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Sample records for disorders including multiple

  1. Emotional Disorders in People with Multiple Sclerosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and their FAMILIES EMOTIONAL DISORDERS IN PEOPLE WITH MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS This fact sheet presents the current research on emotional disorders in multiple sclerosis (MS) and summarizes the main findings of a ...

  2. Blood Disorders - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home ? Multiple Languages ? All Health Topics ? Blood Disorders URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/languages/blooddisorders.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  3. Multiple Object Tracking in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    E-print Network

    Koldewyn, Kami

    Difficulties in visual attention are often implicated in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) but it remains unclear which aspects of attention are affected. Here, we used a multiple object tracking (MOT) task to quantitatively ...

  4. Anal Disorders - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... List of All Topics All Anal Disorders - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (???????) French (français) Hindi (??????) Japanese (???) Korean (???) Russian (???????) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) ...

  5. Neuromuscular Disorders - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... List of All Topics All Neuromuscular Disorders - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. French (français) Japanese (???) Korean (???) Russian (???????) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) ...

  6. Parathyroid Disorders - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... List of All Topics All Parathyroid Disorders - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Chinese - Traditional (????) French (français) Hindi (??????) Japanese (???) Korean (???) Russian (???????) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) ...

  7. Improving the Classification of Multiple Disorders with Problem Decomposition

    E-print Network

    Abdel-Aal, Radwan E.

    Improving the Classification of Multiple Disorders with Problem Decomposition Radwan E. Abdel-Aal1@kfupm.edu.sa Phone: +966 3 860 4320 Fax: +966 3 860 4281 #12;Abstract Differential diagnosis of multiple disorders, Multiple Disorders, Dermatology. 2 #12;1. Introduction Differential diagnosis among a group of disorders

  8. Multiple Personality Disorder: Concepts and Cases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsley, Hope L.

    1992-01-01

    Presents two case examples illustrating nature and etiology of multiple personality disorder in two clients and describing their entry into counseling and progress through treatment. Compares and contrasts cases in areas of diagnosis, symptoms, history, and treatment. Suggests that mental health counselors combine firmness with flexibility in…

  9. Multiple Object Tracking in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koldewyn, Kami; Weigelt, Sarah; Kanwisher, Nancy; Jiang, Yuhong

    2013-01-01

    Difficulties in visual attention are often implicated in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) but it remains unclear which aspects of attention are affected. Here, we used a multiple object tracking (MOT) task to quantitatively characterize dynamic attentional function in children with ASD aged 5-12. While the ASD group performed significantly worse…

  10. Sleep disorders in multiple sclerosis. Review.

    PubMed

    Veauthier, Christian

    2015-05-01

    Sleep disorders are common in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and play a crucial role in health and quality of life; however, they are often overlooked. The most important sleep disorders in this context are as follows: insomnia, restless legs syndrome, periodic limb movement disorders, and sleep-related breathing disorders (SRBD). It is unclear if MS-related processes (lesions, brain atrophy) can cause symptomatic forms of sleep apnea. MS-related narcolepsy-like symptoms are described in the literature and, in some cases, have resolved with methylprednisolone pulse therapy. Similarly, REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is very rare in MS, but it can be an initial sign of MS where cortisone therapy may be helpful and can be taken into account in this specific context. Independent diagnosis and treatment is required for all of the abovementioned conditions. Treating physicians and neurologists should be aware of these comorbidities and initiate specific therapy. Highly fatigued or sleepy MS patients should have polysomnography in order not to overlook these diagnoses. PMID:25773000

  11. Guidelines for Documentation of Autism Spectrum Disorders Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) includes autism, Asperger syndrome, and pervasive

    E-print Network

    Hamburger, Peter

    Guidelines for Documentation of Autism Spectrum Disorders Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) includes autism, Asperger syndrome, and pervasive developmental disorder. ASDs are characterized generally of the current impact of the disorder on the student's functioning in an academic environment. Revised February

  12. Recent research on multiple personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Putnam, F W

    1991-09-01

    The last decade has seen the emergence of solid research on MPD and the dissociative disorders, particularly in the area of diagnosis and clinical phenomenology. A number of other areas have been opened up or advanced considerably. The most notable of these include child and adolescent dissociative disorders; investigation of dissociative memory disturbances; studies of differential alter personality psychophysiology and switching; cross-cultural comparisons of MPD, possession, and dissociative states; and the contribution of pathologic dissociation to the symptomatology of other psychiatric disorders. Yet to be attempted, however, are prospective clinical trials and treatment outcome studies. In addition to clinical and theoretical insights, recent research provides strong evidence for the validity of the diagnosis of MPD. The repeated replication of a core clinical phenomenology demonstrates a construct validity equal to or superior to that demonstrated for most DSM-III/IIIR disorders. The ability of several independently developed instruments to blindly discriminate MPD patients from nondissociative disorder patients with high rates of accuracy supports both the construct and discriminant validity of the diagnosis; and as the astute clinical observations of the last century continue to be confirmed, MPD manifests an historical validity absent in most modern era diagnoses. In the future, arguments about the "reality" of MPD cannot confine themselves merely to attacking one aspect of the disorder but rather must confront the broad range of evidence supporting the validity and reliability of the diagnosis. The future belongs to multicenter studies, although intensive single-case and personal-case series will continue to make important contributions in some areas. The essential elements necessary to begin prospective multicenter studies are rapidly coming together. Already one multicenter structured interview study of clinical phenomenology has been completed and other studies are underway or near publication. As these collaborative research networks mature, even more ambitious studies will be attempted. Adequate funding remains the principal obstacle and must be creatively addressed in this era of budgetary shortfalls, particularly as several research networks cross international boundaries. Exceptionally gratifying is the burgeoning interest of large numbers of psychiatric residents and psychology graduate students in the dissociative disorders. Thanks to a decade of hard work, the next generation of clinicians and researchers will know a great deal more about these patients than the last. PMID:1946019

  13. Extending a clinical repository to include multiple sites.

    PubMed

    Marrs, K A; Kahn, M G

    1995-01-01

    With the consolidation of health care organizations and services, a clinical repository comprising data from a single site is no longer sufficient. Individual patient data are now spread across multiple sites comprising a single enterprise. Users require an integrated view, or at least a common view, of these clinical data across multiple sites. Many issues arise when one tries to merge data from multiple, distinct organizations into an existing schema. We have addressed these issues while extending our clinical repository for Barnes Hospital with data from Jewish Hospital, both of which are members of the recently formed BJC Health System. We describe the architecture of our existing repository, approaches and issues in extending this repository to include multiple sites, and the specific issues we addressed in our system. PMID:8563308

  14. An additional monogenic disorder that masquerades as multiple sclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Vahedi, K.; Tournier-Lasserve, E.; Vahedi, K.

    1996-11-11

    In their comprehensive differential diagnosis of monogenic diseases that can mimic multiple sclerosis, Natowicz and Bejjani did not include a newly recognized monogenic disorder known under the acronym of CADASIL (Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy); this disorder can mimic MS clinically and radiologically to a remarkable extent. The underlying histopathological lesion of CADASIL is a non-atherosclerotic, non-amyloid arteriopathy affecting mainly the penetrating medullary arteries to the subcortical white matter and basal ganglia. Electron microscopy shows an abnormal deposit of granular osmiophilic material in the arterial wall. These arterial changes are observed in various tissues even though clinical manifestations seem to be restricted to the central nervous system. The CADASIL gene was mapped recently to chromosome 19 and gene identification is ongoing. 6 refs., 1 fig.

  15. Methylphenidate and Comorbid Anxiety Disorder in Children with both Chronic Multiple Tic Disorder and ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadow, Kenneth D.; Nolan, Edith E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine if comorbid anxiety disorder is associated with differential response to immediate release methylphenidate (MPH-IR) in children with both ADHD and chronic multiple tic disorder (CMTD). Method: Children with (n = 17) and without (n = 37) diagnosed anxiety disorder (ANX) were evaluated in an 8-week, placebo-controlled trial…

  16. Arm Injuries and Disorders - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home ? Multiple Languages ? All Health Topics ? Arm Injuries and Disorders URL ... this page: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/languages/arminjuriesanddisorders.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  17. Autism Spectrum Disorder - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home ? Multiple Languages ? All Health Topics ? Autism Spectrum Disorder URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/languages/autismspectrumdisorder.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  18. Knee Injuries and Disorders - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... All Topics All Knee Injuries and Disorders - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Chinese - Traditional (????) Korean (???) Spanish (español) Vietnamese (Tiê?ng Viê?t) Chinese - Traditional ( ...

  19. Hearing Disorders and Deafness - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... All Topics All Hearing Disorders and Deafness - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Chinese - Simplified (????) French (français) Hindi (??????) Japanese (???) Korean (???) Russian (???????) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) ...

  20. Ankle Injuries and Disorders - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... All Topics All Ankle Injuries and Disorders - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (???????) Chinese - Traditional (????) French (français) Japanese (???) Korean (???) Russian (???????) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) ...

  1. Shoulder Injuries and Disorders - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... All Topics All Shoulder Injuries and Disorders - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (???????) Chinese - Traditional (????) French (français) Korean (???) Russian (???????) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) ...

  2. Multiple Object Tracking in Autism Spectrum Disorders Kami Koldewyn1

    E-print Network

    Jiang, Yuhong

    Multiple Object Tracking in Autism Spectrum Disorders Kami Koldewyn1 , Sarah Weigelt1 , Nancy of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA Running title: Multiple object tracking in ASD Corresponding Author: Kami, MA 02139 kamik@mit.edu phone: 617-258-0670 fax: 617-258-8654 Title Page with All Author Contact

  3. Outpatient Art Therapy with Multiple Personality Disorder: A Survey of Current Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Anne

    1995-01-01

    Reports findings of a 1993 questionnaire completed by 46 North American art therapists that focuses on the outpatient treatment of multiple personality disorder. Includes information on role in diagnosing, fees and third-party payment, and therapeutic activities. Treatment issues include pacing and containment, and managing the client's chronic…

  4. Plasma cell morphology in multiple myeloma and related disorders.

    PubMed

    Ribourtout, B; Zandecki, M

    2015-06-01

    Normal and reactive plasma cells (PC) are easy to ascertain on human bone marrow films, due to their small mature-appearing nucleus and large cytoplasm, the latter usually deep blue after Giemsa staining. Cytoplasm is filled with long strands of rough endoplasmic reticulum and one large Golgi apparatus (paranuclear hof), demonstrating that PC are dedicated mainly to protein synthesis and excretion (immunoglobulin). Deregulation of the genome may induce clonal expansion of one PC that will lead to immunoglobulin overproduction and eventually to one among the so-called PC neoplasms. In multiple myeloma (MM), the number of PC is over 10% in most patients studied. Changes in the morphology of myeloma PC may be inconspicuous as compared to normal PC (30-50% patients). In other instances PC show one or several morphological changes. One is related to low amount of cytoplasm, defining lymphoplasmacytoid myeloma (10-15% patients). In other cases (40-50% patients), named immature myeloma cases, nuclear-cytoplasmic asynchrony is observed: presence of one nucleolus, finely dispersed chromatin and/or irregular nuclear contour contrast with a still large and blue (mature) cytoplasm. A peculiar morphological change, corresponding to the presence of very immature PC named plasmablasts, is observed in 10-15% cases. Several prognostic morphological classifications have been published, as mature myeloma is related to favorable outcome and immature myeloma, peculiarly plasmablastic myeloma, is related to dismal prognosis. However, such classifications are no longer included in current prognostic schemes. Changes related to the nucleus are very rare in monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance (MGUS). In contrast, anomalies related to the cytoplasm of PC, including color (flaming cells), round inclusions (Mott cells, Russell bodies), Auer rod-like or crystalline inclusions, are reported in myeloma cases as well as in MGUS and at times in reactive disorders. They do not correspond to malignant changes of PC but are related to abnormal synthesis, trafficking, or excretion of the immunoglobulin that is stored in excess within the cytoplasm. Occurrence of crystalline inclusions within PC may be the first anomaly leading to the diagnosis of adult Fanconi syndrome. After a historical perspective, the authors report on the various morphological aspects of PC that may occur in multiple myeloma and related disorders, and discuss about their clinical and pathophysiological significance. Today, morphological identification and accurate determination of % PC within bone marrow remain ancillary criteria for the diagnosis of MM and help for the diagnosis of rare renal disorders. PMID:25899140

  5. Treatment Option Overview (Plasma Cell Neoplasms Including Multiple Myeloma)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... There are no standard staging systems for monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), macroglobulinemia, and plasmacytoma. After multiple myeloma has been diagnosed, tests are done to ...

  6. Stages of Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... There are no standard staging systems for monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), macroglobulinemia, and plasmacytoma. After multiple myeloma has been diagnosed, tests are done to ...

  7. General Information about Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... There are no standard staging systems for monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), macroglobulinemia, and plasmacytoma. After multiple myeloma has been diagnosed, tests are done to ...

  8. Treatment Options for Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... There are no standard staging systems for monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), macroglobulinemia, and plasmacytoma. After multiple myeloma has been diagnosed, tests are done to ...

  9. Academic Choice for Included Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skerbetz, Mandi Davis; Kostewicz, Douglas E.

    2013-01-01

    Students with emotional disturbances present with behavioral and academic deficits that often limit their participation in general education settings. As an antecedent intervention, academic choice provides multiple choices surrounding academic work promoting academic and behavioral gains. The authors examined the effects of assignment choice with…

  10. Immunofluorescence Patterns in Selected Dermatoses, Including Blistering Skin Diseases Utilizing Multiple Fluorochromes

    PubMed Central

    Abreu-Velez, Ana Maria; Calle-Isaza, Juliana; Howard, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Autoimmune vesiculobullous disorders represent a heterogeneous group of dermatoses whose diagnosis is made based on clinical history, histologic features, and immunopathologic features. The most commonly used techniques for the diagnosis of these diseases are direct and indirect immunofluorescence (DIF and IIF), including salt-split processing. NaCl split skin is used to determine the level of blister formation, and the localization of autoantibodies relative to the split. Classically, immunofluorescence has been performed with one fluorochrome in the diagnosis of autoimmune bullous skin diseases. Aims: To compare DIF and IIF of the skin, using a single fluorochrome versus multiple fluorochromes. Materials and Methods: We studied 20 autoimmune skin disease cases using fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) alone, in comparison to multiple fluorochromes (with or without DNA counterstaining). Results: The use of multiple fluorochromes helped to simultaneously visualize reactivity in multiple skin areas, in contrast to using FITC alone. Conclusions: Using multiple fluorochromes allows simultaneous labeling of two or more antigens within the same cell/or tissue section, assists in colocalization of unknown antigens with known molecules, and helps in ruling out “background” staining. PMID:26605203

  11. A More Unified View of the Multiple Personality Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Ronald L.; Kodman, Frank

    1987-01-01

    Offers perspective of Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD) phenomenon based on current clinical experience. Asserts that the Jmind is polypsychic with multitude of psychological systems and processes existing in conjunction with one another, that MPD individuals have fragmented or dissociated ego states due to stress on unity of sense of self, and…

  12. Indicators of Multiple Personality Disorder for the Clinician.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, Thomas W.

    Multiple personality disorder (MPD) is now recognized as a valid diagnostic category. Occurrence may be higher than previously suspected. While physiological testing of MPD has shown significant differences between the various personalities of individuals in terms of galvanic skin response, electroencephalogram recordings, electrodermal response…

  13. The Proliferation of Categories for "New" Behavioral Disorders. The Struggle to Include the Handicapped.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forness, Steven R.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes five disorders (attention deficit disorder, traumatic brain injury, fetal alcohol syndrome, prenatal substance abuse, and fragile X syndrome) that are part of a proliferation of categories of behavioral disorders, examining how special and general education might approach problems potentially inherent in the process of including students…

  14. Childhood Trauma and Multiple Personality Disorder: The Case of a 9-Year-Old Girl.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaPorta, Lauren D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports the case of a nine-year-old female victim of sexual abuse, evaluated and diagnosed with multiple personality disorder over a six-month period. Included is a description of the child's presentation with historical and developmental data. A discussion of the dynamic and predisposing features of the case follows, along with…

  15. Nocturnal melatonin secretion in multiple sclerosis patients with affective disorders.

    PubMed

    Sandyk, R; Awerbuch, G I

    1993-02-01

    The pineal gland has been implicated recently in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS), a chronic demyelinating disease of CNS. Since nocturnal melatonin secretion is low in some groups of patients with mental depression, we predicted lower melatonin secretion in MS patients with history of affective illness compared to those without psychiatric disorders. To test this hypothesis, we studied single nocturnal plasma melatonin levels and the incidence of pineal calcification (PC) on CT scan in a cohort of 25 MS patients (4 men, 21 women; mean age = 39.4 years, SD = 9.3), 15 of whom had a history of coexisting psychiatric disorders with predominant affective symptomatology. Other factors that may be related to depression such as vitamin B12, folic acid, zinc, magnesium, and homocysteine, were also included in the analysis. Neither any of the metabolic factors surveyed nor the incidence of PC distinguished the psychiatric from the control group. However, the mean melatonin level in the psychiatric patients was significantly lower than in the control group. Since low melatonin secretion in patients with depression may be related to a phase-advance of the circadian oscillator regulating the offset of melatonin secretion, we propose that the depression of MS likewise may reflect the presence of dampened circadian oscillators. Furthermore, since exacerbation of motor symptoms in MS patients may be temporally related to worsening of depression, we propose that circadian phase lability may also underlie the relapsing-remitting course of the disease. Consequently, pharmacological agents such as lithium or bright light therapy, which have been shown to phase-delay circadian rhythms, might be effective in the treatment of affective symptoms in MS as well as preventing motor exacerbation and hastening a remission from an acute attack. PMID:8063528

  16. Anxiety Symptoms in Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder, Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, or Chronic Multiple Tic Disorder and Community Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guttmann-Steinmetz, Sarit; Gadow, Kenneth D.; DeVincent, Carla J.; Crowell, Judy

    2010-01-01

    We compared symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and separation anxiety disorder (SAD) in 5 groups of boys with neurobehavioral syndromes: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) plus autism spectrum disorder (ASD), ADHD plus chronic multiple tic disorder (CMTD), ASD only, ADHD only, and community Controls. Anxiety symptoms were…

  17. A Descriptive Study on the Neonatal Morbidity Profile of Autism Spectrum Disorders, Including a Comparison with Other Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atladóttir, H. Ó.; Schendel, D. E.; Parner, E. T.; Henriksen, T. B.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the profile of specific neonatal morbidities in children later diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and to compare this profile with the profile of children with hyperkinetic disorder, cerebral palsy, epilepsy or intellectual disability. This is a Danish population based cohort study, including all…

  18. Incidence and prevalence of multiple allergic disorders recorded in a national primary care database

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Colin R; Newton, John; Hippisley-Cox, Julia; Sheikh, Aziz

    2008-01-01

    Summary Background The co-existence of allergic conditions, food allergy, eczema, allergic rhinitis, asthma and anaphylaxis is thought to be increasing. Analysis of primary healthcare data-sets offers the possibility to advance understanding about the changing epidemiology of multiple allergic disorders. Aim To investigate recent trends in the recorded incidence, lifetime prevalence and consulting behaviour of patients with multiple allergic disorders in England. Methods QRESEARCH is one of the world's largest national aggregated health databases containing the records of over nine million patients (including those who have left or died). Data were extracted on all patients with a recorded diagnosis of multiple allergic disorders, and annual age–sex standardized incidence and lifetime period prevalence rates were calculated for each year from 2001 to 2005. We also analysed the consulting behaviour of these patients when compared with the rest of the QRESEARCH database population. Results The age–sex standardized incidence of multiple allergic disorders was 4.72 per 1000 person-years in 2001 and increased by 32.9% to 6.28 per 1000 patients in 2005 (p<0.001). Lifetime age–sex standardized prevalence of a recorded diagnosis of multiple allergic disorders increased by 48.9% from 31.00 per 1000 in 2001 to 46.16 in 2005 (p<0.001). Over this period, the mean consultation rate to general practitioners for these patients increased from 4.68 to 4.90 consultations per person per year. Conclusions Recorded incidence and lifetime prevalence of multiple allergic disorders in England have increased substantially in recent years. PMID:19029357

  19. Guidelines for Documentation of Medical Disorders This broad category includes substantially limiting, permanent medical conditions that can range

    E-print Network

    Hamburger, Peter

    Guidelines for Documentation of Medical Disorders This broad category includes substantially to broad systemic conditions. Additionally, students with these disorders may be prescribed medications environment. Examples of medical disorders include, but are not limited to: diabetes, Crohn's disease

  20. Includes pre-computed gene families, multiple sequence

    E-print Network

    Gent, Universiteit

    genomes from flowering plants, (club-)mosses and several green algae · All data can be downloaded PLAZA release 2.5 · Includes >900,000 genes from 25 plants covering 13 dicots, 5 monocots, 2 (club-)mosses

  1. Inducing Order from Disordered Copolymers: On Demand Generation of Triblock Morphologies Including Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Tureau, Maëva S.; Kuan, Wei-Fan; Rong, Lixia; Hsiao, Benjamin S.; Epps, III, Thomas H.

    2015-10-15

    Disordered block copolymers are generally impractical in nanopatterning applications due to their inability to self-assemble into well-defined nanostructures. However, inducing order in low molecular weight disordered systems permits the design of periodic structures with smaller characteristic sizes. Here, we have induced nanoscale phase separation from disordered triblock copolymer melts to form well-ordered lamellae, hexagonally packed cylinders, and a triply periodic gyroid network structure, using a copolymer/homopolymer blending approach, which incorporates constituent homopolymers into selective block domains. This versatile blending approach allows one to precisely target multiple nanostructures from a single disordered material and can be applied to a wide variety of triblock copolymer systems for nanotemplating and nanoscale separation applications requiring nanoscale feature sizes and/or high areal feature densities.

  2. Should the current DSM-IV-TR definition for PTSD be expanded to include serial and multiple microtraumas as aetiologies?

    PubMed

    Seides, R

    2010-10-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder that develops from events that are interpreted as traumatic. It may be secondary to witnessing trauma to someone close, an event that threatens one's life or childhood sexual trauma. Resultant feelings can be fear, helplessness or horror. Thresholds at which traumatic events cause PTSD, the individual's coping ability and support systems help determine occurrence and severity of symptoms. According to DSM-IV-TR (DSM) definition, PTSD can occur after childhood sexual abuse or a single trauma threatening life or safety. However, it is becoming clearer that symptoms of PTSD can arise from multiple less severe traumas ('microtraumas'), which can be a consequence of a history of longstanding emotional neglect, humiliation or inaccurate attribution of blame. The DSM should consider modifying the criteria to include multiple microtraumas that can lead to PTSD symptoms and may even be more destructive to psychological health. PMID:21050339

  3. Intracranial involvement of posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Wilberger, Adam C; Prayson, Richard A

    2015-11-01

    We report a 61-year-old man with intracranial multiple myeloma (MM) presenting as a posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) following a kidney transplant. Two months after his transplant, the man developed acute rejection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) viremia, requiring aggressive immunosuppression. Twenty months following transplantation, the patient presented with multiple neurologic deficits. Imaging revealed numerous lytic lesions in the skull, most conspicuously a 4.1cm right frontal skull mass with prominent intracranial extension. Histologic sections of the frontal bone lesion showed sheets of atypical plasma cells that were positive for CD138 and kappa immunoglobulin light chains. Chromogenic in situ hybridization for EBV-encoded small RNA was also positive. Plasma cell neoplasms, either as MM or a plasmacytoma, are one of the least common forms of PTLD, and their rarity limits the possibility of major studies to detail their behavior. Most often seen after renal transplantation, the majority are EBV-driven, similarly to other PTLD. While studies have demonstrated several risk factors, behavior and optimal management of PTLD plasma cell neoplasms are unknown. Plasma cell neoplasms affect the nervous system in a variety of ways but rarely via intracranial disease. MM usually presents initially with several classic signs and symptoms, but our patient's presentation was typical of a localized brain tumor with generalized and focal gross neurologic defects. PMID:26375326

  4. Annual Research Review: The neurobehavioral development of multiple memory systems: implications for childhood and adolescent psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Jarid; Marsh, Rachel; Peterson, Bradley S.; Packard, Mark G.

    2014-01-01

    Extensive evidence indicates that mammalian memory is organized into multiple brains systems, including a “cognitive” memory system that depends upon the hippocampus and a stimulus-response “habit” memory system that depends upon the dorsolateral striatum. Dorsal striatal-dependent habit memory may in part influence the development and expression of some human psychopathologies, particularly those characterized by strong habit-like behavioral features. The present review considers this hypothesis as it pertains to psychopathologies that typically emerge during childhood and adolescence. These disorders include Tourette syndrome, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, eating disorders, and autism spectrum disorders. Human and nonhuman animal research shows that the typical development of memory systems comprises the early maturation of striatal-dependent habit memory and the relatively late maturation of hippocampal-dependent cognitive memory. We speculate that the differing rates of development of these memory systems may in part contribute to the early emergence of habit-like symptoms in childhood and adolescence. In addition, abnormalities in hippocampal and striatal brain regions have been observed consistently in youth with these disorders, suggesting that the aberrant development of memory systems may also contribute to the emergence of habit-like symptoms as core pathological features of these illnesses. Considering these disorders within the context of multiple memory systems may help elucidate the pathogenesis of habit-like symptoms in childhood and adolescence, and lead to novel treatments that lessen the habit-like behavioral features of these disorders. PMID:24286520

  5. Comparative Study of Children with ADHD Only, Autism Spectrum Disorder + ADHD, and Chronic Multiple Tic Disorder + ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadow, Kenneth D.; DeVincent, Carla J.; Schneider, Jayne

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Identification of differences among children with ADHD only, autism spectrum disorder (ASD)+ADHD, and chronic multiple tic disorder (CMTD)+ADHD may lead to better understanding of clinical phenotypes. Method: Children were evaluated using the parent- and teacher-completed questionnaires. Results: All three groups were highly similar in…

  6. Eye disorders in patients with multiple sclerosis: natural history and management

    PubMed Central

    Graves, Jennifer; Balcer, Laura J

    2010-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system and leading cause of disability in young adults. Vision impairment is a common component of disability for this population of patients. Injury to the optic nerve, brainstem, and cerebellum leads to characteristic syndromes affecting both the afferent and efferent visual pathways. The objective of this review is to summarize the spectrum of eye disorders in patients with MS, their natural history, and current strategies for diagnosis and management. We emphasize the most common disorders including optic neuritis and internuclear ophthalmoparesis and include new techniques, such as optical coherence tomography, which promise to better our understanding of MS and its effects on the visual system. PMID:21188152

  7. Should Sluggish Cognitive Tempo Symptoms Be Included in the Diagnosis of Attention-Deficit/hyperactivity Disorder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Richard D.; Rasmussen, Erik R.; Wood, Catherine; Levy, Florence; Hay, David A.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine the impact of including sluggish cognitive tempo items on the factor and latent class structure of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) subtypes in boys and girls. Method: Parent report of two sluggish cognitive tempo items on a population-based sample of 1,430 female twins and 1,414 male twins were analyzed…

  8. Including Pupils with Autistic Spectrum Disorders in the Classroom: The Role of Teaching Assistants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Symes, Wendy; Humphrey, Neil

    2012-01-01

    The aims of the current study were (i) to explore the extent to which pupils with Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD) were effectively included in lessons, compared with pupils with dyslexia (DYS) or no Special Educational Needs (CON) and (ii) to understand how the presence of a teaching assistant (TA) influences the inclusion/exclusion process. One…

  9. Assessing Eating Disorder Symptoms in Adolescence: Is There a Role for Multiple Informants?

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, SA; Aloisio, KM; Horton, NJ; Sonneville, KR; Crosby, RD; Eddy, KT; Field, AE; Micali, N

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Epidemiologic studies of adolescent psychiatric disorders often collect information from adolescents and parents, yet most eating disorder epidemiologic studies rely only on adolescent report. Methods We studied the eating disorder symptom reports provided by 7,968 adolescents from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), and their parents, who were sent questionnaires at participants’ ages 14 and 16 years. Both adolescents and parents were asked questions about the adolescent's eating disorder symptoms, including binge eating, vomiting, laxative use, fasting, and thinness. We assessed the concordance of parent and adolescent report cross-sectionally using kappa coefficients, and further looked at how the symptom reports were predictive of adolescent body mass and composition measured at a clinical assessment at 17.5 years. Generalized estimating equations were used to model the symptom reports’ associations with risk factors and clinical outcomes. Results Parents and adolescents were largely discordant on symptom reports cross-sectionally (kappas<0.3), with the parent generally less likely to report bulimic symptoms than the adolescent but more likely to report thinness. Female adolescents were more likely to report bulimic symptoms than males (e.g., 2-4 times more likely to report binge eating), while prevalence estimates according to parent reports of female vs. male adolescents were similar. Both parent and adolescent symptom reports at ages 14 and 16 years were predictive of age-17.5 body mass and composition measures; parentally-reported binge eating was more strongly predictive of higher body mass and composition. Discussion Parent report of eating disorder symptoms seemed to measure different, but potentially important, aspects of these symptoms during adolescence. Epidemiologic eating disorder studies should consider the potential value added from incorporating parental reports. In particular, studies of male eating disorder presentations may be improved by using multiple sources of information. PMID:24436213

  10. PTSD and Comorbid Disorders in a Representative Sample of Adolescents: The Risk Associated with Multiple Exposures to Potentially Traumatic Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macdonald, Alexandra; Danielson, Carla Kmett; Resnick, Heidi S.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study compared the impact of multiple exposures to potentially traumatic events (PTEs), including sexual victimization, physical victimization, and witnessed violence, on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and comorbid conditions (i.e., major depressive episode [MDE], and substance use [SUD]). Methods: Participants were a…

  11. Sleep disorders in multiple sclerosis and their relationship to fatigue.

    PubMed

    Veauthier, Christian; Paul, Friedemann

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS)-related fatigue is still a challenging task, given that no proven therapies exist and its mechanisms are not known. Our review highlights the relationship between MS-related fatigue and sleep disorders (SD). Although many studies suggest a higher overall prevalence of SD in MS, there are no valid and robust data to confirm this hypothesis until now except for restless legs syndrome (RLS): the prevalence of RLS in MS patients-especially in those with severe pyramidal and sensory disability-seems to be four times higher than in controls subjects. RLS is sometimes difficult to distinguish from spasticity and in case of doubt, probatory dopaminergic therapy or polysomnographic (PSG) investigations may be helpful. Nocturia may impact MS-related fatigue and should be considered. The treatment of underlying SD led to an improvement of MS-related fatigue. From a scientific point of view, SD should be examined in all studies investigating MS-related fatigue and be considered as a relevant confounder. PMID:24360534

  12. Satanism, ritual abuse, and multiple personality disorder: a sociohistorical perspective.

    PubMed

    Mulhern, S

    1994-10-01

    During the past decade in North America, a growing number of mental health professionals have reported that between 25% and 50% of their patients in treatment for multiple personality disorder (MPD) have recovered early childhood traumatic memories of ritual torture, incestuous rape, sexual debauchery, sacrificial murder, infanticide, and cannibalism perpetrated by members of clandestine satanic cults. Although hundreds of local and federal police investigations have failed to corroborate patients' therapeutically constructed accounts, because the satanic etiology of MPD is logically coherent with the neodissociative, traumatic theory of psychopathology, conspiracy theory has emerged as the nucleus of a consistent pattern of contemporary clinical interpretation. Resolutely logical and thoroughly operational, ultrascientific psychodemonology remains paradoxically oblivious to its own irrational premises. When the hermetic logic of conspiracy theory is stripped away by historical and socio/psychological analysis, however, the hypothetical perpetrators of satanic ritual abuse simply disappear, leaving in their wake the very real human suffering of all those who have been caught up in the social delusion. PMID:7960286

  13. A multiple deficit model of Reading Disability and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Searching for shared cognitive

    E-print Network

    Carlini, David

    A multiple deficit model of Reading Disability and Attention- Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder cognitive deficit model of Reading Disability (RD), Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD for future research are discussed. Keywords Reading Disability; Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

  14. Sleep disorders in multiple sclerosis in China: clinical, polysomnography study, and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian-Hua; Liu, Xiu-Qin; Sun, He-Yang; Huang, Yan

    2014-08-01

    Sleep disorders are common in multiple sclerosis (MS). The aim of this study was to assess the subjective and objective sleep disturbances in patients with MS and to investigate their relationships with fatigue and excessive daytime sleepiness. All participants completed standardized questionnaires and underwent nocturnal polysomnography. English literature regarding MS and sleep disorders was systematically reviewed through PubMed searches. Eleven patients with MS with fatigue, 10 patients with MS without fatigue, and 11 controls were included in the study. According to the Pittsburg sleep quality index, 61.9% of the patients with MS were poor sleepers and based on the Epworth sleepiness scale, 38.1% of the patients with MS met the criteria of excessive daytime sleepiness. Additionally, patients with MS had more disturbed sleep with higher total arousal index (P < 0.01) and periodic limb movement arousal index (P < 0.001) than controls. None of the patients or controls had an apnea/hypopnea index greater than five. One patient had restless legs syndrome and four had rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder. Our study shows that sleep disorders and excessive daytime sleepiness are frequent in MS. PMID:25083851

  15. Child Abuse and Multiple Personality Disorders: Review of the Literature and Suggestions for Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coons, Philip M.

    1986-01-01

    Multiple personality disorder is associated with a high incidence of physical and sexual abuse during childhood. While difficult to diagnose, multiple personality is easier to treat if diagnosed early in childhood or adolescence. Treatment for multiple personality focuses on establishing trust and communicating with and integrating the…

  16. Nonoperative Management (Including Ultrasound-Guided Injections) of Proximal Biceps Disorders.

    PubMed

    Schickendantz, Mark; King, Dominic

    2016-01-01

    Nonoperative management of conditions of the long head of biceps tendon (LHBT) involves a multifaceted approach, addressing the entire shoulder complex in addition to conditions that involve the LHBT. LHBT pathologic conditions are divided into 3 categories: inflammation, instability and rupture. This article provides an overview of a nonoperative treatment algorithm that addresses these specific categories and includes a review of ultrasound-guided injection techniques used in the diagnosis and management of LHBT disorders. PMID:26614469

  17. Microvascular decompression for trigeminal neuralgia: comments on a series of 250 cases, including 10 patients with multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Broggi, G.; Ferroli, P.; Franzini, A.; Servello, D.; Dones, I.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To examine surgical findings and results of microvascular decompression (MVD) for trigeminal neuralgia (TN), including patients with multiple sclerosis, to bring new insight about the role of microvascular compression in the pathogenesis of the disorder and the role of MVD in its treatment.?METHODS—Between 1990 and 1998, 250 patients affected by trigeminal neuralgia underwent MVD in the Department of Neurosurgery of the "Istituto Nazionale Neurologico C Besta" in Milan. Limiting the review to the period 1991-6, to exclude the "learning period" (the first 50 cases) and patients with less than 1 year follow up, surgical findings and results were critically analysed in 148 consecutive cases, including 10 patients with multiple sclerosis.?RESULTS—Vascular compression of the trigeminal nerve was found in all cases. The recurrence rate was 15.3% (follow up 1-7 years, mean 38 months). In five of 10 patients with multiple sclerosis an excellent result was achieved (follow up 12-39 months, mean 24months). Patients with TN for more than 84 months did significantly worse than those with a shorter history (p<0.05). There was no mortality and most complications occurred in the learning period. Surgical complications were not related to age of the patients.?CONCLUSIONS—Aetiopathogenesis of trigeminal neuralgia remains a mystery. These findings suggest a common neuromodulatory role of microvascular compression in both patients with or without multiple sclerosis rather than a direct causal role. MVD was found to be a safe and effective procedure to relieve typical TN in patients of all ages. It should be proposed as first choice surgery to all patients affected by TN, even in selected cases with multiple sclerosis, to give them the opportunity of pain relief without sensory deficits. ?? PMID:10601403

  18. The Parental Fitness of Mothers with Multiple Personality Disorder: A Preliminary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kluft, Richard P.

    1987-01-01

    A review of the parenting patterns of 75 mothers with multiple personality disorders indicated 38.7% were competent or exceptional mothers, 16% were grossly abusive, and 45.3% were compromised or impaired as parents. (DB)

  19. Longitudinal Prediction of Disruptive Behavior Disorders in Adolescent Males from Multiple Risk Domains

    PubMed Central

    Trentacosta, Christopher J.; Hyde, Luke W.; Goodlett, Benjamin D.; Shaw, Daniel S.

    2012-01-01

    The disruptive behavior disorders are among the most prevalent youth psychiatric disorders, and they predict numerous problematic outcomes in adulthood. This study examined multiple domains of risk during early childhood and early adolescence as longitudinal predictors of disruptive behavior disorder diagnoses among adolescent males. Early adolescent risks in the domains of sociodemographic factors, the caregiving context, and youth attributes were examined as mediators of associations between early childhood risks and disruptive behavior disorder diagnoses. Participants were 309 males from a longitudinal study of low-income mothers and their sons. Caregiving and youth risk during early adolescence each predicted the likelihood of receiving a disruptive behavior disorder diagnosis. Furthermore, sociodemographic and caregiving risk during early childhood were indirectly associated with disruptive behavior disorder diagnoses via their association with early adolescent risk. The findings suggest that preventive interventions targeting risk across domains may reduce the prevalence of disruptive behavior disorders. PMID:23239427

  20. The improvement of movement and speech during rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder in multiple system atrophy.

    PubMed

    De Cock, Valérie Cochen; Debs, Rachel; Oudiette, Delphine; Leu, Smaranda; Radji, Fatai; Tiberge, Michel; Yu, Huan; Bayard, Sophie; Roze, Emmanuel; Vidailhet, Marie; Dauvilliers, Yves; Rascol, Olivier; Arnulf, Isabelle

    2011-03-01

    Multiple system atrophy is an atypical parkinsonism characterized by severe motor disabilities that are poorly levodopa responsive. Most patients develop rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder. Because parkinsonism is absent during rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder in patients with Parkinson's disease, we studied the movements of patients with multiple system atrophy during rapid eye movement sleep. Forty-nine non-demented patients with multiple system atrophy and 49 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease were interviewed along with their 98 bed partners using a structured questionnaire. They rated the quality of movements, vocal and facial expressions during rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder as better than, equal to or worse than the same activities in an awake state. Sleep and movements were monitored using video-polysomnography in 22/49 patients with multiple system atrophy and in 19/49 patients with Parkinson's disease. These recordings were analysed for the presence of parkinsonism and cerebellar syndrome during rapid eye movement sleep movements. Clinical rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder was observed in 43/49 (88%) patients with multiple system atrophy. Reports from the 31/43 bed partners who were able to evaluate movements during sleep indicate that 81% of the patients showed some form of improvement during rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder. These included improved movement (73% of patients: faster, 67%; stronger, 52%; and smoother, 26%), improved speech (59% of patients: louder, 55%; more intelligible, 17%; and better articulated, 36%) and normalized facial expression (50% of patients). The rate of improvement was higher in Parkinson's disease than in multiple system atrophy, but no further difference was observed between the two forms of multiple system atrophy (predominant parkinsonism versus cerebellar syndrome). Video-monitored movements during rapid eye movement sleep in patients with multiple system atrophy revealed more expressive faces, and movements that were faster and more ample in comparison with facial expression and movements during wakefulness. These movements were still somewhat jerky but lacked any visible parkinsonism. Cerebellar signs were not assessable. We conclude that parkinsonism also disappears during rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder in patients with multiple system atrophy, but this improvement is not due to enhanced dopamine transmission because these patients are not levodopa-sensitive. These data suggest that these movements are not influenced by extrapyramidal regions; however, the influence of abnormal cerebellar control remains unclear. The transient disappearance of parkinsonism here is all the more surprising since no treatment (even dopaminergic) provides a real benefit in this disabling disease. PMID:21310729

  1. The incidence and prevalence of psychiatric disorders in multiple sclerosis: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Reingold, Stephen; Cohen, Jeffrey; Stuve, Olaf; Trojano, Maria; Sorensen, Per Soelberg; Cutter, Gary; Reider, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    Background: Psychiatric comorbidity is associated with lower quality of life, more fatigue, and reduced adherence to disease-modifying therapy in multiple sclerosis (MS). Objectives: The objectives of this review are to estimate the incidence and prevalence of selected comorbid psychiatric disorders in MS and evaluate the quality of included studies. Methods: We searched the PubMed, PsychInfo, SCOPUS, and Web of Knowledge databases and reference lists of retrieved articles. Abstracts were screened for relevance by two independent reviewers, followed by full-text review. Data were abstracted by one reviewer, and verified by a second reviewer. Study quality was evaluated using a standardized tool. For population-based studies we assessed heterogeneity quantitatively using the I2 statistic, and conducted meta-analyses. Results: We included 118 studies in this review. Among population-based studies, the prevalence of anxiety was 21.9% (95% CI: 8.76%–35.0%), while it was 14.8% for alcohol abuse, 5.83% for bipolar disorder, 23.7% (95% CI: 17.4%–30.0%) for depression, 2.5% for substance abuse, and 4.3% (95% CI: 0%–10.3%) for psychosis. Conclusion: This review confirms that psychiatric comorbidity, particularly depression and anxiety, is common in MS. However, the incidence of psychiatric comorbidity remains understudied. Future comparisons across studies would be enhanced by developing a consistent approach to measuring psychiatric comorbidity, and reporting of age-, sex-, and ethnicity-specific estimates. PMID:25583845

  2. From Single to Multiple Deficit Models of Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, Bruce F.

    2006-01-01

    The emerging etiological model for developmental disorders, like dyslexia, is probabilistic and multifactorial while the prevailing cognitive model has been deterministic and often focused on a single cognitive cause, such as a phonological deficit as the cause of dyslexia. So there is a potential contradiction in our explanatory frameworks for…

  3. Children at Risk for Learning Disorders: Multiple Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Yagon, Michal

    2003-01-01

    A study involving 145 Israeli mother-child dyads examined the contribution of a multidimensional model of risk factors in explaining adaptive functioning among kindergartners with mild developmental delays considered at risk for developing learning disorders. Results indicated a high fit between the theoretical model and empirical findings.…

  4. Introduction: Implantable microsensors provide means for in vivo diagnostics and monitoring of physiological and biochemical parameters. For central nervous system (CNS) disorders including Parkinson's disease,

    E-print Network

    Chiao, Jung-Chih

    of physiological and biochemical parameters. For central nervous system (CNS) disorders including Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, chronic pain and neurodegenerative disorder, it is particularly important

  5. Pharmacotherapy in the Management of Voiding and Storage Disorders, Including Enuresis and Encopresis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiner, William G.

    2008-01-01

    Enuresis and encopresis are disorders of the bladder and rectum, and this article helps in understanding the neurobiology of lower urinary tract and anorectal function to help in the treatment of these disorders. Treatment for children with these disorders emphasizes either a psychological or pharmacological approach.

  6. Extension of the ADC Charge-Collection Model to Include Multiple Junctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmonds, Larry D.

    2011-01-01

    The ADC model is a charge-collection model derived for simple p-n junction silicon diodes having a single reverse-biased p-n junction at one end and an ideal substrate contact at the other end. The present paper extends the model to include multiple junctions, and the goal is to estimate how collected charge is shared by the different junctions.

  7. The effects of a multiple family therapy on adolescents with eating disorders: an outcome study.

    PubMed

    Gelin, Zoé; Fuso, Silvana; Hendrick, Stephan; Cook-Darzens, Solange; Simon, Yves

    2015-03-01

    Multiple Family Therapy (MFT) has gained increasing popularity in the treatment of eating disorders and many programs have been developed over the past decade. Still, there is little evidence in the literature on the effectiveness on MFT for treating eating disorders. The present study examines the effects of a particular model of Multiple Family Therapy on eating disorder symptoms, quality of life, and percentage of Expected Body Weight (%EBW) in adolescents with eating disorders (ED). Eighty-two adolescents with ED, aged between 11 and 19 years, were assessed before and after treatment using the Eating Disorders Inventory 2 (EDI-2), the Outcome Questionnaire 45 (OQ-45) and %EBW. Results showed a significant increase in %EBW between the beginning and end of treatment, with a large effect size. 52.4% of patients achieved an EBW above 85%. Symptoms relative to all EDI dimensions (except for bulimia) significantly decreased during treatment. The three dimensions related to quality of life assessment also improved over the course of MFT. At the end of treatment, 70.7% of patients had a total OQ-45 score below clinical significance. This study suggests that Multiple Family Therapy may benefit adolescents with eating disorders, with improvement on several outcome measures (%EBW, ED symptoms, and quality of life). However, the lack of a comparison group entails caution when drawing conclusions. PMID:25243337

  8. Multiple electron emission from noble gases colliding with proton beams, including postcollisional effects

    SciTech Connect

    Galassi, M. E.; Rivarola, R. D.; Fainstein, P. D.

    2007-05-15

    The process of multiple electron ionization of Ne and Ar noble gases produced by impact of proton beams is studied in the framework of the independent-electron model. The role played by different mechanisms is analyzed, including intershell Auger and intrashell Coster-Kronig electron emission, which follow the production of vacancies due to direct interaction of the projectile with the target electrons. The present results, obtained with the continuum distorted wave-eikonal initial state (CDW-EIS) approximation, confirm previous predictions given by a different theoretical model. Semiempirical approximations are introduced by using analytical single-ionization probabilities with adjustable parameters determined from CDW-EIS total cross sections. The small computational time required to calculate multiple ionization cross sections with these semiempirical approximations and the good agreement found with existing experimental data and with results obtained with more elaborated theoretical models make them good candidates to study electron emission from complex targets.

  9. A practical approach to the diagnosis and management of sleep disorders in patients with multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Braley, Tiffany J.; Chervin, Ronald D.

    2015-01-01

    Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) are at increased risk for comorbid sleep disturbances, which can profoundly contribute to poor functional status and fatigue. Insomnia, sleep-disordered breathing, and restless legs syndrome are among the most common sleep disorders experienced by patients with MS. Despite their impact, these underlying sleep disorders may escape routine clinical evaluations in persons with MS, thereby leading to missed opportunities to optimize functional status and quality of life in patients with MS. A practical, systematic approach to the evaluation and treatment of sleep disorders in MS, in the context of MS-specific variables that may influence risk for these conditions or response to therapy, is recommended to facilitate early diagnosis and successful treatment. This review summarizes the most common sleep disorders experienced by persons with MS, and offers a practical approach to diagnosis and management of these conditions. PMID:26600873

  10. nAture methods | VOL.8 NO.11 | NOVEMBER2011 | 957 myelin-related disorders such as multiple sclerosis and

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    such as multiple sclerosis and leukodystrophies, for which restoration of oligodendrocyte function would such as multiple sclerosis and cerebral palsy as well as congenital dysmyelinating disorders such as Pelizaeus

  11. The Effects of Including a Callous-Unemotional Specifier for the Diagnosis of Conduct Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Rachel E.; Frick, Paul J.; Youngstrom, Eric; Findling, Robert L.; Youngstrom, Jennifer Kogos

    2012-01-01

    Background: "With Significant Callous-Unemotional Traits" has been proposed as a specifier for conduct disorder (CD) in the upcoming revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V). The impact of this specifier on children diagnosed with CD should be considered. Methods: A multi-site cross-sectional design with…

  12. Mental Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    Mental disorders include a wide range of problems, including Anxiety disorders, including panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, ... disorders, including schizophrenia There are many causes of mental disorders. Your genes and family history may play ...

  13. Marital and Family Therapy in the Treatment of Multiple Personality Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sachs, Roberta G.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Explores marital and family therapy in treatment of Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD), discussing role of family of origin in MPD development and role of nuclear family in its perpetuation. Suggests family and marital interventions, illustrating them with case examples. Proposes involving MPD client in marital or family therapy, in addition to…

  14. Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy in a Patient With Multiple Autoimmune Disorders and Hyperthyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Ugurlucan, Murat; Zorman, Yilmaz; Ates, Gursel; Arslan, Ahmet H.; Yildiz, Yahya; Karahan Zor, Aysegul; Cicek, Sertac

    2013-01-01

    Takotsubo cardiomypathy is a very rare cardiovascular syndrome leading to myocardial infarction and left ventricular dysfunction in the absence of a detectable coronary artery lesion. It is accepted as reversible left ventricular asynergy occuring typically after an intrinsic adrenergic hyperstimulation. In this report we present Takotsubo cardiomyopathy in a 75-year-old patient with multiple autoimmune disorders. PMID:25478511

  15. Developmental trauma disorder: pros and cons of including formal criteria in the psychiatric diagnostic systems

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This article reviews the current debate on developmental trauma disorder (DTD) with respect to formalizing its diagnostic criteria. Victims of abuse, neglect, and maltreatment in childhood often develop a wide range of age-dependent psychopathologies with various mental comorbidities. The supporters of a formal DTD diagnosis argue that post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) does not cover all consequences of severe and complex traumatization in childhood. Discussion Traumatized individuals are difficult to treat, but clinical experience has shown that they tend to benefit from specific trauma therapy. A main argument against inclusion of formal DTD criteria into existing diagnostic systems is that emphasis on the etiology of the disorder might force current diagnostic systems to deviate from their purely descriptive nature. Furthermore, comorbidities and biological aspects of the disorder may be underdiagnosed using the DTD criteria. Summary Here, we discuss arguments for and against the proposal of DTD criteria and address implications and consequences for the clinical practice. PMID:23286319

  16. Characterization Methods for the Detection of Multiple Voice Disorders: Neurological, Functional, and Laryngeal Diseases.

    PubMed

    Orozco-Arroyave, Juan Rafael; Belalcazar-Bolanos, Elkyn Alexander; Arias-Londono, Julian David; Vargas-Bonilla, Jesus Francisco; Skodda, Sabine; Rusz, Jan; Daqrouq, Khaled; Honig, Florian; Noth, