. J.; Moreno-Murciano, M. P.; Sanz, L.; Jürgens, M.; Schrader, M.; Raida, M.; Benjamin, D. C.; Fox, J. W.

    2000-01-01

    The disulfide bond pattern of catrocollastatin-C was determined by N-terminal sequencing and mass spectrometry. The N-terminal disintegrin-like domain is a compact structure including eight disulfide bonds, seven of them in the same pattern as the disintegrin bitistatin. The protein has two extra cysteine residues (XIII and XVI) that form an additional disulfide bond that is characteristically found in the disintegrin-like domains of cellular metalloproteinases (ADAMs) and PIII snake venom Zn-metalloproteinases (SVMPs). The C-terminal cysteine-rich domain of catrocollastatin-C contains five disulfide bonds between nearest-neighbor cysteines and a long range disulfide bridge between CysV and CysX. These results provide structural evidence for a redefinition of the disintegrin-like and cysteine-rich domain boundaries. An evolutionary pathway for ADAMs, PIII, and PII SVMPs based on disulfide bond engineering is also proposed. PMID:10933502

  2. Formin-like 2 Promotes β1-Integrin Trafficking and Invasive Motility Downstream of PKCα.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Arjonen, Antti; Pouwels, Jeroen; Ta, Haisen; Pausch, Patrick; Bange, Gert; Engel, Ulrike; Pan, Xiaoyu; Fackler, Oliver T; Ivaska, Johanna; Grosse, Robert

    2015-08-24

    Regulated turnover of integrin receptors is essential for cell adhesion and migration. Pathways selectively regulating β1-integrin recycling are implicated in cancer invasion and metastasis, yet proteins required for the internalization of this pro-invasive integrin remain to be identified. Here, we uncover formin-like 2 (FMNL2) as a critical regulator of β1-integrin internalization downstream of protein kinase C (PKC). PKCα associates with and phosphorylates FMNL2 at S1072 within its Diaphanous autoregulatory region, leading to the release of formin autoinhibition. Phosphorylation of FMNL2 triggers its rapid relocation and promotes its interaction with the cytoplasmic tails of the α-integrin subunits for β1-integrin endocytosis. FMNL2 drives β1-integrin internalization and invasive motility in a phosphorylation-dependent manner, while a FMNL2 mutant defective in actin assembly interferes with β1-integrin endocytosis and cancer cell invasion. Our data establish a role for FMNL2 in the regulation of β1-integrin and provide a mechanistic understanding of the function of FMNL2 in cancer invasiveness. PMID:26256210

  3. Interaction of disintegrins with the alpha IIb beta 3 receptor on resting and activated human platelets.

    PubMed Central

    McLane, M A; Kowalska, M A; Silver, L; Shattil, S J; Niewiarowski, S

    1994-01-01

    Viper venom disintegrins contain the RGD/KGD motif. They inhibit platelet aggregation and cell adhesion, but show structural and functional heterogeneity. We investigated the interaction of four prototypic disintegrins with alpha IIb beta 3 expressed on the surface of resting and activated platelets. The binding affinity (Kd) of 125I-albolabrin, 125I-echistatin, 125I-bitistatin and 125I-eristostatin toward resting platelets was 294, 153, 48 and 18 nM respectively. The Kd value for albolabrin decreased 3-fold and 6-fold after ADP- or thrombin-induced activation. The Kd values for bitistatin and echistatin also decreased with ADP, but there was no further decrease with thrombin. In contrast, eristostatin bound with the same high affinity to resting and activated platelets. The pattern of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-eristostatin and FITC-albolabrin binding to resting and activated platelets was consistent with observations using radiolabelled material. Eristostatin showed faster and more irreversible binding to platelets, and greater potency compared with albolabrin in inducing conformational neo-epitopes in beta 3. The anti-alpha IIb beta 3 monoclonal antibody OP-G2 that is RGD-dependent inhibited disintegrin binding to activated platelets more strongly than binding to resting platelets and it inhibited the binding to platelets of albolabrin more strongly than eristostatin. The specificity of disintegrin interaction with alpha IIb beta 3 was confirmed by demonstrating cross-linking of these peptides to alpha IIb beta 3 on normal platelets, but not to thrombasthenic platelets deficient in alpha IIb beta 3. Images Figure 6 PMID:8042985

  4. Fine-tuning Tumor Immunity with Integrin Trans-regulation.

    PubMed

    Cantor, Joseph M; Rose, David M; Slepak, Marina; Ginsberg, Mark H

    2015-06-01

    Inefficient T-cell homing to tissues limits adoptive T-cell immunotherapy of solid tumors. αLβ2 and α4β1 integrins mediate trafficking of T cells into tissues via engagement of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, respectively. Inhibiting protein kinase A (PKA)-mediated phosphorylation of α4 integrin in cells results in an increase in αLβ2-mediated migration on mixed ICAM-1-VCAM-1 substrates in vitro, a phenomenon termed "integrin trans-regulation." Here, we created an α4(S988A)-bearing mouse, which precludes PKA-mediated α4 phosphorylation, to examine the effect of integrin trans-regulation in vivo. The α4(S988A) mouse exhibited a dramatic and selective increase in migration of lymphocytes, but not myeloid cells, to sites of inflammation. Importantly, we found that the α4(S988A) mice exhibited a marked increase in T-cell entry into and reduced growth of B16 melanomas, consistent with antitumor roles of infiltrating T cells and progrowth functions of tumor-associated macrophages. Thus, increased α4 trans-regulation of αLβ2 integrin function biases leukocyte emigration toward lymphocytes relative to myeloid cells and enhances tumor immunity. PMID:25600437

  5. Integrins, tensegrity, and mechanotransduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingber, D. E.

    1997-01-01

    Physical forces, such as those due to gravity, play an important role in tissue development and remodeling. Yet, little is known about how individual cells sense mechanical signals or how they transduce them into a chemical response. Rather than listing the numerous signal pathways that have been found to be sensitive to mechanical stimulation, we need to place potential molecular signaling mechanisms within the context of the entire cell. The model presented is based on the concept that cells use tensegrity architecture to organize their cytoskeleton and stabilize their form. Studies with stick and string tensegrity cell models predict that living cells are hard-wired to respond immediately to external mechanical stresses. This hard-wiring exists in the form of discrete cytoskeletal filament networks that mechanically couple specific cell surface receptors, such as integrins, to nuclear matrix scaffolds and to potential transducing molecules that physically associate with the cytoskeleton. If these signaling molecules do function in a "solid-state", then mechanical stresses may be transduced into biochemical responses through force-dependent changes in cytoskeletal geometry or through local alterations in thermodynamic or kinetic parameters. Changes in cytoskeletal tension (prestress) also may play a role in signal amplification and adaptation. Recent experimental results are described which provide direct support for the tensegrity theory.

  6. α3 Integrin of Cell-Cell Contact Mediates Kidney Fibrosis by Integrin-Linked Kinase in Proximal Tubular E-Cadherin Deficient Mice.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Guoping; Zhang, Jianlin; Zhao, Hong; Wang, Hailong; Pang, Min; Qiao, Xi; Lee, So R; Hsu, Tzu-Ting; Tan, Thian K; Lyons, J Guy; Zhao, Ye; Tian, Xinrui; Loebel, David A F; Rubera, Isabella; Tauc, Michel; Wang, Ya; Wang, Yiping; Wang, Yuan M; Cao, Qi; Wang, Changqi; Lee, Vincent W S; Alexander, Stephen I; Tam, Patrick P L; Harris, David C H

    2016-07-01

    Loss of E-cadherin marks a defect in epithelial integrity and polarity during tissue injury and fibrosis. Whether loss of E-cadherin plays a causal role in fibrosis is uncertain. α3β1 Integrin has been identified to complex with E-cadherin in cell-cell adhesion, but little is known about the details of their cross talk. Herein, E-cadherin gene (Cdh1) was selectively deleted from proximal tubules of murine kidney by Sglt2Cre. Ablation of E-cadherin up-regulated α3β1 integrin at cell-cell adhesion. E-cadherin-deficient proximal tubular epithelial cell displayed enhanced transforming growth factor-β1-induced α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and vimentin expression, which was suppressed by siRNA silencing of α3 integrin, but not β1 integrin. Up-regulation of transforming growth factor-β1-induced α-SMA was mediated by an α3 integrin-dependent increase in integrin-linked kinase (ILK). Src phosphorylation of β-catenin and consequent p-β-catenin-Y654/p-Smad2 transcriptional complex underlies the transcriptional up-regulation of ILK. Kidney fibrosis after unilateral ureteric obstruction or ischemia reperfusion was increased in proximal tubule E-cadherin-deficient mice in comparison to that of E-cadherin intact control mice. The exacerbation of fibrosis was explained by the α3 integrin-dependent increase of ILK, β-catenin nuclear translocation, and α-SMA/proximal tubular-specific Cre double positive staining in proximal tubular epithelial cell. These studies delineate a nonconventional integrin/ILK signaling by α3 integrin-dependent Src/p-β-catenin-Y654/p-Smad2-mediated up-regulation of ILK through which loss of E-cadherin leads to kidney fibrosis. PMID:27182643

  7. Integrin-mediated cell surface recruitment of autotaxin promotes persistent directional cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Tao; Kooi, Craig Vander; Shah, Pritom; Charnigo, Richard; Huang, Cai; Smyth, Susan S.; Morris, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Autotaxin (ATX) is a secreted lysophospholipase D (lysoPLD) that binds to integrin adhesion receptors. We dissected the roles of integrin binding and lysoPLD activity in stimulation of human breast cancer and mouse aortic vascular smooth muscle cell migration by ATX. We compared effects of wild-type human ATX, catalytically inactive ATX, an integrin binding-defective ATX variant with wild-type lysoPLD activity, the isolated ATX integrin binding N-terminal domain, and a potent ATX selective lysoPLD inhibitor on cell migration using transwell and single-cell tracking assays. Stimulation of transwell migration was reduced (18 or 27% of control, respectively) but not ablated by inactivation of integrin binding or inhibition of lysoPLD activity. The N-terminal domain increased transwell migration (30% of control). ATX lysoPLD activity and integrin binding were necessary for a 3.8-fold increase in the fraction of migrating breast cancer cell step velocities >0.7 μm/min. ATX increased the persistent directionality of single-cell migration 2-fold. This effect was lysoPLD activity independent and recapitulated by the integrin binding N-terminal domain. Integrin binding enables uptake and intracellular sequestration of ATX, which redistributes to the front of migrating cells. ATX binding to integrins and lysoPLD activity therefore cooperate to promote rapid persistent directional cell migration.—Wu, T., Kooi, C. V., Shah, P., Charnigo, R., Huang, C., Smyth, S. S., Morris, A. J. Integrin-mediated cell surface recruitment of autotaxin promotes persistent directional cell migration. PMID:24277575

  8. Human and Murine Interleukin 23 Receptors Are Novel Substrates for A Disintegrin and Metalloproteases ADAM10 and ADAM17.

    PubMed

    Franke, Manuel; Schröder, Jutta; Monhasery, Niloufar; Ackfeld, Theresa; Hummel, Thorben M; Rabe, Björn; Garbers, Christoph; Becker-Pauly, Christoph; Floss, Doreen M; Scheller, Jürgen

    2016-05-13

    IL-23 (interleukin 23) regulates immune responses against pathogens and plays a major role in the differentiation and maintenance of TH17 cells and the development of autoimmune diseases and cancer. The IL-23 receptor (IL-23R) complex consists of the unique IL-23R and the common IL-12 receptor β1 (IL-12Rβ1). Differential splicing generates antagonistic soluble IL-23R (sIL-23R) variants, which might limit IL-23-mediated immune responses. Here, ectodomain shedding of human and murine IL-23R was identified as an alternative pathway for the generation of sIL-23R. Importantly, proteolytically released sIL-23R has IL-23 binding activity. Shedding of IL-23R was induced by stimulation with the phorbol ester phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), but not by ionomycin. PMA-induced shedding was abrogated by an ADAM (A disintegrin and metalloprotease) 10 and 17 selective inhibitor, but not by an ADAM10 selective inhibitor. ADAM17-deficient but not ADAM10-deficient HEK293 cells failed to shed IL-23R after PMA stimulation, demonstrating that ADAM17 but not ADAM10 cleaves the IL-23R. Constitutive shedding was, however, inhibited by an ADAM10 selective inhibitor. Using deletions and specific amino acid residue exchanges, we identified critical determinants of ectodomain shedding within the stalk region of the IL-23R. Finally, interaction studies identified domains 1 and 3 of the IL-23R as the main ADAM17 binding sites. In summary, we describe human and murine IL-23R as novel targets for protein ectodomain shedding by ADAM10 and ADAM17. PMID:26961870

  9. Cloning of a disintegrin metalloproteinase that processes precursor tumour-necrosis factor-alpha.

    PubMed

    Moss, M L; Jin, S L; Milla, M E; Bickett, D M; Burkhart, W; Carter, H L; Chen, W J; Clay, W C; Didsbury, J R; Hassler, D; Hoffman, C R; Kost, T A; Lambert, M H; Leesnitzer, M A; McCauley, P; McGeehan, G; Mitchell, J; Moyer, M; Pahel, G; Rocque, W; Overton, L K; Schoenen, F; Seaton, T; Su, J L; Becherer, J D

    1997-02-20

    Tumour-necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is a cytokine that contributes to a variety of inflammatory disease states. The protein exists as a membrane-bound precursor of relative molecular mass 26K which can be processed by a TNF-alpha-converting enzyme (TACE), to generate secreted 17K mature TNF-alpha. We have purified TACE and cloned its complementary DNA. TACE is a membrane-bound disintegrin metalloproteinase. Structural comparisons with other disintegrin-containing enzymes indicate that TACE is unique, with noteable sequence identity to MADM, an enzyme implicated in myelin degradation, and to KUZ, a Drosophila homologue of MADM important for neuronal development. The expression of recombinant TACE (rTACE) results in the production of functional enzyme that correctly processes precursor TNF-alpha to the mature form. The rTACE provides a readily available source of enzyme to help in the search for new anti-inflammatory agents that target the final processing stage of TNF-alpha production. PMID:9034191

  10. Evidence for an interaction of the metalloprotease-disintegrin tumour necrosis factor alpha convertase (TACE) with mitotic arrest deficient 2 (MAD2), and of the metalloprotease-disintegrin MDC9 with a novel MAD2-related protein, MAD2beta.

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, K K; Schlöndorff, J; Blobel, C P

    1999-01-01

    Metalloprotease-disintegrins are a family of transmembrane glycoproteins that have a role in fertilization, sperm migration, myoblast fusion, neural development and ectodomain shedding. In the present study we used the yeast two-hybrid system to search for proteins that interact with the cytoplasmic domain of two metalloprotease-disintegrins, tumour necrosis factor alpha convertase (TACE; ADAM17) and MDC9 (ADAM9; meltrin gamma). We have identified mitotic arrest deficient 2 (MAD2) as a binding partner of the TACE cytoplasmic domain, and a novel MAD2-related protein, MAD2beta, as a binding partner of the MDC9 cytoplasmic domain. MAD2beta has 23% sequence identity with MAD2, which is a component of the spindle assembly (or mitotic) checkpoint mechanism. Northern blot analysis of human tissues indicates that MAD2beta mRNA is expressed ubiquitously. The interaction of the TACE and MDC9 cytoplasmic domains with their binding partners has been confirmed biochemically. The independent identification of MAD2 and MAD2beta as potential interacting partners of distinct metalloprotease-disintegrins raises the possibility of a link between metalloprotease-disintegrins and the cell cycle, or of functions for MAD2 and MAD2beta that are not related to cell cycle control. PMID:10527948

  11. Immunological characterization of eristostatin and echistatin binding sites on alpha IIb beta 3 and alpha V beta 3 integrins.

    PubMed Central

    Marcinkiewicz, C; Rosenthal, L A; Mosser, D M; Kunicki, T J; Niewiarowski, S

    1996-01-01

    Two disintegrins with a high degree of amino acid sequence similarity, echistatin and eristostatin, showed a low level of interaction with Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, but they bound to CHO cells transfected with alpha IIb beta 3 genes (A5 cells) and to CHO cells transfected with alpha v beta 3 genes (VNRC3 cells) in a reversible and saturable manner. Scatchard analysis revealed that eristostatin bound to 816000 sites per A5 cell (Kd 28 nM) and to 200000 sites (Kd 14 nM) per VNRC3 cell respectively. However, VNRC3 cells did not bind to immobilized eristostatin. Echistatin bound to 495000 sites (Kd 53 nM) per A5 cell and to 443000 sites (Kd 20 nM) per VNRC3 cell. As determined by flow cytometry, radiobinding assay and adhesion studies, binding of both disintegrins to A5 cells and resting platelets and binding of echistatin to VNRC3 cells resulted in the expression of ligand-induced binding sites (LIBS) on the beta 3 subunit. Eristostatin inhibited, more strongly than echistatin, the binding of three monoclonal antibodies: OPG2 (RGD motif dependent), A2A9 (alpha IIb beta 3 complex dependent) and 7E3 (alpha IIb beta 3 and alpha v beta 3 complex dependent) to A5 cells, to resting and to activated platelets and to purified alpha IIb beta 3. Experiments in which echistatin and eristostatin were used alone or in combination to inhibit the binding of 7E3 and OPG2 antibodies to resting platelets suggested that these two disintegrins bind to different but overlapping sites on alpha IIb beta 3 integrin. Monoclonal antibody LM 609 and echistatin seemed to bind to different sites on alpha v beta 3 integrin. However, echistatin inhibited binding of 7E3 antibody to VNRC3 cells and to purified alpha v beta 3 suggesting that alpha v beta 3 and alpha IIb beta 3 might share the same epitope to which both echistatin and 7E3 bind. Eristostatin had no effect in these systems, providing further evidence that it binds to a different epitope on alpha v beta 3. PMID:8760368

  12. The characterization of trans-pecos copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix pictigaster) venom and isolation of two new dimeric disintegrins.

    PubMed

    Lucena, Sara; Rodríguez-Acosta, Alexis; Grilli, Elyse; Alfonso, Andrea; Goins, Amber; Ogbata, Ifunanya; Walls, Robert; Suntravat, Montamas; Uzcátegui, Nestor L; Guerrero, Belsy; Sánchez, Elda E

    2016-07-01

    The vast amounts of toxins within the venom of snakes, while known to cause medical emergencies, display various biological functions. Trans-pecos copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix pictigaster) crude venom separated by cation-exchange chromatography showed several fractions with fibrinolytic, hemorrhagic, gelatinase and platelet activities. Venom fractions 1, 2, 4, 5, and 12-17 contained fibrinolytic activity. Venom fractions 1, 2, 5 and 12-14 had hemorrhagic activity. Fractions 1, 2, 12, 13 and 17 contained gelatinase activity. Reverse-Phase C18 High Performance Liquid Chromatography was also used to purify and isolated disintegrins from this venom. Anti-platelet aggregation activity of the C18 fractions collected and performed on whole human blood showed that they inhibited platelet aggregation in presence of several agonists. Results from both SDS-PAGE and N-terminal sequencing determined that pictistatin 1 obtained from the Trans-Pecos copperhead venom was a dimeric disintegrin, and pictistatin 2 was a heterodimeric disintegrin. The molecules with anti-platelet activity could be considered in the development of more effective drugs, for numerous blood-related diseases such as stroke, heart attacks, thrombosis, and other medical conditions. In this study, we are presenting the first report of the purification, isolation, and partial characterization of two new dimeric disintegrins isolated from the venom of trans-pecos copperhead. PMID:27068364

  13. Integrins and epithelial cell polarity

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jessica L.; Streuli, Charles H.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cell polarity is characterised by differences in structure, composition and function between at least two poles of a cell. In epithelial cells, these spatial differences allow for the formation of defined apical and basal membranes. It has been increasingly recognised that cell–matrix interactions and integrins play an essential role in creating epithelial cell polarity, although key gaps in our knowledge remain. This Commentary will discuss the mounting evidence for the role of integrins in polarising epithelial cells. We build a model in which both inside-out signals to polarise basement membrane assembly at the basal surface, and outside-in signals to control microtubule apical–basal orientation and vesicular trafficking are required for establishing and maintaining the orientation of epithelial cell polarity. Finally, we discuss the relevance of the basal integrin polarity axis to cancer. This article is part of a Minifocus on Establishing polarity. For further reading, please see related articles: ‘ERM proteins at a glance’ by Andrea McClatchey (J. Cell Sci. 127, 3199–3204). ‘Establishment of epithelial polarity – GEF who's minding the GAP?’ by Siu Ngok et al. (J. Cell Sci. 127, 3205–3215). PMID:24994933

  14. Radiolabeled multimeric cyclic RGD peptides as integrin alphavbeta3 targeted radiotracers for tumor imaging.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuang

    2006-01-01

    Integrin alphavbeta3 plays a significant role in tumor angiogenesis and is a receptor for the extracellular matrix proteins with the exposed arginine-glycine-aspartic (RGD) tripeptide sequence. These include vitronectin, fibronectin, fibrinogen, lamin, collagen, Von Willibrand's factor, osteoponin, and adenovirus particles. Integrin alphavbeta3 is expressed at low levels on epithelial cells and mature endothelial cells, but it is overexpressed on the activated endothelial cells of tumor neovasculature and some tumor cells. The highly restricted expression of integrin alphavbeta3 during tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis presents an interesting molecular target for both early detection and treatment of rapidly growing solid tumors. In the past decade, many radiolabeled linear and cyclic RGD peptide antagonists have been evaluated as the integrin alphavbeta3 targeted radiotracers. Significant progress has been made on their use for imaging tumors of different origin by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) or positron emission tomography (PET) in several tumor-bearing animal models. [18F]Galacto-RGD is under clinical investigation as the first integrin alphavbeta3 targeted radiotracer for noninvasive visualization of the activated integrin alphavbeta3 in cancer patients. This review will focus on the radiolabeled multimeric cyclic RGD peptides (dimers and tetramers) useful as radiotracers to image the tumor integrin alphavbeta3 expression by SPECT and PET, and some fundamental aspects for the development of integrin alphavbeta3 targeted radiotracers. These include the choice of radionuclide and bifunctional chelators, selection of targeting biomolecules, and factors influencing the integrin alphavbeta3 binding affinity and tumor uptake, as well as different approaches for modification of radiotracer pharmacokinetics. PMID:17009846

  15. Canonical Transforming Growth Factor-β Signaling Regulates Disintegrin Metalloprotease Expression in Experimental Renal Fibrosis via miR-29

    PubMed Central

    Ramdas, Vasudev; McBride, Martin; Denby, Laura; Baker, Andrew H.

    2014-01-01

    Fibrosis pathophysiology is critically regulated by Smad 2– and Smad 3–mediated transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling. Disintegrin metalloproteases (Adam) can manipulate the signaling environment, however, the role and regulation of ADAMs in renal fibrosis remain unclear. TGF-β stimulation of renal cells results in a significant up-regulation of Adams 10, 17, 12, and 19. The selective Smad2/3 inhibitor SB 525334 reversed these TGF-β–induced changes. In vivo, using ureteral obstruction to model renal fibrosis, we observed increased Adams gene expression that was blocked by oral administration of SB 525334. Similar increases in Adam gene expression also occurred in preclinical models of hypertension-induced renal damage and glomerulonephritis. miRNAs are a recently discovered second level of regulation of gene expression. Analysis of 3′ untranslated regions of Adam12 and Adam19 mRNAs showed multiple binding sites for miR-29a, miR-29b, and miR-29c. We show that miR-29 family expression is decreased after unilateral ureter obstruction and this significant decrease in miR-29 family expression was observed consistently in preclinical models of renal dysfunction and correlated with an increase in Adam12 and Adam19 expression. Exogenous overexpression of the miR-29 family blocked TGF-β–mediated up-regulation of Adam12 and Adam19 gene expression. This study shows that Adams are involved in renal fibrosis and are regulated by canonical TGF-β signaling and miR-29. Therefore, both Adams and the miR-29 family represent therapeutic targets for renal fibrosis. PMID:24103556

  16. CCN2: a mechanosignaling sensor modulating integrin-dependent connective tissue remodeling in fibroblasts?

    PubMed

    Leask, Andrew

    2013-08-01

    Tensegrity (tensional integrity) is an emerging concept governing the structure of the body. Integrin-mediated mechanical tension is essential for connective tissue function in vivo. For example, in adult skin fibroblasts, the integrin β1 subunit mediates adhesion to collagen and fibronectin. Moreover, integrin β1, through its abilities to activate latent TGFβ1 and promote collagen production through focal adhesion kinase/rac1/nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NOX)/reactive oxygen species (ROS), is essential for dermal homeostasis, repair and fibrosis. The integrin β1-interacting protein CCN2, a member of the CCN family of proteins, is induced by TGFβ1; yet, CCN2 is not a simple downstream mediator of TGFβ1, but instead synergistically promote TGFβ1-induced adhesive signaling and fibrosis. Due to its selective ability to sense mechanical forces in the microenvironment, CCN2 may represent an exquisitely precise target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:23729366

  17. Expression in Pichia pastoris and characterization of echistatin, an RGD-containing short disintegrin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Chun; Cheng, Chun-Ho; Shiu, Jia-Hau; Chang, Yao-Tsung; Chang, Yung-Sheng; Huang, Chun-Hau; Lee, Jenq-Chang; Chuang, Woei-Jer

    2012-12-15

    Echistatin (Ech) is a potent inhibitor of integrins and was isolated from snake Echis carinatus. To facilitate the study on the molecular determinants of integrin-ligand interactions, we expressed recombinant Ech and its mutants in the Pichia pastoris (P. pastoris) expression system and purified them to homogeneity with the yields of 2-7 mg/L. Ech produced in P. pastoris inhibited platelet aggregation with the IC(50) value of 210.5 nM. The sequential assignment and structure analysis of recombinant Ech were obtained by 2D and 3D (15)N-edited NMR spectra. These data suggests that Ech produced in P. pastoris retained its function and native fold. The results presented here provide the evidences that four disulfide-bonded peptide inhibitor of integrin, Ech, can be expressed in P. pastoris with correct fold and high yield. Platelet aggregation analysis of Ech mutants showed that the length of C-terminus and the K45 residue of Ech are important for interacting with integrin αIIbβ3. We also found that recombinant Ech can inhibit the migration of human A375 melanoma cell. These findings may serve as the basis for understanding the activities of Ech. PMID:22982571

  18. Isolation and characterization of two disintegrins inhibiting ADP-induced human platelet aggregation from the venom of Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus (Mohave Rattlesnake)

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, Elda E.; Galan, Jacob A.; Russell, William K.; Soto, Julio G.; Russell, David H.; Perez, John C. . E-mail: kfjcp00@tamuk.edu

    2006-04-01

    Disintegrins and disintegrin-like proteins are molecules found in the venom of four snake families (Atractaspididae, Elapidae, Viperidae, and Colubridae). The disintegrins are nonenzymatic proteins that inhibit cell-cell interactions, cell-matrix interactions, and signal transduction, and may have potential in the treatment of strokes, heart attacks, cancers, and osteoporosis. Prior to 1983, the venom of Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus (Mohave Rattlesnake) was known to be only neurotoxic; however, now there is evidence that these snakes can contain venom with: (1) neurotoxins; (2) hemorrhagins; and (3) both neurotoxins and hemorrhagins. In this study, two disintegrins, mojastin 1 and mojastin 2, from the venom of a Mohave rattlesnake collected in central Arizona (Pinal County), were isolated and characterized. The disintegrins in these venoms were identified by mass-analyzed laser desorption ionization/time-of-flight/time-of-flight (MALDI/TOF/TOF) mass spectrometry as having masses of 7.436 and 7.636 kDa. Their amino acid sequences are similar to crotratroxin, a disintegrin isolated from the venom of the western diamondback rattlesnake (C. atrox). The amino acid sequence of mojastin 1 was identical to the amino acid sequence of a disintegrin isolated from the venom of the Timber rattlesnake (C. horridus). The disintegrins from the Mohave rattlesnake venom were able to inhibit ADP-induced platelet aggregation in whole human blood both having IC{sub 5}s of 13.8 nM, but were not effective in inhibiting the binding of human urinary bladder carcinoma cells (T24) to fibronectin.

  19. Calpains promote α2β1 integrin turnover in nonrecycling integrin pathway

    PubMed Central

    Rintanen, Nina; Karjalainen, Mikko; Alanko, Jonna; Paavolainen, Lassi; Mäki, Anita; Nissinen, Liisa; Lehkonen, Moona; Kallio, Katri; Cheng, R. Holland; Upla, Paula; Ivaska, Johanna; Marjomäki, Varpu

    2012-01-01

    Collagen receptor integrins recycle between the plasma membrane and endosomes and facilitate formation and turnover of focal adhesions. In contrast, clustering of α2β1 integrin with antibodies or the human pathogen echovirus 1 (EV1) causes redistribution of α2 integrin to perinuclear multivesicular bodies, α2-MVBs. We show here that the internalized clustered α2 integrin remains in α2-MVBs and is not recycled back to the plasma membrane. Instead, receptor clustering and internalization lead to an accelerated down-regulation of α2β1 integrin compared to the slow turnover of unclustered α2 integrin. EV1 infection or integrin degradation is not associated with proteasomal or autophagosomal processes and shows no significant association with lysosomal pathway. In contrast, degradation is dependent on calpains, such that it is blocked by calpain inhibitors. We show that active calpain is present in α2-MVBs, internalized clustered α2β1 integrin coprecipitates with calpain-1, and calpain enzymes can degrade α2β1 integrin. In conclusion, we identified a novel virus- and clustering-specific pathway that diverts α2β1 integrin from its normal endo/exocytic traffic to a nonrecycling, calpain-dependent degradative endosomal route. PMID:22160595

  20. Retinoids induce integrin-independent lymphocyte adhesion through RAR-α nuclear receptor activity

    SciTech Connect

    Whelan, Jarrett T.; Wang, Lei; Chen, Jianming; Metts, Meagan E.; Nasser, Taj A.; McGoldrick, Liam J.; Bridges, Lance C.

    2014-11-28

    Highlights: • Transcription and translation are required for retinoid-induced lymphocyte adhesion. • RAR activation is sufficient to induced lymphocyte cell adhesion. • Vitamin D derivatives inhibit RAR-prompted lymphocyte adhesion. • Adhesion occurs through a novel binding site within ADAM disintegrin domains. • RARα is a key nuclear receptor for retinoid-dependent lymphocyte cell adhesion. - Abstract: Oxidative metabolites of vitamin A, in particular all-trans-retinoic acid (atRA), have emerged as key factors in immunity by specifying the localization of immune cells to the gut. Although it is appreciated that isomers of retinoic acid activate the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and retinoid X receptor (RXR) family of nuclear receptors to elicit cellular changes, the molecular details of retinoic acid action remain poorly defined in immune processes. Here we employ a battery of agonists and antagonists to delineate the specific nuclear receptors utilized by retinoids to evoke lymphocyte cell adhesion to ADAM (adisintegrin and metalloprotease) protein family members. We report that RAR agonism is sufficient to promote immune cell adhesion in both immortal and primary immune cells. Interestingly, adhesion occurs independent of integrin function, and mutant studies demonstrate that atRA-induced adhesion to ADAM members required a distinct binding interface(s) as compared to integrin recognition. Anti-inflammatory corticosteroids as well as 1,25-(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3}, a vitamin D metabolite that prompts immune cell trafficking to the skin, potently inhibited the observed adhesion. Finally, our data establish that induced adhesion was specifically attributable to the RAR-α receptor isotype. The current study provides novel molecular resolution as to which nuclear receptors transduce retinoid exposure into immune cell adhesion.

  1. IL-1β-induced matrix metalloproteinase-13 is activated by a disintegrin and metalloprotease-28-regulated proliferation of human osteoblast-like cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ozeki, Nobuaki; Kawai, Rie; Yamaguchi, Hideyuki; Hiyama, Taiki; Kinoshita, Katsue; Hase, Naoko; Nakata, Kazuhiko; Kondo, Ayami; Mogi, Makio; Nakamura, Hiroshi

    2014-04-15

    We reported previously that matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 accelerates bone remodeling in oral periradicular lesions, and indicated a potentially unique role for MMP-13 in wound healing and regeneration of alveolar bone. The ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloprotease) family is a set of multifunctional cell surface and secreted glycoproteins, of which ADAM-28 has been localized in bone and bone-like tissues. In this study, we show that interleukin (IL)-1β induces the expression of MMP-13 and ADAM-28 in homogeneous α7 integrin-positive human skeletal muscle stem cell (α7{sup +}hSMSC)-derived osteoblast-like (α7{sup +}hSMSC-OB) cells, and promotes proliferation while inhibiting apoptosis in these cells. At higher concentrations, however, IL-1β failed to induce the expression of these genes and caused an increase in apoptosis. We further employed ADAM-28 small interfering RNA (siRNA) to investigate whether IL-1β-induced MMP-13 expression is linked to this IL-1β-mediated changes in cell proliferation and apoptosis. Silencing ADAM-28 expression potently suppressed IL-1β-induced MMP-13 expression and activity, decreased cell proliferation and increased apoptosis in α7{sup +}hSMSC-OB cells. In contrast, MMP-13 siRNA had no effect on ADAM-28 expression, suggesting ADAM-28 regulates MMP-13. Exogenous MMP-13 induced α7{sup +}hSMSC-OB cell proliferation and could rescue ADAM-28 siRNA-induced apoptosis, and we found that proMMP-13 is partially cleaved into its active form by ADAM-28 in vitro. Overall, our results suggest that IL-1β-induced MMP-13 expression and changes in cell proliferation and apoptosis in α7{sup +}hSMSC-OB cells are regulated by ADAM-28. - Highlights: • IL-1β induces the MMP-13 and ADAM-28 expression in human osteoblast-like cells. • IL-1β-induced MMP-13 expression increases proliferation and decreased apoptosis. • MMP-13 expression induced by IL-1β is regulated by ADAM-28. • proMMP-13 appears to be cleaved into its active form via

  2. Structure of Protein Having Inhibitory Disintegrin and Leukotriene Scavenging Functions Contained in Single Domain

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Xueqing; Francischetti, Ivo M.B.; Lai, Ren; Ribeiro, José M.C.; Andersen, John F.

    2012-08-10

    The antihemostatic/antiangiogenic protein tablysin-15 is a member of the CAP (cysteine-rich secretory, antigen 5, and pathogenesis-related 1 protein) superfamily and has been shown to bind the integrins {alpha}{sub IIb}{beta}{sub 3} and {alpha}{sub V}{beta}{sub 3} by means of an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) tripeptide sequence. Here we describe the x-ray crystal structure of tablysin-15 and show that the RGD motif is located in a novel structural context. The motif itself is contained in a type II {beta}-turn structure that is similar in its conformation to the RGD sequence of the cyclic pentapeptide cilengitide when bound to integrin {alpha}V{beta}3. The CAP domain also contains a hydrophobic channel that appears to bind a fatty acid molecule in the crystal structure after purification from Escherichia coli. After delipidation of the protein, tablysin-15 was found to bind proinflammatory cysteinyl leukotrienes with submicromolar affinities. The structure of the leukotriene E{sub 4}-tablysin-15 complex shows that the ligand binds with the nonfunctionalized end of the fatty acid chain buried in the hydrophobic pocket, whereas the carboxylate end of the ligand binds forms hydrogen bond/salt bridge interactions with polar side chains at the channel entrance. Therefore, tablysin-15 functions as an inhibitor of integrin function and as an anti-inflammatory scavenger of eicosanoids.

  3. Structure of Protein Having Inhibitory Disintegrin and Leukotriene Scavenging Functions Contained in Single Domain*

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xueqing; Francischetti, Ivo M. B.; Lai, Ren; Ribeiro, José M. C.; Andersen, John F.

    2012-01-01

    The antihemostatic/antiangiogenic protein tablysin-15 is a member of the CAP (cysteine-rich secretory, antigen 5, and pathogenesis-related 1 protein) superfamily and has been shown to bind the integrins αIIbβ3 and αVβ3 by means of an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) tripeptide sequence. Here we describe the x-ray crystal structure of tablysin-15 and show that the RGD motif is located in a novel structural context. The motif itself is contained in a type II β-turn structure that is similar in its conformation to the RGD sequence of the cyclic pentapeptide cilengitide when bound to integrin αVβ3. The CAP domain also contains a hydrophobic channel that appears to bind a fatty acid molecule in the crystal structure after purification from Escherichia coli. After delipidation of the protein, tablysin-15 was found to bind proinflammatory cysteinyl leukotrienes with submicromolar affinities. The structure of the leukotriene E4-tablysin-15 complex shows that the ligand binds with the nonfunctionalized end of the fatty acid chain buried in the hydrophobic pocket, whereas the carboxylate end of the ligand binds forms hydrogen bond/salt bridge interactions with polar side chains at the channel entrance. Therefore, tablysin-15 functions as an inhibitor of integrin function and as an anti-inflammatory scavenger of eicosanoids. PMID:22311975

  4. Association of p75NTR and α9β1 integrin modulates NGF-dependent cellular responses

    PubMed Central

    Ventresca, Erin M.; Lecht, Shimon; Jakubowski, Piotr; Chiaverelli, Rachel A.; Weaver, Michael; Del Valle, Luis; Ettinger, Keren; Gincberg, Galit; Priel, Avi; Braiman, Alex; Lazarovici, Philip; Lelkes, Peter I.; Marcinkiewicz, Cezary

    2015-01-01

    Direct interaction of α9βl integrin with nerve growth factor (NGF) has been previously reported to induce pro-proliferative and pro-survival activities of non-neuronal cells. We investigated participation of p75NTR in α9βl integrin-dependent cellular response to NGF stimulation. Using selective transfection of glioma cell lines with these receptors, we showed a strong, cation-independent association of α9 integrin subunit with p75NTR on the cellular membrane by selective immunoprecipitation experiments. Presence of the α9/p75NTR complex increases NGF-dependent cell adhesion, proliferation and migration. Other integrin subunits including β1 were not found in complex with p75NTR. FRET analysis indicated that p75NTR and α9 integrin subunit are not closely associated through their cytoplasmic domains, most probably because of the molecular interference with other cytoplasmic proteins such as paxillin. Interaction of α9βl integrin with another ligand, VCAM-1 was not modulated by the p75NTR. α9/p75NTR complex elevated NGF-dependent activation of MAPK Erk1/2 arty for integrin that may create active complexes with other types of receptors belonging to the TNF superfamily. PMID:25748048

  5. Association of p75(NTR) and α9β1 integrin modulates NGF-dependent cellular responses.

    PubMed

    Ventresca, Erin M; Lecht, Shimon; Jakubowski, Piotr; Chiaverelli, Rachel A; Weaver, Michael; Del Valle, Luis; Ettinger, Keren; Gincberg, Galit; Priel, Avi; Braiman, Alex; Lazarovici, Philip; Lelkes, Peter I; Marcinkiewicz, Cezary

    2015-06-01

    Direct interaction of α9β1 integrin with nerve growth factor (NGF) has been previously reported to induce pro-proliferative and pro-survival activities of non-neuronal cells. We investigated participation of p75(NTR) in α9β1 integrin-dependent cellular response to NGF stimulation. Using selective transfection of glioma cell lines with these receptors, we showed a strong, cation-independent association of α9 integrin subunit with p75(NTR) on the cellular membrane by selective immunoprecipitation experiments. The presence of the α9/p75(NTR) complex increases NGF-dependent cell adhesion, proliferation and migration. Other integrin subunits including β1 were not found in complex with p75(NTR). FRET analysis indicated that p75(NTR) and α9 integrin subunit are not closely associated through their cytoplasmic domains, most probably because of the molecular interference with other cytoplasmic proteins such as paxillin. Interaction of α9β1 integrin with another ligand, VCAM-1 was not modulated by the p75(NTR). α9/p75(NTR) complex elevated NGF-dependent activation of MAPK Erk1/2 arty for integrin that may create active complexes with other types of receptors belonging to the TNF superfamily. PMID:25748048

  6. CC5 and CC8, two homologous disintegrins from Cerastes cerastes venom, inhibit in vitro and ex vivo angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ben-Mabrouk, Hazem; Zouari-Kessentini, Raoudha; Montassar, Fadoua; Koubaa, Zeineb Abdelkefi-; Messaadi, Erij; Guillonneau, Xavier; ElAyeb, Mohamed; Srairi-Abid, Najet; Luis, José; Micheau, Olivier; Marrakchi, Naziha

    2016-05-01

    Angiogenesis constitutes a fundamental step in tumor progression. Thus, targeting tumour angiogenesis has been identified to be promising in cancer treatment. In this work, CC5 and CC8, two highly homologous disintegrins isolated from the venom Cerastes cerastes viper from the south of Tunisia, were assessed for their anti-angiogenic effect by testing their ability to interfere with viability, adhesion, migration and angiogenesis of Human Microvascular Endothelial Cells, HMEC-1 and HBMEC. We found that CC5 and CC8 displayed pro-apoptotic potential in HMEC-1 cells. Anoïkis like induced by these two disintegrins was evidenced by cell detachment, down regulation of FAK/AKT/PI3K axis and caspase activation. In addition, both CC5 and CC8 exhibited in vitro anti-adhesive, anti-migratory and anti-proliferative effects on endothelial cells HBMEC. These effects appeared to require RGD and/or WGD loops disintegrin. CC5 and CC8 also inhibited tube-formation on matrigel and displayed potent anti-angiogenic activities as assessed ex vivo, using both the embryo chick chorioallantoic membrane model (CAM) and rat aortic ring assay. Altogether our results demonstrate that CC5 and CC8, are potent inhibitors of angiogenesis, by disrupting αvβ3 and α5β1 binding. The use of CC5 and/or CC8 could provide a beneficial tool to inhibit abnormal angiogenesis and to induce cancer regression. PMID:26853827

  7. Integrin-fibronectin interactions at the cell-material interface: initial integrin binding and signaling.

    PubMed

    García, A J; Boettiger, D

    1999-12-01

    Integrin receptors mediate cell adhesion to extracellular matrices and provide signals that direct proliferation and differentiation. Integrin binding involves receptor-ligand interactions at the cell-substrate interface and assembly and reorganization of structural and signaling elements at the cytoplasmic face. Using a cross-linking/extraction/reversal method to quantify bound integrins, we demonstrate that the density of alpha5beta1 integrin-fibronectin bonds increases linearly with ligand density, as predicted by simple receptor-ligand equilibrium. This linear relationship is consistent with linear increases in cell adhesion strength with receptor and ligand surface densities. Furthermore, we show that phosphorylation of FAK, a tyrosine kinase involved in early integrin-mediated signaling, increases linearly with the number of integrin-Fn bonds. These linear relationships suggest the absence of cooperative effects in the initial stages of mechanical coupling and adhesion-mediated signaling. PMID:10614947

  8. Strain-induced Differentiation of Fetal Type II Epithelial Cells Is Mediated via the Integrin α6β1-ADAM17/Tumor Necrosis Factor-α-converting Enzyme (TACE) Signaling Pathway*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yulian; Huang, Zheping; Nayak, Pritha S.; Matthews, Benjamin D.; Warburton, David; Shi, Wei; Sanchez-Esteban, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Mechanical forces are critical for normal fetal lung development. However, the mechanisms regulating this process are not well-characterized. We hypothesized that strain-induced release of HB-EGF and TGF-α is mediated via integrin-ADAM17/TACE interactions. Employing an in vitro system to simulate mechanical forces in fetal lung development, we showed that mechanical strain of fetal epithelial cells actives TACE, releases HB-EGF and TGF-α, and promotes differentiation. In contrast, in samples incubated with the TACE inhibitor IC-3 or in cells isolated from TACE knock-out mice, mechanical strain did not release ligands or promote cell differentiation, which were both rescued after transfection of ADAM17. Cell adhesion assay and co-immunoprecipitation experiments in wild-type and TACE knock-out cells using several TACE constructs demonstrated not only that integrins α6 and β1 bind to TACE via the disintegrin domain but also that mechanical strain enhances these interactions. Furthermore, force applied to these integrin receptors by magnetic beads activated TACE and shed HB-EGF and TGF-α. The contribution of integrins α6 and β1 to differentiation of fetal epithelial cells by strain was demonstrated by blocking their binding site with specific antibodies and by culturing the cells on membranes coated with anti-integrin α6 and β1 antibodies. In conclusion, mechanical strain releases HB-EGF and TGF-α and promotes fetal type II cell differentiation via α6β1 integrin-ADAM17/TACE signaling pathway. These investigations provide novel mechanistic information on how mechanical forces promote fetal lung development and specifically differentiation of epithelial cells. This information could be also relevant to other tissues exposed to mechanical forces. PMID:23888051

  9. Lebein, a Snake Venom Disintegrin, Induces Apoptosis in Human Melanoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hammouda, Manel B.; Montenegro, María F.; Sánchez-del-Campo, Luis; Zakraoui, Ons; Aloui, Zohra; Riahi-Chebbi, Ichrak; Karoui, Habib; Rodríguez-López, José Neptuno; Essafi-Benkhadir, Khadija

    2016-01-01

    Melanoma, the most threatening form of skin cancer, has a very poor prognosis and is characterized by its very invasive and chemoresistant properties. Despite the recent promising news from the field of immunotherapy, there is an urgent need for new therapeutic approaches that are free of resistance mechanisms and side effects. Anti-neoplasic properties have been highlighted for different disintegrins from snake venom including Lebein; however, the exact effect of Lebein on melanoma has not yet been defined. In this study, we showed that Lebein blocks melanoma cell proliferation and induces a more differentiated phenotype with inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) overexpression. Melanoma cells became detached but were less invasive with upregulation of E-cadherin after Lebein exposure. Lebein induced a caspase-independent apoptotic program with apoptosis inducing factor (AIF), BCL-2-associated X protein (BAX) and Bim overexpression together with downregulation of B-cell lymphoma-2 (BCL-2). It generated a distinct response in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and p53 levels depending on the p53 cell line status (wild type or mutant). Therefore, we propose Lebein as a new candidate for development of potential therapies for melanoma. PMID:27399772

  10. A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase10 (ADAM10) Regulates NOTCH Signaling during Early Retinal Development

    PubMed Central

    Toonen, Joseph A.; Ronchetti, Adam; Sidjanin, D. J.

    2016-01-01

    ADAM10 and ADAM17 are two closely related members of the ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloprotease) family of membrane-bound sheddases, which proteolytically cleave surface membrane proteins. Both ADAM10 and ADAM17 have been implicated in the proteolytic cleavage of NOTCH receptors and as such regulators of NOTCH signaling. During retinal development, NOTCH signaling facilitates retinal neurogenesis by maintaining progenitor cells in a proliferative state and by mediating retinal cell fates. However, the roles of ADAM10 and ADAM17 in the retina are not well defined. In this study, we set out to clarify the roles of ADAM10 and ADAM17 during early retinal development. The retinal phenotype of conditionally abated Adam17 retinae (Adam17 CKO) did not differ from the controls whereas conditionally ablated Adam10 retinae (Adam10 CKO) exhibited abnormal morphogenesis characterized by the formation of rosettes and a loss of retinal laminae phenotypically similar to morphological abnormalities identified in mice with retinal NOTCH signaling deficiency. Additionally, Adam10 CKO retinae exhibited abnormal neurogenesis characterized by fewer proliferating progenitor cells and greater differentiation of early photoreceptors and retinal ganglion cells. Moreover, constitutive activation of the NOTCH1-intracellular domain (N1-ICD) rescued Adam10 CKO abnormal neurogenesis, as well as abnormal retinal morphology by maintaining retinal cells in the progenitor state. Collectively these findings provide in vivo genetic evidence that ADAM10, and not ADAM17, is indispensable for proper retinal development as a regulator of NOTCH signaling. PMID:27224017

  11. Lebein, a Snake Venom Disintegrin, Induces Apoptosis in Human Melanoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Hammouda, Manel B; Montenegro, María F; Sánchez-Del-Campo, Luis; Zakraoui, Ons; Aloui, Zohra; Riahi-Chebbi, Ichrak; Karoui, Habib; Rodríguez-López, José Neptuno; Essafi-Benkhadir, Khadija

    2016-01-01

    Melanoma, the most threatening form of skin cancer, has a very poor prognosis and is characterized by its very invasive and chemoresistant properties. Despite the recent promising news from the field of immunotherapy, there is an urgent need for new therapeutic approaches that are free of resistance mechanisms and side effects. Anti-neoplasic properties have been highlighted for different disintegrins from snake venom including Lebein; however, the exact effect of Lebein on melanoma has not yet been defined. In this study, we showed that Lebein blocks melanoma cell proliferation and induces a more differentiated phenotype with inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) overexpression. Melanoma cells became detached but were less invasive with upregulation of E-cadherin after Lebein exposure. Lebein induced a caspase-independent apoptotic program with apoptosis inducing factor (AIF), BCL-2-associated X protein (BAX) and Bim overexpression together with downregulation of B-cell lymphoma-2 (BCL-2). It generated a distinct response in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and p53 levels depending on the p53 cell line status (wild type or mutant). Therefore, we propose Lebein as a new candidate for development of potential therapies for melanoma. PMID:27399772

  12. A-Disintegrin-And-Metalloproteinase (ADAM) 10 Activity on Resting and Activated Platelets.

    PubMed

    Facey, Adam; Pinar, Isaac; Arthur, Jane F; Qiao, Jianlin; Jing, Jing; Mado, Belden; Carberry, Josie; Andrews, Robert K; Gardiner, Elizabeth E

    2016-03-01

    The primary platelet collagen receptor, glycoprotein VI (GPVI), plays an important role in platelet activation and thrombosis. The ectodomain of human GPVI (sGPVI) is proteolytically shed from human platelets by a-disintegrin-and-metalloproteinase 10 (ADAM10). In this study, we used a novel ADAM10-sensitive fluorescence resonance energy transfer sensor to analyze ADAM10-mediated shedding of GPVI from human platelets in response to the exposure of GPVI ligands collagen-related peptide (10 μg/mL), collagen (10 μg/mL), and convulxin (0.1 μg/mL) to shear stress (1000-10000 s(-1), 5 min), or a generic activator of metalloproteinases, N-ethylmaleimide (NEM, 5 mM). Elevated shear, NEM, or ligand engagement of GPVI all induced shedding of GPVI, as detected by release of sGPVI; however, only shear or NEM significantly increased ADAM10 enzyme activity. ADAM10 activity was also detectable on the surface of thrombi formed on a collagen-coated surface under flow conditions. Our findings indicate different mechanisms regulate shear- and ligand-induced shedding and shear forces found within the vasculature can regulate ADAM10 activity. PMID:26840909

  13. Critical role of the disintegrin metalloprotease ADAM17 for intestinal inflammation and regeneration in mice

    PubMed Central

    Chalaris, Athena; Adam, Nina; Sina, Christian; Rosenstiel, Philip; Lehmann-Koch, Judith; Schirmacher, Peter; Hartmann, Dieter; Cichy, Joanna; Gavrilova, Olga; Schreiber, Stefan; Jostock, Thomas; Matthews, Vance; Häsler, Robert; Becker, Christoph; Neurath, Markus F.; Reiß, Karina; Saftig, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The protease a disintegrin and metalloprotease (ADAM) 17 cleaves tumor necrosis factor (TNF), L-selectin, and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) ligands from the plasma membrane. ADAM17 is expressed in most tissues and is up-regulated during inflammation and cancer. ADAM17-deficient mice are not viable. Conditional ADAM17 knockout models demonstrated proinflammatory activities of ADAM17 in septic shock via shedding of TNF. We used a novel gene targeting strategy to generate mice with dramatically reduced ADAM17 levels in all tissues. The resulting mice called ADAM17ex/ex were viable, showed compromised shedding of ADAM17 substrates from the cell surface, and developed eye, heart, and skin defects as a consequence of impaired EGF-R signaling caused by failure of shedding of EGF-R ligands. Unexpectedly, although the intestine of unchallenged homozygous ADAM17ex/ex mice was normal, ADAM17ex/ex mice showed substantially increased susceptibility to inflammation in dextran sulfate sodium colitis. This was a result of impaired shedding of EGF-R ligands resulting in failure to phosphorylate STAT3 via the EGF-R and, consequently, in defective regeneration of epithelial cells and breakdown of the intestinal barrier. Besides regulating the systemic availability of the proinflammatory cytokine TNF, our results demonstrate that ADAM17 is needed for vital regenerative activities during the immune response. Thus, our mouse model will help investigate ADAM17 as a potential drug target. PMID:20603312

  14. A disintegrin and metalloprotease 10 (ADAM10) is a central regulator of murine liver tissue homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Köhn-Gaone, Julia; Chalupsky, Karel; Lüllmann-Rauch, Renate; Barikbin, Roja; Bergmann, Juri; Wöhner, Birte; Zbodakova, Olga; Leuschner, Ivo; Martin, Gregor; Tiegs, Gisa; Rose-John, Stefan; Sedlacek, Radislav; Tirnitz-Parker, Janina E.E.; Saftig, Paul; Schmidt-Arras, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    A Disintegrin And Metalloprotease (ADAM) 10 exerts essential roles during organ development and tissue integrity in different organs, mainly through activation of the Notch pathway. However, only little is known about its implication in liver tissue physiology. Here we show that in contrast to its role in other tissues, ADAM10 is dispensable for the Notch2-dependent biliary tree formation. However, we demonstrate that expression of bile acid transporters is dependent on ADAM10. Consequently, mice deficient for Adam10 in hepatocytes, cholangiocytes and liver progenitor cells develop spontaneous hepatocyte necrosis and concomitant liver fibrosis. We furthermore observed a strongly augmented ductular reaction in 15-week old ADAM10Δhep/Δch mice and demonstrate that c-Met dependent liver progenitor cell activation is enhanced. Additionally, liver progenitor cells are primed to hepatocyte differentiation in the absence of ADAM10. These findings show that ADAM10 is a novel central node controlling liver tissue homeostasis. Highlights: Loss of ADAM10 in murine liver results in hepatocyte necrosis and concomitant liver fibrosis. ADAM10 directly regulates expression of bile acid transporters but is dispensable for Notch2-dependent formation of the biliary system. Activation of liver progenitor cells is enhanced through increased c-Met signalling, in the absence of ADAM10. Differentiation of liver progenitor cells to hepatocytes is augmented in the absence of ADAM10. PMID:26942887

  15. B-Raf Regulation of Integrin α4β1-mediated Resistance to Shear Stress through Changes in Cell Spreading and Cytoskeletal Association in T Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Wells S.; Khalili, Jahan S.; Rodriguez-Cruz, Tania G.; Lizee, Greg; McIntyre, Bradley W.

    2014-01-01

    The regulation of integrin-mediated adhesion is of vital importance to adaptive and innate immunity. Integrins are versatile proteins and mediate T cell migration and trafficking by binding to extracellular matrix or other cells as well as initiating intracellular signaling cascades promoting survival or activation. The MAPK pathway is known to be downstream from integrins and to regulate survival, differentiation, and motility. However, secondary roles for canonical MAPK pathway members are being discovered. We show that chemical inhibition of RAF by sorafenib or shRNA-mediated knockdown of B-Raf reduces T cell resistance to shear stress to α4β1 integrin ligands vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) and fibronectin, whereas inhibition of MEK/ERK by U0126 had no effect. Microscopy showed that RAF inhibition leads to significant inhibition of T cell spreading on VCAM-1. The association of α4β1 integrin with the actin cytoskeleton was shown to be dependent on B-Raf activity or expression, whereas α4β1 integrin affinity for soluble VCAM-1 was not. These effects were shown to be specific for α4β1 integrin and not other integrins, such as α5β1 or LFA-1, or a variety of membrane proteins. We demonstrate a novel role for B-Raf in the selective regulation of α4β1 integrin-mediated adhesion. PMID:24936068

  16. Integrin Targeting for Tumor Optical Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Yunpeng; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2011-01-01

    Optical imaging has emerged as a powerful modality for studying molecular recognitions and molecular imaging in a noninvasive, sensitive, and real-time way. Some advantages of optical imaging include cost-effectiveness, convenience, and non-ionization safety as well as complementation with other imaging modalities such as positron emission tomography (PET), single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Over the past decade, considerable advances have been made in tumor optical imaging by targeting integrin receptors in preclinical studies. This review has emphasized the construction and evaluation of diverse integrin targeting agents for optical imaging of tumors in mouse models. They mainly include some near-infrared fluorescent dye-RGD peptide conjugates, their multivalent analogs, and nanoparticle conjugates for targeting integrin αvβ3. Some compounds targeting other integrin subtypes such as α4β1 and α3 for tumor optical imaging have also been included. Both in vitro and in vivo studies have revealed some promising integrin-targeting optical agents which have further enhanced our understanding of integrin expression and targeting in cancer biology as well as related anticancer drug discovery. Especially, some integrin-targeted multifunctional optical agents including nanoparticle-based optical agents can multiplex optical imaging with other imaging modalities and targeted therapy, serving as an attractive type of theranostics for simultaneous imaging and targeted therapy. Continued efforts to discover and develop novel, innovative integrin-based optical agents with improved targeting specificity and imaging sensitivity hold great promises for improving cancer early detection, diagnosis, and targeted therapy in clinic. PMID:21546996

  17. Tumour exosome integrins determine organotropic metastasis.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, Ayuko; Costa-Silva, Bruno; Shen, Tang-Long; Rodrigues, Goncalo; Hashimoto, Ayako; Tesic Mark, Milica; Molina, Henrik; Kohsaka, Shinji; Di Giannatale, Angela; Ceder, Sophia; Singh, Swarnima; Williams, Caitlin; Soplop, Nadine; Uryu, Kunihiro; Pharmer, Lindsay; King, Tari; Bojmar, Linda; Davies, Alexander E; Ararso, Yonathan; Zhang, Tuo; Zhang, Haiying; Hernandez, Jonathan; Weiss, Joshua M; Dumont-Cole, Vanessa D; Kramer, Kimberly; Wexler, Leonard H; Narendran, Aru; Schwartz, Gary K; Healey, John H; Sandstrom, Per; Labori, Knut Jørgen; Kure, Elin H; Grandgenett, Paul M; Hollingsworth, Michael A; de Sousa, Maria; Kaur, Sukhwinder; Jain, Maneesh; Mallya, Kavita; Batra, Surinder K; Jarnagin, William R; Brady, Mary S; Fodstad, Oystein; Muller, Volkmar; Pantel, Klaus; Minn, Andy J; Bissell, Mina J; Garcia, Benjamin A; Kang, Yibin; Rajasekhar, Vinagolu K; Ghajar, Cyrus M; Matei, Irina; Peinado, Hector; Bromberg, Jacqueline; Lyden, David

    2015-11-19

    Ever since Stephen Paget's 1889 hypothesis, metastatic organotropism has remained one of cancer's greatest mysteries. Here we demonstrate that exosomes from mouse and human lung-, liver- and brain-tropic tumour cells fuse preferentially with resident cells at their predicted destination, namely lung fibroblasts and epithelial cells, liver Kupffer cells and brain endothelial cells. We show that tumour-derived exosomes uptaken by organ-specific cells prepare the pre-metastatic niche. Treatment with exosomes from lung-tropic models redirected the metastasis of bone-tropic tumour cells. Exosome proteomics revealed distinct integrin expression patterns, in which the exosomal integrins α6β4 and α6β1 were associated with lung metastasis, while exosomal integrin αvβ5 was linked to liver metastasis. Targeting the integrins α6β4 and αvβ5 decreased exosome uptake, as well as lung and liver metastasis, respectively. We demonstrate that exosome integrin uptake by resident cells activates Src phosphorylation and pro-inflammatory S100 gene expression. Finally, our clinical data indicate that exosomal integrins could be used to predict organ-specific metastasis. PMID:26524530

  18. Tumour exosome integrins determine organotropic metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Hoshino, Ayuko; Costa-Silva, Bruno; Shen, Tang-Long; Rodrigues, Goncalo; Hashimoto, Ayako; Mark, Milica Tesic; Molina, Henrik; Kohsaka, Shinji; Di Giannatale, Angela; Ceder, Sophia; Singh, Swarnima; Williams, Caitlin; Soplop, Nadine; Uryu, Kunihiro; Pharmer, Lindsay; King, Tari; Bojmar, Linda; Davies, Alexander E.; Ararso, Yonathan; Zhang, Tuo; Zhang, Haiying; Hernandez, Jonathan; Weiss, Joshua M.; Dumont-Cole, Vanessa D.; Kramer, Kimberly; Wexler, Leonard H.; Narendran, Aru; Schwartz, Gary K.; Healey, John H.; Sandstrom, Per; Labori, Knut Jørgen; Kure, Elin H.; Grandgenett, Paul M.; Hollingsworth, Michael A.; de Sousa, Maria; Kaur, Sukhwinder; Jain, Maneesh; Mallya, Kavita; Batra, Surinder K.; Jarnagin, William R.; Brady, Mary S.; Fodstad, Oystein; Muller, Volkmar; Pantel, Klaus; Minn, Andy J.; Bissell, Mina J.; Garcia, Benjamin A.; Kang, Yibin; Rajasekhar, Vinagolu K.; Ghajar, Cyrus M.; Matei, Irina; Peinado, Hector; Bromberg, Jacqueline; Lyden, David

    2015-01-01

    Ever since Stephen Paget’s 1889 hypothesis, metastatic organotropism has remained one of cancer’s greatest mysteries. Here we demonstrate that exosomes from mouse and human lung-, liver- and brain-tropic tumour cells fuse preferentially with resident cells at their predicted destination, namely lung fibroblasts and epithelial cells, liver Kupffer cells and brain endothelial cells. We show that tumour-derived exosomes uptaken by organ-specific cells prepare the pre-metastatic niche. Treatment with exosomes from lung-tropic models redirected the metastasis of bone-tropic tumour cells. Exosome proteomics revealed distinct integrin expression patterns, in which the exosomal integrins α6β4 and α6β1 were associated with lung metastasis, while exosomal integrin αvβ5 was linked to liver metastasis. Targeting the integrins α6β4 and αvβ5 decreased exosome uptake, as well as lung and liver metastasis, respectively. We demonstrate that exosome integrin uptake by resident cells activates Src phosphorylation and pro-inflammatory S100 gene expression. Finally, our clinical data indicate that exosomal integrins could be used to predict organ-specific metastasis. PMID:26524530

  19. Inclusion of an RGD Motif Alters Invasin Integrin-Binding Affinity and Specificity.

    PubMed

    Khan, Tarik A; Wang, Xianzhe; Maynard, Jennifer A

    2016-04-12

    Invasin is a key adhesin displayed on the outer membrane of Yersinia enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis that mediates the initial stages of infection. Invasin specifically targets microfold (M) cells in the small intestine by binding β1 integrins and is sufficient to trigger eukaryotic uptake of invasin-coated particles, including Yersinia, Escherichia coli, and latex beads. As a result, invasin has generated interest to mediate oral delivery of vaccines and other biologics. Integrin binding affinity has been shown to correlate with particle uptake; thus we hypothesized that invasin variants with higher affinity would confer enhanced internalization. We first performed alanine scanning of surface-exposed tyrosine residues to identify those contributing to integrin binding. We identified two residues, which, when substituted with alanine, reduced binding to soluble α5β1 integrin. Next, we constructed four targeted mutagenesis libraries spanning these and other residues known to contribute to binding, followed by enrichment of variants able to mediate Caco-2 cellular invasion and to bind soluble α5β1 integrin. We identified three amino acid substitutions that increased α5β1 integrin binding affinity as measured by flow cytometry and ELISA assays, two of which created a novel RGD motif surrounding the D911 residue critical for binding. This variant confers enhanced internalization into CHO cells but not Caco-2 cells when expressed on the E. coli surface. Further analysis showed that inclusion of an RGD expands invasin-integrin specificity, thereby impacting cellular selectivity. This work provides a molecular explanation for the lack of an RGD motif in invasin that is present in many other adhesins. PMID:27015583

  20. β Integrin-like protein-mediated adhesion and its disturbances during cell cultivation of the mussel Mytilus trossulus.

    PubMed

    Maiorova, Mariia A; Odintsova, Nelly A

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we focus on the specific contribution of β integrin-like protein to adhesion-mediated events in molluscan larval cells in culture that could not have been investigated within the whole animal. An analysis of disturbances to cell-substratum adhesion, caused by the integrin receptor inhibiting Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser (RGDS)-peptide, the Ca(2+)/Mg(2+)-chelators and the stress influence of freezing-thawing, reveals that all these factors resulted in the partial destruction of the integrin-extracellular matrix (ECM) interaction in culture and, in particular, changes in the distribution and relative abundance of β integrin-positive cells. The experiments, carried out on selected substrates, found that β integrin-positive cells demonstrate different affinities for the substrates. This finding further supports the assumption that epithelial differentiation in cultivated cells of larval Mytilus may be mediated by β integrin-like proteins via binding to laminin; direct binding to other components of the ECM could not be demonstrated. The mussel β integrin-positive cells are not involved in myogenic or neuronal differentiation on any of the substrates but part of them has tubulin-positive cilia, forming some epithelia-like structures. Our data indicate that β integrin-positive cells are able to proliferate in vitro which suggests that they could participate in renewing the digestive epithelium in larvae. The findings provide evidence that the distribution pattern of β integrin-like protein depends on the cell type and the factors influencing the adhesion. PMID:25673210

  1. Nascent Integrin Adhesions Form on All Matrix Rigidities after Integrin Activation.

    PubMed

    Changede, Rishita; Xu, Xiaochun; Margadant, Felix; Sheetz, Michael P

    2015-12-01

    Integrin adhesions assemble and mature in response to ligand binding and mechanical factors, but the molecular-level organization is not known. We report that ∼100-nm clusters of ∼50 β3-activated integrins form very early adhesions under a wide variety of conditions on RGD surfaces. These adhesions form similarly on fluid and rigid substrates, but most adhesions are transient on rigid substrates. Without talin or actin polymerization, few early adhesions form, but expression of either the talin head or rod domain in talin-depleted cells restores early adhesion formation. Mutation of the integrin binding site in the talin rod decreases cluster size. We suggest that the integrin clusters constitute universal early adhesions and that they are the modular units of cell matrix adhesions. They require the association of activated integrins with cytoplasmic proteins, in particular talin and actin, and cytoskeletal contraction on them causes adhesion maturation for cell motility and growth. PMID:26625956

  2. Guiding plant virus particles to integrin-displaying cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hovlid, Marisa L.; Steinmetz, Nicole F.; Laufer, Burkhardt; Lau, Jolene L.; Kuzelka, Jane; Wang, Qian; Hyypiä, Timo; Nemerow, Glen R.; Kessler, Horst; Manchester, Marianne; Finn, M. G.

    2012-05-01

    Viral nanoparticles (VNPs) are structurally regular, highly stable, tunable nanomaterials that can be conveniently produced in high yields. Unmodified VNPs from plants and bacteria generally do not show tissue specificity or high selectivity in binding to or entry into mammalian cells. They are, however, malleable by both genetic and chemical means, making them useful scaffolds for the display of large numbers of cell- and tissue-targeting ligands, imaging moieties, and/or therapeutic agents in a well-defined manner. Capitalizing on this attribute, we modified the genetic sequence of the Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) coat protein to display an RGD oligopeptide sequence derived from human adenovirus type 2 (HAdV-2). Concurrently, wild-type CPMV was modified via NHS acylation and Cu(i)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) chemistry to attach an integrin-binding cyclic RGD peptide. Both types of particles showed strong and selective affinity for several different cancer cell lines that express RGD-binding integrin receptors.Viral nanoparticles (VNPs) are structurally regular, highly stable, tunable nanomaterials that can be conveniently produced in high yields. Unmodified VNPs from plants and bacteria generally do not show tissue specificity or high selectivity in binding to or entry into mammalian cells. They are, however, malleable by both genetic and chemical means, making them useful scaffolds for the display of large numbers of cell- and tissue-targeting ligands, imaging moieties, and/or therapeutic agents in a well-defined manner. Capitalizing on this attribute, we modified the genetic sequence of the Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) coat protein to display an RGD oligopeptide sequence derived from human adenovirus type 2 (HAdV-2). Concurrently, wild-type CPMV was modified via NHS acylation and Cu(i)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) chemistry to attach an integrin-binding cyclic RGD peptide. Both types of particles showed strong and selective affinity

  3. Association of a disintegrin and metalloprotease 33 gene polymorphisms with asthma

    PubMed Central

    YILIHAMU, NIGELA; WUSHOUER, QIMANGUL; ARKIN, KADIRYA; XIN, HU; YADAV, UMESH

    2014-01-01

    Various studies reported a disintegrin and metalloprotease 33 (ADAM33) as an important susceptibility gene for asthma, which is frequently detected among certain populations. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the ADAM33 gene and asthma. Our case-control study included 183 patients (73 male and 110 female, mean age 42.93±13.48 years) who were admitted in the First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University between February, 2012 and May, 2013 and 155 healthy controls (66 male and 89 female, mean age 41.14±14.10 years). Allele-specific polymerase chain reaction technology and DNA testing training methods were applied to detect the T2 and ST+5 polymorphisms of the ADAM33 gene. The data were statistically analyzed to determine whether there exists an association between these genotypes and asthma-related morbidity. The genotypes and allele frequencies of the T2 and ST+5 SNPs of ADAM33 were not found to be significantly associated with asthma risk when compared between asthmatic patients and healthy controls (P>0.05). In addition, there was no association of the investigated SNPs with the severity of asthma. There was no significant difference in the forced vital capacity and the forced expiratory volume between patients with the ADAM33 T2 and ST+5 genotype. In conclusion, our results suggested that the T2 and ST+5 ADAM33 gene polymorphisms do not confer a significant risk of asthma or affect its severity in the population investigated. PMID:25279200

  4. A-Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase (ADAM) 17 Enzymatically Degrades Interferon-gamma.

    PubMed

    Kanzaki, Hiroyuki; Shinohara, Fumiaki; Suzuki, Maiko; Wada, Satoshi; Miyamoto, Yutaka; Yamaguchi, Yuuki; Katsumata, Yuta; Makihira, Seicho; Kawai, Toshi; Taubman, Martin A; Nakamura, Yoshiki

    2016-01-01

    Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) is a pleiotropic cytokine that exerts anti-tumor and anti-osteoclastogenic effects. Although transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of IFN-γ is well understood, subsequent modifications of secreted IFN-γ are not fully elucidated. Previous research indicates that some cancer cells escape immune surveillance and metastasize into bone tissue by inducing osteoclastic bone resorption. Peptidases of the a-disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM) family are implicated in cancer cell proliferation and tumor progression. We hypothesized that the ADAM enzymes expressed by cancer cells degrades IFN-γ and attenuates IFN-γ-mediated anti-tumorigenic and anti-osteoclastogenic effects. Recombinant ADAM17 degraded IFN-γ into small fragments. The addition of ADAM17 to the culture supernatant of stimulated mouse splenocytes decreased IFN-γ concentration. However, ADAM17 inhibition in the stimulated mouse T-cells prevented IFN-γ degradation. ADAM17-expressing human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-453 also degraded recombinant IFN-γ, but this was attenuated by ADAM17 inhibition. Degraded IFN-γ lost the functionality including the inhibititory effect on osteoclastogenesis. This is the first study to demonstrate the extracellular proteolytic degradation of IFN-γ by ADAM17. These results suggest that ADAM17-mediated degradation of IFN-γ may block the anti-tumorigenic and anti-osteoclastogenic effects of IFN-γ. ADAM17 inhibition may be useful for the treatment of attenuated cancer immune surveillance and/or bone metastases. PMID:27573075

  5. A-Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase (ADAM) 17 Enzymatically Degrades Interferon-gamma

    PubMed Central

    Kanzaki, Hiroyuki; Shinohara, Fumiaki; Suzuki, Maiko; Wada, Satoshi; Miyamoto, Yutaka; Yamaguchi, Yuuki; Katsumata, Yuta; Makihira, Seicho; Kawai, Toshi; Taubman, Martin A.; Nakamura, Yoshiki

    2016-01-01

    Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) is a pleiotropic cytokine that exerts anti-tumor and anti-osteoclastogenic effects. Although transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of IFN-γ is well understood, subsequent modifications of secreted IFN-γ are not fully elucidated. Previous research indicates that some cancer cells escape immune surveillance and metastasize into bone tissue by inducing osteoclastic bone resorption. Peptidases of the a-disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM) family are implicated in cancer cell proliferation and tumor progression. We hypothesized that the ADAM enzymes expressed by cancer cells degrades IFN-γ and attenuates IFN-γ-mediated anti-tumorigenic and anti-osteoclastogenic effects. Recombinant ADAM17 degraded IFN-γ into small fragments. The addition of ADAM17 to the culture supernatant of stimulated mouse splenocytes decreased IFN-γ concentration. However, ADAM17 inhibition in the stimulated mouse T-cells prevented IFN-γ degradation. ADAM17-expressing human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-453 also degraded recombinant IFN-γ, but this was attenuated by ADAM17 inhibition. Degraded IFN-γ lost the functionality including the inhibititory effect on osteoclastogenesis. This is the first study to demonstrate the extracellular proteolytic degradation of IFN-γ by ADAM17. These results suggest that ADAM17-mediated degradation of IFN-γ may block the anti-tumorigenic and anti-osteoclastogenic effects of IFN-γ. ADAM17 inhibition may be useful for the treatment of attenuated cancer immune surveillance and/or bone metastases. PMID:27573075

  6. A disintegrin and metalloprotease 33 and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Gosman, Margot M E; Boezen, H Marike; van Diemen, Cleo C; Snoeck‐Stroband, Jiska B; Lapperre, Thérèse S; Hiemstra, Pieter S; Hacken, Nick H T ten; Stolk, Jan; Postma, Dirkje S

    2007-01-01

    Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a respiratory disorder with increasing prevalence and mortality. It is associated with airway obstruction, increased airway hyper‐responsiveness (AHR), and ongoing airway and lung inflammation dominated by CD8 lymphocytes and neutrophils. Single‐nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a disintegrin and metalloprotease 33 (ADAM33) gene have been associated with AHR and COPD. Objective To assess whether SNPs in ADAM33 are associated with the severity of AHR and airway inflammation in COPD. Methods Eight SNPs in ADAM33 (F+1, Q‐1, S_1, S_2, ST+5, T_1, T_2, V_4) were genotyped in 111 patients with COPD (96 males, 69 current smokers, mean (standard deviation (SD)), aged 62 (8) years, median pack‐years 42 (IQR 31–55), mean postbronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)% predicted 63 (9). Provocative concentration of methacholine causing a decrease in FEV1 of 20% (PC20 methacholine), sputum and bronchial biopsies were collected. Results Patients with the ST+5 AA genotype had more severe AHR, higher numbers of sputum inflammatory cells and CD8 cells in bronchial biopsies than patients with the GG genotype (p = 0.03, 0.05 and 0.01, respectively). CD8 cell numbers were lower in patients carrying the minor allele of SNP T_1 and T_2, and homozygotic minor variants of SNP S_2 compared with the wild type (p = 0.02, 0.01 and 0.02, respectively). Conclusions This is the first study revealing that SNPs in a gene that confers susceptibility to COPD in the general population—that is, ADAM33—are associated with AHR and airway inflammation in COPD. These findings constitute an important step forward in linking gene polymorphisms with COPD pathophysiology, thereby possibly contributing to better treatments for this progressive and disabling disease in the future. PMID:17090574

  7. Association of a disintegrin and metalloprotease 33 gene polymorphisms with asthma.

    PubMed

    Yilihamu, Nigela; Wushouer, Qimangul; Arkin, Kadirya; Xin, Hu; Yadav, Umesh

    2014-11-01

    Various studies reported a disintegrin and metalloprotease 33 (ADAM33) as an important susceptibility gene for asthma, which is frequently detected among certain populations. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the ADAM33 gene and asthma. Our case-control study included 183 patients (73 male and 110 female, mean age 42.93±13.48 years) who were admitted in the First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University between February, 2012 and May, 2013 and 155 healthy controls (66 male and 89 female, mean age 41.14±14.10 years). Allele-specific polymerase chain reaction technology and DNA testing training methods were applied to detect the T2 and ST+5 polymorphisms of the ADAM33 gene. The data were statistically analyzed to determine whether there exists an association between these genotypes and asthma-related morbidity. The genotypes and allele frequencies of the T2 and ST+5 SNPs of ADAM33 were not found to be significantly associated with asthma risk when compared between asthmatic patients and healthy controls (P>0.05). In addition, there was no association of the investigated SNPs with the severity of asthma. There was no significant difference in the forced vital capacity and the forced expiratory volume between patients with the ADAM33 T2 and ST+5 genotype. In conclusion, our results suggested that the T2 and ST+5 ADAM33 gene polymorphisms do not confer a significant risk of asthma or affect its severity in the population investigated. PMID:25279200

  8. RGD labeled Ru(II) polypyridyl conjugates for platelet integrin αIIbβ3 recognition and as reporters of integrin conformation.

