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1

Sleep disorders in multiple sclerosis.  

PubMed

Sleep disorders are pervasive in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) although clinically underrecognized by most physicians. The most common sleep disorders seen in patients with MS include insomnia, nocturnal movement disorders, sleep-disordered breathing, narcolepsy, and rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder. Factors that influence the quality of sleep in this patient population include pain, nocturia, depression, medication effect, location of lesions, and disease severity. Disrupted sleep has the potential to cause daytime somnolence, increased fatigue, and nonrefreshing sleep, and it may be associated with dangerous respiratory events. Awareness and treatment of these conditions is vital to improving health and quality of life in patients with MS. PMID:15798938

Fleming, W Elon; Pollak, Charles P

2005-03-01

2

Dimensions of Multiple Personality Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on multiple personality disorder (MPD) has burgeoned, and large-scale investigations indicate that a typical MPD patient is a woman, a victim of childhood abuse (especially sexual abuse), a person whose symptoms meet criteria for other psychiatric disorders, and a person who would employ many psychological defenses. Treatment approaches have frequently included hypnotherapy, which requires skill and caution.

John B. Murray

1994-01-01

3

Hypnotherapy of Childhood Multiple Personality Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although it is widely assumed that multiple personality disorder (MPD) originates in childhood and may exist in some form prior to adolescence, cases of MPD among children were not reported between 1840 and 1979. In this paper five contemporary cases of MPD in childhood are described. In all of these cases hypnosis was used, including that of a youngster who

Richard P. Kluft

1985-01-01

4

ON THE MISDIAGNOSIS OF MULTIPLE PERSONALITY DISORDER  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many mental health settings, there has been an increasingaware- ness that multiple personality disorder (MPD) is far from rare. However, along with this awareness has come an increased incidence of the misdiagnosis of IPD. The misdiagnosis of AIPJ) (i.e., false positive diagnosis of MIPD) has been seen in three forms: other dissociative disorders, non-dissociative disorders, and malingering err factitious

James A. Chu

5

Relationship of Childhood Sexual Abuse to Borderline Personality Disorder, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Multiple Personality Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, I have reviewed recent research into the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and borderline personality disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and multiple personality disorder. Evidence that such a relationship exists appears convincing.

John B. Murray

1993-01-01

6

Multiple Identity Enactments and Multiple Personality Disorder: A Sociocognitive Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

People who enact multiple identities behave as if they possess 2 or more selves, each with its own characteristic moods, memories, and behavioral repertoire. Under different names, this phenomenon occurs in many cultures: in North American culture, it is frequently labeled multiple personality disorder (MPD). This article reviews experimental, cross-cultural, historical, and clinical findings concerning multiplicity and examines the implications

Nicholas P. Spanos

1994-01-01

7

Similarities between near-death experiences and multiple personality disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper I compare the phenomenology of near-death experiences to that of multiple personality disorder. The comparison reveals a number of similarities, including out-of-body experiences, the transcendental environment, encounter with the higher self, possible temporal lobe involvement, and antecedent child abuse. Rather than being disparate and unrelated experiences, I suggest that the near-death experience and multiple personality disorder may

William J. Serdahely

1992-01-01

8

Anal Disorders - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

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9

Blood Disorders - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

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10

Multiple Object Tracking in Autism Spectrum Disorders  

E-print Network

Difficulties in visual attention are often implicated in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) but it remains unclear which aspects of attention are affected. Here, we used a multiple object tracking (MOT) task to quantitatively ...

Koldewyn, Kami

11

Stomach Disorders - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Stomach Disorders - Multiple Languages Arabic (???????) Chinese - Simplified (????) Chinese - ... Chinese - Simplified (????) Principles of Nutritional Care for Gastritis and/or Ulcer English ???????? - ???? (Chinese - Simplified) ...

12

PERSONS WITH MULTIPLE PERSONALITY DISORDER  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past, Internal Self 1lelpers (ISM) of persons with multiple personality rlisorrler OWPI)) have been deseriberl by rr )7mill Humber of therapists. ii is .studV Iwo\\/ens the base ala I inaton relating to ISHs. Forty respondents who collectively had been therapists fur-rr totrtl of 690 i11P1) patients participated in the snarly. 77re findings of this study suti g ges

M. Ann Adams; Ann Adams; M. N. Sc

1989-01-01

13

PLAY THERAPY WITH MULTIPLE PERSONALITY DISORDER CLIENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of play therapy with child alters of adults who have multiple personality disorders is explored. Various approaches to play therapy that are used with children may also be effectively used with child alters. Play may be used to help sublimate expressions of anger, recover dissociated memories, and increase communication and cooperation among alter personalities. Play therapy offers distinct

Jeffrey Wm. Klein; Garry L. Landreth

1993-01-01

14

Professional Skepticism of Multiple Personality Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

If you saw a patient who appeared to have more than one personality, what diagnosis would you make? And how would you vary your clinical approach? Data from 425 respondents indicated that the majority of psychologists believed multiple personality disorder (MPD) to be a valid but rare clinical diagnosis. Respondents cited extreme child abuse as the foremost cause of MPD.

Jane F. Cormier; Mark H. Thelen

1998-01-01

15

THE RATIONAL TREATMENT OF MULTIPLE PERSONALITY DISORDER  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complex symptomatology of patients who have survived profound childhood abuse, particularly the severe dissociative and post-traumatic symptoms of patients with multiple personality disorder (MPD), may predispose therapists to engage in poorly considered psychotherapeutic practices. Therapists should be careful to keep a rational clinical perspective, and not to be distracted by patients’ unusual and dramatic clinical presentation. This article discusses

JAMES A. CHU

1994-01-01

16

Multiple Personality Disorder: Concepts and Cases.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents two case examples illustrating nature and etiology of multiple personality disorder in two clients and describing their entry into counseling and progress through treatment. Compares and contrasts cases in areas of diagnosis, symptoms, history, and treatment. Suggests that mental health counselors combine firmness with flexibility in…

Lindsley, Hope L.

1992-01-01

17

The Psychophysiological Investigation of Multiple Personality Disorder: Review and Update  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1984 Putnam reviewed the literature on the psychophysiological investigation of multiple personality disorder (MPD). Since his review, a large number of studies have been conducted and reported in the literature and at professional conferences. Currently, psychophysiologic differences reported in the literature include changes in cerebral electrical activity, cerebral blood flow, galvanic skin response, skin temperature, event-related potentials, neuroendocrine profiles,

Scott D. Miller; Patrick J. Triggiano

1992-01-01

18

Introduction Multiple lineages of terrestrial vertebrates, including frogs,  

E-print Network

3358 Introduction Multiple lineages of terrestrial vertebrates, including frogs, snakes, lizards crossing a large gap between trees Among terrestrial vertebrate gliders, take-off presents a unique problem

Socha, Jake

19

Multiple integrated treatment of borderline personality disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a pilot study of the effectiveness of a specific outpatient programme for Cluster B Personality Disorder. According to this model, the patient is offered a pathway of two?year duration, which includes once a week supportive individual psychotherapy combined with fortnightly group psychotherapy (Dialectical Behavioural Therapy), as well as general psychiatric management.We present the results of a prospective

Euro Pozzi; Maria Elena Ridolfi; Dario Manganaro; Daniel Benyamin Daniel; Domenico Berardi

2008-01-01

20

Multiple Object Tracking in Autism Spectrum Disorders  

PubMed Central

Difficulties in visual attention are often implicated in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) but it remains unclear which aspects of attention are affected. Here, we used a multiple object tracking (MOT) task to quantitatively characterize dynamic attentional function in children with ASD aged 5–12. While the ASD group performed significantly worse overall, the group difference did not increase with increased object speed. This finding suggests that decreased MOT performance is not due to deficits in dynamic attention but instead to a diminished capacity to select and maintain attention on multiple targets. Further, MOT performance improved from 5–10 years in both typical and ASD groups with similar developmental trajectories. These results argue against a specific deficit in dynamic attention in ASD. PMID:23104619

Koldewyn, Kami; Weigelt, Sarah; Kanwisher, Nancy; Jiang, Yuhong

2012-01-01

21

Pelvic Floor Disorders and Multiple Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Background: Despite recent efforts to educate multiple sclerosis (MS) health-care providers about the importance of pelvic floor disorders (urinary, bowel, and sexual dysfunction), no data are currently available to assess outcomes of these efforts in terms of patient satisfaction. Methods: As part of the fall 2010 North American Research Committee on Multiple Sclerosis survey, we conducted a prospective, survey-based cohort study (N = 14,268) to evaluate patient satisfaction with the current evaluation and treatment of pelvic floor disorders. Patients were queried about 1) bother from bladder, bowel, or sexual symptoms; 2) whether they had been evaluated by a health-care provider for pelvic floor issues in the last 12 months; and 3) satisfaction with the evaluation and treatment they received, on a 5-point Likert scale. Patients were also asked whether these treatments had affected their quality of life (7-point Likert scale). Results: A total of 9397 responses were received (response rate of 65.9%); respondents were primarily white (89%) and female (77.4%). Moderate-to-severe pelvic floor symptoms were reported by one-third of patients (bladder, 41%; bowel, 30%; sexual, 42%). Most respondents had been asked about bladder (61%) or bowel (50%) issues by their health-care providers, but only 20% had been queried about sexual dysfunction. Most respondents were moderately to very satisfied with the management of their bladder and bowel disorders but significantly less satisfied with that of sexual dysfunction. Conclusions: While MS patients are generally satisfied with current management of bladder and bowel dysfunction, improvement is needed in that of sexual dysfunction. PMID:24688351

James, Rebecca; Frasure, Heidi

2014-01-01

22

Pharmacotherapy of vestibular and ocular motor disorders, including nystagmus.  

PubMed

We review current pharmacological treatments for peripheral and central vestibular disorders, and ocular motor disorders that impair vision, especially pathological nystagmus. The prerequisites for successful pharmacotherapy of vertigo, dizziness, and abnormal eye movements are the "4 D's": correct diagnosis, correct drug, appropriate dosage, and sufficient duration. There are seven groups of drugs (the "7 A's") that can be used: antiemetics; anti-inflammatory, anti-Ménière's, and anti-migrainous medications; anti-depressants, anti-convulsants, and aminopyridines. A recovery from acute vestibular neuritis can be promoted by treatment with oral corticosteroids. Betahistine may reduce the frequency of attacks of Ménière's disease. The aminopyridines constitute a novel treatment approach for downbeat and upbeat nystagmus, as well as episodic ataxia type 2 (EA 2); these drugs may restore normal "pacemaker" activity to the Purkinje cells that govern vestibular and cerebellar nuclei. A limited number of trials indicate that baclofen improves periodic alternating nystagmus, and that gabapentin and memantine improve acquired pendular and infantile (congenital) nystagmus. Preliminary reports suggest suppression of square-wave saccadic intrusions by memantine, and ocular flutter by beta-blockers. Thus, although progress has been made in the treatment of vestibular neuritis, some forms of pathological nystagmus, and EA 2, controlled, masked trials are still needed to evaluate treatments for many vestibular and ocular motor disorders, including betahistine for Ménière's disease, oxcarbazepine for vestibular paroxysmia, or metoprolol for vestibular migraine. PMID:21461686

Strupp, Michael; Thurtell, Matthew J; Shaikh, Aasef G; Brandt, Thomas; Zee, David S; Leigh, R John

2011-07-01

23

Extending a clinical repository to include multiple sites.  

PubMed

With the consolidation of health care organizations and services, a clinical repository comprising data from a single site is no longer sufficient. Individual patient data are now spread across multiple sites comprising a single enterprise. Users require an integrated view, or at least a common view, of these clinical data across multiple sites. Many issues arise when one tries to merge data from multiple, distinct organizations into an existing schema. We have addressed these issues while extending our clinical repository for Barnes Hospital with data from Jewish Hospital, both of which are members of the recently formed BJC Health System. We describe the architecture of our existing repository, approaches and issues in extending this repository to include multiple sites, and the specific issues we addressed in our system. PMID:8563308

Marrs, K A; Kahn, M G

1995-01-01

24

Rational psychopharmacology in the treatment of multiple personality disorder.  

PubMed

The current state of the data concerned with psychopharmacologic interventions for multiple personality disorder (MPD) is reviewed. Common sense guidelines are provided for drug treatment of MPD. An overview is given for use of medications for specific symptoms commonly found in MPD patients, such as affective, posttraumatic stress disorder, and sleep disorder symptoms. PMID:1946032

Loewenstein, R J

1991-09-01

25

Psychiatric Disorders in Single and Multiple Sexual Murderers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Sexual homicides – and particularly offenders with multiple victims – receive much attention in the general public as well as among forensic experts. The aim of this study was to assess psychiatric disorders in a large sample of sexual murderers and to identify disorders related to multiple sexual homicides. Sampling and Methods: Psychiatric court reports from 20 German forensic

Andreas Hill; Niels Habermann; Wolfgang Berner; Peer Briken

2007-01-01

26

Rare structural variants in schizophrenia: one disorder, multiple mutations; one mutation, multiple disorders  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have established an important role for rare genomic deletions and duplications in the etiology of schizophrenia. This research suggests that the genetic architecture of neuropsychiatric disorders includes a constellation of rare mutations in many different genes. Mutations that confer substantial risk for schizophrenia have been identified at several loci, most of which have also been implicated in other neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism. Genetic heterogeneity is a characteristic of schizophrenia; conversely, phenotypic heterogeneity is a characteristic of all schizophrenia-associated mutations. Both kinds of heterogeneity probably reflect the complexity of neurodevelopment. Research strategies must account for both genetic and clinical heterogeneity to identify the genes and pathways crucial for the development of neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:19883952

Sebat, Jonathan; Levy, Deborah L.; McCarthy, Shane E.

2009-01-01

27

Dissociation in hypnosis and multiple personality disorder.  

PubMed

The first part of this paper examines the concept of dissociation in the context of hypnosis. In particular, the neodissociative and social psychological models of hypnosis are compared. It is argued that the social psychological model, in describing hypnotic enactments as purposeful, does not adequately distinguish between behavior that is enacted "on purpose" and behavior that serves or achieves a purpose. 2 recent dissertations (Hughes, 1988; Miller, 1986) from the University of Waterloo are summarized, each of which supports the neodissociative view that hypnotic behavior can be purposeful (in the sense that the suggested state of affairs is achieved) and nonvolitional (in the sense that the suggested state of affairs is not achieved by high level executive initiative and ongoing effort). The second part of the paper employs a neodissociative view of hypnosis to help understand the current epidemic of multiple personality disorder (MPD). In particular, it is argued that many symptoms of MPD are implicitly suggested effects--particularly prone to occur in persons who have a lifelong tendency to use dissociative type defenses. The present author believes that this account is easier to sustain conceptually and empirically than the current view, which states that a secondary (tertiary, etc.) personality accounts for the striking phenomenological discontinuities experienced by MPD patients. PMID:1894389

Bowers, K S

1991-07-01

28

An additional monogenic disorder that masquerades as multiple sclerosis  

SciTech Connect

In their comprehensive differential diagnosis of monogenic diseases that can mimic multiple sclerosis, Natowicz and Bejjani did not include a newly recognized monogenic disorder known under the acronym of CADASIL (Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy); this disorder can mimic MS clinically and radiologically to a remarkable extent. The underlying histopathological lesion of CADASIL is a non-atherosclerotic, non-amyloid arteriopathy affecting mainly the penetrating medullary arteries to the subcortical white matter and basal ganglia. Electron microscopy shows an abnormal deposit of granular osmiophilic material in the arterial wall. These arterial changes are observed in various tissues even though clinical manifestations seem to be restricted to the central nervous system. The CADASIL gene was mapped recently to chromosome 19 and gene identification is ongoing. 6 refs., 1 fig.

Vahedi, K.; Tournier-Lasserve, E. [INSERM, Paris (France)] [INSERM, Paris (France); Vahedi, K. [Hopital Saint-Antoine, Paris (France)] [and others] [Hopital Saint-Antoine, Paris (France); and others

1996-11-11

29

Effects of hypnosis on the features of multiple personality disorder.  

PubMed

The authors compared 57 patients with multiple personality disorder (MPD) who had been hypnotized both before and after diagnosis to 38 patients who had not been hypnotized during assessment or treatment. The two groups did not differ on the diagnostic criteria for MPD or in number of personalities. Hypnosis therefore does not have a gross distorting effect on the features of the disorder. Hypnosis may, however, affect the recall of sexual and physical abuse and the manifestation of certain types of alter personality. These include child personalities, personalities of different age, sex, or race, and protectors. The authors hypothesize that the hypnotized group may require hypnosis for access of more traumatic memories held by child personalities. PMID:2816787

Ross, C A; Norton, G R

1989-10-01

30

The criminal responsibility of people with multiple personality disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because multiple personality disorder (MPD) is more frequently diagnosed today than in the past, it is likely that more multiples will plead insanity. The courts are in a state of disarray as to how best to respond to these pleas. This article considers multiples' responsibility on three interpretations of the status of their alters: that they are different people; that

Elyn R. Saks

1995-01-01

31

Methylphenidate and Comorbid Anxiety Disorder in Children with both Chronic Multiple Tic Disorder and ADHD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To determine if comorbid anxiety disorder is associated with differential response to immediate release methylphenidate (MPH-IR) in children with both ADHD and chronic multiple tic disorder (CMTD). Method: Children with (n = 17) and without (n = 37) diagnosed anxiety disorder (ANX) were evaluated in an 8-week, placebo-controlled trial…

Gadow, Kenneth D.; Nolan, Edith E.

2011-01-01

32

From Multiple Personality Disorder to Dissociative Identity Disorder: A Clinical Overview of Diagnostic and Treatment Considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article seeks to enlighten readers about the myriad of clinical issues surrounding the diagnosis of Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD) currently known as Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID). In addition to providing a literature review of the historical development of this complex diagnostic category, it summarizes the etiology and prevalence of the seemingly illusive disorder. Finally, the dichotomy of symptoms, heterogeneity

Karen E. Hart; William Allan Kritsonis

33

Ankle Injuries and Disorders - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

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34

Autism Spectrum Disorder - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

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35

Arm Injuries and Disorders - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... please enable JavaScript. Arm Injuries and Disorders - Multiple Languages Arabic (???????) French (français) Russian (???????) Somali (af ... Characters not displaying correctly on this page? See language display issues . Return to the MedlinePlus Health Information ...

36

Multiple Personality Disorder: A New Challenge for Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews the recent literature on multiple personality disorder. Despite a significant increase in the number of publications on this topic during the past 10 years, it is noted that limited knowledge exists on issues such as prevalence rates, differential diagnosis, etiology, and treatment. Psychologists are encouraged to become actively involved in the study of this disorder, and specific

Gary E. Dunn

1992-01-01

37

Hypnosis for Multiple Personality Disorder: A Framework for Beginning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing clinical attention, new research data, media and professional exposure to multiple personality disorder (MPD) make it likely that an increasing number of clinicians will make positive diagnoses. Controversy about the diagnosis persists, and the relationship of hypnosis to the formation of the disorder and to its treatment continues to be a major issue. All of this is likely to

Richard Horevitz

1983-01-01

38

The Making of Multiple Personality Disorder: A Social Constructionist View  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the social construction of multiple personality disorder by analyzing professional agreements about the nature of the diagnosis, while locating these within their historical and cultural context. First, a historical review of the disorder traces various overlapping streams of discourse that have shaped the construction of the diagnosis. This is followed by a cross-cultural comparison of MPD and

Lina Hartocollis

1998-01-01

39

Emotional Disorders in People with Multiple Sclerosis  

MedlinePLUS

... worsen problems with functioning caused by MS. Emotional disorders also can: • ... be an autoimmune disease that affects the central nervous system (CNS). The CNS consists of the brain and spinal ...

40

Outpatient Art Therapy with Multiple Personality Disorder: A Survey of Current Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports findings of a 1993 questionnaire completed by 46 North American art therapists that focuses on the outpatient treatment of multiple personality disorder. Includes information on role in diagnosing, fees and third-party payment, and therapeutic activities. Treatment issues include pacing and containment, and managing the client's chronic…

Mills, Anne

1995-01-01

41

Autobiographical Memory in a Case of Multiple Personality Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research on multiple personality disorder (MPD) has been concerned with between-personalities amnesia, and little attention has been paid to within-personality memory function. This study examined the autobiographical memory of a multiple personality patient, I.C., with cueing procedures that have proven useful in previous studies of normal and abnormal memory. Results indicated that I.C. was able to retrieve autobiographical episodes

Daniel L. Schacter; John F. Kihlstrom; Lucy Canter Kihlstrom; Michael B. Berren

1989-01-01

42

General Information about Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma)  

MedlinePLUS

... does not help fight infection. These antibody proteins build up in the bone marrow and can cause the ... In multiple myeloma , abnormal plasma cells ( myeloma cells ) build up in the bone marrow and form tumors in ...

43

Indicators of Multiple Personality Disorder for the Clinician.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Multiple personality disorder (MPD) is now recognized as a valid diagnostic category. Occurrence may be higher than previously suspected. While physiological testing of MPD has shown significant differences between the various personalities of individuals in terms of galvanic skin response, electroencephalogram recordings, electrodermal response…

Dalton, Thomas W.

44

Effects of Hypnosis on the Features of Multiple Personality Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors compared 57 patients with multiple personality disorder (MPD) who had been hypnotized both before and after diagnosis to 38 patients who had not been hypnotized during assessment or treatment. The two groups did not differ on the diagnostic criteria for MPD or in number of personalities. Hypnosis therefore does not have a gross distorting effect on the features

Colin A. Ross; G. Ron Norton

1989-01-01

45

Field Trips in the Treatment of Multiple Personality Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The treatment of persons with Multiple Personality Disorder often requires innovation and flexibility. A technique is described in which, in certain special situations, a field trip is conducted outside the office and psychotherapy occurs there. A field trip is defined as the conjoint visit of a therapist and a client to a geographic location that has particular emotional significance to

Thomas G. Tudor

1990-01-01

46

Multiple personality disorder: a clinical and cultural account  

Microsoft Academic Search

After a brief late-19th century epidemic of ‘double consciousness’, multiple personality disorder reappeared in the late 1970s following episodes of the sexual abuse of children. It has been associated with various putative phenomena such as ritual satanic abuse and UFOs. While there is empirical evidence that the separate personalities (‘alters’) have differential psychophysiological characteristics, dispute continues as to the ‘reality’

Roland Littlewood

2004-01-01

47

A More Unified View of the Multiple Personality Disorder.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers perspective of Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD) phenomenon based on current clinical experience. Asserts that the Jmind is polypsychic with multitude of psychological systems and processes existing in conjunction with one another, that MPD individuals have fragmented or dissociated ego states due to stress on unity of sense of self, and…

Kelley, Ronald L.; Kodman, Frank

1987-01-01

48

Satanism, Ritual Abuse, and Multiple Personality Disorder: A Sociohistorical Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past decade in North America, a growing number of mental health professionals have reported that between 25% and 50% of their patients in treatment for multiple personality disorder (MPD) have recovered early childhood traumatic memories of ritual torture, incestuous rape, sexual debauchery, sacrificial murder, infanticide, and cannibalism perpetrated by members of clandestine satanic cults. Although hundreds of local

Sherrill Mulhern

1994-01-01

49

Treatment Issues in a Case of Possible Multiple Personality Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amid controversy, the multiple personality disorder and other disturbances involving dissociation provide fertile soil for comparing competing views of psychopathology and treatment. In this article, I describe the treatment of a highly incapacitated patient who presented with severe dissociative symptom atology. The patient was seen in psychoanalytic psychotherapy. The case is discussed in terms of defense, transference, reconstruction, and the

Paul M. Lerner

1994-01-01

50

On the incidence of multiple personality disorder: A brief communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstraet: Since reporting a case of multiple personality (Eve) over 25 years ago, we have seen many patients who were thought by others or themselves to have the disorder, but we have found only 1 case that fit the diagnosis. The other cases manifested either pseudo- or quasidissociative symptoms related to dissatisfaction with self-identity or hysterical acting out for secondary

Corbett H. Thigpen; Hervey M. Cleckley

1984-01-01

51

Movement observations in multiple personality disorder: A preliminary report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dance\\/movement therapy, with movement as its unique theoretical and clinical framework, has the potential to contribute to the diagnosis, understanding, and treatment of Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD). The literature on MPD has increased significantly in the past 13 years. Dance\\/movement therapists working in psychiatric facilities are likely to encounter people who carry this diagnosis and, therefore, need to develop a

Estelle S. Kluft; Janis Poteat; Richard P. Kluft

1986-01-01

52

Multiple Personality Disorder Manifesting Itself under the Mask of Transsexualism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The case of a young female patient is described who presented symptoms of transsexualism; surgical intervention was considered. Admitted to the hospital after having become depressed and suicidal, a thorough examination and observation revealed the presence of multiple personality disorder (MPD). Even though transsexualism and MPD represent two different conditions, there are many similarities between them. The possibility of MPD

J. Modestin; G. Ebner

1995-01-01

53

The Simulation and Dissimulation of Multiple Personality Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic consultants have been concerned with an increasing number of cases in which defendants are represented as suffering multiple personality disorder (MPD). This trend may continue and accelerate because 1) more clinicians recognize the condition; 2) a period of reactive overdiagnosis may occur subsequent to decades of underdiagnosis and misdiagnosis; and 3) opportunistic exploitation of MPD as a fraudulent defense

Richard P. Kluft

1987-01-01

54

Mental Health Professionals' Skepticism About Multiple Personality Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three studies were conducted to investigate the nature of mental health professionals' skepticism regarding multiple personality disorder (MPD). An initial pilot study was conducted to develop a psychometrically sound survey instrument. In Study 2, the results of a national survey of 207 mental health professionals supported the hypothesis that skepticism and knowledge about MPD are inversely related, r = ?.33,

Jeffrey A. Hayes; Jeffrey C. Mitchell

1994-01-01

55

Anxiety Symptoms in Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder, Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, or Chronic Multiple Tic Disorder and Community Controls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We compared symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and separation anxiety disorder (SAD) in 5 groups of boys with neurobehavioral syndromes: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) plus autism spectrum disorder (ASD), ADHD plus chronic multiple tic disorder (CMTD), ASD only, ADHD only, and community Controls. Anxiety symptoms were…

Guttmann-Steinmetz, Sarit; Gadow, Kenneth D.; DeVincent, Carla J.; Crowell, Judy

2010-01-01

56

Childhood Trauma and Multiple Personality Disorder: The Case of a 9-Year-Old Girl.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports the case of a nine-year-old female victim of sexual abuse, evaluated and diagnosed with multiple personality disorder over a six-month period. Included is a description of the child's presentation with historical and developmental data. A discussion of the dynamic and predisposing features of the case follows, along with…

LaPorta, Lauren D.

1992-01-01

57

Includes pre-computed gene families, multiple sequence alignments &  

E-print Network

to perform analyses on their genes · Includes published genomes from flowering plants, mosses and several 23 plants covering 11 dicots, 5 monocots, 2 (club-)mosses and 5 algae · Advanced panel of (inter

Gent, Universiteit

58

Includes pre-computed gene families, multiple sequence  

E-print Network

genomes from flowering plants, (club-)mosses and several green algae · All data can be downloaded PLAZA release 2.5 · Includes >900,000 genes from 25 plants covering 13 dicots, 5 monocots, 2 (club-)mosses

Gent, Universiteit

59

Inducing Order from Disordered Copolymers: On Demand Generation of Triblock Morphologies Including Networks  

SciTech Connect

Disordered block copolymers are generally impractical in nanopatterning applications due to their inability to self-assemble into well-defined nanostructures. However, inducing order in low molecular weight disordered systems permits the design of periodic structures with smaller characteristic sizes. Here, we have induced nanoscale phase separation from disordered triblock copolymer melts to form well-ordered lamellae, hexagonally packed cylinders, and a triply periodic gyroid network structure, using a copolymer/homopolymer blending approach, which incorporates constituent homopolymers into selective block domains. This versatile blending approach allows one to precisely target multiple nanostructures from a single disordered material and can be applied to a wide variety of triblock copolymer systems for nanotemplating and nanoscale separation applications requiring nanoscale feature sizes and/or high areal feature densities.

Tureau, Maëva S.; Kuan, Wei-Fan; Rong, Lixia; Hsiao, Benjamin S.; Epps, III, Thomas H. (Delaware); (SUNYB)

2012-10-26

60

Postnatal Diagnosis of a Baby With Multiple Rare Congenital Anomalies Including Syngnathia, Brain Dysmorphism, and Skin Pigmentation.  

PubMed

Syngnathia is a rare congenital disorder of jaw fusion with a paucity of literature from developed countries. We present a case of an infant noted to have multiple anomalies at birth including syngnathia, microcephaly with a variant of brain abnormality between holoprosencephaly and syntelencephaly, optic nerve hypoplasia, ear canal anomalies, hemi-vertebrae, and suspected hypomelanosis of Ito. To our knowledge, this patient with syngnathia and multiple anomalies is the first to be reported, but whether they are a coincidence, a pathogenetic association, or a new syndrome remains unknown. This case is discussed with a brief review of the literature. PMID:25325328

Mahgoub, Linda; Joynt, Chloe; Bhargava, Ravi; Davies, Dawn; El-Hakim, Hamdy; Dobrovolsky, Walter

2014-10-17

61

Movement disorders in multiple sclerosis: Causal or coincidental association?  

PubMed

Despite the relatively frequent involvement of the basal ganglia and subthalamic nucleus by multiple sclerosis (MS) plaques, movement disorders (MD), other than tremor secondary to cerebellar or brainstem lesions, are uncommon clinical manifestations of MS. MD were present in 12 of 733 patients with MS (1.6%): three patients had parkinsonism, two blepharospasm, five hemifacial spasm, one hemidystonia, and one tourettism. MD in patients with MS are often secondary to demyelinating disease. Also in cases without response to steroid treatment and demyelinating lesions in critical regions, it is not possible to exclude that MD and MS are causally related. PMID:18768580

Nociti, V; Bentivoglio, A R; Frisullo, G; Fasano, A; Soleti, F; Iorio, R; Loria, G; Patanella, A K; Marti, A; Tartaglione, T; Tonali, P A; Batocchi, A P

2008-11-01

62

Comparative Study of Children With ADHD Only, Autism Spectrum Disorder + ADHD, and Chronic Multiple Tic Disorder + ADHD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Identification of differences among children with ADHD only, autism spectrum disorder (ASD)+ADHD, and chronic multiple tic disorder (CMTD)+ADHD may lead to better understanding of clinical phenotypes. Method: Children were evaluated using the parent- and teacher-completed questionnaires. Results: All three groups were highly similar in severity of oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder symptoms; however, the ASD+ADHD group generally exhibited

Kenneth D. Gadow; Carla J. DeVincent; Jayne Schneider

2009-01-01

63

Including Pupils with Autistic Spectrum Disorders in the Classroom: The Role of Teaching Assistants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aims of the current study were (i) to explore the extent to which pupils with Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD) were effectively included in lessons, compared with pupils with dyslexia (DYS) or no Special Educational Needs (CON) and (ii) to understand how the presence of a teaching assistant (TA) influences the inclusion/exclusion process. One…

Symes, Wendy; Humphrey, Neil

2012-01-01

64

Cav1.2 Calcium Channel Dysfunction causes a Multisystem Disorder including Arrhythmia & Autism  

E-print Network

). A parent (father or mother) who is mosaic (eg., a maternal chromosome) can transmit this mutation to hisCav1.2 Calcium Channel Dysfunction causes a Multisystem Disorder including Arrhythmia & Autism, cognitive abnormalities, autism, immune deficiency, etc.) results from a de novo missense mutation

Yue, David

65

Educators' Challenges of Including Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Mainstream Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are increasingly being placed within mainstream classes, little is known about the challenges that teachers encounter with including them as full participants in the class. This qualitative study draws on a purposive sample of 13 educators who have experience teaching children with ASD within…

Lindsay, Sally; Proulx, Meghann; Thomson, Nicole; Scott, Helen

2013-01-01

66

tal Disorders will not include "Internet Addiction Disorder" (IAD) in 2013 when it is next revised and published. This has no bearing, of  

E-print Network

tal Disorders will not include "Internet Addiction Disorder" (IAD) in 2013 when it is next revised the productivity of some em- ployees. We don't have a policy against their use, but formance issues associated

Oliver, Douglas L.

67

How to Combine CBR and RBR for Diagnosing Multiple Medical Disorder Cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Multiple disorders are a daily problem in medical diagnosis and treatment, but most expert systems make an implicit assumption\\u000a that only single disorder occurs in a single patient. We show the need for performing multiple disorder diagnosing, then inspired\\u000a by the common idea of combining CBR with Rule-based Reasoning, we present a hybrid approach for diagnosing multiple faults.\\u000a We applied

Wenqi Shi; John A. Barnden

2005-01-01

68

Differential autonomic nervous system activity in multiple personality disorder.  

PubMed

The cardinal feature of multiple personality disorder (MPD) is the existence of two or more alter personality states that exchange control over the behaviour of an individual. Numerous clinical reports suggest that these alter personality states exhibit distinct physiological differences. We investigated differential autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity across nine subjects with MPD and five controls, who produced "alter" personality states by simulation and by hypnosis or deep relaxation. Eight of the nine MPD subjects consistently manifested physiologically distinct alter personality states. Three of the five controls were also produced physiologically distinct states, but these differed from those of the MPD subjects. A habituation paradigm demonstrated carryover effects at the ANS levels from one state to the next for both groups. PMID:2333357

Putnam, F W; Zahn, T P; Post, R M

1990-03-01

69

Cerebellar Abnormalities Contribute to Disability Including Cognitive Impairment in Multiple Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

The cerebellum is known to be involved not only in motor but also cognitive and affective processes. Structural changes in the cerebellum in relation to cognitive dysfunction are an emerging topic in the field of neuro-psychiatric disorders. In Multiple Sclerosis (MS) cerebellar motor and cognitive dysfunction occur in parallel, early in the onset of the disease, and the cerebellum is one of the predilection sites of atrophy. This study is aimed at determining the relationship between cerebellar volumes, clinical cerebellar signs, cognitive functioning and fatigue in MS. Cerebellar volumetry was conducted using T1-weighted MPRAGE magnetic resonance imaging of 172 MS patients. All patients underwent a clinical and brief neuropsychological assessment (information processing speed, working memory), including fatigue testing. Patients with and without cerebellar signs differed significantly regarding normalized cerebellar total volume (nTCV), normalized brain volume (nBV) and whole brain T2 lesion volume (LV). Patients with cerebellar dysfunction likewise performed worse in cognitive tests. A regression analysis indicated that age and nTCV explained 26.3% of the variance in SDMT (symbol digit modalities test) performance. However, only age, T2 LV and nBV remained predictors in the full model (r2?=?0.36). The full model for the prediction of PASAT (Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test) scores (r2?=?0.23) included age, cerebellar and T2 LV. In the case of fatigue, only age and nBV (r2?=?0.17) emerged as significant predictors. These data support the view that cerebellar abnormalities contribute to disability, including cognitive impairment in MS. However, this contribution does not seem to be independent of, and may even be dominated by wider spread MS pathology as reflected by nBV and T2 LV. PMID:24466290

Weier, Katrin; Penner, Iris K.; Magon, Stefano; Amann, Michael; Naegelin, Yvonne; Andelova, Michaela; Derfuss, Tobias; Stippich, Christoph; Radue, Ernst-Wilhelm; Kappos, Ludwig; Sprenger, Till

2014-01-01

70

Cerebellar abnormalities contribute to disability including cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis.  

PubMed

The cerebellum is known to be involved not only in motor but also cognitive and affective processes. Structural changes in the cerebellum in relation to cognitive dysfunction are an emerging topic in the field of neuro-psychiatric disorders. In Multiple Sclerosis (MS) cerebellar motor and cognitive dysfunction occur in parallel, early in the onset of the disease, and the cerebellum is one of the predilection sites of atrophy. This study is aimed at determining the relationship between cerebellar volumes, clinical cerebellar signs, cognitive functioning and fatigue in MS. Cerebellar volumetry was conducted using T1-weighted MPRAGE magnetic resonance imaging of 172 MS patients. All patients underwent a clinical and brief neuropsychological assessment (information processing speed, working memory), including fatigue testing. Patients with and without cerebellar signs differed significantly regarding normalized cerebellar total volume (nTCV), normalized brain volume (nBV) and whole brain T2 lesion volume (LV). Patients with cerebellar dysfunction likewise performed worse in cognitive tests. A regression analysis indicated that age and nTCV explained 26.3% of the variance in SDMT (symbol digit modalities test) performance. However, only age, T2 LV and nBV remained predictors in the full model (r(2)?=?0.36). The full model for the prediction of PASAT (Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test) scores (r(2)?=?0.23) included age, cerebellar and T2 LV. In the case of fatigue, only age and nBV (r(2)?=?0.17) emerged as significant predictors. These data support the view that cerebellar abnormalities contribute to disability, including cognitive impairment in MS. However, this contribution does not seem to be independent of, and may even be dominated by wider spread MS pathology as reflected by nBV and T2 LV. PMID:24466290

Weier, Katrin; Penner, Iris K; Magon, Stefano; Amann, Michael; Naegelin, Yvonne; Andelova, Michaela; Derfuss, Tobias; Stippich, Christoph; Radue, Ernst-Wilhelm; Kappos, Ludwig; Sprenger, Till

2014-01-01

71

Annual research review: The neurobehavioral development of multiple memory systems--implications for childhood and adolescent psychiatric disorders.  

PubMed

Extensive evidence indicates that mammalian memory is organized into multiple brains systems, including a 'cognitive' memory system that depends on the hippocampus and a stimulus-response 'habit' memory system that depends on the dorsolateral striatum. Dorsal striatal-dependent habit memory may in part influence the development and expression of some human psychopathologies, particularly those characterized by strong habit-like behavioral features. The present review considers this hypothesis as it pertains to psychopathologies that typically emerge during childhood and adolescence. These disorders include Tourette syndrome, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, eating disorders, and autism spectrum disorders. Human and nonhuman animal research shows that the typical development of memory systems comprises the early maturation of striatal-dependent habit memory and the relatively late maturation of hippocampal-dependent cognitive memory. We speculate that the differing rates of development of these memory systems may in part contribute to the early emergence of habit-like symptoms in childhood and adolescence. In addition, abnormalities in hippocampal and striatal brain regions have been observed consistently in youth with these disorders, suggesting that the aberrant development of memory systems may also contribute to the emergence of habit-like symptoms as core pathological features of these illnesses. Considering these disorders within the context of multiple memory systems may help elucidate the pathogenesis of habit-like symptoms in childhood and adolescence, and lead to novel treatments that lessen the habit-like behavioral features of these disorders. PMID:24286520

Goodman, Jarid; Marsh, Rachel; Peterson, Bradley S; Packard, Mark G

2014-06-01

72

Eye disorders in patients with multiple sclerosis: natural history and management  

PubMed Central

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system and leading cause of disability in young adults. Vision impairment is a common component of disability for this population of patients. Injury to the optic nerve, brainstem, and cerebellum leads to characteristic syndromes affecting both the afferent and efferent visual pathways. The objective of this review is to summarize the spectrum of eye disorders in patients with MS, their natural history, and current strategies for diagnosis and management. We emphasize the most common disorders including optic neuritis and internuclear ophthalmoparesis and include new techniques, such as optical coherence tomography, which promise to better our understanding of MS and its effects on the visual system. PMID:21188152

Graves, Jennifer; Balcer, Laura J

2010-01-01

73

Multiple Personality Disorder and Iatrogenesis: The Cautionary Tale of Anna O  

Microsoft Academic Search

An examination of Breuer's treatment of Anna O. illustrates some of the controversies surrounding the recent rise of case reports of multiple personality disorder. Anna O., the first patient of the cathartic method, psychoanalysis, and dynamic psychiatry, fits current criteria for multiple personality disorder. Breuer's treatment, however, may have contributed to her states of absence; the timing, type, and intensity

Michael Weissberg

1993-01-01

74

Further Notes on a Case of Possible Multiple Personality Disorder: Masochism, Omnipotence, and Entitlement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple personality disorder and other disturbances involving dissociation offer a rich opportunity for extending our understanding of specific psychic phenomenon. Additional clinical material is presented from the treatment of a patient who presented herself as a multiple personality disorder. The patient's attitude of entitlement proved a formidable resistance that ultimately resulted in her prematurely terminating treatment. Using her sense of

Paul M. Lerner; Howard D. Lerner

1996-01-01

75

Model for CO2 leakage including multiple geological layers and multiple leaky wells.  

PubMed

Geological storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) is likely to be an integral component of any realistic plan to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. In conjunction with large-scale deployment of carbon storage as a technology, there is an urgent need for tools which provide reliable and quick assessments of aquifer storage performance. Previously, abandoned wells from over a century of oil and gas exploration and production have been identified as critical potential leakage paths. The practical importance of abandoned wells is emphasized by the correlation of heavy CO2 emitters (typically associated with industrialized areas) to oil and gas producing regions in North America. Herein, we describe a novel framework for predicting the leakage from large numbers of abandoned wells, forming leakage paths connecting multiple subsurface permeable formations. The framework is designed to exploit analytical solutions to various components of the problem and, ultimately, leads to a grid-free approximation to CO2 and brine leakage rates, as well as fluid distributions. We apply our model in a comparison to an established numerical solverforthe underlying governing equations. Thereafter, we demonstrate the capabilities of the model on typical field data taken from the vicinity of Edmonton, Alberta. This data set consists of over 500 wells and 7 permeable formations. Results show the flexibility and utility of the solution methods, and highlight the role that analytical and semianalytical solutions can play in this important problem. PMID:19245011

Nordbotten, Jan M; Kavetski, Dmitri; Celia, Michael A; Bachu, Stefan

2009-02-01

76

PTSD and Comorbid Disorders in a Representative Sample of Adolescents: The Risk Associated with Multiple Exposures to Potentially Traumatic Events  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study compared the impact of multiple exposures to potentially traumatic events (PTEs), including sexual victimization, physical victimization, and witnessed violence, on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and comorbid conditions (i.e., major depressive episode [MDE], and substance use [SUD]). Methods: Participants were a…

Macdonald, Alexandra; Danielson, Carla Kmett; Resnick, Heidi S.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

2010-01-01

77

Bipolar Disorder and Multiple Sclerosis: A Case Series  

PubMed Central

Background. The prevalence of psychiatric disturbance for patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) is higher than that observed in other chronic health conditions. We report three cases of MS and bipolar disorder and we discuss the possible etiological hypothesis and treatment options. Observations. All patients fulfilled the McDonald criteria for MS. Two patients were followed up in psychiatry for manic or depressive symptoms before developing MS. A third patient was diagnosed with MS and developed deferred psychotic symptoms. Some clinical and radiological features are highlighted in our patients: one manic episode induced by high dose corticosteroids and one case of a new orbitofrontal MRI lesion concomitant with the emergence of psychiatric symptoms. All patients needed antipsychotic treatment with almost good tolerance for high dose corticosteroids and interferon beta treatment. Conclusions. MRI lesions suggest the possible implication of local MS-related brain damage in development of pure “psychiatric fits” in MS. Genetic susceptibility is another hypothesis for this association. We have noticed that interferon beta treatments were well tolerated while high dose corticosteroids may induce manic fits. PMID:24825960

Sidhom, Youssef; Ben Djebara, Mouna; Hizem, Yosr; Abdelkefi, Istabrak; Kacem, Imen; Gargouri, Amina; Gouider, Riadh

2014-01-01

78

Child Abuse and Multiple Personality Disorders: Review of the Literature and Suggestions for Treatment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Multiple personality disorder is associated with a high incidence of physical and sexual abuse during childhood. While difficult to diagnose, multiple personality is easier to treat if diagnosed early in childhood or adolescence. Treatment for multiple personality focuses on establishing trust and communicating with and integrating the…

Coons, Philip M.

1986-01-01

79

Managing persons with multiple personality disorder in a heterogeneous inpatient group  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experts advise against referring persons with multiple personality disorder to diagnostically heterogeneous groups. As more multiples are admitted to inpatient units this presents a problem. Excluding persons of a particular diagnosis from groups makes it difficult to promote a cohesive therapeutic milieu. I have found that multiples can be managed successfully in mixed groups. The leader is advised to adhere

Lisa C. Hogan

1992-01-01

80

Multiple chronic disorders - health care system’s modern challenge in the Maccabi Health Care System  

PubMed Central

Background One of the major challenges health care systems face in modern time is treating chronic disorders. In recent years, the increasing occurrence of multiple chronic disorders (MCC) in single individuals has compounded the complexity of health care. In 2008, it was estimated that worldwide as many as one quarter of the population between the ages of sixty five to sixty nine suffered from two or more chronic conditions and this prevalence rose with age. Clinical guidelines provide guidance for management of single disorders, but not for MCC. The aim of the present study was the study of the prevalence, distribution and impact of MCC in a large Israeli health system. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study of MCC in the Maccabi Healthcare System (MHS), Israel’s second largest healthcare service, providing care for approximately two million people. Data regarding chronic conditions was collected through electronic medical records and organizational records, as was demographic and socioeconomic data. Age and sex specific data were compared with previously published data from Scotland. Results Two thirds of the population had two or more chronic disorders. This is significantly higher than previously published rates. A correlation between patient age and number of chronic disorders was found, as was a correlation between number of chronic disorders and low socioeconomic status, with the exception of children due to a high prevalence of learning disabilities, asthma, and visual disturbances. Discussion MCC is very prevalent in the MHS population, increases with age, and except for children is more prevalent in lower socioeconomic classes, possibly due to the a combination of the structure of the Israeli universal insurance and requirements of the ministry of education for exemptions and benefits. A higher than previously reported prevalence of MCC may be due to the longtime use of use of integrated electronic medical records. Conclusions To effectively deal with MCC health care systems must devise strategies, including but not limited to, information technologies that enable shared teamwork based on clinical guidelines which address the problem of multiple, as opposed to single chronic disorders in patients. PMID:25206971

2014-01-01

81

The Parental Fitness of Mothers with Multiple Personality Disorder: A Preliminary Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A review of the parenting patterns of 75 mothers with multiple personality disorders indicated 38.7% were competent or exceptional mothers, 16% were grossly abusive, and 45.3% were compromised or impaired as parents. (DB)

Kluft, Richard P.

1987-01-01

82

Complete Characterization of Electrostatically-Actuated Beams including Effects of Multiple Discontinuities and Buckling  

E-print Network

. The MUMPs system of materials is first described, highlighting the observed variations among beamsComplete Characterization of Electrostatically-Actuated Beams including Effects of Multiple-actuated beams is calibrated to a wide range of electrical and optical test structure measurements

Dutton, Robert W.

83

Development of a versatile enrichment analysis tool reveals associations between the maternal brain and mental health disorders, including autism  

PubMed Central

Background A recent study of lateral septum (LS) suggested a large number of autism-related genes with altered expression in the postpartum state. However, formally testing the findings for enrichment of autism-associated genes proved to be problematic with existing software. Many gene-disease association databases have been curated which are not currently incorporated in popular, full-featured enrichment tools, and the use of custom gene lists in these programs can be difficult to perform and interpret. As a simple alternative, we have developed the Modular Single-set Enrichment Test (MSET), a minimal tool that enables one to easily evaluate expression data for enrichment of any conceivable gene list of interest. Results The MSET approach was validated by testing several publicly available expression data sets for expected enrichment in areas of autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and arthritis. Using nine independent, unique autism gene lists extracted from association databases and two recent publications, a striking consensus of enrichment was detected within gene expression changes in LS of postpartum mice. A network of 160 autism-related genes was identified, representing developmental processes such as synaptic plasticity, neuronal morphogenesis, and differentiation. Additionally, maternal LS displayed enrichment for genes associated with bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, ADHD, and depression. Conclusions The transition to motherhood includes the most fundamental social bonding event in mammals and features naturally occurring changes in sociability. Some individuals with autism, schizophrenia, or other mental health disorders exhibit impaired social traits. Genes involved in these deficits may also contribute to elevated sociability in the maternal brain. To date, this is the first study to show a significant, quantitative link between the maternal brain and mental health disorders using large scale gene expression data. Thus, the postpartum brain may provide a novel and promising platform for understanding the complex genetics of improved sociability that may have direct relevance for multiple psychiatric illnesses. This study also provides an important new tool that fills a critical analysis gap and makes evaluation of enrichment using any database of interest possible with an emphasis on ease of use and methodological transparency. PMID:24245670

2013-01-01

84

Mental Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... disorder, and phobias Bipolar disorder Depression Mood disorders Personality disorders Psychotic disorders, including schizophrenia There are many causes of mental disorders. Your genes and family history ...

85

Extension of the ADC Charge-Collection Model to Include Multiple Junctions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ADC model is a charge-collection model derived for simple p-n junction silicon diodes having a single reverse-biased p-n junction at one end and an ideal substrate contact at the other end. The present paper extends the model to include multiple junctions, and the goal is to estimate how collected charge is shared by the different junctions.

Edmonds, Larry D.

2011-01-01

86

Children at Risk for Learning Disorders: Multiple Perspectives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study involving 145 Israeli mother-child dyads examined the contribution of a multidimensional model of risk factors in explaining adaptive functioning among kindergartners with mild developmental delays considered at risk for developing learning disorders. Results indicated a high fit between the theoretical model and empirical findings.…

Al-Yagon, Michal

2003-01-01

87

Shoulder Injuries and Disorders - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... Multiple Languages Arabic (???????) French (français) Russian (???????) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Arabic (???????) Active Range ... Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Return to top Somali (af Soomaali) Active Range of Motion Exercises: Wrists, ...

