Sample records for disorders including multiple

  1. Recognizing multiple personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Curtin, S L

    1993-02-01

    1. It currently takes an average of 5 to 7 years and repeated hospitalizations for a person with multiple personality disorder (MPD) to be accurately diagnosed. 2. Reasons for misdiagnosis include the assumption that MPD is rare, the complex polysymptomatic presentation of the disorder, and failure of standard psychiatric histories to elicit pertinent diagnostic information. 3. Nurses are often the first to observe the behavioral, clinical, and physiological symptoms associated with MPD. 4. It is important to include questions that will elicit pertinent diagnostic information in the nursing history and assessment. As nurses become more adept at recognizing this disorder, individuals with MPD will receive more prompt and appropriate treatment. PMID:8437140

  2. Dimensions of multiple personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Murray, J B

    1994-06-01

    Research on multiple personality disorder (MPD) has burgeoned, and large-scale investigations indicate that a typical MPD patient is a woman, a victim of childhood abuse (especially sexual abuse), a person whose symptoms meet criteria for other psychiatric disorders, and a person who would employ many psychological defenses. Treatment approaches have frequently included hypnotherapy, which requires skill and caution. PMID:7931198

  3. Multiple personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Piper, A

    1994-05-01

    Five aspects of the diagnosis and treatment of multiple personality disorder (MPD) were examined. The following five conclusions were made: the contemporary diagnostic criteria are vague and overinclusive; the recent alleged increase in prevalence of the disorder is almost certainly artefactual; legal proceedings involving MPD patients raise disturbing questions about personal responsibility; there is little literature support for the theory that MPD results from childhood trauma; and many of the techniques used to diagnose and treat the condition reinforce its symptoms. A careful revision of diagnostic criteria for the disorder is recommended. PMID:7921709

  4. Multiple personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Salama, A A

    1995-02-01

    This paper presents a description of Multiple Personality Disorder--its development, etiology, and presentation. The paper stresses the criteria for diagnosis that can help professionals to identify individuals at an early stage. An overview of treatment approaches and indications for hospitalization, length of treatment, and goals are also explained. PMID:7891008

  5. Multiple personality disorder in Japan.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Y; Suzuki, K; Sato, T; Murakami, Y; Takahashi, T

    1998-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the features of multiple personality disorder (MPD) in Japan are similar to those in North America, although a wide disparity exists in the prevalence of MPD between the two areas. In order to describe the features of MPD in Japan, we obtained clinical data from MPD case reports, including two of our own cases, published in Japanese academic journals and compared it with the data from other countries. The cases in Japan differed significantly from those in North America in the mean number of personalities and prevalence of sexual and/or physical abuse. PMID:9681581

  6. Multiple personality disorder following childbirth.

    PubMed

    O'Dwyer, J M; Friedman, T

    1993-06-01

    A case of multiple personality disorder is described as a coping mechanism protecting the patient from the abuse to which she was subjected throughout her life. The multiple personalities became more prominent following the birth of a severely handicapped child. PMID:8330114

  7. [Differential diagnosis of dissociative identity disorder (multiple personality disorder)].

    PubMed

    Stübner, S; Völkl, G; Soyka, M

    1998-05-01

    Recently the concept of dissociative identity disorder (formerly known as multiple personality disorder) has attracted increasing public and scientific interest. However, it is rarely diagnosed in the clinical setting. the reported case of a 47-year-old woman with a history of child abuse demonstrates the problems of differential diagnosis. A number of psychopathologic symptoms pointed to a multiple personality disorder, but in the follow-up psychotic symptoms such as delusions, possible hallucinations and bizarre behavior clearly emerged. The differential diagnosis of dissociative identity disorder includes paranoid schizophrenia, as in the case described, borderline personality disorder, hysteria, simulation and the false memory syndrome. Finally, social and cultural factors have to be considered. PMID:9629561

  8. Tooth Disorders - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Are Here: Home ? Multiple Languages ? All Health Topics ? Tooth Disorders URL of this page: http://www.nlm.nih. ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Tooth Disorders - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  9. Emotional Disorders in People with Multiple Sclerosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and their FAMILIES EMOTIONAL DISORDERS IN PEOPLE WITH MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS This fact sheet presents the current research on ... American Association of Neuroscience Nurses, the Consortium of Multiple Sclerosis Centers, and the International Organization of Multiple Sclerosis ...

  10. Multiple personality disorder in criminal law.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, M; Bancroft, J; Buchanan, J

    1993-01-01

    The authors review the recent literature on multiple personality disorder (MPD), the most severe and chronic of the dissociative disorders, in relation to court cases of competence to stand trial, the insanity defense, and research on malingerers feigning MPD. Issues relevant in the assessment of competency and insanity are described. Features characteristic of MPD, including amnesia and alterations in consciousness and personality, have varying degrees of influence over the criminal behavior of an individual with MPD. As in other psychiatric disorders, the influence of MPD on an individual's competence to stand trial, and sanity, can be evaluated systematically. This article discusses a specific diagnostic tool, the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders (SCID-D), an extensively field tested instrument that is potentially quite useful in forensic assessment of suspects manifesting dissociative symptoms and disorders. The particular advantages of the SCID-D will be reviewed in the context of some well known criminal cases involving MPD. Further research using diagnostic interviews for the systematic assessment of dissociative symptoms and MPD in criminal cases will continue to clarify the influence of these symptoms in a forensic context. PMID:8148515

  11. Relationship of childhood sexual abuse to borderline personality disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and multiple personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Murray, J B

    1993-11-01

    In this article, I have reviewed recent research into the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and borderline personality disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and multiple personality disorder. Evidence that such a relationship exists appears convincing. PMID:8301618

  12. Multiple Object Tracking in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    E-print Network

    Koldewyn, Kami

    Difficulties in visual attention are often implicated in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) but it remains unclear which aspects of attention are affected. Here, we used a multiple object tracking (MOT) task to quantitatively ...

  13. Multiple presentation of mitochondrial disorders

    PubMed Central

    Nissenkorn, A.; Zeharia, A.; Lev, D.; Fatal-Valevski, A.; Barash, V.; Gutman, A.; Harel, S.; Lerman-Sagie, T.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the heterogeneous clinical presentations of children with mitochondrial disorders evaluated at a metabolic neurogenetic clinic. The charts of 36 children with highly suspected mitochondrial disorders were reviewed. Thirty one children were diagnosed as having a mitochondrial disorder, based on a suggestive clinical presentation and at least one of the accepted laboratory criteria; however, in five children with no laboratory criteria the diagnosis remained probable. All of the patients had nervous system involvement. Twenty seven patients also had dysfunction of other systems: sensory organs in 15 patients, cardiovascular system in five, gastrointestinal system in 20,urinary system in four, haematopoietic system in four, and endocrine system in nine. The clinical presentation was compatible with an established syndrome in only 15 children. Severe lactic acidosis or ragged red muscle fibres were encountered in very few patients. These results suggest that mitochondrial disorders should be evaluated in children presenting with a complex neurological picture or multisystem involvement.? PMID:10451392

  14. Sleep disorders in multiple system atrophy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Ghorayeb; B. Bioulac; F. Tison

    2005-01-01

    Summary.  Complaints about sleep disorders and excessive daytime sleepiness are common among patients with multiple system atrophy.\\u000a The diffuse neurodegenerative process that encompasses the key structures involved in the regulation of the sleep\\/wake transition\\u000a and respiratory function may account for these complaints and for the most frequent polysomnographic findings in MSA, i.e.,\\u000a sleep-related breathing disturbances and REM sleep behaviour disorder, which

  15. Multiple Personality Disorder: Concepts and Cases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsley, Hope L.

    1992-01-01

    Presents two case examples illustrating nature and etiology of multiple personality disorder in two clients and describing their entry into counseling and progress through treatment. Compares and contrasts cases in areas of diagnosis, symptoms, history, and treatment. Suggests that mental health counselors combine firmness with flexibility in…

  16. Multiple Object Tracking in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koldewyn, Kami; Weigelt, Sarah; Kanwisher, Nancy; Jiang, Yuhong

    2013-01-01

    Difficulties in visual attention are often implicated in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) but it remains unclear which aspects of attention are affected. Here, we used a multiple object tracking (MOT) task to quantitatively characterize dynamic attentional function in children with ASD aged 5-12. While the ASD group performed significantly worse…

  17. Sleep disorders in multiple system atrophy.

    PubMed

    Ghorayeb, I; Bioulac, B; Tison, F

    2005-12-01

    Complaints about sleep disorders and excessive daytime sleepiness are common among patients with multiple system atrophy. The diffuse neurodegenerative process that encompasses the key structures involved in the regulation of the sleep/wake transition and respiratory function may account for these complaints and for the most frequent polysomnographic findings in MSA, i.e., sleep-related breathing disturbances and REM sleep behaviour disorder, which are both treatable conditions. Nocturnal stridor is an inspiratory sound produced by complex vocal cord muscle dysfunction. Often occurring with sleep apnoea, stridor is associated with decreased survival. REM sleep behaviour disorder, a parasomnia characterized by loss of normal skeletal muscle atonia during REM sleep with prominent motor activity, is detected in almost all patients. The pathophysiology of both disorders is partially elucidated but increasing evidence points to the role of basal ganglia dysfunction. PMID:16082509

  18. Central ocular motor disorders, including gaze palsy and nystagmus.

    PubMed

    Strupp, M; Kremmyda, O; Adamczyk, C; Böttcher, N; Muth, C; Yip, C W; Bremova, T

    2014-09-01

    An impairment of eye movements, or nystagmus, is seen in many diseases of the central nervous system, in particular those affecting the brainstem and cerebellum, as well as in those of the vestibular system. The key to diagnosis is a systematic clinical examination of the different types of eye movements, including: eye position, range of eye movements, smooth pursuit, saccades, gaze-holding function and optokinetic nystagmus, as well as testing for the different types of nystagmus (e.g., central fixation nystagmus or peripheral vestibular nystagmus). Depending on the time course of the signs and symptoms, eye movements often indicate a specific underlying cause (e.g., stroke or neurodegenerative or metabolic disorders). A detailed knowledge of the anatomy and physiology of eye movements enables the physician to localize the disturbance to a specific area in the brainstem (midbrain, pons or medulla) or cerebellum (in particular the flocculus). For example, isolated dysfunction of vertical eye movements is due to a midbrain lesion affecting the rostral interstitial nucleus of the medial longitudinal fascicle, with impaired vertical saccades only, the interstitial nucleus of Cajal or the posterior commissure; common causes with an acute onset are an infarction or bleeding in the upper midbrain or in patients with chronic progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and Niemann-Pick type C (NP-C). Isolated dysfunction of horizontal saccades is due to a pontine lesion affecting the paramedian pontine reticular formation due, for instance, to brainstem bleeding, glioma or Gaucher disease type 3; an impairment of horizontal and vertical saccades is found in later stages of PSP, NP-C and Gaucher disease type 3. Gaze-evoked nystagmus (GEN) in all directions indicates a cerebellar dysfunction and can have multiple causes such as drugs, in particular antiepileptics, chronic alcohol abuse, neurodegenerative cerebellar disorders or cerebellar ataxias; purely vertical GEN is due to a midbrain lesion, while purely horizontal GEN is due to a pontomedullary lesion. The pathognomonic clinical sign of internuclear ophthalmoplegia is an impaired adduction while testing horizontal saccades on the side of the lesion in the ipsilateral medial longitudinal fascicule. The most common pathological types of central nystagmus are downbeat nystagmus (DBN) and upbeat nystagmus (UBN). DBN is generally due to cerebellar dysfunction affecting the flocculus bilaterally (e.g., due to a neurodegenerative disease). Treatment options exist for a few disorders: miglustat for NP-C and aminopyridines for DBN and UBN. It is therefore particularly important to identify treatable cases with these conditions. PMID:25145891

  19. Multiple identity enactments and multiple personality disorder: a sociocognitive perspective.

    PubMed

    Spanos, N P

    1994-07-01

    People who enact multiple identities behave as if they possess 2 or more selves, each with its own characteristic moods, memories, and behavioral repertoire. Under different names, this phenomenon occurs in many cultures; in North American culture, it is frequently labeled multiple personality disorder (MPD). This article reviews experimental, cross-cultural, historical, and clinical findings concerning multiplicity and examines the implications of these findings for an understanding of MPD. Multiplicity is viewed from a sociocognitive perspective, and it is concluded that MPD, like other forms of multiplicity, is socially constructed. It is context bounded, goal-directed, social behavior geared to the expectations of significant others, and its characteristics have changed over time to meet changing expectations. PMID:8078970

  20. Stages of Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Treatment Health Professional Plasma Cell Neoplasms Treatment Research Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma) Treatment (PDQ®) General Information About Plasma Cell Neoplasms Key Points Plasma cell neoplasms are ...

  1. MULTIPLE PERSONALITY DISORDER FOLLOWING CONVERSION AND DISSOCIATIVE DISORDER NOS : A CASE REPORT

    PubMed Central

    Jhingan, Harsh Prem; Aggarwal, Neeruj; Saxena, Shekhar; Gupta, Dhanesh K.

    2000-01-01

    A case progressing from symptoms of conversion disorder to dissociative disorder and then to multiple personality disorder as per DSM-III-R criteria is being reported. The clinical implications are discussed. PMID:21407917

  2. Multiple personality disorder following conversion and dissociative disorder nos : a case report.

    PubMed

    Jhingan, H P; Aggarwal, N; Saxena, S; Gupta, D K

    2000-01-01

    A case progressing from symptoms of conversion disorder to dissociative disorder and then to multiple personality disorder as per DSM-III-R criteria is being reported. The clinical implications are discussed. PMID:21407917

  3. Multiple personality disorder: scientific and medicolegal issues.

    PubMed

    Dinwiddie, S H; North, C S; Yutzy, S H

    1993-01-01

    Despite the intense study it has received since its inclusion in DSM-III, multiple personality disorder (MPD) largely remains an unvalidated construct. Definitional problems remain (there is not even agreement in the field as to whether a diagnosis of MPD truly means the existence of more than one personality), while the vagueness and liberality of existing criteria give the clinician little guidance in diagnosis. In forensic settings, diagnosis of MPD is even more problematic, since there is substantial evidence that the disorder cannot currently be phenomenologically distinguished from malingering. It also remains to be demonstrated that evaluators can determine whether alter personalities, if they exist, are truly unaware of each other, lack control over other alters' behavior, or are unable to know right from wrong. PMID:8477107

  4. Multiple Object Tracking in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Koldewyn, Kami; Weigelt, Sarah; Kanwisher, Nancy; Jiang, Yuhong

    2012-01-01

    Difficulties in visual attention are often implicated in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) but it remains unclear which aspects of attention are affected. Here, we used a multiple object tracking (MOT) task to quantitatively characterize dynamic attentional function in children with ASD aged 5–12. While the ASD group performed significantly worse overall, the group difference did not increase with increased object speed. This finding suggests that decreased MOT performance is not due to deficits in dynamic attention but instead to a diminished capacity to select and maintain attention on multiple targets. Further, MOT performance improved from 5–10 years in both typical and ASD groups with similar developmental trajectories. These results argue against a specific deficit in dynamic attention in ASD. PMID:23104619

  5. A hybrid system for diagnosing multiple disorders.

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Y.

    1993-01-01

    This paper investigates the advantages of introducing feedback between the processes of automated medical diagnosis and automated diagnostic-knowledge acquisition. Experimental results show that a diagnostic system with such feedback is capable of an efficiency/accuracy trade-off when applied to the problem of diagnosing multiple disorders. A primary feature of this work is a new mechanism, called the "diagnostic-unit" representation, for remembering results of previous diagnoses. The diagnostic-unit representation is explicitly tailored to capture the most likely relationships between disorders and clusters of findings. Unlike typical bipartite "If-Then" representations, the diagnostic-unit representation uses a general graph representation to efficiently represent complex causal relationships between disorders and clusters of findings. In addition to the basic diagnostic-unit concept, this paper presents experience-based strategies for incrementally deriving and updating diagnostic units and the various relationships between them. Techniques for selecting diagnostic units relevant to a given problem and then combining them to generate solutions are also described. PMID:8130515

  6. [Sleep disorders in multiple system atrophy].

    PubMed

    Santamaria, J; Iranzo, A; Tolosa, E

    2004-01-01

    Sleep disorders are so common in multiple system atrophy that they should be considered an integral part of the disease. Sleep fragmentation occurs in more than half of the patients, with sleep onset and sleep maintenance insomnia. Periodic leg movements of sleep are also common, although they are generally asymptomatic. REM sleep behavior disorder, a parasomnia in which the patient presents vigorous movements associated with intense dreaming dreaming during REM sleep, is detected polysomnographically in almost all the patients with variable severity. Nocturnal stridor is produced by obstruction on the glottis level. The cause of stridor is unknown but two alternative explanations have been proposed: paralysis of the muscles opening the vocal chords and excessive contraction of the muscles that close them. A combination of both, however, is the most likely explanation. Nocturnal stridor is associated with decreased survival and its treatment is based on continuous positive air pressure (CPAP) when it occurs only during sleep or tracheostomy when it worsens and becomes also diurnal. PMID:15199419

  7. Ecient Multiple-Disorder Diagnosis by Strategic Focusing

    E-print Network

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    EÆcient Multiple-Disorder Diagnosis by Strategic Focusing Linda van der Gaag & Maria Wessels Utrecht University, Department of Computer Science P.O. Box 80.089, 3508 TB Utrecht, The Netherlands e it provides for modelling and dealing with multiple interacting disorders. However, this ability often

  8. Reflections on multiple personality disorder as a developmentally complex adaptation.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, J G

    1994-01-01

    Recent advances in the understanding of multiple personality disorder provide the groundwork for its creative reconciliation with psychoanalysis. This paper uses psychoanalytic, modern developmental, and psychological assessment perspectives to conceptualize multiple personality disorder as a developmentally protective response to chronic childhood trauma. Implications of this theory for clinical work with these patients are discussed. PMID:7809294

  9. The Underdiagnosis of Sleep Disorders in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Brass, Steven D.; Li, Chin-Shang; Auerbach, Sanford

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To report at a population level the prevalence of restless legs syndrome, insomnia, and the risk of obstructive sleep apnea in multiple sclerosis patients. Sleep patterns and associations with fatigue and daytime sleepiness were identified. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed using a written survey that was mailed to 11,400 individuals from the Northern California Chapter of the National Multiple Sclerosis (MS) Society Database who self-identified as having MS. The survey included individual questions relating to demographics as well as several standard validated questionnaires related to primary sleep disorders, sleepiness, fatigue severity, and sleep patterns. Results: Among the 11,400 surveys mailed out, 2,810 (24.6%) were returned. Of these, 2,375 (84.5%) met the inclusion criteria. Among the completed surveys, 898 (37.8%) screened positive for obstructive sleep apnea, 746 (31.6%) for moderate to severe insomnia, and 866 (36.8%) for restless legs syndrome. In contrast, only 4%, 11%, and 12% of the cohort reported being diagnosed by a health care provider with obstructive sleep apnea, insomnia, and restless legs syndrome, respectively. Excessive daytime sleepiness was noted in 30% of respondents based on the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. More than 60% of the respondents reported an abnormal level of fatigue based on the Fatigue Severity Scale. Both abnormal fatigue and sleepiness scores were associated with screening positive for obstructive sleep apnea, insomnia, and restless legs syndrome. Conclusion: A significant percentage of MS subjects in our sample screened positive for one or more sleep disorders. The vast majority of these sleep disorders were undiagnosed. Greater attention to sleep problems in this population is warranted, especially in view of fatigue being the most common and disabling symptom of MS. Citation: Brass SD, Li CS, Auerbach S. The underdiagnosis of sleep disorders in patients with multiple sclerosis. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(9):1025-1031. PMID:25142763

  10. Dissociation & multiple personality disorder. A challenge for psychosocial nurses.

    PubMed

    Stafford, L L

    1993-01-01

    1. Multiple personality disorder (MPD) is a dissociative disorder in which two or more distinct personality states exist within an individual. At least two of these personalities recurrently take full control of the person's behavior. 2. Most MPD clients report histories of severe childhood trauma, particularly physical, sexual, and ritual cult abuse. MPD most likely originates in childhood, but is not usually diagnosed until adulthood. In most reported cases, the first dissociative episode is thought to have occurred at a very young age. 3. Signs and symptoms that may suggest MPD include a history of medical and psychiatric diagnoses; inconsistencies in accounts of elapsed time and physical behaviors; psychophysiological complaints; experiencing voices inside the head; and an individual referring to herself as "we" instead of "I." PMID:8421264

  11. An additional monogenic disorder that masquerades as multiple sclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Vahedi, K.; Tournier-Lasserve, E. [INSERM, Paris (France)] [INSERM, Paris (France); Vahedi, K. [Hopital Saint-Antoine, Paris (France)] [and others] [Hopital Saint-Antoine, Paris (France); and others

    1996-11-11

    In their comprehensive differential diagnosis of monogenic diseases that can mimic multiple sclerosis, Natowicz and Bejjani did not include a newly recognized monogenic disorder known under the acronym of CADASIL (Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy); this disorder can mimic MS clinically and radiologically to a remarkable extent. The underlying histopathological lesion of CADASIL is a non-atherosclerotic, non-amyloid arteriopathy affecting mainly the penetrating medullary arteries to the subcortical white matter and basal ganglia. Electron microscopy shows an abnormal deposit of granular osmiophilic material in the arterial wall. These arterial changes are observed in various tissues even though clinical manifestations seem to be restricted to the central nervous system. The CADASIL gene was mapped recently to chromosome 19 and gene identification is ongoing. 6 refs., 1 fig.

  12. Introduction Multiple lineages of terrestrial vertebrates, including frogs,

    E-print Network

    Socha, Jake

    #12;3358 Introduction Multiple lineages of terrestrial vertebrates, including frogs, snakes- off for most vertebrates can broadly be described as a rapid straightening of bent limbs that produces, whereas an animal crossing a large gap between trees Among terrestrial vertebrate gliders, take

  13. Introduction Multiple lineages of terrestrial vertebrates, including frogs,

    E-print Network

    Socha, Jake

    3358 Introduction Multiple lineages of terrestrial vertebrates, including frogs, snakes, lizards vertebrates can broadly be described as a rapid straightening of bent limbs that produces an acceleratory jump crossing a large gap between trees Among terrestrial vertebrate gliders, take-off presents a unique problem

  14. Methylphenidate and Comorbid Anxiety Disorder in Children with both Chronic Multiple Tic Disorder and ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadow, Kenneth D.; Nolan, Edith E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine if comorbid anxiety disorder is associated with differential response to immediate release methylphenidate (MPH-IR) in children with both ADHD and chronic multiple tic disorder (CMTD). Method: Children with (n = 17) and without (n = 37) diagnosed anxiety disorder (ANX) were evaluated in an 8-week, placebo-controlled trial…

  15. Immune-mediated extrapyramidal movement disorders, including Sydenham chorea.

    PubMed

    Dale, Russell C

    2013-01-01

    Immune-mediated extrapyramidal movement disorders typically occur in previously healthy children. Immune-mediated movement disorders may occur as a postinfectious, paraneoplastic, or idiopathic process. Sydenham chorea (SC) is the classical poststreptococcal movement and psychiatric disorder, and may be associated with other features of rheumatic fever. The outcome is typically good, although residual chorea, psychiatric disturbance, and relapses are possible. Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS) is a syndrome of streptococcal-induced tics and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Although a number of investigators have reported an association between streptococcal infection and neuropsychiatric syndromes, the PANDAS hypothesis is controversial. Encephalitis lethargica is an encephalitic illness with parkinsonism, dyskinesias, and psychiatric disturbance as dominant features. The exact disease mechanism is not understood, although an autoimmune process is suspected. NMDA-R encephalitis is a new entity characterized by encephalitis with dramatic psychiatric disturbance, dyskinesias, cognitive alteration, and seizures. Patients have autoantibodies against the NMDA-R that appear to be pathogenic: immune therapies appear warranted to minimize disability. Movement disorders are also described associated with systemic lupus erythematosus and antiphospholipid syndrome. The differential diagnosis and investigation approach of acute-onset movement disorders are also discussed. PMID:23622334

  16. A systematic review of the incidence and prevalence of sleep disorders and seizure disorders in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Reider, Nadia; Cohen, Jeffrey; Trojano, Maria; Sorensen, Per Soelberg; Cutter, Gary; Reingold, Stephen; Stuve, Olaf

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several studies have suggested that comorbid neurologic disorders are more common than expected in multiple sclerosis (MS). Objective: To estimate the incidence and prevalence of comorbid seizure disorders and sleep disorders in persons with MS and to evaluate the quality of studies included. Methods: The PUBMED, EMBASE, Web of Knowledge, and SCOPUS databases, conference proceedings, and reference lists of retrieved articles were searched. Two reviewers independently screened abstracts to identify relevant articles, followed by full-text review of selected articles. We assessed included studies qualitatively and quantitatively (I2 statistic), and conducted meta-analyses among population-based studies. Results: We reviewed 32 studies regarding seizure disorders. Among population-based studies the incidence of seizure disorders was 2.28% (95% CI: 1.11–3.44%), while the prevalence was 3.09% (95% CI: 2.01–4.16%). For sleep disorders we evaluated 18 studies; none were population-based. The prevalence ranged from 0–1.6% for narcolepsy, 14.4–57.5% for restless legs syndrome, 2.22–3.2% for REM behavior disorder, and 7.14–58.1% for obstructive sleep apnea. Conclusion: This review suggests that seizure disorders and sleep disorders are common in MS, but highlights gaps in the epidemiological knowledge of these conditions in MS worldwide. Other than central-western Europe and North America, most regions are understudied. PMID:25533301

  17. Skin disorders, including pyoderma, scabies, and tinea infections.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Ross M; McCarthy, James; Carapetis, Jonathan R; Currie, Bart J

    2009-12-01

    Pyoderma, scabies, and tinea are common childhood skin disorders too often considered to be merely of nuisance value. More than 111 million children are believed to have pyoderma, with many also co-infected with scabies, tinea, or both. These skin disorders cannot be differentiated by ethnicity or socioeconomic status but, in high-prevalence areas, poverty and overcrowded living conditions are important underlying social determinants. Each is transmitted primarily through direct skin-to-skin contact. For many Indigenous children, these skin conditions are part of everyday life. Although rarely directly resulting in hospitalization or death, there is a high and largely unmet demand for effective management at the primary health-care level, particularly for pyoderma and scabies. Despite particularly high prevalence in some settings, treatment is not sought for many children, and when sought, the clinical benefit from such consultations is variable. The lack of standard, evidence-based recommendations is of much concern. The current evidence base for clinical diagnosis and treatment of these common childhood skin disorders is highlighted. PMID:19962029

  18. Multiple personality disorder and borderline personality disorder. Distinct entities or variations on a common theme?

    PubMed

    Lauer, J; Black, D W; Keen, P

    1993-06-01

    We report data from a comparison of 14 subjects with multiple personality disorder (MPD) and 13 subjects with borderline personality disorder (BPD). There were few significant differences between the groups. The authors discuss the concept of MPD as an epiphenomenon of BPD, and argue their fundamental similarity. PMID:8348205

  19. 42 CFR 137.327 - May multiple projects be included in a single construction project agreement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...May multiple projects be included in a single construction project agreement? 137...May multiple projects be included in a single construction project agreement? Yes...Tribe may include multiple projects in a single construction project agreement...

  20. 42 CFR 137.327 - May multiple projects be included in a single construction project agreement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...May multiple projects be included in a single construction project agreement? 137...May multiple projects be included in a single construction project agreement? Yes...Tribe may include multiple projects in a single construction project agreement...

  1. Outpatient Art Therapy with Multiple Personality Disorder: A Survey of Current Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Anne

    1995-01-01

    Reports findings of a 1993 questionnaire completed by 46 North American art therapists that focuses on the outpatient treatment of multiple personality disorder. Includes information on role in diagnosing, fees and third-party payment, and therapeutic activities. Treatment issues include pacing and containment, and managing the client's chronic…

  2. [Dispute over the multiple personality disorder: theoretical or practical dilemma?].

    PubMed

    Stankiewicz, Sylwia; Golczy?ska, Maria

    2006-01-01

    Dissociative identity disorder (DID) could also be referred to as multiple personality disorder (MPD). Due to rare occurrence and difficulty in its' identification it is infrequently diagnosed in Poland. The indicated disorder has been portrayed by the authors throughout the historical context, referring to initial 18th century's references concerning dissociation. A typical dissociatively disordered person has been characterized along with his individual personality categories such as: original personality, altered personality, host and personality fragment. Moreover various diagnosis criterions of DID have been introduced. DID has also been differentiated with other disorders: PTSD (post-traumatic stress disorder) and BPD (borderline personality disorder). A hypothesis has been set up, stating that DID is directly correlated with the trauma experienced during childhood, while PTSD is linked with traumatic lived-through events in the later period of ones' life. The most contemporary and frequently used research tools for DID have been indicated: dissociative experience scale (DES) and somatoform dissociation questionnaire (SDQ-20). Based upon the known literature, the authors have presented treatment methods such as hypnotherapy and recorded therapy sessions. It is the view of the authors that the switching in dissociative identity disorder is of adaptive character (it occurrs depending upon adaptive needs). PMID:17037099

  3. The criminal responsibility of people with multiple personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Saks, E

    1995-01-01

    Because multiple personality disorder (MPD) is more frequently diagnosed today than in the past, it is likely that more multiples will plead insanity. The courts are in a state of disarray as to how best to respond to these pleas. This article considers multiples' responsibility on three interpretations of the status of their alters: that they are different people; that they are different personalities; or that they are parts of one complex, deeply divided personality. On all three theories multiples are nonresponsible. Nevertheless, three rare circumstances exist under which multiples should be found guilty. The article concludes by indicating the kinds of issues psychiatry might explore to further assist the law in its analysis of the criminal responsibility of multiples. PMID:7652095

  4. A More Unified View of the Multiple Personality Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Ronald L.; Kodman, Frank

    1987-01-01

    Offers perspective of Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD) phenomenon based on current clinical experience. Asserts that the Jmind is polypsychic with multitude of psychological systems and processes existing in conjunction with one another, that MPD individuals have fragmented or dissociated ego states due to stress on unity of sense of self, and…

  5. Indicators of Multiple Personality Disorder for the Clinician.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, Thomas W.

    Multiple personality disorder (MPD) is now recognized as a valid diagnostic category. Occurrence may be higher than previously suspected. While physiological testing of MPD has shown significant differences between the various personalities of individuals in terms of galvanic skin response, electroencephalogram recordings, electrodermal response…

  6. Satanism, Ritual Abuse, and Multiple Personality Disorder: A Sociohistorical Perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sherrill Mulhern

    1994-01-01

    During the past decade in North America, a growing number of mental health professionals have reported that between 25% and 50% of their patients in treatment for multiple personality disorder (MPD) have recovered early childhood traumatic memories of ritual torture, incestuous rape, sexual debauchery, sacrificial murder, infanticide, and cannibalism perpetrated by members of clandestine satanic cults. Although hundreds of local

  7. Anxiety Symptoms in Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder, Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, or Chronic Multiple Tic Disorder and Community Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guttmann-Steinmetz, Sarit; Gadow, Kenneth D.; DeVincent, Carla J.; Crowell, Judy

    2010-01-01

    We compared symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and separation anxiety disorder (SAD) in 5 groups of boys with neurobehavioral syndromes: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) plus autism spectrum disorder (ASD), ADHD plus chronic multiple tic disorder (CMTD), ASD only, ADHD only, and community Controls. Anxiety symptoms were…

  8. Childhood Trauma and Multiple Personality Disorder: The Case of a 9-Year-Old Girl.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaPorta, Lauren D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports the case of a nine-year-old female victim of sexual abuse, evaluated and diagnosed with multiple personality disorder over a six-month period. Included is a description of the child's presentation with historical and developmental data. A discussion of the dynamic and predisposing features of the case follows, along with…

  9. Immunophenotyping in multiple myeloma and related plasma cell disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Shaji; Kimlinger, Teresa; Morice, William

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Plasma cell disorders form a spectrum ranging from the asymptomatic presence of small monoclonal populations of plasma cells to conditions like plasma cell leukemia and multiple myeloma, in which the bone marrow can be replaced by the accumulation of neoplastic plasma cells. Immunophenotyping has become an invaluable tool in the management of hematological malignancies and is increasingly finding a role in the diagnosis and monitoring of plasma cell disorders. Multiparameter flow cytometry has evolved considerably during the past decade with an increasing ability to screen large numbers of events and to detect multiple antigens at the same time. This, along with a better understanding of the phenotypic heterogeneity of the clonal plasma cells in different disorders, has made immunophenotyping an indispensible tool in the diagnosis, prognostic classification and management of plasma cell disorders. This book chapter addresses the approaches taken to evaluate monoclonal plasma cell disorders, and the different markers and techniques that are important for the study of these diseases. PMID:21112041

  10. Treatment for multiple personality disorder: at what cost?

    PubMed

    Piper, A

    1994-01-01

    The material presented in this paper suggests that before mental health practitioners ask of society the resources to treat those thousands of patients diagnosed with MPD in the past few years, a critical attempt should be made to evaluate the efficacy of the type of treatment currently recommended for the condition. Proponents of the disorder claim its treatment is cost-effective, but this article's analysis indicates that it is simply premature to make claims about the treatability or prognosis of multiple personality disorder. PMID:7992870

  11. Toward a psychoanalytic understanding of multiple personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Reis, B E

    1993-01-01

    The author suggests a developmental psychoanalytic frame from which to understand the clinical phenomenology of multiple personality disorder (MPD). Annihilation anxiety and fears of nonbeing are understood as central; they are seen as resulting from actual early traumatic impingements at key developmental periods. Alter "personalities" are conceptualized as functional delusional processes that serve to maintain self-cohesion. The alters are brought about through the subject's lack of capacity for illusion. Some therapeutic implications regarding a psychoanalytic stance are discussed. PMID:8401383

  12. Multiple personality disorder manifesting itself under the mask of transsexualism.

    PubMed

    Modestin, J; Ebner, G

    1995-01-01

    The case of a young female patient is described who presented symptoms of transsexualism; surgical intervention was considered. Admitted to the hospital after having become depressed and suicidal, a thorough examination and observation revealed the presence of multiple personality disorder (MPD). Even though transsexualism and MPD represent two different conditions, there are many similarities between them. The possibility of MPD should be considered in every case of transsexualism. PMID:8838404

  13. Includes pre-computed gene families, multiple sequence alignments &

    E-print Network

    Gent, Universiteit

    23 plants covering 11 dicots, 5 monocots, 2 (club-)mosses and 5 algae · Advanced panel of (inter to perform analyses on their genes · Includes published genomes from flowering plants, mosses and several

  14. Includes pre-computed gene families, multiple sequence

    E-print Network

    Gent, Universiteit

    genomes from flowering plants, (club-)mosses and several green algae · All data can be downloaded PLAZA release 2.5 · Includes >900,000 genes from 25 plants covering 13 dicots, 5 monocots, 2 (club-)mosses

  15. An olfactory-limbic model of multiple chemical sensitivity syndrome: Possible relationships to kindling and affective spectrum disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. R. Bell; C. S. Miller; G. E. Schwartz

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews the clinical and experimental literature on patients with multiple adverse responses to chemicals (Multiple Chemical Sensitivity Syndrome-MCS) and develops a model for MCS based on olfactory-limbic system dysfunction that overlaps in part with Post's kindling model for affective disorders. MCS encompasses a broad range of chronic polysymptomatic conditions and complaints whose triggers are reported to include low

  16. A multi-pass one way method to include turning waves and multiples

    E-print Network

    Richardson, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Conventional one way migration methods exclude turning waves and multiples. We propose an algorithm that uses multiple passes to extend the one way method to efficiently include these wavepaths. A comparison of the images ...

  17. Incorporating hypnosis into the psychotherapy of patients with multiple personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Smith, W H

    1993-01-01

    Psychotherapeutic treatment of persons with multiple personality disorder frequently includes judicious use of hypnosis. The author outlines widely accepted essential features of this form of treatment: developing self-soothing techniques, "mapping" the system of alternate personalities, facilitating communication between alters and with the therapist, managing abreaction, and--when possible and appropriate--aiding the process of fusion. The author shows how dissociative processes that originally were used for sheer psychic survival can be drawn on to improve psychological health. PMID:8401386

  18. Confirmation of childhood abuse in child and adolescent cases of multiple personality disorder and dissociative disorder not otherwise specified.

    PubMed

    Coons, P M

    1994-08-01

    The diagnostic validity of multiple personality disorder (MPD) and its association to trauma have been questioned because corroboration of child abuse in studies of patients with MPD is scant. The purpose of this study was to determine on a retrospective basis whether external corroboration of child abuse could be found in a group of patients with MPD and dissociative disorder not otherwise specified. A group of child and adolescent psychiatric inpatients and outpatients was chosen because of the extensive number of collateral records collected on them in a tertiary care setting. This group was also chosen because of the intense interest paid by child protective services and courts to child abuse during the past 15 years. This retrospective chart review confirmed child abuse in eight of nine patients with MPD and in all 12 cases of dissociative disorder not otherwise specified. This study provides further evidence of the association of severe dissociative disorders with trauma, particularly child abuse. Future studies should be prospective and blinded to avoid the possibility of investigator bias, and should include a control group for comparison of base rate of child abuse. PMID:8040657

  19. Case report of a person with Down's syndrome and multiple personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Fotheringham, J B; Thompson, F

    1994-03-01

    A case is presented of an individual with Down's syndrome and multiple personality disorder. No such cases were found in a review of the literature. Three other individuals with Down's syndrome are also discussed whose symptoms range from experiencing imaginary friends to experiencing borderline multiple personality disorder. In all these cases the imaginary friends became more evident and resistive of diversion as the levels of stress increased. We speculate that experiencing imaginary friends progresses to experiencing multiple personality disorder in some individuals as personal stress increases. These cases also indicate that limited cognitive development does not preclude individuals from presenting with imaginary friends or multiple personality disorder. PMID:8149315

  20. Dear Colleague, Spine related disorders, including disc disease, stenosis, neck and back pain, constitute the

    E-print Network

    Brownstone, Rob

    Dear Colleague, Spine related disorders, including disc disease, stenosis, neck and back pain of spine referrals, so as to more quickly see your patients for whom surgery may be necessary or beneficial will be working to streamline the referral process and deal efficiently with the backlog of spine referrals

  1. Educators' Challenges of Including Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Mainstream Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Sally; Proulx, Meghann; Thomson, Nicole; Scott, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Although children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are increasingly being placed within mainstream classes, little is known about the challenges that teachers encounter with including them as full participants in the class. This qualitative study draws on a purposive sample of 13 educators who have experience teaching children with ASD within…

  2. Psychiatric health care costs of multiple personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Ross, C A; Dua, V

    1993-01-01

    The lifetime psychiatric health care costs of 15 women with multiple personality disorder (MPD) who were admitted to the senior author's inpatient service over a four-year period were tabulated. A calculation of the projected costs of treatment based on costs incurred since diagnosis was made, and this was compared to prediagnosis baseline costs projected forwards for ten years. The result of the calculation was a saving of $84,899.44 per patient over ten years due to the diagnosis and psychotherapeutic treatment of MPD. If the length of time in the health care system prior to diagnosis was reduced from the average of 98.77 months experienced by these 15 women to 12 months, the savings would be over $250,000.00 per case. Because the potential savings from the diagnosis and treatment of MPD appear to be so large, replication of the study with a longer followup is required. PMID:8434690

  3. Use of the MMPI to distinguish genuine from factitious multiple personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Coons, P M

    1993-10-01

    MMPI special scales were repeatedly administered to several personality states of a woman alleging to have Multiple Personality Disorder. Her inability to produce a consistent response set on retesting helped to unmask a case of factitious multiple personality. PMID:8234591

  4. Annual Research Review: The neurobehavioral development of multiple memory systems: implications for childhood and adolescent psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Jarid; Marsh, Rachel; Peterson, Bradley S.; Packard, Mark G.

    2014-01-01

    Extensive evidence indicates that mammalian memory is organized into multiple brains systems, including a “cognitive” memory system that depends upon the hippocampus and a stimulus-response “habit” memory system that depends upon the dorsolateral striatum. Dorsal striatal-dependent habit memory may in part influence the development and expression of some human psychopathologies, particularly those characterized by strong habit-like behavioral features. The present review considers this hypothesis as it pertains to psychopathologies that typically emerge during childhood and adolescence. These disorders include Tourette syndrome, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, eating disorders, and autism spectrum disorders. Human and nonhuman animal research shows that the typical development of memory systems comprises the early maturation of striatal-dependent habit memory and the relatively late maturation of hippocampal-dependent cognitive memory. We speculate that the differing rates of development of these memory systems may in part contribute to the early emergence of habit-like symptoms in childhood and adolescence. In addition, abnormalities in hippocampal and striatal brain regions have been observed consistently in youth with these disorders, suggesting that the aberrant development of memory systems may also contribute to the emergence of habit-like symptoms as core pathological features of these illnesses. Considering these disorders within the context of multiple memory systems may help elucidate the pathogenesis of habit-like symptoms in childhood and adolescence, and lead to novel treatments that lessen the habit-like behavioral features of these disorders. PMID:24286520

  5. Plasma cell disorders in HIV-infected patients: from benign gammopathy to multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Dezube, Bruce J; Aboulafia, David M; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2004-07-01

    Plasma cell disorders are not uncommonly reported in young patients with HIV infection. These disorders range from benign polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia to indeterminate monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance (MGUS) to malignant dyscrasias, including multiple myeloma and plasma cell leukemia. Hypergammaglobulinemia and oligoclonal banding had been the most frequently reported disorders in the pre-HAART era. In HIV-infected persons, the incidence of MGUS is reported to be around 2.5%, with an approximate 4.5-fold increased risk of multiple myeloma. Many of these HIV-infected patients had been treated with alkylator-based regimens, and these reports predate the current widespread use of thalidomide-dexamethasone combination treatment in multiple myeloma. Although the optimal therapy for an HIV-infected person might with plasma cell dyscrasia is yet to be defined, in the current era of HAART the otherwise healthy HIV-infected patient might be tested like an HIV-negative person. Consequently, treatment with immunomodulatory agents (eg, thalidomide) and proteasome inhibitors (eg, bortezomib) may also be worth considering. High-dose chemotherapy with an autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplant is increasingly being considered as consolidation therapy in the younger non-HIV-infected myeloma patient. In the next few years, it is anticipated that these approaches will be applied more frequently to HIV-infected persons with myeloma. PMID:15282866

  6. Comparative Study of Children with ADHD Only, Autism Spectrum Disorder + ADHD, and Chronic Multiple Tic Disorder + ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadow, Kenneth D.; DeVincent, Carla J.; Schneider, Jayne

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Identification of differences among children with ADHD only, autism spectrum disorder (ASD)+ADHD, and chronic multiple tic disorder (CMTD)+ADHD may lead to better understanding of clinical phenotypes. Method: Children were evaluated using the parent- and teacher-completed questionnaires. Results: All three groups were highly similar in…

  7. Four cases of supposed multiple personality disorder: evidence of unjustified diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Freeland, A; Manchanda, R; Chiu, S; Sharma, V; Merskey, H

    1993-05-01

    Four cases are presented in which an unjustified diagnosis of multiple personality disorder was made. These cases are used to illustrate the concern that some cases of multiple personality disorder may be the result of misdiagnosis by both patients and clinicians. PMID:8518975

  8. Belief in the existence of multiple personality disorder among psychologists and psychiatrists.

    PubMed

    Dunn, G E; Paolo, A M; Ryan, J J; Van Fleet, J N

    1994-05-01

    The present study surveyed the attitudes of psychiatrists and psychologists with regard to the existence of dissociative and multiple personality disorders. Questionnaires were sent to psychiatrists and psychologists in all VA Medical Centers. A total of 1,120 VA psychologists and psychiatrists completed the surveys. More than 97% of respondents indicated that they believed in dissociative disorders, while 80% reported a belief in multiple personality disorder. Belief in multiple personality disorder was related significantly to profession, age, and years of experience. PMID:8071451

  9. PTSD and Comorbid Disorders in a Representative Sample of Adolescents: The Risk Associated with Multiple Exposures to Potentially Traumatic Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macdonald, Alexandra; Danielson, Carla Kmett; Resnick, Heidi S.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study compared the impact of multiple exposures to potentially traumatic events (PTEs), including sexual victimization, physical victimization, and witnessed violence, on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and comorbid conditions (i.e., major depressive episode [MDE], and substance use [SUD]). Methods: Participants were a…

  10. 42 CFR 137.327 - May multiple projects be included in a single construction project agreement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false May multiple projects be included in a single construction project agreement? 137.327 Section 137.327... TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Project Assumption Process § 137.327 May...

  11. 42 CFR 137.327 - May multiple projects be included in a single construction project agreement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false May multiple projects be included in a single construction project agreement? 137.327 Section 137.327... TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Project Assumption Process § 137.327 May...

  12. 42 CFR 137.327 - May multiple projects be included in a single construction project agreement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May multiple projects be included in a single construction project agreement? 137.327 Section 137.327... TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Project Assumption Process § 137.327 May...

  13. Model for CO2 leakage including multiple geological layers and multiple leaky wells.

    PubMed

    Nordbotten, Jan M; Kavetski, Dmitri; Celia, Michael A; Bachu, Stefan

    2009-02-01

    Geological storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) is likely to be an integral component of any realistic plan to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. In conjunction with large-scale deployment of carbon storage as a technology, there is an urgent need for tools which provide reliable and quick assessments of aquifer storage performance. Previously, abandoned wells from over a century of oil and gas exploration and production have been identified as critical potential leakage paths. The practical importance of abandoned wells is emphasized by the correlation of heavy CO2 emitters (typically associated with industrialized areas) to oil and gas producing regions in North America. Herein, we describe a novel framework for predicting the leakage from large numbers of abandoned wells, forming leakage paths connecting multiple subsurface permeable formations. The framework is designed to exploit analytical solutions to various components of the problem and, ultimately, leads to a grid-free approximation to CO2 and brine leakage rates, as well as fluid distributions. We apply our model in a comparison to an established numerical solverforthe underlying governing equations. Thereafter, we demonstrate the capabilities of the model on typical field data taken from the vicinity of Edmonton, Alberta. This data set consists of over 500 wells and 7 permeable formations. Results show the flexibility and utility of the solution methods, and highlight the role that analytical and semianalytical solutions can play in this important problem. PMID:19245011

  14. Satanism, ritual abuse, and multiple personality disorder: a sociohistorical perspective.

    PubMed

    Mulhern, S

    1994-10-01

    During the past decade in North America, a growing number of mental health professionals have reported that between 25% and 50% of their patients in treatment for multiple personality disorder (MPD) have recovered early childhood traumatic memories of ritual torture, incestuous rape, sexual debauchery, sacrificial murder, infanticide, and cannibalism perpetrated by members of clandestine satanic cults. Although hundreds of local and federal police investigations have failed to corroborate patients' therapeutically constructed accounts, because the satanic etiology of MPD is logically coherent with the neodissociative, traumatic theory of psychopathology, conspiracy theory has emerged as the nucleus of a consistent pattern of contemporary clinical interpretation. Resolutely logical and thoroughly operational, ultrascientific psychodemonology remains paradoxically oblivious to its own irrational premises. When the hermetic logic of conspiracy theory is stripped away by historical and socio/psychological analysis, however, the hypothetical perpetrators of satanic ritual abuse simply disappear, leaving in their wake the very real human suffering of all those who have been caught up in the social delusion. PMID:7960286

  15. Bipolar Disorder and Multiple Sclerosis: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Sidhom, Youssef; Ben Djebara, Mouna; Hizem, Yosr; Abdelkefi, Istabrak; Kacem, Imen; Gargouri, Amina; Gouider, Riadh

    2014-01-01

    Background. The prevalence of psychiatric disturbance for patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) is higher than that observed in other chronic health conditions. We report three cases of MS and bipolar disorder and we discuss the possible etiological hypothesis and treatment options. Observations. All patients fulfilled the McDonald criteria for MS. Two patients were followed up in psychiatry for manic or depressive symptoms before developing MS. A third patient was diagnosed with MS and developed deferred psychotic symptoms. Some clinical and radiological features are highlighted in our patients: one manic episode induced by high dose corticosteroids and one case of a new orbitofrontal MRI lesion concomitant with the emergence of psychiatric symptoms. All patients needed antipsychotic treatment with almost good tolerance for high dose corticosteroids and interferon beta treatment. Conclusions. MRI lesions suggest the possible implication of local MS-related brain damage in development of pure “psychiatric fits” in MS. Genetic susceptibility is another hypothesis for this association. We have noticed that interferon beta treatments were well tolerated while high dose corticosteroids may induce manic fits. PMID:24825960

  16. Familial PRRT2 mutation with heterogeneous paroxysmal disorders including paroxysmal torticollis and hemiplegic migraine.

    PubMed

    Dale, Russell C; Gardiner, Alice; Antony, Jayne; Houlden, Henry

    2012-10-01

    PRRT2 is the gene recently associated with paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD), benign familial infantile epilepsy, and choreoathetosis infantile convulsions. We report four family members with PRRT2 mutations who had heterogeneous paroxysmal disorders. The index patient had transient infantile paroxysmal torticollis, then benign infantile epilepsy that responded to carbamazepine. The index patient's father had PKD and migraine with aphasia, and his two brothers had hemiplegic migraine with onset in childhood. All four family members had the same PRRT2 c.649dupC mutation. We conclude that heterogeneous paroxysmal disorders are associated with PRRT2 mutations and include paroxysmal torticollis and hemiplegic migraine. We propose that PRRT2 is a new gene for hemiplegic migraine. PMID:22845787

  17. Inherited platelet disorders including Glanzmann thrombasthenia and Bernard-Soulier syndrome.

    PubMed

    Diz-Küçükkaya, Reyhan

    2013-01-01

    Inherited platelet disorders (IPDs) are a heterogeneous group of diseases affecting platelet production, morphology, and function. The degree of thrombocytopenia and functional abnormality of platelets determines the clinical manifestations. Although severe deficiencies may cause excessive bleeding beginning in early childhood, most of IPDs have mild bleeding tendencies and therefore are not always easy to distinguish from acquired platelet disorders. The diagnosis of IPD may require extensive laboratory investigation, because current routine laboratory tests are not satisfactory for differential diagnosis in some cases, and most of the specific tests are not readily available in many countries. This review summarizes the classification and clinical and molecular characteristics of known IPDs, including Bernard-Soulier syndrome and Glanzmann thrombasthenia, with a focus on current challenges in the laboratory diagnosis and management of bleeding in these patients. PMID:24319190

  18. Non-invasive assessment of exhaled breath pattern in patients with multiple chemical sensibility disorder.

    PubMed

    Mazzatenta, Andrea; Pokorski, Mieczyslaw; Cozzutto, Sergio; Barbieri, Pierluigi; Veratti, Vittore; Di Giulio, Camillo

    2013-01-01

    Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is a complex disorder initiated by chemical exposure, particularly through the airways. MCS patients report sensitivity or intolerance to low levels of a wide spectrum of chemicals. Symptoms could include asthma-like signs, rhinitis, fatigue, cognitive dysfunction, psycho-physiological alteration, and other specific tissue reactions resembling hypoxic and oxidative stress effects. To recognize physiological signs that would allow the diagnosis of MCS in a non-invasive way we investigated the potential application of a new sensor system. In healthy volunteers, we measured exhaled breath content in the control condition and under exposure to olfactory stressors that mimic hypoxic or pollutant stressors playing a potential role in the generation of the MCS disorder. The recording system used is based on metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) sensor having a sensing range of 450-2,000 ppm CO(2) equivalents, which is able to detect a broad range of compounds playing a potential role in the generation of the MCS disorder, while correlating directly with the CO(2) levels. The results indicate that the recording system employed was suitable for the analysis of exhaled breath content in humans. Interestingly, the system was able to detect and discriminate between the exhaled breath content taken from the control condition and those from conditions under stress that mimicked exposures to pollutant or hypoxia. The results suggest that chronic hypoxia could be involved in the MCS disorder. PMID:22836634

  19. Child Abuse and Multiple Personality Disorders: Review of the Literature and Suggestions for Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coons, Philip M.

    1986-01-01

    Multiple personality disorder is associated with a high incidence of physical and sexual abuse during childhood. While difficult to diagnose, multiple personality is easier to treat if diagnosed early in childhood or adolescence. Treatment for multiple personality focuses on establishing trust and communicating with and integrating the…

  20. The Parental Fitness of Mothers with Multiple Personality Disorder: A Preliminary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kluft, Richard P.

    1987-01-01

    A review of the parenting patterns of 75 mothers with multiple personality disorders indicated 38.7% were competent or exceptional mothers, 16% were grossly abusive, and 45.3% were compromised or impaired as parents. (DB)

  1. Sexual disorders in men with multiple sclerosis: evaluation and management.

    PubMed

    Prévinaire, J G; Lecourt, G; Soler, J M; Denys, P

    2014-07-01

    Sexual dysfunction (SD) is a common feature of men with multiple sclerosis. SD is often unrecognized as patients and physicians are reluctant to discuss these problems. Rates of symptoms range from 50% to 90% and include erectile dysfunction, ejaculatory dysfunction, orgasmic dysfunction and reduced libido. SD can arise at any stage of the disease, even without severe disability. While erectile dysfunction is thought to be related to impairment of the pathways in the spinal cord, fatigue, spasticity, bladder and bowel dysfunction, and pain, contribute to SD. Psychosocial and cultural issues also need evaluating, and include depression, performance anxiety, lowered self-esteem. A comprehensive assessment of all theses aspects must be taken into account. Erectile dysfunction can be treated with phosphodiesterase inhibitors and intracavernous injections, with good efficacy. Ejaculatory dysfunction is managed through penile vibratory stimulation and midodrine. Concerning fertility issues, the effects of or immunomodulating drugs on semen quality are largely unknown, whereas many immunosuppressive therapies have a negative effect on semen quality that may be definitive. Advanced methods of assisted reproduction may sometimes be the only option for conception. Physicians' awareness of this problem may help to bring about appropriate treatments, and improve the quality of life for these patients. PMID:24958443

  2. Longitudinal Prediction of Disruptive Behavior Disorders in Adolescent Males from Multiple Risk Domains

    PubMed Central

    Trentacosta, Christopher J.; Hyde, Luke W.; Goodlett, Benjamin D.; Shaw, Daniel S.