    PubMed

    Adamson, Kellie; Dolan, Ciaran; Moran, Niamh; Forster, Robert J; Keyes, Tia E

    2014-05-21

    s, respectively. Following treatment, the rotational correlation time decreased to 1.04 ± 0.01 μs and 1.29 ± 0.03 μs for bpy-RGD/αIIbβ3, and dpp-RGD/αIIbβ3, respectively. The large relative changes in rotational correlation times observed for Mn(2+) or DTT activated integrin indicates significant change in protein conformation compared with the resting integrin. The results also indicated that the metal complex itself affects the final conformational and/or aggregation status of the protein obtained. Furthermore, the extent of conformational change was influenced by whether the probe was bound to the integrin before or after activator treatment. Finally, in vitro studies indicated that both probes selectively bind to CHO cells expressing the resting form of αIIbβ3. In each case the probe colocalized with αIIb specific SZ22 antibody. Overall, this work indicates that bpy-RGD and dpp-RGD may be useful peptide-probes for rapid assessment of integrin structural status and localization in solution and cells. PMID:24720819

  9. Beta1 integrin expression by podocytes is required to maintain glomerular structural integrity.

    PubMed

    Pozzi, Ambra; Jarad, George; Moeckel, Gilbert W; Coffa, Sergio; Zhang, Xi; Gewin, Leslie; Eremina, Vera; Hudson, Billy G; Borza, Dorin-Bogdan; Harris, Raymond C; Holzman, Lawrence B; Phillips, Carrie L; Fassler, Reinhard; Quaggin, Susan E; Miner, Jeffrey H; Zent, Roy

    2008-04-15

    Integrins are transmembrane heteromeric receptors that mediate interactions between cells and extracellular matrix (ECM). beta1, the most abundantly expressed integrin subunit, binds at least 12 alpha subunits. beta1 containing integrins are highly expressed in the glomerulus of the kidney; however their role in glomerular morphogenesis and maintenance of glomerular filtration barrier integrity is poorly understood. To study these questions we selectively deleted beta1 integrin in the podocyte by crossing beta1(flox/flox) mice with podocyte specific podocin-cre mice (pod-Cre), which express cre at the time of glomerular capillary formation. We demonstrate that podocyte abnormalities are visualized during glomerulogenesis of the pod-Cre;beta1(flox/flox) mice and proteinuria is present at birth, despite a grossly normal glomerular basement membrane. Following the advent of glomerular filtration there is progressive podocyte loss and the mice develop capillary loop and mesangium degeneration with little evidence of glomerulosclerosis. By 3 weeks of age the mice develop severe end stage renal failure characterized by both tubulointerstitial and glomerular pathology. Thus, expression of beta1 containing integrins by the podocyte is critical for maintaining the structural integrity of the glomerulus. PMID:18328474

  10. Integrins are Mechanosensors That Modulate Human Eosinophil Activation

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadzai, Mustafa; Small, Mike; Sehmi, Roma; Gauvreau, Gail; Janssen, Luke J.

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophil migration to the lung is primarily regulated by the eosinophil-selective family of eotaxin chemokines, which mobilize intracellular calcium (Ca2+) and orchestrate myriad changes in cell structure and function. Eosinophil function is also known to be flow-dependent, although the molecular cognate of this mechanical response has yet to be adequately characterized. Using confocal fluorescence microscopy, we determined the effects of fluid shear stress on intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) in human peripheral blood eosinophils by perfusing cells in a parallel-plate flow chamber. Our results indicate that fluid perfusion evokes a calcium response that leads to cell flattening, increase in cell area, shape change, and non-directional migration. None of these changes are seen in the absence of a flow stimulus, and all are blocked by chelation of intracellular Ca2+ using BAPTA. These changes are enhanced by stimulating the cells with eotaxin-1. The perfusion-induced calcium response (PICR) could be blocked by pre-treating cells with selective (CDP-323) and non-selective (RGD tripeptides) integrin receptor antagonists, suggesting that α4β7/α4β1 integrins mediate this response. Overall, our study provides the first pharmacological description of a molecular mechanosensor that may collaborate with the eotaxin-1 signaling program in order to control human eosinophil activation. PMID:26539194

  11. The Role of Integrins in the Trabecular Meshwork

    PubMed Central

    Gagen, Debjani; Faralli, Jennifer A.; Filla, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Integrins are a family of heterodimeric transmembrane receptors that mediate adhesion to the extracellular matrix (ECM). However, integrins are not just adhesion receptors. They can act as “bidirectional signal transducers” that coordinate a large number of cellular activities in response to the extracellular environment and intracellular signaling events. Among the activities regulated by integrins are cell adhesion, assembly of the ECM, growth factor signaling, apoptosis, organization of the cytoskeleton, and cytoskeleton-mediated processes such as contraction, endocytosis, and phagocytosis. Integrins regulate these activities through a complex network of intracellular signaling kinases and adaptor proteins that associate with the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of the integrin subunits. In this review, we will discuss how some of the known integrin-mediated activities can control the function of the trabecular meshwork. We will also discuss how integrin activity is a tightly regulated process that involves conformation changes within the heterodimer which are mediated by specific integrin-binding proteins. PMID:24266581

  12. SHARPIN is an endogenous inhibitor of beta1-integrin activation

    PubMed Central

    Rantala, Juha K.; Pouwels, Jeroen; Pellinen, Teijo; Veltel, Stefan; Laasola, Petra; Potter, Christopher S.; Duffy, Ted; Sundberg, John P.; Kallioniemi, Olli; Askari, Janet A.; Humphries, Martin; Parsons, Maddy; Salmi, Marko; Ivaska, Johanna

    2012-01-01

    Regulated activation of integrins is critical for cell adhesion, motility and tissue homeostasis. Talin and Kindlins activate β1-integrins, but the counteracting inhibiting mechanisms are poorly defined. Here we identified SHARPIN as an important inactivator of β1-integrins in an RNAi-screen. SHARPIN inhibited β1-integrin functions in human cancer cells and primary leukocytes. Fibroblasts, leukocytes and keratinocytes from SHARPIN-deficient mice exhibited increased β1-integrin activity which was fully rescued by re-expression of SHARPIN. SHARPIN directly bound to a conserved cytoplasmic region of integrin α-subunits and inhibited recruitment of Talin and Kindlin to the integrin. Therefore, SHARPIN inhibits the critical switching of β1-integrins from inactive to active conformations. PMID:21947080

  13. Sulfonamide inhibitors of α2β1 integrin reveal the essential role of collagen receptors in in vivo models of inflammation.

    PubMed

    Nissinen, Liisa; Ojala, Marika; Langen, Barbara; Dost, Rita; Pihlavisto, Marjo; Käpylä, Jarmo; Marjamäki, Anne; Heino, Jyrki

    2015-06-01

    Small molecule inhibitors of α2β1 integrin, a major cellular collagen receptor, have been reported to inhibit platelet function, kidney injury, and angiogenesis. Since α2β1 integrin is abundantly expressed on various inflammation-associated cells, we tested whether recently developed α2β1 blocking sulfonamides have anti-inflammatory properties. Integrin α2β1 inhibitors were shown to reduce the signs of inflammation in arachidonic acid-induced ear edema, PAF stimulated air pouch, ovalbumin-induced skin hypersensitivity, adjuvant arthritis, and collagen-induced arthritis. Thus, these sulfonamides are potential drugs for acute and allergic inflammation, hypersensitivity, and arthritis. One sulfonamide with potent anti-inflammatory activity has previously been reported to be selective for activated integrins, but not to inhibit platelet function. Thus, the experiments also revealed fundamental differences in the action of nonactivated and activated α2β1 integrins in inflammation when compared to thrombosis. PMID:26171226

  14. Sulfonamide inhibitors of α2β1 integrin reveal the essential role of collagen receptors in in vivo models of inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Nissinen, Liisa; Ojala, Marika; Langen, Barbara; Dost, Rita; Pihlavisto, Marjo; Käpylä, Jarmo; Marjamäki, Anne; Heino, Jyrki

    2015-01-01

    Small molecule inhibitors of α2β1 integrin, a major cellular collagen receptor, have been reported to inhibit platelet function, kidney injury, and angiogenesis. Since α2β1 integrin is abundantly expressed on various inflammation-associated cells, we tested whether recently developed α2β1 blocking sulfonamides have anti-inflammatory properties. Integrin α2β1 inhibitors were shown to reduce the signs of inflammation in arachidonic acid-induced ear edema, PAF stimulated air pouch, ovalbumin-induced skin hypersensitivity, adjuvant arthritis, and collagen-induced arthritis. Thus, these sulfonamides are potential drugs for acute and allergic inflammation, hypersensitivity, and arthritis. One sulfonamide with potent anti-inflammatory activity has previously been reported to be selective for activated integrins, but not to inhibit platelet function. Thus, the experiments also revealed fundamental differences in the action of nonactivated and activated α2β1 integrins in inflammation when compared to thrombosis. PMID:26171226

  15. Stable coordination of the inhibitory Ca2+ ion at MIDAS in integrin CD11b/CD18 by an antibody-derived ligand aspartate: Implications for integrin regulation and structure-based drug design

    PubMed Central

    Mahalingam, Bhuvaneshwari; Ajroud, Kaouther; Alonso, Jose Luis; Anand, Saurabh; Adair, Brian; Horenstein, Alberto L; Malavasi, Fabio; Xiong, Jian-Ping; Arnaout, M. Amin

    2011-01-01

    A central feature of integrin interaction with physiologic ligands is the monodentate binding of a ligand carboxylate to a Mg2+ ion hexacoordinated at the metal-ion-dependent-adhesion site (MIDAS) in the integrin A-domain. This interaction stabilizes the A-domain in the high-affinity state, which is distinguished from the default low-affinity state by tertiary changes in the domain that culminate in cell adhesion. Small molecule ligand-mimetic integrin antagonists act as partial agonists, eliciting similar activating conformational changes in the A-domain, which has contributed to paradoxical adhesion and increased patient mortality in large clinical trials. As with other ligand-mimetic integrin antagonists, the function-blocking monoclonal antibody (mAb) 107 binds MIDAS of integrin CD11b/CD18 A-domain (CD11bA), but in contrast, it favors the inhibitory Ca2+ ion over Mg2+ at MIDAS. We determined the crystal structures of the Fab fragment of mAb 107 complexed to the low- and high-affinity states of CD11bA. Favored binding of Ca2+ at MIDAS is caused by the unusual symmetric bidentate ligation of a Fab-derived ligand Asp to a heptacoordinated MIDAS Ca2+. Binding of Fab 107 to CD11bA did not trigger the activating tertiary changes in the domain or in the full-length integrin. These data show that denticity of the ligand Asp/Glu can modify divalent cation selectivity at MIDAS and hence integrin function. Stabilizing the Ca2+ ion at MIDAS by bidentate ligation to a ligand Asp/Glu may provide one approach for designing pure integrin antagonists. PMID:22095715

  16. The integrin alpha IIb beta 3 contains distinct and interacting binding sites for snake-venom RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) proteins. Evidence that the receptor-binding characteristics of snake-venom RGD proteins are related to the amino acid environment flanking the sequence RGD.

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, S; Lu, X; Kakkar, V V; Authi, K S

    1995-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated [Lu, Williams, Deadman, Salmon, Kakkar, Wilkinson, Baruch, Authi and Rahman (1994) Biochem. J. 304, 929-936] the preferential antagonism of the interactions of the integrin alpha IIb beta 3 on activated platelets with three immobilized glycoprotein ligands (fibrinogen, fibronectin and von Willebrand factor) by a selected panel of snake-venom RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp)-containing proteins including the disintegrins kistrin and elegantin, and the neurotoxin variant dendroaspin. Kistrin and dendroaspin, although structurally unrelated, contain similar amino acids flanking the tripeptide RGD and behaved as identical antagonists preferentially inhibiting platelet adhesion to immobilized fibrinogen as opposed to fibronectin. In contrast, elegantin, which shares extensive sequence similarity with kistrin but has different amino acids around the tripeptide RGD, preferentially inhibited platelet adhesion to immobilized fibronectin as opposed to fibrinogen. To develop further insights into the mechanisms underlying the preferential antagonism shown by the venom proteins in the adhesion studies, we, in the present study, sought to determine the binding properties of kistrin, elegantin and dendroaspin to the alpha IIb beta 3 complex by radioligand kinetic and competition studies. In direct binding experiments, both kistrin and dendroaspin were observed to bind to a single class of binding site on ADP-activated platelets with apparent equilibrium dissociation constant (Kdapp) values of 42 +/- 2 nM and 21 +/- 6 nM respectively. In competition studies, dendroaspin blocked the binding of 125I-labelled kistrin to ADP-activated platelets in a simple competitive manner, with an apparent equilibrium inhibition constant (Kiapp) of 143 +/- 14 nM, from which an indirect Kdapp = 22 nM for dendroaspin was determined. This result suggests that kistrin and dendroaspin bind to the same site on the integrin alpha IIb beta 3 consistent with their similar inhibitory

  17. Construction and Characterization of Recombinant HEK Cell Over Expressing α4 Integrin

    PubMed Central

    Naderi Beni, Shamsi; Kouhpayeh, Shirin; Hejazi, Zahra; Heidari Hafshejani, Nahid; Khanahmad, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Integrins are heterodimeric membrane proteins, which are exposed to post translational modifications in eukaryotic cells in contrast to prokaryotic cells. These modifications provide advantages for production of proper nanobody, mono and polyclonal antibody against this surface protein and also in aptamer selection process. Since the majority of diagnostic and therapeutic antibodies, target the surface epitopes, eukaryotic membrane proteins provide an appropriate model for further investigation on therapeutic agents. Methods: Escherichia coli strain top 10, was used as host for ITGA-4 expression vector encoding the human integrin α4. The plasmid was extracted and consequently, ITGA-4 vector was digested to make a linear plasmid. Human Embryonic Kidney-293 (HEK-293) cell transfected with linear plasmid and subsequently screened for stable ITGA-4 expressing Cells. Three separated clones were isolated twenty one days after transfection. Chromosomal DNA was extracted from ITGA-4-transfected cells. The presence of ITGA-4 gene in HEK-293 genome was confirmed by PCR. The expression level of ITGA-4 on HEK-293 cells was also analyzed by Flow cytometry. Results: Flow cytometric analysis showed that HEK-293 cells have no expression of integrin α4 on their surface while 95% of transfected HEK-293 cells with ITGA4, expressed different levels of integrin α4 on their surfaces which correlates well with genomic DNA PCR amplification results. Conclusion: The results suggest that we have successfully constructed the integrin α4 expressing HEK293 cell, which will facilitate further research into the production of antibody, nanobody and aptamer against α4 integrin. PMID:26504766

  18. Vipegitide: a folded peptidomimetic partial antagonist of α2β1 integrin with antiplatelet aggregation activity

    PubMed Central

    Momic, Tatjana; Katzhendler, Jehoshua; Shai, Ela; Noy, Efrat; Senderowitz, Hanoch; Eble, Johannes A; Marcinkiewicz, Cezary; Varon, David; Lazarovici, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Linear peptides containing the sequence WKTSRTSHY were used as lead compounds to synthesize a novel peptidomimetic antagonist of α2β1 integrin, with platelet aggregation-inhibiting activity, named Vipegitide. Vipegitide is a 13-amino acid, folded peptidomimetic molecule, containing two α-aminoisobutyric acid residues at positions 6 and 8 and not stable in human serum. Substitution of glycine and tryptophan residues at positions 1 and 2, respectively, with a unit of two polyethylene glycol (PEG) molecules yielded peptidomimetic Vipegitide-PEG2, stable in human serum for over 3 hours. Vipegitide and Vipegitide-PEG2 showed high potency (7×10−10 M and 1.5×10−10 M, respectively) and intermediate efficacy (40% and 35%, respectively) as well as selectivity toward α2 integrin in inhibition of adhesion of α1/α2 integrin overexpressing cells toward respective collagens. Interaction of both peptidomimetics with extracellular active domain of α2 integrin was confirmed in cell-free binding assay with recombinant α2 A-domain. Integrin α2β1 receptor is found on the platelet membrane and triggers collagen-induced platelet aggregation. Vipegitide and Vipegitide-PEG2 inhibited α2β1 integrin-mediated adhesion of human and murine platelets under the flow condition, by 50%. They efficiently blocked adenosine diphosphate- and collagen I-induced platelet aggregation in platelet rich plasma and whole human blood. Higher potency of Vipegitide than Vipegitide-PEG2 is consistent with results of computer modeling of the molecules in water. These peptidomimetic molecules were acutely tolerated in mice upon intravenous bolus injection of 50 mg/kg. These results underline the potency of Vipegitide and Vipegitide-PEG2 molecules as platelet aggregation-inhibiting drug lead compounds in antithrombotic therapy. PMID:25609915

  19. Importance of Interaction between Integrin and Actin Cytoskeleton in Suspension Adaptation of CHO cells.

    PubMed

    Walther, Christa G; Whitfield, Robert; James, David C

    2016-04-01

    The biopharmaceutical production process relies upon mammalian cell technology where single cells proliferate in suspension in a chemically defined synthetic environment. This environment lacks exogenous growth factors, usually contributing to proliferation of fibroblastic cell types such as Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Use of CHO cells for production hence requires a lengthy 'adaptation' process to select clones capable of proliferation as single cells in suspension. The underlying molecular changes permitting proliferation in suspension are not known. Comparison of the non-suspension-adapted clone CHO-AD and a suspension-adapted propriety cell line CHO-SA by flow cytometric analysis revealed a highly variable bi-modal expression pattern for cell-to-cell contact proteins in contrast to the expression pattern seen for integrins. Those have a uni-modal expression on suspension and adherent cells. Integrins showed a conformation distinguished by regularly distributed clusters forming a sphere on the cell membrane of suspension-adapted cells. Actin cytoskeleton analysis revealed reorganisation from the typical fibrillar morphology found in adherent cells to an enforced spherical subcortical actin sheath in suspension cells. The uni-modal expression and specific clustering of integrins could be confirmed for CHO-S, another suspension cell line. Cytochalasin D treatment resulted in breakdown of the actin sheath and the sphere-like integrin conformation demonstrating the link between integrins and actin in suspension-adapted CHO cells. The data demonstrates the importance of signalling changes, leading to an integrin rearrangement on the cell surface, and the necessity of the reinforcement of the actin cytoskeleton for proliferation in suspension conditions. PMID:26679704

  20. The αvβ6 integrin promotes an osteolytic program through upregulation of MMP2

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Anindita; Li, Jing; Lu, Huimin; Akech, Jacqueline; Pratap, Jitesh; Wang, Tao; Zerlanko, Brad J.; FitzGerald, Thomas J.; Jiang, Zhong; Birbe, Ruth; Wixted, John; Violette, Shelia M.; Stein, Janet L.; Stein, Gary S.; Lian, Jane B.; Languino, Lucia R.

    2014-01-01

    The molecular circuitries controlling osseous prostate metastasis are known to depend on the activity of multiple pathways, including integrin signaling. Here, we demonstrate that the αvβ6 integrin is upregulated in human prostate cancer bone metastasis. In prostate cancer cells, this integrin is a functionally active receptor for fibronectin and latency associated peptide-TGFβ1; it mediates attachment and migration upon ligand binding and is localized in focal contacts. Given the propensity of prostate cancer cells to form bone metastatic lesions, we investigated whether the αvβ6 integrin promotes this type of metastasis. We show for the first time that αvβ6 selectively induces matrix metalloproteinase 2, MMP2, in vitro in multiple prostate cancer cells, and promotes osteolysis in vivo in an immunodeficient mouse model of bone metastasis through upregulation of MMP2, but not MMP9. The effect of αvβ6 on MMP2 expression and activity is independent of androgen receptor in the analyzed prostate cancer cells. Increased levels of PTHrP, known to induce osteoclastogenesis, were also observed in αvβ6 expressing cells. However, using MMP2 shRNA, we demonstrate that the αvβ6 effect on bone loss is due to upregulation of soluble MMP2 by the cancer cells, not to changes in tumor growth rate. Another related αv-containing integrin, αvβ5, fails to show similar responses, underscoring the significance of αvβ6 activity. Overall, these mechanistic studies establish that expression of a single integrin, αvβ6, contributes to the cancer cell -mediated program of osteolysis by inducing matrix degradation through MMP2. Our results open new prospects for molecular therapy of metastatic bone disease. PMID:24385215

  1. Research advances on structure and biological functions of integrins.

    PubMed

    Pan, Li; Zhao, Yuan; Yuan, Zhijie; Qin, Guixin

    2016-01-01

    Integrins are an important family of adhesion molecules that were first discovered two decades ago. Integrins are transmembrane heterodimeric glycoprotein receptors consisting of α and β subunits, and are comprised of an extracellular domain, a transmembrane domain, and a cytoplasmic tail. Therein, integrin cytoplasmic domains may associate directly with numerous cytoskeletal proteins and intracellular signaling molecules, which are crucial for modulating fundamental cell processes and functions including cell adhesion, proliferation, migration, and survival. The purpose of this review is to describe the unique structure of each integrin subunit, primary cytoplasmic association proteins, and transduction signaling pathway of integrins, with an emphasis on their biological functions. PMID:27468395

  2. ISOLATION OF INTEGRIN-BASED ADHESION COMPLEXES

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Matthew C.; Humphries, Jonathan D.; Byron, Adam; Millon-Frémillon, Angelique; Robertson, Joseph; Paul, Nikki R.; Ng, Daniel H. J.; Askari, Janet A.; Humphries, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    The integration of cells with their extracellular environment is facilitated by cell surface adhesion receptors, such as integrins, which play important roles in both normal development and the onset of pathologies. Engagement of integrins with their ligands in the extracellular matrix, or counter receptors on other cells, initiates the intracellular assembly of a wide variety of proteins into adhesion complexes such as focal contacts, focal adhesions and fibrillar adhesions. The proteins recruited to these complexes mediate bidirectional signalling across the plasma membrane and as such help to coordinate and / or modulate the multitude of physical or chemical signals to which the cell is subjected. The protocols in this unit describe two approaches for the isolation or enrichment of proteins contained within integrin-associated adhesion complexes together with their local plasma membrane / cytosolic environments from cells in culture. In the first protocol integrin-associated adhesion structures are affinity isolated using microbeads coated with extracellular ligands or antibodies. The second protocol describes the isolation of ventral membrane preparations that are enriched for adhesion complex structures. The protocols permit the determination of adhesion complex components by subsequent downstream analysis by Western blotting or mass spectrometry. PMID:25727331

  3. Alterated integrin expression in lichen planopilaris

    PubMed Central

    d'Ovidio, Roberto; Sgarra, Concetta; Conserva, Anna; Angelotti, Umberto Filippo; Erriquez, Roberta; Foti, Caterina

    2007-01-01

    Background Lichen planopilaris (LPP) is an inflammatory disease characterized by a lymphomononuclear infiltrate surrounding the isthmus and infundibulum of the hair follicle of the scalp, that evolves into atrophic/scarring alopecia. In the active phase of the disease hairs are easily plucked with anagen-like hair-roots. In this study we focused on the expression of integrins and basement membrane components of the hair follicle in active LPP lesions. Methods Scalp biopsies were taken in 10 patients with LPP and in 5 normal controls. Using monoclonal antibodies against α3β1 and α6β4 integrins we showed the expression of these integrins and of the basement membrane components of the hair follicle in active LPP lesions and in healthy scalp skin. Results In the LPP involved areas, α3β1 was distributed in a pericellular pattern, the α6 subunit was present with a basolateral distribution while the β4 subunit showed discontinuous expression at the basal pole and occasionally, basolateral staining of the hair follicle. Conclusion: An altered distribution of the integrins in active LPP lesions can explain the phenomenon of easy pulling-out of the hair with a "gelatinous" root-sheath. PMID:17288588

  4. Substrate engagement of integrins α5β1 and αvβ3 is necessary, but not sufficient, for high directional persistence in migration on fibronectin

    PubMed Central

    Missirlis, Dimitris; Haraszti, Tamás; Scheele, Catharina v. C.; Wiegand, Tina; Diaz, Carolina; Neubauer, Stefanie; Rechenmacher, Florian; Kessler, Horst; Spatz, Joachim P.

    2016-01-01

    The interplay between specific integrin-mediated matrix adhesion and directional persistence in cell migration is not well understood. Here, we characterized fibroblast adhesion and migration on the extracellular matrix glycoproteins fibronectin and vitronectin, focusing on the role of α5β1 and αvβ3 integrins. Fibroblasts manifested high directional persistence in migration on fibronectin-, but not vitronectin-coated substrates, in a ligand density-dependent manner. Fibronectin stimulated α5β1-dependent organization of the actin cytoskeleton into oriented, ventral stress fibers, and assembly of dynamic, polarized protrusions, characterized as regions free of stress fibers and rich in nascent adhesions at their edge. Such protrusions correlated with persistent, local leading edge advancement, but were not sufficient, nor necessary for directional migration over longer times. Selective blocking of αvβ3 or α5β1 integrins using small molecule integrin antagonists reduced directional persistence on fibronectin, indicating integrin cooperativity in maintaining directionality. On the other hand, patterned substrates, designed to selectively engage either integrin, or their combination, were not sufficient to establish directional migration. Overall, our study demonstrates adhesive coating-dependent regulation of directional persistence in fibroblast migration and challenges the generality of the previously suggested role of β1 and β3 integrins in directional migration. PMID:26987342

  5. Substrate engagement of integrins α5β1 and αvβ3 is necessary, but not sufficient, for high directional persistence in migration on fibronectin.

    PubMed

    Missirlis, Dimitris; Haraszti, Tamás; Scheele, Catharina v C; Wiegand, Tina; Diaz, Carolina; Neubauer, Stefanie; Rechenmacher, Florian; Kessler, Horst; Spatz, Joachim P

    2016-01-01

    The interplay between specific integrin-mediated matrix adhesion and directional persistence in cell migration is not well understood. Here, we characterized fibroblast adhesion and migration on the extracellular matrix glycoproteins fibronectin and vitronectin, focusing on the role of α5β1 and αvβ3 integrins. Fibroblasts manifested high directional persistence in migration on fibronectin-, but not vitronectin-coated substrates, in a ligand density-dependent manner. Fibronectin stimulated α5β1-dependent organization of the actin cytoskeleton into oriented, ventral stress fibers, and assembly of dynamic, polarized protrusions, characterized as regions free of stress fibers and rich in nascent adhesions at their edge. Such protrusions correlated with persistent, local leading edge advancement, but were not sufficient, nor necessary for directional migration over longer times. Selective blocking of αvβ3 or α5β1 integrins using small molecule integrin antagonists reduced directional persistence on fibronectin, indicating integrin cooperativity in maintaining directionality. On the other hand, patterned substrates, designed to selectively engage either integrin, or their combination, were not sufficient to establish directional migration. Overall, our study demonstrates adhesive coating-dependent regulation of directional persistence in fibroblast migration and challenges the generality of the previously suggested role of β1 and β3 integrins in directional migration. PMID:26987342

  6. Echistatin prevents posterior capsule opacification in diabetic rabbit model via integrin linked kinase signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Fengbin; Chen, Yingying; Liang, Hao; Tan, Shaojian

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of disintegrin echistatin on integrin linked kinase (ILK) and subsequent PI3-K/Akt and ERK1/2 signaling pathways in the posterior capsule opacification (PCO) model of diabetic rabbit. Methods: 56 rabbits were injected alloxan to model diabetic. Then they accepted lens extraction surgery and randomly and intraoperatively injected distilled water (control group; n = 28) or 10.0 mg·L-1 echistatin (echistatin-treated group; n = 28) into the anterior chamber. Each group was subdivided into ten days group (n = 14) and six weeks group (n = 14) respectively. The PCO severity was evaluated with a slit lamp microscope and light microscope for 10 days and 6 weeks postoperatively. The levels of ILK in the posterior capsule were determined by Q-PCR, Western blotting and Immunohistochemistry. Akt and ERK1/2 phosphorylation were analyzed by Western blotting. Results: 10 days and 6 weeks after surgery, the grades of PCO in the echistatin-treated group were lower than the control group. The lens epithelial cells (LECs) in the posterior capsule of echistatin-treated eyes had decreased degrees of proliferation and migration than the control group. And no significant side effects appeared after treated with echistatin. Echistatin could significantly reduce the expression of ILK in terms of both mRNA and protein levels. The phosphorylation levels of Akt and ERK1/2 were decreased in the echistatin-treated group compared with the control group. Conclusions: Echistatin could inhibit postoperative PCO occurrence and development in diabetic rabbit eyes, which may be related to down-regulation the expression of ILK and inhibition the PI3-K/Akt and ERK1/2 pathways. PMID:26823745

  7. Chemokines and the Signaling Modules Regulating Integrin Affinity

    PubMed Central

    Montresor, Alessio; Toffali, Lara; Constantin, Gabriela; Laudanna, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    Integrin-mediated adhesion is a general concept referring to a series of adhesive phenomena including tethering–rolling, affinity, valency, and binding stabilization altogether controlling cell avidity (adhesiveness) for the substrate. Arrest chemokines modulate each aspect of integrin activation, although integrin affinity regulation has been recognized as the prominent event in rapid leukocyte arrest induced by chemokines. A variety of inside-out and outside-in signaling mechanisms have been related to the process of integrin-mediated adhesion in different cellular models, but only few of them have been clearly contextualized to rapid integrin affinity modulation by arrest chemokines in primary leukocytes. Complex signaling processes triggered by arrest chemokines and controlling leukocyte integrin activation have been described for ras-related rap and for rho-related small GTPases. We summarize the role of rap and rho small GTPases in the regulation of rapid integrin affinity in primary leukocytes and provide a modular view of these pro-adhesive signaling events. A potential, albeit still speculative, mechanism of rho-mediated regulation of cytoskeletal proteins controlling the last step of integrin activation is also discussed. We also discuss data suggesting a functional integration between the rho- and rap-modules of integrin activation. Finally we examine the universality of signaling mechanisms regulating integrin triggering by arrest chemokines. PMID:22654882

  8. Expression, purification and characterization of recombinant Jerdonitin, a P-II class snake venom metalloproteinase comprising metalloproteinase and disintegrin domains.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lili; Yuan, Cai; Chen, Zhuo; Wang, Wanyu; Huang, Mingdong

    2010-01-01

    Jerdonitin is a P-II class snake venom metalloproteinase comprising metalloproteinase and disintegrin domains. In this study, we established a high-level expression system in Pichia pastoris and developed a purification strategy for the recombinant Jerdonitin. This recombinant Jerdonitin degraded fibrinogen at a level of activity comparable with its wild type. The effects of recombinant Jerdonitin on inhibiting ADP-induced human platelet aggregation were in a dose-dependent manner with an IC(50) of 248nM. In addition, we reported here that Jerdonitin can significantly inhibit the growth of several cell lines, including human liver cancer cells (Bel7402), human leukemia cells (K562) and human gastric carcinoma cells (BGC823). This study offers recombinant Jerdonitin that will be valuable for further functional and structural studies of Jerdonitin. PMID:19732785

  9. Integrin β3 Haploinsufficiency Modulates Serotonin Transport and Antidepressant-Sensitive Behavior in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mazalouskas, Matthew; Jessen, Tammy; Varney, Seth; Sutcliffe, James S; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy; Cook, Edwin H; Carneiro, Ana M D

    2015-01-01

    Converging lines of evidence have identified genetic interactions between the serotonin transporter (SERT) gene and ITGB3, which encodes the β3 subunit that forms the αIIbβ3 and αvβ3 integrin receptor complexes. Here we examine the consequences of haploinsufficiency in the mouse integrin β3 subunit gene (Itgb3) on SERT function and selective 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) effectiveness in vivo. Biochemical fractionation studies and immunofluorescent staining of murine brain slices reveal that αvβ3 receptors and SERTs are enriched in presynaptic membranes from several brain regions and that αvβ3 colocalizes with a subpopulation of SERT-containing synapses in raphe nuclei. Notably, we establish that loss of a single allele of Itgb3 in murine neurons is sufficient to decrease 5-HT uptake by SERT in midbrain synaptosomes. Pharmacological assays to elucidate the αvβ3-mediated mechanism of reduced SERT function indicate that decreased integrin β3 subunit expression scales down the population size of active SERT molecules and, as a consequence, lowers the effective dose of SSRIs. These data are consistent with the existence of a subpopulation of SERTs that are tightly modulated by integrin αvβ3 and significantly contribute to global SERT function at 5-HT synapses in the midbrain. Importantly, our screen of a normal human population for single nucleotide polymorphisms in human ITGB3 identified a variant associated with reductions in integrin β3 expression levels that parallel our mouse findings. Thus, polymorphisms in human ITGB3 may contribute to the differential responsiveness of select patients to SSRIs. PMID:25684064

  10. Functional analysis of the cytoplasmic domain of the integrin {alpha}1 subunit in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Abair, Tristin D; Bulus, Nada; Borza, Corina; Sundaramoorthy, Munirathinam; Zent, Roy; Pozzi, Ambra

    2008-10-15

    Integrin alpha1beta1, the major collagen type IV receptor, is expressed by endothelial cells and plays a role in both physiologic and pathologic angiogenesis. Because the molecular mechanisms whereby this collagen IV receptor mediates endothelial cell functions are poorly understood, truncation and point mutants of the integrin alpha1 subunit cytoplasmic tail (amino acids 1137-1151) were generated and expressed into alpha1-null endothelial cells. We show that alpha1-null endothelial cells expressing the alpha1 subunit, which lacks the entire cytoplasmic tail (mutant alpha1-1136) or expresses all the amino acids up to the highly conserved GFFKR motif (mutant alpha1-1143), have a similar phenotype to parental alpha1-null cells. Pro(1144) and Leu(1145) were shown to be necessary for alpha1beta1-mediated endothelial cell proliferation; Lys(1146) for adhesion, migration, and tubulogenesis and Lys(1147) for tubulogenesis. Integrin alpha1beta1-dependent endothelial cell proliferation is primarily mediated by ERK activation, whereas migration and tubulogenesis require both p38 MAPK and PI3K/Akt activation. Thus, distinct amino acids distal to the GFFKR motif of the alpha1 integrin cytoplasmic tail mediate activation of selective downstream signaling pathways and specific endothelial cell functions. PMID:18647959

  11. Halogenated benzimidazole carboxamides target integrin alpha4 beta1 on T and B cell lymphomas3456

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Richard D.; Natarajan, Arutselvan; Lau, Edmond Y.; Andrei, Mirela; Solano, Danielle M.; Lightstone, Felice C.; DeNardo, Sally J.; Lam, Kit S.; Kurth, Mark J.

    2011-01-01

    Integrin alpha-4 beta-1 (alpha4 beta1, alpha(4)beta(1), α4β1) is an attractive but poorly understood target for selective diagnosis and treatment of T and B cell lymphomas. This report focuses on the rapid microwave preparation, structure-activity relationships and biological evaluation of medicinally pertinent benzimidazole heterocycles as integrin α4β1 antagonists. We documented tumor uptake of derivatives labelled with I-125 in xenograft murine models of B-cell lymphoma. Molecular homology models of integrin α4β1 predicted that docked halobenzimidazole carboxamides have the halogen atom in a suitable orientation for halogen-hydrogen bonding. The high affinity halogenated ligands identified offer attractive tools for medicinal and biological use, including fluoro and iodo derivatives with potential radiodiagnostic (18F) or radiotherapeutic (131I) applications, or chloro and bromo analogues that could provide structural insights into integrin-ligand interactions through photoaffinity, cross-linking/mass spectroscopy, and X-ray crystallographic studies. PMID:20530664

  12. CD31 promotes beta1 integrin-dependent engulfment of apoptotic Jurkat T lymphocytes opsonized for phagocytosis by fibronectin.

    PubMed

    Vernon-Wilson, Elizabeth F; Auradé, Frédéric; Brown, Simon B

    2006-06-01

    Phagocyte integrins, by binding "bridging" molecules, mediate the ingestion of late apoptotic cells and apoptotic bodies by mechanisms that remain obscure. We recently reported that human monocyte-derived macrophages capture viable and apoptotic human leukocytes through homophilic interactions involving CD31 and that CD31 then promotes the engulfment of apoptotic cells or the detachment of viable cells. We now report that CD31 homophilic interactions between phagocyte and target cells lead to activation of phagocyte alpha5beta1 integrin and the engulfment of apoptotic Jurkat T lymphocytes via a fibronectin (Fn) "bridge." Although Fn and serum served as an opsonin for beta1 integrin-dependent phagocytosis of apoptotic leukemic T cells, they failed to do so for neutrophils. Given the complexities and inherent variability of working with primary cells, we have refined our model to show that ligation of CD31 on THP-1 macrophages also regulates beta1 integrin-dependent phagocytosis of Fn-coated Latex beads. Thus, selective "tethering" of apoptotic leukocytes by phagocyte CD31 not only discriminates dying from viable cells but also selectively activates phagocyte integrins for the engulfment of apoptotic cells. PMID:16551678

  13. Paxillin binding to the alpha 4 integrin subunit stimulates LFA-1 (integrin alpha L beta 2)-dependent T cell migration by augmenting the activation of focal adhesion kinase/proline-rich tyrosine kinase-2.

    PubMed

    Rose, David M; Liu, Shouchun; Woodside, Darren G; Han, Jaewon; Schlaepfer, David D; Ginsberg, Mark H

    2003-06-15

    Engagement of very late Ag-4 (integrin alpha(4)beta(1)) by ligands such as VCAM-1 markedly stimulates leukocyte migration mediated by LFA-1 (integrin alpha(L)beta(2)). This form of integrin trans-regulation in T cells requires the binding of paxillin to the alpha(4) integrin cytoplasmic domain. This conclusion is based on the abolition of trans-regulation in Jurkat T cells by an alpha(4) mutation (alpha(4)(Y991A)) that disrupts paxillin binding. Furthermore, cellular expression of an alpha(4)-binding fragment of paxillin that blocks the alpha(4)-paxillin interaction, selectively blocked VCAM-1 stimulation of alpha(L)beta(2)-dependent cell migration. The alpha(4)-paxillin association mediates trans-regulation by enhancing the activation of tyrosine kinases, focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and/or proline-rich tyrosine kinase-2 (Pyk2), based on two lines of evidence. First, disruption of the paxillin-binding site in the alpha(4) tail resulted in much less alpha(4)beta(1)-mediated phosphorylation of Pyk2 and FAK. Second, transfection with cDNAs encoding C-terminal fragments of Pyk2 and FAK, which block the function of the intact kinases, blocked alpha(4)beta(1) stimulation of alpha(L)beta(2)-dependent migration. These results define a proximal protein-protein interaction of an integrin cytoplasmic domain required for trans-regulation between integrins, and establish that augmented activation of Pyk2 and/or FAK is an immediate signaling event required for the trans-regulation of integrin alpha(L)beta(2) by alpha(4)beta(1). PMID:12794117

  14. Regulation of the extracellular ligand binding activity of integrins.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, C; Clark, K; Burrows, L; Schofield, N R; Humphries, M J

    1998-07-01

    Integrins are a large heterodimeric family of cell surface adhesion receptors that bind extracellular matrix and cell surface ligands. The extracellular ligand binding activity of integrins is a dynamic and highly regulated event involving the induction of conformational changes within the integrin structure. The adhesive properties of integrins can be controlled by altering the activation state of the integrin, either through conformational change or receptor clustering, using mechanisms that are regulated by intracellular proteins. In this review, we will discuss what is currently known about integrin structure and the ligand binding sites present within the receptor. In addition, the mechanisms by which the ligand binding event is regulated through conformational change will be addressed, and the potential role of intracellular cytoplasmic proteins will be discussed. PMID:9637803

  15. Endosomes: Emerging Platforms for Integrin-Mediated FAK Signalling.

    PubMed

    Alanko, Jonna; Ivaska, Johanna

    2016-06-01

    Integrins are vital cell adhesion receptors with the ability to transmit extracellular matrix (ECM) cues to intracellular signalling pathways. ECM-integrin signalling regulates various cellular functions such as cell survival and movement. Integrin signalling has been considered to occur exclusively from adhesion sites at the plasma membrane (PM). However, recent data demonstrates integrin signalling also from endosomes. Integrin-mediated focal adhesion kinase (FAK) signalling is strongly dependent on integrin endocytosis, and endosomal FAK signalling facilitates cancer metastasis by supporting anchorage-independent growth and anoikis resistance. Here we discuss the possible mechanisms and functions of endosomal FAK signalling compared with its previously known roles in other cellular locations and discuss the potential of endosomal FAK as novel target for future cancer therapies. PMID:26944773

  16. Calreticulin-independent regulation of the platelet integrin alphaIIbbeta3 by the KVGFFKR alphaIIb-cytoplasmic motif.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Dermot; Larkin, Deirdre; Devocelle, Marc; Fitzgerald, Desmond J; Moran, Niamh

    2004-02-01

    The platelet integrin alphaIIbbeta3 alters conformation in response to platelet activation and ligand binding, although the molecular mechanisms involved are not known. We previously showed that a lipid modified peptide, corresponding to the membrane proximal 989KVGFFKR995 portion of the alphaIIb cytoplasmic tail, independently activates platelet alphaIIbbeta3. Calreticulin (CRT) is a potential integrin regulatory protein based on its interaction with the highly conserved alpha-integrin sequence KxGFFKR. We therefore examined the possible interaction of calreticulin and alphaIIbbeta3 in human platelets. We demonstrate that calreticulin in platelets is localised to the granulomere. In contrast, the known integrin-binding protein talin accumulates at the periphery of spreading platelets and colocalises with alphaIIbbeta3 during the process of adhesion. An interaction between calreticulin and alphaIIbbeta3 could not be demonstrated using co-immunoprecipitation techniques under various platelet activation states, even in the presence of covalent chemical crosslinkers. Thus, calreticulin does not functionally interact with the major integrin in human platelets. In order to identify proteins that interact with the integrin KVGFFKR motif we then used a peptide 'pull-down' assay from platelet lysates with biotinylated peptides and demonstrate that only the alphaIIb and beta3 subunits selectively and individually interact with this sequence. This interaction is divalent cation-dependent, has high-affinity, and occurs both with purified alphaIIbbeta3 complex and with electroeluted alpha and beta subunits. Thus, our data show that the conserved integrin KVGFFKR domain interacts primarily with the alpha and beta cytoplasmic tails and not with CRT in human platelets. PMID:14985176

  17. Tenascin-C and integrins in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Toshimichi; Akatsuka, Tatsuya; Imanaka-Yoshida, Kyoko

    2015-01-01

    Tenascin-C (TNC) is highly expressed in cancer tissues. Its cellular sources are cancer and stromal cells, including fibroblasts/myofibroblasts, and also vascular cells. TNC expressed in cancer tissues dominantly contains large splice variants. Deposition of the stroma promotes the epithelial-mesenchymal transition, proliferation, and migration of cancer cells. It also facilitates the formation of cancer stroma including desmoplasia and angiogenesis. Integrin receptors that mediate the signals of TNC have also been discussed. PMID:25793576

  18. Tenascin-C and integrins in cancer.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Toshimichi; Akatsuka, Tatsuya; Imanaka-Yoshida, Kyoko

    2015-01-01

    Tenascin-C (TNC) is highly expressed in cancer tissues. Its cellular sources are cancer and stromal cells, including fibroblasts/myofibroblasts, and also vascular cells. TNC expressed in cancer tissues dominantly contains large splice variants. Deposition of the stroma promotes the epithelial-mesenchymal transition, proliferation, and migration of cancer cells. It also facilitates the formation of cancer stroma including desmoplasia and angiogenesis. Integrin receptors that mediate the signals of TNC have also been discussed. PMID:25793576

  19. Migfilin, a Molecular Switch in Regulation of Integrin Activation*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Ithychanda, Sujay Subbayya; Das, Mitali; Ma, Yan-Qing; Ding, Keyang; Wang, Xiaoxia; Gupta, Sudhiranjan; Wu, Chuanyue; Plow, Edward F.; Qin, Jun

    2009-01-01

    The linkage of heterodimeric (α/β) integrin receptors with their extracellular matrix ligands and intracellular actin cytoskeleton is a fundamental step for controlling cell adhesion and migration. Binding of the actin-linking protein, talin, to integrin β cytoplasmic tails (CTs) induces high affinity ligand binding (integrin activation), whereas binding of another actin-linking protein, filamin, to the integrin β CTs negatively regulates this process by blocking the talin-integrin interaction. Here we show structurally that migfilin, a novel cytoskeletal adaptor highly enriched in the integrin adhesion sites, strongly interacts with the same region in filamin where integrin β CTs bind. We further demonstrate that the migfilin interaction dissociates filamin from integrin and promotes the talin/integrin binding and integrin activation. Migfilin thus acts as a molecular switch to disconnect filamin from integrin for regulating integrin activation and dynamics of extracellular matrix-actin linkage. PMID:19074766

  20. Modulation of acute lung injury by integrins.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, Dean

    2012-07-01

    Acute lung injury is a common disorder with a high mortality rate, but previous efforts to develop drugs to treat this disorder have been unsuccessful. In an effort to develop more effective treatments, we have been studying the molecular pathways that regulate the dysfunction of alveolar epithelial cells and endothelial cells that serve as a final common pathway leading to alveolar flooding. Using integrin subunit knockout mice and antibodies we developed by immunizing these mice, we have found important and distinct roles for the αvβ6 integrin on epithelial cells and the αvβ5 integrin on endothelial cells in mediating increases in alveolar permeability in multiple models of acute lung injury. We have also found therapeutic effects of αvβ5 inhibition in two models of septic shock even when the antibody was administered to animals that were obviously ill. These results identify αvβ6 and αvβ5 as promising therapeutic targets for the treatment of acute lung injury and septic shock. PMID:22802286

  1. Inhibition of adhesion, migration and of α5β1 integrin in the HCT-116 colorectal cancer cells treated with the ruthenium drug NAMI-A.

    PubMed

    Pelillo, Chiara; Mollica, Hilaria; Eble, Johannes A; Grosche, Julius; Herzog, Lea; Codan, Barbara; Sava, Gianni; Bergamo, Alberta

    2016-07-01

    NAMI-A, imidazolium trans-imidazoledimethylsulfoxidetetrachlororuthenate, is a ruthenium-based drug characterised by the selective activity against tumour metastases. Previously we have shown the influence of the hepatic microenvironment to direct the arrest of the metastatic cells of colorectal cancer. Here we used the experimental model of HCT-116 colorectal cancer cells in vitro to explore whether the interference with α5β1 integrin may mechanistically explain the anti-metastatic effect of NAMI-A. NAMI-A inhibits two important steps of the tumour metastatic progression of colorectal cancer, i.e. the adhesion and migration of the tumour cells on the extracellular matrix proteins. The fibronectin receptor α5β1 integrin is likely involved in the anti-adhesive effects of NAMI-A on the HCT-116 colorectal cancer cells during their interaction with the extracellular matrix. Mechanistically, NAMI-A decreases the α5β1 integrin expression, and reduces FAK (Focal Adhesion Kinase) auto-phosphorylation on Tyr397, an important signalling event, involved in α5β1 integrin activation. These effects were validated by siRNA-induced knock down of the α5 integrin subunit and/or by the use of specific blocking mAbs against the active site of the integrin. Our results demonstrate the relevance of α5β1 integrin for colorectal cancer. We also show that the anti-metastatic effect of NAMI-A depends on the modulation of this integrin. Thus, our data on NAMI-A support the new concept that metal-based drugs can inhibit tumour metastases through targeting of integrins and of other proteins which mediate tumour progression-related cell functions such as adhesion and migration. PMID:26961176

  2. TRPV4 channels mediate cyclic strain-induced endothelial cell reorientation through integrin to integrin signaling

    PubMed Central

    Thodeti, Charles K.; Matthews, Benjamin; Ravi, Arvind; Mammoto, Akiko; Ghosh, Kaustabh; Bracha, Abigail L.; Ingber, Donald E.

    2009-01-01

    Cyclic mechanical strain produced by pulsatile blood flow regulates the orientation of endothelial cells lining blood vessels, and influences critical processes such as angiogenesis. Mechanical stimulation of stretch-activated calcium channels is known to mediate this reorientation response, however, the molecular basis remains unknown. Here we show that cyclically stretching capillary endothelial cells adherent to flexible extracellular matrix substrates activates mechanosensitive TRPV4 ion channels that, in turn, stimulate phosphatidyl inositol-3-kinase-dependent activation and binding of additional ·1 integrin receptors, which promotes cytoskeletal remodeling and cell reorientation. Inhibition of integrin activation using blocking antibodies and knockdown of TRPV4 channels using specific siRNA suppress strain-induced capillary cell reorientation. Thus, mechanical forces that physically deform extracellular matrix may guide capillary cell reorientation through a strain-dependent ‘integrin to integrin’ signaling mechanism mediated by force-induced activation of mechanically-gated TRPV4 ion channels on the cell surface. PMID:19359599

  3. Effect of ECM Stiffness on Integrin-Ligand Binding Strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Gawain; Wen, Qi

    2014-03-01

    Many studies have shown that cells respond to the stiffness of their extracellular matrix (ECM). However, the mechanism of this stiffness sensing is not fully understood. We believe that cells probe stiffness by applying intracellular force to the ECM via the integrin-mediated adhesions. The linkage of integrins to the cytoskeleton has been modeled as a slip clutch, which has been shown to affect focal adhesion formation and hence force transmission in a stiffness dependent manner. In contrast, the bonds between integrins and ECM have been characterized as ``catch bonds.'' It is unclear how ECM viscoelasticity affects these catch bonds. We report, for the first time, the effects of ECM stiffness on the binding strength of integrins to ECM ligands by measuring the rupture force of individual integrin-ligand bonds of cells on collagen-coated polyacrylamide gels. Results show that the integrin-collagen bonds of 3T3 fibroblasts are nearly four times stronger on a stiff (30 kPa) gel than on a soft (3 kPa) gel. The stronger integrin bonds on stiffer substrates can promote focal adhesion formation. This suggests that the substrate stiffness regulates the cell-ECM adhesions not only by affecting the cytoskeleton-integrin links but also by modulating the binding of integrins to the ECM.

  4. Blocking neutrophil integrin activation prevents ischemia–reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Yago, Tadayuki; Petrich, Brian G.; Zhang, Nan; Liu, Zhenghui; Shao, Bojing; Ginsberg, Mark H.

    2015-01-01

    Neutrophil recruitment, mediated by β2 integrins, combats pyogenic infections but also plays a key role in ischemia–reperfusion injury and other inflammatory disorders. Talin induces allosteric rearrangements in integrins that increase affinity for ligands (activation). Talin also links integrins to actin and other proteins that enable formation of adhesions. Structural studies have identified a talin1 mutant (L325R) that perturbs activation without impairing talin’s capacity to link integrins to actin and other proteins. Here, we found that mice engineered to express only talin1(L325R) in myeloid cells were protected from renal ischemia–reperfusion injury. Dissection of neutrophil function in vitro and in vivo revealed that talin1(L325R) neutrophils had markedly impaired chemokine-induced, β2 integrin–mediated arrest, spreading, and migration. Surprisingly, talin1(L325R) neutrophils exhibited normal selectin-induced, β2 integrin–mediated slow rolling, in sharp contrast to the defective slow rolling of neutrophils lacking talin1 or expressing a talin1 mutant (W359A) that blocks talin interaction with integrins. These studies reveal the importance of talin-mediated activation of integrins for renal ischemia–reperfusion injury. They further show that neutrophil arrest requires talin recruitment to and activation of integrins. However, although neutrophil slow rolling requires talin recruitment to integrins, talin-mediated integrin activation is dispensable. PMID:26169939

  5. Integrins are required for cardioblast polarisation in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The formation of a tubular organ, such as the heart, requires the communication of positional and polarity signals between migratory cells. Key to this process is the establishment of a new luminal domain on the cell surface, generally from the apical domain of a migratory cell. This domain will also acquire basal properties, as it will produce a luminal extracellular matrix. Integrin receptors are the primary means of cell adhesion and adhesion signaling with the extracellular matrix. Here we characterise the requirement of Integrins in a genetic model of vasculogenesis, the formation of the heart in Drosophila. Results As with vertebrates, the Drosophila heart arises from lateral mesoderm that migrates medially to meet their contralateral partners, to then assemble a midline vessel. During migration, Integrins are among the first proteins restricted to the presumptive luminal domain of cardioblasts. Integrins are required for normal levels of leading edge membrane motility. Apical accumulation of Integrins is enhanced by Robo, and reciprocally, apicalisation of luminal factors like Slit and Robo requires Integrin function. Integrins may provide a template for the formation of a lumen by stabilising lumen factors like Robo. Subsequent to migration, Integrin is required for normal cardioblast alignment and lumen formation. This phenotype is most readily modified by other mutations that affect adhesion, such as Talin and extracellular matrix ligands. Conclusion Our findings reveal an instructive role for Integrins in communicating polarising information to cells during migration, and during transition to an epithelial tube structure. PMID:22353787

  6. Antagonizing Integrin β3 Increases Immunosuppression in Cancer.

    PubMed

    Su, Xinming; Esser, Alison K; Amend, Sarah R; Xiang, Jingyu; Xu, Yalin; Ross, Michael H; Fox, Gregory C; Kobayashi, Takayuki; Steri, Veronica; Roomp, Kirsten; Fontana, Francesca; Hurchla, Michelle A; Knolhoff, Brett L; Meyer, Melissa A; Morgan, Elizabeth A; Tomasson, Julia C; Novack, Joshua S; Zou, Wei; Faccio, Roberta; Novack, Deborah V; Robinson, Stephen D; Teitelbaum, Steven L; DeNardo, David G; Schneider, Jochen G; Weilbaecher, Katherine N

    2016-06-15

    Integrin β3 is critical for tumor invasion, neoangiogenesis, and inflammation, making it a promising cancer target. However, preclinical and clinical data of integrin β3 antagonists have demonstrated no benefit or worse outcomes. We hypothesized that integrin β3 could affect tumor immunity and evaluated tumors in mice with deletion of integrin β3 in macrophage lineage cells (β3KOM). β3KOM mice had increased melanoma and breast cancer growth with increased tumor-promoting M2 macrophages and decreased CD8(+) T cells. Integrin β3 antagonist, cilengitide, also enhanced tumor growth and increased M2 function. We uncovered a negative feedback loop in M2 myeloid cells, wherein integrin β3 signaling favored STAT1 activation, an M1-polarizing signal, and suppressed M2-polarizing STAT6 activation. Finally, disruption of CD8(+) T cells, macrophages, or macrophage integrin β3 signaling blocked the tumor-promoting effects of integrin β3 antagonism. These results suggest that effects of integrin β3 therapies on immune cells should be considered to improve outcomes. Cancer Res; 76(12); 3484-95. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27216180

  7. Molecular Interplay between Endostatin, Integrins, and Heparan Sulfate*

    PubMed Central

    Faye, Clément; Moreau, Christophe; Chautard, Emilie; Jetne, Reidunn; Fukai, Naomi; Ruggiero, Florence; Humphries, Martin J.; Olsen, Bjorn R.; Ricard-Blum, Sylvie

    2009-01-01

    Endostatin is an endogenous inhibitor of angiogenesis. Although several endothelial cell surface molecules have been reported to interact with endostatin, its molecular mechanism of action is not fully elucidated. We used surface plasmon resonance assays to characterize interactions between endostatin, integrins, and heparin/heparan sulfate. α5β1 and αvβ3 integrins form stable complexes with immobilized endostatin (KD = ∼1.8 × 10−8 m, two-state model). Two arginine residues (Arg27 and Arg139) are crucial for the binding of endostatin to integrins and to heparin/heparan sulfate, suggesting that endostatin would not bind simultaneously to integrins and to heparan sulfate. Experimental data and molecular modeling support endostatin binding to the headpiece of the αvβ3 integrin at the interface between the β-propeller domain of the αv subunit and the βA domain of the β3 subunit. In addition, we report that α5β1 and αvβ3 integrins bind to heparin/heparan sulfate. The ectodomain of the α5β1 integrin binds to haparin with high affinity (KD = 15.5 nm). The direct binding between integrins and heparin/heparan sulfate might explain why both heparan sulfate and α5β1 integrin are required for the localization of endostatin in endothelial cell lipid rafts. PMID:19502598

  8. Leukocyte arrest: Biomechanics and molecular mechanisms of β2 integrin activation

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Zhichao; Ley, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Integrins are a group of heterodimeric transmembrane receptors that play essential roles in cell–cell and cell–matrix interaction. Integrins are important in many physiological processes and diseases. Integrins acquire affinity to their ligand by undergoing molecular conformational changes called activation. Here we review the molecular biomechanics during conformational changes of integrins, integrin functions in leukocyte biorheology (adhesive functions during rolling and arrest) and molecules involved in integrin activation. PMID:26684674

  9. Interactions between integrin receptors and fibronectin are required for calvarial osteoblast differentiation in vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moursi, A. M.; Globus, R. K.; Damsky, C. H.

    1997-01-01

    -state mRNA expression was examined and found to be suppressed for osteoblast markers alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin. Together, these results indicate that direct osteoblast interactions with the extracellular matrix are mediated by a select group of integrin receptors that includes alpha5ss1, alpha3ss1 and alpha8ss1. We further conclude that the specific alpha5ss1 fibronectin receptor mediates critical interactions between osteoblasts and fibronectin required for both bone morphogenesis and osteoblast differentiation.

  10. High-Throughput Screening based Identification of Small Molecule Antagonists of Integrin CD11b/CD18 Ligand Binding

    PubMed Central

    Faridi, Mohd Hafeez; Maiguel, Dony; Brown, Brock T.; Suyama, Eigo; Barth, Constantinos J.; Hedrick, Michael; Vasile, Stefan; Sergienko, Eduard; Schürer, Stephan; Gupta, Vineet

    2010-01-01

    Binding of leukocyte specific integrin CD11b/CD18 to its physiologic ligands is important for the development of normal immune response in vivo. Integrin CD11b/CD18 is also a key cellular effector of various inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. However, small molecules selectively inhibiting the function of integrin CD11b/CD18 are currently lacking. We used a newly described cell-based high throughput screening assay to identify a number of highly potent antagonists of integrin CD11b/CD18 from chemical libraries containing >100,000 unique compounds. Computational analyses suggest that the identified compounds cluster into several different chemical classes. A number of the newly identified compounds blocked adhesion of wild-type mouse neutrophils to CD11b/CD18 ligand fibrinogen. Mapping the most active compounds against chemical fingerprints of known antagonists of related integrin CD11a/CD18 shows little structural similarity, suggesting that the newly identified compounds are novel and unique. PMID:20188705

  11. Synthesis and evaluation of a radioiodinated peptide probe targeting αvβ6 integrin for the detection of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Ueda, Masashi; Fukushima, Takahiro; Ogawa, Kei; Kimura, Hiroyuki; Ono, Masahiro; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Ikehara, Yuzuru; Saji, Hideo

    2014-03-14

    Highlights: • We developed a radioiodinated peptide probe targeting αvβ6 integrin ({sup 123}I-IFMDV2). • {sup 123}I-IFMDV2 had a high affinity and selectivity for αvβ6 integrin. • {sup 123}I-IFMDV2 showed a specific binding to αvβ6 integrin in vivo. • {sup 123}I-IFMDV2 enabled clear visualization of the αvβ6-integrin-positive tumor. - Abstract: Introduction: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remains a major cause of cancer-related death. Since significant upregulation of αvβ6 integrin has been reported in PDAC, this integrin is a promising target for PDAC detection. In this study, we aimed to develop a radioiodinated probe for the imaging of αvβ6 integrin-positive PDAC with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Methods: Four peptide probes were synthesized and screened by competitive and saturation binding assays using 2 PDAC cell lines (AsPC-1, αvβ6 integrin-positive; MIA PaCa-2, αvβ6 integrin-negative). The probe showing the best affinity was used to study the biodistribution assay, an in vivo blocking study, and SPECT imaging using tumor bearing mice. Autoradiography and immunohistochemical analysis were also performed. Results: Among the 4 probes examined in this study, {sup 125}I-IFMDV2 showed the highest affinity for αvβ6 integrin expressed in AsPC-1 cells and no affinity for MIA PaCa-2 cells. The accumulation of {sup 125}I-IFMDV2 in the AsPC-1 xenograft was 3–5 times greater than that in the MIA PaCa-2 xenograft, consistent with the expression of αvβ6 integrin in each xenograft, and confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Pretreatment with excess amounts of A20FMDV2 significantly blocked the accumulation of {sup 125}I-IFMDV2 in the AsPC-1 xenograft, but not in the MIA PaCa-2 xenograft. Furthermore, {sup 123}I-IFMDV2 enabled clear visualization of the AsPC-1 xenograft. Conclusion: {sup 123}I-IFMDV2 is a potential SPECT probe for the imaging of αvβ6 integrin in PDAC.

  12. ADM-1, a protein with metalloprotease- and disintegrin-like domains, is expressed in syncytial organs, sperm, and sheath cells of sensory organs in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed Central

    Podbilewicz, B

    1996-01-01

    A search was carried out for homologues of possible fusogenic proteins to study their function in a genetically tractable animal. The isolation, molecular, and cellular characterization of the Caenorhabditis elegans adm-1 gene (a disintegrin and metalloprotease domain) are described. A glycoprotein analogous to viral fusion proteins has been identified on the surface of guinea pig sperm (PH-30/fertilin) and is implicated in sperm-egg fusion. adm-1 is the first reported invertebrate gene related to PH-30 and a family of proteins containing snake venom disintegrin- and metalloprotease-like domains. ADM-1 shows a domain organization identical to PH-30. It contains prepro, metalloprotease, disintegrin, cysteine rich with putative fusion peptide, epidermal growth factor-like repeat, transmembrane, and cytoplasmic domains. Antibodies which recognize ADM-1 protein in immunoblots were generated. Using immunofluorescence and in situ hybridization, the products of adm-1 have been detected in specific cells during different stages of development. The localization of ADM-1 to the plasma membrane of embryonic cells and to the sheath cells of sensory organs suggests a function in cell adhesion. ADM-1 expression in the hypodermis, pharynx, vulva, and mature sperm is consistent with a putative role in somatic and gamete cell fusions. Images PMID:8970152

  13. Urokinase Receptors Promote β1 Integrin Function through Interactions with Integrin α3β1

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Ying; Eble, Johannes A.; Wang, Zemin; Kreidberg, Jordan A.; Chapman, Harold A.

    2001-01-01

    The urokinase receptor (uPAR) is linked to cellular migration through its capacity to promote pericellular proteolysis, regulate integrin function, and mediate cell signaling in response to urokinase (uPA) binding. The mechanisms for these activities remain incompletely defined, although uPAR was recently identified as a cis-acting ligand for the β2 integrin CD11b/CD18 (Mac-1). Here we show that a major β1 integrin partner for uPAR/uPA signaling is α3. In uPAR-transfected 293 cells uPAR complexed (>90%) with α3β1 and antibodies to α3 blocked uPAR-dependent vitronectin (Vn) adhesion. Soluble uPAR bound to recombinant α3β1 in a uPA-dependent manner (Kd < 20 nM) and binding was blocked by a 17-mer α3β1 integrin peptide (α325) homologous to the CD11b uPAR-binding site. uPAR colocalized with α3β1 in MDA-MB-231 cells and uPA (1 nM) enhanced spreading and focal adhesion kinase phosphorylation on fibronectin (Fn) or collagen type I (Col) in a pertussis toxin- and α325-sensitive manner. A critical role of α3β1 in uPA signaling was verified by studies of epithelial cells from α3-deficient mice. Thus, uPAR preferentially complexes with α3β1, promoting direct (Vn) and indirect (Fn, Col) pathways of cell adhesion, the latter a heterotrimeric G protein-dependent mechanism of signaling between α3β1 and other β1 integrins. PMID:11598185

  14. Minimal Synthetic Cells to Study Integrin-Mediated Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Frohnmayer, Johannes P; Brüggemann, Dorothea; Eberhard, Christian; Neubauer, Stefanie; Mollenhauer, Christine; Boehm, Heike; Kessler, Horst; Geiger, Benjamin; Spatz, Joachim P

    2015-01-01

    To shed light on cell-adhesion-related molecular pathways, synthetic cells offer the unique advantage of a well-controlled model system with reduced molecular complexity. Herein, we show that liposomes with the reconstituted platelet integrin αIIbβ3 as the adhesion-mediating transmembrane protein are a functional minimal cell model for studying cellular adhesion mechanisms in a defined environment. The interaction of these synthetic cells with various extracellular matrix proteins was analyzed using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring. The data indicated that integrin was functionally incorporated into the lipid vesicles, thus enabling integrin-specific adhesion of the engineered liposomes to fibrinogen- and fibronectin-functionalized surfaces. Then, we were able to initiate the detachment of integrin liposomes from these surfaces in the presence of the peptide GRGDSP, a process that is even faster with our newly synthesized peptide mimetic SN529, which specifically inhibits the integrin αIIbβ3. PMID:26257266

  15. Talins and kindlins; partners in integrin-mediated adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Calderwood, David A; Campbell, Iain D; Critchley, David R

    2014-01-01

    Integrin receptors provide a dynamic tightly-regulated link between the extracellular matrix (or cellular counter-receptors) and intracellular cytoskeletal and signalling networks, enabling cells to sense and respond to their chemical and physical environment. Talins and kindlins, two families of FERM–domain proteins, bind the cytoplasmic tail of integrins, recruit cytoskeletal and signalling proteins involved in mechano-transduction, and synergise to activate integrin binding to extracellular ligands. New data reveal the domain structure of full-length talin, provide insights into talin-mediated integrin activation, and show that RIAM recruits talin to the plasma membrane while vinculin stabilises talin in cell–matrix junctions. How Kindlins’ act is less well defined, but disease-causing mutations show that kindlins are also essential for integrin activation, adhesion, cell spreading and signalling. PMID:23860236

  16. Possible involvement of integrin-mediated signalling in oocyte activation: evidence that a cyclic RGD-containing peptide can stimulate protein kinase C and cortical granule exocytosis in mouse oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Tatone, Carla; Carbone, Maria Cristina

    2006-01-01

    Background Mammalian sperm-oocyte interaction at fertilization involves several combined interactions between integrins on the oocyte and integrin ligands (disintegrins) on the sperm. Recent research has indicated the ability of peptides containing the RGD sequence that characterized several sperm disintegrins, to induce intracellular Ca2+ transients and to initiate parthenogenetic development in amphibian and bovine oocytes. In the present study, we investigate the hypothesis that an integrin-associated signalling may participate in oocyte activation signalling by determining the ability of a cyclic RGD-containing peptide to stimulate the activation of protein kinase C (PKC) and the exocytosis of cortical granules in mouse oocytes. Methods An In-Vitro-Fertilization assay (IVF) was carried in order to test the condition under which a peptide containing the RGD sequence, cyclo(Arg-Gly-Asp-D-Phe-Val), was able to inhibit sperm fusion with zona-free mouse oocytes at metaphase II stage. PKC activity was determined by means of an assay based on the ability of cell lysates to phosphorylate MARKS peptide, a specific PKC substrate. Loss of cortical granules was evaluated by measuring density in the oocyte cortex of cortical granules stained with LCA-biotin/Texas red-streptavidin. In all the experiments, effects of a control peptide containing a non RGD sequence, cyclo(Arg-Ala-Asp-D-Phe-Val), were evaluated. Results The IVF assay revealed that the fusion rate declined significantly when insemination was carried out in the presence of cyclic RGD peptide at concentrations > or = 250 microM (P < 0.05, Student-Newman-Keuls Method). When the peptide was applied to the oocytes at these concentrations, a dose-dependent increase of PKC activity was observed, in association with a loss of cortical granules ranging from 38+/-2.5 % to 52+/-5.4 %. Evaluation of meiotic status revealed that cyclic RGD peptide was ineffective in inducing meiosis resumption under conditions used in the

  17. Integrin β1 regulates leiomyoma cytoskeletal integrity and growth

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Minnie; Segars, James; Catherino, William H.

    2014-01-01

    Uterine leiomyomas are characterized by an excessive extracellular matrix, increased mechanical stress, and increased active RhoA. Previously, we observed that mechanical signaling was attenuated in leiomyoma, but the mechanisms responsible remain unclear. Integrins, especially integrin β1, are transmembrane adhesion receptors that couple extracellular matrix stresses to the intracellular cytoskeleton to influence cell proliferation and differentiation. Here we characterized integrin and laminin to signaling in leiomyoma cells. We observed a 2.25 ± 0.32 fold increased expression of integrin β1 in leiomyoma cells, compared to myometrial cells. Antibody-mediated inhibition of integrin β1 led to significant growth inhibition in leiomyoma cells and a loss of cytoskeletal integrity. Specifically, polymerization of actin filaments and formation of focal adhesions were reduced by inhibition of integrin p1. Inhibition of integrin β1 in leiomyoma cells led to 0.81 ± 0.02 fold decrease in active RhoA, and resembled levels found in serum-starved cells. Likewise, inhibition of integrin β1 was accompanied by a decrease in phospho-ERK. Compared to myometrial cells, leiomyoma cells demonstrated increased expression of integrin α6 subunit to laminin receptor (1.91 ± 0.11 fold), and increased expression of laminin 5α (1.52±0.02), laminin 5β (3.06±0.92), and laminin 5γ (1.66 ± 0.06). Of note, leiomyoma cells grown on laminin matrix appear to realign themselves. Taken together, the findings reveal that the attenuated mechanical signaling in leiomyoma cells is accompanied by an increased expression and a dependence on integrin β1 signaling in leiomyoma cells, compared to myometrial cells. PMID:23023061

  18. Integrin-Targeting Knottin Peptide-Drug Conjugates Are Potent Inhibitors of Tumor Cell Proliferation.

    PubMed

    Cox, Nick; Kintzing, James R; Smith, Mark; Grant, Gerald A; Cochran, Jennifer R

    2016-08-16

    Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) offer increased efficacy and reduced toxicity compared to systemic chemotherapy. Less attention has been paid to peptide-drug delivery, which has the potential for increased tumor penetration and facile synthesis. We report a knottin peptide-drug conjugate (KDC) and demonstrate that it can selectively deliver gemcitabine to malignant cells expressing tumor-associated integrins. This KDC binds to tumor cells with low-nanomolar affinity, is internalized by an integrin-mediated process, releases its payload intracellularly, and is a highly potent inhibitor of brain, breast, ovarian, and pancreatic cancer cell lines. Notably, these features enable this KDC to bypass a gemcitabine-resistance mechanism found in pancreatic cancer cells. This work expands the therapeutic relevance of knottin peptides to include targeted drug delivery, and further motivates efforts to expand the drug-conjugate toolkit to include non-antibody protein scaffolds. PMID:27304709

  19. Tetraspanin CD151 regulates alpha6beta1 integrin adhesion strengthening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lammerding, Jan; Kazarov, Alexander R.; Huang, Hayden; Lee, Richard T.; Hemler, Martin E.

    2003-01-01

    The tetraspanin CD151 molecule associates specifically with laminin-binding integrins, including alpha6beta1. To probe strength of alpha6beta1-dependent adhesion to laminin-1, defined forces (0-1.5 nN) were applied to magnetic laminin-coated microbeads bound to NIH 3T3 cells. For NIH 3T3 cells bearing wild-type CD151, adhesion strengthening was observed, as bead detachment became more difficult over time. In contrast, mutant CD151 (with the C-terminal region replaced) showed impaired adhesion strengthening. Static cell adhesion to laminin-1, and detachment of beads coated with fibronectin or anti-alpha6 antibody were all unaffected by CD151 mutation. Hence, CD151 plays a key role in selectively strengthening alpha6beta1 integrin-mediated adhesion to laminin-1.

  20. Targeted inactivation of β1 integrin induces β3 integrin switching, which drives breast cancer metastasis by TGF-β

    PubMed Central

    Parvani, Jenny G.; Galliher-Beckley, Amy J.; Schiemann, Barbara J.; Schiemann, William P.

    2013-01-01

    Mammary tumorigenesis and epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) programs cooperate in converting transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) from a suppressor to a promoter of breast cancer metastasis. Although previous reports associated β1 and β3 integrins with TGF-β stimulation of EMT and metastasis, the functional interplay and plasticity exhibited by these adhesion molecules in shaping the oncogenic activities of TGF-β remain unknown. We demonstrate that inactivation of β1 integrin impairs TGF-β from stimulating the motility of normal and malignant mammary epithelial cells (MECs) and elicits robust compensatory expression of β3 integrin solely in malignant MECs, but not in their normal counterparts. Compensatory β3 integrin expression also 1) enhances the growth of malignant MECs in rigid and compliant three-dimensional organotypic cultures and 2) restores the induction of the EMT phenotypes by TGF-β. Of importance, compensatory expression of β3 integrin rescues the growth and pulmonary metastasis of β1 integrin–deficient 4T1 tumors in mice, a process that is prevented by genetic depletion or functional inactivation of β3 integrin. Collectively our findings demonstrate that inactivation of β1 integrin elicits metastatic progression via a β3 integrin–specific mechanism, indicating that dual β1 and β3 integrin targeting is necessary to alleviate metastatic disease in breast cancer patients. PMID:24006485

  1. Epithelial Cell-Derived a Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase-17 Confers Resistance to Colonic Inflammation Through EGFR Activation

    PubMed Central

    Shimoda, Masayuki; Horiuchi, Keisuke; Sasaki, Aya; Tsukamoto, Tetsuya; Okabayashi, Koji; Hasegawa, Hirotoshi; Kitagawa, Yuko; Okada, Yasunori

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial regeneration is a key process for the recovery from ulcerative colitis (UC). Here we demonstrate that a disintegrin and metalloproteinase-17 (ADAM17), a main sheddase for tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, is essential for defensive epithelial properties against UC by promoting epithelial cell growth and goblet cell differentiation in mouse and human. Mice with systemic deletion of Adam17 developed severe dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis when compared to mice with myeloid cell Adam17 deletion or control littermates. ADAM17 was predominantly expressed by regenerating epithelia in control mice, and its loss or inhibition attenuated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation, epithelial proliferation, mucus production and barrier functions. Conversely, ectopic EGFR stimulation promoted epithelial regeneration thereby partially rescuing the severe colitis caused by ADAM17 deficiency. In UC patients, epithelial ADAM17 expression positively correlated with both cell proliferation and goblet cell number. These findings suggest that maintaining ADAM17–EGFR epithelial signaling is necessary for the recovery from UC and would be beneficial to therapeutic strategies targeting ADAM17-mediated TNF-α shedding. PMID:27077118

  2. Myeloid A disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain 10 deficiency modulates atherosclerotic plaque composition by shifting the balance from inflammation toward fibrosis.

    PubMed

    van der Vorst, Emiel P C; Jeurissen, Mike; Wolfs, Ine M J; Keijbeck, Anke; Theodorou, Kosta; Wijnands, Erwin; Schurgers, Leon; Weber, Silvio; Gijbels, Marion J; Hamers, Anouk A J; Dreymueller, Daniela; Rose-John, Stefan; de Winther, Menno P J; Ludwig, Andreas; Saftig, Paul; Biessen, Erik A L; Donners, Marjo M P C

    2015-04-01

    A disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain 10 (ADAM10) is a metalloprotease involved in cleavage of various cell surface molecules, such as adhesion molecules, chemokines, and growth factor receptors. Although we have previously shown an association of ADAM10 expression with atherosclerotic plaque progression, a causal role of ADAM10 in atherosclerosis has not been investigated. Bone marrow from conditional knockout mice lacking Adam10 in the myeloid lineage or from littermate controls was transplanted into lethally irradiated low density lipoprotein receptor Ldlr(-/-) mice on an atherogenic diet. Myeloid Adam10 deficiency did not affect plaque size, but it increased plaque collagen content. Matrix metalloproteinase 9 and 13 expression and matrix metalloproteinase 2 gelatinase activity were significantly impaired in Adam10-deficient macrophages, whereas their capacity to stimulate collagen production was unchanged. Furthermore, relative macrophage content in advanced atherosclerotic lesions was decreased. In vitro, Adam10-deficient macrophages showed reduced migration toward monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and transmigration through collagen. In addition, Adam10-deficient macrophages displayed increased anti-inflammatory phenotype with elevated IL-10, and reduced production of proinflammatory tumor necrosis factor, IL-12, and nitric oxide in response to lipopolysaccharide. These data suggest a critical role of Adam10 for leukocyte recruitment, inflammatory mediator production, and extracellular matrix degradation. Thereby, myeloid ADAM10 may play a causal role in modulating atherosclerotic plaque stability. PMID:25659879

  3. A disintegrin and metalloprotease-12 is type I myofiber specific in Bos taurus and Bos indicus cattle.

    PubMed

    Coles, C A; Wadeson, J; Knight, M I; Cafe, L M; Johns, W H; White, J D; Greenwood, P L; McDonagh, M B

    2014-04-01

    A disintegrin and metalloproteinase-12 (ADAM12) is involved in the regulation of myogenesis and adipogenesis and is of interest as a potential target to manipulate skeletal muscle development and intramuscular fat (IMF) deposition in cattle to increase beef yield and improve meat quality. The longissimus thoracis muscle (LM) and semitendinosus muscle (STM) from 5 Bos taurus (Angus) and 5 Bos indicus (Brahman) cattle were collected for histological and ADAM12 gene and protein expression analysis. Myofiber typing was used to determine if ADAM12 expression patterns related to differences in muscling and IMF deposition, which are influenced by proportions of the different myofiber types. The STM was found to contain a higher proportion of glycolytic myofibers than the LM, which contained a greater proportion of oxidative myofibers (myofiber ratio of glycolytic to more oxidative types in LM and STM of 1.1 and 3.5, respectively; P < 0.05). ADAM12 gene expression, fluorescent immunohistochemical staining for ADAM12, and image analysis found ADAM12 to be greater in the LM (P < 0.05). Regression analysis found a strong, positive relationship for the distribution of ADAM12 against the proportion of type I myofibers (P < 0.05, r(2) = 0.86). These findings suggest ADAM12 is upregulated in muscles with more slow-oxidative myofibres, such as the LM, and is linked to type I myofibers in cattle. ADAM12 may be important in the regulation and maintenance slow myofibers in the LM muscle. PMID:24663211

  4. Autolysis at the disintegrin domain of patagonfibrase, a metalloproteinase from Philodryas patagoniensis (Patagonia Green Racer; Dipsadidae) venom.

    PubMed

    Peichoto, María E; Paes Leme, Adriana F; Pauletti, Bianca A; Batista, Isabel Correia; Mackessy, Stephen P; Acosta, Ofelia; Santoro, Marcelo L

    2010-09-01

    Patagonfibrase is a 57.5-kDa hemorrhagic metalloproteinase isolated from the venom of Philodryas patagoniensis (Patagonia Green Racer), a South American rear-fanged snake. Herein we demonstrate that patagonfibrase undergoes autolysis at its pH optimum (7.5) and at 37 degrees C, primarily producing a approximately 32.6 kDa fragment composed of disintegrin-like and cysteine-rich domains, as identified by mass spectrometry and N-terminal sequencing. The autolysis site for production of this fragment is similar to that observed for metalloproteinases from front-fanged Viperidae snake venoms. In the presence of Ca(2+), patagonfibrase was only partially autolysed, giving rise mainly to one fragment of approximately 52.2 kDa. In addition, calcium markedly enhanced the azocaseinolytic activity of patagonfibrase. Our findings contribute to the understanding of the structural and mechanistic bases of this family of metalloenzymes that are widely distributed among snake venoms, demonstrating that important post-translational modifications such as proteolysis can also contribute to the diversity and complexity of proteins found in rear-fanged snake venoms. PMID:20538077

  5. Expression of a disintegrin and metalloprotease (ADAM and ADAMTS) enzymes in human non-small-cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC)

    PubMed Central

    Rocks, N; Paulissen, G; Quesada Calvo, F; Polette, M; Gueders, M; Munaut, C; Foidart, J-M; Noel, A; Birembaut, P; Cataldo, D

    2006-01-01

    A Disintegrin and Metalloprotease (ADAM) are transmembrane proteases displaying multiple functions. ADAM with ThromboSpondin-like motifs (ADAMTS) are secreted proteases characterised by thrombospondin (TS) motifs in their C-terminal domain. The aim of this work was to evaluate the expression pattern of ADAMs and ADAMTS in non small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC) and to investigate the possible correlation between their expression and cancer progression. Reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction (RT–PCR), Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses were performed on NSCLC samples and corresponding nondiseased tissue fragments. Among the ADAMs evaluated (ADAM-8, -9, -10, -12, -15, -17, ADAMTS-1, TS-2 and TS-12), a modulation of ADAM-12 and ADAMTS-1 mRNA expression was observed. Amounts of ADAM-12 mRNA transcripts were increased in tumour tissues as compared to the corresponding controls. In sharp contrast, ADAMTS-1 mRNA levels were significantly lower in tumour tissues when compared to corresponding nondiseased lung. These results were corroborated at the protein level by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. A positive correlation was observed between the mRNA levels of ADAM-12 and those of two vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A isoforms (VEGF-A165 and VEGF-A121). Taken together, these results providing evidence for an overexpression of ADAM-12 and a lower expression of ADAMTS-1 in non-small-cell lung cancer suggest that these proteases play different functions in cancer progression. PMID:16495931

  6. Loss of β1-integrin from urothelium results in overactive bladder and incontinence in mice: a mechanosensory rather than structural phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Kanasaki, Keizo; Yu, Weiqun; von Bodungen, Maximilian; Larigakis, John D.; Kanasaki, Megumi; Ayala de la Pena, Francisco; Kalluri, Raghu; Hill, Warren G.

    2013-01-01

    Bladder urothelium senses and communicates information about bladder fullness. However, the mechanoreceptors that respond to tissue stretch are poorly defined. Integrins are mechanotransducers in other tissues. Therefore, we eliminated β1-integrin selectively in urothelium of mice using Cre-LoxP targeted gene deletion. β1-Integrin localized to basal/intermediate urothelial cells by confocal microscopy. β1-Integrin conditional-knockout (β1-cKO) mice lacking urothelial β1-integrin exhibited down-regulation and mislocalization of α3- and α5-integrins by immunohistochemistry but, surprisingly, had normal morphology, permeability, and transepithelial resistance when compared with Cre-negative littermate controls. β1-cKO mice were incontinent, as judged by random urine leakage on filter paper (4-fold higher spotting, P<0.01; 2.5-fold higher urine area percentage, P<0.05). Urodynamic function assessed by cystometry revealed bladder overfilling with 80% longer intercontractile intervals (P<0.05) and detrusor hyperactivity (3-fold more prevoid contractions, P<0.05), but smooth muscle contractility remained intact. ATP secretion into the lumen was elevated (49 vs. 22 nM, P<0.05), indicating abnormal filling-induced purinergic signaling, and short-circuit currents (measured in Ussing chambers) revealed 2-fold higher stretch-activated ion channel conductances in response to hydrostatic pressure of 1 cmH2O (P<0.05). We conclude that loss of integrin signaling from urothelium results in incontinence and overactive bladder due to abnormal mechanotransduction; more broadly, our findings indicate that urothelium itself directly modulates voiding.—Kanasaki, K., Yu, W., von Bodungen, M., Larigakis, J. D., Kanasaki, M., Ayala de la Pena, F., Kalluri, R., Hill, W.G. Loss of β1-integrin from urothelium results in overactive bladder and incontinence in mice: a mechanosensory rather than structural phenotype. PMID:23395910

  7. Breast Cancer Cells in Three-dimensional Culture Display an Enhanced Radioresponse after Coordinate Targeting of Integrin ?5?1 and Fibronectin

    SciTech Connect

    Nam, Jin-Min; Onodera, Yasuhito; Bissell, Mina J; Park, Catherine C

    2010-04-07

    Tactics to selectively enhance cancer radioresponse are of great interest. Cancer cells actively elaborate and remodel their extracellular matrix (ECM) to aid in survival and progression. Previous work has shown that {beta}1-integrin inhibitory antibodies can enhance the growth-inhibitory and apoptotic responses of human breast cancer cell lines to ionizing radiation, either when cells are cultured in three-dimensional laminin-rich ECM (3D lrECM) or grown as xenografts in mice. Here, we show that a specific {alpha} heterodimer of {beta}1-integrin preferentially mediates a prosurvival signal in human breast cancer cells that can be specifically targeted for therapy. 3D lrECM culture conditions were used to compare {alpha}-integrin heterodimer expression in malignant and nonmalignant cell lines. Under these conditions, we found that expression of {alpha}5{beta}1-integrin was upregulated in malignant cells compared with nonmalignant breast cells. Similarly, we found that normal and oncofetal splice variants of fibronectin, the primary ECM ligand of {alpha}5{beta}1-integrin, were also strikingly upregulated in malignant cell lines compared with nonmalignant acini. Cell treatment with a peptide that disrupts the interactions of {alpha}5{beta}1-integrin with fibronectin promoted apoptosis in malignant cells and further heightened the apoptotic effects of radiation. In support of these results, an analysis of gene expression array data from breast cancer patients revealed an association of high levels of {alpha}5-integrin expression with decreased survival. Our findings offer preclinical validation of fibronectin and {alpha}5{beta}1-integrin as targets for breast cancer therapy.

  8. Complete integrin headpiece opening in eight steps

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jieqing; Zhu, Jianghai

    2013-01-01

    Carefully soaking crystals with Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptides, we captured eight distinct RGD-bound conformations of the αIIbβ3 integrin headpiece. Starting from the closed βI domain conformation, we saw six intermediate βI conformations and finally the fully open βI with the hybrid domain swung out in the crystal lattice. The β1-α1 backbone that hydrogen bonds to the Asp side chain of RGD was the first element to move followed by adjacent to metal ion-dependent adhesion site Ca2+, α1 helix, α1’ helix, β6-α7 loop, α7 helix, and hybrid domain. We define in atomic detail how conformational change was transmitted over long distances in integrins, 40 Å from the ligand binding site to the opposite end of the βI domain and 80 Å to the far end of the hybrid domain. During these movements, RGD slid in its binding groove toward αIIb, and its Arg side chain became ordered. RGD concentration requirements in soaking suggested a >200-fold higher affinity after opening. The thermodynamic cycle shows how higher affinity pays the energetic cost of opening. PMID:23798730

  9. Integrin αDβ2, an adhesion receptor up-regulated on macrophage foam cells, exhibits multiligand-binding properties

    PubMed Central

    Yakubenko, Valentin P.; Yadav, Satya P.; Ugarova, Tatiana P.

    2006-01-01

    Integrin αDβ2, the most recently discovered member of the β2 subfamily of integrin adhesion receptors, is up-regulated on macrophage foam cells. Although other members of the subfamily have been subjects of extensive research, the recognition specificity and the molecular basis for αDβ2 ligand binding remain unknown. Based on the high extent of structural homology between αDβ2 and the major myeloid-cell-specific integrin αMβ2 (Mac-1), noted for its capacity to bind multiple ligands, we considered that the 2 integrins have similar recognition specificity. In this study, using recombinant and natural αDβ2-expressing cells, we demonstrate that αDβ2 supports adhesion and migration to many extracellular matrix proteins in a fashion similar to αMβ2. Consistent with these data, the recombinant αDI-domain of the receptor bound selected ligands. The binding was activation-dependent because the αDI-domain with its C-terminal α7 helix truncated, but not the form with the C-terminal part extended, bound ligands. When the αDI-domain segment Lys244-Lys260 (highly homologous to its αMI-domain counterpart Lys245-Arg261 responsible for αMβ2 multiligand-binding properties) was inserted into the mono-specific αLI-domain, the chimeric protein bound many ligands with affinities similar to those of wild-type αDI-domain. These results establish integrin αDβ2 as a multiligand receptor and indicate that the mechanism whereby αDβ2 exhibits broad ligand specificity resembles that used by αMβ2, the most promiscuous member of the integrin family. PMID:16239428

  10. Immunolocalization of integrin-like proteins in Arabidopsis and Chara

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katembe, W. J.; Swatzell, L. J.; Makaroff, C. A.; Kiss, J. Z.

    1997-01-01

    Integrins are a large family of integral plasma membrane proteins that link the extracellular matrix to the cytoskeleton in animal cells. As a first step in determining if integrin-like proteins are involved in gravitropic signal transduction pathways, we have used a polyclonal antibody against the chicken beta1 integrin subunit in western blot analyses and immunofluorescence microscopy to gain information on the size and location of these proteins in plants. Several different polypeptides are recognized by the anti-integrin antibody in roots and shoots of Arabidopsis and in the internodal cells and rhizoids of Chara. These cross-reactive polypeptides are associated with cellular membranes, a feature which is consistent with the known location of integrins in animal systems. In immunofluorescence studies of Arabidopsis roots, a strong signal was obtained from labeling integrin-like proteins in root cap cells, and there was little or no immunolabel in other regions of the root tip. While the antibody stained throughout Chara rhizoids, the highest density of immunolabel was at the tip. Thus, in both Arabidopsis roots and Chara rhizoids, the sites of gravity perception/transduction appear to be enriched in integrin-like molecules.

  11. A Combined NMR and Computational Approach to Determine the RGDechi-hCit-αv β3 Integrin Recognition Mode in Isolated Cell Membranes.

    PubMed

    Farina, Biancamaria; de Paola, Ivan; Russo, Luigi; Capasso, Domenica; Liguoro, Annamaria; Gatto, Annarita Del; Saviano, Michele; Pedone, Paolo V; Di Gaetano, Sonia; Malgieri, Gaetano; Zaccaro, Laura; Fattorusso, Roberto

    2016-01-11

    The critical role of integrins in tumor progression and metastasis has stimulated intense efforts to identify pharmacological agents that can modulate integrin function. In recent years, αv β3 and αv β5 integrin antagonists were demonstrated to be effective in blocking tumor progression. RGDechi-hCit, a chimeric peptide containing a cyclic RGD motif linked to an echistatin C-terminal fragment, is able to recognize selectively αv β3 integrin both in vitro and in vivo. High-resolution molecular details of the selective αv β3 recognition of the peptide are certainly required, nonetheless RGDechi-hCit internalization limited the use of classical in cell NMR experiments. To overcome such limitations, we used WM266 isolated cellular membranes to accomplish a detailed NMR interaction study that, combined with a computational analysis, provides significant structural insights into αv β3 molecular recognition by RGDechi-hCit. Remarkably, on the basis of the identified molecular determinants, we design a RGDechi-hCit mutant that is selective for αv β5 integrin. PMID:26548575

  12. Integrin Activation States and Eosinophil Recruitment in Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Mats W.; Mosher, Deane F.

    2013-01-01

    Eosinophil arrest and recruitment to the airway in asthma are mediated, at least in part, by integrins. Eosinophils express α4β1, α6β1, αLβ2, αMβ2, αXβ2, αDβ2, and α4β7 integrins, which interact with counter-receptors on other cells or ligands in the extracellular matrix. Whether a given integrin-ligand pair mediates cell adhesion and migration depends on the activation state of the integrin. Integrins exist in an inactive bent, an intermediate-activity extended closed, and a high-activity extended open conformation. Integrin activation states can be monitored by conformation-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Studies in mice indicate that both β1 and β2 integrins mediate eosinophil recruitment to the lung. In vitro studies indicate that α4β1 and αMβ2 are the principal integrins mediating eosinophil adhesion, including to vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and the novel αMβ2 ligand periostin. In vivo, blood eosinophils have intermediate-activity β1 integrins, as judged by mAb N29, apparently resulting from eosinophil binding of P-selectin on the surface of activated platelets, and have a proportion of their β2 integrins in the intermediate conformation, as judged by mAb KIM-127, apparently due to exposure to low concentrations of interleukin-5 (IL-5). Airway eosinophils recovered by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) after segmental antigen challenge have high-activity β1 integrins and high-activity αMβ2 that does not require IL-5. Here we review information on how the activation states of eosinophil β1 and β2 integrins correlate with measurements of eosinophil recruitment and pulmonary function in asthma. Blood eosinophil N29 reactivity is associated with decreased lung function under various circumstances in non-severe asthma and KIM-127 with BAL eosinophil numbers, indicating that intermediate-activity α4β1 and αMβ2 of blood eosinophils are important for eosinophil arrest and consequently for recruitment and aspects of asthma. PMID

  13. Integrin α3 Mutations with Kidney, Lung, and Skin Disease

    PubMed Central

    Has, Cristina; Spartà, Giuseppina; Kiritsi, Dimitra; Weibel, Lisa; Moeller, Alexander; Vega-Warner, Virginia; Waters, Aoife; He, Yinghong; Anikster, Yair; Esser, Philipp; Straub, Beate K.; Hausser, Ingrid; Bockenhauer, Detlef; Dekel, Benjamin; Hildebrandt, Friedhelm; Bruckner-Tuderman, Leena; Laube, Guido F.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Integrin α3 is a transmembrane integrin receptor subunit that mediates signals between the cells and their microenvironment. We identified three patients with homozygous mutations in the integrin α3 gene that were associated with disrupted basement-membrane structures and compromised barrier functions in kidney, lung, and skin. The patients had a multiorgan disorder that included congenital nephrotic syndrome, interstitial lung disease, and epidermolysis bullosa. The renal and respiratory features predominated, and the lung involvement accounted for the lethal course of the disease. Although skin fragility was mild, it provided clues to the diagnosis. PMID:22512483

  14. (99m)Tc-HisoDGR as a Potential SPECT Probe for Orthotopic Glioma Detection via Targeting of Integrin α5β1.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Haitao; Gao, Hannan; Zhai, Luoping; Liu, Xujie; Jia, Bing; Shi, Jiyun; Wang, Fan

    2016-05-18

    Integrins, a large family of cell adhesion receptors, have been shown to play an important role for glioma proliferation and invasion. Several integrin receptors, including αvβ3, αvβ5, and α5β1, have generated clinical interest for glioma diagnosis and antitumor therapy. Integrin α5β1 has been highlighted as a prognostic and diagnostic marker in glioma, and its expression is correlated with a worse prognosis in high-grade glioma. However, unlike extensively studied integrins αvβ3 and αvβ5, very few integrin α5β1-specific radiotracers have been reported. Developing α5β1-specific radiotracers may provide alternative diagnosis and evaluation options in addition to well-studied αvβ3/αvβ5-specific tracers, and they may add new documents for profiling tumor progression. Here, a novel integrin α5β1-specific probe (99m)Tc-HisoDGR was fabricated for SPECT (single-photon emission computed tomography) imaging of glioma. To confirm its selective targeting of integrin α5β1 in vivo, the mouse models of α5β1-positive U87MG human glioma were subjected to SPECT/CT scans, and biodistribution experiments and blocking studies were performed. Small-animal SPECT/CT imaging experiments demonstrated that the tumors were clearly visualized in both subcutaneous and orthotopic glioma tumor models with clear background at 0.5, 1, and 2 h p.i. The tumor accumulation of (99m)Tc-HisoDGR showed significant reduction when excess cold isoDGR peptide was coinjected, suggesting that the tumor uptake was specifically mediated. Our work revealed that (99m)Tc-HisoDGR represented a powerful molecular probe for integrin α5β1-positive cancer imaging; moreover, it might be a promising tool for evaluating malignancy, predicting prognosis, selecting subpopulations of patients who might be sensitive to integrin α5β1-targeted drugs, and assessing and monitoring the response to integrin α5β1-targeted drugs in clinical trials. PMID:27098436

  15. Retinoids Bias Integrin Expression and Function in Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; DeMarco, Sebastian S; Chen, JianMing; Phillips, Charles M; Bridges, Lance C

    2015-08-01

    Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) is a heterogeneous group of malignancies characterized by accumulation of malignant T-cells within the skin. Retinoids, metabolic derivatives, and synthetic analogs of vitamin A embody an effective CTCL therapy with over three decades of clinical use. The established mechanism of action is induction of growth arrest and apoptosis. However, the natural role of retinoids in T-cell biology is imprinting gut-homing properties by inducing integrin α4β7 expression. How the natural role of retinoids relates to therapeutic effectiveness in CTCL has not been addressed and merits investigation. Here we provide evidence that retinoids, including Bexarotene, selectively induce CTCL lineages to increase integrin β7 expression and function prior to growth arrest and apoptosis. Interestingly, augmented CTCL cell adhesion obtained with retinoid exposure was potently attenuated by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, a metabolic vitamin derivative involved in prompting immune cell skin homing. The integrin-dependent adhesion changes in CTCL cells occurred through synergistic activation of RAR and RXR nuclear receptors. These data explore the early cellular changes induced by retinoids that may be pivotal to sensitizing CTCL cells to growth arrest and apoptosis. PMID:25826424

  16. Prevention of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by antibodies against α4βl integrin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yednock, Ted A.; Cannon, Catherine; Fritz, Lawrence C.; Sanchez-Madrid, Francisco; Steinman, Lawrence; Karin, Nathan

    1992-03-01

    EXPERIMENTAL autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an inflammatory condition of the central nervous system with similarities to multiple sclerosis1,2. In both diseases, circulating leukocytes penetrate the blood-brain barrier and damage myelin, resulting in impaired nerve conduction and paralysis3-5. We sought to identify the adhesion receptors that mediate the attachment of circulating leukocytes to inflamed brain endothelium in EAE, because this interaction is the first step in leukocyte entry into the central nervous system. Using an in vitro adhesion assay on tissue sections, we found that lymphocytes and monocytes bound selectively to inflamed EAE brain vessels. Binding was inhibited by antibodies against the integrin molecule α4βl, but not by antibodies against numerous other adhesion receptors. When tested in vivo, anti-α4 integrin effectively prevented the accumulation of leukocytes in the central nervous system and the development of EAE. Thus, therapies designed to interfere with α4βl integrin may be useful in treating inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system, such as multiple sclerosis.

  17. A beta 1-integrin receptor for fibronectin in human kidney glomeruli.

    PubMed Central

    Kerjaschki, D.; Ojha, P. P.; Susani, M.; Horvat, R.; Binder, S.; Hovorka, A.; Hillemanns, P.; Pytela, R.

    1989-01-01

    The fibronectin receptor (FNR) is a transmembrane heterodimeric glycoprotein which shares a common beta 1-chain with several other members of the integrin family of adhesion receptors. The authors have prepared a membrane fraction of isolated human glomeruli, from which two proteins (apparent molecular weights 120 kd and 140 kd) bound to a fibronectin-column, and were selectively released by the synthetic peptide Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser. These molecules were labeled in immune overlays by an antibody raised against the FNR from human placenta that recognizes both the FNR-specific a-chain and the group-specific beta 1-integrin chain. In sections of normal human kidneys this antibody labeled predominately the mesangia and the peripheral capillary walls of glomeruli by an immunoperoxidase procedure. Quantitative immunoelectron microscopy, using an indirect immunogold procedure, revealed a preferential localization along the cell membranes of mesangial, epithelial, and endothelial cells that face the mesangial matrix or the glomerular basement membrane (GBM). In kidney biopsies from patients with various glomerular diseases (membranous and other forms of glomerulonephritis, minimal change disease) the distribution was similar to that in normal glomeruli. These findings indicate that a beta 1-integrin-related FNR is present in normal and diseased human glomeruli. Images Figure 1-4 Figure 5 Figure 6-10 Figure 11-16 PMID:2521774

  18. Suppression of integrin activation by the membrane-distal sequence of the integrin alphaIIb cytoplasmic tail.

    PubMed Central

    Yamanouchi, Jun; Hato, Takaaki; Tamura, Tatsushiro; Fujita, Shigeru

    2004-01-01

    Integrin cytoplasmic tails regulate integrin activation including an increase in integrin affinity for ligands. Although there is ample evidence that the membrane-proximal regions of the alpha and beta tails interact with each other to maintain integrins in a low-affinity state, little is known about the role of the membrane-distal region of the alpha tail in regulation of integrin activation. We report a critical sequence for regulation of integrin activation in the membrane-distal region of the alphaIIb tail. Alanine substitution of the RPP residues in the alphaIIb tail rendered alphaIIbbeta3 constitutively active in a metabolic energy-dependent manner. Although an alphaIIb/alpha6Abeta3 chimaeric integrin, in which the alphaIIb tail was replaced by the alpha6A tail, was in an energy-dependent active state to bind soluble ligands, introduction of the RPP sequence into the alpha6A tail inhibited binding of an activation-dependent antibody PAC1. In alphaIIb/alpha6Abeta3, deleting the TSDA sequence from the alpha6A tail or single amino acid substitutions of the TSDA residues inhibited alphaIIb/alpha6Abeta3 activation and replacing the membrane-distal region of the alphaIIb tail with TSDA rendered alphaIIbbeta3 active, suggesting a stimulatory role of TSDA in energy-dependent integrin activation. However, adding TSDA to the alphaIIb tail containing the RPP sequence of the membrane-distal region failed to activate alphaIIbbeta3. These results suggest that the RPP sequence after the GFFKR motif of the alphaIIb tail suppresses energy-dependent alphaIIbbeta3 activation. These findings provide a molecular basis for the regulation of energy-dependent integrin activation by alpha subunit tails. PMID:14723599

  19. A disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17 regulates TNF and TNFR1 levels in inflammation and liver regeneration in mice

    PubMed Central

    McMahan, Ryan S.; Riehle, Kimberly J.; Fausto, Nelson

    2013-01-01

    A disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17 (ADAM17), or tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-converting enzyme, is a key metalloproteinase and physiological convertase for a number of putative targets that play critical roles in cytokine and growth factor signaling. These interdependent pathways are essential components of the signaling network that links liver function with the compensatory growth that occurs during liver regeneration following 2/3 partial hepatectomy (PH) or chemically induced hepatotoxicity. Despite identification of many soluble factors needed for efficient liver regeneration, very little is known about how such ligands are regulated in the liver. To directly study the role of ADAM17 in the liver, we employed two cell-specific ADAM17 knockout (KO) mouse models. Using lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as a robust stimulus for TNF release, we found attenuated levels of circulating TNF in myeloid-specific ADAM17 KO mice (ADAM17 m-KO) and, unexpectedly, in mice with hepatocyte-specific ADAM17 deletion (ADAM17 h-KO), indicating that ADAM17 expression in both cell types plays a role in TNF shedding. After 2/3 PH, induction of TNF, TNFR1, and amphiregulin (AR) was significantly attenuated in ADAM17 h-KO mice, implicating ADAM17 as the primary sheddase for these factors in the liver. Surprisingly, the extent and timing of hepatocyte proliferation were not affected after PH or carbon tetrachloride injection in ADAM17 h-KO or ADAM17 m-KO mice. We conclude that ADAM17 regulates TNF, TNFR1, and AR in the liver, and its expression in both hepatocytes and myeloid cells is important for TNF regulation after LPS injury or 2/3 PH, but is not required for liver regeneration. PMID:23639813

  20. Differential expression of ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase) genes between human first trimester villous and extravillous trophoblast cells.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hironori; Yuge, Kazuya; Matsubara, Shigeki; Ohkuchi, Akihide; Kuwata, Tomoyuki; Usui, Rie; Suzuki, Mitsuaki; Takizawa, Toshihiro

    2014-01-01

    A disintegrin and metalloproteinases (ADAMs) are members of the metzincin family of zinc-dependent metalloproteinases that play pivotal roles in the proteolytic degradation of the extracellular matrix for cell invasion. Few studies have investigated the ADAM subtypes that are expressed in first trimester trophoblast cells. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the differential expression profiles of ADAMs between first trimester villous trophoblast cells (VTs) and extravillous trophoblast cells (EVTs). We isolated EVTs from explanted human first trimester chorionic villi and investigated the mRNA expression levels of five members of the ADAM family (ADAMTS1, ADAMTS2, ADAM10, ADAM12, and ADAM17) using real-time PCR. Chorionic villous tips were defined as first trimester VTs. Of the differentially expressed ADAM genes between first trimester VTs and EVTs, ADAMTS1 was expressed at a significantly higher level in EVTs than in VTs. In contrast, both ADAM10 and ADAM12 were expressed at significantly higher levels in VTs than in EVTs. No differences were found in the mRNA levels of ADAMTS2 and ADAM17 between the two cell types. Moreover, we demonstrated that in VTs, the expression level of ADAM12 was significantly downregulated in the late first trimester (10-13 gestational weeks) compared to the middle first trimester (7-8 weeks). These results suggest that first trimester trophoblast cells express ADAM genes in cell type- and gestational age-dependent manners. Our data provide additional insight into the functions of ADAMs in the human placenta. PMID:24998958

  1. The role of integrins in primary and secondary brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Schittenhelm, Jens; Tabatabai, Ghazaleh; Sipos, Bence

    2016-10-01

    The tumor environment plays an integral part in the biology of cancer, participating in tumor initiation, progression, and response to therapy. Integrins, a family of cell surface receptors, bridge the extracellular matrix to the intracellular cytoskeleton. Since their first characterization 25 years ago, a vast amount of work has been performed to understand the essential role of integrins in cell development, tissue organization, tumor growth, vessel development and their signaling mechanisms. Their potential as therapeutic targets in various types of cancer is intensively studied. In this review, we discuss the expression patterns and functional role of integrin in primary brain tumors and brain metastases, provide an overview of clinical data on integrin inhibition and their potential application in imaging and therapy of these tumors. PMID:27097828

  2. Pulmonary administration of integrin-nanoparticles regenerates collapsed alveoli.

    PubMed

    Horiguchi, Michiko; Kojima, Hisako; Sakai, Hitomi; Kubo, Hiroshi; Yamashita, Chikamasa

    2014-08-10

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an intractable pulmonary disease, causes widespread and irreversible alveoli collapse. In search of a treatment target molecule, which is able to regenerate collapsed alveoli, we sought to identify a factor that induces differentiation in human alveolar epithelial stem cells using all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), whose alveolar repair capacity has been reported in animal experiments. When human alveolar epithelial stem cells were exposed to ATRA at a concentration of 10μM for over seven days, approximately 20% of the cells differentiated into each of the type-I and type-II alveolar epithelial cells that constitute the alveoli. In a microarray analysis, integrin-α1 and integrin-β3 showed the largest variation in the ATRA-treated group compared with the controls. Furthermore, the effect of the induction of differentiation in human alveolar epithelial stem cells using ATRA was suppressed by approximately one-fourth by siRNA treatments with integrin α1 and integrin β3. These results suggested that integrin α1 and β3 are factors responsible for the induction of differentiation in human alveolar epithelial stem cells. We accordingly investigated whether integrin nanoparticles also had a regenerative effect in vivo. Elastase-induced COPD model mouse was produced, and the alveolar repair effect of pulmonary administration using nanoparticles of integrin protein was evaluated by X-ray CT scanning. Improvement in the CT value in comparison with an untreated group indicated that there was an alveolar repair effect. In this study, it was shown that the differentiation-inducing effect on human alveolar epithelial stem cells by ATRA was induced by increased expression of integrin, and that the induced integrin enhanced phosphorylation signaling of AKT, resulting in inducing differentiations. Furthermore, the study demonstrated that lung administration of nanoparticles with increased solubility and stability of integrin

  3. Anti-invasive and anti-adhesive activities of a recombinant disintegrin, r-viridistatin 2, derived from the Prairie rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis viridis)

    PubMed Central

    Lucena, Sara E.; Jia, Ying; Soto, Julio G.; Parral, Jessica; Cantu, Esteban; Brannon, Jeremy; Lardner, Kristina; Ramos, Carla J.; Seoane, Agustin I.; Sánchez, Elda E

    2013-01-01

    Snake venom disintegrins inhibit platelet aggregation and have anti-cancer activities. In this study, we report the cloning, expression, and functional activities of a recombinant disintegrin, r-viridistatin 2 (GenBank ID: JQ071899), from the Prairie rattlesnake. r-Viridistatin 2 was tested for anti-invasive and anti-adhesive activities against six different cancer cell lines (human urinary bladder carcinoma (T24), human fibrosarcoma (HT-1080), human skin melanoma (SK-Mel-28), human colorectal adenocarcinoma (CaCo-2), human breast adenocarcinoma (MDA-MB-231) and murine skin melanoma (B16F10)). r-Viridistatin 2 shares 96% and 64% amino acid identity with two other Prairie rattlesnake medium-sized disintegrins, viridin and viridistatin, respectively. r-Viridistatin 2 was able to inhibit adhesion of T24, SK-MEL-28, HT-1080, CaCo-2 and MDA-MB-231 to various extracellular matrix proteins with different affinities. r-Viridistatin 2 decreased the ability of T24 and SK-MEL-28 cells to migrate by 62 and 96% respectively, after 24 h of incubation and the invasion of T24, SK-MEL-28, HT-1080 and MDA-MB-231 cells were inhibited by 80, 85, 65 and 64% respectively, through a reconstituted basement membrane using a modified Boyden chamber. Finally, r-viridistatin 2 effectively inhibited lung colonization of murine melanoma cells in BALB/c mice by 71%, suggesting that r-viridistatin 2 could be a potent anti-cancer agent in vivo. PMID:22465495

  4. Integrin alpha3beta1, a novel receptor for alpha3(IV) noncollagenous domain and a trans-dominant Inhibitor for integrin alphavbeta3.

    PubMed

    Borza, Corina M; Pozzi, Ambra; Borza, Dorin-Bogdan; Pedchenko, Vadim; Hellmark, Thomas; Hudson, Billy G; Zent, Roy

    2006-07-28

    Exogenous soluble human alpha3 noncollagenous (NC1) domain of collagen IV inhibits angiogenesis and tumor growth. These biological functions are attributed to the binding of alpha3NC1 to integrin alphavbeta3. However, in some tumor cells that express integrin alphavbeta3, the alpha3NC1 domain does not inhibit proliferation, suggesting that integrin alphavbeta3 expression is not sufficient to mediate the anti-tumorigenic activity of this domain. Therefore, in the present study, we searched for novel binding receptors for the soluble alpha3NC1 domain in cells lacking alphavbeta3 integrin. In these cells, soluble alpha3NC1 bound integrin alpha3beta1; however, unlike alphavbeta3, alpha3beta1 integrin did not mediate cell adhesion to immobilized alpha3NC1 domain. Interestingly, in cells lacking integrin alpha3beta1, adhesion to the alpha3NC1 domain was enhanced due to activation of integrin alphavbeta3. These findings indicate that integrin alpha3beta1 is a receptor for the alpha3NC1 domain and transdominantly inhibits integrin alphavbeta3 activation. Thus integrin alpha3beta1, in conjunction with integrin alphavbeta3, modulates cellular responses to the alpha3NC1 domain, which may be pivotal in the mechanism underpinning its anti-angiogenic and anti-tumorigenic activities. PMID:16731529

  5. Gracilaria lemaneiformis polysaccharide as integrin-targeting surface decorator of selenium nanoparticles to achieve enhanced anticancer efficacy.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wenting; Fu, Yuanting; Yang, Fang; Yang, Yufeng; Liu, Ting; Zheng, Wenjie; Zeng, Lilan; Chen, Tianfeng

    2014-08-27

    The poor permeability of glioma parenchyma represents a major limit for antiglioblastoma drug delivery. Gracilaria lemaneiformis polysaccharide (GLP), which has a high binding affinity to αvβ3 integrin overexpressed in glioma cells, was employed in the present study to functionalize selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) to achieve antiglioblastoma efficacy. GLP-SeNPs showed satisfactory size distribution, high stability, and selectivity between cancer and normal cells. In U87 glioma cell membrane, which has a high integrin expression level, GLP-SeNPs exhibited significantly higher cellular uptake than unmodified SeNPs. As expected, U87 cells exhibited a greater uptake of GLP-SeNPs than C6 cells with low integrin expression level. Furthermore, the internalization of GLP-SeNPs was inhibited by cyclo-(Arg-Gly-Asp-Phe-Lys) peptides, suggesting that cellular uptake into U87 cells and C6 cells occurred via αvβ3 integrin-mediated endocytosis. For U87 cells, the cytotoxicity of SeNPs decorated by GLP was enhanced significantly because of the induction of various apoptosis signaling pathways. Internalized GLP-SeNPs triggered intracellular reactive oxygen species downregulation. Therefore, p53, MAPKs, and AKT pathways were activated to advance cell apoptosis. These findings suggest that surface decoration of nanomaterials with GLP could be an efficient strategy for design and preparation of glioblastoma targeting nanodrugs. PMID:25073123

  6. Full length talin stimulates integrin activation and axon regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Chin Lik; Kwok, Jessica C.F.; Heller, Janosch P.D.; Zhao, Rongrong; Eva, Richard; Fawcett, James W.

    2015-01-01

    Integrin function is regulated by activation involving conformational changes that modulate ligand-binding affinity and downstream signaling. Activation is regulated through inside-out signaling which is controlled by many signaling pathways via a final common pathway through kindlin and talin, which bind to the intracellular tail of beta integrins. Previous studies have shown that the axon growth inhibitory molecules NogoA and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) inactivate integrins. Overexpressing kindlin-1 in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons activates integrins, enabling their axons to overcome inhibitory molecules in the environment, and promoting regeneration in vivo following dorsal root crush. Other studies have indicated that expression of the talin head alone or with kindlin can enhance integrin activation. Here, using adult rat DRG neurons, we investigate the effects of overexpressing various forms of talin on axon growth and integrin signaling. We found that overexpression of the talin head activated axonal integrins but inhibited downstream signaling via FAK, and did not promote axon growth. Similarly, co-expression of the talin head and kindlin-1 prevented the growth-promoting effect of kindlin-1, suggesting that the talin head acts as a form of dominant negative for integrin function. Using full-length talin constructs in PC12 cells we observed that neurite growth was enhanced by the expression of wild-type talin and more so by two ‘activated’ forms of talin produced by point mutation (on laminin and aggrecan–laminin substrates). Nevertheless, co-expression of full-length talin with kindlin did not promote neurite growth more than either molecule alone. In vivo, we find that talin is present in PNS axons (sciatic nerve), and also in CNS axons of the corticospinal tract. PMID:25771432

  7. Integrins αvβ5 and αvβ3 promote latent TGF-β1 activation by human cardiac fibroblast contraction

    PubMed Central

    Sarrazy, Vincent; Koehler, Anne; Chow, Melissa L.; Zimina, Elena; Li, Chen X.; Kato, Hideyuki; Caldarone, Christopher A.; Hinz, Boris

    2014-01-01

    Aims Pathological tissue remodelling by myofibroblast contraction is a hallmark of cardiac fibrosis. Myofibroblasts differentiate from cardiac fibroblasts under the action of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), which is secreted into the extracellular matrix as a large latent complex. Integrin-mediated traction forces activate TGF-β1 by inducing a conformational change in the latent complex. The mesenchymal integrins αvβ5 and αvβ3 are expressed in the heart, but their role in the activation of TGF-β1 remains elusive. Here, we test whether targeting αvβ5 and αvβ3 integrins reduces latent TGF-β1 activation by cardiac fibroblasts with the goal to prevent the formation of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA)-expressing cardiac myofibroblasts and their contribution to fibrosis. Methods and results Using a porcine model of induced right ventricular fibrosis and pro-fibrotic culture conditions, we show that integrins αvβ5 and αvβ3 are up-regulated in myofibroblast-enriched fibrotic lesions and differentiated cultured human cardiac myofibroblasts. Both integrins autonomously contribute to latent TGF-β1 activation and myofibroblast differentiation, as demonstrated by function-blocking peptides and antibodies. Acute blocking of both integrins leads to significantly reduced TGF-β1 activation by cardiac fibroblast contraction and loss of α-SMA expression, which is restored by adding active TGF-β1. Manipulating integrin protein levels in overexpression and shRNA experiments reveals that both integrins can compensate for each other with respect to TGF-β1 activation and induction of α-SMA expression. Conclusions Integrins αvβ5 and αvβ3 both control myofibroblast differentiation by activating latent TGF-β1. Pharmacological targeting of mesenchymal integrins is a possible strategy to selectively block TGF-β1 activation by cardiac myofibroblasts and progression of fibrosis in the heart. PMID:24639195

  8. Human macrophage differentiation involves an interaction between integrins and fibronectin

    SciTech Connect

    Laouar, A.; Chubb, C.B.H.; Collart, F.; Huberman, E.

    1997-03-14

    The authors have examined the role of integrins and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins in macrophage differentiation of (1) human HL-60 myeloid leukemia cells induced by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and (2) human peripheral blood monocytes induced by either PMA or macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF). Increased {beta}{sub 1} integrin and fibronectin (FN) gene expression was observed in PMA-treated HL-60 cells and PMA- or M-CSF-treated monocytes, even at a time preceding the manifestation of macrophage markers. Treated HL-60 cells and monocytes also released and deposited FN on the culture dishes. An HL-60 cell variant, HL-525, which is deficient in protein kinase C {beta} (PKC{beta}) and resistant to PMA-induced differentiation, failed to express FN after PMA treatment. Restoration of PKC{beta} resulted in PMA-induced FN gene expression and macrophage differentiation. The macrophage phenotype induced in HL-60 cells or monocytes was attenuated by anti-{beta}{sub 1} integrin or anti-FN MAbs. The authors suggest that macrophage differentiation involves activation of PKC and expression of specific integrins and ECM proteins. The stimulated cells, through their integrins, attach and spread on these substrates by binding to the deposited ECM proteins. This attachment and spreading in turn, through integrin signaling, leads to the macrophage phenotype.

  9. Alternatively spliced tissue factor induces angiogenesis through integrin ligation

    PubMed Central

    van den Berg, Y. W.; van den Hengel, L. G.; Myers, H. R.; Ayachi, O.; Jordanova, E.; Ruf, W.; Spek, C. A.; Reitsma, P. H.; Bogdanov, V. Y.; Versteeg, H. H.

    2009-01-01

    The initiator of coagulation, full-length tissue factor (flTF), in complex with factor VIIa, influences angiogenesis through PAR-2. Recently, an alternatively spliced variant of TF (asTF) was discovered, in which part of the TF extracellular domain, the transmembrane, and cytoplasmic domains are replaced by a unique C terminus. Subcutaneous tumors produced by asTF-secreting cells revealed increased angiogenesis, but it remained unclear if and how angiogenesis is regulated by asTF. Here, we show that asTF enhances angiogenesis in matrigel plugs in mice, whereas a soluble form of flTF only modestly enhances angiogenesis. asTF dose-dependently upregulates angiogenesis ex vivo independent of either PAR-2 or VIIa. Rather, asTF was found to ligate integrins, resulting in downstream signaling. asTF-αVβ3 integrin interaction induces endothelial cell migration, whereas asTF-dependent formation of capillaries in vitro is dependent on α6β1 integrin. Finally, asTF-dependent aortic sprouting is sensitive to β1 and β3 integrin blockade and a TF-antibody that disrupts asTF-integrin interaction. We conclude that asTF, unlike flTF, does not affect angiogenesis via PAR-dependent pathways but relies on integrin ligation. These findings indicate that asTF may serve as a target to prevent pathological angiogenesis. PMID:19875693

  10. Utilizing Fibronectin Integrin-Binding Specificity to Control Cellular Responses

    PubMed Central

    Bachman, Haylee; Nicosia, John; Dysart, Marilyn; Barker, Thomas H.

    2015-01-01

    Significance: Cells communicate with the extracellular matrix (ECM) protein fibronectin (Fn) through integrin receptors on the cell surface. Controlling integrin–Fn interactions offers a promising approach to directing cell behavior, such as adhesion, migration, and differentiation, as well as coordinated tissue behaviors such as morphogenesis and wound healing. Recent Advances: Several different groups have developed recombinant fragments of Fn that can control epithelial to mesenchymal transition, sequester growth factors, and promote bone and wound healing. It is thought that these physiological responses are, in part, due to specific integrin engagement. Furthermore, it has been postulated that the integrin-binding domain of Fn is a mechanically sensitive switch that drives binding of one integrin heterodimer over another. Critical Issues: Although computational simulations have predicted the mechano-switch hypothesis and recent evidence supports the existence of varying strain states of Fn in vivo, experimental evidence of the Fn integrin switch is still lacking. Future Directions: Evidence of the integrin mechano-switch will enable the development of new Fn-based peptides in tissue engineering and wound healing, as well as deepen our understanding of ECM pathologies, such as fibrosis. PMID:26244106

  11. Structural basis of substrate discrimination and integrin binding by autotaxin

    SciTech Connect

    Hausmann, Jens; Kamtekar, Satwik; Christodoulou, Evangelos; Day, Jacqueline E.; Wu, Tao; Fulkerson, Zachary; Albers, Harald M.H.G.; van Meeteren, Laurens A.; Houben, Anna J.S.; van Zeijl, Leonie; Jansen, Silvia; Andries, Maria; Hall, Troii; Pegg, Lyle E.; Benson, Timothy E.; Kasiem, Mobien; Harlos, Karl; Vander Kooi, Craig W.; Smyth, Susan S.; Ovaa, Huib; Bollen, Mathieu; Morris, Andrew J.; Moolenaar, Wouter H.; Perrakis, Anastassis

    2013-09-25

    Autotaxin (ATX, also known as ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase-2, ENPP2) is a secreted lysophospholipase D that generates the lipid mediator lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a mitogen and chemoattractant for many cell types. ATX-LPA signaling is involved in various pathologies including tumor progression and inflammation. However, the molecular basis of substrate recognition and catalysis by ATX and the mechanism by which it interacts with target cells are unclear. Here, we present the crystal structure of ATX, alone and in complex with a small-molecule inhibitor. We have identified a hydrophobic lipid-binding pocket and mapped key residues for catalysis and selection between nucleotide and phospholipid substrates. We have shown that ATX interacts with cell-surface integrins through its N-terminal somatomedin B-like domains, using an atypical mechanism. Our results define determinants of substrate discrimination by the ENPP family, suggest how ATX promotes localized LPA signaling and suggest new approaches for targeting ATX with small-molecule therapeutic agents.

  12. Enhancing Integrin α1 Inserted (I) Domain Affinity to Ligand Potentiates Integrin α1β1-mediated Down-regulation of Collagen Synthesis*

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Mingjian; Pedchenko, Vadim; Greer, Briana H.; Van Horn, Wade D.; Santoro, Samuel A.; Sanders, Charles R.; Hudson, Billy G.; Eichman, Brandt F.; Zent, Roy; Pozzi, Ambra

    2012-01-01

    Integrin α1β1 binding to collagen IV, which is mediated by the α1-inserted (I) domain, down-regulates collagen synthesis. When unligated, a salt bridge between Arg287 and Glu317 is thought to keep this domain in a low affinity conformation. Ligand binding opens the salt bridge leading to a high-affinity conformation. How modulating integrin α1β1 affinity alters collagen homeostasis is unknown. To address this question, we utilized a thermolysin-derived product of the α1α2α1 network of collagen IV (α1α2α1(IV) truncated protomer) that selectively binds integrin α1β1. We show that an E317A substitution enhanced binding to the truncated protomer, consistent with a previous finding that this substitution eliminates the salt bridge. Surprisingly, we show that an R287A substitution did not alter binding, whereas R287E/E317R substitutions enhanced binding to the truncated protomer. NMR spectroscopy and molecular modeling suggested that eliminating the Glu317 negative charge is sufficient to induce a conformational change toward the open state. Thus, the role played by Glu317 is largely independent of the salt bridge. We further show that cells expressing E317A or R287E/E317R substitutions have enhanced down-regulation of collagen IV synthesis, which is mediated by the ERK/MAPK pathway. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that modulating the affinity of the extracellular α1 I domain to collagen IV enhances outside-in signaling by potentiating ERK activation and enhancing the down-regulation of collagen synthesis. PMID:22888006

  13. Fibronectin receptor functions in embryonic cells deficient in alpha 5 beta 1 integrin can be replaced by alpha V integrins.

    PubMed Central

    Yang, J T; Hynes, R O

    1996-01-01

    alpha 5 beta 1 integrin mediates cell adhesion to extracellular matrix by interacting with fibronectin (FN). Mouse lines carrying null mutations in genes encoding either the alpha 5 integrin subunit or FN have been generated previously. Both mutations are embryonic lethal with overlapping defects, but the defects of alpha 5-null embryos are less severe. Primary embryonic cells lacking alpha 5 beta 1 are able to adhere to FN, form focal contacts, migrate on FN, and assemble FN matrix. These results suggest the involvement of (an)other FN receptors(s). In this study, we examined functions of alpha 4 beta 1 and alpha V integrins in embryonic cells lacking alpha 5 beta 1. Our analysis of cells lacking both alpha 4 beta 1 and alpha 5 beta 1 showed that alpha 4 beta 1 is also not required for these FN-dependent functions. Using alpha V-specific blocking reagents, we showed that alpha V integrins are required for alpha 5-null cells, but not wild-type cells, to adhere and spread on FN. Our data also showed that, although the expression levels of alpha V integrins on the wild-type and alpha 5-null cells are similar, there is an increase in recruitment of alpha V integrins into focal contacts in alpha 5-null cells plated on FN, indicating that alpha V integrins can compensate functionally for the loss of alpha 5 beta 1 in focal contacts of alpha 5-null cells. Finally, our data suggested possible roles for alpha V integrins in replacing the role of alpha 5 beta 1 in FN matrix assembly in vitro and in FN-dependent embryonic functions in vivo. Images PMID:8930896

  14. Loss of β1-integrin from urothelium results in overactive bladder and incontinence in mice: a mechanosensory rather than structural phenotype.

    PubMed

    Kanasaki, Keizo; Yu, Weiqun; von Bodungen, Maximilian; Larigakis, John D; Kanasaki, Megumi; Ayala de la Pena, Francisco; Kalluri, Raghu; Hill, Warren G

    2013-05-01

    Bladder urothelium senses and communicates information about bladder fullness. However, the mechanoreceptors that respond to tissue stretch are poorly defined. Integrins are mechanotransducers in other tissues. Therefore, we eliminated β1-integrin selectively in urothelium of mice using Cre-LoxP targeted gene deletion. β1-Integrin localized to basal/intermediate urothelial cells by confocal microscopy. β1-Integrin conditional-knockout (β1-cKO) mice lacking urothelial β1-integrin exhibited down-regulation and mislocalization of α3- and α5-integrins by immunohistochemistry but, surprisingly, had normal morphology, permeability, and transepithelial resistance when compared with Cre-negative littermate controls. β1-cKO mice were incontinent, as judged by random urine leakage on filter paper (4-fold higher spotting, P<0.01; 2.5-fold higher urine area percentage, P<0.05). Urodynamic function assessed by cystometry revealed bladder overfilling with 80% longer intercontractile intervals (P<0.05) and detrusor hyperactivity (3-fold more prevoid contractions, P<0.05), but smooth muscle contractility remained intact. ATP secretion into the lumen was elevated (49 vs. 22 nM, P<0.05), indicating abnormal filling-induced purinergic signaling, and short-circuit currents (measured in Ussing chambers) revealed 2-fold higher stretch-activated ion channel conductances in response to hydrostatic pressure of 1 cmH2O (P<0.05). We conclude that loss of integrin signaling from urothelium results in incontinence and overactive bladder due to abnormal mechanotransduction; more broadly, our findings indicate that urothelium itself directly modulates voiding. PMID:23395910

  15. ADAM8 is selectively up-regulated in endothelial cells and is associated with angiogenesis after spinal cord injury in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, Edward T; Benton, Richard L; Maddie, Melissa A; Whittemore, Scott R; Hagg, Theo

    2009-01-10

    Endothelial cell (EC) loss and subsequent angiogenesis occur over the first week after spinal cord injury (SCI). To identify molecular mechanisms that could be targeted with intravenous (i.v.) treatments, we determined whether transmembrane "a disintegrin and metalloprotease" (ADAM) proteins are expressed in ECs of the injured spinal cord. ADAMs bind to integrins, which are important for EC survival and angiogenesis. Female adult C57Bl/6 mice with a spinal cord contusion had progressively more ADAM8 (CD156) immunostaining in blood vessels and individual ECs between 1 and 28 days following injury. Uninjured spinal cords had little ADAM8 staining. The increase in ADAM8 mRNA and protein was confirmed in spinal cord lysates, and ADAM8 mRNA was present in FACS-enriched ECs. ADAM8 colocalized extensively and exclusively with the EC marker PECAM and also with i.v.-injected lectins. Intravenous isolectin B4 (IB4) labels a subpopulation of blood vessels at and within the injury epicenter 3-7 days after injury, coincident with angiogenesis. Both ADAM8 and the proliferation marker Ki-67 were present in IB4-positive microvessels. ADAM8-positive proliferating cells were seen at the leading end of IB4-positive blood vessels. Angiogenesis was confirmed by BrdU incorporation, binding of i.v.-injected nucleolin antibodies, and MT1-MMP immunostaining in a subset of blood vessels. These data suggest that ADAM8 is vascular selective and plays a role in proliferation and/or migration of ECs during angiogenesis following SCI. PMID:19003792

  16. Drosophila PS1 integrin is a laminin receptor and differs in ligand specificity from PS2.

    PubMed Central

    Gotwals, P J; Fessler, L I; Wehrli, M; Hynes, R O

    1994-01-01

    We have expressed Drosophila position-specific (PS) integrins on the surfaces of Schneider S2 cells and tested for adhesion and spreading on various matrix molecules. We report that PS1 integrin is a laminin receptor and that PS1 and PS2 integrins promote cell spreading on two different Drosophila extracellular matrix molecules, laminin and tiggrin, respectively. The differing ligand specificities of these two integrins, combined with data on the in vivo expression patterns of the integrins and their ligands, lead to a model for the structure of integrin-dependent attachments in the pupal wings and embryonic muscles of Drosophila. Images PMID:7972082

  17. Metalloprotease-disintegrin ADAM 12 binds to the SH3 domain of Src and activates Src tyrosine kinase in C2C12 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Q; Cao, Y; Zolkiewska, A

    2000-01-01

    ADAM 12, a member of the ADAM (protein containing a disintegrin and metalloprotease) family of metalloprotease-disintegrins, has been implicated in the differentiation and fusion of skeletal myoblasts, and its expression is dramatically up-regulated in many cancer cells. While the extracellular portion of ADAM 12 contains an active metalloprotease and a cell-adhesion domain, the function of the cytoplasmic portion is much less clear. In this paper, we show that the cytoplasmic tail of ADAM 12 mediates interactions with the non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase Src. The interaction is direct, specific, and involves the N-terminal proline-rich region in the cytoplasmic tail of ADAM 12 and the Src homology 3 (SH3) domain of Src. ADAM 12 and Src co-immunoprecipitate from transfected C2C12 cells, suggesting that the two proteins form a complex in vivo. Co-expression of Src and ADAM 12, but not ADAM 9, in C2C12 cells results in activation of the recombinant Src. Moreover, endogenous ADAM 12 associates with and activates endogenous Src in differentiating C2C12 cells. These results indicate that ADAM 12 may mediate adhesion-induced signalling during myoblast differentiation. PMID:11104699

  18. Expression of epithelial adhesion proteins and integrins in chronic inflammation.

    PubMed Central

    Haapasalmi, K.; Mäkelä, M.; Oksala, O.; Heino, J.; Yamada, K. M.; Uitto, V. J.; Larjava, H.

    1995-01-01

    Epithelial cell behavior in chronic inflammation is poorly characterized. During inflammation of tooth-supporting structures (periodontal disease), increased proliferation of epithelial cells into the inflamed connective tissue stroma is commonly seen. In some areas ulceration and degeneration take place. We studied alterations in the expression of adhesion molecules and integrins during chronic periodontal inflammation. In inflamed tissue, laminin-1 and type IV collagen were still present in the basement membrane and surrounding blood vessels, but they were also found extravascularly in inflamed connective tissue stroma. Type VII collagen and laminin-5 (also known as kalinin, epiligrin, or nicein) were poorly preserved in the basement membrane zone, but both were found in unusual streak-like distributions in the subepithelial connective tissue stroma in inflamed tissue. Both fibronectin and tenascin were substantially decreased in chronically inflamed connective tissue, showing only punctate staining at the basement membrane zone. Integrins of the beta 1 family showed two distinct staining patterns in epithelial cells during chronic inflammation; focal losses of beta 1 integrins (alpha 2 beta 1 and alpha 3 beta 1) were found in most areas, while in other areas the entire pocket epithelium was found to be strongly positive for beta 1 integrins. No members of the alpha v integrin family were found in any epithelia studied. Expression of the alpha 6 beta 4 integrin was high in basal cells of healthy tissue, but weak in epithelium associated with chronic inflammation. Chronic inflammation therefore involves alterations in both adhesion proteins and integrins expressed by epithelial cells. Basement membrane components found at abnormal sites in stroma in chronic inflammation might serve as new adhesive ligands for various cell types in inflamed stroma. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:7541610

  19. Integrin Clustering Is Driven by Mechanical Resistance from the Glycocalyx and the Substrate

    PubMed Central

    Paszek, Matthew J.; Boettiger, David; Weaver, Valerie M.; Hammer, Daniel A.

    2009-01-01

    Integrins have emerged as key sensory molecules that translate chemical and physical cues from the extracellular matrix (ECM) into biochemical signals that regulate cell behavior. Integrins function by clustering into adhesion plaques, but the molecular mechanisms that drive integrin clustering in response to interaction with the ECM remain unclear. To explore how deformations in the cell-ECM interface influence integrin clustering, we developed a spatial-temporal simulation that integrates the micro-mechanics of the cell, glycocalyx, and ECM with a simple chemical model of integrin activation and ligand interaction. Due to mechanical coupling, we find that integrin-ligand interactions are highly cooperative, and this cooperativity is sufficient to drive integrin clustering even in the absence of cytoskeletal crosslinking or homotypic integrin-integrin interactions. The glycocalyx largely mediates this cooperativity and hence may be a key regulator of integrin function. Remarkably, integrin clustering in the model is naturally responsive to the chemical and physical properties of the ECM, including ligand density, matrix rigidity, and the chemical affinity of ligand for receptor. Consistent with experimental observations, we find that integrin clustering is robust on rigid substrates with high ligand density, but is impaired on substrates that are highly compliant or have low ligand density. We thus demonstrate how integrins themselves could function as sensory molecules that begin sensing matrix properties even before large multi-molecular adhesion complexes are assembled. PMID:20011123

  20. VEGF and inhibitors of TGFbeta type-I receptor kinase synergistically promote blood-vessel formation by inducing alpha5-integrin expression.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhen; Kobayashi, Kazuki; van Dinther, Maarten; van Heiningen, Sandra H; Valdimarsdottir, Gudrun; van Laar, Theo; Scharpfenecker, Marion; Löwik, Clemens W G M; Goumans, Marie-José; Ten Dijke, Peter; Pardali, Evangelia

    2009-09-15

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta) are potent regulators of angiogenesis. How VEGF and TGFbeta signaling pathways crosstalk is not well understood. Therefore, we analyzed the effects of the TGFbeta type-I-receptor inhibitors (SB-431542 and LY-2157299) and VEGF on endothelial cell (EC) function and angiogenesis. We show that SB-431542 dramatically enhances VEGF-induced formation of EC sheets from fetal mouse metatarsals. Sub-optimal doses of VEGF and SB-431542 synergistically induced EC migration and sprouting of EC spheroids, whereas overexpression of a constitutively active form of TGFbeta type-I receptor had opposite effects. Using quantitative PCR, we demonstrated that VEGF and SB-431542 synergistically upregulated the mRNA expression of genes involved in angiogenesis, including the integrins alpha5 and beta3. Specific downregulation of alpha5-integrin expression or functional blocking of alpha5 integrin with a specific neutralizing antibody inhibited the cooperative effect of VEGF and SB-431542 on EC sprouting. In vivo, LY-2157299 induced angiogenesis and enhanced VEGF- and basic-fibroblast-growth-factor-induced angiogenesis in a Matrigel-plug assay, whereas adding an alpha5-integrin-neutralizing antibody to the Matrigel selectively inhibited this enhanced response. Thus, induction of alpha5-integrin expression is a key determinant by which inhibitors of TGFbeta type-I receptor kinase and VEGF synergistically promote angiogenesis. PMID:19706683

  1. CLIC4 regulates cell adhesion and β1 integrin trafficking.

    PubMed

    Argenzio, Elisabetta; Margadant, Coert; Leyton-Puig, Daniela; Janssen, Hans; Jalink, Kees; Sonnenberg, Arnoud; Moolenaar, Wouter H

    2014-12-15

    Chloride intracellular channel protein 4 (CLIC4) exists in both soluble and membrane-associated forms, and is implicated in diverse cellular processes, ranging from ion channel formation to intracellular membrane remodeling. CLIC4 is rapidly recruited to the plasma membrane by lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and serum, suggesting a possible role for CLIC4 in exocytic-endocytic trafficking. However, the function and subcellular target(s) of CLIC4 remain elusive. Here, we show that in HeLa and MDA-MB-231 cells, CLIC4 knockdown decreases cell-matrix adhesion, cell spreading and integrin signaling, whereas it increases cell motility. LPA stimulates the recruitment of CLIC4 to β1 integrin at the plasma membrane and in Rab35-positive endosomes. CLIC4 is required for both the internalization and the serum- or LPA-induced recycling of β1 integrin, but not for EGF receptor trafficking. Furthermore, we show that CLIC4 suppresses Rab35 activity and antagonizes Rab35-dependent regulation of β1 integrin trafficking. Our results define CLIC4 as a regulator of Rab35 activity and serum- and LPA-dependent integrin trafficking. PMID:25344254

  2. Integrin activation by a cold atmospheric plasma jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volotskova, Olga; Stepp, Mary Ann; Keidar, Michael

    2012-05-01

    Current breakthrough research on cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) demonstrates that CAP has great potential in various areas, including medicine and biology, thus providing a new tool for living tissue treatment. In this paper, we explore potential mechanisms by which CAP alters cell migration and influences cell adhesion. We focus on the study of CAP interaction with fibroblasts and corneal epithelial cells. The data show that fibroblasts and corneal epithelial cells have different thresholds (treatment times) required to achieve maximum inhibition of cell migration. Both cell types reduced their migration rates by ˜30-40% after CAP compared to control cells. Also, the impact of CAP treatment on cell migration and persistence of fibroblasts after integrin activation by MnCl2, serum starvation or replating cells onto surfaces coated with integrin ligands is assessed; the results show that activation by MnCl2 or starvation attenuates cells’ responses to plasma. Studies carried out to assess the impact of CAP treatment on the activation state of β1 integrin and focal adhesion size by using immunofluorescence show that fibroblasts have more active β1 integrin on their surface and large focal adhesions after CAP treatment. Based on these data, a thermodynamic model is presented to explain how CAP leads to integrin activation and focal adhesion assembly.

  3. The Absence of Beta-3 Integrin Accelerates Early Skeletal Repair

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Diane; Lu, Chuanyong; Sapozhnikova, Anna; Barnett, Michael; Sparrey, Carolyn; Miclau, Theodore; Marcucio, Ralph S.

    2010-01-01

    Integrins are heterodimeric transmembrane proteins that mediate cell-matrix interactions and modulate cell behavior. β3 subunit is a component of αII β 3 and αv β3 integrins. In this study, we first determined that β3 transcripts are expressed by cells within fracture calluses at 7 and 10 days after injury in a mouse model. We then analyzed fracture healing in mice deficient of β3 integrin with molecular, histomorphometric, and biomechanical techniques. We found that lack ofβ3 integrin results in an extended bleeding time and leads to more bone formation and accelerated cartilage maturation at 7 days after injury. However, β3 deficiency does not appear to affect later fracture healing. At days 14 and 21, histological appearance or biomechanical properties of fracture calluses are similar between wild type and mutant mice. We also found that altered fracture healing in β3 null mice is not associated with accelerated angiogenesis, since no significant difference of length density and surface density of blood vessels in fracture limbs was detected at 3 days after injury between wild type and β3 null mice. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that β3 integrin plays an important role during early fracture healing. Further research is required to determine the underlying mechanisms. PMID:19637214

  4. Roles of integrin activation in eosinophil function and the eosinophilic inflammation of asthma

    PubMed Central

    Barthel, Steven R.; Johansson, Mats W.; McNamee, Dawn M.; Mosher, Deane F.

    2010-01-01

    Eosinophilic inflammation is a characteristic feature of asthma. Integrins are highly versatile cellular receptors that regulate extravasation of eosinophils from the postcapillary segment of the bronchial circulation to the airway wall and airspace. Such movement into the asthmatic lung is described as a sequential, multistep paradigm, whereby integrins on circulating eosinophils become activated, eosinophils tether in flow and roll on bronchial endothelial cells, integrins on rolling eosinophils become further activated as a result of exposure to cytokines, eosinophils arrest firmly to adhesive ligands on activated endothelium, and eosinophils transmigrate to the airway in response to chemoattractants. Eosinophils express seven integrin heterodimeric adhesion molecules: alpha4beta1 (CD49d/29), alpha6beta1 (CD49f/29), alphaMbeta2 (CD11b/18), alphaLbeta2 (CD11a/18), alphaXbeta2 (CD11c/18), alphaDbeta2 (CD11d/18), and alpha4beta7 (CD49d/beta7). The role of these integrins in eosinophil recruitment has been elucidated by major advances in the understanding of integrin structure, integrin function, and modulators of integrins. Such findings have been facilitated by cellular experiments of eosinophils in vitro, studies of allergic asthma in humans and animal models in vivo, and crystal structures of integrins. Here, we elaborate on how integrins cooperate to mediate eosinophil movement to the asthmatic airway. Antagonists that target integrins or the effectors that regulate integrins of eosinophils represent potentially promising therapies in the treatment of asthma. PMID:17906117

  5. The Talin Head Domain Reinforces Integrin-Mediated Adhesion by Promoting Adhesion Complex Stability and Clustering

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Stephanie J.; Lostchuck, Emily; Goult, Benjamin T.; Bouaouina, Mohamed; Fairchild, Michael J.; López-Ceballos, Pablo; Calderwood, David A.; Tanentzapf, Guy

    2014-01-01

    Talin serves an essential function during integrin-mediated adhesion in linking integrins to actin via the intracellular adhesion complex. In addition, the N-terminal head domain of talin regulates the affinity of integrins for their ECM-ligands, a process known as inside-out activation. We previously showed that in Drosophila, mutating the integrin binding site in the talin head domain resulted in weakened adhesion to the ECM. Intriguingly, subsequent studies showed that canonical inside-out activation of integrin might not take place in flies. Consistent with this, a mutation in talin that specifically blocks its ability to activate mammalian integrins does not significantly impinge on talin function during fly development. Here, we describe results suggesting that the talin head domain reinforces and stabilizes the integrin adhesion complex by promoting integrin clustering distinct from its ability to support inside-out activation. Specifically, we show that an allele of talin containing a mutation that disrupts intramolecular interactions within the talin head attenuates the assembly and reinforcement of the integrin adhesion complex. Importantly, we provide evidence that this mutation blocks integrin clustering in vivo. We propose that the talin head domain is essential for regulating integrin avidity in Drosophila and that this is crucial for integrin-mediated adhesion during animal development. PMID:25393120

  6. The interaction between uPAR and vitronectin triggers ligand-independent adhesion signalling by integrins

    PubMed Central

    Ferraris, Gian Maria Sarra; Schulte, Carsten; Buttiglione, Valentina; De Lorenzi, Valentina; Piontini, Andrea; Galluzzi, Massimiliano; Podestà, Alessandro; Madsen, Chris D; Sidenius, Nicolai

    2014-01-01

    The urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is a non-integrin vitronectin (VN) cell adhesion receptor linked to the plasma membrane by a glycolipid anchor. Through structure–function analyses of uPAR, VN and integrins, we document that uPAR-mediated cell adhesion to VN triggers a novel type of integrin signalling that is independent of integrin–matrix engagement. The signalling is fully active on VN mutants deficient in integrin binding site and is also efficiently transduced by integrins deficient in ligand binding. Although integrin ligation is dispensable, signalling is crucially dependent upon an active conformation of the integrin and its association with intracellular adaptors such as talin. This non-canonical integrin signalling is not restricted to uPAR as it poses no structural constraints to the receptor mediating cell attachment. In contrast to canonical integrin signalling, where integrins form direct mechanical links between the ECM and the cytoskeleton, the molecular mechanism enabling the crosstalk between non-integrin adhesion receptors and integrins is dependent upon membrane tension. This suggests that for this type of signalling, the membrane represents a critical component of the molecular clutch. PMID:25168639

  7. Role of Integrin in Mechanical Loading of Osteoblasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, Ruth; Demsky, Caroline

    2000-01-01

    Mechanical forces generated by gravity, weightbearing, and muscle contraction play a key role in the genesis and maintenance of skeletal structure. The molecular mechanisms that mediate changes in osteoblast activity in response to altered patterns of skeletal loading are not known, and a better understanding of these processes may be essential for developing effective treatment strategies to prevent disuse osteoporosis. We have elucidated specific integrin/ECM (extracellular matrix) interactions that are required for osteoblast differentiation and survival and have developed a useful loading system to further explore the molecular basis of mechano-sensitivity of osteoblasts. The long term goal of our collaborative research is to understand how the ECM and cell adhesion proteins and integrins interaction to mediate the response of osteoblasts and their progenitors to mechanical loading. We suggest that integrin/ECM interactions are crucial for basic cellular processes, including differentiation and survival, as well as to participate in detecting and mediating cellular responses to mechanical stimuli.

  8. The Anticancer Activity of Organotelluranes: Potential Role in Integrin Inactivation.

    PubMed

    Silberman, Alon; Kalechman, Yona; Hirsch, Shira; Erlich, Ziv; Sredni, Benjamin; Albeck, Amnon

    2016-05-17

    Organic Te(IV) compounds (organotelluranes) differing in their labile ligands exhibited anti-integrin activities in vitro and anti-metastatic properties in vivo. They underwent ligand substitution with l-cysteine, as a thiol model compound. Unlike inorganic Te(IV) compounds, the organotelluranes did not form a stable complex with cysteine, but rather immediately oxidized it. The organotelluranes inhibited integrin functions, such as adhesion, migration, and metalloproteinase secretion mediation in B16F10 murine melanoma cells. In comparison, a reduced derivative with no labile ligand inhibited adhesion of B16F10 cells to a significantly lower extent, thus pointing to the importance of the labile ligands of the Te(IV) atom. One of the organotelluranes inhibited circulating cancer cells in vivo, possibly by integrin inhibition. Our results extend the current knowledge on the reactivity and mechanism of organotelluranes with different labile ligands and highlight their clinical potential. PMID:26991356

  9. microPET Imaging of Glioma Integrin (alpha-v, beta-3) Expression Using Cu-64-Labeled Tetrameric RGD Peptide

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Yun; Zhang, , Xianzhong; Xiong, , Zhengming; Cheng, Zhen; Fisher, Darrell R.; Liu, Shu-hong; Gambhir, Sanjiv S.; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2005-10-01

    Integrins ?v?3 and ?v?5 play a critical role in tumor-induced angiogenesis and metastasis, and have become promising diagnostic indicators and therapeutic targets of tumors. Radiolabeled RGD peptides that are integrin-specific may be used for non-invasive imaging of integrin expression level as well as for integrin-targeted radionuclide therapy. We previously conjugated a series of mono- and dimeric RGD peptides with 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N, N?,N??,N???-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) and labeled these with copper-64 for microPET imaging in various mouse xenograft models. The copper-64 tracers showed ?v?3-selective tumor uptake, but the magnitude of tumor uptake was relatively low, the tumor washout was rapid, and non-target organ/tissue retention was high. In this study we developed a tetrameric RGD peptide tracer 64Cu-DOTA-E{l_brace}E[c(RGDfK)]2{r_brace}2 for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of integrin ?v?3 expression in a subcutaneous U87MG glioma xenograft model in female athymic nude mice. The RGD tetramer showed significantly higher integrin binding affinity than the corresponding mono- and dimeric RGD analogs, most likely due to polyvalency effect. The radiolabeled peptide showed rapid blood clearance (0.61 ? 0.01%ID/g at 30 min and 0.21 ? 0.01 %ID/g at 4 h postinjection (p.i.), respectively) and predominantly renal excretion. Tumor uptake was rapid and high and the tumor washout was slow (9.93 ? 1.05 %ID/g at 30 min p.i. and 4.56 ? 0.51 %ID/g at 24 h post-injection). The metabolic stability of 64Cu-DOTA-E{l_brace}E[c(RGDfK)]2{r_brace}2 was determined in mouse blood, urine, and liver and kidney homogenates at different times after tracer injection. The average fractions of intact tracer in these organs at 1 h were approximately 70, 58, 51 and 26 percent, respectively. Non-invasive microPET imaging studies showed significant tumor uptake and good contrast in the subcutaneous tumor-bearing mice, which agreed well with the biodistribution results

  10. Structural Characterization of the Ectodomain of a Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase-22 (ADAM22), a Neural Adhesion Receptor Instead of Metalloproteinase INSIGHTS ON ADAM FUNCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Heli; Shim, Ann H.R.; He, Xiaolin

    2009-12-01

    ADAMs (adisintegrin and metalloproteinases) are a family of multidomain transmembrane glycoproteins with diverse roles in physiology and diseases, with several members being drug targets for cancer and inflammation therapies. The spatial organization of the ADAM extracellular segment and its influence on the function of ADAMs have been unclear. Although most members of the ADAM family are active zinc metalloproteinases, 8 of 21 ADAMs lack functional metalloproteinase domains and are implicated in protein-protein interactions instead of membrane protein ectodomain shedding. One of such non-proteinase ADAMs, ADAM22, acts as a receptor on the surface of the postsynaptic neuron to regulate synaptic signal transmission. The crystal structure of the full ectodomain of mature human ADAM22 shows that it is a compact four-leaf clover with the metalloproteinase-like domain held in the concave face of a rigid module formed by the disintegrin, cysteine-rich, and epidermal growth factor-like domains. The loss of metalloproteinase activity is ensured by the absence of critical catalytic residues, the filling of the substrate groove, and the steric hindrance by the cysteine-rich domain. The structure, combined with calorimetric experiments, suggests distinct roles of three putative calcium ions bound to ADAM22, with one in the metalloproteinase-like domain being regulatory and two in the disintegrin domain being structural. The metalloproteinase-like domain contacts the rest of ADAM22 with discontinuous, hydrophilic, and poorly complemented interactions, suggesting the possibility of modular movement of ADAM22 and other ADAMs. The ADAM22 structure provides a framework for understanding how different ADAMs exert their adhesive function and shedding activities.

  11. β1-integrin restricts astrocytic differentiation of adult hippocampal neural stem cells.

    PubMed

    Brooker, Sarah M; Bond, Allison M; Peng, Chian-Yu; Kessler, John A

    2016-07-01

    Integrins are transmembrane receptors that mediate cell-extracellular matrix and cell-cell interactions. The β1-integrin subunit is highly expressed by embryonic neural stem cells (NSCs) and is critical for NSC maintenance in the developing nervous system, but its role in the adult hippocampal niche remains unexplored. We show that β1-integrin expression in the adult mouse dentate gyrus (DG) is localized to radial NSCs and early progenitors, but is lost in more mature progeny. Although NSCs in the hippocampal subgranular zone (SGZ) normally only infrequently differentiate into astrocytes, deletion of β1-integrin significantly enhanced astrocyte differentiation. Ablation of β1-integrin also led to reduced neurogenesis as well as depletion of the radial NSC population. Activation of integrin-linked kinase (ILK) in cultured adult NSCs from β1-integrin knockout mice reduced astrocyte differentiation, suggesting that at least some of the inhibitory effects of β1-integrin on astrocytic differentiation are mediated through ILK. In addition, β1-integrin conditional knockout also resulted in extensive cellular disorganization of the SGZ as well as non-neurogenic regions of the DG. The effects of β1-integrin ablation on DG structure and astrogliogenesis show sex-specific differences, with the effects following a substantially slower time-course in males. β1-integrin thus plays a dual role in maintaining the adult hippocampal NSC population by supporting the structural integrity of the NSC niche and by inhibiting astrocytic lineage commitment. GLIA 2016;64:1235-1251. PMID:27145730

  12. α integrin cytoplasmic tails have tissue-specific roles during C. elegans development

    PubMed Central

    MEIGHAN, CHRISTOPHER M.; SCHWARZBAUER, JEAN E.

    2015-01-01

    Integrin signaling impacts many developmental processes. The complexity of these signals increases when multiple, unique integrin heterodimers are expressed during a single developmental event. Since integrin heterodimers have different signaling capabilities, the signals originating at each integrin type must be separated in the cell. C. elegans have two integrin heterodimers, α INA-1/β PAT-3 and α PAT-2/β PAT-3, which are expressed individually or simultaneously, based on tissue type. We used chimeric α integrins to assess the role of α integrin cytoplasmic tails during development. Chimeric integrin ina-1 with the pat-2 cytoplasmic tail rescued lethality and maintained neuron fasciculation in an ina-1 mutant. Interestingly, the pat-2 tail was unable to completely restore distal tip cell migration and vulva morphogenesis. Chimeric integrin pat-2 with the ina-1 cytoplasmic tail had a limited ability to rescue a lethal mutation in pat-2, with survivors showing aberrant muscle organization, yet normal distal tip cell migration. In a wild type background, α integrin pat-2 with the ina-1 cytoplasmic tail had a dominant negative effect which induced muscle disorganization, cell migration defects and lethality. These results show the α integrin cytoplasmic tails impact unique cellular behaviors that vary by tissue type during development. PMID:25354452

  13. Skeletal Phenotype of Transgenic Mice Expressing the Beta1 Integrin Cytoplasmic Tail In Osteoblasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, R. K.; vanderMeulen, M. C. H.; Damsky, D.; Kim, J.-B.; Amblard, D.; Amblard, D.; Nishimura, Y.; Almeida, E.; Iwaniec, U. T.; Wronski, T. J.; Dalton, Bonnie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    tibia and humerus mass were less obvious in TG than in WT mice. Since hindlimb unloading caused skeletal changes in both loaded and unloaded bones, systemic changes may contribute to bone responses observed using this animal model. In conclusion, transgene expression resulted in marked metabolic changes during growth and in the aged female. Our results demonstrate that expression of the Beta1 integrin cytoplasmic tail in vivo causes gender- and age-specific changes in select morphometric parameters, bone length, and bone mass.

  14. Silencing of VAMP3 inhibits cell migration and integrin-mediated adhesion

    SciTech Connect

    Luftman, Kevin; Hasan, Nazarul; Day, Paul; Hardee, Deborah; Hu Chuan

    2009-02-27

    Integrins are transmembrane receptors for cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix. In cell migration, integrins are endocytosed from the plasma membrane or the cell surface, transported in vesicles and exocytosed actively at the cell front. In the present study, we examined the roles of VAMP3, a SNARE protein that mediates exocytosis, in cell migration and integrin trafficking. Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-induced silencing of VAMP3 inhibited chemotactic cell migration by more than 60% without affecting cell proliferation. VAMP3 silencing reduced the levels of {beta}1 integrin at the cell surface but had no effect on total cellular {beta}1 integrin, indicating that VAMP3 is required for trafficking of {beta}1 integrin to the plasma membrane. Furthermore, VAMP3 silencing diminished cell adhesion to laminin but not to fibronectin or collagen. Taken together, these data suggest that VAMP3-dependent integrin trafficking is crucial in cell migration and cell adhesion to laminin.

  15. A monoclonal antibody to a carbohydrate epitope expressed on glycolipid and on alpha3beta1 integrin on human esophageal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Jamasbi, Roudabeh J; Stoner, Gary D; Foote, Linda J; Lankford, Trish K; Davern, Sandra; Kennel, Stephen J

    2003-12-01

    A mouse monoclonal antibody (MAb-9) produced by immunization with a human esophageal carcinoma cell line, TE-2 (derived from undifferentiated squamous cell carcinoma) reacted specifically with about 30% of esophageal carcinoma cell lines and tissue sections from clinical samples. MAb-9 showed minimal reactivity with normal esophageal tissue. (125)I, fluorescent or gold particle labeled MAb-9 bound to TE-2 cell surfaces. (125)I-radiolabeled MAb-9 was used to detect reactive material from cell extracts in Western blot. Treatment of TE-2 membrane proteins with neuraminidase, N-glycanase or O-glycanase reduced antigen detection. Treatment of cells with periodic acid destroyed antibody binding in ELISA. Lipid extracts from cell membranes, containing glycolipids, also reacted with MAb-9. MAb-9 was used to purify target antigen from detergent solubilized membrane proteins and the prominent bands from subsequent gel electrophoresis were trypsin digested and analyzed by mass spectrometry. Peptides from alpha(3) and beta(1) integrin chains were identified. These data indicate that alpha3beta1integrin is prominently expressed on certain esophageal carcinomas and that a specific carbohydrate unit is selectively displayed on the alpha(3) integrin subunit as well as on glycolipid on the cell surface. The alpha3beta1 integrin expressed on A-431 carcinoma cells does not display this carbohydrate epitope and is not detected by MAb-9. Thus, expression of the carbohydrate epitope is the basis for the tumor selective reaction of MAb-9 with a subset of esophageal carcinomas. PMID:14683596

  16. Internalization of RGD peptide conjugates of near-infrared fluorescent probes in different cell lines occurs via different integrin receptor subtypes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloch, S.; Xu, B.; Ye, Y.; Liang, K.; Achilefu, S.

    2006-02-01

    Expression of integrin α vβ 3 is upregulated in a number of cancers including colon, pancreas, lung and breast. Previous studies demonstrated that near infrared (NIR) fluorescent probes designed to target α vβ 3 accumulated both in vitro and in vivo in α vβ 3-positive tumor cells. To evaluate the selectivity of some NIR-labeled RGD peptides for α vβ 3, the molecular probes were incubated in different cells, including the α vβ 3-positive U87 and A549 cells, and α vβ 3-negative HT29 cells. Whereas the RGD compounds tested internalized in the A549 cells, their uptake by the HT29 cell line, which is positive for α vβ 5 and α vβ 6, was low. The uptake of these probes in U87 depended on the structural features of the compounds. Further studies with functional blocking antibodies showed that the internalization in the α vβ 3-positive cells may be mediated by different integrin receptor subtypes. The preliminary results suggest that the internalization of linear RGD peptides is mediated by the α vβ 3 heterodimer but rearrangement of the peptide sequence could alter the selectivity of the molecular probes for different integrin subunits in the dimeric α and β proteins. Thus, a careful choice of RGD peptides can be used to monitor the functional status of different integrins in cells and tissues.

  17. Basic amino-acid side chains regulate transmembrane integrin signalling.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chungho; Schmidt, Thomas; Cho, Eun-Gyung; Ye, Feng; Ulmer, Tobias S; Ginsberg, Mark H

    2012-01-12

    Side chains of Lys/Arg near transmembrane domain (TMD) membrane-water interfaces can 'snorkel', placing their positive charge near negatively charged phospholipid head groups; however, snorkelling's functional effects are obscure. Integrin β TMDs have such conserved basic amino acids. Here we use NMR spectroscopy to show that integrin β(3)(Lys 716) helps determine β(3) TMD topography. The α(ΙΙb)β(3) TMD structure indicates that precise β(3) TMD crossing angles enable the assembly of outer and inner membrane 'clasps' that hold the αβ TMD together to limit transmembrane signalling. Mutation of β(3)(Lys 716) caused dissociation of α(ΙΙb)β(3) TMDs and integrin activation. To confirm that altered topography of β(3)(Lys 716) mutants activated α(ΙΙb)β(3), we used directed evolution of β(3)(K716A) to identify substitutions restoring default state. Introduction of Pro(711) at the midpoint of β(3) TMD (A711P) increased α(ΙΙb)β(3) TMD association and inactivated integrin α(ΙΙb)β(3)(A711P,K716A). β(3)(Pro 711) introduced a TMD kink of 30 ± 1° precisely at the border of the outer and inner membrane clasps, thereby decoupling the tilt between these segments. Thus, widely occurring snorkelling residues in TMDs can help maintain TMD topography and membrane-embedding, thereby regulating transmembrane signalling. PMID:22178926

  18. Low gravity and integrins in cultured glial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masini, Maria Angela; Strollo, Felice; Ricci, Franco; Prato, Paola; Maria Uva, Bianca

    We studied the effect of random rotation on the expression of integrins in cultured astrocytes with or without the addition of divalent ions. Some cultures were immediately fixed, others were let to rest and then fixed. Cells were submitted to immunohistochemistry using antibodies to α-tubulin, integrins, Ca ATPase and caspase-7. Labeling of F-actin, TUNEL method and scanning and transmission electron microscopy were also performed. The results showed that within 1 h of random rotation cytoskeleton was disorganized, cell division was impaired, and apoptosis were present. After 1 h, expression of integrins was evident and enhanced by calcium addition. Recovering of cell organization occurred after 1 h of rest. We may infer that prolonged modeled low G, a period of rest and addition of calcium ions stimulate integrins to cluster in focal contacts in order to have enough sticking capacity to adhere to the extra cellular matrix and allow internalization of divalent ions able to protect the inner compartment of the cell.

  19. Endothelial Cell Integrin Laminin Receptor Expression in Multiple Sclerosis Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Sobel, Raymond A.; Hinojoza, Julian R.; Maeda, Atsuko; Chen, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Laminin, a major glycoprotein component of vessel basement membranes, is recognized by β1- and β3-integrins expressed on endothelial cells. To determine how endothelial cell integrins might function in multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions, integrin laminin receptors and laminin were analyzed in central nervous system samples from MS patients and controls by immunohistochemistry. In active MS lesions, endothelial cell VLA-6 and β1 subunits were decreased compared to controls whereas αv subunit and VLA-1 were increased. In chronic inactive lesions β1, VLA-6 and αv were the same as controls but VLA-1 remained increased. α3 subunit was constant in all samples. By immunoelectron microscopy VLA-1, VLA-6, β1, and laminin were distributed throughout endothelial cells; αv was adjacent to and on luminal surfaces; αv and VLA-1 were on intercellular junctions. These results indicate distinct regulation and functions of these integrins in different lesion stages. In active lesions decreased endothelial cell β1/VLA-6 could result in their detachment from laminin thereby facilitating leukocyte transvascular migration and blood-brain barrier breakdown. αv and VLA-1 on intercellular junctions may participate in re-establishing vessel integrity after leukocyte migration. Luminal surface αv also likely binds intraluminal ligands and cells. In chronic inactive plaques persistently elevated endothelial cell VLA-1 correlates with longstanding endothelial cell and blood-brain barrier dysfunction. PMID:9708801

  20. Alpha 5 Integrin Mediates Osteoarthritic Changes in Mouse Knee Joints

    PubMed Central

    Candela, Maria Elena; Wang, Chao; Gunawardena, Aruni T.; Zhang, Kairui; Cantley, Leslie; Yasuhara, Rika; Usami, Yu; Francois, Noelle; Iwamoto, Masahiro; van der Flier, Arjan; Zhang, Yejia; Qin, Ling; Han, Lin; Enomoto-Iwamoto, Motomi

    2016-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of most common skeletal disorders and can affect synovial joints such as knee and ankle joints. α5 integrin, a major fibronectin receptor, is expressed in articular cartilage and has been demonstrated to play roles in synovial joint development and in the regulation of chondrocyte survival and matrix degradation in articular cartilage. We hypothesized that α5 integrin signaling is involved in pathogenesis of OA. To test this, we generated compound mice that conditionally ablate α5 integrin in the synovial joints using the Gdf5Cre system. The compound mice were born normally and had an overall appearance similar to the control mice. However, when the mutant mice received the OA surgery, they showed stronger resistance to osteoarthritic changes than the control. Specifically the mutant knee joints presented lower levels of cartilage matrix and structure loss and synovial changes and showed stronger biomechanical properties than the control knee joints. These findings indicate that α5 integrin may not be essential for synovial joint development but play a causative role in induction of osteoarthritic changes. PMID:27280771

  1. Developmental control of integrin expression regulates Th2 effector homing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Integrin CD18, a component of the LFA-1 complex that also includes CD11a, is essential for Th2, but not Th1, cell homing, but the explanation for this phenomenon remains obscure. In this study, we investigate the mechanism by which Th2 effector responses require the LFA-1 complex. CD11a-deficient T ...

  2. Endothelial destabilization by angiopoietin-2 via integrin β1 activation

    PubMed Central

    Hakanpaa, Laura; Sipila, Tuomas; Leppanen, Veli-Matti; Gautam, Prson; Nurmi, Harri; Jacquemet, Guillaume; Eklund, Lauri; Ivaska, Johanna; Alitalo, Kari; Saharinen, Pipsa

    2015-01-01

    Angiopoietins regulate vascular homeostasis via the endothelial Tie receptor tyrosine kinases. Angiopoietin-1 (Ang1) supports endothelial stabilization via Tie2 activation. Angiopoietin-2 (Ang2) functions as a context-dependent Tie2 agonist/antagonist promoting pathological angiogenesis, vascular permeability and inflammation. Elucidating Ang2-dependent mechanisms of vascular destablization is critical for rational design of angiopoietin antagonists that have demonstrated therapeutic efficacy in cancer trials. Here, we report that Ang2, but not Ang1, activates β1-integrin, leading to endothelial destablization. Autocrine Ang2 signalling upon Tie2 silencing, or in Ang2 transgenic mice, promotes β1-integrin-positive elongated matrix adhesions and actin stress fibres, regulating vascular endothelial-cadherin-containing cell–cell junctions. The Tie2-silenced monolayer integrity is rescued by β1-integrin, phosphoinositide-3 kinase or Rho kinase inhibition, and by re-expression of a membrane-bound Tie2 ectodomain. Furthermore, Tie2 silencing increases, whereas Ang2 blocking inhibits transendothelial tumour cell migration in vitro. These results establish Ang2-mediated β1-integrin activation as a promoter of endothelial destablization, explaining the controversial vascular functions of Ang1 and Ang2. PMID:25635707

  3. Venom gland EST analysis of the saw-scaled viper, Echis ocellatus, reveals novel alpha9beta1 integrin-binding motifs in venom metalloproteinases and a new group of putative toxins, renin-like aspartic proteases.

    PubMed

    Wagstaff, Simon C; Harrison, Robert A

    2006-08-01

    Echis ocellatus is the most medically important snake in West Africa. However, the composition of its venom and the differential contribution of these venom components to the severe haemorrhagic and coagulopathic pathology of envenoming are poorly understood. To address this situation we assembled a toxin transcriptome based upon 1000 expressed sequence tags (EST) from a cDNA library constructed from pooled venom glands of 10 individual E. ocellatus. We used a variety of bioinformatic tools to construct a fully annotated venom-toxin transcriptome that was interrogated with a combination of BLAST annotation, gene ontology cataloguing and disintegrin-motif searching. The results of these analyses revealed an unusually abundant and diverse expression of snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMP) and a broad toxin-expression profile including several distinct isoforms of bradykinin-potentiating peptides, phospholipase A(2), C-type lectins, serine proteinases and l-amino oxidases. Most significantly, we identified for the first time a conserved alpha(9)beta(1) integrin-binding motif in several SVMPs, and a new group of putative venom toxins, renin-like aspartic proteases. PMID:16713134

  4. The Pivotal Role of Integrin β1 in Metastasis of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dongsheng; Müller, Susan; Ruhul Amin, A.R.M.; Huang, Donghai; Su, Ling; Hu, Zhongliang; Rahman, Mohammad Aminur; Nannapaneni, Sreenivas; Koenig, Lydia; Chen, Zhengjia; Tighiouart, Mourad; Shin, Dong M.; Chen, Zhuo G.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to understand the prognostic value of integrin β1 expression in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and the mechanism underlying its association with metastatic HNSCC. Experimental Design Archival HNSCC tissues including 99 non-metastatic primary tumors and 101 metastatic primary tumors were examined for the association of integrin β1 expression with metastasis and disease prognosis by appropriate statistical methods. Fluorescence activated cell sorting was used to separate the integrin β1high/+ cell population from the integrin β1low/− population in HNSCC cell lines. These two populations and integrin β1 shRNA knock-down HNSCC cells were examined for the effect of integrin β1 on invasion in vitro and on lymph node and lung metastases in a xenograft mouse model. Expression and activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were examined by zymography. Results Statistical analysis showed that integrin β1 expression was significantly higher in the metastatic primary tumors than in the non-metastatic tumors (42.6% vs 24.8%, p<0.0001 and p<0.0001 by univariate and multivariate analyses, respectively). In patients with lymph node metastasis, integrin β1 expression was inversely correlated with overall survival (p=0.035). The integrin β1 knock-down or integrin β1low/− HNSCC cells showed a significant reduction in lymph node and lung metastases in vivo (p<0.001 and p<0.05, respectively). Significantly reduced matrigel invasion capability was also found in integrin β1 knock-down or integrin β1low/− HNSCC cells (p< 0.01). Finally, zymography results showed integrin β1 affected HNSCC invasion by regulating MMP-2 activation. Conclusion These findings indicate that integrin β1 has a major impact on HNSCC prognosis through its regulation of metastasis. PMID:22829201

  5. Clinical Application of Radiolabeled RGD Peptides for PET Imaging of Integrin αvβ3

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Haojun; Niu, Gang; Wu, Hua; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2016-01-01

    Molecular imaging for non-invasive assessment of angiogenesisis is of great interest for clinicians because of the wide-spread application of anti-angiogenic cancer therapeutics. Besides, many other interventions that involve the change of blood vessel/tumor microenvironment would also benefit from such imaging strategies. Of the imaging techniques that target angiogenesis, radiolabeled Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptides have been a major focus because of their high affinity and selectivity for integrin αvβ3--one of the most extensively examined target of angiogenesis. Since the level of integrin αvβ3 expression has been established as a surrogate marker of angiogenic activity, imaging αvβ3 expression can potentially be used as an early indicator of effectiveness of antiangiogenic therapy at the molecular level. In this review, we summarize RGD-based PET tracers that have already been used in clinical trials and intercompared them in terms of radiosynthesis, dosimetry, pharmacokinetics and clinical applications. A perspective of their future use in the clinic is also provided. PMID:26722375

  6. Synthesis and Characterization of PAMAM Dendrimer Based Multifunctional Nanodevices for targeting αvβ3 Integrins

    PubMed Central

    Lesniak, Wojciech G.; Kariapper, Muhammed S. T.; Nair, Bindu M.; Tan, Wei; Hutson, Alan; Balogh, Lajos P.; Khan, Mohamed K.

    2008-01-01

    We have synthesized a stable and clinically relevant nanodevice (cRGD-BT-ND; ND for short) that exhibits superior binding to the biologic target αvβ3 integrins, when either compared to the same free cRGD peptide or to the biotinylated nanodevice without covalently attached peptides (BT-ND). Selective targeting of αvβ3 integrins was achieved by coupling cyclic cRGD peptides to the nanodevice (ND) surface, while biotin groups (BT) were used for amplified detection of bound cRGD-BT-ND by anti-biotin antibody or avidin linked to horseradish peroxidase after binding. The synthesis involved the following steps: the amino terminated ethylenediamine core generation 5 poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM_E5.NH2) dendrimer was first partially acetylated, then biotinylated, residual primary amine termini were converted to succinamic acid groups (SAH), some of which finally were conjugated with cRGD peptide residues through the amino group of the lysine side chain. The starting material and all derivatives were extensively characterized by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), size exclusion chromatography (SEC), potentiometric acid-base titration, MALDI-TOF and NMR. Cytotoxicity of all dendrimer derivatives was examined in B16F10 melanoma cell cultures using the XTT colorimetric assay for cellular viability. Binding of nanodevices to the biological target was determined using plates coated with human αvβ3 integrin and αvβ3 receptor expressing human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMECs). The PAMAM_E5.(NHAc)72(NHBT)8(NHSAH)35(NHSA-cRGD)4 nanodevice is non-toxic within physiologic concentration ranges and specifically binds to the αvβ3 integrins, apparently much stronger than the cyclic cRGD peptide itself. PMID:17566976

  7. Inhibiting Vimentin or beta 1-integrin Reverts Prostate Tumor Cells in IrECM and Reduces Tumor Growth

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xueping; Fournier, Marcia V.; Ware, Joy L.; Bissell, Mina J.; Zehner, Zendra E.

    2009-07-27

    Prostate epithelial cells grown embedded in laminin-rich extracellular matrix (lrECM) undergo morphological changes that closely resemble their architecture in vivo. In this study, growth characteristics of three human prostate epithelial sublines derived from the same cellular lineage, but displaying different tumorigenic and metastatic properties in vivo, were assessed in three-dimensional (3D) lrECM gels. M12, a highly tumorigenic and metastatic subline, was derived from the parental prostate epithelial P69 cell line by selection in nude mice and found to contain a deletion of 19p-q13.1. The stable reintroduction of an intact human chromosome 19 into M12 resulted in a poorly tumorigenic subline, designated F6. When embedded in lrECM gels, the nontumorigenic P69 line produced acini with clearly defined lumena. Immunostaining with antibodies to {beta}-catenin, E-cadherin or {alpha}6-, {beta}4- and {beta}1-integrins showed polarization typical of glandular epithelium. In contrast, the metastatic M12 subline produced highly disorganized cells with no evidence of polarization. The F6 subline reverted to acini-like structures exhibiting basal polarity marked with integrins. Reducing either vimentin levels via siRNA interference or {beta}1-integrin expression by the addition of the blocking antibody, AIIB2, reorganized the M12 subline into forming polarized acini. The loss of vimentin significantly reduced M12-Vim tumor growth when assessed by subcutaneous injection in athymic mice. Thus, tumorigenicity in vivo correlated with disorganized growth in 3D lrECM gels. These studies suggest that the levels of vimentin and {beta}1-integrin play a key role in the homeostasis of the normal acini in prostate and that their dysregulation may lead to tumorigenesis.

  8. Spironolactone inhibits podocyte motility via decreasing integrin β1 and increasing integrin β3 in podocytes under high-glucose conditions.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhuo; Zhang, Li; Shi, Wei; Chen, Yuanhan; Zhang, Hong; Liu, Shuangxin; Liang, Xinling; Ling, Ting; Yu, Chunping; Huang, Zhongshun; Tan, Xiaofan; Zhao, Xinchen; Ye, Zhiming; Zhang, Bin; Wang, Wenjian; Li, Ruizhao; Ma, Jianchao

    2015-11-01

    Integrin β1 and β3 expression by podocytes is required to maintain glomerular structural integrity. Previous studies have shown that aldosterone (ALD) is involved in glomerular podocyte injury, and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) blocker spironolactone effectively reduces proteinuria in patients with diabetic nephropathy. The present study was designed to observe the effects of spironolactone on β1 and β3 integrin expression and podocyte motility under in vitro diabetic conditions. Immortalized mouse podocytes were cultured in media containing normal glucose (NG) levels, high glucose (HG) or HG plus spironolacton. The expression of β1 and β3 integrin in podocytes was detected by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction, immunofluorescence and western blot analyses. The effects of spironolacton on podocyte motility was further evaluated using a wound healing assay. HG stimulation markedly decreased mRNA and protein expression of integrin β1, and significantly increased mRNA and protein expression of integrin β3 in cultured podocytes. However, simultaneous treatment with spironolacton (10‑7 mol/l) significantly attenuated HG-mediated increases in integrin β3 and decreases in integrin β1 expression. Furthermore, the migration of podocytes induced by HG was abrogated by concomitant treatment with spironolacton. In conclusion, the present study suggested that HG decreased the expression of integrin β1 in cultured podocytes, accompanied with an increase of integrin β3. Spironolactone inhibited cell motility and stabilized podoctyes treated with HG, probably through partly normalizing the expression of integrin β1 and decreasing the expression of integrin β3. PMID:26352002

  9. Combination of integrin siRNA and irradiation for breast cancer therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Cao Qizhen; Cai Weibo; Li Tianfang; Yang Yong; Chen Kai; Xing Lei; Chen Xiaoyuan . E-mail: shawchen@stanford.edu

    2006-12-22

    Up-regulation of integrin {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3} has been shown to play a key role in tumor angiogenesis and metastasis. In this study, we evaluated the role of integrin {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3} in breast cancer cell resistance to ionizing irradiation (IR) and tested the anti-tumor efficacy of combining integrin {alpha}{sub v} siRNA and IR. Colonogenic survival assay, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and cell cycle analysis were carried out to determine the treatment effect of siRNA, IR, or combination of both on MDA-MB-435 cells (integrin {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3}-positive). Integrin {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3}-negative MCF-7 cells exert more radiosensitivity than MDA-MB-435 cells. IR up-regulates integrin {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3} expression in MDA-MB-435 cells and integrin {alpha}{sub v} siRNA can effectively reduce both {alpha}{sub v} and {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3} integrin expression, leading to increased radiosensitivity. Integrin {alpha}{sub v} siRNA also promotes IR-induced apoptosis and enhances IR-induced G2/M arrest in cell cycle progression. This study, with further optimization, may provide a simple and highly efficient treatment strategy for breast cancer as well as other integrin {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3}-positive cancer types.

  10. Mutually Exclusive Roles of SHARPIN in Integrin Inactivation and NF-κB Signaling

    PubMed Central

    De Franceschi, Nicola; Peuhu, Emilia; Parsons, Maddy; Rissanen, Sami; Vattulainen, Ilpo; Salmi, Marko

    2015-01-01

    SHANK-associated RH domain interactor (SHARPIN) inhibits integrins through interaction with the integrin α-subunit. In addition, SHARPIN enhances nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) activity as a component of the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC). However, it is currently unclear how regulation of these seemingly different roles is coordinated. Here, we show that SHARPIN binds integrin and LUBAC in a mutually exclusive manner. We map the integrin binding site on SHARPIN to the ubiquitin-like (UBL) domain, the same domain implicated in SHARPIN interaction with LUBAC component RNF31 (ring finger protein 31), and identify two SHARPIN residues (V267, L276) required for both integrin and RNF31 regulation. Accordingly, the integrin α-tail is capable of competing with RNF31 for SHARPIN binding in vitro. Importantly, the full SHARPIN RNF31-binding site contains residues (F263A/I272A) that are dispensable for SHARPIN-integrin interaction. Importantly, disrupting SHARPIN interaction with integrin or RNF31 abolishes SHARPIN-mediated regulation of integrin or NF-κB activity, respectively. Altogether these data suggest that the roles of SHARPIN in inhibiting integrin activity and supporting linear ubiquitination are (molecularly) distinct. PMID:26600301

  11. Mutually Exclusive Roles of SHARPIN in Integrin Inactivation and NF-κB Signaling.

    PubMed

    De Franceschi, Nicola; Peuhu, Emilia; Parsons, Maddy; Rissanen, Sami; Vattulainen, Ilpo; Salmi, Marko; Ivaska, Johanna; Pouwels, Jeroen

    2015-01-01

    SHANK-associated RH domain interactor (SHARPIN) inhibits integrins through interaction with the integrin α-subunit. In addition, SHARPIN enhances nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) activity as a component of the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC). However, it is currently unclear how regulation of these seemingly different roles is coordinated. Here, we show that SHARPIN binds integrin and LUBAC in a mutually exclusive manner. We map the integrin binding site on SHARPIN to the ubiquitin-like (UBL) domain, the same domain implicated in SHARPIN interaction with LUBAC component RNF31 (ring finger protein 31), and identify two SHARPIN residues (V267, L276) required for both integrin and RNF31 regulation. Accordingly, the integrin α-tail is capable of competing with RNF31 for SHARPIN binding in vitro. Importantly, the full SHARPIN RNF31-binding site contains residues (F263A/I272A) that are dispensable for SHARPIN-integrin interaction. Importantly, disrupting SHARPIN interaction with integrin or RNF31 abolishes SHARPIN-mediated regulation of integrin or NF-κB activity, respectively. Altogether these data suggest that the roles of SHARPIN in inhibiting integrin activity and supporting linear ubiquitination are (molecularly) distinct. PMID:26600301

  12. LFA-1 and Mac-1 integrins bind to the serine/threonine-rich domain of thrombomodulin.

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, Eiji; Okamoto, Takayuki; Takagi, Yoshimi; Honda, Goichi; Suzuki, Koji; Imai, Hiroshi; Shimaoka, Motomu

    2016-05-13

    LFA-1 (αLβ2) and Mac-1 (αMβ2) integrins regulate leukocyte trafficking in health and disease by binding primarily to IgSF ligand ICAM-1 and ICAM-2 on endothelial cells. Here we have shown that the anti-coagulant molecule thrombomodulin (TM), found on the surface of endothelial cells, functions as a potentially new ligand for leukocyte integrins. We generated a recombinant extracellular domain of human TM and Fc fusion protein (TM-domains 123-Fc), and showed that pheripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) bind to TM-domains 123-Fc dependent upon integrin activation. We then demonstrated that αL integrin-blocking mAb, αM integrin-blocking mAb, and β2 integrin-blocking mAb inhibited the binding of PBMCs to TM-domains 123-Fc. Furthermore, we show that the serine/threonine-rich domain (domain 3) of TM is required for the interaction with the LFA-1 (αLβ2) and Mac-1 (αMβ2) integrins to occur on PBMCs. These results demonstrate that the LFA-1 and Mac-1 integrins on leukocytes bind to TM, thereby establishing the molecular and structural basis underlying LFA-1 and Mac-1 integrin interaction with TM on endothelial cells. In fact, integrin-TM interactions might be involved in the dynamic regulation of leukocyte adhesion with endothelial cells. PMID:27055590

  13. A novel integrin function in innate immunity from Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis).

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying; Zhao, Ling-Ling; Feng, Jin-Ling; Zhu, Huan-Xi; Huang, Xin; Ren, Qian; Wang, Wen

    2015-10-01

    Integrins belong to a superfamily of conserved α β heterodimeric cell surface receptors that have critical function in cell migration, differentiation, and survival. In this study, an integrin called EsIntegrin was identified from Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis. EsIntegrin cDNA is 4415 bp long with a 2457 bp open reading frame that encodes an 818 amino acid protein. EsIntegrin contains a signal peptide, an integrin beta subunit (N-terminal portion of extracellular region) INB domain, an epidermal growth factor (hEGF) domain, an integrin B tail domain, a transmembrane region, and an integrin b cyt domain. EsIntegrin was mainly expressed in hemocytes and the heart, with a relatively lower expression level in gills, nerves, intestine, hepatopancreas, muscles, and eyestalk. When healthy crabs were challenged with LPS, PGN, Staphyloccocus aureus, or Vibrio parahaemolyticus, EsIntegrin expression level was upregulated significantly. Recombinant EsIntegrin has agglutination activity to Gram-positive (e.g., S. aureus and Bacillus subtilis) and Gram-negative bacteria (e.g., V. parahaemolyticus and Aeromonas hydrophila) in the presence of calcium. Furthermore, rEsIntegrin could not only bind to various bacteria such as S. aureus, Micrococcus luteus, B. subtilis, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus thuringiensis, V. parahaemolyticus, Vibrio anguillarum, A. hydrophila, Vibrio natriegens, and Escherichia coli, but this compound also helped crabs in clearing virulent Gram-negative bacterium, V. parahaemolyticus, in vivo. These data suggested that EsIntegrin might function as cellular receptor that is involved in anti-bacterial immunity from E. sinensis. PMID:26004499

  14. Mechanotransduction: all signals point to cytoskeleton, matrix, and integrins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alenghat, Francis J.; Ingber, Donald E.

    2002-01-01

    Mechanical stresses modulate cell function by either activating or tuning signal transduction pathways. Mechanotransduction, the process by which cells convert mechanical stimuli into a chemical response, occurs both in cells specialized for sensing mechanical cues and in parenchymal cells whose primary function is not mechanosensory. However, common among the various responses to mechanical stress is the importance of direct or indirect connections between the internal cytoskeleton, the extracellular matrix (ECM), and traditional signal transducing molecules. In many instances, these elements converge at focal adhesions, sites of structural attachment between the cytoskeleton and ECM that are anchored by cell surface integrin receptors. Alenghat and Ingber discuss the accumulating evidence for the central role of cytoskeleton, ECM, and integrin-anchored focal adhesions in several mechanotransduction pathways.

  15. Integrin Signaling, Cell Survival, and Anoikis: Distinctions, Differences, and Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Vachon, Pierre H.

    2011-01-01

    Cell survival and apoptosis implicate an increasing complexity of players and signaling pathways which regulate not only the decision-making process of surviving (or dying), but as well the execution of cell death proper. The same complex nature applies to anoikis, a form of caspase-dependent apoptosis that is largely regulated by integrin-mediated, cell-extracellular matrix interactions. Not surprisingly, the regulation of cell survival, apoptosis, and anoikis furthermore implicates additional mechanistic distinctions according to the specific tissue, cell type, and species. Incidentally, studies in recent years have unearthed yet another layer of complexity in the regulation of these cell processes, namely, the implication of cell differentiation state-specific mechanisms. Further analyses of such differentiation state-distinct mechanisms, either under normal or physiopathological contexts, should increase our understanding of diseases which implicate a deregulation of integrin function, cell survival, and anoikis. PMID:21785723

  16. Cell Adhesion on Amyloid Fibrils Lacking Integrin Recognition Motif.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Reeba S; George, Edna; Singh, Pradeep K; Salot, Shimul; Anoop, Arunagiri; Jha, Narendra Nath; Sen, Shamik; Maji, Samir K

    2016-03-01

    Amyloids are highly ordered, cross-β-sheet-rich protein/peptide aggregates associated with both human diseases and native functions. Given the well established ability of amyloids in interacting with cell membranes, we hypothesize that amyloids can serve as universal cell-adhesive substrates. Here, we show that, similar to the extracellular matrix protein collagen, amyloids of various proteins/peptides support attachment and spreading of cells via robust stimulation of integrin expression and formation of integrin-based focal adhesions. Additionally, amyloid fibrils are also capable of immobilizing non-adherent red blood cells through charge-based interactions. Together, our results indicate that both active and passive mechanisms contribute to adhesion on amyloid fibrils. The present data may delineate the functional aspect of cell adhesion on amyloids by various organisms and its involvement in human diseases. Our results also raise the exciting possibility that cell adhesivity might be a generic property of amyloids. PMID:26742841

  17. Integrins regulate apical constriction via microtubule stabilization in the Drosophila eye disc epithelium.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Vilaiwan M; McCormack, Kasandra; Lewellyn, Lindsay; Verheyen, Esther M

    2014-12-24

    During morphogenesis, extracellular signals trigger actomyosin contractility in subpopulations of cells to coordinate changes in cell shape. To illuminate the link between signaling-mediated tissue patterning and cytoskeletal remodeling, we study the progression of the morphogenetic furrow (MF), the wave of apical constriction that traverses the Drosophila eye imaginal disc preceding photoreceptor neurogenesis. Apical constriction depends on actomyosin contractility downstream of the Hedgehog (Hh) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathways. We identify a role for integrin adhesion receptors in MF progression. We show that Hh and BMP regulate integrin expression, the loss of which disrupts apical constriction and slows furrow progression; conversely, elevated integrins accelerate furrow progression. We present evidence that integrins regulate MF progression by promoting microtubule stabilization, since reducing microtubule stability rescues integrin-mediated furrow acceleration. Thus, integrins act as a genetic link between tissue-level signaling events and morphological change at the cellular level, leading to morphogenesis and neurogenesis in the eye. PMID:25533344

  18. β1 Integrins as Therapeutic Targets to Disrupt Hallmarks of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Blandin, Anne-Florence; Renner, Guillaume; Lehmann, Maxime; Lelong-Rebel, Isabelle; Martin, Sophie; Dontenwill, Monique

    2015-01-01

    Integrins belong to a large family of αβ heterodimeric transmembrane proteins first recognized as adhesion molecules that bind to dedicated elements of the extracellular matrix and also to other surrounding cells. As important sensors of the cell microenvironment, they regulate numerous signaling pathways in response to structural variations of the extracellular matrix. Biochemical and biomechanical cues provided by this matrix and transmitted to cells via integrins are critically modified in tumoral settings. Integrins repertoire are subjected to expression level modifications, in tumor cells, and in surrounding cancer-associated cells, implicated in tumor initiation and progression as well. As critical players in numerous cancer hallmarks, defined by Hanahan and Weinberg (2011), integrins represent pertinent therapeutic targets. We will briefly summarize here our current knowledge about integrin implications in those different hallmarks focusing primarily on β1 integrins. PMID:26635609

  19. A proteomic approach reveals integrin activation state-dependent control of microtubule cortical targeting.

    PubMed

    Byron, Adam; Askari, Janet A; Humphries, Jonathan D; Jacquemet, Guillaume; Koper, Ewa J; Warwood, Stacey; Choi, Colin K; Stroud, Matthew J; Chen, Christopher S; Knight, David; Humphries, Martin J

    2015-01-01

    Integrin activation, which is regulated by allosteric changes in receptor conformation, enables cellular responses to the chemical, mechanical and topological features of the extracellular microenvironment. A global view of how activation state converts the molecular composition of the region proximal to integrins into functional readouts is, however, lacking. Here, using conformation-specific monoclonal antibodies, we report the isolation of integrin activation state-dependent complexes and their characterization by mass spectrometry. Quantitative comparisons, integrating network, clustering, pathway and image analyses, define multiple functional protein modules enriched in a conformation-specific manner. Notably, active integrin complexes are specifically enriched for proteins associated with microtubule-based functions. Visualization of microtubules on micropatterned surfaces and live cell imaging demonstrate that active integrins establish an environment that stabilizes microtubules at the cell periphery. These data provide a resource for the interrogation of the global molecular connections that link integrin activation to adhesion signalling. PMID:25609142

  20. A proteomic approach reveals integrin activation state-dependent control of microtubule cortical targeting

    PubMed Central

    Byron, Adam; Askari, Janet A.; Humphries, Jonathan D.; Jacquemet, Guillaume; Koper, Ewa J.; Warwood, Stacey; Choi, Colin K.; Stroud, Matthew J.; Chen, Christopher S.; Knight, David; Humphries, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    Integrin activation, which is regulated by allosteric changes in receptor conformation, enables cellular responses to the chemical, mechanical and topological features of the extracellular microenvironment. A global view of how activation state converts the molecular composition of the region proximal to integrins into functional readouts is, however, lacking. Here, using conformation-specific monoclonal antibodies, we report the isolation of integrin activation state-dependent complexes and their characterization by mass spectrometry. Quantitative comparisons, integrating network, clustering, pathway and image analyses, define multiple functional protein modules enriched in a conformation-specific manner. Notably, active integrin complexes are specifically enriched for proteins associated with microtubule-based functions. Visualization of microtubules on micropatterned surfaces and live cell imaging demonstrate that active integrins establish an environment that stabilizes microtubules at the cell periphery. These data provide a resource for the interrogation of the global molecular connections that link integrin activation to adhesion signalling. PMID:25609142

  1. Do Integrins Mediate the Skeletal Response to Altered Loading?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vanderMeulen, Marjolein C. H.

    2004-01-01

    In vivo experiments were performed to examine the role of B1 integrin in skeletal adaptation to reduced and increased loading. Transgenic mice were generated with a dominant negative form of the B1 integrin cytoplasmic domain with expression driven by the osteocalcin promoter (pOCb1DN). This fragment consists of the transmembrane and intracellular domains and interferes with endogenous integrin signalling in vitro. This promoter targets expression of the transgene to mature bone cells. Expression of the transgene was confirmed by immunoprecipitation and western blotting. Reduced loading was generated by hindlimb suspension and increased loading the resumption of normal loading following hindlimb suspension. Two groups of female 35-day old mice were examined: poCb1DN transgenic mice (TG) and wild-type littermate controls (WT). Animals were hindlimb suspended for 1 week (HU, n = l0/gp) or 4 weeks (HU, n = 4 - 7/gp) or suspended for 4 weeks followed by reloading by normal ambulation for 4 weeks (RL, n = l0/gp). Age-matched controls (CT) were pairfed based on the HU food intake. The protocols were approved by the NASA Ames Research Center IACUC. Upon completion of the experimental protocol, body mass was recorded and tissues of interest removed and analyzed following standard procedures. Femoral whole bone structural behavior was measured in torsion to failure to obtain whole bone strength (failure torque) and torsional rigidity. Ash content (ash) and fraction (% ash) were determined for the tibia. Total ash is indicative of bone size whereas %ash is a material property. Tibial curvature was measured from microradiographs. For each experiment, the effects of genotype (TG, WT) and treatment (CT, HU/RL) were assessed by two-factor ANOVA followed by the Tukey-Kramer posthoc to identify significant differences at an alpha level of 0.05. Our goal was to understand differences resulting from altered integrin function in the adaptation to altered loading.

  2. Integrin-Associated Complexes Form Hierarchically with Variable Stoichiometry during Nascent Adhesion Formation

    PubMed Central

    Bachir, Alexia I.; Zareno, Jessica; Moissoglu, Konstadinos; Plow, Edward; Gratton, Enrico; Horwitz, Alan R.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background A complex network of putative molecular interactions underlies the architecture and function of cell-matrix adhesions. Most of these interactions are implicated from co-immunoprecipitation studies using expressed components; but few have been demonstrated or characterized functionally in living cells. Results We introduce fluorescence fluctuation methods to determine, at high spatial and temporal resolution, ‘when’ and ‘where’ molecular complexes form and their stoichiometry in nascent adhesions (NAs). We focus on integrin-associated molecules implicated in integrin-activation and in the integrin-actin linkage in NAs and show that these molecules form integrin containing complexes hierarchically within the adhesion itself. Integrin and kindlin reside in a molecular complex as soon as adhesions are visible; talin, while also present early, associates with the integrin-kindlin complex only after NAs have formed and in response to myosin II activity. Furthermore, talin and vinculin association precedes the formation of the integrin-talin complex. Finally, α-actinin enters NAs periodically and in clusters that transiently associate with integrins. The absolute number and stoichiometry of these molecules varies among the molecules studied and changes as adhesions mature. Conclusions These observations suggest a working model for NA assembly, whereby transient α-actinin- integrin complexes help nucleate NAs within the lamellipodium. Subsequently integrin complexes containing kindlin, but not talin, emerge. Once NAs have formed, myosin II activity promotes talin association with the integrin-kindlin complex in a stoichiometry consistent with each talin molecule linking two integrin-kindlin complexes. PMID:25088556

  3. Extracellular matrix stiffness dictates Wnt expression through integrin pathway

    PubMed Central

    Du, Jing; Zu, Yan; Li, Jing; Du, Shuyuan; Xu, Yipu; Zhang, Lang; Jiang, Li; Wang, Zhao; Chien, Shu; Yang, Chun

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that extracellular matrix (ECM) stiffness plays a significant role in regulating the phenotypes and behaviors of many cell types. However, the mechanism underlying the sensing of mechanical cues and subsequent elasticity-triggered pathways remains largely unknown. We observed that stiff ECM significantly enhanced the expression level of several members of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in both bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and primary chondrocytes. The activation of β-catenin by stiff ECM is not dependent on Wnt signals but is elevated by the activation of integrin/ focal adhesion kinase (FAK) pathway. The accumulated β-catenin then bound to the wnt1 promoter region to up-regulate the gene transcription, thus constituting a positive feedback of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. With the amplifying effect of positive feedback, this integrin-activated β-catenin/Wnt pathway plays significant roles in mediating the enhancement of Wnt signal on stiff ECM and contributes to the regulation of mesenchymal stem cell differentiation and primary chondrocyte phenotype maintenance. The present integrin-regulated Wnt1 expression and signaling contributes to the understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of cell behaviors by ECM elasticity. PMID:26854061

  4. A Possible Role for Integrin Signaling in Diffuse Axonal Injury

    PubMed Central

    Kerscher, Lucas; Franck, Christian; Goss, Josue A.; Alford, Patrick W.; Parker, Kevin Kit

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade, investigators have attempted to establish the pathophysiological mechanisms by which non-penetrating injuries damage the brain. Several studies have implicated either membrane poration or ion channel dysfunction pursuant to neuronal cell death as the primary mechanism of injury. We hypothesized that traumatic stimulation of integrins may be an important etiological contributor to mild Traumatic Brain Injury. In order to study the effects of forces at the cellular level, we utilized two hierarchical, in vitro systems to mimic traumatic injury to rat cortical neurons: a high velocity stretcher and a magnetic tweezer system. In one system, we controlled focal adhesion formation in neurons cultured on a stretchable substrate loaded with an abrupt, one dimensional strain. With the second system, we used magnetic tweezers to directly simulate the abrupt injury forces endured by a focal adhesion on the neurite. Both systems revealed variations in the rate and nature of neuronal injury as a function of focal adhesion density and direct integrin stimulation without membrane poration. Pharmacological inhibition of calpains did not mitigate the injury yet the inhibition of Rho-kinase immediately after injury reduced axonal injury. These data suggest that integrin-mediated activation of Rho may be a contributor to the diffuse axonal injury reported in mild Traumatic Brain Injury. PMID:21799943

  5. Extracellular matrix stiffness dictates Wnt expression through integrin pathway.

    PubMed

    Du, Jing; Zu, Yan; Li, Jing; Du, Shuyuan; Xu, Yipu; Zhang, Lang; Jiang, Li; Wang, Zhao; Chien, Shu; Yang, Chun

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that extracellular matrix (ECM) stiffness plays a significant role in regulating the phenotypes and behaviors of many cell types. However, the mechanism underlying the sensing of mechanical cues and subsequent elasticity-triggered pathways remains largely unknown. We observed that stiff ECM significantly enhanced the expression level of several members of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in both bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and primary chondrocytes. The activation of β-catenin by stiff ECM is not dependent on Wnt signals but is elevated by the activation of integrin/ focal adhesion kinase (FAK) pathway. The accumulated β-catenin then bound to the wnt1 promoter region to up-regulate the gene transcription, thus constituting a positive feedback of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. With the amplifying effect of positive feedback, this integrin-activated β-catenin/Wnt pathway plays significant roles in mediating the enhancement of Wnt signal on stiff ECM and contributes to the regulation of mesenchymal stem cell differentiation and primary chondrocyte phenotype maintenance. The present integrin-regulated Wnt1 expression and signaling contributes to the understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of cell behaviors by ECM elasticity. PMID:26854061

  6. Polarized Integrin Mediates Human Keratinocyte Adhesion to Basal Lamina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Luca, Michele; Tamura, Richard N.; Kajiji, Shama; Bondanza, Sergio; Rossino, Paola; Cancedda, Ranieri; Carlo Marchisio, Pier; Quaranta, Vito

    1990-09-01

    Epithelial cell interactions with matrices are critical to tissue organization. Indirect immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitations of cell lysates prepared from stratified cultures of human epidermal cells showed that the major integrins expressed by keratinocytes are α_Eβ_4 (also called α_6β_4) and α_2β_1/α_3β_1. The α_Eβ_4 integrin is localized at the surface of basal cells in contact with the basement membrane, whereas α_2β_1/ α_3β_1 integrins are absent from the basal surface and are localized only on the lateral surface of basal and spinous keratinocytes. Anti-β_4 antibodies potently inhibited keratinocyte adhesion to matrigel or purified laminin, whereas anti-β_1 antibodies were ineffective. Only anti-β_4 antibodies were able to detach established keratinocyte colonies. These data suggest that α_Eβ_4 mediates keratinocyte adhesion to basal lamina, whereas the β_1 subfamily is involved in cell-cell adhesion of keratinocytes.

  7. Efficacy of Beta1 Integrin and EGFR Targeting in Sphere-Forming Human Head and Neck Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zscheppang, Katja; Kurth, Ina; Wachtel, Nicole; Dubrovska, Anna; Kunz-Schughart, Leoni A.; Cordes, Nils

    2016-01-01

    significantly enhanced ATM and Chk2 dephosphorylation upon irradiation. Conclusions: In the HNSCC model, sphere-forming conditions select for cells, which are unsusceptible to both anti-β1 integrin and anti-EGFR inhibitory antibodies. With regard to primary and secondary sphere formation, our data suggest that both of these SFC fractions express distinct survival strategies independent from β1 integrin and EGFR and that future work is warranted to better understand SFC survival and enrichment before and after treatment to untangle the underlying mechanisms for identifying novel, druggable cancer targets in SFC. PMID:27076856

  8. Loss of beta1-integrin enhances TGF-beta1-induced collagen expression in epithelial cells via increased alphavbeta3-integrin and Rac1 activity.

    PubMed

    Hayashida, Tomoko; Jones, Jonathan C R; Lee, Carrie K; Schnaper, H William

    2010-10-01

    Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) promotes tissue fibrosis via the receptor-specific Smad pathway and non-canonical pathways. We recently reported that TGF-β1-stimulated collagen expression by cultured kidney cells requires integrin-dependent activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and consequent ERK MAP kinase activity leading to Smad3 linker region phosphorylation. Here, we defined a role for αvβ3-integrin in this non-canonical pathway. A human kidney tubular cell line in which β1-integrin was knocked down (β1-k/d) demonstrated enhanced type I collagen mRNA expression and promoter activity. A second shRNA to either αv-integrin or β3-integrin, but not to another αv-binding partner, β6-integrin, abrogated the enhanced COL1A2 promoter activity in β1-k/d cells. Although αvβ3-integrin surface expression levels were not different, αvβ3-integrins colocalized with sites of focal adhesion significantly more in β1-k/d cells, and activated αvβ3-integrin was detected only in β1-k/d cells. Further, the collagen response was decreased by a function-blocking antibody or a peptide inhibitor of αvβ3-integrin. In cells lacking αvβ3-integrin, the responses were attenuated, whereas the response was enhanced in αvβ3-overexpressing cells. Rac1 and ERK, previously defined mediators for this non-canonical pathway, showed increased activities in β1-k/d cells. Finally, inhibition of αvβ3-integrin decreased Rac1 activity and COL1A2 promoter activity in β1-k/d cells. Together, our results indicate that decreasing β1 chain causes αvβ3-integrin to become functionally dominant and promotes renal cell fibrogenesis via Rac1-mediated ERK activity. PMID:20650890

  9. Talin-bound NPLY motif recruits integrin-signaling adapters to regulate cell spreading and mechanosensing

    PubMed Central

    Pinon, Perrine; Pärssinen, Jenita; Vazquez, Patricia; Bachmann, Michael; Rahikainen, Rolle; Jacquier, Marie-Claude; Azizi, Latifeh; Määttä, Juha A.; Bastmeyer, Martin; Hytönen, Vesa P.

    2014-01-01

    Integrin-dependent cell adhesion and spreading are critical for morphogenesis, tissue regeneration, and immune defense but also tumor growth. However, the mechanisms that induce integrin-mediated cell spreading and provide mechanosensing on different extracellular matrix conditions are not fully understood. By expressing β3-GFP-integrins with enhanced talin-binding affinity, we experimentally uncoupled integrin activation, clustering, and substrate binding from its function in cell spreading. Mutational analysis revealed Tyr747, located in the first cytoplasmic NPLY747 motif, to induce spreading and paxillin adapter recruitment to substrate- and talin-bound integrins. In addition, integrin-mediated spreading, but not focal adhesion localization, was affected by mutating adjacent sequence motifs known to be involved in kindlin binding. On soft, spreading-repellent fibronectin substrates, high-affinity talin-binding integrins formed adhesions, but normal spreading was only possible with integrins competent to recruit the signaling adapter protein paxillin. This proposes that integrin-dependent cell–matrix adhesion and cell spreading are independently controlled, offering new therapeutic strategies to modify cell behavior in normal and pathological conditions. PMID:24778313

  10. Regulation of Cell Migration and β1 Integrin Trafficking by the Endosomal Adaptor GGA3.

    PubMed

    Ratcliffe, Colin D H; Sahgal, Pranshu; Parachoniak, Christine A; Ivaska, Johanna; Park, Morag

    2016-06-01

    The integrin family of cell adhesion receptors link extracellular matrices to intracellular signaling pathways and the actin cytoskeleton; and regulate cell migration, proliferation and survival in normal and diseased tissues. The subcellular location of integrin receptors is critical for their function and deregulated trafficking is implicated in various human diseases. Here we identify a role for Golgi-localized gamma-ear containing Arf-binding protein 3 (GGA3), in regulating trafficking of β1 integrin. GGA3 knockdown reduces cell surface and total levels of α2, α5 and β1 integrin subunits, inhibits cell spreading, reduces focal adhesion number, as well as cell migration. In the absence of GGA3, integrins are increasingly retained inside the cell, traffic toward the perinuclear lysosomal compartment and their degradation is enhanced. Integrin traffic and maintenance of integrin levels are dependent on the integrity of the Arf binding site of GGA3. Furthermore, sorting nexin 17 (SNX17), a critical regulator of integrin recycling, becomes mislocalized to enlarged late endosomes upon GGA3 depletion. These data support a model whereby GGA3, through its ability to regulate SNX17 endosomal localization and through interaction with Arf6 diverts integrins from the degradative pathway supporting cell migration. PMID:26935970

  11. Vedolizumab: an α4β7 integrin antagonist for ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Cherry, Lauren N.; Yunker, Nancy S.; Lambert, Erika R.; Vaughan, DaleMarie

    2015-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD) are chronic, relapsing inflammatory bowel diseases associated with significant morbidity. Conventional therapies for these diseases include corticosteroids, aminosalicylates, immunomodulators, and monoclonal antibodies. Over the years tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α antagonists alone or in combination with other therapies have emerged as the cornerstone of treatment for induction and maintenance of remission of moderate to severe UC and CD. Unfortunately, some patients with moderate to severe UC and CD are unable to attain or maintain remission with TNF-α antagonist treatment. Vedolizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody, is the first integrin receptor antagonist approved that selectively antagonizes α4β7 gastrointestinal integrin receptors. US Food and Drug Administration approval is for treatment of patients with moderate to severe active UC and CD who have inadequate response with, lost response to, or are intolerant to a TNF-α antagonist or an immunomodulator; or have inadequate response with, are intolerant to, or demonstrate dependence on corticosteroids. When administered according to approved dosing in patients with moderate to severe CD and UC, vedolizumab induces clinical response rates up to 31.4% and 47.1% at week 6, and clinical remission rates up to 39% and 41.8% at week 52, respectively. Serious adverse events reported with vedolizumab include serious infections, malignancies, and anaphylaxis. Since vedolizumab is gastrointestinal selective, to date, it has not shown evidence of causing progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy; however, postmarketing studies monitoring for this adverse effect are ongoing. Further assessment of vedolizumab earlier in the course of these diseases and in combination with other therapies is warranted. PMID:26336591

  12. Heterobivalent Agents Targeting PSMA and Integrin-αvβ3

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Differential expression of surface proteins on normal vs malignant cells provides the rationale for the development of receptor-, antigen-, and transporter-based, cancer-selective imaging and therapeutic agents. However, tumors are heterogeneous, and do not always express what can be considered reliable, tumor-selective markers. That suggests development of more flexible targeting platforms that incorporate multiple moieties enabling concurrent targeting to a variety of putative markers. We report the synthesis, biochemical, in vitro, and preliminary in vivo evaluation of a new heterobivalent (HtBv) imaging agent targeting both the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) and integrin-αvβ3 surface markers, each of which can be overexpressed in certain tumor epithelium and/or neovasculature. The HtBv agent was functionalized with either 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) or the commercially available IRDye800CW. DOTA-conjugated HtBv probe 9 bound to PSMA or αvβ3 with affinities similar to those of monovalent (Mnv) compounds designed to bind to their targets independently. In situ energy minimization experiments support a model describing the conformations adapted by 9 that enable it to bind both targets. IRDye800-conjugated HtBv probe 10 demonstrated target-specific binding to either PSMA or integrin-αvβ3 overexpressing xenografts. HtBv agents 9 and 10 may enable dual-targeted imaging of malignant cells and tissues in an effort to address heterogeneity that confounds many cancer-targeted imaging agents. PMID:24410012

  13. The thyroid hormone-αvβ3 integrin axis in ovarian cancer: regulation of gene transcription and MAPK-dependent proliferation.

    PubMed

    Shinderman-Maman, E; Cohen, K; Weingarten, C; Nabriski, D; Twito, O; Baraf, L; Hercbergs, A; Davis, P J; Werner, H; Ellis, M; Ashur-Fabian, O

    2016-04-14

    Ovarian carcinoma is the fifth common cause of cancer death in women, despite advanced therapeutic approaches. αvβ3 integrin, a plasma membrane receptor, binds thyroid hormones (L-thyroxine, T4; 3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine, T3) and is overexpressed in ovarian cancer. We have demonstrated selective binding of fluorescently labeled hormones to αvβ3-positive ovarian cancer cells but not to integrin-negative cells. Physiologically relevant T3 (1 nM) and T4 (100 nM) concentrations in OVCAR-3 (high αvβ3) and A2780 (low αvβ3) cells promoted αv and β3 transcription in association with basal integrin levels. This transcription was effectively blocked by RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) peptide and neutralizing αvβ3 antibodies, excluding T3-induced β3 messenger RNA, suggesting subspecialization of T3 and T4 binding to the integrin receptor pocket. We have provided support for extracellular regulated kinase (ERK)-mediated transcriptional regulation of the αv monomer by T3 and of β3 monomer by both hormones and documented a rapid (30-120 min) and dose-dependent (0.1-1000 nM) ERK activation. OVCAR-3 cells and αvβ3-deficient HEK293 cells treated with αvβ3 blockers confirmed the requirement for an intact thyroid hormone-integrin interaction in ERK activation. In addition, novel data indicated that T4, but not T3, controls integrin's outside-in signaling by phosphorylating tyrosine 759 in the β3 subunit. Both hormones induced cell proliferation (cell counts), survival (Annexin-PI), viability (WST-1) and significantly reduced the expression of genes that inhibit cell cycle (p21, p16), promote mitochondrial apoptosis (Nix, PUMA) and tumor suppression (GDF-15, IGFBP-6), particularly in cells with high integrin expression. At last, we have confirmed that hypothyroid environment attenuated ovarian cancer growth using a novel experimental platform that exploited paired euthyroid and severe hypothyroid serum samples from human subjects. To conclude, our data define a critical

  14. Combination of X-ray crystallography, SAXS and DEER to obtain the structure of the FnIII-3, 4 domains of integrin α6β4

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso-García, Noelia; García-Rubio, Inés; Buey, Rubén M.; Urien, Hector; Sonnenberg, Arnoud; Jeschke, Gunnar; Pereda, José M. de

    2015-04-01

    The structure of the FnIII-3, 4 region of integrin β4 was solved using a hybrid approach that combines crystallographic structures, SAXS, DEER and molecular modelling. The structure helps in understanding how integrin β4 might bind to other hemidesmosomal proteins and mediate signalling. Integrin α6β4 is a major component of hemidesmosomes that mediate the stable anchorage of epithelial cells to the underlying basement membrane. Integrin α6β4 has also been implicated in cell proliferation and migration and in carcinoma progression. The third and fourth fibronectin type III domains (FnIII-3, 4) of integrin β4 mediate binding to the hemidesmosomal proteins BPAG1e and BPAG2, and participate in signalling. Here, it is demonstrated that X-ray crystallography, small-angle X-ray scattering and double electron–electron resonance (DEER) complement each other to solve the structure of the FnIII-3, 4 region. The crystal structures of the individual FnIII-3 and FnIII-4 domains were solved and the relative arrangement of the FnIII domains was elucidated by combining DEER with site-directed spin labelling. Multiple structures of the interdomain linker were modelled by Monte Carlo methods complying with DEER constraints, and the final structures were selected against experimental scattering data. FnIII-3, 4 has a compact and cambered flat structure with an evolutionary conserved surface that is likely to correspond to a protein-interaction site. Finally, this hybrid method is of general application for the study of other macromolecules and complexes.