88

Developmental trauma disorder: pros and cons of including formal criteria in the psychiatric diagnostic systems  

PubMed Central

Background This article reviews the current debate on developmental trauma disorder (DTD) with respect to formalizing its diagnostic criteria. Victims of abuse, neglect, and maltreatment in childhood often develop a wide range of age-dependent psychopathologies with various mental comorbidities. The supporters of a formal DTD diagnosis argue that post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) does not cover all consequences of severe and complex traumatization in childhood. Discussion Traumatized individuals are difficult to treat, but clinical experience has shown that they tend to benefit from specific trauma therapy. A main argument against inclusion of formal DTD criteria into existing diagnostic systems is that emphasis on the etiology of the disorder might force current diagnostic systems to deviate from their purely descriptive nature. Furthermore, comorbidities and biological aspects of the disorder may be underdiagnosed using the DTD criteria. Summary Here, we discuss arguments for and against the proposal of DTD criteria and address implications and consequences for the clinical practice. PMID:23286319

2013-01-01

89

Long-term Methylphenidate Therapy in Children With Comorbid Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Chronic Multiple Tic Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: This study examined changes in attention- deficit hyperactivity (ADHD) behaviors and motor and vo- cal tics during long-term treatment with methylphenidate. Methods: Thirty-four prepubertal children with ADHD and chronic multiple tic disorder (who had participated in an 8-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled methylphen- idate evaluation) were evaluated at 6-month intervals for 2 years as part of a prospective, nonblind, follow-up study.

Kenneth D. Gadow; Jeffrey Sverd; Joyce Sprafkin; Edith E. Nolan; Steven Grossman

1999-01-01

90

Emotional modulation of multiple memory systems: implications for the neurobiology of post-traumatic stress disorder.  

PubMed

In lower animals and humans, stress/anxiety can enhance dorsal striatal-dependent habit memory,at the expense of hippocampal-dependent cognitive memory. The present review considers the potential for this 'stress/anxiety-induced habit bias' to explain some aspects of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In rats,anxiety induced by peripheral or intra-amygdala infusions of anxiogenic drugs can enhance habit memory and impair cognitive memory. In tasks in which both habit and cognitive memory processes may provide a learned solution, stress and drug-induced anxiety favors the use of habit memory. The effect of stress and anxiety on the use of multiple memory systems in rats depends on the functional integrity of the basolateral amygdala. Thus,under robust emotional arousal, amygdala activation can modulate the relative use of memory systems in a manner that favors habit memory. We propose a similar mechanism may underlie the development and persistence of some PTSD symptoms. The traumatic memories of PTSD patients can be deficient in hippocampus-dependent contextual or autobiographical aspects, and enhanced in responding to trauma-related cues, which we suggest may reflect increased involvement of the dorsal striatum.We briefly consider the potential role of a stress/anxiety induced habit bias with regard to other psychopathologies,including obsessive-compulsive disorder and drug addiction. PMID:23001314

Goodman, Jarid; Leong, Kah-Chung; Packard, Mark G

2012-01-01

91

Can multiple sclerosis as a cognitive disorder influence patients' dreams?  

PubMed

Dream should be considered as a kind of cognitive ability that is formed parallel to other cognitive capabilities like language. On the other hand, multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex disease that can involve different aspects of our cognition. Therefore, MS may influence patients' dreams. In fact, we do not know what the importance of dream is in MS, but further studies may introduce dream and dreaming as a sign of improvement or progression in MS disease. PMID:24250908

Moghadasi, Abdorreza Naser; Owji, Mahsa

2013-01-01

92

[Treatment manual for psychotherapy of acute and posttraumatic stress disorders after multiple ICD shocks].  

PubMed

In view of the inceasing number of implanted defibrillators in all industrial nations, the number of people who have suffered so-called multiple shocks (electrical storm, ES) also increases. Common complaints are severe and continuously recurrent massive anxiety, panic attacks, fear of death, helplessness and hopelessness, depression, nervosity and irritability as well as reclusive and uncontrollable avoidance behaviour, intrusions, nightmares, flashbacks, sleeplessness and the inability to show feelings and limitation of future perspectives. Because people with an ICD are often physically (very) ill and after multiple ICD shocks are additionally very insecure, it would seem logical if the inpatient treatment would be carried out in an institution which has close connections and is also spatially close to a cardiology department. The basis of the diagnostics is the clinical anamnesis and a systematic exploration of the trauma situation and the resulting complaints. As an additional diagnostic element psychological test procedures should be implemented to determine the core symptomatic (anxiety, depression, trauma symptoms). Psychological test procedures should be included in the diagnostics so that at the end of treatment it is obvious even to the patient which alterations have occurred. The core element of inpatient treatment is daily intensive psychotherapy and includes deep psychologically well-founded psychotherapy and behavioral therapeutic-oriented anxiety therapy as well as cognitive restructuring and elements of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR). A follow-up examination within 4 months of the multiple shocks episode is recommended because symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder often occur after a long latent time period. PMID:21853350

Jordan, J; Titscher, G; Kirsch, H

2011-09-01

93

Intellectual Disability and Multiple Co Morbid Psychiatric Disorders in a Child: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Comorbid psychiatric Disorders are seen commonly in people with intellectual disability and in fact they are at greater risk for developing other health disorders. Most prevalent chronic health conditions in children with intellectual disability are epilepsy, cerebral palsy,anxiety disorders, sleep disorders and autism spectrum disorders. Co morbidities multiply the problem of people with intellectual impairment to a great extent and hence an accurate psychological assessment of multiple diagnoses is useful in detecting the specific underlying processes differentiating the co morbid syndrome and in planning an appropriate management and rehabilitation program. This case report is presented to emphasize the fact that though. It is common for intellectually disabled children to have other co-morbid psychiatric disorders, it is important to have accurate, suitable assessment and recording of every co-morbid disorder as it has its own implication in course and outcome of the disability in the child. A comprehensive management approach involving people from various spheres would be required to improve the quality of life and for reduction of burden of care giver.We describe a child of intellectual disability with multiple co morbidities. PMID:25584292

Gautam, Priyanka; Rathi, Anubhav

2014-01-01

94

Intellectual disability and multiple co morbid psychiatric disorders in a child: a case report.  

PubMed

Comorbid psychiatric Disorders are seen commonly in people with intellectual disability and in fact they are at greater risk for developing other health disorders. Most prevalent chronic health conditions in children with intellectual disability are epilepsy, cerebral palsy,anxiety disorders, sleep disorders and autism spectrum disorders. Co morbidities multiply the problem of people with intellectual impairment to a great extent and hence an accurate psychological assessment of multiple diagnoses is useful in detecting the specific underlying processes differentiating the co morbid syndrome and in planning an appropriate management and rehabilitation program. This case report is presented to emphasize the fact that though. It is common for intellectually disabled children to have other co-morbid psychiatric disorders, it is important to have accurate, suitable assessment and recording of every co-morbid disorder as it has its own implication in course and outcome of the disability in the child. A comprehensive management approach involving people from various spheres would be required to improve the quality of life and for reduction of burden of care giver.We describe a child of intellectual disability with multiple co morbidities. PMID:25584292

Gautam, Priyanka; Bhatia, M S; Rathi, Anubhav

2014-11-01

95

Neuromuscular Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... ability to breathe. Examples of neuromuscular disorders include Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis Multiple sclerosis Myasthenia gravis Spinal muscular atrophy Many neuromuscular diseases are genetic, which means they run in families ...

96

nAture methods | VOL.8 NO.11 | NOVEMBER2011 | 957 myelin-related disorders such as multiple sclerosis and  

E-print Network

such as multiple sclerosis and leukodystrophies, for which restoration of oligodendrocyte function would such as multiple sclerosis and cerebral palsy as well as congenital dysmyelinating disorders such as Pelizaeus

Cai, Long

97

Cognitive-behavioral family therapy for anxiety-disordered children: A multiple-baseline evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six children (aged 9 to 13) diagnosed with a childhood anxiety disorder were treated with an 18-session, family-based cognitive-behavioral therapy that was evaluated using assessments from multiple sources and a multiple-baseline (2, 4, and 6 weeks) across-cases design. Diagnoses, parent and teacher reports, and child self-reports assessed outcome. Changes in diagnostic status, standardized parent- and teacher-report measures, and parent and

Bonnie L. Howard; Philip C. Kendall

1996-01-01

98

ELL transplantation has shown great promise in the treatment of many neurological disorders including  

E-print Network

ELL transplantation has shown great promise in the treatment of many neurological disorders be obtained in patients at bed- side, expanded in culture, and transplanted into the patient, thus allowing and cytotoxic chemokines that make the local environment hos- tile to the transplanted cells.27 Indeed, most

Fischer, Itzhak

99

School Factors Associated with Mainstream Progress in Secondary Education for Included Pupils with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research examined the factors promoting inclusion of young people with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) in mainstream secondary schools, and noted high levels of behavioral difficulties in these pupils. The size of the secondary school, and the class size, impacted positively on the pupils with Autism, and the number of other pupils with…

Osborne, Lisa A.; Reed, Phil

2011-01-01

100

Exploring Teachers' Strategies for Including Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Mainstream Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the rates of diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) increase and more students with ASD are enrolled in mainstream schools, educators face many challenges in teaching and managing social and behavioural development while ensuring academic success for all students. This descriptive, qualitative study, embedded within an inclusive…

Lindsay, Sally; Proulx, Meghann; Scott, Helen; Thomson, Nicole

2014-01-01

101

Benefits of Including Siblings in the Treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Having a brother or sister with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can significantly impact the life of a typically developing sibling. These relationships are generally characterized by less frequent and nurturing interactions than are evident in sibling constellations with neurotypical children or children with other developmental disabilities.…

Ferraioli, Suzannah J.; Hansford, Amy; Harris, Sandra L.

2012-01-01

102

A new expanded host range of Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus includes three agricultural crops.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV) was identified in the fall of 2006 affecting cucurbit production in the Imperial Valley of California, the adjacent Yuma, AZ region, as well as nearby Sonora, Mexico. There was nearly universal infection of fall melon crops in 2006 and 2007, and late,...

103

The emergence of designed multiple ligands for neurodegenerative disorders.  

PubMed

The incidence of neurodegenerative diseases has seen a constant increase in the global population, and is likely to be the result of extended life expectancy brought about by better health care. Despite this increase in the incidence of neurodegenerative diseases, there has been a dearth in the introduction of new disease-modifying therapies that are approved to prevent or delay the onset of these diseases, or reverse the degenerative processes in brain. Mounting evidence in the peer-reviewed literature shows that the etiopathology of these diseases is extremely complex and heterogeneous, resulting in significant comorbidity and therefore unlikely to be mitigated by any drug acting on a single pathway or target. A recent trend in drug design and discovery is the rational design or serendipitous discovery of novel drug entities with the ability to address multiple drug targets that form part of the complex pathophysiology of a particular disease state. In this review we discuss the rationale for developing such multifunctional drugs (also called designed multiple ligands or DMLs), and why these drug candidates seem to offer better outcomes in many cases compared to single-targeted drugs in pre-clinical studies for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. Examples are drawn from the literature of drug candidates that have already reached the market, some unsuccessful attempts, and others that are still in the drug development pipeline. PMID:21536094

Geldenhuys, Werner J; Youdim, Moussa B H; Carroll, Richard T; Van der Schyf, Cornelis J

2011-09-01

104

Multiple Hits, Including Oxidative Stress, as Pathogenesis and Treatment Target in Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH)  

PubMed Central

Multiple parallel hits, including genetic differences, insulin resistance and intestinal microbiota, account for the progression of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Multiple hits induce adipokine secretion, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and oxidative stress at the cellular level that subsequently induce hepatic steatosis, inflammation and fibrosis, among which oxidative stress is considered a key contributor to progression from simple fatty liver to NASH. Although several clinical trials have shown that anti-oxidative therapy can effectively control hepatitis activities in the short term, the long-term effect remains obscure. Several trials of long-term anti-oxidant protocols aimed at treating cerebrovascular diseases or cancer development have failed to produce a benefit. This might be explained by the non-selective anti-oxidative properties of these drugs. Molecular hydrogen is an effective antioxidant that reduces only cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) and several diseases associated with oxidative stress are sensitive to hydrogen. The progress of NASH to hepatocellular carcinoma can be controlled using hydrogen-rich water. Thus, targeting mitochondrial oxidative stress might be a good candidate for NASH treatment. Long term clinical intervention is needed to control this complex lifestyle-related disease. PMID:24132155

Takaki, Akinobu; Kawai, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Kazuhide

2013-01-01

105

Analytical expressions for the gate utilization factors of passive multiplicity counters including signal build-up  

SciTech Connect

In the realm of nuclear safeguards, passive neutron multiplicity counting using shift register pulse train analysis to nondestructively quantify Pu in product materials is a familiar and widely applied technique. The approach most commonly taken is to construct a neutron detector consisting of {sup 3}He filled cylindrical proportional counters embedded in a high density polyethylene moderator. Fast neutrons from the item enter the moderator and are quickly slowed down, on timescales of the order of 1-2 {micro}s, creating a thermal population which then persists typically for several 10's {micro}s and is sampled by the {sup 3}He detectors. Because the initial transient is of comparatively short duration it has been traditional to treat it as instantaneous and furthermore to approximate the subsequent capture time distribution as exponential in shape. With these approximations simple expressions for the various Gate Utilization Factors (GUFs) can be obtained. These factors represent the proportion of time correlated events i.e. Doubles and Triples signal present in the pulse train that is detected by the coincidence gate structure chosen (predelay and gate width settings of the multiplicity shift register). More complicated expressions can be derived by generalizing the capture time distribution to multiple time components or harmonics typically present in real systems. When it comes to applying passive neutron multiplicity methods to extremely intense (i.e. high emission rate and highly multiplying) neutron sources there is a drive to use detector types with very fast response characteristics in order to cope with the high rates. In addition to short pulse width, detectors with a short capture time profile are also desirable so that a short coincidence gate width can be set in order to reduce the chance or Accidental coincidence signal. In extreme cases, such as might be realized using boron loaded scintillators, the dieaway time may be so short that the build-up (thermalization transient) within the detector cannot be ignored. Another example where signal build-up might be observed is when a {sup 3}He based system is used to track the evolution of the time correlated signal created by a higher multiplying item within a reflective configuration such as the measurement of a spent fuel assembly. In this work we develop expressions for the GUFs which include signal build-up.

Croft, Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Evans, Louise G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schear, Melissa A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01

106

Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy in a Patient With Multiple Autoimmune Disorders and Hyperthyroidism  

PubMed Central

Takotsubo cardiomypathy is a very rare cardiovascular syndrome leading to myocardial infarction and left ventricular dysfunction in the absence of a detectable coronary artery lesion. It is accepted as reversible left ventricular asynergy occuring typically after an intrinsic adrenergic hyperstimulation. In this report we present Takotsubo cardiomyopathy in a 75-year-old patient with multiple autoimmune disorders. PMID:25478511

Ugurlucan, Murat; Zorman, Yilmaz; Ates, Gursel; Arslan, Ahmet H.; Yildiz, Yahya; Karahan Zor, Aysegul; Cicek, Sertac

2013-01-01

107

On Treating the Older Patient with Multiple Personality Disorder: “Race against Time” or “Make Haste Slowly?”  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple personality disorder (MPD) is recognized with increasing frequency in child and adult patients, but its discovery and its treatment in patients 60 and over remains rare. Eight MPD patients diagnosed between 60 and 72 years of age were treated. Affectively intense, hypnotically facilitated treatments that are successful in work with younger MPD patients are not always appropriate for the

Richard Kluft

1988-01-01

108

Multiple personality disorder in the courts: A review of the North American experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple personality disorder has increasingly been encountered in the forensic setting in North America over the past 20 years, in particular in relation to competency hearings and insanity defences. The particular legal problems that have arisen are reviewed, the most significant US cases and judicial decisions are explored, and their implications for issues of responsibility, individuality and punishment are discussed.

David James

1998-01-01

109

CHANGES IN IDENTITY AND SELF-ORGANIZATION IN PSYCHOTHERAPY OF MULTIPLE PERSONALITY DISORDER  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychotherapy is the treatment of choice for multiple personality disorder (MPD). Disaggregated identity and self-organization change as the past is reconsidered and the present is reconstructed in therapy. Methods for assessing these changes during treatment are described. A case illustration demonstrates how these findings related to core psychopathology and treatment issues.

VICTOR S. ALPHER

1992-01-01

110

Does the Mind Fall Apart in Multiple Personality Disorder? Some Proposals Based On a Psychoanalytic Case  

Microsoft Academic Search

A psychoanalytic study of some of the phenomena of multiple personality disorder (MPD), this paper takes issue with the view that a falling apart, fragmentation, or disaggregation of the mind is at the bottom of MPD's characteristic symptoms. Since first proposed by Janet in 1889, the view that ordinarily integrated parts of the mind separate from the center, accounting for

Richard M. Gottlieb

1997-01-01

111

Multiple Personality Disorder: Etiology, Treatment, and Treatment Techniques From a Psychodynamic Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Academic psychologists have moved away from psychoanalytic and psychodynamic explanations of human functioning and pathology and have instead embraced neuropsychology and cognitive science. This trend has kept many psychologists and researchers from more fully understanding some of the important phenomena they chose to investigate. One area about which psychologists can learn in the psychodynamic literature is multiple personality disorder (MPD).

Michael Wm. MacGregor

1996-01-01

112

From Dissociation to Negotiation: A Relational Psychoanalytic Perspective on Multiple Personality Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

A relational psychoanalytic model for conceptualizing the dynamics and treatment of multiple personality disorder (MPD) is presented, integrating trauma\\/dissociation theories with postclassical psychoanalytic perspectives. MPD is conceptualized as a chronic trauma syndrome and as a particular variation of narcissistic personality organization involving an overreliance on omnipotent defenses, the collapse of intersubjective experiencing and significant derailments of the developmental lines of

Harvey L. Schwartz

1994-01-01

113

Multiple Personality Disorder: A Risk Indicator, Diagnostic Marker and Psychiatric Outcome for Severe Child Abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies suggest that multiple personality disorder (MPD) is not as rare as previously believed. Indeed, it may represent a relatively common (as many as 25% of cases) outcome of severe physical and sexual abuse of children. Because diagnosis and treatment offer the best prognosis, it is important for the pediatric clinician to become familiar with both the at risk

Barbara Y. Whitman; Wayne Munkel

1991-01-01

114

Multiple personality disorder and the choice of self: Change factors in a brief therapy case  

Microsoft Academic Search

A person who identified herself as having a multiple personality disorder made remarkable changes after seven psychotherapeutic sessions and two batteries of tests, one on the alter. The case raises such problematic issues as the diagnosis of MPD, the unitary versus discrete theories and treatment of it, change factors in brief psychotherapy and for all psychotherapy, and the use of

Stephen A. Appelbaum

1996-01-01

115

Playing for Time: Temporizing Techniques in the Treatment of Multiple Personality Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The treatment of multiple personality disorder (MPD) is often a prolonged and grueling enterprise, which imposes taxing demands upon the therapist and the patient alike. It becomes quite important to pace the therapy, lest the already beleaguered patient become both acutely and chronically overwhelmed. The majority of the extant literature on the use of hypnosis for the treatment of MPD

Richard P. Kluft

1989-01-01

116

A comprehensive review of the literature and case study of multiple personality disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD) has been the focus of great controversy. Of keen interest in the early 1900's, its study soon after waned precipitously. So sharp was the decline that, until recently, the majority of clinicians gave it little credence. Currently, the literature has reported increasing numbers of such cases, along with varying degrees of success in its treatment.^ This

John Vincent Taliercio

1991-01-01

117

THE USE OF HEALING CEREMONIES IN THE TREATMENT OF MULTIPLE PERSONALITY DISORDER  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although talk therapy and abreactive work are crucial in the treat- ment of multiple personality disorder, these techniques do not always assist the client in &ringing closure to other exposed wounds. As a result, some patients continue to feel vulnerable and to doubt their ability to rid themselves of the anguish unleashed fry these uncov- ered memories. Such instances require

Joyce H. Vesper

118

THE EFFECT OF MULTIPLE PERSONALITY DISORDER ON ANESTHESIA: A CASE REPORT  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the context of studies on the psy chophysiological differences between alterpersonalities in patients with multiple personality disorder (MPD), a patient with diminished need for anesthetics, especially analgesics, during major surgery is described. Psychophysiologic study of MPD patients during anesthesia is recommended, as the relation between doses of medication and their effects can be directly assessed.

Nico Moleman; Jan B. F. Hulscher; Onno van der Hart; D. Nico Moleman; Gert L. Scheepstra

119

CONTEMPORARY INTEREST IN MULTIPLE PERSONALITY DISORDER AND CHILD ABUSE IN THE NETHERLANDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interest in multiple personality disorder (MPD) as well as sexual child abuse is rapidly growing in the Netherlands, perhaps more so than in otherEuropean countries. Clinical, theoretical, and research developments in these respects are outlined, and it is mentioned that patients stating that they have been victims of satanic cult abuse are also encountered in the Netherlands. The need fin-more

Onno van der Hart; D. Suzette Boon

120

Marital and Family Therapy in the Treatment of Multiple Personality Disorder.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores marital and family therapy in treatment of Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD), discussing role of family of origin in MPD development and role of nuclear family in its perpetuation. Suggests family and marital interventions, illustrating them with case examples. Proposes involving MPD client in marital or family therapy, in addition to…

Sachs, Roberta G.; And Others

1988-01-01

121

Systems of Selves: the Construction of Meaning in Multiple Personality Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current models for understanding both Multiple Personality Disorder and human mentation in general are both linear in nature and self-perpetuating insofar as most research in this area has been informed and shaped by extant psychological concepts, paradigms and methods. The research for this dissertation made use of anthropological concepts and methods in an attempt to gain a richer understanding of

Dureen Jean Hughes

1994-01-01

122

Preliminary Observations on Age Regression in Multiple Personality Disorder Patients before and after Integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of research data serendipitously revealed that 12 individuals treated successfully for multiple personality disorder (MPD) had undergone age regression procedures both before integration and after 27 months or more of apparently continuous integration. Subjective experiences and reports of historical events during these procedures often differed in the divided and integrated states. Age regression in firmly integrated patients did

Richard P. Kluft

1986-01-01

123

The Use of Hypnosis in a Deaf Patient with Multiple Personality Disorder: A Case Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the first report of multiple personality disorder (MPD) in a prelingually deaf patient and the first description of alter personalities as the source of auditory hallucinations in a nonpsychotic deaf person. This young woman's history and clinical symptoms of MPD did not differ from those of hearing patients. A hypnotic trance was induced by instructing the patient in

Elizabeth S. Bowman; Philip M. Coons

1990-01-01

124

Using Hypnotic Inquiry Protocols to Monitor Treatment Progress and Stability in Multiple Personality Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-two patients with multiple personality disorder (MPD), who had been integrated for a minimum of 27 months, were reassessed for the stability of their fusions, using a research hypnotic inquiry protocol. The occasional discovery of unsuspected alters or the persistence of alters believed fused led to the protocol's adaptation for monitoring clinical progress and stability. The technique and the patients'

Richard P. Kluft

1985-01-01

125

Autohypnotic Resolution of an Incipient Relapse in an Integrated Multiple Personality Disorder Patient: A Clinical Note  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autohypnotic techniques to monitor the stability of integration were taught to a newly integrated patient who had suffered multiple personality disorder. After 7 years of integration, the patient, in rapid succession, recovered a long-buried traumatic memory and witnessed an extremely upsetting event. Becoming aware of the incipient formation of a new personality to sequester these stressors, she used the autohypnotic

Richard P. Kluft

1988-01-01

126

Neurological manifestations of gastrointestinal disorders, with particular reference to the differential diagnosis of multiple sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

. Neurological manifestations of gastrointestinal disorders are described, with particular reference to those resembling multiple sclerosis (MS) on clinical or MRI grounds. Patients with celiac disease can present cerebellar ataxia, progressive myoclonic ataxia, myelopathy, or cerebral, brainstem and peripheral nerve involvement. Antigliadin antibodies can be found in subjects with neurological dysfunction of unknown cause, particularly in sporadic cerebellar ataxia (\\

A. Ghezzi; M. Zaffaroni

2001-01-01

127

Challenging behaviors among children with autism spectrum disorders and multiple disabilities attending special schools in Singapore  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study sought to understand the profile of and the factors which impact upon challenging behaviors among children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and multiple disabilities (MD). Teachers of 322 and 132 children with ASD and MD, respectively, attending special schools in Singapore, completed the Developmental Behavior Checklist, Teacher Version (DBC-T; Einfeld & Tonge, 1995). The findings suggest that children

Kenneth K. Poon; Jiaqing O

128

Pathogenetic model for Tourette syndrome delineates overlap with related neurodevelopmental disorders including Autism  

PubMed Central

Tourette syndrome (TS) is a highly heritable neuropsychiatric disorder characterised by motor and vocal tics. Despite decades of research, the aetiology of TS has remained elusive. Recent successes in gene discovery backed by rapidly advancing genomic technologies have given us new insights into the genetic basis of the disorder, but the growing collection of rare and disparate findings have added confusion and complexity to the attempts to translate these findings into neurobiological mechanisms resulting in symptom genesis. In this review, we explore a previously unrecognised genetic link between TS and a competing series of trans-synaptic complexes (neurexins (NRXNs), neuroligins (NLGNs), leucine-rich repeat transmembrane proteins (LRRTMs), leucine rich repeat neuronals (LRRNs) and cerebellin precursor 2 (CBLN2)) that links it with autism spectrum disorder through neurodevelopmental pathways. The emergent neuropathogenetic model integrates all five genes so far found to be uniquely disrupted in TS into a single pathogenetic chain of events described in context with clinical and research implications. PMID:22948383

Clarke, R A; Lee, S; Eapen, V

2012-01-01

129

RNA interference screening identifies lenalidomide sensitizers in multiple myeloma, including RSK2  

PubMed Central

To identify molecular targets that modify sensitivity to lenalidomide, we measured proliferation in multiple myeloma (MM) cells transfected with 27?968 small interfering RNAs in the presence of increasing concentrations of drug and identified 63 genes that enhance activity of lenalidomide upon silencing. Ribosomal protein S6 kinase (RPS6KA3 or RSK2) was the most potent sensitizer. Other notable gene targets included 5 RAB family members, 3 potassium channel proteins, and 2 peroxisome family members. Single genes of interest included I-?-B kinase-? (CHUK), and a phosphorylation dependent transcription factor (CREB1), which associate with RSK2 to regulate several signaling pathways. RSK2 knockdown induced cytotoxicity across a panel of MM cell lines and consistently increased sensitivity to lenalidomide. Accordingly, 3 small molecular inhibitors of RSK2 demonstrated synergy with lenalidomide cytotoxicity in MM cells even in the presence of stromal contact. Both RSK2 knockdown and small molecule inhibition downregulate interferon regulatory factor 4 and MYC, and provides an explanation for the synergy between lenalidomide and RSK2 inhibition. Interestingly, RSK2 inhibition also sensitized MM cells to bortezomib, melphalan, and dexamethasone, but did not downregulate Ikaros or influence lenalidomide-mediated downregulation of tumor necrosis factor-? or increase lenalidomide-induced IL-2 upregulation. In summary, inhibition of RSK2 may prove a broadly useful adjunct to MM therapy. PMID:25395420

Zhu, Yuan Xiao; Yin, Hongwei; Bruins, Laura A.; Shi, Chang-Xin; Jedlowski, Patrick; Aziz, Meraj; Sereduk, Chris; Kortuem, Klaus Martin; Schmidt, Jessica E.; Champion, Mia; Braggio, Esteban

2015-01-01

130

RNA interference screening identifies lenalidomide sensitizers in multiple myeloma, including RSK2.  

PubMed

To identify molecular targets that modify sensitivity to lenalidomide, we measured proliferation in multiple myeloma (MM) cells transfected with 27?968 small interfering RNAs in the presence of increasing concentrations of drug and identified 63 genes that enhance activity of lenalidomide upon silencing. Ribosomal protein S6 kinase (RPS6KA3 or RSK2) was the most potent sensitizer. Other notable gene targets included 5 RAB family members, 3 potassium channel proteins, and 2 peroxisome family members. Single genes of interest included I-?-B kinase-? (CHUK), and a phosphorylation dependent transcription factor (CREB1), which associate with RSK2 to regulate several signaling pathways. RSK2 knockdown induced cytotoxicity across a panel of MM cell lines and consistently increased sensitivity to lenalidomide. Accordingly, 3 small molecular inhibitors of RSK2 demonstrated synergy with lenalidomide cytotoxicity in MM cells even in the presence of stromal contact. Both RSK2 knockdown and small molecule inhibition downregulate interferon regulatory factor 4 and MYC, and provides an explanation for the synergy between lenalidomide and RSK2 inhibition. Interestingly, RSK2 inhibition also sensitized MM cells to bortezomib, melphalan, and dexamethasone, but did not downregulate Ikaros or influence lenalidomide-mediated downregulation of tumor necrosis factor-? or increase lenalidomide-induced IL-2 upregulation. In summary, inhibition of RSK2 may prove a broadly useful adjunct to MM therapy. PMID:25395420

Zhu, Yuan Xiao; Yin, Hongwei; Bruins, Laura A; Shi, Chang-Xin; Jedlowski, Patrick; Aziz, Meraj; Sereduk, Chris; Kortuem, Klaus Martin; Schmidt, Jessica E; Champion, Mia; Braggio, Esteban; Keith Stewart, A

2015-01-15

131

Zebrafish homologs of 16p11.2, a genomic region associated with brain disorders, are active during brain development, and include two deletion dosage sensor genes  

E-print Network

Deletion or duplication of one copy of the human 16p11.2 interval is tightly associated with impaired brain function, including autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), intellectual disability disorder (IDD) and other phenotypes, ...

Blaker-Lee, Alicia

132

Dubowitz Syndrome Is a Complex Comprised of Multiple, Genetically Distinct and Phenotypically Overlapping Disorders  

PubMed Central

Dubowitz syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by multiple congenital anomalies, cognitive delay, growth failure, an immune defect, and an increased risk of blood dyscrasia and malignancy. There is considerable phenotypic variability, suggesting genetic heterogeneity. We clinically characterized and performed exome sequencing and high-density array SNP genotyping on three individuals with Dubowitz syndrome, including a pair of previously-described siblings (Patients 1 and 2, brother and sister) and an unpublished patient (Patient 3). Given the siblings' history of bone marrow abnormalities, we also evaluated telomere length and performed radiosensitivity assays. In the siblings, exome sequencing identified compound heterozygosity for a known rare nonsense substitution in the nuclear ligase gene LIG4 (rs104894419, NM_002312.3:c.2440C>T) that predicts p.Arg814X (MAF:0.0002) and an NM_002312.3:c.613delT variant that predicts a p.Ser205Leufs*29 frameshift. The frameshift mutation has not been reported in 1000 Genomes, ESP, or ClinSeq. These LIG4 mutations were previously reported in the sibling sister; her brother had not been previously tested. Western blotting showed an absence of a ligase IV band in both siblings. In the third patient, array SNP genotyping revealed a de novo ?3.89 Mb interstitial deletion at chromosome 17q24.2 (chr 17:62,068,463–65,963,102, hg18), which spanned the known Carney complex gene PRKAR1A. In all three patients, a median lymphocyte telomere length of ?1st centile was observed and radiosensitivity assays showed increased sensitivity to ionizing radiation. Our work suggests that, in addition to dyskeratosis congenita, LIG4 and 17q24.2 syndromes also feature shortened telomeres; to confirm this, telomere length testing should be considered in both disorders. Taken together, our work and other reports on Dubowitz syndrome, as currently recognized, suggest that it is not a unitary entity but instead a collection of phenotypically similar disorders. As a clinical entity, Dubowitz syndrome will need continual re-evaluation and re-definition as its constituent phenotypes are determined. PMID:24892279

Stewart, Douglas R.; Pemov, Alexander; Johnston, Jennifer J.; Sapp, Julie C.; Yeager, Meredith; He, Ji; Boland, Joseph F.; Burdett, Laurie; Brown, Christina; Gatti, Richard A.; Alter, Blanche P.; Biesecker, Leslie G.; Savage, Sharon A.

2014-01-01

133

Dubowitz syndrome is a complex comprised of multiple, genetically distinct and phenotypically overlapping disorders.  

PubMed

Dubowitz syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by multiple congenital anomalies, cognitive delay, growth failure, an immune defect, and an increased risk of blood dyscrasia and malignancy. There is considerable phenotypic variability, suggesting genetic heterogeneity. We clinically characterized and performed exome sequencing and high-density array SNP genotyping on three individuals with Dubowitz syndrome, including a pair of previously-described siblings (Patients 1 and 2, brother and sister) and an unpublished patient (Patient 3). Given the siblings' history of bone marrow abnormalities, we also evaluated telomere length and performed radiosensitivity assays. In the siblings, exome sequencing identified compound heterozygosity for a known rare nonsense substitution in the nuclear ligase gene LIG4 (rs104894419, NM_002312.3:c.2440C>T) that predicts p.Arg814X (MAF:0.0002) and an NM_002312.3:c.613delT variant that predicts a p.Ser205Leufs*29 frameshift. The frameshift mutation has not been reported in 1000 Genomes, ESP, or ClinSeq. These LIG4 mutations were previously reported in the sibling sister; her brother had not been previously tested. Western blotting showed an absence of a ligase IV band in both siblings. In the third patient, array SNP genotyping revealed a de novo ? 3.89 Mb interstitial deletion at chromosome 17q24.2 (chr 17:62,068,463-65,963,102, hg18), which spanned the known Carney complex gene PRKAR1A. In all three patients, a median lymphocyte telomere length of ? 1st centile was observed and radiosensitivity assays showed increased sensitivity to ionizing radiation. Our work suggests that, in addition to dyskeratosis congenita, LIG4 and 17q24.2 syndromes also feature shortened telomeres; to confirm this, telomere length testing should be considered in both disorders. Taken together, our work and other reports on Dubowitz syndrome, as currently recognized, suggest that it is not a unitary entity but instead a collection of phenotypically similar disorders. As a clinical entity, Dubowitz syndrome will need continual re-evaluation and re-definition as its constituent phenotypes are determined. PMID:24892279

Stewart, Douglas R; Pemov, Alexander; Johnston, Jennifer J; Sapp, Julie C; Yeager, Meredith; He, Ji; Boland, Joseph F; Burdett, Laurie; Brown, Christina; Gatti, Richard A; Alter, Blanche P; Biesecker, Leslie G; Savage, Sharon A

2014-01-01

134

Experience of gratitude, awe and beauty in life among patients with multiple sclerosis and psychiatric disorders  

PubMed Central

Background Feelings of gratitude and awe facilitate perceptions and cognitions that go beyond the focus of illness and include positive aspects of one’s personal and interpersonal reality, even in the face of disease. We intended to measure feelings of gratitude, awe, and experiences of beauty in life among patients with multiple sclerosis and psychiatric disorders, particularly with respect to their engagement in specific spiritual/religious practices and their life satisfaction. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey with standardized questionnaires to measure engagement in various spiritual practices (SpREUK-P) and their relation to experiences of Gratitude, Awe and Beauty in Life and life satisfaction (BMLSS-10). In total, 461 individuals (41?±?13 years; 68% women) with multiple sclerosis (46%) and depressive (22%) or other psychiatric disorders (32%) participated. Results Among participants, 23% never, 43% rarely, 24% often, and 10% frequently experienced Gratitude. In contrast, 41% never, 37% rarely, 17% often, and 6% frequently experienced Awe. Beauty in Life was never experienced by 8% of the sample, and 28% rarely, 46% often, and 18% frequently experienced it. Gratitude (F?=?9.2; p?=?.003) and Beauty in Life (F?=?6.0; p?=?.015) were experienced significantly more often by women than men. However, the experience of Awe did not differ between women and men (F?=?2.2; n.s.). In contrast to our hypothesis, Gratitude/Awe cannot explain any relevant variance in patients’ life satisfaction (R2?=?.04). Regression analyses (R2?=?.42) revealed that Gratitude/Awe can be predicted best by a person’s engagement in religious practices, followed by other forms of spiritual practices and life satisfaction. Female gender was a weak predictor and underlying disease showed no effect. Conclusions Gratitude/Awe could be regarded as a life orientation towards noticing and appreciating the positive in life - despite the symptoms of disease. Positive spirituality/religiosity seems to be a source of gratitude and appreciation in life, whereas patients with neither spiritual nor religious sentiments (R-S-) seem to have a lower awareness for these feelings. PMID:24779860

2014-01-01

135

An olfactory-limbic model of multiple chemical sensitivity syndrome: Possible relationships to kindling and affective spectrum disorders  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews the clinical and experimental literature on patients with multiple adverse responses to chemicals (Multiple Chemical Sensitivity Syndrome-MCS) and develops a model for MCS based on olfactory-limbic system dysfunction that overlaps in part with Post's kindling model for affective disorders. MCS encompasses a broad range of chronic polysymptomatic conditions and complaints whose triggers are reported to include low levels of common indoor and outdoor environmental chemicals, such as pesticides and solvents. Other investigators have found evidence of increased prevalence of depression, anxiety, and somatization disorders in MCS patients and have concluded that their psychiatric conditions account for the clinical picture. However, none of these studies has presented any data on the effects of chemicals on symptoms or on objective measures of nervous system function. Synthesis of the MCS literature with large bodies of research in neurotoxicology, occupational medicine, and biological psychiatry, suggests that the phenomenology of MCS patients overlaps that of affective spectrum disorders and that both involve dysfunction of the limbic pathways. Animal studies demonstrate that intermittent repeated low level environmental chemical exposures, including pesticides, cause limbic kindling. Kindling (full or partial) is one central nervous system mechanism that could amplify reactivity to low levels of inhaled and ingested chemicals and initiate persistent affective, cognitive, and somatic symptomatology in both occupational and nonoccupational settings. As in animal studies, inescapable and novel stressors could cross-sensitize with chemical exposures in some individuals to generate adverse responses on a neurochemical basis. The olfactory-limbic model raises testable neurobiological hypotheses that could increase understanding of the multifactorial etiology of MCS and of certain overlapping affective spectrum disorders. 170 refs.

Bell, I.R.; Miller, C.S.; Schwartz, G.E. (Univ. of Arizona Health Sciences Center, Tucson (United States))

1992-08-01

136

Circadian rhythm sleep disorders in patients with multiple sclerosis and its association with fatigue: A case-control study  

PubMed Central

Background: Circadian rhythm sleep disorders are a presentation of sleep disorders in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). This study aims to compare this problem in MS patients with healthy people and to determine its association with chronic fatigue in MS patients. Materials and Methods: A case-control study was performed on 120 MS patients and 60 healthy subjects matched for age and sex, in 2009 in MS Clinic Alzahra Hospital. Sleep quality, rhythm and fatigue severity were assessed using PSQI (Pittsburgh sleep quality index) and FSS (Fatigue severity Scale) questionnaires, respectively. Its reliability and validity has been confirmed in several studies (Cronbach's alpha = 0.83). This index has seven sections including patient's assessment of his/her sleep, sleep duration, efficacy of routine sleep, sleep disorders, use of hypnotic medication, and dysfunction in daily activities. Results: Circadian rhythm sleep disorder was more frequent in MS patients relative to healthy subjects (P: 0.002). It was higher in MS patients with severe fatigue relative to MS patients with mild fatigue (P: 0.05). Fatigue severity was 49.9 ± 8.2 and 22.5 ± 7.4 in the first and second group, respectively. PSQI index was 7.9 ± 4.5 in patients with severe fatigue and 5.9 ± 4.5 in patients with mild fatigue and 4.5 ± 2.4 in the control group (P: 0.0001). Conclusion: Circadian rhythm sleep disorders are more frequent in MS patients and those with fatigue. Recognition and management of circadian rhythm sleep disorders in MS patients, especially those with fatigue may be helpful in improving care of these patients. PMID:23961292

Najafi, Mohammad Reza; Toghianifar, Nafiseh; Etemadifar, Masoud; Haghighi, Sepehr; Maghzi, Amir Hadi; Akbari, Mojtaba

2013-01-01

137

Systems of Selves: the Construction of Meaning in Multiple Personality Disorder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current models for understanding both Multiple Personality Disorder and human mentation in general are both linear in nature and self-perpetuating insofar as most research in this area has been informed and shaped by extant psychological concepts, paradigms and methods. The research for this dissertation made use of anthropological concepts and methods in an attempt to gain a richer understanding of both multiple personality and fundamental universal processes of the mind. Intensive fieldwork using in-depth, open-ended interviewing techniques was conducted with people diagnosed with Multiple Personality Disorder with the purpose of mapping their personality systems in order to discover the nature of the relationships between the various alternate personalities and subsystems comprising the overall personality systems. These data were then analyzed in terms of dynamical systems theory ("Chaos Theory") as a way of understanding various phenomena of multiple personality disorder as well as the overall structure of each system. It was found that the application of the formal characteristics of nonlinear models and equations to multiple personality systems provided a number of new perspectives on mental phenomena. The underlying organizational structure of multiple personality systems can be understood as a phenomenon of spontaneous self-organization in far-from -equilibrium states which characterizes dissipative structures. Chaos Theory allows the perspective that the nature of the process of the self and the nature of relationship are one and the same, and that both can be conceived as ideas in struggle at a fractal boundary. Further, such application makes it possible to postulate an iterative process which would have as one of its consequences the formation of a processural self who is conscious of self as separate self. Finally, given that the iterative application of a few simple rules (or instructions) can result in complex systems, an attempt was made to discern what the rules pertaining to human mentation might be.

Hughes, Dureen Jean

138

Dissociative disorders.  

PubMed

The dissociative disorders, including "psychogenic" or "functional" amnesia, fugue, dissociative identity disorder (DID, also known as multiple personality disorder), and depersonalization disorder, were once classified, along with conversion disorder, as forms of hysteria. The 1970s witnessed an "epidemic" of dissociative disorder, particularly DID, which may have reflected enthusiasm for the diagnosis more than its actual prevalence. Traditionally, the dissociative disorders have been attributed to trauma and other psychological stress, but the existing evidence favoring this hypothesis is plagued by poor methodology. Prospective studies of traumatized individuals reveal no convincing cases of amnesia not attributable to brain insult, injury, or disease. Treatment generally involves recovering and working through ostensibly repressed or dissociated memories of trauma; at present, there are few quantitative or controlled outcome studies. Experimental studies are few in number and have focused largely on state-dependent and implicit memory. Depersonalization disorder may be in line for the next "epidemic" of dissociation. PMID:17716088

Kihlstrom, John F

2005-01-01

139

Thermoelectric material including a multiple transition metal-doped type I clathrate crystal structure  

DOEpatents

A thermoelectric material includes a multiple transition metal-doped type I clathrate crystal structure having the formula A.sub.8TM.sub.y.sub.1.sup.1TM.sub.y.sub.2.sup.2 . . . TM.sub.y.sub.n.sup.nM.sub.zX.sub.46-y.sub.1.sub.-y.sub.2.sub.- . . . -y.sub.n.sub.-z. In the formula, A is selected from the group consisting of barium, strontium, and europium; X is selected from the group consisting of silicon, germanium, and tin; M is selected from the group consisting of aluminum, gallium, and indium; TM.sup.1, TM.sup.2, and TM.sup.n are independently selected from the group consisting of 3d, 4d, and 5d transition metals; and y.sub.1, y.sub.2, y.sub.n and Z are actual compositions of TM.sup.1, TM.sup.2, TM.sup.n, and M, respectively. The actual compositions are based upon nominal compositions derived from the following equation: z=8q.sub.A-|.DELTA.q.sub.1|y.sub.1-|.DELTA.q.sub.2|y.sub.2- . . . -|.DELTA.q.sub.n|y.sub.n, wherein q.sub.A is a charge state of A, and wherein .DELTA.q.sub.1, .DELTA.q.sub.2, .DELTA.q.sub.n are, respectively, the nominal charge state of the first, second, and n-th TM.

Yang, Jihui (Lakeshore, CA); Shi, Xun (Troy, MI); Bai, Shengqiang (Shanghai, CN); Zhang, Wenqing (Shanghai, CN); Chen, Lidong (Shanghai, CN); Yang, Jiong (Shanghai, CN)

2012-01-17

140

Transport theory for disordered multiple-band systems: Anomalous Hall effect and anisotropic magnetoresistance  

E-print Network

Transport theory for disordered multiple-band systems: Anomalous Hall effect and anisotropic magnetoresistance Alexey A. Kovalev,1,2 Yaroslav Tserkovnyak,1 Karel V?born?,3 and Jairo Sinova2,3 1Department of Physics and Astronomy, University... of California, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA 2Department of Physics, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843-4242, USA 3Institute of Physics, ASCR, Cukrovarnick? 10, 162 53 Praha 6, Czech Republic #1;Received 16 February 2009; revised...

Kovalev, Alexey A.; Tserkovnyak, Yaroslav; Vyborny, Karel; Sinova, Jairo.

2009-01-01

141

MULTIPLE PERSONALITY DISORDER AND SATANIC RITUAL ABUSE: THE ISSUE OF CREDIBILITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The issue of satanic ritual abuse has gained widespread public and professional attention in. the past 10 years. During therapy, many adult AMPI) (multiple personality disorder) patients describe memo- ries of .such abuse beginning in childhood..Simultaneou.sly, there are pre-school children reporting cnrrent incidents of sexual and physical abuse involving salanism in day care settings. Professionals specifi- cally addressing the day

Susan C. Van Benschoten

142

Bariatric Surgery and Multiple Personality Disorder: Complexities and Nuances of Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Multiple personality disorder (MPD) can occur in patients with morbid obesity in need of bariatric surgery, though\\u000a few reports noting this association exist in the literature. Herein we address MPD in morbid obesity, in the context of a\\u000a patient presenting to us seeking surgical treatment of her morbid obesity. Methods: A 31-year-old morbidly obese (BMI 49 kg\\/m2) Hispanic female

Mark Bloomston; Emmanuel E. Zervos; Pauline S. Powers; Alexander S. Rosemurgy

1997-01-01

143

Genetic Disorders of Membrane Transport II. Regulation of CFTR by small molecules including HCO3  

E-print Network

Physiol. 38): G1221­G1226, 1998.-- Cystic fibrosis (CF) affects a number of epithelial tissues, including as well as of intra- and extracellu- lar pH. cystic fibrosis; cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator; pharmacology; epithelial transport; chloride secre- tion CYSTIC FIBROSIS (CF) is the most common

Machen, Terry E.

144

Treatment of Comorbid Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Anxiety in Children : A Multiple Baseline Design Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The present study evaluated a 10-week psychosocial treatment designed specifically for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and a comorbid anxiety disorder. Method: Using a nonconcurrent multiple baseline design, the authors treated 8 children ages 8-12 with ADHD, combined type, and at least 1 of 3 major anxiety…

Jarrett, Matthew A.; Ollendick, Thomas H.

2012-01-01

145

76 FR 66006 - Revised Medical Criteria for Evaluating Congenital Disorders That Affect Multiple Body Systems  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the existence of non-mosaic Down syndrome and other congenital disorders...listing 110.06 for non-mosaic Down syndrome; and Make editorial changes...in 10.00A. 10.00A2 What is Down syndrome? Revised and included in...

2011-10-25

146

Overcoming the Diffraction Limit Using Multiple Light Scattering in a Highly Disordered Medium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report that disordered media made of randomly distributed nanoparticles can be used to overcome the diffraction limit of a conventional imaging system. By developing a method to extract the original image information from the multiple scattering induced by the turbid media, we dramatically increase a numerical aperture of the imaging system. As a result, the resolution is enhanced by more than 5 times over the diffraction limit, and the field of view is extended over the physical area of the camera. Our technique lays the foundation to use a turbid medium as a far-field superlens.

Choi, Youngwoon; Yang, Taeseok Daniel; Fang-Yen, Christopher; Kang, Pilsung; Lee, Kyoung Jin; Dasari, Ramachandra R.; Feld, Michael S.; Choi, Wonshik

2011-07-01

147

Overcoming the diffraction limit using multiple light scattering in a highly disordered medium.  

PubMed

We report that disordered media made of randomly distributed nanoparticles can be used to overcome the diffraction limit of a conventional imaging system. By developing a method to extract the original image information from the multiple scattering induced by the turbid media, we dramatically increase a numerical aperture of the imaging system. As a result, the resolution is enhanced by more than 5 times over the diffraction limit, and the field of view is extended over the physical area of the camera. Our technique lays the foundation to use a turbid medium as a far-field superlens. PMID:21797607

Choi, Youngwoon; Yang, Taeseok Daniel; Fang-Yen, Christopher; Kang, Pilsung; Lee, Kyoung Jin; Dasari, Ramachandra R; Feld, Michael S; Choi, Wonshik

2011-07-01

148

Overcoming the Diffraction Limit Using Multiple Light Scattering in a Highly Disordered Medium  

PubMed Central

We report that disordered media made of randomly distributed nanoparticles can be used to overcome the diffraction limit of a conventional imaging system. By developing a method to extract the original image information from the multiple scattering induced by the turbid media, we dramatically increase a numerical aperture of the imaging system. As a result, the the resolution is enhanced by more than five times over the diffraction limit and a field of view is extended over the physical area of the camera. Our technique lays the foundation to use a turbid medium as a far-field superlens. PMID:21797607

Choi, Youngwoon; Yang, Taeseok Daniel; Fang-Yen, Christopher; Kang, Pilsung; Lee, Kyoung Jin; Dasari, Ramachandra R.; Feld, Michael S.; Choi, Wonshik

2012-01-01

149

Analysis of the chromosome X exome in patients with autism spectrum disorders identified novel candidate genes, including TMLHE  

PubMed Central

The striking excess of affected males in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) suggests that genes located on chromosome X contribute to the etiology of these disorders. To identify new X-linked genes associated with ASD, we analyzed the entire chromosome X exome by next-generation sequencing in 12 unrelated families with two affected males. Thirty-six possibly deleterious variants in 33 candidate genes were found, including PHF8 and HUWE1, previously implicated in intellectual disability (ID). A nonsense mutation in TMLHE, which encodes the ?-N-trimethyllysine hydroxylase catalyzing the first step of carnitine biosynthesis, was identified in two brothers with autism and ID. By screening the TMLHE coding sequence in 501 male patients with ASD, we identified two additional missense substitutions not found in controls and not reported in databases. Functional analyses confirmed that the mutations were associated with a loss-of-function and led to an increase in trimethyllysine, the precursor of carnitine biosynthesis, in the plasma of patients. This study supports the hypothesis that rare variants on the X chromosome are involved in the etiology of ASD and contribute to the sex-ratio disequilibrium. PMID:23092983

Nava, C; Lamari, F; Héron, D; Mignot, C; Rastetter, A; Keren, B; Cohen, D; Faudet, A; Bouteiller, D; Gilleron, M; Jacquette, A; Whalen, S; Afenjar, A; Périsse, D; Laurent, C; Dupuits, C; Gautier, C; Gérard, M; Huguet, G; Caillet, S; Leheup, B; Leboyer, M; Gillberg, C; Delorme, R; Bourgeron, T; Brice, A; Depienne, C

2012-01-01

150

Phenotypic spectrum associated with PTCHD1 deletions and truncating mutations includes intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder.  

PubMed

Studies of genomic copy number variants (CNVs) have identified genes associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual disability (ID) such as NRXN1, SHANK2, SHANK3 and PTCHD1. Deletions have been reported in PTCHD1 however there has been little information available regarding the clinical presentation of these individuals. Herein we present 23 individuals with PTCHD1 deletions or truncating mutations with detailed phenotypic descriptions. The results suggest that individuals with disruption of the PTCHD1 coding region may have subtle dysmorphic features including a long face, prominent forehead, puffy eyelids and a thin upper lip. They do not have a consistent pattern of associated congenital anomalies or growth abnormalities. They have mild to moderate global developmental delay, variable degrees of ID, and many have prominent behavioral issues. Over 40% of subjects have ASD or ASD-like behaviors. The only consistent neurological findings in our cohort are orofacial hypotonia and mild motor incoordination. Our findings suggest that hemizygous PTCHD1 loss of function causes an X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder with a strong propensity to autistic behaviors. Detailed neuropsychological studies are required to better define the cognitive and behavioral phenotype. PMID:25131214

Chaudhry, A; Noor, A; Degagne, B; Baker, K; Bok, L A; Brady, A F; Chitayat, D; Chung, B H; Cytrynbaum, C; Dyment, D; Filges, I; Helm, B; Hutchison, H T; Jeng, L J B; Laumonnier, F; Marshall, C R; Menzel, M; Parkash, S; Parker, M J; Raymond, L F; Rideout, A L; Roberts, W; Rupps, R; Schanze, I; Schrander-Stumpel, C T R M; Speevak, M D; Stavropoulos, D J; Stevens, S J C; Thomas, E R A; Toutain, A; Vergano, S; Weksberg, R; Scherer, S W; Vincent, J B; Carter, M T

2014-08-14

151

Comorbid anxiety in bipolar disorder  

PubMed Central

Objective Comorbid anxiety disorder is reported to increase suicidality in bipolar disorder. However, studies of the impact of anxiety disorders on suicidal behavior in mood disorders have shown mixed results. The presence of personality disorders, often comorbid with anxiety and bipolar disorders, may explain these inconsistencies. This study examined the impact of comorbid Cluster B personality disorder and anxiety disorder on suicidality in bipolar disorder. Methods A total of 116 depressed bipolar patients with and without lifetime anxiety disorder were compared. Multiple regression analysis tested the association of comorbid anxiety disorder with past suicide attempts and severity of suicidal ideation, adjusting for the effect of Cluster B personality disorder. The specific effect of panic disorder was also explored. Results Bipolar patients with and without anxiety disorders did not differ in the rate of past suicide attempt. Suicidal ideation was less severe in those with anxiety disorders. In multiple regression analysis, anxiety disorder was not associated with past suicide attempts or with the severity of suicidal ideation, whereas Cluster B personality disorder was associated with both. The results were comparable when comorbid panic disorder was examined. Conclusions Comorbid Cluster B personality disorder appears to exert a stronger influence on suicidality than comorbid anxiety disorder in persons with bipolar disorder. Assessment of suicide risk in patients with bipolar disorder should include evaluation and treatment of Cluster B psychopathology. PMID:18452449

Nakagawa, Atsuo; Grunebaum, Michael F; Sullivan, Gregory M; Currier, Dianne; Ellis, Steven P; Burke, Ainsley K; Brent, David A; Mann, J John; Oquendo, Maria A

2009-01-01

152

Multiple emergences of genetically diverse amphibian-infecting chytrids include a globalized hypervirulent recombinant lineage  

PubMed Central

Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is a globally ubiquitous fungal infection that has emerged to become a primary driver of amphibian biodiversity loss. Despite widespread effort to understand the emergence of this panzootic, the origins of the infection, its patterns of global spread, and principle mode of evolution remain largely unknown. Using comparative population genomics, we discovered three deeply diverged lineages of Bd associated with amphibians. Two of these lineages were found in multiple continents and are associated with known introductions by the amphibian trade. We found that isolates belonging to one clade, the global panzootic lineage (BdGPL) have emerged across at least five continents during the 20th century and are associated with the onset of epizootics in North America, Central America, the Caribbean, Australia, and Europe. The two newly identified divergent lineages, Cape lineage (BdCAPE) and Swiss lineage (BdCH), were found to differ in morphological traits when compared against one another and BdGPL, and we show that BdGPL is hypervirulent. BdGPL uniquely bears the hallmarks of genomic recombination, manifested as extensive intergenomic phylogenetic conflict and patchily distributed heterozygosity. We postulate that contact between previously genetically isolated allopatric populations of Bd may have allowed recombination to occur, resulting in the generation, spread, and invasion of the hypervirulent BdGPL leading to contemporary disease-driven losses in amphibian biodiversity. PMID:22065772

Farrer, Rhys A.; Weinert, Lucy A.; Bielby, Jon; Garner, Trenton W. J.; Balloux, Francois; Clare, Frances; Bosch, Jaime; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Weldon, Che; du Preez, Louis H.; Anderson, Lucy; Pond, Sergei L. Kosakovsky; Shahar-Golan, Revital; Henk, Daniel A.; Fisher, Matthew C.

2011-01-01

153

The Cost Savings of Expanding Medicaid Eligibility to Include Currently Uninsured Homeless Adults with Substance Use Disorders  

PubMed Central

Following the June 2012 Supreme Court ruling that states are no longer mandated to expand their Medicaid programs in 2014 as part of the Affordable Care Act, many states plan to opt out of the expansion, citing affordability as their primary concern. In response to this controversy, the present study evaluated the cost savings of expanding Medicaid coverage to include currently ineligible homeless adults with substance use disorders, a subset of the population that incurs some of the greatest societal costs and is disproportionately impacted by uninsurance. Using a time horizon of 7 years, separate analyses were conducted for state and federal governments, and then a final analysis evaluated the combined costs for the other two models. Results of the study demonstrate that, although the expansion will be associated with a net cost when combining state and federal expenses and savings, states will experience tremendous savings if they choose to participate. PMID:24198085

Zur, Julia; Mojtabai, Ramin; Li, Suhui

2013-01-01

154

Identification of Multiple Novel Viruses, Including a Parvovirus and a Hepevirus, in Feces of Red Foxes  

PubMed Central

Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) are the most widespread members of the order of Carnivora. Since they often live in (peri)urban areas, they are a potential reservoir of viruses that transmit from wildlife to humans or domestic animals. Here we evaluated the fecal viral microbiome of 13 red foxes by random PCR in combination with next-generation sequencing. Various novel viruses, including a parvovirus, bocavirus, adeno-associated virus, hepevirus, astroviruses, and picobirnaviruses, were identified. PMID:23616657

van der Giessen, Joke; Haagmans, Bart L.; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.; Smits, Saskia L.

2013-01-01

155

Simulation of multiple personalities: a review of research comparing diagnosed and simulated dissociative identity disorder.  

PubMed

Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) has long been surrounded by controversy due to disagreement about its etiology and the validity of its associated phenomena. Researchers have conducted studies comparing people diagnosed with DID and people simulating DID in order to better understand the disorder. The current research presents a systematic review of this DID simulation research. The literature consists of 20 studies and contains several replicated findings. Replicated differences between the groups include symptom presentation, identity presentation, and cognitive processing deficits. Replicated similarities between the groups include interidentity transfer of information as shown by measures of recall, recognition, and priming. Despite some consistent findings, this research literature is hindered by methodological flaws that reduce experimental validity. PMID:24291657

Boysen, Guy A; VanBergen, Alexandra

2014-02-01

156

Statistical Analysis of EMIC Waves in Multiple Component Plasma Including Heavy Ions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well known that Earth's radiation belts are located around geomagnetic equator, where wide ranges of energetic particles from several hundred keV to several tens MeV are contained. According to the recent study, it is suggested that ELF/VLF waves such as EMIC waves and chorus emissions deeply contribute to the generation and loss mechanism of relativistic electrons in the radiation belt. The ERG mission[1] is expected to provide important clues for solving plasma dynamics in the Earth's radiation belts by means of integrated observation of wide energy range of plasma particles and high resolution plasma waves. On the other hand, long-term observation data which covers over 2 cycles of solar activity obtained by the Akebono satellite is very valuable to work out the strategy of the ERG mission. The ELF receiver, which is a sub-system of the VLF instruments onboard Akebono, measures waveforms below 50 Hz for one component of electric field and three components of magnetic field, or waveforms below 100 Hz for one component of electric and magnetic field, respectively. It was reported that ion cyclotron waves were observed near magnetic equator by the receiver[2]. In our previous study[3], we introduced four events of characteristic EMIC waves observed by Akebono in April, 1989. These waves have sudden decrease of intensity just above half of proton cyclotron frequency changing along the trajectories of Akebono. Comparing the observed data with the dispersion relation in multiple species of ions under cold plasma approximation, we demonstrate that a few percent of 'M / Z = 2 ions (M = mass of ions, Z = charge of ions)' such as alpha particles (He++) or deuterons (D+) cause such characteristic attenuation of EMIC at lower hybrid frequency. In the present study, we performed polarization analysis and direction finding of the waves. It was found that these EMIC waves were left-handed polarized in the higher frequency part, while the polarization gradually changes to linear and finally to right-handed in the lower frequency part of the waves. In general, cross-over frequency, at which EMIC wave undergoes polarization reversal, appears if more than two kinds of ions are coexisted in the plasma. It was demonstrated that the observed cross-over frequencies were a little higher than the ones where sudden attenuation occurring at approximately half of proton cyclotron frequency. The wave normal vectors were analyzed using Means' method[4]. It was found that the wave normal directions of these EMIC waves were close to 90 degrees against the geomagnetic field lines. Consequently, these results strongly support existence of 'M / Z = 2 ions' during this event. In other words, dispersion relation does not satisfy the observed EMIC wave if we only consider major ion constituents in the plasma. In order to investigate the generality of such minor ion existence, we picked up approximately 100 characteristic events from long-term observation data obtained by Akebono. We will also discuss more detailed analysis about several events, as well as statistical data analysis.

Matsuda, S.; Kasahara, Y.; Goto, Y.

2013-12-01

157

Relationship between Temporomandibular Disorders, Widespread Palpation Tenderness and Multiple Pain Conditions: A Case - Control Study  

PubMed Central

The multiple bodily pain conditions in temporomandibular disorders (TMD) have been associated with generalized alterations in pain processing. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the presence of widespread body palpation tenderness (WPT) and the likelihood of multiple comorbid pain conditions in TMD patients and controls. This case-control study was conducted in 76 TMD subjects with WPT, 83 TMD subjects without WPT, and 181 non-TMD matched control subjects. The study population was also characterized for clinical pain, experimental pain sensitivity, and related psychological phenotypes. Results showed that (1) TMD subjects reported an average of 1.7 comorbid pain conditions compared to 0.3 reported by the control subjects (p<0.001); (2) Compared to control subjects, the odds ratio (OR) for multiple comorbid pain conditions is higher for TMD subjects with WPT [OR 8.4 (95% CI 3.1–22.8) for TMD with WPT versus OR 3.3 (95% CI 1.3–8.4) for TMD without WPT]; (3) TMD subjects with WPT presented with reduced pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) in both cranial and extra-cranial regions compared to TMD subjects without WPT; and (4) TMD subjects with WPT reported increased somatic symptoms. These findings suggest that pain assessment outside of the orofacial region may prove valuable for the classification, diagnosis, and management of TMD patients. PMID:23031401

Chen, Hong; Slade, Gary; Lim, Pei Feng; Miller, Vanessa; Maixner, William; Diatchenko, Luda

2012-01-01

158

Expanding multiple marker screening for Down's syndrome to include Edward's syndrome.  

PubMed

Information on maternal age and maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein, unconjugated oestriol (uE3), and human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) levels was used to investigate retrospectively the effect of estimating Edward's syndrome risk in women having multi-marker screening for Down's syndrome. The screened population comprised 15 pregnancies affected by Edward's syndrome, 15 with Down's syndrome and 5472 unaffected pregnancies. The use of all three markers to estimate Edward's syndrome risk would have led to the detection of 10-12 (67-80 per cent) cases with a false-positive rate of 0.3-0.6 per cent depending on the risk cut-off. A further case would have been detected as a result of screening for Down's syndrome alone. Similar results were obtained when the Edward's syndrome risk was based on uE3 and hCG only. These data suggest that extending Down's syndrome screening to include Edward's syndrome risk will yield a high detection rate with only a small increase in the false-positive rate. PMID:7506408

Barkai, G; Goldman, B; Ries, L; Chaki, R; Zer, T; Cuckle, H

1993-09-01

159

Rugulactone and its analogues exert antibacterial effects through multiple mechanisms including inhibition of thiamine biosynthesis.  

PubMed

Rugulactone is a dihydro-?-pyrone isolated from the plant Cryptocarya rugulosa in 2009. It has been reported to display IkB kinase (IKK) inhibitory activity, as well as antibiotic activity in several strains of pathogenic bacteria. However, its biological targets and mode of action in bacteria have not yet been explored. Here we present enantioselective syntheses of rugulactone and of some corresponding activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) probes. We found that the ABPP probes in this study are more potent than rugulactone against Staphyloccocus aureus NCTC 8325, S. aureus Mu50, Listeria welshimeri SLCC 5334 and Listeria monocytogenes EGD-e, and that molecules of this class probably exert their antibacterial effect through a combination of targets. These targets include covalent inhibition of 4-amino-5-hydroxymethyl-2-methylpyrimidine phosphate (HMPP) kinase (ThiD), which is an essential component of the thiamine biosynthesis pathway in bacteria. This represents the first example of a small-molecule inhibitor of ThiD. PMID:22653914

Nodwell, Matthew B; Menz, Helge; Kirsch, Stefan F; Sieber, Stephan A

2012-07-01

160

Manual for the psychotherapeutic treatment of acute and post-traumatic stress disorders following multiple shocks from implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD)  

PubMed Central

Background: In view of the increasing number of implanted cardioverter defibrillators (ICD), the number of people suffering from so-called “multiple ICD shocks” is also increasing. The delivery of more than five shocks (appropriate or inappropriate) in 12 months or three or more shocks (so called multiple shocks) in a short time period (24 hours) leads to an increasing number of patients suffering from severe psychological distress (anxiety disorder, panic disorder, adjustment disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder). Untreated persons show chronic disease processes and a low rate of spontaneous remission and have an increased morbidity and mortality. Few papers have been published concerning the psychotherapeutic treatment for these patients. Objective: The aim of this study is to develop a psychotherapeutic treatment for patients with a post-traumatic stress disorder or adjustment disorder after multiple ICD shocks. Design: Explorative feasibility study: Treatment of 22 patients as a natural design without randomisation and without control group. The period of recruitment was three years, from March 2007 to March 2010. The study consisted of two phases: in the first phase (pilot study) we tested different components and dosages of psychotherapeutic treatments. The final intervention programme is presented in this paper. In the second phase (follow-up study) we assessed the residual post-traumatic stress symptoms in these ICD patients. The time between treatment and follow-up measurement was 12 to 30 months. Population: Thirty-one patients were assigned to the Department of Psychocardiology after multiple shocks. The sample consisted of 22 patients who had a post-traumatic stress disorder or an adjustment disorder and were willing and able to participate. They were invited for psychological treatment. 18 of them could be included into the follow-up study. Methods: After the clinical assessment at the beginning and at the end of the inpatient treatment a post-treatment assessment with questionnaires followed. In this follow-up measurement, minimum 12 months after inpatient treatment, posttraumatic stress was assessed using the “Impact of Event Scale” (IES-R). Setting: Inpatient treatment in a large Heart and Thorax Centre with a Department of Psychocardiology (Kerckhoff Heart Centre). Results: From the 18 patients in the follow-up study no one reported complaints of PTSD. 15 of them reported a high or even a very high decrease of anxiety and avoidance behaviour. Conclusions: The fist step of the treatment development seems to be successful. It shows encouraging results with an acceptable dosage. The second step of our work is in process now: we evaluate the treatment manual within other clinical institutions and a higher number of psychotherapists. This leads in the consequence to a controlled and randomised comparison study. PMID:24403967

Jordan, Jochen; Titscher, Georg; Peregrinova, Ludmila; Kirsch, Holger

2013-01-01

161

Joint source based analysis of multiple brain structures in studying major depressive disorder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a joint Source-Based Analysis (jSBA) framework to identify brain structural variations in patients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). In this framework, features representing position, orientation and size (i.e. pose), shape, and local tissue composition are extracted. Subsequently, simultaneous analysis of these features within a joint analysis method is performed to generate the basis sources that show signi cant di erences between subjects with MDD and those in healthy control. Moreover, in a cross-validation leave- one-out experiment, we use a Fisher Linear Discriminant (FLD) classi er to identify individuals within the MDD group. Results show that we can classify the MDD subjects with an accuracy of 76% solely based on the information gathered from the joint analysis of pose, shape, and tissue composition in multiple brain structures.

Ramezani, Mahdi; Rasoulian, Abtin; Hollenstein, Tom; Harkness, Kate; Johnsrude, Ingrid; Abolmaesumi, Purang

2014-03-01

162

Bleeding and thrombosis in multiple myeloma and related plasma cell disorders.  

PubMed

A variety of disease- and treatment-related factors affect the coagulation system and the risk of bleeding and thrombotic complications in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) and related plasma cell disorders (PCD). As commonly observed in other cancer settings, the malignant clone induces a cytokine environment responsible for a hypercoagulable state. The increase of blood viscosity and impairment of platelet and coagulation function due to circulating monoclonal proteins are considered key mechanisms in the hemostatic abnormalities frequently detected in patients with PCD. However, clinically significant bleeding is relatively rare and poorly correlated with these abnormalities. Management is often challenging because of the multifactorial pathogenesis and underestimation or misdiagnosis of acquired bleeding disorders, particularly acquired von Willebrand syndrome. In recent years, growing interest in thromboembolic risk has emerged after the introduction of novel and more effective antimyeloma agents (thalidomide and lenalidomide), which was associated with increased risk of venous thromboembolism, particularly when associated with dexamethasone and multiagent chemotherapy in newly diagnosed patients. The clinical impact of bleeding and thrombotic complications in patients with PCD, with emphasis on MM, will be discussed in this review, reporting the current knowledge about pathophysiologic mechanisms and implications for management. PMID:22198858

Coppola, Antonio; Tufano, Antonella; Di Capua, Mirko; Franchini, Massimo

2011-11-01

163

Anxiety Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The psychiatric disorders that are designated as anxiety disorders include the specific diagnoses of panic disorder with and\\u000a without agoraphobia, agoraphobia without history of panic disorder, specific phobia, social phobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder\\u000a (OCD), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), acute stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), anxiety disorder due\\u000a to a general medical condition, substance-induced anxiety disorder, and anxiety disorder not otherwise

Julie Loebach Wetherell; Ariel J. Lang; Murray B. Stein

164

AD synapses contain abundant A? monomer and multiple soluble oligomers, including a 56-kDa assembly.  

PubMed

Much evidence indicates that soluble amyloid beta (A?) oligomers are key mediators of early cognitive loss, but the localization and key peptide species remain unclear. We have used flow cytometry analysis to demonstrate that surviving Alzheimer's disease (AD) synapses accumulate both A? and phosphorylated tau (p-tau). The present experiments use peptide-specific X-map assays and Western blot analyses to identify the A? peptide species in synaptosome-enriched samples from normal human subjects, neurologic controls, and AD cases. A?40 peptide levels did not vary, but both A?42 and A? oligomers were increased in soluble AD extracts, with oligomer levels 20-fold higher in aqueous compared with detergent extracts. In Western blot analysis, a ladder of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-stable oligomers was observed in AD cases, varying in size from monomer, the major peptide observed, to larger assemblies up to about 200 kDa and larger. Multiple oligomers, including monomer, small oligomers, a 56-kDa assembly, and amyloid precursor protein (APP) were correlated with the A? level measured in flow cytometry-purified synaptosomes. These results suggest that multiple amyloid precursor protein processing pathways are active in AD synapses and multiple soluble oligomeric assemblies may contribute to synaptic dysfunction. PMID:21741125

Sokolow, Sophie; Henkins, Kristen M; Bilousova, Tina; Miller, Carol A; Vinters, Harry V; Poon, Wayne; Cole, Gregory M; Gylys, Karen Hoppens

2012-08-01

165

Multiple Channel Exposure Therapy: Combining Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies for the Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder with Panic Attacks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A large proportion of patients who present for treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) experience comorbid panic attacks, yet it is unclear to what extent currently available PTSD treatment programs address this problem. Here we describe a newly developed treatment, multiple-channel exposure therapy (M-CET), for comorbid PTSD and panic…

Falsetti, Sherry A.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Davis, Joanne

2005-01-01

166

Splitting Phenomena from a Viewpoint of Experiencing Time: Spectrum from Multiple Personality and Hysteria to Borderline Personality Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Splitting is defined from a viewpoint of experiencing time as an ‘episodic loss or sudden shift of experiencing time induced by two opposing representational groups’. According to this definition splitting phenomena are examined in four cases arranged on a spectrum from multiple personality and hysteria to borderline personality disorder (BPD). The degree of splitting was most prominent in BPD. In

Hideshi Shoda

1993-01-01

167

Multiple recurrent de novo copy number variations (CNVs), including duplications of the 7q11.23 Williams-Beuren syndrome region, are strongly associated with autism  

PubMed Central

Summary Given prior evidence for the contribution of rare copy number variations (CNVs) to autism spectrum disorders (ASD), we studied these events in 4,457 individuals from 1,174 simplex families, composed of parents, a proband and, in most kindreds, an unaffected sibling. We find significant association of ASD with de novo duplications of 7q11.23, where the reciprocal deletion causes Williams-Beuren syndrome, featuring a highly social personality. We identify rare recurrent de novo CNVs at five additional regions including two novel ASD loci, 16p13.2 (including the genes USP7 and C16orf72) and Cadherin13, and implement a rigorous new approach to evaluating the statistical significance of these observations. Overall, we find large de novo CNVs carry substantial risk (OR=3.55; CI =2.16-7.46, p=6.9 × 10?6); estimate the presence of 130-234 distinct ASD-related CNV intervals across the genome; and, based on data from multiple studies, present compelling evidence for the association of rare de novo events at 7q11.23, 15q11.2-13.1, 16p11.2, and Neurexin1. PMID:21658581

Sanders, Stephan J.; Ercan-Sencicek, A. Gulhan; Hus, Vanessa; Luo, Rui; Murtha, Michael T.; Moreno-De-Luca, Daniel; Chu, Su H.; Moreau, Michael P.; Gupta, Abha R.; Thomson, Susanne A.; Mason, Christopher E.; Bilguvar, Kaya; Celestino-Soper, Patricia B. S.; Choi, Murim; Crawford, Emily L.; Davis, Lea; Wright, Nicole R. Davis; Dhodapkar, Rahul M.; DiCola, Michael; DiLullo, Nicholas M.; Fernandez, Thomas V.; Fielding-Singh, Vikram; Fishman, Daniel O.; Frahm, Stephanie; Garagaloyan, Rouben; Goh, Gerald S.; Kammela, Sindhuja; Klei, Lambertus; Lowe, Jennifer K.; Lund, Sabata C.; McGrew, Anna D.; Meyer, Kyle A.; Moffat, William J.; Murdoch, John D.; O'Roak, Brian J.; Ober, Gordon T.; Pottenger, Rebecca S.; Raubeson, Melanie J.; Song, Youeun; Wang, Qi; Yaspan, Brian L.; Yu, Timothy W.; Yurkiewicz, Ilana R.; Beaudet, Arthur L.; Cantor, Rita M.; Curland, Martin; Grice, Dorothy E.; Günel, Murat; Lifton, Richard P.; Mane, Shrikant M.; Martin, Donna M.; Shaw, Chad A.; Sheldon, Michael; Tischfield, Jay A.; Walsh, Christopher A.; Morrow, Eric M.; Ledbetter, David H.; Fombonne, Eric; Lord, Catherine; Martin, Christa Lese; Brooks, Andrew I.; Sutcliffe, James S.; Cook, Edwin H.; Geschwind, Daniel; Roeder, Kathryn; Devlin, Bernie; State, Matthew W.

2014-01-01

168

High prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection in autoimmune disorders such as psoriasis and in chronic respiratory diseases, including lung cancer.  

PubMed

The early diagnosis and treatment of individuals harboring M. tuberculosis is key to ensuring the effectiveness of health programs aimed at the elimination of tuberculosis (TB). Monitoring for TB also has other important health care implications for the related immune pathology caused by the chronic inflammatory response to M. tuberculosis. Moreover, the recent introduction of biologic therapies for the treatment of several immune-mediated inflammatory diseases has shown unexpected high frequencies of reactivation of latent TB. The present cross-sectional study is aimed at estimating the prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in different groups of subjects, either undergoing a routine program of screening for TB or a clinical monitoring of autoimmune or lung disorders, by analyzing their immune response in vitro to a pool of different M. tuberculosis antigens through an IFN-gamma-release assay (IGRA). We consecutively tested 1,644 subjects including health care workers (931), healthy immigrants from different countries (93), patients with a diagnosis of psoriasis (405), patients with lung inflammatory disease (60) or lung neoplasia (32) and a group of HIV-1 infected Italian subjects (120). The prevalence of IGRAs positive responses among health care workers was 8.9 percent. In comparison, significantly higher frequencies were found in healthy immigrant subjects (33.3%), similar to those found in inflammatory broncho-pneumopathies (34.5%) or lung cancer (29.6%). Interestingly, an unexpected high prevalence was also found in patients affected by psoriasis (18.0%), while HIV-infected subjects had values comparable to those of health care workers (10.8%). An age cut-off was determined and applied for each group by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves in order to perform the statistical analysis among age-comparable groups. Multivariate analysis showed that the age and clinical conditions such as having a diagnosis of psoriasis or a lung inflammatory disease were independent risk factors for developing an IGRA positive response. This study highlights an unprecedented high prevalence of IGRA positive responses among patients affected by psoriasis and emphasizes the need for a preliminary assessment of LTBI before the administration of any biologic therapy based on cytokine antagonists such as anti-TNF-alpha. Moreover, screening for LTBI should be routinely performed in the presence of a chronic pulmonary disease. PMID:21880210

Bordignon, V; Bultrini, S; Prignano, G; Sperduti, I; Piperno, G; Bonifati, C; Filippetti, M; Toma, L; Latini, A; Di Cecio, M; Giuliani, A; Vocaturo, A; Trento, E; D' Agosto, G; Francesconi, F; Cataldo, A; Vento, A; Cilenti, V; Berardesca, E; Ameglio, F; Cordiali Fei, P; Ensoli, F

2011-01-01

169

Periventricular Lesions Help Differentiate Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorders from Multiple Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Objective. To compare periventricular lesions in multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOsd). Materials and Methods. Sagittal and axial fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequences of 20 NMOsd and 40 group frequency-matched MS patients were evaluated by two neuroradiologists. On axial FLAIR, periventricular area was characterized as free of lesions/smooth-bordered (“type A”) or jagged-bordered (“type B”) pattern. On sagittal FLAIR, the images were evaluated for presence of “Dawson's fingers.” Results. Type A pattern was observed in 80% of NMOsd patients by Reader 1 and 85% by Reader 2 but only in 5% MS patients by either Reader. Type B was seen in 15% NMOsd patients by Reader 1 and 20% by Reader 2 and in 95% MS patients by either Reader. Dawson's fingers were observed in no NMOsd patients by Reader 1 and 5% by Reader 2. In MS, Dawson's fingers were seen in 92.5% patients by Reader 1 and 77.5% by Reader 2. The differences in periventricular patterns and Dawson's finger detection between NMOsd and MS were highly significant (P < 0.001). Conclusions. Dawson's fingers and “jagged-bordered” periventricular hyperintensities are typical of MS and almost never seen in NMOsd, which suggests a practical method for differentiating the two diseases. PMID:24665366

Loh, John P.; Saba, Luca; Omari, Mirza; Herbert, Joseph; Kister, Ilya

2014-01-01

170

Exploring the Social Impact of Being a Typical Peer Model for Included Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the social impact of being a typical peer model as part of a social skills intervention for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants were drawn from a randomized-controlled-treatment trial that examined the effects of targeted interventions on the social networks of 60 elementary-aged children with ASD.…

Locke, Jill; Rotheram-Fuller, Erin; Kasari, Connie

2012-01-01

171

17. Immunologic endocrine disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immune-mediated tissue destruction or disregulation is the cause of multiple common, as well as rare, endocrine disorders including type 1 diabetes, Graves' disease, Hashimoto thyroiditis, and Addison's disease. Each of these disorders can be divided into a series of stages beginning with genetic susceptibility, environmental triggering events, and active autoimmunity, followed by metabolic abnormalities with overt disease. Common genetic susceptibility

Devasenan Devendra; George S. Eisenbarth

2003-01-01

172

A nonlinear model for fluid flow in a multiple-zone composite reservoir including the quadratic gradient term  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on material balance and Darcy's law, the governing equation with the quadratic pressure gradient term was deduced. Then the nonlinear model for fluid flow in a multiple-zone composite reservoir including the quadratic gradient term was established and solved using a Laplace transform. A series of standard log-log type curves of 1-zone (homogeneous), 2-zone and 3-zone reservoirs were plotted and nonlinear flow characteristics were analysed. The type curves governed by the coefficient of the quadratic gradient term (?) gradually deviate from those of a linear model with time elapsing. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were implemented to compare the solutions of the linear and nonlinear models. The results showed that differences of pressure transients between the linear and nonlinear models increase with elapsed time and ?. At the end, a successful application of the theoretical model data against the field data shows that the nonlinear model will be a good tool to evaluate formation parameters more accurately.

Wang, Xiao-Lu; Fan, Xiang-Yu; He, Yong-Ming; Nie, Ren-Shi; Huang, Quan-Hua

2013-08-01

173

Suicide, Hospital-Presenting Suicide Attempts, and Criminality in Bipolar Disorder: Examination of Risk for Multiple Adverse Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare risks for suicidality and criminality in a national cohort of people diagnosed with bipolar disorder, and to assess how risk factor profiles differ between these outcomes. Method We conducted 2 case-cohort studies using interlinked Swedish national registers. Primarily, using International Classification of Diseases (ICD) coding, we identified 15,337 people diagnosed with bipolar disorder, 1973–2009, matched by age and gender to 20 individuals per case sampled randomly from the general population. We estimated risks of suicide and hospital-presenting attempted suicide, and violent and nonviolent criminal offending. We separately assessed these risks among 14,677 unaffected siblings matched to a second general population sample. Results 22.2% of bipolar disorder cohort members engaged in suicidal or criminal acts after diagnosis. They were at greatly elevated risk for completed suicide (risk ratio = 18.8; 95% CI, 16.0–22.2), attempted suicide (risk ratio = 14.3; 95% CI, 13.5–15.2), violent crime (risk ratio = 5.0; 95% CI, 4.6–5.4), and nonviolent crime (risk ratio = 2.9; 95% CI, 2.8–3.1) compared with the general population. Elevations in risk were far less marked among the unaffected siblings than in the bipolar disorder cohort. Three factors independently predicted raised risk of all 4 adverse outcomes: if the first 2 patient episodes for bipolar disorder required admission, a history of attempted suicide, and a history of diagnosed alcohol/drug disorder. Criminal offending before bipolar diagnosis was an especially strong independent predictor of criminality after diagnosis. Conclusions The combined risk of suicidality or criminality is substantially elevated in both relative and absolute terms. Clinical prediction rules focusing on multiple vulnerabilities following onset of bipolar disorder, especially when there is history of attempted suicide, substance misuse disorders, or criminal offending, may improve risk management. PMID:25191918

Webb, Roger T.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Larsson, Henrik; Geddes, John R.; Fazel, Seena

2014-01-01

174

P450 Oxidoreductase Deficiency: A Disorder of Steroidogenesis with Multiple Clinical Manifestations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Cytochrome P450 enzymes catalyze the biosynthesis of steroid hormones and metabolize drugs. There are seven human type I P450 enzymes in mitochondria and 50 type II enzymes in endoplasmic reticulum. Type II enzymes, including both drug-metabolizing and some steroidogenic enzymes, require electron donation from a two-flavin protein, P450 oxidoreductase (POR). Although knockout of the POR gene causes embryonic lethality in mice, we discovered human POR deficiency as a disorder of steroidogenesis associated with the Antley-Bixler skeletal malformation syndrome and found mild POR mutations in phenotypically normal adults with infertility. Assay results of mutant forms of POR using the traditional but nonphysiologic assay (reduction of cytochrome c) did not correlate with patient phenotypes; assays based on the 17,20 lyase activity of P450c17 (CYP17) correlated with clinical phenotypes. The POR sequence in 842 normal individuals revealed many polymorphisms; amino acid sequence variant A503V is encoded by ~28% of human alleles. POR A503V has about 60% of wild-type activity in assays with CYP17, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4, but nearly wild-type activity with P450c21, CYP1A2, and CYP2C19. Activity of a particular POR variant with one P450 enzyme will not predict its activity with another P450 enzyme: Each POR-P450 combination must be studied individually. Human POR transcription, initiated from an untranslated exon, is regulated by Smad3/4, thyroid receptors, and the transcription factor AP-2. A promoter polymorphism reduces transcription to 60% in liver cells and to 35% in adrenal cells. POR deficiency is a newly described disorder of steroidogenesis, and POR variants may account for some genetic variation in drug metabolism.

Walter L. Miller (San Francisco;University of California REV)

2012-10-23

175

Potential for Early-Life Immune Insult Including Developmental Immunotoxicity in Autism and Autism Spectrum Disorders: Focus on Critical Windows of Immune Vulnerability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early-life immune insults (ELII) including xenobiotic-induced developmental immunotoxicity (DIT) are important factors in childhood and adult chronic diseases. However, prenatal and perinatal environmentally induced immune alterations have yet to be considered in depth in the context of autism and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Numerous factors produce early-life-induced immune dysfunction in offspring, including exposure to xenobiotics, maternal infections, and other prenatal–neonatal

Rodney R. Dietert; Janice M. Dietert

2008-01-01

176

Similar or Disparate Brain Patterns? The Intra-Personal EEG Variability of Three Women with Multiple Personality Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative EEG was used to assess the intra-personal variability of brain electrical activity for 3 women diagnosed with Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD). Two separate control groups (within-subject and between-subject) were used to test the hypothesis that the intra-personal EEG variability between 2 alters would be less than the interpersonal EEG variability between 2 controls, and similar to the intra-personal EEG

A. R. Lapointe; J. W. Crayton; R. deVito; C. G. Fichtner; L. M. Konopka

2006-01-01

177

Dominance of radiative coupling over disorder in resonance Rayleigh scattering in semiconductor multiple quantum-well structures.  

PubMed

Resonance Rayleigh scattering by periodic semiconductor multiple quantum-well structures is studied experimentally and theoretically. Polaritonic effects are found to dominate disorder in the secondary emission dynamics. The coexistence of several radiant polaritonic modes with different radiative decay times leads to polarization beating between modes, strongly influences the rise times, and determines the fast decay times of the resonance Rayleigh scattered signals. PMID:11005998

Prineas, J P; Shah, J; Grote, B; Ell, C; Khitrova, G; Gibbs, H M; Koch, S W

2000-10-01

178

Behavioral, neurochemical, anatomical and electrophysiological correlates of panic disorder: multiple transmitter interaction and neuropeptide colocalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neurochemical accounts of panic disorder focus on peripheral indices of central transmitter activity, hormonal correlates and therapeutic efficacy. Anxiogenic agents augment norepinephrine activity, some anxiolytics increase serotonin neurotransmission while benzodiazepines and antidepressants influence catecholamine, indoleamine and gamma-aminobutyric acid turnover in infrahuman subjects. Reliable correlates of central transmitter activity in panic disorder are not in evidence. While animal models of anxiety

Robert M. Zacharko; Diana Koszycki; Paul D. Mendella; Jacques Bradwejn

1995-01-01

179

Commentary: Differentiated Measures of Temperament and Multiple Pathways to Childhood Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provided is a commentary on articles written for a special section on temperament and childhood disorders. Temperament's contributions to the development of childhood disorders are considered both generally and specifically. Questions are raised about the use of terminology in the field, particularly the term difficult. Differentiation of outcomes…

Rothbart, Mary K.

2004-01-01

180

Immediate-Release Methylphenidate for ADHD in Children with Comorbid Chronic Multiple Tic Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine the safety and efficacy of immediate-release methylphenidate (MPH-IR) for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children (ages 6-12 years) with Tourette's syndrome (96%) or chronic motor tic disorder (4%). Method: Two cohorts of prepubertal children (N = 71) received placebo and three doses of…

Gadow, Kenneth D.; Sverd, Jeffrey; Nolan, Edith E.; Sprafkin, Joyce; Schneider, Jayne

2007-01-01

181

Multiple Hypercoagulability Disorders at Presentation of Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer  

PubMed Central

Hypercoagulability disorders are commonly encountered in clinical situations in patients with a variety of cancers. However, several hypercoagulability disorders presenting as first symptoms or signs in cancer patients have rarely been reported. We herein described a case of a woman with adenocarcinoma of the lung presenting with deep vein thrombosis, nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis, recurrent cerebral embolic infarction, and heart failure. PMID:25114702

Lee, Jeong Min; Lim, Jun Hyeok; Kim, Jung-Soo; Park, Ji Sun; Memon, Azra; Lee, Seul-Ki; Nam, Hae-Seong; Cho, Jae-Hwa; Kwak, Seung-Min; Lee, Hong Lyeol; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Hong, Geun-Jeong

2014-01-01

182

Childhood apraxia of speech and multiple phonological disorders in Cairo-Egyptian Arabic speaking children: Language, speech, and oro-motor differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Childhood apraxia of speech is a neurological childhood speech-sound disorder in which the precision and consistency of movements underlying speech are impaired in the absence of neuromuscular deficits. Children with childhood apraxia of speech and those with multiple phonological disorder share some common phonological errors that can be misleading in diagnosis. This study posed a question about a possible significant

Azza Adel Aziz; Sahar Shohdi; Dalia Mostafa Osman; Emad Iskander Habib

2010-01-01

183

Combining Information From Multiple Sources in the Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundStandard case criteria are proposed for combined use of the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule to diagnose autism and to define the broader category of autism spectrum disorders.

SUSAN RISI; CATHERINE LORD; KATHERINE GOTHAM; CHRISTINA CORSELLO; CHRISTINA CHRYSLER; PETER SZATMARI; EDWIN H. COOK; BENNETT L. LEVENTHAL; ANDREW PICKLES

2006-01-01

184

Rapid Switching of Mood in Families With Multiple Cases of Bipolar Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Heterogeneitywithinthediagnosticcon- structofbipolardisorderismostlikelyanobstacletodis- covering its causes. Phenomena in the bipolar spec- trum,includingrapidcycling,cyclothymia,andaffective instability of borderline personality, may be important markers of etiologic heterogeneity. Rapid switching of mood may be central to these phenomena. Methods:Weperformedacase-controlstudy,usingdi- agnostic data from a multisite bipolar disorder linkage study, to explore clinical and demographic factors po- tentially related to rapid switching in bipolar disorder. Participantswere18yearsorolderandmembersofafam- ily in

Dean F. MacKinnon; Peter P. Zandi; Elliot Gershon; John I. Nurnberger; Theodore Reich; J. Raymond DePaulo

2003-01-01

185

There are 501,665 Veterans of the Armed Forces living in Tennessee. Some of these Veterans face significant mental health challenges, including Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD),  

E-print Network

significant mental health challenges, including Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), Major Depressive-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and traumatic brain injury (TBI). If these chal- lenges are not addressed to come back to their old life..." PTSD, Major Depressive Disorder, and TBI Although they are separate

Tennessee, University of

186

Proximal renal tubular acidosis: a not so rare disorder of multiple etiologies  

PubMed Central

Proximal renal tubular acidosis (RTA) (Type II RTA) is characterized by a defect in the ability to reabsorb HCO3 in the proximal tubule. This is usually manifested as bicarbonate wastage in the urine reflecting that the defect in proximal tubular transport is severe enough that the capacity for bicarbonate reabsorption in the thick ascending limb of Henle's loop and more distal nephron segments is overwhelmed. More subtle defects in proximal bicarbonate transport likely go clinically unrecognized owing to compensatory reabsorption of bicarbonate distally. Inherited proximal RTA is more commonly autosomal recessive and has been associated with mutations in the basolateral sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter (NBCe1). Mutations in this transporter lead to reduced activity and/or trafficking, thus disrupting the normal bicarbonate reabsorption process of the proximal tubules. As an isolated defect for bicarbonate transport, proximal RTA is rare and is more often associated with the Fanconi syndrome characterized by urinary wastage of solutes like phosphate, uric acid, glucose, amino acids, low-molecular-weight proteins as well as bicarbonate. A vast array of rare tubular disorders may cause proximal RTA but most commonly it is induced by drugs. With the exception of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors which cause isolated proximal RTA, drug-induced proximal RTA is associated with Fanconi syndrome. Drugs that have been recently recognized to cause severe proximal RTA with Fanconi syndrome include ifosfamide, valproic acid and various antiretrovirals such as Tenofovir particularly when given to human immunodeficiency virus patients receiving concomitantly protease inhibitors such as ritonavir or reverse transcriptase inhibitors such as didanosine. PMID:23235953

Haque, Syed K.; Ariceta, Gema; Batlle, Daniel

2012-01-01

187

Multiple mechanisms involved in the large-spectrum therapeutic potential of cannabidiol in psychiatric disorders  

PubMed Central

Cannabidiol (CBD) is a major phytocannabinoid present in the Cannabis sativa plant. It lacks the psychotomimetic and other psychotropic effects that the main plant compound ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) being able, on the contrary, to antagonize these effects. This property, together with its safety profile, was an initial stimulus for the investigation of CBD pharmacological properties. It is now clear that CBD has therapeutic potential over a wide range of non-psychiatric and psychiatric disorders such as anxiety, depression and psychosis. Although the pharmacological effects of CBD in different biological systems have been extensively investigated by in vitro studies, the mechanisms responsible for its therapeutic potential are still not clear. Here, we review recent in vivo studies indicating that these mechanisms are not unitary but rather depend on the behavioural response being measured. Acute anxiolytic and antidepressant-like effects seem to rely mainly on facilitation of 5-HT1A-mediated neurotransmission in key brain areas related to defensive responses, including the dorsal periaqueductal grey, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and medial prefrontal cortex. Other effects, such as anti-compulsive, increased extinction and impaired reconsolidation of aversive memories, and facilitation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis could depend on potentiation of anandamide-mediated neurotransmission. Finally, activation of TRPV1 channels may help us to explain the antipsychotic effect and the bell-shaped dose-response curves commonly observed with CBD. Considering its safety profile and wide range of therapeutic potential, however, further studies are needed to investigate the involvement of other possible mechanisms (e.g. inhibition of adenosine uptake, inverse agonism at CB2 receptor, CB1 receptor antagonism, GPR55 antagonism, PPAR? receptors agonism, intracellular (Ca2+) increase, etc.), on CBD behavioural effects. PMID:23108553

Campos, Alline Cristina; Moreira, Fabricio Araújo; Gomes, Felipe Villela; Del Bel, Elaine Aparecida; Guimarães, Francisco Silveira

2012-01-01

188

Multiple mechanisms involved in the large-spectrum therapeutic potential of cannabidiol in psychiatric disorders.  

PubMed

Cannabidiol (CBD) is a major phytocannabinoid present in the Cannabis sativa plant. It lacks the psychotomimetic and other psychotropic effects that the main plant compound ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) being able, on the contrary, to antagonize these effects. This property, together with its safety profile, was an initial stimulus for the investigation of CBD pharmacological properties. It is now clear that CBD has therapeutic potential over a wide range of non-psychiatric and psychiatric disorders such as anxiety, depression and psychosis. Although the pharmacological effects of CBD in different biological systems have been extensively investigated by in vitro studies, the mechanisms responsible for its therapeutic potential are still not clear. Here, we review recent in vivo studies indicating that these mechanisms are not unitary but rather depend on the behavioural response being measured. Acute anxiolytic and antidepressant-like effects seem to rely mainly on facilitation of 5-HT1A-mediated neurotransmission in key brain areas related to defensive responses, including the dorsal periaqueductal grey, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and medial prefrontal cortex. Other effects, such as anti-compulsive, increased extinction and impaired reconsolidation of aversive memories, and facilitation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis could depend on potentiation of anandamide-mediated neurotransmission. Finally, activation of TRPV1 channels may help us to explain the antipsychotic effect and the bell-shaped dose-response curves commonly observed with CBD. Considering its safety profile and wide range of therapeutic potential, however, further studies are needed to investigate the involvement of other possible mechanisms (e.g. inhibition of adenosine uptake, inverse agonism at CB2 receptor, CB1 receptor antagonism, GPR55 antagonism, PPAR? receptors agonism, intracellular (Ca(2+)) increase, etc.), on CBD behavioural effects. PMID:23108553

Campos, Alline Cristina; Moreira, Fabricio Araújo; Gomes, Felipe Villela; Del Bel, Elaine Aparecida; Guimarães, Francisco Silveira

2012-12-01

189

Multiplication  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How sharp are your multiplication skills? Give these great math games a try ! Play Asteroids blaster and test your multiplication skills. How fast can you solve the problem... play a round of Baseball multiplication and see! Multiplication is fun and delicious with Crazy Cones. Help Lemonade Larry determine the correct amount! Test your multiplication skills with Tic Tac Toe! ...

Ms.Roberts

2009-02-24

190

Phonological disorder  

MedlinePLUS

Articulation disorder; Developmental articulation disorder; Speech distortion; Sound distortion ... and bones that are used to make speech sounds. These changes may include cleft palate and problems ...

191

Temperament and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: The Development of a Multiple Pathway Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article outlines the parallels between major theories of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and relevant temperament domains, summarizing recent research from our laboratories on (a) child temperament and (b) adult personality traits related to ADHD symptoms. These data are convergent in suggesting a role of effortful control and…

Nigg, Joel T.; Goldsmith, H. Hill; Sachek, Jennifer

2004-01-01

192

Binding of Multiple Features in Memory by High-Functioning Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Diminished episodic memory and diminished use of semantic information to aid recall by individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are both thought to result from diminished relational binding of elements of complex stimuli. To test this hypothesis, we asked high-functioning adults with ASD and typical comparison participants to study grids in…

Bowler, Dermot M.; Gaigg, Sebastian B.; Gardiner, John M.

2014-01-01

193

False Discovery Rate and Correction for Multiple Comparisons in Association Genome Screens for Complex Disorders  

E-print Network

, Family Wise Error Rate. Corresponding author Chiara Sabatti Department of Human Genetics UCLA School for Complex Disorders Chiara Sabatti , Susan Service , and Nelson Freimer Department of Human Genetics and Statistics, UCLA, Los Angeles CA 90095-7088 and Center for Neurobehavioral Genetics, Neuropsychiatric

Sabatti, Chiara

194

Imaging Evidence for Disturbances in Multiple Learning and Memory Systems in Persons with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: The aim of this article is to review neuroimaging studies of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) that examine declarative, socio-emotional, and procedural learning and memory systems. Method: We conducted a search of PubMed from 1996 to 2010 using the terms "autism,""learning,""memory," and "neuroimaging." We limited our review to studies…

Goh, Suzanne; Peterson, Bradley S.

2012-01-01

195

Zebrafish homologs of genes within 16p11.2, a genomic region associated with brain disorders, are active during brain development, and include two deletion dosage sensor genes  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Deletion or duplication of one copy of the human 16p11.2 interval is tightly associated with impaired brain function, including autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), intellectual disability disorder (IDD) and other phenotypes, indicating the importance of gene dosage in this copy number variant region (CNV). The core of this CNV includes 25 genes; however, the number of genes that contribute to these phenotypes is not known. Furthermore, genes whose functional levels change with deletion or duplication (termed ‘dosage sensors’), which can associate the CNV with pathologies, have not been identified in this region. Using the zebrafish as a tool, a set of 16p11.2 homologs was identified, primarily on chromosomes 3 and 12. Use of 11 phenotypic assays, spanning the first 5 days of development, demonstrated that this set of genes is highly active, such that 21 out of the 22 homologs tested showed loss-of-function phenotypes. Most genes in this region were required for nervous system development – impacting brain morphology, eye development, axonal density or organization, and motor response. In general, human genes were able to substitute for the fish homolog, demonstrating orthology and suggesting conserved molecular pathways. In a screen for 16p11.2 genes whose function is sensitive to hemizygosity, the aldolase a (aldoaa) and kinesin family member 22 (kif22) genes were identified as giving clear phenotypes when RNA levels were reduced by ?50%, suggesting that these genes are deletion dosage sensors. This study leads to two major findings. The first is that the 16p11.2 region comprises a highly active set of genes, which could present a large genetic target and might explain why multiple brain function, and other, phenotypes are associated with this interval. The second major finding is that there are (at least) two genes with deletion dosage sensor properties among the 16p11.2 set, and these could link this CNV to brain disorders such as ASD and IDD. PMID:22566537

Blaker-Lee, Alicia; Gupta, Sunny; McCammon, Jasmine M.; De Rienzo, Gianluca; Sive, Hazel

2012-01-01

196

Atypical adenomatous hyperplasia of the lung: a clinicopathological study of 118 cases including cases with multiple atypical adenomatous hyperplasia  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND—Atypical adenomatous hyperplasia (AAH) of the lung is a putative precursor lesion of adenocarcinoma, according to many immunohistochemical and genetical studies, but few clinicopathological studies on a large number of cases have been reported. The aim of this study was to clarify the clinicopathological characteristics of lung cancer patients with AAH lesions.?METHODS—A retrospective study was carried out on 508 consecutive primary lung cancer patients operated on at National Cancer Center Hospital East. The relationship between the number and location of AAH lesions and the clinicopathological features of the lung cancer patients was analysed statistically.?RESULTS—A total of 311 AAH lesions were found in 118 (23.2%) of the 508 cases. AAH lesions were detected in 121 of 572 lobes examined, usually in both upper lobes, and occurred most frequently in patients with adenocarcinoma (OR 2.97; 95% CI 1.82 to 4.85). AAH lesions were more frequently detected in patients with multiple primary carcinomas than in those with a single carcinoma (OR 3.06; 95% CI 1.56 to 6.00). The presence of AAH lesions was not significantly correlated with sex, age, smoking status, familial history of malignancy, or preceding malignancy. Patients with multiple AAH lesions were found to have a significantly higher frequency of preceding malignancies.?CONCLUSIONS—The present study highlights the clinicopathological characteristics of AAH lesions, showing them to be significantly associated with both adenocarcinoma and multiple primary carcinoma of the lung and suggesting common factors in the histogenesis of multiple AAH lesions and preceding malignancy.?? PMID:11254822

Nakahara, R; Yokose, T; Nagai, K; Nishiwaki, Y; Ochiai, A

2001-01-01

197

Multiple aromatic side chains within a disordered structure are critical for transcription and transforming activity of EWS family oncoproteins.  

PubMed

Chromosomal translocations involving the N-terminal approximately 250 residues of the Ewings sarcoma (EWS) oncogene produce a group of EWS fusion proteins (EFPs) that cause several distinct human cancers. EFPs are potent transcriptional activators and interact with other proteins required for mRNA biogenesis, indicating that EFPs induce tumorigenesis by perturbing gene expression. Although EFPs were discovered more than a decade ago, molecular analysis has been greatly hindered by the repetitive EWS activation domain (EAD) structure, containing multiple degenerate hexapeptide repeats (consensus SYGQQS) with a conserved tyrosine residue. By exploiting total gene synthesis, we have been able to systematically mutagenize the EAD and determine the effect on transcriptional activation by EWS/ATF1 and cellular transformation by EWS/Fli1. In both assays, we find the following requirements for EAD function. First, multiple tyrosine residues are essential. Second, phenylalanine can effectively substitute for tyrosine, showing that an aromatic ring can confer EAD function in the absence of tyrosine phosphorylation. Third, there is little requirement for specific peptide sequences and, thus, overall sequence composition (and not the degenerate hexapeptide repeat) confers EAD activity. Consistent with the above findings, we also report that the EAD is intrinsically disordered. However, a sensitive computational predictor of natural protein disorder (PONDR VL3) identifies potential molecular recognition features that are tyrosine-dependent and that correlate well with EAD function. In summary we have uncovered several molecular features of the EAD that will impact future studies of the broader EFP family and molecular recognition by complex intrinsically disordered proteins. PMID:17202261

Ng, King Pan; Potikyan, Gary; Savene, Rupert O V; Denny, Christopher T; Uversky, Vladimir N; Lee, Kevin A W

2007-01-01

198

Pharmacokinetics and clinical effects of alprazolam following single and multiple oral doses in patients with panic disorder.  

PubMed

The anxiolytic triazolobenzodiazepine alprazolam was administered to six male patients, aged 26 to 46 years, with panic disorder or agoraphobia (with panic attacks) to assess clinical effects and steady-state pharmacokinetics following multiple dosing at three levels: 3.0 mg/d, 6.0 mg/d, and 9.0 mg/d. Multiple-dose kinetics of alprazolam were compared with alprazolam disposition after a 1.0-mg oral dose in the same patients. Kinetic variables after the single dose were very similar to those reported previously for healthy young male volunteers. Mean values were peak plasma concentration, 19 ng/mL; time of peak, 1.33 hours after dosage; elimination half-life, 10.0 hours; total oral clearance, 1.11 mL/min/kg. During multiple dosage, mean steady-state plasma concentrations (Css) was proportional to dosing rate, and steady-state clearance was independent of dosage. Clinical improvement was rapid, with the greatest decrement in symptoms at the 3-mg/d dosage, at a mean Css of 30 ng/mL. Further improvement was not seen at 6 mg/d (Css, 62 ng/mL), or at 9 mg/d (Css, 103 ng/mL). Side effects, however, were directly related to dosage and plasma level, and increased progressively in number at the 3-, 6-, and 9-mg/d dosage levels. Thus, the disposition of alprazolam in young male patients with panic disorder is essentially identical to that in healthy male volunteers of similar age. Alprazolam clearance is independent of dose and plasma concentration up to daily doses of at least 9 mg/d, with steady-state plasma level proportional to dosing rate. PMID:2871050

Ciraulo, D A; Barnhill, J G; Boxenbaum, H G; Greenblatt, D J; Smith, R B

1986-04-01

199

Multiplication  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Here are some fun games to make practicing multiplication fun!!! Before you start the fun... click Multiplication Tables to review what you already know! Can you figure out the Multiplication Hidden Picture... you better know your math skills first or the picture will burst! It\\'s times to have a \\"blast\\"... Blow me away with theMultiplication Tunnel Blaster Now your ready to join the team! Show me ...

Walker, Ms.

2008-03-26

200

Development of a PCR-based strategy for CYP2D6 genotyping including gene multiplication of worldwide potential use.  

PubMed

There is growing consensus on the potential use of pharmacogenetics in clinical practice, and hopes have been expressed for application to the improvement of global health. However, two major challenges may lead to widening the "biotechnological gap" between the developing and the industrial world; first the unaffordability of some current technologies for poorer countries, and second the necessity of analyzing all described alleles for every clinical case due to the inability to predict the ethnic group of a given patient. Because of its role in the metabolism of a number of drugs, cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) is an excellent candidate for use in the optimization of drug therapy. CYP2D6 is a highly polymorphic gene locus with more than 50 variant alleles, and subjects can be classified as poor metabolizers (PM), extensive metabolizers (EM), or ultrarapid metabolizers (UM) of a given CYP2D6 substrate. Several strategies and methods for CYP2D6 genotyping exist. Some, however, are expensive and laborious. The aim of this study was to design a PCR-based genotyping methodology to allow rapid, straightforward, and inexpensive identification of 90%-95% of CYP2D6 PM or UM genotypes for routine clinical use, independent of the individual's ethnic group. CYP2D6 is amplified in initial extra long PCRs (XL-PCRs), which subsequently undergo fragment-length polymorphism analysis for the determination of carriers of CYP2D6 allelic variants. The same XL-PCRs are also used for the determination of CYP2D6 multiplication and 2D6*5 allele (abolished activity). The application of this new strategy for the detection of CYP2D6 mutated alleles and multiplications to routine clinical analysis will enable the PM and UM phenotypes to be predicted and identified at a reasonable cost in a large number of individuals at most locations. PMID:18957039

Dorado, Pedro; Cáceres, Macarena; Pozo-Guisado, Eulalia; Wong, Ma-Li; Licinio, Julio; Llerena, Adrián

2005-10-01

201

Nonadiabatic dynamics of electron transfer in solution: Explicit and implicit solvent treatments that include multiple relaxation time scales  

SciTech Connect

The development of efficient theoretical methods for describing electron transfer (ET) reactions in condensed phases is important for a variety of chemical and biological applications. Previously, dynamical dielectric continuum theory was used to derive Langevin equations for a single collective solvent coordinate describing ET in a polar solvent. In this theory, the parameters are directly related to the physical properties of the system and can be determined from experimental data or explicit molecular dynamics simulations. Herein, we combine these Langevin equations with surface hopping nonadiabatic dynamics methods to calculate the rate constants for thermal ET reactions in polar solvents for a wide range of electronic couplings and reaction free energies. Comparison of explicit and implicit solvent calculations illustrates that the mapping from explicit to implicit solvent models is valid even for solvents exhibiting complex relaxation behavior with multiple relaxation time scales and a short-time inertial response. The rate constants calculated for implicit solvent models with a single solvent relaxation time scale corresponding to water, acetonitrile, and methanol agree well with analytical theories in the Golden rule and solvent-controlled regimes, as well as in the intermediate regime. The implicit solvent models with two relaxation time scales are in qualitative agreement with the analytical theories but quantitatively overestimate the rate constants compared to these theories. Analysis of these simulations elucidates the importance of multiple relaxation time scales and the inertial component of the solvent response, as well as potential shortcomings of the analytical theories based on single time scale solvent relaxation models. This implicit solvent approach will enable the simulation of a wide range of ET reactions via the stochastic dynamics of a single collective solvent coordinate with parameters that are relevant to experimentally accessible systems.

Schwerdtfeger, Christine A.; Soudackov, Alexander V.; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon, E-mail: shs3@illinois.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 600 South Mathews Avenue, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 600 South Mathews Avenue, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

2014-01-21

202

Stepped-wedge cluster randomised controlled trials: a generic framework including parallel and multiple-level designs  

PubMed Central

Stepped-wedge cluster randomised trials (SW-CRTs) are being used with increasing frequency in health service evaluation. Conventionally, these studies are cross-sectional in design with equally spaced steps, with an equal number of clusters randomised at each step and data collected at each and every step. Here we introduce several variations on this design and consider implications for power. One modification we consider is the incomplete cross-sectional SW-CRT, where the number of clusters varies at each step or where at some steps, for example, implementation or transition periods, data are not collected. We show that the parallel CRT with staggered but balanced randomisation can be considered a special case of the incomplete SW-CRT. As too can the parallel CRT with baseline measures. And we extend these designs to allow for multiple layers of clustering, for example, wards within a hospital. Building on results for complete designs, power and detectable difference are derived using a Wald test and obtaining the variance–covariance matrix of the treatment effect assuming a generalised linear mixed model. These variations are illustrated by several real examples. We recommend that whilst the impact of transition periods on power is likely to be small, where they are a feature of the design they should be incorporated. We also show examples in which the power of a SW-CRT increases as the intra-cluster correlation (ICC) increases and demonstrate that the impact of the ICC is likely to be smaller in a SW-CRT compared with a parallel CRT, especially where there are multiple levels of clustering. Finally, through this unified framework, the efficiency of the SW-CRT and the parallel CRT can be compared. PMID:25346484

Hemming, Karla; Lilford, Richard; Girling, Alan J

2015-01-01

203

Stepped-wedge cluster randomised controlled trials: a generic framework including parallel and multiple-level designs.  

PubMed

Stepped-wedge cluster randomised trials (SW-CRTs) are being used with increasing frequency in health service evaluation. Conventionally, these studies are cross-sectional in design with equally spaced steps, with an equal number of clusters randomised at each step and data collected at each and every step. Here we introduce several variations on this design and consider implications for power. One modification we consider is the incomplete cross-sectional SW-CRT, where the number of clusters varies at each step or where at some steps, for example, implementation or transition periods, data are not collected. We show that the parallel CRT with staggered but balanced randomisation can be considered a special case of the incomplete SW-CRT. As too can the parallel CRT with baseline measures. And we extend these designs to allow for multiple layers of clustering, for example, wards within a hospital. Building on results for complete designs, power and detectable difference are derived using a Wald test and obtaining the variance-covariance matrix of the treatment effect assuming a generalised linear mixed model. These variations are illustrated by several real examples. We recommend that whilst the impact of transition periods on power is likely to be small, where they are a feature of the design they should be incorporated. We also show examples in which the power of a SW-CRT increases as the intra-cluster correlation (ICC) increases and demonstrate that the impact of the ICC is likely to be smaller in a SW-CRT compared with a parallel CRT, especially where there are multiple levels of clustering. Finally, through this unified framework, the efficiency of the SW-CRT and the parallel CRT can be compared. © 2014 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:25346484

Hemming, Karla; Lilford, Richard; Girling, Alan J

2015-01-30

204

Making the Most of Early Communication: Strategies for Supporting Communication with Infants, Toddlers, and Preschoolers Whose Multiple Disabilities Include Vision and Hearing Loss. [Videotape].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This 37-minute videotape recording demonstrates selected interventions to assist infants and toddlers with multiple disabilities, including vision and hearing loss, in developing early communication and other skills. Emphasizing the critical importance of early intervention, the video is designed to help service providers and families create…

Chen, Deborah; Schachter, Pamela Haag

205

GENERAL PRINCIPLES FOR SHORT-TERM INPATIENT WORK WITH MULTIPLE PERSONALITY-DISORDER PATIENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article offers a conceptualization of the treatment course for patients with multiple personalities and describes a series of stages for the psychotherapy. A short-term inpatient unit can serve different functions during the course of treatment, ranging from diagnostic assessment, to education of both patient and therapist, to a secure holding environment in times of crisis.

David K. Sakheim; Elizabeth P. Hess; Aldine Chivas

1988-01-01

206

Rotation of the polarization ellipse under multiple light scattering in disordered media  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study is performed of the multiple small-angle scattering of circularly polarized waves in random media with large-size\\u000a transparent inhomogeneities that are less dense than the surrounding medium. In these conditions, a new effect is observed—rotation\\u000a of the polarization ellipse of the multiply scattered light.

E. E. Gorodnichev; A. I. Kuzovlev; D. B. Rogozkin

2000-01-01

207

disorder disorder Co disorder  

E-print Network

disorder disorder RKKY Co 10 Co disorder disorder disorder Kondo-like Co 3 BiSb BiSb 4 BiSb Bi(001) Bi(001) Bi(001) 1 m 1, 000 % Bi 10 % Bi/Ag(111) Rashba #12;2 Ag(111) Bi 1/3 Ag(111) 3 Ã? 3-Bi 1 ps Rashba ( ) [1] K. He, T. Hirahara, T. Okuda, S. Hasegawa, A. Kakizaki, and I. Matsuda: Spin-polarization

Hasegawa, Shuji

208

Design of dual inhibitors of ROCK-I and NOX2 as potential leads for the treatment of neuroinflammation associated with various neurological diseases including autism spectrum disorder.  

PubMed

Inhibition of both Rho kinase (ROCK-I) and NADPH oxidase (NOX2) to treat neuroinflammation could be very effective in the treatment of progressive neurological diseases like Alzheimer's disease, autism spectral disorder, and fragile X syndrome. NOX2 being a multi-enzyme component is activated during host defense in phagocytes such as microglia, to catalyze the production of superoxide from oxygen, while ROCK is an important mediator of fundamental cell processes like adhesion, proliferation and migration. Phosphorylated ROCK was found to activate NOX2 assembly via Ras related C3 botulinum toxin substrate (Rac) in disease conditions. Overexpression of ROCK-I and NOX2 in innate immune cells like microglial cells contribute to progressive neuronal damage early in neurological disease development. In the present study we employed a computer-aided methodology combining pharmacophores and molecular docking to identify new chemical entities that could inhibit ROCK-I as well as NOX2 (p47 phox). Among the huge dataset of a commercial database, top 18 molecules with crucial binding interactions were selected for biological evaluation. Seven among the lead molecules exhibited inhibitory potential against ROCK-I and NOX2 with IC50s ranging from 1.588 to 856.2 nM and 0.8942 to 10.24 ?M, respectively, and emerged as potential hits as dual inhibitors with adequate selectivity index (SI = CC50/GIC50) in cell-based assays. The most active compound 3 was further found to show reduction of the pro-inflammatory mediators such as TNF?, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1?) mRNA expression levels in activated (MeHg treated) human neuroblastoma (IMR32) cell lines. Hence the present work documented the utility of these dual inhibitors as prototypical leads to be useful for the treatment of neurological disorders including autism spectrum disorder and Alzheimer's disease. PMID:25465055

Alokam, Reshma; Singhal, Sarthak; Srivathsav, Geetha Sai; Garigipati, Sowmya; Puppala, Sripriya; Sriram, Dharmarajan; Perumal, Yogeeswari

2015-02-20

209

Enteric Bacterial Metabolites Propionic and Butyric Acid Modulate Gene Expression, Including CREB-Dependent Catecholaminergic Neurotransmission, in PC12 Cells - Possible Relevance to Autism Spectrum Disorders  

PubMed Central

Alterations in gut microbiome composition have an emerging role in health and disease including brain function and behavior. Short chain fatty acids (SCFA) like propionic (PPA), and butyric acid (BA), which are present in diet and are fermentation products of many gastrointestinal bacteria, are showing increasing importance in host health, but also may be environmental contributors in neurodevelopmental disorders including autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Further to this we have shown SCFA administration to rodents over a variety of routes (intracerebroventricular, subcutaneous, intraperitoneal) or developmental time periods can elicit behavioral, electrophysiological, neuropathological and biochemical effects consistent with findings in ASD patients. SCFA are capable of altering host gene expression, partly due to their histone deacetylase inhibitor activity. We have previously shown BA can regulate tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) mRNA levels in a PC12 cell model. Since monoamine concentration is known to be elevated in the brain and blood of ASD patients and in many ASD animal models, we hypothesized that SCFA may directly influence brain monoaminergic pathways. When PC12 cells were transiently transfected with plasmids having a luciferase reporter gene under the control of the TH promoter, PPA was found to induce reporter gene activity over a wide concentration range. CREB transcription factor(s) was necessary for the transcriptional activation of TH gene by PPA. At lower concentrations PPA also caused accumulation of TH mRNA and protein, indicative of increased cell capacity to produce catecholamines. PPA and BA induced broad alterations in gene expression including neurotransmitter systems, neuronal cell adhesion molecules, inflammation, oxidative stress, lipid metabolism and mitochondrial function, all of which have been implicated in ASD. In conclusion, our data are consistent with a molecular mechanism through which gut related environmental signals such as increased levels of SCFA's can epigenetically modulate cell function further supporting their role as environmental contributors to ASD. PMID:25170769

Nankova, Bistra B.; Agarwal, Raj; MacFabe, Derrick F.; La Gamma, Edmund F.

2014-01-01

210

SATB1 dictates expression of multiple genes including IL-5 involved in human T helper cell differentiation.  

PubMed

Special AT-rich binding protein 1 (SATB1) is a global chromatin organizer and a transcription factor regulated by interleukin-4 (IL-4) during the early T helper 2 (Th2) cell differentiation. Here we show that SATB1 controls multiple IL-4 target genes involved in human Th cell polarization or function. Among the genes regulated by SATB1 is that encoding the cytokine IL-5, which is predominantly produced by Th2 cells and plays a key role in the development of eosinophilia in asthma. We demonstrate that, during the early Th2 cell differentiation, IL-5 expression is repressed through direct binding of SATB1 to the IL-5 promoter. Furthermore, SATB1 knockdown-induced up-regulation of IL-5 is partly counteracted by down-regulating GATA3 expression using RNAi in polarizing Th2 cells. Our results suggest that a competitive mechanism involving SATB1 and GATA3 regulates IL-5 transcription, and provide new mechanistic insights into the stringent regulation of IL-5 expression during human Th2 cell differentiation. PMID:20522714

Ahlfors, Helena; Limaye, Amita; Elo, Laura L; Tuomela, Soile; Burute, Mithila; Gottimukkala, Kamal Vishnu P; Notani, Dimple; Rasool, Omid; Galande, Sanjeev; Lahesmaa, Riitta

2010-09-01

211

SATB1 dictates expression of multiple genes including IL-5 involved in human T helper cell differentiation  

PubMed Central

Special AT-rich binding protein 1 (SATB1) is a global chromatin organizer and a transcription factor regulated by interleukin-4 (IL-4) during the early T helper 2 (Th2) cell differentiation. Here we show that SATB1 controls multiple IL-4 target genes involved in human Th cell polarization or function. Among the genes regulated by SATB1 is that encoding the cytokine IL-5, which is predominantly produced by Th2 cells and plays a key role in the development of eosinophilia in asthma. We demonstrate that, during the early Th2 cell differentiation, IL-5 expression is repressed through direct binding of SATB1 to the IL-5 promoter. Furthermore, SATB1 knockdown-induced up-regulation of IL-5 is partly counteracted by down-regulating GATA3 expression using RNAi in polarizing Th2 cells. Our results suggest that a competitive mechanism involving SATB1 and GATA3 regulates IL-5 transcription, and provide new mechanistic insights into the stringent regulation of IL-5 expression during human Th2 cell differentiation. PMID:20522714

Ahlfors, Helena; Limaye, Amita; Elo, Laura L.; Tuomela, Soile; Burute, Mithila; Gottimukkala, Kamal Vishnu P.; Notani, Dimple; Rasool, Omid

2010-01-01

212

Disinhibitory Psychopathology in Male Adolescents: Discriminating Conduct Disorder From Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder Through Concurrent Assessment of Multiple Autonomic States  

Microsoft Academic Search

T. P. Beauchaine (2001) recently proposed a model of autonomic nervous system functioning that predicts divergent patterns of psychophysiological responding across disorders of disinhibition. This model was tested by comparing groups of male adolescents with attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder plus conduct disorder (CD\\/ADHD) with controls while performing a repetitive motor task in which rewards were administered and removed

Theodore P. Beauchaine; Edward S. Katkin; Zvi Strassberg; Jeffery Snarr

2001-01-01

213

Standard and novel imaging methods for multiple myeloma: correlates with prognostic laboratory variables including gene expression profiling data.  

PubMed

Multiple myeloma causes major morbidity resulting from osteolytic lesions that can be detected by metastatic bone surveys. Magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography can detect bone marrow focal lesions long before development of osteolytic lesions. Using data from patients enrolled in Total Therapy 3 for newly diagnosed myeloma (n=303), we analyzed associations of these imaging techniques with baseline standard laboratory variables assessed before initiating treatment. Of 270 patients with complete imaging data, 245 also had gene expression profiling data. Osteolytic lesions detected on metastatic bone surveys correlated with focal lesions detected by magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography, although, in two-way comparisons, focal lesion counts based on both magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography tended to be greater than those based on metastatic bone survey. Higher numbers of focal lesions detected by magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography were positively linked to high serum concentrations of C-reactive protein, gene-expression-profiling-defined high risk, and the proliferation molecular subgroup. Positron emission tomography focal lesion maximum standardized unit values were significantly correlated with gene-expression-profiling-defined high risk and higher numbers of focal lesions detected by positron emission tomography. Interestingly, four genes associated with high-risk disease (related to cell cycle and metabolism) were linked to counts of focal lesions detected by magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography. Collectively, our results demonstrate significant associations of all three imaging techniques with tumor burden and, especially, disease aggressiveness captured by gene-expression-profiling-risk designation. (Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00081939). PMID:22733020

Waheed, Sarah; Mitchell, Alan; Usmani, Saad; Epstein, Joshua; Yaccoby, Shmuel; Nair, Bijay; van Hemert, Rudy; Angtuaco, Edgardo; Brown, Tracy; Bartel, Twyla; McDonald, James; Anaissie, Elias; van Rhee, Frits; Crowley, John; Barlogie, Bart

2013-01-01

214

Optical observations of 23 distant Jupiter Family Comets, including 36P\\/Whipple at multiple phase angles  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present photometry on 23 Jupiter Family Comets (JFCs) observed at large heliocentric distance, primarily using the 2.5-m Isaac Newton Telescope (INT). Snapshot images were taken of 17 comets, of which five were not detected, three were active and nine were unresolved and apparently inactive. These include 103P\\/Hartley 2, the target of the NASA Deep Impact extended mission, EPOXI. For

Colin Snodgrass; S. C. Lowry; Alan Fitzsimmons

2008-01-01

215

Multiple beneficial lipids including lecithin detected in the edible invasive mollusk Crepidula fornicata from the French Northeastern Atlantic coast.  

PubMed

The invasive mollusk Crepidula fornicata, occurring in large amounts in bays along the French Northeastern Atlantic coasts, may have huge environmental effects in highly productive ecosystems where shellfish are exploited. The present study aims at determining the potential economic value of this marine species in terms of exploitable substances with high added value. Lipid content and phospholipid (PL) composition of this mollusk collected on the Bourgneuf Bay were studied through four seasons. Winter specimens contained the highest lipid levels (5.3% dry weight), including 69% of PLs. Phosphatidylcholine (PC) was the major PL class all year, accounting for 63.9% to 88.9% of total PLs. Consequently, the winter specimens were then investigated for PL fatty acids (FAs), and free sterols. Dimethylacetals (DMAs) were present (10.7% of PL FA + DMA mixture) revealing the occurrence of plasmalogens. More than forty FAs were identified, including 20:5n-3 (9.4%) and 22:6n-3 (7.3%) acids. Fourteen free sterols were present, including cholesterol at 31.3% of the sterol mixture and about 40% of phytosterols. These data on lipids of C. fornicata demonstrate their positive attributes for human nutrition and health. The PL mixture, rich in PC and polyunsaturated FAs, offers an interesting alternative source of high value-added marine lecithin. PMID:25532566

Dagorn, Flore; Buzin, Florence; Couzinet-Mossion, Aurélie; Decottignies, Priscilla; Viau, Michèle; Rabesaotra, Vony; Barnathan, Gilles; Wielgosz-Collin, Gaëtane

2014-12-01

216

Multiple Beneficial Lipids Including Lecithin Detected in the Edible Invasive Mollusk Crepidula fornicata from the French Northeastern Atlantic Coast  

PubMed Central

The invasive mollusk Crepidula fornicata, occurring in large amounts in bays along the French Northeastern Atlantic coasts, may have huge environmental effects in highly productive ecosystems where shellfish are exploited. The present study aims at determining the potential economic value of this marine species in terms of exploitable substances with high added value. Lipid content and phospholipid (PL) composition of this mollusk collected on the Bourgneuf Bay were studied through four seasons. Winter specimens contained the highest lipid levels (5.3% dry weight), including 69% of PLs. Phosphatidylcholine (PC) was the major PL class all year, accounting for 63.9% to 88.9% of total PLs. Consequently, the winter specimens were then investigated for PL fatty acids (FAs), and free sterols. Dimethylacetals (DMAs) were present (10.7% of PL FA + DMA mixture) revealing the occurrence of plasmalogens. More than forty FAs were identified, including 20:5n-3 (9.4%) and 22:6n-3 (7.3%) acids. Fourteen free sterols were present, including cholesterol at 31.3% of the sterol mixture and about 40% of phytosterols. These data on lipids of C. fornicata demonstrate their positive attributes for human nutrition and health. The PL mixture, rich in PC and polyunsaturated FAs, offers an interesting alternative source of high value-added marine lecithin. PMID:25532566

Dagorn, Flore; Buzin, Florence; Couzinet-Mossion, Aurélie; Decottignies, Priscilla; Viau, Michèle; Rabesaotra, Vony; Barnathan, Gilles; Wielgosz-Collin, Gaëtane

2014-01-01

217

"All children can and should have the opportunity to learn": general education teachers' perspectives on including children with autism spectrum disorder who require AAC.  

PubMed

A qualitative online focus group methodology was used to investigate the experiences of five elementary school teachers (grades K-5) who had included in their general education classrooms children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) who required augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). Information was obtained from the participants in the following areas: (a) the benefits of educational inclusion, (b) the negative impacts of educational inclusion, (c) the challenges of educational inclusion, (d) the supports for educational inclusion, and (e) recommendations for other teachers and individuals involved in the inclusion process. Participants primarily chose to focus on inclusion as a beneficial practice for all involved, but did describe a few barriers and challenges of inclusion. The results are discussed as they relate to these themes and with reference to published literature. Recommendations for future directions are also presented. PMID:19444682

Finke, Erinn H; McNaughton, David B; Drager, Kathryn D R

2009-06-01

218

Binding of multiple features in memory by high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorder.  

PubMed

Diminished episodic memory and diminished use of semantic information to aid recall by individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are both thought to result from diminished relational binding of elements of complex stimuli. To test this hypothesis, we asked high-functioning adults with ASD and typical comparison participants to study grids in which some cells contained drawings of objects in non-canonical colours. Participants were told at study which features (colour, item, location) would be tested in a later memory test. In a second experiment, participants studied similar grids and were told that they would be tested on object-location or object-colour combinations. Recognition of combinations was significantly diminished in ASD, which survived covarying performance on the Color Trails Test (D'Elia et al. Color trails test. Professional manual. Psychological Assessment Resources, Lutz, 1996), a test of executive difficulties. The findings raise the possibility that medial temporal as well as frontal lobe processes are dysfunctional in ASD. PMID:24696375

Bowler, Dermot M; Gaigg, Sebastian B; Gardiner, John M

2014-09-01

219

A Drug-Sensitized Zebrafish Screen Identifies Multiple Genes, Including GINS3, as Regulators of Myocardial Repolarization  

PubMed Central

Background Cardiac repolarization, the process by which cardiomyocytes return to their resting potential after each beat, is a highly regulated process that is critical for heart rhythm stability. Perturbations of cardiac repolarization increase the risk for life-threatening arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. While genetic studies of familial long QT syndromes have uncovered several key genes in cardiac repolarization, the major heritable contribution to this trait remains unexplained. Identification of additional genes may lead to a better understanding of the underlying biology, aid in identification of patients at risk for sudden death, and potentially enable new treatments for susceptible individuals. Methods and Results We extended and refined a zebrafish model of cardiac repolarization by using fluorescent reporters of transmembrane potential. We then conducted a drug-sensitized genetic screen in zebrafish, identifying 15 genes, including GINS3, that affect cardiac repolarization. Testing these genes for human relevance in two concurrently completed genome wide association studies revealed that the human GINS3 ortholog is located in the 16q21 locus which is strongly associated with QT interval. Conclusions This sensitized zebrafish screen identified 15 novel myocardial repolarization genes. Among these genes is GINS3, the human ortholog of which is a major locus in two concurrent human genome wide association studies of QT interval. These results reveal a novel network of genes that regulate cardiac repolarization. PMID:19652097

Milan, David J.; Kim, Albert M.; Winterfield, Jeffrey R.; Jones, Ian L.; Pfeufer, Arne; Sanna, Serena; Arking, Dan E.; Amsterdam, Adam H.; Sabeh, Khaled M.; Mably, John D.; Rosenbaum, David S.; Peterson, Randall T.; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Kääb, Stefan; Roden, Dan M.; MacRae, Calum A.

2009-01-01

220

Airborne electromagnetic detection of shallow seafloor topographic features, including resolution of multiple sub-parallel seafloor ridges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The HoistEM helicopter time-domain electromagnetic (TEM) system was flown over waters in Backstairs Passage, South Australia, in 2003 to test the bathymetric accuracy and hence the ability to resolve seafloor structure in shallow and deeper waters (extending to ~40 m depth) that contain interesting seafloor topography. The topography that forms a rock peak (South Page) in the form of a mini-seamount that barely rises above the water surface was accurately delineated along its ridge from the start of its base (where the seafloor is relatively flat) in ~30 m water depth to its peak at the water surface, after an empirical correction was applied to the data to account for imperfect system calibration, consistent with earlier studies using the same HoistEM system. A much smaller submerged feature (Threshold Bank) of ~9 m peak height located in waters of 35 to 40 m depth was also accurately delineated. These observations when checked against known water depths in these two regions showed that the airborne TEM system, following empirical data correction, was effectively operating correctly. The third and most important component of the survey was flown over the Yatala Shoals region that includes a series of sub-parallel seafloor ridges (resembling large sandwaves rising up to ~20 m from the seafloor) that branch out and gradually decrease in height as the ridges spread out across the seafloor. These sub-parallel ridges provide an interesting topography because the interpreted water depths obtained from 1D inversion of TEM data highlight the limitations of the EM footprint size in resolving both the separation between the ridges (which vary up to ~300 m) and the height of individual ridges (which vary up to ~20 m), and possibly also the limitations of assuming a 1D model in areas where the topography is quasi-2D/3D.

Vrbancich, Julian; Boyd, Graham

2014-05-01

221

SOX9 Regulates Multiple Genes in Chondrocytes, Including Genes Encoding ECM Proteins, ECM Modification Enzymes, Receptors, and Transporters  

PubMed Central

The transcription factor SOX9 plays an essential role in determining the fate of several cell types and is a master factor in regulation of chondrocyte development. Our aim was to determine which genes in the genome of chondrocytes are either directly or indirectly controlled by SOX9. We used RNA-Seq to identify genes whose expression levels were affected by SOX9 and used SOX9 ChIP-Seq to identify those genes that harbor SOX9-interaction sites. For RNA-Seq, the RNA expression profile of primary Sox9flox/flox mouse chondrocytes infected with Ad-CMV-Cre was compared with that of the same cells infected with a control adenovirus. Analysis of RNA-Seq data indicated that, when the levels of Sox9 mRNA were decreased more than 8-fold by infection with Ad-CMV-Cre, 196 genes showed a decrease in expression of at least 4-fold. These included many cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM) genes and a number of genes for ECM modification enzymes (transferases), membrane receptors, transporters, and others. In ChIP-Seq, 75% of the SOX9-interaction sites had a canonical inverted repeat motif within 100 bp of the top of the peak. SOX9-interaction sites were found in 55% of the genes whose expression was decreased more than 8-fold in SOX9-depleted cells and in somewhat fewer of the genes whose expression was reduced more than 4-fold, suggesting that these are direct targets of SOX9. The combination of RNA-Seq and ChIP-Seq has provided a fuller understanding of the SOX9-controlled genetic program of chondrocytes. PMID:25229425

Oh, Chun-do; Lu, Yue; Liang, Shoudan; Mori-Akiyama, Yuko; Chen, Di; de Crombrugghe, Benoit; Yasuda, Hideyo

2014-01-01

222

Biallelic germline and somatic mutations in malignant mesothelioma: multiple mutations in transcription regulators including mSWI/SNF genes.  

PubMed

We detected low levels of acetylation for histone H3 tail lysines in malignant mesothelioma (MM) cell lines resistant to histone deacetylase inhibitors. To identify the possible genetic causes related to the low histone acetylation levels, whole-exome sequencing was conducted with MM cell lines established from eight patients. A mono-allelic variant of BRD1 was common to two MM cell lines with very low acetylation levels. We identified 318 homozygous protein-damaging variants/mutations (18-78 variants/mutations per patient); annotation analysis showed enrichment of the molecules associated with mammalian SWI/SNF (mSWI/SNF) chromatin remodeling complexes and co-activators that facilitate initiation of transcription. In seven of the patients, we detected a combination of variants in histone modifiers or transcription factors/co-factors, in addition to variants in mSWI/SNF. Direct sequencing showed that homozygous mutations in SMARCA4, PBRM1 and ARID2 were somatic. In one patient, homozygous germline variants were observed for SMARCC1 and SETD2 in chr3p22.1-3p14.2. These exhibited extended germline homozygosity and were in regions containing somatic mutations, leading to a loss of BAP1 and PBRM1 expression in MM cell line. Most protein-damaging variants were heterozygous in normal tissues. Heterozygous germline variants were often converted into hemizygous variants by mono-allelic deletion, and were rarely homozygous because of acquired uniparental disomy. Our findings imply that MM might develop through the somatic inactivation of mSWI/SNF complex subunits and/or histone modifiers, including BAP1, in subjects that have rare germline variants of these transcription regulators and/or transcription factors/co-factors, and in regions prone to mono-allelic deletion during oncogenesis. PMID:24916674

Yoshikawa, Yoshie; Sato, Ayuko; Tsujimura, Tohru; Otsuki, Taiichiro; Fukuoka, Kazuya; Hasegawa, Seiki; Nakano, Takashi; Hashimoto-Tamaoki, Tomoko

2015-02-01

223

A Systematic Review of Combination Therapy with Stimulants and Atomoxetine for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Including Patient Characteristics, Treatment Strategies, Effectiveness, and Tolerability  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective The purpose of this article was to systematically review the literature on stimulant and atomoxetine combination therapy, in particular: 1) Characteristics of patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) given combination therapy, 2) treatment strategies used, 3) efficacy and effectiveness, and 4) safety and tolerability. Methods Literature databases (MEDLINE®, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Science Citation Index Expanded, and SciVerse Scopus) were systematically searched using prespecified criteria. Publications describing stimulant and atomoxetine combination therapy in patients with ADHD or healthy volunteers were selected for review. Exclusion criteria were comorbid psychosis, bipolar disorder, epilepsy, or other psychiatric/neurologic diseases that could confound ADHD symptom assessment, or other concomitant medication(s) to treat ADHD symptoms. Results Of the 16 publications included for review, 14 reported findings from 3 prospective studies (4 publications), 7 retrospective studies, and 3 narrative reviews/medication algorithms of patients with ADHD. The other two publications reported findings from two prospective studies of healthy volunteers. The main reason for prescribing combination therapy was inadequate response to previous treatment. In the studies of patients with ADHD, if reported, 1) most patients were children/adolescents and male, and had a combined ADHD subtype; 2) methylphenidate was most often used in combination with atomoxetine for treatment augmentation or switch; 3) ADHD symptom control was improved in some, but not all, patients; and 4) there were no serious adverse events. Conclusions Published evidence of the off-label use of stimulant and atomoxetine combination therapy is limited because of the small number of publications, heterogeneous study designs (there was only one prospective, randomized controlled trial), small sample sizes, and geographic bias. Existing evidence suggests, but does not confirm, that this drug combination may benefit some, but not all, patients who have tried several ADHD medications without success. PMID:23560600

Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Méndez, Luis; Montgomery, William; Monk, Julie A.; Altin, Murat; Wu, Shenghu; Lin, Chaucer C.H.; Dueñas, Héctor J.

2013-01-01

224

Impact of childhood exposure to psychological trauma on the risk of psychiatric disorders and somatic discomfort: single vs. multiple types of psychological trauma.  

PubMed

We examined whether childhood exposure to multiple types of potentially traumatic events (PTEs) relative to a single type of PTE is associated with a higher prevalence of psychiatric disorders and greater somatic discomfort in Korean adults. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview 2.1 (K-CIDI 2.1) was administered to 6027 subjects aged 18-74 years. Subjects who experienced a traumatic event before the age of 18 years, the childhood trauma exposure group, were compared with controls without childhood exposure to PTEs. In the childhood trauma exposure group, subjects who experienced only a single type of PTE and subjects who experienced two or more types of PTEs were compared further. Childhood exposure to PTEs was linked to a wide range of psychiatric comorbidities, with a higher risk for exposure to multiple types of PTEs than for exposure to a single type of PTE. Obsessive-compulsive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and somatoform disorder were significantly associated with exposure to multiple types of PTEs but not with exposure to a single type of PTE. Exposure to multiple types of PTEs was associated with reports of marked fatigue and pain. Future research should examine the psychiatric sequelae associated with various types of childhood PTEs. PMID:25086760

Park, Subin; Hong, Jin Pyo; Bae, Jae Nam; Cho, Seong-Jin; Lee, Dong-Woo; Lee, Jun-Young; Chang, Sung Man; Jeon, Hong Jin; Hahm, Bong-Jin; Lee, Young Moon; Seong, Sujeong; Cho, Maeng Je

2014-11-30

225

The Work of Antoine Despine: The First Scientific Report on the Diagnosis and Treatment of a Child with Multiple Personality Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papers describing the signs and symptoms of multiple personality disorder (MPD) are increasing in the contemporary scientific literature where, ironically, the clinical researchers of today are rediscovering phenomena already documented in nineteenth century medical texts. Indeed, 150 years ago, there were already psychiatric monographs discussing the diagnosis and treatment of MPD. One of these monographs was written by Antoine Despine,

Catherine G. Fine

1988-01-01

226

The Diagnostic Drawing Series and the Tree Rating Scale: An Isomorphic Representation of Multiple Personality Disorder, Major Depression, and Schizophrenic Populations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The tree drawings of 80 subjects, who were diagnosed with either multiple personality disorder, schizophrenia, or major depression, and a control group, were rated. Patterns were examined and graphs were used to depict results. Certain features were found to distinguish each category. The descriptive statistical findings were both consistent and…

Morris, Maureen Batza

1995-01-01

227

"Helpful People in Touch" Consumer Led Self Help Programs for People with Multiple Disorders, Mental Illness, Drug Addiction, and Alcoholism (MIDAA).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the consumer program, "Helpful People in Touch," a self-help treatment program for people with the multiple disorders of mental illness, drug addiction, and/or alcoholism. First, the terms, "Mentally Ill Chemical Abusers and Addicted" (MICAA) and "Chemical Abusing Mentally Ill" (CAMI) are defined and differentiated, with…

Sciacca, Kathleen

228

Germ-line mutation analysis in patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 and related disorders.  

PubMed Central

Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is an autosomal dominant syndrome predisposing to tumors of the parathyroid, endocrine pancreas, anterior pituitary, adrenal glands, and diffuse neuroendocrine tissues. The MEN1 gene has been assigned, by linkage analysis and loss of heterozygosity, to chromosome 11q13 and recently has been identified by positional cloning. In this study, a total of 84 families and/or isolated patients with either MEN1 or MEN1-related inherited endocrine tumors were screened for MEN1 germ-line mutations, by heteroduplex and sequence analysis of the MEN1 gene-coding region and untranslated exon 1. Germ-line MEN1 alterations were identified in 47/54 (87%) MEN1 families, in 9/11 (82%) isolated MEN1 patients, and in only 6/19 (31.5%) atypical MEN1-related inherited cases. We characterized 52 distinct mutations in a total of 62 MEN1 germ-line alterations. Thirty-five of the 52 mutations were frameshifts and nonsense mutations predicted to encode for a truncated MEN1 protein. We identified eight missense mutations and five in-frame deletions over the entire coding sequence. Six mutations were observed more than once in familial MEN1. Haplotype analysis in families with identical mutations indicate that these occurrences reflected mainly independent mutational events. No MEN1 germ-line mutations were found in 7/54 (13%) MEN1 families, in 2/11 (18%) isolated MEN1 cases, in 13/19 (68. 5%) MEN1-related cases, and in a kindred with familial isolated hyperparathyroidism. Two hundred twenty gene carriers (167 affected and 53 unaffected) were identified. No evidence of genotype-phenotype correlation was found. Age-related penetrance was estimated to be >95% at age >30 years. Our results add to the diversity of MEN1 germ-line mutations and provide new tools in genetic screening of MEN1 and clinically related cases. PMID:9683585

Giraud, S; Zhang, C X; Serova-Sinilnikova, O; Wautot, V; Salandre, J; Buisson, N; Waterlot, C; Bauters, C; Porchet, N; Aubert, J P; Emy, P; Cadiot, G; Delemer, B; Chabre, O; Niccoli, P; Leprat, F; Duron, F; Emperauger, B; Cougard, P; Goudet, P; Sarfati, E; Riou, J P; Guichard, S; Rodier, M; Meyrier, A; Caron, P; Vantyghem, M C; Assayag, M; Peix, J L; Pugeat, M; Rohmer, V; Vallotton, M; Lenoir, G; Gaudray, P; Proye, C; Conte-Devolx, B; Chanson, P; Shugart, Y Y; Goldgar, D; Murat, A; Calender, A

1998-01-01

229

Institute for Mathematics and Applications: Mathematics of Materials and Macromolecules: Multiple Scales, Disorder, and Singularities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Institute for Mathematics and Applications (IMA) developed this website to promote its conferences and workshops dealing with the applications of mathematics in the study of materials and molecules. Visitors can find information on a particular event's schedule, participants, and accommodations as well as abstracts. The events dealing with the physical sciences include workshops dealing with atomic motion, macroscopic models, and biophysics as well as a program about environmental and geophysical modeling.

230

Isolation and characterization of genes in the region of chromosome 8 involved in Langer-Giedion syndrome including a candidate gene for hereditary multiple exostosis  

SciTech Connect

Langer-Giedion syndrome (LGS) is a dominantly inherited developmental disorder responsible for a variety of facial and skeletal abnormalities and mental retardation in some cases. LGS is thought to be a contiguous gene syndrome resulting from lesions in the genes for trichorhino-phalangeal syndrome (TRPSI) and hereditary multiple exostoses (EXTI) and is generally accompanied by interstitial deletions in 8q24.1. Since little is known of the nature of these genes, we have begun to isolate and characterize all of the expressed sequences in this region making use of a cosmid contig that we developed for this region. We have successfully used direct screening of cDNA libraries, exon trapping and CAIGES techniques to identify several expressed DNA sequences that map to this region. These cDNAs have been sequenced and analyzed for open reading frames, common sequence motifs and homologies to know genes. In an attempt to focus the search, we have used a variety of probes and hybridization techniques to map various chromosomal breakpoints in this region that have been shown to affect either TRPSI, EXTI or LGS. One of these expressed sequences spans a region that has been shown to contain a chromosomal breakpoint known to be involved in the EXT phenotype. Thus this gene should be considered a candidate gene for EXTI.

Wells, D.; Ahn, J.; Cook, A. [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

231

Behavioral inhibition and anxiety disorders: multiple levels of a resilience process.  

PubMed

Behavioral inhibition is reported to be one of the most stable temperamental characteristics in childhood. However, there is also evidence for discontinuity of this trait, with infants and toddlers who were extremely inhibited displaying less withdrawn social behavior as school-age children or adolescents. There are many possible explanations for the discontinuity in this temperament over time. They include the development of adaptive attention and regulatory skills, the influence of particular styles of parenting or caregiving contexts, and individual characteristics of the child such as their level of approach-withdrawal motivation or their gender. These discontinuous trajectories of behaviorally inhibited children and the factors that form them are discussed as examples of the resilience process. PMID:17705900

Degnan, Kathryn Amey; Fox, Nathan A

2007-01-01

232

Multiple organ involvement by alpha-synuclein pathology in Lewy body disorders.  

