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1

Dimensions of Multiple Personality Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on multiple personality disorder (MPD) has burgeoned, and large-scale investigations indicate that a typical MPD patient is a woman, a victim of childhood abuse (especially sexual abuse), a person whose symptoms meet criteria for other psychiatric disorders, and a person who would employ many psychological defenses. Treatment approaches have frequently included hypnotherapy, which requires skill and caution.

John B. Murray

1994-01-01

2

Hypnotherapy of Childhood Multiple Personality Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although it is widely assumed that multiple personality disorder (MPD) originates in childhood and may exist in some form prior to adolescence, cases of MPD among children were not reported between 1840 and 1979. In this paper five contemporary cases of MPD in childhood are described. In all of these cases hypnosis was used, including that of a youngster who

Richard P. Kluft

1985-01-01

3

Emotional Disorders in People with Multiple Sclerosis  

MedlinePLUS

... and their FAMILIES EMOTIONAL DISORDERS IN PEOPLE WITH MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS This fact sheet presents the current research on ... American Association of Neuroscience Nurses, the Consortium of Multiple Sclerosis Centers, and the International Organization of Multiple Sclerosis ...

4

Anal Disorders - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... enable JavaScript. Anal Disorders - Multiple Languages Arabic (???????) French (français) Hindi (??????) Japanese (???) Korean (???) ... ???????? ??? ?????? - ??????? Bilingual Health Information Translations French (français) Barium Enema Lavement baryté - français (French) Bilingual ...

5

ON THE MISDIAGNOSIS OF MULTIPLE PERSONALITY DISORDER  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many mental health settings, there has been an increasingaware- ness that multiple personality disorder (MPD) is far from rare. However, along with this awareness has come an increased incidence of the misdiagnosis of IPD. The misdiagnosis of AIPJ) (i.e., false positive diagnosis of MIPD) has been seen in three forms: other dissociative disorders, non-dissociative disorders, and malingering err factitious

James A. Chu

6

Multiple presentation of mitochondrial disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to assess the heterogeneous clinical presentations of children with mitochondrial disorders evaluated at a metabolic neurogenetic clinic. The charts of 36 children with highly suspected mitochondrial disorders were reviewed. Thirty one children were diagnosed as having a mitochondrial disorder, based on a suggestive clinical presentation and at least one of the accepted laboratory criteria;

Andreea Nissenkorn; Avraham Zeharia; Dorit Lev; Aviva Fatal-Valevski; Varda Barash; Alisa Gutman; Shaul Harel; Tally Lerman-Sagie

1999-01-01

7

Should addictive disorders include non-substance-related conditions?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims In anticipation of the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V), to consider whether addictive disorders should include non-substance use disorders. Methods The author reviewed data and provided perspective to explore whether disorders such as pathological gambling (PG) should be grouped together with substance dependence, given that they share many features. Results PG and

Marc N. Potenza

2006-01-01

8

Relationship of Childhood Sexual Abuse to Borderline Personality Disorder, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Multiple Personality Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, I have reviewed recent research into the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and borderline personality disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and multiple personality disorder. Evidence that such a relationship exists appears convincing.

John B. Murray

1993-01-01

9

Degenerative Joint Disorders, Including Condensing Osteitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Degenerative disorders of the SCJ are commonly present radiographically but produce symptoms less frequently. When they do\\u000a the presence of local swelling, tenderness and an abnormal radiograph can give rise to concern. In these patients MRI or CT\\u000a should be used to exclude malignant or infective conditions while simultaneously differentiating the various degenerative\\u000a processes.

Stephen P. Harden; Richard M. Blaquiere

10

Multiple Identity Enactments and Multiple Personality Disorder: A Sociocognitive Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

People who enact multiple identities behave as if they possess 2 or more selves, each with its own characteristic moods, memories, and behavioral repertoire. Under different names, this phenomenon occurs in many cultures: in North American culture, it is frequently labeled multiple personality disorder (MPD). This article reviews experimental, cross-cultural, historical, and clinical findings concerning multiplicity and examines the implications

Nicholas P. Spanos

1994-01-01

11

Similarities between near-death experiences and multiple personality disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper I compare the phenomenology of near-death experiences to that of multiple personality disorder. The comparison reveals a number of similarities, including out-of-body experiences, the transcendental environment, encounter with the higher self, possible temporal lobe involvement, and antecedent child abuse. Rather than being disparate and unrelated experiences, I suggest that the near-death experience and multiple personality disorder may

William J. Serdahely

1992-01-01

12

Joint Disorders - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... JavaScript. Joint Disorders - Multiple Languages Arabic (???????) Bosnian (Bosanski) Chinese - Simplified (????) Chinese - Traditional (????) French (français) ... ??????? - ??????? Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Bosnian (Bosanski) Home Care After Total Joint Replacement Ku?na njega ...

13

Multiple Object Tracking in Autism Spectrum Disorders  

E-print Network

Difficulties in visual attention are often implicated in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) but it remains unclear which aspects of attention are affected. Here, we used a multiple object tracking (MOT) task to quantitatively ...

Koldewyn, Kami

14

Stomach Disorders - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Stomach Disorders - Multiple Languages Arabic (???????) Chinese - Simplified (????) Chinese - ... Chinese - Simplified (????) Principles of Nutritional Care for Gastritis and/or Ulcer English ???????? - ???? (Chinese - Simplified) ...

15

Hearing disorders in multiple sclerosis.  

PubMed

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease that is both a focal inflammatory and a chronic neurodegenerative disease. The focal inflammatory component is characterized by destruction of central nervous system myelin, including the spinal cord; as such it can impair any central neural system, including the auditory system. While on the one hand auditory complaints in MS patients are rare compared to other senses, such as vision and proprioception, on the other hand auditory tests of precise neural timing are never "silent." Whenever focal MS lesions are detected involving the pontine auditory pathway, auditory tests requiring precise neural timing are always abnormal, while auditory functions not requiring such precise timing are often normal. Azimuth sound localization is accomplished by comparing the timing and loudness of the sound at the two ears. Hence tests of azimuth sound localization must obligatorily involve the central nervous system and particularly the brainstem. Whenever a focal lesion was localized to the pontine auditory pathway, timing tests were always abnormal, but loudness tests were not. Moreover, a timing test that included only high-frequency sounds was very often abnormal, even when there was no detectable focal MS lesion involving the pontine auditory pathway. This test may be a marker for the chronic neurodegenerative aspect of MS, and, as such could be used to complement the magnetic resonance imaging scan in monitoring the neurodegenerative aspect of MS. Studies of MS brainstem lesion location and auditory function have led to advances in understanding how the human brain processes sound. The brain processes binaural sounds independently for time and level in a two-stage process. The first stage is at the level of the superior olivary complex (SOC) and the second at a level rostral to the SOC. PMID:25726295

Furst, Miriam; Levine, Robert A

2015-01-01

16

PERSONS WITH MULTIPLE PERSONALITY DISORDER  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past, Internal Self 1lelpers (ISM) of persons with multiple personality rlisorrler OWPI)) have been deseriberl by rr )7mill Humber of therapists. ii is .studV Iwo\\/ens the base ala I inaton relating to ISHs. Forty respondents who collectively had been therapists fur-rr totrtl of 690 i11P1) patients participated in the snarly. 77re findings of this study suti g ges

M. Ann Adams; Ann Adams; M. N. Sc

1989-01-01

17

Multiple Object Tracking in Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Difficulties in visual attention are often implicated in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) but it remains unclear which aspects of attention are affected. Here, we used a multiple object tracking (MOT) task to quantitatively characterize dynamic attentional function in children with ASD aged 5-12. While the ASD group performed significantly worse…

Koldewyn, Kami; Weigelt, Sarah; Kanwisher, Nancy; Jiang, Yuhong

2013-01-01

18

PLAY THERAPY WITH MULTIPLE PERSONALITY DISORDER CLIENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of play therapy with child alters of adults who have multiple personality disorders is explored. Various approaches to play therapy that are used with children may also be effectively used with child alters. Play may be used to help sublimate expressions of anger, recover dissociated memories, and increase communication and cooperation among alter personalities. Play therapy offers distinct

Jeffrey Wm. Klein; Garry L. Landreth

1993-01-01

19

Professional Skepticism of Multiple Personality Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

If you saw a patient who appeared to have more than one personality, what diagnosis would you make? And how would you vary your clinical approach? Data from 425 respondents indicated that the majority of psychologists believed multiple personality disorder (MPD) to be a valid but rare clinical diagnosis. Respondents cited extreme child abuse as the foremost cause of MPD.

Jane F. Cormier; Mark H. Thelen

1998-01-01

20

THE RATIONAL TREATMENT OF MULTIPLE PERSONALITY DISORDER  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complex symptomatology of patients who have survived profound childhood abuse, particularly the severe dissociative and post-traumatic symptoms of patients with multiple personality disorder (MPD), may predispose therapists to engage in poorly considered psychotherapeutic practices. Therapists should be careful to keep a rational clinical perspective, and not to be distracted by patients’ unusual and dramatic clinical presentation. This article discusses

JAMES A. CHU

1994-01-01

21

Multiple Personality Disorder: Concepts and Cases.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents two case examples illustrating nature and etiology of multiple personality disorder in two clients and describing their entry into counseling and progress through treatment. Compares and contrasts cases in areas of diagnosis, symptoms, history, and treatment. Suggests that mental health counselors combine firmness with flexibility in…

Lindsley, Hope L.

1992-01-01

22

Unusual Cases of Multiple Symmetrical Lipomatosis with Neurological Disorders  

PubMed Central

Multiple symmetrical lipomatosis (MSL) is a rare disorder of unknown etiology defined as the presence of multiple and symmetrical fatty accumulations, usually involving the upper trunk, neck and head. Frequently associated findings include diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, liver disease, hypothyroidism and polyneuropathy of unknown origin, but nevertheless, there are published reports of cognitive disorders in patients with MSL. We describe two unusual cases (38-year-old and 45-year-old Greek men) of MSL who presented with polyneuropathy and memory disorders. This is the first description of memory disorders in patients with MSL. We propose that Mini-Mental State Examination and assessment of cognitive functions should be performed for all patients with MSL. The underlying mechanism in our patients remains unknown, and this question should be the subject of a future study. PMID:20048140

Triantafyllou, Nikolaos I.; Zalonis, Ioannis; Kararizos, Grigoris; Gkiatas, Konstantinos; Christidi, Fotini; Kararizou, Evangelia

2009-01-01

23

The Psychophysiological Investigation of Multiple Personality Disorder: Review and Update  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1984 Putnam reviewed the literature on the psychophysiological investigation of multiple personality disorder (MPD). Since his review, a large number of studies have been conducted and reported in the literature and at professional conferences. Currently, psychophysiologic differences reported in the literature include changes in cerebral electrical activity, cerebral blood flow, galvanic skin response, skin temperature, event-related potentials, neuroendocrine profiles,

Scott D. Miller; Patrick J. Triggiano

1992-01-01

24

Central ocular motor disorders, including gaze palsy and nystagmus.  

PubMed

An impairment of eye movements, or nystagmus, is seen in many diseases of the central nervous system, in particular those affecting the brainstem and cerebellum, as well as in those of the vestibular system. The key to diagnosis is a systematic clinical examination of the different types of eye movements, including: eye position, range of eye movements, smooth pursuit, saccades, gaze-holding function and optokinetic nystagmus, as well as testing for the different types of nystagmus (e.g., central fixation nystagmus or peripheral vestibular nystagmus). Depending on the time course of the signs and symptoms, eye movements often indicate a specific underlying cause (e.g., stroke or neurodegenerative or metabolic disorders). A detailed knowledge of the anatomy and physiology of eye movements enables the physician to localize the disturbance to a specific area in the brainstem (midbrain, pons or medulla) or cerebellum (in particular the flocculus). For example, isolated dysfunction of vertical eye movements is due to a midbrain lesion affecting the rostral interstitial nucleus of the medial longitudinal fascicle, with impaired vertical saccades only, the interstitial nucleus of Cajal or the posterior commissure; common causes with an acute onset are an infarction or bleeding in the upper midbrain or in patients with chronic progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and Niemann-Pick type C (NP-C). Isolated dysfunction of horizontal saccades is due to a pontine lesion affecting the paramedian pontine reticular formation due, for instance, to brainstem bleeding, glioma or Gaucher disease type 3; an impairment of horizontal and vertical saccades is found in later stages of PSP, NP-C and Gaucher disease type 3. Gaze-evoked nystagmus (GEN) in all directions indicates a cerebellar dysfunction and can have multiple causes such as drugs, in particular antiepileptics, chronic alcohol abuse, neurodegenerative cerebellar disorders or cerebellar ataxias; purely vertical GEN is due to a midbrain lesion, while purely horizontal GEN is due to a pontomedullary lesion. The pathognomonic clinical sign of internuclear ophthalmoplegia is an impaired adduction while testing horizontal saccades on the side of the lesion in the ipsilateral medial longitudinal fascicule. The most common pathological types of central nystagmus are downbeat nystagmus (DBN) and upbeat nystagmus (UBN). DBN is generally due to cerebellar dysfunction affecting the flocculus bilaterally (e.g., due to a neurodegenerative disease). Treatment options exist for a few disorders: miglustat for NP-C and aminopyridines for DBN and UBN. It is therefore particularly important to identify treatable cases with these conditions. PMID:25145891

Strupp, M; Kremmyda, O; Adamczyk, C; Böttcher, N; Muth, C; Yip, C W; Bremova, T

2014-09-01

25

Sleep disorders in multiple sclerosis. Review.  

PubMed

Sleep disorders are common in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and play a crucial role in health and quality of life; however, they are often overlooked. The most important sleep disorders in this context are as follows: insomnia, restless legs syndrome, periodic limb movement disorders, and sleep-related breathing disorders (SRBD). It is unclear if MS-related processes (lesions, brain atrophy) can cause symptomatic forms of sleep apnea. MS-related narcolepsy-like symptoms are described in the literature and, in some cases, have resolved with methylprednisolone pulse therapy. Similarly, REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is very rare in MS, but it can be an initial sign of MS where cortisone therapy may be helpful and can be taken into account in this specific context. Independent diagnosis and treatment is required for all of the abovementioned conditions. Treating physicians and neurologists should be aware of these comorbidities and initiate specific therapy. Highly fatigued or sleepy MS patients should have polysomnography in order not to overlook these diagnoses. PMID:25773000

Veauthier, Christian

2015-05-01

26

Multiple object tracking in autism spectrum disorders.  

PubMed

Difficulties in visual attention are often implicated in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) but it remains unclear which aspects of attention are affected. Here, we used a multiple object tracking (MOT) task to quantitatively characterize dynamic attentional function in children with ASD aged 5-12. While the ASD group performed significantly worse overall, the group difference did not increase with increased object speed. This finding suggests that decreased MOT performance is not due to deficits in dynamic attention but instead to a diminished capacity to select and maintain attention on multiple targets. Further, MOT performance improved from 5 to 10 years in both typical and ASD groups with similar developmental trajectories. These results argue against a specific deficit in dynamic attention in ASD. PMID:23104619

Koldewyn, Kami; Weigelt, Sarah; Kanwisher, Nancy; Jiang, Yuhong

2013-06-01

27

Multiple Object Tracking in Autism Spectrum Disorders  

PubMed Central

Difficulties in visual attention are often implicated in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) but it remains unclear which aspects of attention are affected. Here, we used a multiple object tracking (MOT) task to quantitatively characterize dynamic attentional function in children with ASD aged 5–12. While the ASD group performed significantly worse overall, the group difference did not increase with increased object speed. This finding suggests that decreased MOT performance is not due to deficits in dynamic attention but instead to a diminished capacity to select and maintain attention on multiple targets. Further, MOT performance improved from 5–10 years in both typical and ASD groups with similar developmental trajectories. These results argue against a specific deficit in dynamic attention in ASD. PMID:23104619

Koldewyn, Kami; Weigelt, Sarah; Kanwisher, Nancy; Jiang, Yuhong

2012-01-01

28

Ankle Injuries and Disorders - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... Disorders - Multiple Languages Arabic (???????) Chinese - Traditional (????) French (français) Japanese (???) Korean (???) Russian (???????) Somali ( ... ???? (Chinese - Traditional) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations French (français) Ankle Exercises Exercices pour la cheville - français ( ...

29

Pharmacotherapy of vestibular and ocular motor disorders, including nystagmus.  

PubMed

We review current pharmacological treatments for peripheral and central vestibular disorders, and ocular motor disorders that impair vision, especially pathological nystagmus. The prerequisites for successful pharmacotherapy of vertigo, dizziness, and abnormal eye movements are the "4 D's": correct diagnosis, correct drug, appropriate dosage, and sufficient duration. There are seven groups of drugs (the "7 A's") that can be used: antiemetics; anti-inflammatory, anti-Ménière's, and anti-migrainous medications; anti-depressants, anti-convulsants, and aminopyridines. A recovery from acute vestibular neuritis can be promoted by treatment with oral corticosteroids. Betahistine may reduce the frequency of attacks of Ménière's disease. The aminopyridines constitute a novel treatment approach for downbeat and upbeat nystagmus, as well as episodic ataxia type 2 (EA 2); these drugs may restore normal "pacemaker" activity to the Purkinje cells that govern vestibular and cerebellar nuclei. A limited number of trials indicate that baclofen improves periodic alternating nystagmus, and that gabapentin and memantine improve acquired pendular and infantile (congenital) nystagmus. Preliminary reports suggest suppression of square-wave saccadic intrusions by memantine, and ocular flutter by beta-blockers. Thus, although progress has been made in the treatment of vestibular neuritis, some forms of pathological nystagmus, and EA 2, controlled, masked trials are still needed to evaluate treatments for many vestibular and ocular motor disorders, including betahistine for Ménière's disease, oxcarbazepine for vestibular paroxysmia, or metoprolol for vestibular migraine. PMID:21461686

Strupp, Michael; Thurtell, Matthew J; Shaikh, Aasef G; Brandt, Thomas; Zee, David S; Leigh, R John

2011-07-01

30

The Underdiagnosis of Sleep Disorders in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: To report at a population level the prevalence of restless legs syndrome, insomnia, and the risk of obstructive sleep apnea in multiple sclerosis patients. Sleep patterns and associations with fatigue and daytime sleepiness were identified. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed using a written survey that was mailed to 11,400 individuals from the Northern California Chapter of the National Multiple Sclerosis (MS) Society Database who self-identified as having MS. The survey included individual questions relating to demographics as well as several standard validated questionnaires related to primary sleep disorders, sleepiness, fatigue severity, and sleep patterns. Results: Among the 11,400 surveys mailed out, 2,810 (24.6%) were returned. Of these, 2,375 (84.5%) met the inclusion criteria. Among the completed surveys, 898 (37.8%) screened positive for obstructive sleep apnea, 746 (31.6%) for moderate to severe insomnia, and 866 (36.8%) for restless legs syndrome. In contrast, only 4%, 11%, and 12% of the cohort reported being diagnosed by a health care provider with obstructive sleep apnea, insomnia, and restless legs syndrome, respectively. Excessive daytime sleepiness was noted in 30% of respondents based on the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. More than 60% of the respondents reported an abnormal level of fatigue based on the Fatigue Severity Scale. Both abnormal fatigue and sleepiness scores were associated with screening positive for obstructive sleep apnea, insomnia, and restless legs syndrome. Conclusion: A significant percentage of MS subjects in our sample screened positive for one or more sleep disorders. The vast majority of these sleep disorders were undiagnosed. Greater attention to sleep problems in this population is warranted, especially in view of fatigue being the most common and disabling symptom of MS. Citation: Brass SD, Li CS, Auerbach S. The underdiagnosis of sleep disorders in patients with multiple sclerosis. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(9):1025-1031. PMID:25142763

Brass, Steven D.; Li, Chin-Shang; Auerbach, Sanford

2014-01-01

31

An additional monogenic disorder that masquerades as multiple sclerosis  

SciTech Connect

In their comprehensive differential diagnosis of monogenic diseases that can mimic multiple sclerosis, Natowicz and Bejjani did not include a newly recognized monogenic disorder known under the acronym of CADASIL (Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy); this disorder can mimic MS clinically and radiologically to a remarkable extent. The underlying histopathological lesion of CADASIL is a non-atherosclerotic, non-amyloid arteriopathy affecting mainly the penetrating medullary arteries to the subcortical white matter and basal ganglia. Electron microscopy shows an abnormal deposit of granular osmiophilic material in the arterial wall. These arterial changes are observed in various tissues even though clinical manifestations seem to be restricted to the central nervous system. The CADASIL gene was mapped recently to chromosome 19 and gene identification is ongoing. 6 refs., 1 fig.

Vahedi, K.; Tournier-Lasserve, E. [INSERM, Paris (France)] [INSERM, Paris (France); Vahedi, K. [Hopital Saint-Antoine, Paris (France)] [and others] [Hopital Saint-Antoine, Paris (France); and others

1996-11-11

32

The criminal responsibility of people with multiple personality disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because multiple personality disorder (MPD) is more frequently diagnosed today than in the past, it is likely that more multiples will plead insanity. The courts are in a state of disarray as to how best to respond to these pleas. This article considers multiples' responsibility on three interpretations of the status of their alters: that they are different people; that

Elyn R. Saks

1995-01-01

33

From Multiple Personality Disorder to Dissociative Identity Disorder: A Clinical Overview of Diagnostic and Treatment Considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article seeks to enlighten readers about the myriad of clinical issues surrounding the diagnosis of Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD) currently known as Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID). In addition to providing a literature review of the historical development of this complex diagnostic category, it summarizes the etiology and prevalence of the seemingly illusive disorder. Finally, the dichotomy of symptoms, heterogeneity

Karen E. Hart; William Allan Kritsonis

34

Methylphenidate and Comorbid Anxiety Disorder in Children with both Chronic Multiple Tic Disorder and ADHD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To determine if comorbid anxiety disorder is associated with differential response to immediate release methylphenidate (MPH-IR) in children with both ADHD and chronic multiple tic disorder (CMTD). Method: Children with (n = 17) and without (n = 37) diagnosed anxiety disorder (ANX) were evaluated in an 8-week, placebo-controlled trial…

Gadow, Kenneth D.; Nolan, Edith E.

2011-01-01

35

Immune-mediated extrapyramidal movement disorders, including Sydenham chorea.  

PubMed

Immune-mediated extrapyramidal movement disorders typically occur in previously healthy children. Immune-mediated movement disorders may occur as a postinfectious, paraneoplastic, or idiopathic process. Sydenham chorea (SC) is the classical poststreptococcal movement and psychiatric disorder, and may be associated with other features of rheumatic fever. The outcome is typically good, although residual chorea, psychiatric disturbance, and relapses are possible. Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS) is a syndrome of streptococcal-induced tics and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Although a number of investigators have reported an association between streptococcal infection and neuropsychiatric syndromes, the PANDAS hypothesis is controversial. Encephalitis lethargica is an encephalitic illness with parkinsonism, dyskinesias, and psychiatric disturbance as dominant features. The exact disease mechanism is not understood, although an autoimmune process is suspected. NMDA-R encephalitis is a new entity characterized by encephalitis with dramatic psychiatric disturbance, dyskinesias, cognitive alteration, and seizures. Patients have autoantibodies against the NMDA-R that appear to be pathogenic: immune therapies appear warranted to minimize disability. Movement disorders are also described associated with systemic lupus erythematosus and antiphospholipid syndrome. The differential diagnosis and investigation approach of acute-onset movement disorders are also discussed. PMID:23622334

Dale, Russell C

2013-01-01

36

Shoulder Injuries and Disorders - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... Shoulder Injuries and Disorders - Multiple Languages Arabic (???????) French (français) Russian (???????) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) ... Sling (Arabic) ??????? Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations French (français) Active Range of Motion Exercises: Wrists, Elbows, ...

37

Leg Injuries and Disorders - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... Leg Injuries and Disorders - Multiple Languages Arabic (???????) French (français) Russian (???????) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) ... Sitting (Arabic) ??????? Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations French (français) Active Leg Range of Motion Exercises: Lying ...

38

Arm Injuries and Disorders - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... Arm Injuries and Disorders - Multiple Languages Arabic (???????) French (français) Russian (???????) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) ... Sling (Arabic) ??????? Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations French (français) Active Range of Motion Exercises: Wrists, Elbows, ...

39

Multiple Complex Developmental Disorder Delineated from PDD-NOS  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this study was to identify behavioral differences between children with multiple complex developmental disorder (MCDD) and those with pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). Twenty-five children (6-12 years) with MCDD and 86 children with PDD-NOS were compared with respect to psychiatric co-morbidity,…

de Bruin, Esther I.; de Nijs, Pieter F. A.; Verheij, Fop; Hartman, Catharina A.; Ferdinand, Robert F.

2007-01-01

40

Multiple Personality Disorder: A New Challenge for Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews the recent literature on multiple personality disorder. Despite a significant increase in the number of publications on this topic during the past 10 years, it is noted that limited knowledge exists on issues such as prevalence rates, differential diagnosis, etiology, and treatment. Psychologists are encouraged to become actively involved in the study of this disorder, and specific

Gary E. Dunn

1992-01-01

41

The Making of Multiple Personality Disorder: A Social Constructionist View  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the social construction of multiple personality disorder by analyzing professional agreements about the nature of the diagnosis, while locating these within their historical and cultural context. First, a historical review of the disorder traces various overlapping streams of discourse that have shaped the construction of the diagnosis. This is followed by a cross-cultural comparison of MPD and

Lina Hartocollis

1998-01-01

42

Hypnosis for Multiple Personality Disorder: A Framework for Beginning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing clinical attention, new research data, media and professional exposure to multiple personality disorder (MPD) make it likely that an increasing number of clinicians will make positive diagnoses. Controversy about the diagnosis persists, and the relationship of hypnosis to the formation of the disorder and to its treatment continues to be a major issue. All of this is likely to

Richard Horevitz

1983-01-01

43

Swallowing Disorders - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... Multiple Languages Chinese - Simplified (????) Chinese - Traditional (????) French (français) Hindi (??????) Japanese (???) Korean (???) ... ???? (Chinese - Traditional) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations French (français) Barium Swallow Déglutition barytée - français (French) Bilingual ...

44

Outpatient Art Therapy with Multiple Personality Disorder: A Survey of Current Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports findings of a 1993 questionnaire completed by 46 North American art therapists that focuses on the outpatient treatment of multiple personality disorder. Includes information on role in diagnosing, fees and third-party payment, and therapeutic activities. Treatment issues include pacing and containment, and managing the client's chronic…

Mills, Anne

1995-01-01

45

The Proliferation of Categories for "New" Behavioral Disorders. The Struggle to Include the Handicapped.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes five disorders (attention deficit disorder, traumatic brain injury, fetal alcohol syndrome, prenatal substance abuse, and fragile X syndrome) that are part of a proliferation of categories of behavioral disorders, examining how special and general education might approach problems potentially inherent in the process of including students…

Forness, Steven R.; And Others

1995-01-01

46

Autobiographical Memory in a Case of Multiple Personality Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research on multiple personality disorder (MPD) has been concerned with between-personalities amnesia, and little attention has been paid to within-personality memory function. This study examined the autobiographical memory of a multiple personality patient, I.C., with cueing procedures that have proven useful in previous studies of normal and abnormal memory. Results indicated that I.C. was able to retrieve autobiographical episodes

Daniel L. Schacter; John F. Kihlstrom; Lucy Canter Kihlstrom; Michael B. Berren

1989-01-01

47

[Dispute over the multiple personality disorder: theoretical or practical dilemma?].  

PubMed

Dissociative identity disorder (DID) could also be referred to as multiple personality disorder (MPD). Due to rare occurrence and difficulty in its' identification it is infrequently diagnosed in Poland. The indicated disorder has been portrayed by the authors throughout the historical context, referring to initial 18th century's references concerning dissociation. A typical dissociatively disordered person has been characterized along with his individual personality categories such as: original personality, altered personality, host and personality fragment. Moreover various diagnosis criterions of DID have been introduced. DID has also been differentiated with other disorders: PTSD (post-traumatic stress disorder) and BPD (borderline personality disorder). A hypothesis has been set up, stating that DID is directly correlated with the trauma experienced during childhood, while PTSD is linked with traumatic lived-through events in the later period of ones' life. The most contemporary and frequently used research tools for DID have been indicated: dissociative experience scale (DES) and somatoform dissociation questionnaire (SDQ-20). Based upon the known literature, the authors have presented treatment methods such as hypnotherapy and recorded therapy sessions. It is the view of the authors that the switching in dissociative identity disorder is of adaptive character (it occurrs depending upon adaptive needs). PMID:17037099

Stankiewicz, Sylwia; Golczy?ska, Maria

2006-01-01

48

Indicators of Multiple Personality Disorder for the Clinician.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Multiple personality disorder (MPD) is now recognized as a valid diagnostic category. Occurrence may be higher than previously suspected. While physiological testing of MPD has shown significant differences between the various personalities of individuals in terms of galvanic skin response, electroencephalogram recordings, electrodermal response…

Dalton, Thomas W.

49

Rapidly evolving hypopituitarism in a boy with multiple autoimmune disorders.  

PubMed

A 10-year-old boy with acute onset cranial diabetes insipidus and multiple autoimmune disorders had evolving panhypopituitarism, thought to be due to autoimmune hypophysitis. Over 18 months, a dramatic clinical course with progressive hypopituitarism and development of type 1 diabetes mellitus was evident. Serial brain imaging showed changes suggestive of germinoma. PMID:23586429

Jevalikar, Ganesh; Wong, Sze Choong; Zacharin, Margaret

2013-09-01

50

Treatment Issues in a Case of Possible Multiple Personality Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amid controversy, the multiple personality disorder and other disturbances involving dissociation provide fertile soil for comparing competing views of psychopathology and treatment. In this article, I describe the treatment of a highly incapacitated patient who presented with severe dissociative symptom atology. The patient was seen in psychoanalytic psychotherapy. The case is discussed in terms of defense, transference, reconstruction, and the

Paul M. Lerner

1994-01-01

51

Field Trips in the Treatment of Multiple Personality Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The treatment of persons with Multiple Personality Disorder often requires innovation and flexibility. A technique is described in which, in certain special situations, a field trip is conducted outside the office and psychotherapy occurs there. A field trip is defined as the conjoint visit of a therapist and a client to a geographic location that has particular emotional significance to

Thomas G. Tudor

1990-01-01

52

Movement observations in multiple personality disorder: A preliminary report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dance\\/movement therapy, with movement as its unique theoretical and clinical framework, has the potential to contribute to the diagnosis, understanding, and treatment of Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD). The literature on MPD has increased significantly in the past 13 years. Dance\\/movement therapists working in psychiatric facilities are likely to encounter people who carry this diagnosis and, therefore, need to develop a

Estelle S. Kluft; Janis Poteat; Richard P. Kluft

1986-01-01

53

A More Unified View of the Multiple Personality Disorder.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers perspective of Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD) phenomenon based on current clinical experience. Asserts that the Jmind is polypsychic with multitude of psychological systems and processes existing in conjunction with one another, that MPD individuals have fragmented or dissociated ego states due to stress on unity of sense of self, and…

Kelley, Ronald L.; Kodman, Frank

1987-01-01

54

Multiple personality disorder: a clinical and cultural account  

Microsoft Academic Search

After a brief late-19th century epidemic of ‘double consciousness’, multiple personality disorder reappeared in the late 1970s following episodes of the sexual abuse of children. It has been associated with various putative phenomena such as ritual satanic abuse and UFOs. While there is empirical evidence that the separate personalities (‘alters’) have differential psychophysiological characteristics, dispute continues as to the ‘reality’

Roland Littlewood

2004-01-01

55

Satanism, Ritual Abuse, and Multiple Personality Disorder: A Sociohistorical Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past decade in North America, a growing number of mental health professionals have reported that between 25% and 50% of their patients in treatment for multiple personality disorder (MPD) have recovered early childhood traumatic memories of ritual torture, incestuous rape, sexual debauchery, sacrificial murder, infanticide, and cannibalism perpetrated by members of clandestine satanic cults. Although hundreds of local

Sherrill Mulhern

1994-01-01

56

Multiple Personality Disorder Manifesting Itself under the Mask of Transsexualism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The case of a young female patient is described who presented symptoms of transsexualism; surgical intervention was considered. Admitted to the hospital after having become depressed and suicidal, a thorough examination and observation revealed the presence of multiple personality disorder (MPD). Even though transsexualism and MPD represent two different conditions, there are many similarities between them. The possibility of MPD

J. Modestin; G. Ebner

1995-01-01

57

Effects of Hypnosis on the Features of Multiple Personality Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors compared 57 patients with multiple personality disorder (MPD) who had been hypnotized both before and after diagnosis to 38 patients who had not been hypnotized during assessment or treatment. The two groups did not differ on the diagnostic criteria for MPD or in number of personalities. Hypnosis therefore does not have a gross distorting effect on the features

Colin A. Ross; G. Ron Norton

1989-01-01

58

Mental Health Professionals' Skepticism About Multiple Personality Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three studies were conducted to investigate the nature of mental health professionals' skepticism regarding multiple personality disorder (MPD). An initial pilot study was conducted to develop a psychometrically sound survey instrument. In Study 2, the results of a national survey of 207 mental health professionals supported the hypothesis that skepticism and knowledge about MPD are inversely related, r = ?.33,

Jeffrey A. Hayes; Jeffrey C. Mitchell

1994-01-01

59

The Simulation and Dissimulation of Multiple Personality Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic consultants have been concerned with an increasing number of cases in which defendants are represented as suffering multiple personality disorder (MPD). This trend may continue and accelerate because 1) more clinicians recognize the condition; 2) a period of reactive overdiagnosis may occur subsequent to decades of underdiagnosis and misdiagnosis; and 3) opportunistic exploitation of MPD as a fraudulent defense

Richard P. Kluft

1987-01-01

60

On the incidence of multiple personality disorder: A brief communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstraet: Since reporting a case of multiple personality (Eve) over 25 years ago, we have seen many patients who were thought by others or themselves to have the disorder, but we have found only 1 case that fit the diagnosis. The other cases manifested either pseudo- or quasidissociative symptoms related to dissatisfaction with self-identity or hysterical acting out for secondary

Corbett H. Thigpen; Hervey M. Cleckley

1984-01-01

61

Anxiety Symptoms in Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder, Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, or Chronic Multiple Tic Disorder and Community Controls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We compared symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and separation anxiety disorder (SAD) in 5 groups of boys with neurobehavioral syndromes: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) plus autism spectrum disorder (ASD), ADHD plus chronic multiple tic disorder (CMTD), ASD only, ADHD only, and community Controls. Anxiety symptoms were…

Guttmann-Steinmetz, Sarit; Gadow, Kenneth D.; DeVincent, Carla J.; Crowell, Judy

2010-01-01

62

Childhood Trauma and Multiple Personality Disorder: The Case of a 9-Year-Old Girl.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports the case of a nine-year-old female victim of sexual abuse, evaluated and diagnosed with multiple personality disorder over a six-month period. Included is a description of the child's presentation with historical and developmental data. A discussion of the dynamic and predisposing features of the case follows, along with…

LaPorta, Lauren D.

1992-01-01

63

Multiple Complex Developmental Disorder Delineated from PDD-NOS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to identify behavioral differences between children with multiple complex developmental disorder\\u000a (MCDD) and those with pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). Twenty-five children (6–12 years)\\u000a with MCDD and 86 children with PDD-NOS were compared with respect to psychiatric co-morbidity, psychotic thought problems\\u000a and social contact problems using the child behavior checklist\\/4–18, the Dutch version of

Esther I. de Bruin; Pieter F. A. de Nijs; Fop Verheij; Catharina A. Hartman; Robert F. Ferdinand

2007-01-01

64

Includes pre-computed gene families, multiple sequence  

E-print Network

genomes from flowering plants, (club-)mosses and several green algae · All data can be downloaded PLAZA release 2.5 · Includes >900,000 genes from 25 plants covering 13 dicots, 5 monocots, 2 (club-)mosses

Gent, Universiteit

65

Includes pre-computed gene families, multiple sequence alignments &  

E-print Network

23 plants covering 11 dicots, 5 monocots, 2 (club-)mosses and 5 algae · Advanced panel of (inter to perform analyses on their genes · Includes published genomes from flowering plants, mosses and several

Gent, Universiteit

66

Inducing Order from Disordered Copolymers: On Demand Generation of Triblock Morphologies Including Networks  

SciTech Connect

Disordered block copolymers are generally impractical in nanopatterning applications due to their inability to self-assemble into well-defined nanostructures. However, inducing order in low molecular weight disordered systems permits the design of periodic structures with smaller characteristic sizes. Here, we have induced nanoscale phase separation from disordered triblock copolymer melts to form well-ordered lamellae, hexagonally packed cylinders, and a triply periodic gyroid network structure, using a copolymer/homopolymer blending approach, which incorporates constituent homopolymers into selective block domains. This versatile blending approach allows one to precisely target multiple nanostructures from a single disordered material and can be applied to a wide variety of triblock copolymer systems for nanotemplating and nanoscale separation applications requiring nanoscale feature sizes and/or high areal feature densities.

Tureau, Maëva S.; Kuan, Wei-Fan; Rong, Lixia; Hsiao, Benjamin S.; Epps, III, Thomas H. (Delaware); (SUNYB)

2012-10-26

67

A multi-pass one way method to include turning waves and multiples  

E-print Network

Conventional one way migration methods exclude turning waves and multiples. We propose an algorithm that uses multiple passes to extend the one way method to efficiently include these wavepaths. A comparison of the images ...

Richardson, Alan

2012-01-01

68

Should an Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Grouping of Disorders Be Included in DSM-V?  

PubMed Central

The obsessive-compulsive (OC) spectrum has been discussed in the literature for two decades. Proponents of this concept propose that certain disorders characterized by repetitive thoughts and/or behaviors are related to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and suggest that such disorders be grouped together in the same category (i.e., grouping, or “chapter”) in DSM. This paper addresses this topic and presents options and preliminary recommendations to be considered for DSM-V. The paper builds upon and extends prior reviews of this topic that were prepared for and discussed at a DSM-V Research Planning Conference on Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorders held in 2006. Our preliminary recommendation is that an OC-spectrum grouping of disorders be included in DSM-V. Furthermore, we preliminarily recommend that consideration be given to including this group of disorders within a larger supraordinate category of “Anxiety and Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorders.” These preliminary recommendations must be evaluated in light of recommendations for, and constraints upon, the overall structure of DSM-V. PMID:20533367

Phillips, Katharine A.; Stein, Dan J.; Rauch, Scott; Hollander, Eric; Fallon, Brian A.; Barsky, Arthur; Fineberg, Naomi; Mataix-Cols, David; Ferrão, Ygor Arzeno; Saxena, Sanjaya; Wilhelm, Sabine; Kelly, Megan M.; Clark, Lee Anna; Pinto, Anthony; Bienvenu, O. Joseph; Farrow, Joanne; Leckman, James

2014-01-01

69

Multiple immune disorders in unrecognized celiac disease: a case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

We reported a female patient with unrecognized celiac disease and multiple extra intestinal manifestations, mainly related to a deranged immune function, including macroamilasemia, macrolipasemia, IgA nephropathy, thyroiditis, and anti-b2-glicoprotein-1 antibodies, that disappeared or improved after the implementation of a gluten-free diet.

Giorgio La Villa; Pietro Pantaleo; Roberto Tarquini; Lino Cirami; Federico Perfetto; Francesco Mancuso; Giacomo Laffi

70

Multiple pathways to functional impairment in obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic and debilitating condition that is relatively common in both children and adults, and it is associated with a wide range of functional impairments. Mental health researchers and practitioners have placed considerable attention on OCD over the past two decades, with the goal of advancing treatment and understanding its etiology. Until recently, it was unknown to what extent this disorder was associated with functional impairment. However, recent research shows that the condition has significant social and occupational liabilities. This article discusses etiology, common symptom presentations (including comorbid and ancillary symptoms), basic OCD subtypes, neuropsychological functioning, and the relation these have with functional disability in OCD. Recommendations for future research are also considered. PMID:19853982

Markarian, Yeraz; Larson, Michael J; Aldea, Mirela A; Baldwin, Scott A; Good, Daniel; Berkeljon, Arjan; Murphy, Tanya K; Storch, Eric A; McKay, Dean

2010-02-01

71

Should Sluggish Cognitive Tempo Symptoms Be Included in the Diagnosis of Attention-Deficit/hyperactivity Disorder?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To determine the impact of including sluggish cognitive tempo items on the factor and latent class structure of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) subtypes in boys and girls. Method: Parent report of two sluggish cognitive tempo items on a population-based sample of 1,430 female twins and 1,414 male twins were analyzed…

Todd, Richard D.; Rasmussen, Erik R.; Wood, Catherine; Levy, Florence; Hay, David A.

2004-01-01

72

Cav1.2 Calcium Channel Dysfunction causes a Multisystem Disorder including Arrhythmia & Autism  

E-print Network

Cav1.2 Calcium Channel Dysfunction causes a Multisystem Disorder including Arrhythmia & Autism in the Cav1.2 L-type calcium channel gene. G406R mutation produces maintained inward Ca2+ currents by causing. In heart and brain, the L-type calcium channel Cav1.2 mediates cytosolic calcium concentration. Previously

Yue, David

73

Hemoglobin as a source of iron overload in multiple sclerosis: does multiple sclerosis share risk factors with vascular disorders?  

PubMed

Although iron is known to be essential for the normal development and health of the central nervous system, abnormal iron deposits are found in and around multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions that themselves are closely associated with the cerebral vasculature. However, the origin of this excess iron is unknown, and it is not clear whether this is one of the primary causative events in the pathogenesis of MS, or simply another consequence of the long-lasting inflammatory conditions. Here, applying a systems biology approach, we propose an additional way for understanding the neurodegenerative component of the disease caused by chronic subclinical extravasation of hemoglobin, in combination with multiple other factors including, but not limited to, dysfunction of different cellular protective mechanisms against extracellular hemoglobin reactivity and oxidative stress. Moreover, such considerations could also shed light on and explain the higher susceptibility of MS patients to a wide range of cardiovascular disorders. PMID:24504127

Bamm, Vladimir V; Harauz, George

2014-05-01

74

Eye disorders in patients with multiple sclerosis: natural history and management  

PubMed Central

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system and leading cause of disability in young adults. Vision impairment is a common component of disability for this population of patients. Injury to the optic nerve, brainstem, and cerebellum leads to characteristic syndromes affecting both the afferent and efferent visual pathways. The objective of this review is to summarize the spectrum of eye disorders in patients with MS, their natural history, and current strategies for diagnosis and management. We emphasize the most common disorders including optic neuritis and internuclear ophthalmoparesis and include new techniques, such as optical coherence tomography, which promise to better our understanding of MS and its effects on the visual system. PMID:21188152

Graves, Jennifer; Balcer, Laura J

2010-01-01

75

Multiple Personality Disorder and Iatrogenesis: The Cautionary Tale of Anna O  

Microsoft Academic Search

An examination of Breuer's treatment of Anna O. illustrates some of the controversies surrounding the recent rise of case reports of multiple personality disorder. Anna O., the first patient of the cathartic method, psychoanalysis, and dynamic psychiatry, fits current criteria for multiple personality disorder. Breuer's treatment, however, may have contributed to her states of absence; the timing, type, and intensity

Michael Weissberg

1993-01-01

76

Further Notes on a Case of Possible Multiple Personality Disorder: Masochism, Omnipotence, and Entitlement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple personality disorder and other disturbances involving dissociation offer a rich opportunity for extending our understanding of specific psychic phenomenon. Additional clinical material is presented from the treatment of a patient who presented herself as a multiple personality disorder. The patient's attitude of entitlement proved a formidable resistance that ultimately resulted in her prematurely terminating treatment. Using her sense of

Paul M. Lerner; Howard D. Lerner

1996-01-01

77

Ca V1.2 Calcium Channel Dysfunction Causes a Multisystem Disorder Including Arrhythmia and Autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

CaV1.2, the cardiac L-type calcium channel, is important for excitation and contraction of the heart. Its role in other tissues is unclear. Here we present Timothy syndrome, a novel disorder characterized by multiorgan dysfunction including lethal arrhythmias, webbing of fingers and toes, congenital heart disease, immune deficiency, intermittent hypoglycemia, cognitive abnormalities, and autism. In every case, Timothy syndrome results from

Igor Splawski; Katherine W. Timothy; Leah M. Sharpe; Niels Decher; Pradeep Kumar; Raffaella Bloise; Carlo Napolitano; Peter J. Schwartz; Robert M. Joseph; Karen Condouris; Helen Tager-Flusberg; Silvia G. Priori; Michael C. Sanguinetti; Mark T. Keating

2004-01-01

78

42 CFR 137.327 - May multiple projects be included in a single construction project agreement?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false May multiple projects be included in a single construction project agreement? 137.327 Section 137.327... TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Project Assumption Process § 137.327 May...

2012-10-01

79

42 CFR 137.327 - May multiple projects be included in a single construction project agreement?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false May multiple projects be included in a single construction project agreement? 137.327 Section 137.327... TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Project Assumption Process § 137.327 May...

2011-10-01

80

42 CFR 137.327 - May multiple projects be included in a single construction project agreement?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false May multiple projects be included in a single construction project agreement? 137.327 Section 137.327... TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Project Assumption Process § 137.327 May...

2014-10-01

81

42 CFR 137.327 - May multiple projects be included in a single construction project agreement?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false May multiple projects be included in a single construction project agreement? 137.327 Section 137.327... TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Project Assumption Process § 137.327 May...

2013-10-01

82

42 CFR 137.327 - May multiple projects be included in a single construction project agreement?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May multiple projects be included in a single construction project agreement? 137.327 Section 137.327... TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Project Assumption Process § 137.327 May...

2010-10-01

83

PTSD and Comorbid Disorders in a Representative Sample of Adolescents: The Risk Associated with Multiple Exposures to Potentially Traumatic Events  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study compared the impact of multiple exposures to potentially traumatic events (PTEs), including sexual victimization, physical victimization, and witnessed violence, on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and comorbid conditions (i.e., major depressive episode [MDE], and substance use [SUD]). Methods: Participants were a…

Macdonald, Alexandra; Danielson, Carla Kmett; Resnick, Heidi S.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

2010-01-01

84

Sleep disorders in multiple sclerosis and their relationship to fatigue.  

PubMed

Treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS)-related fatigue is still a challenging task, given that no proven therapies exist and its mechanisms are not known. Our review highlights the relationship between MS-related fatigue and sleep disorders (SD). Although many studies suggest a higher overall prevalence of SD in MS, there are no valid and robust data to confirm this hypothesis until now except for restless legs syndrome (RLS): the prevalence of RLS in MS patients-especially in those with severe pyramidal and sensory disability-seems to be four times higher than in controls subjects. RLS is sometimes difficult to distinguish from spasticity and in case of doubt, probatory dopaminergic therapy or polysomnographic (PSG) investigations may be helpful. Nocturia may impact MS-related fatigue and should be considered. The treatment of underlying SD led to an improvement of MS-related fatigue. From a scientific point of view, SD should be examined in all studies investigating MS-related fatigue and be considered as a relevant confounder. PMID:24360534

Veauthier, Christian; Paul, Friedemann

2014-01-01

85

Bipolar Disorder and Multiple Sclerosis: A Case Series  

PubMed Central

Background. The prevalence of psychiatric disturbance for patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) is higher than that observed in other chronic health conditions. We report three cases of MS and bipolar disorder and we discuss the possible etiological hypothesis and treatment options. Observations. All patients fulfilled the McDonald criteria for MS. Two patients were followed up in psychiatry for manic or depressive symptoms before developing MS. A third patient was diagnosed with MS and developed deferred psychotic symptoms. Some clinical and radiological features are highlighted in our patients: one manic episode induced by high dose corticosteroids and one case of a new orbitofrontal MRI lesion concomitant with the emergence of psychiatric symptoms. All patients needed antipsychotic treatment with almost good tolerance for high dose corticosteroids and interferon beta treatment. Conclusions. MRI lesions suggest the possible implication of local MS-related brain damage in development of pure “psychiatric fits” in MS. Genetic susceptibility is another hypothesis for this association. We have noticed that interferon beta treatments were well tolerated while high dose corticosteroids may induce manic fits. PMID:24825960

Sidhom, Youssef; Ben Djebara, Mouna; Hizem, Yosr; Abdelkefi, Istabrak; Kacem, Imen; Gargouri, Amina; Gouider, Riadh

2014-01-01

86

Multiple autoimmune haemopoietic disorders and insidious clonal proliferation of large granular lymphocytes.  

PubMed

We report a patient with clonal proliferation of CD3+8+TCRalphabeta+ large granular lymphocytes (LGL) presenting multiple episodes of autoimmune cytopenia, including autoimmune neutropenia, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, autoimmune haemolytic anaemia, and pure red cell aplasia. Each disorder appeared separately or as a combination during an 11-year clinical course. The increase of blood CD3+8+TCRalphabeta+ LGL was detected 6 years after the initial diagnosis of cytopenia, but the absolute number of LGL cells was always < 1.0 x 109/l. LGL cells were of monoclonal origin and had a chromosomal abnormality. LGL cells transiently responded to cyclosporine A therapy, which was also effective on all of these autoimmune cytopenias. Accordingly, an undetectable level of proliferation of a clonal LGL population could cause various autoimmune haemopoietic disorders. PMID:10583274

Akashi, K; Shibuya, T; Taniguchi, S; Hayashi, S; Iwasaki, H; Teshima, T; Takamatsu, Y; Gondo, H; Okamura, T; Harada, M; Niho, Y

1999-12-01

87

A multiple deficit model of Reading Disability and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Searching for shared cognitive  

E-print Network

A multiple deficit model of Reading Disability and Attention- Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder cognitive deficit model of Reading Disability (RD), Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD for future research are discussed. Keywords Reading Disability; Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

Carlini, David

88

Sleep disorders in multiple sclerosis in China: clinical, polysomnography study, and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Sleep disorders are common in multiple sclerosis (MS). The aim of this study was to assess the subjective and objective sleep disturbances in patients with MS and to investigate their relationships with fatigue and excessive daytime sleepiness. All participants completed standardized questionnaires and underwent nocturnal polysomnography. English literature regarding MS and sleep disorders was systematically reviewed through PubMed searches. Eleven patients with MS with fatigue, 10 patients with MS without fatigue, and 11 controls were included in the study. According to the Pittsburg sleep quality index, 61.9% of the patients with MS were poor sleepers and based on the Epworth sleepiness scale, 38.1% of the patients with MS met the criteria of excessive daytime sleepiness. Additionally, patients with MS had more disturbed sleep with higher total arousal index (P < 0.01) and periodic limb movement arousal index (P < 0.001) than controls. None of the patients or controls had an apnea/hypopnea index greater than five. One patient had restless legs syndrome and four had rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder. Our study shows that sleep disorders and excessive daytime sleepiness are frequent in MS. PMID:25083851

Chen, Jian-Hua; Liu, Xiu-Qin; Sun, He-Yang; Huang, Yan

2014-08-01

89

Child Abuse and Multiple Personality Disorders: Review of the Literature and Suggestions for Treatment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Multiple personality disorder is associated with a high incidence of physical and sexual abuse during childhood. While difficult to diagnose, multiple personality is easier to treat if diagnosed early in childhood or adolescence. Treatment for multiple personality focuses on establishing trust and communicating with and integrating the…

Coons, Philip M.

1986-01-01

90

Managing persons with multiple personality disorder in a heterogeneous inpatient group  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experts advise against referring persons with multiple personality disorder to diagnostically heterogeneous groups. As more multiples are admitted to inpatient units this presents a problem. Excluding persons of a particular diagnosis from groups makes it difficult to promote a cohesive therapeutic milieu. I have found that multiples can be managed successfully in mixed groups. The leader is advised to adhere

Lisa C. Hogan

1992-01-01

91

Optimization of multiplant cogeneration system operation including electric and steam networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of optimizing the short-term operation of a multiplant cogeneration system in a large industrial complex is solved. A cogeneration system is defined as a system that simultaneously produces electric power (electricity) and thermal power (steam). The cogeneration system model includes both the electric and thermal systems. The electric system model includes generation and transmission. The thermal system model

K. Moslehi; M. Khadem; R. Bernal; G. Hernandez

1991-01-01

92

Morphostructural MRI abnormalities related to neuropsychiatric disorders associated to multiple sclerosis.  

PubMed

Multiple Sclerosis associated neuropsychiatric disorders include major depression (MD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), bipolar affective disorder, euphoria, pseudobulbar affect, psychosis, and personality change. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) studies focused mainly on identifying morphostructural correlates of MD; only a few anecdotal cases on OCD associated to MS (OCD-MS), euphoria, pseudobulbar affect, psychosis, personality change, and one research article on MRI abnormalities in OCD-MS have been published. Therefore, in the present review we will report mainly on neuroimaging abnormalities found in MS patients with MD and OCD. All together, the studies on MD associated to MS suggest that, in this disease, depression is linked to a damage involving mainly frontotemporal regions either with discrete lesions (with those visible in T1 weighted images playing a more significant role) or subtle normal appearing white matter abnormalities. Hippocampal atrophy, as well, seems to be involved in MS related depression. It is conceivable that grey matter pathology (i.e., global and regional atrophy, cortical lesions), which occurs early in the course of disease, may involve several areas including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the orbitofrontal cortex, and the anterior cingulate cortex whose disruption is currently thought to explain late-life depression. Further MRI studies are necessary to better elucidate OCD pathogenesis in MS. PMID:23691320

Bonavita, Simona; Tedeschi, Gioacchino; Gallo, Antonio

2013-01-01

93

Morphostructural MRI Abnormalities Related to Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated to Multiple Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Multiple Sclerosis associated neuropsychiatric disorders include major depression (MD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), bipolar affective disorder, euphoria, pseudobulbar affect, psychosis, and personality change. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) studies focused mainly on identifying morphostructural correlates of MD; only a few anecdotal cases on OCD associated to MS (OCD-MS), euphoria, pseudobulbar affect, psychosis, personality change, and one research article on MRI abnormalities in OCD-MS have been published. Therefore, in the present review we will report mainly on neuroimaging abnormalities found in MS patients with MD and OCD. All together, the studies on MD associated to MS suggest that, in this disease, depression is linked to a damage involving mainly frontotemporal regions either with discrete lesions (with those visible in T1 weighted images playing a more significant role) or subtle normal appearing white matter abnormalities. Hippocampal atrophy, as well, seems to be involved in MS related depression. It is conceivable that grey matter pathology (i.e., global and regional atrophy, cortical lesions), which occurs early in the course of disease, may involve several areas including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the orbitofrontal cortex, and the anterior cingulate cortex whose disruption is currently thought to explain late-life depression. Further MRI studies are necessary to better elucidate OCD pathogenesis in MS. PMID:23691320

Bonavita, Simona; Tedeschi, Gioacchino; Gallo, Antonio

2013-01-01

94

Microvascular decompression for trigeminal neuralgia: comments on a series of 250 cases, including 10 patients with multiple sclerosis  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To examine surgical findings and results of microvascular decompression (MVD) for trigeminal neuralgia (TN), including patients with multiple sclerosis, to bring new insight about the role of microvascular compression in the pathogenesis of the disorder and the role of MVD in its treatment.?METHODS—Between 1990 and 1998, 250 patients affected by trigeminal neuralgia underwent MVD in the Department of Neurosurgery of the "Istituto Nazionale Neurologico C Besta" in Milan. Limiting the review to the period 1991-6, to exclude the "learning period" (the first 50 cases) and patients with less than 1 year follow up, surgical findings and results were critically analysed in 148 consecutive cases, including 10 patients with multiple sclerosis.?RESULTS—Vascular compression of the trigeminal nerve was found in all cases. The recurrence rate was 15.3% (follow up 1-7 years, mean 38 months). In five of 10 patients with multiple sclerosis an excellent result was achieved (follow up 12-39 months, mean 24months). Patients with TN for more than 84 months did significantly worse than those with a shorter history (p<0.05). There was no mortality and most complications occurred in the learning period. Surgical complications were not related to age of the patients.?CONCLUSIONS—Aetiopathogenesis of trigeminal neuralgia remains a mystery. These findings suggest a common neuromodulatory role of microvascular compression in both patients with or without multiple sclerosis rather than a direct causal role. MVD was found to be a safe and effective procedure to relieve typical TN in patients of all ages. It should be proposed as first choice surgery to all patients affected by TN, even in selected cases with multiple sclerosis, to give them the opportunity of pain relief without sensory deficits. ?? PMID:10601403

Broggi, G.; Ferroli, P.; Franzini, A.; Servello, D.; Dones, I.

2000-01-01

95

From single to multiple deficit models of developmental disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emerging etiological model for developmental disorders, like dyslexia, is probabilistic and multifactorial while the prevailing cognitive model has been deterministic and often focused on a single cognitive cause, such as a phonological deficit as the cause of dyslexia. So there is a potential contradiction in our explanatory frameworks for understanding developmental disorders. This paper attempts to resolve this contradiction

Bruce F. Pennington

2006-01-01

96

The Parental Fitness of Mothers with Multiple Personality Disorder: A Preliminary Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A review of the parenting patterns of 75 mothers with multiple personality disorders indicated 38.7% were competent or exceptional mothers, 16% were grossly abusive, and 45.3% were compromised or impaired as parents. (DB)

Kluft, Richard P.

1987-01-01

97

The Effects of Including a Callous Unemotional Specifier for the Diagnosis of Conduct Disorder  

PubMed Central

Background “With Significant Callous-Unemotional Traits” has been proposed as a specifier for Conduct Disorder (CD) in the upcoming revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). The impact of this specifier on children diagnosed with CD should be considered. Methods A multi-site cross-sectional design with volunteers (n=1136) in the 3rd-7th grades and 566 consecutive referrals (ages 5-18) to a community mental health center were used to estimate the prevalence rates of CD with and without the proposed specifier. In addition, the degree of emotional and behavioral (especially physical aggression) disturbance and level of impairment in youth with and without CD and with and without the specifier was evaluated. Results In the community sample, 10% to 32% of those with CD and 2% to 7% of those without CD met the callous-unemotional (CU) specifier threshold depending on informant. In the clinic-referred sample, 21% to 50% of those with CD and 14% to 32% without CD met the CU specifier threshold depending on informant. Those with CD and the specifier showed higher rates of aggression in both samples and higher rates of cruelty in the clinic-referred sample. Conclusions Results indicate between 10% and 50% of youth with CD would be designated with the proposed CU specifier. Those with CD and the specifier appear to be more severe on a number of indices, including aggression and cruelty. PMID:21950481

Kahn, Rachel E.; Frick, Paul J.; Youngstrom, Eric; Findling, Robert L.; Youngstrom, Jennifer Kogos

2011-01-01

98

Pharmacotherapy in the Management of Voiding and Storage Disorders, Including Enuresis and Encopresis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Enuresis and encopresis are disorders of the bladder and rectum, and this article helps in understanding the neurobiology of lower urinary tract and anorectal function to help in the treatment of these disorders. Treatment for children with these disorders emphasizes either a psychological or pharmacological approach.

Reiner, William G.

2008-01-01

99

Autism Spectrum Disorder - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... Multiple Languages Arabic (???????) Spanish (español) Arabic (???????) Autism -- Early Signs English (Arabic) ??????????? - ???????? ??????? - ??????? Multimedia Patient Education Institute Spanish (español) Trastorno del espectro autista Date ...

100

Foot Injuries and Disorders - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... Multiple Languages Arabic (???????) Spanish (español) Arabic (???????) Clubfoot Overview English (Arabic) ????? ??????? ??????? - ??????? Multimedia Patient Education Institute Treating Clubfoot with the Ponseti Method English (Arabic) ???????? ????? ...

101

Development of a versatile enrichment analysis tool reveals associations between the maternal brain and mental health disorders, including autism  

PubMed Central

Background A recent study of lateral septum (LS) suggested a large number of autism-related genes with altered expression in the postpartum state. However, formally testing the findings for enrichment of autism-associated genes proved to be problematic with existing software. Many gene-disease association databases have been curated which are not currently incorporated in popular, full-featured enrichment tools, and the use of custom gene lists in these programs can be difficult to perform and interpret. As a simple alternative, we have developed the Modular Single-set Enrichment Test (MSET), a minimal tool that enables one to easily evaluate expression data for enrichment of any conceivable gene list of interest. Results The MSET approach was validated by testing several publicly available expression data sets for expected enrichment in areas of autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and arthritis. Using nine independent, unique autism gene lists extracted from association databases and two recent publications, a striking consensus of enrichment was detected within gene expression changes in LS of postpartum mice. A network of 160 autism-related genes was identified, representing developmental processes such as synaptic plasticity, neuronal morphogenesis, and differentiation. Additionally, maternal LS displayed enrichment for genes associated with bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, ADHD, and depression. Conclusions The transition to motherhood includes the most fundamental social bonding event in mammals and features naturally occurring changes in sociability. Some individuals with autism, schizophrenia, or other mental health disorders exhibit impaired social traits. Genes involved in these deficits may also contribute to elevated sociability in the maternal brain. To date, this is the first study to show a significant, quantitative link between the maternal brain and mental health disorders using large scale gene expression data. Thus, the postpartum brain may provide a novel and promising platform for understanding the complex genetics of improved sociability that may have direct relevance for multiple psychiatric illnesses. This study also provides an important new tool that fills a critical analysis gap and makes evaluation of enrichment using any database of interest possible with an emphasis on ease of use and methodological transparency. PMID:24245670

2013-01-01

102

From Single to Multiple Deficit Models of Developmental Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The emerging etiological model for developmental disorders, like dyslexia, is probabilistic and multifactorial while the prevailing cognitive model has been deterministic and often focused on a single cognitive cause, such as a phonological deficit as the cause of dyslexia. So there is a potential contradiction in our explanatory frameworks for…

Pennington, Bruce F.

2006-01-01

103

Children at Risk for Learning Disorders: Multiple Perspectives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study involving 145 Israeli mother-child dyads examined the contribution of a multidimensional model of risk factors in explaining adaptive functioning among kindergartners with mild developmental delays considered at risk for developing learning disorders. Results indicated a high fit between the theoretical model and empirical findings.…

Al-Yagon, Michal

2003-01-01

104

Multiple pathways to functional impairment in obsessive–compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic and debilitating condition that is relatively common in both children and adults, and it is associated with a wide range of functional impairments. Mental health researchers and practitioners have placed considerable attention on OCD over the past two decades, with the goal of advancing treatment and understanding its etiology. Until recently, it was unknown

Yeraz Markarian; Michael J. Larson; Mirela A. Aldea; Scott A. Baldwin; Daniel Good; Arjan Berkeljon; Tanya K. Murphy; Eric A. Storch; Dean McKay

2010-01-01

105

The Effects of Including a Callous-Unemotional Specifier for the Diagnosis of Conduct Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: "With Significant Callous-Unemotional Traits" has been proposed as a specifier for conduct disorder (CD) in the upcoming revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V). The impact of this specifier on children diagnosed with CD should be considered. Methods: A multi-site cross-sectional design with…

Kahn, Rachel E.; Frick, Paul J.; Youngstrom, Eric; Findling, Robert L.; Youngstrom, Jennifer Kogos

2012-01-01

106

The Communication Journey of a Fully Included Child with an Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article follows Jose, a child with autism spectrum disorder, through his communication journey from age 3 to age 11. His journey illustrates many of the characteristics and challenges of individuals with autism spectrum disorders, as they become a part of the literate community in the general education classroom. Collaborative, family-based…

Diehl, Sylvia F.; Ford, Carolyn S.; Federico, Jeanne

2005-01-01

107

Multiple Dose Pharmacokinetics of Paroxetine in Children and Adolescents with Major Depressive Disorder or Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study examined the pharmacokinetics (PK), safety, and tolerability of paroxetine after repeated multiple oral dosing in children and adolescents with major depressive or obsessive–compulsive disorder. In this 6-week, open-label, repeat dose, dose-rising study, 62 patients (27 children and 35 adolescents) were treated with paroxetine 10 mg\\/day for the first 2 weeks of the study, 20 mg\\/day for the

Robert L Findling; Gianluca Nucci; Antoni A Piergies; Roberto Gomeni; Edward I Bartolic; Regan Fong; David J Carpenter; J Steven Leeder; Andrea Gaedigk; Theodore M Danoff

2006-01-01

108

The relation between multiple pains and mental disorders: Results from the World Mental Health Surveys  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is unclear whether differences exist in the prevalence of mood, anxiety and alcohol use disorders among persons with multiple pain conditions compared with those with single pain problems. We conducted population surveys in 17 countries in Europe, the Americas, the Middle East, Africa, Asia, and the South Pacific. Participants were community-dwelling adults (N=85,088). Mental disorders were assessed with the

Oye Gureje; Michael Von Korff; Lola Kola; Koen Demyttenaere; Yanling He; José Posada-Villa; Jean Pierre Lepine; Matthias C. Angermeyer; Daphna Levinson; Giovanni de Girolamo; Noboru Iwata; Aimee Karam; Guilherme Luiz Guimaraes Borges; Ron de Graaf; Mark Oakley Browne; Dan J. Stein; Josep Maria Haro; Evelyn J. Bromet; Ron C. Kessler; Jordi Alonso

2008-01-01

109

Tight-binding coherent-potential approximation including off-diagonal disorder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a generalization of the tight-binding coherent-potential approximation (TB-CPA) to substitutionally disordered alloys with both diagonal and off-diagonal disorder (ODD), taking into account all relevant s, p, and d, orbitals. This generalization is based on the work of Blackman, Esterling, and Berk [Phys. Rev. B 4, 2412 (1971)] which treated ODD within a single-band model of a disordered alloy. The method is illustrated with calculations of the density of states of disordered Cu0.75Pd0.25 alloys. We find that inclusion of ODD improves the agreement with specific-heat data, but it does not resolve a discrepancy with the results of first-principles, muffin-tin CPA calculations regarding the Pd component of the density of states.

Papaconstantopoulos, D. A.; Gonis, A.; Laufer, P. M.

1989-12-01

110

Developmental trauma disorder: pros and cons of including formal criteria in the psychiatric diagnostic systems  

PubMed Central

Background This article reviews the current debate on developmental trauma disorder (DTD) with respect to formalizing its diagnostic criteria. Victims of abuse, neglect, and maltreatment in childhood often develop a wide range of age-dependent psychopathologies with various mental comorbidities. The supporters of a formal DTD diagnosis argue that post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) does not cover all consequences of severe and complex traumatization in childhood. Discussion Traumatized individuals are difficult to treat, but clinical experience has shown that they tend to benefit from specific trauma therapy. A main argument against inclusion of formal DTD criteria into existing diagnostic systems is that emphasis on the etiology of the disorder might force current diagnostic systems to deviate from their purely descriptive nature. Furthermore, comorbidities and biological aspects of the disorder may be underdiagnosed using the DTD criteria. Summary Here, we discuss arguments for and against the proposal of DTD criteria and address implications and consequences for the clinical practice. PMID:23286319

2013-01-01

111

Intellectual disability and multiple co morbid psychiatric disorders in a child: a case report.  

PubMed

Comorbid psychiatric Disorders are seen commonly in people with intellectual disability and in fact they are at greater risk for developing other health disorders. Most prevalent chronic health conditions in children with intellectual disability are epilepsy, cerebral palsy,anxiety disorders, sleep disorders and autism spectrum disorders. Co morbidities multiply the problem of people with intellectual impairment to a great extent and hence an accurate psychological assessment of multiple diagnoses is useful in detecting the specific underlying processes differentiating the co morbid syndrome and in planning an appropriate management and rehabilitation program. This case report is presented to emphasize the fact that though. It is common for intellectually disabled children to have other co-morbid psychiatric disorders, it is important to have accurate, suitable assessment and recording of every co-morbid disorder as it has its own implication in course and outcome of the disability in the child. A comprehensive management approach involving people from various spheres would be required to improve the quality of life and for reduction of burden of care giver.We describe a child of intellectual disability with multiple co morbidities. PMID:25584292

Gautam, Priyanka; Bhatia, M S; Rathi, Anubhav

2014-11-01

112

Intellectual Disability and Multiple Co Morbid Psychiatric Disorders in a Child: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Comorbid psychiatric Disorders are seen commonly in people with intellectual disability and in fact they are at greater risk for developing other health disorders. Most prevalent chronic health conditions in children with intellectual disability are epilepsy, cerebral palsy,anxiety disorders, sleep disorders and autism spectrum disorders. Co morbidities multiply the problem of people with intellectual impairment to a great extent and hence an accurate psychological assessment of multiple diagnoses is useful in detecting the specific underlying processes differentiating the co morbid syndrome and in planning an appropriate management and rehabilitation program. This case report is presented to emphasize the fact that though. It is common for intellectually disabled children to have other co-morbid psychiatric disorders, it is important to have accurate, suitable assessment and recording of every co-morbid disorder as it has its own implication in course and outcome of the disability in the child. A comprehensive management approach involving people from various spheres would be required to improve the quality of life and for reduction of burden of care giver.We describe a child of intellectual disability with multiple co morbidities. PMID:25584292

Gautam, Priyanka; Rathi, Anubhav

2014-01-01

113

[Treatment manual for psychotherapy of acute and posttraumatic stress disorders after multiple ICD shocks].  

PubMed

In view of the inceasing number of implanted defibrillators in all industrial nations, the number of people who have suffered so-called multiple shocks (electrical storm, ES) also increases. Common complaints are severe and continuously recurrent massive anxiety, panic attacks, fear of death, helplessness and hopelessness, depression, nervosity and irritability as well as reclusive and uncontrollable avoidance behaviour, intrusions, nightmares, flashbacks, sleeplessness and the inability to show feelings and limitation of future perspectives. Because people with an ICD are often physically (very) ill and after multiple ICD shocks are additionally very insecure, it would seem logical if the inpatient treatment would be carried out in an institution which has close connections and is also spatially close to a cardiology department. The basis of the diagnostics is the clinical anamnesis and a systematic exploration of the trauma situation and the resulting complaints. As an additional diagnostic element psychological test procedures should be implemented to determine the core symptomatic (anxiety, depression, trauma symptoms). Psychological test procedures should be included in the diagnostics so that at the end of treatment it is obvious even to the patient which alterations have occurred. The core element of inpatient treatment is daily intensive psychotherapy and includes deep psychologically well-founded psychotherapy and behavioral therapeutic-oriented anxiety therapy as well as cognitive restructuring and elements of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR). A follow-up examination within 4 months of the multiple shocks episode is recommended because symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder often occur after a long latent time period. PMID:21853350

Jordan, J; Titscher, G; Kirsch, H

2011-09-01

114

[Alzheimer's disease and related disorders: specificity of young onset patients, including ethical aspects].  

PubMed

The number of patients with young onset dementia (YOD) (that is before age 65) is estimated at 32,000 in France, and 5000 with onset dementia before 60 years. These patients differ from older ones by the greater number of rares causes (29%), heterogeneity of the presentation among the usual diseases, such as non-amnestic phenotypes of Alzheimer's disease, high frequency of frontal symptoms, and possible genetic origin. These aspects must be taken into account for the diagnosis, often more difficult than in older ones because patients have a little knowledge of the YOD, excepted in the genetics forms. YOD patients can still work or drive a car, and we should choose between the respect for autonomy and the security for the patient and their carers. YOD patients can be more often included in pharmacological trials because they have lower associated disorders. Individual non-pharmacological treatment should be priviledged because they don't easily accept collective activities with other patients over 60 years of age. Excepted for the very young patients (onset before 45), the survival is longer than in late onset dementia, with sometimes severe behavioral problems related to frontal syndrome. In France, the caregiving at home has been improved since the possibility for the YOD patients to receive a financial assistance reserved for the disabled patients, but admission to a nursing home before 60 is very difficult and increases the caregiver burden and perception of unfairness. There is a discrimination between young or older demented patients related to the great difficulty to meet the needs of younger patients, due to the rigidity of the medical and social systems. The presentation of a limited offer for the YOD patients must initiate reflections on our capacities to respect the autonomy and the dignity of the Alzheimer's patients regardless of age. PMID:22414401

Lebert, Florence; Boitte, Pierre; de Bouvet, Armelle; Pasquier, Florence

2012-03-01

115

nAture methods | VOL.8 NO.11 | NOVEMBER2011 | 957 myelin-related disorders such as multiple sclerosis and  

E-print Network

such as multiple sclerosis and leukodystrophies, for which restoration of oligodendrocyte function would such as multiple sclerosis and cerebral palsy as well as congenital dysmyelinating disorders such as Pelizaeus

Cai, Long

116

Cognitive-behavioral family therapy for anxiety-disordered children: A multiple-baseline evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six children (aged 9 to 13) diagnosed with a childhood anxiety disorder were treated with an 18-session, family-based cognitive-behavioral therapy that was evaluated using assessments from multiple sources and a multiple-baseline (2, 4, and 6 weeks) across-cases design. Diagnoses, parent and teacher reports, and child self-reports assessed outcome. Changes in diagnostic status, standardized parent- and teacher-report measures, and parent and

Bonnie L. Howard; Philip C. Kendall

1996-01-01

117

Defects of intergenomic communication: autosomal disorders that cause multiple deletions and depletion of mitochondrial DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Depletion and multiple deletions of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) have been associated with a growing number of autosomal diseases that have been classified as defects of intergenomic communication. MNGIE, an autosomal recessive disorder associated with mtDNA alterations is due to mutations in thymidine phosphorylase that may cause imbalance of the mitochondrial nucleotide pool. Subsequently, mutations in the mitochondrial proteins adenine nucleotide

Michio Hirano; Ramon Marti; Claudia Ferreiro-Barros; Maya R Vilà; Saba Tadesse; Yutaka Nishigaki; Ichizo Nishino; Tuan H Vu

2001-01-01

118

Neurological manifestations of gastrointestinal disorders, with particular reference to the differential diagnosis of multiple sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

. Neurological manifestations of gastrointestinal disorders are described, with particular reference to those resembling multiple sclerosis (MS) on clinical or MRI grounds. Patients with celiac disease can present cerebellar ataxia, progressive myoclonic ataxia, myelopathy, or cerebral, brainstem and peripheral nerve involvement. Antigliadin antibodies can be found in subjects with neurological dysfunction of unknown cause, particularly in sporadic cerebellar ataxia (\\

A. Ghezzi; M. Zaffaroni

2001-01-01

119

On Treating the Older Patient with Multiple Personality Disorder: “Race against Time” or “Make Haste Slowly?”  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple personality disorder (MPD) is recognized with increasing frequency in child and adult patients, but its discovery and its treatment in patients 60 and over remains rare. Eight MPD patients diagnosed between 60 and 72 years of age were treated. Affectively intense, hypnotically facilitated treatments that are successful in work with younger MPD patients are not always appropriate for the

Richard Kluft

1988-01-01

120

THE EFFECT OF MULTIPLE PERSONALITY DISORDER ON ANESTHESIA: A CASE REPORT  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the context of studies on the psy chophysiological differences between alterpersonalities in patients with multiple personality disorder (MPD), a patient with diminished need for anesthetics, especially analgesics, during major surgery is described. Psychophysiologic study of MPD patients during anesthesia is recommended, as the relation between doses of medication and their effects can be directly assessed.

Nico Moleman; Jan B. F. Hulscher; Onno van der Hart; D. Nico Moleman; Gert L. Scheepstra

121

From Dissociation to Negotiation: A Relational Psychoanalytic Perspective on Multiple Personality Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

A relational psychoanalytic model for conceptualizing the dynamics and treatment of multiple personality disorder (MPD) is presented, integrating trauma\\/dissociation theories with postclassical psychoanalytic perspectives. MPD is conceptualized as a chronic trauma syndrome and as a particular variation of narcissistic personality organization involving an overreliance on omnipotent defenses, the collapse of intersubjective experiencing and significant derailments of the developmental lines of

Harvey L. Schwartz

1994-01-01

122

Preliminary Observations on Age Regression in Multiple Personality Disorder Patients before and after Integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of research data serendipitously revealed that 12 individuals treated successfully for multiple personality disorder (MPD) had undergone age regression procedures both before integration and after 27 months or more of apparently continuous integration. Subjective experiences and reports of historical events during these procedures often differed in the divided and integrated states. Age regression in firmly integrated patients did

Richard P. Kluft

1986-01-01

123

Multiple Personality Disorder: A Risk Indicator, Diagnostic Marker and Psychiatric Outcome for Severe Child Abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies suggest that multiple personality disorder (MPD) is not as rare as previously believed. Indeed, it may represent a relatively common (as many as 25% of cases) outcome of severe physical and sexual abuse of children. Because diagnosis and treatment offer the best prognosis, it is important for the pediatric clinician to become familiar with both the at risk

Barbara Y. Whitman; Wayne Munkel

1991-01-01

124

THE USE OF HEALING CEREMONIES IN THE TREATMENT OF MULTIPLE PERSONALITY DISORDER  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although talk therapy and abreactive work are crucial in the treat- ment of multiple personality disorder, these techniques do not always assist the client in &ringing closure to other exposed wounds. As a result, some patients continue to feel vulnerable and to doubt their ability to rid themselves of the anguish unleashed fry these uncov- ered memories. Such instances require

Joyce H. Vesper

125

Multiple personality disorder in the courts: A review of the North American experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple personality disorder has increasingly been encountered in the forensic setting in North America over the past 20 years, in particular in relation to competency hearings and insanity defences. The particular legal problems that have arisen are reviewed, the most significant US cases and judicial decisions are explored, and their implications for issues of responsibility, individuality and punishment are discussed.

David James

1998-01-01

126

Does the Mind Fall Apart in Multiple Personality Disorder? Some Proposals Based On a Psychoanalytic Case  

Microsoft Academic Search

A psychoanalytic study of some of the phenomena of multiple personality disorder (MPD), this paper takes issue with the view that a falling apart, fragmentation, or disaggregation of the mind is at the bottom of MPD's characteristic symptoms. Since first proposed by Janet in 1889, the view that ordinarily integrated parts of the mind separate from the center, accounting for

Richard M. Gottlieb

1997-01-01

127

Marital and Family Therapy in the Treatment of Multiple Personality Disorder.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores marital and family therapy in treatment of Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD), discussing role of family of origin in MPD development and role of nuclear family in its perpetuation. Suggests family and marital interventions, illustrating them with case examples. Proposes involving MPD client in marital or family therapy, in addition to…

Sachs, Roberta G.; And Others

1988-01-01

128

CHANGES IN IDENTITY AND SELF-ORGANIZATION IN PSYCHOTHERAPY OF MULTIPLE PERSONALITY DISORDER  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychotherapy is the treatment of choice for multiple personality disorder (MPD). Disaggregated identity and self-organization change as the past is reconsidered and the present is reconstructed in therapy. Methods for assessing these changes during treatment are described. A case illustration demonstrates how these findings related to core psychopathology and treatment issues.

VICTOR S. ALPHER

1992-01-01

129

A comprehensive review of the literature and case study of multiple personality disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD) has been the focus of great controversy. Of keen interest in the early 1900's, its study soon after waned precipitously. So sharp was the decline that, until recently, the majority of clinicians gave it little credence. Currently, the literature has reported increasing numbers of such cases, along with varying degrees of success in its treatment.^ This

John Vincent Taliercio

1991-01-01

130

CONTEMPORARY INTEREST IN MULTIPLE PERSONALITY DISORDER AND CHILD ABUSE IN THE NETHERLANDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interest in multiple personality disorder (MPD) as well as sexual child abuse is rapidly growing in the Netherlands, perhaps more so than in otherEuropean countries. Clinical, theoretical, and research developments in these respects are outlined, and it is mentioned that patients stating that they have been victims of satanic cult abuse are also encountered in the Netherlands. The need fin-more

Onno van der Hart; D. Suzette Boon

131

The Use of Hypnosis in a Deaf Patient with Multiple Personality Disorder: A Case Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the first report of multiple personality disorder (MPD) in a prelingually deaf patient and the first description of alter personalities as the source of auditory hallucinations in a nonpsychotic deaf person. This young woman's history and clinical symptoms of MPD did not differ from those of hearing patients. A hypnotic trance was induced by instructing the patient in

Elizabeth S. Bowman; Philip M. Coons

1990-01-01

132

Systems of Selves: the Construction of Meaning in Multiple Personality Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current models for understanding both Multiple Personality Disorder and human mentation in general are both linear in nature and self-perpetuating insofar as most research in this area has been informed and shaped by extant psychological concepts, paradigms and methods. The research for this dissertation made use of anthropological concepts and methods in an attempt to gain a richer understanding of

Dureen Jean Hughes

1994-01-01

133

Multiple Personality Disorder: Etiology, Treatment, and Treatment Techniques From a Psychodynamic Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Academic psychologists have moved away from psychoanalytic and psychodynamic explanations of human functioning and pathology and have instead embraced neuropsychology and cognitive science. This trend has kept many psychologists and researchers from more fully understanding some of the important phenomena they chose to investigate. One area about which psychologists can learn in the psychodynamic literature is multiple personality disorder (MPD).

Michael Wm. MacGregor

1996-01-01

134

Multiple personality disorder and the choice of self: Change factors in a brief therapy case  

Microsoft Academic Search

A person who identified herself as having a multiple personality disorder made remarkable changes after seven psychotherapeutic sessions and two batteries of tests, one on the alter. The case raises such problematic issues as the diagnosis of MPD, the unitary versus discrete theories and treatment of it, change factors in brief psychotherapy and for all psychotherapy, and the use of

Stephen A. Appelbaum

1996-01-01

135

Using Hypnotic Inquiry Protocols to Monitor Treatment Progress and Stability in Multiple Personality Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-two patients with multiple personality disorder (MPD), who had been integrated for a minimum of 27 months, were reassessed for the stability of their fusions, using a research hypnotic inquiry protocol. The occasional discovery of unsuspected alters or the persistence of alters believed fused led to the protocol's adaptation for monitoring clinical progress and stability. The technique and the patients'

Richard P. Kluft

1985-01-01

136

Autohypnotic Resolution of an Incipient Relapse in an Integrated Multiple Personality Disorder Patient: A Clinical Note  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autohypnotic techniques to monitor the stability of integration were taught to a newly integrated patient who had suffered multiple personality disorder. After 7 years of integration, the patient, in rapid succession, recovered a long-buried traumatic memory and witnessed an extremely upsetting event. Becoming aware of the incipient formation of a new personality to sequester these stressors, she used the autohypnotic

Richard P. Kluft

1988-01-01

137

Playing for Time: Temporizing Techniques in the Treatment of Multiple Personality Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The treatment of multiple personality disorder (MPD) is often a prolonged and grueling enterprise, which imposes taxing demands upon the therapist and the patient alike. It becomes quite important to pace the therapy, lest the already beleaguered patient become both acutely and chronically overwhelmed. The majority of the extant literature on the use of hypnosis for the treatment of MPD

Richard P. Kluft

1989-01-01

138

Multiple Hits, Including Oxidative Stress, as Pathogenesis and Treatment Target in Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH)  

PubMed Central

Multiple parallel hits, including genetic differences, insulin resistance and intestinal microbiota, account for the progression of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Multiple hits induce adipokine secretion, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and oxidative stress at the cellular level that subsequently induce hepatic steatosis, inflammation and fibrosis, among which oxidative stress is considered a key contributor to progression from simple fatty liver to NASH. Although several clinical trials have shown that anti-oxidative therapy can effectively control hepatitis activities in the short term, the long-term effect remains obscure. Several trials of long-term anti-oxidant protocols aimed at treating cerebrovascular diseases or cancer development have failed to produce a benefit. This might be explained by the non-selective anti-oxidative properties of these drugs. Molecular hydrogen is an effective antioxidant that reduces only cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) and several diseases associated with oxidative stress are sensitive to hydrogen. The progress of NASH to hepatocellular carcinoma can be controlled using hydrogen-rich water. Thus, targeting mitochondrial oxidative stress might be a good candidate for NASH treatment. Long term clinical intervention is needed to control this complex lifestyle-related disease. PMID:24132155

Takaki, Akinobu; Kawai, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Kazuhide

2013-01-01

139

Including Students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Mainstream Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Around 80% of pupils with attention deficit disorders are educated in mainstream schools. The difficulties relating to inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity experienced by such pupils present mainstream educators with a unique set of challenges and opportunities. In this article, Neil Humphrey, Senior Lecturer in the Psychology of Education…

Humphrey, Neil

2009-01-01

140

Exploring Teachers' Strategies for Including Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Mainstream Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the rates of diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) increase and more students with ASD are enrolled in mainstream schools, educators face many challenges in teaching and managing social and behavioural development while ensuring academic success for all students. This descriptive, qualitative study, embedded within an inclusive…

Lindsay, Sally; Proulx, Meghann; Scott, Helen; Thomson, Nicole

2014-01-01

141

A new expanded host range of Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus includes three agricultural crops.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV) was identified in the fall of 2006 affecting cucurbit production in the Imperial Valley of California, the adjacent Yuma, AZ region, as well as nearby Sonora, Mexico. There was nearly universal infection of fall melon crops in 2006 and 2007, and late,...

142

Benefits of Including Siblings in the Treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Having a brother or sister with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can significantly impact the life of a typically developing sibling. These relationships are generally characterized by less frequent and nurturing interactions than are evident in sibling constellations with neurotypical children or children with other developmental disabilities.…

Ferraioli, Suzannah J.; Hansford, Amy; Harris, Sandra L.

2012-01-01

143

Analytical expressions for the gate utilization factors of passive multiplicity counters including signal build-up  

SciTech Connect

In the realm of nuclear safeguards, passive neutron multiplicity counting using shift register pulse train analysis to nondestructively quantify Pu in product materials is a familiar and widely applied technique. The approach most commonly taken is to construct a neutron detector consisting of {sup 3}He filled cylindrical proportional counters embedded in a high density polyethylene moderator. Fast neutrons from the item enter the moderator and are quickly slowed down, on timescales of the order of 1-2 {micro}s, creating a thermal population which then persists typically for several 10's {micro}s and is sampled by the {sup 3}He detectors. Because the initial transient is of comparatively short duration it has been traditional to treat it as instantaneous and furthermore to approximate the subsequent capture time distribution as exponential in shape. With these approximations simple expressions for the various Gate Utilization Factors (GUFs) can be obtained. These factors represent the proportion of time correlated events i.e. Doubles and Triples signal present in the pulse train that is detected by the coincidence gate structure chosen (predelay and gate width settings of the multiplicity shift register). More complicated expressions can be derived by generalizing the capture time distribution to multiple time components or harmonics typically present in real systems. When it comes to applying passive neutron multiplicity methods to extremely intense (i.e. high emission rate and highly multiplying) neutron sources there is a drive to use detector types with very fast response characteristics in order to cope with the high rates. In addition to short pulse width, detectors with a short capture time profile are also desirable so that a short coincidence gate width can be set in order to reduce the chance or Accidental coincidence signal. In extreme cases, such as might be realized using boron loaded scintillators, the dieaway time may be so short that the build-up (thermalization transient) within the detector cannot be ignored. Another example where signal build-up might be observed is when a {sup 3}He based system is used to track the evolution of the time correlated signal created by a higher multiplying item within a reflective configuration such as the measurement of a spent fuel assembly. In this work we develop expressions for the GUFs which include signal build-up.

Croft, Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Evans, Louise G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schear, Melissa A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01

144

Multiple cell photoresponsive amorphous photo voltaic devices including graded ban gaps  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an improved photoresponsive tandem multiple cell device. It comprises: at least first and second superimposed solar cells; the first cell being formed of an amorphous silicon alloy material; the second amorphous silicon alloy cell having an active photoresponsive region in which radiation can impinge to produce charge carriers. The amorphous silicon alloy cell body including at least one element for reducing the density of defect states to about 10{sup 16} defects per cubic centimeter and a band gap adjusting element graded through at least a portion of the photoresponsive region thereof to enhance the radiation absorption; the adjusting element being germanium, and the band gap of the cell being adjusted for a specified photoresponse wavelength threshold function different from the first cell; the second cell being a multi-layer body having deposited silicon alloy layers of opposite (p and n) conductivity type; and the first cell being formed with the second cell in substantially direct junction contact therebetween.

Ovshinsky, S.R.; Adler, D.

1990-09-04

145

Joint linkage of multiple loci for a complex disorder  

SciTech Connect

Many investigators who have been searching for linkage to complex diseases have by now accumulated a drawer full of negative results. If disease is actually caused by genes at several loci, these data might contain multiple-locus system (MLS) information that the investigator does not realize. Trying to obtain this information formally, through the MLS likelihood, leads to severe computational and statistical difficulties. Therefore, the authors propose a scheme of inference based on single-locus (SL) statistics, considered jointly. By simulation, they find that the MLS lod score is closely approximated by the sum of SL lod scores. However, they also find that for moderately large systems, say three or four loci, both MLS and SL lod scores are likely to be inconclusive. Nonetheless, MLS can often be detected through the correlation of individual pedigree SL lod scores. Significant correlation is itself evidence of an MLS, because, in the absence of linkage, false-positive lod scores are necessarily random. Under epistasis SL lod scores tend to be positively correlated among pedigrees, while under independent action SL lod scores from high-density samples tend to be negatively correlated. 24 refs., 10 tabs.

MacLean, C.J.; Kendler, K.S.; Sham, P.C. (Virginia Commonwealth Univ., Richmond (United States))

1993-08-01

146

Pathogenetic model for Tourette syndrome delineates overlap with related neurodevelopmental disorders including Autism  

PubMed Central

Tourette syndrome (TS) is a highly heritable neuropsychiatric disorder characterised by motor and vocal tics. Despite decades of research, the aetiology of TS has remained elusive. Recent successes in gene discovery backed by rapidly advancing genomic technologies have given us new insights into the genetic basis of the disorder, but the growing collection of rare and disparate findings have added confusion and complexity to the attempts to translate these findings into neurobiological mechanisms resulting in symptom genesis. In this review, we explore a previously unrecognised genetic link between TS and a competing series of trans-synaptic complexes (neurexins (NRXNs), neuroligins (NLGNs), leucine-rich repeat transmembrane proteins (LRRTMs), leucine rich repeat neuronals (LRRNs) and cerebellin precursor 2 (CBLN2)) that links it with autism spectrum disorder through neurodevelopmental pathways. The emergent neuropathogenetic model integrates all five genes so far found to be uniquely disrupted in TS into a single pathogenetic chain of events described in context with clinical and research implications. PMID:22948383

Clarke, R A; Lee, S; Eapen, V

2012-01-01

147

RNA interference screening identifies lenalidomide sensitizers in multiple myeloma, including RSK2  

PubMed Central

To identify molecular targets that modify sensitivity to lenalidomide, we measured proliferation in multiple myeloma (MM) cells transfected with 27?968 small interfering RNAs in the presence of increasing concentrations of drug and identified 63 genes that enhance activity of lenalidomide upon silencing. Ribosomal protein S6 kinase (RPS6KA3 or RSK2) was the most potent sensitizer. Other notable gene targets included 5 RAB family members, 3 potassium channel proteins, and 2 peroxisome family members. Single genes of interest included I-?-B kinase-? (CHUK), and a phosphorylation dependent transcription factor (CREB1), which associate with RSK2 to regulate several signaling pathways. RSK2 knockdown induced cytotoxicity across a panel of MM cell lines and consistently increased sensitivity to lenalidomide. Accordingly, 3 small molecular inhibitors of RSK2 demonstrated synergy with lenalidomide cytotoxicity in MM cells even in the presence of stromal contact. Both RSK2 knockdown and small molecule inhibition downregulate interferon regulatory factor 4 and MYC, and provides an explanation for the synergy between lenalidomide and RSK2 inhibition. Interestingly, RSK2 inhibition also sensitized MM cells to bortezomib, melphalan, and dexamethasone, but did not downregulate Ikaros or influence lenalidomide-mediated downregulation of tumor necrosis factor-? or increase lenalidomide-induced IL-2 upregulation. In summary, inhibition of RSK2 may prove a broadly useful adjunct to MM therapy. PMID:25395420

Zhu, Yuan Xiao; Yin, Hongwei; Bruins, Laura A.; Shi, Chang-Xin; Jedlowski, Patrick; Aziz, Meraj; Sereduk, Chris; Kortuem, Klaus Martin; Schmidt, Jessica E.; Champion, Mia; Braggio, Esteban

2015-01-01

148

RNA interference screening identifies lenalidomide sensitizers in multiple myeloma, including RSK2.  

PubMed

To identify molecular targets that modify sensitivity to lenalidomide, we measured proliferation in multiple myeloma (MM) cells transfected with 27?968 small interfering RNAs in the presence of increasing concentrations of drug and identified 63 genes that enhance activity of lenalidomide upon silencing. Ribosomal protein S6 kinase (RPS6KA3 or RSK2) was the most potent sensitizer. Other notable gene targets included 5 RAB family members, 3 potassium channel proteins, and 2 peroxisome family members. Single genes of interest included I-?-B kinase-? (CHUK), and a phosphorylation dependent transcription factor (CREB1), which associate with RSK2 to regulate several signaling pathways. RSK2 knockdown induced cytotoxicity across a panel of MM cell lines and consistently increased sensitivity to lenalidomide. Accordingly, 3 small molecular inhibitors of RSK2 demonstrated synergy with lenalidomide cytotoxicity in MM cells even in the presence of stromal contact. Both RSK2 knockdown and small molecule inhibition downregulate interferon regulatory factor 4 and MYC, and provides an explanation for the synergy between lenalidomide and RSK2 inhibition. Interestingly, RSK2 inhibition also sensitized MM cells to bortezomib, melphalan, and dexamethasone, but did not downregulate Ikaros or influence lenalidomide-mediated downregulation of tumor necrosis factor-? or increase lenalidomide-induced IL-2 upregulation. In summary, inhibition of RSK2 may prove a broadly useful adjunct to MM therapy. PMID:25395420

Zhu, Yuan Xiao; Yin, Hongwei; Bruins, Laura A; Shi, Chang-Xin; Jedlowski, Patrick; Aziz, Meraj; Sereduk, Chris; Kortuem, Klaus Martin; Schmidt, Jessica E; Champion, Mia; Braggio, Esteban; Keith Stewart, A

2015-01-15

149

Zebrafish homologs of 16p11.2, a genomic region associated with brain disorders, are active during brain development, and include two deletion dosage sensor genes  

E-print Network

Deletion or duplication of one copy of the human 16p11.2 interval is tightly associated with impaired brain function, including autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), intellectual disability disorder (IDD) and other phenotypes, ...

Blaker-Lee, Alicia

150

Learning from extremism in the history of mental health. The example of multiple personality disorder.  

PubMed

This article reviews some of the history of the cultural forces that shaped the diagnosis of multiple personality disorder/dissociative identity disorder and the subsequent abuses that occurred at the time of its popularization. Some of the implications that can be drawn from these kinds of historical excesses in the field of mental health will be discussed. The article concludes by underscoring the ethical obligation inherent in maintaining healthy professional skepticism toward ideas driven by ideology and fad, rather than scientific empiricism. PMID:12016690

Mohr, Wanda K

2002-05-01

151

Dubowitz Syndrome Is a Complex Comprised of Multiple, Genetically Distinct and Phenotypically Overlapping Disorders  

PubMed Central

Dubowitz syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by multiple congenital anomalies, cognitive delay, growth failure, an immune defect, and an increased risk of blood dyscrasia and malignancy. There is considerable phenotypic variability, suggesting genetic heterogeneity. We clinically characterized and performed exome sequencing and high-density array SNP genotyping on three individuals with Dubowitz syndrome, including a pair of previously-described siblings (Patients 1 and 2, brother and sister) and an unpublished patient (Patient 3). Given the siblings' history of bone marrow abnormalities, we also evaluated telomere length and performed radiosensitivity assays. In the siblings, exome sequencing identified compound heterozygosity for a known rare nonsense substitution in the nuclear ligase gene LIG4 (rs104894419, NM_002312.3:c.2440C>T) that predicts p.Arg814X (MAF:0.0002) and an NM_002312.3:c.613delT variant that predicts a p.Ser205Leufs*29 frameshift. The frameshift mutation has not been reported in 1000 Genomes, ESP, or ClinSeq. These LIG4 mutations were previously reported in the sibling sister; her brother had not been previously tested. Western blotting showed an absence of a ligase IV band in both siblings. In the third patient, array SNP genotyping revealed a de novo ?3.89 Mb interstitial deletion at chromosome 17q24.2 (chr 17:62,068,463–65,963,102, hg18), which spanned the known Carney complex gene PRKAR1A. In all three patients, a median lymphocyte telomere length of ?1st centile was observed and radiosensitivity assays showed increased sensitivity to ionizing radiation. Our work suggests that, in addition to dyskeratosis congenita, LIG4 and 17q24.2 syndromes also feature shortened telomeres; to confirm this, telomere length testing should be considered in both disorders. Taken together, our work and other reports on Dubowitz syndrome, as currently recognized, suggest that it is not a unitary entity but instead a collection of phenotypically similar disorders. As a clinical entity, Dubowitz syndrome will need continual re-evaluation and re-definition as its constituent phenotypes are determined. PMID:24892279

Stewart, Douglas R.; Pemov, Alexander; Johnston, Jennifer J.; Sapp, Julie C.; Yeager, Meredith; He, Ji; Boland, Joseph F.; Burdett, Laurie; Brown, Christina; Gatti, Richard A.; Alter, Blanche P.; Biesecker, Leslie G.; Savage, Sharon A.