  15. Epstein–Barr virus LMP1 induces focal adhesions and epithelial cell migration through effects on integrin-α5 and N-cadherin

    PubMed Central

    Wasil, L R; Shair, K H Y

    2015-01-01

    Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) is a γ-herpesvirus associated with human epithelial and B-cell malignancies. The EBV latent membrane protein (LMP) 1 is expressed in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and promotes oncogenic intracellular signaling mechanisms. LMP1 also promotes a pro-migratory phenotype through potential effects on cell surface proteins, as expression of LMP1 induces an epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) in epithelial cell lines. In this study, LMP1 was examined for potential effects on cadherin and integrin surface interactions, and assessed for biological effects on adhesion and motility to fibronectin. Expression of LMP1 in the non-tumorigenic epithelial cell line MCF10a induced an EMT-associated cadherin switch. The induced N-cadherin was ligated and localized to the cell surface as determined by triton-solubility and immunofluorescence assays. In addition, LMP1 induced the assembly of focal adhesions (FAs) with increased production of fibronectin in MCF10a and NP460hTERT-immortalized nasopharyngeal cells. Biochemical enrichment of fibronectin-associated proteins indicated that LMP1 selectively promoted the recruitment of integrin-α5 and Src family kinase proteins to FA complexes. Neutralizing antibodies to N-cadherin and integrin-α5, but not integrin-αV, blocked the adhesion and transwell motility of MCF10a cells to fibronectin induced by LMP1. LMP1-induced transwell motility was also decreased by Src inhibition with the PP2 kinase inhibitor and short hairpin RNAs. These studies reveal that LMP1 has multiple mechanisms to promote the adhesive and migratory properties of epithelial cells through induction of fibronectin and modulation of cell surface interactions involving integrin-α5 and N-cadherin, which may contribute to the metastatic potential of NPC. PMID:26479443

  16. Combined targeting of TGF-β1 and integrin β3 impairs lymph node metastasis in a mouse model of non-small-cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Transforming Growth Factor beta (TGF-β) acts as a tumor suppressor early in carcinogenesis but turns into tumor promoter in later disease stages. In fact, TGF-β is a known inducer of integrin expression by tumor cells which contributes to cancer metastatic spread and TGF-β inhibition has been shown to attenuate metastasis in mouse models. However, carcinoma cells often become refractory to TGF-β-mediated growth inhibition. Therefore identifying patients that may benefit from anti-TGF-β therapy requires careful selection. Methods We performed in vitro analysis of the effects of exposure to TGF-β in NSCLC cell chemotaxis and adhesion to lymphatic endothelial cells. We also studied in an orthotopic model of NSCLC the incidence of metastases to the lymph nodes after inhibition of TGF-β signaling, β3 integrin expression or both. Results We offer evidences of increased β3-integrin dependent NSCLC adhesion to lymphatic endothelium after TGF-β exposure. In vivo experiments show that targeting of TGF-β and β3 integrin significantly reduces the incidence of lymph node metastasis. Even more, blockade of β3 integrin expression in tumors that did not respond to TGF-β inhibition severely impaired the ability of the tumor to metastasize towards the lymph nodes. Conclusion These findings suggest that lung cancer tumors refractory to TGF-β monotherapy can be effectively treated using dual therapy that combines the inhibition of tumor cell adhesion to lymphatic vessels with stromal TGF-β inhibition. PMID:24884715

  17. Tetanus neurotoxin-mediated cleavage of cellubrevin impairs epithelial cell migration and integrin-dependent cell adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Proux-Gillardeaux, Véronique; Gavard, Julie; Irinopoulou, Theano; Mège, René-Marc; Galli, Thierry

    2005-01-01

    A role for endocytosis and exocytosis in cell migration has been proposed but not yet demonstrated. Here, we show that cellubrevin (Cb), an early endosomal v-SNARE, mediates trafficking in the lamellipod of migrating epithelial cells and partially colocalizes with markers of focal contacts. Expression of tetanus neurotoxin, which selectively cleaves Cb, significantly reduced the speed of migrating epithelial cells. Furthermore, expression of tetanus neurotoxin enhanced the adhesion of epithelial cells to collagen, laminin, fibronectin, and E-cadherin; altered spreading on collagen; and impaired the recycling of β1 integrins. These results suggest that Cb-dependent membrane trafficking participates in cell motility through the regulation of cell adhesion. PMID:15851685

  18. Pharmacological Characterization of the αvβ6 Integrin Binding and Internalization Kinetics of the Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Derived Peptide A20FMDV2.

    PubMed

    Slack, Robert J; Hafeji, Maryam; Rogers, Rebecca; Ludbrook, Steve B; Marshall, John F; Flint, David J; Pyne, Susan; Denyer, Jane C

    2016-01-01

    A20FMDV2 is a peptide derived from the foot-and-mouth disease virus with a high affinity and selectivity for the alpha-v beta-6 (αvβ6) arginyl-glycinyl-aspartic acid (RGD)-binding integrin. It has been shown to be an informative tool ligand in pre-clinical imaging studies for selective labelling of the αvβ6 integrin in a number of disease models. In a radioligand binding assay using a radiolabelled form of the peptide ([3H]A20FMDV2), its high affinity (K(D): 0.22 nmol/l) and selectivity (at least 85-fold) for αvβ6 over the other members of the RGD integrin family was confirmed. [3H]A20FMDV2 αvβ6 binding could be fully reversed only in the presence of EDTA, whereas a partial reversal was observed in the presence of excess concentrations of an RGD-mimetic small molecule (SC-68448) or unlabelled A20FMDV2. Using flow cytometry on bronchial epithelial cells, the ligand-induced internalization of αvβ6 by A20FMDV2 and latency-associated peptide-1 was shown to be fast (t(1/2): 1.5 and 3.1 min, respectively), concentration-dependent (EC50: values 1.1 and 3.6 nmol/l, respectively) and was followed by a moderately slow return of integrin to the surface. The results of the radioligand binding studies suggest that the binding of A20FMDV2 to the RGD-binding site on αvβ6 is required to maintain its engagement with the hypothesised A20FMDV2 synergy site on the integrin. In addition, there is evidence from flow cytometric studies that the RGD-ligand engagement of αvβ6 post-internalization plays a role in delaying recycling of the integrin to the cell surface. This mechanism may act as a homeostatic control of membrane αvβ6 following RGD ligand engagement. PMID:26734728

  19. Molecular basis of the recognition of nephronectin by integrin alpha8beta1.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yuya; Uemura, Toshihiko; Morimitsu, Keisuke; Sato-Nishiuchi, Ryoko; Manabe, Ri-Ichiroh; Takagi, Junichi; Yamada, Masashi; Sekiguchi, Kiyotoshi

    2009-05-22

    Integrin alpha8beta1 interacts with a variety of Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD)-containing ligands in the extracellular matrix. Here, we examined the binding activities of alpha8beta1 integrin toward a panel of RGD-containing ligands. Integrin alpha8beta1 bound specifically to nephronectin with an apparent dissociation constant of 0.28 +/- 0.01 nm, but showed only marginal affinities for fibronectin and other RGD-containing ligands. The high-affinity binding to alpha8beta1 integrin was fully reproduced with a recombinant nephronectin fragment derived from the RGD-containing central "linker" segment. A series of deletion mutants of the recombinant fragment identified the LFEIFEIER sequence on the C-terminal side of the RGD motif as an auxiliary site required for high-affinity binding to alpha8beta1 integrin. Alanine scanning mutagenesis within the LFEIFEIER sequence defined the EIE sequence as a critical motif ensuring the high-affinity integrin-ligand interaction. Although a synthetic LFEIFEIER peptide failed to inhibit the binding of alpha8beta1 integrin to nephronectin, a longer peptide containing both the RGD motif and the LFEIFEIER sequence was strongly inhibitory, and was approximately 2,000-fold more potent than a peptide containing only the RGD motif. Furthermore, trans-complementation assays using recombinant fragments containing either the RGD motif or LFEIFEIER sequence revealed a clear synergism in the binding to alpha8beta1 integrin. Taken together, these results indicate that the specific high-affinity binding of nephronectin to alpha8beta1 integrin is achieved by bipartite interaction of the integrin with the RGD motif and LFEIFEIER sequence, with the latter serving as a synergy site that greatly potentiates the RGD-driven integrin-ligand interaction but has only marginal activity to secure the interaction by itself. PMID:19342381

  20. Targeting ILK and {beta}4 integrin abrogates the invasive potential of ovarian cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Yoon Pyo; Kim, Baek Gil; Gao, Ming-Qing; Kang, Suki; Cho, Nam Hoon

    2012-10-26

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The potential of targeting ILK and integrins for highly aggressive ovarian cancer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Unanticipated synergistic effect for the combination of ILK/{beta}4 integrin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Combination of ILK/{beta}4 integrin effectively inhibited the PI3K/Akt/Rac1 cascade. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Targeting of {beta}4 integrin/ILK had potent inhibitory effects in ovarian cancer. -- Abstract: Integrins and integrin-linked kinase (ILK) are essential to cancerous invasion because they mediate physical interactions with the extracellular matrix, and regulate oncogenic signaling pathways. The purpose of our study is to determine whether deletion of {beta}1 and {beta}4 integrin and ILK, alone or in combination, has antitumoral effects in ovarian cancer. Expression of {beta}1 and {beta}4 integrin and ILK was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in 196 ovarian cancer tissue samples. We assessed the effects of depleting these molecules with shRNAs in ovarian cancer cells by Western blot, conventional RT-PCR, cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and in vitro Rac1 activity assays, and in vivo xenograft formation assays. Overexpression of {beta}4 integrin and ILK in human ovarian cancer specimens was found to correlate with tumor aggressiveness. Depletion of these targets efficiently suppresses ovarian cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro and xenograft tumor formation in vivo. We also demonstrated that single depletion of ILK or combination depletion of {beta}4 integrin/ILK inhibits phosphorylation of downstream signaling targets, p-Ser 473 Akt and p-Thr202/Tyr204 Erk1/2, and activation of Rac1, as well as reduce expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 and increase expression of caspase-3 in vitro. In conclusion, targeting {beta}4 integrin combined with ILK can instigate the latent tumorigenic potential and abrogate the invasive potential in ovarian cancer.

  1. Conservation of the Human Integrin-Type Beta-Propeller Domain in Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Chouhan, Bhanupratap; Denesyuk, Alexander; Heino, Jyrki; Johnson, Mark S.; Denessiouk, Konstantin

    2011-01-01

    Integrins are heterodimeric cell-surface receptors with key functions in cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion. Integrin α and β subunits are present throughout the metazoans, but it is unclear whether the subunits predate the origin of multicellular organisms. Several component domains have been detected in bacteria, one of which, a specific 7-bladed β-propeller domain, is a unique feature of the integrin α subunits. Here, we describe a structure-derived motif, which incorporates key features of each blade from the X-ray structures of human αIIbβ3 and αVβ3, includes elements of the FG-GAP/Cage and Ca2+-binding motifs, and is specific only for the metazoan integrin domains. Separately, we searched for the metazoan integrin type β-propeller domains among all available sequences from bacteria and unicellular eukaryotic organisms, which must incorporate seven repeats, corresponding to the seven blades of the β-propeller domain, and so that the newly found structure-derived motif would exist in every repeat. As the result, among 47 available genomes of unicellular eukaryotes we could not find a single instance of seven repeats with the motif. Several sequences contained three repeats, a predicted transmembrane segment, and a short cytoplasmic motif associated with some integrins, but otherwise differ from the metazoan integrin α subunits. Among the available bacterial sequences, we found five examples containing seven sequential metazoan integrin-specific motifs within the seven repeats. The motifs differ in having one Ca2+-binding site per repeat, whereas metazoan integrins have three or four sites. The bacterial sequences are more conserved in terms of motif conservation and loop length, suggesting that the structure is more regular and compact than those example structures from human integrins. Although the bacterial examples are not full-length integrins, the full-length metazoan-type 7-bladed β-propeller domains are present, and sometimes two tandem

  2. Interactions between ICAM-5 and β1 integrins regulate neuronal synapse formation

    PubMed Central

    Ning, Lin; Tian, Li; Smirnov, Sergei; Vihinen, Helena; Llano, Olaya; Vick, Kyle; Davis, Ronald L.; Rivera, Claudio; Gahmberg, Carl G.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Intercellular adhesion molecule-5 (ICAM-5) is a dendrite-specific adhesion molecule, which functions in both the immune and nervous systems. ICAM-5 is the only negative regulator that has been identified for maturation of dendritic spines so far. Shedding of the ICAM-5 ectodomain promotes spine maturation and enhances synaptic activity. However, the mechanism by which ICAM-5 regulates spine development remains poorly understood. In this study, we found that ablation of ICAM5 expression resulted in a significant increase in the formation of synaptic contacts and the frequency of miniature excitatory post-synaptic currents, an indicator of pre-synaptic release probability. Antibodies against ICAM-5 and β1 integrins altered spine maturation. Furthermore, we found that β1 integrins serve as binding partners for ICAM-5. β1 integrins were immunoprecipitated with ICAM-5 from mouse brain and the binding region in ICAM-5 was localized to the two first Ig domains. β1 integrins were juxtaposed to filopodia tips at the early stage of synaptic formation, but as synapses matured, β1 integrins covered the mushroom spines. Loss of β1 integrins from the pre-synaptic sites affected the morphology of the post-synaptic structures. ICAM-5 ectodomain cleavage decreased or increased when the interaction between ICAM-5 and β1 integrins was potentiated or weakened, respectively, using antibodies. These results suggest that the interaction between ICAM-5 and β1 integrins is important in formation of functional synapses. PMID:23015592

  3. Interactions between ICAM-5 and β1 integrins regulate neuronal synapse formation.

    PubMed

    Ning, Lin; Tian, Li; Smirnov, Sergei; Vihinen, Helena; Llano, Olaya; Vick, Kyle; Davis, Ronald L; Rivera, Claudio; Gahmberg, Carl G

    2013-01-01

    Intercellular adhesion molecule-5 (ICAM-5) is a dendrite-specific adhesion molecule, which functions in both the immune and nervous systems. ICAM-5 is the only negative regulator that has been identified for maturation of dendritic spines so far. Shedding of the ICAM-5 ectodomain promotes spine maturation and enhances synaptic activity. However, the mechanism by which ICAM-5 regulates spine development remains poorly understood. In this study, we found that ablation of ICAM5 expression resulted in a significant increase in the formation of synaptic contacts and the frequency of miniature excitatory post-synaptic currents, an indicator of pre-synaptic release probability. Antibodies against ICAM-5 and β1 integrins altered spine maturation. Furthermore, we found that β1 integrins serve as binding partners for ICAM-5. β1 integrins were immunoprecipitated with ICAM-5 from mouse brain and the binding region in ICAM-5 was localized to the two first Ig domains. β1 integrins were juxtaposed to filopodia tips at the early stage of synaptic formation, but as synapses matured, β1 integrins covered the mushroom spines. Loss of β1 integrins from the pre-synaptic sites affected the morphology of the post-synaptic structures. ICAM-5 ectodomain cleavage decreased or increased when the interaction between ICAM-5 and β1 integrins was potentiated or weakened, respectively, using antibodies. These results suggest that the interaction between ICAM-5 and β1 integrins is important in formation of functional synapses. PMID:23015592

  4. An RNAi screen identifies KIF15 as a novel regulator of the endocytic trafficking of integrin.

    PubMed

    Eskova, Anastasia; Knapp, Bettina; Matelska, Dorota; Reusing, Susanne; Arjonen, Antti; Lisauskas, Tautvydas; Pepperkok, Rainer; Russell, Robert; Eils, Roland; Ivaska, Johanna; Kaderali, Lars; Erfle, Holger; Starkuviene, Vytaute

    2014-06-01

    α2β1 integrin is one of the most important collagen-binding receptors, and it has been implicated in numerous thrombotic and immune diseases. α2β1 integrin is a potent tumour suppressor, and its downregulation is associated with increased metastasis and poor prognosis in breast cancer. Currently, very little is known about the mechanism that regulates the cell-surface expression and trafficking of α2β1 integrin. Here, using a quantitative fluorescence-microscopy-based RNAi assay, we investigated the impact of 386 cytoskeleton-associated or -regulatory genes on α2 integrin endocytosis and found that 122 of these affected the intracellular accumulation of α2 integrin. Of these, 83 were found to be putative regulators of α2 integrin trafficking and/or expression, with no observed effect on the internalization of epidermal growth factor (EGF) or transferrin. Further interrogation and validation of the siRNA screen revealed a role for KIF15, a microtubule-based molecular motor, as a significant inhibitor of the endocytic trafficking of α2 integrin. Our data suggest a novel role for KIF15 in mediating plasma membrane localization of the alternative clathrin adaptor Dab2, thus impinging on pathways that regulate α2 integrin internalization. PMID:24659801

  5. Role of EGFR expression levels in the regulation of integrin function by EGF.

    PubMed

    Vial, Daniel; McKeown-Longo, Paula J

    2016-06-01

    Activation of β1 integrins in dormant tumor cells has been linked to metastatic progression, suggesting that therapies designed to maintain β1 integrins in an inactive state may be useful in the prevention of metastatic disease. Our earlier studies have demonstrated that EGF regulates the activation state of the α5β1 integrin in EGFR overexpressing tumor cells through an ERK/p90RSK signaling pathway. Activation of this pathway by EGF resulted in the filamin A dependent inactivation of the α5β1 integrin receptor for fibronectin. The current study was designed to address the role of EGFR overexpression in the regulation of α5β1 integrin activation state by EGF. Lentiviral knockdown of EGFR coupled with limited dilution cloning was used to develop A431 squamous carcinoma cell lines expressing high, moderate, and low levels of EGFR. Inactivation of α5β1 integrin by EGF was shown to correlate with both the level of EGFR expression and the extent of p90RSK phosphorylation, but not with the level of ERK phosphorylation, suggesting that high levels of EGFR promote α5β1 integrin inactivation through sustained activation of p90RSK. Treatment of cells with EGFR kinase inhibitor resulted in a reactivation of the integrin which could be reversed with the phosphatase inhibitor, menadione. Taken together, these findings indicate that p90RSK may function to maintain dormancy in tumor cells expressing high levels of EGFR. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26053065

  6. Integrin-based Therapeutics: Biological Basis, Clinical Use and New Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Ley, Klaus; Rivera-Nieves, Jesus; Sandborn, William J.; Shattil, Sanford

    2016-01-01

    Integrins are activatable adhesion and signaling molecules. Of the 24 known human integrins, three are currently targeted therapeutically by monoclonal antibodies, peptides or small molecules. The platelet αIIbβ3 integrin is targeted by Abciximab, Eptifibatide and Tirofiban, all with indications for preventing thrombotic complications after percutaneous coronary interventions. The lymphocyte α4β1 and α4β7 integrins are targeted by Natalizumab with indications in multiple sclerosis and Crohn’s disease. Although efficacious, use of this antibody is limited by a rare but serious complication, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. Vedolizumab is an antibody to a combinatorial epitope in α4β7 that is approved for use in patients with Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis in the United States, Canada and Europe. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy has not been observed in the clinical trials or clinical use of vedolizumab. New antibodies and small molecules targeting β7 integrins (α4β7 and αEβ7) and MAdCAM-1 are in clinical development for treatment of these inflammatory bowel diseases. Overall, integrin-based therapeutics have shown clinically significant benefits in many patients, leading to continued medical interest in the further development of novel integrin inhibitors. Of note, almost all integrin antagonists in use or in late-stage clinical trials target the ligand binding site, or the ligand itself. PMID:26822833

  7. β1 Integrin as a Prognostic and Predictive Marker in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Yin, Hsin-Ling; Wu, Chun-Chieh; Lin, Chih-Hung; Chai, Chee-Yin; Hou, Ming-Feng; Chang, Shu-Jyuan; Tsai, Hung-Pei; Hung, Wen-Chun; Pan, Mei-Ren; Luo, Chi-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) displays higher risk of recurrence and distant metastasis. Due to absence of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), TNBC lacks clinically established targeted therapies. Therefore, understanding of the mechanism underlying the aggressive behaviors of TNBC is required for the design of individualized strategies and the elongation of overall survival duration. Here, we supported a positive correlation between β1 integrin and malignant behaviors such as cell migration, invasion, and drug resistance. We found that silencing of β1 integrin inhibited cell migration, invasion, and increased the sensitivity to anti-cancer drug. In contrast, activation of β1 integrin increased cell migration, invasion, and decreased the sensitivity to anti-cancer drug. Furthermore, we found that silencing of β1 integrin abolished Focal adhesion kinese (FAK) mediated cell survival. Overexpression of FAK could restore cisplatin-induced apoptosis in β1 integrin-depleted cells. Consistent to in vitro data, β1 integrin expression was also positively correlated with FAK (p = 0.031) in clinical tissue. More importantly, β1 integrin expression was significantly correlated with patient outcome. In summary, our study indicated that β1 integrin could regulate TNBC cells migration, invasion, drug sensitivity, and be a potential prognostic biomarker in TNBC patient survival. PMID:27589736

  8. Targeting of Alpha-V Integrins Reduces Malignancy of Bladder Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    van der Horst, Geertje; Bos, Lieke; van der Mark, Maaike; Cheung, Henry; Heckmann, Bertrand; Clément-Lacroix, Philippe; Lorenzon, Giocondo; Pelger, Rob C. M.; Bevers, Rob F. M.; van der Pluijm, Gabri

    2014-01-01

    Low survival rates of metastatic cancers emphasize the need for a drug that can prevent and/or treat metastatic cancer. αv integrins are involved in essential processes for tumor growth and metastasis and targeting of αv integrins has been shown to decrease angiogenesis, tumor growth and metastasis. In this study, the role of αv integrin and its potential as a drug target in bladder cancer was investigated. Treatment with an αv integrin antagonist as well as knockdown of αv integrin in the bladder carcinoma cell lines, resulted in reduced malignancy invitro, as illustrated by decreased proliferative, migratory and clonogenic capacity. The CDH1/CDH2 ratio increased, indicating a shift towards a more epithelial phenotype. This shift appeared to be associated with downregulation of EMT-inducing transcription factors including SNAI2. The expression levels of the self-renewal genes NANOG and BMI1 decreased as well as the number of cells with high Aldehyde Dehydrogenase activity. In addition, self-renewal ability decreased as measured with the urosphere assay. In line with these observations, knockdown or treatment of αv integrins resulted in decreased metastatic growth in preclinical invivo models as assessed by bioluminescence imaging. In conclusion, we show that αv integrins are involved in migration, EMT and maintenance of Aldehyde Dehydrogenase activity in bladder cancer cells. Targeting of αv integrins might be a promising approach for treatment and/or prevention of metastatic bladder cancer. PMID:25247809

  9. Molecular Basis of Kindlin-2 Binding to Integrin-linked Kinase Pseudokinase for Regulating Cell Adhesion*

    PubMed Central

    Fukuda, Koichi; Bledzka, Kamila; Yang, Jun; Perera, H. Dhanuja; Plow, Edward F.; Qin, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) is a distinct intracellular adaptor essential for integrin-mediated cell-extracellular matrix adhesion, cell spreading, and migration. Acting as a major docking platform in focal adhesions, ILK engages many proteins to dynamically link integrins with the cytoskeleton, but the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Here, we have characterized the interaction of ILK with kindlin-2, a key regulator for integrin bidirectional signaling. We show that human kindlin-2 binds to human ILK with high affinity. Using systematic mapping approaches, we have identified a major ILK binding site involving a 20-residue fragment (residues 339–358) in kindlin-2. NMR-based analysis reveals a helical conformation of this fragment that utilizes its leucine-rich surface to recognize the ILK pseudokinase domain in a mode that is distinct from another ILK pseudokinase domain binding protein, α-parvin. Structure-based mutational experiments further demonstrate that the kindlin-2 binding to ILK is crucial for the kindlin-2 localization to focal adhesions and cell spreading (integrin outside-in signaling) but dispensable for the kindlin-2-mediated integrin activation (integrin inside-out signaling). These data define a specific mode of the kindlin-2/ILK interaction with mechanistic implications as to how it spatiotemporally mediates integrin signaling and cell adhesion. PMID:25160619

  10. Integrin upregulation and localization to focal adhesion sites in pregnant human myometrium.

    PubMed

    Burkin, Heather R; Rice, Monica; Sarathy, Apurva; Thompson, Sara; Singer, Cherie A; Buxton, Iain L O

    2013-07-01

    Focal adhesions are integrin-rich microdomains that structurally link the cytoskeleton to the extracellular matrix and transmit mechanical signals. In the pregnant uterus, increases in integrin expression and activation are thought to be critical for the formation of the mechanical syncytium required for labor. The aim of this study was to determine which integrins are upregulated and localized to focal adhesions in pregnant human myometrium. We used quantitative polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and confocal microscopy to determine the expression levels and colocalization with focal adhesion proteins. We observed increases in several integrin transcripts in pregnant myometrium. At the protein level, integrins such as α5-integrin (ITGA5), ITGA7, ITGAV, and ITGB3 were significantly increased during pregnancy. The integrins ITGA3, ITGA5, ITGA7, and ITGB1 colocalized with focal adhesion proteins in term human myometrium. These data suggest that integrins α3β1, α5β1, and α7β1 are the most likely candidates to transmit mechanical signals from the extracellular matrix through focal adhesions in pregnant human myometrium. PMID:23298868

  11. Beta-1 Integrin Signaling and Function in MLO-Y4 Osteocyte-Like Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Searby, N. D.; vanderMeulen, M. C. H.; Dovi, J.; Roden, C.; Banerjee, I.; Kim, J.-B.; Damsky, C. D.; Almeida, E. A. C.; Globus, R. K.

    2004-01-01

    In osteocyte-like cells, disruption of beta-1 integrin signaling by the Beta-1 tail construct: 1) Altered cell morphology; 2) Reduced cell motility; 3) Increased proliferation and final cell density; 4) Reduced cell's ability to maintain shape when subjected to uniaxial strain (1%, 30 min). Thus, beta-1 integrin is important in the response of osteocytic cells to mechanical loading.

  12. Integrin αv in the mechanical response of osteoblast lineage cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kaneko, Keiko; Ito, Masako; Naoe, Yoshinori; Lacy-Hulbert, Adam; Ikeda, Kyoji

    2014-05-02

    Highlights: • Deletion of integrin αv in osteoblast lineage results in an impaired SOST response to loading in vivo. • c-Src–p130Cas–JNK–YAP/TAZ is activated via integrin αv on osteoblasts in response to FSS. • Deletion of integrin αv in osteoblasts results in impaired responses to mechanical stimulation. • Integrin αv is a key component of the mechanosensing machinery in bone. - Abstract: Although osteoblast lineage cells, especially osteocytes, are thought to be a primary mechanosensory cell in bone, the identity of the mechano-receptor and downstream mechano-signaling pathways remain largely unknown. Here we show using osteoblastic cell model of mechanical stimulation with fluid shear stress that in the absence of integrin αv, phosphorylation of the Src substrate p130Cas and JNK was impaired, culminating in an inhibition of nuclear translocation of YAP/TAZ and subsequent transcriptional activation of target genes. Targeted deletion of the integrin αv in osteoblast lineage cells results in an attenuated response to mechanical loading in terms of Sost gene expression, indicative of a role for integrin αv in mechanoreception in vivo. Thus, integrin αv may be integral to a mechanosensing machinery in osteoblastic cells and involved in activation of a Src–JNK–YAP/TAZ pathway in response to mechanical stimulation.

  13. Kank2 activates talin, reduces force transduction across integrins and induces central adhesion formation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhiqi; Tseng, Hui-Yuan; Tan, Steven; Senger, Fabrice; Kurzawa, Laetitia; Dedden, Dirk; Mizuno, Naoko; Wasik, Anita A; Thery, Manuel; Dunn, Alexander R; Fässler, Reinhard

    2016-09-01

    Integrin-based adhesions play critical roles in cell migration. Talin activates integrins and flexibly connects integrins to the actomyosin cytoskeleton, thereby serving as a 'molecular clutch' that transmits forces to the extracellular matrix to drive cell migration. Here we identify the evolutionarily conserved Kank protein family as novel components of focal adhesions (FAs). Kank proteins accumulate at the lateral border of FAs, which we term the FA belt, and in central sliding adhesions, where they directly bind the talin rod domain through the Kank amino-terminal (KN) motif and induce talin and integrin activation. In addition, Kank proteins diminish the talin-actomyosin linkage, which curbs force transmission across integrins, leading to reduced integrin-ligand bond strength, slippage between integrin and ligand, central adhesion formation and sliding, and reduced cell migration speed. Our data identify Kank proteins as talin activators that decrease the grip between the integrin-talin complex and actomyosin to regulate cell migration velocity. PMID:27548916

  14. Absence of alphavbeta6 integrin is linked to initiation and progression of periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Ghannad, Farzin; Nica, Daniela; Fulle, Maria I Garcia; Grenier, Daniel; Putnins, Edward E; Johnston, Sarah; Eslami, Ameneh; Koivisto, Leeni; Jiang, Guoqiao; McKee, Marc D; Häkkinen, Lari; Larjava, Hannu

    2008-05-01

    Integrin alphavbeta6 is generally not expressed in adult epithelia but is induced in wound healing, cancer, and certain fibrotic disorders. Despite this generalized absence, we observed that alphavbeta6 integrin is constitutively expressed in the healthy junctional epithelium linking the gingiva to tooth enamel. Moreover, expression of alphavbeta6 integrin was down-regulated in human periodontal disease, a common medical condition causing tooth loss and also contributing to the development of cardiovascular diseases by increasing the total systemic inflammatory burden. Remarkably, integrin beta6 knockout mice developed classic signs of spontaneous, chronic periodontal disease with characteristic inflammation, epithelial down-growth, pocket formation, and bone loss around the teeth. Integrin alphavbeta6 acts as a major activator of transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1), a key anti-inflammatory regulator in the immune system. Co-expression of TGF-beta1 and alphavbeta6 integrin was observed in the healthy junctional epithelium. Moreover, an antibody that blocks alphavbeta6 integrin-mediated activation of TGF-beta1 initiated inflammatory periodontal disease in a rat model of gingival inflammation. Thus, alphavbeta6 integrin is constitutively expressed in the epithelium sealing the gingiva to the tooth and plays a central role in protection against inflammatory periodontal disease through activation of TGF-beta1. PMID:18385522

  15. The Rap1-RIAM-talin axis of integrin activation and blood cell function.

    PubMed

    Lagarrigue, Frederic; Kim, Chungho; Ginsberg, Mark H

    2016-07-28

    Integrin adhesion receptors mediate the adhesion of blood cells, such as leukocytes, to other cells, such as endothelial cells. Integrins also are critical for anchorage of hematopoietic precursors to the extracellular matrix. Blood cells can dynamically regulate the affinities of integrins for their ligands ("activation"), an event central to their functions. Here we review recent progress in understanding the mechanisms of integrin activation with a focus on the functions of blood cells. We discuss how talin binding to the integrin β cytoplasmic domain, in conjunction with the plasma membrane, induces long-range allosteric rearrangements that lead to integrin activation. Second, we review our understanding of how signaling events, particularly those involving Rap1 small guanosine triphosphate (GTP)hydrolases, can regulate the talin-integrin interaction and resulting activation. Third, we review recent findings that highlight the role of the Rap1-GTP-interacting adapter molecule (RIAM), encoded by the APBB1IP gene, in leukocyte integrin activation and consequently in leukocyte trafficking. PMID:27207789

  16. Physical association and functional interaction between beta1 integrin and CD98 on human T lymphocytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyamoto, Yuko J.; Mitchell, Jason S.; McIntyre, Bradley W.

    2003-01-01

    CD98 is a cell surface protein previously characterized as a cell activation marker, an amino acid transporter, and has recently been implicated in integrin-related functions. Integrins are cell surface proteins, important for homotypic cell aggregation, cell adhesion, and coactivation of T lymphocytes. We have previously shown that the anti-CD98 mAb 80A10, when coimmobilized with anti-CD3 mAb OKT3, is able to mediate human T cell coactivation that is inhibited by anti-beta1 integrin specific mAb 18D3. These results indicated a functional association of CD98 and beta1 integrin signaling but left open the question of a physical association. We now show the induction of homotypic aggregation through CD98 among human T cells and this aggregation was inhibited by anti-beta1 integrin mAb. Therefore, CD98-dependent lymphocyte proliferation and adhesion may involve integrins. Competitive binding assays and fluorescence colocalization analysis suggested that CD98 and beta1 integrin were physically associated. Differential extraction techniques and immunoprecipitations provided the first evidence that the alpha4beta1 integrin and CD98 are specifically associated on human T lymphocytes.

  17. Integrin β3 Is Required in Infection and Proliferation of Classical Swine Fever Virus

    PubMed Central

    Li, Weiwei; Wang, Gang; Liang, Wulong; Kang, Kai; Guo, Kangkang; Zhang, Yanming

    2014-01-01

    Classical Swine Fever (CSF) is a highly infectious fatal pig disease, resulting in huge economic loss to the swine industry. Integrins are membrane-bound signal mediators, expressed on a variety of cell surfaces and are known as receptors or co-receptors for many viruses. However, the role of integrin β3 in CSFV infection is unknown. Here, through quantitive PCR, immunofluorescence (IFC) and immunocytohistochemistry (ICC), we revealed that ST (swine testicles epithelial) cells have a prominent advantage in CSFV proliferation as compared to EC (swine umbilical vein endothelial cell), IEC (swine intestinal epithelial cell) and PK (porcine kidney epithelial) cells. Meanwhile, ST cells had remarkably more integrin β3 expression as compared to EC, IEC and PK cells, which was positively correlated with CSFV infection and proliferation. Integrin β3 was up-regulated post CSFV infection in all the four cell lines, while the CSFV proliferation rate was decreased in integrin β3 function-blocked cells. ShRNA1755 dramatically decreased integrin β3, with a deficiency of 96% at the mRNA level and 80% at the protein level. CSFV proliferation was dramatically reduced in integrin β3 constantly-defected cells (ICDC), with the deficiencies of 92.6%, 99% and 81.7% at 24 h, 48 h and 72 h post CSFV infection, respectively. These results demonstrate that integrin β3 is required in CSFV infection and proliferation, which provide a new insight into the mechanism of CSFV infection. PMID:25340775

  18. Epithelial β1 integrin is required for lung branching morphogenesis and alveolarization.

    PubMed

    Plosa, Erin J; Young, Lisa R; Gulleman, Peter M; Polosukhin, Vasiliy V; Zaynagetdinov, Rinat; Benjamin, John T; Im, Amanda M; van der Meer, Riet; Gleaves, Linda A; Bulus, Nada; Han, Wei; Prince, Lawrence S; Blackwell, Timothy S; Zent, Roy

    2014-12-01

    Integrin-dependent interactions between cells and extracellular matrix regulate lung development; however, specific roles for β1-containing integrins in individual cell types, including epithelial cells, remain incompletely understood. In this study, the functional importance of β1 integrin in lung epithelium during mouse lung development was investigated by deleting the integrin from E10.5 onwards using surfactant protein C promoter-driven Cre. These mutant mice appeared normal at birth but failed to gain weight appropriately and died by 4 months of age with severe hypoxemia. Defects in airway branching morphogenesis in association with impaired epithelial cell adhesion and migration, as well as alveolarization defects and persistent macrophage-mediated inflammation were identified. Using an inducible system to delete β1 integrin after completion of airway branching, we showed that alveolarization defects, characterized by disrupted secondary septation, abnormal alveolar epithelial cell differentiation, excessive collagen I and elastin deposition, and hypercellularity of the mesenchyme occurred independently of airway branching defects. By depleting macrophages using liposomal clodronate, we found that alveolarization defects were secondary to persistent alveolar inflammation. β1 integrin-deficient alveolar epithelial cells produced excessive monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 and reactive oxygen species, suggesting a direct role for β1 integrin in regulating alveolar homeostasis. Taken together, these studies define distinct functions of epithelial β1 integrin during both early and late lung development that affect airway branching morphogenesis, epithelial cell differentiation, alveolar septation and regulation of alveolar homeostasis. PMID:25395457

  19. Phorbol esters alter alpha4 and alphad integrin usage during eosinophil adhesion to VCAM-1.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Matsuo; Tachimoto, Hiroshi; Nutku, Esra; Hudson, Sherry A; Bochner, Bruce S

    2003-01-01

    We examined the effect of the protein kinase C activator phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) on the human eosinophil adhesion molecule phenotype and attachment to VCAM-1 via alpha4 and alphad integrins under static and flow conditions. PMA increased surface expression of alphad integrins and decreased alpha4 integrin expression. Under static conditions, eosinophils bound well to VCAM-1, primarily via alpha4beta1 integrins, with a minor alphadbeta2 integrin component. Unexpectedly, PMA-stimulated eosinophils bound equally well to VCAM-1 and albumin in a temperature- and divalent cation-dependent manner, yet adhesion was independent of beta1 and beta2 integrins. Under flow conditions, eosinophils readily attached to VCAM-1, and adhesion was inhibited by both alpha4 and alphad mAbs (95 and 50% inhibition, respectively). Many fewer PMA-stimulated eosinophils bound to VCAM-1 under flow conditions, but both alpha4 and alphad mAbs inhibited adhesion equally. Thus, PMA alters eosinophil integrin expression and the relative contributions of alpha4 and alphad integrins during attachment to VCAM-1. PMID:14668059

  20. Cross-talk between integrins {alpha}1{beta}1 and {alpha}2{beta}1 in renal epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Abair, Tristin D.; Sundaramoorthy, Munirathinam; Chen, Dong; Heino, Jyrki; Ivaska, Johanna; Hudson, Billy G.; Sanders, Charles R.; Pozzi, Ambra; Zent, Roy

    2008-11-15

    The collagen-binding integrins {alpha}1{beta}1 and {alpha}2{beta}1 have profoundly different functions, yet they are often co-expressed in epithelial cells. When both integrins are expressed in the same cell, it has been suggested that {alpha}1{beta}1 negatively regulates integrin {alpha}2{beta}1-dependent functions. In this study we utilized murine ureteric bud (UB) epithelial cells, which express no functionally detectable levels of endogenous integrins {alpha}1{beta}1 and {alpha}2{beta}1, to determine the mechanism whereby this regulation occurs. We demonstrate that UB cells expressing integrin {alpha}2{beta}1, but not {alpha}1{beta}1 adhere, migrate and proliferate on collagen I as well as form cellular cords in 3D collagen I gels. Substitution of the transmembrane domain of the integrin {alpha}2 subunit with that of {alpha}1 results in decreased cell adhesion, migration and cord formation. In contrast, substitution of the integrin {alpha}2 cytoplasmic tail with that of {alpha}1, decreases cell migration and cord formation, but increases proliferation. When integrin {alpha}1 and {alpha}2 subunits are co-expressed in UB cells, the {alpha}1 subunit negatively regulates integrin {alpha}2{beta}1-dependent cord formation, adhesion and migration and this inhibition requires expression of both {alpha}1 and {alpha}2 tails. Thus, we provide evidence that the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of the {alpha}2 integrin subunit, as well as the {alpha}1 integrin subunit, regulate integrin {alpha}2{beta}1 cell function.

  1. Vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 mediates trafficking of {alpha}5{beta}1 integrin to the plasma membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Hasan, Nazarul; Hu, Chuan

    2010-01-01

    Integrins are major receptors for cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix (ECM). As transmembrane proteins, the levels of integrins at the plasma membrane or the cell surface are ultimately determined by the balance between two vesicle trafficking events: endocytosis of integrins at the plasma membrane and exocytosis of the vesicles that transport integrins. Here, we report that vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 (VAMP2), a SNARE protein that mediates vesicle fusion with the plasma membrane, is involved in the trafficking of {alpha}5{beta}1 integrin. VAMP2 was present on vesicles containing endocytosed {beta}1 integrin. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) silencing of VAMP2 markedly reduced cell surface {alpha}5{beta}1 and inhibited cell adhesion and chemotactic migration to fibronectin, the ECM ligand of {alpha}5{beta}1, without altering cell surface expression of {alpha}2{beta}1 integrin or {alpha}3{beta}1 integrin. By contrast, silencing of VAMP8, another SNARE protein, had no effect on cell surface expression of the integrins or cell adhesion to fibronectin. In addition, VAMP2-mediated trafficking is involved in cell adhesion to collagen but not to laminin. Consistent with disruption of integrin functions in cell proliferation and survival, VAMP2 silencing diminished proliferation and triggered apoptosis. Collectively, these data indicate that VAMP2 mediates the trafficking of {alpha}5{beta}1 integrin to the plasma membrane and VAMP2-dependent integrin trafficking is critical in cell adhesion, migration and survival.

  2. Human macrophage differentiation involves an interaction between integrins and fibronectin

    SciTech Connect

    Laouar, A.; Chubb, C.B.H.; Collart, F.; Huberman, E.

    1996-11-15

    The authors have examined the role of the {beta}{sub 1} integrin family of adhesion receptors (VLA) and the extracellular matrix protein fibronectin (FN) in macrophage differentiation of (1) human HL-60 myeloid leukemia cells induced by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and (2) human peripheral blood monocytes induced by either PMA or macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M=CSF). Increased VLA and FN gene expression was observed as early as 4 h after PMA treatment of HL-60 cells and PMA- or M-CSF-treatment of monocytes, and it preceded the manifestation of macrophage markers. Treated HL-60 cells and monocytes also released and deposited FN on the surface of the tissue culture dishes. An HL-60 cell variant, HL-525, which is deficient in protein kinase C {beta} and resistant to PMA-induced differentiation, exhibited elevated levels of the VLA antigen but failed to express the FN gene. Incubation of HL-525 cells on dishes precoated with exogenous FN resulted in a macrophage differentiation. The macrophage phenotype induced in HL-60 cells, HL-525 cells, or monocytes was attenuated to various degrees by anti-VLA or anti-FN MAbs or by exogenous RGDS, a VLA-binding motif on FN. The authors suggest that macrophage differentiation is initiated by the activation of protein kinase C, which leads to the expression of the integrin, FN and related genes. The integrins mediate cell attachment and spreading on appropriate substrates by binding to deposited extracellular proteins such as FN. This attachment and spreading, in turn, leads to the expression of genes that code for the macrophage functions.

  3. Hypergravity Stimulates Osteoblast Proliferation Via Matrix-Integrin-Signaling Pathways

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vercoutere, W.; Parra, M.; Roden, C.; DaCosta, M.; Wing, A.; Damsky, C.; Holton, E.; Searby, N.; Globus, R.; Almeida, E.

    2003-01-01

    Extensive characterizations of the physiologic consequences of microgravity and gravity indicate that lack of weight-bearing may cause tissue atrophy through cellular and subcellular level mechanisms. We hypothesize that gravity is needed for the efficient transduction of cell growth and survival signals from the extra-cellular matrix (ECM) in mechanosensitive tissues. Recent work from our laboratory and from others shows that an increase of gravity increases bone cell growth and survival. We found that 50-g hypergravity stimulation increased osteoblast proliferation for cells grown on Collagen Type I and Fibronectin, but not on Laminin or uncoated plastic. This may be a tissue-specific response, because 50-g hypergravity stimulation caused no increase in proliferation for primary rat fibroblasts. These results combined with RT-PCR for all possible integrins indicate that beta1 integrin subunit may be involved. The osteoblast proliferation response on Collagen Type I was greater at 25-g than at 10-g or 50-g; 24-h duration of hypergravity was necessary to see an increase in proliferation. Survival was enhanced during hypergravity stimulation by the presence of matrix. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that cell cycle may be altered; BrdU incorporation in proliferating cells showed an increase in the number of actively dividing cells from about 60% at 1-g to over 90% at 25-g. To further investigate the molecular components involved, we applied fluorescence labeling of cytoskeletal and signaling molecules to cells after 2 to 30 minutes of hypergravity stimulation. While structural components did not appear to be altered, phosphorylation increased, indicating that signaling pathways may be activated. These data indicate that gravity mechanostimulation of osteoblast proliferation involves specific matrix-integrin signaling pathways which are sensitive to duration and g-level.

  4. Integrin Ligation Results in Nephrin Tyrosine Phosphorylation In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Rakesh; Venkatareddy, Madhusudan; Kalinowski, Anne; Patel, Sanjeevkumar R.; Garg, Puneet

    2016-01-01

    Nephrin is expressed at the basolateral aspect of podocytes and is an important signaling protein at the glomerular slit diaphragm. In vitro studies have demonstrated that Nephrin phosphorylation-dependent signaling is able to assemble a protein complex that is able to polymerize actin. However, proximal signaling events that result in nephrin tyrosine phosphorylation are not well understood. Nephrin deletion in mice and human nephrin mutations result in developmental failure of the podocyte intercellular junction resutling in proteinuria. This has been presumed to be due to a failure to respond to an external polarized cue in the absence of nephrin or a failure to transduce an outside-in signal in patients with nephrin mutations. The nephrin extracellular domain binds to itself or neph1 across the foot process intercellular junction. Nephrin is tyrosine phosphorylation-silent in healthy glomeruli when presumably the nephrin extracellular domain is in an engaged state. These observations raise the possibility of an alternate proximal signaling mechanism that might be responsible for nephrin tyrosine phosphorylation. Here we present data showing that integrin engagement at the basal aspect of cultured podocytes results in nephrin tyrosine phosphorylation. This is abrogated by incubating podocytes with an antibody that prevents integrin β1 ligation and activation in response to binding to extracellular matrix. Furthermore, nephrin tyrosine phosphorylation was observed in podocytes expressing a membrane-targeted nephrin construct that lacks the extracellular domain. We propose, integrin-activation based signaling might be responsible for nephrin phosphorylation rather than engagment of the nephrin extracellular domain by a ligand. PMID:26848974

  5. Human smooth muscle VLA-1 integrin: purification, substrate specificity, localization in aorta, and expression during development.

    PubMed

    Belkin, V M; Belkin, A M; Koteliansky, V E

    1990-11-01

    A membrane glycoprotein complex was isolated and purified from human smooth muscle by detergent solubilization and affinity chromatography on collagen-Sepharose. The complex was identified as VLA-1 integrin and consisted of two subunits of 195 and 130 kD in SDS-PAGE. Liposomes containing the VLA-1 integrin adhered to surfaces coated with type I, II, III, and IV collagens, Clq subcomponent of the first component of the complement, and laminin. The liposomes specifically adhered to these proteins in a Ca2+, Mg2(+)-dependent manner, but did not bind to gelatin, fibronectin, and thrombospondin substrates. The expression of VLA-1 integrin in different human tissues and cell types, and during aorta smooth muscle development was studied by SDS-PAGE, and subsequent quantitative immunoblotting was performed with antibodies recognizing alpha 1 and beta 1 subunits of the VLA-1 integrin. A high level of VLA-1 integrin expression was an exceptional feature of smooth muscles. Fibroblasts, endothelial cells, keratinocytes, striated muscles, and platelets contained trace amounts of VLA-1 integrin. In the 10-wk-old human fetal aorta, VLA-1 integrin was found only in smooth muscle cells whereas mesenchymal cells, surrounding aortic smooth muscle cells, were VLA-1 integrin negative. By the 24th wk of gestation, the amount of VLA-1 integrin was significantly reduced in the aortic media (4.3-fold for alpha 1 subunit and 2.5-fold for beta 1 subunit) compared with that in the 10-wk-old aortic smooth muscle cells. After birth, the expression of VLA-1 integrin increased and in the 1.5-yr-old child aorta the VLA-1 integrin level was almost the same as in adult aortic media. Smooth muscle cells from intimal thickening of adult aorta express five times less alpha 1 subunit of VLA integrin that smooth muscle cells from adult aortic media. In primary culture of aortic smooth muscle cells, the content of the VLA-1 integrin was dramatically reduced and subcultured cells did not contain VLA-1

  6. Regulation of mRNA and Protein Levels of β1 Integrin Variants in Human Prostate Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Perlino, Elda; Lovecchio, Mariarosaria; Vacca, Rosa A.; Fornaro, Mara; Moro, Loredana; Ditonno, Pasquale; Battaglia, Michele; Selvaggi, Francesco P.; Mastropasqua, Mauro G.; Bufo, Pantaleo; Languino, Lucia R.

    2000-01-01

    Alterations of integrin expression levels in cancer cells correlate with changes in invasiveness, tumor progression, and metastatic potential. The β1C integrin, an alternatively spliced form of the human β1 integrin, has been shown to inhibit prostate cell proliferation. Furthermore, β1C protein levels were found to be abundant in normal prostate glandular epithelium and down-regulated in prostatic adenocarcinoma. To gain further insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying abnormal cancer cell proliferation, we have studied β1C and β1 integrin expression at both mRNA and protein levels by Northern and immunoblotting analysis using freshly isolated neoplastic and normal human prostate tissue specimens. Steady-state mRNA levels were evaluated in 38 specimens: 33 prostatic adenocarcinomas exhibiting different Gleason’s grade and five normal tissue specimens that did not show any histological manifestation of benign prostatic hypertrophy. Our results demonstrate that β1C mRNA is expressed in normal prostate and is significantly down-regulated in neoplastic prostate specimens. In addition, using a probe that hybridizes with all β1 variants, mRNA levels of β1 are found reduced in neoplastic versus normal prostate tissues. We demonstrate that β1C mRNA down-regulation does not correlate with either tumor grade or differentiation according to Gleason’s grade and TNM system evaluation, and that β1C mRNA levels are not affected by hormonal therapy. In parallel, β1C protein levels were analyzed. As expected, β1C is found to be expressed in normal prostate and dramatically reduced in neoplastic prostate tissues; in contrast, using an antibody to β1 that recognizes all β1 variants, the levels of β1 are comparable in normal and neoplastic prostate, thus indicating a selective down-regulation of the β1C protein in prostate carcinoma. These results demonstrate for the first time that β1C and β1 mRNA expression is down-regulated in prostate carcinoma

  7. Integrin clustering as a result of local membrane deformations and local signaling feedbacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felizzi, Federico; Iber, Dagmar

    2014-08-01

    Integrins are essential receptors for the development and functioning of multicellular animals because they mediate cell adhesion and migration, and regulate cell proliferation and apoptosis. Ligand-dependent activation of integrins involves the formation of receptor clusters and this has been accounted both to extracellular forces as mediated by the glycocalyx as well as to intracellular forces mediated by the cytoskeleton. Here we describe a Monte Carlo simulation that considers both the binding processes on the membrane as well as the intracellular signaling processes that stabilize the open integrin conformation. We show that integrin clustering can result both from the effects of integrin avidity, as a result of membrane deformations, as well as from the locally enhanced availability of talins in the open conformation, as a result of local positive feedback signaling via PIPKIγ and PIP2. The model was carefully parameterized based on reported quantitative data and reproduces a wide range of experimental data, including results that previously appeared inconsistent.

  8. The role of integrins in the development and homeostasis of the epidermis and skin appendages.

    PubMed

    Rippa, A L; Vorotelyak, E A; Vasiliev, A V; Terskikh, V V

    2013-10-01

    Integrins play a critical role in the regulation of adhesion, migration, proliferation, and differentiation of cells. Because of the variety of the functions they play in the cell, they are necessary for the formation and maintenance of tissue structure integrity. The trove of data accumulated by researchers suggests that integrins participate in the morphogenesis of the epidermis and its appendages. The development of mice with tissue-specific integrin genes knockout and determination of the genetic basis for a number of skin diseases in humans showed the significance of integrins in the biology, physiology, and morphogenesis of the epidermis and hair follicles. This review discusses the data on the role of different classes of integrin receptors in the biology of epidermal cells, as well as the development of the epidermis and hair follicles. PMID:24455180

  9. The Role of Integrins in the Development and Homeostasis of the Epidermis and Skin Appendages

    PubMed Central

    Rippa, A.L.; Vorotelyak, E.A.; Vasiliev, A.V.; Terskikh, V.V.

    2013-01-01

    Integrins play a critical role in the regulation of adhesion, migration, proliferation, and differentiation of cells. Because of the variety of the functions they play in the cell, they are necessary for the formation and maintenance of tissue structure integrity. The trove of data accumulated by researchers suggests that integrins participate in the morphogenesis of the epidermis and its appendages. The development of mice with tissue-specific integrin genes knockout and determination of the genetic basis for a number of skin diseases in humans showed the significance of integrins in the biology, physiology, and morphogenesis of the epidermis and hair follicles. This review discusses the data on the role of different classes of integrin receptors in the biology of epidermal cells, as well as the development of the epidermis and hair follicles. PMID:24455180

  10. Integrin-dependent force transmission to the extracellular matrix by α-actinin triggers adhesion maturation

    PubMed Central

    Roca-Cusachs, Pere; del Rio, Armando; Puklin-Faucher, Eileen; Gauthier, Nils C.; Biais, Nicolas; Sheetz, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Focal adhesions are mechanosensitive elements that enable mechanical communication between cells and the extracellular matrix. Here, we demonstrate a major mechanosensitive pathway in which α-actinin triggers adhesion maturation by linking integrins to actin in nascent adhesions. We show that depletion of the focal adhesion protein α-actinin enhances force generation in initial adhesions on fibronectin, but impairs mechanotransduction in a subsequent step, preventing adhesion maturation. Expression of an α-actinin fragment containing the integrin binding domain, however, dramatically reduces force generation in depleted cells. This behavior can be explained by a competition between talin (which mediates initial adhesion and force generation) and α-actinin for integrin binding. Indeed, we show in an in vitro assay that talin and α-actinin compete for binding to β3 integrins, but cooperate in binding to β1 integrins. Consistently, we find opposite effects of α-actinin depletion and expression of mutants on substrates that bind β3 integrins (fibronectin and vitronectin) versus substrates that only bind β1 integrins (collagen). We thus suggest that nascent adhesions composed of β3 integrins are initially linked to the actin cytoskeleton by talin, and then α-actinin competes with talin to bind β3 integrins. Force transmitted through α-actinin then triggers adhesion maturation. Once adhesions have matured, α-actinin recruitment correlates with force generation, suggesting that α-actinin is the main link transmitting force between integrins and the cytoskeleton in mature adhesions. Such a multistep process enables cells to adjust forces on matrices, unveiling a role of α-actinin that is different from its well-studied function as an actin cross-linker. PMID:23515331

  11. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor links integrin signaling to the TGF-β pathway.

    PubMed

    Silginer, M; Burghardt, I; Gramatzki, D; Bunse, L; Leske, H; Rushing, E J; Hao, N; Platten, M; Weller, M; Roth, P

    2016-06-23

    Glioblastoma is the most common and aggressive form of intrinsic brain tumor. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β represents a central mediator of the malignant phenotype of these tumors by promoting invasiveness and angiogenesis, maintaining tumor cell stemness and inducing profound immunosuppression. Integrins, which are highly expressed in glioma cells, interact with the TGF-β pathway. Furthermore, a link has been described between activity of the transcription factor aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and TGF-β expression. Here we demonstrate that integrin inhibition, using αv, β3 or β5 neutralizing antibodies, RNA interference-mediated integrin gene silencing or pharmacological inhibition by the cyclic RGD peptide EMD 121974 (cilengitide) or the non-peptidic molecule GLPG0187, inhibits AhR activity. These effects are independent of cell detachment or cell density. While AhR mRNA expression was not affected by integrin inhibition, AhR total and nuclear protein levels were reduced, suggesting that integrin inhibition-mediated regulation of AhR may occur at a post-transcriptional level. AhR-null astrocytes, AhR-null hepatocytes or glioblastoma cells with a transiently silenced AhR gene showed reduced sensitivity to integrin inhibition-mediated alterations in TGF-β signaling, indicating that AhR mediates integrin control of the TGF-β pathway. Accordingly, there was a significant correlation of αv integrin levels with nuclear AhR and pSmad2 levels as determined by immunohistochemistry in human glioblastoma in vivo. In summary, this study identifies a signaling network comprising integrins, AhR and TGF-β and validates integrin inhibition as a promising strategy not only to inhibit angiogenesis, but also to block AhR- and TGF-β-controlled features of malignancy in human glioblastoma. PMID:26500056

  12. Human Parechovirus 1 Infection Occurs via αVβ1 Integrin

    PubMed Central

    Merilahti, Pirjo; Tauriainen, Sisko

    2016-01-01

    Human parechovirus 1 (HPeV-1) (family Picornaviridae) is a global cause of pediatric respiratory and CNS infections for which there is no treatment. Although biochemical and in vitro studies have suggested that HPeV-1 binds to αVβ1, αVβ3 and αVβ6 integrin receptor(s), the actual cellular receptors required for infectious entry of HPeV-1 remain unknown. In this paper we analyzed the expression profiles of αVβ1, αVβ3, αVβ6 and α5β1 in susceptible cell lines (A549, HeLa and SW480) to identify which integrin receptors support HPeV-1 internalization and/or replication cycle. We demonstrate by antibody blocking assay, immunofluorescence microscopy and RT-qPCR that HPeV-1 internalizes and replicates in cell lines that express αVβ1 integrin but not αVβ3 or αVβ6 integrins. To further study the role of β1 integrin, we used a mouse cell line, GE11-KO, which is deficient in β1 expression, and its derivate GE11-β1 in which human integrin β1 subunit is overexpressed. HPeV-1 (Harris strain) and three clinical HPeV-1 isolates did not internalize into GE11-KO whereas GE11-β1 supported the internalization process. An integrin β1-activating antibody, TS2/16, enhanced HPeV-1 infectivity, but infection occurred in the absence of visible receptor clustering. HPeV-1 also co-localized with β1 integrin on the cell surface, and HPeV-1 and β1 integrin co-endocytosed into the cells. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that in some cell lines the cellular entry of HPeV-1 is primarily mediated by the active form of αVβ1 integrin without visible receptor clustering. PMID:27128974

  13. Targeting of β1 integrins impairs DNA repair for radiosensitization of head and neck cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Dickreuter, E; Eke, I; Krause, M; Borgmann, K; van Vugt, M A; Cordes, N

    2016-03-17

    β1 Integrin-mediated cell-extracellular matrix interactions allow cancer cell survival and confer therapy resistance. It was shown that inhibition of β1 integrins sensitizes cells to radiotherapy. Here, we examined the impact of β1 integrin targeting on the repair of radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). β1 Integrin inhibition was accomplished using the monoclonal antibody AIIB2 and experiments were performed in three-dimensional cell cultures and tumor xenografts of human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines. AIIB2, X-ray irradiation, small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown and Olaparib treatment were performed and residual DSB number, protein and gene expression, non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) activity as well as clonogenic survival were determined. β1 Integrin targeting impaired repair of radiogenic DSB (γH2AX/53BP1, pDNA-PKcs T2609 foci) in vitro and in vivo and reduced the protein expression of Ku70, Rad50 and Nbs1. Further, we identified Ku70, Ku80 and DNA-PKcs but not poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)-1 to reside in the β1 integrin pathway. Intriguingly, combined inhibition of β1 integrin and PARP using Olaparib was significantly more effective than either treatment alone in non-irradiated and irradiated HNSCC cells. Here, we support β1 integrins as potential cancer targets and highlight a regulatory role for β1 integrins in the repair of radiogenic DNA damage via classical NHEJ. Further, the data suggest combined targeting of β1 integrin and PARP as promising approach for radiosensitization of HNSCC. PMID:26073085

  14. Binding of integrin α1 to bone morphogenetic protein receptor IA suggests a novel role of integrin α1β1 in bone morphogenetic protein 2 signalling.

    PubMed

    Zu, Yan; Liang, Xudong; Du, Jing; Zhou, Shuai; Yang, Chun

    2015-11-01

    Here, we observed that integrin α1β1 and bone morphogenetic protein receptor (BMPR) IA formed a complex and co-localised in several cell types. However, the molecular interaction between these two molecules was not studied in detail to date and the role of the interaction in BMPR signalling remains unknown; thus, these were investigated here. In a steered molecular dynamics (SMD) simulation, the observed development of the rupture force related to the displacement between the A-domain of integrin α1 and the extracellular domain of BMPR IA indicated a strong molecular interaction within the integrin-BMPR complex. Analysis of the intermolecular forces revealed that hydrogen bonds, rather than salt bridges, are the major contributors to these intermolecular interactions. By using Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) experiments with site-directed mutants, we found that residues 85-89 in BMPR IA play the most important role for BMPR IA binding to integrin α1β1. These residues are the same as those responsible for bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2)/BMPR IA binding. In our experiments, we also found that the interference of integrin α1β1 up regulated the level of phosphorylated Smad1, 5, 8, which is the downstream of BMP/BMPR signalling. Therefore, our results suggest that integrin α1β1/BMPR IA may block BMP-2/BMPR IA complex information and interfere with the BMP-2 signalling pathway in cells. PMID:26475222

  15. Cilostazol suppresses β-amyloid production by activating a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 10 via the upregulation of SIRT1-coupled retinoic acid receptor-β.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye Rin; Shin, Hwa Kyoung; Park, So Youn; Kim, Hye Young; Lee, Won Suk; Rhim, Byung Yong; Hong, Ki Whan; Kim, Chi Dae

    2014-11-01

    The accumulation of plaques of β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides, a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease, results from the sequential cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) by activation of β- and γ-secretases. However, the production of Aβ can be avoided by alternate cleavage of APP by α-and γ-secretases. We hypothesized that cilostazol attenuates Aβ production by increasing a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 10 (ADAM10)/α-secretase activity via SIRT1-coupled retinoic acid receptor-β (RARβ) activation in N2a cells expressing human APP Swedish mutation (N2aSwe). To evoke endogenous Aβ overproduction, the culture medium was switched from medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) to medium containing 1% FBS, and cells were cultured for 3∼24 hr. After depletion of FBS in media, N2aSwe cells showed increased accumulations of full-length APP (FL-APP) and Aβ in a time-dependent manner (3-24 hr) in association with decreased ADAM10 protein expression. When pretreated with cilostazol (10-30 μM), FL-APP and Aβ levels were significantly reduced, and ADAM10 and α-secretase activities were restored. Furthermore, the effect of cilostazol on ADAM10 expression was antagonized by pretreating Rp-cAMPS and sirtinol and by SIRT1-gene silencing. In the N2aSwe cells overexpressing the SIRT1 gene, ADAM10, and sAPPα levels were significantly elevated. In addition, like all-trans retinoic acid, cilostazol enhanced the protein expressions of RARβ and ADAM10, and the cilostazol-stimulated ADAM10 elevation was significantly attenuated by LE135 (a RARβ inhibitor), sirtinol, and RARβ-gene silencing. In conclusion, cilostazol suppresses the accumulations of FL-APP and Aβ by activating ADAM10 via the upregulation of SIRT1-coupled RARβ. PMID:24903973

  16. A disintegrin and metalloprotease with thrombospondin type I motif 7: a new protease for connective tissue growth factor in hepatic progenitor/oval cell niche.

    PubMed

    Pi, Liya; Jorgensen, Marda; Oh, Seh-Hoon; Protopapadakis, Yianni; Gjymishka, Altin; Brown, Alicia; Robinson, Paulette; Liu, Chuanju; Scott, Edward W; Schultz, Gregory S; Petersen, Bryon E

    2015-06-01

    Hepatic progenitor/oval cell (OC) activation occurs when hepatocyte proliferation is inhibited and is tightly associated with the fibrogenic response during severe liver damage. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is important for OC activation and contributes to the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis. By using the Yeast Two-Hybrid approach, we identified a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin repeat 7 (ADAMTS7) as a CTGF binding protein. In vitro characterization demonstrated CTGF binding and processing by ADAMTS7. Moreover, Adamts7 mRNA was induced during OC activation, after the implantation of 2-acetylaminofluorene with partial hepatectomy in rats or on feeding a 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine (DDC) diet in mice. X-Gal staining showed Adamts7 expression in hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α(+) hepatocytes and desmin(+) myofibroblasts surrounding reactive ducts in DDC-treated Adamts7(-/-) mice carrying a knocked-in LacZ gene. Adamts7 deficiency was associated with higher transcriptional levels of Ctgf and OC markers and enhanced OC proliferation compared to Adamts7(+/+) controls during DDC-induced liver injury. We also observed increased α-smooth muscle actin and procollagen type I mRNAs, large fibrotic areas in α-smooth muscle actin and Sirius red staining, and increased production of hepatic collagen by hydroxyproline measurement. These results suggest that ADAMTS7 is a new protease for CTGF protein and a novel regulator in the OC compartment, where its absence causes CTGF accumulation, leading to increased OC activation and biliary fibrosis. PMID:25843683

  17. Synergistic inhibition with a dual epidermal growth factor receptor/HER-2/neu tyrosine kinase inhibitor and a disintegrin and metalloprotease inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Witters, Lois; Scherle, Peggy; Friedman, Steven; Fridman, Jordan; Caulder, Eian; Newton, Robert; Lipton, Allan

    2008-09-01

    The ErbB family of receptors is overexpressed in numerous human tumors. Overexpression correlates with poor prognosis and resistance to therapy. Use of ErbB-specific antibodies to the receptors (Herceptin or Erbitux) or ErbB-specific small-molecule inhibitors of the receptor tyrosine kinase activity (Iressa or Tarceva) has shown clinical efficacy in several solid tumors. An alternative method of affecting ErbB-initiated tumor growth and survival is to block sheddase activity. Sheddase activity is responsible for cleavage of multiple ErbB ligands and receptors, a necessary step in availability of the soluble, active form of the ligand and a constitutively activated ligand-independent receptor. This sheddase activity is attributed to the ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloprotease) family of proteins. ADAM 10 is the main sheddase of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and HER-2/neu cleavage, whereas ADAM17 is required for cleavage of additional EGF receptor (EGFR) ligands (transforming growth factor-alpha, amphiregulin, heregulin, heparin binding EGF-like ligand). This study has shown that addition of INCB3619, a potent inhibitor of ADAM10 and ADAM17, reduces in vitro HER-2/neu and amphiregulin shedding, confirming that it interferes with both HER-2/neu and EGFR ligand cleavage. Combining INCB3619 with a lapatinib-like dual inhibitor of EGFR and HER-2/neu kinases resulted in synergistic growth inhibition in MCF-7 and HER-2/neu-transfected MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Combining the INCB7839 second-generation sheddase inhibitor with lapatinib prevented the growth of HER-2/neu-positive BT474-SC1 human breast cancer xenografts in vivo. These results suggest that there may be an additional clinical benefit of combining agents that target the ErbB pathways at multiple points. PMID:18757423

  18. A disintegrin and metalloproteinase 12 (ADAM12) localizes to invasive trophoblast, promotes cell invasion and directs column outgrowth in early placental development.

    PubMed

    Aghababaei, M; Perdu, S; Irvine, K; Beristain, A G

    2014-03-01

    During pregnancy, stromal- and vascular-remodeling trophoblasts serve critical roles in directing placental development acquiring pro-invasive characteristics. The A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase (ADAM) family of multifunctional proteins direct cellular processes across multiple organ systems via their intrinsic catalytic, cell adhesive and intracellular signaling properties. ADAM12, existing as two distinct splice variants (ADAM12L and ADAM12S), is highly expressed in the human placenta and promotes cell migration and invasion in several tumor cell lines; however, its role in trophoblast biology is unknown. In this study, ADAM12 was localized to anchoring trophoblast columns in first trimester placentas and to highly invasive extracellular matrix-degrading trophoblasts in placental villous explants. The importance of ADAM12 in directing trophoblast invasion was tested using loss-of and gain-of-function strategies, where siRNA-directed knockdown of ADAM12 inhibited trophoblast cell invasion while over-expression promoted migration and invasion in two trophoblastic cell models. In placental villous explant cultures, siRNA-directed loss of ADAM12 significantly dampened trophoblast column outgrowth. Additionally, we provide functional evidence for the ADAM12S variant in promoting trophoblast invasion and column outgrowth through a mechanism requiring its catalytic activity. This is the first study to assign a function for ADAM12 in trophoblast biology, where ADAM12 may play a central role regulating the behavior of invasive trophoblast subsets in early pregnancy. This study also underlines the importance of ADAM12L and ADAM12S in directing cell motility in normal developmental processes outside of cancer, specifically highlighting a potentially important function of ADAM12S in directing early placental development. PMID:24243624

  19. The Cytoplasmic Domain of A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase 10 (ADAM10) Regulates Its Constitutive Activity but Is Dispensable for Stimulated ADAM10-dependent Shedding*

    PubMed Central

    Maretzky, Thorsten; Evers, Astrid; Le Gall, Sylvain; Alabi, Rolake O.; Speck, Nancy; Reiss, Karina; Blobel, Carl P.

    2015-01-01

    The membrane-anchored metalloproteinase a disintegrin and metalloprotease 10 (ADAM10) is required for shedding of membrane proteins such as EGF, betacellulin, the amyloid precursor protein, and CD23 from cells. ADAM10 is constitutively active and can be rapidly and post-translationally enhanced by several stimuli, yet little is known about the underlying mechanism. Here, we use ADAM10-deficient cells transfected with wild type or mutant ADAM10 to address the role of its cytoplasmic and transmembrane domain in regulating ADAM10-dependent protein ectodomain shedding. We report that the cytoplasmic domain of ADAM10 negatively regulates its constitutive activity through an ER retention motif but is dispensable for its stimulated activity. However, chimeras with the extracellular domain of ADAM10 and the transmembrane domain of ADAM17 with or without the cytoplasmic domain of ADAM17 show reduced stimulated shedding of the ADAM10 substrate betacellulin, whereas the ionomycin-stimulated shedding of the ADAM17 substrates CD62-L and TGFα is not affected. Moreover, we show that influx of extracellular calcium activates ADAM10 but is not essential for its activation by APMA and BzATP. Finally, the rapid stimulation of ADAM10 is not significantly affected by incubation with proprotein convertase inhibitors for up to 8 h, arguing against a major role of increased prodomain removal in the rapid stimulation of ADAM10. Thus, the cytoplasmic domain of ADAM10 negatively influences constitutive shedding through an ER retention motif, whereas the cytoplasmic domain and prodomain processing are not required for the rapid activation of ADAM10-dependent shedding events. PMID:25605720

  20. A disintegrin and metalloprotease 33 polymorphism association with COPD in long-term tobacco smokers of the ethnic Kashmiri population of India

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Sonaullah; Rashid, Amir; Shah, Zaffar A; Jan, Rafi Ahmad; Khan, Umar Hafiz; Bhat, Imtiyaz A; Mantoo, Suhail; Shah, Tajamul H; Koul, Parvaiz A

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by an interaction of various environmental influences especially cigarette smoking and genetic determinants. The prevalence of this disease is ever increasing and characterization of the genetic determinants of the disease has been undertaken globally. The ‘A disintegrin and metalloprotease 33’ (ADAM 33) gene is one candidate gene that has been studied. Objective: Our objective was to investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms in ADAM33 gene are associated with COPD in long-term tobacco smokers in the ethnic Kashmiri population of northern India. Materials and Methods: This was a randomized case-control study, which included 78 stable COPD (GOLD stage11-IV) patients, who were compared with 77 age- and sex-matched long-term tobacco smokers (>20 pack years) without any evidence of COPD. Polymorphic analysis for three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), (T1, T2, and Q1) of the ADAM33 gene was done by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) followed by sequencing. The data were analyzed by descriptive statistics and comparative evaluation was done by parametric/non-parametric tests. Results: The analysis of the T1, T2, and Q1 SNPs, revealed that the frequencies of the T2GG, T1GG, and the Q1AG genotypes were significantly higher in patients with COPD in comparison with the controls (P < 0.001). Similarly, the T1G and T2G allele frequency was higher in the patients than in the controls (p = 0.177 and 0.43, respectively). Conclusion: Three SNPs of the ADAM33 gene were significantly associated with COPD in the Kashmiri population of India. This study establishes the possible role of ADAM33 SNPS in the causation of COPD. Further studies across different geographical areas in the country will unravel the contribution of this gene in the causation of COPD in India. PMID:25983406

  1. Transmembrane-truncated alphavbeta3 integrin retains high affinity for ligand binding: evidence for an 'inside-out' suppressor?

