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1

Autonomic Disorders in Multiple Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory disease leading to disseminated lesions of the central nervous system resulting in both somatomotor and autonomic disturbances. These involve the central centers of the autonomic nervous system, as well as the automatic control and pathway systems. All autonomic functions may be disordered individually or in combined form. There is no other disease with a clinical picture so multifaceted. Besides cardiovascular dysfunctions disorders of bladder and rectum have become apparent. Somatomotor and autonomic disturbances occur with similar frequency; however the focused exam often heavily favors somatomotor symptoms. Autonomic disturbances should primarily be taken into account on history taking and clinical examination. Individual diagnosis and treatment is a secondary feature. Impairments of the autonomic nervous systems in multiple sclerosis are frequently overlooked. PMID:21603189

Lensch, E.; Jost, W. H.

2011-01-01

2

Anal Disorders - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... JavaScript. Anal Disorders - Multiple Languages Arabic (???????) French (français) Hindi (??????) Japanese (???) Korean (???) Russian ( ... ??? ?????? - ??????? Bilingual Health Information Translations French (français) Barium Enema Lavement baryté - français (French) Bilingual PDF ...

3

Relationship of Childhood Sexual Abuse to Borderline Personality Disorder, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Multiple Personality Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, I have reviewed recent research into the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and borderline personality disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and multiple personality disorder. Evidence that such a relationship exists appears convincing.

John B. Murray

1993-01-01

4

Classification of Chronic Psychoses Including Delusional Disorders Schizophrenias  

Microsoft Academic Search

A classification of chronic psychoses including nonparanoid schizophrenia, paranoid schizophrenia, paranoid state and paranoia (delusional disorder) is presented. This classification is dependent on a systematic increase in number of symptoms with each group. In particular, delusional disorder is examined with regard to family history. It is clear from the data which are presented that delusional disorder is more likely to

George Winokur

1986-01-01

5

Multiple Object Tracking in Autism Spectrum Disorders  

E-print Network

Difficulties in visual attention are often implicated in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) but it remains unclear which aspects of attention are affected. Here, we used a multiple object tracking (MOT) task to quantitatively ...

Koldewyn, Kami

6

MULTIPLE SUBSTANCE USE DISORDERS IN JUVENILE DETAINEES  

PubMed Central

Objective To estimate six-month prevalence of multiple substance use disorders (SUDs) among juvenile detainees by demographic subgroups (sex, race/ethnicity, age). Method Participants were a randomly selected sample of 1829 African American, non-Hispanic white and Hispanic detainees (1172 males, 657 females, ages 10–18). Patterns and prevalence of DSM-III-R multiple SUDs were assessed using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC 2.3). We used 2-tailed F- and t-tests with an alpha of 0.05 to examine combinations of SUDs by sex, race/ethnicity, and age. Results Nearly half of detainees had one or more SUDs; over 21% had two or more SUDs. The most prevalent combination of SUDs was alcohol and marijuana use disorders (17.25% females, 19.42% males). Among detainees with any SUD, almost half had multiple SUDs. Among detainees with alcohol use disorder, over 80% also had one or more drug use disorders. Among detainees with a drug use disorder, approximately 50% also had an alcohol use disorder. Conclusions Among detained youth with any SUD, multiple SUDs are the rule, not the exception. Substance abuse treatments need to target detainees with multiple SUDs who, upon release, return to communities where services are often unavailable. Clinicians can help ensure continuity of care by working with juvenile courts and detention centers. PMID:15381888

McClelland, Gary M.; Elkington, Katherine S.; Teplin, Linda A.; Abram, Karen M.

2009-01-01

7

Multiple Substance Use Disorders in Juvenile Detainees.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To estimate the 6-month prevalence of multiple substance use disorders (SUDs) among juvenile detainees by demographic subgroups (sex, race/ethnicity, age). Method: Participants were a randomly selected sample of 1,829 African American, non-Hispanic white, and Hispanic detainees (1,172 males, 657 females, aged 10 to 18). Patterns and…

McClelland, Gary M.; Elkington, Katherine S.; Teplin, Linda A.; Abram, Karen M.

2004-01-01

8

Multiple integrated treatment of borderline personality disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a pilot study of the effectiveness of a specific outpatient programme for Cluster B Personality Disorder. According to this model, the patient is offered a pathway of two?year duration, which includes once a week supportive individual psychotherapy combined with fortnightly group psychotherapy (Dialectical Behavioural Therapy), as well as general psychiatric management.We present the results of a prospective

Euro Pozzi; Maria Elena Ridolfi; Dario Manganaro; Daniel Benyamin Daniel; Domenico Berardi

2008-01-01

9

Pharmacotherapy of vestibular and ocular motor disorders, including nystagmus.  

PubMed

We review current pharmacological treatments for peripheral and central vestibular disorders, and ocular motor disorders that impair vision, especially pathological nystagmus. The prerequisites for successful pharmacotherapy of vertigo, dizziness, and abnormal eye movements are the "4 D's": correct diagnosis, correct drug, appropriate dosage, and sufficient duration. There are seven groups of drugs (the "7 A's") that can be used: antiemetics; anti-inflammatory, anti-Ménière's, and anti-migrainous medications; anti-depressants, anti-convulsants, and aminopyridines. A recovery from acute vestibular neuritis can be promoted by treatment with oral corticosteroids. Betahistine may reduce the frequency of attacks of Ménière's disease. The aminopyridines constitute a novel treatment approach for downbeat and upbeat nystagmus, as well as episodic ataxia type 2 (EA 2); these drugs may restore normal "pacemaker" activity to the Purkinje cells that govern vestibular and cerebellar nuclei. A limited number of trials indicate that baclofen improves periodic alternating nystagmus, and that gabapentin and memantine improve acquired pendular and infantile (congenital) nystagmus. Preliminary reports suggest suppression of square-wave saccadic intrusions by memantine, and ocular flutter by beta-blockers. Thus, although progress has been made in the treatment of vestibular neuritis, some forms of pathological nystagmus, and EA 2, controlled, masked trials are still needed to evaluate treatments for many vestibular and ocular motor disorders, including betahistine for Ménière's disease, oxcarbazepine for vestibular paroxysmia, or metoprolol for vestibular migraine. PMID:21461686

Strupp, Michael; Thurtell, Matthew J; Shaikh, Aasef G; Brandt, Thomas; Zee, David S; Leigh, R John

2011-07-01

10

Personality disorders in first- and multiple-episode mania  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared rates of DSM-III-R personality disorders in 33 first-episode and 26 multiple-episode bipolar patients. Patients were evaluated with the patient and personality disorders versions of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R. Significantly more multiple-episode patients (65%) met DSM-III-R criteria for a personality disorder than did first-episode patients (33%). Race was also associated with a diagnosis of a personality disorder.

Eduardo Dunayevich; Stephen M. Strakowski; Kenji W. Sax; Michael T. Sorter; Paul E. Keck; Susan L. McElroy; Brian J. McConville

1996-01-01

11

Cav1.2 Calcium Channel Dysfunction causes a Multisystem Disorder including Arrhythmia & Autism  

E-print Network

Cav1.2 Calcium Channel Dysfunction causes a Multisystem Disorder including Arrhythmia & Autism Timothy Syndrome (TS), a novel disorder characterized by multiorgan dysfunction (lethal arrhythmias studied Calcium channel disorders Calcium channel syndromes like hypokalemic periodic paralysis

Yue, David

12

Methylphenidate and Comorbid Anxiety Disorder in Children with both Chronic Multiple Tic Disorder and ADHD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To determine if comorbid anxiety disorder is associated with differential response to immediate release methylphenidate (MPH-IR) in children with both ADHD and chronic multiple tic disorder (CMTD). Method: Children with (n = 17) and without (n = 37) diagnosed anxiety disorder (ANX) were evaluated in an 8-week, placebo-controlled trial…

Gadow, Kenneth D.; Nolan, Edith E.

2011-01-01

13

Shoulder Injuries and Disorders - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... Injuries and Disorders - Multiple Languages Arabic (???????) French (français) Russian (???????) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Arabic ( ... Arabic) ??????? Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations French (français) Active Range of Motion Exercises: Wrists, Elbows, Forearms ...

14

Leg Injuries and Disorders - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... Injuries and Disorders - Multiple Languages Arabic (???????) French (français) Russian (???????) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Arabic ( ... Arabic) ??????? Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations French (français) Active Leg Range of Motion Exercises: Lying Exercices ...

15

Arm Injuries and Disorders - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... Injuries and Disorders - Multiple Languages Arabic (???????) French (français) Russian (???????) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Arabic ( ... Arabic) ??????? Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations French (français) Active Range of Motion Exercises: Wrists, Elbows, Forearms ...

16

Knee Injuries and Disorders - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Knee Injuries and Disorders - Multiple Languages Chinese - Traditional (????) Korean (???) Spanish (español) Vietnamese (Tiê?ng Viê?t) Chinese - Traditional (????) What Are Knee Problems? English ???????? - ???? (Chinese - Traditional) PDF National ...

17

Academic Choice for Included Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students with emotional disturbances present with behavioral and academic deficits that often limit their participation in general education settings. As an antecedent intervention, academic choice provides multiple choices surrounding academic work promoting academic and behavioral gains. The authors examined the effects of assignment choice with…

Skerbetz, Mandi Davis; Kostewicz, Douglas E.

2013-01-01

18

Multiple myeloma may include microvessel endothelial cells of malignant origin.  

PubMed

Multiple myeloma (MM) comprises B and plasma cell compartments that originate from the same parent B cell and share as a cancer signature the same clonotypic IgH VDJ gene rearrangement. Here, we hypothesize that functional interactions between MM plasma cells (MM-PC) and their sister population of MM monocytoid B cells lead to the generation of microvessel endothelium of malignant origin from the monocytoid B cell progenitors. Published reports confirm that endothelial cells can harbor a molecular cancer signature characteristic of a given malignancy. We predict that MM monocytoid B cells-in response to both paracrine and autocrine pathways-contribute to tumor neovascularization in the bone marrow of MM patients. Our hypothesis further predicts that in MM, endothelial cells of malignant origin coexist with those of normal origin. We speculate that malignant development of MM incorporates functionally distinct sister lineages arising from the same MM progenitor that-by working together-ensure survival of the MM clone. We hypothesize that these two arms of the malignant MM clone are functionally interlinked to promote growth of the MM-PC compartment; by providing its own microenvironment, MM clonal evolution may ensure neovascularization to support an expanding malignancy. PMID:20233053

Pilarski, Linda M; Pilarski, Patrick M; Belch, Andrew R

2010-04-01

19

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Following Diagnosis of Multiple Sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV) recognizes life-threatening illness as a potential stressor that can precipitate posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This study represents the first study of PTSD in the context of having a diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS). Fifty-eight MS patients were administered the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale, the Geriatric Depression Scale, and Disease

Anne Marie Chalfant; Richard A. Bryant; Gary Fulcher

2004-01-01

20

Multiple rare variants in the etiology of autism spectrum disorders  

PubMed Central

Recent studies in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) support an important role for multiple rare variants in these conditions. This is a clinically important finding, as, with the demonstration that a significant proportion of ASDs are the result of rare, etiological genetic variants, it becomes possible to make use of genetic testing to supplement behavioral analyses for an earlier diagnosis. As it appears that earlier interventions in ASDs will produce better outcomes, the development of genetic testing to augment behaviorally based evaluations in ASDs holds promise for improved treatment. Furthermore, these rare variants involve synaptic and neuronal genes that implicate specific paihvi/ays, cells, and subcellular compartments in ASDs, which in turn will suggest novel therapeutic approaches in ASDs, Of particular recent interest are the synaptic cell adhesion and associated molecules, including neurexin 1, neuroligin 3 and 4, and SHANK3, which implicate glutamatergic synapse abnormalities in ASDs, In the current review we will overview the evidence for a genetic etiology for ASDs, and summarize recent genetic findings in these disorders. PMID:19432386

Buxbaum, Joseph D.

2009-01-01

21

Multiple Traumatic Experiences and the Development of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study assesses the differential and combined impacts of multiple lifetime stressors in the development and severity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. One hundred and four clinical and 64 nonclinical participants were assessed for their exposure to four types of interpersonal trauma: physical and sexual abuse in childhood,…

Scott, Sheryn T.

2007-01-01

22

Multiple Complex Developmental Disorder Delineated from PDD-NOS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to identify behavioral differences between children with multiple complex developmental disorder\\u000a (MCDD) and those with pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). Twenty-five children (6–12 years)\\u000a with MCDD and 86 children with PDD-NOS were compared with respect to psychiatric co-morbidity, psychotic thought problems\\u000a and social contact problems using the child behavior checklist\\/4–18, the Dutch version of

Esther I. de Bruin; Pieter F. A. de Nijs; Fop Verheij; Catharina A. Hartman; Robert F. Ferdinand

2007-01-01

23

22q11 Deletion Syndrome and Multiple Complex Developmental Disorder: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11 DS) is a multisystemic condition that may also include neuropsychiatric disorders. We present a case of a 15-year-old boy that was evaluated for social difficulties, and anxiety with the above genetic abnormality. Clinical features were rather complex as different neuropsychiatric symptoms emerged from assessment and clinical evaluation. As a result we propose that Multiple Complex Developmental Disorder (MCDD) would be the best fitting comprehensive diagnosis to be added to the DSM-IV category of Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified. PMID:23519073

Scandurra, Valeria; Scordo, Maria R.; Canitano, Roberto; de Bruin, Esther I.

2013-01-01

24

Multiple time scales from hard local constraints: Glassiness without disorder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While multiple time scales generally arise in the dynamics of disordered systems, we find multiple time scales in the absence of disorder in a simple model with hard local constraints. The dynamics of the model, which consists of local collective rearrangements of various scales, is not determined by the smallest scale but by a length l* that grows at low energies. In real space we find a hierarchy of fast and slow regions: Each slow region is geometrically insulated from all faster degrees of freedom, which are localized in fast pockets below percolation thresholds. A tentative analogy with structural glasses is given, which attributes the slowing down of the dynamics to the growing size of mobile elementary excitations, rather than to the size of some domains.

Cépas, O.

2014-08-01

25

Psychiatric disorders revealing multiple sclerosis after 20 years of evolvement  

PubMed Central

Previous research indicates that the onset of psychiatric disorders is sometimes associated with multiple sclerosis (MS) evolving several years later. However, information on why this might occur, and on the outcomes of such patients, is still lacking. We aim to discuss these limitations with the current paper. We describe a 51-year-old female who demonstrated severe anxiety disorder and depression years before developing MS neurological symptoms. The patient was treated for these psychiatric disorders over 20 years. In the last 3 years of her treatment, the patient demonstrated a choreic-type of movement disorder in all her limbs. This disorder is consistent with relapsing-remitting MS. Clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations demonstrated aspects of MS, without MS being diagnosed conclusively. The visual evoked potential indicated a diagnosis of conduction abnormalities. The established diagnosis was slow relapsing MS. The patient underwent methylprednisolone bolus (1 g/day). This case-study suggests that health professionals should conduct a full neurological assessment when they find atypical psychiatric symptoms in a patient. This would make sure that patients receive a better standard of care, and thus experience a better quality of life.

Sennou, Aicha Slassi; Boujraf, Said; Belahsen, Mohammed Faouzi; Messouak, Ouafae

2014-01-01

26

Should an Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Grouping of Disorders Be Included in DSM-V?  

PubMed Central

The obsessive-compulsive (OC) spectrum has been discussed in the literature for two decades. Proponents of this concept propose that certain disorders characterized by repetitive thoughts and/or behaviors are related to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and suggest that such disorders be grouped together in the same category (i.e., grouping, or “chapter”) in DSM. This paper addresses this topic and presents options and preliminary recommendations to be considered for DSM-V. The paper builds upon and extends prior reviews of this topic that were prepared for and discussed at a DSM-V Research Planning Conference on Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorders held in 2006. Our preliminary recommendation is that an OC-spectrum grouping of disorders be included in DSM-V. Furthermore, we preliminarily recommend that consideration be given to including this group of disorders within a larger supraordinate category of “Anxiety and Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorders.” These preliminary recommendations must be evaluated in light of recommendations for, and constraints upon, the overall structure of DSM-V. PMID:20533367

Phillips, Katharine A.; Stein, Dan J.; Rauch, Scott; Hollander, Eric; Fallon, Brian A.; Barsky, Arthur; Fineberg, Naomi; Mataix-Cols, David; Ferrao, Ygor Arzeno; Saxena, Sanjaya; Wilhelm, Sabine; Kelly, Megan M.; Clark, Lee Anna; Pinto, Anthony; Bienvenu, O. Joseph; Farrow, Joanne; Leckman, James

2014-01-01

27

A Multiple Deficit Model of Reading Disability and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Searching for Shared Cognitive Deficits  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: This study tests a multiple cognitive deficit model of reading disability (RD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and their comorbidity. Methods: A structural equation model (SEM) of multiple cognitive risk factors and symptom outcome variables was constructed. The model included phonological awareness as a unique…

McGrath, Lauren M.; Pennington, Bruce F.; Shanahan, Michelle A.; Santerre-Lemmon, Laura E.; Barnard, Holly D.; Willcutt, Erik G.; DeFries, John C.; Olson, Richard K.

2011-01-01

28

Including Pupils with Autistic Spectrum Disorders in the Classroom: The Role of Teaching Assistants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aims of the current study were (i) to explore the extent to which pupils with Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD) were effectively included in lessons, compared with pupils with dyslexia (DYS) or no Special Educational Needs (CON) and (ii) to understand how the presence of a teaching assistant (TA) influences the inclusion/exclusion process. One…

Symes, Wendy; Humphrey, Neil

2012-01-01

29

Educators' Challenges of Including Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Mainstream Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are increasingly being placed within mainstream classes, little is known about the challenges that teachers encounter with including them as full participants in the class. This qualitative study draws on a purposive sample of 13 educators who have experience teaching children with ASD within…

Lindsay, Sally; Proulx, Meghann; Thomson, Nicole; Scott, Helen

2013-01-01

30

Unified description for hopping transport in organic semiconductors including both energetic disorder and polaronic contributions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed an analytical model to describe hopping transport in organic semiconductors including both energetic disorder and polaronic contributions due to geometric relaxation. The model is based on a Marcus jump rate in terms of the small-polaron concept with a Gaussian energetic disorder, and it is premised upon a generalized effective medium approach yet avoids shortcomings involved in the effective transport energy or percolation concepts. It is superior to our previous treatment [Phys. Rev. B1098-012110.1103/PhysRevB.76.045210 76, 045210 (2007)] since it is applicable at arbitrary polaron activation energy Ea with respect to the energy disorder parameter ?. It can be adapted to describe both charge-carrier mobility and triplet exciton diffusion. The model is compared with results from Monte Carlo simulations. We show (i) that the activation energy of the thermally activated hopping transport can be decoupled into disorder and polaron contributions whose relative weight depend nonlinearly on the ?/Ea ratio, and (ii) that the choice of the density of occupied and empty states considered in configurational averaging has a profound effect on the results of calculations of the Marcus hopping transport. The ?/Ea ratio governs also the carrier-concentration dependence of the charge-carrier mobility in the large-carrier-concentration transport regime as realized in organic field-effect transistors. The carrier-concentration dependence becomes considerably weaker when the polaron energy increases relative to the disorder energy, indicating the absence of universality. This model bridges a gap between disorder and polaron hopping concepts.

Fishchuk, I. I.; Kadashchuk, A.; Hoffmann, S. T.; Athanasopoulos, S.; Genoe, J.; Bässler, H.; Köhler, A.

2013-09-01

31

Comparative Study of Children with ADHD Only, Autism Spectrum Disorder + ADHD, and Chronic Multiple Tic Disorder + ADHD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Identification of differences among children with ADHD only, autism spectrum disorder (ASD)+ADHD, and chronic multiple tic disorder (CMTD)+ADHD may lead to better understanding of clinical phenotypes. Method: Children were evaluated using the parent- and teacher-completed questionnaires. Results: All three groups were highly similar in…

Gadow, Kenneth D.; DeVincent, Carla J.; Schneider, Jayne

2009-01-01

32

Eye disorders in patients with multiple sclerosis: natural history and management  

PubMed Central

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system and leading cause of disability in young adults. Vision impairment is a common component of disability for this population of patients. Injury to the optic nerve, brainstem, and cerebellum leads to characteristic syndromes affecting both the afferent and efferent visual pathways. The objective of this review is to summarize the spectrum of eye disorders in patients with MS, their natural history, and current strategies for diagnosis and management. We emphasize the most common disorders including optic neuritis and internuclear ophthalmoparesis and include new techniques, such as optical coherence tomography, which promise to better our understanding of MS and its effects on the visual system. PMID:21188152

Graves, Jennifer; Balcer, Laura J

2010-01-01

33

Satanism, ritual abuse, and multiple personality disorder: a sociohistorical perspective.  

PubMed

During the past decade in North America, a growing number of mental health professionals have reported that between 25% and 50% of their patients in treatment for multiple personality disorder (MPD) have recovered early childhood traumatic memories of ritual torture, incestuous rape, sexual debauchery, sacrificial murder, infanticide, and cannibalism perpetrated by members of clandestine satanic cults. Although hundreds of local and federal police investigations have failed to corroborate patients' therapeutically constructed accounts, because the satanic etiology of MPD is logically coherent with the neodissociative, traumatic theory of psychopathology, conspiracy theory has emerged as the nucleus of a consistent pattern of contemporary clinical interpretation. Resolutely logical and thoroughly operational, ultrascientific psychodemonology remains paradoxically oblivious to its own irrational premises. When the hermetic logic of conspiracy theory is stripped away by historical and socio/psychological analysis, however, the hypothetical perpetrators of satanic ritual abuse simply disappear, leaving in their wake the very real human suffering of all those who have been caught up in the social delusion. PMID:7960286

Mulhern, S

1994-10-01

34

Multiple electrolyte disorders in a neurosurgical patient: solving the rebus  

PubMed Central

Background It is important to ensure an adequate sodium and volume balance in neurosurgical patients in order to avoid the worsening of brain injury. Indeed, hyponatremia and polyuria, that are frequent in this patient population, are potentially harmful, especially if not promptly recognized. Differential diagnosis is often challenging, including disorders, which, in view of similar clinical pictures, present very different pathophysiological bases, such as syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis, cerebral/renal salt wasting syndrome and diabetes insipidus. Case presentation Here we present the clinical report of a 67-year-old man with a recent episode of acute subarachnoid haemorrhage, admitted to our ward because of severe hyponatremia, hypokalemia and huge polyuria. We performed a complete workup to identify the underlying causes of these alterations and found a complex picture of salt wasting syndrome associated to primary polydipsia. The appropriate diagnosis allowed us to correct the patient hydro-electrolyte balance. Conclusion The comprehension of the pathophysiological mechanisms is essential to adequately recognize and treat hydro-electrolyte disorders, also solving the most complex clinical problems. PMID:23837469

2013-01-01

35

Extension of the ADC Charge-Collection Model to Include Multiple Junctions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ADC model is a charge-collection model derived for simple p-n junction silicon diodes having a single reverse-biased p-n junction at one end and an ideal substrate contact at the other end. The present paper extends the model to include multiple junctions, and the goal is to estimate how collected charge is shared by the different junctions.

Edmonds, Larry D.

2011-01-01

36

Optical differences in cases of multiple personality disorder.  

PubMed

Nine patients diagnosed with multiple personality disorder (MPD) and nine control subjects role-playing MPD were given complete ophthalmological examinations to test whether the MPD subjects would show greater variability in visual functioning across alter personalities than would control subjects role-playing MPD. An analysis of variability of eight optical measures in four prominent areas of vision was performed by comparing two covariance matrices for equality. The test on the equality of the two covariance matrices showed that the two groups were significantly different (p less than .05). That is, MPD subjects had significantly more variability in visual functioning across alter personalities than did control subjects. Because the test of equality of the two covariance matrices rejected the null hypothesis, univariate analyses of variance were performed on the eight individual ophthalmological measures that comprised the matrix. The results of these analyses showed that MPD subjects had significantly more variability across alter personalities than did their control counterparts on measures of visual acuity with correction, visual acuity without correction, visual fields, manifest refraction, and eye muscle balance. The data were also analyzed for clinical significance. Blind ratings of the data were performed by comparing the results of the individual dependent measures across the alter personalities of individual MPD and control subjects according to established ophthalmological criteria. The ratings for clinical significance showed that the MPD subjects had 4.5 times the average number of changes in optical functioning between alter personalities of the control subjects, with a mean of 2.56 clinically significant changes for the MPD subjects and .55 clinically significant changes for the control subjects. This difference was also statistically significant (p less than .01). PMID:2760599

Miller, S D

1989-08-01

37

Physical educators' beliefs and self-reported behaviors toward including students with autism spectrum disorder.  

PubMed

With an increase in the presence of students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the general physical education (GPE) classroom, understanding the current state of GPE teachers' beliefs and behaviors for including these students is warranted. The current study aimed to examine the beliefs and self-reported behaviors of GPE teachers' inclusion of students with ASD. In addition, the study examined potential factors affecting their inclusion behaviors. Using a national stratified random sample, participants were 142 current GPE teachers who submitted surveys anonymously online. Results from a regression analysis indicate that teachers' experience, graduate coursework in adapted physical education (APE), and perceptions of strength in undergraduate training in APE significantly predicted their self-reported behavior for including students with ASD. Although the participant response rate is considerably low, this study provides some support toward the importance of teacher education programs for inclusion training. PMID:25211482

Beamer, Jennifer A; Yun, Joonkoo

2014-10-01

38

Nonlocal photopolymerization kinetics including multiple termination mechanisms and dark reactions. Part I. Modeling  

SciTech Connect

The photochemical processes present during free-radical-based holographic grating formation are examined. A kinetic model is presented, which includes, in a more nearly complete and physically realistic way, most of the major photochemical and nonlocal photopolymerization-driven diffusion effects. These effects include: (i) non-steady-state kinetics (ii) spatially and temporally nonlocal polymer chain growth (iii) time varying photon absorption (iv) diffusion controlled viscosity effects (v) multiple termination mechanisms, and (vi) inhibition. The convergence of the predictions of the resulting model is then examined. Comparisons with experimental results are carried out in Part II of this series of papers [J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26, 1746 (2009)].

Gleeson, Michael R.; Sheridan, John T. [UCD School of Electrical, Electronic and Mechanical Engineering, UCD Optoelectronic Research Centre, and The SFI-Strategic Research Cluster in Solar Energy Conversion, College of Engineering, Mathematical and Physical Sciences, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland)

2009-09-15

39

A SERVICE-LEARNING PROJECT THAT INCLUDED MULTIPLE SERVICE OPPORTUNITIES INCLUDING THE MENTORING OF YOUNGER AT-RISK STUDENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper documents a service-learning program involving both college level landscape architecture students and students from a local alternative school for juvenile delinquents. It documents how both groups benefited from the service-learning experience that included opportunities for college students to mentor younger, at-risk students. Information gathered from a variety of sources including student journals, teacher interviews and a survey of

Charles H. Klein; Oscar Reyes; Jerome R. Koch

40

Varieties of Preschool Hyperactivity: Multiple Pathways from Risk to Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper we examine the characteristics of preschool attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) from both mental disorder and developmental psychopathology points of view. The equivalence of preschool and school-aged hyperactivity as a behavioral dimension is highlighted together with the potential value of extending the use of the ADHD…

Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J. S.; Auerbach, Judith; Campbell, Susan B.; Daley, David; Thompson, Margaret

2005-01-01

41

From single to multiple deficit models of developmental disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emerging etiological model for developmental disorders, like dyslexia, is probabilistic and multifactorial while the prevailing cognitive model has been deterministic and often focused on a single cognitive cause, such as a phonological deficit as the cause of dyslexia. So there is a potential contradiction in our explanatory frameworks for understanding developmental disorders. This paper attempts to resolve this contradiction

Bruce F. Pennington

2006-01-01

42

Pharmacotherapy in the Management of Voiding and Storage Disorders, Including Enuresis and Encopresis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Enuresis and encopresis are disorders of the bladder and rectum, and this article helps in understanding the neurobiology of lower urinary tract and anorectal function to help in the treatment of these disorders. Treatment for children with these disorders emphasizes either a psychological or pharmacological approach.

Reiner, William G.

2008-01-01

43

Morphostructural MRI Abnormalities Related to Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated to Multiple Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Multiple Sclerosis associated neuropsychiatric disorders include major depression (MD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), bipolar affective disorder, euphoria, pseudobulbar affect, psychosis, and personality change. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) studies focused mainly on identifying morphostructural correlates of MD; only a few anecdotal cases on OCD associated to MS (OCD-MS), euphoria, pseudobulbar affect, psychosis, personality change, and one research article on MRI abnormalities in OCD-MS have been published. Therefore, in the present review we will report mainly on neuroimaging abnormalities found in MS patients with MD and OCD. All together, the studies on MD associated to MS suggest that, in this disease, depression is linked to a damage involving mainly frontotemporal regions either with discrete lesions (with those visible in T1 weighted images playing a more significant role) or subtle normal appearing white matter abnormalities. Hippocampal atrophy, as well, seems to be involved in MS related depression. It is conceivable that grey matter pathology (i.e., global and regional atrophy, cortical lesions), which occurs early in the course of disease, may involve several areas including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the orbitofrontal cortex, and the anterior cingulate cortex whose disruption is currently thought to explain late-life depression. Further MRI studies are necessary to better elucidate OCD pathogenesis in MS. PMID:23691320

Bonavita, Simona; Tedeschi, Gioacchino; Gallo, Antonio

2013-01-01

44

Development of a versatile enrichment analysis tool reveals associations between the maternal brain and mental health disorders, including autism  

PubMed Central

Background A recent study of lateral septum (LS) suggested a large number of autism-related genes with altered expression in the postpartum state. However, formally testing the findings for enrichment of autism-associated genes proved to be problematic with existing software. Many gene-disease association databases have been curated which are not currently incorporated in popular, full-featured enrichment tools, and the use of custom gene lists in these programs can be difficult to perform and interpret. As a simple alternative, we have developed the Modular Single-set Enrichment Test (MSET), a minimal tool that enables one to easily evaluate expression data for enrichment of any conceivable gene list of interest. Results The MSET approach was validated by testing several publicly available expression data sets for expected enrichment in areas of autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and arthritis. Using nine independent, unique autism gene lists extracted from association databases and two recent publications, a striking consensus of enrichment was detected within gene expression changes in LS of postpartum mice. A network of 160 autism-related genes was identified, representing developmental processes such as synaptic plasticity, neuronal morphogenesis, and differentiation. Additionally, maternal LS displayed enrichment for genes associated with bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, ADHD, and depression. Conclusions The transition to motherhood includes the most fundamental social bonding event in mammals and features naturally occurring changes in sociability. Some individuals with autism, schizophrenia, or other mental health disorders exhibit impaired social traits. Genes involved in these deficits may also contribute to elevated sociability in the maternal brain. To date, this is the first study to show a significant, quantitative link between the maternal brain and mental health disorders using large scale gene expression data. Thus, the postpartum brain may provide a novel and promising platform for understanding the complex genetics of improved sociability that may have direct relevance for multiple psychiatric illnesses. This study also provides an important new tool that fills a critical analysis gap and makes evaluation of enrichment using any database of interest possible with an emphasis on ease of use and methodological transparency. PMID:24245670

2013-01-01

45

Assessment of driving expertise using multiple choice questions including static vs. animated presentation of driving scenarios.  

PubMed

Novice drivers have a high collision risk compared to more experienced drivers. The optimization of driving assessment's validity should lead to a better identification of those examinees that need further training before solo driving. The aim of the present two studies was to find out whether the integration of animated traffic scenarios can enhance some quality aspects of selected multiple choice items of the official German driving test. For the first study, we developed a static version of a set of multiple choice questions each containing a computerized still picture of a traffic scenario and a dynamic version that included animated instead of still pictures of the same situations. Driving novices (n=57) and experts (n=63) were presented 22 items either in the static or in the dynamic version. Only the novices benefited from the dynamic presentation. Fifty novices and 50 experts participated in a second longitudinal study including three measurements with parallel tests of the dynamic testing materials at intervals of three to four months. The novices, who were currently attending driving school, improved over time whereas the experts' performance remained stable. The results indicate that animation has positive effects on some quality aspects of driving assessment, but the problem of low criterion validity has to be addressed by the means of further approaches. PMID:23207840

Malone, Sarah; Brünken, Roland

2013-03-01

46

Foot Injuries and Disorders - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... Multiple Languages Arabic (???????) Spanish (español) Arabic (???????) Clubfoot Overview English (Arabic) ????? ??????? ??????? - ??????? Multimedia Patient Education Institute Treating Clubfoot with the Ponseti Method English (Arabic) ???????? ????? ...

47

Including multiple differing stakeholder values into vulnerability assessments of socio-ecological systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is proposed for assessing the vulnerability of socio-ecological systems that is explicitly linked to multiple stakeholder values enabling multiple assessments of vulnerability in the same or different locations. Three key features distinguish this method. Firstly, multiple ecosystem services are each identified and valued by multiple stakeholders. Secondly, a series of matrices are used to quantitatively and sequentially link

J. Chazal; F. Quetier; S. Lavorel; Doorn van A. M

2008-01-01

48

The Effects of Including a Callous-Unemotional Specifier for the Diagnosis of Conduct Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: "With Significant Callous-Unemotional Traits" has been proposed as a specifier for conduct disorder (CD) in the upcoming revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V). The impact of this specifier on children diagnosed with CD should be considered. Methods: A multi-site cross-sectional design with…

Kahn, Rachel E.; Frick, Paul J.; Youngstrom, Eric; Findling, Robert L.; Youngstrom, Jennifer Kogos

2012-01-01

49

Multiple hits, including oxidative stress, as pathogenesis and treatment target in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH).  

PubMed

Multiple parallel hits, including genetic differences, insulin resistance and intestinal microbiota, account for the progression of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Multiple hits induce adipokine secretion, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and oxidative stress at the cellular level that subsequently induce hepatic steatosis, inflammation and fibrosis, among which oxidative stress is considered a key contributor to progression from simple fatty liver to NASH. Although several clinical trials have shown that anti-oxidative therapy can effectively control hepatitis activities in the short term, the long-term effect remains obscure. Several trials of long-term anti-oxidant protocols aimed at treating cerebrovascular diseases or cancer development have failed to produce a benefit. This might be explained by the non-selective anti-oxidative properties of these drugs. Molecular hydrogen is an effective antioxidant that reduces only cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) and several diseases associated with oxidative stress are sensitive to hydrogen. The progress of NASH to hepatocellular carcinoma can be controlled using hydrogen-rich water. Thus, targeting mitochondrial oxidative stress might be a good candidate for NASH treatment. Long term clinical intervention is needed to control this complex lifestyle-related disease. PMID:24132155

Takaki, Akinobu; Kawai, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Kazuhide

2013-01-01

50

mGLU receptors antagonists for treating disorders associated with mGLU receptors including addiction and depression  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Methods are provided for treating disorders associated with mGlu receptors by simultaneously inhibiting at least two mGluRs belonging to at least two different groups. In one embodiment, there are provided methods for treating a disorder associated with mGlu receptors 2, 3, and 5, including administering to a subject in need thereof an effective amount of at least one antagonist which modulates mGluR2, mGluR3, and mGluRS. The disorders treated by the method include, for example, nicotine addiction, cocaine addiction, and depression.

2013-01-15

51

Analytical expressions for the gate utilization factors of passive multiplicity counters including signal build-up  

SciTech Connect

In the realm of nuclear safeguards, passive neutron multiplicity counting using shift register pulse train analysis to nondestructively quantify Pu in product materials is a familiar and widely applied technique. The approach most commonly taken is to construct a neutron detector consisting of {sup 3}He filled cylindrical proportional counters embedded in a high density polyethylene moderator. Fast neutrons from the item enter the moderator and are quickly slowed down, on timescales of the order of 1-2 {micro}s, creating a thermal population which then persists typically for several 10's {micro}s and is sampled by the {sup 3}He detectors. Because the initial transient is of comparatively short duration it has been traditional to treat it as instantaneous and furthermore to approximate the subsequent capture time distribution as exponential in shape. With these approximations simple expressions for the various Gate Utilization Factors (GUFs) can be obtained. These factors represent the proportion of time correlated events i.e. Doubles and Triples signal present in the pulse train that is detected by the coincidence gate structure chosen (predelay and gate width settings of the multiplicity shift register). More complicated expressions can be derived by generalizing the capture time distribution to multiple time components or harmonics typically present in real systems. When it comes to applying passive neutron multiplicity methods to extremely intense (i.e. high emission rate and highly multiplying) neutron sources there is a drive to use detector types with very fast response characteristics in order to cope with the high rates. In addition to short pulse width, detectors with a short capture time profile are also desirable so that a short coincidence gate width can be set in order to reduce the chance or Accidental coincidence signal. In extreme cases, such as might be realized using boron loaded scintillators, the dieaway time may be so short that the build-up (thermalization transient) within the detector cannot be ignored. Another example where signal build-up might be observed is when a {sup 3}He based system is used to track the evolution of the time correlated signal created by a higher multiplying item within a reflective configuration such as the measurement of a spent fuel assembly. In this work we develop expressions for the GUFs which include signal build-up.

Croft, Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Evans, Louise G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schear, Melissa A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01

52

Staggered method cleaning cycle for fabric filter system including multiple-baghouses  

SciTech Connect

A method for controlling the cleaning of multiple-baghouse fabric filter systems. Each baghouse includes a plurality of compartments and a cleaning system of a type which cleans the compartments in a compartment-by-compartment sequence and which allows all compartments not being cleaned to maintain the baghouse on-line even during a cleaning operation. The particular cleaning system disclosed more particularly is of the reverse gas flow type. A normal characteristic of reverse gas flow cleaning is that system pressure drop goes through sequential peaks and minimums. In the systems disclosed herein, the cleaning cycles of the individual baghouses are staggered in a manner such that the peak resistance during cleaning of one baghouse does occur at the same time as a lower and offsetting resistance of another baghouse. Thus, peak pressure drop of the system as a whole is reduced. Moreover, the difference in pressure loss from peak to minimum is reduced.

Roth, A. H.

1985-03-26

53

From Single to Multiple Deficit Models of Developmental Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The emerging etiological model for developmental disorders, like dyslexia, is probabilistic and multifactorial while the prevailing cognitive model has been deterministic and often focused on a single cognitive cause, such as a phonological deficit as the cause of dyslexia. So there is a potential contradiction in our explanatory frameworks for…

Pennington, Bruce F.

2006-01-01

54

Ankle Injuries and Disorders - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... Multiple Languages Arabic (???????) Chinese - Traditional (????) French (français) Japanese (???) Korean (???) Russian (???????) Somali (af ... Chinese - Traditional) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations French (français) Ankle Exercises Exercices pour la cheville - français (French) ...

55

Developmental trauma disorder: pros and cons of including formal criteria in the psychiatric diagnostic systems  

PubMed Central

Background This article reviews the current debate on developmental trauma disorder (DTD) with respect to formalizing its diagnostic criteria. Victims of abuse, neglect, and maltreatment in childhood often develop a wide range of age-dependent psychopathologies with various mental comorbidities. The supporters of a formal DTD diagnosis argue that post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) does not cover all consequences of severe and complex traumatization in childhood. Discussion Traumatized individuals are difficult to treat, but clinical experience has shown that they tend to benefit from specific trauma therapy. A main argument against inclusion of formal DTD criteria into existing diagnostic systems is that emphasis on the etiology of the disorder might force current diagnostic systems to deviate from their purely descriptive nature. Furthermore, comorbidities and biological aspects of the disorder may be underdiagnosed using the DTD criteria. Summary Here, we discuss arguments for and against the proposal of DTD criteria and address implications and consequences for the clinical practice. PMID:23286319

2013-01-01

56

One-year Change in Repetitive Behaviours in Young Children with Communication Disorders Including Autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repetitive behaviours are a relatively neglected area of study in autism. Previous research has concluded that repetitive\\u000a behaviour is inversely related to ability and that it tends to increase over the preschool years. One-hundred and four children\\u000a ages 24–48 months, with autism, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or other disorders, were followed for 13 months. Twelve items\\u000a from the Autism Diagnostic Interview (ADI-R)

Emma Honey; Helen McConachie; Val Randle; Heather Shearer; Ann S. Le Couteur

2008-01-01

57

Laminopathies: Multiple disorders arising from defects in nuclear architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lamins are the major structural proteins of the nucleus in an animal cell. In addition to being essential for nuclear integrity\\u000a and assembly, lamins are involved in the organization of nuclear processes such as DNA replication, transcription and repair.\\u000a Mutations in the human lamin A gene lead to highly debilitating genetic disorders that primarily affect muscle, adipose, bone\\u000a or neuronal

Veena K. Parnaik; Kaliyaperumal Manju

2006-01-01

58

Autistic Spectrum and Inclusion: Including Pupils with Autistic Spectrum Disorders in Mainstream Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The number of pupils with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) being educated in mainstream schools is increasing. However, there is growing concern about their educational experiences. Research suggests that such pupils make easy targets for bullies, and are considered difficult to teach by teachers. Furthermore, pupils with ASD are more than 20…

Humphrey, Neil

2008-01-01

59

Exploring Teachers' Strategies for Including Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Mainstream Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the rates of diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) increase and more students with ASD are enrolled in mainstream schools, educators face many challenges in teaching and managing social and behavioural development while ensuring academic success for all students. This descriptive, qualitative study, embedded within an inclusive…

Lindsay, Sally; Proulx, Meghann; Scott, Helen; Thomson, Nicole

2014-01-01

60

Including Students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Mainstream Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Around 80% of pupils with attention deficit disorders are educated in mainstream schools. The difficulties relating to inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity experienced by such pupils present mainstream educators with a unique set of challenges and opportunities. In this article, Neil Humphrey, Senior Lecturer in the Psychology of Education…

Humphrey, Neil

2009-01-01

61

Benefits of Including Siblings in the Treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Having a brother or sister with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can significantly impact the life of a typically developing sibling. These relationships are generally characterized by less frequent and nurturing interactions than are evident in sibling constellations with neurotypical children or children with other developmental disabilities.…

Ferraioli, Suzannah J.; Hansford, Amy; Harris, Sandra L.

2012-01-01

62

The relation between multiple pains and mental disorders: Results from the World Mental Health Surveys  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is unclear whether differences exist in the prevalence of mood, anxiety and alcohol use disorders among persons with multiple pain conditions compared with those with single pain problems. We conducted population surveys in 17 countries in Europe, the Americas, the Middle East, Africa, Asia, and the South Pacific. Participants were community-dwelling adults (N=85,088). Mental disorders were assessed with the

Oye Gureje; Michael Von Korff; Lola Kola; Koen Demyttenaere; Yanling He; José Posada-Villa; Jean Pierre Lepine; Matthias C. Angermeyer; Daphna Levinson; Giovanni de Girolamo; Noboru Iwata; Aimee Karam; Guilherme Luiz Guimaraes Borges; Ron de Graaf; Mark Oakley Browne; Dan J. Stein; Josep Maria Haro; Evelyn J. Bromet; Ron C. Kessler; Jordi Alonso

2008-01-01

63

Thermoelectric material including a multiple transition metal-doped type I clathrate crystal structure  

DOEpatents

A thermoelectric material includes a multiple transition metal-doped type I clathrate crystal structure having the formula A.sub.8TM.sub.y.sub.1.sup.1TM.sub.y.sub.2.sup.2 . . . TM.sub.y.sub.n.sup.nM.sub.zX.sub.46-y.sub.1.sub.-y.sub.2.sub.- . . . -y.sub.n.sub.-z. In the formula, A is selected from the group consisting of barium, strontium, and europium; X is selected from the group consisting of silicon, germanium, and tin; M is selected from the group consisting of aluminum, gallium, and indium; TM.sup.1, TM.sup.2, and TM.sup.n are independently selected from the group consisting of 3d, 4d, and 5d transition metals; and y.sub.1, y.sub.2, y.sub.n and Z are actual compositions of TM.sup.1, TM.sup.2, TM.sup.n, and M, respectively. The actual compositions are based upon nominal compositions derived from the following equation: z=8q.sub.A-|.DELTA.q.sub.1|y.sub.1-|.DELTA.q.sub.2|y.sub.2- . . . -|.DELTA.q.sub.n|y.sub.n, wherein q.sub.A is a charge state of A, and wherein .DELTA.q.sub.1, .DELTA.q.sub.2, .DELTA.q.sub.n are, respectively, the nominal charge state of the first, second, and n-th TM.

Yang, Jihui (Lakeshore, CA); Shi, Xun (Troy, MI); Bai, Shengqiang (Shanghai, CN); Zhang, Wenqing (Shanghai, CN); Chen, Lidong (Shanghai, CN); Yang, Jiong (Shanghai, CN)

2012-01-17

64

[Treatment manual for psychotherapy of acute and posttraumatic stress disorders after multiple ICD shocks].  

PubMed

In view of the inceasing number of implanted defibrillators in all industrial nations, the number of people who have suffered so-called multiple shocks (electrical storm, ES) also increases. Common complaints are severe and continuously recurrent massive anxiety, panic attacks, fear of death, helplessness and hopelessness, depression, nervosity and irritability as well as reclusive and uncontrollable avoidance behaviour, intrusions, nightmares, flashbacks, sleeplessness and the inability to show feelings and limitation of future perspectives. Because people with an ICD are often physically (very) ill and after multiple ICD shocks are additionally very insecure, it would seem logical if the inpatient treatment would be carried out in an institution which has close connections and is also spatially close to a cardiology department. The basis of the diagnostics is the clinical anamnesis and a systematic exploration of the trauma situation and the resulting complaints. As an additional diagnostic element psychological test procedures should be implemented to determine the core symptomatic (anxiety, depression, trauma symptoms). Psychological test procedures should be included in the diagnostics so that at the end of treatment it is obvious even to the patient which alterations have occurred. The core element of inpatient treatment is daily intensive psychotherapy and includes deep psychologically well-founded psychotherapy and behavioral therapeutic-oriented anxiety therapy as well as cognitive restructuring and elements of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR). A follow-up examination within 4 months of the multiple shocks episode is recommended because symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder often occur after a long latent time period. PMID:21853350

Jordan, J; Titscher, G; Kirsch, H

2011-09-01

65

Wavelength trimming by photoabsorption-included disordering for multiple-wavelength distributed-feedback laser arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this letter, we describe a simple method to adjust the oscillation wavelength of distributed-feedback (DFB) lasers after the device fabrication without using any external active tuning. The method utilizes a permanent change of refractive index in the quantum well active layer induced by external laser beam irradiation. We have demonstrated 0.36 nm adjustment in a 1.55-?m ridge waveguide DFB

Tsurugi K. Sudoh; Mitsutaka Kumano; Yoshiaki Nakano; Kunio Tada

1997-01-01

66

Analytical expressions for the gate utilization factors of passive multiplicity counters including signal build-up  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the realm of nuclear safeguards, passive neutron multiplicity counting using shift register pulse train analysis to nondestructively quantify Pu in product materials is a familiar and widely applied technique. The approach most commonly taken is to construct a neutron detector consisting of ³He filled cylindrical proportional counters embedded in a high density polyethylene moderator. Fast neutrons from the item

Stephen Croft; Louise G Evans; Melissa A Schear

2010-01-01

67

Automatic treatment of multiple wound coils in 3D finite element problems including multiply connected regions  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes an efficient scheme for incorporating multiple wire wound coils into 3D finite element models. The scheme is based on the magnetic scalar representation with an additional basis for each coil. There are no restrictions on the topology of coils with respect to ferromagnetic and conductor regions. Reduced scalar regions and cuts are automatically generated.

Leonard, P.J.; Lai, H.C.; Eastham, J.F.; Al-Akayshee, Q.H. [Univ. of Bath (United Kingdom)] [Univ. of Bath (United Kingdom)

1996-05-01

68

A computer programme to calculate risk in X linked disorders using multiple marker loci  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computer programme package has been written which calculates the genetic risk (recurrence risk) for X linked disorders, incorporating data from multiple probes. The programme can allow new mutation and the incorporation of other predictors of the disease genotype of the subjects in the family.

J F Clayton

1986-01-01

69

Polarimetric passive millimetre-wave imaging scene simulation including multiple reflections of subjects and their backgrounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the further development of a scene simulation model by the introduction of multiple reflections and subjects with backgrounds. Inclusion of these features enables more realistic imagery to be created, reproducing known phenomenology in passive millimetre wave imagery, such as specular reflections of objects in concrete or tarmac surfaces and the appearances of darker cavity areas in security scanning images. Examples of these are shown at 94 GHz together with other more general images of subjects and their backgrounds.

Salmon, Neil A.

2005-11-01

70

Considerations and techniques in the treatment of persons with multiple personality disorder.  

PubMed

Occupational therapy intervention with the patient with multiple personality disorder requires an understanding of the complex psychotherapeutic goals for the patient and of the process involved in resolution of the trauma that led to the development of multiple personality. The psychotherapeutic techniques of hypnosis and abreaction affect the provision of occupational therapy services. Hypnotic communication, particularly the use of ideomotor hand signals, often facilitates work with various alter personalities. Occupational therapists may use a developmental approach with both child and adult alter personalities and may also use projective techniques, self-care training, and role and task management techniques. Occupational therapy can act as a stabilizing force for the person with multiple personality disorder through the enhancement of function and competency during the psychotherapeutic process. PMID:2252074

Fike, M L

1990-11-01

71

Deficits in adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders when processing multiple objects in dynamic scenes  

PubMed Central

Scientific Abstract People with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) process visual information in a manner that is distinct from typically developing individuals. They may be less sensitive to people's goals and, more generally, focus on visual details instead of the entire scene. To examine these differences, people with and without ASD were asked to detect changes in dynamic scenes with multiple elements. Participants viewed a brief video of a person or an inanimate object moving from one object to another; after a delay, they reported whether a second video was the same or different. Possible changes included the figure, the object the figure was moving from, or the object it was moving toward (the ‘goal’). We hypothesized that individuals with ASD would be less sensitive to changes in scenes with people, particularly elements that might be the person's goal. Alternately, people with ASD might attend to fewer elements regardless of whether the scene included a person. Our results indicate that, like controls, people with ASD noticed a change in the ‘goal’ object at the end of a person's movement more often than the object at the start. However, the group with ASD did not undergo the developmental improvement when detecting changes in start and end objects that was evident typically. This led to deficits in adults with ASD that were not specific to scenes with people or to ‘goals’. Improvements in visual processing that underlie mature representation of scenes may not occur in ASD, suggesting late developing brain processes are affected. PMID:21254449

O'Hearn, Kirsten; Lakusta, Laura; Schroer, Elizabeth; Minshew, Nancy; Luna, Beatriz

2010-01-01

72

Ampliative medicament allergy: concomitant sensitivity to multiple medicaments including yellow soft paraffin, white soft paraffin, gentian violet and Span 20.  

PubMed

A patient developed multiple rare medicament contact allergies including sensitivities to gentian violet, yellow and white soft paraffin, and Span 20 (sorbitan monolaurate). Nickel sensitivity antedated these medicament allergies. The possibility that nickel sensitivity is a marker of predilection to develop multiple medicament allergies was tested. We were unable to demonstrate an increased incidence of nickel sensitivity in a group of patients with 2 or more medicament allergies. PMID:7105686

Lawrence, C M; Smith, A G

1982-07-01

73

Validity of self-reported body weight and height among women including patients with eating disorders.  

PubMed

The main objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of self-reported weight and height among women with eating disorders. The study sample consisted of 271 women aged 18-50 yrs: 73 anorexic patients (AN) with a body mass index (BMI) of <18.50 kg/m2, 54 normal weight bulimic or rehabilitated patients (BU/RE: 18.5 or =25 kg/m2) and 106 normal weight women without an eating disorder (NW: 18.5

Ciarapica, D; Mauro, B; Zaccaria, M; Cannella, C; Polito, A

2010-01-01

74

Zebrafish homologs of 16p11.2, a genomic region associated with brain disorders, are active during brain development, and include two deletion dosage sensor genes  

E-print Network

Deletion or duplication of one copy of the human 16p11.2 interval is tightly associated with impaired brain function, including autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), intellectual disability disorder (IDD) and other phenotypes, ...

Blaker-Lee, Alicia

75

Ecosystemic needs assessment for children with developmental coordination disorder in elementary school: multiple case studies.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT This study explored the needs of children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) from an ecosystemic viewpoint as part of a theory-driven program evaluation process. A multiple case study needs assessment was conducted. Participants included ten children with DCD, their parents (n = 12), teachers (n = 9), and service providers (n = 6). Data collection involved semi-structured interviews, validated questionnaires, and a review of the children's records. The results support the relevance of using an ecosystemic model to assess the needs of children with DCD in their life and social contexts. More specifically, the results highlight the need to provide additional services at school, such as occupational therapy and special education, as well as information and training regarding DCD for parents and teachers. The results also point to the relevant variables to consider in an intervention program based on theory-driven evaluations. This study shows how employing an ecosystemic frame of reference provides a better understanding of the needs of children with DCD. Future research should document the ecosystemic profiles and evolution of the needs of children with DCD with a larger sample from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds using a longitudinal study design. PMID:24649977

Jasmin, Emmanuelle; Tétreault, Sylvie; Joly, Jacques

2014-11-01

76

Effective Practices in Early Intervention: Infants Whose Multiple Disabilities Include Both Vision & Hearing Loss.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual documents key program development strategies and inservice training topics provided by the Model Demonstration Early Intervention Network Project. This project focused on building the capacity of early intervention programs to serve infants who are deaf-blind and their families. The first section covers program development and includes

Chen, Deborah; And Others

77

Multiple crm- mutations in familial hypercholesterolemia. Evidence for 13 alleles, including four deletions.  

PubMed Central

The low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors in fibroblasts from 132 subjects with the clinical syndrome of homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia were analyzed by immunoprecipitation with an anti-LDL receptor monoclonal antibody. 16 of the 132 cell strains (12%) synthesized no immunodetectable LDL receptor protein, indicating the presence of two mutant genes that failed to produce cross-reacting material (crm- mutations). DNA and mRNA from 15 of the 16 crm- patients, representing 30 crm- genes, were available for further study. Haplotype analysis based on 10 restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) suggested that the 30 crm- genes represent 13 mutant alleles. Four of the alleles produced no mRNA. Three of these four mRNA- alleles had large deletions ranging from 6 to 20 kb that eliminated the promoter region of the gene. The fourth mRNA- allele did not contain any deletion or alteration in the promoter sequence; the reason for the mRNA- phenotype was not apparent. Nine alleles were positive for mRNAs, of which three encoded mRNAs of abnormal size. One of the abnormal mRNAs was produced by a gene harboring a deletion, and another was produced by a gene with a complex rearrangement. The third abnormal-sized mRNA (3.1 kb larger than normal) was produced by an allele that had no detectable alterations as judged by Southern blotting. The other six mRNA+ alleles appeared normal by Southern blotting and produced normal-sized mRNA but no receptor protein. The current studies demonstrate that mRNA analysis coupled with haplotype determination by Southern blot analysis can be used to classify crm- mutations at a genetic locus where multiple alleles exist. Images PMID:3343347

Hobbs, H H; Leitersdorf, E; Goldstein, J L; Brown, M S; Russell, D W

1988-01-01

78

Multiple-family group treatment as an effective intervention for children with psychological disorders.  

PubMed

An estimated 20% of children suffer from psychological disorders and only 10-20% receive adequate treatment. A lack of empirically supported treatments is one reason why relatively few children receive treatment for their psychological difficulties. Multiple-family group treatment (MFGT) is an empirically supported intervention for adults with chronic mental illnesses that may be an effective treatment for children with psychological disorders. This article reviewed the adult MFGT model and its empirical support. The quantity and quality of child MFGT research was then reviewed. Child MFGT models are compared with one another and to the adult MFGT model. All studies provided initial support of MFGT as an appropriate treatment for childhood disorders. However, the child literature as whole was relatively limited, unfocused, and lacked replication. Suggestions for future research are made, focusing on a structured and scientific approach to establishing MFGT as an empirically supported intervention for children. PMID:15385094

McDonell, Michael G; Dyck, Dennis G

2004-10-01

79

Mental Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

Mental disorders include a wide range of problems, including Anxiety disorders, including panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post- ... disorders, including schizophrenia There are many causes of mental disorders. Your genes and family history may play a ...

80

Identification of Multiple Novel Viruses, Including a Parvovirus and a Hepevirus, in Feces of Red Foxes  

PubMed Central

Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) are the most widespread members of the order of Carnivora. Since they often live in (peri)urban areas, they are a potential reservoir of viruses that transmit from wildlife to humans or domestic animals. Here we evaluated the fecal viral microbiome of 13 red foxes by random PCR in combination with next-generation sequencing. Various novel viruses, including a parvovirus, bocavirus, adeno-associated virus, hepevirus, astroviruses, and picobirnaviruses, were identified. PMID:23616657

van der Giessen, Joke; Haagmans, Bart L.; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.; Smits, Saskia L.

2013-01-01

81

Multiple-family group treatment as an effective intervention for children with psychological disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

An estimated 20% of children11Unless otherwise specified, the term children refers to all persons younger than 18 years of age. suffer from psychological disorders and only 10–20% receive adequate treatment. A lack of empirically supported treatments is one reason why relatively few children receive treatment for their psychological difficulties. Multiple-family group treatment (MFGT) is an empirically supported intervention for adults

Michael G. McDonell; Dennis G. Dyck

2004-01-01

82

Duodenal CCK cells from male mice express multiple hormones including ghrelin.  

PubMed

Enteroendocrine (EEC) cells have a pivotal role in intestinal nutrient sensing and release hormones that orchestrate food digestion and regulate appetite. EEC cells are found scattered throughout the intestine and have typically been classified based on the primary hormone they contain. I cells represent a subset of EEC cells that secrete cholecystokinin (CCK) and are mainly localized to the duodenum. Recent studies have shown that I cells express mRNAs encoding several gut hormones. In this study, we investigated the hormonal profile of murine fluorescence-activated cell sorting-sorted duodenal I cells using semiquantitative RT-PCR, liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, and immunostaining methods. We report that I cells are enriched in mRNA transcripts encoding CCK and also other key gut hormones, including neurotensin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), secretin, peptide YY, proglucagon, and ghrelin (Ghrl). Furthermore, liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis of fluorescence-activated cell sorting-purified I cells and immunostaining confirmed the presence of these gut hormones in duodenal I cells. Immunostaining highlighted that subsets of I cells in both crypts and villi coexpress differential amounts of CCK, Ghrl, GIP, or peptide YY, indicating that a proportion of I cells contain several hormones during maturation and when fully differentiated. Our results reveal that although I cells express several key gut hormones, including GIP or proglucagon, and thus have a considerable overlap with classically defined K and L cells, approximately half express Ghrl, suggesting a potentially important subset of duodenal EEC cells that require further consideration. PMID:25004095

Sykaras, Alexandros G; Demenis, Claire; Cheng, Lei; Pisitkun, Trairak; Mclaughlin, John T; Fenton, Robert A; Smith, Craig P

2014-09-01

83

REM sleep behaviour disorder differentiates pure autonomic failure from multiple system atrophy with autonomic failure  

PubMed Central

Ten patients with primary autonomic failure, followed up in a prospective clinical and laboratory study, were finally diagnosed as pure autonomic failure or multiple system atrophy with autonomic failure. Polysomnographic studies were performed in all patients. Whereas all four patients with multiple system atrophy complained of sleep related episodes suggesting REM sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) confirmed by polysomnography, RBD remained absent in the remaining six patients with pure autonomic failure. The data indicate that RBD is an important clinical feature, often heralding multiple system atrophy, but which is absent throughout the course of pure autonomic failure; its recognition can thus be useful in the prognostic evaluation of early primary autonomic failure syndromes.?? PMID:9598693

Plazzi, G.; Cortelli, P.; Montagna, P.; De Monte, A.; Corsini, R.; Contin, M.; Provini, F.; Pierangeli, G.; Lugaresi, E.

1998-01-01

84

Acute hemolytic transfusion reactions due to multiple alloantibodies including anti-E, anti-c and anti-Jkb.  

PubMed Central

We report a case of two consecutive episodes of acute hemolytic transfusion reactions (HTRs) due to multiple alloantibodies in a 34-yr-old man who suffered from avascular necrosis of left femoral head. He received five units of packed red blood cells (RBCs) during surgery. Then the transfusion of packed RBCs was required nine days after the surgery because of the unexplained drop in hemoglobin level. The transfusion of the first two units resulted in fever and brown-colored urine, but he received the transfusion of another packed RBCs the next day. He experienced even more severe symptoms during the transfusion of the first unit. We performed antibody screening test, and it showed positive results. Multiple alloantibodies including anti-E, anti-c and anti-Jkb were detected by antibody identification study. Acute HTRs due to multiple alloantibodies were diagnosed, and the supportive cares were done for 6 days. We suggest the antibody screening test should be included in the panel of pretransfusion tests for safer transfusion, and it is particularly mandatory for the patients with multiple transfusions, pregnant women, and preoperative patients. PMID:14676451

Park, Tae Sung; Kim, Ki Uk; Jeong, Woo Jin; Kim, Hyung Hoi; Chang, Chulhun L.; Chung, Joo Seop; Cho, Goon Jae; Lee, Eun Yup; Son, Han Chul

2003-01-01

85

The Relationship Between Multiple Sex Partners and Anxiety, Depression, and Substance Dependence Disorders: A Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Changes in sexual behavior have resulted in longer periods of multiple serial or concurrent relationships. This study investigated the effects of multiple heterosexual partners on mental health, specifically, whether higher numbers of partners were linked to later anxiety, depression, and substance dependency. Data from the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, a prospective, longitudinal study of a birth cohort born in 1972–1973 in Dunedin, New Zealand were used. The relationship between numbers of sex partners over three age periods (18–20, 21–25, and 26–32 years) and diagnoses of anxiety, depression, and substance dependence disorder at 21, 26, and 32 years were examined, using logistic regression. Interaction by gender was examined. Adjustment was made for prior mental health status. There was no significant association between number of sex partners and later anxiety and depression. Increasing numbers of sex partners were associated with increasing risk of substance dependence disorder at all three ages. The association was stronger for women and remained after adjusting for prior disorder. For women reporting 2.5 or more partners per year, compared to 0–1 partners, the adjusted odd ratios (and 95 % CIs) were 9.6 (4.4–20.9), 7.3 (2.5–21.3), and 17.5 (3.5–88.1) at 21, 26, and 32 years, respectively. Analyses using new cases of these disorders showed similar patterns. This study established a strong association between number of sex partners and later substance disorder, especially for women, which persisted beyond prior substance use and mental health problems more generally. The reasons for this association deserve investigation. PMID:23400516

Paul, Charlotte; Bell, Melanie L.; Dickson, Nigel; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Caspi, Avshalom

2013-01-01

86

Multiple hereditary exostoses (MHE): elucidating the pathogenesis of a rare skeletal disorder through interdisciplinary research.  

PubMed

Abstract An interdisciplinary and international group of clinicians and scientists gathered in Philadelphia, PA, to attend the fourth International Research Conference on Multiple Hereditary Exostoses (MHE), a rare and severe skeletal disorder. MHE is largely caused by autosomal dominant mutations in EXT1 or EXT2, genes encoding Golgi-associated glycosyltransferases responsible for heparan sulfate (HS) synthesis. HS chains are key constituents of cell surface- and extracellular matrix-associated proteoglycans, which are known regulators of skeletal development. MHE affected individuals are HS-deficient, can display skeletal growth retardation and deformities, and consistently develop benign, cartilage-capped bony outgrowths (termed exostoses or osteochondromas) near the growth plates of many skeletal elements. Nearly 2% of patients will have their exostoses progress to malignancy, becoming peripheral chondrosarcomas. Current treatments are limited to the surgical removal of symptomatic exostoses. No definitive treatments have been established to inhibit further formation and growth of exostoses, prevent transition to malignancy, or address other medical problems experienced by MHE patients, including chronic pain. Thus, the goals of the Conference were to assess our current understanding of MHE pathogenesis, identify key gaps in information, envision future therapeutic strategies and discuss ways to test and implement them. This report provides an assessment of the exciting and promising findings in MHE and related fields presented at the Conference and a discussion of the future MHE research directions. The Conference underlined the critical usefulness of gathering experts in several research fields to forge new alliances and identify cross-fertilization areas to benefit both basic and translational biomedical research on the skeleton. PMID:24409815

Jones, Kevin B; Pacifici, Maurizio; Hilton, Matthew J

2014-04-01

87

Treatment of Comorbid Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Anxiety in Children : A Multiple Baseline Design Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The present study evaluated a 10-week psychosocial treatment designed specifically for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and a comorbid anxiety disorder. Method: Using a nonconcurrent multiple baseline design, the authors treated 8 children ages 8-12 with ADHD, combined type, and at least 1 of 3 major anxiety…

Jarrett, Matthew A.; Ollendick, Thomas H.

2012-01-01

88

Analysis of the chromosome X exome in patients with autism spectrum disorders identified novel candidate genes, including TMLHE  

PubMed Central

The striking excess of affected males in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) suggests that genes located on chromosome X contribute to the etiology of these disorders. To identify new X-linked genes associated with ASD, we analyzed the entire chromosome X exome by next-generation sequencing in 12 unrelated families with two affected males. Thirty-six possibly deleterious variants in 33 candidate genes were found, including PHF8 and HUWE1, previously implicated in intellectual disability (ID). A nonsense mutation in TMLHE, which encodes the ?-N-trimethyllysine hydroxylase catalyzing the first step of carnitine biosynthesis, was identified in two brothers with autism and ID. By screening the TMLHE coding sequence in 501 male patients with ASD, we identified two additional missense substitutions not found in controls and not reported in databases. Functional analyses confirmed that the mutations were associated with a loss-of-function and led to an increase in trimethyllysine, the precursor of carnitine biosynthesis, in the plasma of patients. This study supports the hypothesis that rare variants on the X chromosome are involved in the etiology of ASD and contribute to the sex-ratio disequilibrium. PMID:23092983

Nava, C; Lamari, F; Heron, D; Mignot, C; Rastetter, A; Keren, B; Cohen, D; Faudet, A; Bouteiller, D; Gilleron, M; Jacquette, A; Whalen, S; Afenjar, A; Perisse, D; Laurent, C; Dupuits, C; Gautier, C; Gerard, M; Huguet, G; Caillet, S; Leheup, B; Leboyer, M; Gillberg, C; Delorme, R; Bourgeron, T; Brice, A; Depienne, C

2012-01-01

89

The Cost Savings of Expanding Medicaid Eligibility to Include Currently Uninsured Homeless Adults with Substance Use Disorders  

PubMed Central

Following the June 2012 Supreme Court ruling that states are no longer mandated to expand their Medicaid programs in 2014 as part of the Affordable Care Act, many states plan to opt out of the expansion, citing affordability as their primary concern. In response to this controversy, the present study evaluated the cost savings of expanding Medicaid coverage to include currently ineligible homeless adults with substance use disorders, a subset of the population that incurs some of the greatest societal costs and is disproportionately impacted by uninsurance. Using a time horizon of 7 years, separate analyses were conducted for state and federal governments, and then a final analysis evaluated the combined costs for the other two models. Results of the study demonstrate that, although the expansion will be associated with a net cost when combining state and federal expenses and savings, states will experience tremendous savings if they choose to participate. PMID:24198085

Zur, Julia; Mojtabai, Ramin; Li, Suhui

2013-01-01

90

Multiple recurrent de novo copy number variations (CNVs), including duplications of the 7q11.23 Williams-Beuren syndrome region, are strongly associated with autism  

PubMed Central

Summary Given prior evidence for the contribution of rare copy number variations (CNVs) to autism spectrum disorders (ASD), we studied these events in 4,457 individuals from 1,174 simplex families, composed of parents, a proband and, in most kindreds, an unaffected sibling. We find significant association of ASD with de novo duplications of 7q11.23, where the reciprocal deletion causes Williams-Beuren syndrome, featuring a highly social personality. We identify rare recurrent de novo CNVs at five additional regions including two novel ASD loci, 16p13.2 (including the genes USP7 and C16orf72) and Cadherin13, and implement a rigorous new approach to evaluating the statistical significance of these observations. Overall, we find large de novo CNVs carry substantial risk (OR=3.55; CI =2.16-7.46, p=6.9 × 10?6); estimate the presence of 130-234 distinct ASD-related CNV intervals across the genome; and, based on data from multiple studies, present compelling evidence for the association of rare de novo events at 7q11.23, 15q11.2-13.1, 16p11.2, and Neurexin1. PMID:21658581

Sanders, Stephan J.; Ercan-Sencicek, A. Gulhan; Hus, Vanessa; Luo, Rui; Murtha, Michael T.; Moreno-De-Luca, Daniel; Chu, Su H.; Moreau, Michael P.; Gupta, Abha R.; Thomson, Susanne A.; Mason, Christopher E.; Bilguvar, Kaya; Celestino-Soper, Patricia B. S.; Choi, Murim; Crawford, Emily L.; Davis, Lea; Wright, Nicole R. Davis; Dhodapkar, Rahul M.; DiCola, Michael; DiLullo, Nicholas M.; Fernandez, Thomas V.; Fielding-Singh, Vikram; Fishman, Daniel O.; Frahm, Stephanie; Garagaloyan, Rouben; Goh, Gerald S.; Kammela, Sindhuja; Klei, Lambertus; Lowe, Jennifer K.; Lund, Sabata C.; McGrew, Anna D.; Meyer, Kyle A.; Moffat, William J.; Murdoch, John D.; O'Roak, Brian J.; Ober, Gordon T.; Pottenger, Rebecca S.; Raubeson, Melanie J.; Song, Youeun; Wang, Qi; Yaspan, Brian L.; Yu, Timothy W.; Yurkiewicz, Ilana R.; Beaudet, Arthur L.; Cantor, Rita M.; Curland, Martin; Grice, Dorothy E.; Günel, Murat; Lifton, Richard P.; Mane, Shrikant M.; Martin, Donna M.; Shaw, Chad A.; Sheldon, Michael; Tischfield, Jay A.; Walsh, Christopher A.; Morrow, Eric M.; Ledbetter, David H.; Fombonne, Eric; Lord, Catherine; Martin, Christa Lese; Brooks, Andrew I.; Sutcliffe, James S.; Cook, Edwin H.; Geschwind, Daniel; Roeder, Kathryn; Devlin, Bernie; State, Matthew W.

2014-01-01

91

Compound K, a Ginsenoside Metabolite, Inhibits Colon Cancer Growth via Multiple Pathways Including p53-p21 Interactions.  

PubMed

Compound K (20-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-20(S)-protopanaxadiol, CK), an intestinal bacterial metabolite of ginseng protopanaxadiol saponins, has been shown to inhibit cell growth in a variety of cancers. However, the mechanisms are not completely understood, especially in colorectal cancer (CRC). A xenograft tumor model was used first to examine the anti-CRC effect of CK in vivo. Then, multiple in vitro assays were applied to investigate the anticancer effects of CK including antiproliferation, apoptosis and cell cycle distribution. In addition, a qPCR array and western blot analysis were executed to screen and validate the molecules and pathways involved. We observed that CK significantly inhibited the growth of HCT-116 tumors in an athymic nude mouse xenograft model. CK significantly inhibited the proliferation of human CRC cell lines HCT-116, SW-480, and HT-29 in a dose- and time-dependent manner. We also observed that CK induced cell apoptosis and arrested the cell cycle in the G1 phase in HCT-116 cells. The processes were related to the upregulation of p53/p21, FoxO3a-p27/p15 and Smad3, and downregulation of cdc25A, CDK4/6 and cyclin D1/3. The major regulated targets of CK were cyclin dependent inhibitors, including p21, p27, and p15. These results indicate that CK inhibits transcriptional activation of multiple tumor-promoting pathways in CRC, suggesting that CK could be an active compound in the prevention or treatment of CRC. PMID:23434653

Zhang, Zhiyu; Du, Guang-Jian; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Wen, Xiao-Dong; Calway, Tyler; Li, Zejuan; He, Tong-Chuan; Du, Wei; Bissonnette, Marc; Musch, Mark W; Chang, Eugene B; Yuan, Chun-Su

2013-01-01

92

Joint source based analysis of multiple brain structures in studying major depressive disorder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a joint Source-Based Analysis (jSBA) framework to identify brain structural variations in patients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). In this framework, features representing position, orientation and size (i.e. pose), shape, and local tissue composition are extracted. Subsequently, simultaneous analysis of these features within a joint analysis method is performed to generate the basis sources that show signi cant di erences between subjects with MDD and those in healthy control. Moreover, in a cross-validation leave- one-out experiment, we use a Fisher Linear Discriminant (FLD) classi er to identify individuals within the MDD group. Results show that we can classify the MDD subjects with an accuracy of 76% solely based on the information gathered from the joint analysis of pose, shape, and tissue composition in multiple brain structures.

Ramezani, Mahdi; Rasoulian, Abtin; Hollenstein, Tom; Harkness, Kate; Johnsrude, Ingrid; Abolmaesumi, Purang

2014-03-01

93

Coincidence of severe aplastic anaemia with multiple sclerosis or thyroid disorders. Report of 5 cases.  

PubMed

Five patients with severe aplastic anaemia (SAA) who, simultaneously (n = 3) or consecutively (n = 2), presented with multiple sclerosis (MS) (n = 2) or immune hyperthyroidism (IHT) (n = 2) or subacute thyroiditis (n = 1) are described. Two female patients with MS developed SAA after a small dose of azathioprine. Another patient simultaneously presented with IHT and SAA. SAA and MS responded to cyclosporine while IHT required 131I. Relapsing SAA in 1 patient with MS was treated with antithymocyte globulin (ATG) which induced acute exacerbation of MS. Despite the low total dose of ATG (31.5 mg/kg), complete remission of SAA was obtained. Two other patients developed thyroid disorders, 42 and 106 months after successful immunosuppression with ATG/high-dose methylprednisolone. IHT and subacute thyroiditis were successfully treated with 131I or prednisolone, respectively, without recurrence of SAA in both cases. These are the first documented cases of SAA evolving in the course of MS while the coincidence with IHT was already described. Since enhanced expression of interferon-gamma plays a crucial role in SAA as well as in MS and in IHT, similar pathogenetic principles may apply for these seemingly unrelated disorders. PMID:7871951

Hinterberger-Fischer, M; Kier, P; Forstinger, I; Lechner, K; Kornek, G; Breyer, S; Ogris, H; Pont, J; Hinterberger, W

1994-01-01

94

The Presentation of Narcissistic Personality Disorder in an Octogenarian: Converging Evidence from Multiple Sources  

PubMed Central

Little is known about personality disorders (PDs) in later life. One reason for this dearth of knowledge is that many investigators believe that PDs soften with age. Recent anecdotal and empirical evidence, however, suggests that PDs are still very relevant in later life and may actually have unique presentations and consequences. The DSM-IV PD criteria seem to overlook these possibilities, perhaps because the personalities of older adults were not sufficiently understood when these criteria were written. But without age-appropriate criteria, clinicians and investigators who work with older adults may be unable to measure PDs adequately in their clients and research participants. A starting point for better understanding these disorders in older adults is the presentation of rich, empirical, clinical descriptions of symptoms and related behaviors using data from multiple instruments and sources. To this end, we describe in depth a case of narcissistic PD (NPD) in a woman in her mid 80s. This case study reveals that NPD is indeed relevant in the context of later life and impairs functioning in significant ways. PMID:21637723

BALSIS, STEVE; EATON, NICHOLAS R.; COOPER, LUKE D.; OLTMANNS, THOMAS F.

2011-01-01

95

Associations between mood, anxiety or substance use disorders and inflammatory markers after adjustment for multiple covariates in a population-based study.  

PubMed

Inflammation is one possible mechanism underlying the associations between mental disorders and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). However, studies on mental disorders and inflammation have yielded inconsistent results and the majority did not adjust for potential confounding factors. We examined the associations of several pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1?, IL-6 and TNF-?) and high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) with lifetime and current mood, anxiety and substance use disorders (SUD), while adjusting for multiple covariates. The sample included 3719 subjects, randomly selected from the general population, who underwent thorough somatic and psychiatric evaluations. Psychiatric diagnoses were made with a semi-structured interview. Major depressive disorder was subtyped into "atypical", "melancholic", "combined atypical-melancholic" and "unspecified". Associations between inflammatory markers and psychiatric diagnoses were assessed using multiple linear and logistic regression models. Lifetime bipolar disorders and atypical depression were associated with increased levels of hsCRP, but not after multivariate adjustment. After multivariate adjustment, SUD remained associated with increased hsCRP levels in men (? = 0.13 (95% CI: 0.03,0.23)) but not in women. After multivariate adjustment, lifetime combined and unspecified depression were associated with decreased levels of IL-6 (? = -0.27 (-0.51,-0.02); ? = -0.19 (-0.34,-0.05), respectively) and TNF-? (? = -0.16 (-0.30,-0.01); ? = -0.10 (-0.19,-0.02), respectively), whereas current combined and unspecified depression were associated with decreased levels of hsCRP (? = -0.20 (-0.39,-0.02); ? = -0.12 (-0.24,-0.01), respectively). Our data suggest that the significant associations between increased hsCRP levels and mood disorders are mainly attributable to the effects of comorbid disorders, medication as well as behavioral and physical CVRFs. PMID:25088287

Glaus, Jennifer; Vandeleur, Caroline L; von Känel, Roland; Lasserre, Aurélie M; Strippoli, Marie-Pierre F; Gholam-Rezaee, Mehdi; Castelao, Enrique; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Bovet, Pascal; Merikangas, Kathleen; Mooser, Vincent; Waeber, Gérard; Vollenweider, Peter; Aubry, Jean-Michel; Preisig, Martin

2014-11-01

96

The Multiple, Distinct Ways that Personality Contributes to Alcohol Use Disorders  

PubMed Central

There is little question of whether personality is associated with problematic alcohol involvement (such as alcohol use disorders; AUDs); it clearly is. However, the question remains: how or why is personality related to risky drinking and AUDs? To address this question, theoretical models have been posited regarding the causal effects of personality on alcohol use and related problems. In this article, several of these models are summarized and reviewed. Future research directions are discussed, including possible frameworks that serve to integrate various models of the personality-AUD relation. PMID:21170162

Littlefield, Andrew K.; Sher, Kenneth J.

2010-01-01

97

Multiple Myeloma Includes Phenotypically Defined Subsets of Clonotypic CD20+ B Cells that Persist During Treatment with Rituximab  

PubMed Central

Potential progenitor B cell compartments in multiple myeloma (MM) are clinically important. MM B cells and some circulating MM plasma cells express CD20, predicting their clearance by treatment with anti-CD20. Here we describe two types of clonotypic CD20+ B cell in peripheral blood of myeloma patients, identified by their expression of CD19 and CD20 epitopes, their expression of CD45RA and their light scatter properties. Thus, the circulating component of the MM clone includes at least two distinct CD19+ CD20+ B cell compartments, as well as CD138+ CD20+ plasma cells. To determine whether either or both B cell subsets and the CD20+ plasma cell subset were depleted by anti-CD20 therapy, they were evaluated before, during and after treatment of patients with rituximab (anti-CD20), followed by quantifying B cell subsets over a 5 month period during and after treatment. Overall, all three types of circulating B lineage cells persist despite treatment with rituximab. The inability of rituximab to prolong survival in MM may result from this failure to deplete CD20+ B and plasma cells in MM. PMID:21892289

Pilarski, Linda M.; Baigorri, Eva; Mant, Michael J.; Pilarski, Patrick M.; Adamson, Penelope; Zola, Heddy; Belch, Andrew R.

2008-01-01

98

Enhanced peripheral visual processing in congenitally deaf humans is supported by multiple brain regions, including primary auditory cortex  

PubMed Central

Brain reorganization associated with altered sensory experience clarifies the critical role of neuroplasticity in development. An example is enhanced peripheral visual processing associated with congenital deafness, but the neural systems supporting this have not been fully characterized. A gap in our understanding of deafness-enhanced peripheral vision is the contribution of primary auditory cortex. Previous studies of auditory cortex that use anatomical normalization across participants were limited by inter-subject variability of Heschl's gyrus. In addition to reorganized auditory cortex (cross-modal plasticity), a second gap in our understanding is the contribution of altered modality-specific cortices (visual intramodal plasticity in this case), as well as supramodal and multisensory cortices, especially when target detection is required across contrasts. Here we address these gaps by comparing fMRI signal change for peripheral vs. perifoveal visual stimulation (11–15° vs. 2–7°) in congenitally deaf and hearing participants in a blocked experimental design with two analytical approaches: a Heschl's gyrus region of interest analysis and a whole brain analysis. Our results using individually-defined primary auditory cortex (Heschl's gyrus) indicate that fMRI signal change for more peripheral stimuli was greater than perifoveal in deaf but not in hearing participants. Whole-brain analyses revealed differences between deaf and hearing participants for peripheral vs. perifoveal visual processing in extrastriate visual cortex including primary auditory cortex, MT+/V5, superior-temporal auditory, and multisensory and/or supramodal regions, such as posterior parietal cortex (PPC), frontal eye fields, anterior cingulate, and supplementary eye fields. Overall, these data demonstrate the contribution of neuroplasticity in multiple systems including primary auditory cortex, supramodal, and multisensory regions, to altered visual processing in congenitally deaf adults. PMID:24723877

Scott, Gregory D.; Karns, Christina M.; Dow, Mark W.; Stevens, Courtney; Neville, Helen J.

2014-01-01

99

Multiple Channel Exposure Therapy: Combining Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies for the Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder with Panic Attacks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A large proportion of patients who present for treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) experience comorbid panic attacks, yet it is unclear to what extent currently available PTSD treatment programs address this problem. Here we describe a newly developed treatment, multiple-channel exposure therapy (M-CET), for comorbid PTSD and panic…

Falsetti, Sherry A.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Davis, Joanne

2005-01-01

100

Exploring the Social Impact of Being a Typical Peer Model for Included Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the social impact of being a typical peer model as part of a social skills intervention for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants were drawn from a randomized-controlled-treatment trial that examined the effects of targeted interventions on the social networks of 60 elementary-aged children with ASD.…

Locke, Jill; Rotheram-Fuller, Erin; Kasari, Connie

2012-01-01

101

Efficacy of monepantel and anthelmintic combinations against multiple-resistant Haemonchus contortus in sheep, including characterisation of the nematode isolate.  

PubMed

Three experiments defined the resistance profile of a population of Haemonchus contortus, which was shown to express multiple resistances to the benzimidazole, levamisole, macrocyclic lactone and salicylanilide anthelmintic classes when given as a registered combination. Study 1 was a faecal egg count reduction (FECR) test and the efficacies for the anthelmintics were monepantel, 100%; abamectin+levamisole+oxfendazole, 40.0%; and abamectin+levamisole+oxfendazole+naphthalophos, 100%. No larvae were recovered from the post-treatment cultures for monepantel or the 4-way treatment, and for the 3-way treatment the culture was 100% Haemonchus spp. Efficacies in Study 2 were calculated from mean post-mortem nematode burdens of H. contortus and were levamisole+oxfendazole, 3.1%; abamectin+levamisole+oxfendazole, 5.0%; ivermectin, 0.4%; moxidectin, 28.4% and closantel, 70.2%. Study 3 was also a FECR test that resulted in efficacies of 100% for monepantel and 83.0% for a formulated 4-way combination of abamectin+levamisole+albendazole+closantel. Larvae recovered from the post-treatment culture for the combination-treated sheep were all Haemonchus spp. Multi-resistant parasites such as examined in these studies are a continuing challenge to be managed by farmers and their advisors. Control programs must be planned and well-managed, and should include on-farm testing for anthelmintic resistance, monitoring of nematode burdens (by FEC and larval culture) to determine appropriate treatment times and the management of pastures to reduce the overall parasite challenge. This should be in balance with the generation, use and maintenance of drug-susceptible nematode populations in refugia. PMID:22169404

Baker, K E; George, S D; Stein, P A; Seewald, W; Rolfe, P F; Hosking, B C

2012-05-25

102

High-Resolution Studies of the Multiple-Core Systems toward Cluster-Forming Regions Including Massive Stars  

E-print Network

We present the results of C18O observations by the Nobeyama Millimeter Array toward dense clumps with radii of ~ 0.3 pc in six cluster-forming regions including massive (proto)stars. We identified 171 cores, whose radius, line width, and molecular mass range from 0.01 to 0.09 pc, 0.43 to 3.33 km/s, and 0.5 to 54.1 Mo, respectively. Many cores with various line widths exist in one clump, and the index of the line width-radius relationship of the cores and the parental clump differs from core to core in the clump. This indicates that the degree of dissipation of the turbulent motion varies for each core in one clump. Although the mass of the cores increases with the line width, most cores are gravitationally bound by the external pressure. In addition, the line width and the external pressure of the cores tend to decrease with the distance from the center of the clump, and these dependencies may be caused by the inner H2 density structure of the clump that affects the physical properties of the cores. Moreover, the number density of the cores and the number density of young (proto)stars have a similar relationship to the average H2 density of the clumps. Thus, our findings suggest that the cluster is formed in the clump through the formation of such multiple cores, whose physical properties would have been strongly related to the H2 density structure and the turbulent motion of the clump.

Hiro Saito; Masao Saito; Yoshinori Yonekura; Fumitaka Nakamura

2008-07-14

103

Flt3 and c-kit mutation studies in a spectrum of chronic myeloid disorders including systemic mast cell disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

We screened 115 patients with chronic myeloid disorders (CMD) for known flt-3 and c-kit mutations in both the juxtamembrane (JM) and the activation loop (AL) domains. None of the patients displayed flt-3 (JM or AL) or c-kit JM mutations. However, the c-kit AL (D816V) mutation was detected in 5 of 16 patients with systemic mast cell disease (SMCD) but in

Animesh Pardanani; Terra L. Reeder; Teresa K. Kimlinger; Jin Y. Baek; Chin-Y. Li; Joseph H. Butterfield; Ayalew Tefferi

2003-01-01

104

Periventricular Lesions Help Differentiate Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorders from Multiple Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Objective. To compare periventricular lesions in multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOsd). Materials and Methods. Sagittal and axial fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequences of 20 NMOsd and 40 group frequency-matched MS patients were evaluated by two neuroradiologists. On axial FLAIR, periventricular area was characterized as free of lesions/smooth-bordered (“type A”) or jagged-bordered (“type B”) pattern. On sagittal FLAIR, the images were evaluated for presence of “Dawson's fingers.” Results. Type A pattern was observed in 80% of NMOsd patients by Reader 1 and 85% by Reader 2 but only in 5% MS patients by either Reader. Type B was seen in 15% NMOsd patients by Reader 1 and 20% by Reader 2 and in 95% MS patients by either Reader. Dawson's fingers were observed in no NMOsd patients by Reader 1 and 5% by Reader 2. In MS, Dawson's fingers were seen in 92.5% patients by Reader 1 and 77.5% by Reader 2. The differences in periventricular patterns and Dawson's finger detection between NMOsd and MS were highly significant (P < 0.001). Conclusions. Dawson's fingers and “jagged-bordered” periventricular hyperintensities are typical of MS and almost never seen in NMOsd, which suggests a practical method for differentiating the two diseases. PMID:24665366

Loh, John P.; Saba, Luca; Omari, Mirza; Herbert, Joseph; Kister, Ilya

2014-01-01

105

Multiplication  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How sharp are your multiplication skills? Give these great math games a try ! Play Asteroids blaster and test your multiplication skills. How fast can you solve the problem... play a round of Baseball multiplication and see! Multiplication is fun and delicious with Crazy Cones. Help Lemonade Larry determine the correct amount! Test your multiplication skills with Tic Tac Toe! ...

Ms.roberts

2009-02-24

106

Anxiety Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The psychiatric disorders that are designated as anxiety disorders include the specific diagnoses of panic disorder with and\\u000a without agoraphobia, agoraphobia without history of panic disorder, specific phobia, social phobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder\\u000a (OCD), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), acute stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), anxiety disorder due\\u000a to a general medical condition, substance-induced anxiety disorder, and anxiety disorder not otherwise

Julie Loebach Wetherell; Ariel J. Lang; Murray B. Stein

107

Auxiliary variables in multiple imputation in regression with missing X: a warning against including too many in small sample research  

PubMed Central

Background Multiple imputation is becoming increasingly popular. Theoretical considerations as well as simulation studies have shown that the inclusion of auxiliary variables is generally of benefit. Methods A simulation study of a linear regression with a response Y and two predictors X1 and X2 was performed on data with n = 50, 100 and 200 using complete cases or multiple imputation with 0, 10, 20, 40 and 80 auxiliary variables. Mechanisms of missingness were either 100% MCAR or 50% MAR + 50% MCAR. Auxiliary variables had low (r=.10) vs. moderate correlations (r=.50) with X’s and Y. Results The inclusion of auxiliary variables can improve a multiple imputation model. However, inclusion of too many variables leads to downward bias of regression coefficients and decreases precision. When the correlations are low, inclusion of auxiliary variables is not useful. Conclusion More research on auxiliary variables in multiple imputation should be performed. A preliminary rule of thumb could be that the ratio of variables to cases with complete data should not go below 1 : 3. PMID:23216665

2012-01-01

108

Hallucinogen persisting perception disorder and the serotonergic system: a comprehensive review including new MDMA-related clinical cases.  

PubMed

Hallucinogen persisting perception disorder (HPPD) is a drug-induced condition associated with inaccurate visual representations. Since the underlying mechanism(s) are largely unknown, this review aims to uncover aspects underlying its etiology. Available evidence on HPPD and drug-related altered visual processing was reviewed and the majority of HPPD cases were attributed to drugs with agonistic effects on serotonergic 5-HT?A receptors. Moreover, we present 31 new HPPD cases that link HPPD to the use of ecstasy (MDMA), which is known to reverse serotonin reuptake and acts as agonist on 5-HT?A receptors. The available evidence suggests that HPPD symptoms may be a result from a misbalance of inhibitory-excitatory activity in low-level visual processing and GABA-releasing inhibitory interneurons may be involved. However, high co-morbidities with anxiety, attention problems and derealization symptoms add complexity to the etiology of HPPD. Also, other perceptual disorders that show similarity to HPPD cannot be ruled out in presentations to clinical treatment. Taken together, evidence is still sparse, though low-level visual processing may play an important role. A novel finding of this review study, evidenced by our new cases, is that ecstasy (MDMA) use may also induce symptoms of HPPD. PMID:24933532

Litjens, Ruud P W; Brunt, Tibor M; Alderliefste, Gerard-Jan; Westerink, Remco H S

2014-08-01

109

Serum antibody for somatostatin-14 and prodynorphin 209-240 in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder, schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, and advanced HIV infection.  

PubMed

Patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) demonstrated significant levels of antibody for somatostatin-28, its C-terminal fragment somatostatin-14, and prodynorphin. In contrast there were lower levels of reactivity for somatostatin-28(1-14) (the N-terminal fragment of somatostatin-28) and negligible reactivity for several other peptides including beta-endorphin and corticotropin. Healthy volunteers and disease controls [schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, and subjects with advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection] exhibited negligible reactivity. These data raise the consideration of an autoimmune mechanism for some OCD. PMID:7912113

Roy, B F; Benkelfat, C; Hill, J L; Pierce, P F; Dauphin, M M; Kelly, T M; Sunderland, T; Weinberger, D R; Breslin, N

1994-03-01

110

P450 Oxidoreductase Deficiency: A Disorder of Steroidogenesis with Multiple Clinical Manifestations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Cytochrome P450 enzymes catalyze the biosynthesis of steroid hormones and metabolize drugs. There are seven human type I P450 enzymes in mitochondria and 50 type II enzymes in endoplasmic reticulum. Type II enzymes, including both drug-metabolizing and some steroidogenic enzymes, require electron donation from a two-flavin protein, P450 oxidoreductase (POR). Although knockout of the POR gene causes embryonic lethality in mice, we discovered human POR deficiency as a disorder of steroidogenesis associated with the Antley-Bixler skeletal malformation syndrome and found mild POR mutations in phenotypically normal adults with infertility. Assay results of mutant forms of POR using the traditional but nonphysiologic assay (reduction of cytochrome c) did not correlate with patient phenotypes; assays based on the 17,20 lyase activity of P450c17 (CYP17) correlated with clinical phenotypes. The POR sequence in 842 normal individuals revealed many polymorphisms; amino acid sequence variant A503V is encoded by ~28% of human alleles. POR A503V has about 60% of wild-type activity in assays with CYP17, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4, but nearly wild-type activity with P450c21, CYP1A2, and CYP2C19. Activity of a particular POR variant with one P450 enzyme will not predict its activity with another P450 enzyme: Each POR-P450 combination must be studied individually. Human POR transcription, initiated from an untranslated exon, is regulated by Smad3/4, thyroid receptors, and the transcription factor AP-2. A promoter polymorphism reduces transcription to 60% in liver cells and to 35% in adrenal cells. POR deficiency is a newly described disorder of steroidogenesis, and POR variants may account for some genetic variation in drug metabolism.

Walter L. Miller (San Francisco;University of California REV)

2012-10-23

111

Suicide, Hospital-Presenting Suicide Attempts, and Criminality in Bipolar Disorder: Examination of Risk for Multiple Adverse Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare risks for suicidality and criminality in a national cohort of people diagnosed with bipolar disorder, and to assess how risk factor profiles differ between these outcomes. Method We conducted 2 case-cohort studies using interlinked Swedish national registers. Primarily, using International Classification of Diseases (ICD) coding, we identified 15,337 people diagnosed with bipolar disorder, 1973–2009, matched by age and gender to 20 individuals per case sampled randomly from the general population. We estimated risks of suicide and hospital-presenting attempted suicide, and violent and nonviolent criminal offending. We separately assessed these risks among 14,677 unaffected siblings matched to a second general population sample. Results 22.2% of bipolar disorder cohort members engaged in suicidal or criminal acts after diagnosis. They were at greatly elevated risk for completed suicide (risk ratio = 18.8; 95% CI, 16.0–22.2), attempted suicide (risk ratio = 14.3; 95% CI, 13.5–15.2), violent crime (risk ratio = 5.0; 95% CI, 4.6–5.4), and nonviolent crime (risk ratio = 2.9; 95% CI, 2.8–3.1) compared with the general population. Elevations in risk were far less marked among the unaffected siblings than in the bipolar disorder cohort. Three factors independently predicted raised risk of all 4 adverse outcomes: if the first 2 patient episodes for bipolar disorder required admission, a history of attempted suicide, and a history of diagnosed alcohol/drug disorder. Criminal offending before bipolar diagnosis was an especially strong independent predictor of criminality after diagnosis. Conclusions The combined risk of suicidality or criminality is substantially elevated in both relative and absolute terms. Clinical prediction rules focusing on multiple vulnerabilities following onset of bipolar disorder, especially when there is history of attempted suicide, substance misuse disorders, or criminal offending, may improve risk management. PMID:25191918

Webb, Roger T.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Larsson, Henrik; Geddes, John R.; Fazel, Seena

2014-01-01

112

Exploring the Social Impact of Being a Typical Peer Model for Included Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder  

PubMed Central

This study examined the social impact of being a typical peer model as part of a social skills intervention for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants were drawn from a randomized-controlled-treatment trial that examined the effects of targeted interventions on the social networks of 60 elementary-aged children with ASD. Results demonstrated that typical peer models had higher social network centrality, received friendships, friendship quality, and less loneliness than non-peer models. Peer models were also more likely to be connected with children with ASD than non-peer models at baseline and exit. These results suggest that typical peers can be socially connected to children with ASD, as well as other classmates, and maintain a strong and positive role within the classroom. PMID:22215436

Locke, Jill; Fuller, Erin Rotheram; Kasari, Connie

2014-01-01

113

Clinical and neuroimaging correlation of movement disorders in multiple sclerosis: case series and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, in which movement disorders (MD) have been reported very rarely. Anatomopathological studies of MS indicate two main processes: inflammation and neurodegeneration. The occurrence of the movement disorders symptoms in MS revises the question of aetiology of these two diseases. During the 10 years of observation in our out-patient clinic and MS units we examined about 2500 patients with clinically definite MS diagnosed according to the revised McDonald's criteria. Only in 10 cases we found coexistence of MS and MD signs. Below we present rare cases of patients with coexistence of MS and chorea, pseudoathetosis, dystonia and parkinsonism. Searching for the strategic focal lesion in our case series showed demyelinating plaques placed in the thalamus most often. Detailed analysis of the clinical, pharmacological and neuroimaging correlations may help to explain the character of movement disorders in MS. PMID:24729346

Potulska-Chromik, Anna; Rudzinska, Monika; Nojszewska, Monika; Podlecka-Pi?towska, Aleksandra; Szczudlik, Andrzej; Zakrzewska-Pniewska, Beata; Go??biowski, Marek

2014-01-01

114

Clinical Features: Goldberg-Shprintzen megacolon syndrome (GOSHS, OMIM #609460) is a multiple malformation disorder  

E-print Network

malformation disorder characterized by Hirschsprung megacolon, microcephaly, hypertelorism, submucous cleft:185-189. 2. Hurst, JA., et al. Unknown syndrome: Hirschsprung's disease, microcephaly, and iris coloboma

Ober, Carole

115

Interactive Case Studies in Behavioral Disorders: Looking at Children from Multiple Perspectives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a series of computer-based, interactive videodisc training programs being developed for training personnel to work with children having emotional and behavioral disorders. The first program, "Perspectives on Emotional and Behavioral Disorders," is designed for preservice and inservice use by special and general educators.…

Semrau, Louis P.; Fitzgerald, Gail E.

1995-01-01

116

Commentary: Differentiated Measures of Temperament and Multiple Pathways to Childhood Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provided is a commentary on articles written for a special section on temperament and childhood disorders. Temperament's contributions to the development of childhood disorders are considered both generally and specifically. Questions are raised about the use of terminology in the field, particularly the term difficult. Differentiation of outcomes…

Rothbart, Mary K.

2004-01-01

117

Multiple Hypercoagulability Disorders at Presentation of Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer  

PubMed Central

Hypercoagulability disorders are commonly encountered in clinical situations in patients with a variety of cancers. However, several hypercoagulability disorders presenting as first symptoms or signs in cancer patients have rarely been reported. We herein described a case of a woman with adenocarcinoma of the lung presenting with deep vein thrombosis, nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis, recurrent cerebral embolic infarction, and heart failure. PMID:25114702

Lee, Jeong Min; Lim, Jun Hyeok; Kim, Jung-Soo; Park, Ji Sun; Memon, Azra; Lee, Seul-Ki; Nam, Hae-Seong; Cho, Jae-Hwa; Kwak, Seung-Min; Lee, Hong Lyeol; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Hong, Geun-Jeong

2014-01-01

118

Immediate-Release Methylphenidate for ADHD in Children with Comorbid Chronic Multiple Tic Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine the safety and efficacy of immediate-release methylphenidate (MPH-IR) for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children (ages 6-12 years) with Tourette's syndrome (96%) or chronic motor tic disorder (4%). Method: Two cohorts of prepubertal children (N = 71) received placebo and three doses of…

Gadow, Kenneth D.; Sverd, Jeffrey; Nolan, Edith E.; Sprafkin, Joyce; Schneider, Jayne

2007-01-01

119

Development and validation of the SDDS-PC screen for multiple mental disorders in primary care  

Microsoft Academic Search

and scale performance. Sensitivity, specificity, and posi- tive predictive value, respectively, were calculated for the following scales: alcohol abuse or dependence (62%, 98%, and 54%), generalized anxiety disorder (90%, 54%, and 5%), major depression (90%, 77%, and 40%), obsessive- compulsive disorder (65%, 73%, and 5%), panic disor- der (78%, 80%, and 21%), and suicidal ideation (43%, 91%, and 51%). Replication

W. Eugene Broadhead; Andrew C. Leon; Myrna M. Weissman; James E. Barrett; Robert S. Blacklow; Thomas T. Gilbert; Martin B. Keller; Mark Olfson; Edmund S. Higgins

1995-01-01

120

Immediate-Release Methylphenidate for ADHD in Children With Comorbid Chronic Multiple Tic Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo examine the safety and efficacy of immediate-release methylphenidate (MPH-IR) for the treatment of attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children (ages 6-12 years) with Tourette's syndrome (96%) or chronic motor tic disorder (4%).

KENNETH D. GADOW; JEFFREY SVERD; EDITH E. NOLAN; JOYCE SPRAFKIN; JAYNE SCHNEIDER

2007-01-01

121

Nonadiabatic dynamics of electron transfer in solution: Explicit and implicit solvent treatments that include multiple relaxation time scales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of efficient theoretical methods for describing electron transfer (ET) reactions in condensed phases is important for a variety of chemical and biological applications. Previously, dynamical dielectric continuum theory was used to derive Langevin equations for a single collective solvent coordinate describing ET in a polar solvent. In this theory, the parameters are directly related to the physical properties of the system and can be determined from experimental data or explicit molecular dynamics simulations. Herein, we combine these Langevin equations with surface hopping nonadiabatic dynamics methods to calculate the rate constants for thermal ET reactions in polar solvents for a wide range of electronic couplings and reaction free energies. Comparison of explicit and implicit solvent calculations illustrates that the mapping from explicit to implicit solvent models is valid even for solvents exhibiting complex relaxation behavior with multiple relaxation time scales and a short-time inertial response. The rate constants calculated for implicit solvent models with a single solvent relaxation time scale corresponding to water, acetonitrile, and methanol agree well with analytical theories in the Golden rule and solvent-controlled regimes, as well as in the intermediate regime. The implicit solvent models with two relaxation time scales are in qualitative agreement with the analytical theories but quantitatively overestimate the rate constants compared to these theories. Analysis of these simulations elucidates the importance of multiple relaxation time scales and the inertial component of the solvent response, as well as potential shortcomings of the analytical theories based on single time scale solvent relaxation models. This implicit solvent approach will enable the simulation of a wide range of ET reactions via the stochastic dynamics of a single collective solvent coordinate with parameters that are relevant to experimentally accessible systems.

Schwerdtfeger, Christine A.; Soudackov, Alexander V.; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

2014-01-01

122

Combining Information From Multiple Sources in the Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundStandard case criteria are proposed for combined use of the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule to diagnose autism and to define the broader category of autism spectrum disorders.

SUSAN RISI; CATHERINE LORD; KATHERINE GOTHAM; CHRISTINA CORSELLO; CHRISTINA CHRYSLER; PETER SZATMARI; EDWIN H. COOK; BENNETT L. LEVENTHAL; ANDREW PICKLES

2006-01-01

123

Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 3-5: Planar Motion; Newton's Laws; and Vector Multiplication].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

124

I. Multiple Choice: choose onebest answer(2.5 points each, 80 points) 1.The effects of transposons can include  

E-print Network

. A temperature sensitive mutant refers to A. a mutation of one of anti-freeze genes. B. a mutation of one can include A. disruption of gene expression. B. prevention of gene expression. C. occurrence. 3. Telomerase is not active in A. yeast. B. protozoa. C. single-celledorganisms. D. cancer cell. E

Huang, Haimei

125

Targeted deletion of liver glucose-6 phosphatase mimics glycogen storage disease type 1a including development of multiple adenomas  

E-print Network

.rajas@univ-lyon1.fr Running title: Liver glycogen storage disease 1a mouse model Electronic word count: 5450 Number deletion of liver glucose-6 phosphatase mimics glycogen storage disease type 1a including development subunit of G6Pase (G6PC), Glycogen storage disease type 1a (GSD1a), wild type (wt), Non esterified fatty

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

126

Multiple mechanisms involved in the large-spectrum therapeutic potential of cannabidiol in psychiatric disorders  

PubMed Central

Cannabidiol (CBD) is a major phytocannabinoid present in the Cannabis sativa plant. It lacks the psychotomimetic and other psychotropic effects that the main plant compound ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) being able, on the contrary, to antagonize these effects. This property, together with its safety profile, was an initial stimulus for the investigation of CBD pharmacological properties. It is now clear that CBD has therapeutic potential over a wide range of non-psychiatric and psychiatric disorders such as anxiety, depression and psychosis. Although the pharmacological effects of CBD in different biological systems have been extensively investigated by in vitro studies, the mechanisms responsible for its therapeutic potential are still not clear. Here, we review recent in vivo studies indicating that these mechanisms are not unitary but rather depend on the behavioural response being measured. Acute anxiolytic and antidepressant-like effects seem to rely mainly on facilitation of 5-HT1A-mediated neurotransmission in key brain areas related to defensive responses, including the dorsal periaqueductal grey, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and medial prefrontal cortex. Other effects, such as anti-compulsive, increased extinction and impaired reconsolidation of aversive memories, and facilitation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis could depend on potentiation of anandamide-mediated neurotransmission. Finally, activation of TRPV1 channels may help us to explain the antipsychotic effect and the bell-shaped dose-response curves commonly observed with CBD. Considering its safety profile and wide range of therapeutic potential, however, further studies are needed to investigate the involvement of other possible mechanisms (e.g. inhibition of adenosine uptake, inverse agonism at CB2 receptor, CB1 receptor antagonism, GPR55 antagonism, PPAR? receptors agonism, intracellular (Ca2+) increase, etc.), on CBD behavioural effects. PMID:23108553

Campos, Alline Cristina; Moreira, Fabricio Araujo; Gomes, Felipe Villela; Del Bel, Elaine Aparecida; Guimaraes, Francisco Silveira

2012-01-01

127

Multiple mechanisms involved in the large-spectrum therapeutic potential of cannabidiol in psychiatric disorders.  

PubMed

Cannabidiol (CBD) is a major phytocannabinoid present in the Cannabis sativa plant. It lacks the psychotomimetic and other psychotropic effects that the main plant compound ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) being able, on the contrary, to antagonize these effects. This property, together with its safety profile, was an initial stimulus for the investigation of CBD pharmacological properties. It is now clear that CBD has therapeutic potential over a wide range of non-psychiatric and psychiatric disorders such as anxiety, depression and psychosis. Although the pharmacological effects of CBD in different biological systems have been extensively investigated by in vitro studies, the mechanisms responsible for its therapeutic potential are still not clear. Here, we review recent in vivo studies indicating that these mechanisms are not unitary but rather depend on the behavioural response being measured. Acute anxiolytic and antidepressant-like effects seem to rely mainly on facilitation of 5-HT1A-mediated neurotransmission in key brain areas related to defensive responses, including the dorsal periaqueductal grey, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and medial prefrontal cortex. Other effects, such as anti-compulsive, increased extinction and impaired reconsolidation of aversive memories, and facilitation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis could depend on potentiation of anandamide-mediated neurotransmission. Finally, activation of TRPV1 channels may help us to explain the antipsychotic effect and the bell-shaped dose-response curves commonly observed with CBD. Considering its safety profile and wide range of therapeutic potential, however, further studies are needed to investigate the involvement of other possible mechanisms (e.g. inhibition of adenosine uptake, inverse agonism at CB2 receptor, CB1 receptor antagonism, GPR55 antagonism, PPAR? receptors agonism, intracellular (Ca(2+)) increase, etc.), on CBD behavioural effects. PMID:23108553

Campos, Alline Cristina; Moreira, Fabricio Araújo; Gomes, Felipe Villela; Del Bel, Elaine Aparecida; Guimarães, Francisco Silveira

2012-12-01

128

Latent introduction to the Netherlands of multiple antibiotic resistance including NDM-1 after hospitalisation in Egypt, August 2013.  

PubMed

We describe the introduction of various multi-drug resistant bacterial strains, including an NDM-1-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae, through a traveller returning from Egypt, where they had been admitted to a private hospital. All family members of the patient were colonised with one or more extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing strains. These findings emphasise the importance of adherence to isolation precautions for returning patients and suggest the need for inclusion of Enterobacteriaceae in admission screening. PMID:24176580

Bathoorn, E; Friedrich, A W; Zhou, K; Arends, J P; Borst, D M; Grundmann, H; Rossen, J W

2013-01-01

129

[Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD): the syndrome with multiple faces].  

PubMed

We choose to discuss from the PTSD's point of view because this diagnostic reference is commonly used. We wish outline its restrictive sight which could prevent the professional from having a diagnosis of PTSD. We don't want to say there is a PTSD everywhere but it appears to us that a traumatic reading can be a precious advantage for the clinician to establish a real therapeutic relation with some patients. Post-traumatic syndrome differs from the majority of other diagnostic categories as it includes in its criteria the presumptive cause of the trauma (criterion A). In the case that this syndrome originates in war experiences, the presumed cause presents itself as an exceptional event overcoming the individual's resources. The notion of war traumatisation has been extended to other events such as catastrophes, physical attacks, rapes, child and wife battering, and sexual abuses. But the events which cause PTSD (Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder) are significantly more numerous. It can be seen that medical events such as giving birth, miscarriage, heart attack, cancer, or hospitalisation following resuscitation may give rise to PTSD. Further, people experiencing prolonged periods of distress may equally develop a post-traumatic syndrome without any particular event having occurred to surpass their defences. It's the case of the Prolonged Duress Stress Disorder (PDSD). The series of discontinuous stress "waste" the psychic balance and may give rise, at one moment, to posttraumatic symptoms described in DSM, without any specific stressful event. The existence of criterion A is therefore not a necessary prerequisite in establishing a diagnosis of PTSD. It is, in fact, very difficult to predict which events could cause a PTSD, and this, especially, as the subjective aspects count at least as much as the objective aspects. The clinician should have to carefully explore how the patient experienced the event or, how he apprehended the event itself and it's outcome, if he wants get the traumatic range of a life event. The feeling of deep distress, the feeling of being trapped, the loss of control, the collapse of basic beliefs, the feeling that one's life is in jeopardy, that the physical integrity is (really or in one's imagination) threatened, the feeling of helplessness, are quite as much clues for a possible PTSD which hides behind others clinical manifestations either psychological or somatic. Furthermore, the "pure" form described in the DSM and grouping together three further criteria (reliving events, avoiding stimuli associated with the trauma, hyper-reactivity) is extremely rare in the chronic form. An untreated post-traumatic syndrome evolves with time and may present, initially, with very different pathological symptoms giving rise to equally varied diagnoses. Different etiopathogenic models propose to account for the PTSD 's heterogeneous appearance and instability with time. The comorbidity concept sees the PTSD as an independent entity other independent pathologies coexist with. The typologic concept suggests that the PTSD is an independent entity which shows different clinical appearances based on symptomatic descriptions. The "cascade" concept suggests to see the PTSD as an independent entity which offers, with time, different symptomatic appearances, in evolution, because of events caused by after effects, in different areas of the PTSD itself. All of these concepts outline the transnosologic appearance of the PTSD which makes it hardly recognizable. The "chronic" syndrome is rarely diagnosed forming a real challenge to prevention. In effect, the present authors insist on the crucial nature of early detection of PTSD since the greater the time elapsed the more difficult it becomes due to the evolutionary aspect of the syndrome, which initially has more readily recognizable symptoms. The consequences of an unrecognised PTSD are serious and affect both the individual and his immediate family and friends, contributing further to the aggravation of the problems. When a PTSD is

Waddington, A; Ampelas, J-F; Mauriac, F; Bronchard, M; Zeltner, L; Mallat, V

2003-01-01

130

High-Resolution Studies of the Multiple-Core Systems toward Cluster-Forming Regions Including Massive Stars  

E-print Network

We present the results of C18O observations by the Nobeyama Millimeter Array toward dense clumps with radii of ~ 0.3 pc in six cluster-forming regions including massive (proto)stars. We identified 171 cores, whose radius, line width, and molecular mass range from 0.01 to 0.09 pc, 0.43 to 3.33 km/s, and 0.5 to 54.1 Mo, respectively. Many cores with various line widths exist in one clump, and the index of the line width-radius relationship of the cores and the parental clump differs from core to core in the clump. This indicates that the degree of dissipation of the turbulent motion varies for each core in one clump. Although the mass of the cores increases with the line width, most cores are gravitationally bound by the external pressure. In addition, the line width and the external pressure of the cores tend to decrease with the distance from the center of the clump, and these dependencies may be caused by the inner H2 density structure of the clump that affects the physical properties of the cores. Moreover,...

Saito, Hiro; Yonekura, Yoshinori; Nakamura, Fumitaka

2008-01-01

131

Biallelic germline and somatic mutations in malignant mesothelioma: Multiple mutations in transcription regulators including mSWI/SNF genes.  

PubMed

We detected low levels of acetylation for histone H3 tail lysines in malignant mesothelioma (MM) cell lines resistant to histone deacetylase inhibitors. To identify the possible genetic causes related to the low histone acetylation levels, whole-exome sequencing was conducted with MM cell lines established from eight patients. A mono-allelic variant of BRD1 was common to two MM cell lines with very low acetylation levels. We identified 318 homozygous protein-damaging variants/mutations (18-78 variants/mutations per patient); annotation analysis showed enrichment of the molecules associated with mammalian SWI/SNF (mSWI/SNF) chromatin remodeling complexes and co-activators that facilitate initiation of transcription. In seven of the patients, we detected a combination of variants in histone modifiers or transcription factors/co-factors, in addition to variants in mSWI/SNF. Direct sequencing showed that homozygous mutations in SMARCA4, PBRM1 and ARID2 were somatic. In one patient, homozygous germline variants were observed for SMARCC1 and SETD2 in chr3p22.1-3p14.2. These exhibited extended germline homozygosity and were in regions containing somatic mutations, leading to a loss of BAP1 and PBRM1 expression in MM cell line. Most protein-damaging variants were heterozygous in normal tissues. Heterozygous germline variants were often converted into hemizygous variants by mono-allelic deletion, and were rarely homozygous because of acquired uniparental disomy. Our findings imply that MM might develop through the somatic inactivation of mSWI/SNF complex subunits and/or histone modifiers, including BAP1, in subjects that have rare germline variants of these transcription regulators and/or transcription factors/co-factors, and in regions prone to mono-allelic deletion during oncogenesis. PMID:24916674

Yoshikawa, Yoshie; Sato, Ayuko; Tsujimura, Tohru; Otsuki, Taiichiro; Fukuoka, Kazuya; Hasegawa, Seiki; Nakano, Takashi; Hashimoto-Tamaoki, Tomoko

2015-02-15

132

SOX9 Regulates Multiple Genes in Chondrocytes, Including Genes Encoding ECM Proteins, ECM Modification Enzymes, Receptors, and Transporters  

PubMed Central

The transcription factor SOX9 plays an essential role in determining the fate of several cell types and is a master factor in regulation of chondrocyte development. Our aim was to determine which genes in the genome of chondrocytes are either directly or indirectly controlled by SOX9. We used RNA-Seq to identify genes whose expression levels were affected by SOX9 and used SOX9 ChIP-Seq to identify those genes that harbor SOX9-interaction sites. For RNA-Seq, the RNA expression profile of primary Sox9flox/flox mouse chondrocytes infected with Ad-CMV-Cre was compared with that of the same cells infected with a control adenovirus. Analysis of RNA-Seq data indicated that, when the levels of Sox9 mRNA were decreased more than 8-fold by infection with Ad-CMV-Cre, 196 genes showed a decrease in expression of at least 4-fold. These included many cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM) genes and a number of genes for ECM modification enzymes (transferases), membrane receptors, transporters, and others. In ChIP-Seq, 75% of the SOX9-interaction sites had a canonical inverted repeat motif within 100 bp of the top of the peak. SOX9-interaction sites were found in 55% of the genes whose expression was decreased more than 8-fold in SOX9-depleted cells and in somewhat fewer of the genes whose expression was reduced more than 4-fold, suggesting that these are direct targets of SOX9. The combination of RNA-Seq and ChIP-Seq has provided a fuller understanding of the SOX9-controlled genetic program of chondrocytes. PMID:25229425

Oh, Chun-do; Lu, Yue; Liang, Shoudan; Mori-Akiyama, Yuko; Chen, Di; de Crombrugghe, Benoit; Yasuda, Hideyo

2014-01-01

133

Airborne electromagnetic detection of shallow seafloor topographic features, including resolution of multiple sub-parallel seafloor ridges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The HoistEM helicopter time-domain electromagnetic (TEM) system was flown over waters in Backstairs Passage, South Australia, in 2003 to test the bathymetric accuracy and hence the ability to resolve seafloor structure in shallow and deeper waters (extending to ~40 m depth) that contain interesting seafloor topography. The topography that forms a rock peak (South Page) in the form of a mini-seamount that barely rises above the water surface was accurately delineated along its ridge from the start of its base (where the seafloor is relatively flat) in ~30 m water depth to its peak at the water surface, after an empirical correction was applied to the data to account for imperfect system calibration, consistent with earlier studies using the same HoistEM system. A much smaller submerged feature (Threshold Bank) of ~9 m peak height located in waters of 35 to 40 m depth was also accurately delineated. These observations when checked against known water depths in these two regions showed that the airborne TEM system, following empirical data correction, was effectively operating correctly. The third and most important component of the survey was flown over the Yatala Shoals region that includes a series of sub-parallel seafloor ridges (resembling large sandwaves rising up to ~20 m from the seafloor) that branch out and gradually decrease in height as the ridges spread out across the seafloor. These sub-parallel ridges provide an interesting topography because the interpreted water depths obtained from 1D inversion of TEM data highlight the limitations of the EM footprint size in resolving both the separation between the ridges (which vary up to ~300 m) and the height of individual ridges (which vary up to ~20 m), and possibly also the limitations of assuming a 1D model in areas where the topography is quasi-2D/3D.

Vrbancich, Julian; Boyd, Graham

2014-05-01

134

Binding of Multiple Features in Memory by High-Functioning Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Diminished episodic memory and diminished use of semantic information to aid recall by individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are both thought to result from diminished relational binding of elements of complex stimuli. To test this hypothesis, we asked high-functioning adults with ASD and typical comparison participants to study grids in…

Bowler, Dermot M.; Gaigg, Sebastian B.; Gardiner, John M.

2014-01-01

135

78 FR 7659 - Revised Medical Criteria for Evaluating Congenital Disorders That Affect Multiple Body Systems  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...disorder. Most people with non-mosaic Down syndrome have three copies of chromosome 21 in all of their cells (chromosome 21 trisomy); some have an extra copy of chromosome 21 attached to a different chromosome in all of their cells...

2013-02-04

136

Clinical Features: Goldberg-Shprintzen megacolon syndrome (GOSHS, OMIM #609460) is a multiple malformation disorder  

E-print Network

Sequencing for Goldberg-Shprintzen megacolon syndrome #12;12/11 Prenatal testing for a known mutation with GOSHS but is a genetically distinct disorder caused by mutations in the ZEB2 gene [5]. Distinctive of or underdeveloped thymus and parathyroid glands [7] Molecular Genetics: Mutations in the KIAA1279 gene (OMIM #609367

Gilad, Yoav

137

Behavior rating scales: Concordance between multiple informants in the diagnosis of Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) emerges in early childhood and is characterized by inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Behavior rating scales serve as an essential component in a comprehensive assessment of ADHD. Unfortunately, there is often disconcordance between informants' responses, resulting in lower interrater reliability. The current paper reviews variables that may decrease the diagnostic utility of behavior rating scales in the diagnosis

R. L. Mandal; D. J. Olmi; S. M. Wilczynski

1999-01-01

138

Involvement of Youths with Autism Spectrum Disorders or Intellectual Disabilities in Multiple Public Service Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and intellectual disability (ID) among youths active in at least one of five public service systems: mental health (MH), educational services for youth with serious emotional disturbance (SED), child welfare (CW), juvenile justice (JJ), and alcohol and…

Brookman-Frazee, Lauren; Baker-Ericzen, Mary; Stahmer, Aubyn; Mandell, David; Haine, Rachel A.; Hough, Richard L.

2009-01-01

139

Temperament and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: The Development of a Multiple Pathway Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article outlines the parallels between major theories of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and relevant temperament domains, summarizing recent research from our laboratories on (a) child temperament and (b) adult personality traits related to ADHD symptoms. These data are convergent in suggesting a role of effortful control and…

Nigg, Joel T.; Goldsmith, H. Hill; Sachek, Jennifer

2004-01-01

140

Imaging Evidence for Disturbances in Multiple Learning and Memory Systems in Persons with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: The aim of this article is to review neuroimaging studies of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) that examine declarative, socio-emotional, and procedural learning and memory systems. Method: We conducted a search of PubMed from 1996 to 2010 using the terms "autism,""learning,""memory," and "neuroimaging." We limited our review to studies…

Goh, Suzanne; Peterson, Bradley S.

2012-01-01

141

Loss-of-function mutations in SMARCE1 cause an inherited disorder of multiple spinal meningiomas.  

PubMed

One-third of all primary central nervous system tumors in adults are meningiomas. Rarely, meningiomas occur at multiple sites, usually occurring in individuals with type 2 neurofibromatosis (NF2). We sequenced the exomes of three unrelated individuals with familial multiple spinal meningiomas without NF2 mutations. We identified two individuals with heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex subunit gene SMARCE1. Sequencing of SMARCE1 in six further individuals with spinal meningiomas identified two additional heterozygous loss-of-function mutations. Tumors from individuals with SMARCE1 mutations were of clear-cell histological subtype, and all had loss of SMARCE1 protein, consistent with a tumor suppressor mechanism. Our findings identify multiple-spinal-meningioma disease as a new discrete entity and establish a key role for the SWI/SNF complex in the pathogenesis of both meningiomas and tumors with clear-cell histology. PMID:23377182

Smith, Miriam J; O'Sullivan, James; Bhaskar, Sanjeev S; Hadfield, Kristen D; Poke, Gemma; Caird, John; Sharif, Saba; Eccles, Diana; Fitzpatrick, David; Rawluk, Daniel; du Plessis, Daniel; Newman, William G; Evans, D Gareth

2013-03-01

142

Multiple Legionella pneumophila Type II Secretion Substrates, Including a Novel Protein, Contribute to Differential Infection of the Amoebae Acanthamoeba castellanii, Hartmannella vermiformis, and Naegleria lovaniensis  

PubMed Central

Type II protein secretion (T2S) by Legionella pneumophila is required for intracellular infection of host cells, including macrophages and the amoebae Acanthamoeba castellanii and Hartmannella vermiformis. Previous proteomic analysis revealed that T2S by L. pneumophila 130b mediates the export of >25 proteins, including several that appeared to be novel. Following confirmation that they are unlike known proteins, T2S substrates NttA, NttB, and LegP were targeted for mutation. nttA mutants were impaired for intracellular multiplication in A. castellanii but not H. vermiformis or macrophages, suggesting that novel exoproteins which are specific to Legionella are especially important for infection. Because the importance of NttA was host cell dependent, we examined a panel of T2S substrate mutants that had not been tested before in more than one amoeba. As a result, RNase SrnA, acyltransferase PlaC, and metalloprotease ProA all proved to be required for optimal intracellular multiplication in H. vermiformis but not A. castellanii. Further examination of an lspF mutant lacking the T2S apparatus documented that T2S is also critical for infection of the amoeba Naegleria lovaniensis. Mutants lacking SrnA, PlaC, or ProA, but not those deficient for NttA, were defective in N. lovaniensis. Based upon analysis of a double mutant lacking PlaC and ProA, the role of ProA in H. vermiformis was connected to its ability to activate PlaC, whereas in N. lovaniensis, ProA appeared to have multiple functions. Together, these data document that the T2S system exports multiple effectors, including a novel one, which contribute in different ways to the broad host range of L. pneumophila. PMID:23429532

Tyson, Jessica Y.; Pearce, Meghan M.; Vargas, Paloma; Bagchi, Sreya; Mulhern, Brendan J.

2013-01-01

143

The Roles of FMRP-Regulated Genes in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Single- and Multiple-Hit Genetic Etiologies  

PubMed Central

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a highly heritable complex neurodevelopmental condition characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication and restricted and repetitive behaviors. Although roles for both de novo and familial genetic variation have been documented, the underlying disease mechanisms remain poorly elucidated. In this study, we defined and explored distinct etiologies of genetic variants that affect genes regulated by Fragile-X mental retardation protein (FMRP), thought to play a key role in neuroplasticity and neuronal translation, in ASD-affected individuals. In particular, we developed the Trend test, a pathway-association test that is able to robustly detect multiple-hit etiologies and is more powerful than existing approaches. Exploiting detailed spatiotemporal maps of gene expression within the human brain, we identified four discrete FMRP-target subpopulations that exhibit distinct functional biases and contribute to ASD via different types of genetic variation. We also demonstrated that FMRP target genes are more likely than other genes with similar expression patterns to contribute to disease. We developed the hypothesis that FMRP targets contribute to ASD via two distinct etiologies: (1) ultra-rare and highly penetrant single disruptions of embryonically upregulated FMRP targets (“single-hit etiology”) or (2) the combination of multiple less penetrant disruptions of nonembryonic, synaptic FMRP targets (“multiple-hit etiology”). The Trend test provides rigorous support for a multiple-hit genetic etiology in a subset of autism cases and is easily extendible to combining information from multiple types of genetic variation (i.e., copy-number and exome variants), increasing its value to next-generation sequencing approaches. PMID:24207117

Steinberg, Julia; Webber, Caleb

2013-01-01

144

Schizophrenia and Other Psychotic Disorders  

E-print Network

, Schizophreniform Disorder, Schizoaffective Disorder, Delusional Disorder, Brief Psychotic Disorder, Shared Psy, in Delusional Disorder and Shared Psychotic Disorder, psychotic is equivalent to delusional. The followingSchizophrenia and Other Psychotic Disorders The disorders in this section include Schizophrenia

Bruno, John P.

145

Adolescent problem behaviours predicting DSM-IV diagnoses of multiple substance use disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Whether there is an independent association between problem behaviours and substance use disorders (SUD) needs further investigation.\\u000a This study examined prospective associations of adolescent psychopathology and problem behaviours with SUD in early adulthood,\\u000a and whether these associations are confounded by other factors.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method  Data were from a prospective study of 2,429 young Australian adults from birth to the age of 21

Mohammad Reza Hayatbakhsh; Jake Moses Najman; Konrad Jamrozik; Abdullah Al Mamun; William Bor; Rosa Alati

2008-01-01

146

Enteric Bacterial Metabolites Propionic and Butyric Acid Modulate Gene Expression, Including CREB-Dependent Catecholaminergic Neurotransmission, in PC12 Cells - Possible Relevance to Autism Spectrum Disorders  

PubMed Central

Alterations in gut microbiome composition have an emerging role in health and disease including brain function and behavior. Short chain fatty acids (SCFA) like propionic (PPA), and butyric acid (BA), which are present in diet and are fermentation products of many gastrointestinal bacteria, are showing increasing importance in host health, but also may be environmental contributors in neurodevelopmental disorders including autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Further to this we have shown SCFA administration to rodents over a variety of routes (intracerebroventricular, subcutaneous, intraperitoneal) or developmental time periods can elicit behavioral, electrophysiological, neuropathological and biochemical effects consistent with findings in ASD patients. SCFA are capable of altering host gene expression, partly due to their histone deacetylase inhibitor activity. We have previously shown BA can regulate tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) mRNA levels in a PC12 cell model. Since monoamine concentration is known to be elevated in the brain and blood of ASD patients and in many ASD animal models, we hypothesized that SCFA may directly influence brain monoaminergic pathways. When PC12 cells were transiently transfected with plasmids having a luciferase reporter gene under the control of the TH promoter, PPA was found to induce reporter gene activity over a wide concentration range. CREB transcription factor(s) was necessary for the transcriptional activation of TH gene by PPA. At lower concentrations PPA also caused accumulation of TH mRNA and protein, indicative of increased cell capacity to produce catecholamines. PPA and BA induced broad alterations in gene expression including neurotransmitter systems, neuronal cell adhesion molecules, inflammation, oxidative stress, lipid metabolism and mitochondrial function, all of which have been implicated in ASD. In conclusion, our data are consistent with a molecular mechanism through which gut related environmental signals such as increased levels of SCFA's can epigenetically modulate cell function further supporting their role as environmental contributors to ASD. PMID:25170769

Nankova, Bistra B.; Agarwal, Raj; MacFabe, Derrick F.; La Gamma, Edmund F.

2014-01-01

147

Isolation and characterization of genes in the region of chromosome 8 involved in Langer-Giedion syndrome including a candidate gene for hereditary multiple exostosis  

SciTech Connect

Langer-Giedion syndrome (LGS) is a dominantly inherited developmental disorder responsible for a variety of facial and skeletal abnormalities and mental retardation in some cases. LGS is thought to be a contiguous gene syndrome resulting from lesions in the genes for trichorhino-phalangeal syndrome (TRPSI) and hereditary multiple exostoses (EXTI) and is generally accompanied by interstitial deletions in 8q24.1. Since little is known of the nature of these genes, we have begun to isolate and characterize all of the expressed sequences in this region making use of a cosmid contig that we developed for this region. We have successfully used direct screening of cDNA libraries, exon trapping and CAIGES techniques to identify several expressed DNA sequences that map to this region. These cDNAs have been sequenced and analyzed for open reading frames, common sequence motifs and homologies to know genes. In an attempt to focus the search, we have used a variety of probes and hybridization techniques to map various chromosomal breakpoints in this region that have been shown to affect either TRPSI, EXTI or LGS. One of these expressed sequences spans a region that has been shown to contain a chromosomal breakpoint known to be involved in the EXT phenotype. Thus this gene should be considered a candidate gene for EXTI.

Wells, D.; Ahn, J.; Cook, A. [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

148

Integrating Public Health and Public Safety in the Criminal Justice System: An Overview of Behavioral Health Services, including Alcohol\\/Other Drug Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mental illness and alcohol and other drug disorders account for more disability than any other medical problem. One of the systems most affected by these disorders in the United States is the criminal justice system. This article provides an overview of the problem of behavioral health disorders in the justice system in addition to innovative programs that are contributing to

George W. Bitar; Robert Gee

2010-01-01

149

Abnormal fatty acid pattern in the superior temporal gyrus distinguishes bipolar disorder from major depression and schizophrenia and resembles multiple sclerosis.  

PubMed

This study investigated the fatty acid composition of the postmortem superior temporal gyrus (STG), a cortical region implicated in emotional processing, from normal controls (n=15) and patients with bipolar disorder (BD, n=15), major depressive disorder (MDD, n=15), and schizophrenia (SZ, n=15). For comparative purposes, STG fatty acid composition was determined in a separate cohort of multiple sclerosis patients (MS, n=15) and normal controls (n=15). Compared with controls, patients with BD, but not MDD or SZ, exhibited abnormal elevations in the saturated fatty acids (SFA) palmitic acid (16:0), stearic acid (18:0), the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) linoleic acid (18:2n-6), arachidonic acid (20:4n-6), and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3), and reductions in the monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) oleic acid (18:1n-9). The total MUFA/SFA and 18:1/18:0 ratios were lower in the STG of BD patients and were inversely correlated with total PUFA composition. MS patients exhibited a pattern of fatty acid abnormalities similar to that observed in BD patients including elevated PUFA and a lower 18:1/18:0 ratio. Collectively, these data demonstrate that BD patients exhibit a pattern of fatty acid abnormalities in the STG that is not observed in MDD and SZ patients and closely resembles MS patients. PMID:24439517

McNamara, Robert K; Rider, Therese; Jandacek, Ronald; Tso, Patrick

2014-03-30

150

Multiple Developmental Pathways to Conduct Disorder: Current Conceptualizations and Clinical Implications  

PubMed Central

Objectives Recent research has uncovered several developmental pathways through which children and adolescents can develop a tendency to display the severe antisocial behavior associated with the diagnosis of conduct disorder (CD). Methods This focused review is designed to briefly outline three different etiological pathways described in the literature. These pathways are distinguished by the age of onset of the antisocial behavior, the presence/absence of significant levels of callous-unemotional traits, and the presence/absence of problems with anger regulation. Results Evidence from developmental psychopathology research (particularly longitudinal studies) that support the different life-course trajectories and putative etiological factors associated with antisocial behavior across these pathways is presented. Conclusions Limitations in the available research on these developmental pathways and implications of this research for the prevention and treatment of children and adolescents with CD are discussed. PMID:23390429

Pardini, Dustin; Frick, Paul J.

2013-01-01

151

Binding of multiple features in memory by high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorder.  

PubMed

Diminished episodic memory and diminished use of semantic information to aid recall by individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are both thought to result from diminished relational binding of elements of complex stimuli. To test this hypothesis, we asked high-functioning adults with ASD and typical comparison participants to study grids in which some cells contained drawings of objects in non-canonical colours. Participants were told at study which features (colour, item, location) would be tested in a later memory test. In a second experiment, participants studied similar grids and were told that they would be tested on object-location or object-colour combinations. Recognition of combinations was significantly diminished in ASD, which survived covarying performance on the Color Trails Test (D'Elia et al. Color trails test. Professional manual. Psychological Assessment Resources, Lutz, 1996), a test of executive difficulties. The findings raise the possibility that medial temporal as well as frontal lobe processes are dysfunctional in ASD. PMID:24696375

Bowler, Dermot M; Gaigg, Sebastian B; Gardiner, John M

2014-09-01

152

Impact of childhood exposure to psychological trauma on the risk of psychiatric disorders and somatic discomfort: single vs. multiple types of psychological trauma.  

PubMed

We examined whether childhood exposure to multiple types of potentially traumatic events (PTEs) relative to a single type of PTE is associated with a higher prevalence of psychiatric disorders and greater somatic discomfort in Korean adults. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview 2.1 (K-CIDI 2.1) was administered to 6027 subjects aged 18-74 years. Subjects who experienced a traumatic event before the age of 18 years, the childhood trauma exposure group, were compared with controls without childhood exposure to PTEs. In the childhood trauma exposure group, subjects who experienced only a single type of PTE and subjects who experienced two or more types of PTEs were compared further. Childhood exposure to PTEs was linked to a wide range of psychiatric comorbidities, with a higher risk for exposure to multiple types of PTEs than for exposure to a single type of PTE. Obsessive-compulsive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and somatoform disorder were significantly associated with exposure to multiple types of PTEs but not with exposure to a single type of PTE. Exposure to multiple types of PTEs was associated with reports of marked fatigue and pain. Future research should examine the psychiatric sequelae associated with various types of childhood PTEs. PMID:25086760

Park, Subin; Hong, Jin Pyo; Bae, Jae Nam; Cho, Seong-Jin; Lee, Dong-Woo; Lee, Jun-Young; Chang, Sung Man; Jeon, Hong Jin; Hahm, Bong-Jin; Lee, Young Moon; Seong, Sujeong; Cho, Maeng Je

2014-11-30

153

Parental Perspectives on the Importance and Likelihood of Adult Outcomes for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders, Intellectual Disabilities or Multiple Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aims: This study examined parental perspectives on the importance and likelihood of future adult outcomes for children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), Intellectual Disabilities (ID), or Multiple Disabilities (MD) and some of the factors that may affect parental aspirations. Methods: Parents of 105 children with ASD, ID, or MD were presented…

Poon, Kenneth K.; Koh, Lynette; Magiati, Iliana

2013-01-01

154

[Oculomotor system and multiple sclerosis].  

PubMed

Disorders of ocular motility due to multiple sclerosis can cause significant symptoms, such as blurred vision, diplopia, oscillopsia and dizziness. The spectrum of ocular motor disorders is broad due to the multifocal nature of the disease. The most frequent disorders include dysmetric saccades, impaired smooth pursuit, internuclear ophthalmoplegia (INO), impaired vestibulo-ocular reflex, misalignment of visual axes, impaired vergence and gaze-evoked nystagmus. Patients with abnormal eye movements are more handicapped than patients without ocular motility disorders as eye movement disorders and gait disturbances are both caused by an extensive involvement of the brainstem and cerebellum. PMID:25074654

Höh, A E; Beisse, C

2014-08-01

155

An 11q11-q13.3 duplication, including FGF3 and FGF4 genes, in a patient with syndromic multiple craniosynostoses.  

PubMed

Interstitial duplications of 11q are very rare and seldom reported. In this paper we describe the first case of a duplication involving bands 11q11 and 11q12. This newly described patient has multiple craniosynostoses, congenital heart defect and developmental delay, and is a carrier of a mosaic duplication: 46,XY,dup(11)(q11-->q13.3)(29)/46,XY(6). The breakpoints were further delimited by comparative genomic hybridization microarray. We also performed fluorescent in situ hybridization analysis to determine the extension of the duplication in a patient described earlier with a duplication 11q13.5-q21. An overlapping region of less than 1.2 Mb was identified and included the duplication of genes FGF3 and FGF4 in both individuals. We discuss the possible implications of dosage effects of these genes in the onset of craniosynostosis. PMID:17632770

Jehee, Fernanda S; Bertola, Débora R; Yelavarthi, Krishna K; Krepischi-Santos, Ana C V; Kim, Chong; Vianna-Morgante, Angela M; Vermeesch, Joris R; Passos-Bueno, Maria Rita

2007-08-15

156

Multiple therapeutic and preventive effects of 3,3?-diindolylmethane on cancers including prostate cancer and high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia  

PubMed Central

Abstract Cruciferous vegetables belong to the plant family that has flowers with four equal-sized petals in the pattern of a crucifer cross. These vegetables are an abundant source of dietary phytochemicals, including glucosinolates and their hydrolysis products such as indole-3-carbinol (I3C) and 3,3?-diindolylmethane (DIM). By 2013, the total number of natural glucosinolates that have been documented is estimated to be 132. Recently, cruciferous vegetable intake has garnered great interest for its multiple health benefits such as anticancer, antiviral infections, human sex hormone regulation, and its therapeutic and preventive effects on prostate cancer and high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN). DIM is a hydrolysis product of glucosinolates and has been used in various trials. This review is to provide an insight into the latest developments of DIM in treating or preventing both prostate cancer and HGPIN. PMID:25332705

Zhang, William Weiben; Feng, Zhenqing; Narod, Steven A.

2014-01-01

157

Mutation Analysis of NR5A1 Encoding Steroidogenic Factor 1 in 77 Patients with 46, XY Disorders of Sex Development (DSD) Including Hypospadias  

PubMed Central

Background Mutations of the NR5A1 gene encoding steroidogenic factor-1 have been reported in association with a wide spectrum of 46,XY DSD (Disorder of Sex Development) phenotypes including severe forms of hypospadias. Methodology/Principal Findings We evaluated the frequency of NR5A1 gene mutations in a large series of patients presenting with 46,XY DSD and hypospadias. Based on their clinical presentation 77 patients were classified either as complete or partial gonadal dysgenesis (uterus seen at genitography and/or surgery, n?=?11), ambiguous external genitalia without uterus (n?=?33) or hypospadias (n?=?33). We identified heterozygous NR5A1 mutations in 4 cases of ambiguous external genitalia without uterus (12.1%; p.Trp279Arg, pArg39Pro, c.390delG, c140_141insCACG) and a de novo missense mutation in one case with distal hypospadias (3%; p.Arg313Cys). Mutant proteins showed reduced transactivation activity and mutants p.Arg39Pro and p.Arg313Cys did not synergize with the GATA4 cofactor to stimulate reporter gene activity, although they retained their ability to physically interact with the GATA4 protein. Conclusions/Significance Mutations in NR5A1 were observed in 5/77 (6.5%) cases of 46,XY DSD including hypospadias. Excluding the cases of 46,XY gonadal dysgenesis the incidence of NR5A1 mutations was 5/66 (7.6%). An individual with isolated distal hypopadias carried a de novo heterozygous missense mutation, thus extending the range of phenotypes associated with NR5A1 mutations and suggesting that this group of patients should be screened for NR5A1 mutations. PMID:22028768

Brauner, Raja; Lourenço, Diana; Boudjenah, Radia; Karageorgou, Vasiliki; Trivin, Christine; Lottmann, Henri; Lortat-Jacob, Stephen; Nihoul-Fékété, Claire; De Dreuzy, Olivier; McElreavey, Ken; Bashamboo, Anu

2011-01-01

158

Prospective Follow-up of Girls with Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder into Early Adulthood: Continuing Impairment Includes Elevated Risk for Suicide Attempts and Self-Injury  

PubMed Central

Objective To perform a 10-year prospective follow-up of a childhood-ascertained (6–12 years), ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (N = 140: Combined type [ADHD-C} n = 93; Inattentive Type [ADHD-I] n = 47) plus a matched comparison group (N = 88). Girls were recruited from schools, mental health centers, pediatricians, and via advertisements; extensive evaluations confirmed ADHD vs. comparison status. Method Ten-year outcomes (age range 17–24 years; retention rate = 95%) included symptoms (ADHD, externalizing, internalizing), substance use, eating pathology, self-perceptions, functional impairment (global, academic, service utilization), self-harm (suicide attempts, self-injury), and driving behavior. Results Participants with childhood-diagnosed ADHD continued to display higher rates of ADHD and comorbid symptoms, showed more serious impairment (both global and specific), and had higher rates of suicide attempts and self-injury than the comparison sample, with effect sizes from medium to very large; yet the groups did not differ significantly in terms of eating pathology, substance use, or driving behavior. ADHD-C and ADHD-I types rarely differed significantly, except for suicide attempts and self-injury, which were highly concentrated in ADHD-C. Domains of externalizing behavior, global impairment, and service utilization, and self-harm (suicide attempts and self-injury) survived stringent control of crucial childhood covariates (age, demographics, comorbidities, IQ). Conclusions Girls with childhood ADHD maintain marked impairment by early adulthood, spreading from symptoms to risk for serious self-harm. In future research we address the viability of different diagnostic conceptions of adult ADHD and their linkages with core life impairments. PMID:22889337

Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Owens, Elizabeth B.; Zalecki, Christine; Huggins, Suzanne Perrigue; Montenegro-Nevado, Adriana J.; Schrodek, Emily; Swanson, Erika N.

2012-01-01

159

Bofu-Tsu-Shosan, an Oriental Herbal Medicine, Exerts a Combinatorial Favorable Metabolic Modulation Including Antihypertensive Effect on a Mouse Model of Human Metabolic Disorders with Visceral Obesity  

PubMed Central

Accumulating evidence indicates that metabolic dysfunction with visceral obesity is a major medical problem associated with the development of hypertension, type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and dyslipidemia, and ultimately severe cardiovascular and renal disease. Therefore, an effective anti-obesity treatment with a concomitant improvement in metabolic profile is important for the treatment of metabolic dysfunction with visceral obesity. Bofu-tsu-shosan (BOF) is one of oriental herbal medicine and is clinically available to treat obesity in Japan. Although BOF is a candidate as a novel therapeutic strategy to improve metabolic dysfunction with obesity, the mechanism of its beneficial effect is not fully elucidated. Here, we investigated mechanism of therapeutic effects of BOF on KKAy mice, a model of human metabolic disorders with obesity. Chronic treatment of KKAy mice with BOF persistently decreased food intake, body weight gain, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and systolic blood pressure. In addition, both tissue weight and cell size of white adipose tissue (WAT) were decreased, with concomitant increases in the expression of adiponectin and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors genes in WAT as well as the circulating adiponectin level by BOF treatment. Furthermore, gene expression of uncoupling protein-1, a thermogenesis factor, in brown adipose tissue and rectal temperature were both elevated by BOF. Intriguingly, plasma acylated-ghrelin, an active form of orexigenic hormone, and short-term food intake were significantly decreased by single bolus administration of BOF. These results indicate that BOF exerts a combinatorial favorable metabolic modulation including antihypertensive effect, at least partially, via its beneficial effect on adipose tissue function and its appetite-inhibitory property through suppression on the ghrelin system. PMID:24130717

Azushima, Kengo; Tamura, Kouichi; Wakui, Hiromichi; Maeda, Akinobu; Ohsawa, Masato; Uneda, Kazushi; Kobayashi, Ryu; Kanaoka, Tomohiko; Dejima, Toru; Fujikawa, Tetsuya; Yamashita, Akio; Toya, Yoshiyuki; Umemura, Satoshi

2013-01-01

160

Eating Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

Eating disorders are serious behavior problems. They can include severe overeating or not consuming enough food to stay ... concern about your shape or weight. Types of eating disorders include Anorexia nervosa, in which you become too ...

161

Low self-esteem in women with eating disorders and alcohol abuse as a psycho-social factor to be included in their psychotherapeutic approach  

PubMed Central

Author have analyzed the psycho–social peculiarities of the women from Romania who are affected by eating disorders and alcohol excessive consumption, and studied the manner of the link between these disease and the psycho–sexual. 120 participants at the study (Oltenia district) were divided into 2 groups: 60 healthy women, 30 with eating disorders and 30 alcohol dependent women. In all subjects were applied the following tests: Scale for compulsive appetite (SCA) and Scale of interest for own weight, both for eating disorders, CAGE questionnaire for alcohol dependence and two scales for determining: the gender–role ambivalence (O'Neil and Caroll Scale) and the masculinity and feminity index (A. Chelcea). The results obtained in both lots of Romanian women with pathologic behavior (food and/or alcohol consumption) have indicated a low psycho–sexual identity versus control group but no correlation with masculinity/feminity index. PMID:21254749

2010-01-01

162

Low self-esteem in women with eating disorders and alcohol abuse as a psycho-social factor to be included in their psychotherapeutic approach.  

PubMed

Authors have analyzed the psychosocial peculiarities of the women from Romania who are affected by eating disorders and alcohol excessive consumption, and studied the manner of the link between these diseases and the psychosexual. 120 participants at the study (Oltenia district) were divided into 2 groups: 60 healthy women, 30 with eating disorders and 30 alcohol dependent women. In all subjects were applied the following tests: Scale for compulsive appetite (SCA) and Scale of interest for own weight, both for eating disorders, CAGE questionnaire for alcohol dependence and two scales for determining: the gender-role ambivalence (O'Neil and Caroll Scale) and the masculinity and feminity index (A. Chelcea). The results obtained in both lots of Romanian women with pathologic behavior (food and/or alcohol consumption) have indicated a low psychosexual identity versus control group but no correlation with masculinity/feminity index. PMID:21254749

Iorgulescu, Gabriela

2010-01-01

163

The Social Validation of Behaviors Included in the Critical Events Index of the Systematic Screening for Behavior Disorders in Male Saudi Arabia Primary Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to: (a) identify which behaviors from the Systematic Screening for Behavior Disorders (SSBD) Critical Events Index occur in male Saudi Arabia primary schools and how often teachers perceive their occurrence; (b) determine the extent of concern male Saudi Arabia primary school teachers report regarding these behaviors;…

Alwan, Emad

2012-01-01

164

Familial characteristics of autoimmune and hematologic disorders in 8,406 multiple myeloma patients: A population-based case-control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A population-based case-control study was conducted to evaluate risk of developing multiple myeloma (MM) associated with per- sonal history of autoimmune diseases and occurrence of autoim- mune and selected hematologic disorders in first-degree relatives. Data were obtained for all (n 5 8,406) MM cases diagnosed in Sweden (1958-1998), with linkable relatives, 16,543 matched con- trols and first-degree relatives of cases

Ola Landgren; Martha S. Linet; Mary L. McMaster; Gloria Gridley; Kari Hemminki; Lynn R. Goldin

2006-01-01

165

A multiple deficit model of Reading Disability and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Searching for shared cognitive  

E-print Network

and psychopathologies, particularly for exploring comorbidities. The Correspondence to: Lauren McGrath (mcgrath) propose a multifactorial etiology for complex developmental and psychiatric disorders where

Carlini, David

166

Genetic and Functional Analyses of SHANK2 Mutations Suggest a Multiple Hit Model of Autism Spectrum Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental disorders with a complex inheritance pattern. While many rare variants in synaptic proteins have been identified in patients with ASD, little is known about their effects at the synapse and their interactions with other genetic variations. Here, following the discovery of two de novo SHANK2 deletions by the Autism Genome

Claire S. Leblond; Jutta Heinrich; Richard Delorme; Christian Proepper; Catalina Betancur; Guillaume Huguet; Marina Konyukh; Pauline Chaste; Elodie Ey; Maria Rastam; Henrik Anckarsäter; Gudrun Nygren; I. Carina Gillberg; Jonas Melke; Roberto Toro; Beatrice Regnault; Fabien Fauchereau; Oriane Mercati; Nathalie Lemière; David Skuse; Martin Poot; Richard Holt; Anthony P. Monaco; Irma Järvelä; Katri Kantojärvi; Raija Vanhala; Sarah Curran; David A. Collier; Patrick Bolton; Andreas Chiocchetti; Sabine M. Klauck; Fritz Poustka; Christine M. Freitag; Regina Waltes; Marnie Kopp; Eftichia Duketis; Elena Bacchelli; Fiorella Minopoli; Liliana Ruta; Agatino Battaglia; Luigi Mazzone; Elena Maestrini; Ana F. Sequeira; Barbara Oliveira; Astrid Vicente; Guiomar Oliveira; Dalila Pinto; Stephen W. Scherer; Diana Zelenika; Marc Delepine; Mark Lathrop; Dominique Bonneau; Vincent Guinchat; Françoise Devillard; Brigitte Assouline; Marie-Christine Mouren; Marion Leboyer; Christopher Gillberg; Tobias M. Boeckers; Thomas Bourgeron

2012-01-01

167

Subthreshold Conditions as Precursors for Full Syndrome Disorders: A 15-Year Longitudinal Study of Multiple Diagnostic Classes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: There has been increasing interest in the distinction between subthreshold and full syndrome disorders and specifically whether subthreshold conditions escalate or predict the onset of full syndrome disorders over time. Most of these studies, however, examined whether a single subthreshold condition escalates into the full syndrome…

Shankman, Stewart A.; Lewinsohn, Peter M.; Klein, Daniel N.; Small, Jason W.; Seeley, John R.; Altman, Sarah E.

2009-01-01

168

Reliability and Diagnostic Efficiency of the Diagnostic Inventory for Disharmony (DID) in Youths with Pervasive Developmental Disorder and Multiple Complex Developmental Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS) category is a psychopathological entity few have described and is poorly, and mainly negatively, defined by autism exclusion. In order to limit PDD-NOS heterogeneity, alternative clinical constructs have been developed. This study explored the reliability and the diagnostic…

Xavier, Jean; Vannetzel, Leonard; Viaux, Sylvie; Leroy, Arthur; Plaza, Monique; Tordjman, Sylvie; Mille, Christian; Bursztejn, Claude; Cohen, David; Guile, Jean-Marc

2011-01-01

169

A novel vasculo-angiogenic effect of cilostazol mediated by cross-talk between multiple signalling pathways including the ERK/p38 MAPK signalling transduction cascade.  

PubMed

Cilostazol is an anti-platelet agent with vasodilatory activity that acts by increasing intracellular concentrations of cAMP. Recent reports have suggested that cilostazol may promote angiogenesis. In the present study, we have investigated the effect of cilostazol in promoting angiogenesis and vasculogenesis in a hindlimb ischaemia model and have also examined its potential mechanism of action in vitro and in vivo. We found that cilostazol treatment significantly increased colony formation by human early EPCs (endothelial progenitor cells) through a mechanism involving the activation of cAMP/PKA (protein kinase A), PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase)/Akt/eNOS (endothelial NO synthase) and ERK (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase)/p38 MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) signalling pathways. Cilostazol also enhanced proliferation, chemotaxis, NO production and vascular tube formation in HUVECs (human umbilical vein endothelial cells) through activation of multiple signalling pathways downstream of PI3K/Akt/eNOS. Cilostazol up-regulated VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor)-A165 expression and secretion of VEGF-A in HUVECs through activation of the PI3K/Akt/eNOS pathway. In a mouse hindlimb ischaemia model, recovery of blood flow ratio (ipsilateral/contralateral) 14 days after surgery was significantly improved in cilostazol-treated mice (10 mg/kg of body weight) compared with vehicle-treated controls (0.63±0.07 and 0.43±0.05 respectively, P<0.05). Circulating CD34+ cells were also increased in cilostazol-treated mice (3614±670 compared with 2151±608 cells/ml, P<0.05). Expression of VEGF and phosphorylation of PI3K/Akt/eNOS and ERK/p38 MAPK in ischaemic muscles were significantly enhanced by cilostazol. Our data suggest that cilostazol produces a vasculo-angiogenic effect by up-regulating a broad signalling network that includes the ERK/p38 MAPK, VEGF-A165, PI3K/Akt/eNOS and cAMP/PKA pathways. PMID:22339730

Chao, Ting-Hsing; Tseng, Shih-Ya; Li, Yi-Heng; Liu, Ping-Yen; Cho, Chung-Lung; Shi, Guey-Yueh; Wu, Hua-Lin; Chen, Jyh-Hong

2012-08-01

170

The crystal structure of disordered (Zr,Ti)O 2 solid solution including srilankite: evolution towards tetragonal ZrO 2 with increasing Zr  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crystal structure data are presented for seven synthetic samples of disordered zirconium-titanate solid solution (Zr,Ti)O2, ranging in composition from x\\u000a Ti=0.43 to 0.67, thus covering compounds such as ZrTiO4, Zr5Ti7O24, and ZrTi2O6 (srilankite). The compounds, synthesized at high temperatures and various pressures in their respective stability fields,\\u000a are well crystallized and of homogeneous composition. The resulting structure data are less

U. Troitzsch; A. G. Christy; D. J. Ellis

2005-01-01

171

A Family Intervention Program for Dual Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To provide a rationale for working with families of clients with psychiatric and substance use disorder, and to describe a new program, family intervention for dual disorders (FIDD). Method: We developed and manualized the FIDD program, which includes both single-family and multiple-family group formats. We trained several clinicians at a local mental health center in the model and conducted

Kim T. Mueser; Lindy Fox

2002-01-01

172

Deletions in chromosome 6p22.3-p24.3, including ATXN1, are associated with developmental delay and autism spectrum disorders  

PubMed Central

Interstitial deletions of the short arm of chromosome 6 are rare and have been associated with developmental delay, hypotonia, congenital anomalies, and dysmorphic features. We used array comparative genomic hybridization in a South Carolina Autism Project (SCAP) cohort of 97 subjects with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and identified an ~ 5.4 Mb deletion on chromosome 6p22.3-p23 in a 15-year-old patient with intellectual disability and ASDs. Subsequent database queries revealed five additional individuals with overlapping submicroscopic deletions and presenting with developmental and speech delay, seizures, behavioral abnormalities, heart defects, and dysmorphic features. The deletion found in the SCAP patient harbors ATXN1, DTNBP1, JARID2, and NHLRC1 that we propose may be responsible for ASDs and developmental delay. PMID:22480366

2012-01-01

173

Comparing Factor, Class, and Mixture Models of Cannabis Initiation and DSM Cannabis Use Disorder Criteria, Including Craving, in the Brisbane Longitudinal Twin Study  

PubMed Central

Accumulating evidence suggests that the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) diagnostic criteria for cannabis abuse and dependence are best represented by a single underlying factor. However, it remains possible that models with additional factors, or latent class models or hybrid models, may better explain the data. Using structured interviews, 626 adult male and female twins provided complete data on symptoms of cannabis abuse and dependence, plus a craving criterion. We compared latent factor analysis, latent class analysis, and factor mixture modeling using normal theory marginal maximum likelihood for ordinal data. Our aim was to derive a parsimonious, best-fitting cannabis use disorder (CUD) phenotype based on DSM-IV criteria and determine whether DSM-5 craving loads onto a general factor. When compared with latent class and mixture models, factor models provided a better fit to the data. When conditioned on initiation and cannabis use, the association between criteria for abuse, dependence, withdrawal, and craving were best explained by two correlated latent factors for males and females: a general risk factor to CUD and a factor capturing the symptoms of social and occupational impairment as a consequence of frequent use. Secondary analyses revealed a modest increase in the prevalence of DSM-5 CUD compared with DSM-IV cannabis abuse or dependence. It is concluded that, in addition to a general factor with loadings on cannabis use and symptoms of abuse, dependence, withdrawal, and craving, a second clinically relevant factor defined by features of social and occupational impairment was also found for frequent cannabis use. PMID:24588857

Kubarych, Thomas S.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Aggen, Steven H.; Estabrook, Ryne; Edwards, Alexis C.; Clark, Shaunna L.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Hickie, Ian B.; Neale, Michael C.; Gillespie, Nathan A.

2014-01-01

174

Autism and Related Disorders  

PubMed Central

The Pervasive Developmental Disorders are a group of neurodevelopmental disorders that include Autistic Disorder, Asperger’s Disorder, Pervasive Developmental Disorder - Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS), Childhood Disintegrative Disorder (CDD), and Rett’s Disorder. All feature childhood onset with a constellation of symptoms spanning social interaction and communication and including atypical behavior patterns. The first three disorders (Autistic Disorder, Asperger’s Disorder, and PDD-NOS) are currently referred to as Autism Spectrum Disorders, reflecting divergent phenotypic and etiologic characteristics compared to Rett’s Disorder and CDD. This chapter reviews relevant research and clinical information relevant to appropriate medical diagnosis and treatment. PMID:22608634

McPartland, James; Volkmar, Fred R.

2012-01-01

175

Therapeutic Horseback Riding Outcomes of Parent-Identified Goals for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: An ABA' Multiple Case Design Examining Dosing and Generalization to the Home and Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined whether different doses of therapeutic riding influenced parent-nominated target behaviors of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (a) during the session (b) at home, and (c) in the community. We used a single subject multiple Baseline, multiple case design, with dosing of 1, 3, and 5 times/week. Three boys with ASD, 6-8 years…

Holm, Margo B.; Baird, Joanne M.; Kim, Young Joo; Rajora, Kuwar B.; D'Silva, Delma; Podolinsky, Lin; Mazefsky, Carla; Minshew, Nancy

2014-01-01

176

Alcohol Consumption Has a Protective Effect against Hematological Malignancies: a Population-Based Study in Sweden Including 420,489 Individuals with Alcohol Use Disorders12345  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that alcohol consumption is associated with increased risk of a few solid cancers, although studies that examined the association with hematological malignancies have shown inconsistent results. In this study, we examined the risk of hematological malignancies among individuals who had alcohol use disorders (AUDs) in Sweden. METHODS: Individuals with AUDs were identified from the nationwide Swedish Hospital Discharge Register and Outpatient Register, the Crime Register, and the Prescription Drug Register, and they were linked to the Swedish Cancer Registry to calculate standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of hematological malignancies, using those Swedes without AUDs as a reference. In addition, we used a quasi-experimental sibling design to investigate the odds ratios among sibling pairs who were discordant with AUDs. RESULTS: A total of 420,489 individuals were identified with AUDs. After more than 15 million person-years of follow-up, a total of 1755 individuals developed hematological malignancies demonstrating a low risk, i.e., SIR = 0.60 (95% confidence interval = 0.57-0.63). People with AUDs had low risks for developing specific types of malignancies. The lowest risk (0.51) was for leukemia, followed by myeloma (0.52), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (0.65), and Hodgkin disease (0.71). The risk was lower among AUDs identified at an older age. The low risks of hematological malignancies were also noted using sibling analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that alcohol consumption has a protective effect against hematological malignancies. However, further studies are needed to identity the underlying mechanisms of the protective effect of alcohol consumption against hematological malignancies. PMID:24783999

Ji, Jianguang; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina

2014-01-01

177

nAture methods | VOL.8 NO.11 | NOVEMBER2011 | 957 myelin-related disorders such as multiple sclerosis and  

E-print Network

such as multiple sclerosis and leukodystrophies, for which restoration of oligodendrocyte function would been constrained by difficulties in generating pure populations of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (o differentiate into myelinating oligodendrocytes in vitro and in vivo. our results demonstrate that mouse

Cai, Long

178

Genome-wide identification of transcriptional targets of RORA reveals direct regulation of multiple genes associated with autism spectrum disorder  

PubMed Central

Background We have recently identified the nuclear hormone receptor RORA (retinoic acid-related orphan receptor-alpha) as a novel candidate gene for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Our independent cohort studies have consistently demonstrated the reduction of RORA transcript and/or protein levels in blood-derived lymphoblasts as well as in the postmortem prefrontal cortex and cerebellum of individuals with ASD. Moreover, we have also shown that RORA has the potential to be under negative and positive regulation by androgen and estrogen, respectively, suggesting the possibility that RORA may contribute to the male bias of ASD. However, little is known about transcriptional targets of this nuclear receptor, particularly in humans. Methods Here we identify transcriptional targets of RORA in human neuronal cells on a genome-wide level using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) with an anti-RORA antibody followed by whole-genome promoter array (chip) analysis. Selected potential targets of RORA were then validated by an independent ChIP followed by quantitative PCR analysis. To further demonstrate that reduced RORA expression results in reduced transcription of RORA targets, we determined the expression levels of the selected transcriptional targets in RORA-deficient human neuronal cells, as well as in postmortem brain tissues from individuals with ASD who exhibit reduced RORA expression. Results The ChIP-on-chip analysis reveals that RORA1, a major isoform of RORA protein in human brain, can be recruited to as many as 2,764 genomic locations corresponding to promoter regions of 2,544 genes across the human genome. Gene ontology analysis of this dataset of genes that are potentially directly regulated by RORA1 reveals statistically significant enrichment in biological functions negatively impacted in individuals with ASD, including neuronal differentiation, adhesion and survival, synaptogenesis, synaptic transmission and plasticity, and axonogenesis, as well as higher level functions such as development of the cortex and cerebellum, cognition, memory, and spatial learning. Independent ChIP-quantitative PCR analyses confirm binding of RORA1 to promoter regions of selected ASD-associated genes, including A2BP1, CYP19A1, ITPR1, NLGN1, and NTRK2, whose expression levels (in addition to HSD17B10) are also decreased in RORA1-repressed human neuronal cells and in prefrontal cortex tissues from individuals with ASD. Conclusions Findings from this study indicate that RORA transcriptionally regulates A2BP1, CYP19A1, HSD17B10, ITPR1, NLGN1, and NTRK2, and strongly suggest that reduction of this sex hormone-sensitive nuclear receptor in the brain causes dysregulated expression of these ASD-relevant genes as well as their associated pathways and functions which, in turn, may contribute to the underlying pathobiology of ASD. PMID:23697635

2013-01-01

179

CNS demyelinating disorder with mixed features of neuromyelitis optica and multiple sclerosis in HIV-1 infection. Case report and literature review.  

PubMed

An African-American male presented with bilateral visual impairment, gait difficulties, and bladder and bowel incontinence raising concerns for multiple sclerosis (MS) or neuromyelitis optica (NMO). He was identified to be HIV-1 infected with high viral load and low CD4+ counts. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain was abnormal, but atypical for MS. MRI of the cervical and thoracic spinal cord showed multiple areas of myelitis with a longitudinally extensive thoracic transverse myelitis that showed enhancement with gadolinium suggestive of NMO. Cerebrospinal fluid showed oligoclonal IgG bands but did not show reactivity to aquaporin 4. Patient underwent treatment for the acute exacerbation with intravenous corticosteroids and treatment of the HIV infection with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). A year later, his viral load was <20 copies/ml and CD4+ counts were normal. Vision did not significantly improve, but his ambulation improved from a near total non-ambulatory state to ambulating without aids and resolution of the bladder and bowel incontinence. A demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) like MS or NMO has been previously reported in the context of HIV infection. The remarkable improvement of symptoms has also been previously reported with HAART, and these observations have led to clinical trials of MS with HAART therapy in the absence of HIV infection. We reviewed the few cases of CNS demyelinating disorders with HIV infection reported in the literature and speculate on the mechanisms of pathogenesis. PMID:24981832

Delgado, Silvia R; Maldonado, Janice; Rammohan, Kottil W

2014-10-01

180

Receptors and Entry Cofactors for Retroviruses Include Single and Multiple Transmembrane-Spanning Proteins as well as Newly Described Glycophosphatidylinositol-Anchored and Secreted Proteins  

PubMed Central

In the past few years, many retrovirus receptors, coreceptors, and cofactors have been identified. These molecules are important for some aspects of viral entry, although in some cases it remains to be determined whether they are required for binding or postbinding stages in entry, such as fusion. There are certain common features to the molecules that many retroviruses use to gain entry into the cell. For example, the receptors for most mammalian oncoretroviruses are multiple membrane-spanning transport proteins. However, avian retroviruses use single-pass membrane proteins, and a sheep retrovirus uses a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored molecule as its receptor. For some retroviruses, particularly the lentiviruses, two cell surface molecules are required for efficient entry. More recently, a soluble protein that is required for viral entry has been identified for a feline oncoretrovirus. In this review, we will focus on the various strategies used by mammalian retroviruses to gain entry into the cell. The choice of receptors will also be discussed in light of pressures that drive viral evolution and persistence. PMID:11528001

Overbaugh, Julie; Miller, A. Dusty; Eiden, Maribeth V.

2001-01-01

181

Significant Low Prevalence of Antibodies Reacting with Simian Virus 40 Mimotopes in Serum Samples from Patients Affected by Inflammatory Neurologic Diseases, Including Multiple Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Many investigations were carried out on the association between viruses and multiple sclerosis (MS). Indeed, early studies reported the detections of neurotropic virus footprints in the CNS of patients with MS. In this study, sera from patients affected by MS, other inflammatory (OIND) and non-inflammatory neurologic diseases (NIND) were analyzed for antibodies against the polyomavirus, Simian Virus 40 (SV40). An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), with two synthetic peptides, which mimic SV40 antigens, was employed to detect specific antibodies in sera from patients affected by MS, OIND, NIND and healthy subjects (HS). Immunologic data indicate that in sera from MS patients antibodies against SV40 mimotopes are detectable with a low prevalence, 6%, whereas in HS of the same mean age, 40 yrs, the prevalence was 22%. The difference is statistically significant (P?=?0.001). Significant is also the difference between MS vs. NIND patients (6% vs. 17%; P?=?0.0254), whereas no significant difference was detected between MS vs OIND (6% vs 10%; P>0.05). The prevalence of SV40 antibodies in MS patients is 70% lower than that revealed in HS. PMID:25365364

Mazzoni, Elisa; Pietrobon, Silvia; Masini, Irene; Rotondo, John Charles; Gentile, Mauro; Fainardi, Enrico; Casetta, Ilaria; Castellazzi, Massimiliano; Granieri, Enrico; Caniati, Maria Luisa; Tola, Maria Rosaria; Guerra, Giovanni; Martini, Fernanda; Tognon, Mauro

2014-01-01

182

Multiple interactions of the intrinsically disordered region between the helicase and nuclease domains of the archaeal Hef protein.  

PubMed

Hef is an archaeal protein that probably functions mainly in stalled replication fork repair. The presence of an unstructured region was predicted between the two distinct domains of the Hef protein. We analyzed the interdomain region of Thermococcus kodakarensis Hef and demonstrated its disordered structure by CD, NMR, and high speed atomic force microscopy (AFM). To investigate the functions of this intrinsically disordered region (IDR), we screened for proteins interacting with the IDR of Hef by a yeast two-hybrid method, and 10 candidate proteins were obtained. We found that PCNA1 and a RecJ-like protein specifically bind to the IDR in vitro. These results suggested that the Hef protein interacts with several different proteins that work together in the pathways downstream from stalled replication fork repair by converting the IDR structure depending on the partner protein. PMID:24947516

Ishino, Sonoko; Yamagami, Takeshi; Kitamura, Makoto; Kodera, Noriyuki; Mori, Tetsuya; Sugiyama, Shyogo; Ando, Toshio; Goda, Natsuko; Tenno, Takeshi; Hiroaki, Hidekazu; Ishino, Yoshizumi

2014-08-01

183

Multiple lattice instabilities resolved by magnetic-field and disorder sensitivities in MgV2O4  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrasound velocity measurements of the orbitally degenerate frustrated spinel MgV2O4 are performed in a high-purity single crystal which exhibits successive structural and antiferromagnetic phase transitions, and in the disorder-introduced single crystal which exhibits spin-glass-like behavior. The measurements reveal that two types of unusual temperature dependence of the elastic moduli coexist in the cubic paramagnetic phase, which are resolved by magnetic-field and disorder sensitivities: huge Curie-type softening with decreasing temperature (convex temperature dependence), and concave temperature dependence with a characteristic minimum. These elastic anomalies suggest the coupling of the lattice to coexisting orbital fluctuations and spin-cluster excitations.

Watanabe, Tadataka; Ishikawa, Takashi; Hara, Shigeo; Islam, A. T. M. Nazmul; Wheeler, Elisa M.; Lake, Bella

2014-09-01

184

Collaborative Care for patients with severe borderline and NOS personality disorders: A comparative multiple case study on processes and outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Structured psychotherapy is recommended as the preferred treatment of personality disorders. A substantial group of patients,\\u000a however, has no access to these therapies or does not benefit. For those patients who have no (longer) access to psychotherapy\\u000a a Collaborative Care Program (CCP) is developed. Collaborative Care originated in somatic health care to increase shared decision\\u000a making and to enhance self

Barbara Stringer; Berno van Meijel; Bauke Koekkoek; A. J. F. M. Kerkhof; Aartjan Beekman

2011-01-01

185

Risk Factors for Onset of Eating Disorders: Evidence of Multiple Risk Pathways from an 8-Year Prospective Study  

PubMed Central

Objective Use classification tree analysis with lagged predictors to determine empirically derived cut-points for identifying adolescent girls at risk for future onset of threshold, subthreshold, and partial eating disorders and test for interactions between risk factors that may implicate qualitatively distinct risk pathways. Method Data were drawn from a prospective study of 496 adolescent girls who completed diagnostic interviews and surveys annually for 8 years. Results Body dissatisfaction emerged as the most potent predictor; adolescent girls in the upper 24% of body dissatisfaction showed a 4.0-fold increased incidence of eating disorder onset (24% vs. 6%). Among participants in the high body dissatisfaction branch, those in the upper 32% of depressive symptoms showed a 2.9-fold increased incidence of onset (43% vs. 15%). Among participants in the low body dissatisfaction branch, those in the upper 12% of dieting showed a 3.6-fold increased incidence onset (18% vs. 5%). Conclusion This three-way interaction suggests a body dissatisfaction pathway to eating disorder onset that is amplified by depressive symptoms, as well as a pathway characterized by self-reported dieting among young women who are more satisfied with their bodies. It may be possible to increase the effectiveness of prevention programs by targeting each of these qualitatively distinct risk groups, rather than only individuals with a single risk factor. PMID:21764035

Stice, Eric; Marti, C. Nathan; Durant, Shelley

2014-01-01

186

Decreased BDNF and TrkB mRNA expression in multiple cortical areas of patients with schizophrenia and mood disorders  

PubMed Central

Abnormalities in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)/trkB signaling have been implicated in the etiology of schizophrenia and mood disorders. Patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder (BPD) and major depression (MDD) have reduced levels of neurotrophins in their brains when compared with normal unaffected individuals; however, only a few brain areas have been examined to date. Owing to the broad range of symptoms manifested in these disorders, we hypothesized that multiple associative areas of the neocortex may be implicated and that the degree of change in BDNF and trkB?TK+ mRNA expression and the cortical region or layers involved may vary according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) diagnosis. We compared BDNF and trkB?TK+ mRNA levels across all layers of the prefrontal cortex (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, DLPFC), orbital frontal cortex (OFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), inferior temporal gyrus (ITG) and superior temporal gyrus (STG) in four groups: schizophrenia, BPD, MDD and unaffected controls (n=60). BDNF mRNA levels were significantly decreased in layers IV and V of DLPFC in schizophrenia patients, in layer VI of ACC in schizophrenia and MDD and in layer VI of ITG in schizophrenia, BPD and MDD. BDNF mRNA levels were also significantly decreased in layer V and/or VI of STG in schizophrenia, BPD and MDD. TrkB?TK+ mRNA levels were only significantly decreased in the cortical layer VI of OFC in BPD. The shared and distinct patterns of neurotrophin transcript reductions, with some specific to each group, may compromise the function and plasticity of distinct cortical areas to various degrees in the different groups and contribute to the range and overlap of symptoms manifested across the diagnoses. PMID:24802307

Ray, M T; Shannon Weickert, C; Webster, M J

2014-01-01

187

Novel interstitial deletion of 10q24.3-25.1 associated with multiple congenital anomalies including lobar holoprosencephaly, cleft lip and palate, and hypoplastic kidneys.  

PubMed

Chromosome 10q deletions are rare and phenotypically diverse. Such deletions differ in length and occur in numerous regions on the long arm of chromosome 10, accounting for the wide clinical variability. Commonly reported findings include dysmorphic facial features, microcephaly, developmental delay, and genitourinary abnormalities. Here, we report on a female patient with a novel interstitial 5.54?Mb deletion at 10q24.31-q25.1. This patient had findings in common with a previously reported patient with an overlapping deletion, including renal anomalies and an orofacial cleft, but also demonstrated lobar holoprosencephaly and a Dandy-Walker malformation, features which have not been previously reported with 10q deletions. An analysis of the region deleted in our patient showed numerous genes, such as KAZALD1, PAX2, SEMA4G, ACTRA1, INA, and FGF8, whose putative functions may have played a role in the phenotype seen in our patient. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25257335

Peltekova, Iskra T; Hurteau-Millar, Julie; Armour, Christine M

2014-12-01

188

Identification of intergenic trans-regulatory RNAs containing a disease-linked SNP sequence and targeting cell cycle progression/differentiation pathways in multiple common human disorders.  

PubMed

Meta-analysis of genomic coordinates of SNP variations identified in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of up to 712,253 samples (comprising 221,158 disease cases, 322,862 controls, and 168,233 case/control subjects of obesity GWAS) reveals that 39% of SNPs associated with 22 common human disorders are located within intergenic regions. Chromatin-state maps based on H3K4me3-H3K36me3 signatures show that many intergenic disease-linked SNPs are located within the boundaries of the K4-K36 domains, suggesting that SNP-harboring genomic regions are transcribed. Here we report identification of 13 trans-regulatory RNAs (transRNAs) 100 to 200 nucleotides in length containing intergenic SNP sequences associated with Crohn's disease, rheumatoid arthritis, type 1 diabetes, vitiligo, hypertension and multiple types of epithelial malignancies (prostate, breast, ovarian and colorectal cancers). We demonstrate that NALP1 loci intergenic SNP sequence, rs2670660, is expressed in human cells and may contribute to clinical manifestations of autoimmune and autoimflammatory phenotypes by generating distinct allelic variants of transRNAs. Stable expression of allele-specific sense and anti-sense variants of transRNAs markedly alters cellular behavior, affect cell cycle progression, and interfere with monocyte/macrophage transdifferentiation. On a molecular level, forced expression of allele-specific sense and anti-sense variants of transRNAs asserts allele-specific genome-wide effects on abundance of hundreds microRNAs and mRNAs. Using lentiviral gene transfer, microarray and Q-RT-PCR technologies, we identify rs2670660 allele-specific gene expression signatures (GES) which appear useful for detecting the activated states of innate immunity/inflammasome pathways in approximately 700 clinical samples from 185 control subjects and 350 patients diagnosed with nine common human disorders, including Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, rheumatoid arthritis, Huntington disease, autism, Alzheimer disease, obesity, prostate and breast cancers. Microarray analysis of clinical samples demonstrates that rs2670660 allele-specific GES are engaged in patients' peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) which encounter pathological conditions in coherent tissues of a human body during immune surveillance and homeostasis monitoring. These data indicate that expression of transRNAs encoded by specific intergenic sequences can trigger activation of innate immunity/inflammasome pathways and contribute to clinical development of autoinflammatory and autoimmune syndromes. Documented in this work single-base substitution-driven molecular and biological antagonisms of intergenic SNP-containing transRNAs suggest a guiding mechanism of selection and retention of phenotype-compatible intergenic variations during evolution. According to this model, random genetic variations which generate transRNAs asserting antagonistic phenotype-altering effects compared to ancestral alleles will be selected and retained as SNP variants. PMID:19923886

Glinskii, Anna B; Ma, Jun; Ma, Shuang; Grant, Denise; Lim, Chang-Uk; Sell, Stewart; Glinsky, Gennadi V

2009-12-01

189

"Nothing like Pretend": Difference, Disorder, and Dystopia in the Multiple World Spaces of Philip Pullman's "His Dark Materials"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the multiple worlds in Philip Pullman's "His Dark Materials" trilogy in light Pierre Bourdieu's "space of possibles" and the combination of chance and choice that impact Lyra and Will's decisions. Rather than viewing chance or destiny as disempowering, this article considers how the protagonists' choices also encourage…

Cantrell, Sarah K.

2010-01-01

190

Childhood adversity, mental disorder comorbidity, and suicidal behavior in schizotypal personality disorder.  

PubMed

Schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) is a serious and relatively common psychiatric disorder, yet remains understudied among the personality disorders. The current study examines the psychiatric correlates of SPD in a representative epidemiologic sample, utilizing data from the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (N = 34,653). Multiple logistic regression compared people with SPD to the general population across a broad range of childhood adversities, comorbid psychiatric disorders, and suicidal behavior. SPD was strongly associated with many adverse childhood experiences. After adjusting for confounding factors, SPD was independently associated with major depression and several anxiety disorders, including post-traumatic stress disorder. Interestingly, SPD was more strongly associated with borderline and narcissistic personality disorders than cluster A personality disorders. Individuals with SPD were also more likely to attempt suicide. As a whole, these results suggest that individuals with SPD experience significant morbidity and may be at increased risk of mortality. PMID:21048469

Lentz, Vanessa; Robinson, Jennifer; Bolton, James M

2010-11-01

191

Loneliness and Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the link between loneliness and eating disorders. This concept is evaluated through a systematic review of the literature that links loneliness and eating disorders and through a survey of themes connecting the 2 conditions. Eating disorders—including anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and eating disorders that are not otherwise specified, which include binge eating disorder—are challenging health issues. Each

Martha Peaslee Levine

2012-01-01

192

Netrin-1 Promotes Glioblastoma Cell Invasiveness and Angiogenesis by Multiple Pathways Including Activation of RhoA, Cathepsin B, and cAMP-response Element-binding Protein*  

PubMed Central

Glioblastomas are very difficult tumors to treat because they are highly invasive and disseminate within the normal brain, resulting in newly growing tumors. We have identified netrin-1 as a molecule that promotes glioblastoma invasiveness. As evidence, netrin-1 stimulates glioblastoma cell invasion directly through Matrigel-coated transwells, promotes tumor cell sprouting and enhances metastasis to lymph nodes in vivo. Furthermore, netrin-1 regulates angiogenesis as shown in specific angiogenesis assays such as enhanced capillary endothelial cells (EC) sprouting and by increased EC infiltration into Matrigel plugs in vivo, as does VEGF-A. This netrin-1 signaling pathway in glioblastoma cells includes activation of RhoA and cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB). A novel finding is that netrin-1-induced glioblastoma invasiveness and angiogenesis are mediated by activated cathepsin B (CatB), a cysteine protease that translocates to the cell surface as an active enzyme and co-localizes with cell surface annexin A2 (ANXA2). The specific CatB inhibitor CA-074Me inhibits netrin-1-induced cell invasion, sprouting, and Matrigel plug angiogenesis. Silencing of CREB suppresses netrin-1-induced glioblastoma cell invasion, sprouting, and CatB expression. It is concluded that netrin-1 plays an important dual role in glioblastoma progression by promoting both glioblastoma cell invasiveness and angiogenesis in a RhoA-, CREB-, and CatB-dependent manner. Targeting netrin-1 pathways may be a promising strategy for brain cancer therapy. PMID:23195957

Shimizu, Akio; Nakayama, Hironao; Wang, Priscilla; Konig, Courtney; Akino, Tomoshige; Sandlund, Johanna; Coma, Silvia; Italiano, Joseph E.; Mammoto, Akiko; Bielenberg, Diane R.; Klagsbrun, Michael

2013-01-01

193

De Novo SCN8A Mutation Identified by Whole-Exome Sequencing in a Boy With Neonatal Epileptic Encephalopathy, Multiple Congenital Anomalies, and Movement Disorders.  

PubMed

Epileptic encephalopathies represent a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders, majority of which are of unknown etiology. We used whole-exome sequencing of a parent-offspring trio to identify the cause of early infantile epileptic encephalopathy in a boy with neonatal seizures, movement disorders, and multiple congenital anomalies who died at the age of 17 months because of respiratory illness and identified a de novo heterozygous missense mutation (c.3979A>G; p.Ile1327Val) in SCN8A (voltage-gated sodium-channel type VIII alpha subunit) gene. The variant was confirmed in the proband with Sanger sequencing. Because the clinical phenotype associated with SCN8A mutations has previously been identified only in a few patients with or without epileptic seizures, these data together with our results suggest that mutations in SCN8A can lead to early infantile epileptic encephalopathy with a broad phenotypic spectrum. Additional investigations will be worthwhile to determine the prevalence and contribution of SCN8A mutations to epileptic encephalopathies. PMID:24352161

Vaher, Ulvi; Nõukas, Margit; Nikopensius, Tiit; Kals, Mart; Annilo, Tarmo; Nelis, Mari; Ounap, Katrin; Reimand, Tiia; Talvik, Inga; Ilves, Pilvi; Piirsoo, Andres; Seppet, Enn; Metspalu, Andres; Talvik, Tiina

2014-12-01

194

Genetics of Psychiatric Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major psychiatric disorders are common disorders with a complex genetics, similar to other common medical disorders such\\u000a as diabetes and hypertension. For most of these disorders, linkage studies in families with multiple cases have revealed chromosomal\\u000a areas that contain susceptibility genes. In recent years, specific single genes have begun to be identified for disorders\\u000a such as schizophrenia (e.g., DISC1,

John I. Nurnberger Jr; Wade Berrettini; Alexander B. Niculescu III

195

Genetics Home Reference: Multiple epiphyseal dysplasia  

MedlinePLUS

... literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Multiple epiphyseal dysplasia On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance Diagnosis ... definitions Reviewed February 2008 What is multiple epiphyseal dysplasia? Multiple epiphyseal dysplasia is a disorder of cartilage ...

196

Resistance to treatment in eating disorders: a critical challenge  

PubMed Central

The Special Issue “Treatment resistance in Eating Disorders” gathers together the contributions provided by several experienced groups of researchers in the field of Eating Disorders (EDs). The main topic is addressed from multiple perspectives ranging from pathogenesis (including developmental and maintaining factors) to treatment. An explicative model of resistance in EDs is also proposed. PMID:24229426

2013-01-01

197

Cannabis in Multiple Sclerosis: Women's Health Concerns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women's health has received greater attention with the recognition of significant differences in disease expression and drug action in men and women. Multiple sclerosis is a neurological disorder with important gender differences. MS patients have employed cannabis to treat a number of symptoms associated with the disease including spasticity, pain, tremor, fatigue, and autonomic dysfunction. The scientific literature includes supportive

Denis J. Petro

2002-01-01

198

Multiple White Matter Volume Reductions in Patients with Panic Disorder: Relationships between Orbitofrontal Gyrus Volume and Symptom Severity and Social Dysfunction  

PubMed Central

Numerous brain regions are believed to be involved in the neuropathology of panic disorder (PD) including fronto-limbic regions, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. However, while several previous studies have demonstrated volumetric gray matter reductions in these brain regions, there have been no studies evaluating volumetric white matter changes in the fiber bundles connecting these regions. In addition, although patients with PD typically exhibit social, interpersonal and occupational dysfunction, the neuropathologies underlying these dysfunctions remain unclear. A voxel-based morphometry study was conducted to evaluate differences in regional white matter volume between 40 patients with PD and 40 healthy control subjects (HC). Correlation analyses were performed between the regional white matter volumes and patients' scores on the Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS) and the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF). Patients with PD demonstrated significant volumetric reductions in widespread white matter regions including fronto-limbic, thalamo-cortical and cerebellar pathways (p<0.05, FDR corrected). Furthermore, there was a significant negative relationship between right orbitofrontal gyrus (OFG) white matter volume and the severity of patients' clinical symptoms, as assessed with the PDSS. A significant positive relationship was also observed between patients' right OFG volumes and their scores on the GAF. Our results suggest that volumetric reductions in widespread white matter regions may play an important role in the pathology of PD. In particular, our results suggest that structural white matter abnormalities in the right OFG may contribute to the social, personal and occupational dysfunction typically experienced by patients with PD. PMID:24663245

Konishi, Jun; Asami, Takeshi; Hayano, Fumi; Yoshimi, Asuka; Hayasaka, Shunsuke; Fukushima, Hiroshi; Whitford, Thomas J.; Inoue, Tomio; Hirayasu, Yoshio

2014-01-01

199

Heterogeneous ordered-disordered structure of the mesodomain in frozen sucrose-water solutions revealed by multiple electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopies.  