2014-01-01

152

Experience of gratitude, awe and beauty in life among patients with multiple sclerosis and psychiatric disorders  

PubMed Central

Background Feelings of gratitude and awe facilitate perceptions and cognitions that go beyond the focus of illness and include positive aspects of one’s personal and interpersonal reality, even in the face of disease. We intended to measure feelings of gratitude, awe, and experiences of beauty in life among patients with multiple sclerosis and psychiatric disorders, particularly with respect to their engagement in specific spiritual/religious practices and their life satisfaction. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey with standardized questionnaires to measure engagement in various spiritual practices (SpREUK-P) and their relation to experiences of Gratitude, Awe and Beauty in Life and life satisfaction (BMLSS-10). In total, 461 individuals (41?±?13 years; 68% women) with multiple sclerosis (46%) and depressive (22%) or other psychiatric disorders (32%) participated. Results Among participants, 23% never, 43% rarely, 24% often, and 10% frequently experienced Gratitude. In contrast, 41% never, 37% rarely, 17% often, and 6% frequently experienced Awe. Beauty in Life was never experienced by 8% of the sample, and 28% rarely, 46% often, and 18% frequently experienced it. Gratitude (F?=?9.2; p?=?.003) and Beauty in Life (F?=?6.0; p?=?.015) were experienced significantly more often by women than men. However, the experience of Awe did not differ between women and men (F?=?2.2; n.s.). In contrast to our hypothesis, Gratitude/Awe cannot explain any relevant variance in patients’ life satisfaction (R2?=?.04). Regression analyses (R2?=?.42) revealed that Gratitude/Awe can be predicted best by a person’s engagement in religious practices, followed by other forms of spiritual practices and life satisfaction. Female gender was a weak predictor and underlying disease showed no effect. Conclusions Gratitude/Awe could be regarded as a life orientation towards noticing and appreciating the positive in life - despite the symptoms of disease. Positive spirituality/religiosity seems to be a source of gratitude and appreciation in life, whereas patients with neither spiritual nor religious sentiments (R-S-) seem to have a lower awareness for these feelings. PMID:24779860

2014-01-01

153

Multiple Yeast Genes, Including Paf1 Complex Genes, Affect Telomere Length via Telomerase RNA Abundance? †  

PubMed Central

Twofold reductions in telomerase RNA levels cause telomere shortening in both humans and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To test whether multiple genes that affect telomere length act by modulating telomerase RNA abundance, we used real-time reverse transcription-PCR to screen S. cerevisiae deletion strains reported to maintain shorter or longer telomeres to determine the levels of their telomerase RNA (TLC1) abundance. Of 290 strains screened, 5 had increased TLC1 levels; 4 of these maintained longer telomeres. Twenty strains had decreased TLC1 levels; 18 of these are known to maintain shorter telomeres. Four strains with decreased TLC1 RNA levels contained deletions of subunits of Paf1C (polymerase II-associated factor complex). While Paf1C had been implicated in the transcription of both polyadenylated and nonpolyadenylated RNAs, Paf1C had not been associated previously with the noncoding telomerase RNA. In Paf1C mutant strains, TLC1 overexpression partially rescues telomere length and cell growth defects, suggesting that telomerase RNA is a critical direct or indirect Paf1C target. Other factors newly identified as affecting TLC1 RNA levels include cyclin-dependent kinase, the mediator complex, protein phosphatase 2A, and ribosomal proteins L13B and S16A. This report establishes that a subset of telomere length genes act by modulating telomerase RNA abundance. PMID:18411302

Mozdy, Amy D.; Podell, Elaine R.; Cech, Thomas R.

2008-01-01

154

An olfactory-limbic model of multiple chemical sensitivity syndrome: Possible relationships to kindling and affective spectrum disorders  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews the clinical and experimental literature on patients with multiple adverse responses to chemicals (Multiple Chemical Sensitivity Syndrome-MCS) and develops a model for MCS based on olfactory-limbic system dysfunction that overlaps in part with Post's kindling model for affective disorders. MCS encompasses a broad range of chronic polysymptomatic conditions and complaints whose triggers are reported to include low levels of common indoor and outdoor environmental chemicals, such as pesticides and solvents. Other investigators have found evidence of increased prevalence of depression, anxiety, and somatization disorders in MCS patients and have concluded that their psychiatric conditions account for the clinical picture. However, none of these studies has presented any data on the effects of chemicals on symptoms or on objective measures of nervous system function. Synthesis of the MCS literature with large bodies of research in neurotoxicology, occupational medicine, and biological psychiatry, suggests that the phenomenology of MCS patients overlaps that of affective spectrum disorders and that both involve dysfunction of the limbic pathways. Animal studies demonstrate that intermittent repeated low level environmental chemical exposures, including pesticides, cause limbic kindling. Kindling (full or partial) is one central nervous system mechanism that could amplify reactivity to low levels of inhaled and ingested chemicals and initiate persistent affective, cognitive, and somatic symptomatology in both occupational and nonoccupational settings. As in animal studies, inescapable and novel stressors could cross-sensitize with chemical exposures in some individuals to generate adverse responses on a neurochemical basis. The olfactory-limbic model raises testable neurobiological hypotheses that could increase understanding of the multifactorial etiology of MCS and of certain overlapping affective spectrum disorders. 170 refs.

Bell, I.R.; Miller, C.S.; Schwartz, G.E. (Univ. of Arizona Health Sciences Center, Tucson (United States))

1992-08-01

155

Transitions from order to disorder in multiple dark and multiple dark-bright soliton atomic clouds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have performed a systematic study quantifying the variation of solitary wave behavior from that of an ordered cloud resembling a "crystalline" configuration to that of a disordered state that can be characterized as a soliton "gas." As our illustrative examples, we use both one-component, as well as two-component, one-dimensional atomic gases very close to zero temperature, where in the presence of repulsive interatomic interactions and of a parabolic trap, a cloud of dark (dark-bright) solitons can form in the one- (two-) component system. We corroborate our findings through three distinct types of approaches, namely a Gross-Pitaevskii type of partial differential equation, particle-based ordinary differential equations describing the soliton dynamical system, and Monte Carlo simulations for the particle system. We define an "empirical" order parameter to characterize the order of the soliton lattices and study how this changes as a function of the strength of the "thermally" (i.e., kinetically) induced perturbations. As may be anticipated by the one-dimensional nature of our system, the transition from order to disorder is gradual without, apparently, a genuine phase transition ensuing in the intermediate regime.

Wang, Wenlong; Kevrekidis, P. G.

2015-03-01

156

A Case Study of Tack Tiles[R] Literacy Instruction for a Student with Multiple Disabilities Including Congenital Blindness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on literacy instruction for students with multiple disabilities is limited. Empirical research on braille instruction for students with multiple disabilities that include congenital blindness is virtually nonexistent. This case study offers initial insight into possible methods of early braille literacy instruction for a student with…

Klenk, Jessicia A.; Pufpaff, Lisa A.

2011-01-01

157

Systems of Selves: the Construction of Meaning in Multiple Personality Disorder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current models for understanding both Multiple Personality Disorder and human mentation in general are both linear in nature and self-perpetuating insofar as most research in this area has been informed and shaped by extant psychological concepts, paradigms and methods. The research for this dissertation made use of anthropological concepts and methods in an attempt to gain a richer understanding of both multiple personality and fundamental universal processes of the mind. Intensive fieldwork using in-depth, open-ended interviewing techniques was conducted with people diagnosed with Multiple Personality Disorder with the purpose of mapping their personality systems in order to discover the nature of the relationships between the various alternate personalities and subsystems comprising the overall personality systems. These data were then analyzed in terms of dynamical systems theory ("Chaos Theory") as a way of understanding various phenomena of multiple personality disorder as well as the overall structure of each system. It was found that the application of the formal characteristics of nonlinear models and equations to multiple personality systems provided a number of new perspectives on mental phenomena. The underlying organizational structure of multiple personality systems can be understood as a phenomenon of spontaneous self-organization in far-from -equilibrium states which characterizes dissipative structures. Chaos Theory allows the perspective that the nature of the process of the self and the nature of relationship are one and the same, and that both can be conceived as ideas in struggle at a fractal boundary. Further, such application makes it possible to postulate an iterative process which would have as one of its consequences the formation of a processural self who is conscious of self as separate self. Finally, given that the iterative application of a few simple rules (or instructions) can result in complex systems, an attempt was made to discern what the rules pertaining to human mentation might be.

Hughes, Dureen Jean

158

Dissociative disorders.  

PubMed

The dissociative disorders, including "psychogenic" or "functional" amnesia, fugue, dissociative identity disorder (DID, also known as multiple personality disorder), and depersonalization disorder, were once classified, along with conversion disorder, as forms of hysteria. The 1970s witnessed an "epidemic" of dissociative disorder, particularly DID, which may have reflected enthusiasm for the diagnosis more than its actual prevalence. Traditionally, the dissociative disorders have been attributed to trauma and other psychological stress, but the existing evidence favoring this hypothesis is plagued by poor methodology. Prospective studies of traumatized individuals reveal no convincing cases of amnesia not attributable to brain insult, injury, or disease. Treatment generally involves recovering and working through ostensibly repressed or dissociated memories of trauma; at present, there are few quantitative or controlled outcome studies. Experimental studies are few in number and have focused largely on state-dependent and implicit memory. Depersonalization disorder may be in line for the next "epidemic" of dissociation. PMID:17716088

Kihlstrom, John F

2005-01-01

159

Bariatric Surgery and Multiple Personality Disorder: Complexities and Nuances of Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Multiple personality disorder (MPD) can occur in patients with morbid obesity in need of bariatric surgery, though\\u000a few reports noting this association exist in the literature. Herein we address MPD in morbid obesity, in the context of a\\u000a patient presenting to us seeking surgical treatment of her morbid obesity. Methods: A 31-year-old morbidly obese (BMI 49 kg\\/m2) Hispanic female

Mark Bloomston; Emmanuel E. Zervos; Pauline S. Powers; Alexander S. Rosemurgy

1997-01-01

160

MULTIPLE PERSONALITY DISORDER AND SATANIC RITUAL ABUSE: THE ISSUE OF CREDIBILITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The issue of satanic ritual abuse has gained widespread public and professional attention in. the past 10 years. During therapy, many adult AMPI) (multiple personality disorder) patients describe memo- ries of .such abuse beginning in childhood..Simultaneou.sly, there are pre-school children reporting cnrrent incidents of sexual and physical abuse involving salanism in day care settings. Professionals specifi- cally addressing the day

Susan C. Van Benschoten

161

Associations Between Multiple Types of Stress and Disordered Eating Among Girls and Boys in Middle School  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stress is common during adolescence, yet no known studies have linked particular types of stress (performance, relationship,\\u000a education, financial, and family) with disordered eating among adolescents in middle school. The present study investigated\\u000a sex differences in types of stress and how multiple types of stress were associated with girls’ and boys’ body dissatisfaction,\\u000a dieting behaviors, and bulimic symptoms. We found

Elizabeth H. Blodgett Salafia; Jessica L. Lemer

162

Thermoelectric material including a multiple transition metal-doped type I clathrate crystal structure  

DOEpatents

A thermoelectric material includes a multiple transition metal-doped type I clathrate crystal structure having the formula A.sub.8TM.sub.y.sub.1.sup.1TM.sub.y.sub.2.sup.2 . . . TM.sub.y.sub.n.sup.nM.sub.zX.sub.46-y.sub.1.sub.-y.sub.2.sub.- . . . -y.sub.n.sub.-z. In the formula, A is selected from the group consisting of barium, strontium, and europium; X is selected from the group consisting of silicon, germanium, and tin; M is selected from the group consisting of aluminum, gallium, and indium; TM.sup.1, TM.sup.2, and TM.sup.n are independently selected from the group consisting of 3d, 4d, and 5d transition metals; and y.sub.1, y.sub.2, y.sub.n and Z are actual compositions of TM.sup.1, TM.sup.2, TM.sup.n, and M, respectively. The actual compositions are based upon nominal compositions derived from the following equation: z=8q.sub.A-|.DELTA.q.sub.1|y.sub.1-|.DELTA.q.sub.2|y.sub.2- . . . -|.DELTA.q.sub.n|y.sub.n, wherein q.sub.A is a charge state of A, and wherein .DELTA.q.sub.1, .DELTA.q.sub.2, .DELTA.q.sub.n are, respectively, the nominal charge state of the first, second, and n-th TM.

Yang, Jihui (Lakeshore, CA); Shi, Xun (Troy, MI); Bai, Shengqiang (Shanghai, CN); Zhang, Wenqing (Shanghai, CN); Chen, Lidong (Shanghai, CN); Yang, Jiong (Shanghai, CN)

2012-01-17

163

Including Parent Training in the Early Childhood Special Education Curriculum for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parent training has been shown to be a very effective method for promoting gen- eralization and maintenance of skills in children with autism. However, despite its well- established benefits, few public school programs include parent training as part of the early childhood special education (ECSE) curriculum. Barriers to the provision of parent training include the need for parent education models

Brooke Ingersoll; Anna Dvortcsak

2006-01-01

164

Adipocyte insensitivity syndromes -- novel approach to nutritional metabolic problems including obesity and obesity related disorders.  

PubMed

Progresses in molecular biology have highlighted the central role of adipocytes in the development of obesity and other nutrition based disorders. Adipocytes, by virtue of their excellent and sensitive molecular machinery, seem to reflect nutritional alterations very precisely. Adipocyte determination and differentiation factor 1 (ADD1)/sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), which is the main transcription factor, regulates the characteristic features of adipocyte, senses the glucose and fat excess and draws the excess into the adipocyte to preserve energy, and maintains the blood biochemistry within physiological ranges. ADD1/SREBP-1c has regulatory functions via transactivation over the other important mature adipocyte markers such as leptin, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) and lipogenic enzymes. In this paper, considering to the role of ADD1/SREBP-1c on adipogenic markers, two new concepts have been defined: the first is sensitive adipocyte, implying a fat cell that functions perfectly at molecular level; and the second is adipocyte insensitivity syndrome (AIS), in which deviations from the optimal function of adipocyte leads to various metabolic abnormalities. The two extreme ends for adipocyte function; obesity and lipodystrophy, and intermediate spectrums between these are categorized into four subgroups. According to this categorization, responses of adipogenic markers to the stimulation of the master transcription factor, ADD1/SREBP-1c might be different in adipocytes: higher lipogenic enzymes activities in type I AIS, insufficient transactivation of leptin in type II AIS, failure in the expression of PPARgamma in type III AIS, and insufficient increases of lipogenic enzymes in type IV AIS. The novel AIS classification, which asserts that the adipocyte has a central importance for the development of metabolic devastating diseases like obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and atherosclerosis, provides simpler but effective answers for the puzzle by unifying the recent, good quality studies and points out to new therapeutic approaches, highlighting the possible molecular defects. PMID:15694704

Erol, Adnan

2005-01-01

165

REM sleep behaviour disorder differentiates pure autonomic failure from multiple system atrophy with autonomic failure  

PubMed Central

Ten patients with primary autonomic failure, followed up in a prospective clinical and laboratory study, were finally diagnosed as pure autonomic failure or multiple system atrophy with autonomic failure. Polysomnographic studies were performed in all patients. Whereas all four patients with multiple system atrophy complained of sleep related episodes suggesting REM sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) confirmed by polysomnography, RBD remained absent in the remaining six patients with pure autonomic failure. The data indicate that RBD is an important clinical feature, often heralding multiple system atrophy, but which is absent throughout the course of pure autonomic failure; its recognition can thus be useful in the prognostic evaluation of early primary autonomic failure syndromes.?? PMID:9598693

Plazzi, G.; Cortelli, P.; Montagna, P.; De Monte, A.; Corsini, R.; Contin, M.; Provini, F.; Pierangeli, G.; Lugaresi, E.

1998-01-01

166

An uncommon disorder with multiple skeletal anomalies: Gorlin-Goltz syndrome.  

PubMed

Gorlin-Goltz syndrome is an uncommon disorder transmitted through autosomal dominant inheritance. This syndrome is characterized by multiple odontogenic keratocysts, along with congenital skeletal anomalies and basal cell carcinomas. A 16-year-old girl was admitted with a complaint of swelling on the lower jaw. She had multiple basal cell nevi on both hands. Multiple lytic bone lesions on radiographs were defined as odontogenic keratocysts following the biopsy. The patient was referred to the Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation for detailed musculoskeletal evaluation. Adam's forward bend test revealed a hump on the right side representing right thoracic scoliosis. Cervical kyphosis, thoracic lordosis and scoliosis, bifid rib and sacral and lumbar spina bifida on plain radiographs led to the diagnosis of Gorlin-Goltz syndrome. Since early diagnosis may provide optimum surveillance for related neoplasms, it is of paramount importance for pediatricians as well as physicians dealing with the musculoskeletal system to be aware of this rare condition. PMID:25818966

Keçeli, Onur; Coskun-Benliday?, ?lke; Benliday?, M Emre; Erdo?an, Özgür

2014-01-01

167

Genetic Disorders of Membrane Transport II. Regulation of CFTR by small molecules including HCO3  

E-print Network

Physiol. 38): G1221­G1226, 1998.-- Cystic fibrosis (CF) affects a number of epithelial tissues, including as well as of intra- and extracellu- lar pH. cystic fibrosis; cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator; pharmacology; epithelial transport; chloride secre- tion CYSTIC FIBROSIS (CF) is the most common

Machen, Terry E.

168

Treatment of Comorbid Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Anxiety in Children : A Multiple Baseline Design Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The present study evaluated a 10-week psychosocial treatment designed specifically for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and a comorbid anxiety disorder. Method: Using a nonconcurrent multiple baseline design, the authors treated 8 children ages 8-12 with ADHD, combined type, and at least 1 of 3 major anxiety…

Jarrett, Matthew A.; Ollendick, Thomas H.

2012-01-01

169

Prenatal diagnosis and genetic analysis of fetal akinesia deformation sequence and multiple pterygium syndrome associated with neuromuscular junction disorders: a review.  

PubMed

Fetal akinesia deformation sequence is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorder characterized by a variable combination of arthrogryposis, fetal akinesia, intrauterine growth restriction, developmental abnormalities such as cystic hygroma, pulmonary hypoplasia, cleft palate, cryptorchidism, cardiac defects and intestinal malrotation, and occasional pterygia of the limbs. Multiple pterygium syndrome is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorder characterized by pterygia of the neck, elbows and/or knees, arthrogryposis, and other phenotypic features such as short stature, genital abnormalities, craniofacial abnormalities, clubfoot, kyphoscoliosis, and cardiac abnormalities. Fetal akinesia deformation sequence may phenotypically overlap with the lethal type of multiple pterygium syndrome. This article provides a comprehensive review of prenatal diagnosis and genetic analysis of fetal akinesia deformation sequence and multiple pterygium syndrome associated with neuromuscular junction disorders. Prenatal diagnosis of fetal akinesia along with cystic hygroma, increased nuchal translucency, nuchal edema, hydrops fetalis, arthrogryposis, pterygia, and other structural abnormalities should include a differential diagnosis of neuromuscular junction disorders. Genetic analysis of mutations in the neuromuscular junction genes such as CHRNA1, CHRND, CHRNG, CNTN1, DOK7, RAPSN, and SYNE1 may unveil the pathogenetic cause of fetal akinesia deformation sequence and multiple pterygium syndrome, and the information acquired is helpful for genetic counseling and clinical management. PMID:22482962

Chen, Chih-Ping

2012-03-01

170

Mary Reynolds: a post-traumatic reinterpretation of a classic case of multiple personality disorder.  

PubMed

In 1811 Mary Reynolds, a somber Pennsylvania spinster, awoke from a prolonged sleep as a new personality. Family memoirs describing her 18 years of shifts between two personalities shaped nineteenth century thinking about multiple personality disorder. As in other early case histories, no mention was made of childhood trauma, a factor found in 97% of contemporary cases. This discussion reviews genealogical and historical documents which suggest that Mary Reynolds did experience early trauma as a victim of religious persecution, which finally forced her family to leave Birmingham, England, when Mary was eight. Review of her illness indicates it may have functioned to eradicate memories of traumatic early experiences. PMID:3308663

Goodwin, J

1987-01-01

171

Multiple Victimizations Before and After Leaving Home Associated With PTSD, Depression, and Substance Use Disorder Among Homeless Youth.  

PubMed

Exposure to multiple forms of maltreatment during childhood is associated with serious mental health consequences among youth in the general population, but limited empirical attention has focused on homeless youth-a population with markedly high rates of childhood maltreatment followed by elevated rates of street victimization. This study investigated the rates of multiple childhood abuses (physical, sexual, and emotional abuse) and multiple street victimizations (robbery, physical assault, and sexual assault) and examined their relative relationships to mental health outcomes (meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision, criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder [PTSD], depression, and substance use disorder) among a large (N = 601) multisite sample of homeless youth. Approximately 79% of youth retrospectively reported multiple childhood abuses (two or more types) and 28% reported multiple street victimizations (two or more types). Each additional type of street victimization nearly doubled youths' odds for meeting criteria for substance use disorder. Furthermore, each additional type of childhood abuse experienced more than doubled youths' odds for meeting criteria for PTSD. Both multiple abuses and multiple street victimizations were associated with an approximate twofold increase in meeting depression criteria. Findings suggest the need for screening, assessment, and trauma-informed services for homeless youth who consider multiple types of abuse and victimization experiences. PMID:25510502

Bender, Kimberly; Brown, Samantha M; Thompson, Sanna J; Ferguson, Kristin M; Langenderfer, Lisa

2015-05-01

172

MPV17 Mutations Causing Adult-Onset Multisystemic Disorder With Multiple Mitochondrial DNA Deletions  

PubMed Central

Objective To identify the cause of an adult-onset multisystemic disease with multiple deletions of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Design Case report. Setting University hospitals. Patient A 65-year-old man with axonal sensorimotor peripheral neuropathy, ptosis, ophthalmoparesis, diabetes mellitus, exercise intolerance, steatohepatopathy, depression, parkinsonism, and gastrointestinal dysmotility. Results Skeletal muscle biopsy revealed ragged-red and cytochrome-c oxidase–deficient fibers, and Southern blot analysis showed multiple mtDNA deletions. No deletions were detected in fibroblasts, and the results of quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed that the amount of mtDNA was normal in both muscle and fibroblasts. Exome sequencing using a mitochondrial library revealed compound heterozygous MPV17 mutations (p.LysMet88-89MetLeu and p.Leu143*), a novel cause of mtDNA multiple deletions. Conclusions In addition to causing juvenile-onset disorders with mtDNA depletion, MPV17 mutations can cause adult-onset multisystemic disease with multiple mtDNA deletions. PMID:22964873

Garone, Caterina; Rubio, Juan Carlos; Calvo, Sarah E.; Naini, Ali; Tanji, Kurenai; DiMauro, Salvatore; Mootha, Vamsi K.; Hirano, Michio

2014-01-01

173

Multiple emergences of genetically diverse amphibian-infecting chytrids include a globalized hypervirulent recombinant lineage  

PubMed Central

Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is a globally ubiquitous fungal infection that has emerged to become a primary driver of amphibian biodiversity loss. Despite widespread effort to understand the emergence of this panzootic, the origins of the infection, its patterns of global spread, and principle mode of evolution remain largely unknown. Using comparative population genomics, we discovered three deeply diverged lineages of Bd associated with amphibians. Two of these lineages were found in multiple continents and are associated with known introductions by the amphibian trade. We found that isolates belonging to one clade, the global panzootic lineage (BdGPL) have emerged across at least five continents during the 20th century and are associated with the onset of epizootics in North America, Central America, the Caribbean, Australia, and Europe. The two newly identified divergent lineages, Cape lineage (BdCAPE) and Swiss lineage (BdCH), were found to differ in morphological traits when compared against one another and BdGPL, and we show that BdGPL is hypervirulent. BdGPL uniquely bears the hallmarks of genomic recombination, manifested as extensive intergenomic phylogenetic conflict and patchily distributed heterozygosity. We postulate that contact between previously genetically isolated allopatric populations of Bd may have allowed recombination to occur, resulting in the generation, spread, and invasion of the hypervirulent BdGPL leading to contemporary disease-driven losses in amphibian biodiversity. PMID:22065772

Farrer, Rhys A.; Weinert, Lucy A.; Bielby, Jon; Garner, Trenton W. J.; Balloux, Francois; Clare, Frances; Bosch, Jaime; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Weldon, Che; du Preez, Louis H.; Anderson, Lucy; Pond, Sergei L. Kosakovsky; Shahar-Golan, Revital; Henk, Daniel A.; Fisher, Matthew C.

2011-01-01

174

Effective Practices in Early Intervention: Infants Whose Multiple Disabilities Include Both Vision & Hearing Loss.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual documents key program development strategies and inservice training topics provided by the Model Demonstration Early Intervention Network Project. This project focused on building the capacity of early intervention programs to serve infants who are deaf-blind and their families. The first section covers program development and includes

Chen, Deborah; And Others

175

Simulation of multiple personalities: a review of research comparing diagnosed and simulated dissociative identity disorder.  

PubMed

Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) has long been surrounded by controversy due to disagreement about its etiology and the validity of its associated phenomena. Researchers have conducted studies comparing people diagnosed with DID and people simulating DID in order to better understand the disorder. The current research presents a systematic review of this DID simulation research. The literature consists of 20 studies and contains several replicated findings. Replicated differences between the groups include symptom presentation, identity presentation, and cognitive processing deficits. Replicated similarities between the groups include interidentity transfer of information as shown by measures of recall, recognition, and priming. Despite some consistent findings, this research literature is hindered by methodological flaws that reduce experimental validity. PMID:24291657

Boysen, Guy A; VanBergen, Alexandra

2014-02-01

176

Identification of Multiple Novel Viruses, Including a Parvovirus and a Hepevirus, in Feces of Red Foxes  

PubMed Central

Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) are the most widespread members of the order of Carnivora. Since they often live in (peri)urban areas, they are a potential reservoir of viruses that transmit from wildlife to humans or domestic animals. Here we evaluated the fecal viral microbiome of 13 red foxes by random PCR in combination with next-generation sequencing. Various novel viruses, including a parvovirus, bocavirus, adeno-associated virus, hepevirus, astroviruses, and picobirnaviruses, were identified. PMID:23616657

van der Giessen, Joke; Haagmans, Bart L.; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.; Smits, Saskia L.

2013-01-01

177

Parents' Adoption of Social Communication Intervention Strategies: Families Including Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Who are Minimally Verbal.  

PubMed

Notably absent from the intervention literature are parent training programs targeting school-aged children with autism who have limited communication skills (Tager-Flusberg and Kasari in Autism Res 6:468-478, 2013). Sixty-one children with autism age 5-8 with minimal spontaneous communication received a 6-month social communication intervention including parent training. Parent-child play interactions were coded for parents' strategy implementation and children's time jointly engaged (Adamson et al. in J Autism Dev Disord 39:84-96, 2009). Parents mastered an average of 70 % of the strategies. Further analyses indicated some gains in implementation occurred from mere observation of sessions, while the greatest gains occurred in the first month of active coaching and workshops. Children's joint engagement was associated with parents' implementation success across time demonstrating parents' implementation was relevant to children's social engagement. PMID:25475363

Shire, Stephanie Y; Goods, Kelly; Shih, Wendy; Distefano, Charlotte; Kaiser, Ann; Wright, Courtney; Mathy, Pamela; Landa, Rebecca; Kasari, Connie

2014-12-01

178

Relationship between Temporomandibular Disorders, Widespread Palpation Tenderness and Multiple Pain Conditions: A Case - Control Study  

PubMed Central

The multiple bodily pain conditions in temporomandibular disorders (TMD) have been associated with generalized alterations in pain processing. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the presence of widespread body palpation tenderness (WPT) and the likelihood of multiple comorbid pain conditions in TMD patients and controls. This case-control study was conducted in 76 TMD subjects with WPT, 83 TMD subjects without WPT, and 181 non-TMD matched control subjects. The study population was also characterized for clinical pain, experimental pain sensitivity, and related psychological phenotypes. Results showed that (1) TMD subjects reported an average of 1.7 comorbid pain conditions compared to 0.3 reported by the control subjects (p<0.001); (2) Compared to control subjects, the odds ratio (OR) for multiple comorbid pain conditions is higher for TMD subjects with WPT [OR 8.4 (95% CI 3.1–22.8) for TMD with WPT versus OR 3.3 (95% CI 1.3–8.4) for TMD without WPT]; (3) TMD subjects with WPT presented with reduced pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) in both cranial and extra-cranial regions compared to TMD subjects without WPT; and (4) TMD subjects with WPT reported increased somatic symptoms. These findings suggest that pain assessment outside of the orofacial region may prove valuable for the classification, diagnosis, and management of TMD patients. PMID:23031401

Chen, Hong; Slade, Gary; Lim, Pei Feng; Miller, Vanessa; Maixner, William; Diatchenko, Luda

2012-01-01

179

Statistical Analysis of EMIC Waves in Multiple Component Plasma Including Heavy Ions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well known that Earth's radiation belts are located around geomagnetic equator, where wide ranges of energetic particles from several hundred keV to several tens MeV are contained. According to the recent study, it is suggested that ELF/VLF waves such as EMIC waves and chorus emissions deeply contribute to the generation and loss mechanism of relativistic electrons in the radiation belt. The ERG mission[1] is expected to provide important clues for solving plasma dynamics in the Earth's radiation belts by means of integrated observation of wide energy range of plasma particles and high resolution plasma waves. On the other hand, long-term observation data which covers over 2 cycles of solar activity obtained by the Akebono satellite is very valuable to work out the strategy of the ERG mission. The ELF receiver, which is a sub-system of the VLF instruments onboard Akebono, measures waveforms below 50 Hz for one component of electric field and three components of magnetic field, or waveforms below 100 Hz for one component of electric and magnetic field, respectively. It was reported that ion cyclotron waves were observed near magnetic equator by the receiver[2]. In our previous study[3], we introduced four events of characteristic EMIC waves observed by Akebono in April, 1989. These waves have sudden decrease of intensity just above half of proton cyclotron frequency changing along the trajectories of Akebono. Comparing the observed data with the dispersion relation in multiple species of ions under cold plasma approximation, we demonstrate that a few percent of 'M / Z = 2 ions (M = mass of ions, Z = charge of ions)' such as alpha particles (He++) or deuterons (D+) cause such characteristic attenuation of EMIC at lower hybrid frequency. In the present study, we performed polarization analysis and direction finding of the waves. It was found that these EMIC waves were left-handed polarized in the higher frequency part, while the polarization gradually changes to linear and finally to right-handed in the lower frequency part of the waves. In general, cross-over frequency, at which EMIC wave undergoes polarization reversal, appears if more than two kinds of ions are coexisted in the plasma. It was demonstrated that the observed cross-over frequencies were a little higher than the ones where sudden attenuation occurring at approximately half of proton cyclotron frequency. The wave normal vectors were analyzed using Means' method[4]. It was found that the wave normal directions of these EMIC waves were close to 90 degrees against the geomagnetic field lines. Consequently, these results strongly support existence of 'M / Z = 2 ions' during this event. In other words, dispersion relation does not satisfy the observed EMIC wave if we only consider major ion constituents in the plasma. In order to investigate the generality of such minor ion existence, we picked up approximately 100 characteristic events from long-term observation data obtained by Akebono. We will also discuss more detailed analysis about several events, as well as statistical data analysis.

Matsuda, S.; Kasahara, Y.; Goto, Y.

2013-12-01

180

Associations between mood, anxiety or substance use disorders and inflammatory markers after adjustment for multiple covariates in a population-based study.  

PubMed

Inflammation is one possible mechanism underlying the associations between mental disorders and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). However, studies on mental disorders and inflammation have yielded inconsistent results and the majority did not adjust for potential confounding factors. We examined the associations of several pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1?, IL-6 and TNF-?) and high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) with lifetime and current mood, anxiety and substance use disorders (SUD), while adjusting for multiple covariates. The sample included 3719 subjects, randomly selected from the general population, who underwent thorough somatic and psychiatric evaluations. Psychiatric diagnoses were made with a semi-structured interview. Major depressive disorder was subtyped into "atypical", "melancholic", "combined atypical-melancholic" and "unspecified". Associations between inflammatory markers and psychiatric diagnoses were assessed using multiple linear and logistic regression models. Lifetime bipolar disorders and atypical depression were associated with increased levels of hsCRP, but not after multivariate adjustment. After multivariate adjustment, SUD remained associated with increased hsCRP levels in men (? = 0.13 (95% CI: 0.03,0.23)) but not in women. After multivariate adjustment, lifetime combined and unspecified depression were associated with decreased levels of IL-6 (? = -0.27 (-0.51,-0.02); ? = -0.19 (-0.34,-0.05), respectively) and TNF-? (? = -0.16 (-0.30,-0.01); ? = -0.10 (-0.19,-0.02), respectively), whereas current combined and unspecified depression were associated with decreased levels of hsCRP (? = -0.20 (-0.39,-0.02); ? = -0.12 (-0.24,-0.01), respectively). Our data suggest that the significant associations between increased hsCRP levels and mood disorders are mainly attributable to the effects of comorbid disorders, medication as well as behavioral and physical CVRFs. PMID:25088287

Glaus, Jennifer; Vandeleur, Caroline L; von Känel, Roland; Lasserre, Aurélie M; Strippoli, Marie-Pierre F; Gholam-Rezaee, Mehdi; Castelao, Enrique; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Bovet, Pascal; Merikangas, Kathleen; Mooser, Vincent; Waeber, Gérard; Vollenweider, Peter; Aubry, Jean-Michel; Preisig, Martin

2014-11-01

181

The product of microbial uranium reduction includes multiple species with U(IV)-phosphate coordination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Until recently, the reduction of U(VI) to U(IV) during bioremediation was assumed to produce solely the sparingly soluble mineral uraninite, UO2(s). However, results from several laboratories reveal other species of U(IV) characterized by the absence of an EXAFS U-U pair correlation (referred to here as noncrystalline U(IV)). Because it lacks the crystalline structure of uraninite, this species is likely to be more labile and susceptible to reoxidation. In the case of single species cultures, analyses of U extended X-ray fine structure (EXAFS) spectra have previously suggested U(IV) coordination to carboxyl, phosphoryl or carbonate groups. In spite of this evidence, little is understood about the species that make up noncrystalline U(IV), their structural chemistry and the nature of the U(IV)-ligand interactions. Here, we use infrared spectroscopy (IR), uranium LIII-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), and phosphorus K-edge XAS analyses to constrain the binding environments of phosphate and uranium associated with Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 bacterial cells. Systems tested as a function of pH included: cells under metal-reducing conditions without uranium, cells under reducing conditions that produced primarily uraninite, and cells under reducing conditions that produced primarily biomass-associated noncrystalline U(IV). P X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) results provided clear and direct evidence of U(IV) coordination to phosphate. Infrared (IR) spectroscopy revealed a pronounced perturbation of phosphate functional groups in the presence of uranium. Analysis of these data provides evidence that U(IV) is coordinated to a range of phosphate species, including monomers and polymerized networks. U EXAFS analyses and a chemical extraction measurements support these conclusions. The results of this study provide new insights into the binding mechanisms of biomass-associated U(IV) species which in turn sheds light on the mechanisms of biological U(VI) reduction.

Alessi, Daniel S.; Lezama-Pacheco, Juan S.; Stubbs, Joanne E.; Janousch, Markus; Bargar, John R.; Persson, Per; Bernier-Latmani, Rizlan

2014-04-01

182

Delivery of Evidence-Based Treatment for Multiple Anxiety Disorders in Primary Care: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Context Improving the quality of mental health care requires moving clinical interventions from controlled research settings into “real world” practice settings. While such advances have been made for depression, little work has been done for anxiety disorders. Objective To determine whether a flexible treatment-delivery model for multiple primary care anxiety disorders (panic, generalized anxiety, social anxiety, and/or posttraumatic stress disorders) would be superior to usual care. Design, Setting, and Participants Randomized controlled effectiveness trial of CALM (“Coordinated Anxiety Learning and Management”) compared to usual care (UC) in 17 primary care clinics in 4 US cities. Between June 2006 and April 2008, 1004 patients with anxiety disorders (with or without major depression), age 18–75, English- or Spanish-speaking, enrolled and subsequently received treatment for 3–12 months. Blinded follow-up assessments at 6, 12, and 18 months after baseline were completed in October 2009. Intervention(s) CALM allowed choice of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), medication, or both; included real-time web-based outcomes monitoring to optimize treatment decisions and a computer-assisted program to optimize delivery of CBT by non-expert care managers who also assisted primary care providers in promoting adherence and optimizing medications. Main Outcome Measure(s) 12-item Brief Symptom Inventory (anxiety and somatic symptoms) score. Secondary outcomes: Proportion of responders (? 50% reduction from pre-treatment BSI-12 score) and remitters (total BSI-12 score < 6). Results Significantly greater improvement for CALM than UC in global anxiety symptoms: BSI-12 group differences of ?2.49 (95% CI, ?3.59 to ?1.40), ?2.63 (95% CI, ?3.73 to ?1.54), and ?1.63 (95% CI, ?2.73 to ?0.53) at 6, 12, and 18 months, respectively. At 12 months, response and remission rates (CALM vs. UC) were 63.66% (58.95–68.37) vs. 44.68% (39.76–49.59), and 51.49% (46.60–56.38) vs. 33.28% (28.62–37.93), with a number needed to treat (NNT) of 5.27 (4.18–7.13) for response and 5.5 (4.32–7.55) for remission. Conclusions For patients with anxiety disorders treated in primary care clinics, a collaborative care intervention, compared to usual care, resulted in greater improvement in anxiety symptoms, functional disability, and quality of care over 18 months. PMID:20483968

Roy-Byrne, Peter; Craske, Michelle G.; Sullivan, Greer; Rose, Raphael D.; Edlund, Mark J.; Lang, Ariel J.; Bystritsky, Alexander; Welch, Stacy Shaw; Chavira, Denise A.; Golinelli, Daniela; Campbell-Sills, Laura; Sherbourne, Cathy D.; Stein, Murray B.

2010-01-01

183

Manual for the psychotherapeutic treatment of acute and post-traumatic stress disorders following multiple shocks from implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD)  

PubMed Central

Background: In view of the increasing number of implanted cardioverter defibrillators (ICD), the number of people suffering from so-called “multiple ICD shocks” is also increasing. The delivery of more than five shocks (appropriate or inappropriate) in 12 months or three or more shocks (so called multiple shocks) in a short time period (24 hours) leads to an increasing number of patients suffering from severe psychological distress (anxiety disorder, panic disorder, adjustment disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder). Untreated persons show chronic disease processes and a low rate of spontaneous remission and have an increased morbidity and mortality. Few papers have been published concerning the psychotherapeutic treatment for these patients. Objective: The aim of this study is to develop a psychotherapeutic treatment for patients with a post-traumatic stress disorder or adjustment disorder after multiple ICD shocks. Design: Explorative feasibility study: Treatment of 22 patients as a natural design without randomisation and without control group. The period of recruitment was three years, from March 2007 to March 2010. The study consisted of two phases: in the first phase (pilot study) we tested different components and dosages of psychotherapeutic treatments. The final intervention programme is presented in this paper. In the second phase (follow-up study) we assessed the residual post-traumatic stress symptoms in these ICD patients. The time between treatment and follow-up measurement was 12 to 30 months. Population: Thirty-one patients were assigned to the Department of Psychocardiology after multiple shocks. The sample consisted of 22 patients who had a post-traumatic stress disorder or an adjustment disorder and were willing and able to participate. They were invited for psychological treatment. 18 of them could be included into the follow-up study. Methods: After the clinical assessment at the beginning and at the end of the inpatient treatment a post-treatment assessment with questionnaires followed. In this follow-up measurement, minimum 12 months after inpatient treatment, posttraumatic stress was assessed using the “Impact of Event Scale” (IES-R). Setting: Inpatient treatment in a large Heart and Thorax Centre with a Department of Psychocardiology (Kerckhoff Heart Centre). Results: From the 18 patients in the follow-up study no one reported complaints of PTSD. 15 of them reported a high or even a very high decrease of anxiety and avoidance behaviour. Conclusions: The fist step of the treatment development seems to be successful. It shows encouraging results with an acceptable dosage. The second step of our work is in process now: we evaluate the treatment manual within other clinical institutions and a higher number of psychotherapists. This leads in the consequence to a controlled and randomised comparison study. PMID:24403967

Jordan, Jochen; Titscher, Georg; Peregrinova, Ludmila; Kirsch, Holger

2013-01-01

184

Joint source based analysis of multiple brain structures in studying major depressive disorder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a joint Source-Based Analysis (jSBA) framework to identify brain structural variations in patients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). In this framework, features representing position, orientation and size (i.e. pose), shape, and local tissue composition are extracted. Subsequently, simultaneous analysis of these features within a joint analysis method is performed to generate the basis sources that show signi cant di erences between subjects with MDD and those in healthy control. Moreover, in a cross-validation leave- one-out experiment, we use a Fisher Linear Discriminant (FLD) classi er to identify individuals within the MDD group. Results show that we can classify the MDD subjects with an accuracy of 76% solely based on the information gathered from the joint analysis of pose, shape, and tissue composition in multiple brain structures.

Ramezani, Mahdi; Rasoulian, Abtin; Hollenstein, Tom; Harkness, Kate; Johnsrude, Ingrid; Abolmaesumi, Purang

2014-03-01

185

Genome-wide association study of bipolar disorder in Canadian and UK populations corroborates disease loci including SYNE1 and CSMD1  

PubMed Central

Background Recently, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for cases versus controls using single nucleotide polymorphism microarray data have shown promising findings for complex neuropsychiatric disorders, including bipolar disorder (BD). Methods Here we describe a comprehensive genome-wide study of bipolar disorder (BD), cross-referencing analysis from a family-based study of 229 small families with association analysis from over 950 cases and 950 ethnicity-matched controls from the UK and Canada. Further, loci identified in these analyses were supported by pathways identified through pathway analysis on the samples. Results Although no genome-wide significant markers were identified, the combined GWAS findings have pointed to several genes of interest that support GWAS findings for BD from other groups or consortia, such as at SYNE1 on 6q25, PPP2R2C on 4p16.1, ZNF659 on 3p24.3, CNTNAP5 (2q14.3), and CDH13 (16q23.3). This apparent corroboration across multiple sites gives much confidence to the likelihood of genetic involvement in BD at these loci. In particular, our two-stage strategy found association in both our combined case/control analysis and the family-based analysis on 1q21.2 (closest gene: sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 gene, S1PR1) and on 1q24.1 near the gene TMCO1, and at CSMD1 on 8p23.2, supporting several previous GWAS reports for BD and for schizophrenia. Pathway analysis suggests association of pathways involved in calcium signalling, neuropathic pain signalling, CREB signalling in neurons, glutamate receptor signalling and axonal guidance signalling. Conclusions The findings presented here show support for a number of genes previously implicated genes in the etiology of BD, including CSMD1 and SYNE1, as well as evidence for previously unreported genes such as the brain-expressed genes ADCY2, NCALD, WDR60, SCN7A and SPAG16. PMID:24387768

2014-01-01

186

The Presentation of Narcissistic Personality Disorder in an Octogenarian: Converging Evidence from Multiple Sources  

PubMed Central

Little is known about personality disorders (PDs) in later life. One reason for this dearth of knowledge is that many investigators believe that PDs soften with age. Recent anecdotal and empirical evidence, however, suggests that PDs are still very relevant in later life and may actually have unique presentations and consequences. The DSM-IV PD criteria seem to overlook these possibilities, perhaps because the personalities of older adults were not sufficiently understood when these criteria were written. But without age-appropriate criteria, clinicians and investigators who work with older adults may be unable to measure PDs adequately in their clients and research participants. A starting point for better understanding these disorders in older adults is the presentation of rich, empirical, clinical descriptions of symptoms and related behaviors using data from multiple instruments and sources. To this end, we describe in depth a case of narcissistic PD (NPD) in a woman in her mid 80s. This case study reveals that NPD is indeed relevant in the context of later life and impairs functioning in significant ways. PMID:21637723

BALSIS, STEVE; EATON, NICHOLAS R.; COOPER, LUKE D.; OLTMANNS, THOMAS F.

2011-01-01

187

Anxiety Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The psychiatric disorders that are designated as anxiety disorders include the specific diagnoses of panic disorder with and\\u000a without agoraphobia, agoraphobia without history of panic disorder, specific phobia, social phobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder\\u000a (OCD), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), acute stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), anxiety disorder due\\u000a to a general medical condition, substance-induced anxiety disorder, and anxiety disorder not otherwise

Julie Loebach Wetherell; Ariel J. Lang; Murray B. Stein

188

Multiple epigenetic factors predict the attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder among the Chinese Han children.  