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, R J; Diefenbach, B; Brown, A; Cullen, E; Jonczyk, A; Güssow, D; Luckenbach, G A; Goodman, S L

    1998-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms of alphavbeta3 integrin affinity regulation have important biological implications in tumour development, wound repair and angiogenesis. We expressed, purified and characterized recombinant forms of human alphavbeta3 (r-alphavbeta3) and compared the activation state of these with alphavbeta3 in its cellular environment. The ligand specificity and selectivity of recombinant full-length and double transmembrane truncations of r-alphavbeta3 cloned in BacPAK6 vectors and expressed in Sf9 and High Five insect cells were compared with those of native placental alphavbeta3 and the receptor in situ on the cell surface. r-alphavbeta3 integrins were purified by affinity chromatography from detergent extracts of cells (full-length), and from the culture medium of cells expressing double-truncated r-alphavbeta3. r-alphavbeta3 had the same epitopes, ligand-binding specificities, bivalent cation requirements and susceptibility to RGD-containing peptides as native alphavbeta3. On M21-L4 melanoma cells, alphavbeta3 mediated binding to vitronectin, but not to fibrinogen unless activated with Mn2+. Non-activated alphaIIbbeta3 integrin as control in M21-L-IIb cells had the opposite profile, mediating binding to fibrinogen, but not to vitronectin unless activated with Mn2+. Thus these receptors had moderate to low ligand affinity. In marked contrast, purified alphavbeta3 receptors, with or without transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains, were constitutively of high affinity and able to bind strongly to vitronectin, fibronectin and fibrinogen under physiological conditions. Our data suggest that, in contrast with the positive regulation of alphaIIbbeta3 in situ, intracellular controls lower the affinity of alphavbeta3, and the cytoplasmic domains may act as a target for negative regulators of alphavbeta3 activity. PMID:9480902

  2. Ameloblastin modulates osteoclastogenesis through the integrin/ERK pathway

    PubMed Central

    Atsawasuwan, Phimon; Dangaria, Smit; Yan, Xiulin; Wu, Tuojiang; Evans, Carla A.; Luan, Xianghong

    2014-01-01

    Proteins of the extracellular matrix often have multiple functions to facilitate complex tasks ranging from signaling to structural support. Here we have focused on the function of one of the matrix proteins expressed in bones and teeth, the matrix adhesion protein ameloblastin (AMBN). Transgenic mice with 5-fold elevated AMBN levels in mandibles suffered from root cementum resorption, delamination, and reduced alveolar bone thickness. AMBN gain of function also resulted in a significant reduction in trabecular bone volume and bone mass dentistry in 42 days postnatal mouse jaws. In an in vitro model of osteoclastogenesis, AMBN modulated osteoclast differentiation from bone marrow derived monocytes (BMMCs), and dramatically increased osteoclast numbers and resorption pits. Furthermore, AMBN more than doubled BMMC adhesion, accelerated cell spreading, and promoted podosome belt and actin ring formation. These effects were associated with elevated ERK1/2 and AKT phosphorylation as well as higher expression of osteoclast activation related genes. Blocking integrin α2β1 and ERK 1/2 pathways alleviated the effects of AMBN on osteoclast differentiation. Together, our data indicate that AMBN increases osteoclast number and differentiation as well as mineralized tissue resorption by regulating cell adhesion and actin cytoskeleton polymerization, initiating integrin-dependent extracellular matrix signaling cascades and enhancing osteoclastogenesis. PMID:23385480

  3. Integrin activation and focal complex formation in cardiac hypertrophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laser, M.; Willey, C. D.; Jiang, W.; Cooper, G. 4th; Menick, D. R.; Zile, M. R.; Kuppuswamy, D.

    2000-01-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is characterized by both remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and hypertrophic growth of the cardiocytes. Here we show increased expression and cytoskeletal association of the ECM proteins fibronectin and vitronectin in pressure-overloaded feline myocardium. These changes are accompanied by cytoskeletal binding and phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) at Tyr-397 and Tyr-925, c-Src at Tyr-416, recruitment of the adapter proteins p130(Cas), Shc, and Nck, and activation of the extracellular-regulated kinases ERK1/2. A synthetic peptide containing the Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) motif of fibronectin and vitronectin was used to stimulate adult feline cardiomyocytes cultured on laminin or within a type-I collagen matrix. Whereas cardiocytes under both conditions showed RGD-stimulated ERK1/2 activation, only collagen-embedded cells exhibited cytoskeletal assembly of FAK, c-Src, Nck, and Shc. In RGD-stimulated collagen-embedded cells, FAK was phosphorylated only at Tyr-397 and c-Src association occurred without Tyr-416 phosphorylation and p130(Cas) association. Therefore, c-Src activation is not required for its cytoskeletal binding but may be important for additional phosphorylation of FAK. Overall, our study suggests that multiple signaling pathways originate in pressure-overloaded heart following integrin engagement with ECM proteins, including focal complex formation and ERK1/2 activation, and many of these pathways can be activated in cardiomyocytes via RGD-stimulated integrin activation.

  4. Mechanosensitive components of integrin adhesions: Role of vinculin

    PubMed Central

    Atherton, Paul; Stutchbury, Ben; Jethwa, Devina; Ballestrem, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    External forces play a key role in shaping development and normal physiology. Aberrant responses to forces, or changes in the nature of such forces, are implicated in a variety of diseases. Cells contain several types of adhesions, linking them to their external environment. It is through these adhesions that forces are both sensed (from the outside inwards) and applied (from inside to out). Furthermore, several adhesion-based proteins are sensitive to changes in intracellular forces, utilising them for activation and regulation. Here, we outline how vinculin, a key component of integrin-mediated adhesions linking the actin cytoskeleton to the extracellular matrix (ECM), is regulated by force and acts as force transducing protein. We discuss the role of vinculin in vivo and its place in health and disease; summarise the proposed mechanisms by which vinculin is recruited to and activated at integrin-ECM adhesions; and discuss recent findings that place vinculin as the major force sensing and transmitting component of cell–matrix adhesion complexes. Finally, we discuss the role of vinculin in regulating the cellular responses to both the physical properties of the external environment and to externally applied physical stimuli. PMID:26607713

  5. Ameloblastin modulates osteoclastogenesis through the integrin/ERK pathway.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xuanyu; Ito, Yoshihiro; Atsawasuwan, Phimon; Dangaria, Smit; Yan, Xiulin; Wu, Tuojiang; Evans, Carla A; Luan, Xianghong

    2013-05-01

    Proteins of the extracellular matrix often have multiple functions to facilitate complex tasks ranging from signaling to structural support. Here we have focused on the function of one of the matrix proteins expressed in bones and teeth, the matrix adhesion protein ameloblastin (AMBN). Transgenic mice with 5-fold elevated AMBN levels in mandibles suffered from root cementum resorption, delamination, and reduced alveolar bone thickness. AMBN gain of function also resulted in a significant reduction in trabecular bone volume and bone mass dentistry in 42 days postnatal mouse jaws. In an in vitro model of osteoclastogenesis, AMBN modulated osteoclast differentiation from bone marrow derived monocytes (BMMCs), and dramatically increased osteoclast numbers and resorption pits. Furthermore, AMBN more than doubled BMMC adhesion, accelerated cell spreading, and promoted podosome belt and actin ring formation. These effects were associated with elevated ERK1/2 and AKT phosphorylation as well as higher expression of osteoclast activation related genes. Blocking integrin α2β1 and ERK 1/2 pathways alleviated the effects of AMBN on osteoclast differentiation. Together, our data indicate that AMBN increases osteoclast number and differentiation as well as mineralized tissue resorption by regulating cell adhesion and actin cytoskeleton polymerization, initiating integrin-dependent extracellular matrix signaling cascades and enhancing osteoclastogenesis. PMID:23385480

  6. Integrin α5 promotes tumor progression and is an independent unfavorable prognostic factor in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jian-Jun; Guo, Jin-Cheng; Wu, Zhi-Yong; Xu, Xiu-E; Wu, Jian-Yi; Chen, Bo; Ran, Li-Qiang; Liao, Lian-Di; Li, En-Min; Xu, Li-Yan

    2016-02-01

    The integrin family plays a major role in complex biological events such as differentiation, development, wound healing, and the altered adhesive and invasive properties of tumor cells. The expression and function of integrin α5 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) are not clear. Here, by using tissue microarrays and immunohistochemical method, integrin α5 expression was retrospectively evaluated in 147 samples of human ESCC. Results showed that expression of integrin α5 was heterogeneous and varied from negative to intense expression in a membrane and cytoplasmic distribution manner. High expression of integrin α5 was significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis (P = .042) and tumor size (P = .042). Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that high expression of integrin α5 was related to poor overall survival of ESCC patients (P = .018). Multivariate analysis suggested that integrin α5 expression status was an independent prognostic factor for ESCC (P = .003). Moreover, integrin α5 expression was associated with the survival of patients with lymph node metastasis (P = .020), but did not influence the survival of patients without lymph node metastasis. Finally, we found that RNAi-mediated knockdown of integrin α5 led to decreased growth, migration, and invasion of ESCC cells. Combined, integrin α5 might play important roles in the progression of ESCC. Integrin α5 is a novel biomarker to predict the prognosis of ESCC patients. PMID:26772401

  7. Use of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for the detection of human integrins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Mustafa H.; Gant, V. Alexander; Trache, Andreea; Baldwin, Angela M.; Meininger, Gerald A.; Coté, Gerard L.

    2006-03-01

    Current research has revealed the importance of a class of cell surface proteins called integrins in various vital physiological functions such as blood clotting, regulation of blood pressure, tissue blood flow, and vascular remodeling. The key to integrin functionality is its ability to mediate force transmission by interacting with the extracellular matrix and cytoskeleton. In addition, they play a role in signal transduction via their connection with the proteins in focal adhesion (FA) points. To understand the complex mechanism of cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) adhesion that is responsible for these diverse biochemical interactions, it is necessary to identify the integrins on cells and monitor their interaction with various ligands. To this end, for the first time, we employ surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) to detect integrins. The results show the capability using SERS to detect the integrins to the nanomolar concentration regime and to distinguish between two different kinds of integrins, αVβ3 and α5β1, that are present in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). It is anticipated that the SERS approach will potentially help elucidate the mechanism of integrin-ligand interactions in a variety of phenomena of physiological importance.

  8. Modeled Microgravity Disrupts Collagen I/Integrin Signaling During Osteoblastic Differentiation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, Valerie E.; Zayzafoon, Majd; Gonda, Steven R.; Gathings, William E.; McDonald, Jay M.

    2004-01-01

    Spaceflight leads to reduced bone mineral density in weight bearing bones that is primarily attributed to a reduction in bone formation. We have previously demonstrated severely reduced osteoblastogenesis of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) following seven days culture in modeled microgravity. One potential mechanism for reduced osteoblastic differentiation is disruption of type I collagen-integrin interactions and reduced integrin signaling. Integrins are heterodimeric transmembrane receptors that bind extracellular matrix proteins and produce signals essential for proper cellular function, survival, and differentiation. Therefore, we investigated the effects of modeled microgravity on integrin expression and function in hMSC. We demonstrate that seven days of culture in modeled microgravity leads to reduced expression of the extracellular matrix protein, type I collagen (Col I). Conversely, modeled microgravity consistently increases Col I-specific alpha2 and beta1 integrin protein expression. Despite this increase in integrin sub-unit expression, autophosphorylation of adhesion-dependent kinases, focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (PYK2), is significantly reduced. Activation of Akt is unaffected by the reduction in FAK activation. However, reduced downstream signaling via the Ras-MAPK pathway is evidenced by a reduction in Ras and ERK activation. Taken together, our findings indicate that modeled microgravity decreases integrin/MAPK signaling, which likely contributes to the observed reduction in osteoblastogenesis.

  9. αVβ3 Integrin Regulation of Respiratory Burst in Fibrinogen Adherent Human Neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hye-Yeong; Skokos, Eleni A.; Myer, Deborah J.; Agaba, Perez; Gonzalez, Anjelica L.

    2015-01-01

    In response to inflammatory stimuli, microvascular endothelial cells become activated, initiating the capture and exit of neutrophils from the blood vessel and into the extravascular extracellular matrix (ECM). In the extravascular space, neutrophils bind to ECM proteins, regulating cellular functions via signaling through adhesion molecules known as integrins. The αVβ3 integrin is an important mediator of neutrophil adhesion to ECM proteins containing the Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptide sequence, including fibrinogen and fibronectin. Despite the abundance of RGD sequence in the ECM, adhesion molecule-mediated neutrophil activity has been focused on the β2 (Mac-1, CD11b/CD18) and β1 integrin response to matrix proteins. Here we investigated αVβ3 integrin-mediated reactive oxidant suppression as a consequence of human neutrophil adhesion to RGD containing proteins. Using integrin ligand-modified (poly)ethylene glycol hydrogels and reactive oxygen species (ROS) sensitive fluorescent probes (dihydrotetramethylrhosamine, H2TMRos), we evaluated integrin–peptide interactions that effectively regulate ROS generation. This study demonstrates that neutrophil adhesion suppresses ROS production in an αVβ3-dependent manner. Additionally, we determine that p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in the respiratory burst signaling pathway is interrupted by integrin-mediated adhesion. These data indicate that ECM/integrin interactions can induce αVβ3-mediated adhesion dependent downstream signaling of ROS regulation via a Mac-1 independent mechanism. PMID:25632307

  10. β1 Integrin-Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) Signaling Modulates Retinal Ganglion Cell (RGC) Survival

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Andrea Rachelle C.; Corredor, Raul G.; Obeso, Betty Albo; Trakhtenberg, Ephraim F.; Wang, Ying; Ponmattam, Jamie; Dvoriantchikova, Galina; Ivanov, Dmitry; Shestopalov, Valery I.; Goldberg, Jeffrey L.; Fini, Mary Elizabeth; Bajenaru, Michaela Livia

    2012-01-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) integrity in the central nervous system (CNS) is essential for neuronal homeostasis. Signals from the ECM are transmitted to neurons through integrins, a family of cell surface receptors that mediate cell attachment to ECM. We have previously established a causal link between the activation of the matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), degradation of laminin in the ECM of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), and RGC death in a mouse model of retinal ischemia-reperfusion injury (RIRI). Here we investigated the role of laminin-integrin signaling in RGC survival in vitro, and after ischemia in vivo. In purified primary rat RGCs, stimulation of the β1 integrin receptor with laminin, or agonist antibodies enhanced RGC survival in correlation with activation of β1 integrin’s major downstream regulator, focal adhesion kinase (FAK). Furthermore, β1 integrin binding and FAK activation were required for RGCs’ survival response to laminin. Finally, in vivo after RIRI, we observed an up-regulation of MMP-9, proteolytic degradation of laminin, decreased RGC expression of β1 integrin, FAK and Akt dephosphorylation, and reduced expression of the pro-survival molecule bcl-xL in the period preceding RGC apoptosis. RGC death was prevented, in the context of laminin degradation, by maintaining β1 integrin activation with agonist antibodies. Thus, disruption of homeostatic RGC-laminin interaction and signaling leads to cell death after retinal ischemia, and maintaining integrin activation may be a therapeutic approach to neuroprotection. PMID:23118988

  11. Angiopoietin 2 induces pericyte apoptosis via α3β1 integrin signaling in diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung Wook; Yun, Jang-Hyuk; Kim, Jin Hyoung; Kim, Kyu-Won; Cho, Chung-Hyun; Kim, Jeong Hun

    2014-09-01

    Pericyte loss is an early characteristic change in diabetic retinopathy (DR). Despite accumulating evidence that hyperglycemia-induced angiopoietin 2 (Ang2) has a central role in pericyte loss, the precise molecular mechanism has not been elucidated. This study investigated the role of Ang2 in pericyte loss in DR. We demonstrated that pericyte loss occurred with Ang2 increase in the diabetic mouse retina and that the source of Ang2 could be the endothelial cell. Ang2 induced pericyte apoptosis via the p53 pathway under high glucose, whereas Ang2 alone did not induce apoptosis. Integrin, not Tie-2 receptor, was involved for Ang2-induced pericyte apoptosis under high glucose as an Ang2 receptor. High glucose changed the integrin expression pattern, which increased integrin α3 and β1 in the pericyte. Furthermore, Ang2-induced pericyte apoptosis in vitro was effectively attenuated via p53 suppression by blocking integrin α3 and β1. Although intravitreal injection of Ang2 induced pericyte loss in C57BL/6J mice retina in vivo, intravitreal injection of anti-integrin α3 and β1 antibodies attenuated Ang2-induced pericyte loss. Taken together, Ang2 induced pericyte apoptosis under high glucose via α3β1 integrin. Glycemic control or blocking Ang2/integrin signaling could be a potential therapeutic target to prevent pericyte loss in early DR. PMID:24722242

  12. Integrins modulate the Egfr signaling pathway to regulate tendon cell differentiation in the Drosophila embryo.

    PubMed

    Martin-Bermudo, M D

    2000-06-01

    Changes in the extracellular matrix (ECM) govern the differentiation of many cell types during embryogenesis. Integrins are cell matrix receptors that play a major role in cell-ECM adhesion and in transmitting signals from the ECM inside the cell to regulate gene expression. In this paper, it is shown that the PS integrins are required at the muscle attachment sites of the Drosophila embryo to regulate tendon cell differentiation. The analysis of the requirements of the individual alpha subunits, alphaPS1 and alphaPS2, demonstrates that both PS1 and PS2 integrins are involved in this process. In the absence of PS integrin function, the expression of tendon cell-specific genes such as stripe and beta1 tubulin is not maintained. In addition, embryos lacking the PS integrins also exhibit reduced levels of activated MAPK. This reduction is probably due to a downregulation of the Epidermal Growth Factor receptor (Egfr) pathway, since an activated form of the Egfr can rescue the phenotype of embryos mutant for the PS integrins. Furthermore, the levels of the Egfr ligand Vein at the muscle attachment sites are reduced in PS mutant embryos. Altogether, these results lead to a model in which integrin-mediated adhesion plays a role in regulating tendon cell differentiation by modulating the activity of the Egfr pathway at the level of its ligand Vein. PMID:10821759

  13. NR4A1 Antagonists Inhibit β1-Integrin-Dependent Breast Cancer Cell Migration.

    PubMed

    Hedrick, Erik; Lee, Syng-Ook; Doddapaneni, Ravi; Singh, Mandip; Safe, Stephen

    2016-05-01

    Overexpression of the nuclear receptor 4A1 (NR4A1) in breast cancer patients is a prognostic factor for decreased survival and increased metastasis, and this has been linked to NR4A1-dependent regulation of transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling. Results of RNA interference studies demonstrate that basal migration of aggressive SKBR3 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells is TGF-β independent and dependent on regulation of β1-integrin gene expression by NR4A1 which can be inhibited by the NR4A1 antagonists 1,1-bis(3'-indolyl)-1-(p-hydroxyphenyl)methane (DIM-C-pPhOH) and a relatedp-carboxymethylphenyl [1,1-bis(3'-indolyl)-1-(p-carboxymethylphenyl)methane (DIM-C-pPhCO2Me)] analog. The NR4A1 antagonists also inhibited TGF-β-induced migration of MDA-MB-231 cells by blocking nuclear export of NR4A1, which is an essential step in TGF-β-induced cell migration. We also observed that NR4A1 regulates expression of both β1- and β3-integrins, and unlike other β1-integrin inhibitors which induce prometastatic β3-integrin, NR4A1 antagonists inhibit expression of both β1- and β3-integrin, demonstrating a novel mechanism-based approach for targeting integrins and integrin-dependent breast cancer metastasis. PMID:26929200

  14. Early Chordate Origin of the Vertebrate Integrin αI Domains

    PubMed Central

    Chouhan, Bhanupratap Singh; Käpylä, Jarmo; Denessiouk, Konstantin; Denesyuk, Alexander; Heino, Jyrki; Johnson, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    Half of the 18 human integrins α subunits have an inserted αI domain yet none have been observed in species that have diverged prior to the appearance of the urochordates (ascidians). The urochordate integrin αI domains are not human orthologues but paralogues, but orthologues of human αI domains extend throughout later-diverging vertebrates and are observed in the bony fish with duplicate isoforms. Here, we report evidence for orthologues of human integrins with αI domains in the agnathostomes (jawless vertebrates) and later diverging species. Sequence comparisons, phylogenetic analyses and molecular modeling show that one nearly full-length sequence from lamprey and two additional fragments include the entire integrin αI domain region, have the hallmarks of collagen-binding integrin αI domains, and we show that the corresponding recombinant proteins recognize the collagen GFOGER motifs in a metal dependent manner, unlike the α1I domain of the ascidian C. intestinalis. The presence of a functional collagen receptor integrin αI domain supports the origin of orthologues of the human integrins with αI domains prior to the earliest diverging extant vertebrates, a domain that has been conserved and diversified throughout the vertebrate lineage. PMID:25409021

  15. Alpha V integrin prolongs collagenase production through Jun activation binding protein 1.

    PubMed

    Levinson, Howard; Sil, Alok K; Conwell, John E; Hopper, James E; Ehrlich, H Paul

    2004-08-01

    Robust expression of alphav integrin and matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP1) plays an important role in cancer metastasis and wound healing. A patient with an abnormal scar that appeared stretched and thinned out was found to have fibroblasts that overexpressed alphav integrin; therefore, a relationship between alphav integrin expression and MMP1 production was sought. A yeast 2 hybrid screen revealed alphav integrin interacts with jun activation binding domain-1 (JAB1). Mesenchymal-derived cells were transfected with the alphav integrin gene and incorporated into collagen lattices. Transfected cells maximally contracted collagen lattices beginning on day 5, whereas control transfected cells did not contract lattices. Late-phase collagen lattice contraction was inhibited by a pan-MMP inhibitor, BB4. Overexpression of alphav correlated with enhanced MMP1 transcription, as determined by a luciferase assay (P < or = 0.05). Diminution of JAB1 with JAB1 antisense abolished alphav integrin up-regulation of MMP1. We conclude alphav integrin signals through JAB1 to prolong MMP1 production and that this signaling pathway in fibroblasts may lead to abnormal scarring. PMID:15269586

  16. Upregulation of α3β1-Integrin in Podocytes in Early-Stage Diabetic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Sawada, Kaichiro; Kaneyama, Noriko; Shiraiwa, Sawako; Moriya, Hitomi; Miyatake, Han; Tanaka, Eitaro; Yamamoto, Naoyuki; Miyauchi, Masaaki; Kimura, Moritsugu; Wada, Takehiko; Fukagawa, Masafumi

    2016-01-01

    Background. Podocyte injury plays an important role in the onset and progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Downregulation of α3β1-integrin expression in podocytes is thought to be associated with podocyte detachment from the glomerular basement membrane, although the mechanisms remain obscure. To determine the mechanism of podocyte detachment, we analyzed the expression levels of α3β1-integrin in podocytes in early and advanced stages of DN. Methods. Surgical specimens from DN patients were examined by in situ hybridization, and the expression levels of α3- and β1-integrin subunits in glomeruli of early (n = 6) and advanced (n = 8) stages were compared with those of normal glomeruli (n = 5). Heat-sensitive mouse podocytes (HSMP) were cultured with TGF-β1 to reproduce the microenvironment of glomeruli of DN, and the expression levels of integrin subunits and the properties of migration and attachment were examined. Results. Podocytes of early-stage DN showed upregulation of α3- and β1-integrin expression while those of advanced stage showed downregulation. Real-time PCR indicated a tendency for upregulation of α3- and β1-integrin in HSMP cultured with TGF-β1. TGF-β1-stimulated HSMP also showed enhanced in vitro migration and attachment on collagen substrate. Conclusions. The results suggested that podocyte detachment during early stage of DN is mediated through upregulation of α3β1-integrin. PMID:27340677

  17. Characterization of beta2 (CD18) integrin phosphorylation in phorbol ester-activated T lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Valmu, L; Hilden, T J; van Willigen, G; Gahmberg, C G

    1999-01-01

    Integrins are transmembrane proteins involved in cell-cell and cell-extracellular-matrix interactions. The affinity and avidity of integrins for their ligands change in response to cytoplasmic signals. This 'inside-out' activation has been reported to occur also with beta2 integrins (CD18). The beta2 integrin subunit has previously been shown to become phosphorylated in T lymphocytes on cytoplasmic serine and the functionally important threonine residues after treatment with phorbol esters or on triggering of T-cell receptors. We have now characterized the phosphorylation of beta2 integrins in T-cells in more detail. When T-cells were activated by phorbol esters the phosphorylation was mainly on Ser756. After inhibition of serine/threonine phosphatases, phosphorylation was also found in two of the threonine residues in the threonine triplet 758-760 of the beta2 cytoplasmic domain. Activation of T-cells by phorbol esters resulted in phosphorylation in only approx. 10% of the integrin molecules. Okadaic acid increased this phosphorylation to approx. 30% of the beta2 molecules, assuming three phosphorylation sites. This indicates that a strong dynamic phosphorylation exists in serine and threonine residues of the beta2 integrins. PMID:10085235

  18. The involvement of Gab1 and PI 3-kinase in {beta}1 integrin signaling in keratinocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Kuwano, Yoshihiro; Fujimoto, Manabu . E-mail: fujimoto-m@umin.ac.jp; Watanabe, Rei; Ishiura, Nobuko; Nakashima, Hiroko; Komine, Mayumi; Hamazaki, Tatsuo S.; Tamaki, Kunihiko; Okochi, Hitoshi

    2007-09-14

    The control of the stem cell compartment in epidermis is closely linked to the regulation of keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation. {beta}1 integrins are expressed 2-fold higher by stem cells than transit-amplifying cells. Signaling from these {beta}1 integrins is critical for the regulation of the epidermal stem cell compartment. To clarify the functional relevance of this differential expression of {beta}1 integrins, we established HaCaT cells with high {beta}1integrin expression by repeated flow cytometric sorting of this population from the parental cell line. In these obtained cells expressing {beta}1 integrins by 5-fold, MAPK activation was markedly increased. Regarding the upstream of MAPK, Gab1 phosphorylation was also higher with high {beta}1 integrin expression, while Shc phosphorylation was not altered. In addition, enhanced phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activation was also observed. These observations suggest that Gab1 and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase play pivotal roles in the {beta}1 integrin-mediated regulation of the epidermal stem cell compartment.

  19. Emerging Putative Biomarkers: The Role of Alpha 2 and 6 Integrins in Susceptibility, Treatment, and Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Marthick, James R.; Dickinson, Joanne L.

    2012-01-01

    The genetic architecture underpinning prostate cancer is complex, polygenic and despite recent significant advances many questions remain. Advances in genetic technologies have greatly improved our ability to identify genetic variants associated with complex disease including prostate cancer. Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) and microarray gene expression studies have identified genetic associations with prostate cancer susceptibility and tumour development. The integrins feature prominently in both studies examining the underlying genetic susceptibility and mechanisms driving prostate tumour development. Integrins are cell adhesion molecules involved in extracellular and intracellular signalling and are imperative for tumour development, migration, and angiogenesis. Although several integrins have been implicated in tumour development, the roles of integrin α2 and integrin α6 are the focus of this paper as evidence is now emerging that these integrins are implicit in prostate cancer susceptibility, cancer stem cell biology, angiogenesis, cell migration, and metastases to bone and represent potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets. There currently exists an urgent need to develop tools that differentiate indolent from aggressive prostate cancers and predict how patients will respond to treatment. This paper outlines the evidence supporting the use of α2 and α6 integrins in clinical applications for tailored patient treatment. PMID:22900191

  20. Arginine-Glycine-Aspartate-Binding Integrins as Therapeutic and Diagnostic Targets.

    PubMed

    Sun, Cui-Cui; Qu, Xian-Jun; Gao, Zu-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD)-binding integrins, including αvβ1, αvβ3, αvβ5, αvβ6, αvβ8, α5β1, αIIbβ3, and α8β1, recognize the tripeptide motif RGD in their ligands. RGD-binding integrins are involved in various cell functions, including cell proliferation, survival, differentiation, and motility that are critically important to both health and disease. The diagnostic and therapeutic value of some RGD-binding integrin inhibitors are either clinically proven or at different stages of development. In this review, we first summarized the structure and signaling characteristics of RGD-binding integrins. We then discussed the functions of RGD-binding integrins and their association with human disease. Finally, we recapitulated the research efforts and clinical trials of targeting RGD-binding integrins for the diagnosis and treatment of human disease. This comprehensive review of the current advances in RGD-binding integrins could assist scientists and clinicians in gaining a complete understanding of this group of molecules. It can also contribute to the design of new projects to further advance this field of research and to better apply the research results to benefit patients in clinical practice. PMID:24621642

  1. Integrin-Generated Forces Lead to Streptavidin-Biotin Unbinding in Cellular Adhesions

    PubMed Central

    Jurchenko, Carol; Chang, Yuan; Narui, Yoshie; Zhang, Yun; Salaita, Khalid S.

    2014-01-01

    The interplay between chemical and mechanical signals plays an important role in cell biology, and integrin receptors are the primary molecules involved in sensing and transducing external mechanical cues. We used integrin-specific probes in molecular tension fluorescence microscopy to investigate the pN forces exerted by integrin receptors in living cells. The molecular tension fluorescence microscopy probe consisted of a cyclic Arg-Gly-Asp-D-Phe-Lys(Cys) (cRGDfK(C)) peptide tethered to the terminus of a polyethylene glycol polymer that was attached to a surface through streptavidin-biotin linkage. A fluorescence resonance energy transfer mechanism was used to visualize tension-driven extension of the polymer. Surprisingly, we found that integrin receptors dissociate streptavidin-biotin tethered ligands in focal adhesions within 60 min of cell seeding. Although streptavidin-biotin binding affinity is described as the strongest noncovalent bond in nature, and is ∼106 - 108 times larger than that of integrin-RGD affinity, our results suggest that individual integrin-ligand complexes undergo a marked enhancement in stability when the receptor assembles in the cell membrane. Based on the observation of streptavidin-biotin unbinding, we also conclude that the magnitude of integrin-ligand tension in focal adhesions can reach values that are at least 10 fold larger than was previously estimated using traction force microscopy-based methods. PMID:24703305

  2. Axonal Localization of Integrins in the CNS Is Neuronal Type and Age Dependent

    PubMed Central

    Soleman, Sara; Mason, Matthew R. J.; Verhaagen, Joost; Bensadoun, Jean-Charles; Aebischer, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The regenerative ability of CNS axons decreases with age, however, this ability remains largely intact in PNS axons throughout adulthood. These differences are likely to correspond with age-related silencing of proteins necessary for axon growth and elongation. In previous studies, it has been shown that reintroduction of the α9 integrin subunit (tenascin-C receptor, α9) that is downregulated in adult CNS can improve neurite outgrowth and sensory axon regeneration after a dorsal rhizotomy or a dorsal column crush spinal cord lesion. In the current study, we demonstrate that virally expressed integrins (α9, α6, or β1 integrin) in the adult rat sensorimotor cortex and adult red nucleus are excluded from axons following neuronal transduction. Attempts to stimulate transport by inclusion of a cervical spinal injury and thus an upregulation of extracellular matrix molecules at the lesion site, or cotransduction with its binding partner, β1 integrin, did not induce integrin localization within axons. In contrast, virally expressed α9 integrin in developing rat cortex (postnatal day 5 or 10) demonstrated clear localization of integrins in cortical axons revealed by the presence of integrin in the axons of the corpus callosum and internal capsule, as well as in the neuronal cell body. Furthermore, examination of dorsal root ganglia neurons and retinal ganglion cells demonstrated integrin localization both within peripheral nerve as well as dorsal root axons and within optic nerve axons, respectively. Together, our results suggest a differential ability for in vivo axonal transport of transmembrane proteins dependent on neuronal age and subtype.

  3. Characterization of integrin expression in islets isolated from hamster, canine, porcine, and human pancreas.

    PubMed

    Wang, R N; Paraskevas, S; Rosenberg, L

    1999-04-01

    The reasons for the failure of clinical islet transplantation remain obscure. Islet isolation, however, exposes the islet to variety of cellular stresses, including disruption of the cell-matrix relationship, an event associated with apoptosis. The cell-matrix relationship is characterized by an interaction between cell surface integrin receptors and matrix molecules of the surrounding basement membrane (BM). The purpose of this study was to characterize integrin expression and the distribution of the peri-insular BM in human, porcine, canine, and hamster pancreas, and after routine islet isolation. Whereas islets in the porcine pancreas do not have a demonstrable BM, islets in the human, canine, and hamster pancreas have an almost continuous BM with very little direct exocrine to endocrine cell-cell contact. After islet isolation, the BM was destroyed, only to be reestablished during the period of culture. In the pancreas of all four species, integrin alpha3 was expressed only on islet cells, and integrin alpha5 was present on islet cells as well as on acinar, centroacinar, and duct cells. Integrin alphaV was detected only in human and canine pancreas. Integrin beta1 was demonstrated only in the human pancreas. In isolated islets, integrin alpha3, alpha5, and alphaV expression decreased during the culture period and the intensity of the staining was observed to be coincident with the distribution of the BM. In summary, this is the first report of integrin expression in hamster, canine, porcine, and human islets. After islet isolation, the altered islet cell-matrix relationship is reflected both in the decrease in integrin expression and in the destruction of the peri-insular BM. These profound changes will need to be considered as the process of islet isolation for transplantation is refined. (J Histochem Cytochem 47:499-506, 1999) PMID:10082751

  4. Normalization of keratinocyte-type integrins during the establishment of the oral mucosa phenotype in vitro.

    PubMed

    Tomakidi, P; Breitkreutz, D; Kohl, A; Komposch, G

    1999-01-01

    In stratified epithelia, integrins play a fundamental role in mediating basal cell attachment to a variety of extracellular matrix molecules. To assess whether keratinocyte-specific integrins are expressed in a similar way as in the normal situation also under in vivo related conditions, we processed oral mucosa equivalents consisting of keratinocytes and fibroblasts from non-cornified gingiva. In this model histomorphology, the expression of differentiation-specific keratins and keratinocyte-type integrins exhibited similarity to the tissue of origin. The stages of tissue normalization were assessed on frozen sections by indirect immunofluorescence. The initial activated stage (1 week) was characterized by (i) incomplete epithelial organization and a weak presence of the suprabasal mucosa type keratin K4, (ii) diffuse expression of the integrin chains beta 1 and alpha 6 and (iii) abundance of the wound healing-associated integrin alpha v throughout the whole epithelium. After 2 weeks, the increase in epithelial organization was characterized by (i) the presence of a basal and suprabasal cell compartment, (ii) extension of K4 in the suprabasal compartment, (iii) extended expression of the keratinocyte integrins beta 1 and alpha 6 and (iv) concentration of alpha v integrin underneath basal cells. Further normalization of tissue architecture was indicated by (i) a slight increase in K4 extension, (ii) appearance of keratinocyte integrins beta 1 and alpha 6 in basal and parabasal cells and (iii) interruption of the band-like alpha v integrin immunolocalization at the subepithelial site. The findings in the in vitro model system indicate that these oral mucosa equivalents exhibit similarities to the in vivo situation of non-cornified gingiva, thus rendering them a suitable model for the assessment of stages during epithelial reconstruction or in vivo relevant studies on material effects. PMID:10081576

  5. A NPxY-independent {beta}5 integrin activation signal regulates phagocytosis of apoptotic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Sukhwinder; D'mello, Veera; Henegouwen, Paul van Bergen en; Birge, Raymond B.

    2007-12-21

    Integrin receptors are heterodimeric transmembrane receptors with critical functions in cell adhesion and migration, cell cycle progression, differentiation, apoptosis, and phagocytosis of apoptotic cells. Integrins are activated by intracellular signaling that alter the binding affinity for extracellular ligands, so-called inside to outside signaling. A common element for integrin activation involves binding of the cytoskeletal protein talin, via its FERM domain, to a highly conserved NPxY motif in the {beta} chain cytoplasmic tails, which is involved in long-range conformation changes to the extracellular domain that impinges on ligand affinity. When the human beta-5 ({beta}5) integrin cDNA was expressed in {alpha}v positive, {beta}5 and {beta}3 negative hamster CS-1 cells, it promoted NPxY-dependent adhesion to VTN-coated surfaces, phosphorylation of FAK, and concomitantly, {beta}5 integrin-EGFP protein was recruited into talin and paxillin-containing focal adhesions. Expression of a NPxY destabilizing {beta}5 mutant (Y750A) abrogated adhesion and {beta}5-Y750A-EGFP was excluded from focal adhesions at the tips of stress fibers. Surprisingly, expression of {beta}5 Y750A integrin had a potent gain-of-function effect on apoptotic cell phagocytosis, and further, a {beta}5-Y750A-EGFP fusion integrin readily bound MFG-E8-coated 10 {mu}m diameter microspheres developed as apoptotic cell mimetics. The critical sequences in {beta}5 integrin were mapped to a YEMAS motif just proximal to the NPxY motif. Our studies suggest that the phagocytic function of {beta}5 integrin is regulated by an unconventional NPxY-talin-independent activation signal and argue for the existence of molecular switches in the {beta}5 cytoplasmic tail for adhesion and phagocytosis.

  6. Redox-Relevant Aspects of the Extracellular Matrix and Its Cellular Contacts via Integrins

    PubMed Central

    de Rezende, Flávia Figueiredo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: The extracellular matrix (ECM) fulfills essential functions in multicellular organisms. It provides the mechanical scaffold and environmental cues to cells. Upon cell attachment, the ECM signals into the cells. In this process, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are physiologically used as signalizing molecules. Recent Advances: ECM attachment influences the ROS-production of cells. In turn, ROS affect the production, assembly and turnover of the ECM during wound healing and matrix remodeling. Pathological changes of ROS levels lead to excess ECM production and increased tissue contraction in fibrotic disorders and desmoplastic tumors. Integrins are cell adhesion molecules which mediate cell adhesion and force transmission between cells and the ECM. They have been identified as a target of redox-regulation by ROS. Cysteine-based redox-modifications, together with structural data, highlighted particular regions within integrin heterodimers that may be subject to redox-dependent conformational changes along with an alteration of integrin binding activity. Critical Issues: In a molecular model, a long-range disulfide-bridge within the integrin β-subunit and disulfide bridges within the genu and calf-2 domains of the integrin α-subunit may control the transition between the bent/inactive and upright/active conformation of the integrin ectodomain. These thiol-based intramolecular cross-linkages occur in the stalk domain of both integrin subunits, whereas the ligand-binding integrin headpiece is apparently unaffected by redox-regulation. Future Directions: Redox-regulation of the integrin activation state may explain the effect of ROS in physiological processes. A deeper understanding of the underlying mechanism may open new prospects for the treatment of fibrotic disorders. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 1977–1993. PMID:24040997

  7. Axonal Localization of Integrins in the CNS Is Neuronal Type and Age Dependent.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Melissa R; Soleman, Sara; Cheah, Menghon; Tumbarello, David A; Mason, Matthew R J; Moloney, Elizabeth; Verhaagen, Joost; Bensadoun, Jean-Charles; Schneider, Bernard; Aebischer, Patrick; Fawcett, James W

    2016-01-01

    The regenerative ability of CNS axons decreases with age, however, this ability remains largely intact in PNS axons throughout adulthood. These differences are likely to correspond with age-related silencing of proteins necessary for axon growth and elongation. In previous studies, it has been shown that reintroduction of the α9 integrin subunit (tenascin-C receptor, α9) that is downregulated in adult CNS can improve neurite outgrowth and sensory axon regeneration after a dorsal rhizotomy or a dorsal column crush spinal cord lesion. In the current study, we demonstrate that virally expressed integrins (α9, α6, or β1 integrin) in the adult rat sensorimotor cortex and adult red nucleus are excluded from axons following neuronal transduction. Attempts to stimulate transport by inclusion of a cervical spinal injury and thus an upregulation of extracellular matrix molecules at the lesion site, or cotransduction with its binding partner, β1 integrin, did not induce integrin localization within axons. In contrast, virally expressed α9 integrin in developing rat cortex (postnatal day 5 or 10) demonstrated clear localization of integrins in cortical axons revealed by the presence of integrin in the axons of the corpus callosum and internal capsule, as well as in the neuronal cell body. Furthermore, examination of dorsal root ganglia neurons and retinal ganglion cells demonstrated integrin localization both within peripheral nerve as well as dorsal root axons and within optic nerve axons, respectively. Together, our results suggest a differential ability for in vivo axonal transport of transmembrane proteins dependent on neuronal age and subtype. PMID:27570822

  8. Exclusion of Integrins from CNS Axons Is Regulated by Arf6 Activation and the AIS

    PubMed Central

    Franssen, Elske H. P.; Zhao, Rong-Rong; Koseki, Hiroaki; Kanamarlapudi, Venkateswarlu; Hoogenraad, Casper C.

    2015-01-01

    Integrins are adhesion and survival molecules involved in axon growth during CNS development, as well as axon regeneration after injury in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). Adult CNS axons do not regenerate after injury, partly due to a low intrinsic growth capacity. We have previously studied the role of integrins in axon growth in PNS axons; in the present study, we investigate whether integrin mechanisms involved in PNS regeneration may be altered or lacking from mature CNS axons by studying maturing CNS neurons in vitro. In rat cortical neurons, we find that integrins are present in axons during initial growth but later become restricted to the somato-dendritic domain. We investigated how this occurs and whether it can be altered to enhance axonal growth potential. We find a developmental change in integrin trafficking; transport becomes predominantly retrograde throughout axons, but not dendrites, as neurons mature. The directionality of transport is controlled through the activation state of ARF6, with developmental upregulation of the ARF6 GEF ARNO enhancing retrograde transport. Lowering ARF6 activity in mature neurons restores anterograde integrin flow, allows transport into axons, and increases axon growth. In addition, we found that the axon initial segment is partly responsible for exclusion of integrins and removal of this structure allows integrins into axons. Changing posttranslational modifications of tubulin with taxol also allows integrins into the proximal axon. The experiments suggest that the developmental loss of regenerative ability in CNS axons is due to exclusion of growth-related molecules due to changes in trafficking. PMID:26019348

  9. α6-integrin is required for the adhesion and vasculogenic potential of hemangioma stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Smadja, David M.; Guerin, Coralie L.; Boscolo, Elisa; Bieche, Ivan; Mulliken, John B.; Bischoff, Joyce

    2013-01-01

    Background Infantile hemangioma (IH) is the most common tumor of infancy. Hemangioma stem cells (HemSC) are a mesenchymal subpopulation isolated from IH CD133+ cells. HemSC can differentiate into endothelial and pericyte/smooth muscle cells and form vascular networks when injected in immune-deficient mice. α6-Integrin subunit has been implicated in the tumorgenicity of glioblastoma stem cells and the homing properties of hematopoietic, endothelial and mesenchymal progenitor cells. Therefore, we investigated the possible function(s) of α6-integrin in HemSC. Methods/Results We documented α6-integrin expression in IH tumor specimens and HemSC by RT-qPCR and flow cytometry. We examined the effect of blocking or silencing α6-integrin on the adhesive and proliferative properties of HemSCin vitro and the vasculogenic and homing properties of HemSCin vivo. Targeting α6-integrin in cultured HemSC inhibited adhesion to laminin but had no effect on proliferation. Vessel-forming ability in Matrigel implants and hepatic homing after intravenous delivery were significantly decreased in α6-integrin siRNA transfected HemSC. Conclusion α6-Integrin is required for HemSC adherence to laminin, vessel formation in vivo and for homing to the liver. Thus, we uncovered an important role for α6 integrin in the vasculogenic properties of HemSC. Our results suggest that α6-integrin expression on HemSC could be a new target for anti-hemangioma therapy. PMID:24022922

  10. Signaling through urokinase and urokinase receptor in lung cancer cells requires interactions with beta1 integrins.

    PubMed

    Tang, Chi-Hui; Hill, Marla L; Brumwell, Alexis N; Chapman, Harold A; Wei, Ying

    2008-11-15

    The urokinase receptor (uPAR) is upregulated upon tumor cell invasion and correlates with poor lung cancer survival. Although a cis-interaction with integrins has been ascribed to uPAR, whether this interaction alone is critical to urokinase (uPA)- and uPAR-dependent signaling and tumor promotion is unclear. Here we report the functional consequences of point mutations of uPAR (H249A-D262A) that eliminate beta1 integrin interactions but maintain uPA binding, vitronectin attachment and association with alphaV integrins, caveolin and epidermal growth factor receptor. Disruption of uPAR interactions with beta1 integrins recapitulated previously reported findings with beta1-integrin-derived peptides that attenuated matrix-dependent ERK activation, MMP expression and in vitro migration by human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines. The uPAR mutant cells acquired enhanced capacity to adhere to vitronectin via uPAR-alphaVbeta5-integrin, rather than through the uPAR-alpha3beta1-integrin complex and they were unable to initiate uPA signaling to activate ERK, Akt or Stat1. In an orthotopic lung cancer model, uPAR mutant cells exhibited reduced tumor size compared with cells expressing wild-type uPAR. Taken together, the results indicate that uPAR-beta1-integrin interactions are essential to signals induced by integrin matrix ligands or uPA that support lung cancer cell invasion in vitro and progression in vivo. PMID:18940913

  11. Neutrophils rapidly transit inflamed lymphatic vessel endothelium via integrin-dependent proteolysis and lipoxin-induced junctional retraction.

    PubMed

    Rigby, David A; Ferguson, David J P; Johnson, Louise A; Jackson, David G

    2015-12-01

    Neutrophils are the first leukocyte population to be recruited from the circulation following tissue injury or infection, where they play key roles in host defense. However, recent evidence indicates recruited neutrophils can also enter lymph and shape adaptive immune responses downstream in draining lymph nodes. At present, the cellular mechanisms regulating neutrophil entry to lymphatic vessels and migration to lymph nodes are largely unknown. Here, we have investigated these events in an in vivo mouse Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccination model, ex vivo mouse dermal explants, and in vitro Transwell system comprising monolayers of primary human dermal lymphatic endothelial cells. We demonstrate that neutrophils are reliant on endothelial activation for adhesion, initially via E-selectin and subsequently, by integrin-mediated binding to ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, combined with CXCL8-dependent chemotaxis. Moreover, we reveal that integrin-mediated neutrophil adhesion plays a pivotal role in subsequent transmigration by focusing the action of matrix metalloproteinases and the 15-lipoxygenase-1-derived chemorepellent 12(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid at neutrophil:endothelial contact sites to induce transient endothelial junctional retraction and rapid, selective neutrophil trafficking. These findings reveal an unexpectedly intimate collaboration between neutrophils and the lymphatic vessel endothelium, in which these phagocytic leukocytes act as pathfinders for their own transit during inflammation. PMID:26216937

  12. Mechanical control of cyclic AMP signalling and gene transcription through integrins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, C. J.; Alenghat, F. J.; Rim, P.; Fong, J. H.; Fabry, B.; Ingber, D. E.

    2000-01-01

    This study was carried out to discriminate between two alternative hypotheses as to how cells sense mechanical forces and transduce them into changes in gene transcription. Do cells sense mechanical signals through generalized membrane distortion or through specific transmembrane receptors, such as integrins? Here we show that mechanical stresses applied to the cell surface alter the cyclic AMP signalling cascade and downstream gene transcription by modulating local release of signals generated by activated integrin receptors in a G-protein-dependent manner, whereas distortion of integrins in the absence of receptor occupancy has no effect.

  13. Engagement of integrins as a cellular route of invasion by bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Scibelli, Antonio; Roperto, Sante; Manna, Laura; Pavone, Luigi Michele; Tafuri, Simona; Della Morte, Rossella; Staiano, Norma

    2007-05-01

    Integrins are heterodimeric receptors that mediate important cell functions, including cell adhesion, migration and tissue organisation. These transmembrane receptors regulate the direct association of cells with each other and with extracellular matrix proteins. However, by binding their ligands, integrins provide a transmembrane link for the bidirectional transmission of mechanical forces and biochemical signals across the plasma membrane. Interestingly, several of this family of receptors are exploited by pathogens to establish contact with the host cells. Hence, microbes subvert normal eukaryotic cell processes to create a specialised niche which allows their survival. This review highlights the fundamental role of integrins in bacterial pathogenesis. PMID:16546423

  14. Regulation of integrin and growth factor signaling in biomaterials for osteodifferentiation

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Qiang; Pohl, Theresa L M; Seckinger, Anja

    2015-01-01

    Summary Stem cells respond to the microenvironment (niche) they are located in. Under natural conditions, the extracellular matrix (ECM) is the essential component the in stem cell niche, in which both integrin ligands and growth factors are important regulators to directly or indirectly modulate the cell behavior. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge about the potential of integrin ligands and growth factors to induce osteogenic differentiation of stem cells, and discuss the signaling pathways that are initiated by both individual and cooperative parameters. The joint effect of integrin ligands and growth factors is highlighted as the multivalent interactions for bone therapy. PMID:26124879

  15. Synthesis, Characterization, and Biological Evaluation of Integrin αvβ3-Targeted PAMAM Dendrimers

    PubMed Central

    Boswell, C. Andrew; Eck, Peter K.; Regino, Celeste A. S.; Bernardo, Marcelino; Wong, Karen J.; Milenic, Diane E.; Choyke, Peter L.; Brechbiel, Martin W.

    2008-01-01

    Ligand size and valency strongly influence the receptor uptake and clearance of tumor angiogenesis imaging agents. The structures of successful imaging agents exhibit a high degree of variability, encompassing small mono-valent arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD)-containing peptides, multivalent RGD-oligomers, and a monoclonal antibody against integrin alpha-v-beta-3 (αvβ3). We have pursued a nano-scale approach to imaging of angiogenesis using rationally designed polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers covalently adorned with RGD-cyclopeptides. An orthogonal oxime-ligation strategy was applied to chemoselectively effect conjugation of the PAMAM dendrimers with RGD-cyclopeptides for targeting αvβ3. Fluorescent dyes for optical imaging and chelates for gadolinium-based magnetic resonance (MR) imaging were subsequently appended to create robust multimodal macromolecular imaging agents. Fluorescence microscopy revealed selective binding of the resulting RGD peptide-bearing dendrimer with empty chelates to αvβ3-expressing cells, but somewhat reduced selectivity was observed following Gd(III) complexation. The expected incomplete saturation of chelates with Gd(III) ions permitted radiometal complexation, and an in vivo tissue distribution of the resulting agent in M21 melanoma tumor-bearing mice showed mostly renal and reticuloendothelial accumulation, with the tumor:blood ratio peaking (3.30 ± .03) at 2 hr post-injection. PMID:18537262

  16. Estradiol Facilitates Functional Integration of iPSC-Derived Dopaminergic Neurons into Striatal Neuronal Circuits via Activation of Integrin α5β1.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Kaneyasu; Doi, Daisuke; Samata, Bumpei; Murayama, Shigeo; Tahara, Tsuyoshi; Onoe, Hirotaka; Takahashi, Jun

    2016-04-12

    For cell transplantation therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD) to be realized, the grafted neurons should be integrated into the host neuronal circuit to restore the lost neuronal function. Here, using wheat-germ agglutinin-based transsynaptic tracing, we show that integrin α5 is selectively expressed in striatal neurons that are innervated by midbrain dopaminergic (DA) neurons. In addition, we found that integrin α5β1 was activated by the administration of estradiol-2-benzoate (E2B) in striatal neurons of adult female rats. Importantly, we observed that the systemic administration of E2B into hemi-parkinsonian rat models facilitates the functional integration of grafted DA neurons derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells into the host striatal neuronal circuit via the activation of integrin α5β1. Finally, methamphetamine-induced abnormal rotation was recovered earlier in E2B-administered rats than in rats that received other regimens. Our results suggest that the simultaneous administration of E2B with stem cell-derived DA progenitors can enhance the efficacy of cell transplantation therapy for PD. PMID:26997644

  17. αVβ3 Integrin-targeted PLGA-PEG nanoparticles for enhanced anti-tumor efficacy of a Pt(IV) prodrug

    PubMed Central

    Graf, Nora; Bielenberg, Diane R.; Kolishetti, Nagesh; Muus, Christoph; Banyard, Jacqueline; Farokhzad, Omid C.

    2012-01-01

    Targeted delivery of therapeutics to tumor neovasculature is potentially a powerful approach for selective cancer treatment. Integrins are heterodimeric transmembrane proteins involved in cell adhesion and cell signaling, and their expression is commonly upregulated in cancers and inflammatory diseases. The αvβ3 integrin is differentially upregulated on angiogenic endothelial cells as well as on many cancer cells. Here we demonstrate the differential targeting of cisplatin prodrug-encapsulated poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid)-block-polyethylene glycol (PLGA-PEG) nanoparticles (NPs) to the αvβ3 integrin on cancer cells using the cyclic pentapeptide c(RGDfK). Cisplatin is one of the most widely used anticancer drugs and approaches that can improve its therapeutic index are of broad importance. The RGD-targeted Pt(IV)-encapsulated NPs displayed enhanced cytotoxicity as compared to cisplatin administered in its conventional dosage form in model prostate and breast cancer epithelial cells in vitro. Cytotoxicities were also elevated in comparison to those of previously reported systems, a small molecule Pt(IV)-RGD conjugate and a Pt(IV) nanoscale coordination polymer carrying RGD moieties. This result encouraged us also to evaluate the anticancer effect of the new construct in an animal model. The RGD-targeted PLGA-PEG NPs were more efficacious and better tolerated by comparison to cisplatin in an orthotopic human breast cancer xenograft model in vivo. PMID:22584163

  18. Discovery, SAR, and Radiolabeling of Halogenated Benzimidazole Carboxamide Antagonists as Useful Tools for (alpha)4(beta)1 Integrin Expressed on T- and B-cell Lymphomas

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, R D; Natarajan, A; Lau, E Y; Andrei, M; Solano, D M; Lightstone, F C; DeNardo, S J; Lam, K S; Kurth, M J

    2010-02-08

    The cell surface receptor {alpha}{sub 4}{beta}{sub 1} integrin is an attractive yet poorly understood target for selective diagnosis and treatment of T- and B-cell lymphomas. This report focuses on the rapid microwave preparation of medicinally pertinent benzimidazole heterocycles, structure-activity relationships (SAR) of novel halobenzimidazole carboxamide antagonists 3-6, and preliminary biological evaluation of radioiodinated agents 7, 8, and 18. The I-125 derivative 18 had good tumor uptake (12 {+-} 1% ID/g at 24 h; 4.5 {+-} 1% ID/g at 48 h) and tumor:kidney ratio ({approx}4:1 at 24 h; 2.5:1 at 48 h) in xenograft murine models of B-cell lymphoma. Molecular homology models of {alpha}{sub 4}{beta}{sub 1} integrin have predicted that docked halobenzimidazole carboxamides have the halogen atom in a suitable orientation for halogen-hydrogen bonding. These high affinity ({approx} pM binding) halogenated ligands are attractive tools for medicinal and biological use; the fluoro and iodo derivatives are potential radiodiagnostic ({sup 18}F) or radiotherapeutic ({sup 131}I) agents, whereas the chloro and bromo analogues could provide structural insight into integrin-ligand interactions through photoaffinity cross-linking/mass spectroscopy experiments, as well as co-crystallization X-ray studies.

  19. Estradiol Facilitates Functional Integration of iPSC-Derived Dopaminergic Neurons into Striatal Neuronal Circuits via Activation of Integrin α5β1

    PubMed Central

    Nishimura, Kaneyasu; Doi, Daisuke; Samata, Bumpei; Murayama, Shigeo; Tahara, Tsuyoshi; Onoe, Hirotaka; Takahashi, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Summary For cell transplantation therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD) to be realized, the grafted neurons should be integrated into the host neuronal circuit to restore the lost neuronal function. Here, using wheat-germ agglutinin-based transsynaptic tracing, we show that integrin α5 is selectively expressed in striatal neurons that are innervated by midbrain dopaminergic (DA) neurons. In addition, we found that integrin α5β1 was activated by the administration of estradiol-2-benzoate (E2B) in striatal neurons of adult female rats. Importantly, we observed that the systemic administration of E2B into hemi-parkinsonian rat models facilitates the functional integration of grafted DA neurons derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells into the host striatal neuronal circuit via the activation of integrin α5β1. Finally, methamphetamine-induced abnormal rotation was recovered earlier in E2B-administered rats than in rats that received other regimens. Our results suggest that the simultaneous administration of E2B with stem cell-derived DA progenitors can enhance the efficacy of cell transplantation therapy for PD. PMID:26997644

  20. Combination of X-ray crystallography, SAXS and DEER to obtain the structure of the FnIII-3,4 domains of integrin α6β4

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-García, Noelia; García-Rubio, Inés; Manso, José A.; Buey, Rubén M.; Urien, Hector; Sonnenberg, Arnoud; Jeschke, Gunnar; de Pereda, José M.

    2015-01-01

    Integrin α6β4 is a major component of hemidesmosomes that mediate the stable anchorage of epithelial cells to the underlying basement membrane. Integrin α6β4 has also been implicated in cell proliferation and migration and in carcinoma progression. The third and fourth fibronectin type III domains (FnIII-3,4) of integrin β4 mediate binding to the hemidesmosomal proteins BPAG1e and BPAG2, and participate in signalling. Here, it is demonstrated that X-ray crystallography, small-angle X-ray scattering and double electron–electron resonance (DEER) complement each other to solve the structure of the FnIII-3,4 region. The crystal structures of the individual FnIII-3 and FnIII-4 domains were solved and the relative arrangement of the FnIII domains was elucidated by combining DEER with site-directed spin labelling. Multiple structures of the interdomain linker were modelled by Monte Carlo methods complying with DEER constraints, and the final structures were selected against experimental scattering data. FnIII-3,4 has a compact and cambered flat structure with an evolutionary conserved surface that is likely to correspond to a protein-interaction site. Finally, this hybrid method is of general application for the study of other macromolecules and complexes. PMID:25849406

  1. Distinct Roles for the α, β and γ1 isoforms of Protein Phosphatase 1 in the Outside-in αIIbβ3 Integrin Signaling Dependent Functions

    PubMed Central

    Alrehani, Nawaf; Pradhan, Subhashree; Khatlani, Tanvir; Kailasam, Lavanya; Vijayan, K. Vinod

    2013-01-01

    Although protein kinases and phosphatases participate in integrin αIIbβ3 signaling, whether integrin functions are regulated by the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1c) isoforms are unclear. We show that siRNA mediated knockdown of all PP1c isoforms (α, β and γ1) in 293 αIIbβ3 cells decreased adhesion to immobilized fibrinogen and fibrin clot retraction. Selective knockdown of only PP1cγ1 did not alter adhesion or clot retraction, while depletion of PP1cβ decreased both functions. Unexpectedly, knockdown of PP1cα enhanced αIIbβ3 adhesion to fibrinogen and clot retraction. Protein interaction studies revealed that all PP1c isoforms can interact with the integrin αIIb subunit. Phosphoprofiling studies revealed an enhanced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) p38 in the PP1cα depleted cells. Enhanced adhesive phenotype displayed by the PP1cα depleted 293 αIIbβ3 cells was blocked by pharmacological inhibition of p38. Conversely, the decreased adhesion of PP1cα overexpressing cells was rescued by the expression of constitutively active p38α or p38γ. Thus, PP1c isoforms have distinct contribution to the outside-in αIIbβ3 signaling-dependent functions in 293 αIIbβ3 cells. Moreover, PP1cα negatively regulates integrin function by suppressing the p38 pathway. PMID:23197154

  2. Inhibition of vimentin or B1 integrin reverts morphology of prostate tumor cells grown in laminin-rich extracellular matrix gels and reduces tumor growth in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xueping; Fournier, Marcia V; Ware, Joy L; Bissell, Mina J; Yacoub, Adly; Zehner, Zendra E

    2008-06-12

    Prostate epithelial cells grown embedded in laminin-rich extracellular matrix (lrECM) undergo morphologic changes that closely resemble their architecture in vivo. In this study, growth characteristics of three human prostate epithelial sublines derived from the same cellular lineage, but displaying different tumorigenic and metastatic properties in vivo, were assessed in three-dimensional lrECM gels. M12, a highly tumorigenic and metastatic subline, was derived from the immortalized, prostate epithelial P69 cell line by selection in athymic, nude mice and found to contain a deletion of 19p-q13.1. The stable reintroduction of an intact human chromosome 19 into M12 resulted in a poorly tumorigenic subline, designated F6. When embedded in lrECM gels, the parental, nontumorigenic P69 line produced acini with clearly defined lumena. Immunostaining with antibodies to {beta}-catenin, E-cadherin, or {alpha}6 and {beta}1 integrins showed polarization typical of glandular epithelium. In contrast, the metastatic M12 subline produced highly disorganized cells with no evidence of polarization. The F6 subline reverted to acini-like structures exhibiting basal polarity marked with integrins. Reducing either vimentin levels via small interfering RNA interference or the expression of {alpha}6 and {beta}1 integrins by the addition of blocking antibodies, reorganized the M12 subline into forming polarized acini. The loss of vimentin significantly reduced M12-Vim tumor growth when assessed by s.c. injection in athymic mice. Thus, tumorigenicity in vivo correlated with disorganized growth in three-dimensional lrECM gels. These studies suggest that the levels of vimentin and {beta}1 integrin play a key role in the homeostasis of the normal acinus in prostate and that their dysregulation may lead to tumorigenesis. [Mol Cancer Ther 2009;8(3):499-508].

  3. Polymorphonuclear leucocyte migration through human dermal fibroblast monolayers is dependent on both beta 2-integrin (CD11/CD18) and beta 1-integrin (CD29) mechanisms.

    PubMed Central

    Gao, J X; Issekutz, A C

    1995-01-01

    Accumulation of leucocytes in inflammation involves their migration through vascular endothelium and then in the connective tissue. We investigated human polymorphonuclear leucocyte (PMNL) migration through a biological barrier of human dermal fibroblasts grown on microporous filters, as a model of PMNL migration in the connective tissue. PMNL did not migrate through a fibroblast monolayer unless a chemotactic factor, e.g. C5a, interleukin-8 (IL-8) or zymosan-activated plasma (ZAP; C5adesArg), was added. This migration was partially inhibited (35-70%, depending on the stimulus) by treatment of PMNL with monoclonal antibody (mAb) to CD18 (beta 2-integrins). Most of the CD18-independent migration was inhibited by mAb to beta 1-integrins (CD29). Inhibition by mAb to beta 1 was observed when the PMNL, but not the fibroblasts, were treated with mAb. The role of beta 1-integrins in PMNL transfibroblast migration was detectable only when the function of the CD11-CD18 complex was blocked, because mAb to beta 1-integrin alone had no significant effect on PMNL migration. Migration induced by C5a was more CD18-independent compared to IL-8 or C5adesArg. The CD18-independent migration was also inhibited by mAb to the beta 1-integrin subunits alpha 5 (of very late antigens-5; VLA-5) and alpha 6 (of VLA-6). Treatment of the fibroblasts (4 hr) with tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) or IL-1 alpha enhanced C5a-induced PMNL transfibroblast migration and increased the proportion of migration utilizing the CD11-CD18 mechanism. However, TNF-alpha treatment had no effect on the degree of beta 1-integrin-dependent migration. These findings suggest that in response to the chemotactic factors C5a, IL-8 and C5adesArg, PMNL migration in the connective tissue is mediated by both CD11-CD18 (beta 2) and beta 1-integrins on the PMNL. The VLA-5 and VLA-6 members of beta 1-integrins are involved in this process. This is in contrast to PMNL migration across endothelium in this system, which

  4. Targeting Integrin-Dependent Adhesion and Signaling with 3-Arylquinoline and 3-Aryl-2-Quinolone Derivatives: A new Class of Integrin Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Fiorucci, Sandrine; Lin, Xiaochen; Sadoul, Karin; Fournet, Guy; Bouvard, Daniel; Vinogradova, Olga; Joseph, Benoît; Block, Marc R.

    2015-01-01

    We previously reported the anti-migratory function of 3-aryl-2-quinolone derivatives, chemically close to flavonoids (Joseph et al., 2002). Herein we show that 3-arylquinoline or 3-aryl-2-quinolone derivatives disrupt cell adhesion in a dose dependent and reversible manner yet antagonized by artificial integrin activation such as manganese. Relying on this anti-adhesive activity, a Structure-Activity Relationship (SAR) study was established on 20 different compounds to throw the bases of future optimization strategies. Active drugs efficiently inhibit platelet spreading, aggregation, and clot retraction, processes that rely on αllbβ3 integrin activation and clustering. In vitro these derivatives interfere with β3 cytoplasmic tail interaction with kindlin-2 in pulldown assays albeit little effect was observed with pure proteins suggesting that the drugs may block an alternative integrin activation process that may not be directly related to kindlin recruitment. Ex vivo, these drugs blunt integrin signaling assayed using focal adhesion kinase auto-phosphorylation as a read-out. Hence, 3-arylquinoline and 3-aryl-2-quinolone series are a novel class of integrin activation and signaling antagonists. PMID:26509443

  5. The modulation of MSC integrin expression by RGD presentation

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Jonathan; Segura, Tatiana

    2013-01-01

    Biomaterials designed to mimic the intricate native extracellular matrix (ECM) can use a variety of techniques to control the behavior of encapsulated cells. Common methods include controlling the mechanical properties of the material, incorporating bioactive signals, spatially patterning bioactive signals, and controlling the time-release of bioactive signals. Further design parameters like bioactive signal distribution can be used to manipulate cell behavior. Efforts on clustering adhesion peptides have focused on seeding cells on top of a biomaterial. Here we report the effect of clustering the adhesion peptide RGD on mouse mesenchymal stem cells encapsulated inside three-dimensional hyaluronic acid hydrogels. The clustered bioactive signals resulted in significant differences in both cell spreading and integrin expression. These results indicate that signal RGD peptide clustering is an additional hydrogel design parameter can be used to influence and guide the behavior of encapsulated cells. PMID:23465825

  6. Detection of Bidirectional Signaling During Integrin Activation and Neutrophil Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Altman, Stuart M.; Dixit, Neha; Simon, Scott I.

    2014-01-01

    Neutrophil arrest and migration on inflamed endothelium is dependent upon a conformational shift in CD11a/CD18 (LFA-1) from a low to high affinity and clustered state which determines the strength and lifetime of bond formation with intracellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1). Cytoskeletal adaptor proteins kindlin-3 and talin-1 anchor clustered LFA-1 to the cytoskeleton and support the transition from neutrophil rolling to arrest. We employ microfluidic flow channels and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy to evaluate the spatiotemporal regulation of LFA-1 affinity and bond formation that facilitate the transition from neutrophil rolling to arrest. Methodology is presented to correlate the relationship between integrin conformation, bond formation with ICAM-1, and cytoskeletal engagement and adhesion strengthening necessary to achieve a migratory phenotype. PMID:24504956

  7. Transendothelial migration enhances integrin-dependent human neutrophil chemokinesis.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Anjelica L; El-Bjeirami, Wafa; West, Jennifer L; McIntire, Larry V; Smith, C Wayne

    2007-03-01

    Transendothelial migration of neutrophils induces phenotypic changes that influence the interactions of neutrophils with extravascular tissue components. To assess the influence of transmigration on neutrophil chemokinetic motility, we used polyethylene glycol hydrogels covalently modified with specific peptide sequences relevant to extracellular matrix proteins. We evaluated fMLP-stimulated human neutrophil motility on peptides Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser (RGDS) and TMKIIPFNRTLIGG (P2), alone and in combination. RGDS is a bioactive sequence found in a number of proteins, and P2 is a membrane-activated complex-1 (Mac-1) ligand located in the gamma-chain of the fibrinogen protein. We evaluated, via video microscopy, cell motility by measuring cell displacement from origin and total accumulated distance traveled and then calculated average velocity. Results indicate that although adhesion and shape change were supported by hydrogels containing RGD alone, motility was not. Mac-1-dependent motility was supported on hydrogels containing P2 alone. Motility was enhanced through combined presentation of RGD and P2, engaging Mac-1, alpha(V)beta(3), and beta(1) integrins. Naïve neutrophil motility on combined peptide substrates was dependent on Mac-1, and alpha(4)beta(1) while alpha(6)beta(1) contributed to speed and linear movement. Transmigrated neutrophil motility was dependent on alpha(v)beta(3) and alpha(5)beta(1), and alpha(4)beta(1), alpha(6)beta(1), and Mac-1 contributed to speed and linear motion. Together, the data demonstrate that efficient neutrophil migration, dependent on multi-integrin interaction, is enhanced after transendothelial migration. PMID:17164427

  8. Crim1 regulates integrin signaling in murine lens development

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying; Fan, Jieqing; Ho, Joshua W. K.; Hu, Tommy; Kneeland, Stephen C.; Fan, Xueping; Xi, Qiongchao; Sellarole, Michael A.; de Vries, Wilhelmine N.; Lu, Weining; Lachke, Salil A.; Lang, Richard A.; John, Simon W. M.; Maas, Richard L.

    2016-01-01

    The developing lens is a powerful system for investigating the molecular basis of inductive tissue interactions and for studying cataract, the leading cause of blindness. The formation of tightly controlled cell-cell adhesions and cell-matrix junctions between lens epithelial (LE) cells, between lens fiber (LF) cells, and between these two cell populations enables the vertebrate lens to adopt a highly ordered structure and acquire optical transparency. Adhesion molecules are thought to maintain this ordered structure, but little is known about their identity or interactions. Cysteine-rich motor neuron 1 (Crim1), a type I transmembrane protein, is strongly expressed in the developing lens and its mutation causes ocular disease in both mice and humans. How Crim1 regulates lens morphogenesis is not understood. We identified a novel ENU-induced hypomorphic allele of Crim1, Crim1glcr11, which in the homozygous state causes cataract and microphthalmia. Using this and two other mutant alleles, Crim1null and Crim1cko, we show that the lens defects in Crim1 mouse mutants originate from defective LE cell polarity, proliferation and cell adhesion. Crim1 adhesive function is likely to be required for interactions both between LE cells and between LE and LF cells. We show that Crim1 acts in LE cells, where it colocalizes with and regulates the levels of active β1 integrin and of phosphorylated FAK and ERK. The RGD and transmembrane motifs of Crim1 are required for regulating FAK phosphorylation. These results identify an important function for Crim1 in the regulation of integrin- and FAK-mediated LE cell adhesion during lens development. PMID:26681494

  9. Sialylation of Integrin beta1 is Involved in Radiation-Induced Adhesion and Migration in Human Colon Cancer Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Minyoung; Lee, Hae-June; Seo, Woo Duck; Park, Ki Hun; Lee, Yun-Sil

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: Previously, we reported that radiation-induced ST6 Gal I gene expression was responsible for an increase of integrin beta1 sialylation. In this study, we have further investigated the function of radiation-mediated integrin beta1 sialylation in colon cancer cells. Methods and Materials: We performed Western blotting and lectin affinity assay to analyze the expression and level of sialylated integrin beta1. After exposure to ionizing radiation (IR), adhesion and migration of cells were measured by in vitro adhesion and migration assay. Results: IR increased sialylation of integrin beta1 responsible for its increased protein stability and adhesion and migration of colon cancer cells. However, for cells with an N-glycosylation site mutant of integrin beta1 located on the I-like domain (Mu3), these effects were dramatically inhibited. In addition, integrin beta1-mediated radioresistance was not observed in cells containing this mutant. When sialylation of integrin beta1 was targeted with a sulfonamide chalcone compound, inhibition of radiation-induced sialylation of integrin beta1 and inhibition of radiation-induced adhesion and migration occurred. Conclusion: The increase of integrin beta1 sialylation by ST6 Gal I is critically involved in radiation-mediated adhesion and migration of colon cancer cells. From these findings, integrin beta1 sialylation may be a novel target for overcoming radiation-induced survival, especially radiation-induced adhesion and migration.

  10. Integrin-beta3 clusters recruit clathrin-mediated endocytic machinery in the absence of traction force

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Cheng-han; Rafiq, Nisha Bte Mohd; Cao, Fakun; Zhou, Yuhuan; Krishnasamy, Anitha; Biswas, Kabir Hassan; Ravasio, Andrea; Chen, Zhongwen; Wang, Yu-Hsiu; Kawauchi, Keiko; Jones, Gareth E.; Sheetz, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    The turnover of integrin receptors is critical for cell migration and adhesion dynamics. Here we find that force development at integrins regulates adaptor protein recruitment and endocytosis. Using mobile RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) ligands on supported lipid membranes (RGD membranes) and rigid RGD ligands on glass (RGD-glass), we find that matrix force-dependent integrin signals block endocytosis. Dab2, an adaptor protein of clathrin-mediated endocytosis, is not recruited to activated integrin-beta3 clusters on RGD-glass; however, it is recruited to integrin-mediated adhesions on RGD membranes. Further, when force generation is inhibited on RGD-glass, Dab2 binds to integrin-beta3 clusters. Dab2 binding to integrin-beta3 excludes other adhesion-related adaptor proteins, such as talin. The clathrin-mediated endocytic machinery combines with Dab2 to facilitate the endocytosis of RGD-integrin-beta3 clusters. From these observations, we propose that loss of traction force on ligand-bound integrin-beta3 causes recruitment of Dab2/clathrin, resulting in endocytosis of integrins. PMID:26507506

  11. Method of increasing radiation sensitivity by inhibition of beta one integrin

    DOEpatents

    Park, Catherine; Bissell, Mina J.

    2009-11-17

    A method for increasing or monitoring apoptosis in tumor cells by the co-administration of ionizing radiation and an anti-integrin antibody. Increasing apoptosis reduces tumor growth in vivo and in a cell culture model. The antibody is directed against the beta-1 integrin subunit and is inhibitory of beta-1 integrin signaling. Other molecules having an inhibitory effect on beta-1 integrin, either in signaling or in binding to its cognate extracellular receptors may also be used. The present method is particularly of interest in treatment of tumor cells associated with breast cancer, wherein radiation is currently used alone. The present method further contemplates a monoclonal antibody suitable for human administration that may further comprise a radioisotope attached thereto.

  12. EFFECT OF METHYL MERCURY CHLORIDE EXPOSURE ON PC12 CELL INTEGRIN EXPRESSION AND FUNCTION.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Integrins are heterodimeric transmembrane cell adhesion proteins composed of a and b protein subunits. They are important during brain development in a number of critical functions, including cell migration (Georges-Labouesse, et al., 1998), axonal elongation (Murase and Hayashi...

  13. The Adenovirus Type 3 Dodecahedron's RGD Loop Comprises an HSPG Binding Site That Influences Integrin Binding

    PubMed Central

    Gout, E.; Schoehn, G.; Fenel, D.; Lortat-Jacob, H.; Fender, P.

    2010-01-01

    Human type 3 adenovirus dodecahedron (a virus like particle made of twelve penton bases) features the ability to enter cells through Heparan Sulphate Proteoglycans (HSPGs) and integrins interaction and is used as a versatile vector to deliver DNA or proteins. Cryo-EM reconstruction of the pseudoviral particle with Heparan Sulphate (HS) oligosaccharide shows an extradensity on the RGD loop. A set of mutants was designed to study the respective roles of the RGD sequence (RGE mutant) and of a basic sequence located just downstream. Results showed that the RGE mutant binding to the HS deficient CHO-2241 cells was abolished and unexpectedly, mutation of the basic sequence (KQKR to AQAS) dramatically decreased integrin recognition by the viral pseudoparticle. This basic sequence is thus involved in integrin docking, showing a close interplay between HSPGs and integrin receptors. PMID:20224646

  14. Biomimetic integrin-specific surfaces to direct osteoblastic function and tissue healing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrie, Timothy Andrew

    Current orthopedic implant technologies used suffer from slow rates of osseointegration, short lifetime, and lack of mechanical integrity as a result of poorly controlled cell-surface interactions. Recent biologically-inspired surface strategies (biomimetic) have focused on mimicking the biofunctionality of the extracellular matrix (ECM) by using short, adhesive oligopeptides, such as arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) present in numerous ECM components. However, these strategies have yielded mixed results in vivo and marginal bone healing responses. The central goal of this dissertation project was to engineer bioactive surfaces that specifically target integrin receptors important for osteogenic functions in order to improve bone tissue repair. In order to create integrin-specific interfaces, integrin-specific ligands reconstituting the fibronectin (FN) secondary/tertiary structure were first engineered and functionalized on material surfaces using several robust presentation schemes. We demonstrated that FN-mimetic-functionalized surfaces that directed alpha 5beta1 binding enhanced osteoblast and stromal cell integrin binding and adhesion, osteogenic signaling, and osteoblastic differentiation compared to various other RGD-based ligand-functionalized surfaces. Next, we investigated the effect of integrin-specific biointerfaces to modulate bone healing in a rat tibia implant bone model. We demonstrated, using a robust polymer brush system, that bioactive coatings on titanium implants that conferred high alpha5beta1 integrin specificity in vitro enhanced bone formation and implant integration in vivo. Moreover, we showed that integrin specificity can be engineered using different immobilization schemes, including clinically-relevant ligand dip-coating, and promote the same robust in vivo effect. Furthermore, we investigate the synergistic roles of integrin specificity and ligand clustering on cell response by engineering biointerfaces presenting trimeric and

  15. Neuropilin-2 regulates α6β1 integrin in the formation of focal adhesions and signaling.

    PubMed

    Goel, Hira Lal; Pursell, Bryan; Standley, Clive; Fogarty, Kevin; Mercurio, Arthur M

    2012-01-15

    The neuropilins (NRPs) contribute to the function of cancer cells in their capacity as VEGF receptors. Given that NRP2 is induced in breast cancer and correlates with aggressive disease, we examined the role of NRP2 in regulating the interaction of breast cancer cells with the ECM. Using epithelial cells from breast tumors, we defined NRP2(high) and NRP2(low) populations that differed in integrin expression and adhesion to laminin. Specifically, the NRP2(high) population adhered more avidly to laminin and expressed high levels of the α6β1 integrin than the NRP2(low) population. The NRP2(high) population formed numerous focal adhesions on laminin that were not seen in the NRP2(low) population. These results were substantiated using breast carcinoma cell lines that express NRP2 and α6β1 integrin. Depletion experiments revealed that adhesive strength on laminin but not collagen is dependent on NRP2, and that VEGF is needed for adhesion on laminin. A specific interaction between NRP2 and α6β1 integrin was detected by co-immunoprecipitation. NRP2 is necessary for focal adhesion formation on laminin and for the association of α6β1 integrin with the cytoskeleton. NRP2 also facilitates α6β1-integrin-mediated activation of FAK and Src. Unexpectedly, we discovered that NRP2 is located in focal adhesions on laminin. The mechanism by which NRP2 regulates the interaction of α6β1 integrin with laminin to form focal adhesions involves PKC activation. Together, our data reveal a new VEGF-NRP2 signaling pathway that activates the α6β1 integrin and enables it to form focal adhesions and signal. This pathway is important in the pathogenesis of breast cancer. PMID:22302985

  16. Expression of {beta}{sub 1} integrins in human endometrial stromal and decidual cells

    SciTech Connect

    Shiokawa, Shigetatsu; Yoshimura, Yasunori; Nakamura, Yukio

    1996-04-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the expression of {beta}{sub 1} integrins in human endometrium and decidua using flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry, and immunoprecipitation. Fluorescence-activated flow cytometry demonstrated the greater expression of the {beta}{sub 1}, {alpha}{sub 1}, {alpha}{sub 2}, and {alpha}{sub 5} subunits of the {beta}{sub 1} integrin family in cultured stromal cells from the midsecretory phase, than in those of the early proliferative phase. The addition of estradiol (E{sub 2}) and progesterone (P) to cultured stromal cells in the early proliferative phase increased the expression of {beta}{sub 1} integrins in vitro. Flow cytometry also demonstrated the expression of the {beta}{sub 1}, {alpha}{sub 1}, {alpha}{sub 2}, {alpha}{sub 3}, {alpha}{sub 5}, and {alpha}{sub 6} subunits of {beta}{sub 1} integrin family in cultured decidual cells, and the enriched-fraction of prolactin (PRL)-producing decidual cells isolated by Percoll gradients showed high levels of {beta}{sub 1} integrins expression. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the {beta}{sub 1} integrin cell surface phenotypes in cultured decidual cells observed by flow cytometry. In summary, the present study demonstrated that endometrial stromal and decidual cells expressed {beta}{sub 1} integrin subunits at their surfaces. The expression exhibited a variability throughout the menstrual cycles, being predominantly detected in the secretory phase, and was maintained highly in the decidua. Thus, {beta}{sub 1} integrins in human endometrium and decidua may be important in mediating the organization of extracellular matrix proteins derived from embryos during the early stage of implantation. 43 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Suppression of cell adhesion through specific integrin crosstalk on mixed peptide-polysaccharide matrices.

    PubMed

    Hozumi, Kentaro; Fujimori, Chikara; Katagiri, Fumihiko; Kikkawa, Yamato; Nomizu, Motoyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Crosstalk of different integrins, which bind to distinct types of extracellular matrix proteins, promotes specific functions. This crosstalk has not been investigated in depth. Previously, we demonstrated that integrin-syndecan crosstalk accelerated cell adhesion. Here, we evaluated the crosstalk of two different integrins using mixed peptide-polysaccharide (chitosan or alginate) matrices. Two different integrin binding peptides, FIB1 (integrin αvβ3), EF1zz (integrin α2β1), and 531 (integrin α3β1), were mixed in various molar ratios (9:1, 4:1, 1:1) and conjugated on a polysaccharide matrix. The mixture of FIB1/EF1zz- and FIB1/531-polysaccharide matrices did not show any difference in human dermal fibroblast (HDF) adhesion against the mono polysaccharide matrices. Interestingly, the EF1zz/531-polysaccharide matrix (molar ratio = 1:4) exhibited significantly decreased cell adhesion, but other EF1zz/531-polysaccharide matrices did not show any difference. When we examined the signal transduction of the EF1zz/531(1:4), Y397 phosphorylation of FAK significantly decreased but Y514 phosphorylation of Src did not exhibit any differences. Further investigation revealed that this suppression was mediated by PI3K signaling through the activation of integrin, and PKA signaling modulated suppression of HDF attachment. These findings suggest that a mixed peptide-polysaccharide matrix using receptor specific ligands can regulate cellular functions through receptor-specific crosstalk and is a useful approach to understand receptor specific crosstalk. PMID:25453939

  18. DIRECT THY-1/αvβ3 INTEGRIN INTERACTION MEDIATES NEURON TO ASTROCYTE COMMUNICATION

    PubMed Central

    Hermosilla, Tamara; Muñoz, Daniel; Herrera-Molina, Rodrigo; Valdivia, Alejandra; Muñoz, Nicolás; Nham, Sang-Uk; Schneider, Pascal; Burridge, Keith; Quest, Andrew F. G.; Leyton, Lisette

    2008-01-01

    Thy-1 is an abundant neuronal glycoprotein of poorly defined function. We recently provided evidence indicating that Thy-1 clusters a β3-containing integrin in astrocytes to induce tyrosine phosphorylation, RhoA activation and the formation of focal adhesions and stress fibers. To date, the α subunit partner of β3 integrin in DI TNC1 astrocytes is unknown. Similarly, the ability of neuronal, membrane-bound Thy-1 to trigger astrocyte signaling via integrin engagement remains speculation. Here, evidence that αv forms an αvβ3 heterodimer in DI TNC1 astrocytes was obtained. In neuron-astrocyte association assays, the presence of either anti-αv or anti-β3 integrin antibodies reduced cell-cell interaction demonstrating the requirement of both integrin subunits for this association. Moreover, anti-Thy-1 antibodies blocked stimulation of astrocytes by neurons but not the binding of these two cell types. Thus, neuron-astrocyte association involved binding between molecular components in addition to the Thy-1-integrin; however, the signaling events leading to focal adhesion formation in astrocytes depended exclusively on the latter interaction. Additionally, wild-type (RLD) but not mutated (RLE) Thy-1 was shown to directly interact with αvβ3 integrin by Surface Plasmon Resonance analysis. This interaction was promoted by divalent cations and was species-independent. Together, these results demonstrate that the αvβ3 integrin heterodimer interacts directly with Thy-1 present on neuronal cells to stimulate astrocytes. PMID:18346467

  19. The integrin-collagen connection--a glue for tissue repair?

    PubMed

    Zeltz, Cédric; Gullberg, Donald

    2016-02-15

    The α1β1, α2β1, α10β1 and α11β1 integrins constitute a subset of the integrin family with affinity for GFOGER-like sequences in collagens. Integrins α1β1 and α2β1 were originally identified on a subset of activated T-cells, and have since been found to be expressed on a number of cell types including platelets (α2β1), vascular cells (α1β1, α2β1), epithelial cells (α1β1, α2β1) and fibroblasts (α1β1, α2β1). Integrin α10β1 shows a distribution that is restricted to mesenchymal stem cells and chondrocytes, whereas integrin α11β1 appears restricted to mesenchymal stem cells and subsets of fibroblasts. The bulk of the current literature suggests that collagen-binding integrins only have a limited role in adult connective tissue homeostasis, partly due to a limited availability of cell-binding sites in the mature fibrillar collagen matrices. However, some recent data suggest that, instead, they are more crucial for dynamic connective tissue remodeling events--such as wound healing--where they might act specifically to remodel and restore the tissue architecture. This Commentary discusses the recent development in the field of collagen-binding integrins, their roles in physiological and pathological settings with special emphasis on wound healing, fibrosis and tumor-stroma interactions, and include a discussion of the most recently identified newcomers to this subfamily--integrins α10β1 and α11β1. PMID:26857815

  20. Integrins alpha1beta1 and alpha2beta1 are receptors for the rotavirus enterotoxin.

    PubMed

    Seo, Neung-Seon; Zeng, Carl Q-Y; Hyser, Joseph M; Utama, Budi; Crawford, Sue E; Kim, Kate J; Höök, Magnus; Estes, Mary K

    2008-07-01

    Rotavirus NSP4 is a viral enterotoxin capable of causing diarrhea in neonatal mice. This process is initiated by the binding of extracellular NSP4 to target molecule(s) on the cell surface that triggers a signaling cascade leading to diarrhea. We now report that the integrins alpha1beta1 and alpha2beta1 are receptors for NSP4. NSP4 specifically binds to the alpha1 and alpha2 I domains with apparent K(d) = 1-2.7 muM. Binding is mediated by the I domain metal ion-dependent adhesion site motif, requires Mg(2+) or Mn(2+), is abolished with EDTA, and an NSP4 point mutant, E(120)A, fails to bind alpha2 integrin I domain. NSP4 has two distinct integrin interaction domains. NSP4 amino acids 114-130 are essential for binding to the I domain, and NSP4 peptide 114-135 blocks binding of the natural ligand, collagen I, to integrin alpha2. NSP4 amino acids 131-140 are not associated with the initial binding to the I domain, but elicit signaling that leads to the spreading of attached C2C12-alpha2 cells, mouse myoblast cells stably expressing the human alpha2 integrin. NSP4 colocalizes with integrin alpha2 on the basolateral surface of rotavirus-infected polarized intestinal epithelial (Caco-2) cells as well as surrounding noninfected cells. NSP4 mutants that fail to bind or signal through integrin alpha2 were attenuated in diarrhea induction in neonatal mice. These results indicate that NSP4 interaction with integrin alpha1 and alpha2 is an important component of enterotoxin function and rotavirus pathogenesis, further distinguishing this viral virulence factor from other microbial enterotoxins. PMID:18587047

  1. Epitopes in α8β1 and other RGD-binding integrins delineate classes of integrin-blocking antibodies and major binding loops in α subunits

    PubMed Central

    Nishimichi, Norihisa; Kawashima, Nagako; Yokosaki, Yasuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Identification of epitopes for integrin-blocking monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) has aided our understanding of structure-function relationship of integrins. We mapped epitopes of chicken anti-integrin-α8-subunit-blocking mAbs by mutational analyses, examining regions that harboured all mapped epitopes recognized by mAbs against other α-subunits in the RGD-binding-integrin subfamily. Six mAbs exhibited blocking function, and these mAbs recognized residues on the same W2:41-loop on the top-face of the β-propeller. Loop-tips sufficiently close to W2:41 (<25 Å) contained within a footprint of the mAbs were mutated, and the loop W3:34 on the bottom face was identified as an additional component of the epitope of one antibody, clone YZ5. Binding sequences on the two loops were conserved in virtually all mammals, and that on W3:34 was also conserved in chickens. These indicate 1) YZ5 binds both top and bottom loops, and the binding to W3:34 is by interactions to conserved residues between immunogen and host species, 2) five other blocking mAbs solely bind to W2:41 and 3) the α8 mAbs would cross-react with most mammals. Comparing with the mAbs against the other α-subunits of RGD-integrins, two classes were delineated; those binding to “W3:34 and an top-loop”, and “solely W2:41”, accounting for 82% of published RGD-integrin-mAbs. PMID:26349930

  2. Epitopes in α8β1 and other RGD-binding integrins delineate classes of integrin-blocking antibodies and major binding loops in α subunits.

    PubMed

    Nishimichi, Norihisa; Kawashima, Nagako; Yokosaki, Yasuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Identification of epitopes for integrin-blocking monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) has aided our understanding of structure-function relationship of integrins. We mapped epitopes of chicken anti-integrin-α8-subunit-blocking mAbs by mutational analyses, examining regions that harboured all mapped epitopes recognized by mAbs against other α-subunits in the RGD-binding-integrin subfamily. Six mAbs exhibited blocking function, and these mAbs recognized residues on the same W2:41-loop on the top-face of the β-propeller. Loop-tips sufficiently close to W2:41 (<25 Å) contained within a footprint of the mAbs were mutated, and the loop W3:34 on the bottom face was identified as an additional component of the epitope of one antibody, clone YZ5. Binding sequences on the two loops were conserved in virtually all mammals, and that on W3:34 was also conserved in chickens. These indicate 1) YZ5 binds both top and bottom loops, and the binding to W3:34 is by interactions to conserved residues between immunogen and host species, 2) five other blocking mAbs solely bind to W2:41 and 3) the α8 mAbs would cross-react with most mammals. Comparing with the mAbs against the other α-subunits of RGD-integrins, two classes were delineated; those binding to "W3:34 and an top-loop", and "solely W2:41", accounting for 82% of published RGD-integrin-mAbs. PMID:26349930

  3. Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxin is a unique ligand of the integrin complement receptor 3

    PubMed Central

    Osicka, Radim; Osickova, Adriana; Hasan, Shakir; Bumba, Ladislav; Cerny, Jiri; Sebo, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Integrins are heterodimeric cell surface adhesion and signaling receptors that are essential for metazoan existence. Some integrins contain an I-domain that is a major ligand binding site. The ligands preferentially engage the active forms of the integrins and trigger signaling cascades that alter numerous cell functions. Here we found that the adenylate cyclase toxin (CyaA), a key virulence factor of the whooping cough agent Bordetella pertussis, preferentially binds an inactive form of the integrin complement receptor 3 (CR3), using a site outside of its I-domain. CyaA binding did not trigger downstream signaling of CR3 in human monocytes and CyaA-catalyzed elevation of cAMP effectively blocked CR3 signaling initiated by a natural ligand. This unprecedented type of integrin-ligand interaction distinguishes CyaA from all other known ligands of the I-domain-containing integrins and provides a mechanistic insight into the previously observed central role of CyaA in the pathogenesis of B. pertussis. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10766.001 PMID:26650353

  4. Mapping the Effect of Gly Mutations in Collagen on α2β1 Integrin Binding*

    PubMed Central

    Yigit, Sezin; Yu, Hongtao; An, Bo; Hamaia, Samir; Farndale, Richard W.; Kaplan, David L.; Lin, Yu-Shan; Brodsky, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    The replacement of one Gly in the essential repeating tripeptide sequence of the type I collagen triple helix results in the dominant hereditary bone disorder osteogenesis imperfecta. The mechanism leading to pathology likely involves misfolding and autophagy, although it has been hypothesized that some mutations interfere with known collagen interactions. Here, the effect of Gly replacements within and nearby the integrin binding GFPGER sequence was investigated using a recombinant bacterial collagen system. When a six-triplet human type I collagen sequence containing GFPGER was introduced into a bacterial collagen-like protein, this chimeric protein bound to integrin. Constructs with Gly to Ser substitutions within and nearby the inserted human sequence still formed a trypsin-resistant triple helix, suggesting a small local conformational perturbation. Gly to Ser mutations within the two Gly residues in the essential GFPGER sequence prevented integrin binding and cell attachment as predicted from molecular dynamics studies of the complex. Replacement of Gly residues C-terminal to GFPGER did not affect integrin binding. In contrast, Gly replacements N-terminal to the GFPGER sequence, up to four triplets away, decreased integrin binding and cell adhesion. This pattern suggests either an involvement of the triplets N-terminal to GFPGER in initial binding or a propagation of the perturbation of the triple helix C-terminal to a mutation site. The asymmetry in biological consequences relative to the mutation site may relate to the observed pattern of osteogenesis imperfecta mutations near the integrin binding site. PMID:27432884

  5. Integrin-extracellular matrix interactions in connective tissue remodeling and osteoblast differentiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, R. K.; Moursi, A.; Zimmerman, D.; Lull, J.; Damsky, C.

    1995-01-01

    The differentiaton of bone cells is a complex multistep process. Bone is somewhat unusual in that it is very actively and continually remodeled in the adult and that maintenance of its mass in the mature organism is exquisitely sensitive to mechanical as well as chemical signals. Bone is also unique because it consists of a very large amount of extracellular matrix (ECM) that is mineralized. The integrin family of ECM receptors has been shown to play an important role in tissue morphogenesis in several systems. Our studies on the regulation of matrix remodeling enzymes by integrins in rabbit synovial fibroblasts show that two b1 integrin fibronectin (FN) receptor complexes (alpha 5 beta 1 and alpha 4 beta 1) cooperate in detecting subtle changes in the composition of the ECM. As a result of signal transduction by these integrins, the levels of mRNA and protein for several members of the metalloproteinase family are regulated in these cells. We have also used antibody and RGD peptide perturbation studies to determine the significance of cell/ECM interactions to normal osteogenesis. We found that interactions between the cell binding domain of FN and integrins are required for both normal morphogenesis and gene expression in cultured osteoblasts that differentiate to form bone-like tissue in culture. These data lead us to propose that beta 1 integrins play an important role in osteoblast differentiation as well as in bone remodeling.

  6. Integrin-like proteins are localized to plasma membrane fractions, not plastids, in Arabidopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swatzell, L. J.; Edelmann, R. E.; Makaroff, C. A.; Kiss, J. Z.

    1999-01-01

    Integrins are a large family of integral membrane proteins that function in signal transduction in animal systems. These proteins are conserved in vertebrates, invertebrates, and fungi. Evidence from previous research suggests that integrin-like proteins may be present in plants as well, and that these proteins may function in signal transduction during gravitropism. In past studies, researchers have used monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies to localize beta 1 integrin-like proteins in plants. However, there is a disparity between data collected from these studies, especially since molecular weights obtained from these investigations range from 55-120 kDa for integrin-like proteins. To date, a complete investigation which employs all three basic immunolabeling procedures, immunoblotting, immunofluorescence microscopy, and immunogold labeling, in addition to extensive fractionation and exhaustive controls, has been lacking. In this paper, we demonstrate that use of a polyclonal antibody against the cytoplasmic domain of avian beta 1-integrin can produce potential artifacts in immunolocalization studies. However, these problems can be eliminated through use of starchless mutants or proper specimen preparation prior to electrophoresis. We also show that this antibody, when applied within the described parameters and with careful controls, identifies a large (100 kDa) integrin-like protein that is localized to plasma membrane fractions in Arabidopsis.

  7. Mechanosensing by the α6-integrin confers an invasive fibroblast phenotype and mediates lung fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Huaping; Qu, Jing; Huang, Xiangwei; Kurundkar, Ashish; Zhu, Lanyan; Yang, Naiheng; Venado, Aida; Ding, Qiang; Liu, Gang; Antony, Veena B.; Thannickal, Victor J.; Zhou, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Matrix stiffening is a prominent feature of pulmonary fibrosis. In this study, we demonstrate that matrix stiffness regulates the ability of fibrotic lung myofibroblasts to invade the basement membrane (BM). We identify α6-integrin as a mechanosensing integrin subunit that mediates matrix stiffness-regulated myofibroblast invasion. Increasing α6-expression, specifically the B isoform (α6B), couples β1-integrin to mediate MMP-2-dependent pericellular proteolysis of BM collagen IV, leading to myofibroblast invasion. Human idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis lung myofibroblasts express high levels of α6-integrin in vitro and in vivo. Genetic ablation of α6 in collagen-expressing mesenchymal cells or pharmacological blockade of matrix stiffness-regulated α6-expression protects mice against bleomycin injury-induced experimental lung fibrosis. These findings suggest that α6-integrin is a matrix stiffness-regulated mechanosensitive molecule which confers an invasive fibroblast phenotype and mediates experimental lung fibrosis. Targeting this mechanosensing α6(β1)-integrin offers a novel anti-fibrotic strategy against lung fibrosis. PMID:27535718

  8. Targeting β1-integrin signaling enhances regeneration in aged and dystrophic muscle in mice.

    PubMed

    Rozo, Michelle; Li, Liangji; Fan, Chen-Ming

    2016-08-01

    Interactions between stem cells and their microenvironment, or niche, are essential for stem cell maintenance and function. Our knowledge of the niche for the skeletal muscle stem cell, i.e., the satellite cell (SC), is incomplete. Here we show that β1-integrin is an essential niche molecule that maintains SC homeostasis, and sustains the expansion and self-renewal of this stem cell pool during regeneration. We further show that β1-integrin cooperates with fibroblast growth factor 2 (Fgf2), a potent growth factor for SCs, to synergistically activate their common downstream effectors, the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase Erk and protein kinase B (Akt). Notably, SCs in aged mice show altered β1-integrin activity and insensitivity to Fgf2. Augmenting β1-integrin activity with a monoclonal antibody restores Fgf2 sensitivity and improves regeneration after experimentally induced muscle injury. The same treatment also enhances regeneration and function of dystrophic muscles in mdx mice, a model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Therefore, β1-integrin senses the SC niche to maintain responsiveness to Fgf2, and this integrin represents a potential therapeutic target for pathological conditions of the muscle in which the stem cell niche is compromised. PMID:27376575

  9. Band 4.1 Proteins Regulate Integrin-Dependent Cell Spreading

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Youngsin; McCarty, Joseph H.

    2012-01-01

    Integrins link the extracellular matrix (ECM) to the cytoskeleton to control cell behaviors including adhesion, spreading and migration. Band 4.1 proteins contain 4.1, ezrin, radixin, moesin (FERM) domains that likely mediate signaling events and cytoskeletal reorganization via integrins. However, the mechanisms by which Band 4.1 proteins and integrins are functionally interconnected remain enigmatic. Here we have investigated roles for Band 4.1 proteins in integrin-mediated cell spreading. We demonstrate that Proteins 4.1B and 4.1G show overlapping and dynamic patterns of sub-cellular localization in astrocytes spreading on fibronectin. During early stages of cell spreading Proteins 4.1B and 4.1G are enriched in ECM adhesion sites but become more diffusely expressed in later stages of cell spreading. Combinatorial inhibition of Protein 4.1B and 4.1G expression leads to impaired astrocyte spreading. Furthermore, using exogenous expression systems we show that the isolated Protein 4.1 FERM domain significantly enhances β1 integrin-mediated cell spreading. Lastly, Protein 4.1B is dispensable for reactive astrogliosis in experimental models of cortical injury, likely due to functional compensation by related Protein 4.1 family members. Collectively, these findings reveal that Band 4.1 proteins are important intracellular components for integrin-mediated cell spreading. PMID:22982319

  10. PAK proteins and YAP-1 signalling downstream of integrin beta-1 in myofibroblasts promote liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Martin, Katherine; Pritchett, James; Llewellyn, Jessica; Mullan, Aoibheann F; Athwal, Varinder S; Dobie, Ross; Harvey, Emma; Zeef, Leo; Farrow, Stuart; Streuli, Charles; Henderson, Neil C; Friedman, Scott L; Hanley, Neil A; Piper Hanley, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Fibrosis due to extracellular matrix (ECM) secretion from myofibroblasts complicates many chronic liver diseases causing scarring and organ failure. Integrin-dependent interaction with scar ECM promotes pro-fibrotic features. However, the pathological intracellular mechanism in liver myofibroblasts is not completely understood, and further insight could enable therapeutic efforts to reverse fibrosis. Here, we show that integrin beta-1, capable of binding integrin alpha-11, regulates the pro-fibrotic phenotype of myofibroblasts. Integrin beta-1 expression is upregulated in pro-fibrotic myofibroblasts in vivo and is required in vitro for production of fibrotic ECM components, myofibroblast proliferation, migration and contraction. Serine/threonine-protein kinase proteins, also known as P21-activated kinase (PAK), and the mechanosensitive factor, Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP-1) are core mediators of pro-fibrotic integrin beta-1 signalling, with YAP-1 capable of perpetuating integrin beta-1 expression. Pharmacological inhibition of either pathway in vivo attenuates liver fibrosis. PAK protein inhibition, in particular, markedly inactivates the pro-fibrotic myofibroblast phenotype, limits scarring from different hepatic insults and represents a new tractable therapeutic target for treating liver fibrosis. PMID:27535340

  11. Integrin binding and mechanical tension induce movement of mRNA and ribosomes to focal adhesions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chicurel, M. E.; Singer, R. H.; Meyer, C. J.; Ingber, D. E.

    1998-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) activates signalling pathways that control cell behaviour by binding to cell-surface integrin receptors and inducing the formation of focal adhesion complexes (FACs). In addition to clustered integrins, FACs contain proteins that mechanically couple the integrins to the cytoskeleton and to immobilized signal-transducing molecules. Cell adhesion to the ECM also induces a rapid increase in the translation of preexisting messenger RNAs. Gene expression can be controlled locally by targeting mRNAs to specialized cytoskeletal domains. Here we investigate whether cell binding to the ECM promotes formation of a cytoskeletal microcompartment specialized for translational control at the site of integrin binding. High-resolution in situ hybridization revealed that mRNA and ribosomes rapidly and specifically localized to FACs that form when cells bind to ECM-coated microbeads. Relocation of these protein synthesis components to the FAC depended on the ability of integrins to mechanically couple the ECM to the contractile cytoskeleton and on associated tension-moulding of the actin lattice. Our results suggest a new type of gene regulation by integrins and by mechanical stress which may involve translation of mRNAs into proteins near the sites of signal reception.

  12. Mechanosensing by the α6-integrin confers an invasive fibroblast phenotype and mediates lung fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huaping; Qu, Jing; Huang, Xiangwei; Kurundkar, Ashish; Zhu, Lanyan; Yang, Naiheng; Venado, Aida; Ding, Qiang; Liu, Gang; Antony, Veena B; Thannickal, Victor J; Zhou, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Matrix stiffening is a prominent feature of pulmonary fibrosis. In this study, we demonstrate that matrix stiffness regulates the ability of fibrotic lung myofibroblasts to invade the basement membrane (BM). We identify α6-integrin as a mechanosensing integrin subunit that mediates matrix stiffness-regulated myofibroblast invasion. Increasing α6-expression, specifically the B isoform (α6B), couples β1-integrin to mediate MMP-2-dependent pericellular proteolysis of BM collagen IV, leading to myofibroblast invasion. Human idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis lung myofibroblasts express high levels of α6-integrin in vitro and in vivo. Genetic ablation of α6 in collagen-expressing mesenchymal cells or pharmacological blockade of matrix stiffness-regulated α6-expression protects mice against bleomycin injury-induced experimental lung fibrosis. These findings suggest that α6-integrin is a matrix stiffness-regulated mechanosensitive molecule which confers an invasive fibroblast phenotype and mediates experimental lung fibrosis. Targeting this mechanosensing α6(β1)-integrin offers a novel anti-fibrotic strategy against lung fibrosis. PMID:27535718

  13. RGD-Binding Integrins in Prostate Cancer: Expression Patterns and Therapeutic Prospects against Bone Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, Mark; Gordon, Andrew; Shnyder, Steven D.; Patterson, Laurence H.; Sheldrake, Helen M.

    2012-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the third leading cause of male cancer deaths in the developed world. The current lack of highly specific detection methods and efficient therapeutic agents for advanced disease have been identified as problems requiring further research. The integrins play a vital role in the cross-talk between the cell and extracellular matrix, enhancing the growth, migration, invasion and metastasis of cancer cells. Progression and metastasis of prostate adenocarcinoma is strongly associated with changes in integrin expression, notably abnormal expression and activation of the β3 integrins in tumour cells, which promotes haematogenous spread and tumour growth in bone. As such, influencing integrin cell expression and function using targeted therapeutics represents a potential treatment for bone metastasis, the most common and debilitating complication of advanced prostate cancer. In this review, we highlight the multiple ways in which RGD-binding integrins contribute to prostate cancer progression and metastasis, and identify the rationale for development of multi-integrin antagonists targeting the RGD-binding subfamily as molecularly targeted agents for its treatment. PMID:24213501

  14. Mechanism for KRIT1 release of ICAP1-mediated integrin activation suppression

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Weizhi; Draheim, Kyle M.; Zhang, Rong; Calderwood, David A.; Boggon, Titus J.

    2013-01-01

    Summary KRIT1 (Krev/Rap1 Interaction Trapped-1) mutations are observed in ~40% of autosomal dominant cerebral cavernous malformations (CCM), a disease occurring in up to 0.5% of the population. We show that KRIT1 functions as a switch for β1 integrin activation by antagonizing ICAP1 (Integrin Cytoplasmic Associated Protein-1)-mediated modulation of “inside-out” activation. We present co-crystal structures of KRIT1 with ICAP1 and ICAP1 with integrin β1 cytoplasmic tail to 2.54 Å and 3.0 Å resolution (the resolutions at which I/σI = 2 are 2.75 Å and 3.0 Å, respectively). We find that KRIT1 binds ICAP1 by a bidentate surface, KRIT1 directly competes with integrin β1 to bind ICAP1, and that KRIT1 antagonizes ICAP1-modulated integrin activation using this site. We also find that KRIT1 contains an N-terminal Nudix domain, in a region previously designated as unstructured. We therefore provide new insights to integrin regulation and CCM-associated KRIT1 function. PMID:23317506

  15. Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxin is a unique ligand of the integrin complement receptor 3.

    PubMed

    Osicka, Radim; Osickova, Adriana; Hasan, Shakir; Bumba, Ladislav; Cerny, Jiri; Sebo, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Integrins are heterodimeric cell surface adhesion and signaling receptors that are essential for metazoan existence. Some integrins contain an I-domain that is a major ligand binding site. The ligands preferentially engage the active forms of the integrins and trigger signaling cascades that alter numerous cell functions. Here we found that the adenylate cyclase toxin (CyaA), a key virulence factor of the whooping cough agent Bordetella pertussis, preferentially binds an inactive form of the integrin complement receptor 3 (CR3), using a site outside of its I-domain. CyaA binding did not trigger downstream signaling of CR3 in human monocytes and CyaA-catalyzed elevation of cAMP effectively blocked CR3 signaling initiated by a natural ligand. This unprecedented type of integrin-ligand interaction distinguishes CyaA from all other known ligands of the I-domain-containing integrins and provides a mechanistic insight into the previously observed central role of CyaA in the pathogenesis of B. pertussis. PMID:26650353

  16. Integrins activate trimeric G proteins via the nonreceptor protein GIV/Girdin

    PubMed Central

    Leyme, Anthony; Marivin, Arthur; Perez-Gutierrez, Lorena; Nguyen, Lien T.

    2015-01-01

    Signal transduction via integrins and G protein–coupled receptors is critical to control cell behavior. These two receptor classes have been traditionally believed to trigger distinct and independent signaling cascades in response to extracellular cues. Here, we report a novel mechanism of integrin signaling that requires activation of the trimeric G protein Gαi by the nonreceptor guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) GIV (also known as Girdin), a metastasis-associated protein. We demonstrate that GIV enhances integrin-dependent cell responses upon extracellular matrix stimulation and makes tumor cells more invasive. These responses include remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton and PI3K-dependent signaling, resulting in enhanced haptotaxis and invasion. We show that both GIV and its substrate Gαi3 are recruited to active integrin complexes and that tumor cells engineered to express GEF-deficient GIV fail to transduce integrin signals into proinvasive responses via a Gβγ-PI3K axis. Our discoveries delineate a novel mechanism by which integrin signaling is rewired during metastasis to result in increased tumor invasiveness. PMID:26391662

  17. Effect of hypoxia on integrin-mediated adhesion of endothelial progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Ralf; Friedrich, Denise; Chavakis, Emmanouil; Böhm, Michael; Friedrich, Erik B

    2012-01-01

    Homing of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) is crucial for neoangiogenesis, which might be negatively affected by hypoxia. We investigated the influence of hypoxia on fibronectin binding integrins for migration and cell-matrix-adhesion. AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) and integrin-linked kinase (ILK) were examined as possible effectors of hypoxia.Human EPCs were expanded on fibronectin (FN) and integrin expression was profiled by flow cytometry. Cell-matrix-adhesion- and migration-assays on FN were performed to examine the influence of hypoxia and AMPK-activation. Regulation of AMPK and ILK was shown by Western blot analysis. We demonstrate the presence of integrin β1, β2 and α5 on EPCs. Adhesion to FN is reduced by blocking β1 and α5 (49% and 2% of control, P < 0.05) whereas α4-blockade has no effect. Corresponding effects were shown for migration. Hypoxia and AMPK-activation decrease adhesion on FN. Although total AMPK-expression remains unchanged, phospho-AMPK increases eightfold.The EPCs require α5 for adhesion on FN. Hypoxia and AMPK-activation decrease adhesion. As α5 is the major adhesive factor for EPCs on FN, this suggests a link between AMPK and α5-integrins. We found novel evidence for a connection between hypoxia, AMPK-activity and integrin activity. This might affect the fate of EPCs in ischaemic tissue. PMID:22353471

  18. PAK proteins and YAP-1 signalling downstream of integrin beta-1 in myofibroblasts promote liver fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Katherine; Pritchett, James; Llewellyn, Jessica; Mullan, Aoibheann F.; Athwal, Varinder S.; Dobie, Ross; Harvey, Emma; Zeef, Leo; Farrow, Stuart; Streuli, Charles; Henderson, Neil C.; Friedman, Scott L.; Hanley, Neil A.; Piper Hanley, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Fibrosis due to extracellular matrix (ECM) secretion from myofibroblasts complicates many chronic liver diseases causing scarring and organ failure. Integrin-dependent interaction with scar ECM promotes pro-fibrotic features. However, the pathological intracellular mechanism in liver myofibroblasts is not completely understood, and further insight could enable therapeutic efforts to reverse fibrosis. Here, we show that integrin beta-1, capable of binding integrin alpha-11, regulates the pro-fibrotic phenotype of myofibroblasts. Integrin beta-1 expression is upregulated in pro-fibrotic myofibroblasts in vivo and is required in vitro for production of fibrotic ECM components, myofibroblast proliferation, migration and contraction. Serine/threonine-protein kinase proteins, also known as P21-activated kinase (PAK), and the mechanosensitive factor, Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP-1) are core mediators of pro-fibrotic integrin beta-1 signalling, with YAP-1 capable of perpetuating integrin beta-1 expression. Pharmacological inhibition of either pathway in vivo attenuates liver fibrosis. PAK protein inhibition, in particular, markedly inactivates the pro-fibrotic myofibroblast phenotype, limits scarring from different hepatic insults and represents a new tractable therapeutic target for treating liver fibrosis. PMID:27535340

  19. Integrin β3 Crosstalk with VEGFR Accommodating Tyrosine Phosphorylation as a Regulatory Switch

    PubMed Central

    Malinin, Nikolay L.; Deshmukh, Lalit; Meller, Julia; Mahabeleshwar, Ganapati H.; Weber, Malory E.; Kerr, Bethany A.; Vinogradova, Olga; Byzova, Tatiana V.

    2012-01-01

    Integrins mediate cell adhesion, migration, and survival by connecting intracellular machinery with the surrounding extracellular matrix. Previous studies demonstrated the importance of the interaction between β3 integrin and VEGF type 2 receptor (VEGFR2) in VEGF-induced angiogenesis. Here we present in vitro evidence of the direct association between the cytoplasmic tails (CTs) of β3 and VEGFR2. Specifically, the membrane-proximal motif around 801YLSI in VEGFR2 mediates its binding to non-phosphorylated β3CT, accommodating an α-helical turn in integrin bound conformation. We also show that Y747 phosphorylation of β3 enhances the above interaction. To demonstrate the importance of β3 phosphorylation in endothelial cell functions, we synthesized β3CT-mimicking Y747 phosphorylated and unphosphorylated membrane permeable peptides. We show that a peptide containing phospho-Y747 but not F747 significantly inhibits VEGF-induced signaling and angiogenesis. Moreover, phospho-Y747 peptide exhibits inhibitory effect only in WT but not in β3 integrin knock-out or β3 integrin knock-in cells expressing β3 with two tyrosines substituted for phenylalanines, demonstrating its specificity. Importantly, these peptides have no effect on fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling. Collectively these data provide novel mechanistic insights into phosphorylation dependent cross-talk between integrin and VEGFR2. PMID:22363548

  20. Clinical significance of the integrin α6β4 in human malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Rachel L.; O’Connor, Kathleen L.

    2015-01-01

    Integrin α6β4 is a cellular adhesion molecule that binds to laminins in the extracellular matrix and nucleates the formation of hemidesmosomes. During carcinoma progression, integrin α6β4 is released from hemidesmosomes, where it can then signal to facilitate multiple aspects of tumor progression including sustaining proliferative signaling, tumor invasion and metastasis, evasion of apoptosis, and stimulation of angiogenesis. The integrin achieves these ends by cooperating with growth factor receptors including EGFR, ErbB-2, and c-Met to amplify downstream pathways such as PI3K, AKT, MAPK and the Rho family small GTPases. Furthermore, it dramatically alters the transcriptome toward a more invasive phenotype by controlling promoter DNA demethylation of invasion and metastasis-associated proteins, such as S100A4 and autotaxin, and upregulates and activates key tumor promoting transcription factors such as the NFATs and NFkB. Expression of integrin α6β4 has been studied in many human malignancies where its overexpression is associated with aggressive behavior and a poor prognosis. This review provides an assessment of integrin α6β4 expression patterns and their prognostic significance in human malignancies, and describes key signaling functions of integrin α6β4 that contribute to tumor progression. PMID:26121317

  1. Expression of α5 integrin rescues fibronectin responsiveness in NT2N CNS neuronal cells

    PubMed Central

    Meland, Marit N.; Herndon, Mary E.; Stipp, Christopher S.

    2010-01-01

    The extracellular matrix protein fibronectin is implicated in neuronal regeneration in the peripheral nervous system. In the central nervous system (CNS), fibronectin is upregulated at sites of penetrating injuries and stroke; however, CNS neurons downregulate the fibronectin receptor, α5β1 integrin, during differentiation and generally respond poorly to fibronectin. NT2N CNS neuron-like cells (derived from NT2 precursor cells) have been used in pre-clinical and clinical studies for treatment of stroke and a variety of CNS injury and disease models. Here we show that, like primary CNS neurons, NT2N cells downregulate α5β1 integrin during differentiation and respond poorly to fibronectin. The poor neurite outgrowth by NT2N cells on fibronectin can be rescued by transducing NT2 precursors with a retroviral vector expressing α5 integrin under the control of the Murine Stem Cell Virus 5′ long terminal repeat. Sustained α5 integrin expression is compatible with the CNS-like neuronal differentiation of NT2N cells and does not prevent robust neurite outgrowth on other integrin ligands. Thus, α5 integrin expression in CNS neuronal precursor cells may provide a strategy for enhancing the outgrowth and survival of implanted cells in cell replacement therapies for CNS injury and disease. PMID:19598247

  2. The cancer glycocalyx mechanically primes integrin-mediated growth and survival

    PubMed Central

    Paszek, Matthew J.; DuFort, Christopher C.; Rossier, Olivier; Bainer, Russell; Mouw, Janna K.; Godula, Kamil; Hudak, Jason E.; Lakins, Jonathon N.; Wijekoon, Amanda C.; Cassereau, Luke; Rubashkin, Matthew G.; Magbanua, Mark J.; Thorn, Kurt S.; Davidson, Michael W.; Rugo, Hope S.; Park, John W.; Hammer, Daniel A.; Giannone, Grégory; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.; Weaver, Valerie M.

    2015-01-01

    Malignancy is associated with altered expression of glycans and glycoproteins that contribute to the cellular glycocalyx. We constructed a glycoprotein expression signature, which revealed that metastatic tumours upregulate expression of bulky glycoproteins. A computational model predicted that these glycoproteins would influence transmembrane receptor spatial organization and function. We tested this prediction by investigating whether bulky glycoproteins in the glycocalyx promote a tumour phenotype in human cells by increasing integrin adhesion and signalling. Our data revealed that a bulky glycocalyx facilitates integrin clustering by funnelling active integrins into adhesions and altering integrin state by applying tension to matrix-bound integrins, independent of actomyosin contractility. Expression of large tumour-associated glycoproteins in non-transformed mammary cells promoted focal adhesion assembly and facilitated integrin-dependent growth factor signalling to support cell growth and survival. Clinical studies revealed that large glycoproteins are abundantly expressed on circulating tumour cells from patients with advanced disease. Thus, a bulky glycocalyx is a feature of tumour cells that could foster metastasis by mechanically enhancing cell-surface receptor function. PMID:25030168

  3. Laminin-binding integrin gene copy number alterations in distinct epithelial-type cancers

    PubMed Central

    Harryman, William L; Pond, Erika; Singh, Parminder; Little, Andrew S; Eschbacher, Jennifer M; Nagle, Raymond B; Cress, Anne E

    2016-01-01

    Background: The laminin-binding integrin (LBI) family are cell adhesion molecules that are essential for invasion and metastasis of human epithelial cancers and cell adhesion mediated drug resistance. We investigated whether copy number alteration (CNA) or mutations of a five-gene signature (ITGB4, ITGA3, LAMB3, PLEC, and SYNE3), representing essential genes for LBI adhesion, would correlate with patient outcomes within human epithelial-type tumor data sets currently available in an open access format. Methods: We investigated the relative alteration frequency of an LBI signature panel (integrin β4 (ITGB4), integrin α3 (ITGA3), laminin β3 chain (LAMB3), plectin (PLEC), and nesprin 3 (SYNE3)), independent of the epithelial cancer type, within publically available and published data using cBioPortal and Oncomine software. We rank ordered the results using a 20% alteration frequency cut-off and limited the analysis to studies containing at least 100 samples. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were analyzed to determine if alterations in the LBI signature correlated with patient survival. The Oncomine data mining tool was used to compare the heat map expression of the LBI signature without SYNE3 (as this was not included in the Oncomine database) to drug resistance patterns. Results: Twelve different cancer types, representing 5,647 samples, contained at least a 20% alteration frequency of the five-gene LBI signature. The frequency of alteration ranged from 38.3% to 19.8%. Within the LBI signature, PLEC was the most commonly altered followed by LAMB3, ITGB4, ITGA3, and SYNE3 across all twelve cancer types. Within cancer types, there was little overlap of the individual amplified genes from each sample, suggesting different specific amplicons may alter the LBI adhesion structures. Of the twelve cancer types, overall survival was altered by CNA presence in bladder urothelial carcinoma (p=0.0143*) and cervical squamous cell carcinoma and endocervical adenocarcinoma (p=0

  4. Rational design of a protein that binds integrin αvβ3 outside the ligand binding site

    PubMed Central

    Turaga, Ravi Chakra; Yin, Lu; Yang, Jenny J.; Lee, Hsiauwei; Ivanov, Ivaylo; Yan, Chunli; Yang, Hua; Grossniklaus, Hans E.; Wang, Siming; Ma, Cheng; Sun, Li; Liu, Zhi-Ren

    2016-01-01

    Integrin αvβ3 expression is altered in various diseases and has been proposed as a drug target. Here we use a rational design approach to develop a therapeutic protein, which we call ProAgio, that binds to integrin αvβ3 outside the classical ligand-binding site. We show ProAgio induces apoptosis of integrin αvβ3-expressing cells by recruiting and activating caspase 8 to the cytoplasmic domain of integrin αvβ3. ProAgio also has anti-angiogenic activity and strongly inhibits growth of tumour xenografts, but does not affect the established vasculature. Toxicity analyses demonstrate that ProAgio is not toxic to mice. Our study reports a new integrin-targeting agent with a unique mechanism of action, and provides a template for the development of integrin-targeting therapeutics. PMID:27241473

  5. Rational design of a protein that binds integrin αvβ3 outside the ligand binding site.

    PubMed

    Turaga, Ravi Chakra; Yin, Lu; Yang, Jenny J; Lee, Hsiauwei; Ivanov, Ivaylo; Yan, Chunli; Yang, Hua; Grossniklaus, Hans E; Wang, Siming; Ma, Cheng; Sun, Li; Liu, Zhi-Ren

    2016-01-01

    Integrin αvβ3 expression is altered in various diseases and has been proposed as a drug target. Here we use a rational design approach to develop a therapeutic protein, which we call ProAgio, that binds to integrin αvβ3 outside the classical ligand-binding site. We show ProAgio induces apoptosis of integrin αvβ3-expressing cells by recruiting and activating caspase 8 to the cytoplasmic domain of integrin αvβ3. ProAgio also has anti-angiogenic activity and strongly inhibits growth of tumour xenografts, but does not affect the established vasculature. Toxicity analyses demonstrate that ProAgio is not toxic to mice. Our study reports a new integrin-targeting agent with a unique mechanism of action, and provides a template for the development of integrin-targeting therapeutics. PMID:27241473

  6. Activation of focal adhesion kinase through an interaction with β4 integrin contributes to tumorigenicity of colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Tai, Yu-Ling; Lai, I-Rue; Peng, Yu-Ju; Ding, Shih-Torng; Shen, Tang-Long

    2016-06-01

    High expression of either β4 integrin or focal adhesion kinase (FAK) has been reported in human colon cancer. However, it remains unclear how β4 integrin together with FAK contributes to the tumorigenicity of colon cancer. Here, we demonstrate that the co-overexpression of β4 integrin and FAK positively correlates with advanced stages of human colon cancer. Activated β4 integrin interacts with FAK and subsequently induces FAK phosphorylation at Tyr397. Furthermore, ablation of the β4 integrin/FAK complex and/or FAK activation impair colon cancer cell proliferation, anchorage-independent growth, and tumorigenicity. Our data indicate that the β4 integrin/FAK complex and subsequent FAK activation are essential regulators during the tumorigenicity of colon cancer, and we suggest an alternative strategy for colon cancer therapy. PMID:27178753

  7. Dexamethasone Increases αvβ3 Integrin Expression and Affinity through a Calcineurin/NFAT Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Faralli, Jennifer A.; Gagen, Debjani; Filla, Mark S.; Crotti, Tania N.; Peters, Donna M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how dexamethasone (DEX) regulates the expression and activity of αvβ3 integrin. FACS analysis showed that DEX treatment induced expression of an activated αvβ3 integrin. Its expression remained high as long as DEX was present and continued following DEX removal. FACS analysis showed that the upregulation of αvβ3 integrin was the result of an increase in the expression of the β3 integrin subunit. By real time qPCR, DEX treatment induced a 6.2-fold increase (p<0.04) in β3 integrin mRNA by day 2 compared to control and remained elevated for 6 days of treatment and then an additional 10 days once the DEX was removed. The increase in β3 integrin mRNA levels required only 1 day of DEX treatment to increase levels for 4 days in the absence of DEX. In contrast, DEX did not alter β1 integrin mRNA or protein levels. The DEX-induced upregulation of β3 integrin mRNA was partly due to an increase in its half-life to 60.7 h from 22.5 h in control cultures (p<0.05) and could be inhibited by RU486 and cycloheximide, suggesting that DEX-induced de novo protein synthesis of an activation factor was needed. The calcineurin inhibitors cyclosporin A (CsA) and FK506 inhibited the DEX induced increase in β3 integrin mRNA. In summary, the DEX-induced increase in β3 integrin is a secondary glucocorticoid response that results in prolonged expression of αvβ3 integrin and the upregulation of the β3 integrin subunit through the calcineurin/NFAT pathway. PMID:24100160

  8. Integrin α1β1 Promotes Caveolin-1 Dephosphorylation by Activating T Cell Protein-tyrosine Phosphatase*

    PubMed Central

    Borza, Corina M.; Chen, Xiwu; Mathew, Sijo; Mont, Stacey; Sanders, Charles R.; Zent, Roy; Pozzi, Ambra

    2010-01-01

    Integrin α1β1 is a collagen receptor that down-regulates collagen and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and mice lacking this receptor show increased ROS levels and exacerbated glomerular sclerosis following injury. Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) is a multifunctional protein that is tyrosine-phosphorylated in response to injury and has been implicated in ROS-mediated injury. Cav-1 interacts with integrins, and integrin α1β1 binds/activates T cell protein-tyrosine phosphatase (TCPTP), which is homologous to the tyrosine phosphatase PTP1B known to dephosphorylate Cav-1. In this study, we analyzed whether phosphorylated Cav-1 (pCav-1) is a substrate of TCPTP and if integrin α1β1 is essential for promoting TCPTP-mediated Cav-1 dephosphorylation. We found that Cav-1 phosphorylation is significantly higher in cells lacking integrin α1β1 at base line and following oxidative stress. Overexpression of TCPTP leads to reduced pCav-1 levels only in cells expressing integrin α1β1. Using solid phase binding assays, we demonstrated that 1) purified Cav-1 directly interacts with TCPTP and the integrin α1 subunit, 2) pCav-1 is a substrate of TCPTP, and 3) TCPTP-mediated Cav-1 dephosphorylation is highly increased by the addition of purified integrin α1β1 or an integrin α1 cytoplasmic peptide to which TCPTP has been shown to bind. Thus, our results demonstrate that pCav-1 is a new substrate of TCPTP and that integrin α1β1 acts as a negative regulator of Cav-1 phosphorylation by activating TCPTP. This could explain the protective function of integrin α1β1 in oxidative stress-mediated damage and why integrin α1-null mice are more susceptible to fibrosis following injury. PMID:20940300

  9. Integrin {alpha}1{beta}1 promotes caveolin-1 dephosphorylation by activating T cell protein-tyrosine phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Borza, Corina M; Chen, Xiwu; Mathew, Sijo; Mont, Stacey; Sanders, Charles R; Zent, Roy; Pozzi, Ambra

    2010-12-17

    Integrin α1β1 is a collagen receptor that down-regulates collagen and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and mice lacking this receptor show increased ROS levels and exacerbated glomerular sclerosis following injury. Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) is a multifunctional protein that is tyrosine-phosphorylated in response to injury and has been implicated in ROS-mediated injury. Cav-1 interacts with integrins, and integrin α1β1 binds/activates T cell protein-tyrosine phosphatase (TCPTP), which is homologous to the tyrosine phosphatase PTP1B known to dephosphorylate Cav-1. In this study, we analyzed whether phosphorylated Cav-1 (pCav-1) is a substrate of TCPTP and if integrin α1β1 is essential for promoting TCPTP-mediated Cav-1 dephosphorylation. We found that Cav-1 phosphorylation is significantly higher in cells lacking integrin α1β1 at base line and following oxidative stress. Overexpression of TCPTP leads to reduced pCav-1 levels only in cells expressing integrin α1β1. Using solid phase binding assays, we demonstrated that 1) purified Cav-1 directly interacts with TCPTP and the integrin α1 subunit, 2) pCav-1 is a substrate of TCPTP, and 3) TCPTP-mediated Cav-1 dephosphorylation is highly increased by the addition of purified integrin α1β1 or an integrin α1 cytoplasmic peptide to which TCPTP has been shown to bind. Thus, our results demonstrate that pCav-1 is a new substrate of TCPTP and that integrin α1β1 acts as a negative regulator of Cav-1 phosphorylation by activating TCPTP. This could explain the protective function of integrin α1β1 in oxidative stress-mediated damage and why integrin α1-null mice are more susceptible to fibrosis following injury. PMID:20940300

  10. Peripheral myelin protein-22 (PMP22) modulates alpha 6 integrin expression in the human endometrium

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background PMP22, a member of the GAS3 family of tetraspan proteins, is associated with a variety of neurological diseases. Previous studies have shown that PMP22 is expressed in proliferative endometrium, but its function within this tissue is poorly understood. In this study, we first characterized the expression of PMP22 in the human menstrual cycle and began to characterize its function in the endometrium. Methods Using a combination of immunohistochemistry and quantitative PCR, we characterized the expression of PMP22 in both proliferative and secretory endometrium. Differences in PMP22 expression between proliferative and secretory endometrium were determined using a Mann-Whitney U test. In order to investigate the influence of PMP22 on α6 integrin expression, cells were created that ectopically overexpressed PMP22 or expressed a siRNA to inhibit its expression. These cells were analyzed for changes in integrins and binding to extracellular matrices. Results In this study, we show that PMP22 expression is higher in proliferative phase than secretory phase. Functionally, we have begun to characterize the functional significance of this expression. Previous studies have suggested a link between PMP22 and α6 integrin, and therefore we asked whether PMP22 could associate or potentially modulate the expression of α6 integrin. Expression of both PMP22 and α6 integrin were detectable in endometrial epithelial and stromal cells, and we show that both proteins can associate and colocalize with each other. To understand if PMP22 directly altered the expression of a6 integrin, we examined cell lines with modulated levels of the protein. Overexpression of PMP22 was sufficient to increase α6 integrin surface expression with a concominant increase in binding to the extracellular matrix laminin, while a reduction in PMP22 suppressed α6 integrin surface expression. Conclusion These findings suggest a physiologic role for PMP22 on the expression of α6 integrin. We

  11. Prognostic value of β1 integrin expression in colorectal liver metastases

    PubMed Central

    Vassos, Nikolaos; Rau, Tilman; Merkel, Susanne; Feiersinger, Fabian; Geppert, Carol I; Stürzl, Michael; Hohenberger, Werner; Croner, Roland S

    2014-01-01

    Integrins are cell surface adhesion molecules (CAM) that regulate via intercellular and cell-matrix signaling various cellular processes including wound healing, cell differentiation, division, growth, migration and metastatic dissemination. Although a correlation between carcinogenesis and changes in integrin expression, especially β1 integrin, has been reported, its role in colorectal liver metastases remains unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the expression of β1 integrin in colorectal liver metastases and to correlate the pattern of expression with clinicopathological features and to investigate the putative role of β1 integrin expression on survival of these patients. Methods: Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumor samples of 81 patients who were operated because of colorectal liver metastases without any neoadjuvant therapy were obtained and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H & E). An immunohistochemical examination was performed using Dako, Peroxidase/DAB kit and a primary monoclonal β1 integrin (CD29, fibronectin receptor subunit beta; ab3167, Abcam plc). β1 integrin expression was evaluated according to the immunoreactive score of Remmele and Stegner and was related with clinicopathological features of prognostic significance and with disease-free and overall survival as well. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 21.0. Results: β1 integrin was overexpressed in tumor cells in 37 (48%) patients and in stromal cell in 27 (33%) patients. The β1 expression was not statistically correlated with clinicopathological features of the primary tumors but it was statistically correlated (p=0.03) with the histological grading of liver metastases. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that there is a tendency but no statistically significant correlation in disease-free and overall survival. Conclusion: Considering that expression of β1 integrin in colorectal liver metastases remains controversial, specially its relation with

  12. Alpha1 and Alpha2 Integrins Mediate Invasive Activity of Mouse Mammary Carcinoma Cells through Regulation of Stromelysin-1 Expression

    SciTech Connect

    Lochter, Andre; Navre, Marc; Werb, Zena; Bissell, Mina J

    1998-06-29

    Tumor cell invasion relies on cell migration and extracellular matrix proteolysis. We investigated the contribution of different integrins to the invasive activity of mouse mammary carcinoma cells. Antibodies against integrin subunits {alpha}6 and {beta}1, but not against {alpha}1 and {alpha}2, inhibited cell locomotion on a reconstituted basement membrane in two-dimensional cell migration assays, whereas antibodies against {beta}1, but not against a6 or {alpha}2, interfered with cell adhesion to basement membrane constituents. Blocking antibodies against {alpha}1 integrins impaired only cell adhesion to type IV collagen. Antibodies against {alpha}1, {alpha}2, {alpha}6, and {beta}1, but not {alpha}5, integrin subunits reduced invasion of a reconstituted basement membrane. Integrins {alpha}1 and {alpha}2, which contributed only marginally to motility and adhesion, regulated proteinase production. Antibodies against {alpha}1 and {alpha}2, but not {alpha}6 and {beta}1, integrin subunits inhibited both transcription and protein expression of the matrix metalloproteinase stromelysin-1. Inhibition of tumor cell invasion by antibodies against {alpha}1 and {alpha}2 was reversed by addition of recombinant stromelysin-1. In contrast, stromelysin-1 could not rescue invasion inhibited by anti-{alpha}6 antibodies. Our data indicate that {alpha}1 and {alpha}2 integrins confer invasive behavior by regulating stromelysin-1 expression, whereas {alpha}6 integrins regulate cell motility. These results provide new insights into the specific functions of integrins during tumor cell invasion.

  13. Integrin α3β1 regulates kidney collecting duct development via TRAF6-dependent K63-linked polyubiquitination of Akt

    PubMed Central

    Yazlovitskaya, Eugenia M.; Tseng, Hui-Yuan; Viquez, Olga; Tu, Tianxiang; Mernaugh, Glenda; McKee, Karen K.; Riggins, Karen; Quaranta, Vito; Pathak, Amrita; Carter, Bruce D.; Yurchenco, Peter; Sonnenberg, Arnoud; Böttcher, Ralph T.; Pozzi, Ambra; Zent, Roy

    2015-01-01

    The collecting system of the kidney develops from the ureteric bud (UB), which undergoes branching morphogenesis, a process regulated by multiple factors, including integrin–extracellular matrix interactions. The laminin (LM)-binding integrin α3β1 is crucial for this developmental program; however, the LM types and LM/integrin α3β1–dependent signaling pathways are poorly defined. We show that α3 chain–containing LMs promote normal UB branching morphogenesis and that LM-332 is a better substrate than LM-511 for stimulating integrin α3β1–dependent collecting duct cell functions. We demonstrate that integrin α3β1–mediated cell adhesion to LM-332 modulates Akt activation in the developing collecting system and that Akt activation is PI3K independent but requires decreased PTEN activity and K63-linked polyubiquitination. We identified the ubiquitin-modifying enzyme TRAF6 as an interactor with the integrin β1 subunit and regulator of integrin α3β1–dependent Akt activation. Finally, we established that the developmental defects of TRAF6- and integrin α3–null mouse kidneys are similar. Thus K63-linked polyubiquitination plays a previously unrecognized role in integrin α3β1–dependent cell signaling required for UB development and may represent a novel mechanism whereby integrins regulate signaling pathways. PMID:25808491

  14. β1 integrins mediate resistance to ionizing radiation in vivo by inhibiting c-Jun amino terminal kinase 1

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Hira Lal; Sayeed, Aejaz; Breen, Michael; Zarif, Matthew J.; Garlick, David S.; Leav, Irwin; Davis, Roger J.; FitzGerald, Thomas J.; Morrione, Andrea; Hsieh, Chung-Cheng; Liu, Qin; Dicker, Adam P.; Altieri, Dario C.; Languino, Lucia R.

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out to dissect the mechanism by which β1 integrins promote resistance to radiation. For this purpose, we conditionally ablated β1 integrins in the prostatic epithelium of transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate (TRAMP) mice. The ability of β1 to promote resistance to radiation was also analyzed by using an inhibitory antibody to β1, AIIB2, in a xenograft model. The role of β1 integrins and of a β1 downstream target, c-Jun amino-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1), in regulating radiation-induced apoptosis in vivo and in vitro was studied. We show that β1 integrins promote prostate cancer (PrCa) progression and resistance to radiation in vivo. Mechanistically, β1 integrins are shown here to suppress activation of JNK1 and, consequently apoptosis, in response to irradiation. Downregulation of JNK1 is necessary to preserve the effect of β1 on resistance to radiation in vitro and in vivo. Finally, given the established cross-talk between β1 integrins and type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-IR), we analyzed the ability of IGF-IR to modulate β1 integrin levels. We report that IGF-IR regulates the expression of β1 integrins, which in turn confer resistance to radiation in PrCa cells. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that β1 integrins mediate resistance to ionizing radiation through inhibition of JNK1 activation. PMID:23359252

  15. Glioma cell dispersion is driven by α5 integrin-mediated cell-matrix and cell-cell interactions.

    PubMed

    Blandin, Anne-Florence; Noulet, Fanny; Renner, Guillaume; Mercier, Marie-Cécile; Choulier, Laurence; Vauchelles, Romain; Ronde, Philippe; Carreiras, Franck; Etienne-Selloum, Nelly; Vereb, Gyorgy; Lelong-Rebel, Isabelle; Martin, Sophie; Dontenwill, Monique; Lehmann, Maxime

    2016-07-01

    Glioblastoma multiform (GBM) is the most common and most aggressive primary brain tumor. The fibronectin receptor, α5 integrin is a pertinent novel therapeutic target. Despite numerous data showing that α5 integrin support tumor cell migration and invasion, it has been reported that α5 integrin can also limit cell dispersion by increasing cell-cell interaction. In this study, we showed that α5 integrin was involved in cell-cell interaction and gliomasphere formation. α5-mediated cell-cell cohesion limited cell dispersion from spheroids in fibronectin-poor microenvironment. However, in fibronectin-rich microenvironment, α5 integrin promoted cell dispersion. Ligand-occupied α5 integrin and fibronectin were distributed in fibril-like pattern at cell-cell junction of evading cells, forming cell-cell fibrillar adhesions. Activated focal adhesion kinase was not present in these adhesions but was progressively relocalized with α5 integrin as cell migrates away from the spheroids. α5 integrin function in GBM appears to be more complex than previously suspected. As GBM overexpressed fibronectin, it is most likely that in vivo, α5-mediated dissemination from the tumor mass overrides α5-mediated tumor cell cohesion. In this respect, α5-integrin antagonists may be useful to limit GBM invasion in brain parenchyma. PMID:27063097

  16. Beta 1-integrin-c-Met cooperation reveals an inside-in survival signalling on autophagy-related endomembranes.

    PubMed

    Barrow-McGee, Rachel; Kishi, Naoki; Joffre, Carine; Ménard, Ludovic; Hervieu, Alexia; Bakhouche, Bakhouche A; Noval, Alejandro J; Mai, Anja; Guzmán, Camilo; Robert-Masson, Luisa; Iturrioz, Xavier; Hulit, James; Brennan, Caroline H; Hart, Ian R; Parker, Peter J; Ivaska, Johanna; Kermorgant, Stéphanie

    2016-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and integrins cooperate to stimulate cell migration and tumour metastasis. Here we report that an integrin influences signalling of an RTK, c-Met, from inside the cell, to promote anchorage-independent cell survival. Thus, c-Met and β1-integrin co-internalize and become progressively recruited on LC3B-positive 'autophagy-related endomembranes' (ARE). In cells growing in suspension, β1-integrin promotes sustained c-Met-dependent ERK1/2 phosphorylation on ARE. This signalling is dependent on ATG5 and Beclin1 but not on ATG13, suggesting ARE belong to a non-canonical autophagy pathway. This β1-integrin-dependent c-Met-sustained signalling on ARE supports anchorage-independent cell survival and growth, tumorigenesis, invasion and lung colonization in vivo. RTK-integrin cooperation has been assumed to occur at the plasma membrane requiring integrin 'inside-out' or 'outside-in' signalling. Our results report a novel mode of integrin-RTK cooperation, which we term 'inside-in signalling'. Targeting integrin signalling in addition to adhesion may have relevance for cancer therapy. PMID:27336951

  17. Calreticulin activates β1 integrin via fucosylation by fucosyltransferase 1 in J82 human bladder cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yi-Chien; Chen, Chiung-Nien; Chu, Chia-Ying; Lu, Jenher; Wang, Bo-Jeng; Chen, Chia-Hua; Huang, Min-Chuan; Lin, Tsui-Hwa; Pan, Chin-Chen; Chen, Swey-Shen Alex; Hsu, Wen-Ming; Liao, Yung-Feng; Wu, Pei-Yi; Hsia, Hsin-Yi; Chang, Cheng-Chi; Lee, Hsinyu

    2014-05-15

    Fucosylation regulates various pathological events in cells. We reported that different levels of CRT (calreticulin) affect the cell adhesion and metastasis of bladder cancer. However, the precise mechanism of tumour metastasis regulated by CRT remains unclear. Using a DNA array, we identified FUT1 (fucosyltransferase 1) as a gene regulated by CRT expression levels. CRT regulated cell adhesion through α1,2-linked fucosylation of β1 integrin and this modification was catalysed by FUT1. To clarify the roles for FUT1 in bladder cancer, we transfected the human FUT1 gene into CRT-RNAi stable cell lines. FUT1 overexpression in CRT-RNAi cells resulted in increased levels of β1 integrin fucosylation and rescued cell adhesion to type-I collagen. Treatment with UEA-1 (Ulex europaeus agglutinin-1), a lectin that recognizes FUT1-modified glycosylation structures, did not affect cell adhesion. In contrast, a FUT1-specific fucosidase diminished the activation of β1 integrin. These results indicated that α1,2-fucosylation of β1 integrin was not involved in integrin-collagen interaction, but promoted β1 integrin activation. Moreover, we demonstrated that CRT regulated FUT1 mRNA degradation at the 3'-UTR. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggest that CRT stabilized FUT1 mRNA, thereby leading to an increase in fucosylation of β1 integrin. Furthermore, increased fucosylation levels activate β1 integrin, rather than directly modifying the integrin-binding sites. PMID:24593306

  18. Tunable ultrasmall visible-to-extended near-infrared emitting silver sulfide quantum dots for integrin-targeted cancer imaging.

    PubMed

    Tang, Rui; Xue, Jianpeng; Xu, Baogang; Shen, Duanwen; Sudlow, Gail P; Achilefu, Samuel

    2015-01-27

    The large size of many near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent nanoparticles prevents rapid extravasation from blood vessels and subsequent diffusion to tumors. This confines in vivo uptake to the peritumoral space and results in high liver retention. In this study, we developed a viscosity modulated approach to synthesize ultrasmall silver sulfide quantum dots (QDs) with distinct tunable light emission from 500 to 1200 nm and a QD core diameter between 1.5 and 9 nm. Conjugation of a tumor-avid cyclic pentapeptide (Arg-Gly-Asp-DPhe-Lys) resulted in monodisperse, water-soluble QDs (hydrodynamic diameter < 10 nm) without loss of the peptide's high binding affinity to tumor-associated integrins (KI = 1.8 nM/peptide). Fluorescence and electron microscopy showed that selective integrin-mediated internalization was observed only in cancer cells treated with the peptide-labeled QDs, demonstrating that the unlabeled hydrophilic nanoparticles exhibit characteristics of negatively charged fluorescent dye molecules, which typically do not internalize in cells. The biodistribution profiles of intravenously administered QDs in different mouse models of cancer reveal an exceptionally high tumor-to-liver uptake ratio, suggesting that the small sized QDs evaded conventional opsonization and subsequent high uptake in the liver and spleen. The seamless tunability of the QDs over a wide spectral range with only a small increase in size, as well as the ease of labeling the bright and noncytotoxic QDs with biomolecules, provides a platform for multiplexing information, tracking the trafficking of single molecules in cells, and selectively targeting disease biomarkers in living organisms without premature QD opsonization in circulating blood. PMID:25560768

  19. Constant Applied Force Stimulates Osteoblast Proliferation Via Matrix-Integrin-Signaling Pathways

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vercoutere, W.; Parra, M.; Roden, C.; DaCosta, M.; Wing, A.; Damsky, C.; Holton, E.; Searby, N.; Globus, R.; Almeida, E. A. C.