    2012-01-01

    The disruptive behavior disorders are among the most prevalent youth psychiatric disorders, and they predict numerous problematic outcomes in adulthood. This study examined multiple domains of risk during early childhood and early adolescence as longitudinal predictors of disruptive behavior disorder diagnoses among adolescent males. Early adolescent risks in the domains of sociodemographic factors, the caregiving context, and youth attributes were examined as mediators of associations between early childhood risks and disruptive behavior disorder diagnoses. Participants were 309 males from a longitudinal study of low-income mothers and their sons. Caregiving and youth risk during early adolescence each predicted the likelihood of receiving a disruptive behavior disorder diagnosis. Furthermore, sociodemographic and caregiving risk during early childhood were indirectly associated with disruptive behavior disorder diagnoses via their association with early adolescent risk. The findings suggest that preventive interventions targeting risk across domains may reduce the prevalence of disruptive behavior disorders. PMID:23239427

  3. Multiple personality disorder in an intellectually disabled man: a case report.

    PubMed

    Fairley, M; Jones, R C; McGuire, B E; Stevenson, J

    1995-03-01

    The case of a young man with the dual diagnoses of severe intellectual handicap (IQ 30 and mental age 4 years) and Multiple Personality Disorder is presented. The intellectual handicap is probably due to hypoxia in infancy and the Multiple Personality Disorder follows prolonged physical and sexual abuse. The patient frequently switches between any of nine discrete but incompletely formed identities. Although some personalities seem more capable than others, all have similar levels of disability on testing. The diagnosis of psychiatric disorders coexistent with the intellectual handicap is hindered by the difficulty in separating psychiatric phenomena from the behavioural disturbances associated with the disability. Differential diagnosis and management are discussed. PMID:7625965

  4. Distinguishing between multiple personality disorder (dissociative identity disorder) and schizophrenia using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, M; Cicchetti, D; Buchanan, J; Rakfeldt, J; Rounsaville, B

    1994-09-01

    The authors describe the systematic assessment of dissociative symptoms using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders (SCID-D) in 50 psychiatric outpatients with a referring DSM-III-R diagnosis of either schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (N = 31) and subjects with multiple personality disorder (MPD [DSM-IV name change: dissociative identity disorder]; N = 19). Results indicate that patients with MPD experience significantly higher scores for five specific dissociative symptoms than patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. The range, severity, and nature of the five dissociative symptom areas evaluated by the SCID-D distinguish MPD from the occasional occurrence of dissociative symptoms which may be seen in schizophrenia. Systematic assessment of dissociative symptoms using the SCID-D can assist in accurate differential diagnosis of MPD and schizophrenia. PMID:8083678

  5. High resolution crustal image of South California Continental Borderland: Reverse time imaging including multiples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, A.; Gantela, C.

    2014-12-01

    Strong multiples were observed in marine seismic data of Los Angeles Regional Seismic Experiment (LARSE).It is crucial to eliminate these multiples in conventional ray-based or one-way wave-equation based depth image methods. As long as multiples contain information of target zone along travelling path, it's possible to use them as signal, to improve the illumination coverage thus enhance the image quality of structural boundaries. Reverse time migration including multiples is a two-way wave-equation based prestack depth image method that uses both primaries and multiples to map structural boundaries. Several factors, including source wavelet, velocity model, back ground noise, data acquisition geometry and preprocessing workflow may influence the quality of image. The source wavelet is estimated from direct arrival of marine seismic data. Migration velocity model is derived from integrated model building workflow, and the sharp velocity interfaces near sea bottom needs to be preserved in order to generate multiples in the forward and backward propagation steps. The strong amplitude, low frequency marine back ground noise needs to be removed before the final imaging process. High resolution reverse time image sections of LARSE Lines 1 and Line 2 show five interfaces: depth of sea-bottom, base of sedimentary basins, top of Catalina Schist, a deep layer and a possible pluton boundary. Catalina Schist shows highs in the San Clemente ridge, Emery Knoll, Catalina Ridge, under Catalina Basin on both the lines, and a minor high under Avalon Knoll. The high of anticlinal fold in Line 1 is under the north edge of Emery Knoll and under the San Clemente fault zone. An area devoid of any reflection features are interpreted as sides of an igneous plume.

  6. The incidence and prevalence of psychiatric disorders in multiple sclerosis: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Reingold, Stephen; Cohen, Jeffrey; Stuve, Olaf; Trojano, Maria; Sorensen, Per Soelberg; Cutter, Gary; Reider, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    Background: Psychiatric comorbidity is associated with lower quality of life, more fatigue, and reduced adherence to disease-modifying therapy in multiple sclerosis (MS). Objectives: The objectives of this review are to estimate the incidence and prevalence of selected comorbid psychiatric disorders in MS and evaluate the quality of included studies. Methods: We searched the PubMed, PsychInfo, SCOPUS, and Web of Knowledge databases and reference lists of retrieved articles. Abstracts were screened for relevance by two independent reviewers, followed by full-text review. Data were abstracted by one reviewer, and verified by a second reviewer. Study quality was evaluated using a standardized tool. For population-based studies we assessed heterogeneity quantitatively using the I2 statistic, and conducted meta-analyses. Results: We included 118 studies in this review. Among population-based studies, the prevalence of anxiety was 21.9% (95% CI: 8.76%–35.0%), while it was 14.8% for alcohol abuse, 5.83% for bipolar disorder, 23.7% (95% CI: 17.4%–30.0%) for depression, 2.5% for substance abuse, and 4.3% (95% CI: 0%–10.3%) for psychosis. Conclusion: This review confirms that psychiatric comorbidity, particularly depression and anxiety, is common in MS. However, the incidence of psychiatric comorbidity remains understudied. Future comparisons across studies would be enhanced by developing a consistent approach to measuring psychiatric comorbidity, and reporting of age-, sex-, and ethnicity-specific estimates. PMID:25583845

  7. [Hypersexual disorder will not be included in the DSM V : a contextual analysis].

    PubMed

    Toussaint, I; Pitchot, W

    2013-01-01

    Hypersexuality disorder has not been added to the list of psychiatric disorders for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) V, to be published in May 2013. The evolution of the concept of hypersexuality disorder and its series of different models call into question the controversial context within which its inclusion is considered for the DSM V. A brief contextual analysis makes clear that the creation of this concept follows moral norms and psychosocial values. The construction of hypersexuality disorder in terms of a diagnostic entity rests on the clash of social forces at play in the development process. This article lays the foundation to contemplate the manner in which entities for psychiatric disorders are constructed. PMID:23888588

  8. Children at Risk for Learning Disorders: Multiple Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Yagon, Michal

    2003-01-01

    A study involving 145 Israeli mother-child dyads examined the contribution of a multidimensional model of risk factors in explaining adaptive functioning among kindergartners with mild developmental delays considered at risk for developing learning disorders. Results indicated a high fit between the theoretical model and empirical findings.…

  9. Cataplexy and the switch process of multiple personality disorder.

    PubMed

    La Via, M C; Brewerton, T D

    1996-07-31

    A case history is presented of an 18-year-old male with dissociative disorder and polysubstance abuse. The patient was observed to switch between three personalities, and the personality changes were often associated with symptoms of cataplexy. Both dissociative episodes and cataplexy are associated with strong affective stimuli. Similar reports in the literature are briefly reviewed. PMID:8878321

  10. The comorbidity of multiple personality disorder and DSM-III-R axis II disorders.

    PubMed

    Fink, D

    1991-09-01

    Our ability to differentiate MPD from DSM-III-R Axis I disorders has become increasingly refined. Differentiation of MPD from the Axis II personality disorders is an area of more recent clinical investigation. MPD can be found comorbidity with many other psychiatric conditions. It is found in association with each of the DSM-III-R personality disorders. At the present time, however, we lack research data that define the prevalence of the comorbidity of MPD with the personality disorders. Objective study of this area is complicated by the paucity of instruments available to assess personality dimensions in the presence of a DD. In addition, the currently available personality inventories tend to overdiagnose BPD in patients with a high level of distress and acuity of symptoms. The diagnosis of a personality disorder in a patient with MPD is made on the basis of the assessment of the "whole" human being. It is based on the presence of a pervasive and relatively inflexible pattern of behaviors that reflects the individual predominant mode of being. The diagnosis of a personality disorder is not made on the basis of personality traits contained within any single alternate personality or groups of personalities. The personality disorders defined by DSM-III-R are a heterogeneous group of conditions whose individual etiologies reflect a complex interplay of constitutional, genetic, environmental, interpersonal, and psychodynamic factors. The interplay is variable and diverse between these determinants of the personality disorders and the traumatic forces that result in the development of a DD. For the Cluster A personality disorders (schizoid, schizotypal, paranoid), there is evidence supporting a relationship with specific psychotic illnesses. The combination of dissociative pathology with these personality disorders commonly results in a greater impairment of reality testing than in either condition alone. The Cluster B personality disorders (histrionic, narcissistic, borderline, antisocial) and Cluster C personality disorders (avoidant, compulsive, dependent, passive-aggressive) are believed to be primarily developmental disturbances. Comorbidity of these personality disorders with MPD involves consideration of the interaction of many developmental processes with the psychological impact of severe childhood trauma. Many MPD patients present with an apparent mixed personality profile consisting of an array of avoidant, compulsive, borderline, narcissistic, dependent, and passive-aggressive features. Although this article explores comorbidity of MPD with each of the personality disorders defined in DSM-III-R individually, it seems likely that a number of posttraumatic personality organizations can be defined that commonly coexist with MPD.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1946024

  11. Multiple personality disorder and iatrogenesis: the cautionary tale of Anna O.

    PubMed

    Weissberg, M

    1993-01-01

    An examination of Breuer's treatment of Anna O. illustrates some of the controversies surrounding the recent rise of case reports of multiple personality disorder. Anna O., the first patient of the cathartic method, psychoanalysis, and dynamic psychiatry, fits current criteria for multiple personality disorder. Breuer's treatment, however, may have contributed to her states of absence; the timing, type, and intensity of Breuer's interventions make it possible that he unwittingly encouraged and amplified Anna's dissociations, reified her ego fragments, and then explained Anna's symptoms with the pseudomemories and confabulations recovered from Anna while she was hypnotized. A review of Breuer's treatment highlights some of the controversial aspects of multiple personality disorder, specifically its possible vulnerability to iatrogenesis via suggestion and unconscious collusion and other factors. The current stance of some multiple personality disorder enthusiasts, opaque to their participation in interactions that may lead to certain patient productions, resembles the older psychoanalytic stance exemplified by the early Breuer and Freud. The dialectic of the therapist as a neutral observer versus as an influential participant continues to be a focus of controversy, both within psychoanalysis and psychotherapy and in the understandings of the etiology and treatment of multiple personality disorder. PMID:8425773

  12. The Effects of Including a Callous-Unemotional Specifier for the Diagnosis of Conduct Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Rachel E.; Frick, Paul J.; Youngstrom, Eric; Findling, Robert L.; Youngstrom, Jennifer Kogos

    2012-01-01

    Background: "With Significant Callous-Unemotional Traits" has been proposed as a specifier for conduct disorder (CD) in the upcoming revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V). The impact of this specifier on children diagnosed with CD should be considered. Methods: A multi-site cross-sectional design with…

  13. Checklist for reporting and reviewing studies of experimental animal models of multiple sclerosis and related disorders.

    PubMed

    Amor, Sandra; Baker, David

    2012-07-01

    Animal models of neurodegenerative and inflammatory diseases, have greatly contributed to our understanding of human disorders such as multiple sclerosis (MS). These models play a key role in drug development and have led to novel therapeutic approaches to treat human diseases. Nevertheless, some studies showing efficacy of therapies in animal models have not translated well to the clinic. In part, this disparity can be explained by differences in the biology of animals and humans. Another contributing factor is the quality of execution and reporting of studies, which is the responsibility of the authors. However, the acceptance of these papers depends on the quality of refereeing and editorial proficiency. When reporting animal studies, it is recommended that manuscripts conform to the principals of the Animals in Research: Reporting In Vivo Experiments (ARRIVE) guidelines (Kilkenny et al., 2010). This provides a list of 20 guidelines that should be employed in order to make papers consistent as well as transparent. However, conformation to the ARRIVE guidelines requires significantly more information than current publications often report. We have thus refined the ARRIVE guidelines, incorporated the 3Rs (Reduction, Refinement and Replacement) principals, and specifically adapted them to the reporting of animal models of multiple sclerosis (MS) and related disorders. As an example we have used experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the most widely used model of MS, since many EAE studies lack evidence of adoption of indicators of quality (Kilkenny et al., 2009; Baker and Amor, 2010; Vesterinen et al., 2010). The guide, reported here, is intended to act as a checklist to aid both authors and referees of manuscripts, just as the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) guidelines are a compulsory part of reporting clinical trials. Our aim is to improve the conclusions drawn from EAE studies and thus aid better translation to the clinical and treatment of MS. It is thus recommended that this checklist be adhered to for both authors and referees of papers submitted to all relevant journals including the journal Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders. PMID:25877075

  14. Long-term Methylphenidate Therapy in Children With Comorbid Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Chronic Multiple Tic Disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth D. Gadow; Jeffrey Sverd; Joyce Sprafkin; Edith E. Nolan; Steven Grossman

    1999-01-01

    Background: This study examined changes in attention- deficit hyperactivity (ADHD) behaviors and motor and vo- cal tics during long-term treatment with methylphenidate. Methods: Thirty-four prepubertal children with ADHD and chronic multiple tic disorder (who had participated in an 8-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled methylphen- idate evaluation) were evaluated at 6-month intervals for 2 years as part of a prospective, nonblind, follow-up study.

  15. Simultaneous measurement of adenosine triphosphate release and aggregation potentiates human platelet aggregation responses for some subjects, including persons with Quebec platelet disorder.

    PubMed

    Hayward, C P M; Moffat, K A; Castilloux, J-F; Liu, Y; Seecharan, J; Tasneem, S; Carlino, S; Cormier, A; Rivard, G E

    2012-04-01

    Platelet aggregometry and dense granule adenosine triphosphate (ATP) release assays are helpful to diagnose platelet disorders. Some laboratories simultaneously measure aggregation and ATP release using Chronolume® a commercial reagent containing D-luciferin, firefly luciferase and magnesium. Chronolume® can potentiate sub-maximal aggregation responses, normalising canine platelet disorder findings. We investigated if Chronolume® potentiates human platelet aggregation responses after observing discrepancies suspicious of potentiation. Among patients simultaneously tested by light transmission aggregometry (LTA) on two instruments, 18/43 (42%), including 14/24 (58%) with platelet disorders, showed full secondary aggregation with one or more agonists only in tests with Chronolume®. As subjects with Quebec platelet disorder (QPD) did not show the expected absent secondary aggregation responses to epinephrine in tests with Chronolume®, the reason for the discrepancy was investigated using samples from 10 QPD subjects. Like sub-threshold ADP (0.75 ?M), Chronolume® significantly increased QPD LTA responses to epinephrine (p<0.0001) and it increased both initial and secondary aggregation responses, leading to dense granule release. This potentiation was not restricted to QPD and it was mimicked adding 1-2 mM magnesium, but not D-luciferin or firefly luciferase, to LTA assays. Chronolume® potentiated the ADP aggregation responses of QPD subjects with a reduced response. Furthermore, it increased whole blood aggregation responses of healthy control samples to multiple agonists, tested at concentrations used for the diagnosis of platelet disorders (p values <0.05). Laboratories should be aware that measuring ATP release with Chronolume® can potentiate LTA and whole blood aggregation responses, which alters findings for some human platelet disorders, including QPD. PMID:22234747

  16. [Multiple personality disorder: old concepts presented as new].

    PubMed

    Erkwoh, R; Sass, H

    1993-03-01

    The rapid increase in numbers of MPD patients in the Anglo-American literature requires discussion of the diagnostic concept. The classification of MPD as Dissociative Disorders by DSM-III-R and ICD-10 follows the traditional conceptualization of hysteria and hypnosis. In the view of the majority of modern authors child abuse appears as a new etiological issue. This theme highly sensitive is critically discussed against the background of older psychopathological concepts of forgetting. A careful analysis of personality traits and motivation in the individual case help to avoid overuse of the new diagnostic label. PMID:8479587

  17. Obsessive-compulsive disorder associated with parietal white matter multiple sclerosis plaques.

    PubMed

    Douzenis, Athanassios; Michalopoulou, Panayiota G; Voumvourakis, Constantine; Typaldou, Maria; Michopoulos, Ioannis; Lykouras, Lefteris

    2009-01-01

    We report the case of a patient who developed obsessive-compulsive symptoms after being diagnosed with multiple sclerosis. In this patient, obsessive-compulsive symptoms deteriorated with the emergence of a right parietal white matter multiple sclerosis plaque. The involvement of parietal white matter abnormalities in the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder remains largely unexplored. Our case report raises the possibility that parietal lobe white matter microstructure plays a role in mediating obsessions and compulsions through disruptions of the functional connectivity between cortical-cortical and/or cortical-subcortical brain regions implicated in the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder. PMID:19995223

  18. [Treatment manual for psychotherapy of acute and posttraumatic stress disorders after multiple ICD shocks].

    PubMed

    Jordan, J; Titscher, G; Kirsch, H

    2011-09-01

    In view of the inceasing number of implanted defibrillators in all industrial nations, the number of people who have suffered so-called multiple shocks (electrical storm, ES) also increases. Common complaints are severe and continuously recurrent massive anxiety, panic attacks, fear of death, helplessness and hopelessness, depression, nervosity and irritability as well as reclusive and uncontrollable avoidance behaviour, intrusions, nightmares, flashbacks, sleeplessness and the inability to show feelings and limitation of future perspectives. Because people with an ICD are often physically (very) ill and after multiple ICD shocks are additionally very insecure, it would seem logical if the inpatient treatment would be carried out in an institution which has close connections and is also spatially close to a cardiology department. The basis of the diagnostics is the clinical anamnesis and a systematic exploration of the trauma situation and the resulting complaints. As an additional diagnostic element psychological test procedures should be implemented to determine the core symptomatic (anxiety, depression, trauma symptoms). Psychological test procedures should be included in the diagnostics so that at the end of treatment it is obvious even to the patient which alterations have occurred. The core element of inpatient treatment is daily intensive psychotherapy and includes deep psychologically well-founded psychotherapy and behavioral therapeutic-oriented anxiety therapy as well as cognitive restructuring and elements of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR). A follow-up examination within 4 months of the multiple shocks episode is recommended because symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder often occur after a long latent time period. PMID:21853350

  19. A new expanded host range of Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus includes three agricultural crops.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV) was identified in the fall of 2006 affecting cucurbit production in the Imperial Valley of California, the adjacent Yuma, AZ region, as well as nearby Sonora, Mexico. There was nearly universal infection of fall melon crops in 2006 and 2007, and late,...

  20. School Factors Associated with Mainstream Progress in Secondary Education for Included Pupils with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Lisa A.; Reed, Phil

    2011-01-01

    This research examined the factors promoting inclusion of young people with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) in mainstream secondary schools, and noted high levels of behavioral difficulties in these pupils. The size of the secondary school, and the class size, impacted positively on the pupils with Autism, and the number of other pupils with…

  1. Exploring Teachers' Strategies for Including Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Mainstream Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Sally; Proulx, Meghann; Scott, Helen; Thomson, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    As the rates of diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) increase and more students with ASD are enrolled in mainstream schools, educators face many challenges in teaching and managing social and behavioural development while ensuring academic success for all students. This descriptive, qualitative study, embedded within an inclusive…

  2. Benefits of Including Siblings in the Treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferraioli, Suzannah J.; Hansford, Amy; Harris, Sandra L.

    2012-01-01

    Having a brother or sister with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can significantly impact the life of a typically developing sibling. These relationships are generally characterized by less frequent and nurturing interactions than are evident in sibling constellations with neurotypical children or children with other developmental disabilities.…

  3. Marital and Family Therapy in the Treatment of Multiple Personality Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sachs, Roberta G.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Explores marital and family therapy in treatment of Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD), discussing role of family of origin in MPD development and role of nuclear family in its perpetuation. Suggests family and marital interventions, illustrating them with case examples. Proposes involving MPD client in marital or family therapy, in addition to…

  4. Analysis of Behavioural Responding across Multiple Instructional Conditions for a Child with Childhood Disintegrative Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Stacy L.; Wheeler, John J.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of multiple instructional conditions on self-injury/aggression and on-task behaviours were assessed with a 9-year-old boy diagnosed with childhood disintegrative disorder. Behavioural responses were assessed as part of an educational evaluation to determine the occurrence of target behaviours in relation to varying degrees of…

  5. Common etiology of posttraumatic stress disorder, fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome and multiple chemical sensitivity via elevated nitric oxide\\/peroxynitrite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. L. Pall

    2001-01-01

    Three types of overlap occur among the disease states chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), fibromyalgia (FM), multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). They share common symptoms. Many patients meet the criteria for diagnosis for two or more of these disorders and each disorder appears to be often induced by a relatively short-term stress which is followed by a

  6. Disorder-induced incoherent scattering losses in photonic crystal waveguides: Bloch mode reshaping, multiple scattering, and breakdown of the Beer-Lambert law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, M.; Hughes, S.; Schulz, S.; Beggs, D. M.; White, T. P.; O'Faolain, L.; Krauss, T. F.

    2009-11-01

    Through a combined theoretical and experimental study of disorder-induced incoherent scattering losses in slow-light photonic crystal slab waveguides, we show the importance of Bloch mode reshaping and multiple scattering. We describe a convenient and fully three-dimensional theoretical treatment of disorder-induced extrinsic scattering, including the calculation of backscatter and out-of-plane losses per unit cell, and the extrapolation of the unit-cell loss to the loss for an entire disordered waveguide. The theoretical predictions, which are also compared with recent measurements on dispersion engineered silicon waveguides, demonstrate the failure of the Beer-Lambert law due to multiple scattering. We also explain why the previously assumed group velocity scalings of disorder-induced loss break down in general.

  7. Multiple Hits, Including Oxidative Stress, as Pathogenesis and Treatment Target in Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH)

    PubMed Central

    Takaki, Akinobu; Kawai, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Kazuhide

    2013-01-01

    Multiple parallel hits, including genetic differences, insulin resistance and intestinal microbiota, account for the progression of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Multiple hits induce adipokine secretion, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and oxidative stress at the cellular level that subsequently induce hepatic steatosis, inflammation and fibrosis, among which oxidative stress is considered a key contributor to progression from simple fatty liver to NASH. Although several clinical trials have shown that anti-oxidative therapy can effectively control hepatitis activities in the short term, the long-term effect remains obscure. Several trials of long-term anti-oxidant protocols aimed at treating cerebrovascular diseases or cancer development have failed to produce a benefit. This might be explained by the non-selective anti-oxidative properties of these drugs. Molecular hydrogen is an effective antioxidant that reduces only cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) and several diseases associated with oxidative stress are sensitive to hydrogen. The progress of NASH to hepatocellular carcinoma can be controlled using hydrogen-rich water. Thus, targeting mitochondrial oxidative stress might be a good candidate for NASH treatment. Long term clinical intervention is needed to control this complex lifestyle-related disease. PMID:24132155

  8. Rethinking the comparison of borderline personality disorder and multiple personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Marmer, S S; Fink, D

    1994-12-01

    This article has made a number of points that assert what is today a minority position within the fields of MPD/DID and BPD. We hope our views will stimulate attempts by others to rethink their positions and test our assertions, so that issues surrounding these two disorders can be sharpened. For the sake of the clarity of future work, we summarize in outline form the essence of our viewpoint. 1. BPD and MPD/DID have similar appearing symptoms, such as identity problems, unstable affect modulation, self-destructive behaviors, chaotic impulse control, and troubled interpersonal relationships, but they have decisive differences in underlying dynamics, process, and structure. 2. DSM tends to blur these two disorders by its emphasis on phenomenology over inner structure, thus fostering misleading conclusions when DSM criteria are used to test for comorbidity or overlap between BPD and MPD/DID. 3. BPD and MPD/DID are both described dynamically as using the defense of splitting, but we contend that the splitting in each disorder is fundamentally different from the splitting in the other. BPD uses a polarization form of splitting, whereas MPD/DID uses ego splitting or identity division. 4. Both disorders partake in the process of dissociation, but the quality of dissociation in BPD is a "low-tech" spaced out type, whereas that of MPD/DID is a "high-tech" waking dream. 5. BPD structure is also "low tech," with polarization of self, object, and relationship. MPD/DID structure is "high tech," with heavily symbolic, highly nuanced variations of self, object, and relationship. 6. Although both conditions have etiologic elements of trauma, BPD has a larger degree of developmental deficiency, with a failure to complete the task of entering a repression hierarchy of defenses. MPD/DID, by use of primary process-linked symbolic dissociation, is able to continue development to the repression hierarchy, although at a profound cost of simultaneous suspension of reality testing. BPD patients suffer from the rigid use of too few defenses; MPD/DID patients suffer from the obsolete use of too many defenses. 7. BPD patients grow up in homes in which overtly expressed aggression is more tolerated, or at least more openly experienced. MPD/DID patients grow up in homes in which the fact of aggression is kept a secret. This has consequences for the formation of psychic structure in each disorder.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:7877901

  9. Analytical expressions for the gate utilization factors of passive multiplicity counters including signal build-up

    SciTech Connect

    Croft, Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Evans, Louise G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schear, Melissa A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    In the realm of nuclear safeguards, passive neutron multiplicity counting using shift register pulse train analysis to nondestructively quantify Pu in product materials is a familiar and widely applied technique. The approach most commonly taken is to construct a neutron detector consisting of {sup 3}He filled cylindrical proportional counters embedded in a high density polyethylene moderator. Fast neutrons from the item enter the moderator and are quickly slowed down, on timescales of the order of 1-2 {micro}s, creating a thermal population which then persists typically for several 10's {micro}s and is sampled by the {sup 3}He detectors. Because the initial transient is of comparatively short duration it has been traditional to treat it as instantaneous and furthermore to approximate the subsequent capture time distribution as exponential in shape. With these approximations simple expressions for the various Gate Utilization Factors (GUFs) can be obtained. These factors represent the proportion of time correlated events i.e. Doubles and Triples signal present in the pulse train that is detected by the coincidence gate structure chosen (predelay and gate width settings of the multiplicity shift register). More complicated expressions can be derived by generalizing the capture time distribution to multiple time components or harmonics typically present in real systems. When it comes to applying passive neutron multiplicity methods to extremely intense (i.e. high emission rate and highly multiplying) neutron sources there is a drive to use detector types with very fast response characteristics in order to cope with the high rates. In addition to short pulse width, detectors with a short capture time profile are also desirable so that a short coincidence gate width can be set in order to reduce the chance or Accidental coincidence signal. In extreme cases, such as might be realized using boron loaded scintillators, the dieaway time may be so short that the build-up (thermalization transient) within the detector cannot be ignored. Another example where signal build-up might be observed is when a {sup 3}He based system is used to track the evolution of the time correlated signal created by a higher multiplying item within a reflective configuration such as the measurement of a spent fuel assembly. In this work we develop expressions for the GUFs which include signal build-up.

  10. Joint linkage of multiple loci for a complex disorder

    SciTech Connect

    MacLean, C.J.; Kendler, K.S.; Sham, P.C. (Virginia Commonwealth Univ., Richmond (United States))

    1993-08-01

    Many investigators who have been searching for linkage to complex diseases have by now accumulated a drawer full of negative results. If disease is actually caused by genes at several loci, these data might contain multiple-locus system (MLS) information that the investigator does not realize. Trying to obtain this information formally, through the MLS likelihood, leads to severe computational and statistical difficulties. Therefore, the authors propose a scheme of inference based on single-locus (SL) statistics, considered jointly. By simulation, they find that the MLS lod score is closely approximated by the sum of SL lod scores. However, they also find that for moderately large systems, say three or four loci, both MLS and SL lod scores are likely to be inconclusive. Nonetheless, MLS can often be detected through the correlation of individual pedigree SL lod scores. Significant correlation is itself evidence of an MLS, because, in the absence of linkage, false-positive lod scores are necessarily random. Under epistasis SL lod scores tend to be positively correlated among pedigrees, while under independent action SL lod scores from high-density samples tend to be negatively correlated. 24 refs., 10 tabs.

  11. Zebrafish homologs of 16p11.2, a genomic region associated with brain disorders, are active during brain development, and include two deletion dosage sensor genes

    E-print Network

    Blaker-Lee, Alicia

    Deletion or duplication of one copy of the human 16p11.2 interval is tightly associated with impaired brain function, including autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), intellectual disability disorder (IDD) and other phenotypes, ...

  12. RNA interference screening identifies lenalidomide sensitizers in multiple myeloma, including RSK2

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yuan Xiao; Yin, Hongwei; Bruins, Laura A.; Shi, Chang-Xin; Jedlowski, Patrick; Aziz, Meraj; Sereduk, Chris; Kortuem, Klaus Martin; Schmidt, Jessica E.; Champion, Mia; Braggio, Esteban

    2015-01-01

    To identify molecular targets that modify sensitivity to lenalidomide, we measured proliferation in multiple myeloma (MM) cells transfected with 27?968 small interfering RNAs in the presence of increasing concentrations of drug and identified 63 genes that enhance activity of lenalidomide upon silencing. Ribosomal protein S6 kinase (RPS6KA3 or RSK2) was the most potent sensitizer. Other notable gene targets included 5 RAB family members, 3 potassium channel proteins, and 2 peroxisome family members. Single genes of interest included I-?-B kinase-? (CHUK), and a phosphorylation dependent transcription factor (CREB1), which associate with RSK2 to regulate several signaling pathways. RSK2 knockdown induced cytotoxicity across a panel of MM cell lines and consistently increased sensitivity to lenalidomide. Accordingly, 3 small molecular inhibitors of RSK2 demonstrated synergy with lenalidomide cytotoxicity in MM cells even in the presence of stromal contact. Both RSK2 knockdown and small molecule inhibition downregulate interferon regulatory factor 4 and MYC, and provides an explanation for the synergy between lenalidomide and RSK2 inhibition. Interestingly, RSK2 inhibition also sensitized MM cells to bortezomib, melphalan, and dexamethasone, but did not downregulate Ikaros or influence lenalidomide-mediated downregulation of tumor necrosis factor-? or increase lenalidomide-induced IL-2 upregulation. In summary, inhibition of RSK2 may prove a broadly useful adjunct to MM therapy. PMID:25395420

  13. RNA interference screening identifies lenalidomide sensitizers in multiple myeloma, including RSK2.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yuan Xiao; Yin, Hongwei; Bruins, Laura A; Shi, Chang-Xin; Jedlowski, Patrick; Aziz, Meraj; Sereduk, Chris; Kortuem, Klaus Martin; Schmidt, Jessica E; Champion, Mia; Braggio, Esteban; Keith Stewart, A

    2015-01-15

    To identify molecular targets that modify sensitivity to lenalidomide, we measured proliferation in multiple myeloma (MM) cells transfected with 27?968 small interfering RNAs in the presence of increasing concentrations of drug and identified 63 genes that enhance activity of lenalidomide upon silencing. Ribosomal protein S6 kinase (RPS6KA3 or RSK2) was the most potent sensitizer. Other notable gene targets included 5 RAB family members, 3 potassium channel proteins, and 2 peroxisome family members. Single genes of interest included I-?-B kinase-? (CHUK), and a phosphorylation dependent transcription factor (CREB1), which associate with RSK2 to regulate several signaling pathways. RSK2 knockdown induced cytotoxicity across a panel of MM cell lines and consistently increased sensitivity to lenalidomide. Accordingly, 3 small molecular inhibitors of RSK2 demonstrated synergy with lenalidomide cytotoxicity in MM cells even in the presence of stromal contact. Both RSK2 knockdown and small molecule inhibition downregulate interferon regulatory factor 4 and MYC, and provides an explanation for the synergy between lenalidomide and RSK2 inhibition. Interestingly, RSK2 inhibition also sensitized MM cells to bortezomib, melphalan, and dexamethasone, but did not downregulate Ikaros or influence lenalidomide-mediated downregulation of tumor necrosis factor-? or increase lenalidomide-induced IL-2 upregulation. In summary, inhibition of RSK2 may prove a broadly useful adjunct to MM therapy. PMID:25395420

  14. Learning from extremism in the history of mental health. The example of multiple personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Wanda K

    2002-05-01

    This article reviews some of the history of the cultural forces that shaped the diagnosis of multiple personality disorder/dissociative identity disorder and the subsequent abuses that occurred at the time of its popularization. Some of the implications that can be drawn from these kinds of historical excesses in the field of mental health will be discussed. The article concludes by underscoring the ethical obligation inherent in maintaining healthy professional skepticism toward ideas driven by ideology and fad, rather than scientific empiricism. PMID:12016690

  15. Dissociative disorders.

    PubMed

    Kihlstrom, John F

    2005-01-01

    The dissociative disorders, including "psychogenic" or "functional" amnesia, fugue, dissociative identity disorder (DID, also known as multiple personality disorder), and depersonalization disorder, were once classified, along with conversion disorder, as forms of hysteria. The 1970s witnessed an "epidemic" of dissociative disorder, particularly DID, which may have reflected enthusiasm for the diagnosis more than its actual prevalence. Traditionally, the dissociative disorders have been attributed to trauma and other psychological stress, but the existing evidence favoring this hypothesis is plagued by poor methodology. Prospective studies of traumatized individuals reveal no convincing cases of amnesia not attributable to brain insult, injury, or disease. Treatment generally involves recovering and working through ostensibly repressed or dissociated memories of trauma; at present, there are few quantitative or controlled outcome studies. Experimental studies are few in number and have focused largely on state-dependent and implicit memory. Depersonalization disorder may be in line for the next "epidemic" of dissociation. PMID:17716088

  16. An olfactory-limbic model of multiple chemical sensitivity syndrome: Possible relationships to kindling and affective spectrum disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, I.R.; Miller, C.S.; Schwartz, G.E. (Univ. of Arizona Health Sciences Center, Tucson (United States))

    1992-08-01

    This paper reviews the clinical and experimental literature on patients with multiple adverse responses to chemicals (Multiple Chemical Sensitivity Syndrome-MCS) and develops a model for MCS based on olfactory-limbic system dysfunction that overlaps in part with Post's kindling model for affective disorders. MCS encompasses a broad range of chronic polysymptomatic conditions and complaints whose triggers are reported to include low levels of common indoor and outdoor environmental chemicals, such as pesticides and solvents. Other investigators have found evidence of increased prevalence of depression, anxiety, and somatization disorders in MCS patients and have concluded that their psychiatric conditions account for the clinical picture. However, none of these studies has presented any data on the effects of chemicals on symptoms or on objective measures of nervous system function. Synthesis of the MCS literature with large bodies of research in neurotoxicology, occupational medicine, and biological psychiatry, suggests that the phenomenology of MCS patients overlaps that of affective spectrum disorders and that both involve dysfunction of the limbic pathways. Animal studies demonstrate that intermittent repeated low level environmental chemical exposures, including pesticides, cause limbic kindling. Kindling (full or partial) is one central nervous system mechanism that could amplify reactivity to low levels of inhaled and ingested chemicals and initiate persistent affective, cognitive, and somatic symptomatology in both occupational and nonoccupational settings. As in animal studies, inescapable and novel stressors could cross-sensitize with chemical exposures in some individuals to generate adverse responses on a neurochemical basis. The olfactory-limbic model raises testable neurobiological hypotheses that could increase understanding of the multifactorial etiology of MCS and of certain overlapping affective spectrum disorders. 170 refs.

  17. [Multiple personality disorder. Presentation of 2 cases and a model of the etiology].

    PubMed

    Pfeifer, S; Brenner, L; Spengler, W

    1994-09-01

    Although the syndrome of Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD) has received much interest in the international literature, there have been virtually no professional articles on the topic in German over the last 70 years. This is a report on two cases with nine and 70 persons respectively. Both had undergone severe and prolonged sexual abuse in childhood. Compared with DSM-III-R, the ICD-10 criteria seem to reflect historic reports on alternating personalities rather than recent empirical research on multiple personality. The proposed etiological model postulates that extreme trauma in childhood can result in dissociative vulnerability persisting into adulthood. PMID:7991009

  18. Transitions from order to disorder in multiple dark and multiple dark-bright soliton atomic clouds.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenlong; Kevrekidis, P G

    2015-03-01

    We have performed a systematic study quantifying the variation of solitary wave behavior from that of an ordered cloud resembling a "crystalline" configuration to that of a disordered state that can be characterized as a soliton "gas." As our illustrative examples, we use both one-component, as well as two-component, one-dimensional atomic gases very close to zero temperature, where in the presence of repulsive interatomic interactions and of a parabolic trap, a cloud of dark (dark-bright) solitons can form in the one- (two-) component system. We corroborate our findings through three distinct types of approaches, namely a Gross-Pitaevskii type of partial differential equation, particle-based ordinary differential equations describing the soliton dynamical system, and Monte Carlo simulations for the particle system. We define an "empirical" order parameter to characterize the order of the soliton lattices and study how this changes as a function of the strength of the "thermally" (i.e., kinetically) induced perturbations. As may be anticipated by the one-dimensional nature of our system, the transition from order to disorder is gradual without, apparently, a genuine phase transition ensuing in the intermediate regime. PMID:25871170

  19. Multiple Clinical Presentations of Lymphoproliferative Disorders in Pediatric Liver Transplant Recipients: A Single-Center Experience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. L. Pinho-Apezzato; U. Tannuri; A. C. A. Tannuri; E. S. Mello; F. Lima; N. E. Gibelli; M. M. Santos; A. A. Ayoub; J. G. Maksoud-Filho; M. C. Velhote; M. M. Silva; W. C. Andrade; H. T. Miyatani

    2010-01-01

    Posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a serious complication following solid organ transplantation that has been linked to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. The aim of this article was to describe a single-center experience with the multiplicity of clinical presentations of PTLD. Among 350 liver transplantations performed in 303 children, 13 survivor children displayed a histological diagnosis of PTLD (13\\/242 survivors; 5.4%).

  20. Assessing the criminal responsibility of individuals with multiple personality disorder: legal cases, legal theory.

    PubMed

    Behnke, S H

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses the criminal responsibility of individuals diagnosed with multiple personality disorder (MPD). First, it reviews how courts understand and assess criminal responsibility. Second, it gives an overview of how courts have applied the doctrine of criminal responsibility to individuals with MPD. Third, it explains what legal theorists say about this question. Finally, it uses a case example to illustrate how various theorists would assess the responsibility of a criminal defendant with MPD. PMID:9323664

  1. Family treatment of spouses and children of patients with multiple personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Porter, S; Kelly, K A; Grame, C J

    1993-01-01

    Although there is a large body of literature on the individual treatment of patients with multiple personality disorder (MPD), there are few accounts of the treatment of the spouses and children of these patients. After reviewing some of the existing literature, the authors present case examples of family work with patients, spouses, and children on two inpatient units and in the partial hospitalization program at Menninger. Techniques for the beginning, middle, and later phases of family treatment are illustrated. PMID:8401389

  2. Thermoelectric material including a multiple transition metal-doped type I clathrate crystal structure

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Jihui (Lakeshore, CA); Shi, Xun (Troy, MI); Bai, Shengqiang (Shanghai, CN); Zhang, Wenqing (Shanghai, CN); Chen, Lidong (Shanghai, CN); Yang, Jiong (Shanghai, CN)

    2012-01-17

    A thermoelectric material includes a multiple transition metal-doped type I clathrate crystal structure having the formula A.sub.8TM.sub.y.sub.1.sup.1TM.sub.y.sub.2.sup.2 . . . TM.sub.y.sub.n.sup.nM.sub.zX.sub.46-y.sub.1.sub.-y.sub.2.sub.- . . . -y.sub.n.sub.-z. In the formula, A is selected from the group consisting of barium, strontium, and europium; X is selected from the group consisting of silicon, germanium, and tin; M is selected from the group consisting of aluminum, gallium, and indium; TM.sup.1, TM.sup.2, and TM.sup.n are independently selected from the group consisting of 3d, 4d, and 5d transition metals; and y.sub.1, y.sub.2, y.sub.n and Z are actual compositions of TM.sup.1, TM.sup.2, TM.sup.n, and M, respectively. The actual compositions are based upon nominal compositions derived from the following equation: z=8q.sub.A-|.DELTA.q.sub.1|y.sub.1-|.DELTA.q.sub.2|y.sub.2- . . . -|.DELTA.q.sub.n|y.sub.n, wherein q.sub.A is a charge state of A, and wherein .DELTA.q.sub.1, .DELTA.q.sub.2, .DELTA.q.sub.n are, respectively, the nominal charge state of the first, second, and n-th TM.

  3. Phenotypic spectrum associated with duplication of Xp11.22-p11.23 includes Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Chung, Brian H Y; Drmic, Irene; Marshall, Christian R; Grafodatskaya, Daria; Carter, Melissa; Fernandez, Bridget A; Weksberg, Rosanna; Roberts, Wendy; Scherer, Stephen W

    2011-01-01

    Dup(X)(p11.22-p11.23) has been shown to be associated with intellectual disability (ID, also referred to as mental retardation). Here, we characterize a 4.64 Mb de novo duplication of the same Xp11.22-p11.23 ID region in a female, but for this reference case the diagnosis was Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Besides ASD, she also had very persistent trichotillomania, anxiety symptoms and some non-specific dysmorphic features. We report the detailed clinical features, as well as refine the rearrangement breakpoints of this disease-associated copy number variation region, which encompasses more than 50 genes. We propose that in addition to ID, the phenotypic spectrum associated with dup(X)(p11.22-p11.23) can include ASD, language impairment, and/or other primary psychiatric disorders. PMID:21689796

  4. The Relationship Between Multiple Sex Partners and Anxiety, Depression, and Substance Dependence Disorders: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Charlotte; Bell, Melanie L.; Dickson, Nigel; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Caspi, Avshalom

    2013-01-01

    Changes in sexual behavior have resulted in longer periods of multiple serial or concurrent relationships. This study investigated the effects of multiple heterosexual partners on mental health, specifically, whether higher numbers of partners were linked to later anxiety, depression, and substance dependency. Data from the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, a prospective, longitudinal study of a birth cohort born in 1972–1973 in Dunedin, New Zealand were used. The relationship between numbers of sex partners over three age periods (18–20, 21–25, and 26–32 years) and diagnoses of anxiety, depression, and substance dependence disorder at 21, 26, and 32 years were examined, using logistic regression. Interaction by gender was examined. Adjustment was made for prior mental health status. There was no significant association between number of sex partners and later anxiety and depression. Increasing numbers of sex partners were associated with increasing risk of substance dependence disorder at all three ages. The association was stronger for women and remained after adjusting for prior disorder. For women reporting 2.5 or more partners per year, compared to 0–1 partners, the adjusted odd ratios (and 95 % CIs) were 9.6 (4.4–20.9), 7.3 (2.5–21.3), and 17.5 (3.5–88.1) at 21, 26, and 32 years, respectively. Analyses using new cases of these disorders showed similar patterns. This study established a strong association between number of sex partners and later substance disorder, especially for women, which persisted beyond prior substance use and mental health problems more generally. The reasons for this association deserve investigation. PMID:23400516

  5. Genetic Disorders of Membrane Transport II. Regulation of CFTR by small molecules including HCO3

    E-print Network

    Machen, Terry E.

    Physiol. 38): G1221­G1226, 1998.-- Cystic fibrosis (CF) affects a number of epithelial tissues, including as well as of intra- and extracellu- lar pH. cystic fibrosis; cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator; pharmacology; epithelial transport; chloride secre- tion CYSTIC FIBROSIS (CF) is the most common

  6. Group cognitive-behavioral therapy for heterogeneous anxiety disorders in children and adolescents: A multiple baseline study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peyton White Lumpkin

    1998-01-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of Group Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (GCBT) in the treatment of heterogeneous anxiety disorders in children. A partially nonconcurrent multiple baseline across groups design was used to assess the effects of the treatment on 12 clinically referred children and adolescents between 6 and 16 years of age who met DSM-IV criteria for an anxiety disorder. Targeted diagnoses

  7. Has multiple personality disorder remained consistent over time? A comparison of past and recent cases.

    PubMed

    Goff, D C; Simms, C A

    1993-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether recent descriptions of multiple personality disorder are consistent with descriptions from the past. Clinical presentations and childhood histories obtained from early case reports of multiple personality disorder published between 1800 and 1965 (N = 52) were compared with recent case reports published in the 1980s (N = 54). Recent and past cases did not differ in age at diagnosis, length of treatment, duration of follow-up, presence of child and opposite gender personalities, and exposure to hypnosis. Recent cases differed significantly from past cases in mean number of personalities (12 vs. 3), age of onset (11 vs. 20 years), proportion of males (24% vs. 44%), and in prevalence of childhood abuse histories (81% vs. 29%). The authors discuss clinical and cultural factors that may have contributed to the change over time in the number of reported cases, complexity of personality structure, and description of etiological childhood trauma. Although a core set of symptoms has consistently been associated with this disorder over time, other important aspects have not been stable. PMID:8409958

  8. A Problem Decompostion Method for Efficient Diagnosis and Interpretation of Multiple Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Thomas D.

    1990-01-01

    Diagnosis of multiple disorders can be made more efficient by reasoning explicitly about problem decompositions. A diagnostic problem can be decomposed by hypothesising about the common causes and disjoint causes among the given symptoms. The resulting structure exploits computational principles of causal intersection and subproblem independence to increase efficiency. By assigning structure to a problem, the problem decomposition approach offers a new type of decision support called symptom interpretation. Problem decompositions can be computed using a symptom clustering algorithm. Experimental results indicate that symptom clustering yields substantial increases in performance compared to existing methods for multidisorder diagnosis.

  9. An occupational therapy perspective in the treatment of multiple personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Waid, K M

    1993-10-01

    Adult persons with multiple personality disorder have survived a traumatic past. After diagnosis and the initiation of psychotherapy, they frequently face a long and arduous treatment process. During this time, intense emotions and memories are retrieved that can disrupt functional life skills in an already disjointed life. The stresses of life combine with therapeutic issues to perpetuate the dissociation that interrupts functional performance. The original traumas occurred when the child was functioning primarily at a sensorimotor level. Occupational therapy can identify sensorimotor activities that provide a focal point of control to reduce stress during the therapeutic process and to develop new life skills. PMID:8109606

  10. Differentiation between autism and multiple complex developmental disorder in response to psychosocial stress.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Lucres M C; Gispen-de Wied, Christine C; van der Gaag, Rutger-Jan; van Engeland, Herman

    2003-03-01

    Multiple Complex Developmental Disorder (MCDD) represents a distinct group within the autistic spectrum based on symptomatology. Unlike autistic children, part of MCDD children develop schizophrenia in adult life. Despite the differences, patients of both disorders are mainly characterized by abnormal reactions to their social environment. At the biological level, we showed in a previous study that MCDD children have a reduced cortisol response to psychosocial stress. Given the fact that autistic children clinically show more social impairments, it was hypothesized that they may have even further decreased cortisol responses to psychosocial stress than MCDD patients. Therefore, 10 autistic children were compared to 10 MCDD children and 12 healthy control children in their response to a psychosocial stressor, consisting of a public speaking task. In order to test whether any impairments in the biological stress response are specific for psychosocial stress, the autistic children were compared with 11 MCDD children and 15 control children in their response to a physical stressor, consisting of 10 min of bicycle exercise. Heart rate and salivary cortisol levels were used as indicators of response to the stress tests. Autistic children showed a relatively elevated cortisol response to psychosocial stress, in contrast to MCDD children who showed a reduced cortisol response. No differences in heart rate or cortisol responses to the physical stress test were found. The specific difference between autistic and MCDD children in their cortisol response to psychosocial stress indicates that the disturbed reactions to the social environment observed in these disorders may have different biological backgrounds. PMID:12629541

  11. Simulation of multiple personalities: a review of research comparing diagnosed and simulated dissociative identity disorder.

    PubMed

    Boysen, Guy A; VanBergen, Alexandra

    2014-02-01

    Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) has long been surrounded by controversy due to disagreement about its etiology and the validity of its associated phenomena. Researchers have conducted studies comparing people diagnosed with DID and people simulating DID in order to better understand the disorder. The current research presents a systematic review of this DID simulation research. The literature consists of 20 studies and contains several replicated findings. Replicated differences between the groups include symptom presentation, identity presentation, and cognitive processing deficits. Replicated similarities between the groups include interidentity transfer of information as shown by measures of recall, recognition, and priming. Despite some consistent findings, this research literature is hindered by methodological flaws that reduce experimental validity. PMID:24291657

  12. Parents' Adoption of Social Communication Intervention Strategies: Families Including Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Who are Minimally Verbal.

    PubMed

    Shire, Stephanie Y; Goods, Kelly; Shih, Wendy; Distefano, Charlotte; Kaiser, Ann; Wright, Courtney; Mathy, Pamela; Landa, Rebecca; Kasari, Connie

    2015-06-01

    Notably absent from the intervention literature are parent training programs targeting school-aged children with autism who have limited communication skills (Tager-Flusberg and Kasari in Autism Res 6:468-478, 2013). Sixty-one children with autism age 5-8 with minimal spontaneous communication received a 6-month social communication intervention including parent training. Parent-child play interactions were coded for parents' strategy implementation and children's time jointly engaged (Adamson et al. in J Autism Dev Disord 39:84-96, 2009). Parents mastered an average of 70 % of the strategies. Further analyses indicated some gains in implementation occurred from mere observation of sessions, while the greatest gains occurred in the first month of active coaching and workshops. Children's joint engagement was associated with parents' implementation success across time demonstrating parents' implementation was relevant to children's social engagement. PMID:25475363

  13. Adapting Manualized CBT for a Cognitively Delayed Child With Multiple Anxiety Disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cynthia Suveg; Jonathan S. Comer; Jami M. Furr; Philip C. Kendall

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a modified cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) program for the treatment of a cognitively delayed 8-year-old girl presenting with social phobia, selective mutism, and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Multimethod assessment, at pretreatment and posttreatment, included a semistructured diagnostic interview, self-reports, and parent and teacher reports. Cognitive delays were apparent at the initial assessment and confirmed on

  14. Identification of Multiple Novel Viruses, Including a Parvovirus and a Hepevirus, in Feces of Red Foxes

    PubMed Central

    van der Giessen, Joke; Haagmans, Bart L.; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.; Smits, Saskia L.

    2013-01-01

    Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) are the most widespread members of the order of Carnivora. Since they often live in (peri)urban areas, they are a potential reservoir of viruses that transmit from wildlife to humans or domestic animals. Here we evaluated the fecal viral microbiome of 13 red foxes by random PCR in combination with next-generation sequencing. Various novel viruses, including a parvovirus, bocavirus, adeno-associated virus, hepevirus, astroviruses, and picobirnaviruses, were identified. PMID:23616657

  15. Delivery of Evidence-Based Treatment for Multiple Anxiety Disorders in Primary Care: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Roy-Byrne, Peter; Craske, Michelle G.; Sullivan, Greer; Rose, Raphael D.; Edlund, Mark J.; Lang, Ariel J.; Bystritsky, Alexander; Welch, Stacy Shaw; Chavira, Denise A.; Golinelli, Daniela; Campbell-Sills, Laura; Sherbourne, Cathy D.; Stein, Murray B.

    2010-01-01

    Context Improving the quality of mental health care requires moving clinical interventions from controlled research settings into “real world” practice settings. While such advances have been made for depression, little work has been done for anxiety disorders. Objective To determine whether a flexible treatment-delivery model for multiple primary care anxiety disorders (panic, generalized anxiety, social anxiety, and/or posttraumatic stress disorders) would be superior to usual care. Design, Setting, and Participants Randomized controlled effectiveness trial of CALM (“Coordinated Anxiety Learning and Management”) compared to usual care (UC) in 17 primary care clinics in 4 US cities. Between June 2006 and April 2008, 1004 patients with anxiety disorders (with or without major depression), age 18–75, English- or Spanish-speaking, enrolled and subsequently received treatment for 3–12 months. Blinded follow-up assessments at 6, 12, and 18 months after baseline were completed in October 2009. Intervention(s) CALM allowed choice of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), medication, or both; included real-time web-based outcomes monitoring to optimize treatment decisions and a computer-assisted program to optimize delivery of CBT by non-expert care managers who also assisted primary care providers in promoting adherence and optimizing medications. Main Outcome Measure(s) 12-item Brief Symptom Inventory (anxiety and somatic symptoms) score. Secondary outcomes: Proportion of responders (? 50% reduction from pre-treatment BSI-12 score) and remitters (total BSI-12 score < 6). Results Significantly greater improvement for CALM than UC in global anxiety symptoms: BSI-12 group differences of ?2.49 (95% CI, ?3.59 to ?1.40), ?2.63 (95% CI, ?3.73 to ?1.54), and ?1.63 (95% CI, ?2.73 to ?0.53) at 6, 12, and 18 months, respectively. At 12 months, response and remission rates (CALM vs. UC) were 63.66% (58.95–68.37) vs. 44.68% (39.76–49.59), and 51.49% (46.60–56.38) vs. 33.28% (28.62–37.93), with a number needed to treat (NNT) of 5.27 (4.18–7.13) for response and 5.5 (4.32–7.55) for remission. Conclusions For patients with anxiety disorders treated in primary care clinics, a collaborative care intervention, compared to usual care, resulted in greater improvement in anxiety symptoms, functional disability, and quality of care over 18 months. PMID:20483968

  16. Genome-wide association study of bipolar disorder in Canadian and UK populations corroborates disease loci including SYNE1 and CSMD1

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recently, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for cases versus controls using single nucleotide polymorphism microarray data have shown promising findings for complex neuropsychiatric disorders, including bipolar disorder (BD). Methods Here we describe a comprehensive genome-wide study of bipolar disorder (BD), cross-referencing analysis from a family-based study of 229 small families with association analysis from over 950 cases and 950 ethnicity-matched controls from the UK and Canada. Further, loci identified in these analyses were supported by pathways identified through pathway analysis on the samples. Results Although no genome-wide significant markers were identified, the combined GWAS findings have pointed to several genes of interest that support GWAS findings for BD from other groups or consortia, such as at SYNE1 on 6q25, PPP2R2C on 4p16.1, ZNF659 on 3p24.3, CNTNAP5 (2q14.3), and CDH13 (16q23.3). This apparent corroboration across multiple sites gives much confidence to the likelihood of genetic involvement in BD at these loci. In particular, our two-stage strategy found association in both our combined case/control analysis and the family-based analysis on 1q21.2 (closest gene: sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 gene, S1PR1) and on 1q24.1 near the gene TMCO1, and at CSMD1 on 8p23.2, supporting several previous GWAS reports for BD and for schizophrenia. Pathway analysis suggests association of pathways involved in calcium signalling, neuropathic pain signalling, CREB signalling in neurons, glutamate receptor signalling and axonal guidance signalling. Conclusions The findings presented here show support for a number of genes previously implicated genes in the etiology of BD, including CSMD1 and SYNE1, as well as evidence for previously unreported genes such as the brain-expressed genes ADCY2, NCALD, WDR60, SCN7A and SPAG16. PMID:24387768

  17. The product of microbial uranium reduction includes multiple species with U(IV)-phosphate coordination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alessi, Daniel S.; Lezama-Pacheco, Juan S.; Stubbs, Joanne E.; Janousch, Markus; Bargar, John R.; Persson, Per; Bernier-Latmani, Rizlan

    2014-04-01

    Until recently, the reduction of U(VI) to U(IV) during bioremediation was assumed to produce solely the sparingly soluble mineral uraninite, UO2(s). However, results from several laboratories reveal other species of U(IV) characterized by the absence of an EXAFS U-U pair correlation (referred to here as noncrystalline U(IV)). Because it lacks the crystalline structure of uraninite, this species is likely to be more labile and susceptible to reoxidation. In the case of single species cultures, analyses of U extended X-ray fine structure (EXAFS) spectra have previously suggested U(IV) coordination to carboxyl, phosphoryl or carbonate groups. In spite of this evidence, little is understood about the species that make up noncrystalline U(IV), their structural chemistry and the nature of the U(IV)-ligand interactions. Here, we use infrared spectroscopy (IR), uranium LIII-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), and phosphorus K-edge XAS analyses to constrain the binding environments of phosphate and uranium associated with Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 bacterial cells. Systems tested as a function of pH included: cells under metal-reducing conditions without uranium, cells under reducing conditions that produced primarily uraninite, and cells under reducing conditions that produced primarily biomass-associated noncrystalline U(IV). P X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) results provided clear and direct evidence of U(IV) coordination to phosphate. Infrared (IR) spectroscopy revealed a pronounced perturbation of phosphate functional groups in the presence of uranium. Analysis of these data provides evidence that U(IV) is coordinated to a range of phosphate species, including monomers and polymerized networks. U EXAFS analyses and a chemical extraction measurements support these conclusions. The results of this study provide new insights into the binding mechanisms of biomass-associated U(IV) species which in turn sheds light on the mechanisms of biological U(VI) reduction.