PubMed

Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common psychiatric disorders of childhood. Despite its prevalence, the critical factors involved in its development remain to be identified. It was recently suggested that epigenetic mechanisms probably contribute to the etiology of ADHD. The present study was designed to examine the associations of epigenetic markers with ADHD among Chinese Han children, aiming to establish the prediction model for this syndrome from the epigenetic perspective. We conducted a pair-matching case-control study, and the ADHD children were systematically evaluated via structured diagnostic interviews, including caregiver interviews, based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, revised criteria (DSM-IV-R). The expression levels of risk genes DAT1, DRD4, DRD5, as well as their promoter methylation, were determined respectively, followed by the expression profiles of histone-modifying genes p300, MYST4, HDAC1, MeCP2. The multivariate logistic regressions were performed to establish ADHD prediction models. All of the seven genes tested were identified as risk factors for ADHD. The methylation of one critical CpG site located upstream of DRD4 was shown to affect its transcription, suggesting a role in ADHD's development. Aberrant DNA methylation and histone acetylation were indicated in ADHD patients. In addition, a prediction model was established using the combination of p300, MYST4 and HDAC1, with the accuracy of 0.9338. This is, to our knowledge, the first study to clearly demonstrate the associations between epigenetic markers and ADHD, shedding light on the preliminary diagnosis and etiological studies of this widespread disorder. PMID:25840828

Xu, Yi; Chen, Xiang-Tao; Luo, Man; Tang, Yuqing; Zhang, Guangxiang; Wu, De; Yang, Bin; Ruan, Di-Yun; Wang, Hui-Li

2015-05-01

189

Affect Traits in Differential Diagnosis of Anxiety, Depressive, and Schizophrenic Disorders Using the Multiple Affect Adjective Check List-Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effectiveness of the affect trait scales of the revised Multiple Affect Adjective Check List (MAACL-R) (M. Zuckerman and B. Lubin, 1985) in differentiating anxiety, mood, and schizophrenic disorders was studied with 185 psychiatric patients and 185 matched comparisons. Results indicate that the MAACL-R is valid for both global and specific…

Lubin, Bernard; Van Whitlock, Rodney; Zuckerman, Marvin

1998-01-01

190

Splitting Phenomena from a Viewpoint of Experiencing Time: Spectrum from Multiple Personality and Hysteria to Borderline Personality Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Splitting is defined from a viewpoint of experiencing time as an ‘episodic loss or sudden shift of experiencing time induced by two opposing representational groups’. According to this definition splitting phenomena are examined in four cases arranged on a spectrum from multiple personality and hysteria to borderline personality disorder (BPD). The degree of splitting was most prominent in BPD. In

Hideshi Shoda

1993-01-01

191

AD synapses contain abundant A? monomer and multiple soluble oligomers, including a 56 kDa assembly  

PubMed Central

Much evidence indicates that soluble amyloid beta (A?) oligomers are key mediators of early cognitive loss, but the localization and key peptide species remain unclear. We have used flow cytometry analysis to demonstrate that surviving Alzheimer's disease (AD) synapses accumulate both A? and p-tau. The present experiments use peptide-specific xMAP assays and Western blotting to identify the A? peptide species in synaptosome-enriched samples from normal human subjects, neurologic controls, and AD cases. A?40 peptide levels did not vary, but both A?42 and A? oligomers were increased in soluble AD extracts, with oligomer levels 20-fold higher in aqueous compared to detergent extracts. In Western blots, a ladder of SDS-stable oligomers was observed in AD cases, varying in size from monomer, the major peptide observed, to larger assemblies up to about 200 kD and larger. Multiple oligomers, including monomer, small oligomers, a 56 kD assembly, and APP were correlated with the A? level measured in flow cytomety-purified synaptosomes. These results suggest that multiple APP processing pathways are active in AD synapses and multiple soluble oligomeric assemblies may contribute to synaptic dysfunction. PMID:21741125

Sokolow, Sophie; Henkins, Kristen M.; Bilousova, Tina; Miller, Carol A.; Vinters, Harry V.; Poon, Wayne; Cole, Gregory M.; Gylys, Karen Hoppens

2011-01-01

192

Patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder who receive multiple electroconvulsive therapy sessions: characteristics, indications, and results  

PubMed Central

Background While electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has been used for many years, there is insufficient research regarding the indications for continuation/maintenance (C/M)-ECT, its safety and efficacy, and the characteristics of patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder who receive multiple ECT sessions. The aims of this study were to characterize a series of patients who received 30 ECT sessions or more, to describe treatment regimens in actual practice, and to examine the results of C/M-ECT in terms of safety and efficacy, especially the effect on aggression and functioning. Methods We performed a retrospective chart review of 20 consecutive patients (mean age 64.6 years) with schizophrenia (n=16) or schizoaffective disorder (n=4) who received at least 30 ECT sessions at our ECT unit, and also interviewed the treating physician and filled out the Clinical Global Impression-Severity, Global Assessment of Functioning, and the Staff Observation Aggression Scale-Revised. Results Patients received a mean of 91.3 ECT sessions at a mean interval of 2.6 weeks. All had been hospitalized for most or all of the previous 3 years. There were no major adverse effects, and cognitive side effects were relatively minimal (cognitive deficit present for several hours after treatment). We found that ECT significantly reduced scores on the Staff Observation Aggression Scale-Revised subscales for verbal aggression and self-harm, and improved Global Assessment of Functioning scores. There were reductions in total aggression scores, subscale scores for harm to objects and to others, and Clinical Global Impression-Severity scores, these were not statistically significant. Conclusion C/M-ECT is safe and effective for chronically hospitalized patients. It improves general functioning and reduces verbal aggression and self-harm. More research using other aggression tools is needed to determine its effects and to reproduce our findings in prospective and controlled studies. PMID:25848283

Iancu, Iulian; Pick, Nimrod; Seener-Lorsh, Orit; Dannon, Pinhas

2015-01-01

193

Multiple recurrent de novo copy number variations (CNVs), including duplications of the 7q11.23 Williams-Beuren syndrome region, are strongly associated with autism  

PubMed Central

Summary Given prior evidence for the contribution of rare copy number variations (CNVs) to autism spectrum disorders (ASD), we studied these events in 4,457 individuals from 1,174 simplex families, composed of parents, a proband and, in most kindreds, an unaffected sibling. We find significant association of ASD with de novo duplications of 7q11.23, where the reciprocal deletion causes Williams-Beuren syndrome, featuring a highly social personality. We identify rare recurrent de novo CNVs at five additional regions including two novel ASD loci, 16p13.2 (including the genes USP7 and C16orf72) and Cadherin13, and implement a rigorous new approach to evaluating the statistical significance of these observations. Overall, we find large de novo CNVs carry substantial risk (OR=3.55; CI =2.16-7.46, p=6.9 × 10?6); estimate the presence of 130-234 distinct ASD-related CNV intervals across the genome; and, based on data from multiple studies, present compelling evidence for the association of rare de novo events at 7q11.23, 15q11.2-13.1, 16p11.2, and Neurexin1. PMID:21658581

Sanders, Stephan J.; Ercan-Sencicek, A. Gulhan; Hus, Vanessa; Luo, Rui; Murtha, Michael T.; Moreno-De-Luca, Daniel; Chu, Su H.; Moreau, Michael P.; Gupta, Abha R.; Thomson, Susanne A.; Mason, Christopher E.; Bilguvar, Kaya; Celestino-Soper, Patricia B. S.; Choi, Murim; Crawford, Emily L.; Davis, Lea; Wright, Nicole R. Davis; Dhodapkar, Rahul M.; DiCola, Michael; DiLullo, Nicholas M.; Fernandez, Thomas V.; Fielding-Singh, Vikram; Fishman, Daniel O.; Frahm, Stephanie; Garagaloyan, Rouben; Goh, Gerald S.; Kammela, Sindhuja; Klei, Lambertus; Lowe, Jennifer K.; Lund, Sabata C.; McGrew, Anna D.; Meyer, Kyle A.; Moffat, William J.; Murdoch, John D.; O'Roak, Brian J.; Ober, Gordon T.; Pottenger, Rebecca S.; Raubeson, Melanie J.; Song, Youeun; Wang, Qi; Yaspan, Brian L.; Yu, Timothy W.; Yurkiewicz, Ilana R.; Beaudet, Arthur L.; Cantor, Rita M.; Curland, Martin; Grice, Dorothy E.; Günel, Murat; Lifton, Richard P.; Mane, Shrikant M.; Martin, Donna M.; Shaw, Chad A.; Sheldon, Michael; Tischfield, Jay A.; Walsh, Christopher A.; Morrow, Eric M.; Ledbetter, David H.; Fombonne, Eric; Lord, Catherine; Martin, Christa Lese; Brooks, Andrew I.; Sutcliffe, James S.; Cook, Edwin H.; Geschwind, Daniel; Roeder, Kathryn; Devlin, Bernie; State, Matthew W.

2014-01-01

194

Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis of disorder and multiple-scattering in complex crystalline solids  

SciTech Connect

Quantitative determination of local atomic structure in complex materials using extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis was tested on eight inorganic compounds of known structure, including natural and synthetic crystalline solids, at ambient conditions. Our aim was to test the accuracy of experimental and theoretical EXAFS standard functions in determining the number of backscattering atoms (N) at a distance (R) beyond the ligating shell of the central absorber atom where effects from disorder, multiple-scattering, and overlapping shells of atoms may significantly influence the EXAFS spectra. These compounds have complicated structures compared to metals and contain Fe, Co, or Ni as the central absorbing atom and mixtures of second-row (C,O,F), third-row (Si, Cl), and fourth-row (Ca, Fe, Co, Ni) atoms as backscatters. Comparison of results using both experimental phase shift and amplitude functions (derived from the EXAFS spectra of the compounds) and those calculated from ab initio theory (using the computer code FEFF 5) shows that interatomic distances for single-scattering paths among metal atoms can be determined to within 0.02 A of values determined independently by X-ray diffraction up to a distance of 4 A from the central absorber by either method. 25 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

O'Day, P.A.; Brown, G.E. Jr. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States)); Rehr, J.J.; Zabinsky, S.I. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States))

1994-04-06

195

Suicide, Hospital-Presenting Suicide Attempts, and Criminality in Bipolar Disorder: Examination of Risk for Multiple Adverse Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare risks for suicidality and criminality in a national cohort of people diagnosed with bipolar disorder, and to assess how risk factor profiles differ between these outcomes. Method We conducted 2 case-cohort studies using interlinked Swedish national registers. Primarily, using International Classification of Diseases (ICD) coding, we identified 15,337 people diagnosed with bipolar disorder, 1973–2009, matched by age and gender to 20 individuals per case sampled randomly from the general population. We estimated risks of suicide and hospital-presenting attempted suicide, and violent and nonviolent criminal offending. We separately assessed these risks among 14,677 unaffected siblings matched to a second general population sample. Results 22.2% of bipolar disorder cohort members engaged in suicidal or criminal acts after diagnosis. They were at greatly elevated risk for completed suicide (risk ratio = 18.8; 95% CI, 16.0–22.2), attempted suicide (risk ratio = 14.3; 95% CI, 13.5–15.2), violent crime (risk ratio = 5.0; 95% CI, 4.6–5.4), and nonviolent crime (risk ratio = 2.9; 95% CI, 2.8–3.1) compared with the general population. Elevations in risk were far less marked among the unaffected siblings than in the bipolar disorder cohort. Three factors independently predicted raised risk of all 4 adverse outcomes: if the first 2 patient episodes for bipolar disorder required admission, a history of attempted suicide, and a history of diagnosed alcohol/drug disorder. Criminal offending before bipolar diagnosis was an especially strong independent predictor of criminality after diagnosis. Conclusions The combined risk of suicidality or criminality is substantially elevated in both relative and absolute terms. Clinical prediction rules focusing on multiple vulnerabilities following onset of bipolar disorder, especially when there is history of attempted suicide, substance misuse disorders, or criminal offending, may improve risk management. PMID:25191918

Webb, Roger T.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Larsson, Henrik; Geddes, John R.; Fazel, Seena

2014-01-01

196

Aging is the primary risk factor for the majority of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). There are almost 40 million  

E-print Network

's, obsessive-compulsive disorder, depression, Huntington's disease and dystonia. For this comprehensive exam disorders caused or influenced by multiple factors (e.g., specific genes, susceptibility alleles array of neurobiological disorders, including Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, essential tremor, Tourette

Liu, Taosheng

197

Clinical and neuroimaging correlation of movement disorders in multiple sclerosis: case series and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, in which movement disorders (MD) have been reported very rarely. Anatomopathological studies of MS indicate two main processes: inflammation and neurodegeneration. The occurrence of the movement disorders symptoms in MS revises the question of aetiology of these two diseases. During the 10 years of observation in our out-patient clinic and MS units we examined about 2500 patients with clinically definite MS diagnosed according to the revised McDonald's criteria. Only in 10 cases we found coexistence of MS and MD signs. Below we present rare cases of patients with coexistence of MS and chorea, pseudoathetosis, dystonia and parkinsonism. Searching for the strategic focal lesion in our case series showed demyelinating plaques placed in the thalamus most often. Detailed analysis of the clinical, pharmacological and neuroimaging correlations may help to explain the character of movement disorders in MS. PMID:24729346

Potulska-Chromik, Anna; Rudzinska, Monika; Nojszewska, Monika; Podlecka-Pi?towska, Aleksandra; Szczudlik, Andrzej; Zakrzewska-Pniewska, Beata; Go??biowski, Marek

2014-01-01

198

P450 Oxidoreductase Deficiency: A Disorder of Steroidogenesis with Multiple Clinical Manifestations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Cytochrome P450 enzymes catalyze the biosynthesis of steroid hormones and metabolize drugs. There are seven human type I P450 enzymes in mitochondria and 50 type II enzymes in endoplasmic reticulum. Type II enzymes, including both drug-metabolizing and some steroidogenic enzymes, require electron donation from a two-flavin protein, P450 oxidoreductase (POR). Although knockout of the POR gene causes embryonic lethality in mice, we discovered human POR deficiency as a disorder of steroidogenesis associated with the Antley-Bixler skeletal malformation syndrome and found mild POR mutations in phenotypically normal adults with infertility. Assay results of mutant forms of POR using the traditional but nonphysiologic assay (reduction of cytochrome c) did not correlate with patient phenotypes; assays based on the 17,20 lyase activity of P450c17 (CYP17) correlated with clinical phenotypes. The POR sequence in 842 normal individuals revealed many polymorphisms; amino acid sequence variant A503V is encoded by ~28% of human alleles. POR A503V has about 60% of wild-type activity in assays with CYP17, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4, but nearly wild-type activity with P450c21, CYP1A2, and CYP2C19. Activity of a particular POR variant with one P450 enzyme will not predict its activity with another P450 enzyme: Each POR-P450 combination must be studied individually. Human POR transcription, initiated from an untranslated exon, is regulated by Smad3/4, thyroid receptors, and the transcription factor AP-2. A promoter polymorphism reduces transcription to 60% in liver cells and to 35% in adrenal cells. POR deficiency is a newly described disorder of steroidogenesis, and POR variants may account for some genetic variation in drug metabolism.

Walter L. Miller (San Francisco; University of California REV)

2012-10-23

199

P450 oxidoreductase deficiency: a disorder of steroidogenesis with multiple clinical manifestations.  

PubMed

Cytochrome P450 enzymes catalyze the biosynthesis of steroid hormones and metabolize drugs. There are seven human type I P450 enzymes in mitochondria and 50 type II enzymes in endoplasmic reticulum. Type II enzymes, including both drug-metabolizing and some steroidogenic enzymes, require electron donation from a two-flavin protein, P450 oxidoreductase (POR). Although knockout of the POR gene causes embryonic lethality in mice, we discovered human POR deficiency as a disorder of steroidogenesis associated with the Antley-Bixler skeletal malformation syndrome and found mild POR mutations in phenotypically normal adults with infertility. Assay results of mutant forms of POR using the traditional but nonphysiologic assay (reduction of cytochrome c) did not correlate with patient phenotypes; assays based on the 17,20 lyase activity of P450c17 (CYP17) correlated with clinical phenotypes. The POR sequence in 842 normal individuals revealed many polymorphisms; amino acid sequence variant A503V is encoded by ~28% of human alleles. POR A503V has about 60% of wild-type activity in assays with CYP17, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4, but nearly wild-type activity with P450c21, CYP1A2, and CYP2C19. Activity of a particular POR variant with one P450 enzyme will not predict its activity with another P450 enzyme: Each POR-P450 combination must be studied individually. Human POR transcription, initiated from an untranslated exon, is regulated by Smad3/4, thyroid receptors, and the transcription factor AP-2. A promoter polymorphism reduces transcription to 60% in liver cells and to 35% in adrenal cells. POR deficiency is a newly described disorder of steroidogenesis, and POR variants may account for some genetic variation in drug metabolism. PMID:23092891

Miller, Walter L

2012-10-23

200

Similar or Disparate Brain Patterns? The Intra-Personal EEG Variability of Three Women with Multiple Personality Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative EEG was used to assess the intra-personal variability of brain electrical activity for 3 women diagnosed with Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD). Two separate control groups (within-subject and between-subject) were used to test the hypothesis that the intra-personal EEG variability between 2 alters would be less than the interpersonal EEG variability between 2 controls, and similar to the intra-personal EEG

A. R. Lapointe; J. W. Crayton; R. deVito; C. G. Fichtner; L. M. Konopka

2006-01-01

201

Diagnosis under random conditions of all disorders of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone axis, including primary hyperaldosteronism.  

PubMed

Theoretically, the relationship between plasma aldosterone (PA) and PRA in normal subjects under random conditions should differ from that in patients with primary hyperaldosteronism or primary adrenal failure, but should be similar to that in patients with secondary hyperaldosteronism or hyporeninemic hypoaldosteronism. PA, expressed as a function of PRA, the PA/PRA ratio, provides an index of adrenal sensitivity in normal subjects under routine conditions. The random PA/PRA ratios in patients with primary adrenal disorders did not overlap with those in normal subjects, patients with secondary adrenal disorders, hypertensive subjects, or other patients. A single elevated PA/PRA ratio, i.e. more than 920, associated with elevated PA in 4 patients or normal PA in 6 patients indicated primary hyperaldosteronism in 10 patients. However, 5 of 17 patients with chronic renal failure had elevated PA/PRA ratios, but did not have primary hyperaldosteronism. All 14 patients with secondary hyperaldosteronism had elevated PA associated with normal PA/PRA ratios. A single PA/PRA ratio of less than 28 associated with low PA in 18 patients and a normal PA in 1 patient indicated primary adrenal insufficiency, while a low PA associated with a normal PA/PRA ratio indicated hyporeninemic hypoaldosteronism in 7 patients. Fifty-nine patients with nonadrenal disorders other than renal failure had normal PA and PA/PRA ratios. Therefore, with the exception of patients with advanced renal failure, only a single blood sample is required to establish all diagnoses of disorders of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone axis under random conditions. PMID:1939533

McKenna, T J; Sequeira, S J; Heffernan, A; Chambers, J; Cunningham, S

1991-11-01

202

Phenotypic spectrum associated with duplication of Xp11.22-p11.23 includes Autism Spectrum Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dup(X)(p11.22-p11.23) has been shown to be associated with intellectual disability (ID, also referred to as mental retardation). Here, we characterize a 4.64 Mb de novo duplication of the same Xp11.22-p11.23 ID region in a female, but for this reference case the diagnosis was Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Besides ASD, she also had very persistent trichotillomania, anxiety symptoms and some non-specific dysmorphic

Brian H. Y. Chung; Irene Drmic; Christian R. Marshall; Daria Grafodatskaya; Melissa Carter; Bridget A. Fernandez; Rosanna Weksberg; Wendy Roberts; Stephen W. Scherer

2011-01-01

203

Prevalence of REM sleep behavior disorder in multiple system atrophy: a multicenter study and meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Objectivey Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia frequently affecting patients with synucleinopathies but its exact prevalence in multiple system atrophy (MSA) is unclear. Whether questionnaires alone are sufficient to diagnose RBD is also unknown. Methods Cross-sectional study of patients with probable MSA from six academic centers in the US and Europe. RBD was ascertained clinically and with polysomnography; and meta-analysis according to PRISMA guidelines for studies published before September 2014 that reported the prevalence of RBD in MSA. A random-effects model was constructed using weighted prevalence proportions. Only articles in English were included. Studies were classified into those that ascertained the presence of RBD in MSA clinically and with polysomnography. Case reports or case series (?5 patients) were not included. Results Forty-two patients completed questionnaires and underwent polysomnography. Of those, 32 (76.1%) had clinically-suspected RBD and 34 (81%) had polysomnography-confirmed RBD. Two patients reported no symptoms of RBD but had polysomnography-confirmed RBD. The primary search strategy yielded 374 articles of which 12 met the inclusion criteria The summary prevalence of clinically suspected RBD was 73% (95% CI, 62%-84%) in a combined sample of 324 MSA patients. The summary prevalence of polysomnography-confirmed RBD was 88% (95% CI, 79%-94%) in a combined sample of 217 MSA patients. Interpretation Polysomnography-confirmed RBD is present in up to 88% of patients with MSA. RBD was present in some patients that reported no symptoms. More than half of MSA patients report symptoms of RBD before the onset of motor deficits. PMID:25739474

Palma, Jose-Alberto; Fernandez-Cordon, Clara; Coon, Elizabeth A.; Low, Phillip A.; Miglis, Mitchell G.; Jaradeh, Safwan; Bhaumik, Arijit K.; Dayalu, Praveen; Urrestarazu, Elena; Iriarte, Jorge; Biaggioni, Italo; Kaufmann, Horacio

2015-01-01

204

Immediate-Release Methylphenidate for ADHD in Children with Comorbid Chronic Multiple Tic Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine the safety and efficacy of immediate-release methylphenidate (MPH-IR) for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children (ages 6-12 years) with Tourette's syndrome (96%) or chronic motor tic disorder (4%). Method: Two cohorts of prepubertal children (N = 71) received placebo and three doses of…

Gadow, Kenneth D.; Sverd, Jeffrey; Nolan, Edith E.; Sprafkin, Joyce; Schneider, Jayne

2007-01-01

205

Commentary: Differentiated Measures of Temperament and Multiple Pathways to Childhood Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provided is a commentary on articles written for a special section on temperament and childhood disorders. Temperament's contributions to the development of childhood disorders are considered both generally and specifically. Questions are raised about the use of terminology in the field, particularly the term difficult. Differentiation of outcomes…

Rothbart, Mary K.

2004-01-01

206

Multiple Hypercoagulability Disorders at Presentation of Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer  

PubMed Central

Hypercoagulability disorders are commonly encountered in clinical situations in patients with a variety of cancers. However, several hypercoagulability disorders presenting as first symptoms or signs in cancer patients have rarely been reported. We herein described a case of a woman with adenocarcinoma of the lung presenting with deep vein thrombosis, nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis, recurrent cerebral embolic infarction, and heart failure. PMID:25114702

Lee, Jeong Min; Lim, Jun Hyeok; Kim, Jung-Soo; Park, Ji Sun; Memon, Azra; Lee, Seul-Ki; Nam, Hae-Seong; Cho, Jae-Hwa; Kwak, Seung-Min; Lee, Hong Lyeol; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Hong, Geun-Jeong

2014-01-01

207

Enhanced peripheral visual processing in congenitally deaf humans is supported by multiple brain regions, including primary auditory cortex  

PubMed Central

Brain reorganization associated with altered sensory experience clarifies the critical role of neuroplasticity in development. An example is enhanced peripheral visual processing associated with congenital deafness, but the neural systems supporting this have not been fully characterized. A gap in our understanding of deafness-enhanced peripheral vision is the contribution of primary auditory cortex. Previous studies of auditory cortex that use anatomical normalization across participants were limited by inter-subject variability of Heschl's gyrus. In addition to reorganized auditory cortex (cross-modal plasticity), a second gap in our understanding is the contribution of altered modality-specific cortices (visual intramodal plasticity in this case), as well as supramodal and multisensory cortices, especially when target detection is required across contrasts. Here we address these gaps by comparing fMRI signal change for peripheral vs. perifoveal visual stimulation (11–15° vs. 2–7°) in congenitally deaf and hearing participants in a blocked experimental design with two analytical approaches: a Heschl's gyrus region of interest analysis and a whole brain analysis. Our results using individually-defined primary auditory cortex (Heschl's gyrus) indicate that fMRI signal change for more peripheral stimuli was greater than perifoveal in deaf but not in hearing participants. Whole-brain analyses revealed differences between deaf and hearing participants for peripheral vs. perifoveal visual processing in extrastriate visual cortex including primary auditory cortex, MT+/V5, superior-temporal auditory, and multisensory and/or supramodal regions, such as posterior parietal cortex (PPC), frontal eye fields, anterior cingulate, and supplementary eye fields. Overall, these data demonstrate the contribution of neuroplasticity in multiple systems including primary auditory cortex, supramodal, and multisensory regions, to altered visual processing in congenitally deaf adults. PMID:24723877

Scott, Gregory D.; Karns, Christina M.; Dow, Mark W.; Stevens, Courtney; Neville, Helen J.

2014-01-01

208

Multiplication  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How sharp are your multiplication skills? Give these great math games a try ! Play Asteroids blaster and test your multiplication skills. How fast can you solve the problem... play a round of Baseball multiplication and see! Multiplication is fun and delicious with Crazy Cones. Help Lemonade Larry determine the correct amount! Test your multiplication skills with Tic Tac Toe! ...

Ms.Roberts

2009-02-24

209

Efficacy of monepantel and anthelmintic combinations against multiple-resistant Haemonchus contortus in sheep, including characterisation of the nematode isolate.  

PubMed

Three experiments defined the resistance profile of a population of Haemonchus contortus, which was shown to express multiple resistances to the benzimidazole, levamisole, macrocyclic lactone and salicylanilide anthelmintic classes when given as a registered combination. Study 1 was a faecal egg count reduction (FECR) test and the efficacies for the anthelmintics were monepantel, 100%; abamectin+levamisole+oxfendazole, 40.0%; and abamectin+levamisole+oxfendazole+naphthalophos, 100%. No larvae were recovered from the post-treatment cultures for monepantel or the 4-way treatment, and for the 3-way treatment the culture was 100% Haemonchus spp. Efficacies in Study 2 were calculated from mean post-mortem nematode burdens of H. contortus and were levamisole+oxfendazole, 3.1%; abamectin+levamisole+oxfendazole, 5.0%; ivermectin, 0.4%; moxidectin, 28.4% and closantel, 70.2%. Study 3 was also a FECR test that resulted in efficacies of 100% for monepantel and 83.0% for a formulated 4-way combination of abamectin+levamisole+albendazole+closantel. Larvae recovered from the post-treatment culture for the combination-treated sheep were all Haemonchus spp. Multi-resistant parasites such as examined in these studies are a continuing challenge to be managed by farmers and their advisors. Control programs must be planned and well-managed, and should include on-farm testing for anthelmintic resistance, monitoring of nematode burdens (by FEC and larval culture) to determine appropriate treatment times and the management of pastures to reduce the overall parasite challenge. This should be in balance with the generation, use and maintenance of drug-susceptible nematode populations in refugia. PMID:22169404

Baker, K E; George, S D; Stein, P A; Seewald, W; Rolfe, P F; Hosking, B C

2012-05-25

210

76 FR 66006 - Revised Medical Criteria for Evaluating Congenital Disorders That Affect Multiple Body Systems  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...will not purchase genetic testing, and We will...Down syndrome is a genetic disorder. Most...you did not have testing, or you had testing...for example, genetic analysis or evidence...you had definitive testing that...

2011-10-25

211

The Multiple Dimensions of the Social Anxiety Spectrum in Mood Disorders  

PubMed Central

Major depressive disorder and bipolar spectrum disorders are debilitating conditions associated with severe impairment. The presence of co-occurring social phobia can make the clinical course of these disorders even more challenging. To better understand the nature of social anxiety in the context of ongoing mood disorders, we report the results of exploratory factor analyses of the Social Phobia Spectrum Self-Report Instrument (SHY), a 162-item measure designed to capture the full spectrum of manifestations and features associated with social anxiety experienced across the lifespan. We examined data from 359 adult outpatients diagnosed with major depressive disorder and 403 outpatients diagnosed with a bipolar spectrum disorder. The measure was divided into its two components: the SHY-General (SHY-G), reflecting general social anxiety features, and the SHY-Specific (SHY-S), reflecting anxiety in specific situations. Exploratory factor analyses were conducted for each using tetrachoric correlation matrices and an unweighted least squares estimator. Item invariance was evaluated for important patient subgroups. Five factors were identified for the SHY-G, representing general features of social anxiety: Fear of Social Disapproval, Childhood Social Anxiety, Somatic Social Anxiety, Excessive Agreeableness, and Behavioral Submission. Seven specific-situation factors were identified from the SHY-S: Writing in Public, Dating, Public Speaking, Eating in Public, Shopping Fears, Using Public Restrooms, and Unstructured Social Interactions. The identified dimensions provide clinically valuable information about the nature of the social fears experienced by individuals diagnosed with mood disorders and could help guide the development of tailored treatment strategies for individuals with co-occurring mood disorders and social anxiety. PMID:22771202

Fournier, Jay C.; Cyranowski, Jill M.; Rucci, Paola; Cassano, Giovanni B.; Frank, Ellen

2012-01-01

212

Proximal renal tubular acidosis: a not so rare disorder of multiple etiologies  

PubMed Central

Proximal renal tubular acidosis (RTA) (Type II RTA) is characterized by a defect in the ability to reabsorb HCO3 in the proximal tubule. This is usually manifested as bicarbonate wastage in the urine reflecting that the defect in proximal tubular transport is severe enough that the capacity for bicarbonate reabsorption in the thick ascending limb of Henle's loop and more distal nephron segments is overwhelmed. More subtle defects in proximal bicarbonate transport likely go clinically unrecognized owing to compensatory reabsorption of bicarbonate distally. Inherited proximal RTA is more commonly autosomal recessive and has been associated with mutations in the basolateral sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter (NBCe1). Mutations in this transporter lead to reduced activity and/or trafficking, thus disrupting the normal bicarbonate reabsorption process of the proximal tubules. As an isolated defect for bicarbonate transport, proximal RTA is rare and is more often associated with the Fanconi syndrome characterized by urinary wastage of solutes like phosphate, uric acid, glucose, amino acids, low-molecular-weight proteins as well as bicarbonate. A vast array of rare tubular disorders may cause proximal RTA but most commonly it is induced by drugs. With the exception of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors which cause isolated proximal RTA, drug-induced proximal RTA is associated with Fanconi syndrome. Drugs that have been recently recognized to cause severe proximal RTA with Fanconi syndrome include ifosfamide, valproic acid and various antiretrovirals such as Tenofovir particularly when given to human immunodeficiency virus patients receiving concomitantly protease inhibitors such as ritonavir or reverse transcriptase inhibitors such as didanosine. PMID:23235953

Haque, Syed K.; Ariceta, Gema; Batlle, Daniel

2012-01-01

213

Evaluation of participants with suspected heritable platelet function disorders including recommendation and validation of a streamlined agonist panel  

PubMed Central

Light transmission aggregometry (LTA) is used worldwide for the investigation of heritable platelet function disorders (PFDs), but interpretation of results is complicated by the feedback effects of ADP and thromboxane A2 (TxA2) and by the overlap with the response of healthy volunteers. Over 5 years, we have performed lumi-aggregometry on 9 platelet agonists in 111 unrelated research participants with suspected PFDs and in 70 healthy volunteers. Abnormal LTA or ATP secretion test results were identified in 58% of participants. In 84% of these, the patterns of response were consistent with defects in Gi receptor signaling, the TxA2 pathway, and dense granule secretion. Participants with defects in signaling to Gq-coupled receptor agonists and to collagen were also identified. Targeted genotyping identified 3 participants with function-disrupting mutations in the P2Y12 ADP and TxA2 receptors. The results of the present study illustrate that detailed phenotypic analysis using LTA and ATP secretion is a powerful tool for the diagnosis of PFDs. Our data also enable subdivision at the level of platelet-signaling pathways and in some cases to individual receptors. We further demonstrate that most PFDs can be reliably diagnosed using a streamlined panel of key platelet agonists and specified concentrations suitable for testing in most clinical diagnostic laboratories. PMID:23002116

Lowe, Gillian C.; Lordkipanidzé, Marie; Bem, Danai; Daly, Martina E.; Makris, Mike; Mumford, Andrew; Wilde, Jonathan T.; Watson, Steve P.

2012-01-01

214

Evaluation of participants with suspected heritable platelet function disorders including recommendation and validation of a streamlined agonist panel.  

PubMed

Light transmission aggregometry (LTA) is used worldwide for the investigation of heritable platelet function disorders (PFDs), but interpretation of results is complicated by the feedback effects of ADP and thromboxane A(2) (TxA(2)) and by the overlap with the response of healthy volunteers. Over 5 years, we have performed lumi-aggregometry on 9 platelet agonists in 111 unrelated research participants with suspected PFDs and in 70 healthy volunteers. Abnormal LTA or ATP secretion test results were identified in 58% of participants. In 84% of these, the patterns of response were consistent with defects in Gi receptor signaling, the TxA(2) pathway, and dense granule secretion. Participants with defects in signaling to Gq-coupled receptor agonists and to collagen were also identified. Targeted genotyping identified 3 participants with function-disrupting mutations in the P2Y(12) ADP and TxA(2) receptors. The results of the present study illustrate that detailed phenotypic analysis using LTA and ATP secretion is a powerful tool for the diagnosis of PFDs. Our data also enable subdivision at the level of platelet-signaling pathways and in some cases to individual receptors. We further demonstrate that most PFDs can be reliably diagnosed using a streamlined panel of key platelet agonists and specified concentrations suitable for testing in most clinical diagnostic laboratories. PMID:23002116

Dawood, Ban B; Lowe, Gillian C; Lordkipanidzé, Marie; Bem, Danai; Daly, Martina E; Makris, Mike; Mumford, Andrew; Wilde, Jonathan T; Watson, Steve P

2012-12-13

215

Angular and lateral distributions from small angle multiple scattering including elastic and inelastic energy loss effects based on the Valdes and Arista model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aims of this work are to compare and to include two energy loss effects in multiple scattering caused by elastic and inelastic collisions in angular and lateral distributions based on Valdes and Arista (VA) theory. VA developed small angle multiple scattering theory including energy loss effects based on the Sigmund and Winterbon model for the first time. However, the energy loss effects on lateral distributions have not yet been estimated. In the VA model, target thickness and energy loss are independently treated. In this study, those effects are successfully introduced on the basis of the VA model. We considered the lateral spread and angular distribution separately and included the nuclear and electronic energy loss effects as a function of target thickness. Our results indicate that discrepancies occur between the two distributions, including nuclear and electronic stopping for several target thickness. Moreover, we constructed a multiple scattering model that includes both elastic and inelastic energy losses.

Ikegami, Seiji

2013-12-01

216

tal Disorders will not include "Internet Addiction Disorder" (IAD) in 2013 when it is next revised and published. This has no bearing, of  

E-print Network

professional will make it easier to develop a plan or approach that includes specific per- formance issues you as they occur. The goal is to help you make an effective supervisor referral. Employees with hangovers do that chronic stress, especially for sedentary workers, contributes to weight gain and that exercise

Oliver, Douglas L.

217

The persistence of folly: critical examination of dissociative identity disorder. Part II. The defence and decline of multiple personality or dissociative identity disorder.  

PubMed

In this second part of our review, we continue to explore the illogical nature of the arguments offered to support the concept of dissociative identity disorder (DID). We also examine the harm done to patients by DID proponents' diagnostic and treatment methods. It is shown that these practices reify the alters and thereby iatrogenically encourage patients to behave as if they have multiple selves. We next examine the factors that make impossible a reliable diagnosis of DID--for example, the unsatisfactory, vague, and elastic definition of "alter personality." Because the diagnosis is unreliable, we believe that US and Canadian courts cannot responsibly accept testimony in favour of DID. Finally, we conclude with a guess about the condition's status over the next 10 years. PMID:15560314

Piper, August; Merskey, Harold

2004-10-01

218

Phonological disorder  

MedlinePLUS

Articulation disorder; Developmental articulation disorder; Speech distortion; Sound distortion ... and bones that are used to make speech sounds. These changes may include cleft palate and problems ...

219

Sleep, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and cytokines: multiple interactions and disturbances in sleep disorders.  

PubMed

Sleep is an important component of mammalian homeostasis, vital for survival. Sleep disorders are common in the general population and are associated with significant medical, psychologic, and social disturbances. Sleep, in particular deep sleep, has an inhibitory influence on the HPA axis, whereas activation of the HPA axis or administration of glucocorticoids can lead to arousal and sleeplessness. Insomnia, the most common sleep disorder, is associated with a 24-hour increase of ACTH and cortisol secretion, consistent with a disorder of central nervous system hyperarousal. Sleepiness and fatigue are very prevalent in the general population, and recent studies have demonstrated that the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and/or TNF-alpha are elevated in disorders associated with excessive daytime sleepiness, such as sleep apnea, narcolepsy, and idiopathic hypersomnia. Sleep deprivation leads to sleepiness and daytime hypersecretion of IL-6. Combined, these findings suggest that the HPA axis stimulates arousal, while IL-6 and TNF-alpha are possible mediators of excessive daytime sleepiness in humans. PMID:12055986

Vgontzas, Alexandros N; Chrousos, George P

2002-03-01

220

Temperament and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: The Development of a Multiple Pathway Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article outlines the parallels between major theories of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and relevant temperament domains, summarizing recent research from our laboratories on (a) child temperament and (b) adult personality traits related to ADHD symptoms. These data are convergent in suggesting a role of effortful control and…

Nigg, Joel T.; Goldsmith, H. Hill; Sachek, Jennifer

2004-01-01

221

Involvement of Youths with Autism Spectrum Disorders or Intellectual Disabilities in Multiple Public Service Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and intellectual disability (ID) among youths active in at least one of five public service systems: mental health (MH), educational services for youth with serious emotional disturbance (SED), child welfare (CW), juvenile justice (JJ), and alcohol and drug services (AD). This study also reports the

Lauren Brookman-Frazee; Mary Baker-Ericzén; Aubyn Stahmer; David Mandell; Rachel A. Haine; Richard L. Hough

2009-01-01

222

Binding of Multiple Features in Memory by High-Functioning Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Diminished episodic memory and diminished use of semantic information to aid recall by individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are both thought to result from diminished relational binding of elements of complex stimuli. To test this hypothesis, we asked high-functioning adults with ASD and typical comparison participants to study grids in…

Bowler, Dermot M.; Gaigg, Sebastian B.; Gardiner, John M.

2014-01-01

223

Hypogelsolinemia, a disorder of the extracellular actin scavenger system, in patients with multiple sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Background Extracellular gelsolin (GSN) and GC-globulin/Vitamin D-binding protein (DBP) appear to play an important role in clearing the actin from extracellular fluids and in modulating cellular responses to anionic bioactive lipids. In this study we hypothesized that cellular actin release and/or increase in bioactive lipids associated with multiple sclerosis (MS) development will translate into alteration of the actin scavenger system protein concentrations in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with MS. Methods We measured GSN and DBP concentrations in blood and CSF obtained from patients diagnosed with MS (n = 56) in comparison to a control group (n = 20) that includes patients diagnosed with conditions such as idiopathic cephalgia (n = 11), idiopathic (Bell's) facial nerve palsy (n = 7) and ischialgia due to discopathy (n = 2). GSN and DBP levels were measured by Western blot and ELISA, respectively. Results We found that the GSN concentration in the blood of the MS group (115 ± 78 ?g/ml) was significantly lower (p < 0.001) compared to the control group (244 ± 96 ?g/ml). In contrast, there was no statistically significant difference between blood DBP concentrations in patients with MS (310 ± 68 ?g/ml) and the control group (314 ± 82 ?g/ml). GSN and DBP concentrations in CSF also did not significantly differ between those two groups. Conclusions The decrease of GSN concentration in blood and CSF of MS subjects suggests that this protein may be involved in chronic inflammation associated with neurodegeneration. Additionally, the results presented here suggest the possible utility of GSN evaluation for diagnostic purposes. Reversing plasma GSN deficiency might represent a new strategy in MS treatment. PMID:21040581

2010-01-01

224

?-Carboline Compounds, Including Harmine, Inhibit DYRK1A and Tau Phosphorylation at Multiple Alzheimer's Disease-Related Sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Harmine, a ?-carboline alkaloid, is a high affinity inhibitor of the dual specificity tyrosine phosphorylation regulated kinase 1A (DYRK1A) protein. The DYRK1A gene is located within the Down Syndrome Critical Region (DSCR) on chromosome 21. We and others have implicated DYRK1A in the phosphorylation of tau protein on multiple sites associated with tau pathology in Down Syndrome and in Alzheimer's

Danielle Frost; Bessie Meechoovet; Tong Wang; Stephen Gately; Marco Giorgetti; Irina Shcherbakova; Travis Dunckley

2011-01-01

225

Mood Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... They may say they're in a bad mood. A mood disorder is different. It affects a person's everyday ... in ten people aged 18 and older have mood disorders. These include depression and bipolar disorder (also ...

226

Zebrafish homologs of genes within 16p11.2, a genomic region associated with brain disorders, are active during brain development, and include two deletion dosage sensor genes  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Deletion or duplication of one copy of the human 16p11.2 interval is tightly associated with impaired brain function, including autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), intellectual disability disorder (IDD) and other phenotypes, indicating the importance of gene dosage in this copy number variant region (CNV). The core of this CNV includes 25 genes; however, the number of genes that contribute to these phenotypes is not known. Furthermore, genes whose functional levels change with deletion or duplication (termed ‘dosage sensors’), which can associate the CNV with pathologies, have not been identified in this region. Using the zebrafish as a tool, a set of 16p11.2 homologs was identified, primarily on chromosomes 3 and 12. Use of 11 phenotypic assays, spanning the first 5 days of development, demonstrated that this set of genes is highly active, such that 21 out of the 22 homologs tested showed loss-of-function phenotypes. Most genes in this region were required for nervous system development – impacting brain morphology, eye development, axonal density or organization, and motor response. In general, human genes were able to substitute for the fish homolog, demonstrating orthology and suggesting conserved molecular pathways. In a screen for 16p11.2 genes whose function is sensitive to hemizygosity, the aldolase a (aldoaa) and kinesin family member 22 (kif22) genes were identified as giving clear phenotypes when RNA levels were reduced by ?50%, suggesting that these genes are deletion dosage sensors. This study leads to two major findings. The first is that the 16p11.2 region comprises a highly active set of genes, which could present a large genetic target and might explain why multiple brain function, and other, phenotypes are associated with this interval. The second major finding is that there are (at least) two genes with deletion dosage sensor properties among the 16p11.2 set, and these could link this CNV to brain disorders such as ASD and IDD. PMID:22566537

Blaker-Lee, Alicia; Gupta, Sunny; McCammon, Jasmine M.; De Rienzo, Gianluca; Sive, Hazel

2012-01-01

227

Zebrafish homologs of genes within 16p11.2, a genomic region associated with brain disorders, are active during brain development, and include two deletion dosage sensor genes.  

PubMed

Deletion or duplication of one copy of the human 16p11.2 interval is tightly associated with impaired brain function, including autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), intellectual disability disorder (IDD) and other phenotypes, indicating the importance of gene dosage in this copy number variant region (CNV). The core of this CNV includes 25 genes; however, the number of genes that contribute to these phenotypes is not known. Furthermore, genes whose functional levels change with deletion or duplication (termed 'dosage sensors'), which can associate the CNV with pathologies, have not been identified in this region. Using the zebrafish as a tool, a set of 16p11.2 homologs was identified, primarily on chromosomes 3 and 12. Use of 11 phenotypic assays, spanning the first 5 days of development, demonstrated that this set of genes is highly active, such that 21 out of the 22 homologs tested showed loss-of-function phenotypes. Most genes in this region were required for nervous system development - impacting brain morphology, eye development, axonal density or organization, and motor response. In general, human genes were able to substitute for the fish homolog, demonstrating orthology and suggesting conserved molecular pathways. In a screen for 16p11.2 genes whose function is sensitive to hemizygosity, the aldolase a (aldoaa) and kinesin family member 22 (kif22) genes were identified as giving clear phenotypes when RNA levels were reduced by ?50%, suggesting that these genes are deletion dosage sensors. This study leads to two major findings. The first is that the 16p11.2 region comprises a highly active set of genes, which could present a large genetic target and might explain why multiple brain function, and other, phenotypes are associated with this interval. The second major finding is that there are (at least) two genes with deletion dosage sensor properties among the 16p11.2 set, and these could link this CNV to brain disorders such as ASD and IDD. PMID:22566537

Blaker-Lee, Alicia; Gupta, Sunny; McCammon, Jasmine M; De Rienzo, Gianluca; Sive, Hazel

2012-11-01

228

Multiplication  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Here are some fun games to make practicing multiplication fun!!! Before you start the fun... click Multiplication Tables to review what you already know! Can you figure out the Multiplication Hidden Picture... you better know your math skills first or the picture will burst! It\\'s times to have a \\"blast\\"... Blow me away with theMultiplication Tunnel Blaster Now your ready to join the team! Show me ...

Ms. Walker

2008-03-26

229

Multiple endocrine diseases in cats: 15 cases (1997–2008)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this retrospective study was to characterize a population of cats from a tertiary care center diagnosed with multiple endocrine disorders, including the specific disorders and time intervals between diagnosis of each disorder. Medical records of 15 cats diagnosed with more than one endocrine disorder were reviewed. The majority of cats were domestic shorthairs, and the mean age

Shauna L. Blois; Erica L. Dickie; Stephen A. Kruth; Dana G. Allen

2010-01-01

230

GENERAL PRINCIPLES FOR SHORT-TERM INPATIENT WORK WITH MULTIPLE PERSONALITY-DISORDER PATIENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article offers a conceptualization of the treatment course for patients with multiple personalities and describes a series of stages for the psychotherapy. A short-term inpatient unit can serve different functions during the course of treatment, ranging from diagnostic assessment, to education of both patient and therapist, to a secure holding environment in times of crisis.

David K. Sakheim; Elizabeth P. Hess; Aldine Chivas

1988-01-01

231

Endurance of Multiplication Fact Fluency for Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the relationship between a critical learning outcome of behavioral fluency and endurance, by comparing the effects of two practice procedures on multiplication facts two through nine. The first procedure, called whole time practice trial, consisted of an uninterrupted 1 minute practice time. The second procedure, endurance…

Brady, Kelly K.; Kubina, Richard M., Jr.

2010-01-01

232

Ca analysis: An Excel based program for the analysis of intracellular calcium transients including multiple, simultaneous regression analysis?  

PubMed Central

Here I present an Excel based program for the analysis of intracellular Ca transients recorded using fluorescent indicators. The program can perform all the necessary steps which convert recorded raw voltage changes into meaningful physiological information. The program performs two fundamental processes. (1) It can prepare the raw signal by several methods. (2) It can then be used to analyze the prepared data to provide information such as absolute intracellular Ca levels. Also, the rates of change of Ca can be measured using multiple, simultaneous regression analysis. I demonstrate that this program performs equally well as commercially available software, but has numerous advantages, namely creating a simplified, self-contained analysis workflow. PMID:24125908

Greensmith, David J.

2014-01-01

233

Nonadiabatic dynamics of electron transfer in solution: Explicit and implicit solvent treatments that include multiple relaxation time scales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of efficient theoretical methods for describing electron transfer (ET) reactions in condensed phases is important for a variety of chemical and biological applications. Previously, dynamical dielectric continuum theory was used to derive Langevin equations for a single collective solvent coordinate describing ET in a polar solvent. In this theory, the parameters are directly related to the physical properties of the system and can be determined from experimental data or explicit molecular dynamics simulations. Herein, we combine these Langevin equations with surface hopping nonadiabatic dynamics methods to calculate the rate constants for thermal ET reactions in polar solvents for a wide range of electronic couplings and reaction free energies. Comparison of explicit and implicit solvent calculations illustrates that the mapping from explicit to implicit solvent models is valid even for solvents exhibiting complex relaxation behavior with multiple relaxation time scales and a short-time inertial response. The rate constants calculated for implicit solvent models with a single solvent relaxation time scale corresponding to water, acetonitrile, and methanol agree well with analytical theories in the Golden rule and solvent-controlled regimes, as well as in the intermediate regime. The implicit solvent models with two relaxation time scales are in qualitative agreement with the analytical theories but quantitatively overestimate the rate constants compared to these theories. Analysis of these simulations elucidates the importance of multiple relaxation time scales and the inertial component of the solvent response, as well as potential shortcomings of the analytical theories based on single time scale solvent relaxation models. This implicit solvent approach will enable the simulation of a wide range of ET reactions via the stochastic dynamics of a single collective solvent coordinate with parameters that are relevant to experimentally accessible systems.

Schwerdtfeger, Christine A.; Soudackov, Alexander V.; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

2014-01-01

234

Nonadiabatic dynamics of electron transfer in solution: Explicit and implicit solvent treatments that include multiple relaxation time scales  

SciTech Connect

The development of efficient theoretical methods for describing electron transfer (ET) reactions in condensed phases is important for a variety of chemical and biological applications. Previously, dynamical dielectric continuum theory was used to derive Langevin equations for a single collective solvent coordinate describing ET in a polar solvent. In this theory, the parameters are directly related to the physical properties of the system and can be determined from experimental data or explicit molecular dynamics simulations. Herein, we combine these Langevin equations with surface hopping nonadiabatic dynamics methods to calculate the rate constants for thermal ET reactions in polar solvents for a wide range of electronic couplings and reaction free energies. Comparison of explicit and implicit solvent calculations illustrates that the mapping from explicit to implicit solvent models is valid even for solvents exhibiting complex relaxation behavior with multiple relaxation time scales and a short-time inertial response. The rate constants calculated for implicit solvent models with a single solvent relaxation time scale corresponding to water, acetonitrile, and methanol agree well with analytical theories in the Golden rule and solvent-controlled regimes, as well as in the intermediate regime. The implicit solvent models with two relaxation time scales are in qualitative agreement with the analytical theories but quantitatively overestimate the rate constants compared to these theories. Analysis of these simulations elucidates the importance of multiple relaxation time scales and the inertial component of the solvent response, as well as potential shortcomings of the analytical theories based on single time scale solvent relaxation models. This implicit solvent approach will enable the simulation of a wide range of ET reactions via the stochastic dynamics of a single collective solvent coordinate with parameters that are relevant to experimentally accessible systems.

Schwerdtfeger, Christine A.; Soudackov, Alexander V.; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon, E-mail: shs3@illinois.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 600 South Mathews Avenue, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 600 South Mathews Avenue, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

2014-01-21

235

Stepped-wedge cluster randomised controlled trials: a generic framework including parallel and multiple-level designs.  

PubMed

Stepped-wedge cluster randomised trials (SW-CRTs) are being used with increasing frequency in health service evaluation. Conventionally, these studies are cross-sectional in design with equally spaced steps, with an equal number of clusters randomised at each step and data collected at each and every step. Here we introduce several variations on this design and consider implications for power. One modification we consider is the incomplete cross-sectional SW-CRT, where the number of clusters varies at each step or where at some steps, for example, implementation or transition periods, data are not collected. We show that the parallel CRT with staggered but balanced randomisation can be considered a special case of the incomplete SW-CRT. As too can the parallel CRT with baseline measures. And we extend these designs to allow for multiple layers of clustering, for example, wards within a hospital. Building on results for complete designs, power and detectable difference are derived using a Wald test and obtaining the variance-covariance matrix of the treatment effect assuming a generalised linear mixed model. These variations are illustrated by several real examples. We recommend that whilst the impact of transition periods on power is likely to be small, where they are a feature of the design they should be incorporated. We also show examples in which the power of a SW-CRT increases as the intra-cluster correlation (ICC) increases and demonstrate that the impact of the ICC is likely to be smaller in a SW-CRT compared with a parallel CRT, especially where there are multiple levels of clustering. Finally, through this unified framework, the efficiency of the SW-CRT and the parallel CRT can be compared. PMID:25346484

Hemming, Karla; Lilford, Richard; Girling, Alan J

2015-01-30

236

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy prevents coagulation disorders in an experimental model of multiple organ failure syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To evaluate the effects of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy on the coagulation cascade using an experimental model of multiple organ failure syndrome (MOFS).Design  MOFS was induced by zymosan (500?mg\\/kg i.?p.) in rats. HBO therapy (2?ATA) was administered in a cylindrical steel chamber 4 and 11?h after zymosan administration. In a separate set of experiments animals were monitored for 72?h, and systemic toxicity was scored.Intervention  Eighteen

Francesco Imperatore; Salvatore Cuzzocrea; Domenico De Lucia; Marcella Sessa; Barbara Rinaldi; Annalisa Capuano; Giovanni Liguori; Amelia Filippelli; Francesco Rossi

2006-01-01

237

Using Multiple Approaches, including ?18O Signatures of Phosphate to Investigate Potential Phosphorus Limitation and Cycling under Changing Climate Conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phosphorus (P) is often a limiting or co-limiting nutrient in terrestrial systems. It has been proposed that it will play an even greater role in ecosystems experiencing some of the many predicted effects of climate change, in particular release from nitrogen limitation. Recent work in 2007 by Menge et al. suggests that this is indeed a possibility. To investigate the potential for P limitation, and P cycling under multiple controlled conditions we collected samples from the Jasper Ridge Global Change Experiment (JRGCE) in May 2011. For over a decade the JRGCE has been manipulating four key parameters predicted to change in the future in a native Californian grassland system. Elevated Nitrogen deposition, increased precipitation, increased pCO2, and increased temperature are applied and monitored in a split plot design at the Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve in the eastern foothills of the Santa Cruz Mountains, California. Work done previously at the site using a suite of indicators of the potential P limitation suggest P limitation in some of the manipulated plots in the JRGCE. In this study we replicate a subset of the prior analyses to compare inter-annual signals of P limitation, and further attempt to utilize the oxygen isotopes of phosphate to investigate P cycling in soils at JRGCE. A fractional soil extraction process for phosphate enables separation of several operationally defined P pools, and provides auxiliary information regarding the relative concentrations of bio-available P, and relevant minerals in this grassland system under the varied conditions.

Roberts, K.; Paytan, A.; Field, C. B.; Honn, E.; Edwards, E.; Gottlieb, R.

2012-12-01

238

Genetic and Functional Analyses of SHANK2 Mutations Suggest a Multiple Hit Model of Autism Spectrum Disorders  

PubMed Central

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental disorders with a complex inheritance pattern. While many rare variants in synaptic proteins have been identified in patients with ASD, little is known about their effects at the synapse and their interactions with other genetic variations. Here, following the discovery of two de novo SHANK2 deletions by the Autism Genome Project, we identified a novel 421 kb de novo SHANK2 deletion in a patient with autism. We then sequenced SHANK2 in 455 patients with ASD and 431 controls and integrated these results with those reported by Berkel et al. 2010 (n?=?396 patients and n?=?659 controls). We observed a significant enrichment of variants affecting conserved amino acids in 29 of 851 (3.4%) patients and in 16 of 1,090 (1.5%) controls (P?=?0.004, OR?=?2.37, 95% CI?=?1.23–4.70). In neuronal cell cultures, the variants identified in patients were associated with a reduced synaptic density at dendrites compared to the variants only detected in controls (P?=?0.0013). Interestingly, the three patients with de novo SHANK2 deletions also carried inherited CNVs at 15q11–q13 previously associated with neuropsychiatric disorders. In two cases, the nicotinic receptor CHRNA7 was duplicated and in one case the synaptic translation repressor CYFIP1 was deleted. These results strengthen the role of synaptic gene dysfunction in ASD but also highlight the presence of putative modifier genes, which is in keeping with the “multiple hit model” for ASD. A better knowledge of these genetic interactions will be necessary to understand the complex inheritance pattern of ASD. PMID:22346768

Leblond, Claire S.; Heinrich, Jutta; Delorme, Richard; Proepper, Christian; Betancur, Catalina; Huguet, Guillaume; Konyukh, Marina; Chaste, Pauline; Ey, Elodie; Rastam, Maria; Anckarsäter, Henrik; Nygren, Gudrun; Gillberg, I. Carina; Melke, Jonas; Toro, Roberto; Regnault, Beatrice; Fauchereau, Fabien; Mercati, Oriane; Lemière, Nathalie; Skuse, David; Poot, Martin; Holt, Richard; Monaco, Anthony P.; Järvelä, Irma; Kantojärvi, Katri; Vanhala, Raija; Curran, Sarah; Collier, David A.; Bolton, Patrick; Chiocchetti, Andreas; Klauck, Sabine M.; Poustka, Fritz; Freitag, Christine M.; Waltes, Regina; Kopp, Marnie; Duketis, Eftichia; Bacchelli, Elena; Minopoli, Fiorella; Ruta, Liliana; Battaglia, Agatino; Mazzone, Luigi; Maestrini, Elena; Sequeira, Ana F.; Oliveira, Barbara; Vicente, Astrid; Oliveira, Guiomar; Pinto, Dalila; Scherer, Stephen W.; Zelenika, Diana; Delepine, Marc; Lathrop, Mark; Bonneau, Dominique; Guinchat, Vincent; Devillard, Françoise; Assouline, Brigitte; Mouren, Marie-Christine; Leboyer, Marion; Gillberg, Christopher; Boeckers, Tobias M.; Bourgeron, Thomas

2012-01-01

239

Design of dual inhibitors of ROCK-I and NOX2 as potential leads for the treatment of neuroinflammation associated with various neurological diseases including autism spectrum disorder.  

PubMed

Inhibition of both Rho kinase (ROCK-I) and NADPH oxidase (NOX2) to treat neuroinflammation could be very effective in the treatment of progressive neurological diseases like Alzheimer's disease, autism spectral disorder, and fragile X syndrome. NOX2 being a multi-enzyme component is activated during host defense in phagocytes such as microglia, to catalyze the production of superoxide from oxygen, while ROCK is an important mediator of fundamental cell processes like adhesion, proliferation and migration. Phosphorylated ROCK was found to activate NOX2 assembly via Ras related C3 botulinum toxin substrate (Rac) in disease conditions. Overexpression of ROCK-I and NOX2 in innate immune cells like microglial cells contribute to progressive neuronal damage early in neurological disease development. In the present study we employed a computer-aided methodology combining pharmacophores and molecular docking to identify new chemical entities that could inhibit ROCK-I as well as NOX2 (p47 phox). Among the huge dataset of a commercial database, top 18 molecules with crucial binding interactions were selected for biological evaluation. Seven among the lead molecules exhibited inhibitory potential against ROCK-I and NOX2 with IC50s ranging from 1.588 to 856.2 nM and 0.8942 to 10.24 ?M, respectively, and emerged as potential hits as dual inhibitors with adequate selectivity index (SI = CC50/GIC50) in cell-based assays. The most active compound 3 was further found to show reduction of the pro-inflammatory mediators such as TNF?, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1?) mRNA expression levels in activated (MeHg treated) human neuroblastoma (IMR32) cell lines. Hence the present work documented the utility of these dual inhibitors as prototypical leads to be useful for the treatment of neurological disorders including autism spectrum disorder and Alzheimer's disease. PMID:25465055

Alokam, Reshma; Singhal, Sarthak; Srivathsav, Geetha Sai; Garigipati, Sowmya; Puppala, Sripriya; Sriram, Dharmarajan; Perumal, Yogeeswari

2015-02-01

240

Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 3-5: Planar Motion; Newton's Laws; and Vector Multiplication].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

241

MLL fusion partner AF9 is an intrinsically disordered transcriptional regulator which recruits multiple partners via coupled folding and binding  

PubMed Central

Summary Mixed Lineage Leukemia (MLL) fusion proteins cause oncogenic transformation of hematopoietic cells by constitutive recruitment of elongation factors to HOX promoters, resulting in over-expression of target genes. The structural basis of transactivation by MLL fusion partners remains undetermined. We show that the ANC1 Homology Domain (AHD) of AF9, one of the most common MLL translocation partners, is intrinsically disordered and recruits multiple transcription factors through coupled folding and binding. We determined the structure of the AF9 AHD in complex with the elongation factor AF4, and show that aliphatic residues which are conserved in each of the AF9 binding partners form an integral part of the hydrophobic core of the complex. NMR relaxation measurements show AF9 retains significant dynamic behavior which may facilitate exchange between disordered partners. We propose that AF9 functions as a signaling hub which regulates transcription through dynamic recruitment of co-factors in normal hematopoiesis and in acute leukemia. PMID:23260655

Leach, Benjamin I; Kuntimaddi, Aravinda; Schmidt, Charles R; Cierpicki, Tomasz; Johnson, Stephanie A; Bushweller, John H.

2012-01-01

242

Enteric Bacterial Metabolites Propionic and Butyric Acid Modulate Gene Expression, Including CREB-Dependent Catecholaminergic Neurotransmission, in PC12 Cells - Possible Relevance to Autism Spectrum Disorders  

PubMed Central

Alterations in gut microbiome composition have an emerging role in health and disease including brain function and behavior. Short chain fatty acids (SCFA) like propionic (PPA), and butyric acid (BA), which are present in diet and are fermentation products of many gastrointestinal bacteria, are showing increasing importance in host health, but also may be environmental contributors in neurodevelopmental disorders including autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Further to this we have shown SCFA administration to rodents over a variety of routes (intracerebroventricular, subcutaneous, intraperitoneal) or developmental time periods can elicit behavioral, electrophysiological, neuropathological and biochemical effects consistent with findings in ASD patients. SCFA are capable of altering host gene expression, partly due to their histone deacetylase inhibitor activity. We have previously shown BA can regulate tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) mRNA levels in a PC12 cell model. Since monoamine concentration is known to be elevated in the brain and blood of ASD patients and in many ASD animal models, we hypothesized that SCFA may directly influence brain monoaminergic pathways. When PC12 cells were transiently transfected with plasmids having a luciferase reporter gene under the control of the TH promoter, PPA was found to induce reporter gene activity over a wide concentration range. CREB transcription factor(s) was necessary for the transcriptional activation of TH gene by PPA. At lower concentrations PPA also caused accumulation of TH mRNA and protein, indicative of increased cell capacity to produce catecholamines. PPA and BA induced broad alterations in gene expression including neurotransmitter systems, neuronal cell adhesion molecules, inflammation, oxidative stress, lipid metabolism and mitochondrial function, all of which have been implicated in ASD. In conclusion, our data are consistent with a molecular mechanism through which gut related environmental signals such as increased levels of SCFA's can epigenetically modulate cell function further supporting their role as environmental contributors to ASD. PMID:25170769

Nankova, Bistra B.; Agarwal, Raj; MacFabe, Derrick F.; La Gamma, Edmund F.

2014-01-01

243

Optical observations of 23 distant Jupiter Family Comets, including 36P\\/Whipple at multiple phase angles  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present photometry on 23 Jupiter Family Comets (JFCs) observed at large heliocentric distance, primarily using the 2.5-m Isaac Newton Telescope (INT). Snapshot images were taken of 17 comets, of which five were not detected, three were active and nine were unresolved and apparently inactive. These include 103P\\/Hartley 2, the target of the NASA Deep Impact extended mission, EPOXI. For

Colin Snodgrass; S. C. Lowry; Alan Fitzsimmons

2008-01-01

244

Multiple Beneficial Lipids Including Lecithin Detected in the Edible Invasive Mollusk Crepidula fornicata from the French Northeastern Atlantic Coast  

PubMed Central

The invasive mollusk Crepidula fornicata, occurring in large amounts in bays along the French Northeastern Atlantic coasts, may have huge environmental effects in highly productive ecosystems where shellfish are exploited. The present study aims at determining the potential economic value of this marine species in terms of exploitable substances with high added value. Lipid content and phospholipid (PL) composition of this mollusk collected on the Bourgneuf Bay were studied through four seasons. Winter specimens contained the highest lipid levels (5.3% dry weight), including 69% of PLs. Phosphatidylcholine (PC) was the major PL class all year, accounting for 63.9% to 88.9% of total PLs. Consequently, the winter specimens were then investigated for PL fatty acids (FAs), and free sterols. Dimethylacetals (DMAs) were present (10.7% of PL FA + DMA mixture) revealing the occurrence of plasmalogens. More than forty FAs were identified, including 20:5n-3 (9.4%) and 22:6n-3 (7.3%) acids. Fourteen free sterols were present, including cholesterol at 31.3% of the sterol mixture and about 40% of phytosterols. These data on lipids of C. fornicata demonstrate their positive attributes for human nutrition and health. The PL mixture, rich in PC and polyunsaturated FAs, offers an interesting alternative source of high value-added marine lecithin. PMID:25532566

Dagorn, Flore; Buzin, Florence; Couzinet-Mossion, Aurélie; Decottignies, Priscilla; Viau, Michèle; Rabesaotra, Vony; Barnathan, Gilles; Wielgosz-Collin, Gaëtane

2014-01-01

245

Multiple beneficial lipids including lecithin detected in the edible invasive mollusk Crepidula fornicata from the French Northeastern Atlantic coast.  

PubMed

The invasive mollusk Crepidula fornicata, occurring in large amounts in bays along the French Northeastern Atlantic coasts, may have huge environmental effects in highly productive ecosystems where shellfish are exploited. The present study aims at determining the potential economic value of this marine species in terms of exploitable substances with high added value. Lipid content and phospholipid (PL) composition of this mollusk collected on the Bourgneuf Bay were studied through four seasons. Winter specimens contained the highest lipid levels (5.3% dry weight), including 69% of PLs. Phosphatidylcholine (PC) was the major PL class all year, accounting for 63.9% to 88.9% of total PLs. Consequently, the winter specimens were then investigated for PL fatty acids (FAs), and free sterols. Dimethylacetals (DMAs) were present (10.7% of PL FA + DMA mixture) revealing the occurrence of plasmalogens. More than forty FAs were identified, including 20:5n-3 (9.4%) and 22:6n-3 (7.3%) acids. Fourteen free sterols were present, including cholesterol at 31.3% of the sterol mixture and about 40% of phytosterols. These data on lipids of C. fornicata demonstrate their positive attributes for human nutrition and health. The PL mixture, rich in PC and polyunsaturated FAs, offers an interesting alternative source of high value-added marine lecithin. PMID:25532566

Dagorn, Flore; Buzin, Florence; Couzinet-Mossion, Aurélie; Decottignies, Priscilla; Viau, Michèle; Rabesaotra, Vony; Barnathan, Gilles; Wielgosz-Collin, Gaëtane

2014-12-01

246

Multiple Comorbidities of 21 Psychological Disorders and Relationships With Psychosocial Variables: A Study of the Online Assessment and Diagnostic System Within a Web-Based Population  

PubMed Central

Background While research in the area of e-mental health has received considerable attention over the last decade, there are still many areas that have not been addressed. One such area is the comorbidity of psychological disorders in a Web-based sample using online assessment and diagnostic tools, and the relationships between comorbidities and psychosocial variables. Objective We aimed to identify comorbidities of psychological disorders of an online sample using an online diagnostic tool. Based on diagnoses made by an automated online assessment and diagnostic system administered to a large group of online participants, multiple comorbidities (co-occurrences) of 21 psychological disorders for males and females were identified. We examined the relationships between dyadic comorbidities of anxiety and depressive disorders and the psychosocial variables sex, age, suicidal ideation, social support, and quality of life. Methods An online complex algorithm based on the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, Text Revision, was used to assign primary and secondary diagnoses of 21 psychological disorders to 12,665 online participants. The frequency of co-occurrences of psychological disorders for males and females were calculated for all disorders. A series of hierarchical loglinear analyses were performed to examine the relationships between the dyadic comorbidities of depression and various anxiety disorders and the variables suicidal ideation, social support, quality of life, sex, and age. Results A 21-by-21 frequency of co-occurrences of psychological disorders matrix revealed the presence of multiple significant dyadic comorbidities for males and females. Also, for those with some of the dyadic depression and the anxiety disorders, the odds for having suicidal ideation, reporting inadequate social support, and poorer quality of life increased for those with two-disorder comorbidity than for those with only one of the same two disorders. Conclusions Comorbidities of several psychological disorders using an online assessment tool within a Web-based population were similar to those found in face-to-face clinics using traditional assessment tools. Results provided support for the transdiagnostic approaches and confirmed the positive relationship between comorbidity and suicidal ideation, the negative relationship between comorbidity and social support, and the negative relationship comorbidity and quality of life. Trial Registration Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN121611000704998; http://www.anzctr.org.au/trial_view.aspx?ID=336143 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/618r3wvOG) PMID:25803420

Klein, Britt; Meyer, Denny

2015-01-01

247

Multiplication  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Which way of learning multiplication helped you the best? First you will need to use organizer Then you need to go to thinking blocks Next go to multiplication rap song Then go to dinosaur game and times table and lattice method and finally flashcards after this look over your graphic organizer and think about which site was most helpful for you. You will then be divided into groups where you will make your own creative lesson ...

Ms. Williams

2011-04-06

248

Eating Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

Eating disorders are serious behavior problems. They can include severe overeating or not consuming enough food to stay ... concern about your shape or weight. Types of eating disorders include Anorexia nervosa, in which you become too ...

249

Optical observations of 23 distant Jupiter Family Comets, including 36P/Whipple at multiple phase angles  

E-print Network

We present photometry on 23 Jupiter Family Comets (JFCs) observed at large heliocentric distance, primarily using the 2.5m Isaac Newton Telescope (INT). Snap-shot images were taken of 17 comets, of which 5 were not detected, 3 were active and 9 were unresolved and apparently inactive. These include 103P/Hartley 2, the target of the NASA Deep Impact extended mission, EPOXI. For 6 comets we obtained time-series photometry and use this to constrain the shape and rotation period of these nuclei. The data are not of sufficient quantity or quality to measure precise rotation periods, but the time-series do allow us to measure accurate effective radii and surface colours. Of the comets observed over an extended period, 40P/Vaisala 1, 47P/Ashbrook-Jackson and P/2004 H2 (Larsen) showed faint activity which limited the study of the nucleus. Light-curves for 94P/Russell 4 and 121P/Shoemaker-Holt 2 reveal rotation periods of around 33 and 10 hours respectively, although in both cases these are not unique solutions. 94P w...

Snodgrass, Colin; Fitzsimmons, Alan

2007-01-01

250

The Diagnostic Drawing Series and the Tree Rating Scale: An Isomorphic Representation of Multiple Personality Disorder, Major Depression, and Schizophrenic Populations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The tree drawings of 80 subjects, who were diagnosed with either multiple personality disorder, schizophrenia, or major depression, and a control group, were rated. Patterns were examined and graphs were used to depict results. Certain features were found to distinguish each category. The descriptive statistical findings were both consistent and…

Morris, Maureen Batza

1995-01-01

251

The Work of Antoine Despine: The First Scientific Report on the Diagnosis and Treatment of a Child with Multiple Personality Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papers describing the signs and symptoms of multiple personality disorder (MPD) are increasing in the contemporary scientific literature where, ironically, the clinical researchers of today are rediscovering phenomena already documented in nineteenth century medical texts. Indeed, 150 years ago, there were already psychiatric monographs discussing the diagnosis and treatment of MPD. One of these monographs was written by Antoine Despine,

Catherine G. Fine

1988-01-01

252

SOX9 Regulates Multiple Genes in Chondrocytes, Including Genes Encoding ECM Proteins, ECM Modification Enzymes, Receptors, and Transporters  

PubMed Central

The transcription factor SOX9 plays an essential role in determining the fate of several cell types and is a master factor in regulation of chondrocyte development. Our aim was to determine which genes in the genome of chondrocytes are either directly or indirectly controlled by SOX9. We used RNA-Seq to identify genes whose expression levels were affected by SOX9 and used SOX9 ChIP-Seq to identify those genes that harbor SOX9-interaction sites. For RNA-Seq, the RNA expression profile of primary Sox9flox/flox mouse chondrocytes infected with Ad-CMV-Cre was compared with that of the same cells infected with a control adenovirus. Analysis of RNA-Seq data indicated that, when the levels of Sox9 mRNA were decreased more than 8-fold by infection with Ad-CMV-Cre, 196 genes showed a decrease in expression of at least 4-fold. These included many cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM) genes and a number of genes for ECM modification enzymes (transferases), membrane receptors, transporters, and others. In ChIP-Seq, 75% of the SOX9-interaction sites had a canonical inverted repeat motif within 100 bp of the top of the peak. SOX9-interaction sites were found in 55% of the genes whose expression was decreased more than 8-fold in SOX9-depleted cells and in somewhat fewer of the genes whose expression was reduced more than 4-fold, suggesting that these are direct targets of SOX9. The combination of RNA-Seq and ChIP-Seq has provided a fuller understanding of the SOX9-controlled genetic program of chondrocytes. PMID:25229425

Oh, Chun-do; Lu, Yue; Liang, Shoudan; Mori-Akiyama, Yuko; Chen, Di; de Crombrugghe, Benoit; Yasuda, Hideyo

2014-01-01

253

Biallelic germline and somatic mutations in malignant mesothelioma: multiple mutations in transcription regulators including mSWI/SNF genes.  

PubMed

We detected low levels of acetylation for histone H3 tail lysines in malignant mesothelioma (MM) cell lines resistant to histone deacetylase inhibitors. To identify the possible genetic causes related to the low histone acetylation levels, whole-exome sequencing was conducted with MM cell lines established from eight patients. A mono-allelic variant of BRD1 was common to two MM cell lines with very low acetylation levels. We identified 318 homozygous protein-damaging variants/mutations (18-78 variants/mutations per patient); annotation analysis showed enrichment of the molecules associated with mammalian SWI/SNF (mSWI/SNF) chromatin remodeling complexes and co-activators that facilitate initiation of transcription. In seven of the patients, we detected a combination of variants in histone modifiers or transcription factors/co-factors, in addition to variants in mSWI/SNF. Direct sequencing showed that homozygous mutations in SMARCA4, PBRM1 and ARID2 were somatic. In one patient, homozygous germline variants were observed for SMARCC1 and SETD2 in chr3p22.1-3p14.2. These exhibited extended germline homozygosity and were in regions containing somatic mutations, leading to a loss of BAP1 and PBRM1 expression in MM cell line. Most protein-damaging variants were heterozygous in normal tissues. Heterozygous germline variants were often converted into hemizygous variants by mono-allelic deletion, and were rarely homozygous because of acquired uniparental disomy. Our findings imply that MM might develop through the somatic inactivation of mSWI/SNF complex subunits and/or histone modifiers, including BAP1, in subjects that have rare germline variants of these transcription regulators and/or transcription factors/co-factors, and in regions prone to mono-allelic deletion during oncogenesis. PMID:24916674

Yoshikawa, Yoshie; Sato, Ayuko; Tsujimura, Tohru; Otsuki, Taiichiro; Fukuoka, Kazuya; Hasegawa, Seiki; Nakano, Takashi; Hashimoto-Tamaoki, Tomoko

2015-02-01

254

Airborne electromagnetic detection of shallow seafloor topographic features, including resolution of multiple sub-parallel seafloor ridges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The HoistEM helicopter time-domain electromagnetic (TEM) system was flown over waters in Backstairs Passage, South Australia, in 2003 to test the bathymetric accuracy and hence the ability to resolve seafloor structure in shallow and deeper waters (extending to ~40 m depth) that contain interesting seafloor topography. The topography that forms a rock peak (South Page) in the form of a mini-seamount that barely rises above the water surface was accurately delineated along its ridge from the start of its base (where the seafloor is relatively flat) in ~30 m water depth to its peak at the water surface, after an empirical correction was applied to the data to account for imperfect system calibration, consistent with earlier studies using the same HoistEM system. A much smaller submerged feature (Threshold Bank) of ~9 m peak height located in waters of 35 to 40 m depth was also accurately delineated. These observations when checked against known water depths in these two regions showed that the airborne TEM system, following empirical data correction, was effectively operating correctly. The third and most important component of the survey was flown over the Yatala Shoals region that includes a series of sub-parallel seafloor ridges (resembling large sandwaves rising up to ~20 m from the seafloor) that branch out and gradually decrease in height as the ridges spread out across the seafloor. These sub-parallel ridges provide an interesting topography because the interpreted water depths obtained from 1D inversion of TEM data highlight the limitations of the EM footprint size in resolving both the separation between the ridges (which vary up to ~300 m) and the height of individual ridges (which vary up to ~20 m), and possibly also the limitations of assuming a 1D model in areas where the topography is quasi-2D/3D.

Vrbancich, Julian; Boyd, Graham

2014-05-01

255

Dehalococcoides mccartyi strain JNA dechlorinates multiple chlorinated phenols including pentachlorophenol and harbors at least 19 reductive dehalogenase homologous genes.  

PubMed

Pentachlorophenol and other chlorinated phenols are highly toxic ubiquitous environmental pollutants. Using gas chromatographic analysis we determined that Dehalococcoides mccartyi strain JNA in pure culture dechlorinated pentachlorophenol to 3,5-dichlorophenol (DCP) via removal of the ortho and para chlorines in all of the three possible pathways. In addition, JNA dechlorinated 2,3,4,6-tetrachlorophenol via 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP) and 2,4,5-TCP to 2,4-DCP and 3,4-DCP, respectively, and dechlorinated 2,3,6-TCP to 3-chlorophenol (CP) via 2,5-DCP. JNA converted 2,3,4-TCP to 3,4-DCP and 2,4-DCP by ortho and meta dechlorination, respectively. 2,3-DCP was dechlorinated to 3-CP, and, because cultures using it could be transferred with a low inoculum (0.5 to 1.5% vol/vol), it may act as an electron acceptor to support growth. Using PCR amplification with targeted and degenerate primers followed by cloning and sequencing, we determined that JNA harbors at least 19 reductive dehalogenase homologous (rdh) genes including orthologs of pcbA4 and pcbA5, pceA, and mbrA, but not tceA or vcrA. Many of these genes are shared with D. mccartyi strains CBDB1, DCMB5, GT, and CG5. Strain JNA has previously been shown to extensively dechlorinate the commercial polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixture Aroclor 1260. Collectively the data suggest that strain JNA may be well adapted to survive in sites contaminated with chlorinated aromatics and may be useful for in situ bioremediation. PMID:25377868

Fricker, Ashwana D; LaRoe, Sarah L; Shea, Michael E; Bedard, Donna L

2014-12-16

256

Optical observations of 23 distant Jupiter Family Comets, including 36P/Whipple at multiple phase angles  

E-print Network

We present photometry on 23 Jupiter Family Comets (JFCs) observed at large heliocentric distance, primarily using the 2.5m Isaac Newton Telescope (INT). Snap-shot images were taken of 17 comets, of which 5 were not detected, 3 were active and 9 were unresolved and apparently inactive. These include 103P/Hartley 2, the target of the NASA Deep Impact extended mission, EPOXI. For 6 comets we obtained time-series photometry and use this to constrain the shape and rotation period of these nuclei. The data are not of sufficient quantity or quality to measure precise rotation periods, but the time-series do allow us to measure accurate effective radii and surface colours. Of the comets observed over an extended period, 40P/Vaisala 1, 47P/Ashbrook-Jackson and P/2004 H2 (Larsen) showed faint activity which limited the study of the nucleus. Light-curves for 94P/Russell 4 and 121P/Shoemaker-Holt 2 reveal rotation periods of around 33 and 10 hours respectively, although in both cases these are not unique solutions. 94P was observed to have a large range in magnitudes implying that it is one of the most elongated nuclei known, with an axial ratio a/b \\ge 3. 36P/Whipple was observed at 5 different epochs, with the INT and ESO's 3.6m NTT, primarily in an attempt to confirm the preliminary short rotation period apparent in the first data set. The combined data set shows that the rotation period is actually longer than 24 hours. A measurement of the phase function of 36P's nucleus gives a relatively steep \\beta = 0.060 \\pm 0.019. Finally, we discuss the distribution of surface colours observed in JFC nuclei, and show that it is possible to trace the evolution of colours from the Kuiper Belt Object (KBO) population to the JFC population by applying a 'de-reddening' function to the KBO colour distribution.

Colin Snodgrass; Stephen C. Lowry; Alan Fitzsimmons

2007-12-27

257

The Dopamine Imbalance Hypothesis of Fatigue in Multiple Sclerosis and Other Neurological Disorders  

PubMed Central

Fatigue is one of the most pervasive symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS), and has engendered hundreds of investigations on the topic. While there is a growing literature using various methods to study fatigue, a unified theory of fatigue in MS is yet to emerge. In the current review, we synthesize findings from neuroimaging, pharmacological, neuropsychological, and immunological studies of fatigue in MS, which point to a specific hypothesis of fatigue in MS: the dopamine imbalance hypothesis. The communication between the striatum and prefrontal cortex is reliant on dopamine, a modulatory neurotransmitter. Neuroimaging findings suggest that fatigue results from the disruption of communication between these regions. Supporting the dopamine imbalance hypothesis, structural and functional neuroimaging studies show abnormalities in the frontal and striatal regions that are heavily innervated by dopamine neurons. Further, dopaminergic psychostimulant medication has been shown to alleviate fatigue in individuals with traumatic brain injury, chronic fatigue syndrome, and in cancer patients, also indicating that dopamine might play an important role in fatigue perception. This paper reviews the structural and functional neuroimaging evidence as well as pharmacological studies that suggest that dopamine plays a critical role in the phenomenon of fatigue. We conclude with how specific aspects of the dopamine imbalance hypothesis can be tested in future research.

Dobryakova, Ekaterina; Genova, Helen M.; DeLuca, John; Wylie, Glenn R.

2015-01-01

258

The dopamine imbalance hypothesis of fatigue in multiple sclerosis and other neurological disorders.  

PubMed

Fatigue is one of the most pervasive symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS), and has engendered hundreds of investigations on the topic. While there is a growing literature using various methods to study fatigue, a unified theory of fatigue in MS is yet to emerge. In the current review, we synthesize findings from neuroimaging, pharmacological, neuropsychological, and immunological studies of fatigue in MS, which point to a specific hypothesis of fatigue in MS: the dopamine imbalance hypothesis. The communication between the striatum and prefrontal cortex is reliant on dopamine, a modulatory neurotransmitter. Neuroimaging findings suggest that fatigue results from the disruption of communication between these regions. Supporting the dopamine imbalance hypothesis, structural and functional neuroimaging studies show abnormalities in the frontal and striatal regions that are heavily innervated by dopamine neurons. Further, dopaminergic psychostimulant medication has been shown to alleviate fatigue in individuals with traumatic brain injury, chronic fatigue syndrome, and in cancer patients, also indicating that dopamine might play an important role in fatigue perception. This paper reviews the structural and functional neuroimaging evidence as well as pharmacological studies that suggest that dopamine plays a critical role in the phenomenon of fatigue. We conclude with how specific aspects of the dopamine imbalance hypothesis can be tested in future research. PMID:25814977

Dobryakova, Ekaterina; Genova, Helen M; DeLuca, John; Wylie, Glenn R

2015-01-01

259

Family History of Education Predicts Eating Disorders across Multiple Generations among 2 Million Swedish Males and Females  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate which facets of parent and grandparent socio-economic position (SEP) are associated with eating disorders (ED), and how this varies by ED subtype and over time. Methods Total-population cohort study of 1,040,165 females and 1,098,188 males born 1973–1998 in Sweden, and followed for inpatient or outpatient ED diagnoses until 2010. Proportional hazards models estimated associations with parental education, income and social class, and with grandparental education and income. Results 15,747 females and 1051 males in our sample received an ED diagnosis, with rates increasing in both sexes over time. ED incidence in females was independently predicted by greater educational level among the father, mother and maternal grandparents, but parent social class and parental income showed little or no independent effect. The associations with education were equally strong for anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and ED not-otherwise-specified, and had increased over time. Among males, an apparently similar pattern was seen with respect to anorexia nervosa, but non-anorexia ED showed no association with parental education and an inverse association with parental income. Conclusions Family history of education predicts ED in gender- and disorder-specific ways, and in females the effect is observed across multiple generations. Particularly given that these effects may have grown stronger in more recent cohorts, these findings highlight the need for further research to clarify the underlying mechanisms and identify promising targets for prevention. Speculatively, one such mechanism may involve greater internal and external demands for academic success in highly educated families. PMID:25162402

Goodman, Anna; Heshmati, Amy; Koupil, Ilona

2014-01-01

260

Exploring the labyrinth of the brain neurobiological parameters in Multiple Complex Developmental Disorder, a subtype of the Pervasive Developmental Disorder-not otherwise specified  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research reported in this thesis provides some evidence for subjects with MCDD being a biologically different subtype compared to patients with an autistic disorder or an autistic spectrum disorder without MCDD characteristics. There is also evidence for MCDD patients being biological different from typical controls. The here presented studies supported from this neurobiological point of view the earlier studies

B. E. Lahuis

2008-01-01

261

Genetic pleiotropy between multiple sclerosis and schizophrenia but not bipolar disorder: differential involvement of immune-related gene loci.  

PubMed

Converging evidence implicates immune abnormalities in schizophrenia (SCZ), and recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified immune-related single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with SCZ. Using the conditional false discovery rate (FDR) approach, we evaluated pleiotropy in SNPs associated with SCZ (n=21?856) and multiple sclerosis (MS) (n=43?879), an inflammatory, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Because SCZ and bipolar disorder (BD) show substantial clinical and genetic overlap, we also investigated pleiotropy between BD (n=16?731) and MS. We found significant genetic overlap between SCZ and MS and identified 21 independent loci associated with SCZ, conditioned on association with MS. This enrichment was driven by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Importantly, we detected the involvement of the same human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles in both SCZ and MS, but with an opposite directionality of effect of associated HLA alleles (that is, MS risk alleles were associated with decreased SCZ risk). In contrast, we found no genetic overlap between BD and MS. Considered together, our findings demonstrate genetic pleiotropy between SCZ and MS and suggest that the MHC signals may differentiate SCZ from BD susceptibility. PMID:24468824

Andreassen, O A; Harbo, H F; Wang, Y; Thompson, W K; Schork, A J; Mattingsdal, M; Zuber, V; Bettella, F; Ripke, S; Kelsoe, J R; Kendler, K S; O'Donovan, M C; Sklar, P; McEvoy, L K; Desikan, R S; Lie, B A; Djurovic, S; Dale, A M

2015-02-01

262

Germline loss-of-function mutations in LZTR1 predispose to an inherited disorder of multiple schwannomas  

PubMed Central

Constitutional SMARCB1 mutations at 22q11.23 have been found in ~50% of familial and <10% of sporadic schwannomatosis cases1. We sequenced highly conserved regions along 22q from eight individuals with schwannomatosis whose schwannomas involved somatic loss of one copy of 22q, encompassing SMARCB1 and NF2, with a different somatic mutation of the other NF2 allele in every schwannoma but no mutation of the remaining SMARCB1 allele in blood and tumor samples. LZTR1 germline mutations were identified in seven of the eight cases. LZTR1 sequencing in 12 further cases with the same molecular signature identified 9 additional germline mutations. Loss of heterozygosity with retention of an LZTR1 mutation was present in all 25 schwannomas studied. Mutations segregated with disease in all available affected first-degree relatives, although four asymptomatic parents also carried an LZTR1 mutation. Our findings identify LZTR1 as a gene predisposing to an autosomal dominant inherited disorder of multiple schwannomas in ~80% of 22q-related schwannomatosis cases lacking mutation in SMARCB1. PMID:24362817

Piotrowski, Arkadiusz; Xie, Jing; Liu, Ying F; Poplawski, Andrzej B; Gomes, Alicia R; Madanecki, Piotr; Fu, Chuanhua; Crowley, Michael R; Crossman, David K; Armstrong, Linlea; Babovic-Vuksanovic, Dusica; Bergner, Amanda; Blakeley, Jaishri O; Blumenthal, Andrea L; Daniels, Molly S; Feit, Howard; Gardner, Kathy; Hurst, Stephanie; Kobelka, Christine; Lee, Chung; Nagy, Rebecca; Rauen, Katherine A; Slopis, John M; Suwannarat, Pim; Westman, Judith A; Zanko, Andrea; Korf, Bruce R; Messiaen, Ludwine M

2015-01-01

263

Genetic pleiotropy between multiple sclerosis and schizophrenia but not bipolar disorder: differential involvement of immune-related gene loci  

PubMed Central

Converging evidence implicates immune abnormalities in schizophrenia (SCZ), and recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified immune-related single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with SCZ. Using the conditional false discovery rate (FDR) approach, we evaluated pleiotropy in SNPs associated with SCZ (n=21?856) and multiple sclerosis (MS) (n=43?879), an inflammatory, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Because SCZ and bipolar disorder (BD) show substantial clinical and genetic overlap, we also investigated pleiotropy between BD (n=16?731) and MS. We found significant genetic overlap between SCZ and MS and identified 21 independent loci associated with SCZ, conditioned on association with MS. This enrichment was driven by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Importantly, we detected the involvement of the same human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles in both SCZ and MS, but with an opposite directionality of effect of associated HLA alleles (that is, MS risk alleles were associated with decreased SCZ risk). In contrast, we found no genetic overlap between BD and MS. Considered together, our findings demonstrate genetic pleiotropy between SCZ and MS and suggest that the MHC signals may differentiate SCZ from BD susceptibility. PMID:24468824

Andreassen, O A; Harbo, H F; Wang, Y; Thompson, W K; Schork, A J; Mattingsdal, M; Zuber, V; Bettella, F; Ripke, S; Kelsoe, J R; Kendler, K S; O'Donovan, M C; Sklar, P; McEvoy, L K; Desikan, R S; Lie, B A; Djurovic, S; Dale, A M

2015-01-01

264

Autism and Related Disorders  

PubMed Central

The Pervasive Developmental Disorders are a group of neurodevelopmental disorders that include Autistic Disorder, Asperger’s Disorder, Pervasive Developmental Disorder - Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS), Childhood Disintegrative Disorder (CDD), and Rett’s Disorder. All feature childhood onset with a constellation of symptoms spanning social interaction and communication and including atypical behavior patterns. The first three disorders (Autistic Disorder, Asperger’s Disorder, and PDD-NOS) are currently referred to as Autism Spectrum Disorders, reflecting divergent phenotypic and etiologic characteristics compared to Rett’s Disorder and CDD. This chapter reviews relevant research and clinical information relevant to appropriate medical diagnosis and treatment. PMID:22608634

McPartland, James; Volkmar, Fred R.

2012-01-01

265

Community Habilitative Support in the Case of an Adult with Growth-Hormone Deficiency Dwarfism (Panhypopituitarism), Multiple Psychiatric Disorders, Law Violating Behavior, and Life Threatening Self-Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

This case report describes the psychiatric and treatment history of a 36-year old man with growth-hormone deficiency dwarfism who engaged in persistent health-threatening, self-harming, and law-violating behaviors. Diagnosed with Tourette's disorder, depression, obsessive–compulsive disorder, and schizophrenia, his life-long involvement with the mental health system included repeated psychiatric hospitalizations and additional challenges such as pseudoseizures, polydipsia, ethanol abuse, and physical maltreatment.

James M. Sperry; James K. Luiselli; Sarah R. Goldman; Karen J. Abbe; Mark J. Hauser

2004-01-01

266

Multiple tasks and neuroimaging modalities increase the likelihood of detecting covert awareness in patients with disorders of consciousness  

PubMed Central

Minimal or inconsistent behavioral responses to command make it challenging to accurately diagnose the level of awareness of a patient with a Disorder of consciousness (DOC). By identifying markers of mental imagery being covertly performed to command, functional neuroimaging (fMRI), electroencephalography (EEG) has shown that some of these patients are aware despite their lack of behavioral responsiveness. We report the findings of behavioral, fMRI, and EEG approaches to detecting command-following in a group of patients with DOC. From an initial sample of 14 patients, complete data across all tasks was obtained in six cases. Behavioral evaluations were performed with the Coma Recovery Scale—Revised. Both fMRI and EEG evaluations involved the completion of previously validated mental imagery tasks—i.e., motor imagery (EEG and fMRI) and spatial navigation imagery (fMRI). One patient exhibited statistically significant evidence of motor imagery in both the fMRI and EEG tasks, despite being unable to follow commands behaviorally. Two behaviorally non-responsive patients produced appropriate activation during the spatial navigation fMRI task. However, neither of these patients successfully completed the motor imagery tasks, likely due to specific motor area damage in at least one of these cases. A further patient demonstrated command following only in the EEG motor imagery task, and two patients did not demonstrate command following in any of the behavioral, EEG, or fMRI assessments. Due to the heterogeneity of etiology and pathology in this group, DOC patients vary in terms of their suitability for some forms of neuroimaging, the preservation of specific neural structures, and the cognitive resources that may be available to them. Assessments of a range of cognitive abilities supported by spatially-distinct brain regions and indexed by multiple neural signatures are therefore required in order to accurately characterize a patient's level of residual cognition and awareness. PMID:25505400

Gibson, Raechelle M.; Fernández-Espejo, Davinia; Gonzalez-Lara, Laura E.; Kwan, Benjamin Y.; Lee, Donald H.; Owen, Adrian M.; Cruse, Damian

2014-01-01

267

Childhood Functional GI Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... Merchandise Take Action Contact Us Donate Childhood Functional GI Disorders A functional disorder refers to a disorder ... regurgitation, heartburn, or food refusal. Examples of functional GI disorders in kids and teens include: Infant regurgitation ...

268

Reliability and Diagnostic Efficiency of the Diagnostic Inventory for Disharmony (DID) in Youths with Pervasive Developmental Disorder and Multiple Complex Developmental Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS) category is a psychopathological entity few have described and is poorly, and mainly negatively, defined by autism exclusion. In order to limit PDD-NOS heterogeneity, alternative clinical constructs have been developed. This study explored the reliability and the diagnostic…

Xavier, Jean; Vannetzel, Leonard; Viaux, Sylvie; Leroy, Arthur; Plaza, Monique; Tordjman, Sylvie; Mille, Christian; Bursztejn, Claude; Cohen, David; Guile, Jean-Marc

2011-01-01

269

Multiple therapeutic and preventive effects of 3,3?-diindolylmethane on cancers including prostate cancer and high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia  

PubMed Central

Abstract Cruciferous vegetables belong to the plant family that has flowers with four equal-sized petals in the pattern of a crucifer cross. These vegetables are an abundant source of dietary phytochemicals, including glucosinolates and their hydrolysis products such as indole-3-carbinol (I3C) and 3,3?-diindolylmethane (DIM). By 2013, the total number of natural glucosinolates that have been documented is estimated to be 132. Recently, cruciferous vegetable intake has garnered great interest for its multiple health benefits such as anticancer, antiviral infections, human sex hormone regulation, and its therapeutic and preventive effects on prostate cancer and high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN). DIM is a hydrolysis product of glucosinolates and has been used in various trials. This review is to provide an insight into the latest developments of DIM in treating or preventing both prostate cancer and HGPIN. PMID:25332705

Zhang, William Weiben; Feng, Zhenqing; Narod, Steven A.

2014-01-01

270

Multiple therapeutic and preventive effects of 3,3'-diindolylmethane on cancers including prostate cancer and high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia.  

PubMed

Cruciferous vegetables belong to the plant family that has flowers with four equal-sized petals in the pattern of a crucifer cross. These vegetables are an abundant source of dietary phytochemicals, including glucosinolates and their hydrolysis products such as indole-3-carbinol (I3C) and 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM). By 2013, the total number of natural glucosinolates that have been documented is estimated to be 132. Recently, cruciferous vegetable intake has garnered great interest for its multiple health benefits such as anticancer, antiviral infections, human sex hormone regulation, and its therapeutic and preventive effects on prostate cancer and high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN). DIM is a hydrolysis product of glucosinolates and has been used in various trials. This review is to provide an insight into the latest developments of DIM in treating or preventing both prostate cancer and HGPIN. PMID:25332705

Zhang, William Weiben; Feng, Zhenqing; Narod, Steven A

2014-09-01

271

Subthreshold Conditions as Precursors for Full Syndrome Disorders: A 15-Year Longitudinal Study of Multiple Diagnostic Classes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: There has been increasing interest in the distinction between subthreshold and full syndrome disorders and specifically whether subthreshold conditions escalate or predict the onset of full syndrome disorders over time. Most of these studies, however, examined whether a single subthreshold condition escalates into the full syndrome…

Shankman, Stewart A.; Lewinsohn, Peter M.; Klein, Daniel N.; Small, Jason W.; Seeley, John R.; Altman, Sarah E.

2009-01-01

272

Genetic and Functional Analyses of SHANK2 Mutations Suggest a Multiple Hit Model of Autism Spectrum Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental disorders with a complex inheritance pattern. While many rare variants in synaptic proteins have been identified in patients with ASD, little is known about their effects at the synapse and their interactions with other genetic variations. Here, following the discovery of two de novo SHANK2 deletions by the Autism Genome

Claire S. Leblond; Jutta Heinrich; Richard Delorme; Christian Proepper; Catalina Betancur; Guillaume Huguet; Marina Konyukh; Pauline Chaste; Elodie Ey; Maria Rastam; Henrik Anckarsäter; Gudrun Nygren; I. Carina Gillberg; Jonas Melke; Roberto Toro; Beatrice Regnault; Fabien Fauchereau; Oriane Mercati; Nathalie Lemière; David Skuse; Martin Poot; Richard Holt; Anthony P. Monaco; Irma Järvelä; Katri Kantojärvi; Raija Vanhala; Sarah Curran; David A. Collier; Patrick Bolton; Andreas Chiocchetti; Sabine M. Klauck; Fritz Poustka; Christine M. Freitag; Regina Waltes; Marnie Kopp; Eftichia Duketis; Elena Bacchelli; Fiorella Minopoli; Liliana Ruta; Agatino Battaglia; Luigi Mazzone; Elena Maestrini; Ana F. Sequeira; Barbara Oliveira; Astrid Vicente; Guiomar Oliveira; Dalila Pinto; Stephen W. Scherer; Diana Zelenika; Marc Delepine; Mark Lathrop; Dominique Bonneau; Vincent Guinchat; Françoise Devillard; Brigitte Assouline; Marie-Christine Mouren; Marion Leboyer; Christopher Gillberg; Tobias M. Boeckers; Thomas Bourgeron

2012-01-01

273

Mosaicism for genome-wide paternal uniparental disomy with features of multiple imprinting disorders: diagnostic and management issues.  

PubMed

Mosaicism for genome-wide paternal uniparental disomy (UPD) has been reported in only seven live born individuals to date. Clinical presentation includes manifestations of multiple paternal UPD syndromes with high variability, likely due to the variable levels of mosaicism in different somatic tissues. We report an eighth case in a female patient with mosaicism for genome-wide paternal UPD which highlights the complex clinical presentation. Our patient had features of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS), Angelman syndrome, and congenital hyperinsulinism. The clinical findings included prematurity, organomegaly, hemihyperplasia, developmental delay, benign tumors, and cystic lesions. The diagnosis in our patient was established utilizing microarray-based genome-wide DNA methylation analysis performed on leukocyte DNA. Targeted multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) analysis of chromosome regions 11p15 and 15q13 confirmed mosaicism for paternal UPD at these genomic regions. This case represents the first report of microarray-based genome-wide DNA methylation analysis in the diagnosis of genome-wide paternal UPD. The application of microarray-based genome-wide DNA methylation analysis on selected individuals with complex clinical presentations could be a valuable diagnostic tool to improve the detection rate of mosaic genome-wide paternal UPD. This approach, which screens many loci simultaneously, is more cost-effective and less labor-intensive than performing multiple targeted DNA methylation-based assays. Identification of individuals with mosaicism for genome-wide paternal UPD is an important goal as it confers a low recurrence risk for the family and identifies individuals who require surveillance due to increased tumor risk. PMID:23239666

Inbar-Feigenberg, Michal; Choufani, Sanaa; Cytrynbaum, Cheryl; Chen, Yi-An; Steele, Leslie; Shuman, Cheryl; Ray, Peter N; Weksberg, Rosanna

2013-01-01

274

Zinc-finger domains of the transcriptional repressor KLF15 bind multiple sites in rhodopsin and IRBP promoters including the CRS-1 and G-rich repressor elements  

PubMed Central

Background In the retina, many of the genes that encode components of the visual transduction cascade and retinoid recycling are exclusively expressed in photoreceptor cells and show highly stereotyped temporal and spatial expression patterns. Multiple transcriptional activators of photoreceptor-specific genes have been identified, but little is known about negative regulation of gene expression in the retina. We recently identified KLF15, a member of the Sp/Krüppel-like Factor family of zinc-finger containing transcription factors, as an in vitro repressor of the promoters of the photoreceptor-specific genes rhodopsin and IRBP/Rbp3. To gain further insight into the mechanism of KLF15-mediated regulation of gene expression, we have characterized the binding characteristics and specificity of KLF15's DNA binding domains and defined the KLF15 binding sites in the rhodopsin and IRBP promoters. Results In EMSA and DNAseI footprinting assays, a KLF15-GST fusion protein containing the C-terminal zinc-finger domains (123 amino acids) showed zinc-dependent and sequence-specific binding to a 9 bp consensus sequence containing a core CG/TCCCC. Both the bovine rhodopsin and IRBP promoters contained multiple KLF15 binding sites that included the previously identified CRS-1 and G-rich repressor elements. KLF15 binding sites were highly conserved between the bovine, human, chimp and dog rhodopsin promoters, but less conserved in rodents. KLF15 reduced luciferase expression by bRho130-luc (containing 4 KLF15 sites) and repressed promoter activation by CRX (cone rod homeobox) and/or NRL (neural retina leucine zipper), although the magnitude of the reduction was smaller than previously reported for a longer bRho225-luc (containing 6 KFL15 sites). Conclusion KLF15 binds to multiple 9 bp consensus sites in the Rhodospin and IRBP promoters including the CRS-1 and G-rich repressor elements. Based on the known expression pattern of KLF15 in non-photoreceptor cells, we hypothesize an in vivo role for KLF15 in repressing photoreceptor-specific gene expression in the inner retina. PMID:15963234

Otteson, Deborah C; Lai, Hong; Liu, Yuhui; Zack, Donald J

2005-01-01

275

Prospective Follow-Up of Girls with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder into Early Adulthood: Continuing Impairment Includes Elevated Risk for Suicide Attempts and Self-Injury  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: We performed a 10-year prospective follow-up of a childhood-ascertained (6-12 years), ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; N = 140: combined type [ADHD-C] n = 93; inattentive type [ADHD-I] n = 47) plus a matched comparison group (N = 88). Girls were recruited from…

Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Owens, Elizabeth B.; Zalecki, Christine; Huggins, Suzanne Perrigue; Montenegro-Nevado, Adriana J.; Schrodek, Emily; Swanson, Erika N.

2012-01-01

276

Movement Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... Tremors are a type of dyskinesia. Nerve diseases cause many movement disorders, such as Parkinson's disease. Other causes include injuries, autoimmune diseases, infections and certain medicines. ...

277

Integrated Treatment of Substance Use and Psychiatric Disorders  

PubMed Central

Epidemiological studies find that psychiatric disorders, including mental disorders and substance use disorders, are common among adults and highly comorbid. Integrated treatment refers to the focus of treatment on two or more conditions and to the use of multiple treatments such as the combination of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy. Integrated treatment for comorbidity has been found to be consistently superior compared to treatment of individual disorders with separate treatment plans. This article focuses on a review of the risks for developing comorbid disorders and the combinations of treatments that appear to be most effective for clients with particular comorbid disorders. PMID:23731427

Kelly, Thomas M.; Daley, Dennis C.

2013-01-01

278

There are 501,665 Veterans of the Armed Forces living in Tennessee. Some of these Veterans face significant mental health challenges, including Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD),  

E-print Network

than their counterparts nationwide (3.0%). UT College of Social Work supports research on Veterans significant mental health challenges, including Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), Major Depressive health needs of Tennessee's Veterans, the University of Tennessee College of Social Work Office

Tennessee, University of

279

The PP2A-A? gene is regulated by multiple transcriptional factors including Ets-1, SP1/SP3, and RXR?/?.  

PubMed

Protein phosphatase-2A (PP-2A) is a major serine/threonine phosphatase abundantly expressed in eukaryotes. PP-2A is a heterotrimer that contains a 65 kD scaffold A subunit, a 36 kD catalytic C subunit, and a regulatory B subunit of variable isoforms ranging from 54-130 kDs. The scaffold subunits, PP2A-A?/?, act as platforms for both the C and B subunits to bind, and thus are key structural components for PP-2A activity. Mutations in both genes encoding PP2A-A? and PP2A-A? lead to carcinogenesis and likely other human diseases. Our previous work showed that the gene coding for PP2A-A? is positively regulated by multiple transcription factors including Ets-1, CREB, and AP-2? but negatively regulated by SP-1/SP-3. In the present study, we have functionally dissected the promoter of the mouse PP2A-A? gene. Our results demonstrate that three major cis-elements, including the binding sites for Ets-1, SP1/SP3, and RXR?/?, are present in the proximal promoter of the mouse PP2A-A? gene. Gel mobility shifting assays reveal that Ets-1, SP1/SP3, and RXR?/? all bind to PP2A-A? gene promoter. In vitro mutagenesis and reporter gene activity assays demonstrate that while Ets-1 displays negative regulation, SP1/SP3 and RXR?/? positively regulate the promoter of the PP2A-A? gene. Co-expression of the cDNAs encoding Ets-1, SP1/SP3, or RXR?/? and the luciferase reporter gene driven by PP2A-A? promoter further confirm their control over the PP2A-A? promoter. Finally, ChIP assays demonstrate that Ets-1, SP1/SP3, and RXR?/? can all bind to the PP2A-A? gene promoter. Together, our results reveal that multiple transcription factors regulate the PP2A-A? gene. Moreover, our results provide important information explaining why PP2A-A? and PP2A-A? display distinct expression levels. PMID:22827437

Liu, J; Ji, W; Sun, S; Zhang, L; Chen, H-G; Mao, Y; Liu, L; Zhang, X; Gong, L; Deng, M; Chen, L; Han, W-J; Chen, P-C; Hu, W-F; Hu, X; Woodward, Z; Liu, W-B; Xiao, Y-M; Liang, S-P; Liu, Y; Liu, S-J; Li, D W-C

2012-09-01

280

Cytogenetic analyses of eight species in the genus Leptodactylus Fitzinger, 1843 (Amphibia, Anura, Leptodactylidae), including a new diploid number and a karyotype with multiple translocations  

PubMed Central

Background The karyotypes of Leptodactylus species usually consist of 22 bi-armed chromosomes, but morphological variations in some chromosomes and even differences in the 2n have been reported. To better understand the mechanisms responsible for these differences, eight species were analysed using classical and molecular cytogenetic techniques, including replication banding with BrdU incorporation. Results Distinct chromosome numbers were found: 2n = 22 in Leptodactylus chaquensis, L. labyrinthicus, L. pentadactylus, L. petersii, L. podicipinus, and L. rhodomystax; 2n = 20 in Leptodactylus sp. (aff. podicipinus); and 2n = 24 in L. marmoratus. Among the species with 2n = 22, only three had the same basic karyotype. Leptodactylus pentadactylus presented multiple translocations, L. petersii displayed chromosome morphological discrepancy, and L. podicipinus had four pairs of telocentric chromosomes. Replication banding was crucial for characterising this variability and for explaining the reduced 2n in Leptodactylus sp. (aff. podicipinus). Leptodactylus marmoratus had few chromosomes with a similar banding patterns to the 2n = 22 karyotypes. The majority of the species presented a single NOR-bearing pair, which was confirmed using Ag-impregnation and FISH with an rDNA probe. In general, the NOR-bearing chromosomes corresponded to chromosome 8, but NORs were found on chromosome 3 or 4 in some species. Leptodactylus marmoratus had NORs on chromosome pairs 6 and 8. The data from C-banding, fluorochrome staining, and FISH using the telomeric probe helped in characterising the repetitive sequences. Even though hybridisation did occur on the chromosome ends, telomere-like repetitive sequences outside of the telomere region were identified. Metaphase I cells from L. pentadactylus confirmed its complex karyotype constitution because 12 chromosomes appeared as ring-shaped chain in addition to five bivalents. Conclusions Species of Leptodactylus exhibited both major and minor karyotypic differences which were identified by classical and molecular cytogenetic techniques. Replication banding, which is a unique procedure that has been used to obtain longitudinal multiple band patterns in amphibian chromosomes, allowed us to outline the general mechanisms responsible for these karyotype differences. The findings also suggested that L. marmoratus, which was formerly included in the genus Adenomera, may have undergone great chromosomal repatterning. PMID:23268622

2012-01-01

281

Childhood adversity, mental disorder comorbidity, and suicidal behavior in schizotypal personality disorder.  

PubMed

Schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) is a serious and relatively common psychiatric disorder, yet remains understudied among the personality disorders. The current study examines the psychiatric correlates of SPD in a representative epidemiologic sample, utilizing data from the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (N = 34,653). Multiple logistic regression compared people with SPD to the general population across a broad range of childhood adversities, comorbid psychiatric disorders, and suicidal behavior. SPD was strongly associated with many adverse childhood experiences. After adjusting for confounding factors, SPD was independently associated with major depression and several anxiety disorders, including post-traumatic stress disorder. Interestingly, SPD was more strongly associated with borderline and narcissistic personality disorders than cluster A personality disorders. Individuals with SPD were also more likely to attempt suicide. As a whole, these results suggest that individuals with SPD experience significant morbidity and may be at increased risk of mortality. PMID:21048469

Lentz, Vanessa; Robinson, Jennifer; Bolton, James M

2010-11-01

282

Loneliness and Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the link between loneliness and eating disorders. This concept is evaluated through a systematic review of the literature that links loneliness and eating disorders and through a survey of themes connecting the 2 conditions. Eating disorders—including anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and eating disorders that are not otherwise specified, which include binge eating disorder—are challenging health issues. Each

Martha Peaslee Levine

2012-01-01

283

Therapeutic Horseback Riding Outcomes of Parent-Identified Goals for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: An ABA' Multiple Case Design Examining Dosing and Generalization to the Home and Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined whether different doses of therapeutic riding influenced parent-nominated target behaviors of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (a) during the session (b) at home, and (c) in the community. We used a single subject multiple Baseline, multiple case design, with dosing of 1, 3, and 5 times/week. Three boys with ASD, 6-8 years…

Holm, Margo B.; Baird, Joanne M.; Kim, Young Joo; Rajora, Kuwar B.; D'Silva, Delma; Podolinsky, Lin; Mazefsky, Carla; Minshew, Nancy

2014-01-01

284

Plasma Cell Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... Resources for Help and Information The One-Page Merck Manual of Health Medical Terms Conversion Tables Manuals available ... Significance (MGUS) Multiple Myeloma Macroglobulinemia Heavy Chain Diseases Merck Manual > Patients & Caregivers > Blood Disorders > Plasma Cell Disorders 4 ...

285

Becoming a Teacher in Multiple Voices: An Exploration of Teacher Identity Formation among Teachers of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore the formation of teacher identity among four teachers of students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and my own by examining our perspectives, influences, and experiences at different points in our careers and determining the similarities and differences that exist in our professional and educational…

Wilt, Mary E.

2013-01-01

286

Kinetics of 3H-serotonin uptake by platelets in infantile autism and developmental language disorder (including five pairs of twins)  

SciTech Connect

The kinetics of 5-HT uptake by platelets was studied in cases of infantile autism and developmental language disorder (DLD) and normal subjects. Two patients of the autism group were twins, and the seven patients of the DLD group were members of four pairs of twins. The Vmax values (means +/- SD) for autism and DLD were 6.46 +/- .90 pmol 5-HT/10(7) cells/min and 4.85 +/- 1.50 pmol 5-HT/10(7) cells/min, respectively. These values were both significantly higher than that of 2.25 +/- .97 pmole 5-HT/10(7) cells/min for normal children. The Km values of the three groups were not significantly different. Data on the five pairs of twins examined suggested that the elevated Vmax of 5-HT uptake by platelets was determined genetically.

Katsui, T.; Okuda, M.; Usuda, S.; Koizumi, T.

1986-03-01

287

Comparing Factor, Class, and Mixture Models of Cannabis Initiation and DSM Cannabis Use Disorder Criteria, Including Craving, in the Brisbane Longitudinal Twin Study  

PubMed Central

Accumulating evidence suggests that the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) diagnostic criteria for cannabis abuse and dependence are best represented by a single underlying factor. However, it remains possible that models with additional factors, or latent class models or hybrid models, may better explain the data. Using structured interviews, 626 adult male and female twins provided complete data on symptoms of cannabis abuse and dependence, plus a craving criterion. We compared latent factor analysis, latent class analysis, and factor mixture modeling using normal theory marginal maximum likelihood for ordinal data. Our aim was to derive a parsimonious, best-fitting cannabis use disorder (CUD) phenotype based on DSM-IV criteria and determine whether DSM-5 craving loads onto a general factor. When compared with latent class and mixture models, factor models provided a better fit to the data. When conditioned on initiation and cannabis use, the association between criteria for abuse, dependence, withdrawal, and craving were best explained by two correlated latent factors for males and females: a general risk factor to CUD and a factor capturing the symptoms of social and occupational impairment as a consequence of frequent use. Secondary analyses revealed a modest increase in the prevalence of DSM-5 CUD compared with DSM-IV cannabis abuse or dependence. It is concluded that, in addition to a general factor with loadings on cannabis use and symptoms of abuse, dependence, withdrawal, and craving, a second clinically relevant factor defined by features of social and occupational impairment was also found for frequent cannabis use. PMID:24588857

Kubarych, Thomas S.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Aggen, Steven H.; Estabrook, Ryne; Edwards, Alexis C.; Clark, Shaunna L.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Hickie, Ian B.; Neale, Michael C.; Gillespie, Nathan A.

2014-01-01

288

Speech and Language Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... including a description, causes, diagnosis, treatment, and research. Auditory Processing Disorder in Children - This fact sheet explains auditory processing disorder, the difficulties in diagnosing it, possible ...

289

Borderline personality disorder  

MedlinePLUS

Personality disorder - borderline ... Cause of borderline personality disorder is unknown. Genetic, family, and social factors are thought to play roles. Risk factors for BPD include: Abandonment in ...

290

Decreased BDNF and TrkB mRNA expression in multiple cortical areas of patients with schizophrenia and mood disorders.  

PubMed

Abnormalities in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)/trkB signaling have been implicated in the etiology of schizophrenia and mood disorders. Patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder (BPD) and major depression (MDD) have reduced levels of neurotrophins in their brains when compared with normal unaffected individuals; however, only a few brain areas have been examined to date. Owing to the broad range of symptoms manifested in these disorders, we hypothesized that multiple associative areas of the neocortex may be implicated and that the degree of change in BDNF and trkB-TK+ mRNA expression and the cortical region or layers involved may vary according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) diagnosis. We compared BDNF and trkB-TK+ mRNA levels across all layers of the prefrontal cortex (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, DLPFC), orbital frontal cortex (OFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), inferior temporal gyrus (ITG) and superior temporal gyrus (STG) in four groups: schizophrenia, BPD, MDD and unaffected controls (n=60). BDNF mRNA levels were significantly decreased in layers IV and V of DLPFC in schizophrenia patients, in layer VI of ACC in schizophrenia and MDD and in layer VI of ITG in schizophrenia, BPD and MDD. BDNF mRNA levels were also significantly decreased in layer V and/or VI of STG in schizophrenia, BPD and MDD. TrkB-TK+ mRNA levels were only significantly decreased in the cortical layer VI of OFC in BPD. The shared and distinct patterns of neurotrophin transcript reductions, with some specific to each group, may compromise the function and plasticity of distinct cortical areas to various degrees in the different groups and contribute to the range and overlap of symptoms manifested across the diagnoses. PMID:24802307

Ray, M T; Shannon Weickert, C; Webster, M J

2014-01-01

291

Collaborative Care for patients with severe borderline and NOS personality disorders: A comparative multiple case study on processes and outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Structured psychotherapy is recommended as the preferred treatment of personality disorders. A substantial group of patients,\\u000a however, has no access to these therapies or does not benefit. For those patients who have no (longer) access to psychotherapy\\u000a a Collaborative Care Program (CCP) is developed. Collaborative Care originated in somatic health care to increase shared decision\\u000a making and to enhance self

Barbara Stringer; Berno van Meijel; Bauke Koekkoek; A. J. F. M. Kerkhof; Aartjan Beekman

2011-01-01

292

Risk Factors for Onset of Eating Disorders: Evidence of Multiple Risk Pathways from an 8-Year Prospective Study  

PubMed Central

Objective Use classification tree analysis with lagged predictors to determine empirically derived cut-points for identifying adolescent girls at risk for future onset of threshold, subthreshold, and partial eating disorders and test for interactions between risk factors that may implicate qualitatively distinct risk pathways. Method Data were drawn from a prospective study of 496 adolescent girls who completed diagnostic interviews and surveys annually for 8 years. Results Body dissatisfaction emerged as the most potent predictor; adolescent girls in the upper 24% of body dissatisfaction showed a 4.0-fold increased incidence of eating disorder onset (24% vs. 6%). Among participants in the high body dissatisfaction branch, those in the upper 32% of depressive symptoms showed a 2.9-fold increased incidence of onset (43% vs. 15%). Among participants in the low body dissatisfaction branch, those in the upper 12% of dieting showed a 3.6-fold increased incidence onset (18% vs. 5%). Conclusion This three-way interaction suggests a body dissatisfaction pathway to eating disorder onset that is amplified by depressive symptoms, as well as a pathway characterized by self-reported dieting among young women who are more satisfied with their bodies. It may be possible to increase the effectiveness of prevention programs by targeting each of these qualitatively distinct risk groups, rather than only individuals with a single risk factor. PMID:21764035

Stice, Eric; Marti, C. Nathan; Durant, Shelley

2014-01-01

293

Resistance to treatment in eating disorders: a critical challenge  

PubMed Central

The Special Issue “Treatment resistance in Eating Disorders” gathers together the contributions provided by several experienced groups of researchers in the field of Eating Disorders (EDs). The main topic is addressed from multiple perspectives ranging from pathogenesis (including developmental and maintaining factors) to treatment. An explicative model of resistance in EDs is also proposed. PMID:24229426

2013-01-01

294

Diversity in Pathways to Common Childhood Disruptive Behavior Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Oppositional-Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are highly comorbid, a phenomenon thought to be due to shared etiological factors and mechanisms. Little work has attempted to chart multiple-level-of-analysis pathways (i.e., simultaneously including biological, environmental, and trait influences) to ODD and…

Martel, Michelle M.; Nikolas, Molly; Jernigan, Katherine; Friderici, Karen; Nigg, Joel T.

2012-01-01

295

Renal complications in multiple myeloma and related disorders: Survivorship care plan of the IMF Nurse Leadership Board  

PubMed Central

Kidney dysfunction is a common clinical feature of symptomatic multiple myeloma. Some degree of renal insufficiency or renal failure is present at diagnosis or will occur during the course of the disease, and which, if not reversed, will adversely effect overall survival and quality of life. Chronic insults to the kidneys from other illnesses, treatment, or multiple myeloma itself can further damage renal function and increase the risk for additional complications, such as anemia. Patients with multiple myeloma who have light chain (Bence Jones protein) proteinuria may experience renal failure or progress to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and require dialysis due to light chain cast nephropathy. Kidney failure in patients with presumed multiple myeloma may also result from amyloidosis, light chain deposition disease, or acute tubular necrosis caused by nephrotoxic agents; therefore identification of patients at risk for kidney damage is essential. The International Myeloma Foundation’s Nurse Leadership Board have developed these practice recommendations for screening for renal function, identifying positive and negative contributing risk and environmental factors, selecting appropriate therapies and supportive care measures to decrease progression to ESRD and dialysis, and reducing and managing renal complications in patients with multiple myeloma. PMID:21816711

Faiman, Beth; Tariman, Joseph D.; Mangan, Patricia A.; Spong, Jacy

2012-01-01

296

Zinc-finger domains of the transcriptional repressor KLF15 bind multiple sites in rhodopsin and IRBP promoters including the CRS1 and G-rich repressor elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In the retina, many of the genes that encode components of the visual transduction cascade and retinoid recycling are exclusively expressed in photoreceptor cells and show highly stereotyped temporal and spatial expression patterns. Multiple transcriptional activators of photoreceptor-specific genes have been identified, but little is known about negative regulation of gene expression in the retina. We recently identified KLF15,

Deborah C Otteson; Hong Lai; Yuhui Liu; Donald J Zack

2005-01-01

297

"Nothing like Pretend": Difference, Disorder, and Dystopia in the Multiple World Spaces of Philip Pullman's "His Dark Materials"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the multiple worlds in Philip Pullman's "His Dark Materials" trilogy in light Pierre Bourdieu's "space of possibles" and the combination of chance and choice that impact Lyra and Will's decisions. Rather than viewing chance or destiny as disempowering, this article considers how the protagonists' choices also encourage…

Cantrell, Sarah K.

2010-01-01

298

[Eating disorders].  

PubMed

Abstract Eating disorders are characterized by aberrant patterns of eating behavior, including such symptoms as extreme restriction of food intake or binge eating, and severe disturbances in the perception of body shape and weight, as well as a drive for thinness and obsessive fears of becoming fat. Eating disorder is an important cause for physical and psychosocial morbidity in young women. Patients with eating disorders have a deficit in the cognitive process and functional abnormalities in the brain system. Recently, brain-imaging techniques have been used to identify specific brain areas that function abnormally in patients with eating disorders. We have discussed the clinical and cognitive aspects of eating disorders and summarized neuroimaging studies of eating disorders. PMID:25681363

Miyake, Yoshie; Okamoto, Yuri; Jinnin, Ran; Shishida, Kazuhiro; Okamoto, Yasumasa

2015-02-01

299

Differences in the nature of body image disturbances between female obese individuals with versus without a comorbid binge eating disorder: an exploratory study including static and dynamic aspects of body image.  

PubMed

Various components of body image were measured to assess body image disturbances in patients with obesity. To overcome limitations of previous studies, a photo distortion technique and a biological motion distortion device were included to assess static and dynamic aspects of body image. Questionnaires assessed cognitive-affective aspects, bodily attitudes, and eating behavior. Patients with obesity and a binge eating disorder (OBE, n = 15) were compared with patients with obesity only (ONB; n = 15), to determine the nature of any differences in body image disturbances. Both groups had high levels of body image disturbances with cognitive-affective deficits. Binge eating disorder (BED) participants also had perceptual difficulties (static only). Both groups reported high importance of weight and shape for self-esteem. There were some significant differences between the groups suggesting that a comorbid BED causes further aggravation. Body image interventions in obesity treatment may be warranted. PMID:21324945

Legenbauer, Tanja; Vocks, Silja; Betz, Sabrina; Báguena Puigcerver, María José; Benecke, Andrea; Troje, Nikolaus F; Rüddel, Heinz

2011-03-01

300

Intricate Crystal Structure of Dihydrolipoamide Dehydrogenase (E3) with its Binding Protein: Multiple Copies, Dynamic and Static Disorders  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Human E3 and binding protein E3BP are two components of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. Crystallization of E3 with 221-amino acid fragment of E3BP (E3BPdd) led to crystals that diffracted to a resolution of 2.6 Angstroms. Structure determination involved molecular replacement using a dimer of E3 homolog as a search model and de novo building of the E3BPdd peptide. Solution was achieved by inclusion of one E3 dimer at a time, followed by refinement until five E3 dimers were located. This complete content of E3 provided electron density maps suitable for tracing nine peptide chains of E3BPdd, eight of them being identified with partial occupancies. Final content of the asymmetric unit consists of five E3 dimers, each binding one E3BPdd molecule. In four of these molecular complexes, E3BPdd is in static disorder resulting in E3BPdd binding to either one or the other monomer of the E3 dimer. However, E3BPdd of the fifth E3 dimer forms specific contacts that lock it at one monomer. In addition to this static disorder, E3BPdd reveals high mobility in the limited space of the crystal lattice. Support from NIH and NASA.

Makal, A.; Hong, Y. S.; Potter, R.; Vettaikkorumakankauv, A. K.; Korotchkina, L. G.; Patel, M. S.; Ciszak, E.

2004-01-01

301

The genetics of autism spectrum disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiological twin studies demonstrate that autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) represent genetic disorders. Subsequent analyses\\u000a indicate that the causes of ASDs include less common single-gene mutations and chromosomal abnormalities, as well as ASDs\\u000a caused by multiple interacting genes of weak effect. Genome-wide linkage analysis has identified several susceptibility loci\\u000a for the ASDs, and positional and functional candidate genes have been identified

Dorothy E. Grice; Joseph D. Buxbaum

2006-01-01

302

The Clinical Obesity Maintenance Model: An Integration of Psychological Constructs including Mood, Emotional Regulation, Disordered Overeating, Habitual Cluster Behaviours, Health Literacy and Cognitive Function  

PubMed Central

Psychological distress and deficits in executive functioning are likely to be important barriers to effective weight loss maintenance. The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, in the light of recent evidence in the fields of neuropsychology and obesity, particularly on the deficits in the executive function in overweight and obese individuals, a conceptual and theoretical framework of obesity maintenance is introduced by way of a clinical obesity maintenance model (COMM). It is argued that psychological variables, that of habitual cluster Behaviors, emotional dysregulation, mood, and health literacy, interact with executive functioning and impact on the overeating/binge eating behaviors of obese individuals. Second, cognizant of this model, it is argued that the focus of obesity management should be extended to include a broader range of maintaining mechanisms, including but not limited to cognitive deficits. Finally, a discussion on potential future directions in research and practice using the COMM is provided. PMID:23710346

Raman, Jayanthi; Smith, Evelyn; Hay, Phillipa

2013-01-01

303

“Nothing Like Pretend”: Difference, Disorder, and Dystopia in The Multiple World Spaces of Philip Pullman’s His Dark Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the multiple worlds in Philip Pullman’s His Dark Materials trilogy in light Pierre Bourdieu’s “space of possibles” and the combination of chance and choice that impact Lyra and Will’s\\u000a decisions. Rather than viewing chance or destiny as disempowering, this article considers how the protagonists’ choices also\\u000a encourage readers to confront their own notions of space in the

Sarah K. Cantrell

2010-01-01

304

Saskatchewan movement disorders program.  

PubMed

We review the Saskatchewan Movement Disorders Program, which started in 1968 and has had the dual goals of patient care and research. The clinics are structured to collect research-worthy data including videos, longitudinal follow-up, and autopsy studies of patients seen in the clinics. At every clinic visit, the patient is evaluated by one or both authors. A total of 25% to 30% of the deceased come to autopsy. Frozen half-brain and formalin-fixed remnants from autopsy are preserved in our laboratories. Patients not seen in our clinic are not included in research, which makes it different from brain banks. So far, 515 cases have come to autopsy. So far, there have been 17 collaborating scientific teams from Canada, the United States, Europe, and Japan. The collaborators are not charged for access to our resources. This program offers a unique opportunity to study multiple aspects of movement disorder patients seen in clinical practice. PMID:25804247

Rajput, Ali H; Rajput, Alex

2015-03-01

305

Parathyroid Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... phosphorous. Causes include injury to the glands, endocrine disorders, or genetic conditions. Treatment is aimed at restoring the balance of calcium and phosphorous. NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

306

Bronchial Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... can be acute or chronic. Other problems include Bronchiectasis, a condition in which damage to the airways ... Bronchopulmonary dysplasia, a condition affecting infants Treatment of bronchial disorders depends on the cause.

307

Dissociative Identity Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Few psychological disorders in the Diagnostic Statistical Manual have generated as much controversy as Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID). For the past 35 years diagnoses of DID, previously referred to as Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD), have increased exponentially, causing various psychological researchers and clinicians to question the…

Schmidt, Tom

2007-01-01

308

Cannabis in Multiple Sclerosis: Women's Health Concerns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women's health has received greater attention with the recognition of significant differences in disease expression and drug action in men and women. Multiple sclerosis is a neurological disorder with important gender differences. MS patients have employed cannabis to treat a number of symptoms associated with the disease including spasticity, pain, tremor, fatigue, and autonomic dysfunction. The scientific literature includes supportive

Denis J. Petro

2002-01-01

309

Relationships of personality and psychiatric disorders to multiple domains of smoking motives and dependence in middle-aged adults  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Individual differences in psychopathology and personality may associate with dependence on smoking for specific motivational reasons. However, the associations among psychopathology, personality, and smoking dependence and motives have not been examined simultaneously in studies to date, leaving it unclear whether specific patterns of affective and behavioral functioning are associated with specific aspects of smoking dependence. Methods: The present study examined these associations in 296 current smokers aged 35–43 years. Smoking dependence and motives were assessed with structured interview, the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence, and the Wisconsin Inventory of Smoking Dependence Motives. Results: Regardless of the measure of smoking dependence tested, a lifetime history of major depression and high levels of trait stress reaction were consistently related to greater current smoking dependence severity. Substance dependence showed significant associations with some measures of smoking dependence but had relatively few effects when entered in models along with depression history and trait stress reaction. In multivariate models, alcohol dependence and conduct disorder history did not show unique significant associations with smoking dependence nor did trait aggression, alienation, control, or harm avoidance. Discussion: Results indicate little specificity in the associations of particular psychiatric diagnoses or personality traits with specific self-reported facets of smoking dependence. It appears that a general vulnerability to depression and negative emotions is the most robust indicator of vulnerability to high levels of self-reported smoking dependence, regardless of which dimensions of smoking dependence are analyzed. PMID:20167635

Leventhal, Adam M.; Daughters, Stacey B.; Clark, Melissa A.; Colby, Suzanne M.; Ramsey, Susan E.; Boergers, Julie; Abrams, David B.; Niaura, Raymond; Buka, Stephen L.

2010-01-01

310

Circadian clock and stress interactions in the molecular biology of psychiatric disorders.  

PubMed

Many psychiatric disorders are characterized by circadian rhythm abnormalities, including disturbed sleep/wake cycles, changes in locomotor activity, and abnormal endocrine function. Animal models with mutations in circadian "clock genes" commonly show disturbances in reward processing, locomotor activity and novelty seeking behaviors, further supporting the idea of a connection between the circadian clock and psychiatric disorders. However, if circadian clock dysfunction is a common risk factor for multiple psychiatric disorders, it is unknown if and how these putative clock abnormalities could be expressed differently, and contribute to multiple, distinct phenotypes. One possible explanation is that the circadian clock modulates the biological responses to stressful environmental factors that vary with an individual's experience. It is known that the circadian clock and the stress response systems are closely related: Circadian clock genes regulate the physiological sensitivity to and rhythmic release of glucocorticoids (GC). In turn, GCs have reciprocal effects on the clock. Since stressful life events or increased vulnerability to stress are risk factors for multiple psychiatric disorders, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), bipolar disorder (BD), major depressive disorder (MDD), alcohol use disorder (AUD) and schizophrenia (SCZ), we propose that modulation of the stress response is a common mechanism by which circadian clock genes affect these illnesses. Presently, we review how molecular components of the circadian clock may contribute to these six psychiatric disorders, and present the hypothesis that modulation of the stress response may constitute a common mechanism by which the circadian clock affects multiple psychiatric disorders. PMID:25135782

Landgraf, Dominic; McCarthy, Michael J; Welsh, David K

2014-10-01

311

Development of a universal psycho-educational intervention to prevent common postpartum mental disorders in primiparous women: a multiple method approach  

PubMed Central

Background Prevention of postnatal mental disorders in women is an important component of comprehensive health service delivery because of the substantial potential benefits for population health. However, diverse approaches to prevention of postnatal depression have had limited success, possibly because anxiety and adjustment disorders are also problematic, mental health problems are multifactorially determined, and because relationships amongst psychosocial risk factors are complex and difficult to modify. The aim of this paper is to describe the development of a novel psycho-educational intervention to prevent postnatal mental disorders in mothers of firstborn infants. Methods Data from a variety of sources were synthesised: a literature review summarised epidemiological evidence about neglected modifiable risk factors; clinical research evidence identified successful psychosocial treatments for postnatal mental health problems; consultations with clinicians, health professionals, policy makers and consumers informed the proposed program and psychological and health promotion theories underpinned the proposed mechanisms of effect. The intervention was pilot-tested with small groups of mothers and fathers and their first newborn infants. Results What Were We Thinking! is a psycho-educational intervention, designed for universal implementation, that addresses heightened learning needs of parents of first newborns. It re-conceptualises mental health problems in mothers of infants as reflecting unmet needs for adaptations in the intimate partner relationship after the birth of a baby, and skills to promote settled infant behaviour. It addresses these two risk factors in half-day seminars, facilitated by trained maternal and child health nurses using non-psychiatric language, in groups of up to five couples and their four-week old infants in primary care. It is designed to promote confidence and reduce mental disorders by providing skills in sustainable sleep and settling strategies, and the re-negotiation of the unpaid household workload in non-confrontational ways. Materials include a Facilitators' Handbook, creatively designed worksheets for use in seminars, and a book for couples to take home for reference. A website provides an alternative means of access to the intervention. Conclusions What Were We Thinking! is a postnatal mental health intervention which has the potential to contribute to psychologically-informed routine primary postnatal health care and prevent common mental disorders in women. PMID:20718991

2010-01-01

312

Multiple White Matter Volume Reductions in Patients with Panic Disorder: Relationships between Orbitofrontal Gyrus Volume and Symptom Severity and Social Dysfunction  

PubMed Central

Numerous brain regions are believed to be involved in the neuropathology of panic disorder (PD) including fronto-limbic regions, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. However, while several previous studies have demonstrated volumetric gray matter reductions in these brain regions, there have been no studies evaluating volumetric white matter changes in the fiber bundles connecting these regions. In addition, although patients with PD typically exhibit social, interpersonal and occupational dysfunction, the neuropathologies underlying these dysfunctions remain unclear. A voxel-based morphometry study was conducted to evaluate differences in regional white matter volume between 40 patients with PD and 40 healthy control subjects (HC). Correlation analyses were performed between the regional white matter volumes and patients' scores on the Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS) and the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF). Patients with PD demonstrated significant volumetric reductions in widespread white matter regions including fronto-limbic, thalamo-cortical and cerebellar pathways (p<0.05, FDR corrected). Furthermore, there was a significant negative relationship between right orbitofrontal gyrus (OFG) white matter volume and the severity of patients' clinical symptoms, as assessed with the PDSS. A significant positive relationship was also observed between patients' right OFG volumes and their scores on the GAF. Our results suggest that volumetric reductions in widespread white matter regions may play an important role in the pathology of PD. In particular, our results suggest that structural white matter abnormalities in the right OFG may contribute to the social, personal and occupational dysfunction typically experienced by patients with PD. PMID:24663245

Konishi, Jun; Asami, Takeshi; Hayano, Fumi; Yoshimi, Asuka; Hayasaka, Shunsuke; Fukushima, Hiroshi; Whitford, Thomas J.; Inoue, Tomio; Hirayasu, Yoshio

2014-01-01

313

Other movement disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Drug-induced movement disorders remain a common and under-recognized problem. Blockade of the dopaminergic system results\\u000a in multiple syndromes and will be the main focus of this discussion. These syndromes are often referred to as extrapyramidal\\u000a side effects (EPSE) and include tardive dyskinesia, acute dystonic reactions, akathisia, drug-induced parkinsonism and neuroleptic\\u000a malignant syndrome (Figure 6.1). Serotonin syndrome and drug-induced tremor are

William G Ondo

314

Receptors and entry cofactors for retroviruses include single and multiple transmembrane-spanning proteins as well as newly described glycophosphatidylinositol-anchored and secreted proteins.  

PubMed

In the past few years, many retrovirus receptors, coreceptors, and cofactors have been identified. These molecules are important for some aspects of viral entry, although in some cases it remains to be determined whether they are required for binding or postbinding stages in entry, such as fusion. There are certain common features to the molecules that many retroviruses use to gain entry into the cell. For example, the receptors for most mammalian oncoretroviruses are multiple membrane-spanning transport proteins. However, avian retroviruses use single-pass membrane proteins, and a sheep retrovirus uses a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored molecule as its receptor. For some retroviruses, particularly the lentiviruses, two cell surface molecules are required for efficient entry. More recently, a soluble protein that is required for viral entry has been identified for a feline oncoretrovirus. In this review, we will focus on the various strategies used by mammalian retroviruses to gain entry into the cell. The choice of receptors will also be discussed in light of pressures that drive viral evolution and persistence. PMID:11528001

Overbaugh, J; Miller, A D; Eiden, M V

2001-09-01

315

Significant Low Prevalence of Antibodies Reacting with Simian Virus 40 Mimotopes in Serum Samples from Patients Affected by Inflammatory Neurologic Diseases, Including Multiple Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Many investigations were carried out on the association between viruses and multiple sclerosis (MS). Indeed, early studies reported the detections of neurotropic virus footprints in the CNS of patients with MS. In this study, sera from patients affected by MS, other inflammatory (OIND) and non-inflammatory neurologic diseases (NIND) were analyzed for antibodies against the polyomavirus, Simian Virus 40 (SV40). An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), with two synthetic peptides, which mimic SV40 antigens, was employed to detect specific antibodies in sera from patients affected by MS, OIND, NIND and healthy subjects (HS). Immunologic data indicate that in sera from MS patients antibodies against SV40 mimotopes are detectable with a low prevalence, 6%, whereas in HS of the same mean age, 40 yrs, the prevalence was 22%. The difference is statistically significant (P?=?0.001). Significant is also the difference between MS vs. NIND patients (6% vs. 17%; P?=?0.0254), whereas no significant difference was detected between MS vs OIND (6% vs 10%; P>0.05). The prevalence of SV40 antibodies in MS patients is 70% lower than that revealed in HS. PMID:25365364

Mazzoni, Elisa; Pietrobon, Silvia; Masini, Irene; Rotondo, John Charles; Gentile, Mauro; Fainardi, Enrico; Casetta, Ilaria; Castellazzi, Massimiliano; Granieri, Enrico; Caniati, Maria Luisa; Tola, Maria Rosaria; Guerra, Giovanni; Martini, Fernanda; Tognon, Mauro

2014-01-01

316

Co-occurring psychiatric disorders and alcoholism.  

PubMed

Alcohol use disorder (AUD), a term that comprises both alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence, is a highly prevalent psychiatric disorder. Over 50% of treated AUD patients also suffer from other psychiatric disorder(s). Detailed study has revealed disorders across multiple psychiatric domains with rates of co-occurrence far greater than chance, suggesting a synergistic relationship. The basis of this synergy is explored along with its multiple forms, including behavioral and neurobiologic. Specific topics include the predisposition to both AUD and co-occurring psychopathology, the vulnerability to environmental risk factors that exacerbate these predispositions, and the nature of reinforcement in acute intoxication. Co-occurrence can also modify and exacerbate the neuroadaptations underpinning chronic dependence and relapse, the manifestations of acute and protracted withdrawal, emergence of medical and psychiatric complications, and ultimately the potential for relapse. The outcomes of co-occurrence as well as the unique impact it has on proper treatment are also discussed. Throughout, the significance of recognizing co-occurrence is emphasized since, both neurobiologically and clinically, the synergies between co-occurring disorders yield a result far more complex than a mere sum of the component disorders. PMID:25307597

Stephen Rich, J; Martin, Peter R

2014-01-01

317

99th Dahlem Conference on Infection, Inflammation and Chronic Inflammatory Disorders: Epstein–Barr virus and multiple sclerosis: epidemiological evidence  

PubMed Central

While the causes of multiple sclerosis (MS) are unknown, there is strong evidence that infection with Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) is an important factor. In this review, we discuss the epidemiological evidence and argue for a causal role of EBV in MS aetiology. One of the most striking and consistent observations is that MS is extremely rare among EBV-negative individuals. Further, the timing of EBV infection appears to be critical, with individuals who are infected during adolescence and young adulthood, when the infection is more likely to manifest as mononucleosis, having a two- to threefold greater risk of MS compared to individuals infected in early life. These observations challenge the hygiene hypothesis which states that being in a high hygiene environment in early life increases future risk of MS – if this general formulation were true, EBV-negative individuals would be expected to have an increased risk of MS. Additional support for the causal role of EBV comes from longitudinal, prospective studies which show remarkable consistency, in that antibodies against EBV are elevated prior to MS onset. However, while infection with EBV is consistent with many observations of MS epidemiology, there are some that remain unexplained, suggesting that other factors are also involved in determining risk. PMID:20415861

Ascherio, A; Munger, K L

2010-01-01

318

Heterogeneous ordered-disordered structure of the mesodomain in frozen sucrose-water solutions revealed by multiple electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopies.  

PubMed

The microscopic structure of frozen aqueous sucrose solutions, over concentrations of 0-75% (w/v), is characterized by using multiple continuous-wave and pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopic and relaxation techniques and the paramagnetic spin probe, TEMPOL. The temperature dependence of the TEMPOL EPR line-shape anisotropy reveals a mobility transition, specified at 205 K in pure water and 255 ± 5 K for >1% (w/v) added sucrose. The transition temperature is >Tg, where Tg is the homogeneous water glass transition temperature, which shows that TEMPOL resides in the mesoscopic domain (mesodomain) at water-ice crystallite boundaries and that the mesodomain sucrose concentrations are comparable at >1% (w/v) added sucrose. Electron spin-echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) spectroscopy of TEMPOL-(2)H2-sucrose hyperfine interactions also indicates comparable sucrose concentrations in mesodomains at >1% (w/v) added sucrose. Electron spin-echo (ESE) detected longitudinal and phase memory relaxation times (T1 and TM, respectively) at 6 K indicate a general trend of increased mesodomain volume with added sucrose, in three stages: 1-15, 20-50, and >50% (w/v). The calibrated TEMPOL concentrations indicate that the mesodomain volume is less than the predicted maximally freeze-concentrated value [80 (w/w); 120% (w/v)], with transitions at 15-20% and 50% (w/v) starting sucrose. An ordered sucrose hydrate phase, which excludes TEMPOL, and a disordered, amorphous sucrose-water glass phase, in which TEMPOL resides, are proposed to compose a heterogeneous mesodomain. The results show that the ratio of ordered and disordered volume fractions in the mesodomain is exquisitely sensitive to the starting sucrose concentration. PMID:23464733

Chen, Hanlin; Sun, Li; Warncke, Kurt

2013-04-01

319

Heterogeneous Ordered-Disordered Structure of the Mesodomain in Frozen Sucrose-Water Solutions Revealed by Multiple Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopies  

PubMed Central

The microscopic structure of frozen aqueous sucrose solutions, over concentrations of 0–75% (w/v), is characterized by using multiple continuous-wave and pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopic and relaxation techniques and the paramagnetic spin probe, TEMPOL. The temperature dependence of the TEMPOL EPR lineshape anisotropy reveals a mobility transition, specified at 205 K in pure water and 255 ±5 K for >1% (w/v) added sucrose. The transition temperature is >>Tg, where Tg is the homogeneous water glass transition temperature, which shows that TEMPOL resides in the mesoscopic domain (mesodomain) at water-ice crystallite boundaries, and that the mesodomain sucrose concentrations are comparable at >1% (w/v) added sucrose. Electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) spectroscopy of TEMPOL-2H2-sucrose hyperfine interactions also indicates comparable sucrose concentrations in mesodomains at >1% (w/v) added sucrose. Electron spin echo (ESE) – detected longitudinal and phase memory relaxation times (T1 and TM, respectively) at 6 K indicate a general trend of increased mesodomain volume with added sucrose, in three stages: 1-15, 20-50, and >50% (w/v). The calibrated TEMPOL concentrations indicate that the mesodomain volume is less than the predicted maximally freeze-concentrated value [80 (w/w); 120% (w/v)], with transitions at 15-20% and 50% (w/v) starting sucrose. An ordered sucrose hydrate phase, which excludes TEMPOL, and a disordered, amorphous sucrose-water glass phase, in which TEMPOL resides, are proposed to compose a heterogeneous mesodomain. The results show that the ratio of ordered and disordered volume fractions in the mesodomain is exquisitely sensitive to the starting sucrose concentration. PMID:23464733

Chen, Hanlin; Sun, Li; Warncke, Kurt

2013-01-01

320

GSK3 inhibitors regulate MYCN mRNA levels and reduce neuroblastoma cell viability through multiple mechanisms, including p53 and Wnt signaling.  

PubMed

Neuroblastoma is an embryonal tumor accounting for approximately 15% of childhood cancer deaths. There exists a clinical need to identify novel therapeutic targets, particularly for treatment-resistant forms of neuroblastoma. Therefore, we investigated the role of the neuronal master regulator GSK3 in controlling neuroblastoma cell fate. We identified novel GSK3-mediated regulation of MYC (c-MYC and MYCN) mRNA levels, which may have implications for numerous MYC-driven cancers. In addition, we showed that certain GSK3 inhibitors induced large-scale cell death in neuroblastoma cells, primarily through activating apoptosis. mRNA-seq of GSK3 inhibitor-treated cells was performed and subsequent pathway analysis revealed that multiple signaling pathways contributed to the loss of neuroblastoma cell viability. The contribution of two of the signaling pathways highlighted by the mRNA-seq analysis was functionally validated. Inhibition of the p53 tumor suppressor partly rescued the cell death phenotype, whereas activation of canonical Wnt signaling contributed to the loss of viability, in a p53-independent manner. Two GSK3 inhibitors (BIO-acetoxime and LiCl) and one small-molecule Wnt agonist (Wnt Agonist 1) demonstrated therapeutic potential for neuroblastoma treatment. These inhibitors reduced the viability of numerous neuroblastoma cell lines, even those derived from high-risk MYCN-amplified metastatic tumors, for which effective therapeutics are currently lacking. Furthermore, although LiCl was lethal to neuroblastoma cells, it did not reduce the viability of differentiated neurons. Taken together our data suggest that these small molecules may hold potential as effective therapeutic agents for the treatment of neuroblastoma and other MYC-driven cancers. PMID:24282277

Duffy, David J; Krstic, Aleksandar; Schwarzl, Thomas; Higgins, Desmond G; Kolch, Walter

2014-02-01

321

Bleedling disorders in dogs : 1. Inherited disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

BLEEDING disorders are common in dogs, can be inherited or acquired, and are associated with either single or multiple defects in the haemostatic response. The clinical nature of the bleeding can sometimes be helpful in differentiating between primary (platelet or vascular) and secondary (coagulation) defects. In addition, laboratory testing aids in the detection and differentiation of bleeding disorders. Tests such

Ian Johnstone

2002-01-01

322

Analysis of the IGF2/H19 imprinting control region uncovers new genetic defects, including mutations of OCT-binding sequences, in patients with 11p15 fetal growth disorders.  

PubMed

The imprinted expression of the IGF2 and H19 genes is controlled by the imprinting control region 1 (ICR1) located at chromosome 11p15.5. This methylation-sensitive chromatin insulator works by binding the zinc-finger protein CTCF in a parent-specific manner. DNA methylation defects involving the ICR1 H19/IGF2 domain result in two growth disorders with opposite phenotypes: an overgrowth disorder, the Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (maternal ICR1 gain of methylation in 10% of BWS cases) and a growth retardation disorder, the Silver-Russell syndrome (paternal ICR1 loss of methylation in 60% of SRS cases). Although a few deletions removing part of ICR1 have been described in some familial BWS cases, little information is available regarding the mechanism of ICR1 DNA methylation defects. We investigated the CTCF gene and the ICR1 domain in 21 BWS patients with ICR1 gain of methylation and 16 SRS patients with ICR1 loss of methylation. We identified four constitutional ICR1 genetic defects in BWS patients, including a familial case. Three of those defects are newly identified imprinting defects consisting of small deletions and a single mutation, which do not involve one of the CTCF binding sites. Moreover, two of those defects affect OCT-binding sequences which are suggested to maintain the unmethylated state of the maternal allele. A single-nucleotide variation was identified in a SRS patient. Our data extends the spectrum of constitutive genetic ICR1 abnormalities and suggests that extensive and accurate analysis of ICR1 is required for appropriate genetic counseling in BWS patients with ICR1 gain of methylation. PMID:20007505

Demars, Julie; Shmela, Mansur Ennuri; Rossignol, Sylvie; Okabe, Jun; Netchine, Irène; Azzi, Salah; Cabrol, Sylvie; Le Caignec, Cédric; David, Albert; Le Bouc, Yves; El-Osta, Assam; Gicquel, Christine

2010-03-01

323

Conduct Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disruptive behaviors—defined here as behaviors that are associated with diagnoses of Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) or\\u000a Conduct Disorder (CD)—are the most common reason for referral to mental health services for children and adolescents (Kazdin,\\u000a 2003). The behaviors that comprise these diagnoses include argumentativeness, temper tantrums, often being angry or resentful,\\u000a lying, stealing, hurting or threatening to hurt others, cruelty to

Christopher T. Barry; Lisa L. Ansel; Jessica D. Pickard; Heather L. Harrison

324

Disordered photonics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

What do lotus flowers have in common with human bones, liquid crystals with colloidal suspensions, and white beetles with the beautiful stones of the Taj Mahal? The answer is they all feature disordered structures that strongly scatter light, in which light waves entering the material are scattered several times before exiting in random directions. These randomly distributed rays interfere with each other, leading to interesting, and sometimes unexpected, physical phenomena. This Review describes the physics behind the optical properties of disordered structures and how knowledge of multiple light scattering can be used to develop new applications. The field of disordered photonics has grown immensely over the past decade, ranging from investigations into fundamental topics such as Anderson localization and other transport phenomena, to applications in imaging, random lasing and solar energy.

Wiersma, Diederik S.

2013-03-01

325

Aggregation of Lifetime Axis I Psychiatric Disorders through Age 30: Incidence, Predictors, and Associated Psychosocial Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Longitudinal data from representative birth cohorts on the aggregation of psychiatric disorders, or the cumulative number of unique diagnosed disorders experienced by persons within a circumscribed period, are limited. Consequently, risk factors for and psychosocial implications of lifetime disorder aggregation in the general population remain largely unknown. This research evaluates the incidence, predictors, and psychosocial sequela of lifetime disorder aggregation from childhood through age 30. Over a 14-year period, participants in the Oregon Adolescent Depression Project (probands; N = 816) were repeatedly evaluated for psychiatric disorders and assessed with multiple measures of psychosocial functioning. First-degree relatives of probands (N = 2,414) were also interviewed to establish their lifetime psychiatric history. The cumulative prevalence of common lifetime psychiatric disorders for the proband sample was 71%. Three-quarters of all proband psychiatric disorders occurred among 37% of the sample, and 82% of all disorder diagnoses were made among persons who met criteria for at least one other lifetime disorder. Lifetime disorder aggregation in probands was predicted by lifetime psychiatric disorder densities among first-degree relatives and was related to heterotypic comorbidity patterns that included disorders from both internalizing and externalizing domains, most notably major depressive and alcohol use disorders. By age 30, disorder aggregation was significantly associated with mental health care service utilization and predictive of personality disorder pathology and numerous indicators of poor psychosocial functioning. Possible implications of disorder aggregation on the conceptualization of lifetime psychiatric disorder comorbidity are discussed. PMID:23421525

Farmer, Richard F.; Kosty, Derek B.; Seeley, John R.; Olino, Thomas M.; Lewinsohn, Peter M.

2013-01-01

326

Caenorhabditis elegans Cyclin B3 Is Required for Multiple Mitotic Processes Including Alleviation of a Spindle Checkpoint–Dependent Block in Anaphase Chromosome Segregation  

PubMed Central

The master regulators of the cell cycle are cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks), which influence the function of a myriad of proteins via phosphorylation. Mitotic Cdk1 is activated by A-type, as well as B1- and B2-type, cyclins. However, the role of a third, conserved cyclin B family member, cyclin B3, is less well defined. Here, we show that Caenorhabditis elegans CYB-3 has essential and distinct functions from cyclin B1 and B2 in the early embryo. CYB-3 is required for the timely execution of a number of cell cycle events including completion of the MII meiotic division of the oocyte nucleus, pronuclear migration, centrosome maturation, mitotic chromosome condensation and congression, and, most strikingly, progression through the metaphase-to-anaphase transition. Our experiments reveal that the extended metaphase delay in CYB-3–depleted embryos is dependent on an intact spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) and results in salient defects in the architecture of holocentric metaphase chromosomes. Furthermore, genetically increasing or decreasing dynein activity results in the respective suppression or enhancement of CYB-3–dependent defects in cell cycle progression. Altogether, these data reveal that CYB-3 plays a unique, essential role in the cell cycle including promoting mitotic dynein functionality and alleviation of a SAC–dependent block in anaphase chromosome segregation. PMID:21124864

Deyter, Gary M. R.; Furuta, Tokiko; Kurasawa, Yasuhiro; Schumacher, Jill M.

2010-01-01

327

(18)F-FDG PET/CT: a review of diagnostic and prognostic features in multiple myeloma and related disorders.  

PubMed

Conventional radiographic skeletal survey has been for many years the gold standard to detect the occurrence of osteolytic lesions in patients with multiple myeloma (MM). However, the introduction of more sensitive imaging procedures has resulted in an updated anatomic and functional Durie and Salmon "plus" staging system and has remarkably changed the diagnostic and prognostic approach to this tumor. It is now established that (18)fluorine-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) positron-emission tomography (PET) combined with low-dose computed tomography (CT), shortly designated PET/CT, exhibits a higher screening and diagnostic sensitivity and specificity over the skeleton X-ray. In patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and in those with smoldering MM, PET/CT is consistently unable to detect focal and/or diffuse marrow abnormalities. Conversely, based on a systematic review of 18 studies comprising almost 800 MM patients, PET/CT was able to detect MM osteolytic lesions with a sensitivity of approximately 80-90 % and a specificity of 80-100 %. Importantly, a poor degree of concordance has also been emphasized between PET/CT and whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (WB-MRI) in that when both techniques were applied to the same patients, double-positive results were recorded in approximately 30 % of the cases, but in the majority of them, a higher number of lesions were revealed with PET/CT than with MRI. Double-negative results, on the other hand, were found in about 22 % of the patients. Because PET/CT is able to identify tumor foci throughout the body, it can be usefully applied to the study of solitary bone plasmacytoma and extra-medullary plasmacytoma: In both conditions, the detection of additional, previously overlooked sites of skeletal involvement would falsify the diagnosis of single-district disease, upstage the tumor, and therefore require a different therapeutic approach. In addition, although PET/CT is poorly sensitive to diffuse bone marrow infiltration, it can anticipate a site of impending fracture throughout the body and can discriminate old from new pathologic fractures. MRI should, however, be preferred when vertebral bodies are suspected to be involved and the risk of vertebral fracture is to be assessed. PET/CT is a sensitive and reliable procedure to evaluate the response to chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy, which is shown by a remarkable reduction and sometimes total disappearance of FDG accumulation in the involved bony structures, although these structures remain morphologically abnormal. Conversely, an increased focal uptake of FDG in apparent remission patients often precedes clinically overt relapse. PET/CT should be preferred to other imaging techniques to assess the remission status after autologous stem cell transplantation. In patients with primary and remission-induced non-secretory MM, the use of PET/CT may help to early detect single or multiple districts of focal non-secretory relapse. Osteonecrosis of the jaw, its location, and extent in MM patients receiving bis-phosphonates are better defined by both PET/CT and contrast-enhanced MRI compared with dental panoramic views derived from cone beam CT imaging. Little is known as to the possible role of PET/CT in the assessment of disease extension, tumor load, and response to therapy in patients with Waldenström's macroglobulinemia (WM). In a study conducted on 35 WM patients, comparative PET/CT before and after therapy was able to detect positive findings in 83 % of the patients, in contrast with the previous results achieved with conventional imaging that reported visceral involvement in much lower percentages. Similarly scanty are the data on the use of PET/CT in localized and systemic amyloidosis, given the small number of patients studied so far. A retrospective study has shown that, at variance from (123)Iodine-serum amyloid P component ((123)I-SAP) scintigraphy, which was found to be positive in about one-third of the patients with localized amyloidosis, an increased FDG uptake was detected at the

Dammacco, Franco; Rubini, Giuseppe; Ferrari, Cristina; Vacca, Angelo; Racanelli, Vito

2015-02-01

328

The intrinsically disordered amino-terminal region of human RecQL4: multiple DNA-binding domains confer annealing, strand exchange and G4 DNA binding  

PubMed Central

Human RecQL4 belongs to the ubiquitous RecQ helicase family. Its N-terminal region represents the only homologue of the essential DNA replication initiation factor Sld2 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and also participates in the vertebrate initiation of DNA replication. Here, we utilized a random screen to identify N-terminal fragments of human RecQL4 that could be stably expressed in and purified from Escherichia coli. Biophysical characterization of these fragments revealed that the Sld2 homologous RecQL4 N-terminal domain carries large intrinsically disordered regions. The N-terminal fragments were sufficient for the strong annealing activity of RecQL4. Moreover, this activity appeared to be the basis for an ATP-independent strand exchange activity. Both activities relied on multiple DNA-binding sites with affinities to single-stranded, double-stranded and Y-structured DNA. Finally, we found a remarkable affinity of the N-terminus for guanine quadruplex (G4) DNA, exceeding the affinities for other DNA structures by at least 60-fold. Together, these findings suggest that the DNA interactions mediated by the N-terminal region of human RecQL4 represent a central function at the replication fork. The presented data may also provide a mechanistic explanation for the role of elements with a G4-forming propensity identified in the vicinity of vertebrate origins of DNA replication. PMID:25336622

Keller, Heidi; Kiosze, Kristin; Sachsenweger, Juliane; Haumann, Sebastian; Ohlenschläger, Oliver; Nuutinen, Tarmo; Syväoja, Juhani E.; Görlach, Matthias; Grosse, Frank; Pospiech, Helmut

2014-01-01

329

Structural Characterization and In Vitro Antioxidant Activity of Kojic Dipalmitate Loaded W/O/W Multiple Emulsions Intended for Skin Disorders  

PubMed Central

Multiple emulsions (MEs) are intensively being studied for drug delivery due to their ability to load and increase the bioavailability of active lipophilic antioxidant, such as kojic dipalmitate (KDP). The aim of this study was to structurally characterize developed MEs by determining the average droplet size (Dnm) and zeta potential (ZP), performing macroscopic and microscopic analysis and analyzing their rheological behavior and in vitro bioadhesion. Furthermore, the in vitro safety profile and antioxidant activity of KDP-loaded MEs were evaluated. The developed MEs showed a Dnm of approximately 1 micrometer and a ZP of ?13?mV, and no change was observed in Dnm or ZP of the system with the addition of KDP. KDP-unloaded MEs exhibited ‘‘shear thinning” flow behavior whereas KDP-loaded MEs exhibited Newtonian behavior, which are both characteristic of antithixotropic materials. MEs have bioadhesion properties that were not influenced by the incorporation of KDP. The results showed that the incorporation of KDP into MEs improved the safety profile of the drug. The in vitro antioxidant activity assay suggested that MEs presented a higher capacity for maintaining the antioxidant activity of KDP. ME-based systems may be a promising platform for the topical application of KDP in the treatment of skin disorders. PMID:25785265

Marcussi, Diana Gleide; Calixto, Giovana Maria Fioramonti; Corrêa, Marcos Antonio

2015-01-01

330

Distinguishing bipolar disorder from other psychiatric disorders in children.  

PubMed

Pediatric onset bipolar disorder (BD) is a challenging diagnosis with potentially debilitating outcomes. This review aims to critically evaluate recently published literature relevant to the diagnosis of BD in youth, emphasizing interesting and important new findings characterizing pediatric BD and reporting updates in the diagnostic and statistical manual relevant to this disorder in youth. Challenges regarding the diagnosis of BD will be discussed, in addition to important distinctions with other childhood disorders, including other bipolar spectrum disorders; major depressive disorder; dysthymia; disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD); attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and other disruptive behavioral disorders; anxiety disorders, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD); psychotic disorders; autism spectrum disorders; substance use disorders; and borderline personality disorder. The review concludes with a comment on past research limitations and future directions in the field. PMID:25315116

Singh, Manpreet K; Ketter, Terence; Chang, Kiki D

2014-12-01

331

The cellular level of TRIM31, an RBCC protein overexpressed in gastric cancer, is regulated by multiple mechanisms including the ubiquitin-proteasome system.  

PubMed

TRIM (tripartite motif) family proteins, comprising RING finger, B-box and coiled-coil domains, are involved in various cellular processes including tumour development and antiviral response. One of the family proteins, TRIM31, was originally identified as a gene induced by growth-suppressive retinoid. Our previous study showed that TRIM31 is up-regulated in stomach cancer and that TRIM31 protein possesses the common features of the TRIM protein family, for example, ubiquitin ligase activity and homo-oligomerization tendency. Interestingly, TRIM31 negatively regulates growth of certain cell types despite its overexpression in gastric cancer tissues. We herein demonstrated that upon exogenous expression in 293 cells, TRIM31 is polyubiquitylated, which promotes its degradation in the proteasome pathway. The proteasome-mediated degradation of endogenous TRIM31 was further confirmed in AsPC-1 pancreatic cancer cells. Thus, this posttranslational modification governs the intracellular abundance of TRIM31, which is also dependent on inducible transcription as well as alternative splicing. The complicated control of the intracellular TRIM31 protein level may relate to its seemingly contradictory behaviours in the cancer pathology or the urgent response to viral infection. PMID:21231912

Sugiura, Takeyuki

2011-07-01

332

Functional coding variation in recombinant inbred mouse lines reveals multiple serotonin  

E-print Network

in the etiology and treatment of many prevalent neurobehavioral disorders including anxiety, alcoholism/ER variation. Among our findings are several traits associated with alcohol consumption and multiple traits

Blakely, Randy

333

Epilepsy Associated with Systemic Autoimmune Disorders  

PubMed Central

Systemic autoimmune disorders affect multiple organ systems. Brain involvement commonly causes seizures, which may be the presenting symptom. Systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjorgren's syndrome, Wegener's granulomatosis, sarcoidsosis, celiac disease, Crohn's disease, Behcet's, and Hashimoto's encephalopathy are reviewed. Mechanisms underlying CNS pathology in systemic autoimmune disorders—and specifically factors predisposing these patients—are discussed, including vascular disease (e.g., prothrombotic state, anticardiolipin antibody, emboli, vasculitis), antineuronal antibodies, immune complexes, cytokines, metabolic disorders, infection, and therapy. Diagnostic and therapeutic strategies must be individualized for both the disorder and the patient. Systemic autoimmune disorders affect multiple organ systems and frequently involve the central and peripheral nervous systems. Seizures are among the most common neurological manifestation and occasionally can be the presenting symptom. There are many causes of seizures in systemic autoimmune disorders (Table 1), and the first clinical challenge is to determine not only the cause but also the significance of seizures. In some cases, they are clues to metabolic or infectious disorders or medication toxicity; in other cases, seizures herald a life-threatening progression of the underlying illness. PMID:23646005

Devinsky, Orrin; Schein, Adam; Najjar, Souhel

2013-01-01

334

Prevention of eating disorders in female athletes  

PubMed Central

Eating disorders are serious mental diseases that frequently appear in female athletes. They are abnormal eating behaviors that can be diagnosed only by strict criteria. Disordered eating, although also characterized as abnormal eating behavior, does not include all the criteria for diagnosing eating disorders and is therefore a way to recognize the problem in its early stages. It is important to identify factors to avoid clinical progression in this high-risk population. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to discuss critical information for the prevention of eating disorders in female athletes. This review discusses the major correlates for the development of an eating disorder. We also discuss which athletes are possibly at highest risk for eating disorders, including those from lean sports and female adolescent athletes. There is an urgent need for the demystification of myths surrounding body weight and performance in sports. This review includes studies that tested different prevention programs’ effectiveness, and the majority showed positive results. Educational programs are the best method for primary prevention of eating disorders. For secondary prevention, early identification is essential and should be performed by preparticipation exams, the recognition of dietary markers, and the use of validated self-report questionnaires or clinical interviews. In addition, more randomized clinical trials are needed with athletes from multiple sports in order for the most reliable recommendations to be made and for some sporting regulations to be changed. PMID:24891817

Coelho, Gabriela Morgado de Oliveira; Gomes, Ainá Innocencio da Silva; Ribeiro, Beatriz Gonçalves; Soares, Eliane de Abreu

2014-01-01

335

Sleep disorders - overview  

MedlinePLUS

Sleep disorders are problems with sleeping, including trouble falling or staying asleep, falling asleep at the wrong times, ... Mononucleosis or other viral illnesses Narcolepsy and other sleep disorders Obesity, especially if it causes obstructive sleep apnea ...

336

Speech and Communication Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... to being completely unable to speak or understand speech. Causes include Hearing disorders and deafness Voice problems, ... or those caused by cleft lip or palate Speech problems like stuttering Developmental disabilities Learning disorders Autism ...

337

Emerging treatments for Tourette's disorder.  

PubMed

Tourette's disorder is a childhood-onset neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by multiple motor and vocal tics. Many children with Tourette's disorder improve throughout adolescence. However, some adults with Tourette's disorder still experience severe symptoms and significant disability. This article examines the evidence base for current treatments for Tourette's disorder. Emerging treatments such as deep brain stimulation, habit reversal therapy, and repetitive trans-cranial magnetic stimulation are also discussed. PMID:18627671

Bloch, Michael H

2008-08-01

338

Hormones of the gut–brain axis as targets for the treatment of upper gastrointestinal disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of the gut forming the centre of an integrated gut–brain–energy axis — modulating appetite, metabolism and digestion — opens up new paradigms for drugs that can tackle multiple symptoms in complex upper gastrointestinal disorders. These include eating disorders, nausea and vomiting, gastroesophageal reflux disease, gastroparesis, dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome. The hormones that modulate gastric motility represent targets

Kevin Lee; Gareth J. Sanger

2008-01-01

339

An Ecosystemic Perspective in the Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress and Substance Use Disorders in Veterans  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews the prevalence of co-occurring posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorders (SUDs) in the veteran population. Recommendations regarding how to better understand, engage, and retain veterans with PTSD\\/SUDs in treatment are presented through an ecological perspective that takes into account the multiple systems and worldviews, including culture, ethnicity, family, and military culture, that are transacting with

Eugenia L. Weiss; Jose E. Coll; Shannon Mayeda; Jennifer Mascarenas; Kristen Lawlor; Tara Debraber

2012-01-01

340

Peer Victimization in Youth with Tourette Syndrome and Other Chronic Tic Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Chronic tic disorders including Tourette syndrome have negative impact across multiple functional domains. We explored associations between peer victimization status and tic subtypes, premonitory urges, internalizing symptoms, explosive outbursts, and quality of life among youth with chronic tic disorders, as part of the internet-based omnibus…

Zinner, Samuel H.; Conelea, Christine A.; Glew, Gwen M.; Woods, Douglas W.; Budman, Cathy L.

2012-01-01

341

Common Anorectal Disorders  

PubMed Central

Anorectal disorders result in many visits to healthcare specialists. These disorders include benign conditions such as hemorrhoids to more serious conditions such as malignancy; thus, it is important for the clinician to be familiar with these disorders as well as know how to conduct an appropriate history and physical examination. This article reviews the most common anorectal disorders, including hemorrhoids, anal fissures, fecal incontinence, proctalgia fugax, excessive perineal descent, and pruritus ani, and provides guidelines on comprehensive evaluation and management. PMID:24987313

Foxx-Orenstein, Amy E.; Umar, Sarah B.; Crowell, Michael D.

2014-01-01

342

Common anorectal disorders.  

PubMed

Anorectal disorders result in many visits to healthcare specialists. These disorders include benign conditions such as hemorrhoids to more serious conditions such as malignancy; thus, it is important for the clinician to be familiar with these disorders as well as know how to conduct an appropriate history and physical examination. This article reviews the most common anorectal disorders, including hemorrhoids, anal fissures, fecal incontinence, proctalgia fugax, excessive perineal descent, and pruritus ani, and provides guidelines on comprehensive evaluation and management. PMID:24987313

Foxx-Orenstein, Amy E; Umar, Sarah B; Crowell, Michael D

2014-05-01

343

Multiple System Atrophy  

MedlinePLUS

... sleep disorders, including a tendency to act out dreams (called REM/ (Rapid Eye Movement sleep behavior disorder) ... might include autonomic testing (such as blood pressure control, heart rate control), assessment of bladder function, and/ ...

344

[Headache disorders].  

PubMed

Primary headache disorders such as migraine, tension-type headache, and cluster headache are prevalent and disabling neurological disorders. Although most headache disorders are largely treatable, they are under-recognized, under-diagnosed, and under-treated. Many headache sufferers in Japan do not receive appropriate and effective health care; hence, the illness, which should be relieved, persists and acts as an individual and societal burden. One of the barriers most responsible for this is poor awareness of the disorders. For lifting the burden, health care must be improved. Education is an essential way to resolve these issues at multiple levels. We have a Japanese version of the international headache classification and diagnostic criteria II (ICHD-II) and guidelines for the management of chronic headaches. Utilization of these resources is key for the improvement of headache management in our country. Not only neurologists, but also neurosurgeons and other medical specialists are participating in headache care in Japan. The Japanese Headache Society and the Japanese Society for Neurology should play major roles in health care service, education programs, as well as clinical and basic research for headache disorders. The road map for realizing our aim on headache treatment is as follows: (1) increase the number of units concerning headache in lectures for medical students, implement training programs for residents and neurologists, and offer continuous medical educations for physicians and neurologists; (2) secure more funding for headache research; (3) propagate medical care for headache in primary care settings and regional fundamental hospitals; (4) reform the health care system for headache and incentivize appropriate compensation for headache care in public health insurance; and (5) spread appropriate information on medical and socio-ethical issues related to headache for the sufferers and citizens. The authors expect that many neurologists have an interest in headache and understanding headaches, and better health care for headache disorders will bring great benefits for the sufferers. PMID:24018741

Takeshima, Takao; Kikui, Shoji

2013-09-01

345

Multiple structural States exist throughout the helical nucleation sequence of the intrinsically disordered protein stathmin, as reported by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy.  

PubMed

The intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) stathmin plays an important regulatory role in cytoskeletal maintenance through its helical binding to tubulin and microtubules. However, it lacks a stable fold in the absence of its binding partner. Although stathmin has been a focus of research over the past two decades, the solution-phase conformational dynamics of this IDP are poorly understood. It has been reported that stathmin is purely monomeric in solution and that it bears a short helical region of persistent foldedness, which may act to nucleate helical folding in the C-terminal direction. Here we report a comprehensive study of the structural equilibria local to this region in stathmin that contradicts these two claims. Using the technique of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy on spin-labeled stathmin mutants in the solution-phase and when immobilized on Sepharose solid support, we show that all sites in the helical nucleation region of stathmin exhibit multiple spectral components that correspond to dynamic states of differing mobilities and stabilities. Importantly, a state with relatively low mobility dominates each spectrum with an average population greater than 50%, which we suggest corresponds to an oligomerized state of the protein. This is in contrast to a less populated, more mobile state, which likely represents a helically folded monomeric state of stathmin, and a highly mobile state, which we propose is the random coil conformer of the protein. Our interpretation of the EPR data is confirmed by further characterization of the protein using the techniques of native and SDS PAGE, gel filtration chromatography, and multiangle and dynamic light scattering, all of which show the presence of oligomeric stathmin in solution. Collectively, these data suggest that stathmin exists in a diverse equilibrium of states throughout the purported helical nucleation region and that this IDP exhibits a propensity toward oligomerization. PMID:25715079

Chui, Ashley J; López, Carlos J; Brooks, Evan K; Chua, Katherina C; Doupey, Tonia G; Foltz, Gretchen N; Kamel, Joseph G; Larrosa, Estefania; Sadiki, Amissi; Bridges, Michael D

2015-03-10

346

Bipolar Disorder  

MedlinePLUS

What Is Bipolar Disorder? Bipolar disorders are one of several medical conditions called depressive disorders. Depressive disorders affect the way a ... for doctors to diagnose. Back Continue What Causes Bipolar Disorder? Doctors and scientists don't know the ...

347

Eosinophilic Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... Resources for Help and Information The One-Page Merck Manual of Health Medical Terms Conversion Tables Manuals available ... Lymphocytic Leukocytosis Monocyte Disorders Eosinophilic Disorders Basophilic Disorders Merck Manual > Patients & Caregivers > Blood Disorders > White Blood Cell Disorders ...

348

Eating Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... Submit Home > Body Image > Eating disorders Body Image Eating disorders About eating disorders Over-exercising More information on eating disorders About eating disorders "Mirror, Mirror on the wall...who's the thinnest ...

349

Aquatherapy for neurodegenerative disorders.  

PubMed

Aquatherapy is used for rehabilitation and exercise; water provides a challenging, yet safe exercise environment for many special populations. We have reviewed the use of aquatherapy programs in four neurodegenerative disorders: Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Huntington's disease. Results support the use of aquatherapy in Parkinson's disease and multiple sclerosis, however further evidence is required to make specific recommendations in all of the aforementioned disorders. PMID:25062761

Plecash, Alyson R; Leavitt, Blair R

2014-01-01

350

Developmental language disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Difficulty with language is one of the most common reasons for referral to health professionals during the preschool years. Language difficulties are associated with many developmental disorders, such as autism, but for children with specific language impairment (SLI) language problems are relatively specific. SLI is a neurodevelopmental disorder with heritable bases. Patterns of inheritance are complex, suggesting multiple genes operating

Kate Nation

2008-01-01

351

Developmental language disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Difficulty with language is one of the most common reasons for referral to health professionals during the pre-school years. Language difficulties are associated with many developmental disorders such as autism but for children with specific language impairment (SLI), language problems are relatively specific. SLI is a neurodevelopmental disorder with a heritable bases. Patterns of inheritence are complex suggesting multiple genes

Kate Nation

2005-01-01

352

Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The term “multiple endocrine neoplasia” was first used by Steiner in the late 1960s when he described three distinct endocrine\\u000a disorders. The first disorder, multiple endocrine neoplasia type I (MEN 1) (also known as Wermer syndrome), described patients\\u000a with familial pituitary, parathyroid, and pancreatic islet cell tumors. The second syndrome, multiple endocrine neoplasia\\u000a type II (MEN 2) (also known as

Christine S. Landry; Thereasa Rich; Camilo Jimenez; Elizabeth G. Grubbs; Jeffrey E. Lee; Nancy D. Perrier

353

Bipolar Disorder in Children and Teens  

MedlinePLUS

... this brochure to find out more. What is bipolar disorder? Bipolar disorder is a serious brain illness. ... their symptoms and lead successful lives. Who develops bipolar disorder? Anyone can develop bipolar disorder, including children ...

354

Eating disorders  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The incidence of eating disorders is increasing, and health care professionals are faced with the difficult task of treating these refractory conditions. The first clinical description of anorexia nervosa (AN) was reported in 1694 and included symptoms such as decreased appetite, amenorrhea, food av...

355

Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

As these two case studies illustrate, homework is absolutely essential to the effective use of CBT in the treatment of eating disorders and in the prevention of relapse. Adherence to homework assignments, including difficult assignments that provoke anxiety, is best achieved in the context of a strong relationship in which clients understand the rationale for the assignment and are able

Tanya R. Schlam; G. Terence Wilson

356

Anxiety Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... that caused the anxiety. Back Continue Causes Experts don't know exactly what causes anxiety disorders. Several things seem to play a role, including genetics, brain biochemistry, an overactive fight-flight response, stressful life circumstances, and learned behavior. A child with a ...

357

Traumatic Brain Injury and Sleep Disorders  

PubMed Central

SYNOPSIS Sleep disturbance is common following traumatic brain injury (TBI), affecting 30–70% of individuals, many occurring after mild injuries. Insomnia, fatigue and sleepiness are the most frequent post-TBI sleep complaints with narcolepsy (with or without cataplexy), sleep apnea (obstructive and/or central), periodic limb movement disorder, and parasomnias occurring less commonly. In addition, depression, anxiety and pain are common TBI co-morbidities with substantial influence on sleep quality. Two types of TBI negatively impact sleep: contact injuries causing focal brain damage and acceleration/deceleration injuries causing more generalized brain damage. Diagnosis of sleep disorders after TBI may involve polysomnography, multiple sleep latency testing and/or actigraphy. Treatment is disorder specific and may include the use of medications, continuous positive airway pressure (or similar device) and/or behavioral modifications. Unfortunately, treatment of sleep disorders associated with TBI often does not improve sleepiness or neuropsychological function. PMID:23099139

Viola-Saltzman, Mari; Watson, Nathaniel F.

2012-01-01

358

Neurodegenerative disorders and nanoformulated drug development  

PubMed Central

Degenerative and inflammatory diseases of the CNS include, but are not limited to, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, stroke, multiple sclerosis and HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders. These are common, debilitating and, unfortunately, hold few therapeutic options. In recent years, the application of nanotechnologies as commonly used or developing medicines has served to improve pharmacokinetics and drug delivery specifically to CNS-diseased areas. In addition, nanomedical advances are leading to therapies that target CNS pathobiology and as such, can interrupt disordered protein aggregation, deliver functional neuroprotective proteins and alter the oxidant state of affected neural tissues. This article focuses on the pathobiology of common neurodegenerative disorders with a view towards how nanomedicine may be used to improve the clinical course of neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:19572820

Nowacek, Ari; Kosloski, Lisa M; Gendelman, Howard E

2009-01-01

359

The relationship between creativity and mood disorders  

PubMed Central

Research designed to examine the relationship between creativity and mental illnesses must confront multiple challenges. What is the optimal sample to study? How should creativity be defined? What is the most appropriate comparison group? Only a limited number of studies have examined highly creative individuals using personal interviews and a noncreative comparison group. The majority of these have examined writers. The preponderance of the evidence suggests that in these creative individuals the rate of mood disorder is high, and that both bipolar disorder and unipolar depression are quite common. Clinicians who treat creative individuals with mood disorders must also confronta variety of challenges, including the fear that treatment may diminish creativity, in the case of bipolar disorder, hovt/ever, it is likely that reducing severe manic episodes may actually enhance creativity in many individuals. PMID:18689294

Andreasen, Nancy C.

2008-01-01

360

Biochem. J. (2006) 400, 501510 (Printed in Great Britain) doi:10.1042/BJ20060721 501 Multiple forms of copper (II) co-ordination occur throughout the disordered  

E-print Network

neurodegenerative disorders, found in both humans and animals, which have become the focus of intense scientificP, and is devoid of nucleic acid [2,3]. Mature human PrP is a 209-residue polypeptide with a C-terminal glycosyl forms of copper (II) co-ordination occur throughout the disordered N-terminal region of the prion

Hosszu, Laszlo

2006-01-01

361

Development of a universal psycho-educational intervention to prevent common postpartum mental disorders in primiparous women: a multiple method approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Prevention of postnatal mental disorders in women is an important component of comprehensive health service delivery because of the substantial potential benefits for population health. However, diverse approaches to prevention of postnatal depression have had limited success, possibly because anxiety and adjustment disorders are also problematic, mental health problems are multifactorially determined, and because relationships amongst psychosocial risk factors

Heather J Rowe; Jane RW Fisher

2010-01-01

362

EAAT2 regulation and splicing: relevance to psychiatric and neurological disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The excitatory amino acid transporter 2 (EAAT2) is responsible for the majority of glutamate uptake in the brain and its dysregulation has been associated with multiple psychiatric and neurological disorders. However, investigation of this molecule has been complicated by its complex pattern of alternative splicing, including three coding isoforms and multiple 5?- and 3?-UTRs that may have a regulatory function.

T L Lauriat; L A McInnes

2007-01-01

363

Pervasive Developmental Disorders in Girls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pervasive developmental disorders are a group of conditions sharing as their common features impairment in social reciprocity,\\u000a developmental disturbances affecting communication, and manifestation of restricted and repetitive behaviors. Autism is the\\u000a prototypical pervasive developmental disorder, and others include Asperger's Disorder, Rett's Disorder, Childhood Disintegrative\\u000a Disorder, and Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS). Critical to understanding these conditions\\u000a is appreciation of

Kathleen Koenig; Katherine D. Tsatsanis

364

Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... of conditions called fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Effects can include physical and behavioral problems such as trouble with Learning and remembering Understanding and following directions Controlling emotions ...

365

Bipolar Disorder  

MedlinePLUS

... this brochure to find out more. What is bipolar disorder? Bipolar disorder is a serious brain illness. ... get better and lead successful lives. Who develops bipolar disorder? Anyone can develop bipolar disorder. It often ...

366

Personality Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... family, friends, and co-workers. What is a Personality Disorder? Those who struggle with a personality disorder have ... difficult to participate in social activities. Recognizing a Personality Disorder A personality disorder must fulfill several criteria. A ...

367

Tongue Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... Resources for Help and Information The One-Page Merck Manual of Health Medical Terms Conversion Tables Manuals available ... Lip and Tongue Disorders Lip Disorders Tongue Disorders Merck Manual > Patients & Caregivers > Mouth and Dental Disorders > Lip and ...

368

Sleep Disorders  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For something as critical to our well being as good sleep, human beings suffer from an amazing number of sleeping disorders. The following Web sites explore just a few of these disorders, starting with a brief introduction to the normal stages of sleep from the Sleep Disorders Center of Central Texas (1). Next, the University of Waterloo offers a fascinating look at sleep paralysis, which many researchers consider the "likely source of beliefs concerning not only alien abductions, but all manner of beliefs in alternative realities and otherworldly creatures" (2). The third site (3), provided by the National Women's Health Information Center, is an easy-to-read source for information about insomnia. Likewise, the American Sleep Apnea Association (ASAA) offers an in-depth information packet on snoring and sleep apnea, as well as the ASAA newsletter and other resources (4). The next Web site (5 ) comes from the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, and offers an introduction to the phenomenon of narcolepsy, including treatment, prognosis, and related research. Restless legs syndrome may not be as immediately familiar as some of the other sleep disorders addressed above, but a visit to the homepage of the Restless Legs Syndrome Foundation (6) should answer any questions about this "creepy-crawly" sensation in the limbs that occurs during sleep or other inactive periods. Of course, you don't have to have a bona fide sleeping disorder to suffer from sleep deprivation. Visitors to the next Web site from Loughborough University's Sleep Research Centre will find detailed information on how sleep deprivation affects brain function (7). Not surprisingly, the news isn't good. Finally, the Sleep Foundation offers How's Your Sleep, an online quiz designed to help users learn more about what may be affecting their sleep (8).

Sohmer, Rachel.

2003-01-01

369

AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS What is autism?  

E-print Network

AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS What is autism? Autism is part of a group of complex neurodevelopmental disorders called autism spectrum disorders (ASD). ASD includes: · Autistic Disorder · Asperger's Disorder Specified (PDD-NOS) Autism spectrum disorders are present early in life and are characterized by varying

Bordenstein, Seth

370

AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS What is autism?  

E-print Network

AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS What is autism? Autism is part of a group of complex neurodevelop- mental disorders called autism spectrum disorders (ASD). ASD includes: · Autistic Disorder · Asperger's Disorder Specified (PDD-NOS) Autism spectrum disorders are present early in life and are characterized by varying

Palmeri, Thomas

371

[Multilingualism and child psychiatry: on differential diagnoses of language disorder, specific learning disorder, and selective mutism].  

PubMed

Multilingualism poses unique psychiatric problems, especially in the field of child psychiatry. The author discusses several linguistic and transcultural issues in relation to Language Disorder, Specific Learning Disorder and Selective Mutism. Linguistic characteristics of multiple language development, including so-called profile effects and code-switching, need to be understood for differential diagnosis. It is also emphasized that Language Disorder in a bilingual person is not different or worse than that in a monolingual person. Second language proficiency, cultural background and transfer from the first language all need to be considered in an evaluation for Specific Learning Disorder. Selective Mutism has to be differentiated from the silent period observed in the normal successive bilingual development. The author concludes the review by remarking on some caveats around methods of language evaluation in a multilingual person. PMID:25702497

Tamiya, Satoshi

2014-01-01

372

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are the most commonly diagnosed disorders in sexually abused children (SAC). There is a high degree of symptom overlap and comorbidity between these disorders, and differential diagnosis can be confusing. Current diagnostic criteria do not include PTSD as a differential diagnosis for ADHD, nor do existing assessment guidelines address these diagnostic

Dan Weinstein; Darlene Staffelbach; Maryka Biaggio

2000-01-01

373

Major Depressive Disorder with Anger: A Bipolar Spectrum Disorder?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Depression with anger may be more common in bipolar disorders. The aim of the study was to assess whether major depressive disorder (MDD) with anger could be included in the bipolar spectrum, by comparing it to MDD without anger and to bipolar II disorder. Methods: Consecutive outpatients (281 bipolar II disorder and 202 MDD) presenting for major depressive episode

Franco Benazzi

2003-01-01

374

Gene Transfer Strategies for Correction of Lysosomal Storage Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) represent a large group of monogenic disorders of metabolism, which affect approximately 1 in 5,000 live births. LSDs result from a single or multiple deficiency of specific lysosomal hydrolases, the enzymes responsible for the luminal catabolization of macromolecular substrates. The consequent accumulation of undigested metabolites in lysosomes leads to polysystemic dysfunction, including progressive neurologic deterioration, mental

Alessandra d’Azzo

2003-01-01

375

Diagnostic Evaluation of Autism Spectrum Disorders  

PubMed Central

Synopsis Research on the identification and evaluation of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is reviewed and best practices for clinical work are discussed. The latest research on diagnostic tools, and their recommended use, is also reviewed. Recommendations include the use of instruments designed to assess multiple domains of functioning and behavior, the inclusion of parents and caregivers as active partners, and the consideration of developmental factors throughout the diagnostic process. PMID:22284796

Huerta, Marisela; Lord, Catherine

2011-01-01

376

Disordered graphene Josephson junctions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A tight-binding approach based on the Chebyshev-Bogoliubov-de Gennes method is used to describe disordered single-layer graphene Josephson junctions. Scattering by vacancies, ripples, or charged impurities is included. We compute the Josephson current and investigate the nature of multiple Andreev reflections, which induce bound states appearing as peaks in the density of states for energies below the superconducting gap. In the presence of single-atom vacancies, we observe a strong suppression of the supercurrent, which is a consequence of strong intervalley scattering. Although lattice deformations should not induce intervalley scattering, we find that the supercurrent is still suppressed, which is due to the presence of pseudomagnetic barriers. For charged impurities, we consider two cases depending on whether the average doping is zero, i.e., existence of electron-hole puddles, or finite. In both cases, short-range impurities strongly affect the supercurrent, similar to the vacancies scenario.

Muñoz, W. A.; Covaci, L.; Peeters, F. M.

2015-02-01

377

Geriatric Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

At one time, the psychiatry of old age was believed to be “the darkest area of psychiatry.” The often confounding nature of\\u000a psychiatric disorder in the elderly is illustrated by the large number of terms used over the years to address the diversity\\u000a among geriatric psychiatric patients, including “late paraphrenia,” “vascular depression,” “pseudodementia,” and “masked depression.”\\u000a Many of these labels

Colin A. Depp; Jody Corey-Bloom

378

Ejaculatory Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Ejaculation is a highly integrated process that involves both the sympathetic and parasympathetic neural pathways. Numerous\\u000a studies reveal that ejaculatory dysfunction is a common disorder and the source of significant bother for many of those affected.\\u000a Ejaculatory dysfunction is comprised of several different, more specific abnormalities including: premature ejaculation, inhibited\\u000a ejaculation (consisting of delayed and absent ejaculation), and painful ejaculation.

Robert E. Brannigan

379

The comorbidity between eating disorders and anxiety disorders: Prevalence in an eating disorder sample and anxiety disorder sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate the prevalence of comorbid eating and anxiety disorders in women presenting for inpatient and outpatient treatment of an eating disorder and women presenting for outpatient treatment of an anxiety disorder.Methods: The prevalence of comorbidity was investigated from a sample of 152 women, which included 100 women presenting for treatment of an eating disorder and 52 women presenting

Jessica Swinbourne; Caroline Hunt; Maree Abbott; Janice Russell; Tamsen St Clare; Stephen Touyz

2012-01-01

380

Schizophrenia and Other Psychotic Disorders  

E-print Network

Schizophrenia and Other Psychotic Disorders The disorders in this section include Schizophrenia Schizophrenia and other diSorders that, by definition, do not present with psychotic symptoms (e.g., Schizotypal of functional impairment In that context, a mental disorder was termed "psychotic" if it resUlted in "impairment

Bruno, John P.

381

Therapeutic Horseback Riding Outcomes of Parent-Identified Goals for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: An ABA? Multiple Case Design Examining Dosing and Generalization to the Home and Community  

PubMed Central

We examined whether different doses of therapeutic riding influenced parent-nominated target behaviors of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (a) during the session (b) at home, and (c) in the community. We used a single subject multiple Baseline, multiple case design, with dosing of 1, 3, and 5 times/week. Three boys with ASD, 6–8 years of age participated, and counts of target behaviors were collected in each setting and phase of the study. Compared to Baseline, 70 % of the target behaviors were better during Intervention and improvement was retained in 63 % of the behaviors during Withdrawal. Increased doses of therapeutic riding were significant for magnitude of change, and the effect of the therapeutic riding sessions generalized to home and community. PMID:24091469

Baird, Joanne M.; Kim, Young Joo; Rajora, Kuwar B.; D’Silva, Delma; Podolinsky, Lin; Mazefsky, Carla; Minshew, Nancy

2014-01-01

382

The Single and Combined Effects of Multiple Intensities of Behavior Modification and Methylphenidate for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in a Classroom Setting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Currently behavior modification, stimulant medication, and combined treatments are supported as evidence-based interventions for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in classroom settings. However, there has been little study of the relative effects of these two modalities and their combination in classrooms. Using a within-subject design, the…

Fabiano, Gregory A.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Burrows-MacLean, Lisa; Coles, Erika K.; Chacko, Anil; Wymbs, Brian T.; Walker, Kathryn S.; Arnold, Fran; Garefino, Allison; Keenan, Jenna K.; Onyango, Adia N.; Hoffman, Martin T.; Massetti, Greta M.; Robb, Jessica A.

2007-01-01

383

Integrating Case Topics in Medical School Curriculum to Enhance Multiple Skill Learning: Using Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders as an Exemplary Case  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: This article describes the use of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) as a theme to connect the learning of basic neurosciences with clinical applications across the age span within a systems-based, integrated curricular structure that emphasizes problem-based learning. Methods: In collaboration with the Centers for Disease…

Paley, Blair; O'Connor, Mary J.; Baillie, Susan J.; Guiton, Gretchen; Stuber, Margaret L.

2009-01-01

384

Periodic Limb Movement Disorder and Restless Legs Syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... System Brain Infections Meningitis Prion Diseases Movement Disorders Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and Related Disorders Spinal Cord Disorders Peripheral ... caffeine or stimulant drugs) or certain antidepressants Have iron deficiency Have anemia Are pregnant Have a kidney ...

385

Specific and common genes implicated across major mental disorders: a review of meta-analysis studies.  

PubMed

Major efforts have been directed at family-based association and case-control studies to identify the involvement of candidate genes in the major disorders of mental health. What remains unknown is whether candidate genes are associated with multiple disorders via pleiotropic mechanisms, and/or if other genes are specific to susceptibility for individual disorders. Here we undertook a review of genes that have been identified in prior meta-analyses examining specific genes and specific mental disorders that have core disruptions to emotional and cognitive function and contribute most to burden of illness- major depressive disorder (MDD), anxiety disorders (AD, including panic disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder), schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A literature review was conducted up to end-March 2013 which included a total of 1519 meta-analyses across 157 studies reporting multiple genes implicated in one or more of the five disorders studied. A total of 134 genes (206 variants) were identified as significantly associated risk variants for MDD, AD, ADHD, SZ or BD. Null genetic effects were also reported for 195 genes (426 variants). 13 genetic variants were shared in common between two or more disorders (APOE e4, ACE Ins/Del, BDNF Val66Met, COMT Val158Met, DAOA G72/G30 rs3918342, DAT1 40-bp, DRD4 48-bp, SLC6A4 5-HTTLPR, HTR1A C1019G, MTHR C677T, MTHR A1298C, SLC6A4 VNTR and TPH1 218A/C) demonstrating evidence for pleiotrophy. Another 12 meta-analyses of GWAS studies of the same disorders were identified, with no overlap in genetic variants reported. This review highlights the progress that is being made in identifying shared and unique genetic mechanisms that contribute to the risk of developing several major psychiatric disorders, and identifies further steps for progress. PMID:25287955

Gatt, Justine M; Burton, Karen L O; Williams, Leanne M; Schofield, Peter R

2015-01-01

386

Rare Genomic Variants Link Bipolar Disorder with Anxiety Disorders to CREB-Regulated Intracellular Signaling Pathways  

PubMed Central

Bipolar disorder is a common, complex, and severe psychiatric disorder with cyclical disturbances of mood and a high suicide rate. Here, we describe a family with four siblings, three affected females and one unaffected male. The disease course was characterized by early-onset bipolar disorder and co-morbid anxiety spectrum disorders that followed the onset of bipolar disorder. Genetic risk factors were suggested by the early onset of the disease, the severe disease course, including multiple suicide attempts, and lack of adverse prenatal or early life events. In particular, drug and alcohol abuse did not contribute to the disease onset. Exome sequencing identified very rare, heterozygous, and likely protein-damaging variants in eight brain-expressed genes: IQUB, JMJD1C, GADD45A, GOLGB1, PLSCR5, VRK2, MESDC2, and FGGY. The variants were shared among all three affected family members but absent in the unaffected sibling and in more than 200 controls. The genes encode proteins with significant regulatory roles in the ERK/MAPK and CREB-regulated intracellular signaling pathways. These pathways are central to neuronal and synaptic plasticity, cognition, affect regulation and response to chronic stress. In addition, proteins in these pathways are the target of commonly used mood-stabilizing drugs, such as tricyclic antidepressants, lithium, and valproic acid. The combination of multiple rare, damaging mutations in these central pathways could lead to reduced resilience and increased vulnerability to stressful life events. Our results support a new model for psychiatric disorders, in which multiple rare, damaging mutations in genes functionally related to a common signaling pathway contribute to the manifestation of bipolar disorder. PMID:24348429

Kerner, Berit; Rao, Aliz R.; Christensen, Bryce; Dandekar, Sugandha; Yourshaw, Michael; Nelson, Stanley F.

2013-01-01

387

Updates on Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder and Learning Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship of attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to learning disorders was reviewed and included reading\\u000a disability, mathematics learning disability, and nonverbal learning disability. Genetic, neuroimaging, and neuropsychological\\u000a functioning were examined for each disorder, along with a discussion of any existing literature when ADHD co-occurred with\\u000a the disorder. All the disorders were found to frequently co-occur with ADHD. A review of the

Margaret Semrud-Clikeman; Jesse Bledsoe

388

Easy and unambiguous sequential assignments of intrinsically disordered proteins by correlating the backbone (15)N or (13)C' chemical shifts of multiple contiguous residues in highly resolved 3D spectra.  

PubMed

Sequential resonance assignment strategies are typically based on matching one or two chemical shifts of adjacent residues. However, resonance overlap often leads to ambiguity in resonance assignments in particular for intrinsically disordered proteins. We investigated the potential of establishing connectivity through the three-bond couplings between sequentially adjoining backbone carbonyl carbon nuclei, combined with semi-constant time chemical shift evolution, for resonance assignments of small folded and larger unfolded proteins. Extended sequential connectivity strongly lifts chemical shift degeneracy of the backbone nuclei in disordered proteins. We show here that 3D (H)N(COCO)NH and (HN)CO(CO)NH experiments with relaxation-optimized multiple pulse mixing correlate up to seven adjacent backbone amide nitrogen or carbonyl carbon nuclei, respectively, and connections across proline residues are also obtained straightforwardly. Multiple, recurrent long-range correlations with ultra-high resolution allow backbone (1)H(N), (15)N(H), and (13)C' resonance assignments to be completed from a single pair of 3D experiments. PMID:25577242

Yoshimura, Yuichi; Kulminskaya, Natalia V; Mulder, Frans A A

2015-02-01

389

PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS AND SLEEP  

PubMed Central

SYNOPSIS Psychiatric disorders and sleep are related in important ways. In contrast to the longstanding view of this relationship which viewed sleep problems as symptoms of psychiatric disorders, there is growing experimental evidence that the relationship between psychiatric disorders and sleep is complex and includes bi-directional causation. In this article we provide the evidence that supports this point of view, reviewing the data on the sleep disturbances seen in patients with psychiatric disorders but also reviewing the data on the impact of sleep disturbances on psychiatric conditions. Although much has been learned about the psychiatric disorders-sleep relationship, additional research is needed to better understand these relationships. This work promises to improve our ability to understand both of these phenomena and to allow us to better treat the many patients with sleep disorders and with psychiatric disorders. PMID:23099143

Krystal, Andrew D.

2012-01-01

390

Bipolar Disorder  

MedlinePLUS

Bipolar Disorder FACT SHEET NAMI • The National Alliance on Mental Illness • 1 (800) 950-NAMI • www.nami. ... Suite 100, Arlington, Va. 22203 1 What is bipolar disorder? Bipolar disorder is a persistent illness with ...

391

Panic Disorder  

MedlinePLUS

... Conditions > Emotional Problems > Panic Disorder Health Issues Listen Panic Disorder Article Body Description: a condition marked by recurrent ... phobic about being in a car. Signs of Panic Disorder At least four of the following symptoms: palpitations ...

392

Panic Disorder  

MedlinePLUS

Panic disorder is a type of anxiety disorder. It causes panic attacks, which are sudden feelings of terror ... their lives and they cannot leave their homes. Panic disorder is more common in women than men. It ...

393

Personality disorders  

MedlinePLUS

Personality disorders are a group of mental health conditions in which a person has a long-term pattern ... Causes of personality disorders are unknown. Genetic and ... a role. Mental health professionals categorize these disorders ...

394

Mathematics disorder  

MedlinePLUS

Mathematics disorder is a condition in which a child's math ability is far below normal for their age, ... Children who have mathematics disorder have trouble with simple ... disorder may appear with: Developmental coordination ...

395

Genetic Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... This can cause a medical condition called a genetic disorder. You can inherit a gene mutation from ... during your lifetime. There are three types of genetic disorders: Single-gene disorders, where a mutation affects ...

396

Spleen Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... Resources for Help and Information The One-Page Merck Manual of Health Medical Terms Conversion Tables Manuals available ... Spleen Disorders Overview of the Spleen Enlarged Spleen Merck Manual > Patients & Caregivers > Blood Disorders > Spleen Disorders 4 Overview ...

397

Parental psychiatric disorders and autism spectrum disorders  

PubMed Central

The present population-based, case-control study examines associations between specific parental psychiatric disorders and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) including childhood autism, Asperger’s syndrome and pervasive developmental disorder (PDD-NOS). The cohort includes 4713 children born between 1987 and 2005 with diagnoses of childhood autism, Asperger’s syndrome or PDD-NOS. Cases were ascertained from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register, and each was matched to four controls by gender, date of birth, place of birth, and residence in Finland. Controls were selected from the Finnish Medical Birth Register. Parents were identified through the Finnish Medical Birth Register and Finnish Central Population Register. Parental psychiatric diagnoses from inpatient care were collected from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register. Conditional logistic regression models were used to assess whether parents’ psychiatric disorders predicted ASD after controlling for parents’ age, smoking during pregnancy and weight for gestational age. In summary, parental schizophrenia spectrum disorders and affective disorders were associated with the risk of ASD regardless of the subgroup. PDD-NOS was associated with all parental psychiatric disorders investigated. Further studies are needed to replicate these findings. These results may facilitate the investigation of shared genetic and familial factors between ASD and other psychiatric disorders. PMID:23391634

Jokiranta, Elina; Brown, Alan S.; Heinimaa, Markus; Cheslack-Postava, Keely; Partanen, Auli; Sourander, Andre

2013-01-01

398

Sexuality in multiple sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. Sexuality and partnership have an important influence on the quality of life of every person and also on people with chronic disorders such as multiple sclerosis. The findings in literature show high evidence that people with multiple sclerosis experience high levels of sexual dysfunction, most of them with hypoactive sexual behaviour often associated with dissatisfaction in relationship, and also

E. Z. Schmidt; P. Hofmann; G. Niederwieser; H.-P. Kapfhammer; R. M. Bonelli

2005-01-01

399

Eating Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... irritation, leading to intestinal problems • Diuretics (water pills) cause kidney problems • Severe dehydration from purging of fluids Binge Eating Disorder Presently, the criteria for binge eating disorder are ...

400

Conditional disorder in chaperone action  

PubMed Central

Protein disorder remains an intrinsically fuzzy concept. Its role in protein function is difficult to conceptualize and its experimental study is challenging. Although a wide variety of roles for protein disorder have been proposed, establishing that disorder is functionally important, particularly in vivo, is not a trivial task. Several molecular chaperones have now been identified as conditionally disordered proteins; fully folded and chaperone-inactive under non-stress conditions, they adopt a partially disordered conformation upon exposure to distinct stress-conditions. This disorder appears to be vital for their ability to bind multiple aggregation-sensitive client proteins and to protect cells against the stressors. The study of these conditionally disordered chaperones should prove useful in understanding the functional role for protein disorder in molecular recognition. PMID:23018052

Bardwell, James C. A.; Jakob, Ursula

2012-01-01

401

Psychogenic Movement Disorders  

PubMed Central

Purpose of Review This review describes the main clinical features of psychogenic (functional) movement disorders and reports recent advances in diagnosis, pathophysiology, and treatment. Recent Findings The terminology and definition of patients with psychogenic movement disorders remain subjects of controversy; the term “functional” has been used more frequently in the literature in recent years regarding the neurobiological substrate underpinning these disorders. Correct diagnosis of psychogenic movement disorders should rely not on the exclusion of organic disorders or the sole presence of psychological factors but on the observation or elicitation of clinical features related to the specific movement disorder (ie, a positive or inclusionary rather than exclusionary diagnosis). Sudden onset, spontaneous remissions, and variability over time or during clinical examination are useful “red flags” suggestive of a psychogenic movement disorder. Imaging studies have demonstrated impaired connectivity between limbic and motor areas involved in movement programming and hypoactivity of a brain region that compares expected data with actual sensory data occurring during voluntary movement. Treatment of psychogenic movement disorders begins with ensuring the patient’s acceptance of the diagnosis during the initial debriefing and includes nonpharmacologic (cognitive-behavioral therapy, physiotherapy) and pharmacologic options. Summary Psychogenic movement disorders represent a challenging disorder for neurologists to diagnose and treat. Recent advances have increased understanding of the neurobiological mechanism of psychogenic movement disorders. Treatment with cognitive strategies and physical rehabilitation can benefit some patients. As short duration of disease correlates with better prognosis, early diagnosis and initiation of treatment are critical. PMID:24092294

Morgante, Francesca; Edwards, Mark J.; Espay, Alberto J.

2013-01-01

402

The spectrum of eosinophilic infiltration of the cecum and its relationship to other disorders of multiple granulomas and arteritis in Sprague-Dawley rat.  

PubMed

Spontaneous multiple granulomas were present in the animal under the SPF condition and without chemical treatment, in a 19-week-old male Sprague-Dawley control-group rat. Here we describe multiple granulomas and prominent diffuse infiltration by eosinophils in the cecal submucosa, and arteritis in the mesenteric arteries. The multiple granulomas were characterized by central eosinophilic degeneration or necrosis, prominent eosinophils, many multi-nucleated giant cells and abundant fibroblasts. They were restricted to the cecal submucosa. The mesenteric arteritis consisted of fibrinoid necrosis of the intima and media, intense inflammatory cell infiltration and fibrosis in the arterial wall. An affected artery in the cecum was continuous with the mesenteric artery. The foregoing tissue changes in this rat correlate with the high absolute blood eosinophil count found in this animal. PMID:24646705

Li, Yinghua; Bae, Han-Ik; Kim, Hak-Soo; Kang, Min-Soo; Jung, Won-Hee; Kim, Kap-Ho; Song, Si-Whan; Kang, Boo-Hyon

2014-04-01

403

A Review of Co-Morbid Disorders of Asperger's Disorder and the Transition to Adulthood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review includes empirical peer-reviewed articles which support the examination of Asperger's Disorder and co-morbid disorders, as well as an analysis of how adolescents with Asperger's Disorder transition to adulthood. Although the focus was on Asperger's Disorder, some studies include Autism Spectrum Disorder samples. It was found that…

Robinson, Stephanie; Curwen, Tracey; Ryan, Thomas G.

2012-01-01

404

Sleep Disorders  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This patient education program explains sleep and its importance for good health. It also discusses sleep disorders including insomnia, sleep apnea, restless leg syndrome, narcolepsy, and gives tips for sleeping well. This resource is a MedlinePlus Interactive Health Tutorial from the National Library of Medicine, designed and developed by the Patient Education Institute. NOTE: This tutorial requires a special Flash plug-in, version 4 or above. If you do not have Flash, you will be prompted to obtain a free download of the software before you start the tutorial. You will also need an Acrobat Reader, available as a free download, in order to view the Reference Summary.

Patient Education Institute

405

[The prognostic significance of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) for phobic anxiety disorders, vegetative and cognitive impairments during conservative treatment including adaptol of some functional and organic diseases of nervous system].  

PubMed

We have studied the efficacy of adaptol in the treatment of 45 patients with somatoform dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system and 30 patients with closed head injury. The condition of patients during the treatment was evaluated with clinical and neuropsychological scales. The serum level of BDNF before and after the treatment has been studied as well. Adaptol has been shown to enhance the production of BDNF, reduce significantly the intensity of anxiety, autonomic disorders and improve intellectual processes. The dose-dependent effect of the drug has been demonstrated. In conclusion, adaptol can be recommended for treatment of diseases that demand stimulation of neuroplasticity in the CNS. PMID:22810739

Zhivolupov, S A; Samartsev, I N; Marchenko, A A; Puliatkina, O V

2012-01-01

406

Quality of life in patients with multiple sclerosis and urinary disorders: Reliability and validity of Turkish-language version of Incontinence Quality of Life Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incontinence is one of the most frequently encoun- tered problems in multiple sclerosis (MS), and it has a negative effect on the daily lives of patients. Therefore, it is important to investigate this complaint and start appropriate treatment early. The aim of our study was to demonstrate the validity and reliability of the Turkish-language Incontinence Quality of Life Scale (I-QOL)

Sibel Eyigor; Hale Karapolat; Yesim Akkoc; Hilal Yesil; Ozgul Ekmekci

2010-01-01

407

The movement disorder society and movement disorders: a modern history.  

PubMed

The Movement Disorder Society (MDS) developed out of a merger with two short-lived organizations, the Movement Disorder Society, primarily organized to develop a journal for the subspecialty, and the International Society of Motor Disturbances, primarily organized to develop international congresses. The formal merger of the Movement Disorder Society and the International Society of Motor Disturbances into the Movement Disorder Society took place at the 2nd International Congress of Movement Disorders in Munich, Germany, in June 1992. Whereas the journal, Movement Disorders, and the annual International Congress of Parkinson's Disease and Movement Disorders remain the anchors of the society, the goals now include the development of regional symposia, regional sections, Web-based educational programs, and outreach efforts to include young investigators, wide international membership, and inclusion of non-neurologists, including basic scientists, neurosurgeons, and nonphysician health professionals. Movement Disorders has a continuingly growing subscribership and rising impact factor. PMID:21626540

Goetz, Christopher G; McGhiey, Anne

2011-05-01

408

Anxiety Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... afraid, but they can't control their fear. Panic Disorder In panic disorder, a person has sudden, unexplained attacks of terror, ... impending doom, or a fear of losing control. Panic attacks can occur at any time. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) develops after ...

409

Related disorders of bone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renal osteodystrophy includes a broad spectrum of abnormalities in bone and mineral metabolism. This review article discusses\\u000a related bone disorders, including calcific uremic arteriolopathy, “osteoporosis” and compromised bone strength, and dialysis-related\\u000a amyloidosis, as well as the contributing roles of glucocorticoids and metabolic acidosis. Bone disorders in the setting of\\u000a renal transplantation, including osteoporosis, osteonecrosis, and presistent hyperparathyroidism, are also reviewed.

Francis L. Weng; Stanley Goldfarb

2007-01-01

410

Multimodality imaging features of hereditary multiple exostoses  

PubMed Central

Hereditary multiple exostoses (HME) or diaphyseal aclasis is an inherited disorder characterised by the formation of multiple osteochondromas, which are cartilage-capped osseous outgrowths, and the development of associated osseous deformities. Individuals with HME may be asymptomatic or develop clinical symptoms, which prompt imaging studies. Different modalities ranging from plain radiographs to cross-sectional and nuclear medicine imaging studies can be helpful in the diagnosis and detection of complications in HME, including chondrosarcomatous transformation. We review the role and imaging features of these different modalities in HME. PMID:24004486

Fitzgerald, L; Campbell, N; Lyburn, I D; Munk, P L; Buckley, O; Torreggiani, W C

2013-01-01

411

Multiple homicides.  

PubMed

A study of multiple homicides or multiple deaths involving a solitary incident of violence by another individual was performed on the case files of the Office of the Medical Examiner of Metropolitan Dade County in Miami, Florida, during 1983-1987. A total of 107 multiple homicides were studied: 88 double, 17 triple, one quadruple, and one quintuple. The 236 victims were analyzed regarding age, race, sex, cause of death, toxicologic data, perpetrator, locale of the incident, and reason for the incident. This article compares this type of slaying with other types of homicide including those perpetrated by serial killers. Suggestions for future research in this field are offered. PMID:2782297

Copeland, A R

1989-09-01

412

Artificially disordered birefringent optical fibers  

E-print Network

in a fading environment when using multiple antennas," Wireless Personal Commun. 6, 311­335 (1998). #160441Artificially disordered birefringent optical fibers S. Herath,1 N. P. Puente,2 E. I. Chaikina,3@mst.edu Abstract: We develop and experimentally verify a theory of evolution of polarization in artificially-disordered

Yamilov, Alexey

413

Seasonal Affective Disorder  

PubMed Central

Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a recently described mood disorder characterized by recurrent winter depressive episodes and summer remissions. The symptoms of SAD include DSM III-R criteria for recurrent major depression, but atypical depressive symptoms predominate with hypersomnia, hyperphagia and carbohydrate craving, and anergia. Seasonal affective disorder is effectively treated by exposure to bright light (phototherapy or light therapy), a novel antidepressant treatment. The authors review the syndrome of SAD, hypotheses about its pathophysiology, and the use of phototherapy to treat the disorder. PMID:21233986

Lam, Raymond W.; Fleming, Jonathan A.E.; Buchanan, Alan; Remick, Ronald A.

1990-01-01

414

Developmental Vulnerability of Synapses and Circuits Associated with Neuropsychiatric Disorders  

PubMed Central

Psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders, including intellectual disability (ID), autism spectrum disorders (ASD), schizophrenia (SZ), and Alzheimer's disease (AD), pose an immense burden to society. Symptoms of these disorders become manifest at different stages of life: early childhood, adolescence, and late adulthood, respectively. Progress has been made in recent years toward understanding the genetic substrates, cellular mechanisms, brain circuits, and endophenotypes of these disorders. Multiple lines of evidence implicate excitatory and inhibitory synaptic circuits in the cortex and hippocampus as key cellular substrates of pathogenesis in these disorders. Excitatory/inhibitory balance – modulated largely by dopamine – critically regulates cortical network function, neural network activity (i.e. gamma oscillations) and behaviors associated with psychiatric disorders. Understanding the molecular underpinnings of synaptic pathology and neuronal network activity may thus provide essential insight into the pathogenesis of these disorders and can reveal novel drug targets to treat them. Here we discuss recent genetic, neuropathological, and molecular studies that implicate alterations in excitatory and inhibitory synaptic circuits in the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders across the lifespan. PMID:23574039

Penzes, Peter; Buonanno, Andres; Passafarro, Maria; Sala, Carlo; Sweet, Robert A.

2013-01-01

415

Substance Use Disorders and Borderline Personality  

PubMed Central

According to the empirical literature, substance use disorders are commonly comorbid with a number of psychiatric disorders, including the personality disorders and especially borderline personality disorder. With regard to borderline personality disorder, eight studies of varying sample types (e.g., inpatient, outpatient, community) indicate prevalence rates of substance use disorders from 14 percent (current rate) to 72 percent (lifetime rate). As expected, lifetime prevalence rates of substance use disorders in borderline personality disorder exceed current and 12-month rates. In addition, in clinical samples, men with borderline personality disorder outnumber women with borderline personality disorder with regard to the presence of comorbid substance use disorders. According to the meager available literature, there is also a relationship between prescription substance abuse and borderline personality disorder. However, this relationship deviates from traditional findings with general substance abuse in that rates for women with borderline personality disorder equal rates for men with borderline personality disorder. PMID:22010059

Sansone, Lori A.

2011-01-01

416

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder  

PubMed Central

Over the last two decades, there have been numerous technical and methodological advances available to clinicians and researchers to better understand attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its etiology. Despite the growing body of literature investigating the disorder’s pathophysiology, ADHD remains a complex psychiatric disorder to characterize. This chapter will briefly review the literature on ADHD, with a focus on its history, the current genetic insights, neurophysiologic theories, and the use of neuroimaging to further understand the etiology. We address some of the major concerns that remain unclear about ADHD, including subtype instability, heterogeneity, and the underlying neural correlates that define the disorder. We highlight that the field of ADHD is rapidly evolving; the descriptions provided here will hopefully provide a sturdy foundation for which to build and improve our understanding of the disorder. PMID:24214656

Matthews, Marguerite; Nigg, Joel T.

2014-01-01

417

Mood and affect disorders.  

PubMed

Depressive disorders are common in children and adolescents, with estimates for depressive episodes as high as 18.2% for girls and 7.7% for boys by age 17 years, and are a major cause of morbidity and even mortality. The primary care pediatrician should be able to (1) diagnose depressive disorders and use standardized instruments; (2) ask about suicide, self-harm, homicide, substance use, mania, and psychosis; (3) triage the severity of illness; (4) be aware of the differential diagnosis, including normal development, other depressive disorders, bipolar disorders, and comorbid disorders, such as anxiety and substance use; (5) refer to evidenced-based psychotherapies; (6) prescribe first-line medications; and (7) provide ongoing coordination in a medical home. Pediatric bipolar disorders and the new disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD) diagnoses are controversial but not uncommon, with prevalence estimates ranging from 0.8% to 4.3% in children at various ages. Although the pediatrician is not likely to be prescribing medications for children with bipolar disorder and DMDD diagnoses, all clinicians should be familiar with common neuroleptics and other mood stabilizers, including important potential adverse effects. Basic management of depressive and bipolar disorders is an important skill for primary care pediatricians. PMID:25646309

Tang, Michael H; Pinsky, Elizabeth G

2015-02-01

418

Testing multiple levels of influence in the intergenerational transmission of alcohol disorders from a developmental perspective: The example of alcohol use promoting peers and ?-opioid receptor M1 variation  

PubMed Central

This study examined the interplay between the influence of peers who promote alcohol use and ?-opioid receptor M1 (OPRM1) genetic variation in the intergenerational transmission of alcohol use disorder (AUD) symptoms while separating the “traitlike” components of AUD symptoms from their age-specific manifestations at three ages from emerging adulthood (17–23 years) to adulthood (29–40 years). The results for males were consistent with genetically influenced peer selection mechanisms as mediators of parent alcoholism effects. Male children of alcoholics were less likely to be carriers of the G allele in single nucleotide polymorphism A118G (rs1799971), and those who were homozygous for the A allele were more likely to affiliate with alcohol use promoting peers who increased the risk for AUD symptoms at all ages. There was evidence for women of an interaction between OPRM1 variation and peer affiliations but only at the earliest age band. Peer influences had stronger effects among women who were G-carriers. These results illustrate the complex ways in which the interplay between influences at multiple levels of analysis can underlie the intergenerational transmission of alcohol disorders as well as the importance of considering age and gender differences in these pathways. PMID:22781865

CHASSIN, LAURIE; LEE, MATTHEW R.; CHO, YOUNG IL; WANG, FRANCES L.; AGRAWAL, ARPANA; SHER, KENNETH J.; LYNSKEY, MICHAEL T.

2013-01-01

419

Genetics of bipolar disorder  

PubMed Central

Bipolar disorder is a common, complex genetic disorder, but the mode of transmission remains to be discovered. Many researchers assume that common genomic variants carry some risk for manifesting the disease. The research community has celebrated the first genome-wide significant associations between common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and bipolar disorder. Currently, attempts are under way to translate these findings into clinical practice, genetic counseling, and predictive testing. However, some experts remain cautious. After all, common variants explain only a very small percentage of the genetic risk, and functional consequences of the discovered SNPs are inconclusive. Furthermore, the associated SNPs are not disease specific, and the majority of individuals with a “risk” allele are healthy. On the other hand, population-based genome-wide studies in psychiatric disorders have rediscovered rare structural variants and mutations in genes, which were previously known to cause genetic syndromes and monogenic Mendelian disorders. In many Mendelian syndromes, psychiatric symptoms are prevalent. Although these conditions do not fit the classic description of any specific psychiatric disorder, they often show nonspecific psychiatric symptoms that cross diagnostic boundaries, including intellectual disability, behavioral abnormalities, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, attention deficit, impulse control deficit, and psychosis. Although testing for chromosomal disorders and monogenic Mendelian disorders is well established, testing for common variants is still controversial. The standard concept of genetic testing includes at least three broad criteria that need to be fulfilled before new genetic tests should be introduced: analytical validity, clinical validity, and clinical utility. These criteria are currently not fulfilled for common genomic variants in psychiatric disorders. Further work is clearly needed before genetic testing for common variants in psychiatric disorders should be established. PMID:24683306

Kerner, Berit

2014-01-01

420

Testing the role of circadian genes in conferring risk for psychiatric disorders  

PubMed Central

Disturbed sleep and disrupted circadian rhythms are a common feature of psychiatric disorders, and many groups have postulated an association between genetic variants in circadian clock genes and psychiatric disorders. Using summary data from the association analyses of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortia (PGC) for schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and Major Depressive Disorder, we evaluated the evidence that common SNPs in genes encoding components of the molecular clock influence risk to psychiatric disorders. Initially, gene-based and SNP p-values were analysed for 21 core circadian genes. Subsequently, an expanded list of genes linked to control of circadian rhythms was analysed. After correcting for multiple comparisons, none of the circadian genes were significantly associated with any of the three disorders. Several genes previously implicated in the etiology of psychiatric disorders harboured no SNPs significant at the nominal level of p < 0.05, and none of the the variants identified in candidate studies of clock genes that were included in the PGC datasets were significant after correction for multiple testing. There was no evidence of an enrichment of associations in genes linked to control of circadian rhythms in human cells. Our results suggest that genes encoding components of the molecular clock are not good candidates for harbouring common variants that increase risk to bipolar disorder, schizophrenia or Major Depressive Disorder. PMID:24687905

Byrne, Enda M; Heath, Andrew C; Madden, Pamela AF; Pergadia, Michele L; Hickie, Ian B; Montgomery, Grant W; Martin, Nicholas G; Wray, Naomi R

2015-01-01

421

Gender Differences in a Clinical Sample of Patients with Borderline Personality Disorder.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to investigate gender differences and similarities in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) with respect to Axis I comorbidity, Axis II comorbidity, general psychopathology (Symptom Checklist 90-Revised), and dimensional personality traits (NEO-Personality-Inventory Revised [NEO-PI-R] and the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Profile Basic questionnaire [DAPP-BQ]). Fifty-seven men and 114 women with BPD were included in the study. Regarding Axis I and II disorders in an exploratory analysis, men with BPD more often fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for binge eating disorder, antisocial personality disorder, narcissistic personality disorder, and conduct disorder in childhood, whereas women had higher frequencies of bulimia nervosa, posttraumatic stress disorder, and panic disorder with agoraphobia. After correcting for multiple tests, only the gender differences in narcissistic and antisocial personality disorder remained significant. In the SCL-90-R profile, no significant gender differences could be identified. In the exploratory analysis of the dimensional personality traits, women showed higher rates on the NEO-PI-R main factors (Neuroticism and Agreeableness) compared to men. In the DAPP-BQ profile, men reached higher sores on the main factor, Dissocial Behavior. When correcting for multiple tests, gender differences still existed for Neuroticism and Dissocial Behavior. Our results argue for gender differences in Axis I and II comorbidity and dimensional personality traits in BPD. However, in general, more similarities than differences were shown in this study. PMID:22494170

Banzhaf, Anke; Ritter, Kathrin; Merkl, Angela; Schulte-Herbrüggen, Olaf; Lammers, Claas-Hinrich; Roepke, Stefan

2012-04-11

422

Gender differences in a clinical sample of patients with borderline personality disorder.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to investigate gender differences and similarities in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) with respect to Axis I comorbidity, Axis II comorbidity, general psychopathology (Symptom Checklist 90-Revised), and dimensional personality traits (NEO-Personality-Inventory Revised [NEO-PI-R] and the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Profile Basic questionnaire [DAPP-BQ]). Fifty-seven men and 114 women with BPD were included in the study. Regarding Axis I and II disorders in an exploratory analysis, men with BPD more often fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for binge eating disorder, antisocial personality disorder, narcissistic personality disorder, and conduct disorder in childhood, whereas women had higher frequencies of bulimia nervosa, posttraumatic stress disorder, and panic disorder with agoraphobia. After correcting for multiple tests, only the gender differences in narcissistic and antisocial personality disorder remained significant. In the SCL-90-R profile, no significant gender differences could be identified. In the exploratory analysis of the dimensional personality traits, women showed higher rates on the NEO-PI-R main factors (Neuroticism and Agreeableness) compared to men. In the DAPP-BQ profile, men reached higher sores on the main factor, Dissocial Behavior. When correcting for multiple tests, gender differences still existed for Neuroticism and Dissocial Behavior. Our results argue for gender differences in Axis I and II comorbidity and dimensional personality traits in BPD. However, in general, more similarities than differences were shown in this study. PMID:22686225

Banzhaf, Anke; Ritter, Kathrin; Merkl, Angela; Schulte-Herbrüggen, Olaf; Lammers, Claas-Hinrich; Roepke, Stefan

2012-06-01

423

Integrating Case Topics in Medical School Curriculum to Enhance Multiple Skill Learning: Using Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders as an Exemplary Case  

PubMed Central

Objectives This article describes the use of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) as a theme to connect the learning of basic neurosciences with clinical applications across the age span within a systems-based, integrated curricular structure that emphasizes problem-based learning. Methods In collaboration with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the National Organization on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, the Western Regional Training Center for Fetal Alcohol Exposure at UCLA developed and integrated educational materials on FASDs into the curriculum for first-year medical students. Results Quantitative and qualitative evaluations suggested materials were effective in enhancing student knowledge and skills related to FASDs, as well as embryology, brain development, substance abuse, developmental psychopathology, and medical ethics. Conclusion The use of a unifying theme integrating basic science and clinical information and skills is effective for medical student training in the prevention and treatment of common medical problems. PMID:19398629

Paley, Blair; O’Connor, Mary J.; Baillie, Susan J.; Guiton, Gretchen; Stuber, Margaret L.

2015-01-01

424

Neurobiological basis of bipolar disorder Tadafumi Kato  

E-print Network

Neurobiological basis of bipolar disorder Tadafumi Kato Laboratory for Molecular Dynamics of Mental Disorders, RIKEN Brain Science Institute Bipolar disorder is characterized by recurrent episodes of mania channel genes including CACNA1C. Mendelian diseases accompanying bipolar disorder or depression include

Fukai, Tomoki

425

Child Behavior Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... a death in the family may cause a child to act out. Behavior disorders are more serious. ... The behavior is also not appropriate for the child's age. Warning signs can include Harming or threatening ...

426

Paranoia and Paronoid Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... involves feelings of persecution and an exaggerated sense of self-importance. Paranoia occurs in many mental disorders and is rare as an isolated mental illness. Since the delusions involve only one area, ... including conjugal paranoia, erotomania, hypochondriacal paranoia, and ...

427

Binge eating disorder  

MedlinePLUS

Eating - binge; Overeating - compulsive; Compulsive overeating ... The exact cause of binge eating is unknown. Things that may lead to this disorder include: Genes, such as having close relatives who also have an ...

428

Comorbidity in Hoarding Disorder  

PubMed Central

Hoarding Disorder (HD) is currently under consideration for inclusion as a distinct disorder in DSM-5 (1). Few studies have examined comorbidity patterns in people who hoard, and the ones that have suffer from serious methodological shortcomings including drawing from populations already diagnosed with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), using outdated definitions of hoarding, and relying on inadequate assessments of hoarding. The present study is the first large-scale study (n=217) of comorbidity in a sample of people meeting recently proposed criteria for hoarding disorder (1) and relying on validated assessment procedures. The HD sample was compared to 96 participants meeting criteria for OCD without HD. High comorbidity rates were observed for major depressive disorder (MDD) as well as acquisition-related impulse control disorders (compulsive buying, kleptomania, and acquiring free things). Fewer than 20% of HD participants met criteria for OCD, and the rate of OCD in HD was higher for men than women. Rates of MDD and acquisition-related impulse control disorders were higher among HD than OCD participants. No specific anxiety disorder was more frequent in HD, but social phobia was more frequent among men with HD than among men with OCD. Inattentive ADHD was diagnosed in 28% of HD participants and was significantly more frequent than among OCD participants (3%). These findings form important base rates for developing research and treatments for hoarding disorder. PMID:21770000

Frost, Randy O.; Steketee, Gail; Tolin, David F.

2011-01-01

429

Diagnosis and management of acute movement disorders.  

PubMed

Most movement disorders, reflecting degenerative disorders, develop in a slowly progressive fashion. Some movement disorders, however, manifest with an acute onset. We wish to give an overview of the management and therapy of those acute-onset movement disorders.Drug-induced movement disorders are mainly caused by dopamine-receptor blockers (DRB) as used as antipsychotics (neuroleptics) and antiemetics. Acute dystonic reactions usually occur within the first four days of treatment. Typically, cranial pharyngeal and cervical muscles are affected. Anticholinergics produce a prompt relief. Akathisia is characterized by an often exceedingly bothersome feeling of restlessness and the inability to remain still. It is a common side effect of DRB and occurs within few days after their initiation. It subsides when DRB are ceased. Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome is a rare, but life-threatening adverse reaction to DRB which may occur at any time during DRB application. It is characterised by hyperthermia, rigidity, reduced consciousness and autonomic failure. Therapeutically immediate DRB withdrawal is crucial. Additional dantrolene or bromocriptine application together with symptomatic treatment may be necessary. Paroxysmal dyskinesias are childhood onset disorders characterised by dystonic postures, chorea, athetosis and ballism occurring at irregular intervals. In Paroxysmal Kinesigenic Dyskinesia they are triggered by rapid movements, startle reactions or hyperventilation. They last up to 5 minutes, occur up to 100 times per day and are highly sensitive to anticonvulsants. In Paroxysmal Non-Kinesiogenic Dyskinesia they cannot be triggered, occur less frequently and last longer. Other paroxysmal dyskinesias include hypnogenic paroxysmal dyskinesias, paroxysmal exertional dyskinesia, infantile paroxysmal dystonias, Sandifer's syndrome and symptomatic paroxysmal dyskinesias. In Hereditary Episodic Ataxia Type 1 attacks of ataxia last for up to two minutes, may be accompanied by dysarthria and dystonia and usually respond to phenytoin. In Type 2 they can last for several hours, may be accompanied by vertigo, headache and malaise and usually respond to acetazolamide. Symptomatic episodic ataxias can occur in a number of metabolic disorders, but also in multiple sclerosis and Behcet's disease. PMID:16208529

Dressler, D; Benecke, R

2005-11-01

430

Bipolar disorder  

MedlinePLUS

Bipolar disorder is a condition in which a person has periods of depression and periods of being extremely ... Bipolar disorder affects men and women equally. It usually starts between ages 15 and 25. The exact cause ...

431

Adjustment disorder  

MedlinePLUS

American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, Va: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. Powell AD. Grief, bereavement, and adjustment disorders. In: Stern TA, Rosenbaum ...

432

Bipolar Disorder  

MedlinePLUS

Bipolar disorder is a serious mental illness. People who have it go through unusual mood changes. They ... The down feeling is depression. The causes of bipolar disorder aren't always clear. It runs in ...

433

Growth Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... because their parents are. But some children have growth disorders. Growth disorders are problems that prevent children from developing ... or other features. Very slow or very fast growth can sometimes signal a gland problem or disease. ...

434

Learning Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... or language therapists also work with the children. Learning disorders do not go away, but strategies to work around them can make them less of a problem. NIH: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke

435

Personality Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

Personality disorders are a group of mental illnesses. They involve long-term patterns of thoughts and behaviors that ... serious problems with relationships and work. People with personality disorders have trouble dealing with everyday stresses and problems. ...

436

Conversion disorder  

MedlinePLUS

... reality that is not on purpose) or a personality disorder (inability to manage feelings and behaviors that are ... P, Groves JE, Rivas-Vazquez RA. Personality and personality disorders. In: Stern TA, Rosenbaum JF, Fava M, Biederman ...

437

Schizoaffective disorder  

MedlinePLUS

... disorder is thought to be less common than schizophrenia and mood disorders. Women may have the condition ... Complications are similar to those for schizophrenia and major mood ... therapy Problems due to manic behavior (for example, spending ...

438

Bleeding disorders  

MedlinePLUS

Bleeding disorders are a group of conditions in which there is a problem with the body's blood ... These disorders can lead to heavy and prolonged bleeding after an injury. Bleeding can also begin on ...

439

Panic Disorder  

MedlinePLUS

... ongoing treatment may be indicated in certain situations. Recovery from panic disorder can be achieved either by medication or by a form of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) that is specific for panic disorder. Studies suggest ...

440

Eating Disorders: Disorders of Under and Overnutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Eating disorder diagnoses consist of anorexia nervosa (restricting type and binge-eating\\/purging type); bulimia nervosa (purging\\u000a and nonpurging types); and eating disorder, not otherwise specified (including binge-eating disorder, night eating syndrome,\\u000a and purging disorder).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Physical complications of anorexia nervosa affect most major systems in the body and are caused by starvation and the effects\\u000a of purging. Most physical complications

Kelly C. Allison

441

Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a As commonly defined, eating disorders are persistent abnormalities of eating behavior that affect physical or mental health.\\u000a Traditionally, eating disorders identify psychiatric conditions characterized by compulsive eating or extreme avoidance of\\u000a eating, epitomized by bulimia nervosa (BN) and anorexia nervosa (AN), respectively. Another rather well-characterized eating\\u000a disorder is binge eating disorder (BED), which can lead to weight gain, obesity, and

Angelo Del Parigi; Ellen Schur

442

Bipolar Disorder.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bipolar disorder, a brain disorder that causes unusual shifts in a person's mood, affects approximately one percent of the population. It commonly occurs in late adolescence and is often unrecognized. The diagnosis of bipolar disorder is made on the basis of symptoms, course of illness, and when possible, family history. Thoughts of suicide are…

Spearing, Melissa

443

Neuropsychopathological comorbidities in learning disorders  

PubMed Central

Background Learning Disorders (LD) are complex diseases that affect about 2-10% of the school-age population. We performed neuropsychological and psychopathological evaluation, in order to investigate comorbidity in children with LD. Methods Our sample consisted of 448 patients from 7 to 16 years of age with a diagnosis of LD, divided in two subgroups: Specific Learning Disorders (SLD), including reading, writing, mathematics disorders, and Learning Disorders Not Otherwise Specified (LD NOS). Results Comorbidity with neuropsychopathologies was found in 62.2% of the total sample. In the LSD subgroup, ADHD was present in 33%, Anxiety Disorder in 28.8%, Developmental Coordination Disorder in 17.8%, Language Disorder in 11% and Mood Disorder in 9.4% of patients. In LD NOS subgroup, Language Disorder was present in 28.6%, Developmental Coordination Disorder in 27.5%, ADHD in 25.4%, Anxiety Disorder in 16.4%, Mood Disorder in 2.1% of patients. A statistically significant presence was respectively found for Language and Developmental Coordination Disorder comorbidity in LD NOS and for ADHD, mood and anxiety disorder comorbidity in SLD subgroup. Conclusions The different findings emerging in this study suggested to promote further investigations to better define the difference between SLD and LD NOS, in order to improve specific interventions to reduce the long range consequences. PMID:24330722

2013-01-01

444

Immunologic Endocrine Disorders  

PubMed Central

Autoimmunity affects multiple glands in the endocrine system. Animal models and human studies highlight the importance of alleles in HLA (human leukocyte antigen)-like molecules determining tissue specific targeting that with the loss of tolerance leads to organ specific autoimmunity. Disorders such as type 1A diabetes, Grave's disease, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, Addison's disease, and many others result from autoimmune mediated tissue destruction. Each of these disorders can be divided into stages beginning with genetic susceptibility, environmental triggers, active autoimmunity, and finally metabolic derangements with overt symptoms of disease. With an increased understanding of the immunogenetics and immunopathogenesis of endocrine autoimmune disorders, immunotherapies are becoming prevalent, especially in type 1A diabetes. Immunotherapies are being used more in multiple subspecialty fields to halt disease progression. While therapies for autoimmune disorders stop the progress of an immune response, immunomodulatory therapies for cancer and chronic infections can also provoke an unwanted immune response. As a result, there are now iatrogenic autoimmune disorders arising from the treatment of chronic viral infections and malignancies. PMID:20176260

Michels, Aaron W.; Eisenbarth, George S.

2010-01-01

445

Multiple Sclerosis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module on multiple sclerosis is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then…

Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

446

Frontal Lobe Disorders in Pediatric Neuropsychology: Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Tourette Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter will review current understanding of two neurodevelopmental disorders involving dysregulation of frontal lobe\\u000a functioning: attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and Tourette disorder (TD). It will describe the clinical phenomenology\\u000a of these disorders (including co-occurring conditions), recent research into their neurobiological and neuropsychological\\u000a mechanisms, recommended assessment procedures, medical treatments, and psychosocial interventions.

Anthony L. Rostain

447

Adolescent with Tourette Syndrome and Bipolar Disorder: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Tourette syndrome consists of multiple motor tics and one or more vocal tics. Psychopathology occurs in approximately 90% of Tourette syndrome patients, with attention-deficit/hyperactivity, mood, and obsessive-compulsive disorders being common. Additionally, Tourette syndrome and bipolar disorder may be related in some individuals. However, it is unclear why bipolar disorder may be overrepresented in Tourette syndrome patients, and more research is needed. Herein, we report the case of a 15-year-old boy diagnosed with both Tourette syndrome and bipolar disorder, whose symptoms improved with aripiprazole, atomoxetine, and valproate. The patient was diagnosed with Tourette syndrome at 8 years of age when he developed tics and experienced his first depressive episode. The patient had a poor response to a variety of antidepressants and anti-tic medications. A combination of valproate and aripiprazole stabilized both the patient's tics and mood symptoms. It is important to assess individuals with Tourette syndrome for other disorders, including bipolar disorder. The treatment of children and adolescents with both Tourette syndrome and bipolar disorder is an important clinical issue. PMID:25598829

Kwon, Young-Joon

2014-01-01

448

Adolescent with tourette syndrome and bipolar disorder: a case report.  

PubMed

Tourette syndrome consists of multiple motor tics and one or more vocal tics. Psychopathology occurs in approximately 90% of Tourette syndrome patients, with attention-deficit/hyperactivity, mood, and obsessive-compulsive disorders being common. Additionally, Tourette syndrome and bipolar disorder may be related in some individuals. However, it is unclear why bipolar disorder may be overrepresented in Tourette syndrome patients, and more research is needed. Herein, we report the case of a 15-year-old boy diagnosed with both Tourette syndrome and bipolar disorder, whose symptoms improved with aripiprazole, atomoxetine, and valproate. The patient was diagnosed with Tourette syndrome at 8 years of age when he developed tics and experienced his first depressive episode. The patient had a poor response to a variety of antidepressants and anti-tic medications. A combination of valproate and aripiprazole stabilized both the patient's tics and mood symptoms. It is important to assess individuals with Tourette syndrome for other disorders, including bipolar disorder. The treatment of children and adolescents with both Tourette syndrome and bipolar disorder is an important clinical issue. PMID:25598829

Shim, Se-Hoon; Kwon, Young-Joon

2014-12-01

449

The Genetics of Bipolar Disorder  

PubMed Central

Bipolar disorder is a mood disorder characterized by impairing episodes of mania and depression. Twin studies have established that bipolar disorder is among the most heritable of medical disorders and efforts to identify specific susceptibility genes have intensified over the past two decades. The search for genes influencing bipolar disorder has been complicated by a paucity of animal models, limited understanding of pathogenesis, and the genetic and phenotypic complexity of the syndrome. Linkage studies have implicated several chromosomal regions as harboring relevant genes, but results have been inconsistent. It is now widely accepted that the genetic liability to bipolar disorder reflects the action of many genes of individually small effect, a scenario for which linkage studies are poorly suited. Thus, association studies, which are more powerful for the detection of modest effect loci, have become the focus of gene-finding research. A large number of candidate genes, including biological candidates derived from hypotheses about the pathogenesis of the disorder and positional candidates derived from linkage and cytogenetic studies, have been evaluated. Several of these genes have been associated with the disorder in independent studies (including BDNF, DAOA, DISC1, GRIK4, SLC6A4, and TPH2), but none has been established. The clinical heterogeneity of bipolar disorder and its phenotypic and genetic overlap with other disorders (especially schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and major depressive disorder) has raised questions about the optimal phenotype definition for genetic studies. Nevertheless, genomewide association analysis, which has successfully identified susceptibility genes for a variety of complex disorders, has begun to implicate specific genes for bipolar disorder (DGKH, CACNA1C, ANK3). The polygenicity of the disorder means that very large samples will be needed to detect the modest effect loci that likely contribute to bipolar disorder. Detailed genetic dissection of the disorder may provide novel targets (both pharmacologic and psychosocial) for intervention. PMID:19358880

Barnett, Jennifer H; Smoller, Jordan W

2009-01-01

450

Dissociative disorders in DSM-5.  

PubMed

The rationale, research literature, and proposed changes to the dissociative disorders and conversion disorder in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) are presented. Dissociative identity disorder will include reference to possession as well as identity fragmentation, to make the disorder more applicable to culturally diverse situations. Dissociative amnesia will include dissociative fugue as a subtype, since fugue is a rare disorder that always involves amnesia but does not always include confused wandering or loss of personality identity. Depersonalization disorder will include derealization as well, since the two often co-occur. A dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), defined by the presence of depersonalization or derealization in addition to other PTSD symptoms, is being recommended, based upon new epidemiological and neuroimaging evidence linking it to an early life history of adversity and a combination of frontal activation and limbic inhibition. Conversion disorder (functional neurological symptom disorder) will likely remain with the somatic symptom disorders, despite considerable dissociative comorbidity. PMID:23394228

Spiegel, David; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Lanius, Ruth; Vermetten, Eric; Simeon, Daphne; Friedman, Matthew

2013-01-01

451

Symptomatology and markers of anxiety disorders in Parkinson's disease: a cross-sectional study.  

PubMed

Anxiety is understudied in Parkinson's disease (PD), which is not justified by the prevalence and impact of anxiety disorders on quality of life in PD patients. In this cross-sectional study, 342 patients suffering from idiopathic PD underwent a research-based assessment including DSM IV criteria for anxiety disorders, the Hamilton anxiety rating scale (HARS) and the beck anxiety inventory (BAI). Thirty-four percent (34%) of subjects met the DSM IV criteria for at least one anxiety disorder; 11.8% met criteria for multiple anxiety disorders; and 11.4% had clinically relevant anxiety symptoms without meeting the criteria for any specific anxiety disorder. Score profiles on the HARS and BAI differed significantly between the disorders, but these differences were associated with different scores on a limited number of items, and the respective symptom profiles were not readily interpretable. Female sex, the presence of motor fluctuations, as well as a previous history of an anxiety disorder were markers for anxiety disorders. The use of a mono-amino oxidase (MAO)-B inhibitor was associated with a reduced prevalence of anxiety disorders. Research into anxiety in PD is hampered by the questionable validity of DSM IV defined anxiety disorders in this population. A first focus for research should therefore be the identification of clinically useful anxiety presentations and their validation in PD. PMID:21312281

Leentjens, Albert F G; Dujardin, Kathy; Marsh, Laura; Martinez-Martin, Pablo; Richard, Irene H; Starkstein, Sergio E

2011-02-15

452

Mental, Emotional and Behavior Disorders in Children and Adolescents. Factsheet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This factsheet describes the different mental, emotional, and behavior problems that can occur during childhood and adolescence. The incidence and symptoms of the following disorders are discussed: (1) anxiety disorders (including phobia, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder);…

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Center for Mental Health Services.

453

Isolated Sleep Paralysis in African Americans with Panic Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isolated sleep paralysis (ISP) was assessed in African Americans and Whites diagnosed with panic disorder and other anxiety disorders. Participants were recruited from an outpatient clinic where they were diagnosed with panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, social phobia, and simple phobia. Control groups of volunteers without a history of psychiatric disorder were included. All research participants completed a

Cheryl M. Paradis; Steven Friedman; Marjorie Hatch

1997-01-01

454

Once-Daily Atomoxetine Treatment for Children With Attention-Deficit\\/ Hyperactivity Disorder, Including an Assessment of Evening and Morning Behavior: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. Atomoxetine seems to be as effective for treating attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity dis- order (ADHD) when the daily dose is administered once in the morning as when the dose is divided and admin- istered in the morning and evening. In the present study, the efficacy of atomoxetine administered once daily among children with ADHD was assessed throughout the day, including the evening

Douglas K. Kelsey; Calvin R. Sumner; Charles D. Casat; Daniel L. Coury; Humberto Quintana; Keith E. Saylor; Virginia K. Sutton; Jill Gonzales; Sandra K. Malcolm; Kory J. Schuh; Albert J. Allen

455

Differences in the Nature of Body Image Disturbances between Female Obese Individuals with versus without a Comorbid Binge Eating Disorder: An Exploratory Study Including Static and Dynamic Aspects of Body Image  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Various components of body image were measured to assess body image disturbances in patients with obesity. To overcome limitations of previous studies, a photo distortion technique and a biological motion distortion device were included to assess static and dynamic aspects of body image. Questionnaires assessed cognitive-affective aspects, bodily…

Legenbauer, Tanja; Vocks, Silja; Betz, Sabrina; Puigcerver, Maria Jose Baguena; Benecke, Andrea; Troje, Nikolaus F.; Ruddel, Heinz

2011-01-01

456

The Role of Ghrelin, Salivary Secretions, and Dental Care in Eating Disorders  

PubMed Central

Eating disorders, including anorexia and bulimia nervosa, are potentially life-threatening syndromes characterized by severe disturbances in eating behavior. An effective treatment strategy for these conditions remains to be established, as patients with eating disorders tend to suffer from multiple relapses. Because ghrelin was originally discovered in the stomach mucosa, it has been widely studied over the past decade in an effort to uncover its potential roles; these studies have shed light on the mechanism by which ghrelin regulates food intake. Thus, studying ghrelin in the context of eating disorders could improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of eating disorders, possibly resulting in a promising new pharmacological treatment strategy for these patients. In addition, early detection and treatment of eating disorders are critical for ensuring recovery of young patients. Oral symptoms, including mucosal, dental, and saliva abnormalities, are typically observed in the early stages of eating disorders. Although oral care is not directly related to the treatment of eating disorders, knowledge of the oral manifestations of eating disorder patients may aid in early detection, resulting in earlier treatment; thus, oral care might contribute to overall patient management and prognosis. Moreover, ghrelin has also been found in saliva, which may be responsible for oral hygiene and digestion-related functions. This review discusses the pharmacological potential of ghrelin in regulating food-intake and the role of saliva and oral care in young patients with eating disorders. PMID:23016127

Yagi, Takakazu; Ueda, Hirotaka; Amitani, Haruka; Asakawa, Akihiro; Miyawaki, Shouichi; Inui, Akio

2012-01-01

457

Comorbidity in Pediatric Bipolar Disorder  

PubMed Central

Synopsis A growing literature shows the pervasiveness and importance of comorbidity in youth with bipolar disorder (BPD). For instance, up to 90% of youth with BPD have been described to manifest comorbidity with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Multiple anxiety, substance use, and disruptive behavior disorders are the other most commonly reported comorbidities with BPD. Moreover, important recent data highlights the importance of obsessive compulsive and pervasive developmental illness in the context of BPD. Data suggests that not only special developmental relationships are operant in context to comorbidity, but also that the presence of comorbid disorders with BPD results in a more severe clinical condition. Moreover, the presence of comorbidity has therapeutic implications for the treatment response for both BPD and the associated comorbid disorder. Future longitudinal studies to address the relationship and the impact of comorbid disorders on course and therapeutic response over time are required in youth with BPD. PMID:19264265

Joshi, Gagan; Wilens, Timothy

2013-01-01

458

Prenatal Cardiac Ultrasound Finding in Congenital Disorder of Glycosylation Type 1a  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the antenatal cardiac findings in an infant in whom a postnatal diagnosis of congenital disorder of glycosylation type Ia (CDG-Ia) was confirmed. The antenatal findings at 34 weeks’ gestation included biventricular cardiac hypertrophy with pericardial effusion, multiple skeletal anomalies and cerebral ventricular dilatation. A severe CDG-Ia multisystem clinical phenotype evolved in the postnatal period, with the infant succumbing

A. Malhotra; A. Pateman; R. Chalmers; D. Coman; S. Menahem

2009-01-01

459

The Use of Peer Networks to Increase Communicative Acts of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Peer networks including social groups using typical peers, scripted instruction, visual text cues, and reinforcement were examined with students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). A multiple baseline design across four participants was used to measure students' use of communication acts with peers during free play following instruction.…

Kamps, Debra; Mason, Rose; Thiemann-Bourque, Kathy; Feldmiller, Sarah; Turcotte, Amy; Miller, Todd

2014-01-01

460

Source-Specific Oppositional Defiant Disorder: Comorbidity and Risk Factors in Referred Elementary Schoolboys  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine differences in risk factors and comorbid conditions for oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptom groups in a sample of 248 elementary schoolboys (ages 6-10) recruited from 1994 to 1996. Method: The boys and their mothers received multiple assessments of cognitive, behavioral, academic, and family functioning, including a…

Drabick, Deborah A. G.; Gadow, Kenneth D.; Loney, Jan

2007-01-01

461

The Effects of Covert Audio Coaching on Teaching Clerical Skills to Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Employment instruction for secondary students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has received very little attention in the professional literature. However, adults with ASD usually have difficulty maintaining employment for a variety of reasons, including problems with performing work tasks. This study used a multiple baseline design across…

Bennett, Kyle D.; Ramasamy, Rangasamy; Honsberger, Toby

2013-01-01

462