    2003-01-01

    Reduced weight-bearing caused by immobilization, bed-rest or microgravity leads to atrophy in mechanosensitive tissue such as muscle and bone. We hypothesize that bone tissue requires earth s gravity (1-g) for the maintenance of extracellular matrix, integrin, and kinase-mediated cell growth and survival pathways. We investigate the role of matrix-integrin signaling in bone cells using cell culture centrifugation to provide different levels of hypergravity mechanostimulation. The 10-50-g range we use also mimics physiological intermedullary pressure (1.2 - 5 kPa). 24 hours at 50-g increased primary rat osteoblast proliferation on collagen Type I and fibronectin, but not laminin or uncoated plastic. BrdU incorporation in primary osteoblasts over 24 h showed hypergravity increased the number of cells actively synthesizing DNA from about 60% at 1-g to over 90% at 25-g. Primary rat fibroblasts grown at 50-g (24 h) showed no proliferation increase, suggesting this is a tissue-specific phenomenon. These results suggest that the betal and alpha4 integrins may be involved. To further test this, we used osteocytic-like MLO-Y4 cells that showed increased proliferation at 1-g with stable expression of a betal integrin cytoplasmic tail and transmembrane domain construct. At 50-g, MLO-Y4/betal cells showed greater MAPK activation than MLO-Y4 vector controls, suggesting that betal integrin is involved in transducing mitogenic signals in response to hypergravity. Preliminary results also show that interfering with the alpha4 integrin in primary osteoblasts grown on fibronectin blocked the proliferation response. These results indicate that cells from mechanosensitive bone tissue can respond to gravity-generated forces, and this response involves specific matrix and integrin-dependent signaling pathways.

  20. High-mobility group box 1 activates integrin-dependent homing of endothelial progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Chavakis, Emmanouil; Hain, Andreas; Vinci, Maria; Carmona, Guillaume; Bianchi, Marco E; Vajkoczy, Peter; Zeiher, Andreas M; Chavakis, Triantafyllos; Dimmeler, Stefanie

    2007-02-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are recruited to ischemic regions and improve neovascularization. Integrins contribute to EPC homing. High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a nuclear protein that is released extracellularly on cell necrosis and tissue damage, eliciting a proinflammatory response and stimulating tissue repair. In the present study, we investigated the effects of HMGB1 on EPC homing. EPCs express the HMGB1 receptors RAGE (receptor for advanced glycation end products) and TLR2 (Toll-like receptor 2). EPC migration was stimulated by HMGB1 in a RAGE-dependent manner. In addition, the HMGB1-induced migration of EPCs on fibronectin and fibrinogen was significantly inhibited by antibodies against beta1 and beta2 integrins, respectively. Short-term prestimulation of EPCs with HMGB1 also increased EPC adhesion to endothelial cell monolayers, and this effect was blocked by antibodies to beta2 integrins or RAGE. HMGB1 increased EPC adhesion to the immobilized integrin ligands intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and fibronectin in a RAGE-dependent manner. Strikingly, HMGB1 rapidly increased integrin affinity and induced integrin polarization. Using intravital microscopy in a tumor model of neovascularization, prestimulation of EPCs with HMGB1 enhanced the initial in vivo adhesion of EPCs to microvessels and the recruitment of EPCs in the tumor tissue. In addition, prestimulation of EPCs with HMGB1 increased the homing of EPCs to ischemic muscles. In conclusion, these data represent a link between HMGB1 and integrin functions of EPCs and demonstrate that HMGB1 stimulates EPC homing to ischemic tissues. These results may provide a platform for the development of novel therapeutic approaches to improve EPC homing. PMID:17218606

  1. The role of integrin α(V)β(3) in osteocyte mechanotransduction.

    PubMed

    Haugh, Matthew G; Vaughan, Ted J; McNamara, Laoise M

    2015-02-01

    Recent in vivo studies have proposed that integrin αvβ3 attachments between osteocyte cell processes and the extracellular matrix may facilitate mechanosensation in bone. However the role of these attachments in osteocyte biochemical response to mechanical stimulus has yet to be investigated. With this in mind, the objective of this study was to determine the effect of blocking integrin αvβ3 function on the biochemical response of osteocytes to mechanical stimulus. Antagonists specific to integrin subunit β3 were used to block integrin αvβ3 on MLO-Y4 mouse osteocytes. After treatment, cells were subjected to laminar oscillatory fluid flow stimulus (1 Pa, 1 Hz) for one hour. Fluorescent staining was performed to visualise cell morphology. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) release was assayed using an enzyme immunoassay and qRT-PCR was used to analyse the relative expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG). Our results show that blocking integrin αvβ3 disrupts osteocyte morphology, causing a reduction in spread area and process retraction. Integrin αvβ3 blocking also disrupted COX-2 expression and PGE2 release in response to fluid shear stress. Taken together, the results of this study indicate that integrin αvβ3 is essential for the maintenance of osteocyte cell processes and also for mechanosensation and mechanotransduction by osteocytes. A better understanding of this process may lead to the development of novel treatments for bone pathologies where mechanosensitivity is thought to be compromised. PMID:25460927

  2. Regional Regulation of Purkinje Cell Dendritic Spines by Integrins and Eph/Ephrins

    PubMed Central

    Heintz, Tristan G.; Eva, Richard; Fawcett, James W.

    2016-01-01

    Climbing fibres and parallel fibres compete for dendritic space on Purkinje cells in the cerebellum. Normally, climbing fibres populate the proximal dendrites, where they suppress the multiple small spines typical of parallel fibres, leading to their replacement by the few large spines that contact climbing fibres. Previous work has shown that ephrins acting via EphA4 are a signal for this change in spine type and density. We have used an in vitro culture model in which to investigate the ephrin effect on Purkinje cell dendritic spines and the role of integrins in these changes. We found that integrins α3, α5 and β4 are present in many of the dendritic spines of cultured Purkinje cells. pFAK, the main downstream signalling molecule from integrins, has a similar distribution, although the intenstity of pFAK staining and the percentage of pFAK+ spines was consistently higher in the proximal dendrites. Activating integrins with Mg2+ led to an increase in the intensity of pFAK staining and an increase in the proportion of pFAK+ spines in both the proximal and distal dendrites, but no change in spine length, density or morphology. Blocking integrin binding with an RGD-containing peptide led to a reduction in spine length, with more stubby spines on both proximal and distal dendrites. Treatment of the cultures with ephrinA3-Fc chimera suppressed dendritic spines specifically on the proximal dendrites and there was also a decrease of pFAK in spines on this domain. This effect was blocked by simultaneous activation of integrins with Mn2+. We conclude that Eph/ephrin signaling regulates proximal dendritic spines in Purkinje cells by inactivating integrin downstream signalling. PMID:27518800

  3. Regional Regulation of Purkinje Cell Dendritic Spines by Integrins and Eph/Ephrins.

    PubMed

    Heintz, Tristan G; Eva, Richard; Fawcett, James W

    2016-01-01

    Climbing fibres and parallel fibres compete for dendritic space on Purkinje cells in the cerebellum. Normally, climbing fibres populate the proximal dendrites, where they suppress the multiple small spines typical of parallel fibres, leading to their replacement by the few large spines that contact climbing fibres. Previous work has shown that ephrins acting via EphA4 are a signal for this change in spine type and density. We have used an in vitro culture model in which to investigate the ephrin effect on Purkinje cell dendritic spines and the role of integrins in these changes. We found that integrins α3, α5 and β4 are present in many of the dendritic spines of cultured Purkinje cells. pFAK, the main downstream signalling molecule from integrins, has a similar distribution, although the intenstity of pFAK staining and the percentage of pFAK+ spines was consistently higher in the proximal dendrites. Activating integrins with Mg2+ led to an increase in the intensity of pFAK staining and an increase in the proportion of pFAK+ spines in both the proximal and distal dendrites, but no change in spine length, density or morphology. Blocking integrin binding with an RGD-containing peptide led to a reduction in spine length, with more stubby spines on both proximal and distal dendrites. Treatment of the cultures with ephrinA3-Fc chimera suppressed dendritic spines specifically on the proximal dendrites and there was also a decrease of pFAK in spines on this domain. This effect was blocked by simultaneous activation of integrins with Mn2+. We conclude that Eph/ephrin signaling regulates proximal dendritic spines in Purkinje cells by inactivating integrin downstream signalling. PMID:27518800

  4. The α11 integrin mediates fibroblast-extracellular matrix-cardiomyocyte interactions in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Civitarese, Robert A; Talior-Volodarsky, Ilana; Desjardins, Jean-Francois; Kabir, Golam; Switzer, Jennifer; Mitchell, Melissa; Kapus, Andras; McCulloch, Christopher A; Gullberg, Donald; Connelly, Kim A

    2016-07-01

    Excessive cardiac interstitial fibrosis impairs normal cardiac function. We have shown that the α11β1 (α11) integrin mediates fibrotic responses to glycated collagen in rat myocardium by a pathway involving transforming growth factor-β. Little is known of the role of the α11 integrin in the developing mammalian heart. Therefore, we examined the impact of deletion of the α11 integrin in wild-type mice and in mice treated with streptozotocin (STZ) to elucidate the role of the α11 integrin in normal cardiac homeostasis and in the pathogenesis of diabetes-related fibrosis. As anticipated, cardiac fibrosis was reduced in α11 integrin knockout mice (α11(-/-); C57BL/6 background) treated with STZ compared with STZ-treated wild-type mice (P < 0.05). Unexpectedly, diastolic function was impaired in both vehicle and STZ-treated α11(-/-) mice, as shown by the decreased minimum rate of pressure change and prolonged time constant of relaxation in association with increased end-diastolic pressure (all P < 0.05 compared with wild-type mice). Accordingly, we examined the phenotype of untreated α11(-/-) mice, which demonstrated a reduced cardiomyocyte cross-sectional cell area and myofibril thickness (all P < 0.05 compared with wild-type mice) and impaired myofibril arrangement. Immunostaining for desmin and connexin 43 showed abnormal intermediate filament organization at intercalated disks and impaired gap-junction development. Overall, deletion of the α11 integrin attenuates cardiac fibrosis in the mammalian mouse heart and reduces ECM formation as a result of diabetes. Furthermore, α11 integrin deletion impairs cardiac function and alters cardiomyocyte morphology. These findings shed further light on the poorly understood interaction between the fibroblast-cardiomyocyte and the ECM. PMID:27199132

  5. Integrin Receptors Play a Key Role in the Regulation of Hepatic CYP3A.

    PubMed

    Jonsson-Schmunk, Kristina; Wonganan, Piynauch; Choi, Jin Huk; Callahan, Shellie M; Croyle, Maria A

    2016-05-01

    Landmark studies describing the effect of microbial infection on the expression and activity of hepatic CYP3A used bacterial lipopolysaccharide as a model antigen. Our efforts to determine whether these findings were translatable to viral infections led us to observations suggesting that engagement of integrin receptors is key in the initiation of processes responsible for changes in hepatic CYP3A4 during infection and inflammation. Studies outlined in this article were designed to evaluate whether engagement of integrins, receptors commonly used by a variety of microbes to enter cellular targets, is vital in the regulation of CYP3A in the presence and absence of virus infection. Mice infected with a recombinant adenovirus (AdlacZ) experienced a 70% reduction in hepatic CYP3A catalytic activity. Infection with a mutant virus with integrin-binding arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) sequences deleted from the penton base protein of the virus capsid (AdΔRGD) did not alter CYP3A activity. CYP3A mRNA and protein levels in AdlacZ-treated animals were also suppressed, whereas those of mice given AdΔRGD were not significantly different from uninfected control mice. Silencing of the integrinβ-subunit reverted adenovirus-mediated CYP3A4 suppression in vitro. Silencing of theα-subunit did not. Suppression of integrin subunits had a profound effect on nuclear receptors pregnane X receptor and constitutive androstane receptor, whereas retinoid X receptorαwas largely unaffected. To our knowledge, this is the first time that extracellular receptors, like integrins, have been indicated in the regulation of CYP3A. This finding has several implications owing to the important role of integrins in normal physiologic process and in many disease states. PMID:26868618

  6. Expression of an Activated Integrin Promotes Long-Distance Sensory Axon Regeneration in the Spinal Cord

    PubMed Central

    Cheah, Menghon; Chew, Daniel J.; Moloney, Elizabeth B.; Verhaagen, Joost; Fässler, Reinhard

    2016-01-01

    After CNS injury, axon regeneration is blocked by an inhibitory environment consisting of the highly upregulated tenascin-C and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs). Tenascin-C promotes growth of axons if they express a tenascin-binding integrin, particularly α9β1. Additionally, integrins can be inactivated by CSPGs, and this inhibition can be overcome by the presence of a β1-binding integrin activator, kindlin-1. We examined the synergistic effect of α9 integrin and kindlin-1 on sensory axon regeneration in adult rat spinal cord after dorsal root crush and adeno-associated virus transgene expression in dorsal root ganglia. After 12 weeks, axons from C6–C7 dorsal root ganglia regenerated through the tenascin-C-rich dorsal root entry zone into the dorsal column up to C1 level and above (>25 mm axon length) through a normal pathway. Animals also showed anatomical and electrophysiological evidence of reconnection to the dorsal horn and behavioral recovery in mechanical pressure, thermal pain, and ladder-walking tasks. Expression of α9 integrin or kindlin-1 alone promoted much less regeneration and recovery. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The study demonstrates that long-distance sensory axon regeneration over a normal pathway and with sensory and sensory–motor recovery can be achieved. This was achieved by expressing an integrin that recognizes tenascin-C, one of the components of glial scar tissue, and an integrin activator. This enabled extensive long-distance (>25 mm) regeneration of both myelinated and unmyelinated sensory axons with topographically correct connections in the spinal cord. The extent of growth and recovery we have seen would probably be clinically significant. Restoration of sensation to hands, perineum, and genitalia would be a significant improvement for a spinal cord-injured patient. PMID:27383601

  7. Integrin α2β1 Is a Receptor for the Cartilage Matrix Protein Chondroadherin

    PubMed Central

    Camper, Lisbet; Heinegård, Dick; Lundgren-Åkerlund, Evy

    1997-01-01

    Chondroadherin (the 36-kD protein) is a leucine-rich, cartilage matrix protein known to mediate adhesion of isolated chondrocytes. In the present study we investigated cell surface proteins involved in the interaction of cells with chondroadherin in cell adhesion and by affinity purification. Adhesion of bovine articular chondrocytes to chondroadherin-coated dishes was dependent on Mg2+ or Mn2+ but not Ca2+. Adhesion was partially inhibited by an antibody recognizing β1 integrin subunit. Chondroadherin-binding proteins from chondrocyte lysates were affinity purified on chondroadherin-Sepharose. The β1 integrin antibody immunoprecipitated two proteins with molecular mass ∼110 and 140 kD (nonreduced) from the EDTA-eluted material. These results indicate that a β1 integrin on chondrocytes interacts with chondroadherin. To identify the α integrin subunit(s) involved in interaction of cells with the protein, we affinity purified chondroadherin-binding membrane proteins from human fibroblasts. Immunoprecipitation of the EDTA-eluted material from the affinity column identified α2β1 as a chondroadherin-binding integrin. These results are in agreement with cell adhesion experiments where antibodies against the integrin subunit α2 partially inhibited adhesion of human fibroblast and human chondrocytes to chondroadherin. Since α2β1 also is a receptor for collagen type II, we tested the ability of different antibodies against the α2 subunit to inhibit adhesion of T47D cells to collagen type II and chondroadherin. The results suggested that adhesion to collagen type II and chondroadherin involves similar or nearby sites on the α2β1 integrin. Although α2β1 is a receptor for both collagen type II and chondroadherin, only adhesion of cells to collagen type II was found to mediate spreading. PMID:9281592

  8. Integrin signalling regulates YAP and TAZ to control skin homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Elbediwy, Ahmed; Vincent-Mistiaen, Zoé I; Spencer-Dene, Bradley; Stone, Richard K; Boeing, Stefan; Wculek, Stefanie K; Cordero, Julia; Tan, Ee H; Ridgway, Rachel; Brunton, Val G; Sahai, Erik; Gerhardt, Holger; Behrens, Axel; Malanchi, Ilaria; Sansom, Owen J; Thompson, Barry J

    2016-05-15

    The skin is a squamous epithelium that is continuously renewed by a population of basal layer stem/progenitor cells and can heal wounds. Here, we show that the transcription regulators YAP and TAZ localise to the nucleus in the basal layer of skin and are elevated upon wound healing. Skin-specific deletion of both YAP and TAZ in adult mice slows proliferation of basal layer cells, leads to hair loss and impairs regeneration after wounding. Contact with the basal extracellular matrix and consequent integrin-Src signalling is a key determinant of the nuclear localisation of YAP/TAZ in basal layer cells and in skin tumours. Contact with the basement membrane is lost in differentiating daughter cells, where YAP and TAZ become mostly cytoplasmic. In other types of squamous epithelia and squamous cell carcinomas, a similar control mechanism is present. By contrast, columnar epithelia differentiate an apical domain that recruits CRB3, Merlin (also known as NF2), KIBRA (also known as WWC1) and SAV1 to induce Hippo signalling and retain YAP/TAZ in the cytoplasm despite contact with the basal layer extracellular matrix. When columnar epithelial tumours lose their apical domain and become invasive, YAP/TAZ becomes nuclear and tumour growth becomes sensitive to the Src inhibitor Dasatinib. PMID:26989177

  9. Integrin Alpha-9 Mediates Lymphatic Valve Formation in Corneal Lymphangiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Altiok, Eda; Ecoiffier, Tatiana; Sessa, Roberto; Yuen, Don; Grimaldo, Sammy; Tran, Colin; Li, David; Rosner, Michael; Lee, Narae; Uede, Toshimitsu; Chen, Lu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We recently reported that corneal lymphatic vessels develop integrin alpha-9 (Itga-9)-positive valves during inflammatory lymphangiogenesis. The purpose of this study was to further investigate the role of Itga-9 in corneal lymphatic valve formation in vivo and lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC) functions in vitro. Methods Standard murine suture placement model was used to study the effect of Itga-9 blockade on lymphatic valve formation in vivo using Itga-9 neutralizing antibody. Whole-mount corneas were harvested for immunofluorescent microscopic analysis. Additionally, human LEC culture system was used to examine the effect of Itga-9 gene knockdown on cell functions using small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Results Itga-9 blockade in vivo significantly reduced the number of lymphatic valves formed in the inflamed cornea. Moreover, Itga-9 gene knockdown in human LECs suppresses cell functions of proliferation, adhesion, migration, and tube formation. Conclusions Itga-9 is critically involved in corneal lymphatic valve formation. Further investigation of the Itga-9 pathway may provide novel strategies to treat lymphatic-related diseases occurring both inside and outside the eye. PMID:26431485

  10. Association of integrin α2 gene variants with ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Matarin, Mar; Brown, W Mark; Hardy, John A; Rich, Stephen S; Singleton, Andrew B; Brown, Robert D; Brott, Thomas G; Worrall, Bradford B; Meschia, James F

    2008-01-01

    Genetic variants in the gene encoding integrin α2 (ITGA2) have been reported to be associated with an increased risk for ischemic stroke. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between haplotype-tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (tSNPs) in ITGA2 and risk of ischemic stroke in a collection of North American stroke cases and controls. The study included 484 cases and 263 controls. Thirteen tSNPs were genotyped. Association tests at and across each tSNP were performed, including haplotype association analysis. Secondary analyses considered stroke subtypes on the basis of Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) criteria. We observed significant association between tSNP rs3756541 (additive model, odds ratio (OR), 1.49; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11 to 2.04; P = 0.009) and disease and a trend toward association at rs2303124 (recessive model, OR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.05 to 2.33; P= 0.03). These associations remained significant in the haplotype analyses. The associated tSNPs did not distinguish stroke etiology after application of TOAST criteria. Our results suggest that genetic variability within ITGA2 may confer risk for ischemic stroke independent of conventional risk factors. These results provide additional support for a role for platelet receptor genes in the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke of diverse subtypes. PMID:17534386

  11. Integrin signalling regulates YAP and TAZ to control skin homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Elbediwy, Ahmed; Vincent-Mistiaen, Zoé I.; Spencer-Dene, Bradley; Stone, Richard K.; Boeing, Stefan; Wculek, Stefanie K.; Cordero, Julia; Tan, Ee H.; Ridgway, Rachel; Brunton, Val G.; Sahai, Erik; Gerhardt, Holger; Behrens, Axel; Malanchi, Ilaria; Sansom, Owen J.; Thompson, Barry J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The skin is a squamous epithelium that is continuously renewed by a population of basal layer stem/progenitor cells and can heal wounds. Here, we show that the transcription regulators YAP and TAZ localise to the nucleus in the basal layer of skin and are elevated upon wound healing. Skin-specific deletion of both YAP and TAZ in adult mice slows proliferation of basal layer cells, leads to hair loss and impairs regeneration after wounding. Contact with the basal extracellular matrix and consequent integrin-Src signalling is a key determinant of the nuclear localisation of YAP/TAZ in basal layer cells and in skin tumours. Contact with the basement membrane is lost in differentiating daughter cells, where YAP and TAZ become mostly cytoplasmic. In other types of squamous epithelia and squamous cell carcinomas, a similar control mechanism is present. By contrast, columnar epithelia differentiate an apical domain that recruits CRB3, Merlin (also known as NF2), KIBRA (also known as WWC1) and SAV1 to induce Hippo signalling and retain YAP/TAZ in the cytoplasm despite contact with the basal layer extracellular matrix. When columnar epithelial tumours lose their apical domain and become invasive, YAP/TAZ becomes nuclear and tumour growth becomes sensitive to the Src inhibitor Dasatinib. PMID:26989177

  12. Crossroads of integrins and cadherins in epithelia and stroma remodeling.

    PubMed

    Epifano, Carolina; Perez-Moreno, Mirna

    2012-01-01

    Adhesion events mediated by cadherin and integrin adhesion receptors have fundamental roles in the maintenance of the physiological balance of epithelial tissues, and it is well established that perturbations in their normal functional activity and/or changes in their expression are associated with tumorigenesis. Over the last decades, increasing evidence of a dynamic collaborative interaction between these complexes through their shared interactions with cytoskeletal proteins and common signaling pathways has emerged not only as an important regulator of several aspects of epithelial cell behavior, but also as a coordinated adhesion module that senses and transmits signals from and to the epithelia surrounding microenvironment. The tight regulation of their crosstalk is particularly important during epithelial remodeling events that normally take place during morphogenesis and tissue repair, and when defective it leads to cell transformation and aggravated responses of the tumor microenvironment that contribute to tumorigenesis. In this review we highlight some of the interactions that regulate their crosstalk and how this could be implicated in regulating signals across epithelial tissues to sustain homeostasis. PMID:22568988

  13. Molecular physiology of the tensin brotherhood of integrin adaptor proteins.

    PubMed

    Haynie, Donald T

    2014-07-01

    Numerous proteins have been identified as constituents of the adhesome, the totality of molecular components in the supramolecular assemblies known as focal adhesions, fibrillar adhesions and other kinds of adhesive contact. The transmembrane receptor proteins called integrins are pivotal adhesome members, providing a physical link between the extracellular matrix (ECM) and the actin cytoskeleton. Tensins are ever more widely investigated intracellular adhesome constituents. Involved in cell attachment and migration, cytoskeleton reorganization, signal transduction and other processes relevant to cancer research, tensins have recently been linked to functional properties of deleted in liver cancer 1 (DLC1) and a mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), to cell migration in breast cancer, and to metastasis suppression in the kidney. Tensins are close relatives of phosphatase homolog/tensin homolog (PTEN), an extensively studied tumor suppressor. Such findings are recasting the earlier vision of tensin (TNS) as an actin-filament (F-actin) capping protein in a different light. This critical review aims to summarize current knowledge on tensins and thus to highlight key points concerning the expression, structure, function, and evolution of the various members of the TNS brotherhood. Insight is sought by comparisons with homologous proteins. Some historical points are added for perspective. PMID:24634006

  14. Surface-bound cues in integrin-mediated cell behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Cortes, Juan-Jose

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a protein aggregate that supports cellular adhesion through binding with integrin cell receptors. This biological activity affects basic signaling paradigms, such as cell motility, proliferation and health. Hence, studying cell adhesion holds promise to gather basic science understanding of these interactions, and for the designs of therapies were these phenomena are uncontrolled. Unfortunately, this field has been obscured by the choice of protein adsorption as the principal assay platform preparation, rendering heterogeneous substrates that can be remodeled by cells. This thesis presents studies that used self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) as mimics of the ECM, presenting peptide and protein ligands with control of orientation and density. The examples discussed span the use of SAMs for mechanistic studies of bivalent cell adhesion proteins, engineering cell adhesion on inert monolayers with heterobifunctional ligands, a new kind of dynamic cell adhesion platform, and the combination of microcontact printing and SAMs to study cell populations. The results within these chapters are finally discussed within the context of new developments in tissue engineering, and future directions for these studies are suggested.

  15. Avβ3 integrin: Pathogenetic role in osteotropic tumors.

    PubMed

    Stucci, Stefania; Tucci, Marco; Passarelli, Anna; Silvestris, Franco

    2015-10-01

    The interplay of cancer cells and accessory cells within the microenvironment drives signals regulating the proliferation, migration and skeleton colonization. Osteotropism of tumor cells depends on chemokine activation, production of soluble factors and defective gene expression that cooperate within the metastatic niche to the bone resorbing functions of osteoclasts. Adhesion of cancer cells to the extracellular matrix is regulated by integrins as αvβ3 that enhances their invasiveness, pro-tumor angiogenesis and skeleton invasion. Therefore, αvβ3 signaling is implicated in enhancing osteotropism of breast and prostate cancers as well as of multiple myeloma. Targeting of αvβ3 has been adopted to restrain the tumor progression in several cancer models leading to improvement of overall survival as effect of the reduction of both tumor burden and osteotropism by malignant cells. Here, we review both the role of αvβ3 in malignant osteoclastogenesis and its potential targeting to restrain the bone colonization by skeleton invading cancers. PMID:26126493

  16. Novel α2β1 Integrin Inhibitors Reveal That Integrin Binding to Collagen under Shear Stress Conditions Does Not Require Receptor Preactivation*

    PubMed Central

    Nissinen, Liisa; Koivunen, Jarkko; Käpylä, Jarmo; Salmela, Maria; Nieminen, Jonna; Jokinen, Johanna; Sipilä, Kalle; Pihlavisto, Marjo; Pentikäinen, Olli T.; Marjamäki, Anne; Heino, Jyrki

    2012-01-01

    The interaction between α2β1 integrin (GPIa/IIa, VLA-2) and vascular collagen is one of the initiating events in thrombus formation. Here, we describe two structurally similar sulfonamide derivatives, BTT-3033 and BTT-3034, and show that, under static conditions, they have an almost identical effect on α2-expressing CHO cell adhesion to collagen I, but only BTT-3033 blocks platelet attachment under flow (90 dynes/cm2). Differential scanning fluorimetry showed that both molecules bind to the α2I domain of the recombinant α2 subunit. To further study integrin binding mechanism(s) of the two sulfonamides, we created an α2 Y285F mutant containing a substitution near the metal ion-dependent adhesion site motif in the α2I domain. The action of BTT-3033, unlike that of BTT-3034, was dependent on Tyr-285. In static conditions BTT-3034, but not BTT-3033, inhibited collagen binding by an α2 variant carrying a conformationally activating E318W mutation. Conversely, in under flow conditions (90 dynes/cm2) BTT-3033, but not BTT-3034, inhibited collagen binding by an α2 variant expressing E336A loss-of-function mutation. Thus, the binding sites for BTT-3033 and BTT-3034 are differentially available in distinct integrin conformations. Therefore, these sulfonamides can be used to study the biological role of different functional stages of α2β1. Furthermore, only the inhibitor that recognized the non-activated conformation of α2β1 integrin under shear stress conditions effectively blocked platelet adhesion, suggesting that the initial interaction between integrin and collagen takes place prior to receptor activation. PMID:23132859

  17. AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Regulates the Cell Surface Proteome and Integrin Membrane Traffic

    PubMed Central

    Thavarajah, Thanusi; Medvedev, Sergei; Bowden, Peter; Marshall, John G.; Antonescu, Costin N.

    2015-01-01

    The cell surface proteome controls numerous cellular functions including cell migration and adhesion, intercellular communication and nutrient uptake. Cell surface proteins are controlled by acute changes in protein abundance at the plasma membrane through regulation of endocytosis and recycling (endomembrane traffic). Many cellular signals regulate endomembrane traffic, including metabolic signaling; however, the extent to which the cell surface proteome is controlled by acute regulation of endomembrane traffic under various conditions remains incompletely understood. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a key metabolic sensor that is activated upon reduced cellular energy availability. AMPK activation alters the endomembrane traffic of a few specific proteins, as part of an adaptive response to increase energy intake and reduce energy expenditure. How increased AMPK activity during energy stress may globally regulate the cell surface proteome is not well understood. To study how AMPK may regulate the cell surface proteome, we used cell-impermeable biotinylation to selectively purify cell surface proteins under various conditions. Using ESI-MS/MS, we found that acute (90 min) treatment with the AMPK activator A-769662 elicits broad control of the cell surface abundance of diverse proteins. In particular, A-769662 treatment depleted from the cell surface proteins with functions in cell migration and adhesion. To complement our mass spectrometry results, we used other methods to show that A-769662 treatment results in impaired cell migration. Further, A-769662 treatment reduced the cell surface abundance of β1-integrin, a key cell migration protein, and AMPK gene silencing prevented this effect. While the control of the cell surface abundance of various proteins by A-769662 treatment was broad, it was also selective, as this treatment did not change the cell surface abundance of the transferrin receptor. Hence, the cell surface proteome is subject to acute

  18. Galectin-3 Induces Clustering of CD147 and Integrin-β1 Transmembrane Glycoprotein Receptors on the RPE Cell Surface

    PubMed Central

    Priglinger, Claudia S.; Szober, Christoph M.; Priglinger, Siegfried G.; Merl, Juliane; Euler, Kerstin N.; Kernt, Marcus; Gondi, Gabor; Behler, Jennifer; Geerlof, Arie; Kampik, Anselm; Ueffing, Marius; Hauck, Stefanie M.

    2013-01-01

    Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) is a blinding disease frequently occurring after retinal detachment surgery. Adhesion, migration and matrix remodeling of dedifferentiated retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells characterize the onset of the disease. Treatment options are still restrained and identification of factors responsible for the abnormal behavior of the RPE cells will facilitate the development of novel therapeutics. Galectin-3, a carbohydrate-binding protein, was previously found to inhibit attachment and spreading of retinal pigment epithelial cells, and thus bares the potential to counteract PVR-associated cellular events. However, the identities of the corresponding cell surface glycoprotein receptor proteins on RPE cells are not known. Here we characterize RPE-specific Gal-3 containing glycoprotein complexes using a proteomic approach. Integrin-β1, integrin-α3 and CD147/EMMPRIN, a transmembrane glycoprotein implicated in regulating matrix metalloproteinase induction, were identified as potential Gal-3 interactors on RPE cell surfaces. In reciprocal immunoprecipitation experiments we confirmed that Gal-3 associated with CD147 and integrin-β1, but not with integrin-α3. Additionally, association of Gal-3 with CD147 and integrin-β1 was observed in co-localization analyses, while integrin-α3 only partially co-localized with Gal-3. Blocking of CD147 and integrin-β1 on RPE cell surfaces inhibited binding of Gal-3, whereas blocking of integrin-α3 failed to do so, suggesting that integrin-α3 is rather an indirect interactor. Importantly, Gal-3 binding promoted pronounced clustering and co-localization of CD147 and integrin-β1, with only partial association of integrin-α3. Finally, we show that RPE derived CD147 and integrin-β1, but not integrin-α3, carry predominantly β-1,6-N-actyl-D-glucosamine-branched glycans, which are high-affinity ligands for Gal-3. We conclude from these data that extracellular Gal-3 triggers clustering of CD147 and

  19. Mice Lacking beta2-Integrin Function Remain Glucose Tolerant in Spite of Insulin Resistance, Neutrophil Infiltration and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Sneddon, Claire C.; Savinko, Terhi; Uotila, Liisa; Jalicy, Susan M.; Gabriel, Jennie L.; Kang, Li; Ashford, Michael L. J.; Fagerholm, Susanna C.

    2015-01-01

    Beta2-integrins are important in leukocyte trafficking and function, and are regulated through the binding of cytoplasmic proteins, such as kindlin-3, to their intracellular domain. Here, we investigate the involvement of beta2-integrins in the regulation of metabolic disease using mice where the kindlin-3 binding site in the beta2-integrin cytoplasmic tail has been mutated (TTT/AAA-beta2-integrin knock-in (KI) mice), leading to expressed but dysfunctional beta2-integrins and significant neutrophilia in vivo. Beta2-integrin KI mice fed on a high fat diet showed normal weight gain, and normal accumulation of macrophages and lymphocytes in white adipose tissue (WAT) and liver, but increased neutrophil numbers especially in WAT. In addition, beta2-integrin KI mice fed on a high fat diet showed significantly increased peripheral insulin resistance in response to high-fat feeding. However, this was associated with improved glucose disposal following glucose load. Interestingly, beta2-integrin KI neutrophils produced more elastase in vitro, in response to stimulation. Beta2-integrin KI mice displayed variability of tissue inflammatory status, with liver and WAT exhibiting little or no difference in inflammation compared to high fat fed controls, whereas skeletal muscle demonstrated a raised inflammatory profile in association with higher elastase levels and diminished signalling through the IRS1-PKB pathway. In conclusion, although expression of dysfunctional beta2-integrins increased neutrophil production and infiltration into tissue, skeletal muscle was the most affected tissue exhibiting evidence of higher neutrophil activity and insulin resistance. Thus, beta2-integrins modulate glucose homeostasis during high fat feeding predominantly through actions on skeletal muscle to affect metabolic phenotype in vivo. PMID:26405763

  20. Mice Lacking beta2-Integrin Function Remain Glucose Tolerant in Spite of Insulin Resistance, Neutrophil Infiltration and Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Meakin, Paul J; Morrison, Vicky L; Sneddon, Claire C; Savinko, Terhi; Uotila, Liisa; Jalicy, Susan M; Gabriel, Jennie L; Kang, Li; Ashford, Michael L J; Fagerholm, Susanna C

    2015-01-01

    Beta2-integrins are important in leukocyte trafficking and function, and are regulated through the binding of cytoplasmic proteins, such as kindlin-3, to their intracellular domain. Here, we investigate the involvement of beta2-integrins in the regulation of metabolic disease using mice where the kindlin-3 binding site in the beta2-integrin cytoplasmic tail has been mutated (TTT/AAA-beta2-integrin knock-in (KI) mice), leading to expressed but dysfunctional beta2-integrins and significant neutrophilia in vivo. Beta2-integrin KI mice fed on a high fat diet showed normal weight gain, and normal accumulation of macrophages and lymphocytes in white adipose tissue (WAT) and liver, but increased neutrophil numbers especially in WAT. In addition, beta2-integrin KI mice fed on a high fat diet showed significantly increased peripheral insulin resistance in response to high-fat feeding. However, this was associated with improved glucose disposal following glucose load. Interestingly, beta2-integrin KI neutrophils produced more elastase in vitro, in response to stimulation. Beta2-integrin KI mice displayed variability of tissue inflammatory status, with liver and WAT exhibiting little or no difference in inflammation compared to high fat fed controls, whereas skeletal muscle demonstrated a raised inflammatory profile in association with higher elastase levels and diminished signalling through the IRS1-PKB pathway. In conclusion, although expression of dysfunctional beta2-integrins increased neutrophil production and infiltration into tissue, skeletal muscle was the most affected tissue exhibiting evidence of higher neutrophil activity and insulin resistance. Thus, beta2-integrins modulate glucose homeostasis during high fat feeding predominantly through actions on skeletal muscle to affect metabolic phenotype in vivo. PMID:26405763

  1. Integrin α4 Induces Lymphangiogenesis and Metastasis via Upregulation of VEGF-C in Human Colon Cancer.

    PubMed

    Lv, Xiao-Hong; Liu, Bao-Quan; Li, Xue-Mei; Wang, Xiang-Chen; Li, Xin-Lei; Ahmed, Naila; Zhang, Ya-Fang

    2016-06-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) is a key regulator in lymphangiogenesis, and is overexpressed in various malignancies. Integrin α4β1, a new member of the VEGF-C/VEGF receptor pathway, was found to be overexpressed in melanoma tumors. However, little is known regarding the potential role of integrin α4β1 in lymphangiogenesis and other solid tumors. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression patterns of integrin α4 and VEGF-C in relation to lymphangiogenesis and clinicopathological parameters in human colon cancer. The expression of integrin α4, VEGF-C, and VEGFR-3 was assessed in 71 human colon cancer tissues and 30 paracancerous normal tissues by immunohistochemical staining. Lymphatic microvessel density (LMVD) was measured after D2-40-labeling, and the correlations among different factors were statistically analyzed. The expression of integrin α4, VEGF-C, VEGFR-3, and LMVD was higher in colon cancer tissues compared with the normal paracancerous colon tissues. There was a positive correlation between the expression of integrin α4 and VEGF-C. Integrin α4 and VEGF-C were significantly associated with the clinicopathological parameters (LMVD, Duke's stage, and lymph node metastasis). Kaplan-Meier analyses indicated that patients with high integrin α4 or VEGF-C expression had significantly shorter overall survival and tumor-free survival time. Multivariate analyses suggested that integrin α4 and VEGF-C may serve as independent prognostic factors for human colon cancer. Both integrin α4 and VEGF-C are involved in lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis. Our results demonstrated that integrin α4 is a novel prognostic indicator for human colon cancer. Anat Rec, 299:741-747, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26917449

  2. Changes in membrane sphingolipid composition modulate dynamics and adhesion of integrin nanoclusters.

    PubMed

    Eich, Christina; Manzo, Carlo; de Keijzer, Sandra; Bakker, Gert-Jan; Reinieren-Beeren, Inge; García-Parajo, Maria F; Cambi, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Sphingolipids are essential constituents of the plasma membrane (PM) and play an important role in signal transduction by modulating clustering and dynamics of membrane receptors. Changes in lipid composition are therefore likely to influence receptor organisation and function, but how this precisely occurs is difficult to address given the intricacy of the PM lipid-network. Here, we combined biochemical assays and single molecule dynamic approaches to demonstrate that the local lipid environment regulates adhesion of integrin receptors by impacting on their lateral mobility. Induction of sphingomyelinase (SMase) activity reduced sphingomyelin (SM) levels by conversion to ceramide (Cer), resulting in impaired integrin adhesion and reduced integrin mobility. Dual-colour imaging of cortical actin in combination with single molecule tracking of integrins showed that this reduced mobility results from increased coupling to the actin cytoskeleton brought about by Cer formation. As such, our data emphasizes a critical role for the PM local lipid composition in regulating the lateral mobility of integrins and their ability to dynamically increase receptor density for efficient ligand binding in the process of cell adhesion. PMID:26869100

  3. An internal ligand-bound, metastable state of a leukocyte integrin, αXβ2

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Mehmet; Yuki, Koichi

    2013-01-01

    How is massive conformational change in integrins achieved on a rapid timescale? We report crystal structures of a metastable, putative transition state of integrin αXβ2. The αXβ2 ectodomain is bent; however, a lattice contact stabilizes its ligand-binding αI domain in a high affinity, open conformation. Much of the αI α7 helix unwinds, loses contact with the αI domain, and reshapes to form an internal ligand that binds to the interface between the β propeller and βI domains. Lift-off of the αI domain above this platform enables a range of extensional and rotational motions without precedent in allosteric machines. Movements of secondary structure elements in the β2 βI domain occur in an order different than in β3 integrins, showing that integrin β subunits can be specialized to assume different intermediate states between closed and open. Mutations demonstrate that the structure trapped here is metastable and can enable rapid equilibration between bent and extended-open integrin conformations and up-regulation of leukocyte adhesiveness. PMID:24385486

  4. An internal ligand-bound, metastable state of a leukocyte integrin, αXβ2.

    PubMed

    Sen, Mehmet; Yuki, Koichi; Springer, Timothy A

    2013-11-25

    How is massive conformational change in integrins achieved on a rapid timescale? We report crystal structures of a metastable, putative transition state of integrin αXβ2. The αXβ2 ectodomain is bent; however, a lattice contact stabilizes its ligand-binding αI domain in a high affinity, open conformation. Much of the αI α7 helix unwinds, loses contact with the αI domain, and reshapes to form an internal ligand that binds to the interface between the β propeller and βI domains. Lift-off of the αI domain above this platform enables a range of extensional and rotational motions without precedent in allosteric machines. Movements of secondary structure elements in the β2 βI domain occur in an order different than in β3 integrins, showing that integrin β subunits can be specialized to assume different intermediate states between closed and open. Mutations demonstrate that the structure trapped here is metastable and can enable rapid equilibration between bent and extended-open integrin conformations and up-regulation of leukocyte adhesiveness. PMID:24385486

  5. Localized LoxL3-Dependent Fibronectin Oxidation Regulates Myofiber Stretch and Integrin-Mediated Adhesion.

    PubMed

    Kraft-Sheleg, Ortal; Zaffryar-Eilot, Shelly; Genin, Olga; Yaseen, Wesal; Soueid-Baumgarten, Sharon; Kessler, Ofra; Smolkin, Tatyana; Akiri, Gal; Neufeld, Gera; Cinnamon, Yuval; Hasson, Peleg

    2016-03-01

    For muscles to function, myofibers have to stretch and anchor at the myotendinous junction (MTJ), a region rich in extracellular matrix (ECM). Integrin signaling is required for MTJ formation, and mutations affecting the cascade lead to muscular dystrophies in mice and humans. Underlying mechanisms for integrin activation at the MTJ and ECM modifications regulating its signaling are unclear. We show that lysyl oxidase-like 3 (LoxL3) is a key regulator of integrin signaling that ensures localized control of the cascade. In LoxL3 mutants, myofibers anchor prematurely or overshoot to adjacent somites, and are loose and lack tension. We find that LoxL3 complexes with and directly oxidizes Fibronectin (FN), an ECM scaffold protein and integrin ligand enriched at the MTJ. We identify a mechanism whereby localized LoxL3 secretion from myofiber termini oxidizes FN, enabling enhanced integrin activation at the tips of myofibers and ensuring correct positioning and anchoring of myofibers along the MTJ. PMID:26954549

  6. Normal Platelet Integrin Function in Mice Lacking Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Clone-5 (Hic-5)

    PubMed Central

    Popp, Michael; Thielmann, Ina; Nieswandt, Bernhard; Stegner, David

    2015-01-01

    Integrin αIIbβ3 plays a central role in the adhesion and aggregation of platelets and thus is essential for hemostasis and thrombosis. Integrin activation requires the transmission of a signal from the small cytoplasmic tails of the α or β subunit to the large extracellular domains resulting in conformational changes of the extracellular domains to enable ligand binding. Hydrogen peroxide-inducible clone-5 (Hic-5), a member of the paxillin family, serves as a focal adhesion adaptor protein associated with αIIbβ3 at its cytoplasmic tails. Previous studies suggested Hic-5 as a novel regulator of integrin αIIbβ3 activation and platelet aggregation in mice. To assess this in more detail, we generated Hic-5-null mice and analyzed activation and aggregation of their platelets in vitro and in vivo. Surprisingly, lack of Hic-5 had no detectable effect on platelet integrin activation and function in vitro and in vivo under all tested conditions. These results indicate that Hic-5 is dispensable for integrin αIIbβ3 activation and consequently for arterial thrombosis and hemostasis in mice. PMID:26172113

  7. Changes in membrane sphingolipid composition modulate dynamics and adhesion of integrin nanoclusters

    PubMed Central

    Eich, Christina; Manzo, Carlo; Keijzer, Sandra de; Bakker, Gert-Jan; Reinieren-Beeren, Inge; García-Parajo, Maria F.; Cambi, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Sphingolipids are essential constituents of the plasma membrane (PM) and play an important role in signal transduction by modulating clustering and dynamics of membrane receptors. Changes in lipid composition are therefore likely to influence receptor organisation and function, but how this precisely occurs is difficult to address given the intricacy of the PM lipid-network. Here, we combined biochemical assays and single molecule dynamic approaches to demonstrate that the local lipid environment regulates adhesion of integrin receptors by impacting on their lateral mobility. Induction of sphingomyelinase (SMase) activity reduced sphingomyelin (SM) levels by conversion to ceramide (Cer), resulting in impaired integrin adhesion and reduced integrin mobility. Dual-colour imaging of cortical actin in combination with single molecule tracking of integrins showed that this reduced mobility results from increased coupling to the actin cytoskeleton brought about by Cer formation. As such, our data emphasizes a critical role for the PM local lipid composition in regulating the lateral mobility of integrins and their ability to dynamically increase receptor density for efficient ligand binding in the process of cell adhesion. PMID:26869100

  8. Kindlin-2 cooperates with talin to activate integrins and induces cell spreading by directly binding paxillin

    PubMed Central

    Theodosiou, Marina; Widmaier, Moritz; Böttcher, Ralph T; Rognoni, Emanuel; Veelders, Maik; Bharadwaj, Mitasha; Lambacher, Armin; Austen, Katharina; Müller, Daniel J; Zent, Roy; Fässler, Reinhard

    2016-01-01

    Integrins require an activation step prior to ligand binding and signaling. How talin and kindlin contribute to these events in non-hematopoietic cells is poorly understood. Here we report that fibroblasts lacking either talin or kindlin failed to activate β1 integrins, adhere to fibronectin (FN) or maintain their integrins in a high affinity conformation induced by Mn2+. Despite compromised integrin activation and adhesion, Mn2+ enabled talin- but not kindlin-deficient cells to initiate spreading on FN. This isotropic spreading was induced by the ability of kindlin to directly bind paxillin, which in turn bound focal adhesion kinase (FAK) resulting in FAK activation and the formation of lamellipodia. Our findings show that talin and kindlin cooperatively activate integrins leading to FN binding and adhesion, and that kindlin subsequently assembles an essential signaling node at newly formed adhesion sites in a talin-independent manner. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10130.001 PMID:26821125

  9. Integrin binding by Borrelia burgdorferi P66 facilitates dissemination but is not required for infectivity

    PubMed Central

    Ristow, Laura C.; Bonde, Mari; Lin, Yi-Pin; Sato, Hiromi; Curtis, Michael; Wesley, Erin; Hahn, Beth L.; Fang, Juan; Wilcox, David A.; Leong, John M.; Bergström, Sven; Coburn, Jenifer

    2015-01-01

    Summary P66, a Borrelia burgdorferi surface protein with porin and integrin-binding activities, is essential for murine infection. The role of P66 integrin-binding activity in B. burgdorferi infection was investigated and found to affect transendothelial migration. The role of integrin binding, specifically, was tested by mutation of two amino acids (D205A,D207A) or deletion of seven amino acids (Del202–208). Neither change affected surface localization or channel-forming activity of P66, but both significantly reduced binding to αvβ3. Integrin-binding deficient B. burgdorferi strains caused disseminated infection in mice at 4 weeks post-subcutaneous inoculation, but bacterial burdens were significantly reduced in some tissues. Following intravenous inoculation, the Del202–208 bacteria were below the limit of detection in all tissues assessed at 2 weeks post-inoculation, but bacterial burdens recovered to wild-type levels at 4 weeks post-inoculation. The delay in tissue colonization correlated with reduced migration of the Del202–208 strains across microvascular endothelial cells, similar to Δp66 bacteria. These results indicate that integrin binding by P66 is important to efficient dissemination of B. burgdorferi, which is critical to its ability to cause disease manifestations in incidental hosts and to its maintenance in the enzootic cycle. PMID:25604835

  10. Interface Immobilization Chemistry of cRGD-based Peptides Regulates Integrin Mediated Cell Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Pallarola, Diego; Bochen, Alexander; Boehm, Heike; Rechenmacher, Florian; Sobahi, Tariq R; Spatz, Joachim P; Kessler, Horst

    2014-01-01

    The interaction of specific surface receptors of the integrin family with different extracellular matrix-based ligands is of utmost importance for the cellular adhesion process. A ligand consists of an integrin-binding group, here cyclic RGDfX, a spacer molecule that lifts the integrin-binding group from the surface and a surface anchoring group. c(-RGDfX-) peptides are bound to gold nanoparticle structured surfaces via polyproline, polyethylene glycol or aminohexanoic acid containing spacers of different lengths. Although keeping the integrin-binding c(-RGDfX-) peptides constant for all compounds, changes of the ligand's spacer chemistry and length reveal significant differences in cell adhesion activation and focal adhesion formation. Polyproline-based peptides demonstrate improved cell adhesion kinetics and focal adhesion formation compared with common aminohexanoic acid or polyethylene glycol spacers. Binding activity can additionally be improved by applying ligands with two head groups, inducing a multimeric effect. This study gives insights into spacer-based differences in integrin-driven cell adhesion processes and remarkably highlights the polyproline-based spacers as suitable ligand-presenting templates for surface functionalization. PMID:25810710

  11. Dynamics and functional differences between dendroaspin and rhodostomin: insights into protein scaffolds in integrin recognition.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chun-Ho; Chen, Yi-Chun; Shiu, Jia-Hau; Chang, Yao-Tsung; Chang, Yung-Sheng; Huang, Chun-Hau; Chen, Chiu-Yueh; Chuang, Woei-Jer

    2012-12-01

    Dendroaspin (Den) and rhodostomin (Rho) are snake venom proteins containing a PRGDMP motif. Although Den and Rho have different 3D structures, they are highly potent integrin inhibitors. To study their structure, function, and dynamics relationships, we expressed Den and Rho in Pichia pastoris. The recombinant Den and Rho inhibited platelet aggregation with the K(I) values of 149.8 and 83.2 nM. Cell adhesion analysis showed that Den was 3.7 times less active than Rho when inhibiting the integrin αIIbβ3 and 2.5 times less active when inhibiting the integrin αvβ3. In contrast, Den and Rho were similarly active when inhibiting the integrin α5β1 with the IC₅₀ values of 239.8 and 256.8 nM. NMR analysis showed that recombinant Den and Rho have different 3D conformations for their arginyl-glycyl-aspartic acid (RGD) motif. However, the comparison with Rho showed that the docking of Den into integrin αvβ3 resulted in a similar number of contacts. Analysis of the dynamic properties of the RGD loop in Den and Rho showed that they also had different dynamic properties. These results demonstrate that protein scaffolds affect the function, structure, and dynamics of their RGD motif. PMID:23033223

  12. The focal adhesion protein PINCH-1 associates with EPLIN at integrin adhesion sites

    PubMed Central

    Karaköse, Esra; Geiger, Tamar; Flynn, Kevin; Lorenz-Baath, Katrin; Zent, Roy; Mann, Matthias; Fässler, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT PINCH-1 is a LIM-only domain protein that forms a ternary complex with integrin-linked kinase (ILK) and parvin (to form the IPP complex) downstream of integrins. Here, we demonstrate that PINCH-1 (also known as Lims1) gene ablation in the epidermis of mice caused epidermal detachment from the basement membrane, epidermal hyperthickening and progressive hair loss. PINCH-1-deficient keratinocytes also displayed profound adhesion, spreading and migration defects in vitro that were substantially more severe than those of ILK-deficient keratinocytes indicating that PINCH-1 also exerts functions in an ILK-independent manner. By isolating the PINCH-1 interactome, the LIM-domain-containing and actin-binding protein epithelial protein lost in neoplasm (EPLIN, also known as LIMA1) was identified as a new PINCH-1-associated protein. EPLIN localized, in a PINCH-1-dependent manner, to integrin adhesion sites of keratinocytes in vivo and in vitro and its depletion severely attenuated keratinocyte spreading and migration on collagen and fibronectin without affecting PINCH-1 levels in focal adhesions. Given that the low PINCH-1 levels in ILK-deficient keratinocytes were sufficient to recruit EPLIN to integrin adhesions, our findings suggest that PINCH-1 regulates integrin-mediated adhesion of keratinocytes through the interactions with ILK as well as EPLIN. PMID:25609703

  13. Integrin signalling regulates the expansion of neuroepithelial progenitors and neurogenesis via Wnt7a and Decorin

    PubMed Central

    Long, K.; Moss, L.; Laursen, L.; Boulter, L.; ffrench-Constant, C.

    2016-01-01

    Development of the cerebral cortex requires regulation of proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells and a diverse range of progenitors. Recent work suggests a role for extracellular matrix (ECM) and the major family of ECM receptors, the integrins. Here we show that enhancing integrin beta-1 signalling, by expressing a constitutively active integrin beta-1 (CA*β1) in the embryonic chick mesencephalon, enhances neurogenesis and increases the number of mitotic cells dividing away from the ventricular surface, analogous to sub-apical progenitors in mouse. Only non-integrin-expressing neighbouring cells (lacking CA*β1) contributed to the increased neurogenesis. Transcriptome analysis reveals upregulation of Wnt7a within the CA*β1 cells and upregulation of the ECM protein Decorin in the neighbouring non-expressing cells. Experiments using inhibitors in explant models and genetic knock-downs in vivo reveal an integrin-Wnt7a-Decorin pathway that promotes proliferation and differentiation of neuroepithelial cells, and identify Decorin as a novel neurogenic factor in the central nervous system. PMID:26838601

  14. The αvβ1 integrin plays a critical in vivo role in tissue fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Nilgun I.; Jo, Hyunil; Chen, Chun; Tsujino, Kazuyuki; Arnold, Thomas D.; DeGrado, William F.; Sheppard, Dean

    2015-01-01

    Integrins are transmembrane heterodimeric receptors that contribute to diverse biological functions and play critical roles in many human diseases. Studies using integrin subunit knockout mice and inhibitory antibodies have identified important roles for nearly every integrin heterodimer and led to the development of a number of potentially useful therapeutics. One notable exception is the αvβ1 integrin. αv and β1 subunits are individually present in numerous dimer pairs, making it challenging to infer specific roles for αvβ1 by genetic inactivation of individual subunits, and αvβ1 complex–specific blocking antibodies do not yet exist. We therefore developed a potent and highly specific small-molecule inhibitor of αvβ1 to probe the function of this understudied integrin. We found that αvβ1, which is highly expressed on activated fibroblasts, directly binds to the latency-associated peptide of transforming growth factor–β1 (TGFβ1) and mediates TGFβ1 activation. Therapeutic delivery of this αvβ1 inhibitor attenuated bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis and carbon tetrachloride–induced liver fibrosis, suggesting that drugs based on this lead compound could be broadly useful for treatment of diseases characterized by excessive tissue fibrosis. PMID:25995225

  15. Platelet Proteome Analysis Reveals Integrin-dependent Aggregation Defects in Patients with Myelodysplastic Syndromes*

    PubMed Central

    Fröbel, Julia; Cadeddu, Ron-Patrick; Hartwig, Sonja; Bruns, Ingmar; Wilk, Christian M.; Kündgen, Andrea; Fischer, Johannes C.; Schroeder, Thomas; Steidl, Ulrich G.; Germing, Ulrich; Lehr, Stefan; Haas, Rainer; Czibere, Akos

    2013-01-01

    Bleeding complications are a significant clinical problem in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes even at sufficient platelet counts (>50,000/μl). However, the underlying pathology of this hemorrhagic diathesis is still unknown. Here, we analyzed the platelet proteome of patients with myelodysplastic syndromes by quantitative two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometric protein identification. Proteins identified with lower concentrations, such as Talin-1, Vinculin, Myosin-9, Filmain-A, and Actin play critical roles in integrin αIIbβ3 signaling and thus platelet aggregation. Despite normal agonist receptor expression, calcium flux, and granule release upon activation, the activation capacity of integrin αIIbβ3 was diminished in myelodysplastic syndrome platelets. Förster resonance energy transfer analysis showed a reduced co-localization of Talin-1 to the integrin's β3-subunit, which is required for receptor activation and fibrinogen binding. In addition, platelet spreading on immobilized fibrinogen was incomplete, and platelet aggregation assays confirmed a general defect in integrin-dependent platelet aggregation in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes. Our data provide novel aspects on the molecular pathology of impaired platelet function in myelodysplastic syndromes and suggest a mechanism of defective integrin αIIbβ3 signaling that may contribute to the hemorrhagic diathesis observed in these patients. PMID:23382103

  16. The integrin expression profile modulates orientation and dynamics of force transmission at cell-matrix adhesions.

    PubMed

    Balcioglu, Hayri E; van Hoorn, Hedde; Donato, Dominique M; Schmidt, Thomas; Danen, Erik H J

    2015-04-01

    Integrin adhesion receptors connect the extracellular matrix (ECM) to the cytoskeleton and serve as bidirectional mechanotransducers. During development, angiogenesis, wound healing and cancer progression, the relative abundance of fibronectin receptors, including integrins α5β1 and αvβ3, changes, thus altering the integrin composition of cell-matrix adhesions. Here, we show that enhanced αvβ3 expression can fully compensate for loss of α5β1 and other β1 integrins to support outside-in and inside-out force transmission. α5β1 and αvβ3 each mediate actin cytoskeletal remodeling in response to stiffening or cyclic stretching of the ECM. Likewise, α5β1 and αvβ3 support cellular traction forces of comparable magnitudes and similarly increase these forces in response to ECM stiffening. However, cells using αvβ3 respond to lower stiffness ranges, reorganize their actin cytoskeleton more substantially in response to stretch, and show more randomly oriented traction forces. Centripetal traction force orientation requires long stress fibers that are formed through the action of Rho kinase (ROCK) and myosin II, and that are supported by α5β1. Thus, altering the relative abundance of fibronectin-binding integrins in cell-matrix adhesions affects the spatiotemporal organization of force transmission. PMID:25663698

  17. Mesodermal expression of integrin α5β1 regulates neural crest development and cardiovascular morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Dong; Wang, Xia; Mittal, Ashok; Dhiman, Sonam; Hou, Shuan-Yu; Degenhardt, Karl; Astrof, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    Integrin α5-null embryos die in mid-gestation from severe defects in cardiovascular morphogenesis, which stem from defective development of the neural crest, heart and vasculature. To investigate the role of integrin α5β1 in cardiovascular development, we used the Mesp1Cre knock-in strain of mice to ablate integrin α5 in the anterior mesoderm, which gives rise to all of the cardiac and many of the vascular and muscle lineages in the anterior portion of the embryo. Surprisingly, we found that mutant embryos displayed numerous defects related to the abnormal development of the neural crest such as cleft palate, ventricular septal defect, abnormal development of hypoglossal nerves, and defective remodeling of the aortic arch arteries. We found that defects in arch artery remodeling stem from the role of mesodermal integrin α5β1 in neural crest proliferation and differentiation into vascular smooth muscle cells, while proliferation of pharyngeal mesoderm and differentiation of mesodermal derivatives into vascular smooth muscle cells was not defective. Taken together our studies demonstrate a requisite role for mesodermal integrin α5β1 in signaling between the mesoderm and the neural crest, thereby regulating neural crest-dependent morphogenesis of essential embryonic structures. PMID:25242040

  18. Dynamics and functional differences between dendroaspin and rhodostomin: Insights into protein scaffolds in integrin recognition

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Chun-Ho; Chen, Yi-Chun; Shiu, Jia-Hau; Chang, Yao-Tsung; Chang, Yung-Sheng; Huang, Chun-Hau; Chen, Chiu-Yueh; Chuang, Woei-Jer

    2012-01-01

    Dendroaspin (Den) and rhodostomin (Rho) are snake venom proteins containing a PRGDMP motif. Although Den and Rho have different 3D structures, they are highly potent integrin inhibitors. To study their structure, function, and dynamics relationships, we expressed Den and Rho in Pichia pastoris. The recombinant Den and Rho inhibited platelet aggregation with the KI values of 149.8 and 83.2 nM. Cell adhesion analysis showed that Den was 3.7 times less active than Rho when inhibiting the integrin αIIbβ3 and 2.5 times less active when inhibiting the integrin αvβ3. In contrast, Den and Rho were similarly active when inhibiting the integrin α5β1 with the IC50 values of 239.8 and 256.8 nM. NMR analysis showed that recombinant Den and Rho have different 3D conformations for their arginyl-glycyl-aspartic acid (RGD) motif. However, the comparison with Rho showed that the docking of Den into integrin αvβ3 resulted in a similar number of contacts. Analysis of the dynamic properties of the RGD loop in Den and Rho showed that they also had different dynamic properties. These results demonstrate that protein scaffolds affect the function, structure, and dynamics of their RGD motif. PMID:23033223

  19. Crucial role of posttranslational modifications of integrin α3 in interstitial lung disease and nephrotic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yalcin, Ebru G; He, Yinghong; Orhan, Diclehan; Pazzagli, Chiara; Emiralioglu, Nagehan; Has, Cristina

    2015-07-01

    Interstitial lung disease, nephrotic syndrome and junctional epidermolysis bullosa is an autosomal recessive multiorgan disorder caused by mutations in the gene for the integrin α3 subunit (ITGA3). The full spectrum of manifestations and genotype-phenotype correlations is still poorly characterized. Here, we uncovered the disease-causing role and the molecular mechanisms underlying a homozygous ITGA3 mutation leading to the single amino acid substitution, p.R463W. The patient suffered from respiratory distress and episodes of cyanosis with onset in the first week of life and had a nephrotic syndrome. Although there was no clinical evidence for cutaneous fragility, the analysis of a skin sample and of skin epithelial cells enabled the direct assessment of the authentic mutant protein. We show that the mutation altered the conformation of the extracellular β-propeller domain of the integrin α3 subunit preventing correct processing of N-linked oligosaccharides, heterodimerization with β1 integrin and maturation through cleavage into heavy and light chains in the Golgi. Confocal microscopy demonstrated that the mutant protein accumulated intracellularly, but it was not present in focal adhesions or on the cell membrane as shown by flow cytometry. These findings highlight that single amino acid changes in the integrin α3 subunit may crucially alter the structure and complex processing of this integrin, completely preventing its functionality. The present report also underscores that ITGA3 mutations may account for atypical cases solely with early onset respiratory and renal involvement. PMID:25810266

  20. The cytoplasmic extension of the integrin β6 subunit regulates epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Lee, Carlin; Lee, Casey; Lee, Stacey; Siu, Amanda; Ramos, Daniel M

    2014-02-01

    Prognosis for oral cancer patients has not improved in over 60 years due to invasion and recurrence. To understand the invasive behavior of this tumor, we evaluated the role of the αvβ6 integrin. Invasive oral SCC cells express the αvβ6 integrin, which contains an 11-amino-acid extension on its β-subunit unique to the integrin family. We determined that this β6 cytoplasmic extension regulates the composition of the intermediate filament network and the organization of signaling structures called focal contacts. The auto-phosphorylation of FAK, which is localized to focal contacts, was also regulated by the β6-cytoplasmic tail, as were the transcription factors Notch and STAT3. Lastly, we also determined that activation of MAPK required the full-length β6 integrin. Together these results indicate that the signaling critical to epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is regulated by the β6 integrin cytoplasmic domain. PMID:24510996

  1. The Human Metapneumovirus Fusion Protein Mediates Entry via an Interaction with RGD-Binding Integrins

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Reagan G.; Livesay, S. Brent; Johnson, Monika; Ohi, Melanie D.

    2012-01-01

    Paramyxoviruses use a specialized fusion protein to merge the viral envelope with cell membranes and initiate infection. Most paramyxoviruses require the interaction of two viral proteins to enter cells; an attachment protein binds cell surface receptors, leading to the activation of a fusion (F) protein that fuses the viral envelope and host cell plasma membrane. In contrast, human metapneumovirus (HMPV) expressing only the F protein is replication competent, suggesting a primary role for HMPV F in attachment and fusion. We previously identified an invariant arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD) motif in the HMPV F protein and showed that the RGD-binding integrin αVβ1-promoted HMPV infection. Here we show that both HMPV F-mediated binding and virus entry depend upon multiple RGD-binding integrins and that HMPV F can mediate binding and fusion in the absence of the viral attachment (G) protein. The invariant F-RGD motif is critical for infection, as an F-RAE virus was profoundly impaired. Further, F-integrin binding is required for productive viral RNA transcription, indicating that RGD-binding integrins serve as receptors for the HMPV fusion protein. Thus, HMPV F is triggered to induce virus-cell fusion by interactions with cellular receptors in a manner that is independent of the viral G protein. These results suggest a stepwise mechanism of HMPV entry mediated by the F protein through its interactions with cellular receptors, including RGD-binding integrins. PMID:22933271

  2. Identification of Integrin β Subunit Mutations that Alter Heterodimer Function In SituD⃞

    PubMed Central

    Jannuzi, Alison L.; Bunch, Thomas A.; West, Robert F.; Brower, Danny L.

    2004-01-01

    We conducted a genetic screen for mutations in myospheroid, the gene encoding the Drosophila βPS integrin subunit, and identified point mutants in all of the structural domains of the protein. Surprisingly, we find that mutations in very strongly conserved residues will often allow sufficient integrin function to support the development of adult animals, including mutations in the ADMIDAS site and in a cytoplasmic NPXY motif. Many mutations in the I-like domain reduce integrin expression specifically when βPS is combined with activating αPS2 cytoplasmic mutations, indicating that integrins in the extended conformation are unstable relative to the inactive, bent heterodimers. Interestingly, the screen has identified alleles that show gain-of-function characteristics in cell culture, but have negative effects on animal development or viability. This is illustrated by the allele mysb58; available structural models suggest that the molecular lesion of mysb58, V409>D, should promote the “open” conformation of the β subunit I-like domain. This expectation is supported by the finding that αPS2βPS (V409>D) promotes adhesion and spreading of S2 cells more effectively than does wild-type αPS2βPS, even when βPS is paired with αPS2 containing activating cytoplasmic mutations. Finally, comparisons with the sequence of human β8 suggest that evolution has targeted the “mysb58” residue as a means of affecting integrin activity. PMID:15194810

  3. Structural basis for the autoinhibition of talin in regulating integrin activation

    PubMed Central

    Goksoy, Esen; Ma, Yan-Qing; Wang, Xiaoxia; Kong, Xiangming; Perera, Dhanuja; Plow, Edward F.; Qin, Jun

    2008-01-01

    Summary Activation of heterodimeric (α/β) integrin transmembrane receptors by the 270 kDa cytoskeletal protein talin is essential for many important cell adhesive and physiological responses. A key step in this process involves interaction of phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB) domain in the N-terminal head of talin (talin-H) with integrin β membrane-proximal cytoplasmic tails (β-MP-CTs). Compared to talin-H, intact talin exhibits low potency in inducing integrin activation. Using NMR spectroscopy, we show that the large C-terminal rod domain of talin (talin-R) interacts with talin-H and allosterically restrains talin in a closed conformation. We further demonstrate that talin-R specifically masks a region in talin-PTB where integrin β-MP-CT binds and competes with it for binding to talin-PTB. The inhibitory interaction is disrupted by a constitutively activating mutation (M319A) or by phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, a known talin activator. These data define a distinct autoinhibition mechanism for talin and suggest how it controls integrin activation and cell adhesion. PMID:18614051

  4. Functional analysis of the putative integrin recognition motif on adeno-associated virus 9.

    PubMed

    Shen, Shen; Berry, Garrett E; Castellanos Rivera, Ruth M; Cheung, Roland Y; Troupes, Andrew N; Brown, Sarah M; Kafri, Tal; Asokan, Aravind

    2015-01-16

    Adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) display a highly conserved NGR motif on the capsid surface. Earlier studies have established this tripeptide motif as being essential for integrin-mediated uptake of recombinant AAV serotype 2 (AAV2) in cultured cells. However, functional attributes of this putative integrin recognition motif in other recombinant AAV serotypes displaying systemic transduction in vivo remain unknown. In this study, we dissect the biology of an integrin domain capsid mutant derived from the human isolate AAV9 in mice. The AAV9/NGA mutant shows decreased systemic transduction in mice. This defective phenotype was accompanied by rapid clearance of mutant virions from the blood circulation and nonspecific sequestration by the spleen. Transient vascular hyperpermeability, induced by histamine coinjection, exacerbated AAV9/NGA uptake by the spleen but not the liver. However, such treatment did not affect AAV9 virions, suggesting a potential entry/post-entry defect for the mutant in different tissues. Further characterization revealed modestly decreased cell surface binding but a more pronounced defect in the cellular entry of mutant virions. These findings were corroborated by the observation that blocking multiple integrins adversely affected recombinant AAV9 transduction in different cell types, albeit with variable efficiencies. From a structural perspective, we observed that the integrin recognition motif is located in close proximity to the galactose binding footprint on AAV9 capsids and postulate that this feature could influence cell surface attachment, cellular uptake at the tissue level, and systemic clearance by the reticuloendothelial system. PMID:25404742

  5. Expression of fibronectin, fibronectin isoforms and integrin receptors in melanocytic lesions.

    PubMed Central

    Natali, P. G.; Nicotra, M. R.; Di Filippo, F.; Bigotti, A.

    1995-01-01

    In vitro studies have demonstrated that fibronectin (FN) can deliver a mitogenic signal to quiescent human melanoma cells and that the alpha 5/beta 1-integrin receptor mediates this stimulus. In view of this finding we have analysed the in vivo expression of FN, and of ED-A and ED-B FN isoforms, in benign and malignant lesions of melanocyte origin. In the same specimens the expression of fibronectin integrin receptors was evaluated. The results demonstrate that, while detection of FN does not correlate with transformation and tumour progression, the expression of the two isoforms is associated with transformation and that only the ED-A variant is found in metastases. Integrin phenotyping disclosed that alpha 3/beta 1 expression is associated with tumour progression, alpha v/beta 3 is a marker of transformation, alpha 4 is rarely expressed and alpha 5 is expressed by about 50% and 30% of the primary and metastatic lesions respectively. Taken together, the results of this study demonstrate that transformation and tumour progression of the melanocyte lineage are associated with modulation of expression of FN isoforms and FN integrin receptors. Furthermore, the expression of alpha 5-integrin in a considerable percentage of primary and metastatic lesions indicates that FN may deliver a proliferative stimulus to melanoma cells in vivo. Images Figure 1 PMID:7779718

  6. An EGFR/Src-dependent β4 integrin/FAK complex contributes to malignancy of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tai, Yu-Ling; Chu, Pei-Yu; Lai, I-Rue; Wang, Ming-Yang; Tseng, Hui-Yuan; Guan, Jun-Lin; Liou, Jun-Yang; Shen, Tang-Long

    2015-01-01

    β4 integrin and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) are often associated with a poor prognosis in cancer patients, and their signaling events have recently been linked to malignant outcomes. Here, we demonstrate, for the first time, physical and functional interactions between β4 integrin and FAK that influence breast cancer malignancy. An amino-terminal linker within FAK is essential for its binding with the cytodomain of β4 integrin. Moreover, EGFR/Src-signaling triggers the tyrosine phosphorylation of β4 integrin, which, in turn, recruits FAK to β4 integrin and leads to FAK activation and signaling. Upon disruption of the β4 integrin/FAK complex, tumorigenesis and metastasis in triple-negative breast cancer were markedly reduced. Importantly, the concomitant overexpression of β4 integrin and FAK significantly correlates with malignant potential in patients with triple-negative breast cancer. This study describes a pro-metastatic EGFR/Src-dependent β4 integrin/FAK complex that is involved in breast cancer malignancy and is a novel therapeutic target for triple-negative breast cancer. PMID:26549523

  7. Integrin β6 serves as an immunohistochemical marker for lymph node metastasis and promotes cell invasiveness in cholangiocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zequn; Biswas, Siddhartha; Liang, Benjia; Zou, Xueqing; Shan, Liqun; Li, Yang; Fang, Ruliang; Niu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma is a devastating malignancy that is notoriously difficult to diagnose and is associated with a high mortality. Despite extensive efforts to improve the diagnosis and treatment of this neoplasm, limited progress has been made. Integrin β6 is a subtype of integrin that is expressed exclusively on the surfaces of epithelial cells and is associated with a variety of tumors. In the present study, we investigated the expression and roles of integrin β6 in cholangiocarcinoma. β6 upregulation in cholangiocarcinoma was correlated with lymph node metastasis and distant metastasis. Moreover, integrin β6 was identified as a biomarker for the diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma and an indicator of lymph node metastasis. Integrin β6 significantly promoted the proliferation, migration and invasion of cholangiocarcinoma cells. Furthermore, integrin β6 increased Rac1-GTPase, resulting in the upregulation of metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9) and F-actin polymerization. Taken together, our results indicate that integrin β6 promotes tumor invasiveness in a Rac1-dependent manner and is a potential biomarker for tumor metastasis. Integrin β6 may help to improve the diagnostic accuracy, and targeting β6 may be a novel strategy for the treatment of cholangiocarcinoma. PMID:27440504