PubMed

The microscopic structure of frozen aqueous sucrose solutions, over concentrations of 0-75% (w/v), is characterized by using multiple continuous-wave and pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopic and relaxation techniques and the paramagnetic spin probe, TEMPOL. The temperature dependence of the TEMPOL EPR line-shape anisotropy reveals a mobility transition, specified at 205 K in pure water and 255 ± 5 K for >1% (w/v) added sucrose. The transition temperature is >Tg, where Tg is the homogeneous water glass transition temperature, which shows that TEMPOL resides in the mesoscopic domain (mesodomain) at water-ice crystallite boundaries and that the mesodomain sucrose concentrations are comparable at >1% (w/v) added sucrose. Electron spin-echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) spectroscopy of TEMPOL-(2)H2-sucrose hyperfine interactions also indicates comparable sucrose concentrations in mesodomains at >1% (w/v) added sucrose. Electron spin-echo (ESE) detected longitudinal and phase memory relaxation times (T1 and TM, respectively) at 6 K indicate a general trend of increased mesodomain volume with added sucrose, in three stages: 1-15, 20-50, and >50% (w/v). The calibrated TEMPOL concentrations indicate that the mesodomain volume is less than the predicted maximally freeze-concentrated value [80 (w/w); 120% (w/v)], with transitions at 15-20% and 50% (w/v) starting sucrose. An ordered sucrose hydrate phase, which excludes TEMPOL, and a disordered, amorphous sucrose-water glass phase, in which TEMPOL resides, are proposed to compose a heterogeneous mesodomain. The results show that the ratio of ordered and disordered volume fractions in the mesodomain is exquisitely sensitive to the starting sucrose concentration. PMID:23464733

Chen, Hanlin; Sun, Li; Warncke, Kurt

2013-04-01

200

Heterogeneous Ordered-Disordered Structure of the Mesodomain in Frozen Sucrose-Water Solutions Revealed by Multiple Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopies  

PubMed Central

The microscopic structure of frozen aqueous sucrose solutions, over concentrations of 0–75% (w/v), is characterized by using multiple continuous-wave and pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopic and relaxation techniques and the paramagnetic spin probe, TEMPOL. The temperature dependence of the TEMPOL EPR lineshape anisotropy reveals a mobility transition, specified at 205 K in pure water and 255 ±5 K for >1% (w/v) added sucrose. The transition temperature is >>Tg, where Tg is the homogeneous water glass transition temperature, which shows that TEMPOL resides in the mesoscopic domain (mesodomain) at water-ice crystallite boundaries, and that the mesodomain sucrose concentrations are comparable at >1% (w/v) added sucrose. Electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) spectroscopy of TEMPOL-2H2-sucrose hyperfine interactions also indicates comparable sucrose concentrations in mesodomains at >1% (w/v) added sucrose. Electron spin echo (ESE) – detected longitudinal and phase memory relaxation times (T1 and TM, respectively) at 6 K indicate a general trend of increased mesodomain volume with added sucrose, in three stages: 1-15, 20-50, and >50% (w/v). The calibrated TEMPOL concentrations indicate that the mesodomain volume is less than the predicted maximally freeze-concentrated value [80 (w/w); 120% (w/v)], with transitions at 15-20% and 50% (w/v) starting sucrose. An ordered sucrose hydrate phase, which excludes TEMPOL, and a disordered, amorphous sucrose-water glass phase, in which TEMPOL resides, are proposed to compose a heterogeneous mesodomain. The results show that the ratio of ordered and disordered volume fractions in the mesodomain is exquisitely sensitive to the starting sucrose concentration. PMID:23464733

Chen, Hanlin; Sun, Li; Warncke, Kurt

2013-01-01

201

Pharmacodynamics and safety of ferric carboxymaltose: a multiple-dose study in patients with iron-deficiency anaemia secondary to a gastrointestinal disorder.  

PubMed

This multiple-dose Phase I/II study provided pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics data on the therapeutic benefit of ferric carboxymaltose (FCM, Ferinject) and evaluated the safety and tolerability of this intravenous (i.v.) iron preparation. Two doses of iron as FCM were given as i.v. infusion over 15 min, 500 mg iron given once weekly for up to 4 weeks (Cohort 1) or 1000 mg iron weekly for 2 weeks (Cohort 2), in patients with a total requirement > or = 1000 mg iron (total cumulative maximum dose < or = 2000 mg iron). Adults with moderate to severe, stable iron-deficiency anaemia (IDA) (haemoglobin [Hb] < or = 11.0 g/dl, serum ferritin < 100 microg/l, transferrin saturation [TSAT] < 16%) due to a gastrointestinal (GI) disorder were included. Pharmacodynamics variables: proportion of patients achieving values within the reference range for Hb (men: 14.0-18.0 g/dl, women: 12.0-16.0 g/dl), serum ferritin (20-500 microg/l), TSAT (16-45%) and proportion of patients with an increase in Hb of at least 2.0 g/dl. Pharmacokinetics variables: total serum iron levels at time of maximum serum iron concentration during the fast elimination phase and at trough time-points. Safety assessments: the incidence of adverse events (AEs) and changes in vital signs, physical examinations, and clinical laboratory parameters. In Cohorts 1 and 2, 14/20 (70%) versus 19/26 (73%) of patients completed the study. Individual calculated iron deficits were 1000-2100 mg. The mean cumulative dose of FCM in Cohorts 1 and 2 was 1800 mg and 1563 mg iron, respectively. At baseline, patients in both cohorts had similar Hb levels (mean 8.7 g/dl in both cohorts). More than 97% of patients demonstrated a clinically meaningful increase in Hb levels (> or = 1.0 g/dl) during the study. By the week 4 follow-up visit, an increase of at least 2.0 g/dl was achieved by 15/20 (75%) and by 19/26 (73.1%) patients in Cohorts 1 and 2, respectively, and the mean increase in Hb was 3.2 g/dl in Cohort 1 and 3.3 g/dl in Cohort 2. By day 28, 3/6 (50%) patients in Cohort 1 had achieved normal Hb levels, and by the 4-week post-treatment followup visit 7/19 patients (37%) in Cohort 1 and 12/25 (48%) in Cohort 2 had reached Hb levels within the reference range. Serum ferritin levels increased rapidly at the start of treatment and remained in the reference range throughout the study; increases were greater in Cohort 2. Mean baseline TSAT values were similar in both cohorts (24.2% in Cohort 1, 20.7% in Cohort 2), and were within the reference range at the week 4 follow-up visit for 41.0 and 39.1% of the patients in Cohorts 1 and 2, respectively. The incidence of AEs occurring after the first administration of FCM (treatment-emergent AEs, TEAE) was generally low and similar in Cohorts 1 (11/20 [55.0%]) and 2 (13/26 [50.0%]). Most TEAEs were mild; only 2/ 20 patients (10.0%) in Cohort 1 and 3/26 (11.5%) in Cohort 2 had TEAEs of moderate intensity. There were no AEs of severe intensity, serious AEs, or deaths. Most AEs were considered by the investigator to be unrelated or unlikely to be related to the study medication. Since accumulation of serum iron was not observed, a dosing interval of 3-4 days (500 mg iron) or 1 week (1000 mg iron) was demonstrated to be adequate. The increase in serum ferritin and TSAT at the 4-week follow-up visit is indicative of a repletion of the iron stores. The results suggest that doses up to 1000 mg i.v. iron administered as FCM over 15 min arewell tolerated and effective in the treatment of patients with IDA due to a GI disorder. PMID:20648929

Geisser, Peter; Rumyantsev, Vitaly

2010-01-01

202

Multiple Carboxylyse Deficiency (MCD, holocarboxylase synthetase) Organic  

E-print Network

acid disorder What is it? Multiple Carboxylyse deficiency (MCD) is an inherited organic acid disorder. People with this organic acid disorder cannot properly break down certain components of protein and sometimes fats. This is because the body is lacking a specific chemical called an enzyme. Since the body cannot properly break down protein, certain organic acids build up in the blood and urine and cause problems when a person eats normal amounts of protein, or becomes sick. What are the symptoms? A person with this disorder can appear normal at birth. People with this disorder need to receive follow-up care by a team of professionals that is experienced in treating people with metabolic disorders. The symptoms of MCD include food refusal, vomiting, skin rashes, breathing problems, hypotonia, seizures and lethargy. Severe metabolic/lactic acidosis, organic aciduria, mild hyperammonemia and variable hypoglycemia can lead to coma and death if not treated. Inheritance and frequency

unknown authors

203

Pleural Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... in and out. Disorders of the pleura include Pleurisy - inflammation of the pleura that causes sharp pain ... Viral infection is the most common cause of pleurisy. The most common cause of pleural effusion is ...

204

Disordered interactome of human papillomavirus.  

PubMed

Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) and proteins with long intrinsically disordered protein regions (IDPRs) lack ordered structure but are involved in a multitude of biological processes, where they often serve as major regulators and controllers of various functions of their binding partners. Furthermore, IDPs/IDPRs are often related to the pathogenesis of various diseases, including cancer. Intrinsic disorder confers multiple functional advantages to its carriers. As a result, due to their functional versatility and structural plasticity, IDPs and IDPRs are common in various proteomes, including proteomes of different pathological organisms. Viruses are "well-educated" users of various aspects of intrinsic disorder for their advantage. These small but highly efficient invaders broadly use intrinsic disorder to overrun the host organism's defense system, as well as to seize and overrun host systems and pathways forcing them to work for the virus needs, to ensure accommodation of viruses to their variable and often hostile habitats, and to promote and support the economic usage of the viral genetic material. Human papillomaviruses (HPVs), with their tiny proteomes (the entire HPV genome includes just eight open reading frames), intricate life cycle, and ability to either cause benign papillomas/warts or promote the development of carcinomas of the genital tract, head and neck and epidermis, attracted considerable attention of researchers. This review analyzes the plentitude and demeanor of intrinsic disorder in proteins from HPVs and their cellular targets. PMID:23713779

Xue, Bin; Ganti, Ketaki; Rabionet, Alejandro; Banks, Lawrence; Uversky, Vladimir N

2014-01-01

205

Genetics of bipolar disorder  

PubMed Central

Bipolar disorder (also known as manic depressive illness) is a complex genetic disorder in which the core feature is pathological disturbance in mood (affect) ranging from extreme elation, or mania, to severe depression usually accompanied by disturbances in thinking and behaviour. The lifetime prevalence of 1% is similar in males and females and family, twin, and adoption studies provide robust evidence for a major genetic contribution to risk. There are methodological impediments to precise quantification, but the approximate lifetime risk of bipolar disorder in relatives of a bipolar proband are: monozygotic co-twin 40-70%; first degree relative 5-10%; unrelated person 0.5-1.5%. Occasional families may exist in which a single gene plays the major role in determining susceptibility, but the majority of bipolar disorder involves the interaction of multiple genes (epistasis) or more complex genetic mechanisms (such as dynamic mutation or imprinting). Molecular genetic positional and candidate gene approaches are being used for the genetic dissection of bipolar disorder. No gene has yet been identified but promising findings are emerging. Regions of interest identified in linkage studies include 4p16, 12q23-q24, 16p13, 21q22, and Xq24-q26. Chromosome 18 is also of interest but the findings are confusing with up to three possible regions implicated. To date most candidate gene studies have focused on neurotransmitter systems influenced by medication used in clinical management of the disorder but no robust positive findings have yet emerged. It is, however, almost certain that over the next few years bipolar susceptibility genes will be identified. This will have a major impact on our understanding of disease pathophysiology and will provide important opportunities to investigate the interaction between genetic and environmental factors involved in pathogenesis. This is likely to lead to major improvements in treatment and patient care but will also raise important ethical issues that will need to be addressed.???Keywords: bipolar disorder; manic depressive illness PMID:10465107

Craddock, N.; Jones, I.

1999-01-01

206

The intrinsically disordered amino-terminal region of human RecQL4: multiple DNA-binding domains confer annealing, strand exchange and G4 DNA binding  

PubMed Central

Human RecQL4 belongs to the ubiquitous RecQ helicase family. Its N-terminal region represents the only homologue of the essential DNA replication initiation factor Sld2 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and also participates in the vertebrate initiation of DNA replication. Here, we utilized a random screen to identify N-terminal fragments of human RecQL4 that could be stably expressed in and purified from Escherichia coli. Biophysical characterization of these fragments revealed that the Sld2 homologous RecQL4 N-terminal domain carries large intrinsically disordered regions. The N-terminal fragments were sufficient for the strong annealing activity of RecQL4. Moreover, this activity appeared to be the basis for an ATP-independent strand exchange activity. Both activities relied on multiple DNA-binding sites with affinities to single-stranded, double-stranded and Y-structured DNA. Finally, we found a remarkable affinity of the N-terminus for guanine quadruplex (G4) DNA, exceeding the affinities for other DNA structures by at least 60-fold. Together, these findings suggest that the DNA interactions mediated by the N-terminal region of human RecQL4 represent a central function at the replication fork. The presented data may also provide a mechanistic explanation for the role of elements with a G4-forming propensity identified in the vicinity of vertebrate origins of DNA replication. PMID:25336622

Keller, Heidi; Kiosze, Kristin; Sachsenweger, Juliane; Haumann, Sebastian; Ohlenschläger, Oliver; Nuutinen, Tarmo; Syväoja, Juhani E.; Görlach, Matthias; Grosse, Frank; Pospiech, Helmut

2014-01-01

207

The intrinsically disordered amino-terminal region of human RecQL4: multiple DNA-binding domains confer annealing, strand exchange and G4 DNA binding.  

PubMed

Human RecQL4 belongs to the ubiquitous RecQ helicase family. Its N-terminal region represents the only homologue of the essential DNA replication initiation factor Sld2 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and also participates in the vertebrate initiation of DNA replication. Here, we utilized a random screen to identify N-terminal fragments of human RecQL4 that could be stably expressed in and purified from Escherichia coli. Biophysical characterization of these fragments revealed that the Sld2 homologous RecQL4 N-terminal domain carries large intrinsically disordered regions. The N-terminal fragments were sufficient for the strong annealing activity of RecQL4. Moreover, this activity appeared to be the basis for an ATP-independent strand exchange activity. Both activities relied on multiple DNA-binding sites with affinities to single-stranded, double-stranded and Y-structured DNA. Finally, we found a remarkable affinity of the N-terminus for guanine quadruplex (G4) DNA, exceeding the affinities for other DNA structures by at least 60-fold. Together, these findings suggest that the DNA interactions mediated by the N-terminal region of human RecQL4 represent a central function at the replication fork. The presented data may also provide a mechanistic explanation for the role of elements with a G4-forming propensity identified in the vicinity of vertebrate origins of DNA replication. PMID:25336622

Keller, Heidi; Kiosze, Kristin; Sachsenweger, Juliane; Haumann, Sebastian; Ohlenschläger, Oliver; Nuutinen, Tarmo; Syväoja, Juhani E; Görlach, Matthias; Grosse, Frank; Pospiech, Helmut

2014-11-10

208

Lymphatic Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... com Sections in Patients & Caregivers Blood Disorders Bone, Joint, and Muscle Disorders Brain, Spinal Cord, and Nerve Disorders Cancer Children's Health Issues Digestive Disorders Disorders of Nutrition Drugs ...

209

Cytogenetic findings in 200 patients with multiple myeloma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytogenetic studies were performed on 200 consecutive patients with multiple myeloma and related disorders. Structurally or numerically abnormal clones were found in 63 patients (32%), including 8 of 45 untreated patients (18%), and 55 of 155 treated patients (35%). The abnormal karyotypes generally showed numerous numerical and structural aberrations and in some patients multiple abnormal clones. The most striking feature

Jeffrey R. Sawyer; James A. Waldron; Sundar Jagannath; Bart Barlogie

1995-01-01

210

Circadian clock and stress interactions in the molecular biology of psychiatric disorders.  

PubMed

Many psychiatric disorders are characterized by circadian rhythm abnormalities, including disturbed sleep/wake cycles, changes in locomotor activity, and abnormal endocrine function. Animal models with mutations in circadian "clock genes" commonly show disturbances in reward processing, locomotor activity and novelty seeking behaviors, further supporting the idea of a connection between the circadian clock and psychiatric disorders. However, if circadian clock dysfunction is a common risk factor for multiple psychiatric disorders, it is unknown if and how these putative clock abnormalities could be expressed differently, and contribute to multiple, distinct phenotypes. One possible explanation is that the circadian clock modulates the biological responses to stressful environmental factors that vary with an individual's experience. It is known that the circadian clock and the stress response systems are closely related: Circadian clock genes regulate the physiological sensitivity to and rhythmic release of glucocorticoids (GC). In turn, GCs have reciprocal effects on the clock. Since stressful life events or increased vulnerability to stress are risk factors for multiple psychiatric disorders, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), bipolar disorder (BD), major depressive disorder (MDD), alcohol use disorder (AUD) and schizophrenia (SCZ), we propose that modulation of the stress response is a common mechanism by which circadian clock genes affect these illnesses. Presently, we review how molecular components of the circadian clock may contribute to these six psychiatric disorders, and present the hypothesis that modulation of the stress response may constitute a common mechanism by which the circadian clock affects multiple psychiatric disorders. PMID:25135782

Landgraf, Dominic; McCarthy, Michael J; Welsh, David K

2014-10-01

211

Aggression and violence in mood disorders.  

PubMed

As a common component of mood disorders, aggression can have many adverse effects on the child's or adolescent's life, including disrupting school performance and causing personal rejection by family, peers, and teachers. The problems of children and adolescents with mood disorders are compounded by comorbid aggressiveness. Without effective treatment for both problems, many of these aggressive, depressed children and adolescents go on to experience multiple failures in life leading to disturbances in character and the inability to establish fulfilling interpersonal relationships. This article is intended to heighten clinician awareness of the complex relationship between mood disorders and aggression. PMID:12222088

Weisbrot, Deborah M; Ettinger, Alan B

2002-07-01

212

[Disorders of the bladder sphincter. Etiopathogenic approach].  

PubMed

Disorders of the vesico-sphincteral system are due to multiple causes (urological, gynaecological, neurological, psycho-behavioural, iatrogenic) which may be associated. By providing information on the type and evolution of these disorders and on the circumstances in which they developed, questioning is fundamental for the diagnosis. Completed by physical examination, it must precede all exploratory methods, including urodynamic, electrophysiological and radiological examinations. It allows these examinations to be graded and, compared with the results, it gives a better understanding of the physiopathology and aetiology of micturition disorders and therefore ensures their better treatment. PMID:8265530

Amarenco, G; Kerdraon, J; Denys, P

1993-10-16

213

Rare adipose disorders (RADs) masquerading as obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rare adipose disorders (RADs) including multiple symmetric lipomatosis (MSL), lipedema and Dercum's disease (DD) may be misdiagnosed as obesity. Lifestyle changes, such as reduced caloric intake and increased physical activity are standard care for obesity. Although lifestyle changes and bariatric surgery work effectively for the obesity component of RADs, these treatments do not routinely reduce the abnormal subcutaneous adipose tissue

Karen L Herbst

2012-01-01

214

Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The term “multiple endocrine neoplasia” was first used by Steiner in the late 1960s when he described three distinct endocrine\\u000a disorders. The first disorder, multiple endocrine neoplasia type I (MEN 1) (also known as Wermer syndrome), described patients\\u000a with familial pituitary, parathyroid, and pancreatic islet cell tumors. The second syndrome, multiple endocrine neoplasia\\u000a type II (MEN 2) (also known as

Christine S. Landry; Thereasa Rich; Camilo Jimenez; Elizabeth G. Grubbs; Jeffrey E. Lee; Nancy D. Perrier

215

Genetics and Function of Neocortical GABAergic Interneurons in Neurodevelopmental Disorders  

PubMed Central

A dysfunction of cortical and limbic GABAergic circuits has been postulated to contribute to multiple neurodevelopmental disorders in humans, including schizophrenia, autism, and epilepsy. In the current paper, I summarize the characteristics that underlie the great diversity of cortical GABAergic interneurons and explore how the multiple roles of these cells in developing and mature circuits might contribute to the aforementioned disorders. Furthermore, I review the tightly controlled genetic cascades that determine the fate of cortical interneurons and summarize how the dysfunction of genes important for the generation, specification, maturation, and function of cortical interneurons might contribute to these disorders. PMID:21876820

Rossignol, E.

2011-01-01

216

Multiple monoclonal B cell expansions and c-myc oncogene rearrangements in acquired immune deficiency syndrome-related lymphoproliferative disorders. Implications for lymphomagenesis  

PubMed Central

AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) and ARC (AIDS-related complex) are associated with a spectrum of lymphoproliferative disorders ranging from lymphadenopathy syndrome (LAS), an apparently benign polyclonal lymphoid hyperplasia, to B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (B-NHL), i.e., malignant, presumably monoclonal B cell proliferations. To gain insight into the process of lymphomagenesis in AIDS and to investigate a possible pathogenetic relationship between LAS and NHL, we investigated the clonality of the B or T lymphoid populations by Ig or T beta gene rearrangement analysis, the presence of rearrangements involving the c-myc oncogene locus, and the presence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) sequences in both LAS and B-NHL biopsies. Our data indicate that multiple clonal B cell expansions are present in a significant percentage of LAS (approximately 20%) and B- NHL (60%) biopsies. c-myc rearrangements/translocations are detectable in 9 of our 10 NHLs, but not in any of the LAS cases. However, only one of the B cell clones, identified by Ig gene rearrangements carries a c- myc gene rearrangement, suggesting that only one clone carries the genetic abnormality associated with malignant B cell lymphoma. Furthermore, the frequency of detection of c-myc rearrangements in AIDS- associated NHLs of both Burkitt and non-Burkitt type suggest that the biological alterations present in AIDS favor the development of lymphomas carrying activated c-myc oncogenes. Finally, our data show that HIV DNA sequences are not detectable in LAS nor in NHL B cell clones, suggesting that HIV does not play a direct role in NHL development. Taken together, these observations suggest a model of multistep lymphomagenesis in AIDS in which LAS would represent a predisposing condition to NHL. Immunosuppression and EBV infection present in LAS can favor the expansion of B cell clones, which in turn may increase the probability of occurrence of c-myc rearrangements leading to malignant transformation. PMID:3491176

1986-01-01

217

Bipolar disorder: diagnostic issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bipolar disorders are cyclical mood disorders with clinical features including distinct sustained periods of mood elevation. • Briefer (4 days or more), mild episodes of mood elevation define bipolar II disorder; lengthier (7 days or more), more severe episodes (or those requiring hospitalisation), with or without psychotic features, define bipolar I disorder. • Depressive periods are more common and lengthier

John W G Tiller; Isaac Schweitzer

2010-01-01

218

Distinguishing bipolar disorder from other psychiatric disorders in children.  

PubMed

Pediatric onset bipolar disorder (BD) is a challenging diagnosis with potentially debilitating outcomes. This review aims to critically evaluate recently published literature relevant to the diagnosis of BD in youth, emphasizing interesting and important new findings characterizing pediatric BD and reporting updates in the diagnostic and statistical manual relevant to this disorder in youth. Challenges regarding the diagnosis of BD will be discussed, in addition to important distinctions with other childhood disorders, including other bipolar spectrum disorders; major depressive disorder; dysthymia; disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD); attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and other disruptive behavioral disorders; anxiety disorders, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD); psychotic disorders; autism spectrum disorders; substance use disorders; and borderline personality disorder. The review concludes with a comment on past research limitations and future directions in the field. PMID:25315116

Singh, Manpreet K; Ketter, Terence; Chang, Kiki D

2014-12-01

219

Epilepsy Associated with Systemic Autoimmune Disorders  

PubMed Central

Systemic autoimmune disorders affect multiple organ systems. Brain involvement commonly causes seizures, which may be the presenting symptom. Systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjorgren's syndrome, Wegener's granulomatosis, sarcoidsosis, celiac disease, Crohn's disease, Behcet's, and Hashimoto's encephalopathy are reviewed. Mechanisms underlying CNS pathology in systemic autoimmune disorders—and specifically factors predisposing these patients—are discussed, including vascular disease (e.g., prothrombotic state, anticardiolipin antibody, emboli, vasculitis), antineuronal antibodies, immune complexes, cytokines, metabolic disorders, infection, and therapy. Diagnostic and therapeutic strategies must be individualized for both the disorder and the patient. Systemic autoimmune disorders affect multiple organ systems and frequently involve the central and peripheral nervous systems. Seizures are among the most common neurological manifestation and occasionally can be the presenting symptom. There are many causes of seizures in systemic autoimmune disorders (Table 1), and the first clinical challenge is to determine not only the cause but also the significance of seizures. In some cases, they are clues to metabolic or infectious disorders or medication toxicity; in other cases, seizures herald a life-threatening progression of the underlying illness. PMID:23646005

Devinsky, Orrin; Schein, Adam; Najjar, Souhel

2013-01-01

220

Networks of intergenic long-range enhancers and snpRNAs drive castration-resistant phenotype of prostate cancer and contribute to pathogenesis of multiple common human disorders  

PubMed Central

The mechanistic relevance of intergenic disease-associated genetic loci (IDAGL) containing highly statistically significant disease-linked SNPs remains unknown. Here, we present experimental and clinical evidence supporting the importantance of the role of IDAGL in human diseases. A targeted RT-PCR screen coupled with sequencing of purified PCR products detects widespread transcription at multiple IDAGL and identifies 96 small noncoding trans-regulatory RNAs of ?100–300 nt in length containing SNPs (snpRNAs) associated with 21 common disorders. Multiple independent lines of experimental evidence support functionality of snpRNAs by documenting their cell type-specific expression and evolutionary conservation of sequences, genomic coordinates and biological effects. Chromatin state signatures, expression profiling experiments and luciferase reporter assays demonstrate that many IDAGL are Polycomb-regulated long-range enhancers. Expression of snpRNAs in human and mouse cells markedly affects cellular behavior and induces allele-specific clinically relevant phenotypic changes: NLRP1-locus snpRNAs rs2670660 exert regulatory effects on monocyte/macrophage transdifferentiation, induce prostate cancer (PC) susceptibility snpRNAs and transform low-malignancy hormone-dependent human PC cells into highly malignant androgen-independent PC. Q-PCR analysis and luciferase reporter assays demonstrate that snpRNA sequences represent allele-specific “decoy” targets of microRNAs that function as SNP allele-specific modifiers of microRNA expression and activity. We demonstrate that trans-acting RNA molecules facilitating resistance to androgen depletion (RAD) in vitro and castration-resistant phenotype (CRP) in vivo of PC contain intergenic 8q24-locus SNP variants (rs1447295; rs16901979; rs6983267) that were recently linked with increased risk of PC. Q-PCR analysis of clinical samples reveals markedly increased and highly concordant (r = 0.896; p < 0.0001) snpRNA expression levels in tumor tissues compared with the adjacent normal prostate [122-fold and 45-fold in Gleason 7 tumors (p = 0.03); 370-fold and 127-fold in Gleason 8 tumors (p = 0.0001) for NLRP1-locus and 8q24-locus snpRNAs, respectively]. Our experiments indicate that RAD and CR phenotype of human PC cells can be triggered by ncRNA molecules transcribed from the NLRP1-locus intergenic enhancer at 17p13 and by downstream activation of the 8q24-locus snpRNAs. Our results define the IDAGL at 17p13 and 8q24 as candidate regulatory loci of RAD and CR phenotypes of PC, reveal previously unknown molecular links between the innate immunity/inflammasome system and development of hormone-independent PC and identify novel molecular and genetic targets with diagnostic and therapeutic potentials, exploration of which should be highly beneficial for personalized clinical management of PC. PMID:22067658

Glinskii, Anna B; Ma, Shuang; Ma, Jun; Grant, Denise; Lim, Chang-Uk; Guest, Ian; Sell, Stewart; Buttyan, Ralph

2011-01-01

221

Prevention of eating disorders in female athletes  

PubMed Central

Eating disorders are serious mental diseases that frequently appear in female athletes. They are abnormal eating behaviors that can be diagnosed only by strict criteria. Disordered eating, although also characterized as abnormal eating behavior, does not include all the criteria for diagnosing eating disorders and is therefore a way to recognize the problem in its early stages. It is important to identify factors to avoid clinical progression in this high-risk population. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to discuss critical information for the prevention of eating disorders in female athletes. This review discusses the major correlates for the development of an eating disorder. We also discuss which athletes are possibly at highest risk for eating disorders, including those from lean sports and female adolescent athletes. There is an urgent need for the demystification of myths surrounding body weight and performance in sports. This review includes studies that tested different prevention programs’ effectiveness, and the majority showed positive results. Educational programs are the best method for primary prevention of eating disorders. For secondary prevention, early identification is essential and should be performed by preparticipation exams, the recognition of dietary markers, and the use of validated self-report questionnaires or clinical interviews. In addition, more randomized clinical trials are needed with athletes from multiple sports in order for the most reliable recommendations to be made and for some sporting regulations to be changed. PMID:24891817

Coelho, Gabriela Morgado de Oliveira; Gomes, Aina Innocencio da Silva; Ribeiro, Beatriz Goncalves; Soares, Eliane de Abreu

2014-01-01

222

Overview of Movement Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... Tumors of the Nervous System Brain Infections Meningitis Prion Diseases Movement Disorders Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and Related ... cerebellum cerebrum Back to Top Previous: Overview of Prion Diseases Next: Chorea, Athetosis, and Hemiballismus Audio Figures ...

223

Characterization of a 520 kb deletion on chromosome 15q26.1 including ST8SIA2 in a patient with behavioral disturbance, autism spectrum disorder, and epilepsy.  

PubMed

We present a patient with a behavioral disorder, epilepsy, and autism spectrum disorder who has a 520?kb chromosomal deletion at 15q26.1 encompassing three genes: ST8SIA2, C15orf32, and FAM174B. Alpha-2,8-Sialyltransferase 2 (ST8SIA2) is expressed in the developing brain and appears to play an important role in neuronal migration, axon guidance and synaptic plasticity. It has recently been implicated in a genome wide association study as a potential factor underlying autism, and has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. This case provides supportive evidence that ST8SIA2 haploinsufficiency may play a role in neurobehavioral phenotypes. PMID:24357335

Kamien, Benjamin; Harraway, James; Lundie, Ben; Smallhorne, Lex; Gibbs, Vicki; Heath, Anna; Fullerton, Janice M

2014-03-01

224

Special considerations in the treatment of patients with bipolar disorder and medical co-morbidities  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The pharmacological treatment of bipolar disorder has dramatically improved with multiple classes of agents being used as mood-stabilizers, including lithium, anticonvulsants, and atypical antipsychotics. However, the use of these medications is not without risk, particularly when a patient with bipolar disorder also has comorbid medical illness. As the physician who likely has the most contact with patients with bipolar

Kimberly D McLaren; Lauren B Marangell

2004-01-01

225

An Ecosystemic Perspective in the Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress and Substance Use Disorders in Veterans  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews the prevalence of co-occurring posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorders (SUDs) in the veteran population. Recommendations regarding how to better understand, engage, and retain veterans with PTSD\\/SUDs in treatment are presented through an ecological perspective that takes into account the multiple systems and worldviews, including culture, ethnicity, family, and military culture, that are transacting with

Eugenia L. Weiss; Jose E. Coll; Shannon Mayeda; Jennifer Mascarenas; Kristen Lawlor; Tara Debraber

2012-01-01

226

Sleep disorders - overview  

MedlinePLUS

Sleep disorders are problems with sleeping, including trouble falling or staying asleep, falling asleep at the wrong times, ... Mononucleosis or other viral illnesses Narcolepsy and other sleep disorders Obesity, especially if it causes obstructive sleep apnea ...

227

Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, 2012. Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) Among Multiple Areas of the United States in 2008.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that about 1 in 88 children has been identified with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). CDCs estimate comes from the Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (ADDM) Network, which moni...

2012-01-01

228

Eating disorders.  

PubMed

Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are primarily psychiatric disorders characterized by severe disturbances of eating behaviour. Anorexia nervosa has been well documented in pre-pubertal children. Eating disorders are most prevalent in the Western cultures where food is in abundance and for females attractiveness is equated with thinness. Eating disorders are rare in countries like India. As Western sociocultural ideals become more widespread one may expect to see an increase in number of cases of eating disorders in non-Western societies. Etiological theories suggest a complex interaction among psychological, sociocultural, and biological factors. Patients with anorexia nervosa manifest weight loss, fear of becoming fat, and disturbances in how they experience their body weight and shape. Patients with bulimia nervosa present with recurrent episodes of binge eating and inappropriate methods of weight control such as self-induced vomiting, and abuse of diuretics and laxatives. Major complications of eating disorders include severe fluid and electrolyte disturbances and cardiac arrhythmias. The most common cause of death in anorexia nervosa is suicide. Management requires a team approach in which different professionals work together. Individual and family psychotherapy are effective in patients with anorexia nervosa and cognitive-behavioral therapy is effective in bulimia nervosa. Pharmacotherapy is not universally effective by itself. Patients with eating disorders suffer a chronic course of illness. The pediatrician plays important role in early diagnosis, management of medical complications, and psychological support to the patient and the family. PMID:10773895

Patel, D R; Phillips, E L; Pratt, H D

1998-01-01

229

Anxiety Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Anxiety Disorders About Anxiety Disorders Anxiety Disorders in Older Adults If you have an ... to treatment for the anxiety disorder. Types of Anxiety Disorders There are several basic types of anxiety ...

230

Common anorectal disorders.  

PubMed

Anorectal disorders result in many visits to healthcare specialists. These disorders include benign conditions such as hemorrhoids to more serious conditions such as malignancy; thus, it is important for the clinician to be familiar with these disorders as well as know how to conduct an appropriate history and physical examination. This article reviews the most common anorectal disorders, including hemorrhoids, anal fissures, fecal incontinence, proctalgia fugax, excessive perineal descent, and pruritus ani, and provides guidelines on comprehensive evaluation and management. PMID:24987313

Foxx-Orenstein, Amy E; Umar, Sarah B; Crowell, Michael D

2014-05-01

231

Common Anorectal Disorders  

PubMed Central

Anorectal disorders result in many visits to healthcare specialists. These disorders include benign conditions such as hemorrhoids to more serious conditions such as malignancy; thus, it is important for the clinician to be familiar with these disorders as well as know how to conduct an appropriate history and physical examination. This article reviews the most common anorectal disorders, including hemorrhoids, anal fissures, fecal incontinence, proctalgia fugax, excessive perineal descent, and pruritus ani, and provides guidelines on comprehensive evaluation and management. PMID:24987313

Foxx-Orenstein, Amy E.; Umar, Sarah B.; Crowell, Michael D.

2014-01-01

232

Behavioral genetics of affective and anxiety disorders.  

PubMed

As shown by clinical genetic studies, affective and anxiety disorders are complex genetic disorders with genetic and environmental factors interactively determining their respective pathomechanism. Advances in molecular genetic techniques including linkage studies, association studies, and genome-wide association studies allow for the detailed dissection of the genetic influence on the development of these disorders. Besides the molecular genetic investigation of categorical entities according to standardized diagnostic criteria, intermediate phenotypes comprising neurobiological or neuropsychological traits (e.g., neuronal correlates of emotional processing) that are linked to the disease of interest and that are heritable, have been proposed to be closer to the underlying genotype than the overall disease phenotype. These intermediate phenotypes are dimensional and more precisely defined than the categorical disease phenotype, and therefore have attracted much interest in the genetic investigation of affective and anxiety disorders. Given the complex genetic nature of affective and anxiety disorders with an interaction of multiple risk genes and environmental influences, the interplay of genetic factors with environmental factors is investigated by means of gene-environment interaction (GxE) studies. Pharmacogenetic studies aid in the dissection of the genetically influenced heterogeneity of psychotropic drug response and may contribute to the development of a more individualized treatment of affective and anxiety disorders. Finally, there is some evidence for genetic factors potentially shared between affective and anxiety disorders pointing to a possible overlapping phenotype between anxiety disorders and depression. PMID:22307738

Domschke, Katharina; Reif, Andreas

2012-01-01

233

Panic Disorder and Chest Pain: Mechanisms, Morbidity, and Management  

PubMed Central

Approximately one quarter of patients who present to physicians for treatment of chest pain have panic disorder. Panic disorder frequently goes unrecognized and untreated among patients with chest pain, leading to frequent return visits and substantial morbidity. Panic attacks may lead to chest pain through a variety of mechanisms, both cardiac and noncardiac in nature, and multiple processes may cause chest pain in the same patient. Panic disorder is associated with elevated rates of cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension, cardiomyopathy, and, possibly, sudden cardiac death. Furthermore, patients with panic disorder and chest pain have high rates of functional disability and medical service utilization. Fortunately, panic disorder is treatable; selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, benzodiazepines, and cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy all effectively reduce symptoms. Preliminary studies have also found that treatment of patients who have panic disorder and chest pain with benzodiazepines results in reduction of chest pain as well as relief of anxiety. PMID:15014745

Huffman, Jeff C.; Pollack, Mark H.; Stern, Theodore A.

2002-01-01

234

Determinants of multiple psychotropic drug use in patients with mild intellectual disabilities or borderline intellectual functioning and psychiatric or behavioral disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prevalence rates of psychotropic drug use in people with intellectual disabilities are high and pharmacotherapy is often attempted with multiple drugs. The presence of disruptive behavior is an important factor associated with the use of psychotropic drugs in this population. We wanted to gain insight into prevalence and determinants of multiple psychotropic drug use among patients with mild intellectual disabilities

Joost J. Stolker; Eibert R. Heerdink; Hubert G. M. Leufkens; Mariet G. M. Clerkx; Willem A. Nolen

2001-01-01

235

Neurodegenerative disorders and nanoformulated drug development  

PubMed Central

Degenerative and inflammatory diseases of the CNS include, but are not limited to, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, stroke, multiple sclerosis and HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders. These are common, debilitating and, unfortunately, hold few therapeutic options. In recent years, the application of nanotechnologies as commonly used or developing medicines has served to improve pharmacokinetics and drug delivery specifically to CNS-diseased areas. In addition, nanomedical advances are leading to therapies that target CNS pathobiology and as such, can interrupt disordered protein aggregation, deliver functional neuroprotective proteins and alter the oxidant state of affected neural tissues. This article focuses on the pathobiology of common neurodegenerative disorders with a view towards how nanomedicine may be used to improve the clinical course of neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:19572820

Nowacek, Ari; Kosloski, Lisa M; Gendelman, Howard E

2009-01-01

236

The relationship between creativity and mood disorders  

PubMed Central

Research designed to examine the relationship between creativity and mental illnesses must confront multiple challenges. What is the optimal sample to study? How should creativity be defined? What is the most appropriate comparison group? Only a limited number of studies have examined highly creative individuals using personal interviews and a noncreative comparison group. The majority of these have examined writers. The preponderance of the evidence suggests that in these creative individuals the rate of mood disorder is high, and that both bipolar disorder and unipolar depression are quite common. Clinicians who treat creative individuals with mood disorders must also confronta variety of challenges, including the fear that treatment may diminish creativity, in the case of bipolar disorder, hovt/ever, it is likely that reducing severe manic episodes may actually enhance creativity in many individuals. PMID:18689294

Andreasen, Nancy C.

2008-01-01

237

The relationship between creativity and mood disorders.  

PubMed

Research designed to examine the relationship between creativity and mental illnesses must confront multiple challenges. What is the optimal sample to study? How should creativity be defined? What is the most appropriate comparison group? Only a limited number of studies have examined highly creative individuals using personal interviews and a noncreative comparison group. The majority of these have examined writers. The preponderance of the evidence suggests that in these creative individuals the rate of mood disorder is high, and that both bipolar disorder and unipolar depression are quite common. Clinicians who treat creative individuals with mood disorders must also confront a variety of challenges, including the fear that treatment may diminish creativity. In the case of bipolar disorder, however, it is likely that reducing severe manic episodes may actually enhance creativity in many individuals. PMID:18689294

Andreasen, Nancy C

2008-01-01

238

Low-dose mirtazapine added to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in pregnant women with major depression or panic disorder including symptoms of severe nausea, insomnia and decreased appetite: three cases.  

PubMed

Data on the use of a combination of antidepressants during pregnancy are inadequate. This report presents the beneficial effect of low-dose mirtazapine added onto selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in the treatment of the symptoms of severe nausea, insomnia and loss of appetite accompanying psychiatric disorders during pregnancy, which is an important problem in clinical practice. The psychiatric diagnoses were determined with the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. Assessments were performed with the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement Scale and the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. Further studies should be carried out to confirm the positive effects and safety of an additional low-dose mirtazapine in these cases. PMID:23363390

Uguz, Faruk

2013-07-01

239

Bronchiolar disorders.  

PubMed

Bronchiolar abnormalities are relatively common and occur in a variety of clinical settings. Various histopathologic patterns of bronchiolar injury have been described and have led to confusing nomenclature with redundant and overlapping terms. Some histopathologic patterns of bronchiolar disease may be relatively unique to a specific clinical context but others are nonspecific with respect to either etiology or pathogenesis. Herein, we present a scheme separating (1) those disorders in which the bronchiolar disease is the predominant abnormality (primary bronchiolar disorders) from (2) parenchymal disorders with prominent bronchiolar involvement and (3) bronchiolar involvement in large airway diseases. Primary bronchiolar disorders include constrictive bronchiolitis (obliterative bronchiolitis, bronchiolitis obliterans), acute bronchiolitis, diffuse panbronchiolitis, respiratory bronchiolitis, mineral dust airway disease, follicular bronchiolitis, and a few other rare variants. Prominent bronchiolar involvement may be seen in several interstitial lung diseases, including hypersensitivity pneumonitis, respiratory bronchiolitis-associated interstitial lung disease, cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (idiopathic bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia), and pulmonary Langerhans' cell histiocytosis. Large airway diseases that commonly involve bronchioles include bronchiectasis, asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The clinical relevance of a bronchiolar lesion is best determined by identifying the underlying histopathologic pattern and assessing the correlative clinico-physiologic-radiologic context. PMID:14644923

Ryu, Jay H; Myers, Jeffrey L; Swensen, Stephen J

2003-12-01

240

Therapeutic horseback riding outcomes of parent-identified goals for children with autism spectrum disorder: an ABA' multiple case design examining dosing and generalization to the home and community.  

PubMed

We examined whether different doses of therapeutic riding influenced parent-nominated target behaviors of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (a) during the session (b) at home, and (c) in the community. We used a single subject multiple Baseline, multiple case design, with dosing of 1, 3, and 5 times/week. Three boys with ASD, 6-8 years of age participated, and counts of target behaviors were collected in each setting and phase of the study. Compared to Baseline, 70% of the target behaviors were better during Intervention and improvement was retained in 63% of the behaviors during Withdrawal. Increased doses of therapeutic riding were significant for magnitude of change, and the effect of the therapeutic riding sessions generalized to home and community. PMID:24091469

Holm, Margo B; Baird, Joanne M; Kim, Young Joo; Rajora, Kuwar B; D'Silva, Delma; Podolinsky, Lin; Mazefsky, Carla; Minshew, Nancy

2014-04-01

241

MRI mimics of multiple sclerosis.  

PubMed

Diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) is based on the demonstration of dissemination of lesions in space (DIS) and in time (DIT), as well as on the exclusion of an alternative neurologic disorder. As a paraclinical tool brain and/or spinal cord magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), showing typical lesion morphology, characteristic distribution of lesions, or involvement or specific anatomic structures, can support the diagnosis of MS. But from an imaging perspective a considerable amount of inherited and acquired disorders may manifest with radiologic evidence of DIT, DIS, or both. Hypoxic-ischemic vasculopathy, specially small-vessel disease, inflammatory disorders, vasculitis, and non-MS idiopathic inflammatory disorders, as well as some toxic, metabolic, and infectious disorders, may present mimicking MS on MR examinations and should be included in the differential diagnosis of MS-like lesions. Careful evaluation of associated findings on MRI, the so-called MRI red flags, such as the presence of infarcts, microbleeds, meningeal enhancement, and calcifications among others, are very helpful in suggesting a diagnosis other than MS. Complement MRI findings to patient's history, demographics, and serologic findings are crucial to achieve the correct diagnosis. We will review the most frequent radiologic appearance and differential features from the most frequent MS mimickers. PMID:24507523

Aliaga, Esther Sánchez; Barkhof, Frederik

2014-01-01

242

EAAT2 regulation and splicing: relevance to psychiatric and neurological disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The excitatory amino acid transporter 2 (EAAT2) is responsible for the majority of glutamate uptake in the brain and its dysregulation has been associated with multiple psychiatric and neurological disorders. However, investigation of this molecule has been complicated by its complex pattern of alternative splicing, including three coding isoforms and multiple 5?- and 3?-UTRs that may have a regulatory function.

T L Lauriat; L A McInnes

2007-01-01

243

The Single and Combined Effects of Multiple Intensities of Behavior Modification and Methylphenidate for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in a Classroom Setting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Currently behavior modification, stimulant medication, and combined treatments are supported as evidence-based interventions for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in classroom settings. However, there has been little study of the relative effects of these two modalities and their combination in classrooms. Using a within-subject design, the…

Fabiano, Gregory A.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Burrows-MacLean, Lisa; Coles, Erika K.; Chacko, Anil; Wymbs, Brian T.; Walker, Kathryn S.; Arnold, Fran; Garefino, Allison; Keenan, Jenna K.; Onyango, Adia N.; Hoffman, Martin T.; Massetti, Greta M.; Robb, Jessica A.

2007-01-01

244

Genetics Home Reference: Multiple sclerosis  

MedlinePLUS

... to nerve cells. Multiple sclerosis is considered an autoimmune disorder; autoimmune disorders occur when the immune system malfunctions and attacks ... genetic condition can be inherited? If a genetic disorder runs in my family, what are the ... cell ; cell membrane ; double vision ; fever ; gene ; ...

245

Relationships Among Suicide Ideators, Attempters, and Multiple Attempters in a Young-Adult Sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationships among suicide ideators, attempters, and multiple attempters were explored in 332 psychiatric patients referred specifically for suicidal ideation or behavior. Previous researchers have subsumed multiple attempters under the general category of attempters. However, comparisons across a range of variables, including Axis I diagnoses from the revised 3rd edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (American

M. David Rudd; Thomas Joiner; M. Hasan Rajab

1996-01-01

246

Multiple homicides.  

PubMed

A study of multiple homicides or multiple deaths involving a solitary incident of violence by another individual was performed on the case files of the Office of the Medical Examiner of Metropolitan Dade County in Miami, Florida, during 1983-1987. A total of 107 multiple homicides were studied: 88 double, 17 triple, one quadruple, and one quintuple. The 236 victims were analyzed regarding age, race, sex, cause of death, toxicologic data, perpetrator, locale of the incident, and reason for the incident. This article compares this type of slaying with other types of homicide including those perpetrated by serial killers. Suggestions for future research in this field are offered. PMID:2782297

Copeland, A R

1989-09-01

247

Pervasive Developmental Disorders in Girls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pervasive developmental disorders are a group of conditions sharing as their common features impairment in social reciprocity,\\u000a developmental disturbances affecting communication, and manifestation of restricted and repetitive behaviors. Autism is the\\u000a prototypical pervasive developmental disorder, and others include Asperger's Disorder, Rett's Disorder, Childhood Disintegrative\\u000a Disorder, and Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS). Critical to understanding these conditions\\u000a is appreciation of

Kathleen Koenig; Katherine D. Tsatsanis

248

Autoantibody-associated movement disorders.  

PubMed

Autoantibodies to the extracellular domain of neuronal proteins cause different neurological conditions with movement disorders as a prominent feature. We reviewed the literature of autoantibody-mediated and autoantibody-associated diseases focusing on anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis, autoimmune basal ganglia encephalitis, Sydenham chorea, and the rare syndrome of progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus. NMDAR encephalitis is a diffuse encephalitis with psychiatric and cognitive features associated with autoantibodies against the NR1 subunit of the NMDAR. The movement disorder phenotype is diverse and often generalized in young children. Although orofacial dyskinesia was the initial movement phenotype, chorea, dystonia, catatonia, and stereotypical movements are now described. The stereotypical movements can be bizarre and include cycling movements and compulsive self-injurious behavior. Autoimmune basal ganglia encephalitis is an inflammatory encephalitis localizing to the basal ganglia that is sometimes associated with serum antibodies against dopamine-2 receptor. Although psychiatric features are common, the dominant problem is a movement disorder, with dystonia-parkinsonism being characteristic. Sydenham chorea is the prototypic poststreptococcal autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder and several autoantibodies may be involved in disease generation. The syndrome is characterized by a pure chorea, although hypotonia, dysarthria, and emotional lability are common. Progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus is a rare autoimmune disorder causing rigidity, stimulus sensitive spasms, and myoclonus of nonepileptic origin and is associated with autoantibodies of multiple types including those against the glycine receptor. These disorders are important to recognize and diagnose, as immune therapy can shorten disease duration and improve outcome. PMID:24203856

Mohammad, Shekeeb S; Ramanathan, Sudarshini; Brilot, Fabienne; Dale, Russell C

2013-12-01

249

Assessing Multiple Outcomes for Women with Co-Occurring Disorders and Trauma in a Multi-Site Trial: A Propensity Score Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study assesses the ability of two promising propensity scoring methods to reduce selection bias in a set of secondary\\u000a data from the women with co-occurring disorders and violence study (WCDVS), whose purpose was to evaluate the effect of integrated\\u000a treatment for women with mental health, substance use, and trauma issues (N = 2,729). Weighting, the more successful method, is demonstrated

Alan R. Ellis; Joseph P. Morrissey

2009-01-01

250

Diagnostic Evaluation of Autism Spectrum Disorders  

PubMed Central

Synopsis Research on the identification and evaluation of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is reviewed and best practices for clinical work are discussed. The latest research on diagnostic tools, and their recommended use, is also reviewed. Recommendations include the use of instruments designed to assess multiple domains of functioning and behavior, the inclusion of parents and caregivers as active partners, and the consideration of developmental factors throughout the diagnostic process. PMID:22284796

Huerta, Marisela; Lord, Catherine

2011-01-01

251

Prevalent misconceptions about acute retinal vascular occlusive disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute retinal vascular occlusive disorders collectively constitute one of the major causes of blindness or seriously impaired vision, and yet there is marked controversy on their pathogeneses, clinical features and particularly their management. This is because the subject is plagued by multiple misconceptions. These include that: (i) various acute retinal vascular occlusions represent a single disease; (ii) estimation of visual

Sohan Singh Hayreh

2005-01-01

252

Gene Transfer Strategies for Correction of Lysosomal Storage Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) represent a large group of monogenic disorders of metabolism, which affect approximately 1 in 5,000 live births. LSDs result from a single or multiple deficiency of specific lysosomal hydrolases, the enzymes responsible for the luminal catabolization of macromolecular substrates. The consequent accumulation of undigested metabolites in lysosomes leads to polysystemic dysfunction, including progressive neurologic deterioration, mental

Alessandra d’Azzo

2003-01-01

253

AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS What is autism?  

E-print Network

AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS What is autism? Autism is part of a group of complex neurodevelopmental disorders called autism spectrum disorders (ASD). ASD includes: · Autistic Disorder · Asperger's Disorder Specified (PDD-NOS) Autism spectrum disorders are present early in life and are characterized by varying

Bordenstein, Seth

254

AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS What is autism?  

E-print Network

AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS What is autism? Autism is part of a group of complex neurodevelop- mental disorders called autism spectrum disorders (ASD). ASD includes: · Autistic Disorder · Asperger's Disorder Specified (PDD-NOS) Autism spectrum disorders are present early in life and are characterized by varying

Palmeri, Thomas

255

Medical Management of the Multiple Chemical Sensitivity Patient  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is a complex, chronic disorder characterized by multisystemic symptoms occurring in response to a wide variety of chemical odors or low-level exposures. The etiology is unknown but likely multifactorial. Patient evaluation includes a comprehensive history with a review of past medical records and a physical examination with specific attention to the affected organ systems. Laboratory evaluation

Virginia M. Weaver

1996-01-01

256

Psychiatric disorders and sleep issues.  

PubMed

Sleep issues are common in people with psychiatric disorders, and the interaction is complex. Sleep disorders, particularly insomnia, can precede and predispose to psychiatric disorders, can be comorbid with and exacerbate psychiatric disorders, and can occur as part of psychiatric disorders. Sleep disorders can mimic psychiatric disorders or result from medication given for psychiatric disorders. Impairment of sleep and of mental health may be different manifestations of the same underlying neurobiological processes. For the primary care physician, key tools include recognition of potential sleep effects of psychiatric medications and familiarity with treatment approaches for insomnia in depression and anxiety. PMID:25134876

Sutton, Eliza L

2014-09-01

257

Mindful Curriculum Leadership for Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Leading in Elementary Schools by Using Multiple Intelligences Theory (SUMIT[C]).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides an example of how elementary school curriculum leaders can be mindful of student intelligences and can utilize the strengths of their student populations. It presents the findings from a national study that examined how 17 schools using a curriculum based on Multiple Intelligences Theory improved the self-concept and positive…

Schirduan, Victoria; Case, Karen I.

258

New results in applied scattering theory: the physical-statistics approach, including strong multiple scatter versus classical statistical-physical methods* and the Born and Rytov approximations versus exact strong scatter probability distributionsNew results in applied scattering theory: the physical-statistics approach, including strong multiple scatter versus classical statistical-physical methods and the Born and Rytov approximations versus exact strong scatter probability distributions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to carry out effective signal processing for signal detection and estimation in scatter-dominated environments, it is necessary to obtain the needed probability distributions and probability densities (PDFs) of the received scatter. In general, the received scatter is non-Gaussian and often strongly so. It is also dominated by multiple-scatter contributions. This is particularly the case for (radar) scatter off

David Middleton

2002-01-01

259

Do childhood externalizing disorders predict adult depression? A meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Childhood externalizing disorders have been linked to adult affective disorders, although some studies fail to substantiate this finding. Multiple longitudinal cohort studies identifying childhood psychopathology and their association with adult psychiatric illness have been published. To examine the association between childhood externalizing symptoms or disorders and the development of adult depression across cohorts, a meta-analysis was performed. Potential studies were identified using a PubMed search through November 2013. All published, prospective, longitudinal, community-sampled cohort studies of children (? 13 years) with externalizing symptoms or disorders (aggression, conduct problems, oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder), reassessed in adulthood (? 18 years) for depressive disorders (major depressive disorder, depressive disorder NOS, or dysthymic disorder) were included. A random effects model was used to summarize the pooled effect sizes. Ancillary analyses considered covariates that could account for variance among studies. Ten studies representing eight cohorts of children initially assessed at age 13 or younger (N?=?17,712) were included in the meta-analysis. Childhood externalizing behavior was associated with adult depressive disorders (OR?=?1.52, 95 % confidence interval?=?1.27-1.80, p?disorders in adulthood. PMID:24652486

Loth, Annemarie K; Drabick, Deborah A G; Leibenluft, Ellen; Hulvershorn, Leslie A

2014-10-01

260

Multimodality imaging features of hereditary multiple exostoses  

PubMed Central

Hereditary multiple exostoses (HME) or diaphyseal aclasis is an inherited disorder characterised by the formation of multiple osteochondromas, which are cartilage-capped osseous outgrowths, and the development of associated osseous deformities. Individuals with HME may be asymptomatic or develop clinical symptoms, which prompt imaging studies. Different modalities ranging from plain radiographs to cross-sectional and nuclear medicine imaging studies can be helpful in the diagnosis and detection of complications in HME, including chondrosarcomatous transformation. We review the role and imaging features of these different modalities in HME. PMID:24004486

Fitzgerald, L; Campbell, N; Lyburn, I D; Munk, P L; Buckley, O; Torreggiani, W C

2013-01-01

261

Sleep disorders in pregnancy.  

PubMed

Sleep disturbances are common in pregnancy and may be influenced by a multitude of factors. Pregnancy physiology may predispose to sleep disruption but may also result in worsening of some underlying sleep disorders, and the de novo development of others. Apart from sleep disordered breathing, the impact of sleep disorders on pregnancy, fetal, and neonatal outcomes is poorly understood. In this article, we review the literature and discuss available data pertaining to the most common sleep disorders in perinatal women. These include restless legs syndrome, insomnia, circadian pattern disturbances, narcolepsy, and sleep-disordered breathing. PMID:25156772

Oyiengo, Dennis; Louis, Mariam; Hott, Beth; Bourjeily, Ghada

2014-09-01

262

Understanding Alcohol Use Disorders and Their Treatment  

MedlinePLUS

... once during the past month. 2 What causes alcohol-related disorders? Problem drinking has multiple causes, with ... to reduce or avoid withdrawal symptoms. How do alcohol use disorders affect people? While some research suggests ...

263

[Sleep disorders].  

PubMed

Some sleep disorders and sleep problems are reported as risk of dementia. It is reported that 50-80% of idiopathic REM sleep behavior had a later conversion to a synucleinopathy, thus this parasomnia is regarded as early marker of Parkinson disease, dementia with Lewy bodies and multiple system atrophy. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome causes reversible decline of cognitive functions in children and adults, and it increases the risk of dementia and mild cognitive impairment in elderly women. A decrease of amplitude of circadian activity rhythm and habitual long sleep duration (> or = 9 hours) are reported to increase the risk of dementia in elderly people. Some reports indicate that hypnotic use may be a risk factor of dementia. However, it is not cleared whether insomnia itself related with dementia or not, since no study evaluated the risk of insomnia without hypnotic treatment. PMID:24796108

Tagaya, Hirokuni; Murayama, Norio; Hakamata, Yuko

2014-04-01

264

WISC-IV Profiles in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Comorbid Learning Disabilities.  

E-print Network

??Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and learning disabilities (LD), including Reading Disorder (RD), Disorder of Written Expression (DWE), and Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) all co-occur… (more)

Parke, Elyse

2014-01-01

265

Multiple Sclerosis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module on multiple sclerosis is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then…

Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

266

Mathematics disorder  

MedlinePLUS

Mathematics disorder is a condition in which a child's math ability is far below normal for their ... Children who have mathematics disorder have trouble with simple ... disorder may appear with: Developmental coordination ...

267

Personality disorders  

MedlinePLUS

Personality disorders are a group of mental health conditions in which a person has a long-term pattern ... Causes of personality disorders are unknown. Genetic and ... a role. Mental health professionals categorize these disorders ...

268

Eating Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... and/or maintain an imaginary appearance. Related information Anorexia nervosa fact sheet Binge eating disorder fact sheet ... your area. Eating disorders are serious medical problems. Anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder are ...

269

Anxiety Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

Anxiety disorders are the most common of emotional disorders and affect more than 25 million Americans. Many ... stomach, heart pounding, startling easily, and muscle tension Anxiety disorders differ from normal feelings of nervousness. Untreated ...

270

Testing multiple levels of influence in the intergenerational transmission of alcohol disorders from a developmental perspective: The example of alcohol use promoting peers and ?-opioid receptor M1 variation  

PubMed Central

This study examined the interplay between the influence of peers who promote alcohol use and ?-opioid receptor M1 (OPRM1) genetic variation in the intergenerational transmission of alcohol use disorder (AUD) symptoms while separating the “traitlike” components of AUD symptoms from their age-specific manifestations at three ages from emerging adulthood (17–23 years) to adulthood (29–40 years). The results for males were consistent with genetically influenced peer selection mechanisms as mediators of parent alcoholism effects. Male children of alcoholics were less likely to be carriers of the G allele in single nucleotide polymorphism A118G (rs1799971), and those who were homozygous for the A allele were more likely to affiliate with alcohol use promoting peers who increased the risk for AUD symptoms at all ages. There was evidence for women of an interaction between OPRM1 variation and peer affiliations but only at the earliest age band. Peer influences had stronger effects among women who were G-carriers. These results illustrate the complex ways in which the interplay between influences at multiple levels of analysis can underlie the intergenerational transmission of alcohol disorders as well as the importance of considering age and gender differences in these pathways. PMID:22781865

CHASSIN, LAURIE; LEE, MATTHEW R.; CHO, YOUNG IL; WANG, FRANCES L.; AGRAWAL, ARPANA; SHER, KENNETH J.; LYNSKEY, MICHAEL T.

2013-01-01

271

Major Mental Disorders, Substance Use Disorders, Comorbidity, and HIV-AIDS Risk Behaviors in Juvenile Detainees  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study determined the prevalence of 20 HIV-AIDS risk behaviors of four groups of juvenile detainees: those with major mental disorders alone, those with substance use disorders alone, those with comorbid mental and substance use disorders, and those without any major mental or substance use disorder. Methods Interviewers administered the AIDS Risk Behavior Assessment to 800 randomly selected juvenile detainees aged ten to 18 years who were initially arrested between 1997 and 1998. Diagnoses were determined with the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children, Version 2.3. Results The sample included 340 females and 460 males. As with the other groups of detainees, youths with major mental disorders had a high prevalence of most HIV-AIDS risk behaviors, much higher than the rates found among youths in the general population. Comorbid substance use disorders substantially increased risk; 96 percent of youths in this group had been sexually active, 62 percent had had multiple partners within the past three months, and 59 percent had had unprotected vaginal sex in the past month. Among youths with a substance use disorder, either alone or with a comorbid major mental disorder, more than 63 percent had engaged in five or more sexual risk behaviors. Conclusions Delinquents with substance use disorders, either with or without comorbid major mental disorders, are at particular risk of HIV-AIDS. The juvenile justice and public health systems must provide HIV-AIDS interventions as well as mental health and substance abuse treatment. Greater coordination between community services and correctional facilities can reduce the prevalence of HIV-AIDS risk behaviors of juvenile delinquents and stem the spread of HIV infection among young people. PMID:16020814

Teplin, Linda A.; Elkington, Katherine S.; McClelland, Gary M.; Abram, Karen M.; Mericle, Amy A.; Washburn, Jason J.

2005-01-01

272

PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS AND SLEEP  

PubMed Central

SYNOPSIS Psychiatric disorders and sleep are related in important ways. In contrast to the longstanding view of this relationship which viewed sleep problems as symptoms of psychiatric disorders, there is growing experimental evidence that the relationship between psychiatric disorders and sleep is complex and includes bi-directional causation. In this article we provide the evidence that supports this point of view, reviewing the data on the sleep disturbances seen in patients with psychiatric disorders but also reviewing the data on the impact of sleep disturbances on psychiatric conditions. Although much has been learned about the psychiatric disorders-sleep relationship, additional research is needed to better understand these relationships. This work promises to improve our ability to understand both of these phenomena and to allow us to better treat the many patients with sleep disorders and with psychiatric disorders. PMID:23099143

Krystal, Andrew D.

2012-01-01

273

Further Evidence of an Association Between Adolescent Bipolar Disorder with Smoking and Substance Use Disorders: A Controlled Study  

PubMed Central

Background Although previous work has suggested that juvenile onset bipolar disorder (BPD) is associated with an elevated risk for cigarette smoking and substance use disorders (SUD), the literature on the subject is limited. We evaluated this association in a prospective case-control study of adolescents with and without BPD. Methods Subjects were adolescent probands with DSM-IV BPD (n=105, age 13.6±2.5 years [mean±SD]) and comparison subjects without a DSM-IV mood disorder (“controls”; n=98, age 13.7±2.1 years). Subjects and their first degree relatives were evaluated with structured psychiatric diagnostic interviews (KSADS-E for subjects younger than 18, SCID for subjects 18 and over) including diagnoses of SUD. Results Bipolar disorder was associated with a highly significant risk for any SUD, alcohol abuse and dependence, and drug abuse and dependence, and cigarette smoking, independently of Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, multiple anxiety, and conduct disorder. The primary predictor of SUD in BPD youth was older age; other significant predictors associated with age and thereby SUD were later BPD onset, onset of mania and depressive disorders in adolescence, onset of mania before a depressive disorder, and more conduct disorder symptoms. Conclusions These findings provide strong support for the hypothesis that BPD in youth, especially when it onsets in adolescent years, is a significant risk factor for cigarette smoking and SUD independently of psychiatric comorbidity. These data highlight the need to carefully screen adolescents with BPD for cigarette and substance use. PMID:18343050

Wilens, Timothy E.; Biederman, Joseph; Adamson, Joel J.; Henin, Aude; Sgambati, Stephanie; Gignac, Martin; Sawtelle, Robert; Santry, Alison; Monuteaux, Michael C.

2008-01-01

274

Differences in the Nature of Body Image Disturbances between Female Obese Individuals with versus without a Comorbid Binge Eating Disorder: An Exploratory Study Including Static and Dynamic Aspects of Body Image  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Various components of body image were measured to assess body image disturbances in patients with obesity. To overcome limitations of previous studies, a photo distortion technique and a biological motion distortion device were included to assess static and dynamic aspects of body image. Questionnaires assessed cognitive-affective aspects, bodily…

Legenbauer, Tanja; Vocks, Silja; Betz, Sabrina; Puigcerver, Maria Jose Baguena; Benecke, Andrea; Troje, Nikolaus F.; Ruddel, Heinz

2011-01-01

275

Parental psychiatric disorders and autism spectrum disorders  

PubMed Central

The present population-based, case-control study examines associations between specific parental psychiatric disorders and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) including childhood autism, Asperger’s syndrome and pervasive developmental disorder (PDD-NOS). The cohort includes 4713 children born between 1987 and 2005 with diagnoses of childhood autism, Asperger’s syndrome or PDD-NOS. Cases were ascertained from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register, and each was matched to four controls by gender, date of birth, place of birth, and residence in Finland. Controls were selected from the Finnish Medical Birth Register. Parents were identified through the Finnish Medical Birth Register and Finnish Central Population Register. Parental psychiatric diagnoses from inpatient care were collected from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register. Conditional logistic regression models were used to assess whether parents’ psychiatric disorders predicted ASD after controlling for parents’ age, smoking during pregnancy and weight for gestational age. In summary, parental schizophrenia spectrum disorders and affective disorders were associated with the risk of ASD regardless of the subgroup. PDD-NOS was associated with all parental psychiatric disorders investigated. Further studies are needed to replicate these findings. These results may facilitate the investigation of shared genetic and familial factors between ASD and other psychiatric disorders. PMID:23391634

Jokiranta, Elina; Brown, Alan S.; Heinimaa, Markus; Cheslack-Postava, Keely; Partanen, Auli; Sourander, Andre

2013-01-01

276

Pre- and perinatal risk factors for autism spectrum disorder in a new jersey cohort.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the prevalence of pre- and perinatal risk factors in a cohort of children with autism spectrum disorders compared with the New Jersey population. Our cohort included 268 individuals with an autism spectrum disorder. Birth histories were obtained by a self-administered questionnaire. The autism spectrum disorders cohort rates of 7 perinatal risk factors were significantly higher than New Jersey state rates: mother's age 35 years or older, low birth weight, multiple gestation, prematurity, vaginal bleeding, prolonged labor, and hypoxia. Analysis of clustering of risk factors in the cohort showed no significant differences across maternal and paternal age groups. Older mothers in the cohort had a higher risk of infant hypoxia. Multiple risk factors during pregnancy appear to be associated with a higher risk of autism spectrum disorders in offspring, supporting the hypothesis that environmental influences in conjunction with genetics contribute to the causes of autism spectrum disorders. PMID:24413357

Maramara, Lauren A; He, Wenzhuan; Ming, Xue

2014-12-01

277

[Electrolyte disorders].  

PubMed

Disorders of electrolyte balance are frequent and pathophysiologically complex. Sodium is responsible for a large part of the osmolarity of extracellular fluids. Therefore, pathological concentrations of serum sodium reflect the relation between sodium and water in the extracellular compartment rather than the total body sodium content. The causes of hypo- or hypernatremia can only be deduced if total body volume status is considered. Patients with hyponatremia and volume deficit should receive sodium chloride solution while patients with this disorder in the presence of volume overload need strict water restriction. In certain cases additional specific pharmacotherapy directed at the effects of antidiuretic hormone may be considered. Potassium and calcium are extracellular regulatory ions; their concentrations do not relevantly contribute to osmolarity and water distribution but to electrophysiologically relevant transmembrane potentials. These ions are influenced by active membrane transporters and regulated by several hormones. The rather small extracellular pools are overfilled or depleted by alterations of intake and excretion. In addition, several inborn or acquired defects of transmembrane transporters may severely alter their extracellular concentrations. Therapy needs to consider the specific mechanisms that led to the electrolyte disorder including modification of intake, excretion or extra-intracellular distribution. PMID:21681474

Girndt, M

2011-08-01

278

Conditional disorder in chaperone action  

PubMed Central

Protein disorder remains an intrinsically fuzzy concept. Its role in protein function is difficult to conceptualize and its experimental study is challenging. Although a wide variety of roles for protein disorder have been proposed, establishing that disorder is functionally important, particularly in vivo, is not a trivial task. Several molecular chaperones have now been identified as conditionally disordered proteins; fully folded and chaperone-inactive under non-stress conditions, they adopt a partially disordered conformation upon exposure to distinct stress-conditions. This disorder appears to be vital for their ability to bind multiple aggregation-sensitive client proteins and to protect cells against the stressors. The study of these conditionally disordered chaperones should prove useful in understanding the functional role for protein disorder in molecular recognition. PMID:23018052

Bardwell, James C. A.; Jakob, Ursula

2012-01-01

279

Pharmacological Evidence That Multiple Phospholipid Signaling Pathways Link Rhizobium Nodulation Factor Perception in Medicago truncatula Root Hairs to Intracellular Responses, Including Ca2+ Spiking and Specific ENOD Gene Expression1  

PubMed Central

Rhizobium nodulation (Nod) factors are specific lipochito-oligosaccharide signals essential for initiating in root hairs of the host legume developmental responses that are required for controlled entry of the microsymbiont. In this article, we focus on the Nod factor signal transduction pathway leading to specific and cell autonomous gene activation in Medicago truncatula cv Jemalong in a study making use of the Nod factor-inducible MtENOD11 gene. First, we show that pharmacological antagonists that interfere with intracellular ion channel and Ca2+ pump activities are efficient blockers of Nod factor-elicited pMtENOD11-?-glucuronidase (GUS) expression in root hairs of transgenic M. truncatula. These results indicate that intracellular Ca2+ release and recycling activities, essential for Ca2+ spiking, are also required for specific gene activation. Second, pharmacological effectors that inhibit phospholipase D and phosphoinositide-dependent phospholipase C activities are also able to block pMtENOD11-GUS activation, thus underlining a central role for multiple phospholipid signaling pathways in Nod factor signal transduction. Finally, pMtENOD11-GUS was introduced into all three Nod?/Myc? dmi M. truncatula mutant backgrounds, and gene expression was evaluated in response to the mastoparan peptide agonist Mas7. We found that Mas7 elicits root hair MtENOD11 expression in dmi1 and dmi2 mutants, but not in the dmi3 mutant, suggesting that the agonist acts downstream of DMI1/DMI2 and upstream of DMI3. In light of these results and the recently discovered identities of the DMI gene products, we propose an integrated cellular model for Nod factor signaling in legume root hairs in which phospholipids play a key role in linking the Nod factor perception apparatus to downstream components such as Ca2+ spiking and ENOD gene expression. PMID:15489277

Charron, Dorothee; Pingret, Jean-Luc; Chabaud, Mireille; Journet, Etienne-Pascal; Barker, David G.

2004-01-01

280

Psychogenic Movement Disorders  

PubMed Central

Purpose of Review This review describes the main clinical features of psychogenic (functional) movement disorders and reports recent advances in diagnosis, pathophysiology, and treatment. Recent Findings The terminology and definition of patients with psychogenic movement disorders remain subjects of controversy; the term “functional” has been used more frequently in the literature in recent years regarding the neurobiological substrate underpinning these disorders. Correct diagnosis of psychogenic movement disorders should rely not on the exclusion of organic disorders or the sole presence of psychological factors but on the observation or elicitation of clinical features related to the specific movement disorder (ie, a positive or inclusionary rather than exclusionary diagnosis). Sudden onset, spontaneous remissions, and variability over time or during clinical examination are useful “red flags” suggestive of a psychogenic movement disorder. Imaging studies have demonstrated impaired connectivity between limbic and motor areas involved in movement programming and hypoactivity of a brain region that compares expected data with actual sensory data occurring during voluntary movement. Treatment of psychogenic movement disorders begins with ensuring the patient’s acceptance of the diagnosis during the initial debriefing and includes nonpharmacologic (cognitive-behavioral therapy, physiotherapy) and pharmacologic options. Summary Psychogenic movement disorders represent a challenging disorder for neurologists to diagnose and treat. Recent advances have increased understanding of the neurobiological mechanism of psychogenic movement disorders. Treatment with cognitive strategies and physical rehabilitation can benefit some patients. As short duration of disease correlates with better prognosis, early diagnosis and initiation of treatment are critical. PMID:24092294

Morgante, Francesca; Edwards, Mark J.; Espay, Alberto J.

2013-01-01

281

Disorder of written expression  

MedlinePLUS

... think it is as common as learning and reading disorders. This disorder appears by itself or along with ... Developmental coordination disorder Expressive language disorder Mathematics disorder Reading disorder

282

Speech disorders - children  

MedlinePLUS

Articulation deficiency; Voice disorders; Vocal disorders; Disfluency; Communication disorder - speech disorder ... together to create speech. See also: Phonological disorders Voice disorders are caused by problems when air passes ...

283

Panic Disorder among Adults  

MedlinePLUS

... Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among ...

284

Borderline Personality Disorder  

MedlinePLUS

... Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among ...

285

Antisocial Personality Disorder  

MedlinePLUS

... Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among ...

286

Panic Disorder among Children  

MedlinePLUS

... Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among ...

287

Bipolar Disorder Among Adults  

MedlinePLUS

... Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among ...

288

Any Personality Disorder  

MedlinePLUS

... Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among ...

289

Interstitial deletion of chromosome 9, int del(9)(9q22.31-q31.2), including the genes causing multiple basal cell nevus syndrome and Robinow\\/brachydactyly 1 syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a child with a de novo interstitial deletion, 46,XY, int del(9)(9q22.31-q31.2). Cytogenetic and molecular analysis defined the boundaries of the lost region, of paternal origin, from D9S1796 to D9S938. The clinical picture included macrocephaly, frontal bossing, bilateral epicanthus, down-slanted palpebral fissures, low-set ears, hypoplastic nostrils, micrognathia, scoliosis, right single palmar crease, small nails, slender fingers, bilaterally flexed 5th

Carla Olivieri; Paola Maraschio; Desiree Caselli; Carla Martini; Giampiero Beluffi; Emanuela Maserati; Cesare Danesino

2003-01-01

290

[HLA and familial multiple sclerosis].  

PubMed

Some data suggest an environmental perhaps a viral factor but also of a genetic factor in the etiology of multiple sclerosis. Among the latter is the notably increased risk for a twin when the other twin has the disease, a risk further increased if they are monozygotic. There is also a greater than chance frequency of common HLA haplotypes in 2 affected siblings. The frequency of familial forms of multiple sclerosis is estimated at approximately 6 p. 100. We have studied 14 families of which 12 included 2 members with multiple sclerosis and 2 with 3 affected members. Parental relation between patients was parent to child (7 cases), brother to sister (5 cases), sister to sister including two pairs of twins (4 cases) and cousin to cousin on the mother's side (2 cases). When compared with non-familial multiple sclerosis there were no particular features in clinical disorders or course: 4 forms were progressive, the others evolving by episodes. In 26 patients in whom HLA antigens were determined, the DR2 antigen was present 19 times, the B7 antigen 9 times and the A3 antigen 7 times. In the 8 pairs of siblings with multiple sclerosis, 2 were HLA-identical and 5 semi-identical. One pair had no common haplotype. Grouping of HLA in 22 healthy members allowed 8 genealogic trees to be established. If a gene for susceptibility to multiple sclerosis exists, it is of low penetration, of dominant transmission and of limited frequency. It probably lies close to the region D of chromosome 6, because of the disequilibrium of crossed linking with A3, B7 and DR2 antigens. PMID:3823705

Barroche, G; Perrier, P; Raffoux, C; Gehin, P; Streiff, F; Weber, M

1986-01-01

291

Integrated Genomic Analysis of Nodular Tissue in Macronodular Adrenocortical Hyperplasia: Progression of Tumorigenesis in a Disorder Associated with Multiple Benign Lesions  

PubMed Central

Context: Massive macronodular adrenocortical disease or ACTH-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (AIMAH) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorder. Objective and Design: Whole-genome expression profiling and oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization changes were analyzed in samples of different nodules from the same patients with AIMAH. Quantitative RT-PCR and staining were employed to validate the mRNA array data. Results: Chromosomal gains were more frequent in larger nodules when compared with smaller nodules from the same patients. Among the 50 most overexpressed genes, 50% had a chromosomal locus that was amplified in the comparative genomic hybridization data. Although the list of most over- and underexpressed genes was similar between the nodules of different size, the gene set enrichment analysis identified different pathways associated with AIMAH that corresponded to the size; the smaller nodules were mainly enriched for metabolic pathways, whereas p53 signaling and cancer genes were enriched in larger nodules. Confirmatory studies demonstrated that BCL2, E2F1, EGF, c-KIT, MYB, PRKCA, and CTNNB1 were overexpressed in the larger nodules at messenger and/or protein levels. Chromosomal enrichment analysis showed that chromosomes 20q13 and 14q23 might be involved in progression of AIMAH from smaller to larger tumors. Conclusion: Integrated transcriptomic and genomic data for AIMAH provides supporting evidence to the hypothesis that larger adrenal lesions, in the context of this chronic, polyclonal hyperplasia, accumulate an increased number of genomic and, subsequently, transcript abnormalities. The latter shows that the disease appears to start with mainly tissue metabolic derangements, as suggested by the study of the smaller nodules, but larger lesions showed aberrant expression of oncogenic pathways. PMID:21252250

Almeida, Madson Q.; Harran, Michelle; Bimpaki, Eirini I.; Hsiao, Hui-Pin; Horvath, Anelia; Cheadle, Chris; Watkins, Tonya; Nesterova, Maria

2011-01-01

292

A Review of Co-Morbid Disorders of Asperger's Disorder and the Transition to Adulthood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review includes empirical peer-reviewed articles which support the examination of Asperger's Disorder and co-morbid disorders, as well as an analysis of how adolescents with Asperger's Disorder transition to adulthood. Although the focus was on Asperger's Disorder, some studies include Autism Spectrum Disorder samples. It was found that…

Robinson, Stephanie; Curwen, Tracey; Ryan, Thomas G.

2012-01-01

293

Autistic disorder and viral infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autistic disorder (autism) is a behaviorally defined developmental disorder with a wide range of behaviors. Although the etiology\\u000a of autism is unknown, data suggest that autism results from multiple etiologies with both genetic and environmental contributions,\\u000a which may explain the spectrum of behaviors seen in this disorder. One proposed etiology for autism is viral infection very\\u000a early in development. The

Jane E. Libbey; Thayne L. Sweeten; William M. McMahon; Robert S. Fujinami

2005-01-01

294

Preventing eating disorder pathology: common and unique features of successful eating disorders prevention programs.  

PubMed

Over the past two decades, the field of eating disorders has made remarkable strides in identifying, evaluating, and disseminating successful prevention programs. The current review identifies and discusses nine distinct eating disorders prevention programs that reduce existing eating disorder pathology or prevent the onset of future pathology. Each program was evaluated in one or more controlled trial with a follow-up period of at least six months. We review the evidence base for these nine successful programs and discuss their common and unique features. Based on authors' descriptions of their programs in published trials, we found that all programs were theory-driven, targeted one or more eating disorder risk factor (e.g., body dissatisfaction), were delivered across multiple group sessions, and included at least some interactive content. Most programs included content related to healthy eating/nutrition, media literacy/sociocultural pressures, and body acceptance/body satisfaction. Notably, there was wide variation in some participant features (e.g., participant age, sex, risk status) and intervention features (e.g., setting and format, length and dose, providers), suggesting that a variety of programs are beneficial in impacting eating disorder pathology. Implications and directions for future research are discussed, including an increased focus on universal and indicated prevention programs, expanding programs to a wider age range and a broader spectrum of weight-related problems, and rigorous evaluation of programs through efficacy, effectiveness, and implementation research. PMID:24821099

Ciao, Anna C; Loth, Katie; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

2014-07-01

295

Report of Fertility in a Woman with a Predominantly 46,XY Karyotype in a Family with Multiple Disorders of Sexual Development  

PubMed Central

Context: We report herein a remarkable family in which the mother of a woman with 46,XY complete gonadal dysgenesis was found to have a 46,XY karyotype in peripheral lymphocytes, mosaicism in cultured skin fibroblasts (80% 46,XY and 20% 45,X) and a predominantly 46,XY karyotype in the ovary (93% 46,XY and 6% 45,X). Patients: A 46,XY mother who developed as a normal woman underwent spontaneous puberty, reached menarche, menstruated regularly, experienced two unassisted pregnancies, and gave birth to a 46,XY daughter with complete gonadal dysgenesis. Results: Evaluation of the Y chromosome in the daughter and both parents revealed that the daughter inherited her Y chromosome from her father. Molecular analysis of the genes SOX9, SF1, DMRT1, DMRT3, TSPYL, BPESC1, DHH, WNT4, SRY, and DAX1 revealed normal male coding sequences in both the mother and daughter. An extensive family pedigree across four generations revealed multiple other family members with ambiguous genitalia and infertility in both phenotypic males and females, and the mode of inheritance of the phenotype was strongly suggestive of X-linkage. Conclusions: The range of phenotypes observed in this unique family suggests that there may be transmission of a mutation in a novel sex-determining gene or in a gene that predisposes to chromosomal mosaicism. PMID:18000096

Dumic, Miroslav; Lin-Su, Karen; Leibel, Natasha I.; Ciglar, Srecko; Vinci, Giovanna; Lasan, Ruzica; Nimkarn, Saroj; Wilson, Jean D.; McElreavey, Ken; New, Maria I.

2008-01-01

296

Comorbid ADHD and mental health disorders: are these children more likely to develop reading disorders?  

PubMed

While attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been associated with both internalizing and externalizing childhood behaviour disorders, the specific relationship of these comorbid disorders to ADHD and reading problems is less well defined. The present study analysed data from the Australian Twin ADHD Project, which utilized DSM-IV-based ratings of ADHD, separation anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, depression, conduct disorder, and oppositional defiant disorder for twins and siblings aged 6 to 18 years. While differences between children with and without ADHD were demonstrated for those with separation anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, depression, conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder and a reading disorder, for all age groups, regression analysis of ADHD diagnostic subtypes by age and reading disorder showed that only generalized anxiety disorder remained significant after controlling for ADHD subtypes. Analysis of the mean reading disorder scores in children with and without ADHD showed that children with conduct disorder had significantly more reading problems, as did children with multiple comorbid disorders. In summary, both age and ADHD diagnosis were associated with variations in these comorbid disorders, and multiple comorbid disorders were associated with greater reading impairment. PMID:23124818

Levy, Florence; Young, Deidra J; Bennett, Kelly S; Martin, Neilson C; Hay, David A

2013-03-01

297

Psychopharmacology of pediatric bipolar disorder: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  Pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) is a chronic and debilitating psychiatric illness. It is associated with many short-term\\u000a and long-term complications including poor academic and social performance, legal problems and increased risk of suicide.\\u000a Moreover, it is often complicated by other serious psychiatric disorders including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder,\\u000a oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder and substance use disorders. For these reasons,

Sylvester Smarty; Robert L. Findling

2007-01-01

298

Eating disorders across cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many publications have been produced recently from centres across the world dealing with the prevalence of eating disorders in their cultures. This type of research suggests that eating disorders are no longer limited to the western culture and have now assumed a worldwide dimension. A number of global cultural forces have been implicated in this spread including the power of

Mervat Nasser

2006-01-01

299

Multiple Reflections  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity on multiple reflections is produced by the International Society for Optical Engineering, the Optical Society of America, and the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy. Two plane rectangular mirrors, that meet on one edge, produce various reflection patterns. Students learn the relationship between the number of images produced and the orientation of the two mirrors. The site lists all necessary tools and materials and includes numerous helpful photographs and diagrams.

2009-01-13

300

Developmental vulnerability of synapses and circuits associated with neuropsychiatric disorders.  

PubMed

Psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders, including intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorders (ASD), schizophrenia (SZ), and Alzheimer's disease, pose an immense burden to society. Symptoms of these disorders become manifest at different stages of life: early childhood, adolescence, and late adulthood, respectively. Progress has been made in recent years toward understanding the genetic substrates, cellular mechanisms, brain circuits, and endophenotypes of these disorders. Multiple lines of evidence implicate excitatory and inhibitory synaptic circuits in the cortex and hippocampus as key cellular substrates of pathogenesis in these disorders. Excitatory/inhibitory balance--modulated largely by dopamine--critically regulates cortical network function, neural network activity (i.e. gamma oscillations) and behaviors associated with psychiatric disorders. Understanding the molecular underpinnings of synaptic pathology and neuronal network activity may thus provide essential insight into the pathogenesis of these disorders and can reveal novel drug targets to treat them. Here, we discuss recent genetic, neuropathological, and molecular studies that implicate alterations in excitatory and inhibitory synaptic circuits in the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders across the lifespan. PMID:23574039

Penzes, Peter; Buonanno, Andres; Passafaro, Maria; Sala, Carlo; Sweet, Robert A

2013-07-01

301

Developmental Vulnerability of Synapses and Circuits Associated with Neuropsychiatric Disorders  

PubMed Central

Psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders, including intellectual disability (ID), autism spectrum disorders (ASD), schizophrenia (SZ), and Alzheimer's disease (AD), pose an immense burden to society. Symptoms of these disorders become manifest at different stages of life: early childhood, adolescence, and late adulthood, respectively. Progress has been made in recent years toward understanding the genetic substrates, cellular mechanisms, brain circuits, and endophenotypes of these disorders. Multiple lines of evidence implicate excitatory and inhibitory synaptic circuits in the cortex and hippocampus as key cellular substrates of pathogenesis in these disorders. Excitatory/inhibitory balance – modulated largely by dopamine – critically regulates cortical network function, neural network activity (i.e. gamma oscillations) and behaviors associated with psychiatric disorders. Understanding the molecular underpinnings of synaptic pathology and neuronal network activity may thus provide essential insight into the pathogenesis of these disorders and can reveal novel drug targets to treat them. Here we discuss recent genetic, neuropathological, and molecular studies that implicate alterations in excitatory and inhibitory synaptic circuits in the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders across the lifespan. PMID:23574039

Penzes, Peter; Buonanno, Andres; Passafarro, Maria; Sala, Carlo; Sweet, Robert A.

2013-01-01

302

Plasma cell disorders in HIV-infected patients: epidemiology and molecular mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has significantly improved the outcome and survival of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. Subsequently, long-term morbidities including cancer have become of major public health and clinical interest for this patient population. Plasma cell disorders occur at higher incidence in HIV-infected patients; however, the molecular mechanisms driving the plasma cell disease process and the optimal management for these patients remain to be defined. This article provides an up-to-date review of the characteristics and management of HIV-infected patients with plasma cell disorders. We first present 3 cases of plasma cell disorders in HIV-infected patients, ranging from polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia to symptomatic multiple myeloma. We then discuss the epidemiology, clinical presentation, and management of each of these plasma cell disorders, with an emphasis on the molecular events underlying the progression of plasma cell diseases from monoclonal gammopathy to symptomatic multiple myeloma. We propose a three-step hypothesis for the development of multiple myeloma. Finally, we discuss the use of high dose chemotherapy and autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in the treatment of HIV-infected patients with multiple myeloma. Our review includes the care of HIV-infected patients with plasma cell disorders in the current era of HAART and novel agents available for the treatment of multiple myeloma. PMID:24252328

2013-01-01

303

[Alcohol and psychiatric disorders].  

PubMed

Alcohol dependence and abuse is one of the most costly health problems in the world from both a social and an economic point of view. It is a widespread problem, focusing attention not only psychiatrists but also doctors of other specialties. Patterns of drinking appear to be changing throughout the world, with more women and young people drinking heavily. Even risky drinking is a potential health risk, while chronic alcohol abuse contribute to the serious physical and mental complications. Alcohol used disorders associated with alcohol-induced brain damage include: withdrawal state, delirium tremens, alcoholic hallucinosis, alcoholic paranoia, Korsakoffs psychosis, alcoholic dementia, alcoholic depression. On the other hand, mental disorders as panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, agoraphobia, depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, personality disorder most frequently comorbid with alcohol abuse or they trigger alcohol. PMID:23157139

Bouzyk-Szutkiewicz, Joanna; Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Szulc, Agata

2012-09-01

304

Delineation of a de novo 7q21.3q31.1 Deletion by CGH-SNP Arrays in a Girl with Multiple Congenital Anomalies Including Severe Glaucoma  

PubMed Central

In this study, we present a female patient with a constitutional de novo deletion in 7q21.3q31.1 as determined by G-banding and CGH-SNP arrays. She exhibited, among other features, psychomotor retardation, congenital severe bilateral glaucoma, a cleft palate, and heart defect. Microarray assay disclosed a deleted 12.5-Mb region roughly 88 kb downstream the ectrodactyly critical region; thus, the patient's final karyotype was 46,XX.arr 7q21.3q31.1(96,742,140-109,246,085)×1 dn. This girl represents the fourth patient described so far with congenital glaucoma and a deletion encompassing or overlapping the 7q21.3q31.1 region, and confirms the presence of a locus or loci related to such a clinical feature. According to our results, the proneness to ocular defects secondary to 7q intermediate deletions could be caused by co-deletion of TAC1, HBP1, and a small cluster of cytochrome P450 genes (subfamily 3A). This conclusion is supported by their functional roles and expression locations as well as because TAC1 is related to the functional pathway of the MYOC gene whose mutations are linked to glaucoma. Moreover, given that this girl is clinically reminiscent of several phenotypes related to diverse deletions within 7q21q32, our results and observations offer a general overview of the gene content of deletions/phenotypes overlapping 7q21.3q31.1 and confirm that loci distal to DLX genes including the CUX1 gene and potential regulatory elements downstream from DLX5 are unrelated to ectrodactyly. PMID:24167464

Martinez-Jacobo, L.; Cordova-Fletes, C.; Ortiz-Lopez, R.; Rivas, F.; Saucedo-Carrasco, C.; Rojas-Martinez, A.

2013-01-01

305

Genetic disruption of the autism spectrum disorder risk gene PLAUR induces GABA A receptor subunit changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disruption of the GABAergic system has been implicated in multiple developmental disorders, including epilepsy, autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia. The human gene encoding uPAR (PLAUR) has been shown recently to be associated with the risk of autism. The uPAR?\\/? mouse exhibits a regionally-selective reduction in GABAergic interneurons in frontal and parietal regions of the cerebral cortex as well as in

K. L. Eagleson; M. C. Gravielle; L. J. Schlueter McFadyen-Ketchum; S. J. Russek; D. H. Farb; P. Levitt

2010-01-01

306

Primary Immune Deficiency Disorders Presenting as Autoimmune Diseases: IPEX and APECED  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Several primary immune deficiency disorders are associated with autoimmunity and malignancy, suggesting a state of immune\\u000a dysregulation. The concept of immune dysregulation as a direct cause of autoimmunity in primary immune deficiency disorders\\u000a (PIDDs) has been strengthened by the recent discovery of distinct clinical entities linked to single-gene defects resulting\\u000a in multiple autoimmune phenomena including immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy and

D. Moraes-Vasconcelos; B. T. Costa-Carvalho; T. R. Torgerson; H. D. Ochs

2008-01-01

307

Choline transporter gene variation is associated with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) plays a critical role in brain circuits mediating motor control, attention, learning\\u000a and memory. Cholinergic dysfunction is associated with multiple brain disorders including Alzheimer’s Disease, addiction,\\u000a schizophrenia and Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The presynaptic choline transporter (CHT, SLC5A7) is the major, rate-limiting determinant of ACh production in the brain and periphery and is consequently upregulated during

Brett A. English; Maureen K. Hahn; Ian R. Gizer; Michelle Mazei-Robison; Angela Steele; Daniel M. Kurnik; Mark A. Stein; Irwin D. Waldman; Randy D. Blakely

2009-01-01

308

Genetics of bipolar disorder  

PubMed Central

Bipolar disorder is a common, complex genetic disorder, but the mode of transmission remains to be discovered. Many researchers assume that common genomic variants carry some risk for manifesting the disease. The research community has celebrated the first genome-wide significant associations between common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and bipolar disorder. Currently, attempts are under way to translate these findings into clinical practice, genetic counseling, and predictive testing. However, some experts remain cautious. After all, common variants explain only a very small percentage of the genetic risk, and functional consequences of the discovered SNPs are inconclusive. Furthermore, the associated SNPs are not disease specific, and the majority of individuals with a “risk” allele are healthy. On the other hand, population-based genome-wide studies in psychiatric disorders have rediscovered rare structural variants and mutations in genes, which were previously known to cause genetic syndromes and monogenic Mendelian disorders. In many Mendelian syndromes, psychiatric symptoms are prevalent. Although these conditions do not fit the classic description of any specific psychiatric disorder, they often show nonspecific psychiatric symptoms that cross diagnostic boundaries, including intellectual disability, behavioral abnormalities, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, attention deficit, impulse control deficit, and psychosis. Although testing for chromosomal disorders and monogenic Mendelian disorders is well established, testing for common variants is still controversial. The standard concept of genetic testing includes at least three broad criteria that need to be fulfilled before new genetic tests should be introduced: analytical validity, clinical validity, and clinical utility. These criteria are currently not fulfilled for common genomic variants in psychiatric disorders. Further work is clearly needed before genetic testing for common variants in psychiatric disorders should be established. PMID:24683306

Kerner, Berit

2014-01-01

309

Multiple transcription factors directly regulate Hox gene lin-39 expression in ventral hypodermal cells of the C. elegans embryo and larva, including the hypodermal fate regulators LIN-26 and ELT-6  

PubMed Central

Background Hox genes encode master regulators of regional fate specification during early metazoan development. Much is known about the initiation and regulation of Hox gene expression in Drosophila and vertebrates, but less is known in the non-arthropod invertebrate model system, C. elegans. The C. elegans Hox gene lin-39 is required for correct fate specification in the midbody region, including the Vulval Precursor Cells (VPCs). To better understand lin-39 regulation and function, we aimed to identify transcription factors necessary for lin-39 expression in the VPCs, and in particular sought factors that initiate lin-39 expression in the embryo. Results We used the yeast one-hybrid (Y1H) method to screen for factors that bound to 13 fragments from the lin-39 region: twelve fragments contained sequences conserved between C. elegans and two other nematode species, while one fragment was known to drive reporter gene expression in the early embryo in cells that generate the VPCs. Sixteen transcription factors that bind to eight lin-39 genomic fragments were identified in yeast, and we characterized several factors by verifying their physical interactions in vitro, and showing that reduction of their function leads to alterations in lin-39 levels and lin-39::GFP reporter expression in vivo. Three factors, the orphan nuclear hormone receptor NHR-43, the hypodermal fate regulator LIN-26, and the GATA factor ELT-6 positively regulate lin-39 expression in the embryonic precursors to the VPCs. In particular, ELT-6 interacts with an enhancer that drives GFP expression in the early embryo, and the ELT-6 site we identified is necessary for proper embryonic expression. These three factors, along with the factors ZTF-17, BED-3 and TBX-9, also positively regulate lin-39 expression in the larval VPCs. Conclusions These results significantly expand the number of factors known to directly bind and regulate lin-39 expression, identify the first factors required for lin-39 expression in the embryo, and hint at a positive feedback mechanism involving GATA factors that maintains lin-39 expression in the vulval lineage. This work indicates that, as in other organisms, the regulation of Hox gene expression in C. elegans is complicated, redundant and robust. PMID:24885717

2014-01-01

310

Functional coding variation in recombinant inbred mouse lines reveals multiple serotonin transporter-associated phenotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) transporter (hSERT, SLC6A4) figures prominently in the etiology and treatment of many prevalent neurobehavioral disorders including anxiety, alcoholism, depression, autism, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Here, we use naturally occurring polymorphisms in recombinant inbred (RI) lines to identify multiple phenotypes associated with altered SERT function. The widely used mouse strain C57BL\\/6J, harbors a SERT haplotype defined

Ana M. D. Carneiro; David C. Airey; Brent Thompson; Chong-Bin Zhu; L Lu; E J Chesler; K M Erikson; R. D. Blakely

2009-01-01

311

[Toward a revision of ICD: current discussion on stress-related disorders].  

PubMed

Under the ICD-10 Classification of Mental and Behavioral Disorders, reaction to severe stress and adjustment disorders (F43) is unique in that the disorders are defined by a stressor which caused the disorder, along with the specific psychiatric symptoms. Acute stress reactions (F43.0), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (F43.1), adjustment disorder (F43.2), and other reactions to severe stress are grouped into this category. Major conceptual change in F43 is discussed and will be proposed upon the next revision of the ICD. The proposal will include the removal of acute stress reactions from F43 to normalize such reactions, including PTSD and complex PTSD under traumatic stress disorder, introducing prolonged grief disorder, and a redefining of adjustment disorder. Further discussion and field testing of this proposed definition will follow before the release of ICD-11. There are claims that the disorder concept, typical clinical features, and its way of formulation are based on Western views and, consequently, operational classification is difficult to use in Asian cultures and societies. There are multiple avenues to provide feedback during the process of the revision; thus, more input from Japanese psychiatrists is awaited. PMID:23691797

Suzuki, Yuriko

2013-01-01

312

Sleep disorders in psychiatry.  

PubMed

Sleep is an active state that is critical for our physical, mental, and emotional well-being. Sleep is also important for optimal cognitive functioning, and sleep disruption results in functional impairment. Insomnia is the most common sleep disorder in psychiatry. At any given time, 50% of adults are affected with 1 or more sleep problems such as difficulty in falling or staying asleep, in staying awake, or in adhering to a consistent sleep/wake schedule. Narcolepsy affects as many individuals as does multiple sclerosis or Parkinson disease. Sleep problems are especially prevalent in schizophrenia, depression, and other mental illnesses, and every year, sleep disorders, sleep deprivation, and sleepiness add billions to the national health care bill in industrialized countries. Although psychiatrists often treat patients with insomnia secondary to depression, most patients discuss their insomnia with general care physicians, making it important to provide this group with clear guidelines for the diagnosis and management of insomnia. Once the specific medical, behavioral, or psychiatric causes of the sleep problem have been identified, appropriate treatment can be undertaken. Chronic insomnia has multiple causes arising from medical disorders, psychiatric disorders, primary sleep disorders, circadian rhythm disorders, social or therapeutic use of drugs, or maladaptive behaviors. The emerging concepts of sleep neurophysiology are consistent with the cholinergic-aminergic imbalance hypothesis of mood disorders, which proposes that depression is associated with an increased ratio of central cholinergic to aminergic neurotransmission. The characteristic sleep abnormalities of depression may reflect a relative predominance of cholinergic activity. Antidepressant medications presumably reduce rapid eye movement (REM) sleep either by their anticholinergic properties or by enhancing aminergic neurotransmission. Intense and prolonged dreams often accompany abrupt withdrawal from antidepressant drugs, a reflection of an REM rebound after drug-induced REM deprivation. The postulated link between sleep and psychiatric disorders has been reinforced by the findings of modern neurobiology. PMID:16979426

Costa e Silva, Jorge Alberto

2006-10-01

313

Difference or Disorder? Cultural Issues in Understanding Neurodevelopmental Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developmental disorders, such as autism spectrum disorder and specific language impairment, are biologically based disorders that currently rely on behaviorally defined criteria for diagnosis and treatment. Specific behaviors that are included in diagnostic frameworks and the point at which individual differences in behavior constitute abnormality…

Norbury, Courtenay Frazier; Sparks, Alison

2013-01-01

314

Anxiety Disorders in Long-Term Survivors of Adult Cancers  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known about the prevalence of anxiety disorders among long-term survivors of adult cancers. Using data from the National Comorbidity Survey-Replication (NCS-R), we compared rates of anxiety disorders between long-term cancer survivors and individuals without a history of cancer. Methods A nationally representative sample of 9,282 adults participated in a household survey to assess the prevalence of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders, a subset of whom also answered questions about medical comorbidities, including cancer. Long-term survivors were defined as those who received an adult cancer diagnosis at least five years before the survey. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to examine associations between cancer history and anxiety disorders in the past year. Results The NCS-R sample consisted of 225 long-term cancer survivors and 5,337 people without a history of cancer. Controlling for socio-demographic variables, long-term cancer survivors were more likely to have an anxiety disorder (OR: 1.49, 95% CI: 1.04-2.13), including specific phobia (OR: 1.59, 95% CI: 1.06-2.44) and medical phobia (OR: 3.45, 95% CI: 1.15-10.0), during the past 12 months compared to those without cancer histories. Rates for social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, panic disorder and agoraphobia were not significantly different between groups. Conclusion Long-term survivors of adult cancers were more likely to have an anxiety disorder diagnosis, namely specific phobia, in the past 12 months compared with the general public. Further longitudinal study is needed to clarify the timing and course of anxiety relative to the cancer diagnosis. PMID:21907059

Greer, Joseph A.; Solis, Jessica M.; Temel, Jennifer S.; Lennes, Inga T.; Prigerson, Holly G.; Maciejewski, Paul K.; Pirl, William F.

2011-01-01

315

Prenatal and perinatal diagnosis of peroxisomal disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Peroxisomes play an essential role in human cellular metabolism. Peroxisomal disorders, a group of genetic diseases caused by peroxisomal dysfunction, can be classified into three groups: (1) disorders of peroxisome biogenesis with a generalized loss of peroxisomal functions (Zellweger syndrome, neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy, infantile Refsum disease, hyperpipecolic acidaemia); (2) disorders with a loss of multiple peroxisomal functions (rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata

R. B. H. Schutgens; G. Schrakamp; R. J. A. Wanders; H. S. A. Heymans; J. M. Tager; H. van den Bosch

1989-01-01

316

Is multiple sclerosis a mitochondrial disease?  

PubMed Central

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a relatively common and etiologically unknown disease with no cure treatment. It is the leading cause of neurological disability in young adults, affecting over two million people worldwide. Traditionally, MS has been considered a chronic, inflammatory disorder of the central white matter in which ensuing demyelination results in physical disability. Recently, MS has become increasingly viewed as a neurodegenerative disorder in which axonal injury, neuronal loss, and atrophy of the central nervous system lead to permanent neurological and clinical disability. In this article, we discuss the latest developments on MS research, including etiology, pathology, genetic association, EAE animal models, mechanisms of neuronal injury and axonal transport and therapeutics. In this article, we also focus on the mechanisms of mitochondrial dysfunction that are involved in MS, including mitochondrial DNA defects, and mitochondrial structural/functional changes. PMID:19607913

Mao, Peizhong; Reddy, P. Hemachandra

2009-01-01

317

Multiple beamforming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Beamforming techniques are generally based on the assumption that the received signal arrives from a single source. In a realistic situation, however, there is more than one source present and these sources can interact with each other in the beamformer. This paper describes a method that allows us to form multiple beams in order to steer the receiver toward two or more sound sources simultaneously. The main advantage of this procedure is that it includes the full interactions of the different sources in the beamformer. It describes a multiple beamformer in which the interaction of different sources is included in the algorithm. The maximum likelihood principle is used to find the different source amplitude and bearing estimates. The performance of the algorithm is compared for varying conditions with the Cramer-Rao lower bound. Two pre-processors necessary and suitable to ensure globally optimized results are derived from the ideas of Pisarenko and Prony. Finally, a post-processor is proposed to evaluate the success of the multiple beamformer.

Zimmer, W. M. X.

1985-07-01

318

Neurobiological basis of bipolar disorder Tadafumi Kato  

E-print Network

Neurobiological basis of bipolar disorder Tadafumi Kato Laboratory for Molecular Dynamics of Mental Disorders, RIKEN Brain Science Institute Bipolar disorder is characterized by recurrent episodes of mania channel genes including CACNA1C. Mendelian diseases accompanying bipolar disorder or depression include

Fukai, Tomoki

319

Child Behavior Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... a death in the family may cause a child to act out. Behavior disorders are more serious. ... The behavior is also not appropriate for the child's age. Warning signs can include Harming or threatening ...

320

Personality Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

Personality disorders are a group of mental illnesses. They involve long-term patterns of thoughts and behaviors ... serious problems with relationships and work. People with personality disorders have trouble dealing with everyday stresses and ...

321

Schizoaffective disorder  

MedlinePLUS

... disorder is thought to be less common than schizophrenia and mood disorders. Women may have the condition ... Complications are similar to those for schizophrenia and major mood ... therapy Problems due to manic behavior (for example, spending ...

322

Bipolar disorder  

MedlinePLUS

Bipolar disorder is a condition in which a person has periods of depression and periods of being extremely ... Bipolar disorder affects men and women equally. It usually starts between ages 15 and 25. The exact cause ...

323

Anxiety Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... MedlinePlus ( en Español ) Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Information and Organizations from NLM 's MedlinePlus ( en Español ) Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Information and Organizations from NLM 's MedlinePlus ( en ...

324

Bipolar Disorder  

MedlinePLUS

... knowledge we have gained from more traditional research approaches that focus solely on understanding mental disorders based ... hope is that by changing the way we approach mental disorders, RDoC will help us open the ...

325

Eating Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

Eating disorders are illnesses in which the people experience severe disturbances in their eating behaviors and related thoughts and emotions. Those suffering from eating disorders typically become obsessed with food and their body ...

326

Neutron multiplicity analysis tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

I describe the capabilities of the EXCOM (EXcel based COincidence and Multiplicity) calculation tool which is used to analyze experimental data or simulated neutron multiplicity data. The input to the program is the count-rate data (including the multiplicity distribution) for a measurement, the isotopic composition of the sample and relevant dates. The program carries out deadtime correction and background subtraction

Scott L

2010-01-01

327

Treatments for neuropsychiatric disorders include drug therapies, surgical interven-  

E-print Network

implicated in schizophrenia3­5 . To better understand the contribution of specific cell types animal behaviour6 . As described below, co-expression of these proteins ena- bles bidirectional; for instance, the PV-positive interneurons in the dorsolateral PFC of schizophrenic patients have reduced GABA

Schnitzer, Mark

328

Sleep Disorders and Fibromyalgia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disordered sleep is such a prominent symptom in fibromyalgia that the American College of Rheumatology included symptoms such\\u000a as waking unrefreshed, fatigue, tiredness, and insomnia in the 2010 diagnostic criteria for fibromyalgia. Even though sleep\\u000a recording is not part of the routine evaluation, polysomnography may disclose primary sleep disorders in patients with fibromyalgia,\\u000a including obstructive sleep apnea and restless leg

Suely Roizenblatt; Nilton Salles Rosa Neto; Sergio Tufik

329

Primary headache disorders.  

PubMed

Primary headache disorders include migraine, tension-type headaches, and the trigeminal autonomic cephalgias (TACs). "Primary" refers to a lack of clear underlying causative pathology, trauma, or systemic disease. The TACs include cluster headache, paroxysmal hemicrania, and short-lasting neuralgiform headache attacks with conjunctival injection and tearing; hemicrania continua, although classified separately by the International Headache Society, shares many features of both migraine and the TACs. This article describes the features and treatment of these disorders. PMID:23809307

Benoliel, Rafael; Eliav, Eli

2013-07-01

330

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly prevalent, heterogeneous syndrome of cognitive and behavioral\\u000a features including inattention, impulsivity, deficient behavioral inhibition, and hyperactivity. Prevalence is about 4%, with\\u000a a moderate excess of a mainly inattentive subtype, and fewer mixed or mainly hyperactive\\/impulsive cases. Comorbid conditions\\u000a include conduct, learning, and mood disorders. ADHD can be found at any age, but

Kehong Zhang; Eugen Davids; Ross J. Baldessarini

331

[Pervasive developmental disorders].  

PubMed

Pervasive developmental disorders (PDD-ICD10), covering roughly the same entity as the autism spectrum disorders (ASD DSM-IVTR and DSM-V) include a heterogeneous clinical reality. PDD develop in childhood and are characterized by alterations in socialization, communication and behavior disorders with stereotypies and repetitive movements. Autism is included in PDD and has led to many debates in France and to the publication of recommendations and government plans, in recent years. We propose in this article to review the current knowledge of this topic. PMID:24855782

Ferreri, Mélanie

2014-04-01

332

Comorbidity in Hoarding Disorder  

PubMed Central

Hoarding Disorder (HD) is currently under consideration for inclusion as a distinct disorder in DSM-5 (1). Few studies have examined comorbidity patterns in people who hoard, and the ones that have suffer from serious methodological shortcomings including drawing from populations already diagnosed with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), using outdated definitions of hoarding, and relying on inadequate assessments of hoarding. The present study is the first large-scale study (n=217) of comorbidity in a sample of people meeting recently proposed criteria for hoarding disorder (1) and relying on validated assessment procedures. The HD sample was compared to 96 participants meeting criteria for OCD without HD. High comorbidity rates were observed for major depressive disorder (MDD) as well as acquisition-related impulse control disorders (compulsive buying, kleptomania, and acquiring free things). Fewer than 20% of HD participants met criteria for OCD, and the rate of OCD in HD was higher for men than women. Rates of MDD and acquisition-related impulse control disorders were higher among HD than OCD participants. No specific anxiety disorder was more frequent in HD, but social phobia was more frequent among men with HD than among men with OCD. Inattentive ADHD was diagnosed in 28% of HD participants and was significantly more frequent than among OCD participants (3%). These findings form important base rates for developing research and treatments for hoarding disorder. PMID:21770000

Frost, Randy O.; Steketee, Gail; Tolin, David F.

2011-01-01

333

Internship Contract (Includes Practicum)  

E-print Network

Internship Contract (Includes Practicum) Student's name-mail: _________________________________________ Internship Agency Contact Agency Name: ____________________________________ Address-mail: __________________________________________ Location of Internship, if different from Agency: ________________________________________________ Copies

Thaxton, Christopher S.

334

Adult ADHD vs. Bipolar Disorder in the DSM-5 Era: A Challenging Differentiation for Clinicians.  

PubMed

Objective. Patients with adult attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and bipolar disorder can present with similar symptoms, including increased energy, distractibility, disorganization, impulsivity, hyperactivity, and rapid speech. Determining whether the patient has either, or possibly both, of these syndromes can be a complex task. This review attempts to clarify where these disorders overlap, both symptomatically and epidemiologically, and where they diverge, to help clinicians increase the accuracy of their diagnoses. Changes to diagnostic criteria from the fourth to the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (from DSM-IV-TR to DSM-5) are discussed, as is the evidence base for pharmacological treatments. Method. Studies and sources were identified using computerized searches. Results. Adult ADHD and bipolar disorder have multiple overlapping symptoms, but there are differences in prevalence (ADHD affects 4.4% of adults in the United States versus 1.4% for bipolar disorder), onset of symptoms (usually before age 7 years in ADHD versus after age 12 years in bipolar disorder), disease course (chronic in ADHD versus cyclical in bipolar disorder), mood symptoms (absent in ADHD but always present in bipolar disorder), and psychotic symptoms (absent in ADHD but sometimes present in bipolar disorder). Approximately 20% of adult patients with ADHD also have bipolar disorder, while 10%-20% of patients with bipolar disorder have adult ADHD. Comorbidity of bipolar disorder and ADHD is associated with an earlier age of onset and a more chronic and disabling course of bipolar disorder, as well as more psychiatric comorbidity. Conclusion. Distinguishing between adult ADHD and bipolar disorder requires careful attention to phenomenology and awareness of epidemiology, with a focus on childhood history, lifetime course of symptoms, and the possibility of comorbidity. (Journal of Psychiatric Practice 2014;20:428-437). PMID:25406047

Brus, Michael J; Solanto, Mary V; Goldberg, Joseph F

2014-11-01

335

Oppositional defiant disorder  

MedlinePLUS

... behavior problems and should be considered as possibilities: Anxiety disorders Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Bipolar disorder Depression Learning disorders Substance abuse disorders

336

White Blood Cell Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... com Sections in Patients & Caregivers Blood Disorders Bone, Joint, and Muscle Disorders Brain, Spinal Cord, and Nerve Disorders Cancer Children's Health Issues Digestive Disorders Disorders of Nutrition Drugs ...

337

Bipolar Disorder.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bipolar disorder, a brain disorder that causes unusual shifts in a person's mood, affects approximately one percent of the population. It commonly occurs in late adolescence and is often unrecognized. The diagnosis of bipolar disorder is made on the basis of symptoms, course of illness, and when possible, family history. Thoughts of suicide are…

Spearing, Melissa

338

Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

HEALTH ISSUE: Eating disorders are an increasing public health problem among young women. Anorexia and bulimia may give rise to serious physical conditions such as hypothermia, hypotension, electrolyte imbalance, endocrine disorders, and kidney failure. KEY ISSUES: Eating disorders are primarily a problem among women. In Ontario in 1995, over 90% of reported hospitalized cases of anorexia and bulimia were women.

Enza Gucciardi; Nalan Celasun; Farah Ahmad; Donna E Stewart

2004-01-01

339

Immunologic Endocrine Disorders  

PubMed Central

Autoimmunity affects multiple glands in the endocrine system. Animal models and human studies highlight the importance of alleles in HLA (human leukocyte antigen)-like molecules determining tissue specific targeting that with the loss of tolerance leads to organ specific autoimmunity. Disorders such as type 1A diabetes, Grave's disease, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, Addison's disease, and many others result from autoimmune mediated tissue destruction. Each of these disorders can be divided into stages beginning with genetic susceptibility, environmental triggers, active autoimmunity, and finally metabolic derangements with overt symptoms of disease. With an increased understanding of the immunogenetics and immunopathogenesis of endocrine autoimmune disorders, immunotherapies are becoming prevalent, especially in type 1A diabetes. Immunotherapies are being used more in multiple subspecialty fields to halt disease progression. While therapies for autoimmune disorders stop the progress of an immune response, immunomodulatory therapies for cancer and chronic infections can also provoke an unwanted immune response. As a result, there are now iatrogenic autoimmune disorders arising from the treatment of chronic viral infections and malignancies. PMID:20176260

Michels, Aaron W.; Eisenbarth, George S.

2010-01-01

340

Eating Disorders: Disorders of Under and Overnutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Eating disorder diagnoses consist of anorexia nervosa (restricting type and binge-eating\\/purging type); bulimia nervosa (purging\\u000a and nonpurging types); and eating disorder, not otherwise specified (including binge-eating disorder, night eating syndrome,\\u000a and purging disorder).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Physical complications of anorexia nervosa affect most major systems in the body and are caused by starvation and the effects\\u000a of purging. Most physical complications

Kelly C. Allison

341

Include folders ! Classic black  

E-print Network

credit card number and fax 24 hours a day. If faxing please do not mail the order. By Mail: Fill out.35% By Phone: 978-851-5924 - Please have credit card ready. By Fax: 978-851-8992 Fill out information, include the form, include payment by check or credit card (MasterCard, Visa, Discover or American Express) How

342

[DSM-5: OCD and related disorders].  

PubMed

DSM-5 moved OCD out from under the Anxiety Disorder section, into a new category: Obsessive Compulsive and Related Disorders and added two new specifiers. Specifically a modification of one specifier (insight) and the addition of a new tic specifier. DSM-5 redefined obsessions and recognizes the importance of avoidance and thought stopping beyond compulsions as other strategies to deal with obsessions. OCD related disorders include: Trichotillomania, Hoarding Disorder, Skin Picking Disorder, and Body Dysmorphic Disorder. PMID:24887372

Toro-Martínez, Esteban

2014-01-01

343

Addiction disorders.  

PubMed

Substance use disorders are common in primary care settings, but detection, assessment, and management are seldom undertaken. Substantial evidence supports alcohol screening and brief intervention for risky drinking, and pharmacotherapy is effective for alcohol use disorders. Substance use disorders can complicate the management of chronic noncancer pain, making routine monitoring and assessment for substance use disorders an important aspect of long-term opioid prescribing. Patients with opioid use disorders can be effectively treated with methadone in opioid treatment programs or with buprenorphine in the primary care setting. PMID:25134875

Merrill, Joseph O; Duncan, Mark H

2014-09-01

344

Multiplication 2  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Try some harder multiplication activities! Missing Factor Meteor Blasting Complete the Missing Step Batter s Up Multiplication Sum Sense Multiplication Challenge a Friend to Grand Prix Multiplication Double Digit Multiplication https://embed.espresso.co.uk/espresso/embed/images/logo_espresso.gif ) no-repeat center center"

Lerdahl, Miss

2010-11-16

345

Toward an Application to Psychological Disorders Diagnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Psychological disorders have kept away and incapacitated professionals in different sectors of activities. The most serious\\u000a problems may be associated with various types of pathologies; however, it appears, more often, as psychotic disorders, mood\\u000a disorders, anxiety disorders, antisocial personality, multiple personality and addiction, causing a micro level damage to\\u000a the individual and his\\/her family and in a macro level to

Luciano Comin Nunes; Plácido Rogério Pinheiro; Tarc??sio Cavalcante Pequeno; Mirian Calíope Dantas Pinheiro

346

Headache Attributable to Nonvascular Intracranial Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Headache attributable to nonvascular intracranial disorder is a basket of multiple, partly complex, and very diverse idiopathic\\u000a or secondary disorders. By definition, the headache has to occur in a close temporal relationship to the intracranial disorder.\\u000a Some of these headache disorders are caused by high or low cerebrospinal fluid pressure; noninfectious inflammatory diseases\\u000a such as neurosarcoidosis, aseptic (noninfectious) meningitis, and

Mark Obermann; Dagny Holle; Steffen Naegel; Hans-Christoph Diener

347

Body dysmorphic disorder  

PubMed Central

Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a relatively common disorder that consists of a distressing or impairing preoccupation with imagined or slight defects in appearance. BDD is commonly considered to be an obsessivecompulsive spectrum disorder, based on similarities it has with obsessive-compulsive disorder. It is important to recognize and appropriately treat BDD, as this disorder is associated with marked impairment in psychosocial functioning, notably poor quality of life, and high suicidality rates. In this review, we provide an overview of research findings on BDD, including its epidemiology, clinical features, course of illness, comorbidity, psychosocial functioning, and suicidality We also briefly review recent research on neural substrates and cognitive processing. Finally, we discuss treatment approaches that appear efficacious for BDD, with a focus on serotonin-reuptake inhibitors and cognitive-behavioral therapy. PMID:20623926

Bjornsson, Andri S.; Didie, Elizabeth R.; Phillips, Katharine A.

2010-01-01

348

The Genetics of Bipolar Disorder  

PubMed Central

Bipolar disorder is a mood disorder characterized by impairing episodes of mania and depression. Twin studies have established that bipolar disorder is among the most heritable of medical disorders and efforts to identify specific susceptibility genes have intensified over the past two decades. The search for genes influencing bipolar disorder has been complicated by a paucity of animal models, limited understanding of pathogenesis, and the genetic and phenotypic complexity of the syndrome. Linkage studies have implicated several chromosomal regions as harboring relevant genes, but results have been inconsistent. It is now widely accepted that the genetic liability to bipolar disorder reflects the action of many genes of individually small effect, a scenario for which linkage studies are poorly suited. Thus, association studies, which are more powerful for the detection of modest effect loci, have become the focus of gene-finding research. A large number of candidate genes, including biological candidates derived from hypotheses about the pathogenesis of the disorder and positional candidates derived from linkage and cytogenetic studies, have been evaluated. Several of these genes have been associated with the disorder in independent studies (including BDNF, DAOA, DISC1, GRIK4, SLC6A4, and TPH2), but none has been established. The clinical heterogeneity of bipolar disorder and its phenotypic and genetic overlap with other disorders (especially schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and major depressive disorder) has raised questions about the optimal phenotype definition for genetic studies. Nevertheless, genomewide association analysis, which has successfully identified susceptibility genes for a variety of complex disorders, has begun to implicate specific genes for bipolar disorder (DGKH, CACNA1C, ANK3). The polygenicity of the disorder means that very large samples will be needed to detect the modest effect loci that likely contribute to bipolar disorder. Detailed genetic dissection of the disorder may provide novel targets (both pharmacologic and psychosocial) for intervention. PMID:19358880

Barnett, Jennifer H; Smoller, Jordan W

2009-01-01

349

Mastering Multiplication  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Play the following games to practice your multiplication. Take a swing at Multplication Baseball! (Set with hard) Use your multiplication knowledge and defeat the Mayan Math Monster! (Set to hard) Quick! Stop the Multiplication Invader before it is too late! ...

Jackson, Ms.

2007-10-25

350

Psychobiology of anxiety disorders and obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders.  

PubMed

Obsessive-compulsive disorder is currently classified as an anxiety disorder. However, there is growing interest in the concept of an obsessive-compulsive spectrum of disorders (OCSDs). The relationship between anxiety disorders and OCSDs has been questioned. The psychobiology of anxiety disorders and OCSDs is briefly reviewed in this article. While there appear to be several distinct contrasts in the underlying psychobiology of these conditions, there is also evidence of overlapping mechanisms. In addition, there are crucial gaps in our current database, confounding nosological decision-making. Conceptualizing various anxiety disorders and putative OCSDs as lying within a broader spectrum of emotional disorders may be useful. However, clinicians must also recognize that individual anxiety and obsessive-compulsive spectrum conditions, including disorders characterized by body-focused repetitive behaviors, have distinct psychobiological underpinnings and require different treatment approaches. PMID:18849908

Stein, Dan J

2008-09-01

351

Comorbidity in Pediatric Bipolar Disorder  

PubMed Central

Synopsis A growing literature shows the pervasiveness and importance of comorbidity in youth with bipolar disorder (BPD). For instance, up to 90% of youth with BPD have been described to manifest comorbidity with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Multiple anxiety, substance use, and disruptive behavior disorders are the other most commonly reported comorbidities with BPD. Moreover, important recent data highlights the importance of obsessive compulsive and pervasive developmental illness in the context of BPD. Data suggests that not only special developmental relationships are operant in context to comorbidity, but also that the presence of comorbid disorders with BPD results in a more severe clinical condition. Moreover, the presence of comorbidity has therapeutic implications for the treatment response for both BPD and the associated comorbid disorder. Future longitudinal studies to address the relationship and the impact of comorbid disorders on course and therapeutic response over time are required in youth with BPD. PMID:19264265

Joshi, Gagan; Wilens, Timothy

2013-01-01

352

Dissociative disorders in DSM-5.  

PubMed

The rationale, research literature, and proposed changes to the dissociative disorders and conversion disorder in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) are presented. Dissociative identity disorder will include reference to possession as well as identity fragmentation, to make the disorder more applicable to culturally diverse situations. Dissociative amnesia will include dissociative fugue as a subtype, since fugue is a rare disorder that always involves amnesia but does not always include confused wandering or loss of personality identity. Depersonalization disorder will include derealization as well, since the two often co-occur. A dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), defined by the presence of depersonalization or derealization in addition to other PTSD symptoms, is being recommended, based upon new epidemiological and neuroimaging evidence linking it to an early life history of adversity and a combination of frontal activation and limbic inhibition. Conversion disorder (functional neurological symptom disorder) will likely remain with the somatic symptom disorders, despite considerable dissociative comorbidity. PMID:23394228

Spiegel, David; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Lanius, Ruth; Vermetten, Eric; Simeon, Daphne; Friedman, Matthew

2013-01-01

353

Multiple Sexual Victimizations among Adolescent Boys and Girls: Prevalence and Associations with Eating Behaviors and Psychological Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of sexual abuse, including multiple victimizations, among adolescents and to examine associations among history of sexual abuse, disordered eating behaviors and psychological health. The sample included 81,247 students (40,946 girls and 40,301 boys) in 9th and 12th grades in Minnesota public…

Ackard, Diann M.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

2003-01-01

354

The role of ghrelin, salivary secretions, and dental care in eating disorders.  

PubMed

Eating disorders, including anorexia and bulimia nervosa, are potentially life-threatening syndromes characterized by severe disturbances in eating behavior. An effective treatment strategy for these conditions remains to be established, as patients with eating disorders tend to suffer from multiple relapses. Because ghrelin was originally discovered in the stomach mucosa, it has been widely studied over the past decade in an effort to uncover its potential roles; these studies have shed light on the mechanism by which ghrelin regulates food intake. Thus, studying ghrelin in the context of eating disorders could improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of eating disorders, possibly resulting in a promising new pharmacological treatment strategy for these patients. In addition, early detection and treatment of eating disorders are critical for ensuring recovery of young patients. Oral symptoms, including mucosal, dental, and saliva abnormalities, are typically observed in the early stages of eating disorders. Although oral care is not directly related to the treatment of eating disorders, knowledge of the oral manifestations of eating disorder patients may aid in early detection, resulting in earlier treatment; thus, oral care might contribute to overall patient management and prognosis. Moreover, ghrelin has also been found in saliva, which may be responsible for oral hygiene and digestion-related functions. This review discusses the pharmacological potential of ghrelin in regulating food-intake and the role of saliva and oral care in young patients with eating disorders. PMID:23016127

Yagi, Takakazu; Ueda, Hirotaka; Amitani, Haruka; Asakawa, Akihiro; Miyawaki, Shouichi; Inui, Akio

2012-08-01

355

The Effects of Covert Audio Coaching on Teaching Clerical Skills to Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Employment instruction for secondary students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has received very little attention in the professional literature. However, adults with ASD usually have difficulty maintaining employment for a variety of reasons, including problems with performing work tasks. This study used a multiple baseline design across…

Bennett, Kyle D.; Ramasamy, Rangasamy; Honsberger, Toby

2013-01-01

356

Cognitive Neuroscience of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Current Status and Working Hypotheses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cognitive neuroscience studies of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) suggest multiple loci of pathology with respect to both cognitive domains and neural circuitry. Cognitive deficits extend beyond executive functioning to include spatial, temporal, and lower-level "nonexecutive" functions. Atypical functional anatomy extends beyond…

Vaidya, Chandan J.; Stollstorff, Melanie

2008-01-01

357

Neurodegenerative disorders in humans: the role of glutathione in oxidative stress-mediated neuronal death  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxidative stress has been implicated in both normal aging and in various neurodegenerative disorders and may be a common mechanism underlying various forms of cell death including necrosis, apoptosis, and excitotoxicity. In this review, we develop the hypothesis that oxidative stress-mediated neuronal loss may be initiated by a decline in the antioxidant molecule glutathione (GSH). GSH plays multiple roles in

Jaswinder S Bains; Christopher A Shaw

1997-01-01

358

Design and screening of ASIC inhibitors based on aromatic diamidines for combating neurological disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid sensing ion channels (ASICs) are implicated in various brain functions including learning and memory and are involved in a number of neurological disorders such as pain, ischemic stroke, depression, and multiple sclerosis. We have recently defined ASICs as one of receptor targets of aromatic diamidines in neurons. Aromatic diamidines are DNA-binding agents and have long been used in the

Xuanmao Chen; Beverley A. Orser; John F. MacDonald

2010-01-01

359

Mental, Emotional and Behavior Disorders in Children and Adolescents. Factsheet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This factsheet describes the different mental, emotional, and behavior problems that can occur during childhood and adolescence. The incidence and symptoms of the following disorders are discussed: (1) anxiety disorders (including phobia, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder);…

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Center for Mental Health Services.

360

Emotional Disorders in People with Multiple Sclerosis  

MedlinePLUS

... people with MS and their families, particularly work, relationships, and leisure time • Interfere with people’s ability to be fully involved in their care and effectively manage their MS • Lead to suicide What is MS? MS is thought to be ...

361

Sleep Disorders - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... ???????) Chinese - Simplified (????) Chinese - Traditional (????) French (français) Hindi (??????) Japanese (???) Korean (???) Portuguese ( ... PDF Health Information Translations Return to top French (français) Common Sleep Problem Problèmes de sommeil courants - français ( ...

362

Swallowing Disorders - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... Languages Chinese - Simplified (????) Chinese - Traditional (????) French (français) Hindi (??????) Japanese (???) Korean (???) Russian ( ... Chinese - Traditional) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations French (français) Barium Swallow Déglutition barytée - français (French) Bilingual PDF ...

363

Including Jews in Multiculturalism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses reasons for the lack of attention to Jews as an ethnic minority within multiculturalism both by Jews and non-Jews; why Jews and Jewish issues need to be included; and addresses some of the issues involved in the ethical treatment of Jewish clients. (Author)

Langman, Peter F.

1995-01-01

364

Wisconsin #include gcc  

E-print Network

above #include gcc ... ­lposix4 int sem_init(sem_t *sem, int pshared, unsigned int initial_value); initialize a semaphore (does not allocate memory) int sem_destroy(sem_t *sem); destroy a semaphore's state (does not free allocated memory) int sem_post(sem_t *sem); do an ``up'' or a ``V'' operation

Liblit, Ben

365

An expert system applied to the diagnosis of psychological disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychological disorders have kept away and incapacitated professionals in different sectors of activities. The most serious problems may be associated with various types of pathologies, however, it appears, more often, as psychotic disorders, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, antisocial personality, multiple personality and addiction, causing a micro level damage to the individual and his\\/her family and in a macro level to

Luciano Comin Nunes; Plácido Rogério Pinheiro; Tarcísio Cavalcante Pequeno

2009-01-01

366

Efficacy of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Comorbid Panic Disorder with Agoraphobia and Generalized Anxiety Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy for comorbid panic disorder with agoraphobia (PDA) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) by combining treatment strategies for both disorders. A single-case, multiple-baseline design across participants was used. Three participants with primary PDA and secondary…

Labrecque, Joane; Marchand, Andre; Dugas, Michel J.; Letarte, Andree

2007-01-01

367

Ghrelin and Eating Disorders  

PubMed Central

There is growing evidence supporting a multifactorial etiology that includes genetic, neurochemical, and physiological components for eating disorders above and beyond the more conventional theories based on psychological and sociocultural factors. Ghrelin is one of the key gut signals associated with appetite, and the only known circulating hormone that triggers a positive energy balance by stimulating food intake. This review summarizes recent findings and several conflicting reports on ghrelin in eating disorders. Understanding these findings and inconsistencies may help in developing new methods to prevent and treat patients with these disorders. PMID:22960103

Atalayer, Deniz; Gibson, Charlisa; Konopacka, Alexandra; Geliebter, Allan

2012-01-01

368

Anxiety Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Anxiety disorders are among the most common psychological disorders, with a lifetime prevalence of 31.2% and a 12-month prevalence\\u000a of 19.1% in the United States (Kessler et al., 2005; Kessler, Chiu, Demler, Merikangas, & Walters, 2005). Individuals with\\u000a an anxiety disorder present with a variety of physical and psychological symptoms. Particularly unique to anxiety are the\\u000a symptoms of physical tension

Rose C. Smith; Lisa S. Elwood; Matthew T. Feldner; Bunmi O. Olatunji

369

Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eating disorders and obesity are problems that dramatically impact psychological and medical well-being. These disorders carry some of the highest mortality rates in psychiatry. At the end of this chapter, the reader will be able to 1. Describe the medical approach to a patient presenting with an eating disorder 2. Compare the epidemiology, pathophysiology, DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria, clinical course, treatment,

Hy Gia Park; Cathy K. Bell

370

Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter focuses on the eating disorders that draw the attention of most clinicians and researchers: anorexia nervosa,\\u000a bulimia nervosa, and eating disorders not otherwise specified. For information about other, less well-known eating problems\\u000a in adolescents, and about the medical and nutritional effects of eating disorders in adolescents, see Lask and Bryant-Waugh\\u000a (2000) and Fisher et al. (1995).

Michael P. Levine; Niva Piran

371

Multiple-Ring Digital Communication Network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Optical-fiber digital communication network to support data-acquisition and control functions of electric-power-distribution networks. Optical-fiber links of communication network follow power-distribution routes. Since fiber crosses open power switches, communication network includes multiple interconnected loops with occasional spurs. At each intersection node is needed. Nodes of communication network include power-distribution substations and power-controlling units. In addition to serving data acquisition and control functions, each node acts as repeater, passing on messages to next node(s). Multiple-ring communication network operates on new AbNET protocol and features fiber-optic communication.

Kirkham, Harold

1992-01-01

372

First ray disorders in athletes.  

PubMed

Athletes who participate in contact sports (American football, soccer, rugby) or who are involved in high-impact sports (dancing, running, gymnastics) are susceptible to first ray forefoot injuries. Common first ray disorders in athletes include hallux rigidus, turf toe, sand toe, sesamoid disorders, and fractures. First ray disorders in athletes frequently are treated by nonoperative methods including relative rest, ice, elevation, activity modification, shoe modification, and insoles. PMID:19680112

Nihal, Aneel; Trepman, Elly; Nag, David

2009-09-01

373

Electrolyte disorders.  

PubMed

Electrolyte disorders can result in life-threatening complications. The kidneys are tasked with maintaining electrolyte homoeostasis, yet the low glomerular filtration rate of neonatal kidneys, tubular immaturity, and high extrarenal fluid losses contribute to increased occurrence of electrolyte disorders in neonates. Understanding the physiologic basis of renal electrolyte handling is crucial in identifying underlying causes and initiation of proper treatment. This article reviews key aspects of renal physiology, the diagnostic workup of disorders of plasma sodium and potassium, and the appropriate treatment, in addition to inherited disorders associated with neonatal electrolyte disturbances that illuminate the physiology of renal electrolyte handling. PMID:25155728

Bockenhauer, Detlef; Zieg, Jakub

2014-09-01

374

Should Relational Aggression Be Included in DSM-V?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examines whether relational aggression should be included in DSM-V disruptive behavior disorders. The results conclude that some additional information is gathered from assessing relational aggression but not enough to be included in DSM-V.

Keenan, Kate; Coyne, Claire; Lahey, Benjamin B.

2008-01-01

375

Common Pediatric Urological Disorders  

PubMed Central

The clinical and radiological presentations of 12 pediatric urological disorders are described. The described disorders include pyelonephritis, vesicoureteral reflux, ureteropelvic obstruction, ureterovesical obstruction, ectopic ureterocele, posterior urethral valves, multicystic dysplastic kidney, polycystic kidney disease, ectopic kidney, staghorn calculi, urethral diverticulum, and urethral meatal stenosis. ImagesFigure 1-2Figure 3Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6-7Figure 8-9Figure 10Figure 11-12 PMID:21229068

Robson, Wm. Lane M.; Leung, Alexander K.C.; Boag, Graham S.

1991-01-01

376

Dominance in mitochondrial disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dominant traits are rare in mitochondrial disorders but include important nosological entities such as alterations of organellar biogenesis and abnormalities in the structural integrity of the mitochondrial genome, determined by mutations in genes involved in its maintenance and propagation. Both haplo-insufficiency and ‘gain-of-function’ mechanisms underlie the pathogenesis of these disorders. Impairment in energy supply, abnormal mitochondrial trafficking, increased toxic damage

M. Zeviani; V. Carelli

2005-01-01

377

Multiplication Mania!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These assignments will help you practice your multiplication facts. Work through these multiplication facts. Click on each link and scroll down past the red box to the orange box. Click on \\"Start Multiplication\\". After you type in your answer click on the \\"Check\\" box to check your answer. 1. Practice your multiplication facts 0-3. ...

Packard, Mrs.

2005-10-25

378

Multiplication Rocks!!!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Let's practice what we've learned about multiplication. Play at least one game in each of the categories. Times Table Practice: Design the Ultimate Fashion Outfit with Math Models Blast the Meteors before they destroy the ship in Meteor Multiplication More Multiplication: Batter's Up in Baseball Multiplication Win $1,000,000 in Who Wants To Be A Millionaire? ...

Peake, Mrs.

2009-04-15

379

An extension of the multiple-trapping model  

SciTech Connect

The hopping charge transport in disordered semiconductors is considered. Using the concept of the transport energy level, macroscopic equations are derived that extend a multiple-trapping model to the case of semiconductors with both energy and spatial disorders. It is shown that, although both types of disorder can cause dispersive transport, the frequency dependence of conductivity is determined exclusively by the spatial disorder.

Shkilev, V. P., E-mail: shkilevv@ukr.net [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Institute of Surface Chemistry (Ukraine)

2012-07-15

380

The neurogenetics of atypical parkinsonian disorders.  

PubMed

Although classic Parkinson disease is the disorder most commonly associated with the clinical feature of parkinsonism, there is in fact a broader spectrum of disease represented by a collection of phenotypically similar neurodegenerative conditions that mimic many of its core features. These atypical parkinsonian disorders most commonly include progressive supranuclear palsy and corticobasal degeneration, disorders both associated with frontotemporal dementia, as well as multiple system atrophy and dementia with Lewy bodies. Although the clinical distinction of these disorders still remains a challenge to physicians, recent advances in genetics are poised to tease apart the differences. Insights into the molecular etiologies underlying these conditions will improve diagnosis, yield a better understanding of the underlying disease pathology, and ultimately lend stimulation to the development of potential treatments. At the same time, the wide range of phenotypes observed from mutations in a single gene warrants broad testing facilitated by advances in DNA sequencing. These expanding genomic approaches, ranging from the use of next-generation sequencing to identify causative or risk-associated gene variations to the study of epigenetic modification linking human genetics to environmental factors, are poised to lead the field into a new age of discovery. PMID:24963681

Fogel, Brent L; Clark, Mary C; Geschwind, Daniel H

2014-04-01

381

Excessive daytime sleepiness in sleep disorders  

PubMed Central

Excessive daytime sleepiness is a significant public health problem, with prevalence in the community estimated to be as high as 18%. Sleepiness is caused by abnormal sleep quantity or sleep quality. Amongst others, multiple neurological, psychological, cardiac and pulmonary disorders may contribute. Risk factors for excessive sleepiness include obesity, depression, extremes of age and insufficient sleep. In the clinical setting, two of the most commonly encountered causes are obstructive sleep apnoea and periodic limb movement disorder. There is continuing discussion of the mechanisms by which these disorders cause daytime symptoms, with intermittent nocturnal hypoxia, sleep fragmentation and autonomic dysregulation identified as important factors. The increased prevalence of obstructive sleep apnoea in obese subjects does not fully account for the increased rates of daytime sleepiness in this population and there is evidence to suggest that it is caused by metabolic factors and chronic inflammation in obese individuals. Sleepiness is also more common in those reporting symptoms of depression or anxiety disorders and significantly impacts their quality of life. Clinicians should be aware of factors which put their patients at high risk of daytime sleepiness, as it is a debilitating and potentially dangerous symptom with medico-legal implications. Treatment option should address underlying contributors and promote sleep quantity and sleep quality by ensuring good sleep hygiene. However, stimulant medication may be indicated in some cases to allow for more normal daytime functioning. PMID:23205286

Steier, Joerg

2012-01-01

382

Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarker Candidates for Parkinsonian Disorders  

PubMed Central

The Parkinsonian disorders are a large group of neurodegenerative diseases including idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (PD) and atypical Parkinsonian disorders (APD), such as multiple system atrophy, progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration, and dementia with Lewy bodies. The etiology of these disorders is not known although it is considered to be a combination of genetic and environmental factors. One of the greatest obstacles for developing efficacious disease-modifying treatment strategies is the lack of biomarkers. Reliable biomarkers are needed for early and accurate diagnosis, to measure disease progression, and response to therapy. In this review several of the most promising cerebrospinal biomarker candidates are discussed. Alpha-synuclein seems to be intimately involved in the pathogenesis of synucleinopathies and its levels can be measured in the cerebrospinal fluid and in plasma. In a similar way, tau protein accumulation seems to be involved in the pathogenesis of tauopathies. Urate, a potent antioxidant, seems to be associated to the risk of developing PD and with its progression. Neurofilament light chain levels are increased in APD compared with PD and healthy controls. The new “omics” techniques are potent tools offering new insights in the patho-etiology of these disorders. Some of the difficulties encountered in developing biomarkers are discussed together with future perspectives. PMID:23346074

Constantinescu, Radu; Mondello, Stefania

2013-01-01

383

Personality disorders and perceived stress in Major Depressive Disorder  

PubMed Central

The investigation of comorbidity between major depressive disorder (MDD) and personality disorders (PDs) has attracted considerable interest. Whereas some studies found that the presence of PDs has adverse effects on the course and treatment of MDD, others have failed to demonstrate this link. These inconsistent findings suggest that specific PD comorbidity might affect the course of MDD by modulating factors that increase the overall risk of depression, including an elevated tendency to perceive stress. To investigate whether the presence of a specific PD cluster was associated with elevated levels of stress appraisal, we administered the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) before and after treatment to 227 MDD outpatients enrolled in an 8-week open-label treatment with fluoxetine. Following treatment, multiple linear regression analyses revealed that the presence of Cluster A, but not Cluster B or C, was associated with higher levels of perceived stress, even after adjusting for baseline depression severity and PSS scores, as well as various sociodemographic variables. The presence of Cluster A PD comorbidity was uniquely associated with elevated stress appraisal after antidepressant treatment, raising the possibility that stress exacerbation might be an important factor linked to poor treatment outcome in MDD subjects with Cluster A pathology. PMID:18573540

Candrian, Michele; Schwartz, Faye; Farabaugh, Amy; Perlis, Roy H.; Ehlert, Ulrike; Fava, Maurizio

2008-01-01

384

Intrinsically Disordered Proteins May Select Partners by Fold  

E-print Network

Intrinsically disordered proteins lack a rigid structure due to their simple amino acid sequence. Because of their multiple roles, disordered proteins often account for a majority of proteins known to be associated with various diseases...

Gonzalez, Kim 1988-

2010-12-08

385

Merely Misunderstood: Expressive, Receptive, and Pragmatic Language in Children with Disruptive Behavior Disorders.  

E-print Network

?? Children with Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBD), including Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) have poorer language skills compared to typically developing children;… (more)

Gremillion, Monica L

2011-01-01

386

Eating Disorders in Adolescent Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adolescent athletes are especially vulnerable to developing disordered eating behaviors. Risk factors include participation in sports where weight and lean body type are important, high-intensity training, pressure from coaches, and training and dieting beginning at an early age. Medical complications associated with these unhealthy dietary and weight-control practices and eating disorders can be potentially dangerous. Prevention strategies include minimizing the

Dilip R. Patel; Donald E. Greydanus; Helen D. Pratt; Elaine L. Phillips

2003-01-01

387

Viruses, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder.  

PubMed Central

The hypothesis that viruses or other infectious agents may cause schizophrenia or bipolar disorder dates to the 19th century but has recently been revived. It could explain many clinical, genetic, and epidemiologic aspects of these diseases, including the winter-spring birth seasonality, regional differences, urban birth, household crowding, having an older sibling, and prenatal exposure to influenza as risk factors. It could also explain observed immunological changes such as abnormalities of lymphocytes, proteins, autoantibodies, and cytokines. However, direct studies of viral infections in individuals with these psychiatric diseases have been predominantly negative. Most studies have examined antibodies in blood or cerebrospinal fluid, and relatively few studies have been done on viral antigens, genomes, cytopathic effect on cell culture, and animal transmission experiments. Viral research on schizophrenia and bipolar disorder is thus comparable to viral research on multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease: an attractive hypothesis with scattered interesting findings but no clear proof. The application of molecular biological techniques may allow the identification of novel infectious agents and the associations of these novel agents with serious mental diseases. PMID:7704891

Yolken, R H; Torrey, E F

1995-01-01

388

Anxiety Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because of their high prevalence and their negative long-term consequences, child anxiety disorders have become an important focus of interest. Whether pathological anxiety and normal fear are similar processes continues to be controversial. Comparative studies of child anxiety disorders are scarce, but there is some support for the current…

Klein, Rachel G.

2009-01-01

389

Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed a survey to characterize dietitians’ involvement in the treatment of eating disorders and to determine the appropriateness of current training. The survey was mailed to 601 Florida Registered Dietitians. Completed surveys were returned by 170 dietitians. Respondents were asked to place themselves in one of three categories: Category A: participates in the identification\\/diagnosis of eating disorders (n=l 10);

A. P. Wittkowsky; R. E. Turner; L. B. Bobroff; G. D. Evans

1999-01-01

390

Anxiety Disorders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Anxiey, in general, helps one to cope. It rouses a person to action and gears one up to face a threatening situation. It makes students study harder for exams, and keeps presenters on their toes when making speeches. But an anxiety disorder can prevent one from coping and can disrupt daily life. Anxiety disorders are not just a case of "nerves,"…

Dickey, Marilyn

391

Eating Disorders.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An eating disorder is an illness that causes serious disturbances to your everyday diet, such as eating extremely small amounts of food or severely overeating. A person with an eating disorder may have started out just eating smaller or larger amounts of ...

2011-01-01

392

Eating Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... 3 ? 4 ? 5 For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC The Deal With Diets Female Athlete Triad I Think My Friend May Have an Eating Disorder. What Should I Do? Anemia Body Image and Self-Esteem Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Binge Eating ...

393

Taste Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... sense of smell by way of a special channel that connects the roof of the throat to the nose. If this channel is blocked, such as when your nose is ... disorders? The National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD) supports basic and clinical investigations of ...

394

Co-morbid disorders and sexual risk behavior in Nigerian adolescents with bipolar disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Adolescent onset bipolar disorder often presents with co-morbid disorders of which psychoactive substance use disorders are notable. Mania symptoms and co-morbid psychoactive substance use disorders prone adolescents with bipolar disorder to impulsivity, impaired judgment, and risk taking behavior which often includes sexual risk behavior. There are dearth of information on pattern of co-morbid disorders and sexual risk behavior in

Muideen O Bakare; Ahamefule O Agomoh; Peter O Ebigbo; Gabriel M Onyeama; Julian Eaton; Jojo U Onwukwe; Kevin O Okonkwo

2009-01-01

395

Tic disorders and Tourette's syndrome.  

PubMed

Diagnostic categories of tic disorders include both transient and chronic tic disorders and Tourette's disorder. Changes for this group of disorders proposed for the forthcoming DSM-5 system include: (1) The term "stereotyped" will be eliminated in the definition of tics and the new definition will be applied consistently across all entities of tic disorders; (2) the diagnosis "Transient Tic Disorder" will change its name to "Provisional Tic Disorder"; (3) introduction of two new categories in individuals whose tics are triggered by illicit drugs or by a medical condition; (4) specification of chronic tic disorders into those with motor tics or with vocal tics only; (5) specification of the absence of a period longer than 3 months without tics will disappear for Tourette's Disorder. This overview discusses a number of implications resulting from these diagnostic modifications of the diagnostic classifications for use in the clinics. European guidelines for "Tourette's syndrome and other Tic disorders" were published in 2011 in the ECAP by the "European Society for the Study of Tourette Syndrome". The guidelines emphasize the complexity of these neuropsychiatric disorders that require interdisciplinary cooperation between medical professionals, but also patients, parents and teachers for planning of treatment. The main conclusion derived from the guideline for pharmacological treatment is the urgent need for rigorous studies that address the effectiveness of anti-tic medications. The guidelines also emphasize the importance of facilitating the dissemination of several behavioral treatment approaches, such as "Exposure Response Prevention", yet the most well documented being "Habit Reversal Training". PMID:23224240

Plessen, Kerstin J

2013-02-01

396

Meige's Syndrome: Rare Neurological Disorder Presenting as Conversion Disorder.  

PubMed

Meige's syndrome is a rare neurological syndrome characterized by oromandibular dystonia and blepharospasm. Its pathophysiology is not clearly determined. A 35-year-old female presented to psychiatric department with blepharospasm and oromandibular dystonia with clinical provisional diagnosis of psychiatric disorder (Conversion Disorder). After thorough physical examination including detailed neurological exam and psychiatric evaluation no formal medical or psychiatric diagnosis could be made. The other differential diagnoses of extra pyramidal symptom, tardive dyskinesia, conversion disorder, anxiety disorder were ruled out by formal diagnostic criteria. Consequently with suspicion of Meige's syndrome she was referred to the department of Neurology and the diagnosis was confirmed. Hence, Meige's syndrome could be misdiagnosed as a psychiatric disorder such as conversion disorder or anxiety disorder because clinical features of Meige's syndrome are highly variable and affected by psychological factors and also can be inhibited voluntarily to some extent. PMID:24249940

Debadatta, Mohapatra; Mishra, Ajay K

2013-07-01

397

Plasma Cell Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... Blood Disorders > Plasma Cell Disorders 4 Overview of Plasma Cell Disorders (Dysproteinemias; Monoclonal Gammopathies; Paraproteinemias; Plasma Cell Dyscrasias) Plasma cell disorders are uncommon. They ...

398

Paranoid personality disorder  

MedlinePLUS

Personality disorder - paranoid ... Cause of paranoid personality disorder is unknown. The disorder appears to be more common in families with psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia and delusional ...

399

Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type I  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Multiple endocrine neoplasia type I is a rare autosomal dominant disorder with many endocrine and nonendocrine manifestations.\\u000a Hyperparathyroidism, islet cell tumors, and pituitary tumors are diagnosed most commonly in these patients. There is controversy\\u000a regarding treatment of the different manifestations and screening modalities of this disorder because no large series has\\u000a determined the best therapeutic approach. Our institution advocates

Rasa Zarnegar; Laurent Brunaud; Orlo H. Clark

2002-01-01

400

[Mental disorders in old age].  

PubMed

Older adults face multiple age-related burdens. Although certain mental disorders are more common in the elderly, mental illness-in contrast to physical disorders-is less frequent than in younger individuals. Some clear differences related to gender have been identified in relation to mental disorders in these patients. Older women tend to suffer more frequently from depression and anxiety disorders, while addiction disorders, in particular alcohol abuse, and suicide are more prevalent in men. The importance of psychotherapy in addition to psychopharmacological medication in the treatment of older adults with mental disease has become increasingly clear. This particular patient group tends to be very motivated to work with their care provider; moreover, previously employed constructive coping strategies, as well as the extensive experience in handling problems can be great assets to the therapeutic process. PMID:23912131

Kinzl, J F

2013-08-01

401

Genetics of bipolar disorder.  

PubMed

Studies of families and twins show the importance of genetic factors affecting susceptibility to bipolar disorder and suggest substantial genetic and phenotypic complexity. Robust and replicable genome-wide significant associations have recently been reported in genome-wide association studies at several common polymorphisms, including variants within the genes CACNA1C, ODZ4, and NCAN. Strong evidence exists for a polygenic contribution to risk (ie, many risk alleles of small effect). A notable finding is the overlap of susceptibility between bipolar disorder and schizophrenia for several individual risk alleles and for the polygenic risk. By contrast, genomic structural variation seems to play a smaller part in bipolar disorder than it does in schizophrenia. Together, these genetic findings suggest directions for future studies to delineate the aetiology and pathogenesis of bipolar disorder, indicate the need to re-evaluate our diagnostic classifications, and might eventually pave the way for major improvements in clinical management. PMID:23663951

Craddock, Nick; Sklar, Pamela

2013-05-11

402

Boys with eating disorders.  

PubMed

Although commonly associated with girls and women, eating disorders do not discriminate. School nurses need to be aware that male students also can suffer from the serious health effects of anorexia nervosa, bulimia, anorexia athletica, and eating disorders not otherwise specified. Sports that focus on leanness and weight limits can add to a growing boy's risk of developing an eating disorder. Issues of body image and sexual development can complicate and can distort previously normal eating habits. Students may use powerful and dangerous drugs readily available via the Internet, including growth hormone, creatine, testosterone, and aminophylline, to build muscle and to eliminate fat, potentially causing serious health consequences. School nurses can partner with health and physical education teachers, coaches, school staff, parents, and students to identify and to support boys with eating disorders PMID:16419341

Hatmaker, Grace

2005-12-01

403

Autism Spectrum Disorders  

PubMed Central

Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are collectively the most commonly diagnosed pediatric neurodevelopmental condition. ASDs include autism, pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), Rett syndrome and Asperger disorder. ASD is characterized by impaired communication and social interaction and may involve developmental delays and seizure disorders. Recent parent-reported diagnosis of ASD in the United States put it at higher levels (1:91) than previously thought, with its diagnosis in boys occurring 4 to 5 times more frequently than in girls (1:58).1 CDC estimates are currently 1:110;1 up from 1:150 in 2007.2 Annual medical expenditures for those affected are generally four to six times greater than for those without ASD.1 While twin studies demonstrate that genetics play a significant role in ASD, the impact of environment should not be underestimated, given the approximate 20-fold increase in incidence over the last 20 years.3 PMID:24278834

Hyman, Mark; Swift, Kathie

2012-01-01

404

Eating Disorders About eating disorders  

E-print Network

-starvation. Bulimia nervosa is a disorder that affects 2-4% of young women. It is associated with recurrent episodes). It is accompanied by feeling of being out of control, guilt and shame. Bulimia also involves being overly concerned with body weight and shape. Binge eating disorder (BED) is a condition that resembles bulimia nervosa

Leistikow, Bruce N.

405

Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders  

PubMed Central

Objective To review circadian rhythm sleep disorders, including underlying causes, diagnostic considerations, and typical treatments. Methods Literature review and discussion of specific cases. Results Survey studies 1,2 suggest that up to 3% of the adult population suffers from a circadian rhythm sleep disorder (CRSD). However, these sleep disorders are often confused with insomnia, and an estimated 10% of adult and 16% of adolescent sleep disorders patients may have a CRSD 3-6. While some CRSD (such as jet lag) can be self-limiting, others when untreated can lead to adverse medical, psychological, and social consequences. The International Classification of Sleep Disorders classifies CRSD as dyssomnias, with six subtypes: Advanced Sleep Phase Type, Delayed Sleep Phase Type, Irregular Sleep Wake Type, Free Running Type, Jet Lag Type, and Shift Work Type. The primary clinical characteristic of all CRSD is an inability to fall asleep and wake at the desired time. It is believed that CRSD arise from a problem with the internal biological clock (circadian timing system) and/or misalignment between the circadian timing system and the external 24-hour environment. This misalignment can be the result of biological and/or behavioral factors. CRSD can be confused with other sleep or medical disorders. Conclusions Circadian rhythm sleep disorders are a distinct class of sleep disorders characterized by a mismatch between the desired timing of sleep and the ability to fall asleep and remain asleep. If untreated, CRSD can lead to insomnia and excessive daytime sleepiness, with negative medical, psychological, and social consequences. It is important for physicians to recognize potential circadian rhythm sleep disorders so that appropriate diagnosis, treatment, and referral can be made. PMID:25368503

Kim, Min Ju; Lee, Jung Hie; Duffy, Jeanne F.

2014-01-01

406

Autism Spectrum Disorders: Comorbid Psychopathology and Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Autism spectrum disorders (ASD), labeled as pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) in the DSM-IV-TR (APA, 2000), are characterized\\u000a by a distinct pattern of social and communication deficits with rigid ritualistic interests. While autism (Kanner, 1943) is\\u000a the main category, other conditions include Asperger syndrome (Asperger, 1944) and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise\\u000a specified (PDDNOS). Rett disorder and childhood disintegrative disorder, although

Sarah Mohiuddin; Sara Bobak; Daniel Gih; Mohammad Ghaziuddin

407

Management of obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common, often debilitating disorder characterized by the presence of obsessions and compulsions. Obsessions are repetitive thoughts or images which are experienced as intrusive and unwanted; they cause marked anxiety and distress. Compulsions (also known as rituals) are repetitive behaviors or mental acts that individuals with OCD perform in an attempt to decrease their anxiety. Patients tend to hide their symptoms due to shame; the amount of time between onset of symptoms and appropriate treatment is often many years. The disorder likely results from several etiological variables; functional imaging studies have consistently shown hyperactivity in the orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate, thalamus, and striatum. The mainstays of treatment include cognitive-behavioral therapy in the form of exposure and response prevention (ERP) and serotonin reuptake inhibiting medications. Several pharmacological augmentation strategies exist for treatment-resistant OCD, with addition of antipsychotics being most commonly employed. Radio and neurosurgical procedures, including gamma knife radiation and deep brain stimulation, are reserved for severe, treatment-refractory disease that has not responded to multiple treatments, and some patients may benefit from transcranial magnetic stimulation. PMID:25165567

Seibell, Phillip J; Hollander, Eric

2014-01-01

408

Multiple Sclerosis  

MedlinePLUS

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a nervous system disease that affects your brain and spinal cord. It damages the ... attacks healthy cells in your body by mistake. Multiple sclerosis affects women more than men. It often begins ...

409

Multiple Sclerosis  

MedlinePLUS

... is multiple sclerosis (MS)? Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune disease that affects the nervous system. Normally, antibodies produced ... of 20 and 40. If you have another autoimmune disease, such as thyroid disease or Type 1 diabetes, ...

410

Traumatic Knee Disorders in General Practice : Diagnosis, course and prognosis.  

E-print Network

??abstract__Abstract__ Musculoskeletal disorders are common, affecting millions of people worldwide and causing short or longterm pain and physical disability, including sick leave. These musculoskeletal disorders… (more)

H.P.A. Wagemakers (Harry)

2012-01-01

411

Finger Multiplication  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Multiplication facts are difficult to teach. Therefore many researchers have put a great deal of effort into finding multiplication strategies. Sherin and Fuson (2005) provided a good survey paper on the multiplication strategies research area. Kolpas (2002), Rendtorff (1908), Dabell (2001), Musser (1966) and Markarian (2009) proposed the finger…

Simanihuruk, Mudin

2011-01-01

412

[Youth Healthcare guideline 'Skin disorders'].  

PubMed

There is a high incidence of skin disorders; these are also frequently encountered within Youth Healthcare (YHC). Some skin disorders are caused by an underlying disease, syndrome or child abuse. Therefore, detection of these causes in an early stage is important. Skin disorders can have a huge psychosocial impact on both child and parents. This is one of the reasons why prevention, detection, diagnosis, treatment, referral, and uniform advice and guidance are of great importance. The YHC Guideline examines counselling and advice, criteria for referral to primary or secondary healthcare, and skincare in general. It also describes the disorders that should be actively detected. The Guideline also looks at specific aspects of dark skins and ethnic diversity, and the impact of skin disorders on general wellbeing. The accompanying web-based tool includes argumentation and opinions from experts on more than 75 skin disorders, including illustrations and decision trees, to aid the drawing up of a treatment plan. PMID:23151335

Deurloo, Jacqueline A; van Gameren-Oosterom, Helma B M; Kamphuis, Mascha

2012-01-01

413

Novel Associations for Hypothyroidism Include Known Autoimmune Risk Loci  

E-print Network

autoimmune disorders and thyroid function. Using a genetic risk profile score based on the top associationNovel Associations for Hypothyroidism Include Known Autoimmune Risk Loci Nicholas Eriksson*, Joyce disorder, affecting about 5% of the general population. Here we present the current largest genome

Li, Fei-Fei

414

Panic Disorder  

MedlinePLUS

... is a type of anxiety disorder. It causes panic attacks, which are sudden feelings of terror when there ... or a cold chill Tingly or numb hands Panic attacks can happen anytime, anywhere, and without warning. You ...

415

Rumination disorder  

MedlinePLUS

... there is abuse or neglect) and counseling the parents. ... disorder will disappear on its own, and the child will go back to eating normally without treatment. In other cases, treatment is necessary.

416

Conduct disorder  

MedlinePLUS

... develop problems with drug abuse and the law. Depression and bipolar disorder may develop in the teen years and early adulthood. Suicide and violence toward others are also possible complications.

417

Delusional Disorder  

MedlinePLUS

... a major problem with mood. Unlike people with schizophrenia, they tend not to have major problems with ... Delusional disorder is diagnosed much less frequently than schizophrenia. Symptoms The main symptom is a persistent delusion ...

418

Somatization disorder  

MedlinePLUS

Greenberg DB, Braun IM, Cassem NH. Functional somatic symptoms and somatoform disorders. In: Stern TA, Rosenbaum JF, Fava M, Biederman J, Rauch SL, eds. Massachusetts General Hospital Comprehensive Clinical Psychiatry . 1st ...

419

Thyroid Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... of thyroid disorder or thyroid disease. Hyperthyroidism (say: hi-per- thi -roy-diz-em) happens when the ... Kids with the opposite problem have hypothyroidism (say: hi-po- thi -roy-diz-em). In this case, ...

420

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder among Adults  

MedlinePLUS

... Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among ...

421

Esophageal motility disorders.  

PubMed

Esophageal motility disorders consist of a complex array of disturbances in normal esophageal function associated with dysphagia, gastroesophageal reflux, and noncardiac chest pain. A thorough knowledge of normal esophageal anatomy and physiology is important to a full understanding of these motility derangements. Through a complicated interaction of neuromuscular and hormonal influences, the voluntary act of swallowing transforms into an automated sequence of peristaltic waves propelling food and liquids into the stomach in concert with coordinated relaxation of the sphincters. Anatomic and physiologic barriers exist within the esophagus protecting against gastroesophageal reflux and aspiration. With improvements in diagnostic tools such as barium contrast radiography, scintigraphy, pH measurements, and esophageal manometrics with provocative testing, motility disorders have become better defined and understood. Primary motility disorders consist of achalasia, diffuse esophageal spasm (DES), "nutcracker esophagus," hypertensive lower esophageal sphincter, and nonspecific esophageal motility dysfunction (NEMD). A host of secondary and miscellaneous motility disorders also affect the esophagus, including scleroderma and other connective tissue diseases, diabetes mellitus, Chagas' disease, chronic idiopathic intestinal pseudo-obstruction, and neuromuscular disorders of striated muscle. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) may also be promoted by associated motility disturbances. Treatment modalities include surgical myotomy; dilatation; and pharmacologic manipulations, including use of nitrates, calcium-channel blockers, H2-blockers, and psychotropic drugs where appropriate. PMID:3292177

Nelson, J B; Castell, D O

1988-06-01

422

ADHD and posttraumatic stress disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children and adults diagnosed with attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at elevated risk for exposure to psychological\\u000a trauma but not for the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). ADHD and PTSD may co-occur in children and adults.\\u000a This article summarizes evidence of the phenomenologic, diagnostic, and neurobiologic independence of these two disorders.\\u000a Assessment of ADHD should include screening for psychological trauma

Julian D. Ford; Daniel F. Connor

2009-01-01

423

Anxiety disorders in older adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the population of older adults, anxiety disorders are underdiagnosed and undertreated. Epidemiologic studies have generally\\u000a found that the prevalence of anxiety disorders declines with age. Recognition of anxiety disorders in older adults is, however,\\u000a complicated by several age-related factors including the presence of depression, cognitive impairment, and physical illness.\\u000a A variety of medications have been used to treat anxiety

Jeremy A. Sable; Dilip V. Jeste

2001-01-01

424

Psychocutaneous disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dermatologic conditions are commonly associated with psychiatric sequella, eg, urticaria, alopecia, psoriasis, or acne. Moreover, the onset and course of dermatologic disorders may be significantly influenced\\u000a by stress, emotional disturbances, or psychiatric disorder. Compulsions involving the skin, excoriations, or hair pulling\\u000a (trichotillomania) are the more frequently encountered problems. In some cases, skin conditions are self-induced or reflect\\u000a signs or symptoms

David G. Folks; Julia K. Warnock

2001-01-01

425

Myeloproliferative/Myelodysplastic Disorders - Featured Clinical Trials  

Cancer.gov

Myeloproliferative/Myelodysplastic Disorders - Featured Clinical Trials The following list shows Featured Clinical Trials for a specific type of cancer. You may also want to view: Multiple Cancer Types - Featured Clinical Trials Supportive Care - Featured

426

Gene environment interactions in bipolar disorder.  

PubMed

It has been estimated that the heritable component of bipolar disorder ranges between 80 and 90%. However, even genome-wide association studies explain only a fraction of phenotypic variability not resolving the problem of "lost heritability". Although direct evidence for epigenetic dysfunction in bipolar disorder is still limited, methodological technologies in epigenomic profiling have advanced, offering even single cell analysing and resolving the problem of cell heterogeneity in epigenetics research. Gene overlapping with other mental disorders represents another problem in identifying potential susceptibility genes in bipolar disorder. Better understanding of the interplay between multiple environmental and genetic factors involved in the patogenesis of bipolar disorder could provide relevant information for treatment of patients with this complex disorder. Future studies on the role of these factors in psychopathological conditions, subphenotypes and endophenotypes may greatly benefit by using more precise clinical data and a combined approach with multiple research tools incorporated into a single study. PMID:21894111

Pregelj, Peter

2011-09-01

427

Lay Theories of Bipolar Disorder: the Causes, Manifestations and Cures for Perceived Bipolar Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to investigate lay theories of the cause and treatment of bipolar disorder, and the recognition of its symptoms. This questionnaire-based study included vignette descriptions of mental disorders and 70 items relating to bipolar disorder. It was completed by 173 participants. Bipolar disorder was recognized less than depression but at the same rate as schizophrenia. Contrary to previous

Adrian Furnham; Elizabeth Anthony

2010-01-01

428

Is bipolar disorder specifically associated with aggression?  

PubMed Central

Objective Several studies have suggested that bipolar disorder (BP) in adults is associated with aggressive behaviors. However, most studies have only included inpatients and have not taken possible confounding factors into consideration. The goal of this study was to compare the prevalence of aggression in subjects with BP compared to subjects with other non-BP psychopathology and healthy controls. Methods Subjects with bipolar I disorder (BP-I) and bipolar II disorder (BP-II) (n = 255), non-BP psychopathology (n = 85), and healthy controls (n = 84) were recruited. Aggression was measured using the Aggression Questionnaire (AQ). Group comparisons were adjusted for demographic and clinical differences (e.g., comorbid disorders) and multiple comparisons. The effects of the subtype of BP, current versus past episode, polarity of current episode, psychosis, the presence of irritable mania/hypomania only, and pharmacological treatment were examined. Results Subjects with BP showed significantly higher total and subscale AQ scores (raw and T-scores) when compared with subjects with non-BP psychopathology and healthy controls. Exclusion of subjects with current mood episodes and those with common comorbid disorders yielded similar results. There were no effects of BP subtype, polarity of the current episode, irritable manic/hypomanic episodes only, or current use of pharmacological treatments. Independent of the severity of BP and polarity of the episode, those in a current mood episode showed significantly higher AQ scores than those not in a current mood episode. Subjects with current psychosis showed significantly higher total AQ score, hostility, and anger than those without current psychosis. Conclusions Subjects with BP display greater rates of anger and aggressive behaviors, especially during acute and psychotic episodes. Early identification and management of these behaviors is warranted. PMID:22548901

Ballester, Javier; Goldstein, Tina; Goldstein, Benjamin; Obreja, Mihaela; Axelson, David; Monk, Kelly; Hickey, MaryBeth; Iyengar, Satish; Farchione, Tiffany; Kupfer, David J; Brent, David; Birmaher, Boris

2012-01-01

429

Vaginal disorders.  

PubMed

Chronic vaginitis is the most common vaginal disorder. Dogs with vaginitis show no signs of systemic illness but often lick at the vulva and have purulent or hemorrhagic vaginal discharges. Vaginitis is most commonly secondary to a noninfectious inciting factor such as congenital vaginal anomalies, clitoral hypertrophy, foreign bodies, trauma to the vaginal mucosa, or vaginal tumors. Inspection of the caudal vagina and vestibule both visually and digitally will often reveal the source of vaginal irritation. Vaginal cytology is used to establish the stage of the estrous cycle as well as distinguish uterine from vaginal sources of discharge. Vaginal cultures are used to establish the predominant offending organism associated with vaginal discharges and may be used as a guide for selection of a therapeutic agent. Vaginitis is best managed by removing the inciting cause and treating the area locally with antiseptic douches. Congenital malformations at the vestibulovaginal or vestibulovulvar junction may prevent normal intromission. Affected bitches may be reluctant to breed naturally because of pain. Such defects are detected best by digital examination. Congenital vaginal defects may be corrected by digital or surgical means. Prolapse of tissue through the lips of the vulva may be caused by clitoral hypertrophy, vaginal hyperplasia, or vaginal tumors. Enlargement of clitoral tissue is the result of endogenous or exogenous sources of androgens. Treatment of this condition includes removal of the androgen source and/or surgical removal of clitoral tissue. Vaginal hyperplasia is detected during proestrus or estrus of young bitches. Hyperplastic tissue will regress during diestrus. Tissue that is excessively traumatized and/or prolapse of the entire vaginal circumference may be removed surgically. Ovariohysterectomy may be used to prevent recurrence. Vaginal tumors are detected most often in older intact bitches. Such tumors are generally of smooth muscle or fibrous tissue origin and benign. Surgical excision of the tumor combined with ovariohysterectomy is usually curative. PMID:3487158

Soderberg, S F

1986-05-01

430

Teaching Advanced Operation of an iPod-Based Speech-Generating Device to Two Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We evaluated a program for teaching two adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) to perform more advanced operations on an iPod-based speech-generating device (SGD). The effects of the teaching program were evaluated in a multiprobe multiple baseline across participants design that included two intervention phases. The first intervention…

Achmadi, Donna; Kagohara, Debora M.; van der Meer, Larah; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Sutherland, Dean; Lang, Russell; Marschik, Peter B.; Green, Vanessa A.; Sigafoos, Jeff

2012-01-01

431

Sleep disorders and fibromyalgia.  

PubMed

Disordered sleep is such a prominent symptom in fibromyalgia that the American College of Rheumatology included symptoms such as waking unrefreshed, fatigue, tiredness, and insomnia in the 2010 diagnostic criteria for fibromyalgia. Even though sleep recording is not part of the routine evaluation, polysomnography may disclose primary sleep disorders in patients with fibromyalgia, including obstructive sleep apnea and restless leg syndrome. In addition, genetic background and environmental susceptibility link fibromyalgia and further sleep disorders. Among nonpharmacological treatment proposed for sleep disturbance in fibromyalgia, positive results have been obtained with sleep hygiene and cognitive-behavioral therapy. The effect of exercise is contradictory, but overweight or obese patients with fibromyalgia should be encouraged to lose weight. Regarding the approved antidepressants, amitriptyline proved to be superior to duloxetine and milnacipran for sleep disturbances. New perspectives remain on the narcolepsy drug sodium oxybate, which recently was approved for sleep management in fibromyalgia. PMID:21594765

Roizenblatt, Suely; Neto, Nilton Salles Rosa; Tufik, Sergio

2011-10-01

432

Multiple Principal Investigators  

Cancer.gov

Below is information to learn about NIH definitions, policies, and awards available to apply for support using the Multiple Principal Investigator (PI) model that supports team science. Answers to FAQs are included.

433

Genetics Home Reference: Multiple endocrine neoplasia  

MedlinePLUS

... is a group of disorders that affect the body's network of hormone-producing glands (the endocrine system). Hormones are chemical messengers that travel through the bloodstream and regulate the ... Multiple endocrine neoplasia typically involves tumors (neoplasia) in ...

434

Principles and Strategies for Treating Personality Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a systematic framework for treating personality disorder, based on research on the nature and origins of the disorder and treatment outcome. It adopts an eclectic approach that combines interventions from different therapeutic models and delivers them in an integrated and systematic manner. Coordination of multiple interventions is achieved by emphasizing the nonspecific component of therapy, especially the

W John Livesley

2005-01-01

435

New Described Dermatological Disorders  

PubMed Central

Many advances in dermatology have been made in recent years. In the present review article, newly described disorders from the last six years are presented in detail. We divided these reports into different sections, including syndromes, autoinflammatory diseases, tumors, and unclassified disease. Syndromes included are “circumferential skin creases Kunze type” and “unusual type of pachyonychia congenita or a new syndrome”; autoinflammatory diseases include “chronic atypical neutrophilic dermatosis with lipodystrophy and elevated temperature (CANDLE) syndrome,” “pyoderma gangrenosum, acne, and hidradenitis suppurativa (PASH) syndrome,” and “pyogenic arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum, acne, and hidradenitis suppurativa (PAPASH) syndrome”; tumors include “acquired reactive digital fibroma,” “onychocytic matricoma and onychocytic carcinoma,” “infundibulocystic nail bed squamous cell carcinoma,” and “acral histiocytic nodules”; unclassified disorders include “saurian papulosis,” “symmetrical acrokeratoderma,” “confetti-like macular atrophy,” and “skin spicules,” “erythema papulosa semicircularis recidivans.”

Cevirgen Cemil, Bengu; Keseroglu, Havva Ozge; Kaya Akis, Havva

2014-01-01

436

Saliva soluble HLA as a potential marker of response to interferon-?1a in multiple sclerosis: A preliminary study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: Potential surrogate markers of disease activity, including response to therapy, are particularly important in a neurological disorder such as multiple sclerosis (MS) which often has a fluctuating course. Based upon previous studies in our laboratory, we hypothesized that measurement of soluble HLA (sHLA) molecules class II in saliva of MS patients can serve as marker of therapeutic response to

Alireza Minagar; Irena Adamashvili; Roger E Kelley; Eduardo Gonzalez-Toledo; Jerry McLarty; Stacy J Smith

2007-01-01

437

Information processing speed, neural efficiency, and working memory performance in multiple sclerosis: Differential relationships with structural magnetic resonance imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple sclerosis (MS), a central nervous system (CNS) neurodegenerative disorder, involves lesions of both white and gray matter and reported cognitive impairments that include processing speed (PS), executive function, and working memory (WM). This study closely examined the specifics of these cognitive deficits and their relationship to structural brain damage. A visual n-back task with 3 WM load conditions was

Thomas J. Covey; Robert Zivadinov; Janet L. Shucard; David W. Shucard

2011-01-01

438

Psychological Disorder in Adolescents and Adults with Asperger Syndrome.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of psychological disorder in adolescents and adults with Asperger syndrome suggests that these individuals commonly develop a psychological disorder secondary to Asperger syndrome including affective disorders, anxiety-related disorders, and conduct disorders. Treatment usually involves a combination of psychoeducation, social change,…

Tantam, Digby

2000-01-01

439

Evolution, Emotions, and Emotional Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emotions research is now routinely grounded in evolution, but explicit evolutionary analyses of emotions remain rare. This article considers the implications of natural selection for several classic questions about emotions and emotional disorders. Emotions are special modes of operation shaped by natural selection. They adjust multiple response…

Nesse, Randolph M.; Ellsworth, Phoebe C.

2009-01-01

440

Platelet Disorders: Diagnosis and Management  

PubMed Central

Platelet disorders are associated with a significant risk of clinical bleeding. These disorders require an evaluation that includes a platelet count, determination of bleeding time, bone-marrow evaluation, and laboratory platelet tests to establish the underlying pathophysiologic process. The physician who understands these processes can correctly interpret laboratory results and choose the most appropriate treatment option. PMID:21253127

Yeo, Erik L.

1988-01-01

441

Eating disorders in men: update  

Microsoft Academic Search

Men with anorexia and bulimia nervosa account for 10% of people with this condition and for binge eating disorder they account for as many as 25%. Risk factors in men include athletics, sexuality, psychiatric co-morbidity and negative life experiences. Differences in eating disorders exist between men and women relating to behavior and psychological symptoms. Men are much more likely than

Theodore E. Weltzin; Nicolette Weisensel; David Franczyk; Kevin Burnett; Christine Klitz; Pamela Bean

2005-01-01

442

Sociocultural influences on eating disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives of review. This chapter reviews articles published in 2005 and 2006 on the influence of culture, ethnicity and gender on eating disorders. Specific social environmental factors, including media portrayals of body ideals and peer and family environment, are also reviewed. Summary of recent findings. Certain non-Western values may increase the risk of eating disorders. Ethnicity and gender may moderate

Pamela K Keel; Julie A Gravener

443

Histopathology of pulmonary fibrotic disorders.  

PubMed

Interstitial lung diseases encompass a broad spectrum of disorders that vary greatly in their clinical presentation, natural history, pathology, pathogenesis, prognosis, and treatment. Their correct classification requires integration of clinical, radiological, and pathological findings. Although these disorders may be well defined, interpretation of lung biopsy findings is often difficult, with surprisingly significant interobserver variability. This article reviews the histopathology of the major interstitial lung diseases, including the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias and pulmonary fibrotic disorders associated with collagen vascular diseases and smoking. In addition, the differential diagnosis of each of these disorders is discussed. PMID:17195138

Lai, Chi K; Wallace, W Dean; Fishbein, Michael C

2006-12-01

444

Multiplication Mania!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fun games to practice your multiplication facts! Need a refreshing break? Come on over to the lemonade stand...Lemonade Stand At the beach, you can swim, sun, and practice your multiplication facts...Beach Multiplication How fast are you? Click here to...Race the Clock Do you have your spacesuit and astronaut food, are you ready for your...Mission to the Moon ...

Hoeman, Ms.

2008-09-18

445

Anxiety disorders in major depression.  

PubMed

The prevalence and clinical impact of anxiety disorder comorbidity in major depression were studied in 255 depressed adult outpatients consecutively enrolled in our Depression Research Program. Comorbid anxiety disorder diagnoses were present in 50.6% of these patients and included social phobia (27.0%), simple phobia (16.9%), panic disorder (14.5%), generalized anxiety disorder ([GAD] 10.6%), obsessive-compulsive disorder ([OCD] 6.3%), and agoraphobia (5.5%). While both social phobia and generalized anxiety preceded the first episode of major depression in 65% and 63% of cases, respectively, panic disorder (21.6%) and agoraphobia (14.3%) were much less likely to precede the first episode of major depression than to emerge subsequently. Although comorbid groups were not distinguished by depression, anxiety, hostility, or somatic symptom scores at the time of study presentation, patients with comorbid anxiety disorders tended to be younger during the index episode and to have an earlier onset of the major depressive disorder (MDD) than patients with major depression alone. Our results support the distinction between anxiety symptoms secondary to depression and anxiety disorders comorbid with major depression, and provide further evidence for different temporal relationships with major depression among the several comorbid anxiety disorders. PMID:10741886

Fava, M; Rankin, M A; Wright, E C; Alpert, J E; Nierenberg, A A; Pava, J; Rosenbaum, J F

2000-01-01

446

Cell and Gene Therapy for Genetic Diseases: Inherited Disorders Affecting the Lung and Those Mimicking Sudden Infant Death Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Abstract Some of the first human gene therapy trials targeted diseases of the lung and provided important information that will continue to help shape future trials. Here we describe both cell and gene therapies for lung diseases such as cystic fibrosis and alpha-1 antitrypsin disorder as well as fatty acid oxidation disorders that mimic sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Human clinical gene therapy trials for cystic fibrosis and alpha-1 antitrypsin have been performed using a variety of vectors including adenovirus, adeno-associated virus, and nonviral vectors. No human clinical gene therapy trials have been performed for disorders of fatty acid oxidation; however, important proof-of-principle studies have been completed for multiple fatty acid oxidation disorders. Important achievements have been made and have yet to come for cell and gene therapies for disorders of the lung and those mimicking SIDS. PMID:22642257

Keeler, Allison M.

2012-01-01

447

Childhood Multiple Sclerosis: A Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) that is increasingly recognized as a disease that affects children. Similar to adult-onset MS, children present with visual and sensory complaints, as well as weakness, spasticity, and ataxia. A lumbar puncture can be helpful in diagnosing MS when…

Waldman, Amy; O'Connor, Erin; Tennekoon, Gihan

2006-01-01

448

Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combined clinical and laboratory investigations of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) have resulted in an increased understanding of this disorder which may be inherited as an autosomal dominant condition. Defining the features of each disease manifestation in MEN1 has improved patient management and treatment, and has also facilitated a screening protocol to be instituted. The application of the techniques

A A J Pannett; R V Thakker

1999-01-01

449

[Anxiety disorders in DSM-5].  

PubMed

The fifth edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, the DSM-5 appeared officially in May 2013 during the development of the 166th Annual Meetingof the American Psychiatric Association (APA) in San Francisco. The drafting process was long and complex; much of the debate became public so that the expectations were great. And it must be said that the new edition did not disappoint, as many changes were made in relation to their predecessors. In Chapter of Anxiety Disorders, which is reviewed in this article, the changes were significant. Obsessive-compulsive disorder and Stress-related disorders were excluded and new clinical pictures, such as separation anxiety disorder and selective mutism, were included. And took place was the long awaited split between panic disorder and agoraphobia, now two separate disorders. PMID:24887371

Márquez, Miguel

2014-01-01

450

Bipolar Affective Disorder and Migraine  

PubMed Central

This paper consists of a case history and an overview of the relationship, aetiology, and treatment of comorbid bipolar disorder migraine patients. A MEDLINE literature search was used. Terms for the search were bipolar disorder bipolar depression, mania, migraine, mood stabilizer. Bipolar disorder and migraine cooccur at a relatively high rate. Bipolar II patients seem to have a higher risk of comorbid migraine than bipolar I patients have. The literature on the common roots of migraine and bipolar disorder, including both genetic and neuropathological approaches, is broadly discussed. Moreover, bipolar disorder and migraine are often combined with a variety of other affective disorders, and, furthermore, behavioural factors also play a role in the origin and course of the diseases. Approach to treatment options is also difficult. Several papers point out possible remedies, for example, valproate, topiramate, which acts on both diseases, but no first-choice treatments have been agreed upon yet. PMID:22649454

Engmann, Birk

2012-01-01

451

The Burden of Mental Disorders  

PubMed Central

In the last decade, there has been an increase in interest in the burden of chronic and disabling health conditions that are not necessarily fatal, such as the mental disorders. This review systematically summarizes data on the burden associated with 11 major mental disorders of adults. The measures of burden include estimates of prevalence, mortality associated with the disorders, disabilities and impairments related to the disorders, and costs. This review expands the range of mental disorders considered in a report on the global burden of disease, updates the literature, presents information on the range and depth of sources of information on burden, and adds estimates of costs. The purpose is to provide an accessible guide to the burden of mental disorders, especially for researchers and policy makers who may not be familiar with this subfield of epidemiology. PMID:18806255

Eaton, William W.; Martins, Silvia S.; Nestadt, Gerald; Bienvenu, O. Joseph; Clarke, Diana; Alexandre, Pierre

2009-01-01

452

Neuronal Autophagy and Neurodevelopmental Disorders  

PubMed Central

Neurodevelopmental disorders include a wide range of diseases such as autism spectrum disorders and mental retardation. Mutations in several genes that regulate neural development and synapse function have been identified in neurodevelopmental disorders. Interestingly, some affected genes and pathways in these diseases are associated with the autophagy pathway. Autophagy is a complex, bulky degradative process that involves the sequestration of cellular proteins, RNA, lipids, and cellular organelles into lysosomes. Despite recent progress in elucidating the genetics and molecular pathogenesis of these disorders, little is known about the pathogenic mechanisms and autophagy-related pathways involved in common neurodevelopmental disorders. Therefore, in this review, we focus on the current understanding of neuronal autophagy as well as recent findings on genetics and the roles of autophagy pathway in common neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:24167408

Lee, Kyung-Min; Hwang, Su-Kyung

2013-01-01

453

Disorder (GCMP)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Disorder: this is a resource in the collection "General Chemistry Multimedia Problems". A spontaneous change is one that has a natural tendency to occur without needing to be driven by an external influence. This problem will explore the influence of entropy, a measure of disorder, on the spontaneity of a few processes. General Chemistry Multimedia Problems ask students questions about experiments they see presented using videos and images. The questions asked apply concepts from different parts of an introductory course, encouraging students to decompartmentalize the material.

454

Dissociative Disorders: Between Neurosis and Psychosis  

PubMed Central

Dissociative disorders are a set of disorders defined by a disturbance affecting functions that are normally integrated with a prevalence of 2.4 percent in industrialised countries. These disorders are often poorly diagnosed or misdiagnosed because of sharing common clinical features with psychotic disorders, but requiring a very different trajectory of care. Repeated clinical situations in a crisis centre in Geneva provided us with a critical overview of current evidence of knowledge in clinical and etiopathological field about dissociative disorders. Because of their multiple expressions and the overlap with psychotic disorders, we focused on the clinical aspects using three different situations to better understand their specificity and to extend our thinking to the relevance of terms “neurosis” and “psychosis.” Finally, we hope that this work might help physicians and psychiatrists to become more aware of this complex set of disorders while making a diagnosis.

Deville, C.; Moeglin, C.; Sentissi, O.

2014-01-01