PubMed

Lewy body (LB) diseases are characterized by alpha-synuclein (AS) aggregates in the central nervous system (CNS). Involvement of the peripheral autonomic nervous system (pANS) is increasingly recognized, although less studied. The aim of this study was to systematically analyze the distribution and severity of AS pathology in the CNS and pANS. Detailed postmortem histopathological study of brain and peripheral tissues from 28 brain bank donors (10 with Parkinson's disease [PD], 5 with dementia with LB [DLB], and 13 with non-LB diseases including atypical parkinsonism and non-LB dementia). AS aggregates were found in the pANS of all 15 LB disease cases (PD, DLB) in stellate and sympathetic ganglia (100%), vagus nerve (86.7%), gastrointestinal tract (86.7%), adrenal gland and/or surrounding fat (53.3%), heart (100%), and genitourinary tract (13.3%), as well as in 1 case of incidental Lewy body disease (iLBD). A craniocaudal gradient of AS burden in sympathetic chain and gastrointestinal tract was observed. DLB cases showed higher amounts of CNS AS aggregates than PD cases, but this was not the case in the pANS. No pANS AS aggregates were detected in Alzheimer's disease (AD) cases with or without CNS AS aggregates. All pathologically confirmed LB disease cases including 1 case of iLBD had AS aggregates in the pANS with a craniocaudal gradient of pathology burden in sympathetic chain and gastrointestinal tract. AS was not detected in the pANS of any AD case. These findings may help in the search of peripheral AS aggregates in vivo for the early diagnosis of PD. PMID:24395122

Gelpi, Ellen; Navarro-Otano, Judith; Tolosa, Eduardo; Gaig, Carles; Compta, Yaroslau; Rey, María Jesús; Martí, Maria José; Hernández, Isabel; Valldeoriola, Francesc; Reñé, Ramon; Ribalta, Teresa

2014-07-01

233

A multiple deficit model of Reading Disability and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Searching for shared cognitive  

E-print Network

-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are both complex neurobehavioral disorders affecting approximately 5% of children: Searching for shared cognitive deficits Lauren M. McGrath, Massachusetts General Hospital/Harvard Medical cognitive deficit model of Reading Disability (RD), Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD

Carlini, David

234

Compulsive disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compulsive disorders include a diverse group of conditions characterized by excessive thoughts or preoccupations combined\\u000a with poorly controlled behaviors. They include trichotillomania, kleptomania, pathologic gambling, compulsive buying disorder,\\u000a compulsive sexual behavior, and compulsive computer use. Some investigators have suggested that these conditions constitute\\u000a a spectrum of disorders linked to obsessive-compulsive disorder. Others have questioned the validity of this conceptualization,\\u000a and

John M. Kuzma; Donald W. Black

2004-01-01

235

Bofu-Tsu-Shosan, an Oriental Herbal Medicine, Exerts a Combinatorial Favorable Metabolic Modulation Including Antihypertensive Effect on a Mouse Model of Human Metabolic Disorders with Visceral Obesity  

PubMed Central

Accumulating evidence indicates that metabolic dysfunction with visceral obesity is a major medical problem associated with the development of hypertension, type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and dyslipidemia, and ultimately severe cardiovascular and renal disease. Therefore, an effective anti-obesity treatment with a concomitant improvement in metabolic profile is important for the treatment of metabolic dysfunction with visceral obesity. Bofu-tsu-shosan (BOF) is one of oriental herbal medicine and is clinically available to treat obesity in Japan. Although BOF is a candidate as a novel therapeutic strategy to improve metabolic dysfunction with obesity, the mechanism of its beneficial effect is not fully elucidated. Here, we investigated mechanism of therapeutic effects of BOF on KKAy mice, a model of human metabolic disorders with obesity. Chronic treatment of KKAy mice with BOF persistently decreased food intake, body weight gain, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and systolic blood pressure. In addition, both tissue weight and cell size of white adipose tissue (WAT) were decreased, with concomitant increases in the expression of adiponectin and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors genes in WAT as well as the circulating adiponectin level by BOF treatment. Furthermore, gene expression of uncoupling protein-1, a thermogenesis factor, in brown adipose tissue and rectal temperature were both elevated by BOF. Intriguingly, plasma acylated-ghrelin, an active form of orexigenic hormone, and short-term food intake were significantly decreased by single bolus administration of BOF. These results indicate that BOF exerts a combinatorial favorable metabolic modulation including antihypertensive effect, at least partially, via its beneficial effect on adipose tissue function and its appetite-inhibitory property through suppression on the ghrelin system. PMID:24130717

Azushima, Kengo; Tamura, Kouichi; Wakui, Hiromichi; Maeda, Akinobu; Ohsawa, Masato; Uneda, Kazushi; Kobayashi, Ryu; Kanaoka, Tomohiko; Dejima, Toru; Fujikawa, Tetsuya; Yamashita, Akio; Toya, Yoshiyuki; Umemura, Satoshi

2013-01-01

236

Prospective Follow-up of Girls with Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder into Early Adulthood: Continuing Impairment Includes Elevated Risk for Suicide Attempts and Self-Injury  

PubMed Central

Objective To perform a 10-year prospective follow-up of a childhood-ascertained (6–12 years), ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (N = 140: Combined type [ADHD-C} n = 93; Inattentive Type [ADHD-I] n = 47) plus a matched comparison group (N = 88). Girls were recruited from schools, mental health centers, pediatricians, and via advertisements; extensive evaluations confirmed ADHD vs. comparison status. Method Ten-year outcomes (age range 17–24 years; retention rate = 95%) included symptoms (ADHD, externalizing, internalizing), substance use, eating pathology, self-perceptions, functional impairment (global, academic, service utilization), self-harm (suicide attempts, self-injury), and driving behavior. Results Participants with childhood-diagnosed ADHD continued to display higher rates of ADHD and comorbid symptoms, showed more serious impairment (both global and specific), and had higher rates of suicide attempts and self-injury than the comparison sample, with effect sizes from medium to very large; yet the groups did not differ significantly in terms of eating pathology, substance use, or driving behavior. ADHD-C and ADHD-I types rarely differed significantly, except for suicide attempts and self-injury, which were highly concentrated in ADHD-C. Domains of externalizing behavior, global impairment, and service utilization, and self-harm (suicide attempts and self-injury) survived stringent control of crucial childhood covariates (age, demographics, comorbidities, IQ). Conclusions Girls with childhood ADHD maintain marked impairment by early adulthood, spreading from symptoms to risk for serious self-harm. In future research we address the viability of different diagnostic conceptions of adult ADHD and their linkages with core life impairments. PMID:22889337

Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Owens, Elizabeth B.; Zalecki, Christine; Huggins, Suzanne Perrigue; Montenegro-Nevado, Adriana J.; Schrodek, Emily; Swanson, Erika N.

2012-01-01

237

Bipolar Disorder  

MedlinePLUS

... rapidly, even multiple times in one week. A person who is experiencing a severe bipolar episode may also have psychotic symptoms such as hallucinations or delusions. What are the treatments for bipolar disorder? Recognition and diagnosis of the disorder in its earliest ...

238

Chest Injuries and Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... and disorders include Heart diseases Lung diseases and collapsed lung Pleural disorders Esophagus disorders Broken ribs Thoracic aortic ... Disorders of the mediastinum, the space between the lungs, breastbone, and spine

239

Childhood Functional GI Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... Merchandise Take Action Contact Us Donate Childhood Functional GI Disorders A functional disorder refers to a disorder ... regurgitation, heartburn, or food refusal. Examples of functional GI disorders in kids and teens include: Infant regurgitation ...

240

Multiple tasks and neuroimaging modalities increase the likelihood of detecting covert awareness in patients with disorders of consciousness  

PubMed Central

Minimal or inconsistent behavioral responses to command make it challenging to accurately diagnose the level of awareness of a patient with a Disorder of consciousness (DOC). By identifying markers of mental imagery being covertly performed to command, functional neuroimaging (fMRI), electroencephalography (EEG) has shown that some of these patients are aware despite their lack of behavioral responsiveness. We report the findings of behavioral, fMRI, and EEG approaches to detecting command-following in a group of patients with DOC. From an initial sample of 14 patients, complete data across all tasks was obtained in six cases. Behavioral evaluations were performed with the Coma Recovery Scale—Revised. Both fMRI and EEG evaluations involved the completion of previously validated mental imagery tasks—i.e., motor imagery (EEG and fMRI) and spatial navigation imagery (fMRI). One patient exhibited statistically significant evidence of motor imagery in both the fMRI and EEG tasks, despite being unable to follow commands behaviorally. Two behaviorally non-responsive patients produced appropriate activation during the spatial navigation fMRI task. However, neither of these patients successfully completed the motor imagery tasks, likely due to specific motor area damage in at least one of these cases. A further patient demonstrated command following only in the EEG motor imagery task, and two patients did not demonstrate command following in any of the behavioral, EEG, or fMRI assessments. Due to the heterogeneity of etiology and pathology in this group, DOC patients vary in terms of their suitability for some forms of neuroimaging, the preservation of specific neural structures, and the cognitive resources that may be available to them. Assessments of a range of cognitive abilities supported by spatially-distinct brain regions and indexed by multiple neural signatures are therefore required in order to accurately characterize a patient's level of residual cognition and awareness. PMID:25505400

Gibson, Raechelle M.; Fernández-Espejo, Davinia; Gonzalez-Lara, Laura E.; Kwan, Benjamin Y.; Lee, Donald H.; Owen, Adrian M.; Cruse, Damian

2014-01-01

241

Kinome-wide RNAi studies in human multiple myeloma identify vulnerable kinase targets, including a lymphoid-restricted kinase, GRK6  

PubMed Central

A paucity of validated kinase targets in human multiple myeloma has delayed clinical deployment of kinase inhibitors in treatment strategies. We therefore conducted a kinome-wide small interfering RNA (siRNA) lethality study in myeloma tumor lines bearing common t(4;14), t(14;16), and t(11;14) translocations to identify critically vulnerable kinases in myeloma tumor cells without regard to preconceived mechanistic notions. Fifteen kinases were repeatedly vulnerable in myeloma cells, including AKT1, AK3L1, AURKA, AURKB, CDC2L1, CDK5R2, FES, FLT4, GAK, GRK6, HK1, PKN1, PLK1, SMG1, and TNK2. Whereas several kinases (PLK1, HK1) were equally vulnerable in epithelial cells, others and particularly G protein–coupled receptor kinase, GRK6, appeared selectively vulnerable in myeloma. GRK6 inhibition was lethal to 6 of 7 myeloma tumor lines but was tolerated in 7 of 7 human cell lines. GRK6 exhibits lymphoid-restricted expression, and from coimmunoprecipitation studies we demonstrate that expression in myeloma cells is regulated via direct association with the heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) chaperone. GRK6 silencing causes suppression of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) phosphorylation associated with reduction in MCL1 levels and phosphorylation, illustrating a potent mechanism for the cytotoxicity of GRK6 inhibition in multiple myeloma (MM) tumor cells. As mice that lack GRK6 are healthy, inhibition of GRK6 represents a uniquely targeted novel therapeutic strategy in human multiple myeloma. PMID:19996089

Zhu, Yuan Xiao; Schmidt, Jessica; Yin, Hongwei; Shi, Chang-Xin; Que, Qiang; Basu, Gargi; Azorsa, David; Perkins, Louise M.; Braggio, Esteban; Fonseca, Rafael; Bergsagel, P. Leif; Mousses, Spyro; Stewart, A. Keith

2010-01-01

242

Low self-esteem in women with eating disorders and alcohol abuse as a psycho-social factor to be included in their psychotherapeutic approach.  

PubMed

Authors have analyzed the psychosocial peculiarities of the women from Romania who are affected by eating disorders and alcohol excessive consumption, and studied the manner of the link between these diseases and the psychosexual. 120 participants at the study (Oltenia district) were divided into 2 groups: 60 healthy women, 30 with eating disorders and 30 alcohol dependent women. In all subjects were applied the following tests: Scale for compulsive appetite (SCA) and Scale of interest for own weight, both for eating disorders, CAGE questionnaire for alcohol dependence and two scales for determining: the gender-role ambivalence (O'Neil and Caroll Scale) and the masculinity and feminity index (A. Chelcea). The results obtained in both lots of Romanian women with pathologic behavior (food and/or alcohol consumption) have indicated a low psychosexual identity versus control group but no correlation with masculinity/feminity index. PMID:21254749

Iorgulescu, Gabriela

2010-01-01

243

Low self–esteem in women with eating disorders and alcohol abuse as a psycho–social factor to be included in their psychotherapeutic approach  

PubMed Central

Author have analyzed the psycho–social peculiarities of the women from Romania who are affected by eating disorders and alcohol excessive consumption, and studied the manner of the link between these disease and the psycho–sexual. 120 participants at the study (Oltenia district) were divided into 2 groups: 60 healthy women, 30 with eating disorders and 30 alcohol dependent women. In all subjects were applied the following tests: Scale for compulsive appetite (SCA) and Scale of interest for own weight, both for eating disorders, CAGE questionnaire for alcohol dependence and two scales for determining: the gender–role ambivalence (O'Neil and Caroll Scale) and the masculinity and feminity index (A. Chelcea). The results obtained in both lots of Romanian women with pathologic behavior (food and/or alcohol consumption) have indicated a low psycho–sexual identity versus control group but no correlation with masculinity/feminity index. PMID:21254749

2010-01-01

244

Multiple therapeutic and preventive effects of 3,3?-diindolylmethane on cancers including prostate cancer and high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia  

PubMed Central

Abstract Cruciferous vegetables belong to the plant family that has flowers with four equal-sized petals in the pattern of a crucifer cross. These vegetables are an abundant source of dietary phytochemicals, including glucosinolates and their hydrolysis products such as indole-3-carbinol (I3C) and 3,3?-diindolylmethane (DIM). By 2013, the total number of natural glucosinolates that have been documented is estimated to be 132. Recently, cruciferous vegetable intake has garnered great interest for its multiple health benefits such as anticancer, antiviral infections, human sex hormone regulation, and its therapeutic and preventive effects on prostate cancer and high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN). DIM is a hydrolysis product of glucosinolates and has been used in various trials. This review is to provide an insight into the latest developments of DIM in treating or preventing both prostate cancer and HGPIN. PMID:25332705

Zhang, William Weiben; Feng, Zhenqing; Narod, Steven A.

2014-01-01

245

Reliability and Diagnostic Efficiency of the Diagnostic Inventory for Disharmony (DID) in Youths with Pervasive Developmental Disorder and Multiple Complex Developmental Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS) category is a psychopathological entity few have described and is poorly, and mainly negatively, defined by autism exclusion. In order to limit PDD-NOS heterogeneity, alternative clinical constructs have been developed. This study explored the reliability and the diagnostic…

Xavier, Jean; Vannetzel, Leonard; Viaux, Sylvie; Leroy, Arthur; Plaza, Monique; Tordjman, Sylvie; Mille, Christian; Bursztejn, Claude; Cohen, David; Guile, Jean-Marc

2011-01-01

246

Eating Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... and cardiovascular diseases. More on binge eating disorder. Treatment Eating disorders clearly illustrate the close links between emotional and ... by these illnesses, it is important that any treatment plan for a person with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, or binge eating disorder include general ...

247

Prospective Follow-Up of Girls with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder into Early Adulthood: Continuing Impairment Includes Elevated Risk for Suicide Attempts and Self-Injury  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: We performed a 10-year prospective follow-up of a childhood-ascertained (6-12 years), ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; N = 140: combined type [ADHD-C] n = 93; inattentive type [ADHD-I] n = 47) plus a matched comparison group (N = 88). Girls were recruited from…

Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Owens, Elizabeth B.; Zalecki, Christine; Huggins, Suzanne Perrigue; Montenegro-Nevado, Adriana J.; Schrodek, Emily; Swanson, Erika N.

2012-01-01

248

The Social Validation of Behaviors Included in the Critical Events Index of the Systematic Screening for Behavior Disorders in Male Saudi Arabia Primary Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to: (a) identify which behaviors from the Systematic Screening for Behavior Disorders (SSBD) Critical Events Index occur in male Saudi Arabia primary schools and how often teachers perceive their occurrence; (b) determine the extent of concern male Saudi Arabia primary school teachers report regarding these behaviors;…

Alwan, Emad

2012-01-01

249

Multiple (familial) trichoepitheliomas: a clinicopathological and molecular biological study, including CYLD and PTCH gene analysis, of a series of 16 patients.  

PubMed

Multiple familial trichoepitheliomas (MFT) constitute an autosomally inherited syndrome possibly related to Brooke-Spiegler syndrome (BSS). Although some early studies suggested a role for the PTCH gene on chromosome 9q22.3 in the etiopathogenesis of MFT, recent studies of occasional patients with the MFT clinical phenotype identified mutations in the CYLD gene on chromosome 16q12-q13, a gene responsible for BSS. A systematic investigation of PTCH and CYLD mutations in patients with MFT has never been performed. Our main objective was to collect a reasonably large series of patients with MFT to (1) study the clinicopathological spectrum of the disease, (2) determine whether the PTCH gene is implicated in the pathogenesis of MFT, and if so (3) determine the relative frequency of CYLD and PTCH mutations, (4) establish if there may be any possible genotype-phenotype correlations, and (5) study the spectrum of somatic mutations. Clinical analysis including family histories, histopathological investigations, and molecular genetic studies were performed. There were 9 female and 7 male patients ranging in age from 11 to 63 years. They presented with multiple, small, discrete and sometimes confluent, skin-colored to pink, asymptomatic nodules preferentially located on the face, being especially prominent and confluent in the nasolabial folds and inner aspects of the eyebrows. A total of 66 conventional trichoepitheliomas (TEs) were studied microscopically. Aside from typical features of TE, some also exhibited variant morphological patterns including areas reminiscent of other benign adnexal neoplasms and melanocytic hyperplasia. In none of the 9 patients tested was a germline mutation of the PTCH gene identified. Germline CYLD mutations were detected in 6 of 13 patients tested (identical in 2 unrelated patients) including 2 novel mutations, whereas the remaining 7 individuals showed wild-type alleles. Two patients with germline wild-type CYLD showed, however, a somatic mutation in the gene (1 duplication, 1 substitution mutation). Neither CYLD nor PTCH germline mutations were found in the 5 patients in whom both genes were analyzed. MFT seems to be a phenotypic variant of BSS. The PTCH gene is rarely, if ever, involved in the pathogenesis of MFT. Absence of a germline mutation of the CYLD gene in cases harboring a somatic mutation may be explained by large deletions in the gene or by mutation in intronic sequences or in the promoter region. Considering our 5 patients with no mutation in either gene, the final possibility is that another, as yet undescribed gene (neither CYLD nor PTCH) is implicated in the pathogenesis of some patients with MFT. PMID:21389835

Kazakov, Dmitry V; Vanecek, Tomas; Zelger, Bernhard; Carlson, J Andrew; Spagnolo, Dominic V; Schaller, Jörg; Nemcova, Jana; Kacerovska, Denisa; Vazmitel, Marina; Sangüeza, Martin; Emberger, Michael; Belousova, Irena; Fernandez-Figueras, Maria Tereza; Fernandez-Figueraz, Maria Tereza; Kempf, Werner; Meyer, Dale R; Rütten, Arno; Baltaci, Mehmet; Michal, Michal

2011-05-01

250

MiR-7 Triggers Cell Cycle Arrest at the G1/S Transition by Targeting Multiple Genes Including Skp2 and Psme3  

PubMed Central

MiR-7 acts as a tumour suppressor in many cancers and abrogates proliferation of CHO cells in culture. In this study we demonstrate that miR-7 targets key regulators of the G1 to S phase transition, including Skp2 and Psme3, to promote increased levels of p27KIP and temporary growth arrest of CHO cells in the G1 phase. Simultaneously, the down-regulation of DNA repair-specific proteins via miR-7 including Rad54L, and pro-apoptotic regulators such as p53, combined with the up-regulation of anti-apoptotic factors like p-Akt, promoted cell survival while arrested in G1. Thus miR-7 can co-ordinate the levels of multiple genes and proteins to influence G1 to S phase transition and the apoptotic response in order to maintain cellular homeostasis. This work provides further mechanistic insight into the role of miR-7 as a regulator of cell growth in times of cellular stress. PMID:23762407

Sanchez, Noelia; Gallagher, Mark; Lao, Nga; Gallagher, Clair; Clarke, Colin; Doolan, Padraig; Aherne, Sinead; Blanco, Alfonso; Meleady, Paula

2013-01-01

251

Anxiety disorders and posttraumatic stress disorder update.  

PubMed

Anxiety disorders are one of the most common categories of psychopathology in children and adolescents. This article provides an overview of several anxiety disorders that are diagnosed often during childhood and adolescence, including separation anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Although anxiety disorders commonly show similar clinical characteristics during childhood and adulthood, this article highlights some of the differences that may present across the life span. PMID:19248916

Victor, Andrea M; Bernstein, Gail A

2009-03-01

252

Integrated Treatment of Substance Use and Psychiatric Disorders  

PubMed Central

Epidemiological studies find that psychiatric disorders, including mental disorders and substance use disorders, are common among adults and highly comorbid. Integrated treatment refers to the focus of treatment on two or more conditions and to the use of multiple treatments such as the combination of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy. Integrated treatment for comorbidity has been found to be consistently superior compared to treatment of individual disorders with separate treatment plans. This article focuses on a review of the risks for developing comorbid disorders and the combinations of treatments that appear to be most effective for clients with particular comorbid disorders. PMID:23731427

Kelly, Thomas M.; Daley, Dennis C.

2013-01-01

253

Cytogenetic analyses of eight species in the genus Leptodactylus Fitzinger, 1843 (Amphibia, Anura, Leptodactylidae), including a new diploid number and a karyotype with multiple translocations  

PubMed Central

Background The karyotypes of Leptodactylus species usually consist of 22 bi-armed chromosomes, but morphological variations in some chromosomes and even differences in the 2n have been reported. To better understand the mechanisms responsible for these differences, eight species were analysed using classical and molecular cytogenetic techniques, including replication banding with BrdU incorporation. Results Distinct chromosome numbers were found: 2n = 22 in Leptodactylus chaquensis, L. labyrinthicus, L. pentadactylus, L. petersii, L. podicipinus, and L. rhodomystax; 2n = 20 in Leptodactylus sp. (aff. podicipinus); and 2n = 24 in L. marmoratus. Among the species with 2n = 22, only three had the same basic karyotype. Leptodactylus pentadactylus presented multiple translocations, L. petersii displayed chromosome morphological discrepancy, and L. podicipinus had four pairs of telocentric chromosomes. Replication banding was crucial for characterising this variability and for explaining the reduced 2n in Leptodactylus sp. (aff. podicipinus). Leptodactylus marmoratus had few chromosomes with a similar banding patterns to the 2n = 22 karyotypes. The majority of the species presented a single NOR-bearing pair, which was confirmed using Ag-impregnation and FISH with an rDNA probe. In general, the NOR-bearing chromosomes corresponded to chromosome 8, but NORs were found on chromosome 3 or 4 in some species. Leptodactylus marmoratus had NORs on chromosome pairs 6 and 8. The data from C-banding, fluorochrome staining, and FISH using the telomeric probe helped in characterising the repetitive sequences. Even though hybridisation did occur on the chromosome ends, telomere-like repetitive sequences outside of the telomere region were identified. Metaphase I cells from L. pentadactylus confirmed its complex karyotype constitution because 12 chromosomes appeared as ring-shaped chain in addition to five bivalents. Conclusions Species of Leptodactylus exhibited both major and minor karyotypic differences which were identified by classical and molecular cytogenetic techniques. Replication banding, which is a unique procedure that has been used to obtain longitudinal multiple band patterns in amphibian chromosomes, allowed us to outline the general mechanisms responsible for these karyotype differences. The findings also suggested that L. marmoratus, which was formerly included in the genus Adenomera, may have undergone great chromosomal repatterning. PMID:23268622

2012-01-01

254

First-principles study of multiple order-disorder transitions in Cd2AgAu Heusler alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bcc-based Heusler alloys exhibit a series of order-disorder phase transitions as a function of temperature. The high-temperature phase is a disordered bcc solid solution, and the low-temperature phase is the Heusler structure. An intermediate ordered phase is also typically observed in real systems. A prototype cluster variation method (CVM) analysis is presented that shows that the relative stabilities of

R. McCormack; D. de Fontaine

1996-01-01

255

Personality disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... personality disorder Histrionic personality disorder Narcissistic personality disorder Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder Paranoid personality disorder Schizoid personality disorder Schizotypal personality disorder

256

Bone biopsy in haematological disorders.  

PubMed Central

Bone marrow biopsies are now widely used in the investigation and follow-up of many diseases. Semi-thin sections of 8216 undecalcified biopsies of patients with haematological disorders were studied. Observations were made on the cytopenias and the myelodysplastic syndromes, the acute leukaemias the myeloproliferative disorders, Hodgkin's disease and the malignant lymphomas including multiple myeloma, hairy cell leukaemia and angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy. Bone marrow biopsies are essential for the differential diagnosis of most cytopenias and for the early recognition of fibrosis which most frequently occurred as a consequence of megakaryocytic proliferation in the myeloproliferative disorders. Different patterns of bone marrow involvement were found in the lymphoproliferative disorders and both their type and extent constituted factors of prognostic significance. A survey of the literature is given and the conclusion is drawn that bone marrow biopsies provide indispensible information for the diagnostic evaluation and the follow-up of patients with haematological disorders. Images PMID:7040489

Burkhardt, R; Frisch, B; Bartl, R

1982-01-01

257

Presentation and Validation of the Multiple Sclerosis Depression Rating Scale: A Test Specifically Devised to Investigate Affective Disorders in Multiple Sclerosis Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate diagnosis of depression in patients affected by MS is important, as it may be a cause of reduced quality of life and increased suicide risk. We present a new scale, the Multiple Sclerosis Depression Rating Scale (MSDRS), and assess its diagnostic accuracy in comparison to the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). A total of 94 MS participants were classified as

Davide Quaranta; Camillo Marra; Massimiliano Zinno; Agata Katia Patanella; Maria Josè Messina; Chiara Piccininni; Anna Paola Batocchi; Guido Gainotti

2012-01-01

258

Kinetics of 3H-serotonin uptake by platelets in infantile autism and developmental language disorder (including five pairs of twins)  

SciTech Connect

The kinetics of 5-HT uptake by platelets was studied in cases of infantile autism and developmental language disorder (DLD) and normal subjects. Two patients of the autism group were twins, and the seven patients of the DLD group were members of four pairs of twins. The Vmax values (means +/- SD) for autism and DLD were 6.46 +/- .90 pmol 5-HT/10(7) cells/min and 4.85 +/- 1.50 pmol 5-HT/10(7) cells/min, respectively. These values were both significantly higher than that of 2.25 +/- .97 pmole 5-HT/10(7) cells/min for normal children. The Km values of the three groups were not significantly different. Data on the five pairs of twins examined suggested that the elevated Vmax of 5-HT uptake by platelets was determined genetically.

Katsui, T.; Okuda, M.; Usuda, S.; Koizumi, T.

1986-03-01

259

Deletions in chromosome 6p22.3-p24.3, including ATXN1, are associated with developmental delay and autism spectrum disorders.  

PubMed

Interstitial deletions of the short arm of chromosome 6 are rare and have been associated with developmental delay, hypotonia, congenital anomalies, and dysmorphic features. We used array comparative genomic hybridization in a South Carolina Autism Project (SCAP) cohort of 97 subjects with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and identified an ~ 5.4 Mb deletion on chromosome 6p22.3-p23 in a 15-year-old patient with intellectual disability and ASDs. Subsequent database queries revealed five additional individuals with overlapping submicroscopic deletions and presenting with developmental and speech delay, seizures, behavioral abnormalities, heart defects, and dysmorphic features. The deletion found in the SCAP patient harbors ATXN1, DTNBP1, JARID2, and NHLRC1 that we propose may be responsible for ASDs and developmental delay. PMID:22480366

Celestino-Soper, Patrícia Bs; Skinner, Cindy; Schroer, Richard; Eng, Patricia; Shenai, Jayant; Nowaczyk, Malgorzata Mj; Terespolsky, Deborah; Cushing, Donna; Patel, Gayle S; Immken, Ladonna; Willis, Alecia; Wiszniewska, Joanna; Matalon, Reuben; Rosenfeld, Jill A; Stevenson, Roger E; Kang, Sung-Hae L; Cheung, Sau Wai; Beaudet, Arthur L; Stankiewicz, Pawel

2012-01-01

260

Deletions in chromosome 6p22.3-p24.3, including ATXN1, are associated with developmental delay and autism spectrum disorders  

PubMed Central

Interstitial deletions of the short arm of chromosome 6 are rare and have been associated with developmental delay, hypotonia, congenital anomalies, and dysmorphic features. We used array comparative genomic hybridization in a South Carolina Autism Project (SCAP) cohort of 97 subjects with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and identified an ~ 5.4 Mb deletion on chromosome 6p22.3-p23 in a 15-year-old patient with intellectual disability and ASDs. Subsequent database queries revealed five additional individuals with overlapping submicroscopic deletions and presenting with developmental and speech delay, seizures, behavioral abnormalities, heart defects, and dysmorphic features. The deletion found in the SCAP patient harbors ATXN1, DTNBP1, JARID2, and NHLRC1 that we propose may be responsible for ASDs and developmental delay. PMID:22480366

2012-01-01

261

Comparing Factor, Class, and Mixture Models of Cannabis Initiation and DSM Cannabis Use Disorder Criteria, Including Craving, in the Brisbane Longitudinal Twin Study  

PubMed Central

Accumulating evidence suggests that the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) diagnostic criteria for cannabis abuse and dependence are best represented by a single underlying factor. However, it remains possible that models with additional factors, or latent class models or hybrid models, may better explain the data. Using structured interviews, 626 adult male and female twins provided complete data on symptoms of cannabis abuse and dependence, plus a craving criterion. We compared latent factor analysis, latent class analysis, and factor mixture modeling using normal theory marginal maximum likelihood for ordinal data. Our aim was to derive a parsimonious, best-fitting cannabis use disorder (CUD) phenotype based on DSM-IV criteria and determine whether DSM-5 craving loads onto a general factor. When compared with latent class and mixture models, factor models provided a better fit to the data. When conditioned on initiation and cannabis use, the association between criteria for abuse, dependence, withdrawal, and craving were best explained by two correlated latent factors for males and females: a general risk factor to CUD and a factor capturing the symptoms of social and occupational impairment as a consequence of frequent use. Secondary analyses revealed a modest increase in the prevalence of DSM-5 CUD compared with DSM-IV cannabis abuse or dependence. It is concluded that, in addition to a general factor with loadings on cannabis use and symptoms of abuse, dependence, withdrawal, and craving, a second clinically relevant factor defined by features of social and occupational impairment was also found for frequent cannabis use. PMID:24588857

Kubarych, Thomas S.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Aggen, Steven H.; Estabrook, Ryne; Edwards, Alexis C.; Clark, Shaunna L.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Hickie, Ian B.; Neale, Michael C.; Gillespie, Nathan A.

2014-01-01

262

Oppositional Defiant and Conduct Disorder Behaviors in Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder with and without Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder versus Several Comparison Samples  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We compared disruptive behaviors in boys with either autism spectrum disorder (ASD) plus ADHD (n = 74), chronic multiple tic disorder plus ADHD (n = 47), ADHD Only (n = 59), or ASD Only (n = 107). Children were evaluated with parent and teacher versions of the Child Symptom Inventory-4 including parent- (n = 168) and teacher-rated (n = 173)…

Guttmann-Steinmetz, Sarit; Gadow, Kenneth D.; DeVincent, Carla J.

2009-01-01

263

CNS demyelinating disorder with mixed features of neuromyelitis optica and multiple sclerosis in HIV-1 infection. Case report and literature review.  

PubMed

An African-American male presented with bilateral visual impairment, gait difficulties, and bladder and bowel incontinence raising concerns for multiple sclerosis (MS) or neuromyelitis optica (NMO). He was identified to be HIV-1 infected with high viral load and low CD4+ counts. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain was abnormal, but atypical for MS. MRI of the cervical and thoracic spinal cord showed multiple areas of myelitis with a longitudinally extensive thoracic transverse myelitis that showed enhancement with gadolinium suggestive of NMO. Cerebrospinal fluid showed oligoclonal IgG bands but did not show reactivity to aquaporin 4. Patient underwent treatment for the acute exacerbation with intravenous corticosteroids and treatment of the HIV infection with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). A year later, his viral load was <20 copies/ml and CD4+ counts were normal. Vision did not significantly improve, but his ambulation improved from a near total non-ambulatory state to ambulating without aids and resolution of the bladder and bowel incontinence. A demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) like MS or NMO has been previously reported in the context of HIV infection. The remarkable improvement of symptoms has also been previously reported with HAART, and these observations have led to clinical trials of MS with HAART therapy in the absence of HIV infection. We reviewed the few cases of CNS demyelinating disorders with HIV infection reported in the literature and speculate on the mechanisms of pathogenesis. PMID:24981832

Delgado, Silvia R; Maldonado, Janice; Rammohan, Kottil W

2014-10-01

264

Genome-wide identification of transcriptional targets of RORA reveals direct regulation of multiple genes associated with autism spectrum disorder  

PubMed Central

Background We have recently identified the nuclear hormone receptor RORA (retinoic acid-related orphan receptor-alpha) as a novel candidate gene for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Our independent cohort studies have consistently demonstrated the reduction of RORA transcript and/or protein levels in blood-derived lymphoblasts as well as in the postmortem prefrontal cortex and cerebellum of individuals with ASD. Moreover, we have also shown that RORA has the potential to be under negative and positive regulation by androgen and estrogen, respectively, suggesting the possibility that RORA may contribute to the male bias of ASD. However, little is known about transcriptional targets of this nuclear receptor, particularly in humans. Methods Here we identify transcriptional targets of RORA in human neuronal cells on a genome-wide level using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) with an anti-RORA antibody followed by whole-genome promoter array (chip) analysis. Selected potential targets of RORA were then validated by an independent ChIP followed by quantitative PCR analysis. To further demonstrate that reduced RORA expression results in reduced transcription of RORA targets, we determined the expression levels of the selected transcriptional targets in RORA-deficient human neuronal cells, as well as in postmortem brain tissues from individuals with ASD who exhibit reduced RORA expression. Results The ChIP-on-chip analysis reveals that RORA1, a major isoform of RORA protein in human brain, can be recruited to as many as 2,764 genomic locations corresponding to promoter regions of 2,544 genes across the human genome. Gene ontology analysis of this dataset of genes that are potentially directly regulated by RORA1 reveals statistically significant enrichment in biological functions negatively impacted in individuals with ASD, including neuronal differentiation, adhesion and survival, synaptogenesis, synaptic transmission and plasticity, and axonogenesis, as well as higher level functions such as development of the cortex and cerebellum, cognition, memory, and spatial learning. Independent ChIP-quantitative PCR analyses confirm binding of RORA1 to promoter regions of selected ASD-associated genes, including A2BP1, CYP19A1, ITPR1, NLGN1, and NTRK2, whose expression levels (in addition to HSD17B10) are also decreased in RORA1-repressed human neuronal cells and in prefrontal cortex tissues from individuals with ASD. Conclusions Findings from this study indicate that RORA transcriptionally regulates A2BP1, CYP19A1, HSD17B10, ITPR1, NLGN1, and NTRK2, and strongly suggest that reduction of this sex hormone-sensitive nuclear receptor in the brain causes dysregulated expression of these ASD-relevant genes as well as their associated pathways and functions which, in turn, may contribute to the underlying pathobiology of ASD. PMID:23697635

2013-01-01

265

Spectrum of mast cell activation disorders.  

PubMed

Mast cell (MC) activation disorders present with multiple symptoms including flushing, pruritus, hypotension, gastrointestinal complaints, irritability, headaches, concentration/memory loss and neuropsychiatric issues. These disorders are classified as: cutaneous and systemic mastocytosis with a c-kit mutation and clonal MC activation disorder, allergies, urticarias and inflammatory disorders and mast cell activation syndrome (MCAS), idiopathic urticaria and angioedema. MCs are activated by IgE, but also by cytokines, environmental, food, infectious, drug and stress triggers, leading to secretion of multiple mediators. The symptom profile and comorbidities associated with these disorders, such as chronic fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia, are confusing. We propose the use of the term 'spectrum' and highlight the main symptoms, useful diagnostic tests and treatment approaches. PMID:24784142

Petra, Anastasia I; Panagiotidou, Smaro; Stewart, Julia M; Conti, Pio; Theoharides, Theoharis C

2014-06-01

266

Case Presentation of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy With an Older Adult With Major Depressive Disorder Comorbid With Multiple Sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a detailed single-case presentation of a 70-year-old Caucasian, married woman suffering from multiple sclerosis and significant chronic depression. Her presentation was complicated by traumatic events during childhood and a recent decline in physical abilities due to multiple sclerosis. Cognitive behavioral therapy was used and excellent outcomes were achieved. This article describes how cognitive behavioral therapy was effectively adapted

Dichelle Wong; Ken Laidlaw

2012-01-01

267

Stereotypic movement disorder  

MedlinePLUS

... include repetitive and purposeless picking, hand wringing, head tics, or lip-biting. Long-term stimulant use may ... disorders Obsessive compulsive disorder Tourette syndrome or other tic disorder

268

Temporomandibular Joint Disorders  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... jaw joint. TMJ disorders can cause headaches, ear pain, bite problems, clicking sounds, locked jaws, and other ... three main categories: Muscle Disorders These disorders include pain in the muscles that control jaw function, as ...

269

A novel vasculo-angiogenic effect of cilostazol mediated by cross-talk between multiple signalling pathways including the ERK/p38 MAPK signalling transduction cascade.  

PubMed

Cilostazol is an anti-platelet agent with vasodilatory activity that acts by increasing intracellular concentrations of cAMP. Recent reports have suggested that cilostazol may promote angiogenesis. In the present study, we have investigated the effect of cilostazol in promoting angiogenesis and vasculogenesis in a hindlimb ischaemia model and have also examined its potential mechanism of action in vitro and in vivo. We found that cilostazol treatment significantly increased colony formation by human early EPCs (endothelial progenitor cells) through a mechanism involving the activation of cAMP/PKA (protein kinase A), PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase)/Akt/eNOS (endothelial NO synthase) and ERK (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase)/p38 MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) signalling pathways. Cilostazol also enhanced proliferation, chemotaxis, NO production and vascular tube formation in HUVECs (human umbilical vein endothelial cells) through activation of multiple signalling pathways downstream of PI3K/Akt/eNOS. Cilostazol up-regulated VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor)-A165 expression and secretion of VEGF-A in HUVECs through activation of the PI3K/Akt/eNOS pathway. In a mouse hindlimb ischaemia model, recovery of blood flow ratio (ipsilateral/contralateral) 14 days after surgery was significantly improved in cilostazol-treated mice (10 mg/kg of body weight) compared with vehicle-treated controls (0.63±0.07 and 0.43±0.05 respectively, P<0.05). Circulating CD34+ cells were also increased in cilostazol-treated mice (3614±670 compared with 2151±608 cells/ml, P<0.05). Expression of VEGF and phosphorylation of PI3K/Akt/eNOS and ERK/p38 MAPK in ischaemic muscles were significantly enhanced by cilostazol. Our data suggest that cilostazol produces a vasculo-angiogenic effect by up-regulating a broad signalling network that includes the ERK/p38 MAPK, VEGF-A165, PI3K/Akt/eNOS and cAMP/PKA pathways. PMID:22339730

Chao, Ting-Hsing; Tseng, Shih-Ya; Li, Yi-Heng; Liu, Ping-Yen; Cho, Chung-Lung; Shi, Guey-Yueh; Wu, Hua-Lin; Chen, Jyh-Hong

2012-08-01

270

Multiple interactions of the intrinsically disordered region between the helicase and nuclease domains of the archaeal Hef protein.  

PubMed

Hef is an archaeal protein that probably functions mainly in stalled replication fork repair. The presence of an unstructured region was predicted between the two distinct domains of the Hef protein. We analyzed the interdomain region of Thermococcus kodakarensis Hef and demonstrated its disordered structure by CD, NMR, and high speed atomic force microscopy (AFM). To investigate the functions of this intrinsically disordered region (IDR), we screened for proteins interacting with the IDR of Hef by a yeast two-hybrid method, and 10 candidate proteins were obtained. We found that PCNA1 and a RecJ-like protein specifically bind to the IDR in vitro. These results suggested that the Hef protein interacts with several different proteins that work together in the pathways downstream from stalled replication fork repair by converting the IDR structure depending on the partner protein. PMID:24947516

Ishino, Sonoko; Yamagami, Takeshi; Kitamura, Makoto; Kodera, Noriyuki; Mori, Tetsuya; Sugiyama, Shyogo; Ando, Toshio; Goda, Natsuko; Tenno, Takeshi; Hiroaki, Hidekazu; Ishino, Yoshizumi

2014-08-01

271

Multiple lattice instabilities resolved by magnetic-field and disorder sensitivities in MgV2O4  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrasound velocity measurements of the orbitally degenerate frustrated spinel MgV2O4 are performed in a high-purity single crystal which exhibits successive structural and antiferromagnetic phase transitions, and in the disorder-introduced single crystal which exhibits spin-glass-like behavior. The measurements reveal that two types of unusual temperature dependence of the elastic moduli coexist in the cubic paramagnetic phase, which are resolved by magnetic-field and disorder sensitivities: huge Curie-type softening with decreasing temperature (convex temperature dependence), and concave temperature dependence with a characteristic minimum. These elastic anomalies suggest the coupling of the lattice to coexisting orbital fluctuations and spin-cluster excitations.

Watanabe, Tadataka; Ishikawa, Takashi; Hara, Shigeo; Islam, A. T. M. Nazmul; Wheeler, Elisa M.; Lake, Bella

2014-09-01

272

Sleep disturbances associated with posttraumatic stress disorder and alcohol dependence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sleep disturbances commonly appear in the context of both posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol use disorders. Sleep symptoms typically reported among clinical populations include delayed sleep onset, poor sleep continuity, early morning awakening, and disturbed sleep architecture. The aim of the present study was to examine multiple forms of sleep disturbances among individuals with comorbid PTSD and alcohol dependence,

Angela E. Waldrop; Sudie E. Back; Amanda Sensenig; Kathleen T. Brady

2008-01-01

273

Collaborative Care for patients with severe borderline and NOS personality disorders: A comparative multiple case study on processes and outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Structured psychotherapy is recommended as the preferred treatment of personality disorders. A substantial group of patients,\\u000a however, has no access to these therapies or does not benefit. For those patients who have no (longer) access to psychotherapy\\u000a a Collaborative Care Program (CCP) is developed. Collaborative Care originated in somatic health care to increase shared decision\\u000a making and to enhance self

Barbara Stringer; Berno van Meijel; Bauke Koekkoek; A. J. F. M. Kerkhof; Aartjan Beekman

2011-01-01

274

First-principles study of multiple order-disorder transitions in Cd{sub 2}AgAu Heusler alloys  

SciTech Connect

The bcc-based Heusler alloys exhibit a series of order-disorder phase transitions as a function of temperature. The high-temperature phase is a disordered bcc solid solution, and the low-temperature phase is the Heusler structure. An intermediate ordered phase is also typically observed in real systems. A prototype cluster variation method (CVM) analysis is presented that shows that the relative stabilities of the Heusler and intermediate phases can vary continuously, depending on a fine balance between ordering tendencies in the constituent binary systems. Given these basic conclusions, a first-principles analysis of order-disorder transitions in Cd{sub 2}AgAu was performed. A cluster expansion Hamiltonian was constructed based on a series of linearized muffin-tin orbital calculations in the atomic sphere approximation. CVM calculations were then performed in the ternary bcc tetrahedron approximation. In addition to the transition temperatures, long-range order parameters, and sublattice occupations for Cd{sub 2}AgAu, an isoplethal section of the ternary phase diagram was also calculated. In general, agreement with experiment is excellent, given the first-principles nature of the calculation. This study clearly demonstrates the ability of first-principles statistical-mechanical calculations to treat complex ordering phenomena in {ital ternary} systems. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

McCormack, R.; de Fontaine, D. [Department of Materials Science, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)] [Department of Materials Science, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Materials Science Division, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

1996-10-01

275

Alcohol Consumption Has a Protective Effect against Hematological Malignancies: a Population-Based Study in Sweden Including 420,489 Individuals with Alcohol Use Disorders12345  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that alcohol consumption is associated with increased risk of a few solid cancers, although studies that examined the association with hematological malignancies have shown inconsistent results. In this study, we examined the risk of hematological malignancies among individuals who had alcohol use disorders (AUDs) in Sweden. METHODS: Individuals with AUDs were identified from the nationwide Swedish Hospital Discharge Register and Outpatient Register, the Crime Register, and the Prescription Drug Register, and they were linked to the Swedish Cancer Registry to calculate standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of hematological malignancies, using those Swedes without AUDs as a reference. In addition, we used a quasi-experimental sibling design to investigate the odds ratios among sibling pairs who were discordant with AUDs. RESULTS: A total of 420,489 individuals were identified with AUDs. After more than 15 million person-years of follow-up, a total of 1755 individuals developed hematological malignancies demonstrating a low risk, i.e., SIR = 0.60 (95% confidence interval = 0.57-0.63). People with AUDs had low risks for developing specific types of malignancies. The lowest risk (0.51) was for leukemia, followed by myeloma (0.52), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (0.65), and Hodgkin disease (0.71). The risk was lower among AUDs identified at an older age. The low risks of hematological malignancies were also noted using sibling analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that alcohol consumption has a protective effect against hematological malignancies. However, further studies are needed to identity the underlying mechanisms of the protective effect of alcohol consumption against hematological malignancies. PMID:24783999

Ji, Jianguang; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina

2014-01-01

276

Panic disorder and hypocondriasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypocondriasis is associated with several anxiety disorders, including panic disorder. The available estimates of panic disorder patients with identified hypochondriacal symptoms are 50% to 70%. Complimentary, 13% to 17% of hypochondriac patients were associated with panic disorder. Comorbidity and hypocondriasis occur when health care issues are not delimited by panic disorder symptoms. We reported a patient that, during the follow-up

Monica Di; Alexandre M. Valença; Antonio Egidio Nardi

277

Renal complications in multiple myeloma and related disorders: survivorship care plan of the International Myeloma Foundation Nurse Leadership Board.  

PubMed

Kidney dysfunction is a common clinical feature of symptomatic multiple myeloma. Some degree of renal insufficiency or renal failure is present at diagnosis or will occur during the course of the disease and, if not reversed, will adversely affect overall survival and quality of life. Chronic insults to the kidneys from other illnesses, treatment, or multiple myeloma itself can further damage renal function and increase the risk for additional complications, such as anemia. Patients with multiple myeloma who have light chain (Bence Jones protein) proteinuria may experience renal failure or progress to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and require dialysis because of light chain cast nephropathy. Kidney failure in patients with presumed multiple myeloma also may result from amyloidosis, light chain deposition disease, or acute tubular necrosis caused by nephrotoxic agents; therefore, identification of patients at risk for kidney damage is essential. The International Myeloma Foundation's Nurse Leadership Board has developed practice recommendations for screening renal function, identifying positive and negative contributing risk and environmental factors, selecting appropriate therapies and supportive care measures to decrease progression to ESRD, and enacting dialysis to reduce and manage renal complications in patients with multiple myeloma. PMID:21816711

Faiman, Beth M; Mangan, Patricia; Spong, Jacy; Tariman, Joseph D; The International Myeloma Foundation Nurse Leadership Board

2011-08-01

278

Comorbid personality disorders in subjects with panic disorder: do personality disorders increase clinical severity?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Personality disorders are common in subjects with panic disorder. Personality disorders have been shown to affect the course of panic disorder. The purpose of this study was to examine which personality disorders affect clinical severity in subjects with panic disorder. This study included 122 adults (71 women, 41 men) who met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition

Mustafa Ozkan; Abdurrahman Altindag

2005-01-01

279

Zinc-finger domains of the transcriptional repressor KLF15 bind multiple sites in rhodopsin and IRBP promoters including the CRS1 and G-rich repressor elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In the retina, many of the genes that encode components of the visual transduction cascade and retinoid recycling are exclusively expressed in photoreceptor cells and show highly stereotyped temporal and spatial expression patterns. Multiple transcriptional activators of photoreceptor-specific genes have been identified, but little is known about negative regulation of gene expression in the retina. We recently identified KLF15,

Deborah C Otteson; Hong Lai; Yuhui Liu; Donald J Zack

2005-01-01

280

[Eating disorders].  

PubMed

Abstract Eating disorders are characterized by aberrant patterns of eating behavior, including such symptoms as extreme restriction of food intake or binge eating, and severe disturbances in the perception of body shape and weight, as well as a drive for thinness and obsessive fears of becoming fat. Eating disorder is an important cause for physical and psychosocial morbidity in young women. Patients with eating disorders have a deficit in the cognitive process and functional abnormalities in the brain system. Recently, brain-imaging techniques have been used to identify specific brain areas that function abnormally in patients with eating disorders. We have discussed the clinical and cognitive aspects of eating disorders and summarized neuroimaging studies of eating disorders. PMID:25681363

Miyake, Yoshie; Okamoto, Yuri; Jinnin, Ran; Shishida, Kazuhiro; Okamoto, Yasumasa

2015-02-01

281

"Nothing like Pretend": Difference, Disorder, and Dystopia in the Multiple World Spaces of Philip Pullman's "His Dark Materials"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the multiple worlds in Philip Pullman's "His Dark Materials" trilogy in light Pierre Bourdieu's "space of possibles" and the combination of chance and choice that impact Lyra and Will's decisions. Rather than viewing chance or destiny as disempowering, this article considers how the protagonists' choices also encourage…

Cantrell, Sarah K.

2010-01-01

282

The Clinical Obesity Maintenance Model: An Integration of Psychological Constructs including Mood, Emotional Regulation, Disordered Overeating, Habitual Cluster Behaviours, Health Literacy and Cognitive Function  

PubMed Central

Psychological distress and deficits in executive functioning are likely to be important barriers to effective weight loss maintenance. The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, in the light of recent evidence in the fields of neuropsychology and obesity, particularly on the deficits in the executive function in overweight and obese individuals, a conceptual and theoretical framework of obesity maintenance is introduced by way of a clinical obesity maintenance model (COMM). It is argued that psychological variables, that of habitual cluster Behaviors, emotional dysregulation, mood, and health literacy, interact with executive functioning and impact on the overeating/binge eating behaviors of obese individuals. Second, cognizant of this model, it is argued that the focus of obesity management should be extended to include a broader range of maintaining mechanisms, including but not limited to cognitive deficits. Finally, a discussion on potential future directions in research and practice using the COMM is provided. PMID:23710346

Raman, Jayanthi; Smith, Evelyn; Hay, Phillipa

2013-01-01

283

Intricate Crystal Structure of Dihydrolipoamide Dehydrogenase (E3) with its Binding Protein: Multiple Copies, Dynamic and Static Disorders  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Human E3 and binding protein E3BP are two components of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. Crystallization of E3 with 221-amino acid fragment of E3BP (E3BPdd) led to crystals that diffracted to a resolution of 2.6 Angstroms. Structure determination involved molecular replacement using a dimer of E3 homolog as a search model and de novo building of the E3BPdd peptide. Solution was achieved by inclusion of one E3 dimer at a time, followed by refinement until five E3 dimers were located. This complete content of E3 provided electron density maps suitable for tracing nine peptide chains of E3BPdd, eight of them being identified with partial occupancies. Final content of the asymmetric unit consists of five E3 dimers, each binding one E3BPdd molecule. In four of these molecular complexes, E3BPdd is in static disorder resulting in E3BPdd binding to either one or the other monomer of the E3 dimer. However, E3BPdd of the fifth E3 dimer forms specific contacts that lock it at one monomer. In addition to this static disorder, E3BPdd reveals high mobility in the limited space of the crystal lattice. Support from NIH and NASA.

Makal, A.; Hong, Y. S.; Potter, R.; Vettaikkorumakankauv, A. K.; Korotchkina, L. G.; Patel, M. S.; Ciszak, E.

2004-01-01

284

X-ray spectroscopy of electrochemically deposited iridium oxide films: detection of multiple sites through structural disorder.  

PubMed

We report the results of X-ray absorption spectroscopy studies on electrochemically deposited iridium oxide films. The emphasis of the study is the correlation of X-ray derived structural data with electrochemically controlled charge state. Data were acquired for films subject to redox cycling in neutral and alkaline aqueous media. In both cases, cyclic voltammetric responses show two redox couples, coulometrically of roughly equal magnitude. Assays of the iridium population (based on the iridium L(3) absorption edge amplitude) and the charge injected (based on integration of the voltammetric response) show that overall an average of ca. one electron per iridium atom is transferred. The absorption edge shifts indicate that the formal charge on the iridium changes, on average, from ca. 3.5+ to ca. 4.5+ across the entire process. EXAFS-derived changes in mean Ir-O distance and their mean square variation have been interpreted in terms of a two-site model, in which the two types of site have distinct redox potentials. Variations of local structure and disorder with potential are discussed and a generic model for structural disorder (parameterized via Debye-Waller factor) with diagnostic capability is developed. PMID:21173969

Hillman, A Robert; Skopek, Magdalena A; Gurman, Stephen J

2011-03-28

285

Genetic Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... extra chromosome. A common trisomy is trisomy 21 (Down syndrome) . Other trisomies include trisomy 13 (Patau syndrome) and ... within the first year of life. Trisomy 21 (Down Syndrome): A genetic disorder in which abnormal features of ...

286

Bipolar Disorder  

MedlinePLUS

... to treat bipolar disorder include mood stabilizers, atypical antipsychotics, and antidepressants. For the most up-to-date ... should be monitored carefully by a doctor. Atypical antipsychotics are sometimes used to treat symptoms of bipolar ...

287

Schizoaffective disorder  

MedlinePLUS

... improvement. The symptoms of schizoaffective disorder can include: Changes in appetite and energy Disorganized speech that is not logical False beliefs (delusions), such as thinking someone is trying to ...

288

Molecular basis of multiple sulfatase deficiency, mucolipidosis II/III and Niemann-Pick C1 disease - Lysosomal storage disorders caused by defects of non-lysosomal proteins.  

PubMed

Multiple sulfatase deficiency (MSD), mucolipidosis (ML) II/III and Niemann-Pick type C1 (NPC1) disease are rare but fatal lysosomal storage disorders caused by the genetic defect of non-lysosomal proteins. The NPC1 protein mainly localizes to late endosomes and is essential for cholesterol redistribution from endocytosed LDL to cellular membranes. NPC1 deficiency leads to lysosomal accumulation of a broad range of lipids. The precise functional mechanism of this membrane protein, however, remains puzzling. ML II, also termed I cell disease, and the less severe ML III result from deficiencies of the Golgi enzyme N-acetylglucosamine 1-phosphotransferase leading to a global defect of lysosome biogenesis. In patient cells, newly synthesized lysosomal proteins are not equipped with the critical lysosomal trafficking marker mannose 6-phosphate, thus escaping from lysosomal sorting at the trans Golgi network. MSD affects the entire sulfatase family, at least seven members of which are lysosomal enzymes that are specifically involved in the degradation of sulfated glycosaminoglycans, sulfolipids or other sulfated molecules. The combined deficiencies of all sulfatases result from a defective post-translational modification by the ER-localized formylglycine-generating enzyme (FGE), which oxidizes a specific cysteine residue to formylglycine, the catalytic residue enabling a unique mechanism of sulfate ester hydrolysis. This review gives an update on the molecular bases of these enigmatic diseases, which have been challenging researchers since many decades and so far led to a number of surprising findings that give deeper insight into both the cell biology and the pathobiochemistry underlying these complex disorders. In case of MSD, considerable progress has been made in recent years towards an understanding of disease-causing FGE mutations. First approaches to link molecular parameters with clinical manifestation have been described and even therapeutical options have been addressed. Further, the discovery of FGE as an essential sulfatase activating enzyme has considerable impact on enzyme replacement or gene therapy of lysosomal storage disorders caused by single sulfatase deficiencies. PMID:19124046

Dierks, Thomas; Schlotawa, Lars; Frese, Marc-André; Radhakrishnan, Karthikeyan; von Figura, Kurt; Schmidt, Bernhard

2009-04-01

289

Personality disorder cognitions in the eating disorders.  

PubMed

Patients with eating disorder have relatively high rates of comorbid personality disorder diagnoses, including both anxiety-based personality disorders (obsessive-compulsive and avoidant) and borderline personality disorder. However, there is preliminary evidence that the core cognitions underlying personality pathology in the eating disorders are those related specifically to anxiety. This article builds on that evidence, replicating and extending the findings with a large sample of patients with eating disorder (N = 374). There were no differences in personality disorder cognitions between eating disorder diagnoses. This study also examines the possibility that there are clusters of patients, differentiated by patterns of personality disorder cognition. Affect-related personality disorder cognitions were key to understanding the role of personality pathology in the eating disorders. It is suggested that those cognitions should be considered when planning psychological treatments. PMID:24469531

Gabriel, Chloe; Waller, Glenn

2014-02-01

290

Genetics of bipolar disorder  

PubMed Central

Bipolar disorder (also known as manic depressive illness) is a complex genetic disorder in which the core feature is pathological disturbance in mood (affect) ranging from extreme elation, or mania, to severe depression usually accompanied by disturbances in thinking and behaviour. The lifetime prevalence of 1% is similar in males and females and family, twin, and adoption studies provide robust evidence for a major genetic contribution to risk. There are methodological impediments to precise quantification, but the approximate lifetime risk of bipolar disorder in relatives of a bipolar proband are: monozygotic co-twin 40-70%; first degree relative 5-10%; unrelated person 0.5-1.5%. Occasional families may exist in which a single gene plays the major role in determining susceptibility, but the majority of bipolar disorder involves the interaction of multiple genes (epistasis) or more complex genetic mechanisms (such as dynamic mutation or imprinting). Molecular genetic positional and candidate gene approaches are being used for the genetic dissection of bipolar disorder. No gene has yet been identified but promising findings are emerging. Regions of interest identified in linkage studies include 4p16, 12q23-q24, 16p13, 21q22, and Xq24-q26. Chromosome 18 is also of interest but the findings are confusing with up to three possible regions implicated. To date most candidate gene studies have focused on neurotransmitter systems influenced by medication used in clinical management of the disorder but no robust positive findings have yet emerged. It is, however, almost certain that over the next few years bipolar susceptibility genes will be identified. This will have a major impact on our understanding of disease pathophysiology and will provide important opportunities to investigate the interaction between genetic and environmental factors involved in pathogenesis. This is likely to lead to major improvements in treatment and patient care but will also raise important ethical issues that will need to be addressed.???Keywords: bipolar disorder; manic depressive illness PMID:10465107

Craddock, N.; Jones, I.

1999-01-01

291

Teaching 'Yes' and 'No' responses to children with multiple disabilities through a program including microswitches linked to a vocal output device.  

PubMed

The present study introduced two children (a boy and a girl of 9.2 and 12.3 yr. of age, respectively, with multiple disabilities) to an intervention program for establishing Yes and No responses in relation to preferred and nonpreferred stimuli and assessed the acquisition and generalization of those responses. The program involved the use of microswitches, which monitored the nonverbal Yes and No responses performed by the children and ensured that these responses produced the matching verbal utterances via a vocal output device. Analysis showed children acquired Yes and No responses in relation to the stimuli used for the intervention and, to a comparable degree, to the stimuli used for generalization checks as well. An interview of 30 educational staff of a center for persons with multiple disabilities indicated that they considered the presence of Yes and No verbal utterances preferable to the absence of such utterances, and thought that the utterances could be helpful for the children's response acquisition and would be useful and pleasing for staff and parents. General implications of the findings were discussed. PMID:16671596

Lancioni, Giulio E; Singh, Nirbhay N; O'Reilly, Mark F; Sigafoos, Jeff; Oliva, Doretta; Baccani, Simona

2006-02-01

292

Relationships of personality and psychiatric disorders to multiple domains of smoking motives and dependence in middle-aged adults  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Individual differences in psychopathology and personality may associate with dependence on smoking for specific motivational reasons. However, the associations among psychopathology, personality, and smoking dependence and motives have not been examined simultaneously in studies to date, leaving it unclear whether specific patterns of affective and behavioral functioning are associated with specific aspects of smoking dependence. Methods: The present study examined these associations in 296 current smokers aged 35–43 years. Smoking dependence and motives were assessed with structured interview, the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence, and the Wisconsin Inventory of Smoking Dependence Motives. Results: Regardless of the measure of smoking dependence tested, a lifetime history of major depression and high levels of trait stress reaction were consistently related to greater current smoking dependence severity. Substance dependence showed significant associations with some measures of smoking dependence but had relatively few effects when entered in models along with depression history and trait stress reaction. In multivariate models, alcohol dependence and conduct disorder history did not show unique significant associations with smoking dependence nor did trait aggression, alienation, control, or harm avoidance. Discussion: Results indicate little specificity in the associations of particular psychiatric diagnoses or personality traits with specific self-reported facets of smoking dependence. It appears that a general vulnerability to depression and negative emotions is the most robust indicator of vulnerability to high levels of self-reported smoking dependence, regardless of which dimensions of smoking dependence are analyzed. PMID:20167635

Leventhal, Adam M.; Daughters, Stacey B.; Clark, Melissa A.; Colby, Suzanne M.; Ramsey, Susan E.; Boergers, Julie; Abrams, David B.; Niaura, Raymond; Buka, Stephen L.

2010-01-01

293

Circadian clock and stress interactions in the molecular biology of psychiatric disorders.  

PubMed

Many psychiatric disorders are characterized by circadian rhythm abnormalities, including disturbed sleep/wake cycles, changes in locomotor activity, and abnormal endocrine function. Animal models with mutations in circadian "clock genes" commonly show disturbances in reward processing, locomotor activity and novelty seeking behaviors, further supporting the idea of a connection between the circadian clock and psychiatric disorders. However, if circadian clock dysfunction is a common risk factor for multiple psychiatric disorders, it is unknown if and how these putative clock abnormalities could be expressed differently, and contribute to multiple, distinct phenotypes. One possible explanation is that the circadian clock modulates the biological responses to stressful environmental factors that vary with an individual's experience. It is known that the circadian clock and the stress response systems are closely related: Circadian clock genes regulate the physiological sensitivity to and rhythmic release of glucocorticoids (GC). In turn, GCs have reciprocal effects on the clock. Since stressful life events or increased vulnerability to stress are risk factors for multiple psychiatric disorders, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), bipolar disorder (BD), major depressive disorder (MDD), alcohol use disorder (AUD) and schizophrenia (SCZ), we propose that modulation of the stress response is a common mechanism by which circadian clock genes affect these illnesses. Presently, we review how molecular components of the circadian clock may contribute to these six psychiatric disorders, and present the hypothesis that modulation of the stress response may constitute a common mechanism by which the circadian clock affects multiple psychiatric disorders. PMID:25135782

Landgraf, Dominic; McCarthy, Michael J; Welsh, David K

2014-10-01

294

Rare adipose disorders (RADs) masquerading as obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rare adipose disorders (RADs) including multiple symmetric lipomatosis (MSL), lipedema and Dercum's disease (DD) may be misdiagnosed as obesity. Lifestyle changes, such as reduced caloric intake and increased physical activity are standard care for obesity. Although lifestyle changes and bariatric surgery work effectively for the obesity component of RADs, these treatments do not routinely reduce the abnormal subcutaneous adipose tissue

Karen L Herbst

2012-01-01

295

Pediatric psychocutaneous disorders: a review of primary psychiatric disorders with dermatologic manifestations.  

PubMed

Psychocutaneous disorders (PCDs) are conditions that are characterized by psychiatric and skin manifestations. Classifications of PCDs and their nomenclature are matters of debate. For the purpose of this review, we adopted the classification that distinguishes primary dermatologic disorders with psychiatric co-morbidity (PDDPC) from primary psychiatric disorders with dermatologic manifestations (PPDDM). PDDPC includes the psychophysiologic disorders such as atopic eczema, psoriasis, vitiligo, and alopecia areata. PPDDM includes impulse control disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorders, factitious disorder, factitious disorder by proxy, self-mutilation, delusions of parasitosis, psychogenic purpura/Gardner-Diamond syndrome, and cutaneous sensory disorders. Diagnosis and treatment of PCDs are challenging and require that the underlying psychopathology be addressed. A specific PCD may have different underlying psychopathologies and, at times, multiple overlapping psychopathologies may coexist. Most often, both non-pharmacologic management and psychopharmacologic treatment are necessary. The choice of psychopharmacologic agent depends on the nature of the underlying psychopathology (e.g. anxiety, depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, psychosis). This article reviews the spectrum of PPDDM in children. PMID:21548659

Al Hawsawi, Khalid; Pope, Elena

2011-08-01

296

Significant Low Prevalence of Antibodies Reacting with Simian Virus 40 Mimotopes in Serum Samples from Patients Affected by Inflammatory Neurologic Diseases, Including Multiple Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Many investigations were carried out on the association between viruses and multiple sclerosis (MS). Indeed, early studies reported the detections of neurotropic virus footprints in the CNS of patients with MS. In this study, sera from patients affected by MS, other inflammatory (OIND) and non-inflammatory neurologic diseases (NIND) were analyzed for antibodies against the polyomavirus, Simian Virus 40 (SV40). An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), with two synthetic peptides, which mimic SV40 antigens, was employed to detect specific antibodies in sera from patients affected by MS, OIND, NIND and healthy subjects (HS). Immunologic data indicate that in sera from MS patients antibodies against SV40 mimotopes are detectable with a low prevalence, 6%, whereas in HS of the same mean age, 40 yrs, the prevalence was 22%. The difference is statistically significant (P?=?0.001). Significant is also the difference between MS vs. NIND patients (6% vs. 17%; P?=?0.0254), whereas no significant difference was detected between MS vs OIND (6% vs 10%; P>0.05). The prevalence of SV40 antibodies in MS patients is 70% lower than that revealed in HS. PMID:25365364

Mazzoni, Elisa; Pietrobon, Silvia; Masini, Irene; Rotondo, John Charles; Gentile, Mauro; Fainardi, Enrico; Casetta, Ilaria; Castellazzi, Massimiliano; Granieri, Enrico; Caniati, Maria Luisa; Tola, Maria Rosaria; Guerra, Giovanni; Martini, Fernanda; Tognon, Mauro

2014-01-01

297

Receptors and Entry Cofactors for Retroviruses Include Single and Multiple Transmembrane-Spanning Proteins as well as Newly Described Glycophosphatidylinositol-Anchored and Secreted Proteins  

PubMed Central

In the past few years, many retrovirus receptors, coreceptors, and cofactors have been identified. These molecules are important for some aspects of viral entry, although in some cases it remains to be determined whether they are required for binding or postbinding stages in entry, such as fusion. There are certain common features to the molecules that many retroviruses use to gain entry into the cell. For example, the receptors for most mammalian oncoretroviruses are multiple membrane-spanning transport proteins. However, avian retroviruses use single-pass membrane proteins, and a sheep retrovirus uses a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored molecule as its receptor. For some retroviruses, particularly the lentiviruses, two cell surface molecules are required for efficient entry. More recently, a soluble protein that is required for viral entry has been identified for a feline oncoretrovirus. In this review, we will focus on the various strategies used by mammalian retroviruses to gain entry into the cell. The choice of receptors will also be discussed in light of pressures that drive viral evolution and persistence. PMID:11528001

Overbaugh, Julie; Miller, A. Dusty; Eiden, Maribeth V.

2001-01-01

298

Co-occurring psychiatric disorders and alcoholism.  

PubMed

Alcohol use disorder (AUD), a term that comprises both alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence, is a highly prevalent psychiatric disorder. Over 50% of treated AUD patients also suffer from other psychiatric disorder(s). Detailed study has revealed disorders across multiple psychiatric domains with rates of co-occurrence far greater than chance, suggesting a synergistic relationship. The basis of this synergy is explored along with its multiple forms, including behavioral and neurobiologic. Specific topics include the predisposition to both AUD and co-occurring psychopathology, the vulnerability to environmental risk factors that exacerbate these predispositions, and the nature of reinforcement in acute intoxication. Co-occurrence can also modify and exacerbate the neuroadaptations underpinning chronic dependence and relapse, the manifestations of acute and protracted withdrawal, emergence of medical and psychiatric complications, and ultimately the potential for relapse. The outcomes of co-occurrence as well as the unique impact it has on proper treatment are also discussed. Throughout, the significance of recognizing co-occurrence is emphasized since, both neurobiologically and clinically, the synergies between co-occurring disorders yield a result far more complex than a mere sum of the component disorders. PMID:25307597

Stephen Rich, J; Martin, Peter R

2014-01-01

299

Multiple White Matter Volume Reductions in Patients with Panic Disorder: Relationships between Orbitofrontal Gyrus Volume and Symptom Severity and Social Dysfunction  

PubMed Central

Numerous brain regions are believed to be involved in the neuropathology of panic disorder (PD) including fronto-limbic regions, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. However, while several previous studies have demonstrated volumetric gray matter reductions in these brain regions, there have been no studies evaluating volumetric white matter changes in the fiber bundles connecting these regions. In addition, although patients with PD typically exhibit social, interpersonal and occupational dysfunction, the neuropathologies underlying these dysfunctions remain unclear. A voxel-based morphometry study was conducted to evaluate differences in regional white matter volume between 40 patients with PD and 40 healthy control subjects (HC). Correlation analyses were performed between the regional white matter volumes and patients' scores on the Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS) and the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF). Patients with PD demonstrated significant volumetric reductions in widespread white matter regions including fronto-limbic, thalamo-cortical and cerebellar pathways (p<0.05, FDR corrected). Furthermore, there was a significant negative relationship between right orbitofrontal gyrus (OFG) white matter volume and the severity of patients' clinical symptoms, as assessed with the PDSS. A significant positive relationship was also observed between patients' right OFG volumes and their scores on the GAF. Our results suggest that volumetric reductions in widespread white matter regions may play an important role in the pathology of PD. In particular, our results suggest that structural white matter abnormalities in the right OFG may contribute to the social, personal and occupational dysfunction typically experienced by patients with PD. PMID:24663245

Konishi, Jun; Asami, Takeshi; Hayano, Fumi; Yoshimi, Asuka; Hayasaka, Shunsuke; Fukushima, Hiroshi; Whitford, Thomas J.; Inoue, Tomio; Hirayasu, Yoshio

2014-01-01

300

Binge Eating Disorder  

MedlinePLUS

... from a weight-loss program that also offers treatment for eating disorders. However, some people with binge eating disorder may ... disorder should get help from a specialist in eating disorders, such as a psychiatrist or a psychologist. Treatment may include the use of behavior change therapy, ...

301

Doctoral Disorder of Adulthood.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Humorously proposes doctoral disorder of adulthood as a developmental disorder needing further study. Included are discussions of age at onset, the course of the disorder, prevalence, impairment, complications, predisposing factors, sex ratio, familial pattern, and differential diagnosis. Diagnostic criteria for doctoral disorder of adulthood are…

Dooley-Dickey, Katherine; Satcher, Jamie

1991-01-01

302

Prevalence of Multiple Drug-Resistant Helicobacter pylori Strains Among Patients with Different Gastric Disorders in Iran.  

PubMed

Emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains of Helicobacter pylori is a global health concern. This study was aimed to determine the frequency of MDR H. pylori strains in Iran. H. pylori isolates were obtained from cultured gastric biopsy samples on selective culture media after their characterization by PCR and conventional biochemical methods. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of rifampicin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, ampicillin, clarithromycin, erythromycin, metronidazole, and tetracycline were determined for 111 strains that were isolated from 197 dyspeptic patients by the agar dilution method. The primary resistance rates were 61.3% (68/111) for metronidazole, 15.3% (17/111) for ampicillin, and 14.4% (16/111) for rifampicin. Resistance rates for other antimicrobials were as follows: macrolides (erythromycin or clarithromycin) 32.4% (36/111) and quinolones (levofloxacin or ciprofloxacin) 30.6% (34/111). Among the resistant strains, the rates of double and multiple drug resistance phenotypes were 22.6% (19/84) and 34.5% (29/84), respectively. The quadruple drug resistance phenotype encompasses 37.9% of the MDR strains, of which 90% of them was resistant to metronidazole. In conclusion, these results showed a high frequency of MDR phenotypes among the studied H. pylori strains in Iran. The eradication of the H. pylori strains presenting high resistance rates to macrolides, fluoroquinolones, or metronidazole could be achieved by approved tetracycline- or amoxicillin-containing regimens as alternative regimens to standard triple therapy. PMID:25303151

Shokrzadeh, Leila; Alebouyeh, Masoud; Mirzaei, Tabassom; Farzi, Nastaran; Zali, Mohammad Reza

2015-02-01

303

Pain in patients with multiple sclerosis: a complex assessment including quantitative and qualitative measurements provides for a disease-related biopsychosocial pain model  

PubMed Central

Background: Pain of various causes is a common phenomenon in patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS). A biopsychosocial perspective has proven a useful theoretical construct in other chronic pain conditions and was also started in MS. To support such an approach, we aimed to investigate pain in MS with special emphasis on separating quantitative and qualitative aspects, and its interrelation to behavioral and physical aspects. Materials and methods: Pain intensity (NRS) and quality (SES) were measured in 38 consecutive outpatients with MS (mean age, 42.0 ± 11.5 years, 82% women). Pain-related behavior (FSR), health care utilization, bodily complaints (GBB-24) and fatigue (WEIMuS) were assessed by questionnaires, and MS-related neurological impairment by a standardized neurological examination (EDSS). Results: Mean pain intensity was 4.0 (range, 0–10) and mean EDSS 3.7 (range, 0–8) in the overall sample. Currently present pain was reported by 81.6% of all patients. Disease duration and EDSS did not differ between patients with and without pain and were not correlated to quality or intensity of pain. Patients with pain had significantly higher scores of musculoskeletal complaints, but equal scores of exhaustion, gastrointestinal and cardiovascular complaints. Pain intensity correlated only with physical aspects, whereas quality of pain was additionally associated with increased avoidance, resignation and cognitive fatigue. Conclusion: As in other conditions, pain in MS must be assessed in a multidimensional way. Further research should be devoted to adapt existing models to a MS-specific model of pain. PMID:21887119

Michalski, Dominik; Liebig, Stefanie; Thomae, Eva; Hinz, Andreas; Bergh, Florian Then

2011-01-01

304

Pharmacodynamics and safety of ferric carboxymaltose: a multiple-dose study in patients with iron-deficiency anaemia secondary to a gastrointestinal disorder.  

PubMed

This multiple-dose Phase I/II study provided pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics data on the therapeutic benefit of ferric carboxymaltose (FCM, Ferinject) and evaluated the safety and tolerability of this intravenous (i.v.) iron preparation. Two doses of iron as FCM were given as i.v. infusion over 15 min, 500 mg iron given once weekly for up to 4 weeks (Cohort 1) or 1000 mg iron weekly for 2 weeks (Cohort 2), in patients with a total requirement > or = 1000 mg iron (total cumulative maximum dose < or = 2000 mg iron). Adults with moderate to severe, stable iron-deficiency anaemia (IDA) (haemoglobin [Hb] < or = 11.0 g/dl, serum ferritin < 100 microg/l, transferrin saturation [TSAT] < 16%) due to a gastrointestinal (GI) disorder were included. Pharmacodynamics variables: proportion of patients achieving values within the reference range for Hb (men: 14.0-18.0 g/dl, women: 12.0-16.0 g/dl), serum ferritin (20-500 microg/l), TSAT (16-45%) and proportion of patients with an increase in Hb of at least 2.0 g/dl. Pharmacokinetics variables: total serum iron levels at time of maximum serum iron concentration during the fast elimination phase and at trough time-points. Safety assessments: the incidence of adverse events (AEs) and changes in vital signs, physical examinations, and clinical laboratory parameters. In Cohorts 1 and 2, 14/20 (70%) versus 19/26 (73%) of patients completed the study. Individual calculated iron deficits were 1000-2100 mg. The mean cumulative dose of FCM in Cohorts 1 and 2 was 1800 mg and 1563 mg iron, respectively. At baseline, patients in both cohorts had similar Hb levels (mean 8.7 g/dl in both cohorts). More than 97% of patients demonstrated a clinically meaningful increase in Hb levels (> or = 1.0 g/dl) during the study. By the week 4 follow-up visit, an increase of at least 2.0 g/dl was achieved by 15/20 (75%) and by 19/26 (73.1%) patients in Cohorts 1 and 2, respectively, and the mean increase in Hb was 3.2 g/dl in Cohort 1 and 3.3 g/dl in Cohort 2. By day 28, 3/6 (50%) patients in Cohort 1 had achieved normal Hb levels, and by the 4-week post-treatment followup visit 7/19 patients (37%) in Cohort 1 and 12/25 (48%) in Cohort 2 had reached Hb levels within the reference range. Serum ferritin levels increased rapidly at the start of treatment and remained in the reference range throughout the study; increases were greater in Cohort 2. Mean baseline TSAT values were similar in both cohorts (24.2% in Cohort 1, 20.7% in Cohort 2), and were within the reference range at the week 4 follow-up visit for 41.0 and 39.1% of the patients in Cohorts 1 and 2, respectively. The incidence of AEs occurring after the first administration of FCM (treatment-emergent AEs, TEAE) was generally low and similar in Cohorts 1 (11/20 [55.0%]) and 2 (13/26 [50.0%]). Most TEAEs were mild; only 2/ 20 patients (10.0%) in Cohort 1 and 3/26 (11.5%) in Cohort 2 had TEAEs of moderate intensity. There were no AEs of severe intensity, serious AEs, or deaths. Most AEs were considered by the investigator to be unrelated or unlikely to be related to the study medication. Since accumulation of serum iron was not observed, a dosing interval of 3-4 days (500 mg iron) or 1 week (1000 mg iron) was demonstrated to be adequate. The increase in serum ferritin and TSAT at the 4-week follow-up visit is indicative of a repletion of the iron stores. The results suggest that doses up to 1000 mg i.v. iron administered as FCM over 15 min arewell tolerated and effective in the treatment of patients with IDA due to a GI disorder. PMID:20648929

Geisser, Peter; Rumyantsev, Vitaly

2010-01-01

305

Disordered photonics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

What do lotus flowers have in common with human bones, liquid crystals with colloidal suspensions, and white beetles with the beautiful stones of the Taj Mahal? The answer is they all feature disordered structures that strongly scatter light, in which light waves entering the material are scattered several times before exiting in random directions. These randomly distributed rays interfere with each other, leading to interesting, and sometimes unexpected, physical phenomena. This Review describes the physics behind the optical properties of disordered structures and how knowledge of multiple light scattering can be used to develop new applications. The field of disordered photonics has grown immensely over the past decade, ranging from investigations into fundamental topics such as Anderson localization and other transport phenomena, to applications in imaging, random lasing and solar energy.

Wiersma, Diederik S.

2013-03-01

306

Mitochondrial Disorders in Adults.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial Disorders (MD) include a heterogeneous group of inherited disorders due to molecular defects mainly affecting the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation system. Because the respiratory chain is under control of two different genomes (nuclear DNA-nDNA and mitochondrial DNA-mtDNA), mitochondrial genetics is quite complex and may justify the extreme clinical heterogeneity of these diseases. Clinically, MD usually involve multiple tissues, mainly affecting organs with high energy request as central nervous system and skeletal muscle. They may present at any age, with different onsets, clinical presentation and progression from an isolated involvement of vision or hearing to a multisystemic degenerative disorders with stroke-like episodes, peripheral neuropathy, ophthalmoparesis, seizures, cardiopathy, hepatopathy, endocrinopathies, etc. Over the last 50 years, it became evident that MD represent an important part of the general medicine. The complexity of clinical and genetic spectrum of those disorders is still increasing. The aim of this review is to walk through mitochondrial genetics, highlighting novel clinical entities. PMID:25323871

Toscano, A; Musumeci, O

2014-10-10

307

Aggregation of lifetime Axis I psychiatric disorders through age 30: incidence, predictors, and associated psychosocial outcomes.  

PubMed

Longitudinal data from representative birth cohorts on the aggregation of psychiatric disorders, or the cumulative number of unique diagnosed disorders experienced by persons within a circumscribed period, are limited. As a consequence, risk factors for and psychosocial implications of lifetime disorder aggregation in the general population remain largely unknown. This research evaluates the incidence, predictors, and psychosocial sequela of lifetime disorder aggregation from childhood through age 30. Over a 14-year period, participants in the Oregon Adolescent Depression Project (probands; N = 816) were repeatedly evaluated for psychiatric disorders and assessed with multiple measures of psychosocial functioning. First-degree relatives of probands (N = 2,414) were also interviewed to establish their lifetime psychiatric history. The cumulative prevalence of common lifetime psychiatric disorders for the proband sample was 71%. Three-quarters of all proband psychiatric disorders occurred among 37% of the sample, and 82% of all disorder diagnoses were made among persons who met criteria for at least one other lifetime disorder. Lifetime disorder aggregation in probands was predicted by lifetime psychiatric disorder densities among first-degree relatives and was related to heterotypic comorbidity patterns that included disorders from both internalizing and externalizing domains, most notably major depressive and alcohol use disorders. By age 30, disorder aggregation was significantly associated with mental health care service utilization and predictive of personality disorder pathology and numerous indicators of poor psychosocial functioning. Possible implications of disorder aggregation on the conceptualization of lifetime psychiatric disorder comorbidity are discussed. PMID:23421525

Farmer, Richard F; Kosty, Derek B; Seeley, John R; Olino, Thomas M; Lewinsohn, Peter M

2013-05-01

308

Anxiety Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... Here we discuss six different anxiety disorders: generalized anxiety disorder social phobia panic disorder post-traumatic stress disorder obsessive-compulsive disorder specific phobias. Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) Click for more information ...

309

Spleen Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... Blood Cell Disorders Plasma Cell Disorders Leukemias Lymphomas Myeloproliferative Disorders Spleen Disorders Topics in Spleen Disorders Overview ... Streptococcus pneumoniae Back to Top Previous: Overview of Myeloproliferative Disorders Next: Enlarged Spleen Audio Figures Photographs Pronunciations ...

310

Genetics of Major Mood Disorders  

PubMed Central

The results presented in recent research suggest that nosology must be changed to reflect the genetic origins of the multiple disorders that are collectively described by the term bipolar disorder. PMID:21197377

Berrettini, Wade

2004-01-01

311

Multiple Domains in MtENOD8 Protein Including the Signal Peptide Target It to The Symbiosome1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Symbiotic nitrogen fixation occurs in nodules, specialized organs on the roots of legumes. Within nodules, host plant cells are infected with rhizobia that are encapsulated by a plant-derived membrane forming a novel organelle, the symbiosome. In Medicago truncatula, the symbiosome consists of the symbiosome membrane, a single rhizobium, and the soluble space between them, called the symbiosome space. The symbiosome space is enriched with plant-derived proteins, including the M. truncatula EARLY NODULIN8 (MtENOD8) protein. Here, we present evidence from green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion experiments that the MtENOD8 protein contains at least three symbiosome targeting domains, including its N-terminal signal peptide (SP). When ectopically expressed in nonnodulated root tissue, the MtENOD8 SP delivers GFP to the vacuole. During the course of nodulation, there is a nodule-specific redirection of MtENOD8-SP-GFP from the vacuole to punctate intermediates and subsequently to symbiosomes, with redirection of MtENOD8-SP-GFP from the vacuole to punctate intermediates preceding intracellular rhizobial infection. Experiments with M. truncatula mutants having defects in rhizobial infection and symbiosome development demonstrated that the MtNIP/LATD gene is required for redirection of the MtENOD8-SP-GFP from the vacuoles to punctate intermediates in nodules. Our evidence shows that MtENOD8 has evolved redundant targeting sequences for symbiosome targeting and that intracellular localization of ectopically expressed MtENOD8-SP-GFP is useful as a marker for monitoring the extent of development in mutant nodules. PMID:22415512

Meckfessel, Matthew H.; Blancaflor, Elison B.; Plunkett, Michael; Dong, Qunfeng; Dickstein, Rebecca

2012-01-01

312

(18)F-FDG PET/CT: a review of diagnostic and prognostic features in multiple myeloma and related disorders.  

PubMed

Conventional radiographic skeletal survey has been for many years the gold standard to detect the occurrence of osteolytic lesions in patients with multiple myeloma (MM). However, the introduction of more sensitive imaging procedures has resulted in an updated anatomic and functional Durie and Salmon "plus" staging system and has remarkably changed the diagnostic and prognostic approach to this tumor. It is now established that (18)fluorine-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) positron-emission tomography (PET) combined with low-dose computed tomography (CT), shortly designated PET/CT, exhibits a higher screening and diagnostic sensitivity and specificity over the skeleton X-ray. In patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and in those with smoldering MM, PET/CT is consistently unable to detect focal and/or diffuse marrow abnormalities. Conversely, based on a systematic review of 18 studies comprising almost 800 MM patients, PET/CT was able to detect MM osteolytic lesions with a sensitivity of approximately 80-90 % and a specificity of 80-100 %. Importantly, a poor degree of concordance has also been emphasized between PET/CT and whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (WB-MRI) in that when both techniques were applied to the same patients, double-positive results were recorded in approximately 30 % of the cases, but in the majority of them, a higher number of lesions were revealed with PET/CT than with MRI. Double-negative results, on the other hand, were found in about 22 % of the patients. Because PET/CT is able to identify tumor foci throughout the body, it can be usefully applied to the study of solitary bone plasmacytoma and extra-medullary plasmacytoma: In both conditions, the detection of additional, previously overlooked sites of skeletal involvement would falsify the diagnosis of single-district disease, upstage the tumor, and therefore require a different therapeutic approach. In addition, although PET/CT is poorly sensitive to diffuse bone marrow infiltration, it can anticipate a site of impending fracture throughout the body and can discriminate old from new pathologic fractures. MRI should, however, be preferred when vertebral bodies are suspected to be involved and the risk of vertebral fracture is to be assessed. PET/CT is a sensitive and reliable procedure to evaluate the response to chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy, which is shown by a remarkable reduction and sometimes total disappearance of FDG accumulation in the involved bony structures, although these structures remain morphologically abnormal. Conversely, an increased focal uptake of FDG in apparent remission patients often precedes clinically overt relapse. PET/CT should be preferred to other imaging techniques to assess the remission status after autologous stem cell transplantation. In patients with primary and remission-induced non-secretory MM, the use of PET/CT may help to early detect single or multiple districts of focal non-secretory relapse. Osteonecrosis of the jaw, its location, and extent in MM patients receiving bis-phosphonates are better defined by both PET/CT and contrast-enhanced MRI compared with dental panoramic views derived from cone beam CT imaging. Little is known as to the possible role of PET/CT in the assessment of disease extension, tumor load, and response to therapy in patients with Waldenström's macroglobulinemia (WM). In a study conducted on 35 WM patients, comparative PET/CT before and after therapy was able to detect positive findings in 83 % of the patients, in contrast with the previous results achieved with conventional imaging that reported visceral involvement in much lower percentages. Similarly scanty are the data on the use of PET/CT in localized and systemic amyloidosis, given the small number of patients studied so far. A retrospective study has shown that, at variance from (123)Iodine-serum amyloid P component ((123)I-SAP) scintigraphy, which was found to be positive in about one-third of the patients with localized amyloidosis, an increased FDG uptake was detected at the

Dammacco, Franco; Rubini, Giuseppe; Ferrari, Cristina; Vacca, Angelo; Racanelli, Vito

2015-02-01

313

Classifying neurocognitive disorders: the DSM-5 approach.  

PubMed

Neurocognitive disorders--including delirium, mild cognitive impairment and dementia--are characterized by decline from a previously attained level of cognitive functioning. These disorders have diverse clinical characteristics and aetiologies, with Alzheimer disease, cerebrovascular disease, Lewy body disease, frontotemporal degeneration, traumatic brain injury, infections, and alcohol abuse representing common causes. This diversity is reflected by the variety of approaches to classifying these disorders, with separate groups determining criteria for each disorder on the basis of aetiology. As a result, there is now an array of terms to describe cognitive syndromes, various definitions for the same syndrome, and often multiple criteria to determine a specific aetiology. The fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) provides a common framework for the diagnosis of neurocognitive disorders, first by describing the main cognitive syndromes, and then defining criteria to delineate specific aetiological subtypes of mild and major neurocognitive disorders. The DSM-5 approach builds on the expectation that clinicians and research groups will welcome a common language to deal with the neurocognitive disorders. As the use of these criteria becomes more widespread, a common international classification for these disorders could emerge for the first time, thus promoting efficient communication among clinicians and researchers. PMID:25266297

Sachdev, Perminder S; Blacker, Deborah; Blazer, Dan G; Ganguli, Mary; Jeste, Dilip V; Paulsen, Jane S; Petersen, Ronald C

2014-11-01

314

Suppression of Dendritic Cell Activation by Anthrax Lethal Toxin and Edema Toxin Depends on Multiple Factors Including Cell Source, Stimulus Used, and Function Tested  

PubMed Central

Bacillus anthracis produces lethal toxin (LT) and edema toxin (ET), and they suppress the function of LPS-stimulated dendritic cells (DCs). Because DCs respond differently to various microbial stimuli, we compared toxin effects in bone marrow DCs stimulated with either LPS or Legionella pneumophila (Lp). LT, not ET, was more toxic for cells from BALB/c than from C57BL/6 (B6) as measured by 7-AAD uptake; however, ET suppressed CD11c expression. LT suppressed IL-12, IL-6, and TNF-? in cells from BALB/c and B6 mice but increased IL-1? in LPS-stimulated cultures. ET also suppressed IL-12 and TNF-?, but increased IL-6 and IL-1? in Lp-stimulated cells from B6. Regarding maturation marker expression, LT increased MHCII and CD86 while suppressing CD40 and CD80; ET generally decreased marker expression across all groups. We conclude that the suppression of cytokine production by anthrax toxins is dependent on variables, including the source of the DCs, the type of stimulus and cytokine measured, and the individual toxin tested. However, LT and ET enhancement or suppression of maturation marker expression is more related to the marker studied than the stimuli or cell source. Anthrax toxins are not uniformly suppressive of DC function but instead can increase function under defined conditions. PMID:18821847

Newton, Catherine A.; Perkins, Izabella; Friedman, Herman; Klein, Thomas W.

2008-01-01

315

Netrin-1 Promotes Glioblastoma Cell Invasiveness and Angiogenesis by Multiple Pathways Including Activation of RhoA, Cathepsin B, and cAMP-response Element-binding Protein*  

PubMed Central

Glioblastomas are very difficult tumors to treat because they are highly invasive and disseminate within the normal brain, resulting in newly growing tumors. We have identified netrin-1 as a molecule that promotes glioblastoma invasiveness. As evidence, netrin-1 stimulates glioblastoma cell invasion directly through Matrigel-coated transwells, promotes tumor cell sprouting and enhances metastasis to lymph nodes in vivo. Furthermore, netrin-1 regulates angiogenesis as shown in specific angiogenesis assays such as enhanced capillary endothelial cells (EC) sprouting and by increased EC infiltration into Matrigel plugs in vivo, as does VEGF-A. This netrin-1 signaling pathway in glioblastoma cells includes activation of RhoA and cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB). A novel finding is that netrin-1-induced glioblastoma invasiveness and angiogenesis are mediated by activated cathepsin B (CatB), a cysteine protease that translocates to the cell surface as an active enzyme and co-localizes with cell surface annexin A2 (ANXA2). The specific CatB inhibitor CA-074Me inhibits netrin-1-induced cell invasion, sprouting, and Matrigel plug angiogenesis. Silencing of CREB suppresses netrin-1-induced glioblastoma cell invasion, sprouting, and CatB expression. It is concluded that netrin-1 plays an important dual role in glioblastoma progression by promoting both glioblastoma cell invasiveness and angiogenesis in a RhoA-, CREB-, and CatB-dependent manner. Targeting netrin-1 pathways may be a promising strategy for brain cancer therapy. PMID:23195957

Shimizu, Akio; Nakayama, Hironao; Wang, Priscilla; König, Courtney; Akino, Tomoshige; Sandlund, Johanna; Coma, Silvia; Italiano, Joseph E.; Mammoto, Akiko; Bielenberg, Diane R.; Klagsbrun, Michael

2013-01-01

316

Dysthymic Disorder  

PubMed Central

This ongoing column is dedicated to the challenging clinical interface between psychiatry and primary care—two fields that are inexorably linked. Dysthymic disorder is a smoldering mood disturbance characterized by a long duration (at least two years in adults) as well as transient periods of normal mood. The disorder is fairly common in the US general population (3–6%) as well as in primary care (7%) and mental health settings (up to one-third of psychiatric outpatients). While the etiology of dysthymia remains unknown, there appears to be a genetic susceptibility, which may manifest in the presence of various psychosocial stressors. While the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders diagnostic criteria are fairly clear, the disorder can be easily under-recognized for a variety of reasons. Treatment may include pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy, although the overall treatment course is oftentimes characterized by protracted symptoms and relapses. PMID:19724735

Sansone, Lori A.

2009-01-01

317

Epilepsy associated with systemic autoimmune disorders.  

PubMed

Systemic autoimmune disorders affect multiple organ systems. Brain involvement commonly causes seizures, which may be the presenting symptom. Systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjorgren's syndrome, Wegener's granulomatosis, sarcoidsosis, celiac disease, Crohn's disease, Behcet's, and Hashimoto's encephalopathy are reviewed. Mechanisms underlying CNS pathology in systemic autoimmune disorders-and specifically factors predisposing these patients-are discussed, including vascular disease (e.g., prothrombotic state, anticardiolipin antibody, emboli, vasculitis), antineuronal antibodies, immune complexes, cytokines, metabolic disorders, infection, and therapy. Diagnostic and therapeutic strategies must be individualized for both the disorder and the patient. Systemic autoimmune disorders affect multiple organ systems and frequently involve the central and peripheral nervous systems. Seizures are among the most common neurological manifestation and occasionally can be the presenting symptom. There are many causes of seizures in systemic autoimmune disorders (Table 1), and the first clinical challenge is to determine not only the cause but also the significance of seizures. In some cases, they are clues to metabolic or infectious disorders or medication toxicity; in other cases, seizures herald a life-threatening progression of the underlying illness. PMID:23646005

Devinsky, Orrin; Schein, Adam; Najjar, Souhel

2013-03-01

318

Sleep disorders - overview  

MedlinePLUS

Sleep disorders are problems with sleeping, including trouble falling or staying asleep, falling asleep at the wrong times, ... low thyroid function Mononucleosis or other viral illnesses Narcolepsy and other sleep disorders Obesity, especially if it ...

319

Oppositional Defiant and Conduct Disorder Behaviors in Boys With Autism Spectrum Disorder With and Without Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Versus Several Comparison Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared disruptive behaviors in boys with either autism spectrum disorder (ASD) plus ADHD (n = 74), chronic multiple tic disorder plus ADHD (n = 47), ADHD Only (n = 59), or ASD Only (n = 107). Children were evaluated with parent and teacher versions of the Child Symptom Inventory-4 including parent- (n = 168) and teacher-rated (n = 173) community controls. Parents rated children in the three ADHD groups comparably for

Sarit Guttmann-Steinmetz; Kenneth D. Gadow; Carla J. DeVincent

2009-01-01

320

Special considerations in the treatment of patients with bipolar disorder and medical co-morbidities  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The pharmacological treatment of bipolar disorder has dramatically improved with multiple classes of agents being used as mood-stabilizers, including lithium, anticonvulsants, and atypical antipsychotics. However, the use of these medications is not without risk, particularly when a patient with bipolar disorder also has comorbid medical illness. As the physician who likely has the most contact with patients with bipolar

Kimberly D McLaren; Lauren B Marangell

2004-01-01

321

Peer Victimization in Youth with Tourette Syndrome and Other Chronic Tic Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Chronic tic disorders including Tourette syndrome have negative impact across multiple functional domains. We explored associations between peer victimization status and tic subtypes, premonitory urges, internalizing symptoms, explosive outbursts, and quality of life among youth with chronic tic disorders, as part of the internet-based omnibus…

Zinner, Samuel H.; Conelea, Christine A.; Glew, Gwen M.; Woods, Douglas W.; Budman, Cathy L.

2012-01-01

322

Common Anorectal Disorders  

PubMed Central

Anorectal disorders result in many visits to healthcare specialists. These disorders include benign conditions such as hemorrhoids to more serious conditions such as malignancy; thus, it is important for the clinician to be familiar with these disorders as well as know how to conduct an appropriate history and physical examination. This article reviews the most common anorectal disorders, including hemorrhoids, anal fissures, fecal incontinence, proctalgia fugax, excessive perineal descent, and pruritus ani, and provides guidelines on comprehensive evaluation and management. PMID:24987313

Foxx-Orenstein, Amy E.; Umar, Sarah B.; Crowell, Michael D.

2014-01-01

323

Common anorectal disorders.  

PubMed

Anorectal disorders result in many visits to healthcare specialists. These disorders include benign conditions such as hemorrhoids to more serious conditions such as malignancy; thus, it is important for the clinician to be familiar with these disorders as well as know how to conduct an appropriate history and physical examination. This article reviews the most common anorectal disorders, including hemorrhoids, anal fissures, fecal incontinence, proctalgia fugax, excessive perineal descent, and pruritus ani, and provides guidelines on comprehensive evaluation and management. PMID:24987313

Foxx-Orenstein, Amy E; Umar, Sarah B; Crowell, Michael D

2014-05-01

324

Overview of Movement Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... Tumors of the Nervous System Brain Infections Meningitis Prion Diseases Movement Disorders Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and Related ... cerebellum cerebrum Back to Top Previous: Overview of Prion Diseases Next: Chorea, Athetosis, and Hemiballismus Audio Figures ...

325

Sleep Problems in Multiple Sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-eight consecutive patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) were clinically evaluated to determine the presence of sleep-related disorders. There were 12 males and 16 females aged between 22 and 67 with disability ranging between 1.5 and 8.5 on Kurtzke extended disability status score (EDSS). Fifteen patients (54%) reported sleep-related problems. These included difficulties initiating sleep and\\/or frequent awakenings due to spasms

N. Tachibana; R. S. Howard; N. P. Hirsch; D. H. Miller; I. F. Moseley; D. Fish

1994-01-01

326

Eating disorders  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The incidence of eating disorders is increasing, and health care professionals are faced with the difficult task of treating these refractory conditions. The first clinical description of anorexia nervosa (AN) was reported in 1694 and included symptoms such as decreased appetite, amenorrhea, food av...

327

PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS ASSOCIATED WITH FXTAS  

PubMed Central

Carriers of the FMR1 premutation (with 55-200 CGG repeats) may present with multiple medical and psychiatric disorders. Middle-aged carriers (males more often than females) may suffer from fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS). FXTAS is a newly discovered neurodegenerative disease characterized by intention tremor and ataxia, along with several other neurological features. Psychiatric manifestations are common in premutation carriers of both genders and include attention deficits, anxiety, depression, irritability, impulse dyscontrol, and substance abuse or dependence. Major depressive disorder, panic disorder with or without agoraphobia, generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, and specific phobia are among the psychiatric diagnoses often encountered in premutation carriers, including those with FXTAS. Later in the course of the illness, cognitive deficits (including dementia) may occur. In this paper, we discuss common psychiatric phenotypes in FXTAS, based on a thorough review of the literature, as well as our own research experience. Symptomatic pharmacologic treatments are available, although disease modifying agents have not yet been developed.

Seritan, Andreea L.; Ortigas, Melina; Seritan, Stefan; Bourgeois, James A.; Hagerman, Randi J.

2015-01-01

328

Out of mind - out of sight : studies on clinical and psychophysiological characteristics of dissociative identity disorder .  

E-print Network

??Dissociative identity disorder (DID; APA, 1994), previously labeled Multiple personality (APA, 1980) and Multiple Personality Disorder (APA, 1987), has good diagnostic validity (Gleaves, May, &… (more)

Dale, Karl Yngvar

2008-01-01

329

The relationship between creativity and mood disorders  

PubMed Central

Research designed to examine the relationship between creativity and mental illnesses must confront multiple challenges. What is the optimal sample to study? How should creativity be defined? What is the most appropriate comparison group? Only a limited number of studies have examined highly creative individuals using personal interviews and a noncreative comparison group. The majority of these have examined writers. The preponderance of the evidence suggests that in these creative individuals the rate of mood disorder is high, and that both bipolar disorder and unipolar depression are quite common. Clinicians who treat creative individuals with mood disorders must also confronta variety of challenges, including the fear that treatment may diminish creativity, in the case of bipolar disorder, hovt/ever, it is likely that reducing severe manic episodes may actually enhance creativity in many individuals. PMID:18689294

Andreasen, Nancy C.

2008-01-01

330

The Children’s Attention-deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Telemental Health Treatment Study: Methodology for Conducting a Trial of Telemental Health in Multiple Underserved Communities  

PubMed Central

Background Children who live in non-metropolitan communities are underserved by evidence-based mental health care and underrepresented in clinical trials of mental health services. Telemental Health (TMH), the use of videoteleconferencing (VTC) to provide care that is usually delivered in person, shows promise for helping to rectify these service disparities. Purpose The Children’s ADHD Telemental Health Treatment Study (CATTS) is a randomized controlled trial designed to test the effectiveness of TMH in providing treatment to children diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) who are living in underserved communities. In this paper we describe the methodologies we developed for the trial and lessons learned. Methods Children ages 5.5-12 years of age with ADHD were referred to CATTS by their primary care physicians (PCP’s). The test intervention group (Group A) received six telepsychiatry sessions followed by in-person caregiver behavioral training delivered by a local therapist who was trained and supervised remotely. A secure website was used to support decision-making by the telepsychiatrists, to facilitate real-time collaboration between the telepsychiatrists and community therapists, and communication with the PCP’s. The control group (Group B) received a single telepsychiatry consultation followed by treatment with their PCP’s who implemented the telepsychiatrists’ recommendations at their discretion. Caregivers completed five sets of questionnaires about children’s symptoms and functioning and their own levels of distress. Older children (aged 10-12 years) completed questionnaires about their symptoms and functioning. Teachers completed ADHD rating scales. Questionnaires were completed online through a secure portal from personal computers. Results Eighty-eight PCP’s in seven communities referred the 223 children who participated in the trial. Attrition was low (3%). Children in Group A completed an average of 5.3 of 6 scheduled sessions; 96% of children in Group B completed their telepsychiatry consultation. Parents in both groups completed an average of 4.8 of 5 assessments. Telepsychiatrists and therapists showed high adherence to treatment protocols. Lessons Learned TMH proved to be a viable means of providing evidence-based pharmacological services to children and of training local therapists in evidence-based caregiver behavioral management. Recruitment was enhanced by offering the control group a telepsychiatry consultation. To meet recruitment targets across multiple dispersed sites, we developed community-specific strategies. A dedicated scheduler was a critical staff role to coordinate the multiple sites, sessions, and clinicians. Trial implementation was easier with sites that shared an electronic medical record system with our research hub. Conclusions The CATTS study used methods and procedures to optimize inclusion of children living in multiple dispersed and underserved areas. These experiences should advance the development of technologies needed to recruit underserved populations into research projects with the goal of reducing disparities in access to quality mental health care. PMID:23897950

Stoep, Ann Vander; Myers, Kathleen

2013-01-01

331

Quality of life in patients with multiple sclerosis and urinary disorders: reliability and validity of Turkish-language version of Incontinence Quality of Life Scale.  

PubMed

Incontinence is one of the most frequently encountered problems in multiple sclerosis (MS), and it has a negative effect on the daily lives of patients. Therefore, it is important to investigate this complaint and start appropriate treatment early. The aim of our study was to demonstrate the validity and reliability of the Turkish-language Incontinence Quality of Life Scale (I-QOL) in patients with MS. We included 37 patients with MS in this study. For analysis of test-retest reliability, we administered the Turkish-language version of I-QOL developed by a "translation-back translation" method to patients on the day of admission and 1 week after admission. To assess validity, we also evaluated patients with the Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life Scale (MQOL-54) and Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). We calculated the intraclass correlation coefficient of the I-QOL (total and all subscores) as 0.88 to 0.91 and the Cronbach alpha score as 0.88 to 0.91 (p < 0.05). We found a significant correlation among all subscores of I-QOL and physical and mental subscores of MQOL-54 and EDSS (p < 0.05). Our study has demonstrated the internal consistency and reliability of the I-QOL in the Turkish language in patients with MS. PMID:20437328

Eyigor, Sibel; Karapolat, Hale; Akkoc, Yesim; Yesil, Hilal; Ekmekci, Ozgül

2010-01-01

332

Development of a universal psycho-educational intervention to prevent common postpartum mental disorders in primiparous women: a multiple method approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Prevention of postnatal mental disorders in women is an important component of comprehensive health service delivery because of the substantial potential benefits for population health. However, diverse approaches to prevention of postnatal depression have had limited success, possibly because anxiety and adjustment disorders are also problematic, mental health problems are multifactorially determined, and because relationships amongst psychosocial risk factors

Heather J Rowe; Jane RW Fisher

2010-01-01

333

Dissociative Identity Disorder  

PubMed Central

A brief description of the controversies surrounding the diagnosis of dissociative identity disorder is presented, followed by a discussion of the proposed similarities and differences between dissociative identity disorder and borderline personality disorder. The phenomenon of autohypnosis in the context of early childhood sexual trauma and disordered attachment is discussed, as is the meaning of alters or alternate personalities. The author describes recent neurosciences research that may relate the symptoms of dissociative identity disorder to demonstrable disordered attention and memory processes. A clinical description of a typical patient presentation is included, plus some recommendations for approaches to treatment. PMID:19724751

2009-01-01

334

Anxiety Disorders: Noradrenergic Neurotransmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The past decade has seen a rapid progression in our knowledge of the neurobiological basis of fear and anxiety. Specific neurochemical and neuropeptide systems have been demonstrated to play important roles in the behaviors associated with fear and anxiety-producing stimuli. Long-term dysregulation of these systems appears to contribute to the development of anxiety disorders, including panic disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder

A. Neumeister; R. J. Daher; D. S. Charney

335

Seasonal Affective Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonal affective disorder is a depressive disorder that afflicts millions worldwide. Although the etiology is unknown, current treatments, including alternative and complementary therapies, provide relief for those suffering from the disorder. As clinical investigation continues, the Internet can be a valuable resource for health care providers and consumers.

Nancy K. Mann

2004-01-01

336

Multiple tumor types including leiomyoma and Wilms tumor in a patient with Gorlin syndrome due to 9q22.3 microdeletion encompassing the PTCH1 and FANC-C loci.  

PubMed

Gorlin syndrome or nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) is an autosomal dominant condition mainly characterized by the development of mandibular keratocysts which often have their onset during the second decade of life and/or multiple basal cell carcinoma (BCC) normally arising during the third decade. Cardiac and ovarian fibromas can be found. Patients with NBCCS develop the childhood brain malignancy medulloblastoma (now often called primitive neuro-ectodermal tumor [PNET]) in 5% of cases. The risk of other malignant neoplasms is not clearly increased, although lymphoma and meningioma can occur in this condition. Wilms tumor has been mentioned in the literature four times. We describe a patient with a 10.9?Mb 9q22.3 deletion spanning 9q22.2 through 9q31.1 that includes the entire codifying sequence of the gene PTCH1, with Wilms tumor, multiple neoplasms (lung, liver, mesenteric, gastric and renal leiomyomas, lung typical carcinoid tumor, adenomatoid tumor of the pleura) and a severe clinical presentation. We propose including leiomyomas among minor criteria of the NBCCS. PMID:24124115

Garavelli, Livia; Piemontese, Maria Rosaria; Cavazza, Alberto; Rosato, Simonetta; Wischmeijer, Anita; Gelmini, Chiara; Albertini, Enrico; Albertini, Giuseppe; Forzano, Francesca; Franchi, Fabrizia; Carella, Massimo; Zelante, Leopoldo; Superti-Furga, Andrea

2013-11-01

337

[Movement disorders is psychiatric diseases].  

PubMed

Movement disorders are common in psychiatry. The movement disorder can either be the symptom of a psychiatric disorder, can share a common aetiological factor with it, or can be the consequence of psychopharmacological therapy. Most common features include tic, stereotipy, compulsion, akathisia, dyskinesias, tremor, hypokinesia and disturbances of posture and gait. We discuss characteristics and clinical importance of these features. Movement disorders are frequently present in mood disorders, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, catatonia, Tourette-disorder and psychogenic movement disorder, leading to differential-diagnostic and therapeutical difficulties in everyday practice. Movement disorders due to psychopharmacotherapy can be classified as early-onset, late-onset and tardive. Frequent psychiatric comorbidity is found in primary movement disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, Wilson's disease, Huntington's disease, diffuse Lewy-body disorder. Complex neuropsychiatric approach is effective concerning overlapping clinical features and spectrums of disorders in terms of movement disorders and psychiatric diseases. PMID:25577484

Hidasi, Zoltan; Salacz, Pal; Csibri, Eva

2014-12-01

338

Cyclothymic disorder  

MedlinePLUS

... mental disorder. It is a mild form of bipolar disorder (manic depressive illness), in which a person has ... causes of cyclothymic disorder are unknown. Major depression, bipolar disorder, and cyclothymia often occur together in families. This ...

339

Eosinophilic Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... Blood Cell Disorders Plasma Cell Disorders Leukemias Lymphomas Myeloproliferative Disorders Spleen Disorders Topics in White Blood Cell ... Brand Names GLEEVEC , a drug used to treat cancer. If these drugs fail, various other drugs may ...

340

42 CFR 410.100 - Included services.  

...disorders that create difficulties in communication. (e) Respiratory therapy services...respiratory therapy services. (i) Nursing care services. Nursing care services include nursing services provided by a registered...

2014-10-01

341

Sleep Disorders  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For something as critical to our well being as good sleep, human beings suffer from an amazing number of sleeping disorders. The following Web sites explore just a few of these disorders, starting with a brief introduction to the normal stages of sleep from the Sleep Disorders Center of Central Texas (1). Next, the University of Waterloo offers a fascinating look at sleep paralysis, which many researchers consider the "likely source of beliefs concerning not only alien abductions, but all manner of beliefs in alternative realities and otherworldly creatures" (2). The third site (3), provided by the National Women's Health Information Center, is an easy-to-read source for information about insomnia. Likewise, the American Sleep Apnea Association (ASAA) offers an in-depth information packet on snoring and sleep apnea, as well as the ASAA newsletter and other resources (4). The next Web site (5 ) comes from the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, and offers an introduction to the phenomenon of narcolepsy, including treatment, prognosis, and related research. Restless legs syndrome may not be as immediately familiar as some of the other sleep disorders addressed above, but a visit to the homepage of the Restless Legs Syndrome Foundation (6) should answer any questions about this "creepy-crawly" sensation in the limbs that occurs during sleep or other inactive periods. Of course, you don't have to have a bona fide sleeping disorder to suffer from sleep deprivation. Visitors to the next Web site from Loughborough University's Sleep Research Centre will find detailed information on how sleep deprivation affects brain function (7). Not surprisingly, the news isn't good. Finally, the Sleep Foundation offers How's Your Sleep, an online quiz designed to help users learn more about what may be affecting their sleep (8).

Sohmer, Rachel.

2003-01-01

342

Movement disorders in paraneoplastic and autoimmune disease  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review The most relevant advances in immune-mediated movement disorders are described, with emphasis on the clinical–immunological associations, novel antigens, and treatment. Recent findings Many movement disorders previously considered idiopathic or degenerative are now recognized as immune-mediated. Some disorders are paraneoplastic, such as anti-CRMP5-associated chorea, anti-Ma2 hypokinesis and rigidity, anti-Yo cerebellar ataxia and tremor, and anti-Hu ataxia and pesudoathetosis. Other disorders such as Sydenham's chorea, or chorea related to systemic lupus erythematosus and antiphospholipid syndrome occur in association with multiple antibodies, are not paraneoplastic, and are triggered by molecular mimicry or unknown mechanisms. Recent studies have revealed a new category of disorders that can be paraneoplastic or not, and associate with antibodies against cell-surface or synaptic proteins. They include anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis, which may cause dyskinesias, chorea, ballismus or dystonia (NMDAR antibodies), the spectrum of Stiff-person syndrome/muscle rigidity (glutamic acid decarboxylase, amphiphysin, GABAA-receptor-associated protein, or glycine receptor antibodies), neuromyotonia (Caspr2 antibodies), and opsoclonus–myoclonus–ataxia (unknown antigens). Summary Neurologists should be aware that many movement disorders are immune-mediated. Recognition of these disorders is important because it may lead to the diagnosis of an occult cancer, and a substantial number of patients, mainly those with antibodies to cell-surface or synaptic proteins, respond to immunotherapy. PMID:21577108

Panzer, Jessica; Dalmau, Josep

2013-01-01

343

Vitamin D and autoimmune rheumatologic disorders.  

PubMed

Vitamin D levels depend on many variables, including sun exposure, age, ethnicity, body mass index, use of medications and supplements. A much higher oral vitamin D intake than the current guidelines is necessary to maintain adequate circulating 25(OH)D levels in the absence of UVB radiation of the skin. In addition to the traditional known metabolic activities, vitamin D has been shown to modulate the immune system, and its deficiency has been linked to the development of several autoimmune disorders including type 1 diabetes and multiple sclerosis. Experimental use of vitamin D has revealed a novel role in the immunopathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. Disorders such as systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, Behçet's, polymyositis/dermatomyositis and systemic scleroderma have all been associated to some extent to vitamin D deficiency. If vitamin D deficiency occurs at a higher rate in patients with autoimmune disorders, then appropriate supplementation may be indicated. PMID:20146942

Pelajo, Christina F; Lopez-Benitez, Jorge M; Miller, Laurie C

2010-05-01

344

The relationship of obsessive-compulsive disorder to putative spectrum disorders: results from an Indian study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and putative obsessive-compulsive (OC) spectrum disorders is unclear. This study investigates the prevalence of putative OC spectrum disorders in OCD subjects in a controlled clinical design. The putative OC spectrum disorders studied included somatoform disorders (body dysmorphic disorder [BDD] and hypochondriasis), eating disorders, tic disorders (e.g., Tourette’s syndrome [TS]), and impulse control disorders (e.g.,

T. S Jaisoorya; Y. C. Janardhan Reddy; S Srinath

2003-01-01

345

Absence of evidence for bornavirus infection in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder  

PubMed Central

In 1983, reports of antibodies in subjects with major depressive disorder to an as-yet uncharacterized infectious agent associated with meningoencephalitis in horses and sheep led to the molecular cloning of the genome of a novel, negative-stranded neurotropic virus, Borna disease virus (BDV).1,2 This advance enabled the development of new diagnostic assays including in situ hybridization, PCR and serology based on recombinant proteins. Since these assays were first implemented in 1990 more than 80 studies have reported an association between BDV and a wide range of human illnesses that include major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, anxiety disorder, chronic fatigue syndrome, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, dementia and glioblastoma multiforme.3,4 However, to date there has been no blinded case-control study of the epidemiology of BDV infection. Here, in a United States-based, multi-center, yoked case-control study with standardized methods for clinical assessment and blinded serologic and molecular analysis, we report the absence of association of psychiatric illness with antibodies to BDV or with BDV nucleic acids in serially-collected serum and white blood cell samples from 396 subjects, a study population comprised of 198 matched pairs of patients and healthy controls (52 schizophrenia/control pairs, 66 bipolar disorder/control pairs, and 80 major depressive disorder/control pairs). Our results argue strongly against a role for BDV in the pathogenesis of these psychiatric disorders. PMID:22290118

Hornig, Mady; Briese, Thomas; Licinio, Julio; Khabbaz, Rima F.; Altshuler, Lori L.; Potkin, Steven G.; Schwemmle, Martin; Siemetzki, Ulrike; Mintz, Jim; Honkavuori, Kirsi; Kraemer, Helena C.; Egan, Michael F.; Whybrow, Peter C.; Bunney, William E.; Lipkin, W. Ian

2013-01-01

346

Geriatric Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

At one time, the psychiatry of old age was believed to be “the darkest area of psychiatry.” The often confounding nature of\\u000a psychiatric disorder in the elderly is illustrated by the large number of terms used over the years to address the diversity\\u000a among geriatric psychiatric patients, including “late paraphrenia,” “vascular depression,” “pseudodementia,” and “masked depression.”\\u000a Many of these labels

Colin A. Depp; Jody Corey-Bloom

347

Cannabinoid Modulation of Neuroinflammatory Disorders  

PubMed Central

In recent years, a growing interest has been dedicated to the study of the endocannabinoid system. The isolation of Cannabis sativa main psychotropic compound, ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), has led to the discovery of an atypical neurotransmission system that modulates the release of other neurotransmitters and participates in many biological processes, including the cascade of inflammatory responses. In this context, cannabinoids have been studied for their possible therapeutic properties in neuroinflammatory diseases. In this review, historic and biochemical aspects of cannabinoids are discussed, as well as their function as modulators of inflammatory processes and therapeutic perspectives for neurodegenerative disorders, particularly, multiple sclerosis. PMID:23204985

Saito, Viviane M; Rezende, Rafael M; Teixeira, Antonio L

2012-01-01

348

White matter in learning, cognition and psychiatric disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

White matter is the brain region underlying the gray matter cortex, composed of neuronal fibers coated with electrical insulation called myelin. Previously of interest in demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis, myelin is attracting new interest as an unexpected contributor to a wide range of psychiatric disorders, including depression and schizophrenia. This is stimu- lating research into myelin involvement in

R. Douglas Fields

2008-01-01

349

Correlates of current suicide risk among Thai patients with bipolar I disorder: findings from the Thai Bipolar Disorder Registry  

PubMed Central

Background The Thai Bipolar Disorder Registry was a prospective, multisite, naturalistic study conducted in 24 hospitals across Thailand. This study aimed to examine the correlates of current suicide risk in Thai patients with bipolar I disorder. Methods Participants were adult inpatients or outpatients with bipolar disorder, based on the Diagnosis and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition. All were assessed by using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), version 5. The severity of current suicide risk was determined by using the total score of the MINI suicidality module. Mood symptoms were assessed by using the Young Mania Rating Scale and the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale. Results The data of 383 bipolar I disorder patients were included in the analyses. Of these, 363 (94.8%) were outpatients. The mean (standard deviation) of the MINI suicide risk score was 1.88 (5.0). The demographic/clinical variables significantly associated with the MINI suicide risk scores included age, number of overall previous episodes, the Young Mania Rating Scale score, the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale scores, and the Clinical Global Impression Severity of Illness Scale for Bipolar Disorder mania score, depression score, and overall score. The variables affecting the differences of suicide risk scores between or among groups were type of first mood episode, a history of rapid cycling, anxiety disorders, and alcohol use disorders. The stepwise multiple linear regression model revealed that the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale score (?=0.10), a history of rapid cycling (?=6.63), anxiety disorders (?=2.16), and alcohol use disorders (?=2.65) were significantly correlated with the suicide risk score (all P<0.01). Conclusion A history of rapid cycling, severity of depressive episode, current anxiety disorders, and current alcohol use disorders correlate with current suicide risk among Thai bipolar I disorder patients. Further studies in larger sample sizes are warranted. PMID:24273407

Suttajit, Sirijit; Paholpak, Suchat; Choovanicvong, Somrak; Kittiwattanagul, Khanogwan; Pratoomsri, Wetid; Srisurapanont, Manit

2013-01-01

350

Quality of life in multiple sclerosis patients with urinary disorders: reliability and validity of the Turkish version of King's Health Questionnaire.  

PubMed

MS patients frequently present with urinary system symptoms, which have a negative effect on the quality life. The aim of our study was to demonstrate the validity and reliability of the Turkish King's Health Questionnaire (KHQ) in MS patients. The study included 37 patients. For analysis of test-retest reliability, the Turkish version of the KHQ developed and the "translation-back translation" method was performed. To assess the validity of these results, Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life Scale (MQoL-54) and Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) were used. The internal consistency (intra-class correlation coefficient: 0.59-0.94) and test-retest reliability (Cronbach's ?-score 0.59-0.94) of KHQ were found to be high (p < 0.05). A significant correlation was detected between most of the KHQ subscores and the physical and mental MQoL-54 and EDSS (total and bowel/bladder, p < 0.05) subscores. The KHQ may be used to determine the effect of incontinence on the quality of life for MS patients. PMID:21479614

Akkoc, Ye?im; Karapolat, Hale; Eyigor, Sibel; Yesil, Hilal; Yüceyar, Nur

2011-06-01

351

Kinetics of biochemical, electrophysiological and morphological events (including lysosomal disorder) during the course of suramin-induced differentiation of the human colon-cancer cell clone HT29-D4.  

PubMed

Suramin, a polysulfonated naphtylurea, has been shown to bind to a wide variety of tumor growth factors, and to exhibit anti-proliferative effects on several cell lines. We have followed the suramin-induced (100 micrograms/ml) evolution of morphological, biochemical and electrophysiological changes in HT29-D4 human colonic adenocarcinoma cell clone as a function of culture time. After 5 days of culture in the presence of the drug the cells were polarized and exhibited apical brush border and tight junctions. The polarization process of carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA) in the apical membrane domain was achieved after 8 days of treatment, while the correct localization of HLA class-I molecules in the basolateral membrane domain occurred after 14 days of culture in the presence of suramin. Spontaneous potential difference (PD) and transepithelial resistance (Rt) were recorded from the 9th day of treatment and reached maximum values at day 15 (PD = 3 mV; RT = 450 omega cm2), giving evidence that the differentiation process triggered by suramin concerned virtually all cells in the monolayer. Untreated cells were consistently found to be electrically inactive. Finally, from day 10 of suramin treatment, the lysosomal system was perturbed including accumulation of large autophagic vacuoles and, later, typical lamellar inclusion bodies. These structures were never seen when cells were induced to differentiate in suramin-containing serum-free medium. Moreover, similar perturbations of the lysosomal system could be obtained by adding BSA in the suramin-containing defined medium, suggesting that the lysosomal storage disorder occurring upon suramin treatment was due to endocytosis of suramin-BSA complexes. We conclude that lysosomal impairment due to the presence of BSA in the culture medium did not prevent HT29-D4 cells from differentiating and that it was not an early event which could be involved in the mechanism of action of suramin. However, this perturbation might account for some of the toxic effects occurring during chronic suramin treatment in humans. PMID:1917163

Baghdiguian, S; Verrier, B; Marvaldi, J; Fantini, J

1991-10-21

352

Panic disorder and the heart  

Microsoft Academic Search

Panic disorder is a common condition that includes symptoms that may masquerade as a primary cardiovascular disorder. In addition, many patients with cardiovascular disease may also have panic disorder. To date, no definitive pathophysiological mechanism for panic disorder has been found; however, there are several hypotheses in the literature. Patients with syndrome X, coronary artery disease and\\/or palpitations, in addition

Farida M Jeejeebhoy; Paul Dorian; David M Newman

2000-01-01

353

Immune Disorders and Its Correlation with Gut Microbiome  

PubMed Central

Allergic disorders such as atopic dermatitis and asthma are common hyper-immune disorders in industrialized countries. Along with genetic association, environmental factors and gut microbiota have been suggested as major triggering factors for the development of atopic dermatitis. Numerous studies support the association of hygiene hypothesis in allergic immune disorders that a lack of early childhood exposure to diverse microorganism increases susceptibility to allergic diseases. Among the symbiotic microorganisms (e.g. gut flora or probiotics), probiotics confer health benefits through multiple action mechanisms including modification of immune response in gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT). Although many human clinical trials and mouse studies demonstrated the beneficial effects of probiotics in diverse immune disorders, this effect is strain specific and needs to apply specific probiotics for specific allergic diseases. Herein, we briefly review the diverse functions and regulation mechanisms of probiotics in diverse disorders. PMID:23091436

Hwang, Ji-Sun; Im, Chang-Rok

2012-01-01

354

AnxietyDisorders National Institute of Mental Health  

E-print Network

illnesses, including alcohol or substance abuse, which may mask anxiety symptoms or make them worse. In some. Thefollowinganxietydisordersarediscussedinthisbrochure: panic disorder, obsessivecompulsive disorder (OCD), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), social

Baker, Chris I.

355

Protein intrinsic disorder in plants  

PubMed Central

To some extent contradicting the classical paradigm of the relationship between protein 3D structure and function, now it is clear that large portions of the proteomes, especially in higher organisms, lack a fixed structure and still perform very important functions. Proteins completely or partially unstructured in their native (functional) form are involved in key cellular processes underlain by complex networks of protein interactions. The intrinsic conformational flexibility of these disordered proteins allows them to bind multiple partners in transient interactions of high specificity and low affinity. In concordance, in plants this type of proteins has been found in processes requiring these complex and versatile interaction networks. These include transcription factor networks, where disordered proteins act as integrators of different signals or link different transcription factor subnetworks due to their ability to interact (in many cases simultaneously) with different partners. Similarly, they also serve as signal integrators in signaling cascades, such as those related to response to external stimuli. Disordered proteins have also been found in plants in many stress-response processes, acting as protein chaperones or protecting other cellular components and structures. In plants, it is especially important to have complex and versatile networks able to quickly and efficiently respond to changing environmental conditions since these organisms cannot escape and have no other choice than adapting to them. Consequently, protein disorder can play an especially important role in plants, providing them with a fast mechanism to obtain complex, interconnected and versatile molecular networks. PMID:24062761

Pazos, Florencio; Pietrosemoli, Natalia; García-Martín, Juan A.; Solano, Roberto

2013-01-01

356

Protein intrinsic disorder in plants.  

PubMed

To some extent contradicting the classical paradigm of the relationship between protein 3D structure and function, now it is clear that large portions of the proteomes, especially in higher organisms, lack a fixed structure and still perform very important functions. Proteins completely or partially unstructured in their native (functional) form are involved in key cellular processes underlain by complex networks of protein interactions. The intrinsic conformational flexibility of these disordered proteins allows them to bind multiple partners in transient interactions of high specificity and low affinity. In concordance, in plants this type of proteins has been found in processes requiring these complex and versatile interaction networks. These include transcription factor networks, where disordered proteins act as integrators of different signals or link different transcription factor subnetworks due to their ability to interact (in many cases simultaneously) with different partners. Similarly, they also serve as signal integrators in signaling cascades, such as those related to response to external stimuli. Disordered proteins have also been found in plants in many stress-response processes, acting as protein chaperones or protecting other cellular components and structures. In plants, it is especially important to have complex and versatile networks able to quickly and efficiently respond to changing environmental conditions since these organisms cannot escape and have no other choice than adapting to them. Consequently, protein disorder can play an especially important role in plants, providing them with a fast mechanism to obtain complex, interconnected and versatile molecular networks. PMID:24062761

Pazos, Florencio; Pietrosemoli, Natalia; García-Martín, Juan A; Solano, Roberto

2013-01-01

357

Multiple List Learning in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Parallels with Frontal Lobe Damage or Further Evidence of Diminished Relational Processing?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To test the effects of providing relational cues at encoding and/or retrieval on multi-trial, multi-list free recall in adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (ASD), 16 adults with ASD and 16 matched typical adults learned a first followed by a second categorised list of 24 words. Category labels were provided at encoding,…

Bowler, Dermot M.; Gaigg, Sebastian B.; Gardiner, John M.

2010-01-01

358

The Single and Combined Effects of Multiple Intensities of Behavior Modification and Methylphenidate for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in a Classroom Setting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Currently behavior modification, stimulant medication, and combined treatments are supported as evidence-based interventions for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in classroom settings. However, there has been little study of the relative effects of these two modalities and their combination in classrooms. Using a within-subject design, the…

Fabiano, Gregory A.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Burrows-MacLean, Lisa; Coles, Erika K.; Chacko, Anil; Wymbs, Brian T.; Walker, Kathryn S.; Arnold, Fran; Garefino, Allison; Keenan, Jenna K.; Onyango, Adia N.; Hoffman, Martin T.; Massetti, Greta M.; Robb, Jessica A.

2007-01-01

359

Specific and common genes implicated across major mental disorders: A review of meta-analysis studies.  

PubMed

Major efforts have been directed at family-based association and case-control studies to identify the involvement of candidate genes in the major disorders of mental health. What remains unknown is whether candidate genes are associated with multiple disorders via pleiotropic mechanisms, and/or if other genes are specific to susceptibility for individual disorders. Here we undertook a review of genes that have been identified in prior meta-analyses examining specific genes and specific mental disorders that have core disruptions to emotional and cognitive function and contribute most to burden of illness- major depressive disorder (MDD), anxiety disorders (AD, including panic disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder), schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A literature review was conducted up to end-March 2013 which included a total of 1519 meta-analyses across 157 studies reporting multiple genes implicated in one or more of the five disorders studied. A total of 134 genes (206 variants) were identified as significantly associated risk variants for MDD, AD, ADHD, SZ or BD. Null genetic effects were also reported for 195 genes (426 variants). 13 genetic variants were shared in common between two or more disorders (APOE e4, ACE Ins/Del, BDNF Val66Met, COMT Val158Met, DAOA G72/G30 rs3918342, DAT1 40-bp, DRD4 48-bp, SLC6A4 5-HTTLPR, HTR1A C1019G, MTHR C677T, MTHR A1298C, SLC6A4 VNTR and TPH1 218A/C) demonstrating evidence for pleiotrophy. Another 12 meta-analyses of GWAS studies of the same disorders were identified, with no overlap in genetic variants reported. This review highlights the progress that is being made in identifying shared and unique genetic mechanisms that contribute to the risk of developing several major psychiatric disorders, and identifies further steps for progress. PMID:25287955

Gatt, Justine M; Burton, Karen L O; Williams, Leanne M; Schofield, Peter R

2015-01-01

360

Multiple Sclerosis  

MedlinePLUS

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a nervous system disease that affects your brain and spinal cord. It damages the myelin sheath, the ... and your body, leading to the symptoms of MS. They can include Visual disturbances Muscle weakness Trouble ...

361

[Psychic disorders].  

PubMed

Parkinson's disease is a neuropsychiatric disease with multiple psychic disorders. They mainly result from a combination between neuropathological lesions and antiparkinsonian drugs. The most frequent psychic disorders are depression and psychosis. So far, pharmacological treatments of depression has been poorly evaluated. It is suggested that the first-line treatment of depression in Parkinson's disease is the class of the Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors. The occurrence of worsening in parkinsonism and agitation in rare cases necessitates a meticulous clinical follow-up. The treatment of psychosis is based on the reduction of antiparkinsonian medications, by tapering and stopping, if necessary, the drugs with the highest risk-to-benefit ratio first. When psychosis persists despite a simple levodopa monotherapy, then an antipsychotic drug is added. Clozapine is the only officially approved drug for psychosis in Parkinson's disease. Two double blind studies showed a clear antipsychotic effect without worsening of parkinsonism. Quetiapine, another atypical neuroleptic drug without risk of blood dyscrasia may prove to be as effective than clozapine. Olanzapine and risperidone can aggravate parkinsonism and should be used only as a last resort. Future studies will precise the place of anticholinesterases in the treatment of psychosis associated with dementia. PMID:12690672

Pollak, P

2002-12-01

362

Mathematics disorder  

MedlinePLUS

Mathematics disorder is a condition in which a child's math ability is far below normal for their ... Children who have mathematics disorder have trouble with simple ... disorder may appear with: Developmental coordination ...

363

Swallowing Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

NINDS Swallowing Disorders Information Page Synonym(s): Dysphagia Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What are Swallowing Disorders? Is ... is being done? Clinical Trials Organizations What are Swallowing Disorders? Having trouble swallowing (dysphagia) is a symptom that ...

364

Genetic Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... This can cause a medical condition called a genetic disorder. You can inherit a gene mutation from ... during your lifetime. There are three types of genetic disorders: Single-gene disorders, where a mutation affects ...

365

Eating disorders in female inpatients with versus without substance use disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed the relationship between substance use disorders and eating disorders in female psychiatric inpatients. Structured diagnostic interviews were reliably administered to a series of inpatients with substance use disorders (n = 67) and a comparison sample without substance use disorders (n = 69). Eating disorder diagnoses as a whole, including eating disorder not otherwise specified, were distributed significantly

Carlos M. Grilo; Kenneth N. Levy; Daniel F. Becker; William S. Edell; Thomas H. McGlashan

1995-01-01

366

[Negative mental disorders in epilepsy.  

PubMed

Objective. To search for clinical features of negative mental disorders in epilepsy. Material and methods. We studied 78 patients, aged from 18 to 40 years,, including 43 patients diagnosed with epilepsy for the first time (main group) and 35 patients with the previous diagnosis of epilepsy (comparison group). Diagnosis was made according to ICD-10. Results. We observed a broad spectrum of persistent mental disorders, including negative disorders. Personality disorders and cognitive deficit were most significant negative disorders. Personality disorders included two opposite types: explosive-epileptoid features with paranoiac signs and defensive disorder. Inertia, slow mobility, slowness of the rate of thought processes, the domination of egocentric, perseverative, visual-image thinking were characteristic of thought disorders. Conclusion. The authors suggest the systematic of these disorders. PMID:24874309

Usiukina, M V; Kornilova, S V; Lavrushchik, M V; Shakhbazi, T A

2014-01-01

367

Learning Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... new information. People with learning disorders may have problems Listening or paying attention Speaking Reading or writing Doing math Although learning disorders occur in very young children, ...

368

Panic Disorder  

MedlinePLUS

... Address Password Forgot password? Close Register About Us Contact Us My Cart Healthy Children > Health Issues > Conditions > Emotional Problems > Panic Disorder Health Issues Listen Panic Disorder Article ...

369

Osteoarticular disorders of endocrine origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endocrine diseases may present with musculoskeletal complaints, and their outcome, even after endocrine control, can be impaired by bone and joint disorders. All musculoskeletal structures, including bone, cartilage, synovium, tendons and ligaments, can be involved by some processes triggered by the endocrine disorder and its related disturbances of homeostasis, including that of growth factors. Endocrine disorders may account for 20–30%

Frédéric Lioté; Philippe Orcel

2000-01-01

370

Pre- and perinatal risk factors for autism spectrum disorder in a New Jersey cohort.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the prevalence of pre- and perinatal risk factors in a cohort of children with autism spectrum disorders compared with the New Jersey population. Our cohort included 268 individuals with an autism spectrum disorder. Birth histories were obtained by a self-administered questionnaire. The autism spectrum disorders cohort rates of 7 perinatal risk factors were significantly higher than New Jersey state rates: mother's age 35 years or older, low birth weight, multiple gestation, prematurity, vaginal bleeding, prolonged labor, and hypoxia. Analysis of clustering of risk factors in the cohort showed no significant differences across maternal and paternal age groups. Older mothers in the cohort had a higher risk of infant hypoxia. Multiple risk factors during pregnancy appear to be associated with a higher risk of autism spectrum disorders in offspring, supporting the hypothesis that environmental influences in conjunction with genetics contribute to the causes of autism spectrum disorders. PMID:24413357

Maramara, Lauren A; He, Wenzhuan; Ming, Xue

2014-12-01

371

Multiple List Learning in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Parallels with Frontal Lobe Damage or Further Evidence of Diminished Relational Processing?  

Microsoft Academic Search

To test the effects of providing relational cues at encoding and\\/or retrieval on multi-trial, multi-list free recall in adults\\u000a with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (ASD), 16 adults with ASD and 16 matched typical adults learned a first followed\\u000a by a second categorised list of 24 words. Category labels were provided at encoding, retrieval, both or not at all. Both groups

Dermot M. Bowler; Sebastian B. Gaigg; John M. Gardiner

2010-01-01

372

Sleep Disorders in Atypical Parkinsonism.  

PubMed

Sleep disorders are commonly seen in atypical parkinsonism, with particular disorders occurring more frequently in specific parkinsonian disorders. Multiple systems atrophy (MSA) is a synucleinopathy often associated with nocturnal stridor which is a serious, but treatable condition highly specific to MSA. In addition, this disorder is strongly associated with rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD), which is also seen in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). RBD is far less prevalent in progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), which is a tauopathy. Insomnia and impaired sleep architecture are the most common sleep abnormalities seen in PSP. Corticobasilar degeneration (CBD) is also a tauopathy, but has far fewer sleep complaints associated with it than PSP. In this manuscript we review the spectrum of sleep dysfunction across the atypical parkinsonian disorders, emphasize the importance of evaluating for sleep disorders in patients with parkinsonian symptoms, and point to sleep characteristics that can provide diagnostic clues to the underlying parkinsonian disorder. PMID:24955381

Abbott, Sabra M; Videnovic, Aleksandar

2014-06-01

373

Psychogenic Movement Disorders  

PubMed Central

Purpose of Review This review describes the main clinical features of psychogenic (functional) movement disorders and reports recent advances in diagnosis, pathophysiology, and treatment. Recent Findings The terminology and definition of patients with psychogenic movement disorders remain subjects of controversy; the term “functional” has been used more frequently in the literature in recent years regarding the neurobiological substrate underpinning these disorders. Correct diagnosis of psychogenic movement disorders should rely not on the exclusion of organic disorders or the sole presence of psychological factors but on the observation or elicitation of clinical features related to the specific movement disorder (ie, a positive or inclusionary rather than exclusionary diagnosis). Sudden onset, spontaneous remissions, and variability over time or during clinical examination are useful “red flags” suggestive of a psychogenic movement disorder. Imaging studies have demonstrated impaired connectivity between limbic and motor areas involved in movement programming and hypoactivity of a brain region that compares expected data with actual sensory data occurring during voluntary movement. Treatment of psychogenic movement disorders begins with ensuring the patient’s acceptance of the diagnosis during the initial debriefing and includes nonpharmacologic (cognitive-behavioral therapy, physiotherapy) and pharmacologic options. Summary Psychogenic movement disorders represent a challenging disorder for neurologists to diagnose and treat. Recent advances have increased understanding of the neurobiological mechanism of psychogenic movement disorders. Treatment with cognitive strategies and physical rehabilitation can benefit some patients. As short duration of disease correlates with better prognosis, early diagnosis and initiation of treatment are critical. PMID:24092294

Morgante, Francesca; Edwards, Mark J.; Espay, Alberto J.

2013-01-01

374

A Review of Co-Morbid Disorders of Asperger's Disorder and the Transition to Adulthood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review includes empirical peer-reviewed articles which support the examination of Asperger's Disorder and co-morbid disorders, as well as an analysis of how adolescents with Asperger's Disorder transition to adulthood. Although the focus was on Asperger's Disorder, some studies include Autism Spectrum Disorder samples. It was found that…

Robinson, Stephanie; Curwen, Tracey; Ryan, Thomas G.

2012-01-01

375

Psychiatric disorders in the elderly.  

PubMed

Recent research has shown that depression, anxiety disorders, and psychosis are more common than previously supposed in elderly populations without dementia. It is unclear whether the frequency of these disorders increases or decreases with age. Clinical expression of psychiatric disorders in old age may be different from that seen in younger age groups, with less and often milder symptoms. Concurrently, comorbidity between different psychiatric disorders is immense, as well as comorbidity with somatic disorders. Cognitive function is often decreased in people with depression, anxiety disorders, and psychosis, but whether these disorders are risk factors for dementia is unclear. Psychiatric disorders in the elderly are often related to cerebral neurodegeneration and cerebrovascular disease, although psychosocial risk factors are also important. Psychiatric disorders, common among the elderly, have consequences that include social deprivation, poor quality of life, cognitive decline, disability, increased risk for somatic disorders, suicide, and increased nonsuicidal mortality. PMID:21835102

Skoog, Ingmar

2011-07-01

376

Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eating disorders are serious psychiatric disorders with significant medical and psychological morbidity and mortality. Most research has focused on the psychological and psychosocial risk factors for these disorders; however, recent genetic, neurocognitive, and neurotransmitter studies illustrate the biological underpinnings of these disorders. Treatments have generally focused on psychological interventions as well; however, a range of medications have been studied. Unfortunately,

B. Fleitlich-Bilyk; J. Lock

2008-01-01

377

Related disorders of bone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renal osteodystrophy includes a broad spectrum of abnormalities in bone and mineral metabolism. This review article discusses\\u000a related bone disorders, including calcific uremic arteriolopathy, “osteoporosis” and compromised bone strength, and dialysis-related\\u000a amyloidosis, as well as the contributing roles of glucocorticoids and metabolic acidosis. Bone disorders in the setting of\\u000a renal transplantation, including osteoporosis, osteonecrosis, and presistent hyperparathyroidism, are also reviewed.

Francis L. Weng; Stanley Goldfarb

2007-01-01

378

Do Comorbid Anxiety Disorders Moderate the Effects of Psychotherapy for Bipolar Disorder? Results From STEP-BD  

PubMed Central

Objective At least 50% of individuals with bipolar disorder have a lifetime anxiety disorder. Individuals with both bipolar disorder and a co-occurring anxiety disorder experience longer illness duration, greater illness severity, and poorer treatment response. The study explored whether comorbid lifetime anxiety in bipolar patients moderates psychotherapy treatment outcome. Method In the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program randomized controlled trial of psychotherapy for bipolar depression, participants received up to 30 sessions of intensive psychotherapy (family-focused therapy, interpersonal and social rhythm therapy, or cognitive-behavioral therapy) or collaborative care, a three-session comparison treatment, plus pharmacotherapy. Using the number needed to treat, we computed effect sizes to analyze the relationship between lifetime anxiety disorders and rates of recovery across treatment groups after 1 year. Results A total of 269 patients (113 women) with a comorbid lifetime anxiety disorder (N=177) or without a comorbid lifetime anxiety disorder (N=92) were included in the analysis. Participants with a lifetime anxiety disorder were more likely to recover with psychotherapy than with collaborative care (66% compared with 49% recovered over 1 year; number needed to treat=5.88, small to medium effect). For patients without a lifetime anxiety disorder, there was no difference between rates of recovery in psychotherapy compared with collaborative care (64% compared with 62% recovered; number needed to treat=50, small effect). Participants with one lifetime anxiety disorder were likely to benefit from intensive psychotherapy compared with collaborative care (84% compared with 53% recovered; number needed to treat=3.22, medium to large effect), whereas patients with multiple anxiety disorders exhibited no difference in response to the two treatments (54% compared with 46% recovered; number needed to treat=12.5, small effect). Conclusions Depressed patients with bipolar disorder and comorbid anxiety may be in particular need of additional psychotherapy for treating acute depression. These results need to be replicated in studies that stratify bipolar patients to treatments based on their anxiety comorbidity status. PMID:24077657

Deckersbach, Thilo; Peters, Amy T.; Sylvia, Louisa; Urdahl, Anna; Magalhães, Pedro V.S.; Otto, Michael W.; Frank, Ellen; Miklowitz, David J.; Berk, Michael; Kinrys, Gustavo; Nierenberg, Andrew

2013-01-01

379

Comorbid ADHD and mental health disorders: are these children more likely to develop reading disorders?  

PubMed

While attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been associated with both internalizing and externalizing childhood behaviour disorders, the specific relationship of these comorbid disorders to ADHD and reading problems is less well defined. The present study analysed data from the Australian Twin ADHD Project, which utilized DSM-IV-based ratings of ADHD, separation anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, depression, conduct disorder, and oppositional defiant disorder for twins and siblings aged 6 to 18 years. While differences between children with and without ADHD were demonstrated for those with separation anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, depression, conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder and a reading disorder, for all age groups, regression analysis of ADHD diagnostic subtypes by age and reading disorder showed that only generalized anxiety disorder remained significant after controlling for ADHD subtypes. Analysis of the mean reading disorder scores in children with and without ADHD showed that children with conduct disorder had significantly more reading problems, as did children with multiple comorbid disorders. In summary, both age and ADHD diagnosis were associated with variations in these comorbid disorders, and multiple comorbid disorders were associated with greater reading impairment. PMID:23124818

Levy, Florence; Young, Deidra J; Bennett, Kelly S; Martin, Neilson C; Hay, David A

2013-03-01

380

Seasonal Affective Disorder  

PubMed Central

Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a recently described mood disorder characterized by recurrent winter depressive episodes and summer remissions. The symptoms of SAD include DSM III-R criteria for recurrent major depression, but atypical depressive symptoms predominate with hypersomnia, hyperphagia and carbohydrate craving, and anergia. Seasonal affective disorder is effectively treated by exposure to bright light (phototherapy or light therapy), a novel antidepressant treatment. The authors review the syndrome of SAD, hypotheses about its pathophysiology, and the use of phototherapy to treat the disorder. PMID:21233986

Lam, Raymond W.; Fleming, Jonathan A.E.; Buchanan, Alan; Remick, Ronald A.

1990-01-01

381

Artificially disordered birefringent optical fibers  

E-print Network

in a fading environment when using multiple antennas," Wireless Personal Commun. 6, 311­335 (1998). #160441Artificially disordered birefringent optical fibers S. Herath,1 N. P. Puente,2 E. I. Chaikina,3@mst.edu Abstract: We develop and experimentally verify a theory of evolution of polarization in artificially-disordered

Yamilov, Alexey

382

Interventions for Disorders of Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a unique body of psychosocial disorders, disorders of changes, that have been ignored as serious human problems with unhappy consequences. Suggests early identification of cases and outreach are necessary to treat these acute disturbances, which require multiple interventions with individuals, families, and systems. (Author)

Kaplan, David M.

1982-01-01

383

Response Inhibition in Motor Conversion Disorder  

PubMed Central

Conversion disorders (CDs) are unexplained neurological symptoms presumed to be related to a psychological issue. Studies focusing on conversion paralysis have suggested potential impairments in motor initiation or execution. Here we studied CD patients with aberrant or excessive motor movements and focused on motor response inhibition. We also assessed cognitive measures in multiple domains. We compared 30 CD patients and 30 age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy volunteers on a motor response inhibition task (go/no go), along with verbal motor response inhibition (color-word interference) and measures of attention, sustained attention, processing speed, language, memory, visuospatial processing, and executive function including planning and verbal fluency. CD patients had greater impairments in commission errors on the go/no go task (P <.001) compared with healthy volunteers, which remained significant after Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons and after controlling for attention, sustained attention, depression, and anxiety. There were no significant differences in other cognitive measures. We highlight a specific deficit in motor response inhibition that may play a role in impaired inhibition of unwanted movement such as the excessive and aberrant movements seen in motor conversion. Patients with nonepileptic seizures, a different form of conversion disorder, are commonly reported to have lower IQ and multiple cognitive deficits. Our results point toward potential differences between conversion disorder subgroups. PMID:23554084

Voon, Valerie; Ekanayake, Vindhya; Wiggs, Edythe; Kranick, Sarah; Ameli, Rezvan; Harrison, Neil A.; Hallett, Mark

2014-01-01

384

Acute porphyric disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute porphyrias are classified into 3 distinct groups of rare genetic disorders of metabolic enzyme biosynthesis. Acute porphyrias can significantly impact multiple organ systems, which often provides a challenge to the dentist presented with such a patient. A case of hereditary coproporphyria is reported in a patient with many of the classical signs and symptoms. The patient also had complex

Arthur W. Moore; John M. Coke

2000-01-01

385

Vitamin D and multiple sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic demyelinating disease and also is one of the most common disabling neurological disorders in young and middle-aged adults. The main pathogenesis of MS has long been thought to be an immune mediated disorder of the central nervous system. The function of the immune system is under the influence of vitamin D which as a modulator of immune response could play a role in autoimmune diseases including MS. Deficiency of vitamin D or variations in DNA sequence (polymorphism) of vitamin D receptor gene diminishes its optimal function on immune system that consequently could lead to increasing risk of MS. However, its role in development and modulating the course of MS is still under investigation. In this review we aimed to discuss the role of vitamin D in body, immune system and consequently altering the risk of MS. PMID:24800040

Harandi, Ali Amini; Pakdaman, Hossein; Sahraian, Mohammad Ali

2014-01-01

386

Mood and affect disorders.  

PubMed

Depressive disorders are common in children and adolescents, with estimates for depressive episodes as high as 18.2% for girls and 7.7% for boys by age 17 years, and are a major cause of morbidity and even mortality. The primary care pediatrician should be able to (1) diagnose depressive disorders and use standardized instruments; (2) ask about suicide, self-harm, homicide, substance use, mania, and psychosis; (3) triage the severity of illness; (4) be aware of the differential diagnosis, including normal development, other depressive disorders, bipolar disorders, and comorbid disorders, such as anxiety and substance use; (5) refer to evidenced-based psychotherapies; (6) prescribe first-line medications; and (7) provide ongoing coordination in a medical home. Pediatric bipolar disorders and the new disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD) diagnoses are controversial but not uncommon, with prevalence estimates ranging from 0.8% to 4.3% in children at various ages. Although the pediatrician is not likely to be prescribing medications for children with bipolar disorder and DMDD diagnoses, all clinicians should be familiar with common neuroleptics and other mood stabilizers, including important potential adverse effects. Basic management of depressive and bipolar disorders is an important skill for primary care pediatricians. PMID:25646309

Tang, Michael H; Pinsky, Elizabeth G

2015-02-01

387

Multimodality imaging features of hereditary multiple exostoses  

PubMed Central

Hereditary multiple exostoses (HME) or diaphyseal aclasis is an inherited disorder characterised by the formation of multiple osteochondromas, which are cartilage-capped osseous outgrowths, and the development of associated osseous deformities. Individuals with HME may be asymptomatic or develop clinical symptoms, which prompt imaging studies. Different modalities ranging from plain radiographs to cross-sectional and nuclear medicine imaging studies can be helpful in the diagnosis and detection of complications in HME, including chondrosarcomatous transformation. We review the role and imaging features of these different modalities in HME. PMID:24004486

Fitzgerald, L; Campbell, N; Lyburn, I D; Munk, P L; Buckley, O; Torreggiani, W C

2013-01-01

388

Latest advances in connective tissue disorders  

PubMed Central

The connective tissue disorders comprise a number of related conditions that include systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and the antiphospholipid (Hughes) syndrome, scleroderma, myositis and Sjögren’s syndrome. They are characterized by autoantibody production and other immune-mediated dysfunction. There are common clinical and serological features with some patients having multiple overlapping connective tissue disorders. The latest advances include new approaches to therapy, including more focused utilization of existing therapies and the introduction of biological therapies in SLE, more precise protocols for assessment of severe disease manifestations such as in interstitial lung disease and pulmonary artery hypertension in scleroderma, new antibodies for disease characterization in myositis and new approaches to patient assessment in Sjögren’s syndrome. B cells have a critical role in most, if not all of these disorders such that B-cell depletion or suppression of B-cell activating cytokines improves disease in many patients. In particular, the introduction of rituximab, a monoclonal antibody targeting the CD20 molecule on B cells, into clinical practice for rheumatoid arthritis and B-cell lymphoma has been a key driver of experimental approaches to therapy in connective tissue disorders. Genetic studies also suggest a role for the innate immune system in disease pathogenesis, suggesting further future targets for biological therapies over the next few years. PMID:23904866

Rao, Vijay

2013-01-01

389

Metabolic imbalance in affective disorders  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Depression is the most frequent mental disorder encountered in all medical services. Multiple studies have shown that depression may predict the onset of different conditions, such as heart disease, diabetes, stroke and many other. The relation between depression and diabetes is still unclear. Materials and methods: In this study we evaluated patients with both major depressive disorder and type 1 or 2 diabetes, and observed the evolution of depressive and diabetes symptoms under adequate treatment. This observational, naturalistic study included 43 patients admitted in a psychiatric ward of "Alexandru Obregia" Clinical Hospital, Bucharest, diagnosed with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and Diabetes mellitus (DM) type 1 or 2. All patients received antidepressant and antidiabetic treatment. Results: The majority of patients were women (60.5%), and the mean age was 49.7 years. Average hospitalization period was 23 days, with longer period of hospitalization of patients with DM type 1. Patients had severe depression. Mean value of fasting glycemia at admission was of 174 mg / dl, but it decreased at discharge, in paralel with the amelioration of depression. Conclusions: The depression associated with DM type 1 is more severe. These patients require higher doses of antidepressants and longer hospitalization period. Amelioration of depression seems to have a positive impact on the blood sugar level of depressed patients with diabetes. PMID:23599818

Ladea, M; Barbu, CM; Rosu, DP

2013-01-01

390

Multiple Myeloma  

MedlinePLUS

... my-a-low-ma) is a kind of cancer in the bone marrow. Bone marrow is the tissue inside the bones where new blood cells are ... to take a very small sample of the tissue inside your bone. This is called a bone marrow aspiration. It can be done in your ... How is multiple myeloma treated? There is currently no cure for multiple myeloma. Treatment includes medicine to relieve ...

391

Plasma cell disorders in HIV-infected patients: epidemiology and molecular mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has significantly improved the outcome and survival of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. Subsequently, long-term morbidities including cancer have become of major public health and clinical interest for this patient population. Plasma cell disorders occur at higher incidence in HIV-infected patients; however, the molecular mechanisms driving the plasma cell disease process and the optimal management for these patients remain to be defined. This article provides an up-to-date review of the characteristics and management of HIV-infected patients with plasma cell disorders. We first present 3 cases of plasma cell disorders in HIV-infected patients, ranging from polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia to symptomatic multiple myeloma. We then discuss the epidemiology, clinical presentation, and management of each of these plasma cell disorders, with an emphasis on the molecular events underlying the progression of plasma cell diseases from monoclonal gammopathy to symptomatic multiple myeloma. We propose a three-step hypothesis for the development of multiple myeloma. Finally, we discuss the use of high dose chemotherapy and autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in the treatment of HIV-infected patients with multiple myeloma. Our review includes the care of HIV-infected patients with plasma cell disorders in the current era of HAART and novel agents available for the treatment of multiple myeloma. PMID:24252328

2013-01-01

392

Triallelic Inheritance in Bardet-Biedl Syndrome, a Mendelian Recessive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder characterized by multiple clinical features that include pigmentary retinal dystrophy, polydactyly, obesity, developmental delay, and renal defects. BBS is considered an autosomal recessive disorder, and recent positional cloning efforts have identified two BBS genes (BBS2 and BBS6). We screened our cohort of 163 BBS families for mutations in both BBS2 and BBS6

Nicholas Katsanis; Stephen J. Ansley; Jose L. Badano; Erica R. Eichers; Richard Alan Lewis; Bethan E. Hoskins; Peter J. Scambler; William S. Davidson; Philip L. Beales; James R. Lupski

2001-01-01

393

Endocrine aspects of post-traumatic stress disorder and implications for diagnosis and treatment.  

PubMed

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a serious, multisystem disorder with multiple medical comorbidities. This article reviews the current literature on the endocrine aspects of PTSD, specifically hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis alterations indicative of low cortisol and increased glucocorticoid sensitivity, and the proposed mechanisms whereby these alterations increase risk or reflect pathophysiology. Discussion includes novel treatment innovations and directions for future research. PMID:24011883

Daskalakis, Nikolaos P; Lehrner, Amy; Yehuda, Rachel

2013-09-01

394

Primary Immune Deficiency Disorders Presenting as Autoimmune Diseases: IPEX and APECED  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Several primary immune deficiency disorders are associated with autoimmunity and malignancy, suggesting a state of immune\\u000a dysregulation. The concept of immune dysregulation as a direct cause of autoimmunity in primary immune deficiency disorders\\u000a (PIDDs) has been strengthened by the recent discovery of distinct clinical entities linked to single-gene defects resulting\\u000a in multiple autoimmune phenomena including immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy and

D. Moraes-Vasconcelos; B. T. Costa-Carvalho; T. R. Torgerson; H. D. Ochs

2008-01-01

395

[Fatigue syndrome in chronic neurological disorders].  

PubMed

Fatigue without coincident depression may accompany many neurological disorders, including multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, motor neuron disease, stroke and post-polio syndrome, and is frequently reported by patients as a predominant complaint. The pathophysiology of fatigue is unknown. The role of various mechanisms has been suggested, including the effect of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-6) on glutaminergic transmission, hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunction, disturbances of astroglia metabolism and decreased levels of the neurotransmitters noradrenaline and serotonin. The diagnosis of fatigue syndrome is based on exclusion of depression and additional organic conditions (anaemia, cardiovascular disorders, kidney diseases or hypothyroidism). The treatment of fatigue syndrome is complex. Physical activity, rehabilitation, psychotherapy and avoidance of factors which may increase fatigue, such as fever, anxiety, depression, pain, sleep disturbances, as well as some drugs like opioids and benzodiazepines, are important. Pharmacological treatment leads to slight improvement. Amantadine, modafinil and pemoline are administered to such patients. PMID:17874343

Brola, Waldemar; Ziomek, Ma?gorzata; Czernicki, Jan

2007-01-01

396

Difference or Disorder? Cultural Issues in Understanding Neurodevelopmental Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developmental disorders, such as autism spectrum disorder and specific language impairment, are biologically based disorders that currently rely on behaviorally defined criteria for diagnosis and treatment. Specific behaviors that are included in diagnostic frameworks and the point at which individual differences in behavior constitute abnormality…

Norbury, Courtenay Frazier; Sparks, Alison

2013-01-01

397

Telithromycin: visual disorders.  

PubMed

Telithromycin is a macrolide antibiotic with a negative risk-benefit balance. Its efficacy is no better than that of other macrolides. Telithromycin carries a risk of serious adverse effects, including loss of consciousness, QT prolongation, severe liver damage, aggravation of myasthenia gravis, and a high risk of drug interactions. In Finland, a 7-year pharmacovigilance review identified 20 reports of visual disorders among patients taking telithromycin, including blurred vision, accommodation disorder and diplopia, mainly in young patients and women. Visual disorders occurred in about 1% of patients receiving telithromycin in clinical trials. They were generally moderate, brief and reversible. These visual disorders may result from reversible paralysis of the ciliary body due to telithromycin. In practice, these visual disorders, which can be dangerous when driving or operating heavy machinery, add to the already long list of adverse effects of telithromycin.They are yet another reason not to use telithromycin, but rather a safer macrolide such spiramycin. PMID:20568490

2010-04-01

398

Neurobiological basis of bipolar disorder Tadafumi Kato  

E-print Network

Neurobiological basis of bipolar disorder Tadafumi Kato Laboratory for Molecular Dynamics of Mental Disorders, RIKEN Brain Science Institute Bipolar disorder is characterized by recurrent episodes of mania channel genes including CACNA1C. Mendelian diseases accompanying bipolar disorder or depression include

Fukai, Tomoki

399

Bipolar Disorder in Adults  

MedlinePLUS

... to treat bipolar disorder include mood stabilizers, atypical antipsychotics, and antidepressants. For the most up-to-date ... should be monitored carefully by a doctor. Atypical antipsychotics are sometimes used to treat symptoms of bipolar ...

400

Obsessive-compulsive disorder  

MedlinePLUS

Obsessive-compulsive neurosis; OCD ... Doctors do not know the exact cause of OCD. Factors that may play a role include head ... out other mental disorders. Questionnaires can help diagnose OCD and track the progress of treatment.

401

Panic Disorder and Women  

MedlinePLUS

... help keep the disease from getting worse, and people can learn effective ways to live with this disorder. Treatment options include: Medications Cognitive therapy (to change or get rid of destructive thought patterns) Behavioral therapy (to change a person's behavior) ...

402

Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers in Neurodegenerative Movement Disorders: Parkinsonian Disorders and Huntington's Disease.  

E-print Network

??Background: Parkinson’s disease (PD) and atypical parkinsonian disorders (APD) [multiple system atrophy (MSA), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), and corticobasal degeneration (CBD)] are a large group… (more)

Constantinescu, Radu

2013-01-01

403

Schizophrenia and Other Psychotic Disorders  

E-print Network

). Definitions for the Schizophrenia subtypes (paranoid, Disorga- nized, Catatonic, UndifferentiatedSchizophrenia and Other Psychotic Disorders The disorders in this section include Schizophrenia Schizophrenia and other diSorders that, by definition, do not present with psychotic symptoms (e.g., Schizotypal

Bruno, John P.

404

Sleep Disorders and Fibromyalgia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disordered sleep is such a prominent symptom in fibromyalgia that the American College of Rheumatology included symptoms such\\u000a as waking unrefreshed, fatigue, tiredness, and insomnia in the 2010 diagnostic criteria for fibromyalgia. Even though sleep\\u000a recording is not part of the routine evaluation, polysomnography may disclose primary sleep disorders in patients with fibromyalgia,\\u000a including obstructive sleep apnea and restless leg

Suely Roizenblatt; Nilton Salles Rosa Neto; Sergio Tufik

405

Conversion disorder  

MedlinePLUS

... reality that is not on purpose) or a personality disorder (inability to manage feelings and behaviors that are ... P, Groves JE, Rivas-Vazquez RA. Personality and personality disorders. In: Stern TA, Rosenbaum JF, Fava M, Biederman ...

406

Bipolar Disorder  

MedlinePLUS

Bipolar disorder is a serious mental illness. People who have it go through unusual mood changes. They go ... The down feeling is depression. The causes of bipolar disorder aren't always clear. It runs in families. ...

407

Bipolar disorder  

MedlinePLUS

Bipolar disorder is a condition in which a person has periods of depression and periods of being extremely ... Bipolar disorder affects men and women equally. It usually starts between ages 15 and 25. The exact cause ...

408

Bipolar Disorder  

MedlinePLUS

... manic-depressive illness, bipolar mood disorder, and bipolar affective disorder are medical terms for the same condition. Bipolar ... depression, or vice versa. Sometimes episodes have a seasonal pattern. Mania in the spring, for example, may ...

409

Panic Disorder  

MedlinePLUS

Panic disorder is a type of anxiety disorder. It causes panic attacks, which are sudden feelings of terror when ... or a cold chill Tingly or numb hands Panic attacks can happen anytime, anywhere, and without warning. ...

410

Growth Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... because their parents are. But some children have growth disorders. Growth disorders are problems that prevent children from developing ... or other features. Very slow or very fast growth can sometimes signal a gland problem or disease. ...

411

Dream disorders and treatment.  

PubMed

Consensus does not exist regarding what should constitute a "dream disorder." Conditions with disordered dreaming may be thought of as primary (ie, arising from changes in dreaming per se) or secondary to extrinsic disorders that impinge on structures involved in dreaming. The major primary disorder of dreaming, nightmare disorder, is covered in depth in this article. Definition of nightmare, diagnostic criteria for nightmare disorder, and differential diagnosis are discussed. The value of a sleep-disorders perspective on nightmares, and the possible exacerbating effects of sleep disorders that cause arousals, are indicated. The importance of a perspective that appreciates nightmares as richly and personally meaningful, with links to complex psychological factors present and past, is emphasized. Two types of treatment approaches are discussed: approaches that target the symptom of nightmares in relative isolation, and approaches that aim at working out psychological issues viewed as causing nightmares and a variety of other interconnected symptoms and problems. The former type of treatment includes the cognitive-behavioral approach "imagery rehearsal therapy," and the medication prazosin. The latter approach entails exploratory or psychodynamic psychotherapies. The approaches are seen as so different in scope, aim, and conceptual framework as to defy ready comparison. I think that a thorough psychological/psychiatric evaluation is essential for informed consideration in conjunction with the patient's choice of treatment approach. Sleep terrors are discussed as a non-rapid eye movement sleep arousal disorder that at times may be linked to broader psychological issues warranting consideration of psychotherapy. Brief summaries are provided of dream disorders secondary to other sleep disorders, drug and alcohol effects, medical disorders, and organic brain damage. PMID:17716595

Eiser, Alan S

2007-09-01

412

Bipolar disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bipolar disorder is a pathological disturbance of mood, characterized by waxing and waning manic, depressive and, sometimes distinctly mixed states. A diagnosis of bipolar disorder can only be made with certainty when the manic syndrome declares itself. Most individuals who are diagnosed with this disorder will experience both poles of the illness recurrently, but depressive episodes are the commonest cause

Gérard Emilien; Lucia Septien; Claudine Brisard; Emmanuelle Corruble; Michel Bourin

2007-01-01

413

Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

HEALTH ISSUE: Eating disorders are an increasing public health problem among young women. Anorexia and bulimia may give rise to serious physical conditions such as hypothermia, hypotension, electrolyte imbalance, endocrine disorders, and kidney failure. KEY ISSUES: Eating disorders are primarily a problem among women. In Ontario in 1995, over 90% of reported hospitalized cases of anorexia and bulimia were women.

Enza Gucciardi; Nalan Celasun; Farah Ahmad; Donna E Stewart

2004-01-01

414

Eating Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... to be alone after a meal. Back Continue Treatment for Eating Disorders Fortunately, eating disorders can be treated. People with ... your doctor, or another trusted adult. Remember that eating disorders are very common among teens. Treatment options depend on each person and their families, ...

415

Bipolar Disorder.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bipolar disorder, a brain disorder that causes unusual shifts in a person's mood, affects approximately one percent of the population. It commonly occurs in late adolescence and is often unrecognized. The diagnosis of bipolar disorder is made on the basis of symptoms, course of illness, and when possible, family history. Thoughts of suicide are…

Spearing, Melissa

416

Affective Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Depression is a heterogeneous disorder with lifetime prevalence of "major depressive disorder" estimated to be 16.2%. Although the disorder is common and impairs functioning, it often goes untreated, with less than adequate response even when treated. We review research indicating the likely value of utilizing currently available, well-validated,…

Beach, Steven R. H.; Whisman, Mark A.

2012-01-01

417

[DSM-5: OCD and related disorders].  

PubMed

DSM-5 moved OCD out from under the Anxiety Disorder section, into a new category: Obsessive Compulsive and Related Disorders and added two new specifiers. Specifically a modification of one specifier (insight) and the addition of a new tic specifier. DSM-5 redefined obsessions and recognizes the importance of avoidance and thought stopping beyond compulsions as other strategies to deal with obsessions. OCD related disorders include: Trichotillomania, Hoarding Disorder, Skin Picking Disorder, and Body Dysmorphic Disorder. PMID:24887372

Toro-Martínez, Esteban

2014-01-01

418

Differences in the Nature of Body Image Disturbances between Female Obese Individuals with versus without a Comorbid Binge Eating Disorder: An Exploratory Study Including Static and Dynamic Aspects of Body Image  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Various components of body image were measured to assess body image disturbances in patients with obesity. To overcome limitations of previous studies, a photo distortion technique and a biological motion distortion device were included to assess static and dynamic aspects of body image. Questionnaires assessed cognitive-affective aspects, bodily…

Legenbauer, Tanja; Vocks, Silja; Betz, Sabrina; Puigcerver, Maria Jose Baguena; Benecke, Andrea; Troje, Nikolaus F.; Ruddel, Heinz

2011-01-01

419

Addiction disorders.  

PubMed

Substance use disorders are common in primary care settings, but detection, assessment, and management are seldom undertaken. Substantial evidence supports alcohol screening and brief intervention for risky drinking, and pharmacotherapy is effective for alcohol use disorders. Substance use disorders can complicate the management of chronic noncancer pain, making routine monitoring and assessment for substance use disorders an important aspect of long-term opioid prescribing. Patients with opioid use disorders can be effectively treated with methadone in opioid treatment programs or with buprenorphine in the primary care setting. PMID:25134875

Merrill, Joseph O; Duncan, Mark H

2014-09-01

420

Adolescent with tourette syndrome and bipolar disorder: a case report.  

PubMed

Tourette syndrome consists of multiple motor tics and one or more vocal tics. Psychopathology occurs in approximately 90% of Tourette syndrome patients, with attention-deficit/hyperactivity, mood, and obsessive-compulsive disorders being common. Additionally, Tourette syndrome and bipolar disorder may be related in some individuals. However, it is unclear why bipolar disorder may be overrepresented in Tourette syndrome patients, and more research is needed. Herein, we report the case of a 15-year-old boy diagnosed with both Tourette syndrome and bipolar disorder, whose symptoms improved with aripiprazole, atomoxetine, and valproate. The patient was diagnosed with Tourette syndrome at 8 years of age when he developed tics and experienced his first depressive episode. The patient had a poor response to a variety of antidepressants and anti-tic medications. A combination of valproate and aripiprazole stabilized both the patient's tics and mood symptoms. It is important to assess individuals with Tourette syndrome for other disorders, including bipolar disorder. The treatment of children and adolescents with both Tourette syndrome and bipolar disorder is an important clinical issue. PMID:25598829

Shim, Se-Hoon; Kwon, Young-Joon

2014-12-01

421

Adolescent with Tourette Syndrome and Bipolar Disorder: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Tourette syndrome consists of multiple motor tics and one or more vocal tics. Psychopathology occurs in approximately 90% of Tourette syndrome patients, with attention-deficit/hyperactivity, mood, and obsessive-compulsive disorders being common. Additionally, Tourette syndrome and bipolar disorder may be related in some individuals. However, it is unclear why bipolar disorder may be overrepresented in Tourette syndrome patients, and more research is needed. Herein, we report the case of a 15-year-old boy diagnosed with both Tourette syndrome and bipolar disorder, whose symptoms improved with aripiprazole, atomoxetine, and valproate. The patient was diagnosed with Tourette syndrome at 8 years of age when he developed tics and experienced his first depressive episode. The patient had a poor response to a variety of antidepressants and anti-tic medications. A combination of valproate and aripiprazole stabilized both the patient's tics and mood symptoms. It is important to assess individuals with Tourette syndrome for other disorders, including bipolar disorder. The treatment of children and adolescents with both Tourette syndrome and bipolar disorder is an important clinical issue. PMID:25598829

Kwon, Young-Joon

2014-01-01

422

Characteristics of taste disorders.  

PubMed

Aim of this retrospective study was to obtain information about the frequency of taste disorders, their most frequent causes, and typical symptoms. A total of 491 out of 4,680 patients (presenting for the first time between 1998 and 2011) exhibited taste disorders (10.5 %). All patients underwent a thorough physical otorhinolaryngological examination including detailed assessment of smell and taste functions. The three most frequent causes of disorders were idiopathic (34 %), posttraumatic (24 %), and postoperative (15 %). Patients with idiopathic and postoperative taste disorders complained mainly about hypogeusia and parageusia; in comparison, patients with posttraumatic taste disorders exhibited a relatively higher degree of partial, local, or complete ageusia. Among patients with phantogeusia and parageusia, 38 % reported salty, and 22 % mixed sensations like bitter-salty or sour-sweet. In approximately 1/3 of this group of patients the cause of dysgeusia is unknown. Twenty-one percent of the patients complained of qualitative rather than quantitative taste problems. PMID:23229645

Fark, T; Hummel, C; Hähner, A; Nin, T; Hummel, T

2013-05-01

423

[Neurological sleep disorders].  

PubMed

Neurological sleep disorders are common in the general population and may have a strong impact on quality of life. General practitioners play a key role in recognizing and managing sleep disorders in the general population. They should therefore be familiar with the most important neurological sleep disorders. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the most prevalent and important neurological sleep disorders, including Restless legs syndrome (with and without periodic limb movements in sleep), narcolepsy, NREM- and REM-sleep parasomnias and the complex relationship between sleep and epilepsies. Although narcolepsy is considered as a rare disease, recent discoveries in narcolepsy research provided insight in the function of brain circuitries involved in sleep wake regulation. REM sleep behavioral parasomnia (RBD) is increasingly recognized to represent an early manifestation of neurodegenerative disorders, in particular evolving synucleinopathies. Early diagnosis may thus open new perspectives for developing novel treatment options by targeting neuroprotective substances. PMID:25377291

Khatami, Ramin

2014-11-01

424

Dissociative disorders in DSM-5.  

PubMed

The rationale, research literature, and proposed changes to the dissociative disorders and conversion disorder in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) are presented. Dissociative identity disorder will include reference to possession as well as identity fragmentation, to make the disorder more applicable to culturally diverse situations. Dissociative amnesia will include dissociative fugue as a subtype, since fugue is a rare disorder that always involves amnesia but does not always include confused wandering or loss of personality identity. Depersonalization disorder will include derealization as well, since the two often co-occur. A dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), defined by the presence of depersonalization or derealization in addition to other PTSD symptoms, is being recommended, based upon new epidemiological and neuroimaging evidence linking it to an early life history of adversity and a combination of frontal activation and limbic inhibition. Conversion disorder (functional neurological symptom disorder) will likely remain with the somatic symptom disorders, despite considerable dissociative comorbidity. PMID:23394228

Spiegel, David; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Lanius, Ruth; Vermetten, Eric; Simeon, Daphne; Friedman, Matthew

2013-01-01

425

Symptomatology and markers of anxiety disorders in Parkinson's disease: a cross-sectional study.  

PubMed

Anxiety is understudied in Parkinson's disease (PD), which is not justified by the prevalence and impact of anxiety disorders on quality of life in PD patients. In this cross-sectional study, 342 patients suffering from idiopathic PD underwent a research-based assessment including DSM IV criteria for anxiety disorders, the Hamilton anxiety rating scale (HARS) and the beck anxiety inventory (BAI). Thirty-four percent (34%) of subjects met the DSM IV criteria for at least one anxiety disorder; 11.8% met criteria for multiple anxiety disorders; and 11.4% had clinically relevant anxiety symptoms without meeting the criteria for any specific anxiety disorder. Score profiles on the HARS and BAI differed significantly between the disorders, but these differences were associated with different scores on a limited number of items, and the respective symptom profiles were not readily interpretable. Female sex, the presence of motor fluctuations, as well as a previous history of an anxiety disorder were markers for anxiety disorders. The use of a mono-amino oxidase (MAO)-B inhibitor was associated with a reduced prevalence of anxiety disorders. Research into anxiety in PD is hampered by the questionable validity of DSM IV defined anxiety disorders in this population. A first focus for research should therefore be the identification of clinically useful anxiety presentations and their validation in PD. PMID:21312281

Leentjens, Albert F G; Dujardin, Kathy; Marsh, Laura; Martinez-Martin, Pablo; Richard, Irene H; Starkstein, Sergio E

2011-02-15

426

Assessment of Panic Disorder Across the Life Span  

Microsoft Academic Search

Panic disorder is a relatively common anxiety disorder that is often disabling. It may or may not be associated with agoraphobia. Panic disorder can be imitated by various medical illnesses, which, even when treated, can get cued with panic symptoms. It is also frequently comorbid with other psychiatric disorders including depression, generalized anxiety disorder, and substance use disorders. Although often

Vishal Madaan

427

Mental, Emotional and Behavior Disorders in Children and Adolescents. Factsheet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This factsheet describes the different mental, emotional, and behavior problems that can occur during childhood and adolescence. The incidence and symptoms of the following disorders are discussed: (1) anxiety disorders (including phobia, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder);…

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Center for Mental Health Services.

428

Multiple Sclerosis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module on multiple sclerosis is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then…

Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

429

An augmented space approach to the study of random ternary alloys: I. Electronic structure with uncorrelated disorder and short ranged order  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present here a generalized augmented space recursive technique which includes the effects of diagonal and environmental disorder explicitly: an analytic, lattice translational invariant, multiple scattering theory for the study of short range ordering in random ternary alloys. Our generalized augmented space formalism includes atomic correlations over a finite cluster including short range order (SRO). We propose the augmented space

Aftab Alam; Abhijit Mookerjee

2009-01-01

430

Borderline personality disorder: a disorder in search of advocacy.  

PubMed

Compared with bipolar disorder, borderline personality disorder (BPD) is as frequent (if not more frequent), as impairing (if not more impairing), and as lethal (if not more lethal). Yet, BPD has received less than one-tenth the funding from the National Institutes of Health than has bipolar disorder. More than other reviewers of the literature on the interface between bipolar disorder and BPD, Paris and Black (Paris J and Black DW (2015) Borderline Personality Disorder and Bipolar Disorder: What is the Difference and Why Does it Matter? J Nerv Ment Dis 203:3-7) emphasize the clinical importance of correctly diagnosing BPD and not overdiagnosing bipolar disorder, with a focus on the clinical feature of affective instability and how the failure to recognize the distinction between sustained and transient mood perturbations can result in misdiagnosing patients with BPD as having bipolar disorder. The review by Paris and Black, then, is more of an advocacy for BPD than other reviews in this area have been. In the present article, the author will illustrate how the bipolar disorder research community has done a superior job of advocating for and "marketing" their disorder compared with researchers of BPD. Specifically, researchers of bipolar disorder have conducted multiple studies highlighting the problem with underdiagnosis, written commentaries about the problem with underdiagnosis, developed and promoted several screening scales to improve diagnostic recognition, published numerous studies of the operating characteristics of these screening measures, attempted to broaden the definition of bipolar disorder by advancing the concept of the bipolar spectrum, and repeatedly demonstrated the economic costs and public health significance of bipolar disorder. In contrast, researchers of BPD have almost completely ignored each of these issues and thus have been less successful in highlighting the public health significance of the disorder. PMID:25536098

Zimmerman, Mark

2015-01-01

431

Sex disparities in neuro-ophthalmologic disorders.  

PubMed

Abstract Many neuro-ophthalmic diseases have a clear sex predilection, which is important to recognize in making the diagnosis based on risk stratification and understanding the pathogenesis of the disease. This review discusses the more common neuro-ophthalmic diseases with a female predilection, including idiopathic intracranial hypertension, cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, meningioma, multiple sclerosis, migraine, breast-cancer associated neuro-ophthalmic manifestations, sarcoidosis, bisphosphonate-associated orbital inflammation, and pregnancy-related neuro-ophthalmic disorders. In addition, the male predominance in the clinical manifestation of Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy is discussed. Lastly, the etiology of the sex discrepancies for each disease is explored. PMID:24911098

Chen, John J; Costello, Fiona; Kardon, Randy H

2015-02-01

432

The Use of Peer Networks to Increase Communicative Acts of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Peer networks including social groups using typical peers, scripted instruction, visual text cues, and reinforcement were examined with students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). A multiple baseline design across four participants was used to measure students' use of communication acts with peers during free play following instruction.…

Kamps, Debra; Mason, Rose; Thiemann-Bourque, Kathy; Feldmiller, Sarah; Turcotte, Amy; Miller, Todd

2014-01-01

433

Cognitive Neuroscience of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Current Status and Working Hypotheses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cognitive neuroscience studies of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) suggest multiple loci of pathology with respect to both cognitive domains and neural circuitry. Cognitive deficits extend beyond executive functioning to include spatial, temporal, and lower-level "nonexecutive" functions. Atypical functional anatomy extends beyond…

Vaidya, Chandan J.; Stollstorff, Melanie

2008-01-01

434

Increasing Peer Interactions for Students with Behavioral Disorders via Paraprofessional Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As more and more students with behavioral disorders (BD) are included in general education classrooms, the use of paraprofessionals in one-on-one support roles has expanded. Unfortunately, the use of paraprofessionals to provide one-on-one assistance can result in social isolation for students with disabilities. This multiple-baseline…

Malmgren, Kimber W.; Causton-Theoharis, Julie N.; Trezek, Beverly J.

2005-01-01

435

The Effects of Covert Audio Coaching on Teaching Clerical Skills to Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Employment instruction for secondary students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has received very little attention in the professional literature. However, adults with ASD usually have difficulty maintaining employment for a variety of reasons, including problems with performing work tasks. This study used a multiple baseline design across…

Bennett, Kyle D.; Ramasamy, Rangasamy; Honsberger, Toby

2013-01-01

436

[Differential diagnosis between dissociative disorders and schizophrenia].  

PubMed

The differential diagnosis of dissociative disorders includes many psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorders (especially bipolar II disorder), depressive disorder (especially atypical depression), epilepsy, Asperger syndrome, and borderline personality disorder. The theme of this paper is the differential diagnosis between dissociative disorders and schizophrenia. Schneiderian first-rank symptoms in schizophrenia are common in dissociative disorders, especially in dissociative identity disorder (DID). Many DID patients have been misdiagnosed as schizophrenics and treated with neuroleptics. We compared and examined Schneiderian symptoms of schizophrenia and those of dissociative disorders from a structural viewpoint. In dissociative disorders, delusional perception and somatic passivity are not seen. "Lateness" and "Precedence of the Other" originated from the concept of "Pattern Reversal" (H. Yasunaga)" is characteristic of schizophrenia. It is important to check these basic structure of schizophrenia in subjective experiences in differential diagnosis between dissociative disorders and schizophrenia. PMID:22117396

Shibayama, Masatoshi

2011-01-01

437

Childhood adversities and first onset of psychiatric disorders in a national sample of adolescents  

PubMed Central

Context Although childhood adversities (CAs) are known to be highly co-occurring, most research examines their associations with mental disorders one at a time. Recent evidence from adult studies suggests, though, that the associations of multiple CAs with mental disorders are non-additive, arguing for the importance of multivariate analysis of multiple CAs. No attempt has yet been made to carry out a similar kind of analysis among children or adolescents. Objective To examine the multivariate associations of 12 CAs with first onset of mental disorders in a national sample of US adolescents. Design US national survey of adolescents (ages 13–17) assessing DSM-IV anxiety, mood, behavior, and substance disorders and CAs. The CAs include parental loss (death, divorce, other separations), maltreatment (physical, sexual, and emotional abuse, neglect), parental maladjustment (psychopathology, substance abuse, criminality, violence) and economic adversity. Setting Dual-frame household-school samples. Participants 6,483 adolescents-parent pairs. Main outcome measure Lifetime DSM-IV disorders assessed with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Results 58.3% of adolescents reported at least one CA, among whom 59.7% reported multiple CAs. CAs reflecting maladaptive family functioning (MFF) were more strongly associated than other CAs with disorder onsets. The best-fitting model included terms for type and number of CAs and distinguished between MFF and Other CAs. CAs predicted behavior disorders most strongly and fear disorders least strongly. The joint associations of multiple CAs were sub-additive. The population-attributable risk proportions for disorder classes ranged from 15.7% for fear disorders to 40.7% for behavior disorders. CAs were associated with 28.2% of all onsets. Conclusions CAs are common, highly co-occurring, and strongly associated with onset of mental disorders among US adolescents. The sub-additive multivariate associations of CAs with disorder onsets have implications for targeting interventions to reduce exposure to CAs and to mitigate the harmful effects of CAs to improve population mental health. PMID:23117636

McLaughlin, Katie A.; Green, Jennifer Greif; Gruber, Michael J.; Sampson, Nancy A.; Zaslavsky, Alan M.; Kessler, Ronald C.

2012-01-01

438

Multiple forms of copper (II) co-ordination occur throughout the disordered N-terminal region of the prion protein at pH 7.4  

PubMed Central

Although the physiological function of the prion protein remains unknown, in vitro experiments suggest that the protein may bind copper (II) ions and play a role in copper transport or homoeostasis in vivo. The unstructured N-terminal region of the prion protein has been shown to bind up to six copper (II) ions, with each of these ions co-ordinated by a single histidine imidazole and nearby backbone amide nitrogen atoms. Individually, these sites have micromolar affinities, which is weaker than would be expected of a true cuproprotein. In the present study, we show that with subsaturating levels of copper, different forms of co-ordination will occur, which have higher affinity. We have investigated the copper-binding properties of two peptides representing the known copper-binding regions of the prion protein: residues 57–91, which contains four tandem repeats of the octapeptide GGGWGQPH, and residues 91–115. Using equilibrium dialysis and spectroscopic methods, we unambiguously demonstrate that the mode of copper co-ordination in both of these peptides depends on the number of copper ions bound and that, at low copper occupancy, copper ions are co-ordinated with sub-micromolar affinity by multiple histidine imidazole groups. At pH 7.4, three different modes of copper co-ordination are accessible within the octapeptide repeats and two within the peptide comprising residues 91–115. The highest affinity copper (II)-binding modes cause self-association of both peptides, suggesting a role for copper (II) in controlling prion protein self-association in vivo. PMID:16925523

Wells, Mark A.; Jelinska, Clare; Hosszu, Laszlo L. P.; Craven, C. Jeremy; Clarke, Anthony R.; Collinge, John; Waltho, Jonathan P.; Jackson, Graham S.

2006-01-01

439

Glutamate and anxiety disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anxiety disorders are among the most prevalent psychiatric disorders, but they represent a particular challenge for treatment.\\u000a The standard first-line treatments, including antidepressants, benzodiazepines, and buspirone, result in significant response\\u000a rates for a majority of patients; however, unfavorable side effect profiles or risk for dependency for particular agents might\\u000a limit their use by anxious patients, who often have low thresholds

Jonathan M. Amiel; Sanjay J. Mathew

2007-01-01

440

Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Eating disorders are serious mental health conditions that are more common among women and present with well-documented physical\\u000a manifestations and psychiatric comorbidities. An estimated 5–10 million females are affected with some form of eating disorder\\u000a (Gordon 1990; Crowther et al. 1992; Fairburn et al. 1995; Hoek 2002). The American College of Physicians lists eating disorders\\u000a as one of the nine

Rita DeBate; Heather Blunt; Marion Ann Becker

441

Anxiety Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Anxiety disorders are among the most common psychological disorders, with a lifetime prevalence of 31.2% and a 12-month prevalence\\u000a of 19.1% in the United States (Kessler et al., 2005; Kessler, Chiu, Demler, Merikangas, & Walters, 2005). Individuals with\\u000a an anxiety disorder present with a variety of physical and psychological symptoms. Particularly unique to anxiety are the\\u000a symptoms of physical tension

Rose C. Smith; Lisa S. Elwood; Matthew T. Feldner; Bunmi O. Olatunji

442

Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter focuses on the eating disorders that draw the attention of most clinicians and researchers: anorexia nervosa,\\u000a bulimia nervosa, and eating disorders not otherwise specified. For information about other, less well-known eating problems\\u000a in adolescents, and about the medical and nutritional effects of eating disorders in adolescents, see Lask and Bryant-Waugh\\u000a (2000) and Fisher et al. (1995).

Michael P. Levine; Niva Piran

443

Knowledge of Social Anxiety Disorder Relative to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Among Educational Professionals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social anxiety disorder (SAD), the 3rd most common psychiatric disorder in the United States, follows a chronic and unremitting course, often resulting in severe impairments in multiple areas of functioning. Despite a typical age of onset in early adolescence, the disorder is rarely recognized and treated in adolescent populations. Given its early…

Herbert, James D.; Crittenden, Kia; Dalrymple, Kristy L.

2004-01-01

444

Efficacy of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Comorbid Panic Disorder with Agoraphobia and Generalized Anxiety Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy for comorbid panic disorder with agoraphobia (PDA) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) by combining treatment strategies for both disorders. A single-case, multiple-baseline design across participants was used. Three participants with primary PDA and secondary…

Labrecque, Joane; Marchand, Andre; Dugas, Michel J.; Letarte, Andree

2007-01-01

445

Electrolyte disorders.  

PubMed

Electrolyte disorders can result in life-threatening complications. The kidneys are tasked with maintaining electrolyte homoeostasis, yet the low glomerular filtration rate of neonatal kidneys, tubular immaturity, and high extrarenal fluid losses contribute to increased occurrence of electrolyte disorders in neonates. Understanding the physiologic basis of renal electrolyte handling is crucial in identifying underlying causes and initiation of proper treatment. This article reviews key aspects of renal physiology, the diagnostic workup of disorders of plasma sodium and potassium, and the appropriate treatment, in addition to inherited disorders associated with neonatal electrolyte disturbances that illuminate the physiology of renal electrolyte handling. PMID:25155728

Bockenhauer, Detlef; Zieg, Jakub

2014-09-01

446

Affective brain areas and sleep disordered breathing  

PubMed Central

The neural damage accompanying the hypoxia, reduced perfusion, and other consequences of sleep-disordered breathing found in obstructive sleep apnea, heart failure (HF), and congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS), appears in areas that serve multiple functions, including emotional drives to breathe, and involve systems that serve affective, cardiovascular, and breathing roles. The damage, assessed with structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) procedures, shows tissue loss or water content and diffusion changes indicative of injury, and impaired axonal integrity between structures; damage is preferentially unilateral. Functional MRI responses in affected areas also are time- or amplitude- distorted to ventilatory or autonomic challenges. Among the structures injured are the insular, cingulate, and ventral medial prefrontal cortices, as well as cerebellar deep nuclei and cortex, anterior hypothalamus, raphé, ventrolateral medulla, basal ganglia and, in CCHS, the locus coeruleus. Raphé and locus coeruleus injury may modify serotonergic and adrenergic modulation of upper airway and arousal characteristics. Since both axons and gray matter show injury, the consequences to function, especially to autonomic, cognitive, and mood regulation, are major. Several affected rostral sites, including the insular and cingulate cortices and hippocampus, mediate aspects of dyspnea, especially in CCHS, while others, including the anterior cingulate and thalamus, participate in initiation of inspiration after central breathing pauses, and the medullary injury can impair baroreflex and breathing control. The ancillary injury associated with sleep-disordered breathing to central structures can elicit multiple other distortions in cardiovascular, cognitive, and emotional functions in addition to effects on breathing regulation. PMID:24746053

Harper, Ronald M.; Kumar, Rajesh; Macey, Paul M.; Woo, Mary A.; Ogren, Jennifer A.

2014-01-01

447

Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarker Candidates for Parkinsonian Disorders  

PubMed Central

The Parkinsonian disorders are a large group of neurodegenerative diseases including idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (PD) and atypical Parkinsonian disorders (APD), such as multiple system atrophy, progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration, and dementia with Lewy bodies. The etiology of these disorders is not known although it is considered to be a combination of genetic and environmental factors. One of the greatest obstacles for developing efficacious disease-modifying treatment strategies is the lack of biomarkers. Reliable biomarkers are needed for early and accurate diagnosis, to measure disease progression, and response to therapy. In this review several of the most promising cerebrospinal biomarker candidates are discussed. Alpha-synuclein seems to be intimately involved in the pathogenesis of synucleinopathies and its levels can be measured in the cerebrospinal fluid and in plasma. In a similar way, tau protein accumulation seems to be involved in the pathogenesis of tauopathies. Urate, a potent antioxidant, seems to be associated to the risk of developing PD and with its progression. Neurofilament light chain levels are increased in APD compared with PD and healthy controls. The new “omics” techniques are potent tools offering new insights in the patho-etiology of these disorders. Some of the difficulties encountered in developing biomarkers are discussed together with future perspectives. PMID:23346074

Constantinescu, Radu; Mondello, Stefania

2013-01-01

448

Co-morbid disorders and sexual risk behavior in Nigerian adolescents with bipolar disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Adolescent onset bipolar disorder often presents with co-morbid disorders of which psychoactive substance use disorders are notable. Mania symptoms and co-morbid psychoactive substance use disorders prone adolescents with bipolar disorder to impulsivity, impaired judgment, and risk taking behavior which often includes sexual risk behavior. There are dearth of information on pattern of co-morbid disorders and sexual risk behavior in

Muideen O Bakare; Ahamefule O Agomoh; Peter O Ebigbo; Gabriel M Onyeama; Julian Eaton; Jojo U Onwukwe; Kevin O Okonkwo

2009-01-01

449

Cannabinoids, multiple sclerosis and neuroprotection.  

PubMed

The cannabinoid signaling system participates in the control of cell homeostasis in the CNS, which explains why, in different neurodegenerative diseases including multiple sclerosis (MS), alterations in this system have been found to serve both as a pathogenic factor (malfunctioning of this system has been found at early phases of these diseases) and as a therapeutic target (the management of this system has beneficial effects). MS is an autoimmune disease that affects the CNS and it is characterized by inflammation, demyelination, remyelination, gliosis and axonal damage. Although it has been considered mainly as an inflammatory disorder, recent studies have recognized the importance of axonal loss both in the progression of the disorder and in the appearance of neurological disability, even in early stages of the disease. In recent years, several laboratories have addressed the therapeutic potential of cannabinoids in MS, given the experience reported by some MS patients who self-medicated with marijuana. Most of these studies focused on the alleviation of symptoms (spasticity, tremor, anxiety and pain) or on the inflammatory component of the disease. However, recent data also revealed the important neuroprotective action that could be exerted by cannabinoids in this disorder. The present review will be precisely centered on this neuroprotective potential, which is based mainly on antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-excitotoxic properties, exerted through the activation of CB1 or CB2 receptors or other unknown mechanisms. PMID:22112258

de Lago, Eva; Gómez-Ruiz, María; Moreno-Martet, Miguel; Fernández-Ruiz, Javier

2009-11-01

450

Intrinsically Disordered Proteins May Select Partners by Fold  

E-print Network

Intrinsically disordered proteins lack a rigid structure due to their simple amino acid sequence. Because of their multiple roles, disordered proteins often account for a majority of proteins known to be associated with various diseases...

Gonzalez, Kim 1988-

2010-12-08

451

Multiple Sexual Victimizations among Adolescent Boys and Girls: Prevalence and Associations with Eating Behaviors and Psychological Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of sexual abuse, including multiple victimizations, among adolescents and to examine associations among history of sexual abuse, disordered eating behaviors and psychological health. The sample included 81,247 students (40,946 girls and 40,301 boys) in 9th and 12th grades in Minnesota public…

Ackard, Diann M.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

2003-01-01

452

Characterizing eating disorders in a personality disorders sample.  

PubMed

The presence of a comorbid eating disorder (ED) and personality disorder (PD) is associated with greater problems and poorer functioning than having an ED alone or PD alone. This pattern is also found for non-ED axis I disorders and PDs. This study aims to examine if an ED, compared to other non-ED axis I disorders, in a PD sample confers greater risks for: number and type of non-ED axis I and axis II disorders, suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-injury, and poorer psychosocial functioning. Standardized interviews were conducted on 166 females and 166 males with PDs. In females with PDs, EDs, as compared to other axis I disorders, were associated with more non-ED axis I and II disorders (particularly borderline and avoidant PD) and poorer global functioning, but not with suicide attempts or non-suicidal self-injury. In males with PDs, EDs were associated with more axis II disorders, particularly borderline PD. Given the small group of males with EDs, these results require replication. Males and females with PDs and EDs may have multiple comorbid disorders, particularly borderline PD and for females, avoidant PD that may warrant targeting in treatment. PMID:20667417

Chen, Eunice Yu; McCloskey, Michael Sean; Michelson, Sara; Gordon, Kathryn Hope; Coccaro, Emil

2011-02-28

453

Characterizing eating disorders in a personality disorders sample  

PubMed Central

The presence of a comorbid eating disorder (ED) and personality disorder (PD) is associated with greater problems and poorer functioning than having an ED alone or PD alone. This pattern is also found for non-ED axis I disorders and PDs. This study aims to examine if an ED, compared to other non-ED axis I disorders, in a PD sample confers greater risks for: number and type of non-ED axis I and axis II disorders, suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-injury, and poorer psychosocial functioning. Standardized interviews were conducted on 166 females and 166 males with PDs. In females with PDs, EDs, as compared to other axis I disorders, were associated with more non-ED axis I and II disorders (particularly borderline and avoidant PD) and poorer global functioning, but not with suicide attempts or nonsuicidal self-injury. In males with PDs, EDs were associated with more axis II disorders, particularly borderline PD. Given the small group of males with EDs, these results require replication. Males and females with PDs and EDs may have multiple comorbid disorders, particularly borderline PD and for females, avoidant PD that may warrant targeting in treatment. PMID:20667417

Chen, Eunice Yu; McCloskey, Michael Sean; Michelson, Sara; Gordon, Kathryn Hope; Coccaro, Emil

2010-01-01

454

Sleep-disordered breathing and psychiatric disorders.  

PubMed

Sleep-disordered breathing, the commonest form of which is obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is increasingly recognised as a treatable cause of morbidity. It shares many risk factors with psychiatric disorders including behaviours such as smoking and physical comorbidity. Many symptoms of the two overlap, leaving OSA often undetected and undertreated. In the few studies that assess the two, OSA is commonly comorbid with depression (17-45%) and schizophrenia (up to 55%) and possibly bipolar. There is some limited evidence that treating OSA can ameliorate psychiatric symptoms. Some psychotropics, such as narcotics, cause sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), whilst weight-inducing neuroleptics may exacerbate it. An extreme form of SDB, sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), is a risk in mothers with substance abuse. Being aware of these common comorbidities may help improve psychiatric patient's treatment and quality of life. PMID:25308389

Naqvi, Haider A; Wang, David; Glozier, Nicholas; Grunstein, Ronald R

2014-12-01

455

EATING DISORDERS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) are complex disorders that are often perplexing to therapists and difficult to manage. The purpose of this chapter is to review the history, nature, etiology, and treatment of these disorders, as well as to provide a brief introduction to the proposed d...

456

Anxiety Disorders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Anxiey, in general, helps one to cope. It rouses a person to action and gears one up to face a threatening situation. It makes students study harder for exams, and keeps presenters on their toes when making speeches. But an anxiety disorder can prevent one from coping and can disrupt daily life. Anxiety disorders are not just a case of "nerves,"…

Dickey, Marilyn

457

Platelet Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... platelets, you may have a higher risk of blood clots. With other platelet disorders, the platelets do not work as they should. ... platelets cannot stick together or cannot attach to blood vessel walls. This can ... of platelet disorders depends on the cause. NIH: National Heart, Lung, ...

458

Psychophysiologic Phenomena in Multiple Personality and Hypnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article demonstrates similarities in psychophysiologic phenomena found in Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD), individuals using hypnosis, and others who did not use hypnosis. The areas discussed are: allergic responses, dermatologic reactions, effects on the autonomic nervous system, seizure disorders, pain control, and healing. Examples from multiple personality cases are paralleled by citations of related phenomena from the hypnosis literature. Some

Bennett G. Braun

1983-01-01

459

Optimizing the use of anti-interleukin-6 monoclonal antibody with dexamethasone and 140 mg/m2 of melphalan in multiple myeloma: results of a pilot study including biological aspects  

PubMed Central

Summary Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a major survival factor for multiple myeloma (MM) cells preventing apoptosis induced by dexamethasone (DEX) or chemotherapy. 24 consecutive patients with MM in first-line therapy received DEX for 4 days, followed by melphalan (HDM: 140mg/m²) and autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). The anti-IL-6 monoclonal antibody (mAb) (B-E8) was given till haematological recovery, starting 1 day before DEX. Results were historically compared to MM patients treated with HDM 140mg/m² and 200mg/m². Our results show 1) that B-E8 was able to fully neutralize IL-6 activity in vivo before and after HDM as shown by inhibition of CRP production; 2) no haematological toxicity; 3) a significant reduction of mucositis and fever; 4) a median event-free survival of 35 months and an overall survival 68.2% at 5 years with a median follow-up of 72 months; 5) the overall daily IL-6 production progressively increased on and after 7 days post-HDM, with the increased serum CRP levels. In the 5/24 patients with uncontrolled CRP production, a large IL-6 production was detected (320 ?g/day) that could not likely be neutralized by B-E8. These data show the feasibility to neutralize IL-6 in vivo with anti-IL-6 mAb in the context of HDM. PMID:16113665

Rossi, Jean-François; Fegueux, Nathalie; Lu, Zhao Yang; Legouffe, Eric; Exbrayat, Carole; Bozonnat, Marie-Cécile; Navarro, Robert; Lopez, Ernesto; Quittet, Philippe; Daures, Jean-Pierre; Rouillé, Valérie; Kanouni, Tarik; Widjenes, John; Klein, Bernard

2005-01-01

460

Borderline personality disorder.  

PubMed

Borderline personality disorder is characterised by a pervasive pattern of instability in affect regulation, impulse control, interpersonal relationships, and self-image. Clinical signs of the disorder include emotional dysregulation, impulsive aggression, repeated self-injury, and chronic suicidal tendencies, which make these patients frequent users of mental-health resources. Causal factors are only partly known, but genetic factors and adverse events during childhood, such as physical and sexual abuse, contribute to the development of the disorder. Dialectical behaviour therapy and psychodynamic partial hospital programmes are effective treatments for out-of-control patients, and drug therapy can reduce depression, anxiety, and impulsive aggression. More research is needed for the understanding and management of this disabling clinical condition. Current strategies are focusing on the neurobiological underpinnings of the disorder and the development and dissemination of better and more cost-effective treatments to clinicians. PMID:15288745

Lieb, Klaus; Zanarini, Mary C; Schmahl, Christian; Linehan, Marsha M; Bohus, Martin

461

Treatment of sleep dysfunction and psychiatric disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Patients with neurologic disorders commonly experience sleep dysfunction and psychiatric disorders. The most common sleep\\u000a dysfunction is insomnia, which is a primary symptom in 30% to 90% of psychiatric disorders. Insomnia and fatigue are prominent\\u000a symptoms of anxiety disorders and major depression, including patients who are treated but have residual symptoms. Anxiety\\u000a and depressive disorders account for 40% to

Philip M. Becker

2006-01-01

462