  18. Joint source based analysis of multiple brain structures in studying major depressive disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramezani, Mahdi; Rasoulian, Abtin; Hollenstein, Tom; Harkness, Kate; Johnsrude, Ingrid; Abolmaesumi, Purang

    2014-03-01

    We propose a joint Source-Based Analysis (jSBA) framework to identify brain structural variations in patients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). In this framework, features representing position, orientation and size (i.e. pose), shape, and local tissue composition are extracted. Subsequently, simultaneous analysis of these features within a joint analysis method is performed to generate the basis sources that show signi cant di erences between subjects with MDD and those in healthy control. Moreover, in a cross-validation leave- one-out experiment, we use a Fisher Linear Discriminant (FLD) classi er to identify individuals within the MDD group. Results show that we can classify the MDD subjects with an accuracy of 76% solely based on the information gathered from the joint analysis of pose, shape, and tissue composition in multiple brain structures.

  19. Rugulactone and its analogues exert antibacterial effects through multiple mechanisms including inhibition of thiamine biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Nodwell, Matthew B; Menz, Helge; Kirsch, Stefan F; Sieber, Stephan A

    2012-07-01

    Rugulactone is a dihydro-?-pyrone isolated from the plant Cryptocarya rugulosa in 2009. It has been reported to display IkB kinase (IKK) inhibitory activity, as well as antibiotic activity in several strains of pathogenic bacteria. However, its biological targets and mode of action in bacteria have not yet been explored. Here we present enantioselective syntheses of rugulactone and of some corresponding activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) probes. We found that the ABPP probes in this study are more potent than rugulactone against Staphyloccocus aureus NCTC 8325, S. aureus Mu50, Listeria welshimeri SLCC 5334 and Listeria monocytogenes EGD-e, and that molecules of this class probably exert their antibacterial effect through a combination of targets. These targets include covalent inhibition of 4-amino-5-hydroxymethyl-2-methylpyrimidine phosphate (HMPP) kinase (ThiD), which is an essential component of the thiamine biosynthesis pathway in bacteria. This represents the first example of a small-molecule inhibitor of ThiD. PMID:22653914

  20. Does the mind fall apart in multiple personality disorder? Some proposals based on a psychoanalytic case.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, R M

    1997-01-01

    A psychoanalytic study of some of the phenomena of multiple personality disorder (MPD), this paper takes issue with the view that a falling apart, fragmentation, or disaggregation of the mind is at the bottom of MPD's characteristic symptoms. Since first proposed by Janet in 1889, the view that ordinarily integrated parts of the mind separate from the center, accounting for the appearance of separate "selves," has prevailed among workers in this field. The close psychoanalytic study of a case of MPD suggests that, to the contrary, the appearance of multiplicity may derive from an essentially unitary but nonetheless powerful set of organizing fantasies centering on the idea that one's body and mind can be taken over and controlled by persons other than oneself. The data of the case under study suggest, further, that certain of the details of these patients' histories of childhood sexual and physical abuse may be of great importance in explaining the extraordinary organizing power of their fantasies of being occupied and controlled. In this connection, special attention is directed to the very commonly reported experiences of forced violation and the involuntary filling and emptying of their bodies during childhood. PMID:9353711

  1. MCIDAS mutations result in a mucociliary clearance disorder with reduced generation of multiple motile cilia.

    PubMed

    Boon, Mieke; Wallmeier, Julia; Ma, Lina; Loges, Niki Tomas; Jaspers, Martine; Olbrich, Heike; Dougherty, Gerard W; Raidt, Johanna; Werner, Claudius; Amirav, Israel; Hevroni, Avigdor; Abitbul, Revital; Avital, Avraham; Soferman, Ruth; Wessels, Marja; O'Callaghan, Christopher; Chung, Eddie M K; Rutman, Andrew; Hirst, Robert A; Moya, Eduardo; Mitchison, Hannah M; Van Daele, Sabine; De Boeck, Kris; Jorissen, Mark; Kintner, Chris; Cuppens, Harry; Omran, Heymut

    2014-01-01

    Reduced generation of multiple motile cilia (RGMC) is a rare mucociliary clearance disorder. Affected persons suffer from recurrent infections of upper and lower airways because of highly reduced numbers of multiple motile respiratory cilia. Here we report recessive loss-of-function and missense mutations in MCIDAS-encoding Multicilin, which was shown to promote the early steps of multiciliated cell differentiation in Xenopus. MCIDAS mutant respiratory epithelial cells carry only one or two cilia per cell, which lack ciliary motility-related proteins (DNAH5; CCDC39) as seen in primary ciliary dyskinesia. Consistent with this finding, FOXJ1-regulating axonemal motor protein expression is absent in respiratory cells of MCIDAS mutant individuals. CCNO, when mutated known to cause RGMC, is also absent in MCIDAS mutant respiratory cells, consistent with its downstream activity. Thus, our findings identify Multicilin as a key regulator of CCNO/FOXJ1 for human multiciliated cell differentiation, and highlight the 5q11 region containing CCNO and MCIDAS as a locus underlying RGMC. PMID:25048963

  2. An Overview of Multiple Sclerosis: Medical, Psychosocial, and Vocational Aspects of a Chronic and Unpredictable Neurological Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rumrill, Phillip D., Jr.; Roessler, Richard T.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an overview of multiple sclerosis (MS), one of the most common neurological disorders in the western hemisphere. Medical and psychosocial aspects of the disease such as causes and risk factors, diagnosis, incidence and prevalence, symptoms, courses, and treatment are described. Existing research regarding the employment…

  3. Multiple Channel Exposure Therapy: Combining Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies for the Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder with Panic Attacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falsetti, Sherry A.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Davis, Joanne

    2005-01-01

    A large proportion of patients who present for treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) experience comorbid panic attacks, yet it is unclear to what extent currently available PTSD treatment programs address this problem. Here we describe a newly developed treatment, multiple-channel exposure therapy (M-CET), for comorbid PTSD and panic…

  4. International Myeloma Working Group guidelines for serum-free light chain analysis in multiple myeloma and related disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Dispenzieri; R Kyle; G Merlini; J S Miguel; H Ludwig; R Hajek; A Palumbo; S Jagannath; J Blade; S Lonial; M Dimopoulos; R Comenzo; H Einsele; B Barlogie; K Anderson; M Gertz; J L Harousseau; M Attal; P Tosi; P Sonneveld; M Boccadoro; G Morgan; P Richardson; O Sezer; M V Mateos; M Cavo; D Joshua; I Turesson; W Chen; K Shimizu; R Powles; S V Rajkumar; B G M Durie

    2009-01-01

    The serum immunoglobulin-free light chain (FLC) assay measures levels of free ? and ? immunoglobulin light chains. There are three major indications for the FLC assay in the evaluation and management of multiple myeloma and related plasma cell disorders (PCD). In the context of screening, the serum FLC assay in combination with serum protein electrophoresis (PEL) and immunofixation yields high

  5. The Role of Psychological Process in a Somatic Disorder: Multiple Sclerosis 1. The Emotional Setting of Illness Onset and Exacerbation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    VARDA MEI-TAL; SANFORD MEYEROWITZ; GEORGE L. ENGEL

    In 32 patients from the United States and Israel with multiple sclerosis the role of psychological processes was examined in relationship to the transitional period between health and the onset of disease. In 28 of these patients the emergence of symptoms ultimately diagnosed as those of the demyelinating disorder occurred in conjunction with a psychologically stressful situation. The corresponding intra-

  6. A Comparison of Multiple Data Sources to Identify Vaccinations for Veterans with Spinal Cord Injuries and Disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frances M Weaver; Michael Hatzakis; Charlesnika T Evans; Bridget Smith; Sherri L LaVela; Carolyn Wallace; Marcia W Legro; Barry Goldstein

    2004-01-01

    Monitoring vaccination activity requires regular access to information about patient vaccination status. This report describes our experience using multiple Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) data sources to determine availability and completeness of vaccination information for veterans with spinal cord injuries and disorders (SCI&D). Administrative and clinical databases were limited to coding vaccine administration, undercounted vaccinations, and were unable to account

  7. Single- or multiple-session viscosupplementation protocols for temporomandibular joint degenerative disorders: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Guarda-Nardini, L; Rossi, A; Arboretti, R; Bonnini, S; Stellini, E; Manfredini, D

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the effectiveness of two single-session protocols, either adopting high- (protocol A) or medium-molecular weight hyaluronic acid (protocol B), with the reference five-session protocol of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) lavage plus viscosupplementation (protocol C) in the management of chronic TMJ degenerative disorders. A randomized clinical trial (RCT) with ten participants per treatment group was designed, with multiple observation points, ending at 6 months after treatment. Pain levels on a 10-point VAS scale were selected as the primary outcome variable to rate treatment effectiveness, along with a number of secondary outcome parameters. Findings showed that Group C patients had the highest decrease in pain levels. Nonparametric permutation analyses revealed that the global effect of treatment was significantly different between the three protocols (P = 0·024). Pairwise comparisons showed that the differences of treatment effect between the two single-session interventions were negligible (global P-value = 0·93). On the contrary, the five-session protocol was significantly superior to both single-session protocols (global P-values ranging from 0·003 to 0·012). In conclusion, in a population of age-, sex-, and psychosocial aspects-matched study groups, the standard of reference five-session protocol proved to be superior at 6 months as far as the decrease in pain levels was concerned, whilst there were no differences between the two single-session interventions. The absence of differences in treatment effect as for some other secondary clinical outcome variables may suggest that there is further space for future investigations attempting to reduce the number of multiple interventions for TMJ viscosupplementation. PMID:25704621

  8. Exploring the role of microglia in mood disorders associated with experimental multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Gentile, Antonietta; De Vito, Francesca; Fresegna, Diego; Musella, Alessandra; Buttari, Fabio; Bullitta, Silvia; Mandolesi, Georgia; Centonze, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Microglia is increasingly recognized to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of psychiatric diseases. In particular, microglia may be the cellular link between inflammation and behavioral alterations: by releasing a number of soluble factors, among which pro-inflammatory cytokines, that can regulate synaptic activity, thereby leading to perturbation of behavior. In multiple sclerosis (MS), the most common neuroinflammatory disorder affecting young adults, microglia activation and dysfunction may account for mood symptoms, like depression and anxiety, that are often diagnosed in patients even in the absence of motor disability. Behavioral studies in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the animal model of MS, have shown that emotional changes occur early in the disease and in correlation to inflammatory mediator and neurotransmitter level alterations. However, such studies lack a full and comprehensive analysis of the role played by microglia in EAE-behavioral syndrome. We review the experimental studies addressing behavioral symptoms in EAE, and propose the study of neuron-glia interaction as a powerful but still poorly explored tool to investigate the burden of microglia in mood alterations associated to MS.

  9. Periventricular Lesions Help Differentiate Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorders from Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Loh, John P.; Saba, Luca; Omari, Mirza; Herbert, Joseph; Kister, Ilya

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To compare periventricular lesions in multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOsd). Materials and Methods. Sagittal and axial fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequences of 20 NMOsd and 40 group frequency-matched MS patients were evaluated by two neuroradiologists. On axial FLAIR, periventricular area was characterized as free of lesions/smooth-bordered (“type A”) or jagged-bordered (“type B”) pattern. On sagittal FLAIR, the images were evaluated for presence of “Dawson's fingers.” Results. Type A pattern was observed in 80% of NMOsd patients by Reader 1 and 85% by Reader 2 but only in 5% MS patients by either Reader. Type B was seen in 15% NMOsd patients by Reader 1 and 20% by Reader 2 and in 95% MS patients by either Reader. Dawson's fingers were observed in no NMOsd patients by Reader 1 and 5% by Reader 2. In MS, Dawson's fingers were seen in 92.5% patients by Reader 1 and 77.5% by Reader 2. The differences in periventricular patterns and Dawson's finger detection between NMOsd and MS were highly significant (P < 0.001). Conclusions. Dawson's fingers and “jagged-bordered” periventricular hyperintensities are typical of MS and almost never seen in NMOsd, which suggests a practical method for differentiating the two diseases. PMID:24665366

  10. Exploring the Social Impact of Being a Typical Peer Model for Included Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locke, Jill; Rotheram-Fuller, Erin; Kasari, Connie

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the social impact of being a typical peer model as part of a social skills intervention for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants were drawn from a randomized-controlled-treatment trial that examined the effects of targeted interventions on the social networks of 60 elementary-aged children with ASD.…

  11. Compound K, a Ginsenoside Metabolite, Inhibits Colon Cancer Growth via Multiple Pathways Including p53-p21 Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhiyu; Du, Guang-Jian; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Wen, Xiao-Dong; Calway, Tyler; Li, Zejuan; He, Tong-Chuan; Du, Wei; Bissonnette, Marc; Musch, Mark W.; Chang, Eugene B.; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2013-01-01

    Compound K (20-O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-20(S)-protopanaxadiol, CK), an intestinal bacterial metabolite of ginseng protopanaxadiol saponins, has been shown to inhibit cell growth in a variety of cancers. However, the mechanisms are not completely understood, especially in colorectal cancer (CRC). A xenograft tumor model was used first to examine the anti-CRC effect of CK in vivo. Then, multiple in vitro assays were applied to investigate the anticancer effects of CK including antiproliferation, apoptosis and cell cycle distribution. In addition, a qPCR array and western blot analysis were executed to screen and validate the molecules and pathways involved. We observed that CK significantly inhibited the growth of HCT-116 tumors in an athymic nude mouse xenograft model. CK significantly inhibited the proliferation of human CRC cell lines HCT-116, SW-480, and HT-29 in a dose- and time-dependent manner. We also observed that CK induced cell apoptosis and arrested the cell cycle in the G1 phase in HCT-116 cells. The processes were related to the upregulation of p53/p21, FoxO3a-p27/p15 and Smad3, and downregulation of cdc25A, CDK4/6 and cyclin D1/3. The major regulated targets of CK were cyclin dependent inhibitors, including p21, p27, and p15. These results indicate that CK inhibits transcriptional activation of multiple tumor-promoting pathways in CRC, suggesting that CK could be an active compound in the prevention or treatment of CRC. PMID:23434653

  12. Suicide, Hospital-Presenting Suicide Attempts, and Criminality in Bipolar Disorder: Examination of Risk for Multiple Adverse Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Roger T.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Larsson, Henrik; Geddes, John R.; Fazel, Seena

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare risks for suicidality and criminality in a national cohort of people diagnosed with bipolar disorder, and to assess how risk factor profiles differ between these outcomes. Method We conducted 2 case-cohort studies using interlinked Swedish national registers. Primarily, using International Classification of Diseases (ICD) coding, we identified 15,337 people diagnosed with bipolar disorder, 1973–2009, matched by age and gender to 20 individuals per case sampled randomly from the general population. We estimated risks of suicide and hospital-presenting attempted suicide, and violent and nonviolent criminal offending. We separately assessed these risks among 14,677 unaffected siblings matched to a second general population sample. Results 22.2% of bipolar disorder cohort members engaged in suicidal or criminal acts after diagnosis. They were at greatly elevated risk for completed suicide (risk ratio = 18.8; 95% CI, 16.0–22.2), attempted suicide (risk ratio = 14.3; 95% CI, 13.5–15.2), violent crime (risk ratio = 5.0; 95% CI, 4.6–5.4), and nonviolent crime (risk ratio = 2.9; 95% CI, 2.8–3.1) compared with the general population. Elevations in risk were far less marked among the unaffected siblings than in the bipolar disorder cohort. Three factors independently predicted raised risk of all 4 adverse outcomes: if the first 2 patient episodes for bipolar disorder required admission, a history of attempted suicide, and a history of diagnosed alcohol/drug disorder. Criminal offending before bipolar diagnosis was an especially strong independent predictor of criminality after diagnosis. Conclusions The combined risk of suicidality or criminality is substantially elevated in both relative and absolute terms. Clinical prediction rules focusing on multiple vulnerabilities following onset of bipolar disorder, especially when there is history of attempted suicide, substance misuse disorders, or criminal offending, may improve risk management. PMID:25191918

  13. Clinical and neuroimaging correlation of movement disorders in multiple sclerosis: case series and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Potulska-Chromik, Anna; Rudzinska, Monika; Nojszewska, Monika; Podlecka-Pi?towska, Aleksandra; Szczudlik, Andrzej; Zakrzewska-Pniewska, Beata; Go??biowski, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, in which movement disorders (MD) have been reported very rarely. Anatomopathological studies of MS indicate two main processes: inflammation and neurodegeneration. The occurrence of the movement disorders symptoms in MS revises the question of aetiology of these two diseases. During the 10 years of observation in our out-patient clinic and MS units we examined about 2500 patients with clinically definite MS diagnosed according to the revised McDonald's criteria. Only in 10 cases we found coexistence of MS and MD signs. Below we present rare cases of patients with coexistence of MS and chorea, pseudoathetosis, dystonia and parkinsonism. Searching for the strategic focal lesion in our case series showed demyelinating plaques placed in the thalamus most often. Detailed analysis of the clinical, pharmacological and neuroimaging correlations may help to explain the character of movement disorders in MS. PMID:24729346

  14. No proof of linkage between schizophrenia-related disorders including schizophrenia and chromosome 2q21 region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harald N. Aschauer; Gabriele Fischer; Keith E. Isenberg; Kurt Meszaros; Ulrike Willinger; Richard D. Todd; Henriette Beran; Rainer Strobl; Manuela Lang; Karoline Fuchs; Werner Sieghart; Theodore Reich; C. Robert Cloninger

    1993-01-01

    Summary We examined linkage between schizophrenia and schizophrenia-related disorders and five genetic markers on chromosome 2 in fourteen families ascertained through affected probands in St. Louis and Vienna. The chromosomal region 2q21 was considered a candidate locus for schizophrenia because of a report of a balanced translocation 2;18 (q21;q23) in a schizophrenia family. Linkage analyses were conducted for three disease

  15. P450 Oxidoreductase Deficiency: A Disorder of Steroidogenesis with Multiple Clinical Manifestations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Walter L. Miller (San Francisco; University of California REV)

    2012-10-23

    Cytochrome P450 enzymes catalyze the biosynthesis of steroid hormones and metabolize drugs. There are seven human type I P450 enzymes in mitochondria and 50 type II enzymes in endoplasmic reticulum. Type II enzymes, including both drug-metabolizing and some steroidogenic enzymes, require electron donation from a two-flavin protein, P450 oxidoreductase (POR). Although knockout of the POR gene causes embryonic lethality in mice, we discovered human POR deficiency as a disorder of steroidogenesis associated with the Antley-Bixler skeletal malformation syndrome and found mild POR mutations in phenotypically normal adults with infertility. Assay results of mutant forms of POR using the traditional but nonphysiologic assay (reduction of cytochrome c) did not correlate with patient phenotypes; assays based on the 17,20 lyase activity of P450c17 (CYP17) correlated with clinical phenotypes. The POR sequence in 842 normal individuals revealed many polymorphisms; amino acid sequence variant A503V is encoded by ~28% of human alleles. POR A503V has about 60% of wild-type activity in assays with CYP17, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4, but nearly wild-type activity with P450c21, CYP1A2, and CYP2C19. Activity of a particular POR variant with one P450 enzyme will not predict its activity with another P450 enzyme: Each POR-P450 combination must be studied individually. Human POR transcription, initiated from an untranslated exon, is regulated by Smad3/4, thyroid receptors, and the transcription factor AP-2. A promoter polymorphism reduces transcription to 60% in liver cells and to 35% in adrenal cells. POR deficiency is a newly described disorder of steroidogenesis, and POR variants may account for some genetic variation in drug metabolism.

  16. Immediate-Release Methylphenidate for ADHD in Children with Comorbid Chronic Multiple Tic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadow, Kenneth D.; Sverd, Jeffrey; Nolan, Edith E.; Sprafkin, Joyce; Schneider, Jayne

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine the safety and efficacy of immediate-release methylphenidate (MPH-IR) for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children (ages 6-12 years) with Tourette's syndrome (96%) or chronic motor tic disorder (4%). Method: Two cohorts of prepubertal children (N = 71) received placebo and three doses of…

  17. Commentary: Differentiated Measures of Temperament and Multiple Pathways to Childhood Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothbart, Mary K.

    2004-01-01

    Provided is a commentary on articles written for a special section on temperament and childhood disorders. Temperament's contributions to the development of childhood disorders are considered both generally and specifically. Questions are raised about the use of terminology in the field, particularly the term difficult. Differentiation of outcomes…

  18. Multiple Hypercoagulability Disorders at Presentation of Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeong Min; Lim, Jun Hyeok; Kim, Jung-Soo; Park, Ji Sun; Memon, Azra; Lee, Seul-Ki; Nam, Hae-Seong; Cho, Jae-Hwa; Kwak, Seung-Min; Lee, Hong Lyeol; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Hong, Geun-Jeong

    2014-01-01

    Hypercoagulability disorders are commonly encountered in clinical situations in patients with a variety of cancers. However, several hypercoagulability disorders presenting as first symptoms or signs in cancer patients have rarely been reported. We herein described a case of a woman with adenocarcinoma of the lung presenting with deep vein thrombosis, nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis, recurrent cerebral embolic infarction, and heart failure. PMID:25114702

  19. Chest Injuries and Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... inside of the chest cavity. Chest injuries and disorders include Heart diseases Lung diseases and collapsed lung Pleural disorders Esophagus disorders Broken ribs Thoracic aortic aneurysms Disorders ...

  20. Treatment of depressive disorders in primary care - protocol of a multiple treatment systematic review of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Several systematic reviews have summarized the evidence for specific treatments of primary care patients suffering from depression. However, it is not possible to answer the question how the available treatment options compare with each other as review methods differ. We aim to systematically review and compare the available evidence for the effectiveness of pharmacological, psychological, and combined treatments for patients with depressive disorders in primary care. Methods/Design To be included, studies have to be randomized trials comparing antidepressant medication (tricyclic antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), hypericum extracts, other agents) and/or psychological therapies (e.g. interpersonal psychotherapy, cognitive therapy, behavioural therapy, short dynamically-oriented psychotherapy) with another active therapy, placebo or sham intervention, routine care or no treatment in primary care patients in the acute phase of a depressive episode. Main outcome measure is response after completion of acute phase treatment. Eligible studies will be identified from available systematic reviews, from searches in electronic databases (Medline, Embase and Central), trial registers, and citation tracking. Two reviewers will independently extract study data and assess the risk of bias using the Cochrane Collaboration's corresponding tool. Meta-analyses (random effects model, inverse variance weighting) will be performed for direct comparisons of single interventions and for groups of similar interventions (e.g. SSRIs vs. tricyclics) and defined time-windows (up to 3 months and above). If possible, a global analysis of the relative effectiveness of treatments will be estimated from all available direct and indirect evidence that is present in a network of treatments and comparisons. Discussion Practitioners do not only want to know whether there is evidence that a specific treatment is more effective than placebo, but also how the treatment options compare to each other. Therefore, we believe that a multiple treatment systematic review of primary-care based randomized controlled trials on the most important therapies against depression is timely. PMID:22085705

  1. Cognitive impairment and memory disorders in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: the role of white matter, gray matter and hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Sacco, R; Bisecco, A; Corbo, D; Della Corte, M; d'Ambrosio, A; Docimo, R; Gallo, A; Esposito, F; Esposito, S; Cirillo, M; Lavorgna, L; Tedeschi, G; Bonavita, S

    2015-07-01

    Cognitive disorders occur in up to 65 % of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients; they have been correlated with different MRI measures of brain tissue damage, whole and regional brain atrophy. The hippocampal involvement has been poorly investigated in cognitively impaired (CI) MS patients. The objective of this study is to analyze and compare brain tissue abnormalities, including hippocampal atrophy, in relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) patients with and without cognitive deficits, and to investigate their role in determining cognitive impairment in MS. Forty-six RRMS patients [20 CI and 26 cognitively preserved (CP)] and 25 age, sex and education-matched healthy controls (HCs) underwent neuropsychological evaluation and 3-Tesla anatomical MRI. T2 lesion load (T2-LL) was computed with a semiautomatic method, gray matter volume and white matter volume were estimated using SIENAX. Hippocampal volume (HV) was obtained by manual segmentation. Brain tissues volumes were compared among groups and correlated with cognitive performances. Compared to HCs, RRMS patients had significant atrophy of WM, GM, left and right Hippocampus (p < 0.001). Compared to CP, CI RRMS patients showed higher T2-LL (p = 0.02) and WM atrophy (p = 0.01). In the whole RRMS group, several cognitive tests correlated with brain tissue abnormalities (T2-LL, WM and GM atrophy); only verbal memory performances correlated with left hippocampal atrophy. Our results emphasize the role of T2-LL and WM atrophy in determining clinically evident cognitive impairment in MS patients and provide evidence that GM and hippocampal atrophy occur in MS patients regardless of cognitive status. PMID:25957638

  2. The multiple dimensions of the social anxiety spectrum in mood disorders.

    PubMed

    Fournier, Jay C; Cyranowski, Jill M; Rucci, Paola; Cassano, Giovanni B; Frank, Ellen

    2012-09-01

    Major depressive disorder and bipolar spectrum disorders are debilitating conditions associated with severe impairment. The presence of co-occurring social phobia can make the clinical course of these disorders even more challenging. To better understand the nature of social anxiety in the context of ongoing mood disorders, we report the results of exploratory factor analyses of the Social Phobia Spectrum Self-Report Instrument (SHY), a 162-item measure designed to capture the full spectrum of manifestations and features associated with social anxiety experienced across the lifespan. We examined data from 359 adult outpatients diagnosed with major depressive disorder and 403 outpatients diagnosed with a bipolar spectrum disorder. The measure was divided into its two components: the SHY-General (SHY-G), reflecting general social anxiety features, and the SHY-Specific (SHY-S), reflecting anxiety in specific situations. Exploratory factor analyses were conducted for each using tetrachoric correlation matrices and an unweighted least squares estimator. Item invariance was evaluated for important patient subgroups. Five factors were identified for the SHY-G, representing general features of social anxiety: Fear of Social Disapproval, Childhood Social Anxiety, Somatic Social Anxiety, Excessive Agreeableness, and Behavioral Submission. Seven specific-situation factors were identified from the SHY-S: Writing in Public, Dating, Public Speaking, Eating in Public, Shopping Fears, Using Public Restrooms, and Unstructured Social Interactions. The identified dimensions provide clinically valuable information about the nature of the social fears experienced by individuals diagnosed with mood disorders and could help guide the development of tailored treatment strategies for individuals with co-occurring mood disorders and social anxiety. PMID:22771202

  3. Proximal renal tubular acidosis: a not so rare disorder of multiple etiologies

    PubMed Central

    Haque, Syed K.; Ariceta, Gema; Batlle, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Proximal renal tubular acidosis (RTA) (Type II RTA) is characterized by a defect in the ability to reabsorb HCO3 in the proximal tubule. This is usually manifested as bicarbonate wastage in the urine reflecting that the defect in proximal tubular transport is severe enough that the capacity for bicarbonate reabsorption in the thick ascending limb of Henle's loop and more distal nephron segments is overwhelmed. More subtle defects in proximal bicarbonate transport likely go clinically unrecognized owing to compensatory reabsorption of bicarbonate distally. Inherited proximal RTA is more commonly autosomal recessive and has been associated with mutations in the basolateral sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter (NBCe1). Mutations in this transporter lead to reduced activity and/or trafficking, thus disrupting the normal bicarbonate reabsorption process of the proximal tubules. As an isolated defect for bicarbonate transport, proximal RTA is rare and is more often associated with the Fanconi syndrome characterized by urinary wastage of solutes like phosphate, uric acid, glucose, amino acids, low-molecular-weight proteins as well as bicarbonate. A vast array of rare tubular disorders may cause proximal RTA but most commonly it is induced by drugs. With the exception of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors which cause isolated proximal RTA, drug-induced proximal RTA is associated with Fanconi syndrome. Drugs that have been recently recognized to cause severe proximal RTA with Fanconi syndrome include ifosfamide, valproic acid and various antiretrovirals such as Tenofovir particularly when given to human immunodeficiency virus patients receiving concomitantly protease inhibitors such as ritonavir or reverse transcriptase inhibitors such as didanosine. PMID:23235953

  4. Multiple mechanisms involved in the large-spectrum therapeutic potential of cannabidiol in psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Campos, Alline Cristina; Moreira, Fabricio Araújo; Gomes, Felipe Villela; Del Bel, Elaine Aparecida; Guimarães, Francisco Silveira

    2012-12-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD) is a major phytocannabinoid present in the Cannabis sativa plant. It lacks the psychotomimetic and other psychotropic effects that the main plant compound ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) being able, on the contrary, to antagonize these effects. This property, together with its safety profile, was an initial stimulus for the investigation of CBD pharmacological properties. It is now clear that CBD has therapeutic potential over a wide range of non-psychiatric and psychiatric disorders such as anxiety, depression and psychosis. Although the pharmacological effects of CBD in different biological systems have been extensively investigated by in vitro studies, the mechanisms responsible for its therapeutic potential are still not clear. Here, we review recent in vivo studies indicating that these mechanisms are not unitary but rather depend on the behavioural response being measured. Acute anxiolytic and antidepressant-like effects seem to rely mainly on facilitation of 5-HT1A-mediated neurotransmission in key brain areas related to defensive responses, including the dorsal periaqueductal grey, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and medial prefrontal cortex. Other effects, such as anti-compulsive, increased extinction and impaired reconsolidation of aversive memories, and facilitation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis could depend on potentiation of anandamide-mediated neurotransmission. Finally, activation of TRPV1 channels may help us to explain the antipsychotic effect and the bell-shaped dose-response curves commonly observed with CBD. Considering its safety profile and wide range of therapeutic potential, however, further studies are needed to investigate the involvement of other possible mechanisms (e.g. inhibition of adenosine uptake, inverse agonism at CB2 receptor, CB1 receptor antagonism, GPR55 antagonism, PPAR? receptors agonism, intracellular (Ca(2+)) increase, etc.), on CBD behavioural effects. PMID:23108553

  5. Phonological disorder

    MedlinePLUS

    Articulation disorder; Developmental articulation disorder; Speech distortion; Sound distortion ... is often unknown. Close relatives may have had speech and language problems. Other risk factors may include ...

  6. Multiplication

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms.Roberts

    2009-02-24

    How sharp are your multiplication skills? Give these great math games a try ! Play Asteroids blaster and test your multiplication skills. How fast can you solve the problem... play a round of Baseball multiplication and see! Multiplication is fun and delicious with Crazy Cones. Help Lemonade Larry determine the correct amount! Test your multiplication skills with Tic Tac Toe! ...

  7. The persistence of folly: critical examination of dissociative identity disorder. Part II. The defence and decline of multiple personality or dissociative identity disorder.

    PubMed

    Piper, August; Merskey, Harold

    2004-10-01

    In this second part of our review, we continue to explore the illogical nature of the arguments offered to support the concept of dissociative identity disorder (DID). We also examine the harm done to patients by DID proponents' diagnostic and treatment methods. It is shown that these practices reify the alters and thereby iatrogenically encourage patients to behave as if they have multiple selves. We next examine the factors that make impossible a reliable diagnosis of DID--for example, the unsatisfactory, vague, and elastic definition of "alter personality." Because the diagnosis is unreliable, we believe that US and Canadian courts cannot responsibly accept testimony in favour of DID. Finally, we conclude with a guess about the condition's status over the next 10 years. PMID:15560314

  8. Differing reports of pain perception by different personalities in a patient with chronic pain and multiple personality disorder.

    PubMed

    McFadden, I J; Woitalla, V F

    1993-12-01

    There have been several reports of patients with chronic pain (CP) and dissociative or multiple personality disorder (MPD). This report describes a patient with MPD in whom 4 different personalities reported different perceptions of pain. Psychological testing was used to confirm the diagnosis of MPD. Visual analogue scales (VAS) and the McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ) were used on each of the 4 personalities. Each personality completed pain drawings to indicate currently perceived pain and resulting disability, and had EMG recordings of muscle tension. These studies documented a difference in pain perception, location, and estimates of secondary functional impairment between different personalities in the same patient. PMID:8121699

  9. Cerebellar Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... balance. Problems with the cerebellum include Cancer Genetic disorders Ataxias - failure of muscle control in the arms and legs that result in movement disorders Degeneration - disorders caused by brain cells decreasing in ...

  10. Temperament and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: The Development of a Multiple Pathway Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nigg, Joel T.; Goldsmith, H. Hill; Sachek, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    This article outlines the parallels between major theories of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and relevant temperament domains, summarizing recent research from our laboratories on (a) child temperament and (b) adult personality traits related to ADHD symptoms. These data are convergent in suggesting a role of effortful control and…

  11. Imaging Evidence for Disturbances in Multiple Learning and Memory Systems in Persons with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goh, Suzanne; Peterson, Bradley S.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this article is to review neuroimaging studies of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) that examine declarative, socio-emotional, and procedural learning and memory systems. Method: We conducted a search of PubMed from 1996 to 2010 using the terms "autism,""learning,""memory," and "neuroimaging." We limited our review to studies…

  12. Multiplication

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Walker

    2008-03-26

    Here are some fun games to make practicing multiplication fun!!! Before you start the fun... click Multiplication Tables to review what you already know! Can you figure out the Multiplication Hidden Picture... you better know your math skills first or the picture will burst! It\\'s times to have a \\"blast\\"... Blow me away with theMultiplication Tunnel Blaster Now your ready to join the team! Show me ...

  13. Endurance of Multiplication Fact Fluency for Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Kelly K.; Kubina, Richard M., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between a critical learning outcome of behavioral fluency and endurance, by comparing the effects of two practice procedures on multiplication facts two through nine. The first procedure, called whole time practice trial, consisted of an uninterrupted 1 minute practice time. The second procedure, endurance…

  14. Design of dual inhibitors of ROCK-I and NOX2 as potential leads for the treatment of neuroinflammation associated with various neurological diseases including autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Alokam, Reshma; Singhal, Sarthak; Srivathsav, Geetha Sai; Garigipati, Sowmya; Puppala, Sripriya; Sriram, Dharmarajan; Perumal, Yogeeswari

    2015-02-01

    Inhibition of both Rho kinase (ROCK-I) and NADPH oxidase (NOX2) to treat neuroinflammation could be very effective in the treatment of progressive neurological diseases like Alzheimer's disease, autism spectral disorder, and fragile X syndrome. NOX2 being a multi-enzyme component is activated during host defense in phagocytes such as microglia, to catalyze the production of superoxide from oxygen, while ROCK is an important mediator of fundamental cell processes like adhesion, proliferation and migration. Phosphorylated ROCK was found to activate NOX2 assembly via Ras related C3 botulinum toxin substrate (Rac) in disease conditions. Overexpression of ROCK-I and NOX2 in innate immune cells like microglial cells contribute to progressive neuronal damage early in neurological disease development. In the present study we employed a computer-aided methodology combining pharmacophores and molecular docking to identify new chemical entities that could inhibit ROCK-I as well as NOX2 (p47 phox). Among the huge dataset of a commercial database, top 18 molecules with crucial binding interactions were selected for biological evaluation. Seven among the lead molecules exhibited inhibitory potential against ROCK-I and NOX2 with IC50s ranging from 1.588 to 856.2 nM and 0.8942 to 10.24 ?M, respectively, and emerged as potential hits as dual inhibitors with adequate selectivity index (SI = CC50/GIC50) in cell-based assays. The most active compound 3 was further found to show reduction of the pro-inflammatory mediators such as TNF?, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1?) mRNA expression levels in activated (MeHg treated) human neuroblastoma (IMR32) cell lines. Hence the present work documented the utility of these dual inhibitors as prototypical leads to be useful for the treatment of neurological disorders including autism spectrum disorder and Alzheimer's disease. PMID:25465055

  15. Ca analysis: An Excel based program for the analysis of intracellular calcium transients including multiple, simultaneous regression analysis?

    PubMed Central

    Greensmith, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Here I present an Excel based program for the analysis of intracellular Ca transients recorded using fluorescent indicators. The program can perform all the necessary steps which convert recorded raw voltage changes into meaningful physiological information. The program performs two fundamental processes. (1) It can prepare the raw signal by several methods. (2) It can then be used to analyze the prepared data to provide information such as absolute intracellular Ca levels. Also, the rates of change of Ca can be measured using multiple, simultaneous regression analysis. I demonstrate that this program performs equally well as commercially available software, but has numerous advantages, namely creating a simplified, self-contained analysis workflow. PMID:24125908

  16. Application of the Multiplicative-Additive Model in the Bone Marrow Transplantation Survival Data Including Competing Risks

    PubMed Central

    ASHOURI, Asieh; HAMIDIEH, Amirali; MAHMOODI, Mahmood; MOHAMMAD, Kazem; HADJIBABAIE, Molouk; ZERAATI, Hojjat; KARIMI, Akram; GHAVAMZADEH, Ardeshir

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cox proportional hazard model is a popular choice in modeling the survival data, but sometimes proportionality assumption is not satisfied. One of the tools for handling the non-proportional effects is the multiplicative-additive model named “Cox-Aalen model”. Recently these flexible regression models developed for competing risks setting. The aim of this paper is showing the application of the multiplicative-additive model in competing risks setting on real bone marrow transplantation (BMT) data when the proportionality assumption is violated. Methods: The data was from a retrospective study on class III thalassemia patients who undergo hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in BMT ward of Shariatei Hospital, Tehran, Iran. The neutrophil engraftment time as the early outcome of HSCT on37 patients who received mesenchymal stem cell infusion (MSC group) compared with 50 patients who did not. We fit the standard proportional models and flexible Cox-Aalen model in the sub distribution hazards. Results: By day 30 after transplantation, the cumulative incidence of neutrophil recovery was 97% (95%CI: 89%–100%) and 76%(95%CI: 64%–88%) in MSC and control group, respectively. Based on the Cox-Aalen model for cumulative incidence function, the MSC infusion had a significant delay effect on neutrophil engraftment (P=.044). In patients who did not neutrophil recovery immediately after HSCT, those who received MSC had faster recovery. Conclusion: Cox-Aalen model provides more accurate statistical description for time-varying covariate effects. There is a positive effect of MSCs on the neutrophil recovery, however further study on the advantages and disadvantages of MSCs are needed.

  17. A comparison of three Rorschach diagnostic systems and use of the Hand Test for detecting multiple personality disorder in outpatients.

    PubMed

    Young, G R; Wagner, E E; Finn, R F

    1994-06-01

    Eleven individuals diagnosed with multiple personality disorder (MPD) on the basis of clinical observation by experienced therapists plus elevated scores on the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES; Bernstein & Putnam, 1986) were administered the Rorschach Inkblot Test and the Hand Test. Results from the sample (n = 11) and a matched control group (N = 22) were analyzed and discussed in accordance with previous Rorschach diagnostic systems. The Wagner Signs diagnosed 91% (n = 10) of the MPD cases in this outpatient sample, with no false positives. The Labott Signs were found to have no utility, and the Barach Signs, when they occurred, seemed to be diagnostic of MPD but yielded a high rate of false negatives. Hand Test results were analyzed and found to be possibly diagnostic of MPD. Tentative criteria were proposed for its use as an additional tool for diagnosing MPD. PMID:8027912

  18. Similar or disparate brain patterns? The intra-personal EEG variability of three women with multiple personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Lapointe, A R; Crayton, J W; DeVito, R; Fichtner, C G; Konopka, L M

    2006-07-01

    Quantitative EEG was used to assess the intra-personal variability of brain electrical activity for 3 women diagnosed with Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD). Two separate control groups (within-subject and between-subject) were used to test the hypothesis that the intra-personal EEG variability between 2 alters would be less than the interpersonal EEG variability between 2 controls, and similar to the intra-personal EEG variability of a single personality. This hypothesis was partially supported. In general, the 2 EEG records of a MPD subject (alter 1 vs. alter 2) were more different from one another than the 2 EEG records of a single control, but less different from one another than the EEG records of 2 separate controls. Most of the EEG variability between alters involved beta activity in the frontal and temporal lobes. PMID:16929711

  19. Genetic and Functional Analyses of SHANK2 Mutations Suggest a Multiple Hit Model of Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Leblond, Claire S.; Heinrich, Jutta; Delorme, Richard; Proepper, Christian; Betancur, Catalina; Huguet, Guillaume; Konyukh, Marina; Chaste, Pauline; Ey, Elodie; Rastam, Maria; Anckarsäter, Henrik; Nygren, Gudrun; Gillberg, I. Carina; Melke, Jonas; Toro, Roberto; Regnault, Beatrice; Fauchereau, Fabien; Mercati, Oriane; Lemière, Nathalie; Skuse, David; Poot, Martin; Holt, Richard; Monaco, Anthony P.; Järvelä, Irma; Kantojärvi, Katri; Vanhala, Raija; Curran, Sarah; Collier, David A.; Bolton, Patrick; Chiocchetti, Andreas; Klauck, Sabine M.; Poustka, Fritz; Freitag, Christine M.; Waltes, Regina; Kopp, Marnie; Duketis, Eftichia; Bacchelli, Elena; Minopoli, Fiorella; Ruta, Liliana; Battaglia, Agatino; Mazzone, Luigi; Maestrini, Elena; Sequeira, Ana F.; Oliveira, Barbara; Vicente, Astrid; Oliveira, Guiomar; Pinto, Dalila; Scherer, Stephen W.; Zelenika, Diana; Delepine, Marc; Lathrop, Mark; Bonneau, Dominique; Guinchat, Vincent; Devillard, Françoise; Assouline, Brigitte; Mouren, Marie-Christine; Leboyer, Marion; Gillberg, Christopher; Boeckers, Tobias M.; Bourgeron, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental disorders with a complex inheritance pattern. While many rare variants in synaptic proteins have been identified in patients with ASD, little is known about their effects at the synapse and their interactions with other genetic variations. Here, following the discovery of two de novo SHANK2 deletions by the Autism Genome Project, we identified a novel 421 kb de novo SHANK2 deletion in a patient with autism. We then sequenced SHANK2 in 455 patients with ASD and 431 controls and integrated these results with those reported by Berkel et al. 2010 (n?=?396 patients and n?=?659 controls). We observed a significant enrichment of variants affecting conserved amino acids in 29 of 851 (3.4%) patients and in 16 of 1,090 (1.5%) controls (P?=?0.004, OR?=?2.37, 95% CI?=?1.23–4.70). In neuronal cell cultures, the variants identified in patients were associated with a reduced synaptic density at dendrites compared to the variants only detected in controls (P?=?0.0013). Interestingly, the three patients with de novo SHANK2 deletions also carried inherited CNVs at 15q11–q13 previously associated with neuropsychiatric disorders. In two cases, the nicotinic receptor CHRNA7 was duplicated and in one case the synaptic translation repressor CYFIP1 was deleted. These results strengthen the role of synaptic gene dysfunction in ASD but also highlight the presence of putative modifier genes, which is in keeping with the “multiple hit model” for ASD. A better knowledge of these genetic interactions will be necessary to understand the complex inheritance pattern of ASD. PMID:22346768

  20. Tailbone Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the bottom of your backbone, or spine. Tailbone disorders include tailbone injuries, pain, infections, cysts and tumors. ... cause of such injuries. Symptoms of various tailbone disorders include pain in the tailbone area, pain upon ...

  1. Microscopic evaluation of proliferative disorders in the gerbil female prostate: evidence of aging and the influence of multiple pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Sergio M; Santos, Fernanda C A; Corradi, Lara S; Goes, Rejane M; Vilamaior, Patricia S L; Taboga, Sebastião R

    2011-10-01

    The gerbil female prostate is located paraurethrally and has all the histological components of the male prostate, like secretor epithelium and fibromuscular stroma. This gland, like the prostate in males, is targeted by testosterone action, which promotes morphofunctional development. Furthermore, estrogens are required to maintain the male and female prostate and this gland presents both estrogen receptors (ER-? and ER-?). In the present work the structural and morphometric-stereological and serological aspects, as well as the quantification of the incidence, multiplicity and percentage of acini affected by different lesions were analyzed. Animals were divided into four groups: five adult nuliparous (AN) gerbils; five adult multiparous (AM) gerbils; five senescent nulliparous (SN) gerbils; five senescent multiparous (SM) gerbils, and were weighed and sacrificed by CO(2) inhalation. The ventral prostate was dissected out, weighed and fixed to perform histological and morphometric-stereological analysis and quantification of prostate disorders. A high rate of lesions, mainly dysplasia, was identified in tissue from senescent multiparous and adult multiparous animals. Prostatitis was found mainly in SN animals, while dysplasia, hyperplasia, neoplasia, PIA and adenocarcinoma were common in SM ones. Although the proliferative lesion incidence was high in AN group, it was highest in the SM group. The hormonal events which occur due to the estrous cycle in female gerbils (after and before each pregnancy) may be responsible for the high number of lesions observed in our study and all the data presented herein lead us to assume that pregnancy promotes augmentations in both the incidence and the multiplicity of proliferative disorders in the gerbil female prostate since progesterone levels remain high during pregnancy. PMID:21531142

  2. Myeloma-specific multiple peptides able to generate cytotoxic T lymphocytes: A potential therapeutic application in multiple myeloma and other plasma cell disorders

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Jooeun; Smith, Robert; Daley, John; Mimura, Naoya; Tai, Yu-Tzu; Anderson, Kenneth C.; Munshi, Nikhil C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The efficacy of peptide vaccines may be enhanced by stimulating immune cells with multiple peptides derived from distinct tumor-associated antigens. We have evaluated the heteroclitic XBP1 US184–192 (YISPWILAV), heteroclitic XBP1 SP367–375 (YLFPQLISV), native CD138260–268 (GLVGLIFAV), and native CS1239–247 (SLFVLGLFL) peptides, which have strong HLA-A2 affinity and immunogenicity in combination, for their ability to elicit multiple myeloma antigen-specific responses. Experimental Design Multipeptide-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (MP-CTL) were generated by the stimulation of CD3+ T lymphocytes from HLA-A2+ individuals with either autologous mature dendritic cells or T2 cells pulsed with a cocktail of these four peptides. Results The peptide cocktail did not compromise tumor antigen-specific activity of CTL. MP-CTL displayed increased total, effector memory (CCR7?CD45RO+), and activated (CD69+) CD3+CD8+ T lymphocytes. In addition, MP-CTL demonstrated IFN-? production, cell proliferation, and cytotoxicity against HLA-A2+ multiple myeloma cells, including HLA-A2+ MM patients’ cells. Importantly, MP-CTL showed specific responses in functional assays to each relevant peptide, but not to an irrelevant HLA-A2 specific CMV pp65 (NLVPMVATV) peptide. Conclusions These results highlight the potential therapeutic application of vaccination with a cocktail of HLA-A2 specific peptides to induce CTL with a broad spectrum of immune responses against multiple myeloma antigens. PMID:22753586

  3. Psychiatric disorders and depression in multiple sclerosis outpatients: impact of disability and interferon beta therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. M. Galeazzi; S. Ferrari; G. Giaroli; A. Mackinnon; E. Merelli; L. Motti; M. Rigatelli

    2005-01-01

    Associations between psychopathology and gender, duration of MS, disability and therapy with beta-interferons were studied\\u000a in multiple sclerosis (MS) outpatients. A controlled descriptive epidemiological study was carried out in two Italian outpatient\\u000a MS centres on 50 outpatients with clinically definite relapsing–remitting MS presenting for regular follow-up and 50 healthy\\u000a controls matched for sex, age and educational level. Subjects were assessed

  4. Components of the Legionella pneumophila Flagellar Regulon Contribute to Multiple Virulence Traits, Including Lysosome Avoidance and Macrophage Death

    PubMed Central

    Molofsky, A. B.; Shetron-Rama, L. M.; Swanson, Michele S.

    2005-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila is a motile intracellular pathogen of macrophages and amoebae. When nutrients become scarce, the bacterium induces expression of transmission traits, some of which are dependent on the flagellar sigma factor FliA (?28). To test how particular components of the L. pneumophila flagellar regulon contribute to virulence, we compared a fliA mutant with strains whose flagellar construction is disrupted at various stages. We find that L. pneumophila requires FliA to avoid lysosomal degradation in murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMM), to regulate production of a melanin-like pigment, and to regulate binding to the dye crystal violet, whereas motility, flagellar secretion, and external flagella or flagellin are dispensable for these activities. Thus, in addition to flagellar genes, the FliA sigma factor regulates an effector(s) or regulator(s) that contributes to other transmissive traits, notably inhibition of phagosome maturation. Whether or not the microbes produced flagellin, all nonmotile L. pneumophila mutants bound BMM less efficiently than the wild type, resulting in poor infectivity and a loss of contact-dependent death of BMM. Therefore, bacterial motility increases contact with host cells during infection, but flagellin is not an adhesin. When BMM contact by each nonmotile strain was promoted by centrifugation, all the mutants bound BMM similarly, but only those microbes that synthesized flagellin induced BMM death. Thus, the flagellar regulon equips the aquatic pathogen L. pneumophila to coordinate motility with multiple traits vital to virulence. PMID:16113289

  5. Multiple Developmental Pathways to Conduct Disorder: Current Conceptualizations and Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Pardini, Dustin; Frick, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Recent research has uncovered several developmental pathways through which children and adolescents can develop a tendency to display the severe antisocial behavior associated with the diagnosis of conduct disorder (CD). Methods This focused review is designed to briefly outline three different etiological pathways described in the literature. These pathways are distinguished by the age of onset of the antisocial behavior, the presence/absence of significant levels of callous-unemotional traits, and the presence/absence of problems with anger regulation. Results Evidence from developmental psychopathology research (particularly longitudinal studies) that support the different life-course trajectories and putative etiological factors associated with antisocial behavior across these pathways is presented. Conclusions Limitations in the available research on these developmental pathways and implications of this research for the prevention and treatment of children and adolescents with CD are discussed. PMID:23390429

  6. Multiple Comorbidities of 21 Psychological Disorders and Relationships With Psychosocial Variables: A Study of the Online Assessment and Diagnostic System Within a Web-Based Population

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Britt; Meyer, Denny

    2015-01-01

    Background While research in the area of e-mental health has received considerable attention over the last decade, there are still many areas that have not been addressed. One such area is the comorbidity of psychological disorders in a Web-based sample using online assessment and diagnostic tools, and the relationships between comorbidities and psychosocial variables. Objective We aimed to identify comorbidities of psychological disorders of an online sample using an online diagnostic tool. Based on diagnoses made by an automated online assessment and diagnostic system administered to a large group of online participants, multiple comorbidities (co-occurrences) of 21 psychological disorders for males and females were identified. We examined the relationships between dyadic comorbidities of anxiety and depressive disorders and the psychosocial variables sex, age, suicidal ideation, social support, and quality of life. Methods An online complex algorithm based on the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, Text Revision, was used to assign primary and secondary diagnoses of 21 psychological disorders to 12,665 online participants. The frequency of co-occurrences of psychological disorders for males and females were calculated for all disorders. A series of hierarchical loglinear analyses were performed to examine the relationships between the dyadic comorbidities of depression and various anxiety disorders and the variables suicidal ideation, social support, quality of life, sex, and age. Results A 21-by-21 frequency of co-occurrences of psychological disorders matrix revealed the presence of multiple significant dyadic comorbidities for males and females. Also, for those with some of the dyadic depression and the anxiety disorders, the odds for having suicidal ideation, reporting inadequate social support, and poorer quality of life increased for those with two-disorder comorbidity than for those with only one of the same two disorders. Conclusions Comorbidities of several psychological disorders using an online assessment tool within a Web-based population were similar to those found in face-to-face clinics using traditional assessment tools. Results provided support for the transdiagnostic approaches and confirmed the positive relationship between comorbidity and suicidal ideation, the negative relationship between comorbidity and social support, and the negative relationship comorbidity and quality of life. Trial Registration Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN121611000704998; http://www.anzctr.org.au/trial_view.aspx?ID=336143 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/618r3wvOG) PMID:25803420

  7. Multiple phosphorylated forms of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mcm1 protein include an isoform induced in response to high salt concentrations.

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, M H; Nadeau, E T; Grayhack, E J

    1997-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mcm1 protein is an essential multifunctional transcription factor which is highly homologous to human serum response factor. Mcm1 protein acts on a large number of distinctly regulated genes: haploid cell-type-specific genes, G2-cell-cycle-regulated genes, pheromone-induced genes, arginine metabolic genes, and genes important for cell wall and cell membrane function. We show here that Mcm1 protein is phosphorylated in vivo. Several (more than eight) isoforms of Mcm1 protein, resolved by isoelectric focusing, are present in vivo; two major phosphorylation sites lie in the N-terminal 17 amino acids immediately adjacent to the conserved MADS box DNA-binding domain. The implications of multiple species of Mcm1, particularly the notion that a unique Mcm1 isoform could be required for regulation of a specific set of Mcm1's target genes, are discussed. We also show here that Mcm1 plays an important role in the response to stress caused by NaCl. G. Yu, R. J. Deschenes, and J. S. Fassler (J. Biol. Chem. 270:8739-8743, 1995) showed that Mcm1 function is affected by mutations in the SLN1 gene, a signal transduction component implicated in the response to osmotic stress. We find that mcm1 mutations can confer either reduced or enhanced survival on high-salt medium; deletion of the N terminus or mutation in the primary phosphorylation site results in impaired growth on high-salt medium. Furthermore, Mcm1 protein is a target of a signal transduction system responsive to osmotic stress: a new isoform of Mcm1 is induced by NaCl or KCl; this result establishes that Mcm1 itself is regulated. PMID:9001236

  8. Standard and novel imaging methods for multiple myeloma: correlates with prognostic laboratory variables including gene expression profiling data

    PubMed Central

    Waheed, Sarah; Mitchell, Alan; Usmani, Saad; Epstein, Joshua; Yaccoby, Shmuel; Nair, Bijay; van Hemert, Rudy; Angtuaco, Edgardo; Brown, Tracy; Bartel, Twyla; McDonald, James; Anaissie, Elias; van Rhee, Frits; Crowley, John; Barlogie, Bart

    2013-01-01

    Multiple myeloma causes major morbidity resulting from osteolytic lesions that can be detected by metastatic bone surveys. Magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography can detect bone marrow focal lesions long before development of osteolytic lesions. Using data from patients enrolled in Total Therapy 3 for newly diagnosed myeloma (n=303), we analyzed associations of these imaging techniques with baseline standard laboratory variables assessed before initiating treatment. Of 270 patients with complete imaging data, 245 also had gene expression profiling data. Osteolytic lesions detected on metastatic bone surveys correlated with focal lesions detected by magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography, although, in two-way comparisons, focal lesion counts based on both magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography tended to be greater than those based on metastatic bone survey. Higher numbers of focal lesions detected by magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography were positively linked to high serum concentrations of C-reactive protein, gene-expression-profiling–defined high risk, and the proliferation molecular subgroup. Positron emission tomography focal lesion maximum standardized unit values were significantly correlated with gene-expression-profiling–defined high risk and higher numbers of focal lesions detected by positron emission tomography. Interestingly, four genes associated with high-risk disease (related to cell cycle and metabolism) were linked to counts of focal lesions detected by magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography. Collectively, our results demonstrate significant associations of all three imaging techniques with tumor burden and, especially, disease aggressiveness captured by gene-expression-profiling–risk designation. (Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00081939) PMID:22733020

  9. Multiple beneficial lipids including lecithin detected in the edible invasive mollusk Crepidula fornicata from the French Northeastern Atlantic coast.

    PubMed

    Dagorn, Flore; Buzin, Florence; Couzinet-Mossion, Aurélie; Decottignies, Priscilla; Viau, Michèle; Rabesaotra, Vony; Barnathan, Gilles; Wielgosz-Collin, Gaëtane

    2014-12-01

    The invasive mollusk Crepidula fornicata, occurring in large amounts in bays along the French Northeastern Atlantic coasts, may have huge environmental effects in highly productive ecosystems where shellfish are exploited. The present study aims at determining the potential economic value of this marine species in terms of exploitable substances with high added value. Lipid content and phospholipid (PL) composition of this mollusk collected on the Bourgneuf Bay were studied through four seasons. Winter specimens contained the highest lipid levels (5.3% dry weight), including 69% of PLs. Phosphatidylcholine (PC) was the major PL class all year, accounting for 63.9% to 88.9% of total PLs. Consequently, the winter specimens were then investigated for PL fatty acids (FAs), and free sterols. Dimethylacetals (DMAs) were present (10.7% of PL FA + DMA mixture) revealing the occurrence of plasmalogens. More than forty FAs were identified, including 20:5n-3 (9.4%) and 22:6n-3 (7.3%) acids. Fourteen free sterols were present, including cholesterol at 31.3% of the sterol mixture and about 40% of phytosterols. These data on lipids of C. fornicata demonstrate their positive attributes for human nutrition and health. The PL mixture, rich in PC and polyunsaturated FAs, offers an interesting alternative source of high value-added marine lecithin. PMID:25532566

  10. Gene-wide analyses of genome-wide association data sets: evidence for multiple common risk alleles for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder and for overlap in genetic risk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V Moskvina; N Craddock; P Holmans; I Nikolov; J S Pahwa; E Green; M J Owen; M C O'Donovan

    2009-01-01

    Genome-wide association (GWAS) analyses have identified susceptibility loci for many diseases, but most risk for any complex disorder remains unattributed. There is therefore scope for complementary approaches to these data sets. Gene-wide approaches potentially offer additional insights. They might identify association to genes through multiple signals. Also, by providing support for genes rather than single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), they offer

  11. The Diagnostic Drawing Series and the Tree Rating Scale: An Isomorphic Representation of Multiple Personality Disorder, Major Depression, and Schizophrenic Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Maureen Batza

    1995-01-01

    The tree drawings of 80 subjects, who were diagnosed with either multiple personality disorder, schizophrenia, or major depression, and a control group, were rated. Patterns were examined and graphs were used to depict results. Certain features were found to distinguish each category. The descriptive statistical findings were both consistent and…

  12. Impact of childhood exposure to psychological trauma on the risk of psychiatric disorders and somatic discomfort: single vs. multiple types of psychological trauma.

    PubMed

    Park, Subin; Hong, Jin Pyo; Bae, Jae Nam; Cho, Seong-Jin; Lee, Dong-Woo; Lee, Jun-Young; Chang, Sung Man; Jeon, Hong Jin; Hahm, Bong-Jin; Lee, Young Moon; Seong, Sujeong; Cho, Maeng Je

    2014-11-30

    We examined whether childhood exposure to multiple types of potentially traumatic events (PTEs) relative to a single type of PTE is associated with a higher prevalence of psychiatric disorders and greater somatic discomfort in Korean adults. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview 2.1 (K-CIDI 2.1) was administered to 6027 subjects aged 18-74 years. Subjects who experienced a traumatic event before the age of 18 years, the childhood trauma exposure group, were compared with controls without childhood exposure to PTEs. In the childhood trauma exposure group, subjects who experienced only a single type of PTE and subjects who experienced two or more types of PTEs were compared further. Childhood exposure to PTEs was linked to a wide range of psychiatric comorbidities, with a higher risk for exposure to multiple types of PTEs than for exposure to a single type of PTE. Obsessive-compulsive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and somatoform disorder were significantly associated with exposure to multiple types of PTEs but not with exposure to a single type of PTE. Exposure to multiple types of PTEs was associated with reports of marked fatigue and pain. Future research should examine the psychiatric sequelae associated with various types of childhood PTEs. PMID:25086760

  13. Multiple congenital anomalies in two boys with mutation in HCFC1 and cobalamin disorder.

    PubMed

    Gérard, M; Morin, G; Bourillon, A; Colson, C; Mathieu, S; Rabier, D; Billette de Villemeur, T; Ogier de Baulny, H; Benoist, J F

    2015-03-01

    The cobalamin type C deficiency is a rare condition that results from impaired biosynthesis of both methylcobalamin (MeCbl) and adenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl). Hemizygous mutations of the HCFC1 gene explain the majority of clinically and biologically compatible cblC patients without MMACHC mutations (OMIM 309541). We report a family with two maternal half-brothers with multiple congenital anomalies and HCFC1 gene mutation in the second Kelch domain. Both presented with dysmorphic features (flat profile, cleft lip for one), increased nuchal translucency, prenatal onset microcephaly and hypospadias. Additionally to early onset intractable epilepsy and profound neurocognitive impairment, this familial observation suggests that HCFC1 gene should be considered in boys with midline malformations, even without proven cobalamin C deficiency. PMID:25595573

  14. A Systematic Review of Combination Therapy with Stimulants and Atomoxetine for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Including Patient Characteristics, Treatment Strategies, Effectiveness, and Tolerability

    PubMed Central

    Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Méndez, Luis; Montgomery, William; Monk, Julie A.; Altin, Murat; Wu, Shenghu; Lin, Chaucer C.H.; Dueñas, Héctor J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective The purpose of this article was to systematically review the literature on stimulant and atomoxetine combination therapy, in particular: 1) Characteristics of patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) given combination therapy, 2) treatment strategies used, 3) efficacy and effectiveness, and 4) safety and tolerability. Methods Literature databases (MEDLINE®, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Science Citation Index Expanded, and SciVerse Scopus) were systematically searched using prespecified criteria. Publications describing stimulant and atomoxetine combination therapy in patients with ADHD or healthy volunteers were selected for review. Exclusion criteria were comorbid psychosis, bipolar disorder, epilepsy, or other psychiatric/neurologic diseases that could confound ADHD symptom assessment, or other concomitant medication(s) to treat ADHD symptoms. Results Of the 16 publications included for review, 14 reported findings from 3 prospective studies (4 publications), 7 retrospective studies, and 3 narrative reviews/medication algorithms of patients with ADHD. The other two publications reported findings from two prospective studies of healthy volunteers. The main reason for prescribing combination therapy was inadequate response to previous treatment. In the studies of patients with ADHD, if reported, 1) most patients were children/adolescents and male, and had a combined ADHD subtype; 2) methylphenidate was most often used in combination with atomoxetine for treatment augmentation or switch; 3) ADHD symptom control was improved in some, but not all, patients; and 4) there were no serious adverse events. Conclusions Published evidence of the off-label use of stimulant and atomoxetine combination therapy is limited because of the small number of publications, heterogeneous study designs (there was only one prospective, randomized controlled trial), small sample sizes, and geographic bias. Existing evidence suggests, but does not confirm, that this drug combination may benefit some, but not all, patients who have tried several ADHD medications without success. PMID:23560600

  15. CSF3R and CALR mutations in paediatric myeloid disorders and the association of CSF3R mutations with translocations, including t(8; 21).

    PubMed

    Sano, Hitoshi; Ohki, Kentaro; Park, Myoung-Ja; Shiba, Norio; Hara, Yusuke; Sotomatsu, Manabu; Tomizawa, Daisuke; Taga, Takashi; Kiyokawa, Nobutaka; Tawa, Akio; Horibe, Keizo; Adachi, Souichi; Hayashi, Yasuhide

    2015-08-01

    Mutations in the colony-stimulating factor 3 receptor (CSF3R) and calreticulin (CALR) genes have been reported in a proportion of adults with myeloproliferative disease. However, little is known about CSF3R or CALR mutations in paediatric myeloid disorders. We analysed CSF3R exons 14 and 17, and CALR exon 9, using direct sequencing in samples of paediatric acute myeloid leukaemia (AML; n = 521), juvenile myelomonocytic leukaemia (JMML; n = 40), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS; n = 20) and essential thrombocythaemia (ET; n = 21). CSF3R mutations were found in 10 (1·92%) of 521 patients with AML; two in exon 14 (both missense mutations resulting in p.T618I) and eight in exon 17 (three frameshift mutations: p.S715X, p.Q774R, and p.S783Q; and five novel missense mutations: p.Q754K, p.R769H, p.L777F, p.T781I, and S795R). All of the patients with mutations in CSF3R exon 17 had chromosomal translocations, including four with t(8;21). At the time of reporting, seven of these ten patients are alive; three have died, due to side effects of chemotherapy. No CSF3R mutations were found in cases of MDS, JMML or ET. The only mutation found in the CALR gene was a frameshift (p.L367 fs) in one ET patient. We discuss the potential impact of these findings for the leukaemogenesis and clinical features of paediatric myeloid disorders. PMID:25858548

  16. Multiplication

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Williams

    2011-04-06

    Which way of learning multiplication helped you the best? First you will need to use organizer Then you need to go to thinking blocks Next go to multiplication rap song Then go to dinosaur game and times table and lattice method and finally flashcards after this look over your graphic organizer and think about which site was most helpful for you. You will then be divided into groups where you will make your own creative lesson ...

  17. Family History of Education Predicts Eating Disorders across Multiple Generations among 2 Million Swedish Males and Females

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Anna; Heshmati, Amy; Koupil, Ilona

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate which facets of parent and grandparent socio-economic position (SEP) are associated with eating disorders (ED), and how this varies by ED subtype and over time. Methods Total-population cohort study of 1,040,165 females and 1,098,188 males born 1973–1998 in Sweden, and followed for inpatient or outpatient ED diagnoses until 2010. Proportional hazards models estimated associations with parental education, income and social class, and with grandparental education and income. Results 15,747 females and 1051 males in our sample received an ED diagnosis, with rates increasing in both sexes over time. ED incidence in females was independently predicted by greater educational level among the father, mother and maternal grandparents, but parent social class and parental income showed little or no independent effect. The associations with education were equally strong for anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and ED not-otherwise-specified, and had increased over time. Among males, an apparently similar pattern was seen with respect to anorexia nervosa, but non-anorexia ED showed no association with parental education and an inverse association with parental income. Conclusions Family history of education predicts ED in gender- and disorder-specific ways, and in females the effect is observed across multiple generations. Particularly given that these effects may have grown stronger in more recent cohorts, these findings highlight the need for further research to clarify the underlying mechanisms and identify promising targets for prevention. Speculatively, one such mechanism may involve greater internal and external demands for academic success in highly educated families. PMID:25162402

  18. Multiple Legionella pneumophila Type II Secretion Substrates, Including a Novel Protein, Contribute to Differential Infection of the Amoebae Acanthamoeba castellanii, Hartmannella vermiformis, and Naegleria lovaniensis

    PubMed Central

    Tyson, Jessica Y.; Pearce, Meghan M.; Vargas, Paloma; Bagchi, Sreya; Mulhern, Brendan J.

    2013-01-01

    Type II protein secretion (T2S) by Legionella pneumophila is required for intracellular infection of host cells, including macrophages and the amoebae Acanthamoeba castellanii and Hartmannella vermiformis. Previous proteomic analysis revealed that T2S by L. pneumophila 130b mediates the export of >25 proteins, including several that appeared to be novel. Following confirmation that they are unlike known proteins, T2S substrates NttA, NttB, and LegP were targeted for mutation. nttA mutants were impaired for intracellular multiplication in A. castellanii but not H. vermiformis or macrophages, suggesting that novel exoproteins which are specific to Legionella are especially important for infection. Because the importance of NttA was host cell dependent, we examined a panel of T2S substrate mutants that had not been tested before in more than one amoeba. As a result, RNase SrnA, acyltransferase PlaC, and metalloprotease ProA all proved to be required for optimal intracellular multiplication in H. vermiformis but not A. castellanii. Further examination of an lspF mutant lacking the T2S apparatus documented that T2S is also critical for infection of the amoeba Naegleria lovaniensis. Mutants lacking SrnA, PlaC, or ProA, but not those deficient for NttA, were defective in N. lovaniensis. Based upon analysis of a double mutant lacking PlaC and ProA, the role of ProA in H. vermiformis was connected to its ability to activate PlaC, whereas in N. lovaniensis, ProA appeared to have multiple functions. Together, these data document that the T2S system exports multiple effectors, including a novel one, which contribute in different ways to the broad host range of L. pneumophila. PMID:23429532

  19. Monoclonal gammopathies and associated skin disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mazen S. Daoud; John A. Lust; Robert A. Kyle; Mark R. Pittelkow

    1999-01-01

    The monoclonal gammopathies are characterized by clonal proliferation of plasma cells and other clonally related cells in the B-cell lineage. These disorders include monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, multiple myeloma, Waldenström macroglobulinemia, heavy chain diseases, plasmacytoma, and primary amyloidosis. Many skin disorders have been described in association with monoclonal gammopathies. This article provides an introduction to the definition, detection, natural

  20. Germ-line mutation analysis in patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 and related disorders.

    PubMed Central

    Giraud, S; Zhang, C X; Serova-Sinilnikova, O; Wautot, V; Salandre, J; Buisson, N; Waterlot, C; Bauters, C; Porchet, N; Aubert, J P; Emy, P; Cadiot, G; Delemer, B; Chabre, O; Niccoli, P; Leprat, F; Duron, F; Emperauger, B; Cougard, P; Goudet, P; Sarfati, E; Riou, J P; Guichard, S; Rodier, M; Meyrier, A; Caron, P; Vantyghem, M C; Assayag, M; Peix, J L; Pugeat, M; Rohmer, V; Vallotton, M; Lenoir, G; Gaudray, P; Proye, C; Conte-Devolx, B; Chanson, P; Shugart, Y Y; Goldgar, D; Murat, A; Calender, A

    1998-01-01

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is an autosomal dominant syndrome predisposing to tumors of the parathyroid, endocrine pancreas, anterior pituitary, adrenal glands, and diffuse neuroendocrine tissues. The MEN1 gene has been assigned, by linkage analysis and loss of heterozygosity, to chromosome 11q13 and recently has been identified by positional cloning. In this study, a total of 84 families and/or isolated patients with either MEN1 or MEN1-related inherited endocrine tumors were screened for MEN1 germ-line mutations, by heteroduplex and sequence analysis of the MEN1 gene-coding region and untranslated exon 1. Germ-line MEN1 alterations were identified in 47/54 (87%) MEN1 families, in 9/11 (82%) isolated MEN1 patients, and in only 6/19 (31.5%) atypical MEN1-related inherited cases. We characterized 52 distinct mutations in a total of 62 MEN1 germ-line alterations. Thirty-five of the 52 mutations were frameshifts and nonsense mutations predicted to encode for a truncated MEN1 protein. We identified eight missense mutations and five in-frame deletions over the entire coding sequence. Six mutations were observed more than once in familial MEN1. Haplotype analysis in families with identical mutations indicate that these occurrences reflected mainly independent mutational events. No MEN1 germ-line mutations were found in 7/54 (13%) MEN1 families, in 2/11 (18%) isolated MEN1 cases, in 13/19 (68. 5%) MEN1-related cases, and in a kindred with familial isolated hyperparathyroidism. Two hundred twenty gene carriers (167 affected and 53 unaffected) were identified. No evidence of genotype-phenotype correlation was found. Age-related penetrance was estimated to be >95% at age >30 years. Our results add to the diversity of MEN1 germ-line mutations and provide new tools in genetic screening of MEN1 and clinically related cases. PMID:9683585

  1. Institute for Mathematics and Applications: Mathematics of Materials and Macromolecules: Multiple Scales, Disorder, and Singularities

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Institute for Mathematics and Applications (IMA) developed this website to promote its conferences and workshops dealing with the applications of mathematics in the study of materials and molecules. Visitors can find information on a particular event's schedule, participants, and accommodations as well as abstracts. The events dealing with the physical sciences include workshops dealing with atomic motion, macroscopic models, and biophysics as well as a program about environmental and geophysical modeling.

  2. The transcription factor Egr1 is a direct regulator of multiple tumor suppressors including TGF?1, PTEN, p53 and fibronectin

    PubMed Central

    Baron, Veronique; Adamson, Eileen D.; Calogero, Antonella; Ragona, Giuseppe; Mercola, Dan

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies are reviewed indicating that the transcription factor Egr1 is a direct regulator of multiple tumor suppressors including TGF?1, PTEN, p53 and fibronectin. The downstream pathways of these factors display multiple nodes of interaction with each other suggesting the existence of a functional network of suppressor factors that serves to maintain normal growth regulation and resist the emergence of transformed variants. Paradoxically, Egr-1 is oncogenic in prostate cancer. In the majority of these cancers PTEN and/or p53 is inactive. It is suggested that these defects in the tumor suppressor network allow for the unopposed induction of TGF?1 and fibronectin, which favor transformation and survival of prostate tumor epithelial cells, explain the role of Egr1 in prostate cancer. Egr1 is a novel and logical target for intervention by gene therapy methods and targeting methods are discussed. PMID:16138117

  3. Peritoneal Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... peritoneal fluid, lubricates the surface of this tissue. Disorders of the peritoneum are not common. They include ... fluid to diagnose the problem. Treatment of peritoneal disorders depends on the cause.

  4. Blood Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. Blood disorders affect one or more parts of the blood ... They can be acute or chronic. Many blood disorders are inherited. Other causes include other diseases, side ...

  5. The incidence and prevalence of comorbid gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal, ocular, pulmonary, and renal disorders in multiple sclerosis: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Reider, Nadia; Stuve, Olaf; Trojano, Maria; Sorensen, Per Soelberg; Cutter, Gary R; Reingold, Stephen C; Cohen, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Background: As new disease-modifying therapies emerge a better knowledge of the risk of comorbid disease in multiple sclerosis (MS) is needed. Objective: To estimate the incidence and prevalence of comorbid gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal, ocular, pulmonary, and renal disorders in MS. Methods: We systematically reviewed the world literature by searching PUBMED, EMBASE, SCOPUS, the Web of Knowledge, and reference lists of retrieved articles. For selected articles, one reviewer abstracted data using a standardized form. The abstraction was verified by a second reviewer. The quality of all selected studies was assessed. For population-based studies we quantitatively assessed studies using the I2 statistic, and conducted random effects meta-analyses. Results: Study designs were heterogeneous with respect to populations, case definitions, and methods of ascertainment. Incidence of the studied comorbidities was rarely reported. Irritable bowel syndrome and chronic lung disease had a prevalence of more than 10% in the MS population. Irritable bowel syndrome, fibromyalgia, cataracts and glaucoma were more common than expected in the MS population. Conclusion: Although they have been the subject of less study than other comorbidities, irritable bowel syndrome, arthritis, and chronic lung disease are common in the MS population and occur more often than expected when compared to the general population. PMID:25538150

  6. Germline loss-of-function mutations in LZTR1 predispose to an inherited disorder of multiple schwannomas

    PubMed Central

    Piotrowski, Arkadiusz; Xie, Jing; Liu, Ying F; Poplawski, Andrzej B; Gomes, Alicia R; Madanecki, Piotr; Fu, Chuanhua; Crowley, Michael R; Crossman, David K; Armstrong, Linlea; Babovic-Vuksanovic, Dusica; Bergner, Amanda; Blakeley, Jaishri O; Blumenthal, Andrea L; Daniels, Molly S; Feit, Howard; Gardner, Kathy; Hurst, Stephanie; Kobelka, Christine; Lee, Chung; Nagy, Rebecca; Rauen, Katherine A; Slopis, John M; Suwannarat, Pim; Westman, Judith A; Zanko, Andrea; Korf, Bruce R; Messiaen, Ludwine M

    2015-01-01

    Constitutional SMARCB1 mutations at 22q11.23 have been found in ~50% of familial and <10% of sporadic schwannomatosis cases1. We sequenced highly conserved regions along 22q from eight individuals with schwannomatosis whose schwannomas involved somatic loss of one copy of 22q, encompassing SMARCB1 and NF2, with a different somatic mutation of the other NF2 allele in every schwannoma but no mutation of the remaining SMARCB1 allele in blood and tumor samples. LZTR1 germline mutations were identified in seven of the eight cases. LZTR1 sequencing in 12 further cases with the same molecular signature identified 9 additional germline mutations. Loss of heterozygosity with retention of an LZTR1 mutation was present in all 25 schwannomas studied. Mutations segregated with disease in all available affected first-degree relatives, although four asymptomatic parents also carried an LZTR1 mutation. Our findings identify LZTR1 as a gene predisposing to an autosomal dominant inherited disorder of multiple schwannomas in ~80% of 22q-related schwannomatosis cases lacking mutation in SMARCB1. PMID:24362817

  7. Autism and related disorders.

    PubMed

    McPartland, James; Volkmar, Fred R

    2012-01-01

    The pervasive developmental disorders are a group of neurodevelopmental disorders that include autistic disorder, Asperger's disorder, pervasive developmental disorder - not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), childhood disintegrative disorder (CDD), and Rett's disorder. All feature childhood onset with a constellation of symptoms spanning social interaction and communication and including atypical behavior patterns. The first three disorders (autistic disorder, Asperger's disorder, and PDD-NOS) are currently referred to as autism spectrum disorders, reflecting divergent phenotypic and etiological characteristics compared to Rett's disorder and CDD. This chapter reviews research and clinical information to appropriate medical diagnosis and treatment. PMID:22608634

  8. Autism and Related Disorders

    PubMed Central

    McPartland, James; Volkmar, Fred R.

    2012-01-01

    The Pervasive Developmental Disorders are a group of neurodevelopmental disorders that include Autistic Disorder, Asperger’s Disorder, Pervasive Developmental Disorder - Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS), Childhood Disintegrative Disorder (CDD), and Rett’s Disorder. All feature childhood onset with a constellation of symptoms spanning social interaction and communication and including atypical behavior patterns. The first three disorders (Autistic Disorder, Asperger’s Disorder, and PDD-NOS) are currently referred to as Autism Spectrum Disorders, reflecting divergent phenotypic and etiologic characteristics compared to Rett’s Disorder and CDD. This chapter reviews relevant research and clinical information relevant to appropriate medical diagnosis and treatment. PMID:22608634

  9. Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Wolf

    1996-01-01

    Multiple Chemical Sensitivity (MCS) is a systemic disorder causing central nervous, irritative and gastrointestinal symptoms,\\u000a and can be included in the category of “idiopathic environmental intolerance” (IEI). This term describes phenomena with multiple,\\u000a recurrent symptoms associated with various environmental factors that are tolerated by most people without problems. Those\\u000a advocating these concepts attribute the symptoms to exogenous substances. Those opposing

  10. Bofu-Tsu-Shosan, an Oriental Herbal Medicine, Exerts a Combinatorial Favorable Metabolic Modulation Including Antihypertensive Effect on a Mouse Model of Human Metabolic Disorders with Visceral Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Azushima, Kengo; Tamura, Kouichi; Wakui, Hiromichi; Maeda, Akinobu; Ohsawa, Masato; Uneda, Kazushi; Kobayashi, Ryu; Kanaoka, Tomohiko; Dejima, Toru; Fujikawa, Tetsuya; Yamashita, Akio; Toya, Yoshiyuki; Umemura, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that metabolic dysfunction with visceral obesity is a major medical problem associated with the development of hypertension, type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and dyslipidemia, and ultimately severe cardiovascular and renal disease. Therefore, an effective anti-obesity treatment with a concomitant improvement in metabolic profile is important for the treatment of metabolic dysfunction with visceral obesity. Bofu-tsu-shosan (BOF) is one of oriental herbal medicine and is clinically available to treat obesity in Japan. Although BOF is a candidate as a novel therapeutic strategy to improve metabolic dysfunction with obesity, the mechanism of its beneficial effect is not fully elucidated. Here, we investigated mechanism of therapeutic effects of BOF on KKAy mice, a model of human metabolic disorders with obesity. Chronic treatment of KKAy mice with BOF persistently decreased food intake, body weight gain, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and systolic blood pressure. In addition, both tissue weight and cell size of white adipose tissue (WAT) were decreased, with concomitant increases in the expression of adiponectin and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors genes in WAT as well as the circulating adiponectin level by BOF treatment. Furthermore, gene expression of uncoupling protein-1, a thermogenesis factor, in brown adipose tissue and rectal temperature were both elevated by BOF. Intriguingly, plasma acylated-ghrelin, an active form of orexigenic hormone, and short-term food intake were significantly decreased by single bolus administration of BOF. These results indicate that BOF exerts a combinatorial favorable metabolic modulation including antihypertensive effect, at least partially, via its beneficial effect on adipose tissue function and its appetite-inhibitory property through suppression on the ghrelin system. PMID:24130717

  11. Bofu-tsu-shosan, an oriental herbal medicine, exerts a combinatorial favorable metabolic modulation including antihypertensive effect on a mouse model of human metabolic disorders with visceral obesity.

    PubMed

    Azushima, Kengo; Tamura, Kouichi; Wakui, Hiromichi; Maeda, Akinobu; Ohsawa, Masato; Uneda, Kazushi; Kobayashi, Ryu; Kanaoka, Tomohiko; Dejima, Toru; Fujikawa, Tetsuya; Yamashita, Akio; Toya, Yoshiyuki; Umemura, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that metabolic dysfunction with visceral obesity is a major medical problem associated with the development of hypertension, type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and dyslipidemia, and ultimately severe cardiovascular and renal disease. Therefore, an effective anti-obesity treatment with a concomitant improvement in metabolic profile is important for the treatment of metabolic dysfunction with visceral obesity. Bofu-tsu-shosan (BOF) is one of oriental herbal medicine and is clinically available to treat obesity in Japan. Although BOF is a candidate as a novel therapeutic strategy to improve metabolic dysfunction with obesity, the mechanism of its beneficial effect is not fully elucidated. Here, we investigated mechanism of therapeutic effects of BOF on KKAy mice, a model of human metabolic disorders with obesity. Chronic treatment of KKAy mice with BOF persistently decreased food intake, body weight gain, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and systolic blood pressure. In addition, both tissue weight and cell size of white adipose tissue (WAT) were decreased, with concomitant increases in the expression of adiponectin and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors genes in WAT as well as the circulating adiponectin level by BOF treatment. Furthermore, gene expression of uncoupling protein-1, a thermogenesis factor, in brown adipose tissue and rectal temperature were both elevated by BOF. Intriguingly, plasma acylated-ghrelin, an active form of orexigenic hormone, and short-term food intake were significantly decreased by single bolus administration of BOF. These results indicate that BOF exerts a combinatorial favorable metabolic modulation including antihypertensive effect, at least partially, via its beneficial effect on adipose tissue function and its appetite-inhibitory property through suppression on the ghrelin system. PMID:24130717

  12. Familial characteristics of autoimmune and hematologic disorders in 8,406 multiple myeloma patients: A population-based case-control study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ola Landgren; Martha S. Linet; Mary L. McMaster; Gloria Gridley; Kari Hemminki; Lynn R. Goldin

    2006-01-01

    A population-based case-control study was conducted to evaluate risk of developing multiple myeloma (MM) associated with per- sonal history of autoimmune diseases and occurrence of autoim- mune and selected hematologic disorders in first-degree relatives. Data were obtained for all (n 5 8,406) MM cases diagnosed in Sweden (1958-1998), with linkable relatives, 16,543 matched con- trols and first-degree relatives of cases

  13. Kinome-wide RNAi studies in human multiple myeloma identify vulnerable kinase targets, including a lymphoid-restricted kinase, GRK6

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yuan Xiao; Schmidt, Jessica; Yin, Hongwei; Shi, Chang-Xin; Que, Qiang; Basu, Gargi; Azorsa, David; Perkins, Louise M.; Braggio, Esteban; Fonseca, Rafael; Bergsagel, P. Leif; Mousses, Spyro; Stewart, A. Keith

    2010-01-01

    A paucity of validated kinase targets in human multiple myeloma has delayed clinical deployment of kinase inhibitors in treatment strategies. We therefore conducted a kinome-wide small interfering RNA (siRNA) lethality study in myeloma tumor lines bearing common t(4;14), t(14;16), and t(11;14) translocations to identify critically vulnerable kinases in myeloma tumor cells without regard to preconceived mechanistic notions. Fifteen kinases were repeatedly vulnerable in myeloma cells, including AKT1, AK3L1, AURKA, AURKB, CDC2L1, CDK5R2, FES, FLT4, GAK, GRK6, HK1, PKN1, PLK1, SMG1, and TNK2. Whereas several kinases (PLK1, HK1) were equally vulnerable in epithelial cells, others and particularly G protein–coupled receptor kinase, GRK6, appeared selectively vulnerable in myeloma. GRK6 inhibition was lethal to 6 of 7 myeloma tumor lines but was tolerated in 7 of 7 human cell lines. GRK6 exhibits lymphoid-restricted expression, and from coimmunoprecipitation studies we demonstrate that expression in myeloma cells is regulated via direct association with the heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) chaperone. GRK6 silencing causes suppression of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) phosphorylation associated with reduction in MCL1 levels and phosphorylation, illustrating a potent mechanism for the cytotoxicity of GRK6 inhibition in multiple myeloma (MM) tumor cells. As mice that lack GRK6 are healthy, inhibition of GRK6 represents a uniquely targeted novel therapeutic strategy in human multiple myeloma. PMID:19996089

  14. Kinome-wide RNAi studies in human multiple myeloma identify vulnerable kinase targets, including a lymphoid-restricted kinase, GRK6.

    PubMed

    Tiedemann, Rodger E; Zhu, Yuan Xiao; Schmidt, Jessica; Yin, Hongwei; Shi, Chang-Xin; Que, Qiang; Basu, Gargi; Azorsa, David; Perkins, Louise M; Braggio, Esteban; Fonseca, Rafael; Bergsagel, P Leif; Mousses, Spyro; Stewart, A Keith

    2010-02-25

    A paucity of validated kinase targets in human multiple myeloma has delayed clinical deployment of kinase inhibitors in treatment strategies. We therefore conducted a kinome-wide small interfering RNA (siRNA) lethality study in myeloma tumor lines bearing common t(4;14), t(14;16), and t(11;14) translocations to identify critically vulnerable kinases in myeloma tumor cells without regard to preconceived mechanistic notions. Fifteen kinases were repeatedly vulnerable in myeloma cells, including AKT1, AK3L1, AURKA, AURKB, CDC2L1, CDK5R2, FES, FLT4, GAK, GRK6, HK1, PKN1, PLK1, SMG1, and TNK2. Whereas several kinases (PLK1, HK1) were equally vulnerable in epithelial cells, others and particularly G protein-coupled receptor kinase, GRK6, appeared selectively vulnerable in myeloma. GRK6 inhibition was lethal to 6 of 7 myeloma tumor lines but was tolerated in 7 of 7 human cell lines. GRK6 exhibits lymphoid-restricted expression, and from coimmunoprecipitation studies we demonstrate that expression in myeloma cells is regulated via direct association with the heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) chaperone. GRK6 silencing causes suppression of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) phosphorylation associated with reduction in MCL1 levels and phosphorylation, illustrating a potent mechanism for the cytotoxicity of GRK6 inhibition in multiple myeloma (MM) tumor cells. As mice that lack GRK6 are healthy, inhibition of GRK6 represents a uniquely targeted novel therapeutic strategy in human multiple myeloma. PMID:19996089

  15. Multiple therapeutic and preventive effects of 3,3'-diindolylmethane on cancers including prostate cancer and high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, William Weiben; Feng, Zhenqing; Narod, Steven A

    2014-09-01

    Cruciferous vegetables belong to the plant family that has flowers with four equal-sized petals in the pattern of a crucifer cross. These vegetables are an abundant source of dietary phytochemicals, including glucosinolates and their hydrolysis products such as indole-3-carbinol (I3C) and 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM). By 2013, the total number of natural glucosinolates that have been documented is estimated to be 132. Recently, cruciferous vegetable intake has garnered great interest for its multiple health benefits such as anticancer, antiviral infections, human sex hormone regulation, and its therapeutic and preventive effects on prostate cancer and high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN). DIM is a hydrolysis product of glucosinolates and has been used in various trials. This review is to provide an insight into the latest developments of DIM in treating or preventing both prostate cancer and HGPIN. PMID:25332705

  16. [Developmental disorders].

    PubMed

    Kushima, Itaru; Okada, Takashi; Ozaki, Norio

    2012-02-01

    Developmental disorders, which are usually diagnosed in infancy, childhood, or adolescence, include mental retardation, learning disorders, motor skills disorder, communication disorders, pervasive developmental disorders (PDD), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and tic disorders. Epidemiological studies have indicated that these disorders are characterized not only by high heritability (e.g., 0.80 for PDD) but also by their shared genetic etiology. Furthermore, retrospective or prospective longitudinal studies have revealed that adult psychiatric disorders are often preceded either by their juvenile counterparts (homotypic continuity) or by different disorders (heterotypic continuity). Recent genetic studies have detected copy number variants (CNVs; e.g., deletions on 1q21.1, 3q29, and 22q.11.21 and duplications on 16p11.2) as shared genetic factors for PDD, mental retardation, and schizophrenia. While these CNVs are generally very rare (<1%), their effect size is much larger than that of single nucleotide polymorphisms. Although the mechanism by which CNVs cause these abnormalities remains unclear, pleiotropic effect of CNVs may provide insights into the high rate of comorbidity among developmental disorders and heterotypic continuity between developmental disorders and adult disorders. In addition, longitudinal neuroimaging studies have provided evidence for irregularities in the typical trajectories in developmental disorders. For instance, retarded cortical development is identified in ADHD in cortical trajectory, and early acceleration of brain growth is identified in PDD. Finally, we outlined several research topics as the future direction for investigation of developmental disorders: a longitudinal clinical study in subjects with specific disorder-related CNVs; detailed analysis of genetic factors relevant to developmental disorders, including smaller CNVs and INDELs; and functional analysis of genetic factors by using induced pluripotent stem cell technology or non-human primate animal models. PMID:22308259

  17. Neuronal Migration Disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pierre Gressens

    2005-01-01

    Improvement in imaging techniques has provided new classifications of neuronal migration disorders and their diagnosis in the developing or adult brain. Control of neuronal migration involves different cell populations, including Cajal-Retzius neurons, subplate neurons, neuronal precursors, or radial glia. The integrity of multiple molecular mechanisms, such as cell-cycle control, cell-cell adhesion, interaction with extracellular matrix protein, neurotransmitter release, growth factor

  18. Dissociative identity disorder: a literature review.

    PubMed

    McAllister, M M

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the literature into dissociative identity disorder. This disorder, previously known as multiple personality disorder, is increasingly diagnosed, in part because of more focused diagnostic tools, but also because people are accessing services to assist with the longterm problems of early child abuse and neglect. Dissociative identity disorder is examined in the literature according to a variety of discourses, each of which suggest different ways of conceptualizing problems and therapeutic approaches. These discourses reviewed include: psychiatry, psychology, corporeality, feminism, social constructivism, anthropology, and postmodernism. The paper concludes with an examination of the nursing literature and suggests opportunities for nursing research into this complex mental health problem. PMID:11022508

  19. Oppositional Defiant and Conduct Disorder Behaviors in Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder with and without Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder versus Several Comparison Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guttmann-Steinmetz, Sarit; Gadow, Kenneth D.; DeVincent, Carla J.

    2009-01-01

    We compared disruptive behaviors in boys with either autism spectrum disorder (ASD) plus ADHD (n = 74), chronic multiple tic disorder plus ADHD (n = 47), ADHD Only (n = 59), or ASD Only (n = 107). Children were evaluated with parent and teacher versions of the Child Symptom Inventory-4 including parent- (n = 168) and teacher-rated (n = 173)…

  20. Cytogenetic analyses of eight species in the genus Leptodactylus Fitzinger, 1843 (Amphibia, Anura, Leptodactylidae), including a new diploid number and a karyotype with multiple translocations

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The karyotypes of Leptodactylus species usually consist of 22 bi-armed chromosomes, but morphological variations in some chromosomes and even differences in the 2n have been reported. To better understand the mechanisms responsible for these differences, eight species were analysed using classical and molecular cytogenetic techniques, including replication banding with BrdU incorporation. Results Distinct chromosome numbers were found: 2n = 22 in Leptodactylus chaquensis, L. labyrinthicus, L. pentadactylus, L. petersii, L. podicipinus, and L. rhodomystax; 2n = 20 in Leptodactylus sp. (aff. podicipinus); and 2n = 24 in L. marmoratus. Among the species with 2n = 22, only three had the same basic karyotype. Leptodactylus pentadactylus presented multiple translocations, L. petersii displayed chromosome morphological discrepancy, and L. podicipinus had four pairs of telocentric chromosomes. Replication banding was crucial for characterising this variability and for explaining the reduced 2n in Leptodactylus sp. (aff. podicipinus). Leptodactylus marmoratus had few chromosomes with a similar banding patterns to the 2n = 22 karyotypes. The majority of the species presented a single NOR-bearing pair, which was confirmed using Ag-impregnation and FISH with an rDNA probe. In general, the NOR-bearing chromosomes corresponded to chromosome 8, but NORs were found on chromosome 3 or 4 in some species. Leptodactylus marmoratus had NORs on chromosome pairs 6 and 8. The data from C-banding, fluorochrome staining, and FISH using the telomeric probe helped in characterising the repetitive sequences. Even though hybridisation did occur on the chromosome ends, telomere-like repetitive sequences outside of the telomere region were identified. Metaphase I cells from L. pentadactylus confirmed its complex karyotype constitution because 12 chromosomes appeared as ring-shaped chain in addition to five bivalents. Conclusions Species of Leptodactylus exhibited both major and minor karyotypic differences which were identified by classical and molecular cytogenetic techniques. Replication banding, which is a unique procedure that has been used to obtain longitudinal multiple band patterns in amphibian chromosomes, allowed us to outline the general mechanisms responsible for these karyotype differences. The findings also suggested that L. marmoratus, which was formerly included in the genus Adenomera, may have undergone great chromosomal repatterning. PMID:23268622

  1. Novel and recurrent germline and somatic mutations in a cohort of 67 patients from 48 families with Brooke-Spiegler syndrome including the phenotypic variant of multiple familial trichoepitheliomas and correlation with the histopathologic findings in 379 biopsy specimens.

    PubMed

    Grossmann, Petr; Vanecek, Tomas; Steiner, Petr; Kacerovska, Denisa; Spagnolo, Dominic V; Cribier, Bernard; Rose, Christian; Vazmitel, Marina; Carlson, J Andrew; Emberger, Michael; Martinek, Petr; Pearce, Robert L; Pearn, John; Michal, Michal; Kazakov, Dmitry V

    2013-02-01

    Brooke-Spiegler syndrome (BSS) is a rare, inherited, autosomal dominant disorder characterized by development of multiple adnexal cutaneous neoplasms including spiradenoma, cylindroma, spiradenocylindroma, and trichoepithelioma. The syndrome of multiple familial trichoepitheliomas (MFT) is considered a phenotypic variant of BSS in which patients present with trichoepitheliomas only. We studied germline and somatic mutations of the CYLD gene by direct sequencing in patients with BSS (n = 49) and MFT (n = 18) using peripheral blood and 90 samples of frozen or formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor tissue selected from 379 available histology specimens. Germline CYLD mutations were found in 51 patients (76%) from 36 families (75%). Germline CYLD mutations were found in 43 of the 49 patients with BSS (88%) but in only 8 of 18 MFT cohort (44%). Twenty-one frameshift, 15 nonsense, 3 missense, and 4 splice site mutations were found in patients with BSS, whereas 1 frameshift, 5 nonsense, and 2 splice site mutations were identified in the MFT cohort. Five novel mutations were identified including 4 frameshift mutations (c.1027dupA/p.T343NfsX7, c.2155dupA/p.M719NfsX5, c.2288_2289delTT/p.F763X, and c.2641delG/p.D881TfsX32) and 1 nonsense mutation (c.2713C>T/p. Q905X). Of the 76 tumors from 32 patients with a germline CYLD mutation, 12 were spiradenomas, 15 spiradenocylindromas, 26 cylindromas, 15 trichoepitheliomas, and 7 were other tumor types. Somatic mutations were detected in 67 specimens of these 76 tumors (88%). Of the 67 somatic mutations, 21 (31%) represented a sequence alteration and 46 (69%) showed loss of heterozygosity. In the remaining 9 cases (12%), the somatic changes remained unknown. A germline CYLD mutation was not detected in 14 tumor samples from 8 patients. In these 14 tumors, somatic mutations were identified in 6 samples (43%), all consisting of sequence alterations (1 sample showed 2 different sequence alterations). In the remaining 8 samples (53%), neither germline nor somatic mutations were found in the lesional tissue. Our study increases the catalog of known CYLD mutations in patients with BSS/MFT to 86 and documents the variability of somatic mutations that may occur in them. We confirm the absence of firm genotype-phenotype correlations and the existence of a subset of patients with BSS/MFT who lack a demonstrable germline CYLD mutation. Further studies are needed to explain the reasons for this phenomenon. PMID:23249834

  2. Therapeutic Horseback Riding Outcomes of Parent-Identified Goals for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: An ABA' Multiple Case Design Examining Dosing and Generalization to the Home and Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holm, Margo B.; Baird, Joanne M.; Kim, Young Joo; Rajora, Kuwar B.; D'Silva, Delma; Podolinsky, Lin; Mazefsky, Carla; Minshew, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    We examined whether different doses of therapeutic riding influenced parent-nominated target behaviors of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (a) during the session (b) at home, and (c) in the community. We used a single subject multiple Baseline, multiple case design, with dosing of 1, 3, and 5 times/week. Three boys with ASD, 6-8 years…

  3. Communication problems with environment-related health disorders as illustrated by a multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) chatroom.

    PubMed

    Jaks, Heike; Hornberg, Claudia; Dott, Wolfgang; Wiesmüller, Gerhard Andreas

    2004-12-01

    The problem of communication in treating multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) was analysed and evaluated using the documentation of an MCS chatroom which was set up in April 2001 following the TV programme Gesundheitsmagazin Praxis (Health Magazine: Practice). Approaches were developed for solving communication problems in the chatroom. A total of 490 cases were evaluated, most of which (355) were directly or indirectly affected, 76 came from self-help groups and 10 were from 4 guest experts invited by ZDF (Zweites Deutsches Fernsehen, Second German TV channel). Of these 4 experts, 2 were environmental medicine specialists, 1 psychosomatics expert and 1 psychiatrist. Fourty-nine of the cases included a petition for chatroom participants to join a class-action law. Aside from exchanging basic information on MCS, frequent topics of discussion on the air were the assessment of physicians, clinics, self-help groups and experts. The participants also expressed their views on problems with society, politics, the economy, science and social security. Another common topic was communication in the chatroom itself, which for the most part consisted of sarcasm and insults, which were cause for conflicts in the chatroom. These communication problems led to the conclusion that a chatroom is not the best medium for discussing MCS. If a chatroom is to be used profitably to this end, it is imperative to have a well-defined organisational framework which allows the exchange of current, scientifically accurate information while keeping discussions from escalating and degenerating into arguments. PMID:15729837

  4. Borderline personality disorder

    MedlinePLUS

    Personality disorder - borderline ... Cause of borderline personality disorder is unknown. Genetic, family, and social factors are thought to play roles. Risk factors for BPD include: Abandonment in ...

  5. Resistance to treatment in eating disorders: a critical challenge

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The Special Issue “Treatment resistance in Eating Disorders” gathers together the contributions provided by several experienced groups of researchers in the field of Eating Disorders (EDs). The main topic is addressed from multiple perspectives ranging from pathogenesis (including developmental and maintaining factors) to treatment. An explicative model of resistance in EDs is also proposed. PMID:24229426

  6. Diversity in Pathways to Common Childhood Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martel, Michelle M.; Nikolas, Molly; Jernigan, Katherine; Friderici, Karen; Nigg, Joel T.

    2012-01-01

    Oppositional-Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are highly comorbid, a phenomenon thought to be due to shared etiological factors and mechanisms. Little work has attempted to chart multiple-level-of-analysis pathways (i.e., simultaneously including biological, environmental, and trait influences) to ODD and…

  7. Child and Adolescent Anxiety Disorders and Early Attachment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SUSAN L. WARREN; LISA HUSTON; BYRON EGELAND; L. ALAN SROUFE

    1997-01-01

    ObjectiveThe major aim of this research is to determine whether infants who were anxiously\\/resistantly attached in infancy develop more anxiety disorders during childhood and adolescence than infants who were securely attached. To test different theories of anxiety disorders, newborn temperament and maternal anxiety were included in multiple regression analyses.

  8. Stereotypic movement disorder

    MedlinePLUS

    ... include repetitive and purposeless picking, hand wringing, head tics, or lip-biting. Long-term stimulant use may ... disorders Obsessive compulsive disorder Tourette syndrome or other tic disorder

  9. Deletions in chromosome 6p22.3-p24.3, including ATXN1, are associated with developmental delay and autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Interstitial deletions of the short arm of chromosome 6 are rare and have been associated with developmental delay, hypotonia, congenital anomalies, and dysmorphic features. We used array comparative genomic hybridization in a South Carolina Autism Project (SCAP) cohort of 97 subjects with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and identified an ~ 5.4 Mb deletion on chromosome 6p22.3-p23 in a 15-year-old patient with intellectual disability and ASDs. Subsequent database queries revealed five additional individuals with overlapping submicroscopic deletions and presenting with developmental and speech delay, seizures, behavioral abnormalities, heart defects, and dysmorphic features. The deletion found in the SCAP patient harbors ATXN1, DTNBP1, JARID2, and NHLRC1 that we propose may be responsible for ASDs and developmental delay. PMID:22480366

  10. Kinetics of 3H-serotonin uptake by platelets in infantile autism and developmental language disorder (including five pairs of twins)

    SciTech Connect

    Katsui, T.; Okuda, M.; Usuda, S.; Koizumi, T.

    1986-03-01

    The kinetics of 5-HT uptake by platelets was studied in cases of infantile autism and developmental language disorder (DLD) and normal subjects. Two patients of the autism group were twins, and the seven patients of the DLD group were members of four pairs of twins. The Vmax values (means +/- SD) for autism and DLD were 6.46 +/- .90 pmol 5-HT/10(7) cells/min and 4.85 +/- 1.50 pmol 5-HT/10(7) cells/min, respectively. These values were both significantly higher than that of 2.25 +/- .97 pmole 5-HT/10(7) cells/min for normal children. The Km values of the three groups were not significantly different. Data on the five pairs of twins examined suggested that the elevated Vmax of 5-HT uptake by platelets was determined genetically.

  11. nAture methods | VOL.8 NO.11 | NOVEMBER2011 | 957 myelin-related disorders such as multiple sclerosis and

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    such as multiple sclerosis and leukodystrophies, for which restoration of oligodendrocyte function would been constrained by difficulties in generating pure populations of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (o differentiate into myelinating oligodendrocytes in vitro and in vivo. our results demonstrate that mouse

  12. Relationship of the Brief UCSD Performance-based Skills Assessment (UPSA-B) to multiple indicators of functioning in people with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Mausbach, Brent T; Harvey, Philip D; Pulver, Ann E; Depp, Colin A; Wolyniec, Paula S; Thornquist, Mary H; Luke, James R; McGrath, John A; Bowie, Christopher; Patterson, Thomas L

    2010-01-01

    Objective This study assessed the relationship between multiple indicators of ‘real-world’ functioning and scores on a brief performance-based measure of functional capacity known as the Brief University of California San Diego (UCSD) Performance-based Skills Assessment (UPSA-B) in a sample of 205 patients with either serious bipolar disorder (n = 89) or schizophrenia (n = 116). Methods Participants were administered the UPSA-B and assessed on the following functional domains: (i) independent living status (e.g., residing independently as head of household, living in residential care facility); (ii) informant reports of functioning (e.g., work skills, daily living skills); (iii) educational attainment and estimated premorbid IQ as measured by years of education and Wide Range Achievement Test reading scores, respectively; and (iv) employment. Results Better scores on the UPSA-B were associated with greater residential independence after controlling for age, diagnosis, and symptoms of psychopathology. Among both bipolar disorder and schizophrenia patients, higher UPSA-B scores were significantly related to better informant reports of functioning in daily living skills and work skills domains. Greater estimated premorbid IQ was associated with higher scores on the UPSA-B for both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder participants. Participants who were employed scored higher on the UPSA-B when controlling for age and diagnosis, but not when controlling for symptoms of psychopathology. Conclusions These data suggest the UPSA-B may be useful for assessing capacity for functioning in a number of domains in both people diagnosed with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. PMID:20148866

  13. Identification of intergenic trans-regulatory RNAs containing a disease-linked SNP sequence and targeting cell cycle progression/differentiation pathways in multiple common human disorders.

    PubMed

    Glinskii, Anna B; Ma, Jun; Ma, Shuang; Grant, Denise; Lim, Chang-Uk; Sell, Stewart; Glinsky, Gennadi V

    2009-12-01

    Meta-analysis of genomic coordinates of SNP variations identified in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of up to 712,253 samples (comprising 221,158 disease cases, 322,862 controls, and 168,233 case/control subjects of obesity GWAS) reveals that 39% of SNPs associated with 22 common human disorders are located within intergenic regions. Chromatin-state maps based on H3K4me3-H3K36me3 signatures show that many intergenic disease-linked SNPs are located within the boundaries of the K4-K36 domains, suggesting that SNP-harboring genomic regions are transcribed. Here we report identification of 13 trans-regulatory RNAs (transRNAs) 100 to 200 nucleotides in length containing intergenic SNP sequences associated with Crohn's disease, rheumatoid arthritis, type 1 diabetes, vitiligo, hypertension and multiple types of epithelial malignancies (prostate, breast, ovarian and colorectal cancers). We demonstrate that NALP1 loci intergenic SNP sequence, rs2670660, is expressed in human cells and may contribute to clinical manifestations of autoimmune and autoimflammatory phenotypes by generating distinct allelic variants of transRNAs. Stable expression of allele-specific sense and anti-sense variants of transRNAs markedly alters cellular behavior, affect cell cycle progression, and interfere with monocyte/macrophage transdifferentiation. On a molecular level, forced expression of allele-specific sense and anti-sense variants of transRNAs asserts allele-specific genome-wide effects on abundance of hundreds microRNAs and mRNAs. Using lentiviral gene transfer, microarray and Q-RT-PCR technologies, we identify rs2670660 allele-specific gene expression signatures (GES) which appear useful for detecting the activated states of innate immunity/inflammasome pathways in approximately 700 clinical samples from 185 control subjects and 350 patients diagnosed with nine common human disorders, including Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, rheumatoid arthritis, Huntington disease, autism, Alzheimer disease, obesity, prostate and breast cancers. Microarray analysis of clinical samples demonstrates that rs2670660 allele-specific GES are engaged in patients' peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) which encounter pathological conditions in coherent tissues of a human body during immune surveillance and homeostasis monitoring. These data indicate that expression of transRNAs encoded by specific intergenic sequences can trigger activation of innate immunity/inflammasome pathways and contribute to clinical development of autoinflammatory and autoimmune syndromes. Documented in this work single-base substitution-driven molecular and biological antagonisms of intergenic SNP-containing transRNAs suggest a guiding mechanism of selection and retention of phenotype-compatible intergenic variations during evolution. According to this model, random genetic variations which generate transRNAs asserting antagonistic phenotype-altering effects compared to ancestral alleles will be selected and retained as SNP variants. PMID:19923886

  14. Multiple interactions of the intrinsically disordered region between the helicase and nuclease domains of the archaeal Hef protein.

    PubMed

    Ishino, Sonoko; Yamagami, Takeshi; Kitamura, Makoto; Kodera, Noriyuki; Mori, Tetsuya; Sugiyama, Shyogo; Ando, Toshio; Goda, Natsuko; Tenno, Takeshi; Hiroaki, Hidekazu; Ishino, Yoshizumi

    2014-08-01

    Hef is an archaeal protein that probably functions mainly in stalled replication fork repair. The presence of an unstructured region was predicted between the two distinct domains of the Hef protein. We analyzed the interdomain region of Thermococcus kodakarensis Hef and demonstrated its disordered structure by CD, NMR, and high speed atomic force microscopy (AFM). To investigate the functions of this intrinsically disordered region (IDR), we screened for proteins interacting with the IDR of Hef by a yeast two-hybrid method, and 10 candidate proteins were obtained. We found that PCNA1 and a RecJ-like protein specifically bind to the IDR in vitro. These results suggested that the Hef protein interacts with several different proteins that work together in the pathways downstream from stalled replication fork repair by converting the IDR structure depending on the partner protein. PMID:24947516

  15. Developmental Expression Mapping of a Gene Implicated in Multiple Neurodevelopmental Disorders, A2bp1 (Fox1)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth A. D. Hammock; Pat Levitt

    2011-01-01

    The neuronal transcription splicing factor, A2BP1, has been implicated in a variety of neurodevelopmental disorders; however, the role of A2BP1 in brain development and gene regulatory function remains to be explicated. Here, we map A2bp1 gene expression, focusing on the developing forebrain of the C57BL6J mouse. Early in forebrain development, A2bp1 expression is highly reminiscent of the expression of genes

  16. Collaborative Care for patients with severe borderline and NOS personality disorders: A comparative multiple case study on processes and outcomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara Stringer; Berno van Meijel; Bauke Koekkoek; A. J. F. M. Kerkhof; Aartjan Beekman

    2011-01-01

    Background  Structured psychotherapy is recommended as the preferred treatment of personality disorders. A substantial group of patients,\\u000a however, has no access to these therapies or does not benefit. For those patients who have no (longer) access to psychotherapy\\u000a a Collaborative Care Program (CCP) is developed. Collaborative Care originated in somatic health care to increase shared decision\\u000a making and to enhance self

  17. [Eating disorders].

    PubMed

    Miyake, Yoshie; Okamoto, Yuri; Jinnin, Ran; Shishida, Kazuhiro; Okamoto, Yasumasa

    2015-02-01

    Eating disorders are characterized by aberrant patterns of eating behavior, including such symptoms as extreme restriction of food intake or binge eating, and severe disturbances in the perception of body shape and weight, as well as a drive for thinness and obsessive fears of becoming fat. Eating disorder is an important cause for physical and psychosocial morbidity in young women. Patients with eating disorders have a deficit in the cognitive process and functional abnormalities in the brain system. Recently, brain-imaging techniques have been used to identify specific brain areas that function abnormally in patients with eating disorders. We have discussed the clinical and cognitive aspects of eating disorders and summarized neuroimaging studies of eating disorders. PMID:25681363

  18. Alcohol Consumption Has a Protective Effect against Hematological Malignancies: a Population-Based Study in Sweden Including 420,489 Individuals with Alcohol Use Disorders12345

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Jianguang; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that alcohol consumption is associated with increased risk of a few solid cancers, although studies that examined the association with hematological malignancies have shown inconsistent results. In this study, we examined the risk of hematological malignancies among individuals who had alcohol use disorders (AUDs) in Sweden. METHODS: Individuals with AUDs were identified from the nationwide Swedish Hospital Discharge Register and Outpatient Register, the Crime Register, and the Prescription Drug Register, and they were linked to the Swedish Cancer Registry to calculate standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of hematological malignancies, using those Swedes without AUDs as a reference. In addition, we used a quasi-experimental sibling design to investigate the odds ratios among sibling pairs who were discordant with AUDs. RESULTS: A total of 420,489 individuals were identified with AUDs. After more than 15 million person-years of follow-up, a total of 1755 individuals developed hematological malignancies demonstrating a low risk, i.e., SIR = 0.60 (95% confidence interval = 0.57-0.63). People with AUDs had low risks for developing specific types of malignancies. The lowest risk (0.51) was for leukemia, followed by myeloma (0.52), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (0.65), and Hodgkin disease (0.71). The risk was lower among AUDs identified at an older age. The low risks of hematological malignancies were also noted using sibling analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that alcohol consumption has a protective effect against hematological malignancies. However, further studies are needed to identity the underlying mechanisms of the protective effect of alcohol consumption against hematological malignancies. PMID:24783999

  19. Disordered interactome of human papillomavirus.

    PubMed

    Xue, Bin; Ganti, Ketaki; Rabionet, Alejandro; Banks, Lawrence; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2014-01-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) and proteins with long intrinsically disordered protein regions (IDPRs) lack ordered structure but are involved in a multitude of biological processes, where they often serve as major regulators and controllers of various functions of their binding partners. Furthermore, IDPs/IDPRs are often related to the pathogenesis of various diseases, including cancer. Intrinsic disorder confers multiple functional advantages to its carriers. As a result, due to their functional versatility and structural plasticity, IDPs and IDPRs are common in various proteomes, including proteomes of different pathological organisms. Viruses are "well-educated" users of various aspects of intrinsic disorder for their advantage. These small but highly efficient invaders broadly use intrinsic disorder to overrun the host organism's defense system, as well as to seize and overrun host systems and pathways forcing them to work for the virus needs, to ensure accommodation of viruses to their variable and often hostile habitats, and to promote and support the economic usage of the viral genetic material. Human papillomaviruses (HPVs), with their tiny proteomes (the entire HPV genome includes just eight open reading frames), intricate life cycle, and ability to either cause benign papillomas/warts or promote the development of carcinomas of the genital tract, head and neck and epidermis, attracted considerable attention of researchers. This review analyzes the plentitude and demeanor of intrinsic disorder in proteins from HPVs and their cellular targets. PMID:23713779

  20. Communication problems with environment-related health disorders as illustrated by a multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) chatroom

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heike Jaks; Claudia Hornberg; Wolfgang Dott; Gerhard Andreas Wiesmüller

    2004-01-01

    The problem of communication in treating multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) was analysed and evaluated using the documentation of an MCS chatroom which was set up in April 2001 following the TV programme Gesundheitsmagazin Praxis (Health Magazine: Practice). Approaches were developed for solving communication problems in the chatroom.A total of 490 cases were evaluated, most of which (355) were directly or

  1. "Nothing like Pretend": Difference, Disorder, and Dystopia in the Multiple World Spaces of Philip Pullman's "His Dark Materials"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantrell, Sarah K.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the multiple worlds in Philip Pullman's "His Dark Materials" trilogy in light Pierre Bourdieu's "space of possibles" and the combination of chance and choice that impact Lyra and Will's decisions. Rather than viewing chance or destiny as disempowering, this article considers how the protagonists' choices also encourage…

  2. Panic Disorder

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of different phobias, including fear of crowds, bridges, snakes, spiders, heights, open places or social embarrassment. A ... disorder or are caused by another problem. Simple treatments are available to help control panic attacks and ...

  3. Cartilage Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... limited movement. It can also lead to joint damage and deformity. Causes of cartilage problems include Tears and injuries, such as sports injuries Genetic factors Other disorders, such as some ...

  4. Circadian clock and stress interactions in the molecular biology of psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Landgraf, Dominic; McCarthy, Michael J; Welsh, David K

    2014-10-01

    Many psychiatric disorders are characterized by circadian rhythm abnormalities, including disturbed sleep/wake cycles, changes in locomotor activity, and abnormal endocrine function. Animal models with mutations in circadian "clock genes" commonly show disturbances in reward processing, locomotor activity and novelty seeking behaviors, further supporting the idea of a connection between the circadian clock and psychiatric disorders. However, if circadian clock dysfunction is a common risk factor for multiple psychiatric disorders, it is unknown if and how these putative clock abnormalities could be expressed differently, and contribute to multiple, distinct phenotypes. One possible explanation is that the circadian clock modulates the biological responses to stressful environmental factors that vary with an individual's experience. It is known that the circadian clock and the stress response systems are closely related: Circadian clock genes regulate the physiological sensitivity to and rhythmic release of glucocorticoids (GC). In turn, GCs have reciprocal effects on the clock. Since stressful life events or increased vulnerability to stress are risk factors for multiple psychiatric disorders, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), bipolar disorder (BD), major depressive disorder (MDD), alcohol use disorder (AUD) and schizophrenia (SCZ), we propose that modulation of the stress response is a common mechanism by which circadian clock genes affect these illnesses. Presently, we review how molecular components of the circadian clock may contribute to these six psychiatric disorders, and present the hypothesis that modulation of the stress response may constitute a common mechanism by which the circadian clock affects multiple psychiatric disorders. PMID:25135782

  5. Rare adipose disorders (RADs) masquerading as obesity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen L Herbst

    2012-01-01

    Rare adipose disorders (RADs) including multiple symmetric lipomatosis (MSL), lipedema and Dercum's disease (DD) may be misdiagnosed as obesity. Lifestyle changes, such as reduced caloric intake and increased physical activity are standard care for obesity. Although lifestyle changes and bariatric surgery work effectively for the obesity component of RADs, these treatments do not routinely reduce the abnormal subcutaneous adipose tissue

  6. Genetics and Function of Neocortical GABAergic Interneurons in Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Rossignol, E.

    2011-01-01

    A dysfunction of cortical and limbic GABAergic circuits has been postulated to contribute to multiple neurodevelopmental disorders in humans, including schizophrenia, autism, and epilepsy. In the current paper, I summarize the characteristics that underlie the great diversity of cortical GABAergic interneurons and explore how the multiple roles of these cells in developing and mature circuits might contribute to the aforementioned disorders. Furthermore, I review the tightly controlled genetic cascades that determine the fate of cortical interneurons and summarize how the dysfunction of genes important for the generation, specification, maturation, and function of cortical interneurons might contribute to these disorders. PMID:21876820

  7. Population pharmacokinetics of methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release multiple-layer beads in pediatric subjects with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    Teuscher, Nathan S; Adjei, Akwete; Findling, Robert L; Greenhill, Laurence L; Kupper, Robert J; Wigal, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    A new multilayer-bead formulation of extended-release methylphenidate hydrochloride (MPH-MLR) has been evaluated in pharmacokinetic studies in healthy adults and in Phase III efficacy/safety studies in children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Using available data in healthy adults, a two-input, one-compartment, first-order elimination population pharmacokinetic model was developed using nonlinear mixed-effect modeling. The model was then extended to pediatric subjects, and was found to adequately describe plasma concentration–time data for this population. A pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model was also developed using change from baseline in the ADHD Rating Scale (ADHD-RS)-IV total scores from a pediatric Phase III trial and simulated plasma concentration–time data. During simulations for each MPH-MLR dose level (10–80 mg), increased body weight resulted in decreased maximum concentration. Additionally, as maximum concentration increased, ADHD-RS-IV total score improved (decreased). Knowledge of the relationship between dose, body weight, and clinical response following the administration of MPH-MLR in children and adolescents may be useful for clinicians selecting initial dosing of MPH-MLR. Additional study is needed to confirm these results.

  8. Development of a universal psycho-educational intervention to prevent common postpartum mental disorders in primiparous women: a multiple method approach

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Prevention of postnatal mental disorders in women is an important component of comprehensive health service delivery because of the substantial potential benefits for population health. However, diverse approaches to prevention of postnatal depression have had limited success, possibly because anxiety and adjustment disorders are also problematic, mental health problems are multifactorially determined, and because relationships amongst psychosocial risk factors are complex and difficult to modify. The aim of this paper is to describe the development of a novel psycho-educational intervention to prevent postnatal mental disorders in mothers of firstborn infants. Methods Data from a variety of sources were synthesised: a literature review summarised epidemiological evidence about neglected modifiable risk factors; clinical research evidence identified successful psychosocial treatments for postnatal mental health problems; consultations with clinicians, health professionals, policy makers and consumers informed the proposed program and psychological and health promotion theories underpinned the proposed mechanisms of effect. The intervention was pilot-tested with small groups of mothers and fathers and their first newborn infants. Results What Were We Thinking! is a psycho-educational intervention, designed for universal implementation, that addresses heightened learning needs of parents of first newborns. It re-conceptualises mental health problems in mothers of infants as reflecting unmet needs for adaptations in the intimate partner relationship after the birth of a baby, and skills to promote settled infant behaviour. It addresses these two risk factors in half-day seminars, facilitated by trained maternal and child health nurses using non-psychiatric language, in groups of up to five couples and their four-week old infants in primary care. It is designed to promote confidence and reduce mental disorders by providing skills in sustainable sleep and settling strategies, and the re-negotiation of the unpaid household workload in non-confrontational ways. Materials include a Facilitators' Handbook, creatively designed worksheets for use in seminars, and a book for couples to take home for reference. A website provides an alternative means of access to the intervention. Conclusions What Were We Thinking! is a postnatal mental health intervention which has the potential to contribute to psychologically-informed routine primary postnatal health care and prevent common mental disorders in women. PMID:20718991

  9. Multiple White Matter Volume Reductions in Patients with Panic Disorder: Relationships between Orbitofrontal Gyrus Volume and Symptom Severity and Social Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Konishi, Jun; Asami, Takeshi; Hayano, Fumi; Yoshimi, Asuka; Hayasaka, Shunsuke; Fukushima, Hiroshi; Whitford, Thomas J.; Inoue, Tomio; Hirayasu, Yoshio

    2014-01-01

    Numerous brain regions are believed to be involved in the neuropathology of panic disorder (PD) including fronto-limbic regions, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. However, while several previous studies have demonstrated volumetric gray matter reductions in these brain regions, there have been no studies evaluating volumetric white matter changes in the fiber bundles connecting these regions. In addition, although patients with PD typically exhibit social, interpersonal and occupational dysfunction, the neuropathologies underlying these dysfunctions remain unclear. A voxel-based morphometry study was conducted to evaluate differences in regional white matter volume between 40 patients with PD and 40 healthy control subjects (HC). Correlation analyses were performed between the regional white matter volumes and patients' scores on the Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS) and the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF). Patients with PD demonstrated significant volumetric reductions in widespread white matter regions including fronto-limbic, thalamo-cortical and cerebellar pathways (p<0.05, FDR corrected). Furthermore, there was a significant negative relationship between right orbitofrontal gyrus (OFG) white matter volume and the severity of patients' clinical symptoms, as assessed with the PDSS. A significant positive relationship was also observed between patients' right OFG volumes and their scores on the GAF. Our results suggest that volumetric reductions in widespread white matter regions may play an important role in the pathology of PD. In particular, our results suggest that structural white matter abnormalities in the right OFG may contribute to the social, personal and occupational dysfunction typically experienced by patients with PD. PMID:24663245

  10. Structural Conversion of A?17-42 Peptides from Disordered Oligomers to U-Shape Protofilaments via Multiple Kinetic Pathways.

    PubMed

    Cheon, Mookyung; Hall, Carol K; Chang, Iksoo

    2015-05-01

    Discovering the mechanisms by which proteins aggregate into fibrils is an essential first step in understanding the molecular level processes underlying neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. The goal of this work is to provide insights into the structural changes that characterize the kinetic pathways by which amyloid-? peptides convert from monomers to oligomers to fibrils. By applying discontinuous molecular dynamics simulations to PRIME20, a force field designed to capture the chemical and physical aspects of protein aggregation, we have been able to trace out the entire aggregation process for a system containing 8 A?17-42 peptides. We uncovered two fibrillization mechanisms that govern the structural conversion of A?17-42 peptides from disordered oligomers into protofilaments. The first mechanism is monomeric conversion templated by a U-shape oligomeric nucleus into U-shape protofilament. The second mechanism involves a long-lived and on-pathway metastable oligomer with S-shape chains, having a C-terminal turn, en route to the final U-shape protofilament. Oligomers with this C-terminal turn have been regarded in recent experiments as a major contributing element to cell toxicity in Alzheimer's disease. The internal structures of the U-shape protofilaments from our PRIME20/DMD simulation agree well with those from solid state NMR experiments. The approach presented here offers a simple molecular-level framework to describe protein aggregation in general and to visualize the kinetic evolution of a putative toxic element in Alzheimer's disease in particular. PMID:25955249

  11. Heterogeneous ordered-disordered structure of the mesodomain in frozen sucrose-water solutions revealed by multiple electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopies.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hanlin; Sun, Li; Warncke, Kurt

    2013-04-01

    The microscopic structure of frozen aqueous sucrose solutions, over concentrations of 0-75% (w/v), is characterized by using multiple continuous-wave and pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopic and relaxation techniques and the paramagnetic spin probe, TEMPOL. The temperature dependence of the TEMPOL EPR line-shape anisotropy reveals a mobility transition, specified at 205 K in pure water and 255 ± 5 K for >1% (w/v) added sucrose. The transition temperature is >Tg, where Tg is the homogeneous water glass transition temperature, which shows that TEMPOL resides in the mesoscopic domain (mesodomain) at water-ice crystallite boundaries and that the mesodomain sucrose concentrations are comparable at >1% (w/v) added sucrose. Electron spin-echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) spectroscopy of TEMPOL-(2)H2-sucrose hyperfine interactions also indicates comparable sucrose concentrations in mesodomains at >1% (w/v) added sucrose. Electron spin-echo (ESE) detected longitudinal and phase memory relaxation times (T1 and TM, respectively) at 6 K indicate a general trend of increased mesodomain volume with added sucrose, in three stages: 1-15, 20-50, and >50% (w/v). The calibrated TEMPOL concentrations indicate that the mesodomain volume is less than the predicted maximally freeze-concentrated value [80 (w/w); 120% (w/v)], with transitions at 15-20% and 50% (w/v) starting sucrose. An ordered sucrose hydrate phase, which excludes TEMPOL, and a disordered, amorphous sucrose-water glass phase, in which TEMPOL resides, are proposed to compose a heterogeneous mesodomain. The results show that the ratio of ordered and disordered volume fractions in the mesodomain is exquisitely sensitive to the starting sucrose concentration. PMID:23464733

  12. Heterogeneous Ordered-Disordered Structure of the Mesodomain in Frozen Sucrose-Water Solutions Revealed by Multiple Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopies

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hanlin; Sun, Li; Warncke, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    The microscopic structure of frozen aqueous sucrose solutions, over concentrations of 0–75% (w/v), is characterized by using multiple continuous-wave and pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopic and relaxation techniques and the paramagnetic spin probe, TEMPOL. The temperature dependence of the TEMPOL EPR lineshape anisotropy reveals a mobility transition, specified at 205 K in pure water and 255 ±5 K for >1% (w/v) added sucrose. The transition temperature is >>Tg, where Tg is the homogeneous water glass transition temperature, which shows that TEMPOL resides in the mesoscopic domain (mesodomain) at water-ice crystallite boundaries, and that the mesodomain sucrose concentrations are comparable at >1% (w/v) added sucrose. Electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) spectroscopy of TEMPOL-2H2-sucrose hyperfine interactions also indicates comparable sucrose concentrations in mesodomains at >1% (w/v) added sucrose. Electron spin echo (ESE) – detected longitudinal and phase memory relaxation times (T1 and TM, respectively) at 6 K indicate a general trend of increased mesodomain volume with added sucrose, in three stages: 1-15, 20-50, and >50% (w/v). The calibrated TEMPOL concentrations indicate that the mesodomain volume is less than the predicted maximally freeze-concentrated value [80 (w/w); 120% (w/v)], with transitions at 15-20% and 50% (w/v) starting sucrose. An ordered sucrose hydrate phase, which excludes TEMPOL, and a disordered, amorphous sucrose-water glass phase, in which TEMPOL resides, are proposed to compose a heterogeneous mesodomain. The results show that the ratio of ordered and disordered volume fractions in the mesodomain is exquisitely sensitive to the starting sucrose concentration. PMID:23464733

  13. Receptors and Entry Cofactors for Retroviruses Include Single and Multiple Transmembrane-Spanning Proteins as well as Newly Described Glycophosphatidylinositol-Anchored and Secreted Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Overbaugh, Julie; Miller, A. Dusty; Eiden, Maribeth V.

    2001-01-01

    In the past few years, many retrovirus receptors, coreceptors, and cofactors have been identified. These molecules are important for some aspects of viral entry, although in some cases it remains to be determined whether they are required for binding or postbinding stages in entry, such as fusion. There are certain common features to the molecules that many retroviruses use to gain entry into the cell. For example, the receptors for most mammalian oncoretroviruses are multiple membrane-spanning transport proteins. However, avian retroviruses use single-pass membrane proteins, and a sheep retrovirus uses a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored molecule as its receptor. For some retroviruses, particularly the lentiviruses, two cell surface molecules are required for efficient entry. More recently, a soluble protein that is required for viral entry has been identified for a feline oncoretrovirus. In this review, we will focus on the various strategies used by mammalian retroviruses to gain entry into the cell. The choice of receptors will also be discussed in light of pressures that drive viral evolution and persistence. PMID:11528001

  14. Physical activity behavior change in persons with neurologic disorders: overview and examples from Parkinson disease and multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Terry; Motl, Robert W

    2013-06-01

    Persons with chronic progressive neurologic diseases such as Parkinson disease (PD) and multiple sclerosis (MS) face significant declines in mobility and activities of daily living, resulting in a loss of independence and compromised health-related quality of life over the course of the disease. Such undesirable outcomes can be attenuated through participation in exercise and physical activity, yet there is profound and prevalent physical inactivity in persons with PD and MS that may initiate a cycle of deconditioning and worsening of disease consequences, independent of latent disease processes. This Special Interest article highlights the accruing evidence revealing the largely sedentary behaviors common among persons living with physically disabling conditions and summarizes the evidence on the benefits of physical activity in persons with PD and MS. We then examine the social cognitive theory as an approach to identifying the primary active ingredients for behavioral change and, hence, the targets of interventions for increasing physical activity levels. The design and efficacies of interventions based on the social cognitive theory for increasing physical activity in persons with PD and MS are discussed. Finally, a rationale for adopting a secondary prevention approach to delivering physical therapy services is presented, with an emphasis on the integration of physical activity behavior change interventions into the care of persons with chronic, progressive disabilities over the course of the disease.Video Abstract available (see Video, Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/JNPT/A42) for more insights from the authors. PMID:23632452

  15. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis of disorder and multiple-scattering in complex crystalline solids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. A. ODay; G. E. Jr. Brown; J. J. Rehr; S. I. Zabinsky

    1994-01-01

    Quantitative determination of local atomic structure in complex materials using extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis was tested on eight inorganic compounds of known structure, including natural and synthetic crystalline solids, at ambient conditions. Our aim was to test the accuracy of experimental and theoretical EXAFS standard functions in determining the number of backscattering atoms (N) at a distance

  16. Eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Gurenlian, JoAnn R

    2002-01-01

    Eating disorders are a serious concern in clients health and a challenge to oral health professionals. These illnesses, including anorexia nervosa, bulimia, binge eating, and pica, are characterized by serious disturbances in eating and effects on psychological health. Physiologic changes associated with eating disorders may be devastating and can lead to mortality. Despite the serious consequences of eating disorders on physical and psychological health and well being, these disorders are often difficult to diagnose. Even when detected, ill clients may be averse to accepting treatment. Thus, oral health professionals must be aware of the signs of eating disorders, and be prepared to collaborate with other health care providers to treat them. The purpose of this course is to review the medical and dental literature concerning eating disorders types, risk factors, systemic health consequences, oral manifestations, and treatment considerations. The role of oral health professionals as part of an interdisciplinary health team focused on addressing the needs of clients with eating disorders will be addressed. PMID:12271868

  17. GSK3 inhibitors regulate MYCN mRNA levels and reduce neuroblastoma cell viability through multiple mechanisms, including p53 and Wnt signaling.

    PubMed

    Duffy, David J; Krstic, Aleksandar; Schwarzl, Thomas; Higgins, Desmond G; Kolch, Walter

    2014-02-01

    Neuroblastoma is an embryonal tumor accounting for approximately 15% of childhood cancer deaths. There exists a clinical need to identify novel therapeutic targets, particularly for treatment-resistant forms of neuroblastoma. Therefore, we investigated the role of the neuronal master regulator GSK3 in controlling neuroblastoma cell fate. We identified novel GSK3-mediated regulation of MYC (c-MYC and MYCN) mRNA levels, which may have implications for numerous MYC-driven cancers. In addition, we showed that certain GSK3 inhibitors induced large-scale cell death in neuroblastoma cells, primarily through activating apoptosis. mRNA-seq of GSK3 inhibitor-treated cells was performed and subsequent pathway analysis revealed that multiple signaling pathways contributed to the loss of neuroblastoma cell viability. The contribution of two of the signaling pathways highlighted by the mRNA-seq analysis was functionally validated. Inhibition of the p53 tumor suppressor partly rescued the cell death phenotype, whereas activation of canonical Wnt signaling contributed to the loss of viability, in a p53-independent manner. Two GSK3 inhibitors (BIO-acetoxime and LiCl) and one small-molecule Wnt agonist (Wnt Agonist 1) demonstrated therapeutic potential for neuroblastoma treatment. These inhibitors reduced the viability of numerous neuroblastoma cell lines, even those derived from high-risk MYCN-amplified metastatic tumors, for which effective therapeutics are currently lacking. Furthermore, although LiCl was lethal to neuroblastoma cells, it did not reduce the viability of differentiated neurons. Taken together our data suggest that these small molecules may hold potential as effective therapeutic agents for the treatment of neuroblastoma and other MYC-driven cancers. PMID:24282277

  18. Characterization of nicotine binding to the rat brain P/sub 2/ preparation: the identification of multiple binding sites which include specific up-regulatory site(s)

    SciTech Connect

    Sloan, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    These studies show that nicotine binds to the rat brain P/sub 2/ preparation by saturable and reversible processes. Multiple binding sites were revealed by the configuration of saturation, kinetic and Scatchard plots. A least squares best fit of Scatchard data using nonlinear curve fitting programs confirmed the presence of a very high affinity site, an up-regulatory site, a high affinity site and one or two low affinity sites. Stereospecificity was demonstrated for the up-regulatory site where (+)-nicotine was more effective and for the high affinity site where (-)-nicotine had a higher affinity. Drugs which selectively up-regulate nicotine binding site(s) have been identified. Further, separate very high and high affinity sites were identified for (-)- and (+)-(/sup 3/H)nicotine, based on evidence that the site density for the (-)-isomer is 10 times greater than that for the (+)-isomer at these sites. Enhanced nicotine binding has been shown to be a statistically significant phenomenon which appears to be a consequence of drugs binding to specific site(s) which up-regulate binding at other site(s). Although Scatchard and Hill plots indicate positive cooperatively, up-regulation more adequately describes the function of these site(s). A separate up-regulatory site is suggested by the following: (1) Drugs vary markedly in their ability to up-regulate binding. (2) Both the affinity and the degree of up-regulation can be altered by structural changes in ligands. (3) Drugs with specificity for up-regulation have been identified. (4) Some drugs enhance binding in a dose-related manner. (5) Competition studies employing cold (-)- and (+)-nicotine against (-)- and (+)-(/sup 3/H)nicotine show that the isomers bind to separate sites which up-regulate binding at the (-)- and (+)-nicotine high affinity sites and in this regard (+)-nicotine is more specific and efficacious than (-)-nicotine.

  19. Prevention of eating disorders in female athletes

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Gabriela Morgado de Oliveira; Gomes, Ainá Innocencio da Silva; Ribeiro, Beatriz Gonçalves; Soares, Eliane de Abreu

    2014-01-01

    Eating disorders are serious mental diseases that frequently appear in female athletes. They are abnormal eating behaviors that can be diagnosed only by strict criteria. Disordered eating, although also characterized as abnormal eating behavior, does not include all the criteria for diagnosing eating disorders and is therefore a way to recognize the problem in its early stages. It is important to identify factors to avoid clinical progression in this high-risk population. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to discuss critical information for the prevention of eating disorders in female athletes. This review discusses the major correlates for the development of an eating disorder. We also discuss which athletes are possibly at highest risk for eating disorders, including those from lean sports and female adolescent athletes. There is an urgent need for the demystification of myths surrounding body weight and performance in sports. This review includes studies that tested different prevention programs’ effectiveness, and the majority showed positive results. Educational programs are the best method for primary prevention of eating disorders. For secondary prevention, early identification is essential and should be performed by preparticipation exams, the recognition of dietary markers, and the use of validated self-report questionnaires or clinical interviews. In addition, more randomized clinical trials are needed with athletes from multiple sports in order for the most reliable recommendations to be made and for some sporting regulations to be changed. PMID:24891817

  20. Prevention of eating disorders in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Gabriela Morgado de Oliveira; Gomes, Ainá Innocencio da Silva; Ribeiro, Beatriz Gonçalves; Soares, Eliane de Abreu

    2014-01-01

    Eating disorders are serious mental diseases that frequently appear in female athletes. They are abnormal eating behaviors that can be diagnosed only by strict criteria. Disordered eating, although also characterized as abnormal eating behavior, does not include all the criteria for diagnosing eating disorders and is therefore a way to recognize the problem in its early stages. It is important to identify factors to avoid clinical progression in this high-risk population. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to discuss critical information for the prevention of eating disorders in female athletes. This review discusses the major correlates for the development of an eating disorder. We also discuss which athletes are possibly at highest risk for eating disorders, including those from lean sports and female adolescent athletes. There is an urgent need for the demystification of myths surrounding body weight and performance in sports. This review includes studies that tested different prevention programs' effectiveness, and the majority showed positive results. Educational programs are the best method for primary prevention of eating disorders. For secondary prevention, early identification is essential and should be performed by preparticipation exams, the recognition of dietary markers, and the use of validated self-report questionnaires or clinical interviews. In addition, more randomized clinical trials are needed with athletes from multiple sports in order for the most reliable recommendations to be made and for some sporting regulations to be changed. PMID:24891817

  1. Peer Victimization in Youth with Tourette Syndrome and Other Chronic Tic Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinner, Samuel H.; Conelea, Christine A.; Glew, Gwen M.; Woods, Douglas W.; Budman, Cathy L.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic tic disorders including Tourette syndrome have negative impact across multiple functional domains. We explored associations between peer victimization status and tic subtypes, premonitory urges, internalizing symptoms, explosive outbursts, and quality of life among youth with chronic tic disorders, as part of the internet-based omnibus…

  2. Hormones of the gut–brain axis as targets for the treatment of upper gastrointestinal disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin Lee; Gareth J. Sanger

    2008-01-01

    The concept of the gut forming the centre of an integrated gut–brain–energy axis — modulating appetite, metabolism and digestion — opens up new paradigms for drugs that can tackle multiple symptoms in complex upper gastrointestinal disorders. These include eating disorders, nausea and vomiting, gastroesophageal reflux disease, gastroparesis, dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome. The hormones that modulate gastric motility represent targets

  3. Caenorhabditis elegans Cyclin B3 Is Required for Multiple Mitotic Processes Including Alleviation of a Spindle Checkpoint–Dependent Block in Anaphase Chromosome Segregation

    PubMed Central

    Deyter, Gary M. R.; Furuta, Tokiko; Kurasawa, Yasuhiro; Schumacher, Jill M.

    2010-01-01

    The master regulators of the cell cycle are cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks), which influence the function of a myriad of proteins via phosphorylation. Mitotic Cdk1 is activated by A-type, as well as B1- and B2-type, cyclins. However, the role of a third, conserved cyclin B family member, cyclin B3, is less well defined. Here, we show that Caenorhabditis elegans CYB-3 has essential and distinct functions from cyclin B1 and B2 in the early embryo. CYB-3 is required for the timely execution of a number of cell cycle events including completion of the MII meiotic division of the oocyte nucleus, pronuclear migration, centrosome maturation, mitotic chromosome condensation and congression, and, most strikingly, progression through the metaphase-to-anaphase transition. Our experiments reveal that the extended metaphase delay in CYB-3–depleted embryos is dependent on an intact spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) and results in salient defects in the architecture of holocentric metaphase chromosomes. Furthermore, genetically increasing or decreasing dynein activity results in the respective suppression or enhancement of CYB-3–dependent defects in cell cycle progression. Altogether, these data reveal that CYB-3 plays a unique, essential role in the cell cycle including promoting mitotic dynein functionality and alleviation of a SAC–dependent block in anaphase chromosome segregation. PMID:21124864

  4. Putative neuroprotective agents in neuropsychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Dodd, Seetal; Maes, Michael; Anderson, George; Dean, Olivia M; Moylan, Steven; Berk, Michael

    2013-04-01

    In many individuals with major neuropsychiatric disorders including depression, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, their disease characteristics are consistent with a neuroprogressive illness. This includes progressive structural brain changes, cognitive and functional decline, poorer treatment response and an increasing vulnerability to relapse with chronicity. The underlying molecular mechanisms of neuroprogression are thought to include neurotrophins and regulation of neurogenesis and apoptosis, neurotransmitters, inflammatory, oxidative and nitrosative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, cortisol and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and epigenetic influences. Knowledge of the involvement of each of these pathways implies that specific agents that act on some or multiple of these pathways may thus block this cascade and have neuroprotective properties. This paper reviews the potential of the most promising of these agents, including lithium and other known psychotropics, aspirin, minocycline, statins, N-acetylcysteine, leptin and melatonin. These agents are putative neuroprotective agents for schizophrenia and mood disorders. PMID:23178231

  5. Structural Characterization and In Vitro Antioxidant Activity of Kojic Dipalmitate Loaded W/O/W Multiple Emulsions Intended for Skin Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Marcussi, Diana Gleide; Calixto, Giovana Maria Fioramonti; Corrêa, Marcos Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Multiple emulsions (MEs) are intensively being studied for drug delivery due to their ability to load and increase the bioavailability of active lipophilic antioxidant, such as kojic dipalmitate (KDP). The aim of this study was to structurally characterize developed MEs by determining the average droplet size (Dnm) and zeta potential (ZP), performing macroscopic and microscopic analysis and analyzing their rheological behavior and in vitro bioadhesion. Furthermore, the in vitro safety profile and antioxidant activity of KDP-loaded MEs were evaluated. The developed MEs showed a Dnm of approximately 1 micrometer and a ZP of ?13?mV, and no change was observed in Dnm or ZP of the system with the addition of KDP. KDP-unloaded MEs exhibited ‘‘shear thinning” flow behavior whereas KDP-loaded MEs exhibited Newtonian behavior, which are both characteristic of antithixotropic materials. MEs have bioadhesion properties that were not influenced by the incorporation of KDP. The results showed that the incorporation of KDP into MEs improved the safety profile of the drug. The in vitro antioxidant activity assay suggested that MEs presented a higher capacity for maintaining the antioxidant activity of KDP. ME-based systems may be a promising platform for the topical application of KDP in the treatment of skin disorders. PMID:25785265

  6. Schizotypal personality disorder

    MedlinePLUS

    ... disorder, is also common. Common signs of schizotypal personality disorder include: Discomfort in social situations Inappropriate displays of feelings No close friends Odd behavior or appearance Odd beliefs, fantasies, or ...

  7. Speech and Communication Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to being completely unable to speak or understand speech. Causes include Hearing disorders and deafness Voice problems, ... or those caused by cleft lip or palate Speech problems like stuttering Developmental disabilities Learning disorders Autism ...

  8. Common Anorectal Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Foxx-Orenstein, Amy E.; Umar, Sarah B.; Crowell, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Anorectal disorders result in many visits to healthcare specialists. These disorders include benign conditions such as hemorrhoids to more serious conditions such as malignancy; thus, it is important for the clinician to be familiar with these disorders as well as know how to conduct an appropriate history and physical examination. This article reviews the most common anorectal disorders, including hemorrhoids, anal fissures, fecal incontinence, proctalgia fugax, excessive perineal descent, and pruritus ani, and provides guidelines on comprehensive evaluation and management. PMID:24987313

  9. [Anxiety disorder].

    PubMed

    Hayashida, Maiko; Horiguchi, Jun

    2013-10-01

    Anxiety disorder (AD) often is under diagnosed and under treated in older adults, especially when the clinical presentation of anxiety. Symptoms often overlap with medical conditions. Of all the anxiety disorders in later life, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is one of the most frequently diagnosed. AD is often comorbid with depression. AD is associated with excess disability. Anxiety in older adults has traditionally been treated pharmacology, often with benzodiazepine. However, the clinical recommendations for pharmacologic treatment actually have been much broader, including suggestions to consider serotonergic antidepressants. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and serotonin nor epinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) generally are safe and procedure fewer side effects compared with tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), in older patients. Effective treatment includes pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy, and complementary and alternative therapies. Late life AD is associated with substantial impairments in quality of life. Effective treatment for AD may be one of the most predictors of improvement of QOL. PMID:24261208

  10. PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS ASSOCIATED WITH FXTAS

    PubMed Central

    Seritan, Andreea L.; Ortigas, Melina; Seritan, Stefan; Bourgeois, James A.; Hagerman, Randi J.

    2015-01-01

    Carriers of the FMR1 premutation (with 55-200 CGG repeats) may present with multiple medical and psychiatric disorders. Middle-aged carriers (males more often than females) may suffer from fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS). FXTAS is a newly discovered neurodegenerative disease characterized by intention tremor and ataxia, along with several other neurological features. Psychiatric manifestations are common in premutation carriers of both genders and include attention deficits, anxiety, depression, irritability, impulse dyscontrol, and substance abuse or dependence. Major depressive disorder, panic disorder with or without agoraphobia, generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, and specific phobia are among the psychiatric diagnoses often encountered in premutation carriers, including those with FXTAS. Later in the course of the illness, cognitive deficits (including dementia) may occur. In this paper, we discuss common psychiatric phenotypes in FXTAS, based on a thorough review of the literature, as well as our own research experience. Symptomatic pharmacologic treatments are available, although disease modifying agents have not yet been developed. PMID:25620899

  11. Eating Disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tanya R. Schlam; G. Terence Wilson

    As these two case studies illustrate, homework is absolutely essential to the effective use of CBT in the treatment of eating disorders and in the prevention of relapse. Adherence to homework assignments, including difficult assignments that provoke anxiety, is best achieved in the context of a strong relationship in which clients understand the rationale for the assignment and are able

  12. Eating disorders

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The incidence of eating disorders is increasing, and health care professionals are faced with the difficult task of treating these refractory conditions. The first clinical description of anorexia nervosa (AN) was reported in 1694 and included symptoms such as decreased appetite, amenorrhea, food av...

  13. Traumatic Brain Injury and Sleep Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Viola-Saltzman, Mari; Watson, Nathaniel F.

    2012-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Sleep disturbance is common following traumatic brain injury (TBI), affecting 30–70% of individuals, many occurring after mild injuries. Insomnia, fatigue and sleepiness are the most frequent post-TBI sleep complaints with narcolepsy (with or without cataplexy), sleep apnea (obstructive and/or central), periodic limb movement disorder, and parasomnias occurring less commonly. In addition, depression, anxiety and pain are common TBI co-morbidities with substantial influence on sleep quality. Two types of TBI negatively impact sleep: contact injuries causing focal brain damage and acceleration/deceleration injuries causing more generalized brain damage. Diagnosis of sleep disorders after TBI may involve polysomnography, multiple sleep latency testing and/or actigraphy. Treatment is disorder specific and may include the use of medications, continuous positive airway pressure (or similar device) and/or behavioral modifications. Unfortunately, treatment of sleep disorders associated with TBI often does not improve sleepiness or neuropsychological function. PMID:23099139

  14. The relationship between creativity and mood disorders.

    PubMed

    Andreasen, Nancy C

    2008-01-01

    Research designed to examine the relationship between creativity and mental illnesses must confront multiple challenges. What is the optimal sample to study? How should creativity be defined? What is the most appropriate comparison group? Only a limited number of studies have examined highly creative individuals using personal interviews and a noncreative comparison group. The majority of these have examined writers. The preponderance of the evidence suggests that in these creative individuals the rate of mood disorder is high, and that both bipolar disorder and unipolar depression are quite common. Clinicians who treat creative individuals with mood disorders must also confront a variety of challenges, including the fear that treatment may diminish creativity. In the case of bipolar disorder, however, it is likely that reducing severe manic episodes may actually enhance creativity in many individuals. PMID:18689294

  15. Neurological Aspects of Human Glycosylation Disorders.

    PubMed

    Freeze, Hudson H; Eklund, Erik A; Ng, Bobby G; Patterson, Marc C

    2015-07-01

    This review presents principles of glycosylation, describes the relevant glycosylation pathways and their related disorders, and highlights some of the neurological aspects and issues that continue to challenge researchers. More than 100 rare human genetic disorders that result from deficiencies in the different glycosylation pathways are known today. Most of these disorders impact the central and/or peripheral nervous systems. Patients typically have developmental delays/intellectual disabilities, hypotonia, seizures, neuropathy, and metabolic abnormalities in multiple organ systems. Among these disorders there is great clinical diversity because all cell types differentially glycosylate proteins and lipids. The patients have hundreds of misglycosylated products, which afflict a myriad of processes, including cell signaling, cell-cell interaction, and cell migration. This vast complexity in glycan composition and function, along with the limited availability of analytic tools, has impeded the identification of key glycosylated molecules that cause pathologies. To date, few critical target proteins have been pinpointed. PMID:25840006

  16. Dissociative Identity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    A brief description of the controversies surrounding the diagnosis of dissociative identity disorder is presented, followed by a discussion of the proposed similarities and differences between dissociative identity disorder and borderline personality disorder. The phenomenon of autohypnosis in the context of early childhood sexual trauma and disordered attachment is discussed, as is the meaning of alters or alternate personalities. The author describes recent neurosciences research that may relate the symptoms of dissociative identity disorder to demonstrable disordered attention and memory processes. A clinical description of a typical patient presentation is included, plus some recommendations for approaches to treatment. PMID:19724751

  17. [Movement disorders is psychiatric diseases].

    PubMed

    Hidasi, Zoltan; Salacz, Pal; Csibri, Eva

    2014-12-01

    Movement disorders are common in psychiatry. The movement disorder can either be the symptom of a psychiatric disorder, can share a common aetiological factor with it, or can be the consequence of psychopharmacological therapy. Most common features include tic, stereotypy, compulsion, akathisia, dyskinesias, tremor, hypokinesia and disturbances of posture and gait. We discuss characteristics and clinical importance of these features. Movement disorders are frequently present in mood disorders, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, catatonia, Tourette-disorder and psychogenic movement disorder, leading to differential-diagnostic and therapeutical difficulties in everyday practice. Movement disorders due to psychopharmacotherapy can be classified as early-onset, late-onset and tardive. Frequent psychiatric comorbidity is found in primary movement disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, Wilson's disease, Huntington's disease, diffuse Lewy-body disorder. Complex neuropsychiatric approach is effective concerning overlapping clinical features and spectrums of disorders in terms of movement disorders and psychiatric diseases. PMID:25577484

  18. The Children’s Attention-deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Telemental Health Treatment Study: Methodology for Conducting a Trial of Telemental Health in Multiple Underserved Communities

    PubMed Central

    Stoep, Ann Vander; Myers, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    Background Children who live in non-metropolitan communities are underserved by evidence-based mental health care and underrepresented in clinical trials of mental health services. Telemental Health (TMH), the use of videoteleconferencing (VTC) to provide care that is usually delivered in person, shows promise for helping to rectify these service disparities. Purpose The Children’s ADHD Telemental Health Treatment Study (CATTS) is a randomized controlled trial designed to test the effectiveness of TMH in providing treatment to children diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) who are living in underserved communities. In this paper we describe the methodologies we developed for the trial and lessons learned. Methods Children ages 5.5-12 years of age with ADHD were referred to CATTS by their primary care physicians (PCP’s). The test intervention group (Group A) received six telepsychiatry sessions followed by in-person caregiver behavioral training delivered by a local therapist who was trained and supervised remotely. A secure website was used to support decision-making by the telepsychiatrists, to facilitate real-time collaboration between the telepsychiatrists and community therapists, and communication with the PCP’s. The control group (Group B) received a single telepsychiatry consultation followed by treatment with their PCP’s who implemented the telepsychiatrists’ recommendations at their discretion. Caregivers completed five sets of questionnaires about children’s symptoms and functioning and their own levels of distress. Older children (aged 10-12 years) completed questionnaires about their symptoms and functioning. Teachers completed ADHD rating scales. Questionnaires were completed online through a secure portal from personal computers. Results Eighty-eight PCP’s in seven communities referred the 223 children who participated in the trial. Attrition was low (3%). Children in Group A completed an average of 5.3 of 6 scheduled sessions; 96% of children in Group B completed their telepsychiatry consultation. Parents in both groups completed an average of 4.8 of 5 assessments. Telepsychiatrists and therapists showed high adherence to treatment protocols. Lessons Learned TMH proved to be a viable means of providing evidence-based pharmacological services to children and of training local therapists in evidence-based caregiver behavioral management. Recruitment was enhanced by offering the control group a telepsychiatry consultation. To meet recruitment targets across multiple dispersed sites, we developed community-specific strategies. A dedicated scheduler was a critical staff role to coordinate the multiple sites, sessions, and clinicians. Trial implementation was easier with sites that shared an electronic medical record system with our research hub. Conclusions The CATTS study used methods and procedures to optimize inclusion of children living in multiple dispersed and underserved areas. These experiences should advance the development of technologies needed to recruit underserved populations into research projects with the goal of reducing disparities in access to quality mental health care. PMID:23897950

  19. Eosinophilic Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Google+ LinkedIn Merck Manuals Consumer Version Blood Disorders White Blood Cell Disorders Eosinophilic Disorders Idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome Resources In This Article Drugs Mentioned In This ...

  20. Development of a universal psycho-educational intervention to prevent common postpartum mental disorders in primiparous women: a multiple method approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heather J Rowe; Jane RW Fisher

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prevention of postnatal mental disorders in women is an important component of comprehensive health service delivery because of the substantial potential benefits for population health. However, diverse approaches to prevention of postnatal depression have had limited success, possibly because anxiety and adjustment disorders are also problematic, mental health problems are multifactorially determined, and because relationships amongst psychosocial risk factors

  1. Sleep and eating disorders: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. FASSINO; G. ABBATE DAGA; S. DEFILIPPI; L. GIANOTTI; F. GASTALDI; N. DELSEDIME

    Summary Objective Patients with Anorexia Nervosa (AN) and patients with Bulimia Nervosa (BN) often have comorbid sleep disorders. Currently, the cluster of Eating Disorders (EDs) includes also syndromes other than AN and BN, such as Binge Eating Disorder (BED), and other disorders related to sleep disorders which are still being studied: Night Eating Syndrome, Nocturnal Eating Syndrome, Sleep-related Eating Disorder.

  2. AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS What is autism?

    E-print Network

    Palmeri, Thomas

    AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS What is autism? Autism is part of a group of complex neurodevelop- mental disorders called autism spectrum disorders (ASD). ASD includes: · Autistic Disorder · Asperger's Disorder Specified (PDD-NOS) Autism spectrum disorders are present early in life and are characterized by varying

  3. AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS What is autism?

    E-print Network

    Bordenstein, Seth

    AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS What is autism? Autism is part of a group of complex neurodevelopmental disorders called autism spectrum disorders (ASD). ASD includes: · Autistic Disorder · Asperger's Disorder Specified (PDD-NOS) Autism spectrum disorders are present early in life and are characterized by varying

  4. Anxiety Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Anxiety Disorders About Anxiety Disorders Anxiety Disorders in Older Adults If you have an anxiety disorder, worry or ... of better as time goes on. Doctors and older adults tend to view anxiety and fear as normal ...

  5. Gene Transfer Strategies for Correction of Lysosomal Storage Disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alessandra d’Azzo

    2003-01-01

    Lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) represent a large group of monogenic disorders of metabolism, which affect approximately 1 in 5,000 live births. LSDs result from a single or multiple deficiency of specific lysosomal hydrolases, the enzymes responsible for the luminal catabolization of macromolecular substrates. The consequent accumulation of undigested metabolites in lysosomes leads to polysystemic dysfunction, including progressive neurologic deterioration, mental

  6. Sleep Disorders

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sohmer, Rachel.

    2003-01-01

    For something as critical to our well being as good sleep, human beings suffer from an amazing number of sleeping disorders. The following Web sites explore just a few of these disorders, starting with a brief introduction to the normal stages of sleep from the Sleep Disorders Center of Central Texas (1). Next, the University of Waterloo offers a fascinating look at sleep paralysis, which many researchers consider the "likely source of beliefs concerning not only alien abductions, but all manner of beliefs in alternative realities and otherworldly creatures" (2). The third site (3), provided by the National Women's Health Information Center, is an easy-to-read source for information about insomnia. Likewise, the American Sleep Apnea Association (ASAA) offers an in-depth information packet on snoring and sleep apnea, as well as the ASAA newsletter and other resources (4). The next Web site (5 ) comes from the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, and offers an introduction to the phenomenon of narcolepsy, including treatment, prognosis, and related research. Restless legs syndrome may not be as immediately familiar as some of the other sleep disorders addressed above, but a visit to the homepage of the Restless Legs Syndrome Foundation (6) should answer any questions about this "creepy-crawly" sensation in the limbs that occurs during sleep or other inactive periods. Of course, you don't have to have a bona fide sleeping disorder to suffer from sleep deprivation. Visitors to the next Web site from Loughborough University's Sleep Research Centre will find detailed information on how sleep deprivation affects brain function (7). Not surprisingly, the news isn't good. Finally, the Sleep Foundation offers How's Your Sleep, an online quiz designed to help users learn more about what may be affecting their sleep (8).

  7. The Cerebellum and Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Joseph R.; Hewedi, Doaa H.; Eissa, Abeer M.; Moustafa, Ahmed A.

    2015-01-01

    The cerebellum has been considered for a long time to play a role solely in motor coordination. However, studies over the past two decades have shown that the cerebellum also plays a key role in many motor, cognitive, and emotional processes. In addition, studies have also shown that the cerebellum is implicated in many psychiatric disorders including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorders, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, and anxiety disorders. In this review, we discuss existing studies reporting cerebellar dysfunction in various psychiatric disorders. We will also discuss future directions for studies linking the cerebellum to psychiatric disorders. PMID:26000269

  8. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dan Weinstein; Darlene Staffelbach; Maryka Biaggio

    2000-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are the most commonly diagnosed disorders in sexually abused children (SAC). There is a high degree of symptom overlap and comorbidity between these disorders, and differential diagnosis can be confusing. Current diagnostic criteria do not include PTSD as a differential diagnosis for ADHD, nor do existing assessment guidelines address these diagnostic

  9. Major Depressive Disorder with Anger: A Bipolar Spectrum Disorder?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Franco Benazzi

    2003-01-01

    Background: Depression with anger may be more common in bipolar disorders. The aim of the study was to assess whether major depressive disorder (MDD) with anger could be included in the bipolar spectrum, by comparing it to MDD without anger and to bipolar II disorder. Methods: Consecutive outpatients (281 bipolar II disorder and 202 MDD) presenting for major depressive episode

  10. Cannabinoid Modulation of Neuroinflammatory Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Viviane M; Rezende, Rafael M; Teixeira, Antonio L

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, a growing interest has been dedicated to the study of the endocannabinoid system. The isolation of Cannabis sativa main psychotropic compound, ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), has led to the discovery of an atypical neurotransmission system that modulates the release of other neurotransmitters and participates in many biological processes, including the cascade of inflammatory responses. In this context, cannabinoids have been studied for their possible therapeutic properties in neuroinflammatory diseases. In this review, historic and biochemical aspects of cannabinoids are discussed, as well as their function as modulators of inflammatory processes and therapeutic perspectives for neurodegenerative disorders, particularly, multiple sclerosis. PMID:23204985

  11. Multiple Sclerosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alex C. Tselis; Omar A. Khan

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) has emerged as a treatable disorder with several disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) now licensed in\\u000a the United States for MS treatment. These are interferon (IFN)-?-1a (two formulations, Avonex and Rebif), IFN-?-1b (Betaseron),\\u000a glatiramer acetate (GA) (Copaxone), and mitoxantrone (Novantrone). Although all five DMTs were tested in phase III randomized\\u000a controlled trials (RCTs) and shown to be superior to

  12. Multiple Sclerosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William A. Sheremata

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) was first described by Charcot in mid-19th century Paris. Charcot, however, attributed the original\\u000a recognition of this disorder to Cruveillier, the famed professor of anatomy. Although others also described the pathological\\u000a anatomy of the disease in remarkable detail, it was Charcot who characterized the clinical illness and correlated the illness\\u000a with its unique neuropathology (1). From the

  13. Disordered semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kastner, Marc A.; Thomas, Gordon A.; Ovshinsky, Stanford R.

    Disordered semiconductors are characterized in reviews and reports of recent theoretical and experimental investigations. Topics addressed include the metal-nonmetal transition; optical and electronic phenomena in chalcogenide amorphous semiconductors (ASCs); structure and bonding in ASCs; and transient, photoexcited, and spin phenomena in tetrahedral ASCs. Consideration is given to the preparation and characterization of tetrahedral ASCs, multilayers and interfaces, the stability of a-Si, and theories and models for the electronic properties of ASCs.

  14. Driven diffusive systems with disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mustansir Barma

    2006-01-01

    We discuss recent work on the static and dynamical properties of the asymmetric exclusion process, generalized to include the effect of disorder. We study in turn, random disorder in the properties of particles; disorder in the spatial distribution of transition rates, both with a single easy direction and with random reversals of the easy direction; dynamical disorder, where particles move

  15. Common comorbidities seen in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Young, Joel

    2008-08-01

    This article provides an overview of key research on significant comorbidities that occur among adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, including disruptive behaviors. Such comorbidities include oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder, as well as depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, personality disorders, suicidality, eating disorders, sleep disorders, learning disabilities, Internet "addiction," tic disorders, new-onset pediatric epilepsy, and celiac disease. PMID:18822828

  16. Immunotherapies in neurologic disorders.

    PubMed

    Graves, Donna; Vernino, Steven

    2012-05-01

    Therapy for autoimmune demyelinating disorders has evolved rapidly over the past 10 years to include traditional immunosuppressants as well as novel biologicals. Antibody-mediated neuromuscular disorders are treated with therapies that acutely modulate pathogenic antibodies or chronically inhibit the humoral immune response. In other inflammatory autoimmune disorders of the peripheral and central nervous system, corticosteroids, often combined with conventional immunosuppression, and immunomodulatory treatments are used. Because autoimmune neurologic disorders are so diverse, evidence from randomized controlled trials is limited for most of the immunotherapies used in neurology. This review provides an overview of the immunotherapies currently used for neurologic disorders. PMID:22703853

  17. Rare Genomic Variants Link Bipolar Disorder with Anxiety Disorders to CREB-Regulated Intracellular Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Kerner, Berit; Rao, Aliz R.; Christensen, Bryce; Dandekar, Sugandha; Yourshaw, Michael; Nelson, Stanley F.

    2013-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is a common, complex, and severe psychiatric disorder with cyclical disturbances of mood and a high suicide rate. Here, we describe a family with four siblings, three affected females and one unaffected male. The disease course was characterized by early-onset bipolar disorder and co-morbid anxiety spectrum disorders that followed the onset of bipolar disorder. Genetic risk factors were suggested by the early onset of the disease, the severe disease course, including multiple suicide attempts, and lack of adverse prenatal or early life events. In particular, drug and alcohol abuse did not contribute to the disease onset. Exome sequencing identified very rare, heterozygous, and likely protein-damaging variants in eight brain-expressed genes: IQUB, JMJD1C, GADD45A, GOLGB1, PLSCR5, VRK2, MESDC2, and FGGY. The variants were shared among all three affected family members but absent in the unaffected sibling and in more than 200 controls. The genes encode proteins with significant regulatory roles in the ERK/MAPK and CREB-regulated intracellular signaling pathways. These pathways are central to neuronal and synaptic plasticity, cognition, affect regulation and response to chronic stress. In addition, proteins in these pathways are the target of commonly used mood-stabilizing drugs, such as tricyclic antidepressants, lithium, and valproic acid. The combination of multiple rare, damaging mutations in these central pathways could lead to reduced resilience and increased vulnerability to stressful life events. Our results support a new model for psychiatric disorders, in which multiple rare, damaging mutations in genes functionally related to a common signaling pathway contribute to the manifestation of bipolar disorder. PMID:24348429

  18. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    MedlinePLUS

    ... that can cause PTSD include: violent assaults, including rape fire physical or sexual abuse acts of violence ( ... Talk About Stress (Video) Suicide Anxiety Disorders Date Rape Rape Stress & Coping Center About Stressful Situations About ...

  19. MRI mimics of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Aliaga, Esther Sánchez; Barkhof, Frederik

    2014-01-01

    Diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) is based on the demonstration of dissemination of lesions in space (DIS) and in time (DIT), as well as on the exclusion of an alternative neurologic disorder. As a paraclinical tool brain and/or spinal cord magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), showing typical lesion morphology, characteristic distribution of lesions, or involvement or specific anatomic structures, can support the diagnosis of MS. But from an imaging perspective a considerable amount of inherited and acquired disorders may manifest with radiologic evidence of DIT, DIS, or both. Hypoxic-ischemic vasculopathy, specially small-vessel disease, inflammatory disorders, vasculitis, and non-MS idiopathic inflammatory disorders, as well as some toxic, metabolic, and infectious disorders, may present mimicking MS on MR examinations and should be included in the differential diagnosis of MS-like lesions. Careful evaluation of associated findings on MRI, the so-called MRI red flags, such as the presence of infarcts, microbleeds, meningeal enhancement, and calcifications among others, are very helpful in suggesting a diagnosis other than MS. Complement MRI findings to patient's history, demographics, and serologic findings are crucial to achieve the correct diagnosis. We will review the most frequent radiologic appearance and differential features from the most frequent MS mimickers. PMID:24507523

  20. Mitochondrial Disorders with Significant Ophthalmic Manifestations

    PubMed Central

    Al-Enezi, Mona; Al-Saleh, Hanan; Nasser, Murad

    2008-01-01

    Mitochondrial diseases are a clinically hetyerogenous group of disorders. They can be caused by mutations of nuclear or mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Some affect a single organ, but many involve multiple organ systems and often present with prominent neurologic and myopathic features. The eye is frequently affected, along with muscles and brain, but multisystem disease is common. Ophthalmic manifestations include cataract, retinopathy, optic atrophy, cortical visual loss, ptosis and ophthalmoplegia. Kearns-Sayre Syndrome (KSS), Mitochondrial Encephalopathy, Lactic Acidosis Stroke (MELAS), Myoclonic Epilepsy and Ragged Red Fiber myopathy (MERRF) and Lebers Hereditary Optic Neuropathy (LHON) are well known clinical entities that are secondary to mtDNA abnormalities, which has ophthalmic manifestations. Mitochondrial Dysfunction should be considered in the differential diagnosis of progressive multisystem disorder and specifically if there is associated neuro-ophthalmic manifestations, which may be the presenting symptom of these disorders. PMID:21346843

  1. [Negative mental disorders in epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Usiukina, M V; Kornilova, S V; Lavrushchik, M V; Shakhbazi, T A

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To search for clinical features of negative mental disorders in epilepsy. Material and methods. We studied 78 patients, aged from 18 to 40 years,, including 43 patients diagnosed with epilepsy for the first time (main group) and 35 patients with the previous diagnosis of epilepsy (comparison group). Diagnosis was made according to ICD-10. Results. We observed a broad spectrum of persistent mental disorders, including negative disorders. Personality disorders and cognitive deficit were most significant negative disorders. Personality disorders included two opposite types: explosive-epileptoid features with paranoiac signs and defensive disorder. Inertia, slow mobility, slowness of the rate of thought processes, the domination of egocentric, perseverative, visual-image thinking were characteristic of thought disorders. Conclusion. The authors suggest the systematic of these disorders. PMID:24874309

  2. Community Report from the Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (ADDM) Network: Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) among Multiple Areas of the United States in 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that about 1 in 88 children has been identified with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). CDC's estimate comes from the Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (ADDM) Network, which monitors the number of 8-year-old children with ASDs living in diverse communities throughout the…

  3. Parental psychiatric disorders and autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Jokiranta, Elina; Brown, Alan S.; Heinimaa, Markus; Cheslack-Postava, Keely; Partanen, Auli; Sourander, Andre

    2013-01-01

    The present population-based, case-control study examines associations between specific parental psychiatric disorders and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) including childhood autism, Asperger’s syndrome and pervasive developmental disorder (PDD-NOS). The cohort includes 4713 children born between 1987 and 2005 with diagnoses of childhood autism, Asperger’s syndrome or PDD-NOS. Cases were ascertained from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register, and each was matched to four controls by gender, date of birth, place of birth, and residence in Finland. Controls were selected from the Finnish Medical Birth Register. Parents were identified through the Finnish Medical Birth Register and Finnish Central Population Register. Parental psychiatric diagnoses from inpatient care were collected from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register. Conditional logistic regression models were used to assess whether parents’ psychiatric disorders predicted ASD after controlling for parents’ age, smoking during pregnancy and weight for gestational age. In summary, parental schizophrenia spectrum disorders and affective disorders were associated with the risk of ASD regardless of the subgroup. PDD-NOS was associated with all parental psychiatric disorders investigated. Further studies are needed to replicate these findings. These results may facilitate the investigation of shared genetic and familial factors between ASD and other psychiatric disorders. PMID:23391634

  4. Parental psychiatric disorders and autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Jokiranta, Elina; Brown, Alan S; Heinimaa, Markus; Cheslack-Postava, Keely; Suominen, Auli; Sourander, Andre

    2013-05-30

    The present population-based, case-control study examines associations between specific parental psychiatric disorders and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) including childhood autism, Asperger's syndrome and pervasive developmental disorder (PDD-NOS). The cohort includes 4713 children born between 1987 and 2005 with diagnoses of childhood autism, Asperger's syndrome or PDD-NOS. Cases were ascertained from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register, and each was matched to four controls by gender, date of birth, place of birth, and residence in Finland. Controls were selected from the Finnish Medical Birth Register. Parents were identified through the Finnish Medical Birth Register and Finnish Central Population Register. Parental psychiatric diagnoses from inpatient care were collected from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register. Conditional logistic regression models were used to assess whether parents' psychiatric disorders predicted ASD after controlling for parents' age, smoking during pregnancy and weight for gestational age. In summary, parental schizophrenia spectrum disorders and affective disorders were associated with the risk of ASD regardless of the subgroup. PDD-NOS was associated with all parental psychiatric disorders investigated. Further studies are needed to replicate these findings. These results may facilitate the investigation of shared genetic and familial factors between ASD and other psychiatric disorders. PMID:23391634

  5. Personality disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    Personality disorders are a group of mental health conditions in which a person has a long-term pattern ... Causes of personality disorders are unknown. Genetic and ... a role. Mental health professionals categorize these disorders ...

  6. Mathematics disorder

    MedlinePLUS

    Mathematics disorder is a condition in which a child's math ability is far below normal for their age, ... Children who have mathematics disorder have trouble with simple ... disorder may appear with: Developmental coordination ...

  7. Medical Management of the Multiple Chemical Sensitivity Patient

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Virginia M. Weaver

    1996-01-01

    Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is a complex, chronic disorder characterized by multisystemic symptoms occurring in response to a wide variety of chemical odors or low-level exposures. The etiology is unknown but likely multifactorial. Patient evaluation includes a comprehensive history with a review of past medical records and a physical examination with specific attention to the affected organ systems. Laboratory evaluation

  8. Multiple Chemical Sensitivity: Towards the End of Controversy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin L. Pall

    There are nine well accepted paradigms of human disease. The tenth may explain the features of multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) and a group of related illnesses including chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), fibromyalgia (FM) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); Gulf War syndrome appears to be a combination of all four. The elevated nitric oxide\\/peroxynitrite vicious cycle paradigm explains most of the

  9. Sleep Disorders in Atypical Parkinsonism

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, Sabra M.; Videnovic, Aleksandar

    2014-01-01

    Sleep disorders are commonly seen in atypical parkinsonism, with particular disorders occurring more frequently in specific parkinsonian disorders. Multiple systems atrophy (MSA) is a synucleinopathy often associated with nocturnal stridor which is a serious, but treatable condition highly specific to MSA. In addition, this disorder is strongly associated with rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD), which is also seen in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). RBD is far less prevalent in progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), which is a tauopathy. Insomnia and impaired sleep architecture are the most common sleep abnormalities seen in PSP. Corticobasilar degeneration (CBD) is also a tauopathy, but has far fewer sleep complaints associated with it than PSP. In this manuscript we review the spectrum of sleep dysfunction across the atypical parkinsonian disorders, emphasize the importance of evaluating for sleep disorders in patients with parkinsonian symptoms, and point to sleep characteristics that can provide diagnostic clues to the underlying parkinsonian disorder. PMID:24955381

  10. A Review of Co-Morbid Disorders of Asperger's Disorder and the Transition to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Stephanie; Curwen, Tracey; Ryan, Thomas G.

    2012-01-01

    This review includes empirical peer-reviewed articles which support the examination of Asperger's Disorder and co-morbid disorders, as well as an analysis of how adolescents with Asperger's Disorder transition to adulthood. Although the focus was on Asperger's Disorder, some studies include Autism Spectrum Disorder samples. It was found that…

  11. Do Comorbid Anxiety Disorders Moderate the Effects of Psychotherapy for Bipolar Disorder? Results From STEP-BD

    PubMed Central

    Deckersbach, Thilo; Peters, Amy T.; Sylvia, Louisa; Urdahl, Anna; Magalhães, Pedro V.S.; Otto, Michael W.; Frank, Ellen; Miklowitz, David J.; Berk, Michael; Kinrys, Gustavo; Nierenberg, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Objective At least 50% of individuals with bipolar disorder have a lifetime anxiety disorder. Individuals with both bipolar disorder and a co-occurring anxiety disorder experience longer illness duration, greater illness severity, and poorer treatment response. The study explored whether comorbid lifetime anxiety in bipolar patients moderates psychotherapy treatment outcome. Method In the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program randomized controlled trial of psychotherapy for bipolar depression, participants received up to 30 sessions of intensive psychotherapy (family-focused therapy, interpersonal and social rhythm therapy, or cognitive-behavioral therapy) or collaborative care, a three-session comparison treatment, plus pharmacotherapy. Using the number needed to treat, we computed effect sizes to analyze the relationship between lifetime anxiety disorders and rates of recovery across treatment groups after 1 year. Results A total of 269 patients (113 women) with a comorbid lifetime anxiety disorder (N=177) or without a comorbid lifetime anxiety disorder (N=92) were included in the analysis. Participants with a lifetime anxiety disorder were more likely to recover with psychotherapy than with collaborative care (66% compared with 49% recovered over 1 year; number needed to treat=5.88, small to medium effect). For patients without a lifetime anxiety disorder, there was no difference between rates of recovery in psychotherapy compared with collaborative care (64% compared with 62% recovered; number needed to treat=50, small effect). Participants with one lifetime anxiety disorder were likely to benefit from intensive psychotherapy compared with collaborative care (84% compared with 53% recovered; number needed to treat=3.22, medium to large effect), whereas patients with multiple anxiety disorders exhibited no difference in response to the two treatments (54% compared with 46% recovered; number needed to treat=12.5, small effect). Conclusions Depressed patients with bipolar disorder and comorbid anxiety may be in particular need of additional psychotherapy for treating acute depression. These results need to be replicated in studies that stratify bipolar patients to treatments based on their anxiety comorbidity status. PMID:24077657

  12. Psychopharmacology of pediatric bipolar disorder: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sylvester Smarty; Robert L. Findling

    2007-01-01

    Rationale  Pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) is a chronic and debilitating psychiatric illness. It is associated with many short-term\\u000a and long-term complications including poor academic and social performance, legal problems and increased risk of suicide.\\u000a Moreover, it is often complicated by other serious psychiatric disorders including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder,\\u000a oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder and substance use disorders. For these reasons,

  13. Epidemiological evidence on multiple system atrophy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Vanacore

    2005-01-01

    Multiple system atrophy (MSA), is a sporadic neurodegenerative disorder characterized clinically by any combination of parkinsonian, autonomic, cerebellar or pyramidal symptoms and signs. The frequence of disease is estimated for the incidence rate to 0.6 cases per 100.000 person-years, while the prevalence rate is included between 1.86 and 4.9 cases per 100.000 pop. A risk factor seems to be the

  14. Central nervous system stimulants for secondary attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder after paediatric traumatic brain injury: a rationale and protocol for single patient (n-of-1) multiple cross-over trials

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background It is estimated that 22,800 children were living with an Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) (0.6% of children aged under 15 years) in Australia during 2003. Many children after a traumatic brain injury will experience difficulties with attention and concentration; a condition termed secondary Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder. There is conflicting evidence on whether treatment with stimulant therapy with medications such as methylphenidate or dexamphetamine will improve the attention and behavior of children with this condition. Methods/Design Single patient trials (n-of-1s or SPTs) evaluate the effect of titrated doses of psychostimulants methylphenidate or dexamphetamine compared to placebo on attention and behavior, in children with TBI and secondary ADHD. The aggregation of multiple SPTs will produce a population estimate of the benefit. Forty-two children will be registered into the trial through rehabilitation services at three large children’s hospitals in Australia. Patients will complete up to 3 cycles of treatment. Each cycle is 2 weeks long comprising seven days each of treatment and placebo, with the first two days of each cycle considered a washout period and the data not analysed. The order of treatment and placebo is randomly allocated for each cycle. The Conners’ Parent Rating Scales long forms will be employed to measure change in attention-deficit/hyperactivity and related problems of the child, and the primary outcome measure is the Conners’ Global Index Parent Version. Secondary outcomes include the teacher and child (if aged > 12 years) Conners’ Rating Scales, the Behaviour Rating Inventory of Executive Function among other measures. This study will provide high-level evidence using a novel methodological approach to inform clinicians about the most appropriate treatment for individual children. Through aggregation of individual trials, a population estimate of treatment effect will be provided to guide clinical practice in the treatment of children with secondary ADHD after a traumatic brain injury. Discussion This study employs an innovative methodological approach on the effectiveness of CNS stimulants for secondary ADHD from a brain injury. The findings will both guide clinicians on treatment recommendations, and inform the concept and acceptance of SPTs in paediatric research. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry. ACTRN12609000873224 PMID:23710976

  15. Preventing Eating Disorder Pathology: Common and Unique Features of Successful Eating Disorders Prevention Programs

    PubMed Central

    Ciao, Anna C.; Loth, Katie; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    Over the past two decades, the field of eating disorders has made remarkable strides in identifying, evaluating, and disseminating successful prevention programs. The current review identifies and discusses nine distinct eating disorders prevention programs that reduce existing eating disorder pathology or prevent the onset of future pathology. Each program was evaluated in one or more controlled trial with a follow-up period of at least six months. We review the evidence base for these nine successful programs and discuss their common and unique features. Based on authors’ descriptions of their programs in published trials, we found that all programs were theory-driven, targeted one or more eating disorder risk factor (e.g., body dissatisfaction), were delivered across multiple group sessions, and included at least some interactive content. Most programs included content related to healthy eating/nutrition, media literacy/sociocultural pressures, and body acceptance/body satisfaction. Notably, there was wide variation in some participant features (e.g., participant age, sex, risk status) and intervention features (e.g., setting and format, length and dose, providers), suggesting that a variety of programs are beneficial in impacting eating disorder pathology. Implications and directions for future research are discussed, including an increased focus on universal and indicated prevention programs, expanding programs to a wider age range and a broader spectrum of weight-related problems, and rigorous evaluation of programs through efficacy, effectiveness, and implementation research. PMID:24821099

  16. Preventing eating disorder pathology: common and unique features of successful eating disorders prevention programs.

    PubMed

    Ciao, Anna C; Loth, Katie; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-07-01

    Over the past two decades, the field of eating disorders has made remarkable strides in identifying, evaluating, and disseminating successful prevention programs. The current review identifies and discusses nine distinct eating disorders prevention programs that reduce existing eating disorder pathology or prevent the onset of future pathology. Each program was evaluated in one or more controlled trial with a follow-up period of at least six months. We review the evidence base for these nine successful programs and discuss their common and unique features. Based on authors' descriptions of their programs in published trials, we found that all programs were theory-driven, targeted one or more eating disorder risk factor (e.g., body dissatisfaction), were delivered across multiple group sessions, and included at least some interactive content. Most programs included content related to healthy eating/nutrition, media literacy/sociocultural pressures, and body acceptance/body satisfaction. Notably, there was wide variation in some participant features (e.g., participant age, sex, risk status) and intervention features (e.g., setting and format, length and dose, providers), suggesting that a variety of programs are beneficial in impacting eating disorder pathology. Implications and directions for future research are discussed, including an increased focus on universal and indicated prevention programs, expanding programs to a wider age range and a broader spectrum of weight-related problems, and rigorous evaluation of programs through efficacy, effectiveness, and implementation research. PMID:24821099

  17. Sleep Disorders in Children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jodi A. Mindell

    1993-01-01

    Many children experience some type of sleep problem. Often, these are transient problems with no long-lasting sequelae. But in certain cases, sleep problems may significantly impact on functioning and well-being. Sleep disorders in children can be classified into two major categories. Dyssomnias include those disorders that result in difficulty either initiating or maintaining sleep or involve excessive sleepiness. Parasomnias are

  18. Response Inhibition in Motor Conversion Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Voon, Valerie; Ekanayake, Vindhya; Wiggs, Edythe; Kranick, Sarah; Ameli, Rezvan; Harrison, Neil A.; Hallett, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Conversion disorders (CDs) are unexplained neurological symptoms presumed to be related to a psychological issue. Studies focusing on conversion paralysis have suggested potential impairments in motor initiation or execution. Here we studied CD patients with aberrant or excessive motor movements and focused on motor response inhibition. We also assessed cognitive measures in multiple domains. We compared 30 CD patients and 30 age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy volunteers on a motor response inhibition task (go/no go), along with verbal motor response inhibition (color-word interference) and measures of attention, sustained attention, processing speed, language, memory, visuospatial processing, and executive function including planning and verbal fluency. CD patients had greater impairments in commission errors on the go/no go task (P <.001) compared with healthy volunteers, which remained significant after Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons and after controlling for attention, sustained attention, depression, and anxiety. There were no significant differences in other cognitive measures. We highlight a specific deficit in motor response inhibition that may play a role in impaired inhibition of unwanted movement such as the excessive and aberrant movements seen in motor conversion. Patients with nonepileptic seizures, a different form of conversion disorder, are commonly reported to have lower IQ and multiple cognitive deficits. Our results point toward potential differences between conversion disorder subgroups. PMID:23554084

  19. Interventions for Disorders of Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, David M.

    1982-01-01

    Describes a unique body of psychosocial disorders, disorders of changes, that have been ignored as serious human problems with unhappy consequences. Suggests early identification of cases and outreach are necessary to treat these acute disturbances, which require multiple interventions with individuals, families, and systems. (Author)

  20. Plasma cell disorders in HIV-infected patients: epidemiology and molecular mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has significantly improved the outcome and survival of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. Subsequently, long-term morbidities including cancer have become of major public health and clinical interest for this patient population. Plasma cell disorders occur at higher incidence in HIV-infected patients; however, the molecular mechanisms driving the plasma cell disease process and the optimal management for these patients remain to be defined. This article provides an up-to-date review of the characteristics and management of HIV-infected patients with plasma cell disorders. We first present 3 cases of plasma cell disorders in HIV-infected patients, ranging from polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia to symptomatic multiple myeloma. We then discuss the epidemiology, clinical presentation, and management of each of these plasma cell disorders, with an emphasis on the molecular events underlying the progression of plasma cell diseases from monoclonal gammopathy to symptomatic multiple myeloma. We propose a three-step hypothesis for the development of multiple myeloma. Finally, we discuss the use of high dose chemotherapy and autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in the treatment of HIV-infected patients with multiple myeloma. Our review includes the care of HIV-infected patients with plasma cell disorders in the current era of HAART and novel agents available for the treatment of multiple myeloma. PMID:24252328

  1. Somatization and conversion disorder.

    PubMed

    Hurwitz, Trevor A

    2004-03-01

    Somatization is the psychological mechanism whereby psychological distress is expressed in the form of physical symptoms. The psychological distress in somatization is most commonly caused by a mood disorder that threatens mental stability. Conversion disorder occurs when the somatic presentation involves any aspect of the central nervous system over which voluntary control is exercised. Conversion reactions represent fixed ideas about neurologic malfunction that are consciously enacted, resulting in psychogenic neurologic deficits. Treatment is complex and lengthy; it includes recovery of neurologic function aided by narcoanalysis and identification and treatment of the primary psychiatric disorder, usually a mood disorder. PMID:15101499

  2. Latest advances in connective tissue disorders.

    PubMed

    Rao, Vijay; Bowman, Simon

    2013-08-01

    The connective tissue disorders comprise a number of related conditions that include systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and the antiphospholipid (Hughes) syndrome, scleroderma, myositis and Sjögren's syndrome. They are characterized by autoantibody production and other immune-mediated dysfunction. There are common clinical and serological features with some patients having multiple overlapping connective tissue disorders. The latest advances include new approaches to therapy, including more focused utilization of existing therapies and the introduction of biological therapies in SLE, more precise protocols for assessment of severe disease manifestations such as in interstitial lung disease and pulmonary artery hypertension in scleroderma, new antibodies for disease characterization in myositis and new approaches to patient assessment in Sjögren's syndrome. B cells have a critical role in most, if not all of these disorders such that B-cell depletion or suppression of B-cell activating cytokines improves disease in many patients. In particular, the introduction of rituximab, a monoclonal antibody targeting the CD20 molecule on B cells, into clinical practice for rheumatoid arthritis and B-cell lymphoma has been a key driver of experimental approaches to therapy in connective tissue disorders. Genetic studies also suggest a role for the innate immune system in disease pathogenesis, suggesting further future targets for biological therapies over the next few years. PMID:23904866

  3. Latest advances in connective tissue disorders

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Vijay

    2013-01-01

    The connective tissue disorders comprise a number of related conditions that include systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and the antiphospholipid (Hughes) syndrome, scleroderma, myositis and Sjögren’s syndrome. They are characterized by autoantibody production and other immune-mediated dysfunction. There are common clinical and serological features with some patients having multiple overlapping connective tissue disorders. The latest advances include new approaches to therapy, including more focused utilization of existing therapies and the introduction of biological therapies in SLE, more precise protocols for assessment of severe disease manifestations such as in interstitial lung disease and pulmonary artery hypertension in scleroderma, new antibodies for disease characterization in myositis and new approaches to patient assessment in Sjögren’s syndrome. B cells have a critical role in most, if not all of these disorders such that B-cell depletion or suppression of B-cell activating cytokines improves disease in many patients. In particular, the introduction of rituximab, a monoclonal antibody targeting the CD20 molecule on B cells, into clinical practice for rheumatoid arthritis and B-cell lymphoma has been a key driver of experimental approaches to therapy in connective tissue disorders. Genetic studies also suggest a role for the innate immune system in disease pathogenesis, suggesting further future targets for biological therapies over the next few years. PMID:23904866

  4. Vitamin D and multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Harandi, Ali Amini; Pakdaman, Hossein; Sahraian, Mohammad Ali

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic demyelinating disease and also is one of the most common disabling neurological disorders in young and middle-aged adults. The main pathogenesis of MS has long been thought to be an immune mediated disorder of the central nervous system. The function of the immune system is under the influence of vitamin D which as a modulator of immune response could play a role in autoimmune diseases including MS. Deficiency of vitamin D or variations in DNA sequence (polymorphism) of vitamin D receptor gene diminishes its optimal function on immune system that consequently could lead to increasing risk of MS. However, its role in development and modulating the course of MS is still under investigation. In this review we aimed to discuss the role of vitamin D in body, immune system and consequently altering the risk of MS. PMID:24800040

  5. Vitamin D and multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Harandi, Asghar Amini; Harandi, Ali Amini; Pakdaman, Hossein; Sahraian, Mohammad Ali

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic demyelinating disease and also is one of the most common disabling neurological disorders in young and middle-aged adults. The main pathogenesis of MS has long been thought to be an immune mediated disorder of the central nervous system. The function of the immune system is under the influence of vitamin D which as a modulator of immune response could play a role in autoimmune diseases including MS. Deficiency of vitamin D or variations in DNA sequence (polymorphism) of vitamin D receptor gene diminishes its optimal function on immune system that consequently could lead to increasing risk of MS. However, its role in development and modulating the course of MS is still under investigation. In this review we aimed to discuss the role of vitamin D in body, immune system and consequently altering the risk of MS. PMID:24800040

  6. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Marguerite; Nigg, Joel T.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last two decades, there have been numerous technical and methodological advances available to clinicians and researchers to better understand attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its etiology. Despite the growing body of literature investigating the disorder’s pathophysiology, ADHD remains a complex psychiatric disorder to characterize. This chapter will briefly review the literature on ADHD, with a focus on its history, the current genetic insights, neurophysiologic theories, and the use of neuroimaging to further understand the etiology. We address some of the major concerns that remain unclear about ADHD, including subtype instability, heterogeneity, and the underlying neural correlates that define the disorder. We highlight that the field of ADHD is rapidly evolving; the descriptions provided here will hopefully provide a sturdy foundation for which to build and improve our understanding of the disorder. PMID:24214656

  7. Genetics of bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kerner, Berit

    2014-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is a common, complex genetic disorder, but the mode of transmission remains to be discovered. Many researchers assume that common genomic variants carry some risk for manifesting the disease. The research community has celebrated the first genome-wide significant associations between common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and bipolar disorder. Currently, attempts are under way to translate these findings into clinical practice, genetic counseling, and predictive testing. However, some experts remain cautious. After all, common variants explain only a very small percentage of the genetic risk, and functional consequences of the discovered SNPs are inconclusive. Furthermore, the associated SNPs are not disease specific, and the majority of individuals with a “risk” allele are healthy. On the other hand, population-based genome-wide studies in psychiatric disorders have rediscovered rare structural variants and mutations in genes, which were previously known to cause genetic syndromes and monogenic Mendelian disorders. In many Mendelian syndromes, psychiatric symptoms are prevalent. Although these conditions do not fit the classic description of any specific psychiatric disorder, they often show nonspecific psychiatric symptoms that cross diagnostic boundaries, including intellectual disability, behavioral abnormalities, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, attention deficit, impulse control deficit, and psychosis. Although testing for chromosomal disorders and monogenic Mendelian disorders is well established, testing for common variants is still controversial. The standard concept of genetic testing includes at least three broad criteria that need to be fulfilled before new genetic tests should be introduced: analytical validity, clinical validity, and clinical utility. These criteria are currently not fulfilled for common genomic variants in psychiatric disorders. Further work is clearly needed before genetic testing for common variants in psychiatric disorders should be established. PMID:24683306

  8. Infectious causes of reproductive disorders in cattle.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Han Sang

    2010-01-01

    The incidences of reproductive disorders in bovine are increasing over years. This scenario is further aggravating due to more emphasis on selection and rearing of animal for specific commercial purposes which compromises livestock reproduction. Reproductive disorders like infertility and abortions in cattle are major problems in the bovine industry. The reproductive disorders might be caused by several different agents such as physical agents, chemical agents, biological agents, etc. Also, the causative agent and pathogenesis of reproductive disorders are influenced by various factors including environmental factor. The exact causes may not be evident and are often complicated with multiple causative agents. Thus, there is a need for multi-faceted approach to understand correlation of various factors with reproductive performance. Of the agents, infectious biological agents are significant cause of reproductive disorder and are of high priority in the bovine industry. These factors are not only related to the prosperity of bovine industry but are also important from public health point of view because of their zoonotic potentials. Several infectious agents like bacterial, viral, protozoon, chlamydial and fungal agents are known to have direct impact on reproductive health of cattle. These diseases can be arranged and discussed in different groups based on the causative agents. PMID:20629218

  9. Child Behavior Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a death in the family may cause a child to act out. Behavior disorders are more serious. ... The behavior is also not appropriate for the child's age. Warning signs can include Harming or threatening ...

  10. Types of Vestibular Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... include complications from aging, autoimmune disorders, and allergies. Acoustic Neuroma Acoustic neuroma (also called a vestibular schwannoma) is a ... This nerve is also referred to as the acoustic nerve, hence the name.) As an acoustic neuroma ...

  11. Sleep disorders in psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Costa e Silva, Jorge Alberto

    2006-10-01

    Sleep is an active state that is critical for our physical, mental, and emotional well-being. Sleep is also important for optimal cognitive functioning, and sleep disruption results in functional impairment. Insomnia is the most common sleep disorder in psychiatry. At any given time, 50% of adults are affected with 1 or more sleep problems such as difficulty in falling or staying asleep, in staying awake, or in adhering to a consistent sleep/wake schedule. Narcolepsy affects as many individuals as does multiple sclerosis or Parkinson disease. Sleep problems are especially prevalent in schizophrenia, depression, and other mental illnesses, and every year, sleep disorders, sleep deprivation, and sleepiness add billions to the national health care bill in industrialized countries. Although psychiatrists often treat patients with insomnia secondary to depression, most patients discuss their insomnia with general care physicians, making it important to provide this group with clear guidelines for the diagnosis and management of insomnia. Once the specific medical, behavioral, or psychiatric causes of the sleep problem have been identified, appropriate treatment can be undertaken. Chronic insomnia has multiple causes arising from medical disorders, psychiatric disorders, primary sleep disorders, circadian rhythm disorders, social or therapeutic use of drugs, or maladaptive behaviors. The emerging concepts of sleep neurophysiology are consistent with the cholinergic-aminergic imbalance hypothesis of mood disorders, which proposes that depression is associated with an increased ratio of central cholinergic to aminergic neurotransmission. The characteristic sleep abnormalities of depression may reflect a relative predominance of cholinergic activity. Antidepressant medications presumably reduce rapid eye movement (REM) sleep either by their anticholinergic properties or by enhancing aminergic neurotransmission. Intense and prolonged dreams often accompany abrupt withdrawal from antidepressant drugs, a reflection of an REM rebound after drug-induced REM deprivation. The postulated link between sleep and psychiatric disorders has been reinforced by the findings of modern neurobiology. PMID:16979426

  12. Eating Disorders: Disorders of Under and Overnutrition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kelly C. Allison

    \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Eating disorder diagnoses consist of anorexia nervosa (restricting type and binge-eating\\/purging type); bulimia nervosa (purging\\u000a and nonpurging types); and eating disorder, not otherwise specified (including binge-eating disorder, night eating syndrome,\\u000a and purging disorder).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Physical complications of anorexia nervosa affect most major systems in the body and are caused by starvation and the effects\\u000a of purging. Most physical complications

  13. Childhood functional gastrointestinal disorders

    PubMed Central

    Rasquin-Weber, A; Hyman, P; Cucchiara, S; Fleisher, D; Hyams, J; Milla, P; Staiano, A

    1999-01-01

    This is the first attempt at defining criteria for functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) in infancy, childhood, and adolescence. The decision-making process was as for adults and consisted of arriving at consensus, based on clinical experience. This paper is intended to be a quick reference. The classification system selected differs from the one used in the adult population in that it is organized according to main complaints instead of being organ-targeted. Because the child is still developing, some disorders such as toddler's diarrhea (or functional diarrhea) are linked to certain physiologic stages; others may result from behavioral responses to sphincter function acquisition such as fecal retention; others will only be recognizable after the child is cognitively mature enough to report the symptoms (e.g., dyspepsia). Infant regurgitation, rumination, and cyclic vomiting constitute the vomiting disorders. Abdominal pain disorders are classified as: functional dyspepsia, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), functional abdominal pain, abdominal migraine, and aerophagia. Disorders of defecation include: infant dyschezia, functional constipation, functional fecal retention, and functional non-retentive fecal soiling. Some disorders, such as IBS and dyspepsia and functional abdominal pain, are exact replications of the adult criteria because there are enough data to confirm that they represent specific and similar disorders in pediatrics. Other disorders not included in the pediatric classification, such as functional biliary disorders, do occur in children; however, existing data are insufficient to warrant including them at the present time. For these disorders, it is suggested that, for the time being, clinicians refer to the criteria established for the adult population.???Keywords: infant vomiting; cyclic vomiting syndrome; functional dyspepsia in children; irritable bowel syndrome in children; functional abdominal pain in children; functional diarrhea in children; functional constipation in children; Rome II PMID:10457047

  14. Personality Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    Personality disorders are a group of mental illnesses. They involve long-term patterns of thoughts and behaviors that ... serious problems with relationships and work. People with personality disorders have trouble dealing with everyday stresses and problems. ...

  15. Panic disorder

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Kinrys G, Delong H, Vasconcelos e Sá D, Simon NM. The pharmacotherapy of anxiety disorders. In: Stern ... chap 41. Taylor CT, Pollack MH, LeBeau RT, Simon NM. Anxiety disorders: Panic, social anxiety, and generalized ...

  16. Eosinophilic Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... produce more of them in response to Allergic disorders Skin conditions Parasitic and fungal infections Autoimmune diseases Some cancers Bone marrow disorders In some conditions, the eosinophils can move outside ...

  17. Genetic Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... changed. Chromosomes are the structures that hold our genes. Down syndrome is a chromosomal disorder. Complex disorders, where there are mutations in two or more genes. Often your lifestyle and environment also play a ...

  18. Movement Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in families. Treatment varies by disorder. Medicine can cure some disorders. Others get better when an underlying disease is treated. Often, however, there is no cure. In that case, the goal of treatment is ...

  19. Bipolar disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gérard Emilien; Lucia Septien; Claudine Brisard; Emmanuelle Corruble; Michel Bourin

    2007-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is a pathological disturbance of mood, characterized by waxing and waning manic, depressive and, sometimes distinctly mixed states. A diagnosis of bipolar disorder can only be made with certainty when the manic syndrome declares itself. Most individuals who are diagnosed with this disorder will experience both poles of the illness recurrently, but depressive episodes are the commonest cause

  20. Bipolar Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spearing, Melissa

    Bipolar disorder, a brain disorder that causes unusual shifts in a person's mood, affects approximately one percent of the population. It commonly occurs in late adolescence and is often unrecognized. The diagnosis of bipolar disorder is made on the basis of symptoms, course of illness, and when possible, family history. Thoughts of suicide are…

  1. Dissociative disorders in DSM-5.

    PubMed

    Spiegel, David; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Lanius, Ruth; Vermetten, Eric; Simeon, Daphne; Friedman, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    The rationale, research literature, and proposed changes to the dissociative disorders and conversion disorder in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) are presented. Dissociative identity disorder will include reference to possession as well as identity fragmentation, to make the disorder more applicable to culturally diverse situations. Dissociative amnesia will include dissociative fugue as a subtype, since fugue is a rare disorder that always involves amnesia but does not always include confused wandering or loss of personality identity. Depersonalization disorder will include derealization as well, since the two often co-occur. A dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), defined by the presence of depersonalization or derealization in addition to other PTSD symptoms, is being recommended, based upon new epidemiological and neuroimaging evidence linking it to an early life history of adversity and a combination of frontal activation and limbic inhibition. Conversion disorder (functional neurological symptom disorder) will likely remain with the somatic symptom disorders, despite considerable dissociative comorbidity. PMID:23394228

  2. Headache Attributable to Nonvascular Intracranial Disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Obermann; Dagny Holle; Steffen Naegel; Hans-Christoph Diener

    Headache attributable to nonvascular intracranial disorder is a basket of multiple, partly complex, and very diverse idiopathic\\u000a or secondary disorders. By definition, the headache has to occur in a close temporal relationship to the intracranial disorder.\\u000a Some of these headache disorders are caused by high or low cerebrospinal fluid pressure; noninfectious inflammatory diseases\\u000a such as neurosarcoidosis, aseptic (noninfectious) meningitis, and

  3. Predicting the course and outcome of bipolar disorder: A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Treuer; M. Tohen

    2010-01-01

    Despite of advances in pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments, bipolar disorder often entails multiple relapses and impaired psychological functioning. The extent to which modern treatments have influenced the natural course of a mental disorder is uncertain. Prediction of the course and outcome of bipolar disorders continues to be challenging, despite the multiple research efforts worldwide. Due to a lack of laboratory

  4. Schizophrenia and related disorders in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Remschmidt, H; Theisen, F M

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews the concept and recent studies on childhood and adolescent psychoses with special reference to schizophrenia. After a short historical introduction, the definition, classification, and epidemiology of child- and adolescent-onset psychoses are described, pointing out that some early-onset psychotic states seem to be related to schizophrenia (such as infantile catatonia) and others not (such as desintegrative disorder). The frequency of childhood schizophrenia is less than 1 in 10,000 children, but there is a remarkable increase in frequency between 13 and 18 years of age. Currently, schizophrenia is diagnosed according to ICD-10 and DSM-IV criteria. The differential diagnosis includes autism, desintegrative disorder, multiplex complex developmental disorder (MCDD) respectively multiple developmental impairment (MDI), affective psychoses, Asperger syndrome, drug-induced psychosis and psychotic states caused by organic disorders. With regard to etiology, there is strong evidence for the importance of genetic factors and for neurointegrative deficits preceding the onset of the disorder. Treatment is based upon a multimodal approach including antipsychotic medication (mainly by atypical neuroleptics), psychotherapeutic measures, family-oriented measures, and specific measures of rehabilitation applied in about 30% of the patients after completion of inpatient treatment. The long-term course of childhood- and adolescent-onset schizophrenia is worse than in adulthood schizophrenia, and the patients with manifestation of the disorder below the age of 14 have a very poor prognosis. PMID:16355606

  5. Treatment of Bipolar Disorder: The Evolving Role of Atypical Antipsychotics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roy H. Perlis

    Management of bipolar disorder (BPD) may require multiple medications, including lithi- um, anticonvulsants, and antipsychotics (both conventional and atypical). Updated treatment guidelines reflect an expanded role for atypical antipsychotics (AAPs) in BPD treatment. Five AAPs—olanzapine, risperidone, quetiapine, ziprasidone, and aripiprazole—are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as monotherapy for first-line treatment of acute manic and (except for

  6. Iron in chronic brain disorders: Imaging and neurotherapeutic implications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Stankiewicz; S. Scott Panter; Mohit Neema; Ashish Arora; Courtney E. Batt; Rohit Bakshi

    2007-01-01

    Summary  Iron is important for brain oxygen transport, electron transfer, neurotransmitter synthesis, and myelin production. Though\\u000a iron deposition has been observed in the brain with normal aging, increased iron has also been shown in many chronic neurological\\u000a disorders including Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and multiple sclerosis. In vitro studies have demonstrated that excessive iron can lead to free radical production, which

  7. [Differential diagnosis between dissociative disorders and schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Shibayama, Masatoshi

    2011-01-01

    The differential diagnosis of dissociative disorders includes many psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorders (especially bipolar II disorder), depressive disorder (especially atypical depression), epilepsy, Asperger syndrome, and borderline personality disorder. The theme of this paper is the differential diagnosis between dissociative disorders and schizophrenia. Schneiderian first-rank symptoms in schizophrenia are common in dissociative disorders, especially in dissociative identity disorder (DID). Many DID patients have been misdiagnosed as schizophrenics and treated with neuroleptics. We compared and examined Schneiderian symptoms of schizophrenia and those of dissociative disorders from a structural viewpoint. In dissociative disorders, delusional perception and somatic passivity are not seen. "Lateness" and "Precedence of the Other" originated from the concept of "Pattern Reversal" (H. Yasunaga)" is characteristic of schizophrenia. It is important to check these basic structure of schizophrenia in subjective experiences in differential diagnosis between dissociative disorders and schizophrenia. PMID:22117396

  8. Eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Fairburn, Christopher G; Harrison, Paul J

    2003-02-01

    Eating disorders are an important cause of physical and psychosocial morbidity in adolescent girls and young adult women. They are much less frequent in men. Eating disorders are divided into three diagnostic categories: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and the atypical eating disorders. However, the disorders have many features in common and patients frequently move between them, so for the purposes of this Seminar we have adopted a transdiagnostic perspective. The cause of eating disorders is complex and badly understood. There is a genetic predisposition, and certain specific environmental risk factors have been implicated. Research into treatment has focused on bulimia nervosa, and evidence-based management of this disorder is possible. A specific form of cognitive behaviour therapy is the most effective treatment, although few patients seem to receive it in practice. Treatment of anorexia nervosa and atypical eating disorders has received remarkably little research attention. PMID:12573387

  9. Differences in the Nature of Body Image Disturbances between Female Obese Individuals with versus without a Comorbid Binge Eating Disorder: An Exploratory Study Including Static and Dynamic Aspects of Body Image

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legenbauer, Tanja; Vocks, Silja; Betz, Sabrina; Puigcerver, Maria Jose Baguena; Benecke, Andrea; Troje, Nikolaus F.; Ruddel, Heinz

    2011-01-01

    Various components of body image were measured to assess body image disturbances in patients with obesity. To overcome limitations of previous studies, a photo distortion technique and a biological motion distortion device were included to assess static and dynamic aspects of body image. Questionnaires assessed cognitive-affective aspects, bodily…

  10. Heritable disorders of the bile ducts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Binita M. Kamath; David A. Piccoli

    2003-01-01

    Diseases of the bile ducts encompass a wide range of disorders. These include those disorders primarily affecting extra and intrahepatic bile ducts and those that may be classified as panbiliary. A simple classification of bile duct disorders is represented in Box 1. This discussion focuses on heritable disorders of the bile ducts. For a discussion of so-called ''isolated'' or ''sporadic''

  11. Multiple Sclerosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on multiple sclerosis is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then…

  12. MUPEMURE Multiple Perspectives on Multiple

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    MUPEMURE ­ Multiple Perspectives on Multiple Representations White Paper Organizers: The MUPEMURE-00722956,version1-6Aug2012 #12; MUPEMURE ­ Multiple Perspectives on Multiple Representations Seite 1 MUPEMURE ­ Multiple Perspectives on Multiple Representations White Paper 1. Introduction and Motivation Our

  13. Ghrelin and Eating Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Atalayer, Deniz; Gibson, Charlisa; Konopacka, Alexandra; Geliebter, Allan

    2012-01-01

    There is growing evidence supporting a multifactorial etiology that includes genetic, neurochemical, and physiological components for eating disorders above and beyond the more conventional theories based on psychological and sociocultural factors. Ghrelin is one of the key gut signals associated with appetite, and the only known circulating hormone that triggers a positive energy balance by stimulating food intake. This review summarizes recent findings and several conflicting reports on ghrelin in eating disorders. Understanding these findings and inconsistencies may help in developing new methods to prevent and treat patients with these disorders. PMID:22960103

  14. Bipolar disorder in women.

    PubMed

    Miller, Laura J; Ghadiali, Nafisa Y; Larusso, Elizabeth M; Wahlen, Kelly J; Avni-Barron, Orit; Mittal, Leena; Greene, Judy A

    2015-01-01

    This article summarizes research pertinent to the clinical care of women with bipolar disorder. With bipolar disorder, female gender correlates with more depressive symptoms and different comorbidities. There is a high risk of symptom recurrence postpartum and possibly during perimenopause. Women with bipolar disorder have increased risk of sexually transmitted diseases, unplanned pregnancies, excessive weight gain, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease. Mood stabilizing medications, specific psychotherapies, and lifestyle changes can stabilize mood and improve functioning. Pharmacologic considerations include understanding interactions between mood stabilizing medications and contraceptive agents and risks and benefits of mood stabilizing medication during pregnancy and lactation. PMID:25315819

  15. Efficacy of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Comorbid Panic Disorder with Agoraphobia and Generalized Anxiety Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labrecque, Joane; Marchand, Andre; Dugas, Michel J.; Letarte, Andree

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy for comorbid panic disorder with agoraphobia (PDA) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) by combining treatment strategies for both disorders. A single-case, multiple-baseline design across participants was used. Three participants with primary PDA and secondary…

  16. Affective brain areas and sleep disordered breathing

    PubMed Central

    Harper, Ronald M.; Kumar, Rajesh; Macey, Paul M.; Woo, Mary A.; Ogren, Jennifer A.

    2014-01-01

    The neural damage accompanying the hypoxia, reduced perfusion, and other consequences of sleep-disordered breathing found in obstructive sleep apnea, heart failure (HF), and congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS), appears in areas that serve multiple functions, including emotional drives to breathe, and involve systems that serve affective, cardiovascular, and breathing roles. The damage, assessed with structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) procedures, shows tissue loss or water content and diffusion changes indicative of injury, and impaired axonal integrity between structures; damage is preferentially unilateral. Functional MRI responses in affected areas also are time- or amplitude- distorted to ventilatory or autonomic challenges. Among the structures injured are the insular, cingulate, and ventral medial prefrontal cortices, as well as cerebellar deep nuclei and cortex, anterior hypothalamus, raphé, ventrolateral medulla, basal ganglia and, in CCHS, the locus coeruleus. Raphé and locus coeruleus injury may modify serotonergic and adrenergic modulation of upper airway and arousal characteristics. Since both axons and gray matter show injury, the consequences to function, especially to autonomic, cognitive, and mood regulation, are major. Several affected rostral sites, including the insular and cingulate cortices and hippocampus, mediate aspects of dyspnea, especially in CCHS, while others, including the anterior cingulate and thalamus, participate in initiation of inspiration after central breathing pauses, and the medullary injury can impair baroreflex and breathing control. The ancillary injury associated with sleep-disordered breathing to central structures can elicit multiple other distortions in cardiovascular, cognitive, and emotional functions in addition to effects on breathing regulation. PMID:24746053

  17. Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarker Candidates for Parkinsonian Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Constantinescu, Radu; Mondello, Stefania

    2013-01-01

    The Parkinsonian disorders are a large group of neurodegenerative diseases including idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (PD) and atypical Parkinsonian disorders (APD), such as multiple system atrophy, progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration, and dementia with Lewy bodies. The etiology of these disorders is not known although it is considered to be a combination of genetic and environmental factors. One of the greatest obstacles for developing efficacious disease-modifying treatment strategies is the lack of biomarkers. Reliable biomarkers are needed for early and accurate diagnosis, to measure disease progression, and response to therapy. In this review several of the most promising cerebrospinal biomarker candidates are discussed. Alpha-synuclein seems to be intimately involved in the pathogenesis of synucleinopathies and its levels can be measured in the cerebrospinal fluid and in plasma. In a similar way, tau protein accumulation seems to be involved in the pathogenesis of tauopathies. Urate, a potent antioxidant, seems to be associated to the risk of developing PD and with its progression. Neurofilament light chain levels are increased in APD compared with PD and healthy controls. The new “omics” techniques are potent tools offering new insights in the patho-etiology of these disorders. Some of the difficulties encountered in developing biomarkers are discussed together with future perspectives. PMID:23346074

  18. Excessive daytime sleepiness in sleep disorders.

    PubMed

    Slater, Gemma; Steier, Joerg

    2012-12-01

    Excessive daytime sleepiness is a significant public health problem, with prevalence in the community estimated to be as high as 18%. Sleepiness is caused by abnormal sleep quantity or sleep quality. Amongst others, multiple neurological, psychological, cardiac and pulmonary disorders may contribute. Risk factors for excessive sleepiness include obesity, depression, extremes of age and insufficient sleep. In the clinical setting, two of the most commonly encountered causes are obstructive sleep apnoea and periodic limb movement disorder. There is continuing discussion of the mechanisms by which these disorders cause daytime symptoms, with intermittent nocturnal hypoxia, sleep fragmentation and autonomic dysregulation identified as important factors. The increased prevalence of obstructive sleep apnoea in obese subjects does not fully account for the increased rates of daytime sleepiness in this population and there is evidence to suggest that it is caused by metabolic factors and chronic inflammation in obese individuals. Sleepiness is also more common in those reporting symptoms of depression or anxiety disorders and significantly impacts their quality of life. Clinicians should be aware of factors which put their patients at high risk of daytime sleepiness, as it is a debilitating and potentially dangerous symptom with medico-legal implications. Treatment option should address underlying contributors and promote sleep quantity and sleep quality by ensuring good sleep hygiene. However, stimulant medication may be indicated in some cases to allow for more normal daytime functioning. PMID:23205286

  19. The Neurogenetics of Atypical Parkinsonian Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Fogel, Brent L.; Clark, Mary C.; Geschwind, Daniel H.

    2015-01-01

    Although classic Parkinson disease is the disorder most commonly associated with the clinical feature of parkinsonism, there is in fact a broader spectrum of disease represented by a collection of phenotypically similar neurodegenerative conditions which mimic many of its core features. These atypical parkinsonian disorders most commonly include progressive supranuclear palsy and corticobasal degeneration, disorders both associated with frontotemporal dementia, as well as multiple system atrophy, and dementia with Lewy bodies. While clinical distinction of these disorders still remains a challenge to physicians, recent advances in genetics are poised to tease apart the differences. Insights into the molecular etiologies underlying these conditions will improve diagnosis, yield better understanding of the underlying disease pathology, and ultimately lend stimulation to the development of potential treatments. At the same time, the wide range of phenotypes observed from mutations in a single gene warrants broad testing facilitated by advances in DNA sequencing. These expanding genomic approaches, ranging from the use of next-generation sequencing to identify causative or risk-associated gene variations to the study of epigenetic modification linking human genetics to environmental factors, are poised to lead the field into a new age of discovery. PMID:24963681

  20. Glutamate and anxiety disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan M. Amiel; Sanjay J. Mathew

    2007-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are among the most prevalent psychiatric disorders, but they represent a particular challenge for treatment.\\u000a The standard first-line treatments, including antidepressants, benzodiazepines, and buspirone, result in significant response\\u000a rates for a majority of patients; however, unfavorable side effect profiles or risk for dependency for particular agents might\\u000a limit their use by anxious patients, who often have low thresholds

  1. Report of Fertility in a Woman with a Predominantly 46,XY Karyotype in a Family with Multiple Disorders of Sexual Development

    PubMed Central

    Dumic, Miroslav; Lin-Su, Karen; Leibel, Natasha I.; Ciglar, Srecko; Vinci, Giovanna; Lasan, Ruzica; Nimkarn, Saroj; Wilson, Jean D.; McElreavey, Ken; New, Maria I.

    2008-01-01

    Context: We report herein a remarkable family in which the mother of a woman with 46,XY complete gonadal dysgenesis was found to have a 46,XY karyotype in peripheral lymphocytes, mosaicism in cultured skin fibroblasts (80% 46,XY and 20% 45,X) and a predominantly 46,XY karyotype in the ovary (93% 46,XY and 6% 45,X). Patients: A 46,XY mother who developed as a normal woman underwent spontaneous puberty, reached menarche, menstruated regularly, experienced two unassisted pregnancies, and gave birth to a 46,XY daughter with complete gonadal dysgenesis. Results: Evaluation of the Y chromosome in the daughter and both parents revealed that the daughter inherited her Y chromosome from her father. Molecular analysis of the genes SOX9, SF1, DMRT1, DMRT3, TSPYL, BPESC1, DHH, WNT4, SRY, and DAX1 revealed normal male coding sequences in both the mother and daughter. An extensive family pedigree across four generations revealed multiple other family members with ambiguous genitalia and infertility in both phenotypic males and females, and the mode of inheritance of the phenotype was strongly suggestive of X-linkage. Conclusions: The range of phenotypes observed in this unique family suggests that there may be transmission of a mutation in a novel sex-determining gene or in a gene that predisposes to chromosomal mosaicism. PMID:18000096

  2. Is multiple sclerosis a mitochondrial disease?

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Peizhong; Reddy, P. Hemachandra

    2009-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a relatively common and etiologically unknown disease with no cure treatment. It is the leading cause of neurological disability in young adults, affecting over two million people worldwide. Traditionally, MS has been considered a chronic, inflammatory disorder of the central white matter in which ensuing demyelination results in physical disability. Recently, MS has become increasingly viewed as a neurodegenerative disorder in which axonal injury, neuronal loss, and atrophy of the central nervous system lead to permanent neurological and clinical disability. In this article, we discuss the latest developments on MS research, including etiology, pathology, genetic association, EAE animal models, mechanisms of neuronal injury and axonal transport and therapeutics. In this article, we also focus on the mechanisms of mitochondrial dysfunction that are involved in MS, including mitochondrial DNA defects, and mitochondrial structural/functional changes. PMID:19607913

  3. Binge eating disorder and obesity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M de Zwaan

    2001-01-01

    Binge eating disorder (BED) was included in the DSM IV as a proposed diagnostic category for further study and as an example for an eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS). BED is characterized by recurrent episodes of binge eating in the absence of regular compensatory behavior such as vomiting or laxative abuse. Related features include eating until uncomfortably full, eating

  4. Intrinsically Disordered Proteins May Select Partners by Fold 

    E-print Network

    Gonzalez, Kim 1988-

    2010-12-08

    Intrinsically disordered proteins lack a rigid structure due to their simple amino acid sequence. Because of their multiple roles, disordered proteins often account for a majority of proteins known to be associated with various diseases...

  5. Eating Disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael P. Levine; Niva Piran

    This chapter focuses on the eating disorders that draw the attention of most clinicians and researchers: anorexia nervosa,\\u000a bulimia nervosa, and eating disorders not otherwise specified. For information about other, less well-known eating problems\\u000a in adolescents, and about the medical and nutritional effects of eating disorders in adolescents, see Lask and Bryant-Waugh\\u000a (2000) and Fisher et al. (1995).

  6. Anxiety Disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rose C. Smith; Lisa S. Elwood; Matthew T. Feldner; Bunmi O. Olatunji

    \\u000a Anxiety disorders are among the most common psychological disorders, with a lifetime prevalence of 31.2% and a 12-month prevalence\\u000a of 19.1% in the United States (Kessler et al., 2005; Kessler, Chiu, Demler, Merikangas, & Walters, 2005). Individuals with\\u000a an anxiety disorder present with a variety of physical and psychological symptoms. Particularly unique to anxiety are the\\u000a symptoms of physical tension

  7. Obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Andrea; King, Audrey; Hollander, Eric

    2003-01-01

    The obsessive-compulsive spectrum is an important concept referring to a number of disorders drawn from several diagnostic categories that share core obsessive-compulsive features. These disorders can be grouped by the focus of their symptoms: bodily preoccupation, impulse control, or neurological disorders. Although the disorders are clearly distinct from one another, they have intriguing similarities in phenomenology, etiology, pathophysiology, patient characteristics, and treatment response. In combination with the knowledge gained through many years of research on obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), the concept of a spectrum has generated much fruitful research on the spectrum disorders. It has become apparent that these disorders can also be viewed as being on a continuum of compulsivity to impulsivity, characterized by harm avoidance at the compulsive end and risk seeking at the impulsive end. The compulsive and impulsive disorders differ in systematic ways that are just beginning to be understood. Here, we review these concepts and several representative obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders including both compulsive and impulsive disorders, as well as the three different symptom clusters: OCD, body dysmorphic disorder, pathological gambling, sexual compulsivity, and autism spectrum disorders. PMID:22033547

  8. Nuclear gene causing multiple mtDNA deletions in autosomal dominant ophthalmoplegia maps to a distinct chromosomal region - involvement of both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA in a single disorder

    SciTech Connect

    Suomalainen, A.; Kaukonen, J.; Timonen, R. [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia (adPEO) is a mitochondrial disease characterized by muscle weakness, most prominent in ocular muscles. The symptoms are caused by accumulation of multiple large deletions of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in the tissues of the patient, especially in those tissues that are most dependent on oxidative metabolism: brain, skeletal muscle and heart. However, the disorder shows autosomal dominant way of transmission, suggesting a primary defect in a nuclear encoded protein, which only secondarily results in mtDNA deletions. The candidate genes could be those actively participating in the mtDNA replication, or those associated with oxidative metabolism and e.g. via overproduction or inefficient elimination of fire oxygen radicals fragmenting mtDNA. We applied random mapping approach to localize the autosomal adPEO gene locus in a large Finnish family. The affected subjects were identified by detection of multiple mtDNA deletions in the Southern blot analysis of DNA extracted from the muscle biopsy specimens. All the family members underwent muscle biopsy. After analysis of 248 highly polymorphic dinucleotide repeat markets dispersed throughout the genome we were able to assign the adPEO gene locus to a distinct chromosomal region with the maximum pairwise lod score of 4.52, recombination fraction 0.0. This is the first evidence that a mutation in a nuclear gene may interfere mtDNA. The pathogenesis of adPEO involves both the genomes: the primary nuclear gene defect leads to secondary mtDNA mutations that cause the symptoms of the patients.

  9. Attention deficit disorder and epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Romaine

    2005-01-01

    Countless studies have demonstrated that patients with epilepsy have a significant increase in behavioral disturbances of all kinds, including hyperactivity and inattention. This finding has been demonstrated in studies utilizing observer questionnaires and behavior rating scales, neuropsychological test batteries, and standardized tests of attention such as continuous performance tests. Multiple factors must be considered in the evaluation of a child with epilepsy and hyperactivity or inattention. For instance, inattention could be due to subclinical seizures, undiagnosed learning disabilities, disturbed sleep as a result of a side effect of antiepileptic medication, or due to an attention deficit disorder. Electroencephalographic monitoring is helpful to distinguish between behavioral inattention and partial complex or absence seizures. Electroencephalographic monitoring can also assess subclinical spike frequency, which may affect attention and other aspects of cognitive functioning in various ways, even in the absence of clinical seizures. Most antiepileptic drugs do not adversely affect attention and behavior in therapeutic doses, with the exception of phenobarbital, gabapentin, and topiramate. Some antiepileptic drugs, such as lamotrigine and carbamazepine, may even have beneficial effects. The preponderance of evidence suggests that stimulants other than bupropion are safe and effective in the treatment of attention deficit disorder in children with epilepsy, although controlled studies of dextroamphetamine in this population are lacking. So far, atomoxetine has not been demonstrated to have any adverse effect in children with epilepsy. PMID:15607597

  10. Male Genitoplasty for Intersex Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Shilpa; K. Gupta, Devendra

    2008-01-01

    Aim. To evaluate surgical procedures adopted for male genitoplasty in intersex disorders. Patients and Methods. Case records of intersex patients undergoing male genitoplasty from Pediatric Intersex clinic were studied. Results. Of 356 intersex cases undergoing urethroplasty from 1989–2007, the hypospadias was penoscrotal (68%), scrotal (17%) and perineal (15%). 351 patients underwent chordee correction for mild: moderate: severe chordee in 24 : 136 : 191 cases. Byars flaps were fixed upto the corona in 267 cases. Urethroplasty performed was Theirsch duplay in 335 cases, Snodgrass in 16 cases and Ducketts onlay graft in 5 cases that did not require chordee correction. Age at urethroplasty was 2.5 years—22 years (mean 11.5 years, median—5.6 years). Penoscrotal transposition correction and testicular prosthesis insertion were performed independently. Complications included fistula (45), recurrent fistula (11), stricture (12), baggy urethra (8) and recurrent infection due to persistent vaginal pouch (5). Additional distal urethroplasty was required in 15 patients for previous urethroplasty done upto the corona 5–15 years earlier. Conclusion. Hypospadias in intersex disorders is associated with severe chordee in most cases and requires an early chordee correction to allow phallic growth, staged urethroplasty and multiple surgeries to achieve good cosmetic and functional results. PMID:19009033

  11. Emerging Pharmacotherapies for Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Wetmore, Daniel Z.; Garner, Craig C.

    2010-01-01

    A growing and interdisciplinary translational neuroscience research effort for neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) is investigating the mechanisms of dysfunction and testing effective treatment strategies in animal models and, when possible, in the clinic. NDDs with a genetic basis have received particular attention. Transgenic animals that mimic genetic insults responsible for disease in man have provided insight about mechanisms of dysfunction, and, surprisingly, have shown that cognitive deficits can be addressed in adult animals. This review will present recent translational research based on animal models of genetic NDDs, as well as pharmacotherapeutic strategies under development to address deficits of brain function for Down syndrome, fragile X syndrome, Rett syndrome, neurofibromatosis-1, tuberous sclerosis, and autism. Although these disorders vary in underlying causes and clinical presentation, common pathways and mechanisms for dysfunction have been observed. These include abnormal gene dosage, imbalance among neurotransmitter systems, and deficits in the development, maintenance and plasticity of neuronal circuits. NDDs affect multiple brain systems and behaviors that may be amenable to drug therapies that target distinct deficits. A primary goal of translational research is to replace symptomatic and supportive drug therapies with pharmacotherapies based on a principled understanding of the causes of dysfunction. Based on this principle, several recently developed therapeutic strategies offer clear promise for clinical development in man. PMID:20814256

  12. [Difficulties in the assessment of trauma-related disorders].

    PubMed

    Gronau, W; Meyer-Lindenberg, A; Dreßing, H

    2015-03-01

    Assessment of trauma disorders is becoming increasingly important. A major problem here is that trauma disorders are extremely heterogeneous. Moreover, they are often associated with comorbid disorders, such as borderline personality disorder. The valid diagnostic systems ICD-10 and DSM-5 poorly represent trauma disorders. The so-called complex post-traumatic stress disorder or DESNOS (disorders of extreme stress not otherwise specified) are listed .in either of the ICD-10 or DSM-5. The distinctiveness is not generally scientifically accepted. In addition, the assessment of trauma disorders is complicated because there are often multiple traumas of varying degrees of severity. PMID:25971145

  13. Connecting the CNTNAP2 Networks with Neurodevelopmental Disorders.

    PubMed

    Poot, Martin

    2015-02-01

    Based on genomic rearrangements and copy number variations, the contactin-associated protein-like 2 gene (CNTNAP2) has been implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders such as Gilles de la Tourette syndrome, intellectual disability, obsessive compulsive disorder, cortical dysplasia-focal epilepsy syndrome, autism, schizophrenia, Pitt-Hopkins syndrome, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. To explain the phenotypic pleiotropy of CNTNAP2 alterations, several hypotheses have been put forward. Those include gene disruption, loss of a gene copy by a heterozygous deletion, altered regulation of gene expression due to loss of transcription factor binding and DNA methylation sites, and mutations in the amino acid sequence of the encoded protein which may provoke altered interactions of the CNTNAP2-encoded protein, Caspr2, with other proteins. Also exome sequencing, which covers <0.2% of the CNTNAP2 genomic DNA, has revealed numerous single nucleotide variants in healthy individuals and in patients with neurodevelopmental disorders. In some of these disorders, disruption of CNTNAP2 may be interpreted as a susceptibility factor rather than a directly causative mutation. In addition to being associated with impaired development of language, CNTNAP2 may turn out to be a central node in the molecular networks controlling neurodevelopment. This review discusses the impact of CNTNAP2 mutations on its functioning at multiple levels of the combinatorial genetic networks that govern brain development. In addition, recommendations for genomic testing in the context of clinical genetic management of patients with neurodevelopmental disorders and their families are put forward. PMID:25852443

  14. Characteristics of memory dysfunction in body dysmorphic disorder.

    PubMed

    Deckersbach, T; Savage, C R; Phillips, K A; Wilhelm, S; Buhlmann, U; Rauch, S L; Baer, L; Jenike, M A

    2000-09-01

    Although body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is receiving increasing empirical attention, very little is known about neuropsychological deficits in this disorder. The current study investigated the nature of memory dysfunction in BDD, including the relationship between encoding strategies and verbal and nonverbal memory performance. We evaluated 17 patients with BDD and 17 healthy controls using the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (RCFT) and the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT). BDD patients differed significantly from healthy controls on verbal and nonverbal learning and memory indices. Multiple regression analyses revealed that group differences in free recall were statistically mediated by deficits in organizational strategies in the BDD cohort. These findings are similar to patterns previously observed in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), suggesting a potential relationship between OCD and BDD. Studies in both groups have shown that verbal and nonverbal memory deficits are affected by impaired strategic processing. PMID:11011514

  15. Multimethod Investigation of Interpersonal Functioning in Borderline Personality Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Stepp, Stephanie D.; Hallquist, Michael N.; Morse, Jennifer Q.; Pilkonis, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Even though interpersonal functioning is of great clinical importance for patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD), the comparative validity of different assessment methods for interpersonal dysfunction has not yet been tested. This study examined multiple methods of assessing interpersonal functioning, including self- and other-reports, clinical ratings, electronic diaries, and social cognitions in three groups of psychiatric patients (N=138): patients with (1) BPD, (2) another personality disorder, and (3) Axis I psychopathology only. Using dominance analysis, we examined the predictive validity of each method in detecting changes in symptom distress and social functioning six months later. Across multiple methods, the BPD group often reported higher interpersonal dysfunction scores compared to other groups. Predictive validity results demonstrated that self-report and electronic diary ratings were the most important predictors of distress and social functioning. Our findings suggest that self-report scores and electronic diary ratings have high clinical utility, as these methods appear most sensitive to change. PMID:21808661

  16. Sleep-disordered breathing and psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Naqvi, Haider A; Wang, David; Glozier, Nicholas; Grunstein, Ronald R

    2014-12-01

    Sleep-disordered breathing, the commonest form of which is obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is increasingly recognised as a treatable cause of morbidity. It shares many risk factors with psychiatric disorders including behaviours such as smoking and physical comorbidity. Many symptoms of the two overlap, leaving OSA often undetected and undertreated. In the few studies that assess the two, OSA is commonly comorbid with depression (17-45%) and schizophrenia (up to 55%) and possibly bipolar. There is some limited evidence that treating OSA can ameliorate psychiatric symptoms. Some psychotropics, such as narcotics, cause sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), whilst weight-inducing neuroleptics may exacerbate it. An extreme form of SDB, sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), is a risk in mothers with substance abuse. Being aware of these common comorbidities may help improve psychiatric patient's treatment and quality of life. PMID:25308389

  17. Panic response to sodium lactate infusion in patients with multiple chemical sensitivity syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen E. Binkley; Stan Kutcher

    1997-01-01

    Background: Many patients who are first seen with what has been called multiple chemical sensitivity syndrome (MCS) experience symptoms suggestive of panic disorder including chest tightness, shortness of breath, palpitations, paresthesias, lightheadedness, and mental confusion. Although such patients are often convinced that these symptoms reflect toxic effects of environmental “chemicals,” direct evidence of this is lacking. To the contrary, a

  18. CXCR2-positive neutrophils are essential for cuprizone-induced demyelination: relevance to multiple sclerosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LiPing Liu; Abdelmadjid Belkadi; Lindsey Darnall; Taofang Hu; Caitlin Drescher; Anne C Cotleur; Dolly Padovani-Claudio; Tao He; Karen Choi; Robert H Miller; Richard M Ransohoff

    2010-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory demyelinating disorder of the CNS. Recent studies have suggested diverse mechanisms as underlying demyelination, including a subset of lesions induced by an interaction between metabolic insult to oligodendrocytes and inflammatory mediators. For mice of susceptible strains, cuprizone feeding results in oligodendrocyte cell loss and demyelination of the corpus callosum. Remyelination ensues and has been extensively

  19. Autism Spectrum Disorders: Comorbid Psychopathology and Treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah Mohiuddin; Sara Bobak; Daniel Gih; Mohammad Ghaziuddin

    \\u000a Autism spectrum disorders (ASD), labeled as pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) in the DSM-IV-TR (APA, 2000), are characterized\\u000a by a distinct pattern of social and communication deficits with rigid ritualistic interests. While autism (Kanner, 1943) is\\u000a the main category, other conditions include Asperger syndrome (Asperger, 1944) and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise\\u000a specified (PDDNOS). Rett disorder and childhood disintegrative disorder, although

  20. Differences in compassion fatigue, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder and relationship satisfaction, including sexual desire and functioning, between male and female detectives who investigate sexual offenses against children: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Lane, Eric J; Lating, Jeffrey M; Lowry, Jenny L; Martino, Traci P

    2010-01-01

    Law enforcement detectives who work with traumatized individuals, especially children who were victims of sexual abuse or assault, are likely to experience job-related emotional distress. The purpose of this study was to examine the relations among compassion fatigue, probable PTSD symptoms, and personal relationship satisfaction, including communication and sexual satisfaction, in a sample of 47 male and female detectives. Responses to the administered questionnaires indicated a relation between compassion fatigue symptoms and probable PTSD symptoms. There also were compelling gender differences. For example, for male detectives, open communication with their spouse or significant other was negatively correlated with burnout, indicating the more open the communication, the lower the reported burnout. However for female detectives there was a negative correlation between open communication with spouse or significant other and compassion satisfaction, suggesting that more open communication was related to lower levels of satisfaction with their ability to be a professional caregiver Furthermore, although stepwise regression analysis indicated that years of service as a detective is independently associated with sexual desire, female detectives evidenced less sexual desire and more difficulty with sexual functioning than did male detectives. Implications of these preliminary findings are discussed and limitations addressed. PMID:21870384

  1. Autism spectrum disorder

    MedlinePLUS

    Autism; Autistic disorder; Asperger syndrome; Childhood disintegrative disorder; Pervasive developmental disorder ... Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a physical condition linked to abnormal biology and chemistry in the brain. ...

  2. Bleeding Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... bleeding disorder, you either do not have enough platelets or clotting factors or they don't work the way they should. Bleeding disorders can be the result of other diseases, such as severe liver disease. They can also be inherited. Hemophilia is ...

  3. EATING DISORDERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) are complex disorders that are often perplexing to therapists and difficult to manage. The purpose of this chapter is to review the history, nature, etiology, and treatment of these disorders, as well as to provide a brief introduction to the proposed d...

  4. Autistic disorder and viral infections.

    PubMed

    Libbey, Jane E; Sweeten, Thayne L; McMahon, William M; Fujinami, Robert S

    2005-02-01

    Autistic disorder (autism) is a behaviorally defined developmental disorder with a wide range of behaviors. Although the etiology of autism is unknown, data suggest that autism results from multiple etiologies with both genetic and environmental contributions, which may explain the spectrum of behaviors seen in this disorder. One proposed etiology for autism is viral infection very early in development. The mechanism, by which viral infection may lead to autism, be it through direct infection of the central nervous system (CNS), through infection elsewhere in the body acting as a trigger for disease in the CNS, through alteration of the immune response of the mother or offspring, or through a combination of these, is not yet known. Animal models in which early viral infection results in behavioral changes later in life include the influenza virus model in pregnant mice and the Borna disease virus model in newborn Lewis rats. Many studies over the years have presented evidence both for and against the association of autism with various viral infections. The best association to date has been made between congenital rubella and autism; however, members of the herpes virus family may also have a role in autism. Recently, controversy has arisen as to the involvement of measles virus and/or the measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) vaccine in the development of autism. Biological assays lend support to the association between measles virus or MMR and autism whereas epidemiologic studies show no association between MMR and autism. Further research is needed to clarify both the mechanisms whereby viral infection early in development may lead to autism and the possible involvement of the MMR vaccine in the development of autism. PMID:15804954

  5. Management of obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Seibell, Phillip J; Hollander, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common, often debilitating disorder characterized by the presence of obsessions and compulsions. Obsessions are repetitive thoughts or images which are experienced as intrusive and unwanted; they cause marked anxiety and distress. Compulsions (also known as rituals) are repetitive behaviors or mental acts that individuals with OCD perform in an attempt to decrease their anxiety. Patients tend to hide their symptoms due to shame; the amount of time between onset of symptoms and appropriate treatment is often many years. The disorder likely results from several etiological variables; functional imaging studies have consistently shown hyperactivity in the orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate, thalamus, and striatum. The mainstays of treatment include cognitive-behavioral therapy in the form of exposure and response prevention (ERP) and serotonin reuptake inhibiting medications. Several pharmacological augmentation strategies exist for treatment-resistant OCD, with addition of antipsychotics being most commonly employed. Radio and neurosurgical procedures, including gamma knife radiation and deep brain stimulation, are reserved for severe, treatment-refractory disease that has not responded to multiple treatments, and some patients may benefit from transcranial magnetic stimulation. PMID:25165567

  6. A mammary cell-specific enhancer in mouse mammary tumor virus DNA is composed of multiple regulatory elements including binding sites for CTF/NFI and a novel transcription factor, mammary cell-activating factor.

    PubMed Central

    Mink, S; Härtig, E; Jennewein, P; Doppler, W; Cato, A C

    1992-01-01

    Mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) is a milk-transmitted retrovirus involved in the neoplastic transformation of mouse mammary gland cells. The expression of this virus is regulated by mammary cell type-specific factors, steroid hormones, and polypeptide growth factors. Sequences for mammary cell-specific expression are located in an enhancer element in the extreme 5' end of the long terminal repeat region of this virus. This enhancer, when cloned in front of the herpes simplex thymidine kinase promoter, endows the promoter with mammary cell-specific response. Using functional and DNA-protein-binding studies with constructs mutated in the MMTV long terminal repeat enhancer, we have identified two main regulatory elements necessary for the mammary cell-specific response. These elements consist of binding sites for a transcription factor in the family of CTF/NFI proteins and the transcription factor mammary cell-activating factor (MAF) that recognizes the sequence G Pu Pu G C/G A A G G/T. Combinations of CTF/NFI- and MAF-binding sites or multiple copies of either one of these binding sites but not solitary binding sites mediate mammary cell-specific expression. The functional activities of these two regulatory elements are enhanced by another factor that binds to the core sequence ACAAAG. Interdigitated binding sites for CTF/NFI, MAF, and/or the ACAAAG factor are also found in the 5' upstream regions of genes encoding whey milk proteins from different species. These findings suggest that mammary cell-specific regulation is achieved by a concerted action of factors binding to multiple regulatory sites. Images PMID:1328867

  7. [Pervasive developmental disorders: controversies concerning the classification of autism].

    PubMed

    Pisula, E

    2000-01-01

    Autistic Disorder was described by Leo Kanner in 1943. Since that time not only the name of this disorder (initially early infantile autism) has changed but also it's relation to other disorders. DSM-IV includes autism together with Rett's Disorder, Childhood Disintegrative Disorder, Asperger's Disorder and Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified into one category: Pervasive Developmental Disorders. The definition and contents of Pervasive Developmental Disorders raise many controversies. Differentiation between particular disorders within this category is also difficult. This paper discusses some of these problems. PMID:11055183

  8. Multiple Myeloma and Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Issa, Zeinab A.; Zantout, Mira S.; Azar, Sami T.

    2011-01-01

    Multiple myeloma is a malignant plasma cell disorder that accounts for approximately 10% of all hematologic cancers. It is characterized by accumulation of clonal plasma cells, predominantly in the bone marrow. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing; therefore, it is expected that there will be an increase in the diagnosis of multiple myeloma with concomitant diabetes mellitus. The treatment of multiple myeloma and diabetes mellitus is multifaceted. The coexistence of the two conditions in a patient forms a major challenge for physicians. PMID:22363889

  9. [Non-autistic pervasive developmental disorders: Rett syndrome, disintegrative disorder and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified].

    PubMed

    Mercadante, Marcos T; Van der Gaag, Rutger J; Schwartzman, Jose S

    2006-05-01

    The category "Pervasive Developmental Disorders" includes autistic disorder, Asperger's syndrome, Rett's syndrome, childhood disintegrative disorder, and a residual category, named pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. In this review, Rett's syndrome and childhood disintegrative disorder, which are well-defined categories, will be discussed, as well as the not well defined categories that have been included in the Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified group. Different proposals of categorization have been created, some of which based on descriptive phenomenological approach, and others based upon other theoretical perspectives, such as neuropsychology. Current proposals are presented and discussed, followed by critical appraisals on the clinical advantages and disadvantages of these concepts. PMID:16791387

  10. [Youth Healthcare guideline 'Skin disorders'].

    PubMed

    Deurloo, Jacqueline A; van Gameren-Oosterom, Helma B M; Kamphuis, Mascha

    2012-01-01

    There is a high incidence of skin disorders; these are also frequently encountered within Youth Healthcare (YHC). Some skin disorders are caused by an underlying disease, syndrome or child abuse. Therefore, detection of these causes in an early stage is important. Skin disorders can have a huge psychosocial impact on both child and parents. This is one of the reasons why prevention, detection, diagnosis, treatment, referral, and uniform advice and guidance are of great importance. The YHC Guideline examines counselling and advice, criteria for referral to primary or secondary healthcare, and skincare in general. It also describes the disorders that should be actively detected. The Guideline also looks at specific aspects of dark skins and ethnic diversity, and the impact of skin disorders on general wellbeing. The accompanying web-based tool includes argumentation and opinions from experts on more than 75 skin disorders, including illustrations and decision trees, to aid the drawing up of a treatment plan. PMID:23151335

  11. Sleep disturbances and correlates of children with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xianchen; Hubbard, Julie A; Fabes, Richard A; Adam, James B

    2006-01-01

    This study examined sleep patterns, sleep problems, and their correlates in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Subjects consisted of 167 ASD children, including 108 with autistic disorder, 27 with Asperger's syndrome, and 32 with other diagnoses of ASD. Mean age was 8.8 years (SD = 4.2), 86% were boys. Parents completed a self-administered child sleep questionnaire. Results showed that average night sleep duration was 8.9 h (SD = 1.8), 16% of children shared a bed with parent. About 86% of children had at least one sleep problem almost every day, including 54% with bedtime resistance, 56% with insomnia, 53% with parasomnias, 25% with sleep disordered breathing, 45% with morning rise problems, and 31% with daytime sleepiness. Multivariate logistic regression analyses indicated that younger age, hypersensitivity, co-sleeping, epilepsy, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), asthma, bedtime ritual, medication use, and family history of sleep problems were related to sleep problems. Comorbid epilepsy, insomnia, and parasomnias were associated with increased risk for daytime sleepiness. Results suggest that both dyssomnias and parasomnias are very prevalent in children with ASD. Although multiple child and family factors are associated with sleep problems, other comorbid disorders of autism may play a major role. PMID:17001527

  12. Lay Theories of Bipolar Disorder: the Causes, Manifestations and Cures for Perceived Bipolar Disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adrian Furnham; Elizabeth Anthony

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate lay theories of the cause and treatment of bipolar disorder, and the recognition of its symptoms. This questionnaire-based study included vignette descriptions of mental disorders and 70 items relating to bipolar disorder. It was completed by 173 participants. Bipolar disorder was recognized less than depression but at the same rate as schizophrenia. Contrary to previous

  13. Pervasive Developmental Disorders: PDD-NOS, Asperger's Disorder and Autism. Parent Information Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Karen

    This information booklet is designed for parents who have a child who has been diagnosed with Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) or Asperger's Disorder. It provides information on: (1) the definition of PDD; (2) the five subtypes of PDD, including PDD "not otherwise specified," Asperger's disorder, autistic disorder, childhood disintegrative…

  14. Feeding and Swallowing Disorders (Dysphagia) in Children

    MedlinePLUS

    ... child interactions at meal times What does a speech-language pathologist do when working with children with ... swallowing disorders. These include the following: Roles of Speech-Language Pathologists in Swallowing and Feeding Disorders: Technical ...

  15. [Dissociative disorders and affective disorders].

    PubMed

    Montant, J; Adida, M; Belzeaux, R; Cermolacce, M; Pringuey, D; Da Fonseca, D; Azorin, J-M

    2014-12-01

    The phenomenology of dissociative disorders may be complex and sometimes confusing. We describe here two cases who were initially misdiagnosed. The first case concerned a 61 year-old woman, who was initially diagnosed as an isolated dissociative fugue and was actually suffering from severe major depressive episode. The second case concerned a 55 year-old man, who was suffering from type I bipolar disorder and polyvascular disease, and was initially diagnosed as dissociative fugue in a mooddestabilization context, while it was finally a stroke. Yet dissociative disorders as affective disorder comorbidity are relatively unknown. We made a review on this topic. Dissociative disorders are often studied through psycho-trauma issues. Litterature is rare on affective illness comorbid with dissociative disorders, but highlight the link between bipolar and dissociative disorders. The later comorbidity often refers to an early onset subtype with also comorbid panic and depersonalization-derealization disorder. Besides, unipolar patients suffering from dissociative symptoms have more often cyclothymic affective temperament. Despite the limits of such studies dissociative symptoms-BD association seems to correspond to a clinical reality and further works on this topic may be warranted. PMID:25550242

  16. [Affective disorders and eating disorders].

    PubMed

    Fakra, Eric; Belzeaux, R; Azorin, J M; Adida, M

    2014-12-01

    Epidemiologic studies show a frequent co-occurence of affective and eating disorders. The incidence of one disorder in patients suffering from the other disorder is well over the incidence in the general population. Several causes could explain this increased comorbidity. First, the iatrogenic origin is detailed. Indeed, psychotropic drugs, and particularly mood stabilizers, often lead to modification in eating behaviors, generally inducing weight gain. These drugs can increase desire for food, reduce baseline metabolism or decrease motor activity. Also, affective and eating disorders share several characteristics in semiology. These similarities can not only obscure the differential diagnosis but may also attest of conjoint pathophysiological bases in the two conditions. However, genetic and biological findings so far are too sparse to corroborate this last hypothesis. Nonetheless, it is noteworthy that comorbidity of affective and eating disorders worsens patients'prognosis and is associated with more severe forms of affective disorders characterized by an earlier age of onset in the disease, higher number of mood episodes and a higher suicidality. Lastly, psychotropic drugs used in affective disorders (lithium, antiepileptic mood stabilizers, atypical antipsychotics, antidepressants) are reviewed in order to weigh their efficacy in eating disorders. This could help establish the best therapeutic option when confronted to comorbidity. PMID:25550240

  17. Trichotillomania (hair pulling disorder), skin picking disorder, and stereotypic movement disorder: toward DSM-V.

    PubMed

    Stein, Dan J; Grant, Jon E; Franklin, Martin E; Keuthen, Nancy; Lochner, Christine; Singer, Harvey S; Woods, Douglas W

    2010-06-01

    In DSM-IV-TR, trichotillomania (TTM) is classified as an impulse control disorder (not classified elsewhere), skin picking lacks its own diagnostic category (but might be diagnosed as an impulse control disorder not otherwise specified), and stereotypic movement disorder is classified as a disorder usually first diagnosed in infancy, childhood, or adolescence. ICD-10 classifies TTM as a habit and impulse disorder, and includes stereotyped movement disorders in a section on other behavioral and emotional disorders with onset usually occurring in childhood and adolescence. This article provides a focused review of nosological issues relevant to DSM-V, given recent empirical findings. This review presents a number of options and preliminary recommendations to be considered for DSM-V: (1) Although TTM fits optimally into a category of body-focused repetitive behavioral disorders, in a nosology comprised of relatively few major categories it fits best within a category of motoric obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders, (2) available evidence does not support continuing to include (current) diagnostic criteria B and C for TTM in DSM-V, (3) the text for TTM should be updated to describe subtypes and forms of hair pulling, (4) there are persuasive reasons for referring to TTM as "hair pulling disorder (trichotillomania)," (5) diagnostic criteria for skin picking disorder should be included in DSM-V or in DSM-Vs Appendix of Criteria Sets Provided for Further Study, and (6) the diagnostic criteria for stereotypic movement disorder should be clarified and simplified, bringing them in line with those for hair pulling and skin picking disorder. PMID:20533371

  18. Eating disorders and the skin.

    PubMed

    Strumia, Renata

    2013-01-01

    Eating disorders, which include anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and eating disorder not otherwise specified, are psychiatric disorders with physical complications. Several factors may contribute to the onset of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, including a familial predisposition to these disorders as well as individual personality characteristics. Dissatisfaction with body shape and an overwhelming desire to be thin are considered as risk factors for the development of eating disorders. Skin signs are the expression of the medical consequences of starvation, vomiting, abuse of drugs, such as laxatives and diuretics, and psychiatric morbidity. They include xerosis, lanugolike body hair, telogen effluvium, carotenoderma, acne, hyperpigmentation, seborrheic dermatitis, acrocyanosis, perniosis, petechiae, livedo reticularis, interdigital intertrigo, paronychia, acquired striae distensae, and acral coldness. The most characteristic cutaneous sign of vomiting is Russell sign (knuckle calluses). Symptoms due to laxative or diuretic abuse include adverse reactions to drugs. Symptoms due to psychiatric morbidity (artefacta) include the consequences of self-induced trauma. The role of the dermatologist in the management of eating disorders is to make an early diagnosis of the "hidden" signs of eating disorders in patients who tend to minimize or deny their disorder. PMID:23245978

  19. Proactive ergonomic behaviors intervention: Effects on promoting safe practices and reducing work-related musculoskeletal disorders among water utility workers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wanda T. Rosado

    2006-01-01

    This study pursued the application of a comprehensive safety intervention supported by behavioral principles to improve safety knowledge, safe worksite practices and consequently decrease the risk of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs) amongst water utility workers. A total of 30 mechanics from two water treatment plants participated in the study. A multiple-baseline, across two settings design was employed. Study phases included:

  20. Enhancing the Conversation Skills of a Boy with Asperger's Disorder through Social Stories[TM] and Video Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scattone, Dorothy

    2008-01-01

    This study combined Social Stories with video modeling in an effort to enhance the conversation skills of a boy with Asperger's Disorder. Treatment consisted of two components: (a) observation of video taped Social Stories that included two adults modeling targeted conversational skills and (b) 5-min social interactions. A multiple baseline design…

  1. Teaching Advanced Operation of an iPod-Based Speech-Generating Device to Two Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achmadi, Donna; Kagohara, Debora M.; van der Meer, Larah; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Sutherland, Dean; Lang, Russell; Marschik, Peter B.; Green, Vanessa A.; Sigafoos, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated a program for teaching two adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) to perform more advanced operations on an iPod-based speech-generating device (SGD). The effects of the teaching program were evaluated in a multiprobe multiple baseline across participants design that included two intervention phases. The first intervention…

  2. Autism, a brain developmental disorder: some new pathopysiologic and genetics findings.

    PubMed

    Costa e Silva, Jorge Alberto

    2008-10-01

    Autism is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder that is typically diagnosed by 3 years of age. Core symptoms of autism include profound deficits in social interaction and communication, restricted interests, stereotyped responses, and other repetitive patterns of behavior. Other abnormalities include mental retardation and comorbid epilepsy. These symptoms underscore the consequences of genetic inheritance for brain function and behavior. The etiology of autism may involve an interaction between genetic susceptibility (mediated by multiple genes) and environmental factors influencing brain development. PMID:18803965

  3. Long-term survival in multiple myeloma is associated with a distinct immunological profile, which includes proliferative cytotoxic T-cell clones and a favourable Treg/Th17 balance

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, C; Suen, H; Brown, R; Yang, S; Favaloro, J; Aklilu, E; Gibson, J; Ho, P J; Iland, H; Fromm, P; Woodland, N; Nassif, N; Hart, D; Joshua, D E

    2013-01-01

    Despite improved outcomes in multiple myeloma (MM), a cure remains elusive. However, even before the current therapeutic era, 5% of patients survived >10 years and we propose that immune factors contribute to this longer survival. We identified patients attending our clinic, who had survived >10 years (n=20) and analysed their blood for the presence of T-cell clones, T-regulatory cells (Tregs) and T helper 17 (Th17) cells. These results were compared with MM patients with shorter follow-up and age-matched healthy control donors. The frequency of cytotoxic T-cell clonal expansions in patients with <10 years follow-up (MM patients) was 54% (n=144), whereas it was 100% (n=19/19) in the long-survivors (LTS-MM). T-cell clones from MM patients proliferated poorly in vitro, whereas those from LTS-MM patients proliferated readily (median proliferations 6.1% and 61.5%, respectively (P<0.0001)). In addition, we found significantly higher Th17 cells and lower Tregs in the LTS-MM group when compared with the MM group. These results indicate that long-term survival in MM is associated with a distinct immunological profile, which is consistent with decreased immune suppression. PMID:24036947

  4. [Delusional disorders].

    PubMed

    Garnier, Marion; Llorca, Pierre-Michel

    2015-02-01

    Delusional disorders are divided in French nosography into three clinical disease entities: paranoid delusions, psychose hallucinatoire chronique, and paraphrenia. Their common characteristics are a late start, a chronic evolution, no cognitive impairment and no dissociation. Delusio- nal syndrome is often at the forefront with a predominant mechanism characterizing each disorder (interpretation for paranoid delusions, hallucination for psychose hallucinatoire chronique and imagination for paraphrenia). Although these disorders are less sensitive to the medication than schizophrenia, care is based on second generation antipsychotic treatment, in association with psychotherapy and social care. The aim of treatment is to alleviate delusion intensity to improve global functioning and to prevent violent incidents or suicide attempt. PMID:25939234

  5. Gait disorders.

    PubMed

    Jankovic, Joseph

    2015-02-01

    Gait disorders are frequently accompanied by loss of balance and falls, and are a common cause of disability, particularly among the elderly. In many cases the cause is multifactorial, involving both neurologic and nonneurologic systems. Physical therapy and training, coupled with pharmacologic and surgical therapy, can usually provide some improvement in ambulation, which translates into better quality of life. More research is needed on the mechanisms of gait and its disorders as well as on symptomatic therapies. Better understanding of the pathophysiology of gait disorders should lead to more specific, pathogenesis-targeted therapies. PMID:25432732

  6. Multicomponent Behavioral Treatment for Chronic Combat-Related Posttraumatic Stress DisorderTrauma Management Therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samuel M. Turner; Deborah C. Beidel; B. Christopher Frueh

    2005-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder(PTSD) is a severe and chronic mental disorder that is highly prevalent within Veterans Affairs (VA) Medical Centers. A severe psychiatric disorder, combat-related PTSD is typically accompanied by multiple comorbid psychiatric disorders, symptom chronicity, and extreme social maladjustment. Thus, PTSD is a complex psychiatric disorder resulting in considerable emotional distress and impaired social functioning and often constitutes a

  7. Parasomnias and movement disorders of sleep.

    PubMed

    Avidan, Alon Y

    2009-09-01

    Neurologists are often enlisted to help diagnose, evaluate, and manage a spectrum of abnormal spells during the night ranging from parasomnias to motor disturbance that span the sleep-wake cycle. Parasomnias are undesirable emotional or physical events that accompany sleep. These events typically occur during entry into sleep from wakefulness, or during arousals from sleep, and are often augmented by the sleep state. Some parasomnias, such as the rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder may be extremely undesirable, while others such as somniloquy are often of little concern. The parasomnias include a spectrum of abnormal emotions, movements, behaviors, sensory perceptions, dream mentation, and autonomic activity. Basic physiologic drives, such as sex, hunger, and aggression, may manifest as sleep-related eating, sleep-related sexual behaviors, and sleep-related violence. Parasomnias have a very bizarre nature, but are readily explainable, diagnosable, and treatable. They are hypothesized to be due to changes in brain organization across multiple states of being, and are particularly apt to occur during the incomplete transition or oscillation from one sleep state to another. Parasomnias are often explained on the basis that wakefulness and sleep are not mutually exclusive states, and abnormal intrusion of wakefulness into non-REM (NREM) sleep produces arousal disorders, and intrusion of wakefulness into REM sleep produces REM sleep parasomnias and REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD). Restless legs syndrome (RLS) and periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD), two closely related conditions that often result in disturbed sleep onset and sleep maintenance, are also reviewed in this article. Although the mechanisms that underlie idiopathic RLS or PLMD are not fully understood, there is currently substantial evidence that dopaminergic dysfunction is likely involved in both conditions. The discussion will conclude with the "other parasomnias" and sleep-related movement disorders of clinical interest to the neurologist. PMID:19742413

  8. An extension of the multiple-trapping model

    SciTech Connect

    Shkilev, V. P., E-mail: shkilevv@ukr.net [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Institute of Surface Chemistry (Ukraine)

    2012-07-15

    The hopping charge transport in disordered semiconductors is considered. Using the concept of the transport energy level, macroscopic equations are derived that extend a multiple-trapping model to the case of semiconductors with both energy and spatial disorders. It is shown that, although both types of disorder can cause dispersive transport, the frequency dependence of conductivity is determined exclusively by the spatial disorder.

  9. Depersonalisation disorder: a contemporary overview.

    PubMed

    Simeon, Daphne

    2004-01-01

    Depersonalisation disorder is characterised by prominent depersonalisation and often derealisation, without clinically notable memory or identity disturbances. The disorder has an approximately 1 : 1 gender ratio with onset at around 16 years of age. The course of the disorder is typically long term and often continuous. Mood, anxiety and personality disorders are often comorbid with depersonalisation disorder but none predict symptom severity. The most common immediate precipitants of the disorder are severe stress, depression and panic, and marijuana and hallucinogen ingestion. Depersonalisation disorder has also been associated with childhood interpersonal trauma, in particular emotional maltreatment. Neurochemical findings have suggested possible involvement of serotonergic, endogenous opioid and glutamatergic NMDA pathways. Brain imaging studies in depersonalisation disorder have revealed widespread alterations in metabolic activity in the sensory association cortex, as well as prefrontal hyperactivation and limbic inhibition in response to aversive stimuli. Depersonalisation disorder has also been associated with autonomic blunting and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysregulation. To date, treatment recommendations and guidelines for depersonalisation disorder have not been established. There are few studies assessing the use of pharmacotherapy in this disorder. Medication options that have been reported include clomipramine, fluoxetine, lamotrigine and opioid antagonists. However, it does not appear that any of these agents have a potent anti-dissociative effect. A variety of psychotherapeutic techniques has been used to treat depersonalisation disorder (including trauma-focused therapy and cognitive-behavioural techniques), although again none of these have established efficacy to date. Overall, novel therapeutic approaches are clearly needed to help individuals experiencing this refractory disorder. PMID:15089102

  10. Recognition of craniomandibular disorders.

    PubMed

    Cooper, B C

    1992-08-01

    Craniomandibular disorders often mimic diseases related to the ear, nose, and throat, so patients often seek the care of an otolaryngologist for these problems. After ruling out otolaryngologic disease, craniomandibular disorders should be considered in the differential diagnosis. If a clinical diagnosis is supported by history, symptoms, and clinical evidence, the patient should be referred in a timely manner to a dentist who is competent to manage the patient. In addition to dentists, other health care practitioners may be called on by the primary treating physician to aid in the diagnosis and treatment. These can include a neurologist, radiologist, ophthalmologist, physiatrists, physical therapist, and internist. With recent advances in imaging techniques (computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging), precise bioelectronic measurement of mandibular movement and electromyography of masticatory function, and conservative orthotic and dental restorative treatments as well as surgical techniques including arthroscopic examination of the TMJ, craniomandibular disorders can be objectively and precisely diagnosed and treated (Figs. 10 through 16). PMID:1470445

  11. Platelet disorders: an overview.

    PubMed

    Krishnegowda, Manasa; Rajashekaraiah, Vani

    2015-07-01

    Thrombocytes or platelets are anucleated cells derived from megakaryocytes by process of megakaryopoiesis, with maturation time of 4-5 days. They are small and discoid in shape with size ranging from 2 to 4??m. The platelet concentration in blood varies between 150?000 and 400?000?cells/?l of blood. They are involved in both hemostasis and wound healing. Hence, any abnormalities in platelets can lead to various bleeding disorders. Platelet disorders include thrombocythemia and thrombocytosis, thrombocytopenia and platelet dysfunction. Thrombocythemia and thrombocytosis are associated with increased platelet count because of overproduction of platelets. Thrombocytopenia includes decreased platelet count because of failed platelet production, increased sequestration of platelets in spleen, dilution of platelets and combination of these mechanisms. Platelet dysfunction can be because of intrinsic platelet defect or an extrinsic factor that alters the normal platelet function and can be hereditary or acquired. The following review provides a comprehensive overview of the above platelet disorders. PMID:26126029

  12. Treatments for neuropsychiatric disorders include drug therapies, surgical interven-

    E-print Network

    Schnitzer, Mark

    to the physiology of neuropsychiatric disease, a pair of microbial light-sensitive proteins have been developed that-effects associated with less specific therapeutic interventions. Many other elegant approaches have been developed, electrode-based deep brain stimulation (DBS), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), vagus nerve

  13. TMJ Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and shoulders, especially when they talk, chew, or yawn. Occasionally people with TMJ disorders may have muscle ... or opening your mouth extra wide when you yawn. Applying ice packs or heat on the side ...

  14. Muscle Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    Your muscles help you move and help your body work. Different types of muscles have different jobs. There are many problems that can affect muscles. Muscle disorders can cause weakness, pain or even ...

  15. Balance Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... disorders. In one NIDCD-funded study, researchers used virtual reality technology to simulate the aisles of a grocery store. The researchers are testing whether practicing in the virtual store will lessen episodes of dizziness in real- ...

  16. Thyroid Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of thyroid disorder or thyroid disease. Hyperthyroidism (say: hi-per-THYE-roy-diz-em) happens when the ... Kids with the opposite problem have hypothyroidism (say: hi-po-THYE-roy-diz-em). In this case, ...

  17. Taste Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... combine with a food’s aroma to produce a perception of flavor. It is flavor that lets you ... The most common taste disorder is phantom taste perception : a lingering, often unpleasant taste even though there ...

  18. Eating Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... what causes eating disorders, although there are many theories about it. Many people who develop an eating ... therapists, and working with dietitians and other professionals. Learning to be comfortable at your healthy weight is ...

  19. Sleep Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the day, even if you have had enough sleep? You might have a sleep disorder. The most common kinds are Insomnia - a hard time falling or staying asleep Sleep apnea - breathing interruptions during sleep Restless legs syndrome - ...

  20. Anxiety Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... be related to genes that can affect brain chemistry and the regulation of chemicals called neurotransmitters. But ... should: Tell a parent or other adult about physical sensations, worries, or fears. Because anxiety disorders don' ...

  1. Swallowing Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... medical institutions across the country. Much of this research focuses on finding better ways to treat dysphagia. NIH Patient Recruitment for Swallowing Disorders Clinical Trials At NIH Clinical Center Throughout the U.S. ...

  2. New Described Dermatological Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Cevirgen Cemil, Bengu; Keseroglu, Havva Ozge; Kaya Akis, Havva

    2014-01-01

    Many advances in dermatology have been made in recent years. In the present review article, newly described disorders from the last six years are presented in detail. We divided these reports into different sections, including syndromes, autoinflammatory diseases, tumors, and unclassified disease. Syndromes included are “circumferential skin creases Kunze type” and “unusual type of pachyonychia congenita or a new syndrome”; autoinflammatory diseases include “chronic atypical neutrophilic dermatosis with lipodystrophy and elevated temperature (CANDLE) syndrome,” “pyoderma gangrenosum, acne, and hidradenitis suppurativa (PASH) syndrome,” and “pyogenic arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum, acne, and hidradenitis suppurativa (PAPASH) syndrome”; tumors include “acquired reactive digital fibroma,” “onychocytic matricoma and onychocytic carcinoma,” “infundibulocystic nail bed squamous cell carcinoma,” and “acral histiocytic nodules”; unclassified disorders include “saurian papulosis,” “symmetrical acrokeratoderma,” “confetti-like macular atrophy,” and “skin spicules,” “erythema papulosa semicircularis recidivans.” PMID:25243162

  3. Eating disorders in men: update

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Theodore E. Weltzin; Nicolette Weisensel; David Franczyk; Kevin Burnett; Christine Klitz; Pamela Bean

    2005-01-01

    Men with anorexia and bulimia nervosa account for 10% of people with this condition and for binge eating disorder they account for as many as 25%. Risk factors in men include athletics, sexuality, psychiatric co-morbidity and negative life experiences. Differences in eating disorders exist between men and women relating to behavior and psychological symptoms. Men are much more likely than

  4. Management of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martine A. Bouvard; Maud Milliery; Jean Cottraux

    2004-01-01

    The patient is a 35-year-old married woman with an obsessive compulsive disorder. She had a 21-year history of obsessive thoughts and ritualistic behaviors including compulsive checking which had become persistent since the birth of her first child. There is no evidence of comorbidity, except for a mild generalized anxiety disorder. She wants to know which treatment is right for her

  5. Obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Bokor, Gyula; Anderson, Peter D

    2014-04-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common heterogeneous psychiatric disorder manifesting with obsessions and compulsions. Obsessions are intrusive, recurrent, and persistent unwanted thoughts. Compulsions are repetitive behaviors or mental acts that an individual feels driven to perform in response to the obsessions. The heterogeneity of OCD includes themes of obsessions, types of rituals, presence or absence of tics, etiology, genetics, and response to pharmacotherapy. Complications of OCD include interpersonal difficulties, unemployment, substance abuse, criminal justice issues, and physical injuries. Areas of the brain involved in the pathophysiology include the orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate gyrus, and basal ganglia. Overall, OCD may be due to a malfunction in the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuit in the brain. Neurotransmitters implicated in OCD include serotonin, dopamine, and glutamate. Numerous drugs such as atypical antipsychotics and dopaminergic agents can cause or exacerbate OCD symptoms. The etiology includes genetics and neurological insults. Treatment of OCD includes psychotherapy, pharmacotherapy, electroconvulsive therapy, transcranial magnetic simulation, and in extreme cases surgery. Exposure and response prevention is the most effective form of psychotherapy. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the preferred pharmacotherapy. Higher doses than listed in the package insert and a longer trial are often needed for SSRIs than compared to other psychiatric disorders. Alternatives to SSRIs include clomipramine and serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors. Treatment of resistant cases includes augmentation with atypical antipsychotics, pindolol, buspirone, and glutamate-blocking agents. PMID:24576790

  6. Newly discovered quick, non-invasive screening method of bone marrow malignancies including various leukemias, Hodgkin's lymphoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, & multiple myeloma by abnormality of small rectangular area within bone marrow organ representation areas of the face.

    PubMed

    Omura, Yoshiaki; O'Young, Brian; Jones, Marilyn; Nihrane, Abdalla; Duvvi, Harsha; Paluch, Kamila; Shimotsuura, Yasuhiro; Ohki, Motomu

    2012-01-01

    Diagnoses of bone marrow associated malignancies such as Acute & Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia, Acute & Chronic Myelogenous (Myeloid) Leukemia, Hodgkin's Lymphoma & Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma, and Multiple Myeloma are often missed without a blood test. However, in 2008, Omura Y reported several newly discovered organ representation areas that exist between the lower end of the eyebrows and upper end of the upper eyelid. This space was divided into 5 organ representation areas. The first space (more than 1/4 of entire space) near the side of the face (temple) is the bone marrow representation area (BMRA). Therefore, we examined the bone marrow representation areas non-invasively using the Bi-Digital O-Ring Test (BDORT). When the small rectangular shaped part of the BMRA is strong negative (-) with more than -2, often there is a malignancy associated with bone marrow. In this area, we found 1) Integrin alpha5beta1 & Oncogen C-fos Ab2 increased very significantly between 125-300 ng BDORT units; 2) very high Chrysotile Asbestos (0.11-0.14 mg); 3) markedly reduced Acetylcholine of less than 1 ng; 4) significantly reduced telomere of less than 1 yg (= 10(-24) g); and 5) Increased 8-OH-dG (often more than 5 ng). Once the abnormal small rectangular area is localized by BDORT, by detecting the specific microscope slide which produces EMF (electromagnetic field) resonance, one can diagnose these malignancies non-invasively in about 10 minutes. When a subject has any one of the above 7 types of bone marrow associated malignancies, the 5 aforementioned abnormal parameters can be detected. When Acetylcholine is markedly reduced to 0.25 ng or less, 8-OH-dG is 10 ng or higher, and Sirtuin 1 (one of the 7 mammalian longevity genes products) in both the Hippocampus and the body is 0.025 pg or less, most of the patients have a very poor prognosis. However, we found that increasing normal cell telomere & longevity gene product Sirtuin 1 can often improve both pathology & prognosis. All measurements are in BDORT units (the weight required to produce maximum EMF resonance). PMID:22852211

  7. Procedures for restoring vestibular disorders

    PubMed Central

    Walther, Leif Erik

    2005-01-01

    This paper will discuss therapeutic possibilities for disorders of the vestibular organs and the neurons involved, which confront ENT clinicians in everyday practice. Treatment of such disorders can be tackled either symptomatically or causally. The possible strategies for restoring the body's vestibular sense, visual function and co-ordination include medication, as well as physical and surgical procedures. Prophylactic or preventive measures are possible in some disorders which involve vertigo (bilateral vestibulopathy, kinetosis, height vertigo, vestibular disorders when diving (Tables 1 (Tab. 1) and 2 (Tab. 2)). Glucocorticoid and training therapy encourage the compensation of unilateral vestibular loss. In the case of a bilateral vestibular loss, it is important to treat the underlying disease (e.g. Cogan's disease). Although balance training does improve the patient's sense of balance, it will not restore it completely. In the case of Meniere's disease, there are a number of medications available to either treat bouts or to act as a prophylactic (e.g. dimenhydrinate or betahistine). In addition, there are non-ablative (sacculotomy) as well as ablative surgical procedures (e.g. labyrinthectomy, neurectomy of the vestibular nerve). In everyday practice, it has become common to proceed with low risk therapies initially. The physical treatment of mild postural vertigo can be carried out quickly and easily in outpatients (repositioning or liberatory maneuvers). In very rare cases it may be necessary to carry out a semicircular canal occlusion. Isolated disturbances of the otolith function or an involvement of the otolith can be found in roughly 50% of labyrinth disturbances. A specific surgical procedure to selectively block the otolith organs is currently being studied. When an external perilymph fistula involving loss of perilymph is suspected, an exploratory tympanotomy involving also the round and oval window niches must be carried out. A traumatic rupture of the round window membrane can, for example, also be caused by an implosive inner ear barotrauma during the decompression phase of diving. Dehiscence of the anterior semicircular canal, a relatively rare disorder, can be treated conservatively (avoiding stimuli which cause dizziness), by non-ablative „resurfacing" or by „plugging" the semicircular canal. A perilymph fistula can cause a Tullio-phenomenon resulting from a traumatic dislocation or hypermobility of the stapes, which can be surgically corrected. Vestibular disorders can also result from otosurgical therapy. When balance disorders persist following stapedectomy it is necessary to carry out a revision operation in order to either exclude a perilymph fistula or shorten the piston. Surgically reducing the size of open mastoid cavities (using for example porous hydroxylapatite or cartilage) can result in a reduction of vertiginous symptoms while nursing or during exposure to ambient air. Vestibular disturbances can occur both before and after vestibular nerve surgery (acoustic neuroma). Initially, good vestibular compensation can be expected after surgically removing the acoustic neuroma. An aberrant regeneration of nerve fibers of the vestibulocochlear nerve has been suggested as a cause for secondary worsening. Episodes of vertigo can be caused by an irritation of the vestibular nerve (vascular loop). Neurovascular decompression is generally regarded as the best surgical therapy. In the elderly, vestibular disturbances can severely limit quality of life and are often aggravated by multiple comorbidities. Antivertiginous drugs (e.g. dimenhydrinate) in combination with movement training can significantly reduce symptoms. Administering antivertiginous drugs over varying periods of time (e.g. transdermal scopolamine application via patches) as well as kinetosis training can be used as both prophylactically and as a therapy for kinetosis. Exposure training should be used as a prophylactic for height vertigo. PMID:22073053

  8. Wikipedia and neurological disorders.

    PubMed

    Brigo, Francesco; Igwe, Stanley C; Nardone, Raffaele; Lochner, Piergiorgio; Tezzon, Frediano; Otte, Willem M

    2015-07-01

    Our aim was to evaluate Wikipedia page visits in relation to the most common neurological disorders by determining which factors are related to peaks in Wikipedia searches for these conditions. Millions of people worldwide use the internet daily as a source of health information. Wikipedia is a popular free online encyclopedia used by patients and physicians to search for health-related information. The following Wikipedia articles were considered: Alzheimer's disease; Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; Dementia; Epilepsy; Epileptic seizure; Migraine; Multiple sclerosis; Parkinson's disease; Stroke; Traumatic brain injury. We analyzed information regarding the total article views for 90 days and the rank of these articles among all those available in Wikipedia. We determined the highest search volume peaks to identify possible relation with online news headlines. No relation between incidence or prevalence of neurological disorders and the search volume for the related articles was found. Seven out of 10 neurological conditions showed relations in search volume peaks and news headlines. Six out of these seven peaks were related to news about famous people suffering from neurological disorders, especially those from showbusiness. Identification of discrepancies between disease burden and health seeking behavior on Wikipedia is useful in the planning of public health campaigns. Celebrities who publicly announce their neurological diagnosis might effectively promote awareness programs, increase public knowledge and reduce stigma related to diagnoses of neurological disorders. PMID:25890773

  9. Epidemiology of pervasive developmental disorders.

    PubMed

    Fombonne, Eric

    2009-06-01

    This article reviews the results of 43 studies published since 1966 that provided estimates for the prevalence of pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs), including autistic disorder, Asperger disorder, PDD not otherwise specified, and childhood disintegrative disorder. The prevalence of autistic disorder has increased in recent surveys and current estimates of prevalence are around 20/10,000, whereas the prevalence for PDD not otherwise specified is around 30/10,000 in recent surveys. Prevalence of Asperger disorder is much lower than that for autistic disorder and childhood disintegrative disorder is a very rare disorder with a prevalence of about 2/100,000. Combined all together, recent studies that have examined the whole spectrum of PDDs have consistently provided estimates in the 60-70/10,000 range, making PDD one of the most frequent childhood neurodevelopmental disorders. The meaning of the increase in prevalence in recent decades is reviewed. There is evidence that the broadening of the concept, the expansion of diagnostic criteria, the development of services, and improved awareness of the condition have played a major role in explaining this increase, although it cannot be ruled out that other factors might have also contributed to that trend. PMID:19218885

  10. The Burden of Mental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, William W.; Martins, Silvia S.; Nestadt, Gerald; Bienvenu, O. Joseph; Clarke, Diana; Alexandre, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    In the last decade, there has been an increase in interest in the burden of chronic and disabling health conditions that are not necessarily fatal, such as the mental disorders. This review systematically summarizes data on the burden associated with 11 major mental disorders of adults. The measures of burden include estimates of prevalence, mortality associated with the disorders, disabilities and impairments related to the disorders, and costs. This review expands the range of mental disorders considered in a report on the global burden of disease, updates the literature, presents information on the range and depth of sources of information on burden, and adds estimates of costs. The purpose is to provide an accessible guide to the burden of mental disorders, especially for researchers and policy makers who may not be familiar with this subfield of epidemiology. PMID:18806255

  11. Empirical classification of eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Keel, Pamela K; Brown, Tiffany A; Holland, Lauren A; Bodell, Lindsay P

    2012-01-01

    Current diagnostic criteria for anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) account for a minority of individuals with clinically significant disorders of eating, raising concerns about the clinical utility of current definitions. This review examines evidence for the validity of current and alternative approaches to defining eating disorders and implications for draft criteria for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5). Although this review largely supports the predictive validity of distinctions among AN, BN, and the newly proposed binge eating disorder (BED), it also highlights that our tendency to "study what we define" has created a gap between the problems that people have and what we know about those problems. Future research on the causes and consequences of eating disorders should include more heterogeneous groups to enable identification of meaningful boundaries that distinguish between disorders based on etiological and predictive validity. PMID:22136228

  12. Apoptosis in neurodegenerative disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark P. Mattson

    2000-01-01

    Neuronal death underlies the symptoms of many human neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases, stroke, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The identification of specific genetic and environmental factors responsible for these diseases has bolstered evidence for a shared pathway of neuronal death — apoptosis — involving oxidative stress, perturbed calcium homeostasis, mitochondrial dysfunction and activation of cysteine proteases called

  13. Iodine-deficiency disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael B Zimmermann; Pieter L Jooste; Chandrakant S Pandav

    2008-01-01

    billion individuals worldwide have insufficient iodine intake, with those in south Asia and sub-Saharan Africa particularly affected. Iodine deficiency has many adverse effects on growth and development. These effects are due to inadequate production of thyroid hormone and are termed iodine-deficiency disorders. Iodine deficiency is the most common cause of preventable mental impairment worldwide. Assessment methods include urinary iodine concentration,

  14. Exporting Our Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foltz, Robert

    2012-01-01

    In 2013, the American Psychiatric Association will release its newest Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 5th Edition (DSM-5). This tome has evolved over the decades, originally including just 112 diagnoses across 128 pages. The upcoming edition is expected to eclipse the 943 pages, and 350+ disorders of the current DSM-IV-TR, offering a variety of…

  15. Watermarking Multiple Constant Multiplications Solutions

    E-print Network

    Wong, Jennifer L.

    Watermarking Multiple Constant Multiplications Solutions Jennifer L. Wong, Ji-Qing Ya, Miodrag Potkonjak University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 Abstract-- Multiplications and multipliers these requirements is to use combinations of shifts and additions to execute multiplications. The approach

  16. Swallowing Disorders - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... ????) French (français) Hindi (??????) Japanese (???) Korean (???) Russian (???????) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) ... ???? - ??? (Japanese) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Korean (???) Barium Swallow ?? ???? - ??? (Korean) Bilingual ...

  17. Sleep Disorders - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... ????) French (français) Hindi (??????) Japanese (???) Korean (???) Portuguese (português) Russian (???????) Somali (af Soomaali) ... ????????? - ??? (Japanese) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Korean (???) Common Sleep Problems ???? ?? ?? - ??? ( ...

  18. Anal Disorders - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... ???????) French (français) Hindi (??????) Japanese (???) Korean (???) Russian (???????) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) ... ?????? - ??? (Japanese) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Korean (???) Barium Enema ?? ???? - ??? (Korean) Bilingual ...

  19. Joint Disorders - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... ?????????? ?????? ??????? - ??????? Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Bosnian (Bosanski) Home Care After Total Joint Replacement ... zamjene zgloba - Bosanski (Bosnian) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chinese - Simplified (????) Home Care After Total Joint ...

  20. STAND, a class of P-loop NTPases including animal and plant regulators of programmed cell death: multiple, complex domain architectures, unusual phyletic patterns, and evolution by horizontal gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Leipe, Detlef D; Koonin, Eugene V; Aravind, L

    2004-10-01

    Using sequence profile analysis and sequence-based structure predictions, we define a previously unrecognized, widespread class of P-loop NTPases. The signal transduction ATPases with numerous domains (STAND) class includes the AP-ATPases (animal apoptosis regulators CED4/Apaf-1, plant disease resistance proteins, and bacterial AfsR-like transcription regulators) and NACHT NTPases (e.g. NAIP, TLP1, Het-E-1) that have been studied extensively in the context of apoptosis, pathogen response in animals and plants, and transcriptional regulation in bacteria. We show that, in addition to these well-characterized protein families, the STAND class includes several other groups of (predicted) NTPase domains from diverse signaling and transcription regulatory proteins from bacteria and eukaryotes, and three Archaea-specific families. We identified the STAND domain in several biologically well-characterized proteins that have not been suspected to have NTPase activity, including soluble adenylyl cyclases, nephrocystin 3 (implicated in polycystic kidney disease), and Rolling pebble (a regulator of muscle development); these findings are expected to facilitate elucidation of the functions of these proteins. The STAND class belongs to the additional strand, catalytic E division of P-loop NTPases together with the AAA+ ATPases, RecA/helicase-related ATPases, ABC-ATPases, and VirD4/PilT-like ATPases. The STAND proteins are distinguished from other P-loop NTPases by the presence of unique sequence motifs associated with the N-terminal helix and the core strand-4, as well as a C-terminal helical bundle that is fused to the NTPase domain. This helical module contains a signature GxP motif in the loop between the two distal helices. With the exception of the archaeal families, almost all STAND NTPases are multidomain proteins containing three or more domains. In addition to the NTPase domain, these proteins typically contain DNA-binding or protein-binding domains, superstructure-forming repeats, such as WD40 and TPR, and enzymatic domains involved in signal transduction, including adenylate cyclases and kinases. By analogy to the AAA+ ATPases, it can be predicted that STAND NTPases use the C-terminal helical bundle as a "lever" to transmit the conformational changes brought about by NTP hydrolysis to effector domains. STAND NTPases represent a novel paradigm in signal transduction, whereby adaptor, regulatory switch, scaffolding, and, in some cases, signal-generating moieties are combined into a single polypeptide. The STAND class consists of 14 distinct families, and the evolutionary history of most of these families is riddled with dramatic instances of lineage-specific expansion and apparent horizontal gene transfer. The STAND NTPases are most abundant in developmentally and organizationally complex prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Transfer of genes for STAND NTPases from bacteria to eukaryotes on several occasions might have played a significant role in the evolution of eukaryotic signaling systems. PMID:15381417

  1. Multiple Spatial Coherence Resonances and Spatial Patterns in a Noise-Driven Heterogeneous Neuronal Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yu-Ye; Ding, Xue-Li

    2014-12-01

    Heterogeneity of the neurons and noise are inevitable in the real neuronal network. In this paper, Gaussian white noise induced spatial patterns including spiral waves and multiple spatial coherence resonances are studied in a network composed of Morris—Lecar neurons with heterogeneity characterized by parameter diversity. The relationship between the resonances and the transitions between ordered spiral waves and disordered spatial patterns are achieved. When parameter diversity is introduced, the maxima of multiple resonances increases first, and then decreases as diversity strength increases, which implies that the coherence degrees induced by noise are enhanced at an intermediate diversity strength. The synchronization degree of spatial patterns including ordered spiral waves and disordered patterns is identified to be a very low level. The results suggest that the nervous system can profit from both heterogeneity and noise, and the multiple spatial coherence resonances are achieved via the emergency of spiral waves instead of synchronization patterns.

  2. Clinical Assessment of Tourette Syndrome and Tic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Stephanie; Leckman, James F.; Bloch, Michael H.

    2013-01-01

    Tourette Syndrome (TS) is a neuropsychiatric disorder involving multiple motor and phonic tics. Tics, which usually begin between the ages of 6 and 8, are sudden, rapid, stereotyped, and apparently purposeless movements or sounds that involve discrete muscle groups. Individuals with TS experience a variety of different sensory phenomena, including premonitory urges prior to tics and somatic hypersensitivity due to impaired sensorimotor gating. In addition to other conditions, stress, anxiety, fatigue, or other heightened emotional states tend to exacerbate tics, while relaxation, playing sports, and focused concentration on a specific task tend to alleviate tic symptoms. Ninety percent of children with TS also have comorbid conditions, such as Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), or an impulse control disorder. These disorders often cause more problems for the child both at home and at school than tics do alone. Proper diagnosis and treatment of TS involves appropriate evaluation and recognition, not only of tics, but also of these associated conditions. PMID:23206664

  3. Dissociative disorders: between neurosis and psychosis.

    PubMed

    Devillé, C; Moeglin, C; Sentissi, O

    2014-01-01

    Dissociative disorders are a set of disorders defined by a disturbance affecting functions that are normally integrated with a prevalence of 2.4 percent in industrialised countries. These disorders are often poorly diagnosed or misdiagnosed because of sharing common clinical features with psychotic disorders, but requiring a very different trajectory of care. Repeated clinical situations in a crisis centre in Geneva provided us with a critical overview of current evidence of knowledge in clinical and etiopathological field about dissociative disorders. Because of their multiple expressions and the overlap with psychotic disorders, we focused on the clinical aspects using three different situations to better understand their specificity and to extend our thinking to the relevance of terms "neurosis" and "psychosis." Finally, we hope that this work might help physicians and psychiatrists to become more aware of this complex set of disorders while making a diagnosis. PMID:25405051

  4. Dissociative Disorders: Between Neurosis and Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Devillé, C.; Moeglin, C.; Sentissi, O.

    2014-01-01

    Dissociative disorders are a set of disorders defined by a disturbance affecting functions that are normally integrated with a prevalence of 2.4 percent in industrialised countries. These disorders are often poorly diagnosed or misdiagnosed because of sharing common clinical features with psychotic disorders, but requiring a very different trajectory of care. Repeated clinical situations in a crisis centre in Geneva provided us with a critical overview of current evidence of knowledge in clinical and etiopathological field about dissociative disorders. Because of their multiple expressions and the overlap with psychotic disorders, we focused on the clinical aspects using three different situations to better understand their specificity and to extend our thinking to the relevance of terms “neurosis” and “psychosis.” Finally, we hope that this work might help physicians and psychiatrists to become more aware of this complex set of disorders while making a diagnosis. PMID:25405051

  5. Disorders of Human Hemoglobin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bank, Arthur; Mears, J. Gregory; Ramirez, Francesco

    1980-02-01

    Studies of the human hemoglobin system have provided new insights into the regulation of expression of a group of linked human genes, the ? -? -? globin gene complex in man. In particular, the thalassemia syndromes and related disorders of man are inherited anemias that provide mutations for the study of the regulation of globin gene expression. New methods, including restriction enzyme analysis and cloning of cellular DNA, have made it feasible to define more precisely the structure and organization of the globin genes in cellular DNA. Deletions of specific globin gene fragments have already been found in certain of these disorders and have been applied in prenatal diagnosis.

  6. Selected disorders of malabsorption.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Zafreen; Osayande, Amimi S

    2011-09-01

    Malabsorption syndrome encompasses numerous clinical entities that result in chronic diarrhea, abdominal distention, and failure to thrive. These disorders may be congenital or acquired and include cystic fibrosis and Shwachman-Diamond syndrome; the rare congenital lactase deficiency; glucose-galactose malabsorption; sucrase-isomaltase deficiency; adult-type hypolactasia leading to acquired lactose intolerance. The pathology may be due to impairment in absorption or digestion of nutrients resulting in Nutritional deficiency, gastrointestinal symptoms, and extra gastrointestinal symptoms. Treatment is aimed at correcting the deficiencies and symptoms to improve quality of life. Common disorders of malabsorption celiac disease, pernicious anemia, and lactase deficiency are discussed in this article. PMID:21872088

  7. Dissociative identity disorder: a controversial diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Gillig, Paulette Marie

    2009-03-01

    A brief description of the controversies surrounding the diagnosis of dissociative identity disorder is presented, followed by a discussion of the proposed similarities and differences between dissociative identity disorder and borderline personality disorder. The phenomenon of autohypnosis in the context of early childhood sexual trauma and disordered attachment is discussed, as is the meaning of alters or alternate personalities. The author describes recent neurosciences research that may relate the symptoms of dissociative identity disorder to demonstrable disordered attention and memory processes. A clinical description of a typical patient presentation is included, plus some recommendations for approaches to treatment. PMID:19724751

  8. Delineation of a de novo 7q21.3q31.1 Deletion by CGH-SNP Arrays in a Girl with Multiple Congenital Anomalies Including Severe Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Jacobo, L.; Córdova-Fletes, C.; Ortiz-López, R.; Rivas, F.; Saucedo-Carrasco, C.; Rojas-Martínez, A.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we present a female patient with a constitutional de novo deletion in 7q21.3q31.1 as determined by G-banding and CGH-SNP arrays. She exhibited, among other features, psychomotor retardation, congenital severe bilateral glaucoma, a cleft palate, and heart defect. Microarray assay disclosed a deleted 12.5-Mb region roughly 88 kb downstream the ectrodactyly critical region; thus, the patient's final karyotype was 46,XX.arr 7q21.3q31.1(96,742,140-109,246,085)×1 dn. This girl represents the fourth patient described so far with congenital glaucoma and a deletion encompassing or overlapping the 7q21.3q31.1 region, and confirms the presence of a locus or loci related to such a clinical feature. According to our results, the proneness to ocular defects secondary to 7q intermediate deletions could be caused by co-deletion of TAC1, HBP1, and a small cluster of cytochrome P450 genes (subfamily 3A). This conclusion is supported by their functional roles and expression locations as well as because TAC1 is related to the functional pathway of the MYOC gene whose mutations are linked to glaucoma. Moreover, given that this girl is clinically reminiscent of several phenotypes related to diverse deletions within 7q21q32, our results and observations offer a general overview of the gene content of deletions/phenotypes overlapping 7q21.3q31.1 and confirm that loci distal to DLX genes including the CUX1 gene and potential regulatory elements downstream from DLX5 are unrelated to ectrodactyly. PMID:24167464

  9. [Clinical problems in multiple osteochondroma].

    PubMed

    Ham, S J John; de Lange, Jan; van der Zwan, Arnard L; Schaap, Gerard R; van der Woude, Henk-Jan; Heeg, Minne

    2012-01-01

    Multiple osteochondroma, also known as hereditary multiple exostoses, is a relatively rare genetic disorder characterized by the presence of multiple osteochondromas. The disease is frequently painful, with restriction of the activities of daily living, problems with carrying out an occupation and performance at school. In addition, characteristic skeletal deformities and postural abnormalities of the joints very frequently occur in patients with this disorder. Malignant transformation of osteochondroma to chondrosarcoma occurs in 1-5% of the patients with multiple osteochondroma. Treatment of patients with multiple osteochondromas must be tuned to the problems experienced by the patient. Symptomatic osteochondromas are often an indication for excision; knowledge of the natural progression of the abnormality is important in this. Periodical screening is essential: in children to prevent or correct deformity and postural abnormalities and in adults to detect and treat malignant transformation of osteochondroma at an early stage. PMID:22414670

  10. The Evolving Construct of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): DSM-5 Criteria Changes and Legal Implications.

    PubMed

    Zoellner, Lori A; Bedard-Gilligan, Michele A; Jun, Janie J; Marks, Libby H; Garcia, Natalia M

    2013-12-01

    In the DSM-5, the diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has undergone multiple, albeit minor, changes. These changes include shifting PTSD placement from within the anxiety disorders into a new category of traumatic and stressor-related disorders, alterations in the definition of a traumatic event, shifting of the symptom cluster structure from three to four clusters, the addition of new symptoms including persistent negative beliefs and expectations about oneself or the world, persistent distorted blame of self or others, persistent negative trauma-related emotions, and risky or reckless behaviors, and the addition of a dissociative specifier. The evidence or lack thereof behind each of these changes is briefly reviewed. These changes, although not likely to change overall prevalence, have the potential to increase the heterogeneity of individuals receiving a PTSD diagnosis both by altering what qualifies as a traumatic event and by adding symptoms commonly occurring in other disorders such as depression, borderline personality disorder, and dissociative disorders. Legal implications of these changes include continued confusion regarding what constitutes a traumatic stressor, difficulties with differential diagnosis, increased ease in malingering, and improper linking of symptoms to causes of behavior. These PTSD changes are discussed within the broader context of DSM reliability and validity concerns. PMID:24470838

  11. Eating Disorders in Adolescent Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Dilip R.; Greydanus, Donald E.; Pratt, Helen D.; Phillips, Elaine L.

    2003-01-01

    Reviews research on eating disorders in adolescent athletes, including prevalence, its uncommonness among male athletes, risk factors, medical complications, prevention strategies, and implications for sport and exercise participation, management, and prognosis. (EV)

  12. Exploring the Perception of Asperger's Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kite, Donna M.; Tyson, Graham A.; Gullifer, Judith M.

    2011-01-01

    With current preparation for the release of the fifth edition of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (DSM-5) in 2013, many changes have been proposed for the diagnostic criteria, including changes to the pervasive development disorder category--of which Asperger's disorder is a part. Using focus group discussions this study…

  13. The interesting phenomena of delusional disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K Y Mak

    Summary Delusional disorders are not uncommon psychotic disorders, yet they are not readily recognised by doctors. There are different types of delusional disorder, some of which are centered on issues of love, hate, obsession, persecution or physical illness. These patients sometimes present to non-psychiatrists and have no insight into their problems. Occasionally, aggressive acting out behaviour, including homicide and suicide,

  14. [Sleep disorders among physicians on shift work].

    PubMed

    Schlafer, O; Wenzel, V; Högl, B

    2014-11-01

    Sleep disorders in physicians who perform shift work can result in increased risks of health problems that negatively impact performance and patient safety. Even those who cope well with shift work are likely to suffer from sleep disorders. The aim of this manuscript is to discuss possible causes, contributing factors and consequences of sleep disorders in physicians and to identify measures that can improve adaptation to shift work and treatment strategies for shift work-associated sleep disorders. The risk factors that influence the development of sleep disorders in physicians are numerous and include genetic factors (15 % of the population), age (> 50 years), undiagnosed sleep apnea,, alcohol abuse as well as multiple stress factors inherent in clinical duties (including shift work), research, teaching and family obligations. Several studies have reported an increased risk for medical errors in sleep-deprived physicians. Shift workers have an increased risk for psychiatric and cardiovascular diseases and shift work may also be a contributing factor to cancer. A relationship has been reported not only with sleep deprivation and changes in food intake but also with diabetes mellitus, obesity, hypertension and coronary heart disease. Nicotine and alcohol consumption are more frequent among shift workers. Increased sickness and accident rates among physicians when commuting (especially after night shifts) have a socioeconomic impact. In order to reduce fatigue and to improve performance, short naps during shiftwork or naps plus caffeine, have been proposed as coping strategies; however, napping during adverse circadian phases is less effective, if not impossible when unable to fall asleep. Bright and blue light supports alertness during a night shift. After shiftwork, direct sunlight exposure to the retina can be avoided by using dark sunglasses or glasses with orange lenses for commuting home. The home environment for daytime sleeping after a night shift should be very dark to allow endogenous melatonin secretion, which is a night signal and supports continuous sleep. Sleep disorders can be treated with timed light exposure, as well as behavioral and environmental strategies to compensate for sleep deprivation. Fatigue due to sleep deprivation can only be systematically treated with sleep. PMID:25213642

  15. Tourette's disorder and associated complex behaviors: a case report.

    PubMed Central

    McDougle, C. J.; Southwick, S. M.; Rohrbaugh, R. M.

    1990-01-01

    A case of a man with Tourette's disorder associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder, multiple sexual paraphilias, and aggressive behavior is described. Treatment with haloperidol led to improvement in the characteristic tics of Tourette's disorder as well as to improvement in these three complex-associated behaviors. After haloperidol was discontinued, an exacerbation of tics and the associated behaviors occurred. PMID:2238716

  16. Disorder (GCMP)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Disorder: this is a resource in the collection "General Chemistry Multimedia Problems". A spontaneous change is one that has a natural tendency to occur without needing to be driven by an external influence. This problem will explore the influence of entropy, a measure of disorder, on the spontaneity of a few processes. General Chemistry Multimedia Problems ask students questions about experiments they see presented using videos and images. The questions asked apply concepts from different parts of an introductory course, encouraging students to decompartmentalize the material.

  17. Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic progressive demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Common manifestations include paresthesias, diplopia, loss of vision, numbness or weakness of the limbs, bowel or bladder dysfunction, spasticity, ataxia, fatigue, and mental changes. Four main patterns of MS are recognized: relapsing remitting, primary progressive, secondary progressive, and progressive relapsing. The cause of MS is unknown, although it appears to be an autoimmune disease. Much of what is known about MS has been learned from an animal model of the disease, experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. PMID:24381825

  18. Multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Files, Daniel Kane; Jausurawong, Tani; Katrajian, Ruba; Danoff, Robert

    2015-06-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, debilitating disease that can have devastating effects. Presentation varies widely in symptoms, pace, and progression. In addition to a thorough history and physical examination, diagnostic tools required to diagnose MS and exclude other diagnoses include MRI, evoked potential testing, and cerebrospinal fluid analysis. Although the disease is not curable presently, quality of life can be improved by minimizing the frequency and severity of disease burden. Disease modification, symptom management, preservation of function, and treatment of psychosocial issues are paramount to enhance the quality of life for the patient affected with MS. PMID:25979578

  19. Multiplication 2

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Miss Lerdahl

    2010-11-16

    Try some harder multiplication activities! Missing Factor Meteor Blasting Complete the Missing Step Batter s Up Multiplication Sum Sense Multiplication Challenge a Friend to Grand Prix Multiplication Double Digit Multiplication https://embed.espresso.co.uk/espresso/embed/images/logo_espresso.gif ) no-repeat center center" Multiplication Fun

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Young

    2007-10-25

    Play to following games to pracitce your muliplicaiton tables. Hit a Home Run! Start with Multiplication Baseball (Easy). Once your have beat this team try to beat Multiplication Baseball (Medium). When you beat the first two teams try to beat this challanging team Multiplication Baseball (Hard) Learn your multiplication facts by playing Multiplication Flash Fun ...

  1. Psychostimulants and Movement Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Asser, Andres; Taba, Pille

    2015-01-01

    Psychostimulants are a diverse group of substances with their main psychomotor effects resembling those of amphetamine, methamphetamine, cocaine, or cathinone. Due to their potential as drugs of abuse, recreational use of most of these substances is illegal since 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances. In recent years, new psychoactive substances have emerged mainly as synthetic cathinones with new molecules frequently complementing the list. Psychostimulant related movement disorders are a known entity often seen in emergency rooms around the world. These admissions are becoming more frequent as are fatalities associated with drug abuse. Still the legal constraints of the novel synthetic molecules are bypassed. At the same time, chronic and permanent movement disorders are much less frequently encountered. These disorders frequently manifest as a combination of movement disorders. The more common symptoms include agitation, tremor, hyperkinetic and stereotypical movements, cognitive impairment, and also hyperthermia and cardiovascular dysfunction. The pathophysiological mechanisms behind the clinical manifestations have been researched for decades. The common denominator is the monoaminergic signaling. Dopamine has received the most attention but further research has demonstrated involvement of other pathways. Common mechanisms linking psychostimulant use and several movement disorders exist. PMID:25941511

  2. Autoimmune disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... hormone, vitamin B12, or insulin, due to the autoimmune disease Blood transfusions if blood is affected Physical therapy ... The outcome depends on the disease. Most autoimmune diseases are chronic ... disorders can come and go. When symptoms get worse, it is ...

  3. Multiplication table

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    bgross

    2011-04-14

    Help learn First learn go over your Learn The Multiplication table now get some extra help Learn The Multiplication table have fun Learn The multiplication table with games good luck practice test pre test pre test final test ...

  4. Mastering Multiplication

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Jackson

    2007-10-25

    Play the following games to practice your multiplication. Take a swing at Multplication Baseball! (Set with hard) Use your multiplication knowledge and defeat the Mayan Math Monster! (Set to hard) Quick! Stop the Multiplication Invader before it is too late! ...

  5. Models of comorbidity for multifactorial disorders.

    PubMed Central

    Neale, M C; Kendler, K S

    1995-01-01

    We develop several formal models for comorbidity between multifactorial disorders. Based on the work of D. N. Klein and L. P. Riso, the models include (i) alternate forms, where the two disorders have the same underlying continuum of liability; (ii) random multiformity, in which affection status on one disorder abruptly increases risk for the second; (iii) extreme multiformity, where only extreme cases have an abruptly increased risk for the second disorder; (iv) three independent disorders, in which excess comorbid cases are due to a separate, third disorder; (v) correlated liabilities, where the risk factors for the two disorders correlate; and (vi) direct causal models, where the liability for one disorder is a cause of the other disorder. These models are used to make quantitative predictions about the relative proportions of pairs of relatives who are classified according to whether each relative has neither disorder, disorder A but not B, disorder B but not A, or both A and B. For illustration, we analyze data on major depression (MD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) assessed in adult female MZ and DZ twins, which enable estimation of the relative impact of genetic and environmental factors. Several models are rejected--that comorbid cases are due to chance; multiformity of GAD; a third independent disorder; and GAD being a cause of MD. Of the models that fit the data, correlated liabilities, MD causes GAD, and reciprocal causation seem best. MD appears to be a source of liability for GAD. Possible extensions to the models are discussed. PMID:7573055

  6. Stereotyped movement disorder in ICD-11.

    PubMed

    Stein, Dan J; Woods, Douglas W

    2014-01-01

    According to current proposals for ICD-11, stereotyped movement disorder will be classified in the grouping of neurodevelopmental disorders, with a qualifier to indicate whether self-injury is present, similar to the classification of stereotypic movement disorder in DSM-5. At the same time, the WHO ICD-11 Working Group on the Classification of Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders has proposed a grouping of body-focused repetitive behavior disorders within the obsessive-compulsive and related disorders (OCRD) cluster to include trichotillomania and skin-picking disorder. DSM-5 has taken a slightly different approach: trichotillomania and excoriation (skin picking) disorder are included in the OCRD grouping, while body-focused repetitive behavior disorder is listed under other specified forms of OCRD. DSM-5 also includes a separate category of nonsuicidal self-injury in the section on "conditions for further study." There are a number of unresolved nosological questions regarding the relationships among stereotyped movement disorder, body-focused repetitive behavior disorders, and nonsuicidal self-injury. In this article, we attempt to provide preliminary answers to some of these questions as they relate to the ICD-11 classification of mental and behavioral disorders. PMID:25388614

  7. Challenges in understanding psychiatric disorders and developing therapeutics: a role for zebrafish.

    PubMed

    McCammon, Jasmine M; Sive, Hazel

    2015-07-01

    The treatment of psychiatric disorders presents three major challenges to the research and clinical community: defining a genotype associated with a disorder, characterizing the molecular pathology of each disorder and developing new therapies. This Review addresses how cellular and animal systems can help to meet these challenges, with an emphasis on the role of the zebrafish. Genetic changes account for a large proportion of psychiatric disorders and, as gene variants that predispose to psychiatric disease are beginning to be identified in patients, these are tractable for study in cellular and animal systems. Defining cellular and molecular criteria associated with each disorder will help to uncover causal physiological changes in patients and will lead to more objective diagnostic criteria. These criteria should also define co-morbid pathologies within the nervous system or in other organ systems. The definition of genotypes and of any associated pathophysiology is integral to the development of new therapies. Cell culture-based approaches can address these challenges by identifying cellular pathology and by high-throughput screening of gene variants and potential therapeutics. Whole-animal systems can define the broadest function of disorder-associated gene variants and the organismal impact of candidate medications. Given its evolutionary conservation with humans and its experimental tractability, the zebrafish offers several advantages to psychiatric disorder research. These include assays ranging from molecular to behavioural, and capability for chemical screening. There is optimism that the multiple approaches discussed here will link together effectively to provide new diagnostics and treatments for psychiatric patients. PMID:26092527

  8. The Appalachian Perspective: An Adaptation to a Parent Training Program for Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newland, Jessica Marie

    2010-01-01

    Disruptive behavior disorders in children are distressing to others due to the abnormal nature of the child's behavior (Christophersen & Mortweet, 2003). These disorders include attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and conduct disorder (CD). Prevalent rates for these disorders range from 2% to 23%…

  9. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Comorbid Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Panic Disorder with Agoraphobia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labrecque, Joane; Dugas, Michel J.; Marchand, Andre; Letarte, Andree

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral treatment package for comorbid generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and panic disorder with agoraphobia (PDA). A single-case, multiple-baseline, across-subjects design was used with 3 primary GAD patients with secondary PDA. The efficacy of the treatment was evaluated with…

  10. Behavioral Activation in the Treatment of Comorbid Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Major Depressive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulick, Patrick S.; Naugle, Amy E.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of 10-weeks of Behavioral Activation (BA) in the treatment of comorbid Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) in four adults using a nonconcurrent multiple baseline across participants design. All participants met full "DSM-IV" criteria for both MDD and PTSD at the outset of…

  11. Dependent personality disorder

    MedlinePLUS

    Dependent personality disorder is a mental health condition in which people depend too much on others to meet their emotional ... Cause of dependent personality disorder is unknown. The disorder usually ... is one of the most common personality disorders and is ...

  12. Language disorder - children

    MedlinePLUS

    ... dysphasia; Delayed language; Specific developmental language disorder; SLI; Communication disorder - language disorder ... 2014. Simms MD, Schum RL. Language development and communication disorders. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. Geme ...

  13. Gastrointestinal Motility Disorders in Children

    PubMed Central

    Ambartsumyan, Lusine

    2014-01-01

    The most common and challenging gastrointestinal motility disorders in children include gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), esophageal achalasia, gastroparesis, chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction, and constipation. GERD is the most common gastrointestinal motility disorder affecting children and is diagnosed clinically and treated primarily with acid secretion blockade. Esophageal achalasia, a less common disorder in the pediatric patient population, is characterized by dysphagia and treated with pneumatic balloon dilation and/or esophagomyotomy. Gastroparesis and chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction are poorly characterized in children and are associated with significant morbidity. Constipation is among the most common complaints in children and is associated with significant morbidity as well as poor quality of life. Data on epidemiology and outcomes, clinical trials, and evaluation of new diagnostic techniques are needed to better diagnose and treat gastrointestinal motility disorders in children. We present a review of the conditions and challenges related to these common gastrointestinal motility disorders in children. PMID:24799835

  14. Oxidative Stress and Psychological Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Salim, Samina

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress is an imbalance between cellular production of reactive oxygen species and the counteracting antioxidant mechanisms. The brain with its high oxygen consumption and a lipid-rich environment is considered highly susceptible to oxidative stress or redox imbalances. Therefore, the fact that oxidative stress is implicated in several mental disorders including depression, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, is not surprising. Although several elegant studies have established a link between oxidative stress and psychiatric disorders, the causal relationship between oxidative stress and psychiatric diseases is not fully determined. Another critical aspect that needs much attention and effort is our understanding of the association between cellular oxidative stress and emotional stress. This review examines some of the recent discoveries that link oxidative status with anxiety, depression, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. A discussion of published results and questions that currently exist in the field regarding a causal relationship between oxidative and emotional stress is also provided. PMID:24669208

  15. Personality Disorders and Work

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan L. Ettner

    \\u000a The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) divides ­psychiatric disorders into two categories, Axis I\\u000a and Axis II disorders (American Psychiatric Association 2000). Axis I disorders are clinical disorders such as depression,\\u000a anxiety, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder. Axis II disorders are personality disorders (PDs), defined as “pervasive, inflexible,\\u000a and enduring patterns of inner experiences and behavior that can

  16. Cardiovascular Risk in Rheumatoid Arthritis and Systemic Autoimmune Rheumatic Disorders: a Suggested Model of Preventive Strategy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elena Bartoloni; Alessia Alunno; Onelia Bistoni; Roberto Gerli

    The pathogenesis of accelerated cardiovascular damage commonly characterizing patients affected by systemic chronic inflammatory\\u000a and autoimmune rheumatic disorders is quite complex and still not fully clarified. However, it is well accepted that a strong\\u000a relationship between multiple factors, including both traditional cardiovascular risk factors and disease-related inflammatory\\u000a and autoimmune mechanisms, may in part explain the precocious atherosclerotic vessel damage and

  17. Multiple deletions in mitochondrial DNA in a patient with progressive external ophthalmoplegia, leukoencephalopathy and hypogonadism.

    PubMed

    Ohnuki, Yuko; Takahashi, Kazumi; Iijima, Eri; Takahashi, Wakoh; Suzuki, Shingo; Ozaki, Yuki; Kitao, Ruriko; Mihara, Masatoshi; Ishihara, Tadayuki; Nakamura, Michiyo; Sawano, Yoshie; Goto, Yu-ichi; Izumi, Shunichiro; Kulski, Jerzy K; Shiina, Takashi; Takizawa, Shunya

    2014-01-01

    Progressive external ophthalmoplegia (PEO) is one of a number of major types of mitochondrial disorders. Most sporadic PEO patients have a heteroplasmic large deletion of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in the mitochondria in skeletal muscles. We herein analyzed mtDNA deletions using sub-cloning and Sanger sequencing of PCR products in a 31-year-old Japanese man with multiple symptoms, including PEO, muscle weakness, hearing loss, leukoencephalopathy and hypogonadism. A large number of multiple deletions was detected, as well as four kinds of deletion breakpoints identified in different locations, including m.3347_12322, m.5818_13964, m.5829_13964 and m.5837_13503. PMID:24930659

  18. Prenatal and postpartum care of women with substance use disorders.

    PubMed

    Gopman, Sarah

    2014-06-01

    The incidence of substance abuse in pregnancy is substantial and affects pregnancy health and outcomes. Multiple challenges exist in the identification of women with substance abuse disorders in pregnancy and the provision of care. A multidisciplinary approach has been shown to be most successful in providing comprehensive and effective care. This article outlines key aspects of prenatal and postpartum care, with a brief overview provided of intrapartum care. Issues covered include screening, opioid replacement therapy, comorbid medical and psychiatric conditions, environmental stressors, parenting preparation, pain management in labor and postpartum, breastfeeding guidance, prevention of relapse, and assistance with postpartum transition to primary care. PMID:24845486

  19. [Insomnia disorder].

    PubMed

    Ozone, Motohiro; Kuroda, Ayako

    2015-06-01

    The rate of those who have sleep problems increases due to aging. In Japan, a super-aging society, insomnia is a common disease. It is reported that the ratio of insomniacs over sixty year-old is 29.5 %. The sleep disturbance in the elderly is caused by multi factors, such as physiological, physical, psychosociological, psychiatric, and pharmacological factors. According to the latest diagnostic criteria of sleep disorders, ICSD-3, the concept of primary or secondary insomnia was abolished. Instead of that, insomnia is categorized by the duration of disease, and general doctors can diagnose sleep disorders more easily than the past. However, it is not necessary to consider the pathophysiological mechanism, there is a concern that the clinical level of insomnia treatment might decline in quality. PMID:26065121

  20. Repurposed drugs in metabolic disorders.

    PubMed

    Finsterer, Josef; Frank, Marlies

    2013-01-01

    Drug repurposing (drug repositioning, drug reprofiling, drug retasking) gains increasing importance as the development of new drugs becomes increasingly expensive. Though only a few compounds have been approved for new indications in the field of metabolic disorders, there are a number of substances which have the potential to become reprofiled in a new indication. Generally, reprofiled drugs for metabolic disorders can be classified in three groups. Group A contains those of which both, the original and repurposed indication, concern metabolic disorders. Group B comprises drugs, which were originally approved for non-metabolic disorders but show beneficial effects for metabolic disorders after repurposing. Group C comprises drugs, which were originally approved for metabolic disorders and are effective for non-metabolic disorders in their repurposed indication. Repurposed drugs in the field of metabolic disorders of group A include tetra-hydrobiopterin, originally indicated for phenylketonuria and now also approved for tetrahydrobiopterindeficiency, coenzyme-Q, originally approved for primary coenzyme-Q deficiency and reprofiled for statin-myopathy, and colesevelam, originally approved to reduce elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol (LDL-C) and now being approved for type-2-diabetes. An example of group C is phenylbutyrate, which was originally approved for urea-cycle disorders and meanwhile gained approval for progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 2 due to mutations in the ABCB11 gene. Still additional compounds used to treat metabolic (non-metabolic) disorders show promising effects in non-metabolic (metabolic disorders) after repurposing in cell and tissue models. Future investigations will need to identify which candidate drugs may leave the pipeline status to acquire approval for new indications. PMID:24059459

  1. Trust Issues with Multiple Personality Clients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finch, Jessie E.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses development of trust in a counselor and the therapy process by multiple personality disordered (MPD) clients. Offers list of trust statements effective in engendering trust of MPD client toward counselor. (CM)

  2. Rigorous Dyson equation and quasi-separable T-scattering operator technique for study of magnetic response from ordered and disordered non-magnetic particles' ensembles at electromagnetic wave multiple scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barabanenkov, Yurii N.; Barabanenkov, Mikhail Y.

    2013-05-01

    An exact Dyson equation for averaged over electromagnetic crystal unit cell propagating total wave electric field is derived, with supposing the incident wave electric field to have the Floquet property. The mass operator related to periodic structure effective tensor dielectric permittivity is written as double Fourier transform from electric field Tscattering operator of the structure unit cell. The Lippmann-Swinger equation for the unit cell T-scattering operator, written in terms of the unit cell T-scattering operator in free space and the electric field lattice tensor Green function interaction part, is resolved by quasi-separable method. This recently presented quasi-separable approach to unit cell Tscattering operator enables one to consider unit cell containing several particles, with coupling between them directly inside the cell as well as through the structure via above lattice Green function interaction part. The obtained quasiseparable unit cell T-scattering operator is applied to study double diamagnetic-paramagnetic narrow peak in artificial periodical material with unit cell including the coupled plasmonic particles. Actually this magnetic phenomenon is appeared as combination result of space-group resonance between two small dielectric spheres and plasmonic resonance inside a single sphere. Studying the magnetic response of disordered media, we use Dyson self-consistent exact equation for ensemble averaged wave electric field inside dense discrete random media, with a random mass operator having been put under averaging sign. The random mass operator was written in terms of particles' correlations functions of all orders and particles' clusters' T-scattering operators. We discuss comparison between the unit cell T-scattering operator of periodic discrete structure and a cluster T-scattering operator of random discrete structure and consider the above double diamagnetic-paramagnetic peak also in random discrete structure of coupled small plasmonic dielectric spherical particles.

  3. Ejaculatory Disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris G. McMahon

    Ejaculatory dysfunction, especially premature ejaculation (PE), is a common male sexual disorder. Most epidemiological studies\\u000a on the prevalence of PE are limited by their reliance on diagnosis by patient self-report. Recently reported normative intravaginal\\u000a ejaculatory latency time data have expanded our understanding of this condition. Although there is insufficient empirical\\u000a evidence to identify the etiology of PE, there is limited

  4. Multiplication Rocks!!!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Peake

    2009-04-15

    Let's practice what we've learned about multiplication. Play at least one game in each of the categories. Times Table Practice: Design the Ultimate Fashion Outfit with Math Models Blast the Meteors before they destroy the ship in Meteor Multiplication More Multiplication: Batter's Up in Baseball Multiplication Win $1,000,000 in Who Wants To Be A Millionaire? ...

  5. Multiplication World

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Crawford

    2007-10-25

    We will use the following games to practice and sharpen our multiplication skills. First, lets use Sum Sense Multiplication to sharpen our skills. Next we will engage in Memory Madness for Multiplication. I have a question for the class now... is this Too much multiplication to guess?. ...

  6. Multiplication Maddness!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Morgan

    2008-04-03

    Review your multiplication skills with these fun and exciting games! To excercise your brain, start with a review of your multiplication facts with Matching Multiplication! Step up to the plate and use your best swing! It\\'s time to play Batter s Up Baseball! Battle through the multiplication problems to save the princess. Begin your journey of Castle Quest! ...

  7. Social Experience-Dependent Myelination: An Implication for Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Toritsuka, Michihiro; Kishimoto, Toshifumi

    2015-01-01

    Myelination is one of the strategies to promote the conduction velocity of axons in order to adjust to evolving environment in vertebrates. It has been shown that myelin formation depends on genetic programing and experience, including multiple factors, intracellular and extracellular molecules, and neuronal activities. Recently, accumulating studies have shown that myelination in the central nervous system changes more dynamically in response to neuronal activities and experience than expected. Among experiences, social experience-dependent myelination draws attention as one of the critical pathobiologies of psychiatric disorders. In this review, we summarize the mechanisms of neuronal activity-dependent and social experience-dependent myelination and discuss the contribution of social experience-dependent myelination to the pathology of psychiatric disorders.

  8. Superfluid Transport Through Random Disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hulet, Randall

    2009-05-01

    Disorder plays an important role in the transport of particles in a variety of contexts, including electronic materials, granular superconductors, and liquid helium in porous media. We use optical speckle to create a disordered potential, and explore its effect on a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) of ^7Li. The BEC presents a highly idealized environment, where most of the relevant parameters, such as the disorder strength and length scale, the interparticle interaction strength, and even the particle velocity may be precisely controlled. We have shown that the scattering length in ^7Li can be controlled over a range of nearly 7 decades by using a Feshbach resonance with a shallow zero-crossing [S. E. Pollack et al., arXiv:0811.4456]. Of particular interest is the regime of Anderson localization where very weak interactions produce a condensate healing length that is comparable to the disorder length scale. We investigate superfluid transport by exciting dipole oscillations of the condensate through sudden displacement of the harmonic trapping potential. Weak disorder damps the dipole oscillations at a rate dependent upon disorder strength, initial velocity, and atomic interactions. We find a universal behavior in which the damping rate varies with disorder strength scaled to condensate chemical potential, and velocity scaled by the Landau critical velocity. We also study localization by suddenly removing the axial confining potential, allowing the condensate to freely expand in one-dimension in the presence of disorder.

  9. Stacking disorder in ice I.

    PubMed

    Malkin, Tamsin L; Murray, Benjamin J; Salzmann, Christoph G; Molinero, Valeria; Pickering, Steven J; Whale, Thomas F

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, ice I was considered to exist in two well-defined crystalline forms at ambient pressure: stable hexagonal ice (ice Ih) and metastable cubic ice (ice Ic). However, it is becoming increasingly evident that what has been called cubic ice in the past does not have a structure consistent with the cubic crystal system. Instead, it is a stacking-disordered material containing cubic sequences interlaced with hexagonal sequences, which is termed stacking-disordered ice (ice Isd). In this article, we summarise previous work on ice with stacking disorder including ice that was called cubic ice in the past. We also present new experimental data which shows that ice which crystallises after heterogeneous nucleation in water droplets containing solid inclusions also contains stacking disorder even at freezing temperatures of around -15 °C. This supports the results from molecular simulations, that the structure of ice that crystallises initially from supercooled water is always stacking-disordered and that this metastable ice can transform to the stable hexagonal phase subject to the kinetics of recrystallization. We also show that stacking disorder in ice which forms from water droplets is quantitatively distinct from ice made via other routes. The emerging picture of ice I is that of a very complex material which frequently contains stacking disorder and this stacking disorder can vary in complexity depending on the route of formation and thermal history. PMID:25380218

  10. Dissociative identity disorder: Medicolegal challenges.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Helen M

    2011-01-01

    Persons with dissociative identity disorder (DID) often present in the criminal justice system rather than the mental health system and perplex experts in both professions. DID is a controversial diagnosis with important medicolegal implications. Defendants have claimed that they committed serious crimes, including rape or murder, while they were in a dissociated state. Asserting that their alter personality committed the bad act, defendants have pleaded not guilty by reason of insanity (NGRI). In such instances, forensic experts are asked to assess the defendant for DID and provide testimony in court. Debate continues over whether DID truly exists, whether expert testimony should be allowed into evidence, and whether it should exculpate defendants for their criminal acts. This article reviews historical and theoretical perspectives on DID, presents cases that illustrate the legal implications and controversies of raising an insanity defense based on multiple personalities, and examines the role of forensic experts asked to comment on DID with the goal of assisting clinicians in the medicolegal assessment of DID in relation to crimes. PMID:21908758

  11. Phytoestrogens and Cardiovascular Disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ricky Y. K. Man; Susan W. S. Leung; Hwee Teoh; Adrian Quan; Wendy Keung; Mary Y. K. Lee

    \\u000a Dietary intake of phytoestrogens has been associated with a reduction in risk of cardiovascular disorders including coronary\\u000a heart disease, hypertension and atherosclerosis. Phytoestrogens have long been found to be structurally similar to the female\\u000a sex hormone, 17ß-estradiol, and have a wide range of estrogenic effects. Like 17ß-estradiol, phytoestrogens such as genistein\\u000a have been suggested to exert its cardioprotective actions through

  12. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: What an Educator Needs to Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaturvedi, Amrita; Murdick, Nikki L.; Gartin, Barbara C.

    2014-01-01

    The presence of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) impairs social, emotional and academic functioning. Individuals with OCD may have co-morbid disorders including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, depression, oppositional defiant disorder, or Tourette syndrome. Challenges occur when students with OCD become a part of the general education…

  13. Topical Review: Molecular and Neurologic Findings of Peroxisome Biogenesis Disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nobuyuki Shimozawa; Tomoko Nagase; Yasuhiko Takemoto; Michinori Funato; Naomi Kondo; Yasuyuki Suzuki

    2004-01-01

    Peroxisomal disorders, an expanding group of genetic disorders in humans, can be grouped into three categories: peroxisome biogenesis disorders, single peroxisomal enzyme deficiencies, and contiguous gene syndrome. At present, 13 complementation groups of peroxisome biogenesis disorders and their responsible genes have been identified, including our newly identified group with a PEX14 defect. We describe neuronal abnormalities related to deficiencies in

  14. Topical Review: Molecular and Neurologic Findings of Peroxisome Biogenesis Disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nobuyuki Shimozawa; Tomoko Nagase; Yasuhiko Takemoto; Michinori Funato; Naomi Kondo; Yasuyuki Suzuki

    2005-01-01

    Peroxisomal disorders, an expanding group of genetic disorders in humans, can be grouped into three categories: peroxisome biogenesis disorders, single peroxisomal enzyme deficiencies, and contiguous gene syndrome. At present, 13 complementation groups of peroxisome biogenesis disorders and their responsible genes have been identified, including our newly identified group with a PEX14 defect. We describe neuronal abnormalities related to deficiencies in

  15. [Are eating disorders addictions?].

    PubMed

    Kinzl, Johann F; Biebl, Wilfried

    2010-01-01

    The various eating disorders, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder, are characterized by severe disturbances in eating behavior and are seen as typical "psychosomatic disorders". The subdivision of anorexia nervosa into two subtypes, namely "anorexia nervosa restricting type" and "anorexia nervosa bulimic type" has proved to be very good. It is to be assumed that eating disorders are not a homogeneous group, and that the various subtypes of eating disorders are also heterogeneous at several levels. Co-morbid psychiatric disorders, especially affective disorders, anxiety disorders, substance-related disorders, and personality disorders, are often found in eating- disordered patients. Many anorectics of the restrictive type and orthorectics show co-morbid psychiatric disorders such as anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorders, and avoidant or obsessive-compulsive personality disorders, while a co-morbidity of affective disorders, addiction, personality disorders, especially multi-impulsivity and borderline personality disorder, is frequently found in anorectics of bulimic type, bulimics, and binge eaters. Addictive behavior manifests itself in permanent preoccupation with food and eating, withdrawal symptoms, continuation of disturbed eating behavior in spite of negative consequences, loss of control, and frequent relapse. There are some indications that there is a basic psychological disturbance common to eating disorders, especially bulimia nervosa, and to substance-related disorders, namely a personality disorder with an emotional instability and multi-impulsivity. The possible associations between eating disorders and mental disorders, particularly addictions, will be discussed. PMID:20926059

  16. Brain structure-function associations in multi-generational families genetically enriched for bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Fears, Scott C; Schür, Remmelt; Sjouwerman, Rachel; Service, Susan K; Araya, Carmen; Araya, Xinia; Bejarano, Julio; Knowles, Emma; Gomez-Makhinson, Juliana; Lopez, Maria C; Aldana, Ileana; Teshiba, Terri M; Abaryan, Zvart; Al-Sharif, Noor B; Navarro, Linda; Tishler, Todd A; Altshuler, Lori; Bartzokis, George; Escobar, Javier I; Glahn, David C; Thompson, Paul M; Lopez-Jaramillo, Carlos; Macaya, Gabriel; Molina, Julio; Reus, Victor I; Sabatti, Chiara; Cantor, Rita M; Freimer, Nelson B; Bearden, Carrie E

    2015-07-01

    Recent theories regarding the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder suggest contributions of both neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative processes. While structural neuroimaging studies indicate disease-associated neuroanatomical alterations, the behavioural correlates of these alterations have not been well characterized. Here, we investigated multi-generational families genetically enriched for bipolar disorder to: (i) characterize neurobehavioural correlates of neuroanatomical measures implicated in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder; (ii) identify brain-behaviour associations that differ between diagnostic groups; (iii) identify neurocognitive traits that show evidence of accelerated ageing specifically in subjects with bipolar disorder; and (iv) identify brain-behaviour correlations that differ across the age span. Structural neuroimages and multi-dimensional assessments of temperament and neurocognition were acquired from 527 (153 bipolar disorder and 374 non-bipolar disorder) adults aged 18-87 years in 26 families with heavy genetic loading for bipolar disorder. We used linear regression models to identify significant brain-behaviour associations and test whether brain-behaviour relationships differed: (i) between diagnostic groups; and (ii) as a function of age. We found that total cortical and ventricular volume had the greatest number of significant behavioural associations, and included correlations with measures from multiple cognitive domains, particularly declarative and working memory and executive function. Cortical thickness measures, in contrast, showed more specific associations with declarative memory, letter fluency and processing speed tasks. While the majority of brain-behaviour relationships were similar across diagnostic groups, increased cortical thickness in ventrolateral prefrontal and parietal cortical regions was associated with better declarative memory only in bipolar disorder subjects, and not in non-bipolar disorder family members. Additionally, while age had a relatively strong impact on all neurocognitive traits, the effects of age on cognition did not differ between diagnostic groups. Most brain-behaviour associations were also similar across the age range, with the exception of cortical and ventricular volume and lingual gyrus thickness, which showed weak correlations with verbal fluency and inhibitory control at younger ages that increased in magnitude in older subjects, regardless of diagnosis. Findings indicate that neuroanatomical traits potentially impacted by bipolar disorder are significantly associated with multiple neurobehavioural domains. Structure-function relationships are generally preserved across diagnostic groups, with the notable exception of ventrolateral prefrontal and parietal association cortex, volumetric increases in which may be associated with cognitive resilience specifically in individuals with bipolar disorder. Although age impacted all neurobehavioural traits, we did not find any evidence of accelerated cognitive decline specific to bipolar disorder subjects. Regardless of diagnosis, greater global brain volume may represent a protective factor for the effects of ageing on executive functioning. PMID:25943422

  17. Multicomponent Behavioral Treatment for Chronic Combat-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Trauma Management Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Samuel M.; Beidel, Deborah C.; Frueh, B. Christopher

    2005-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a severe and chronic mental disorder that is highly prevalent within Veterans Affairs (VA) Medical Centers. A severe psychiatric disorder, combat-related PTSD is typically accompanied by multiple comorbid psychiatric disorders, symptom chronicity, and extreme social maladjustment. Thus, PTSD is a complex…

  18. Medications for Substance Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Douaihy, Antoine B.; Kelly, Thomas M.; Sullivan, Carl

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the authors briefly review the pharmacotherapeutic agents that are currently available for the treatment of substance use disorders. Nicotine replacement therapies are most effective for tobacco cessation. Naltrexone, acamprosate, and disulfiram are effective for reducing alcohol use. The most effective pharmacotherapies for opiate use disorders are agonist therapies, including methadone and buprenorphine. The authors also examine recent advances in medication development for other substance use disorders such as stimulant addiction. The role of medication adherence and behavioral treatments and the integration of behavioral and pharmacotherapeutic interventions are also discussed. PMID:23731419

  19. Multiple Linear Regression

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lacey, Michelle

    This site, created by Michelle Lacey of Yale University, gives an explanation, a definition and an example of multiple linear regression. Topics include: confidence intervals, tests of significance, and squared multiple correlation. While brief, this is still a valuable site for anyone interested in statistics.

  20. Include folders ! Classic black

    E-print Network

    Include folders ! Classic black folders. Perfect to display photos, present photos as a gift indicate your package selection(s) below. Send check/money order (outside the US International Money Order% Money Back Guarantee on Photographs How To Order: Sales Tax: Photos mailed to MA 6.25%, to CT 6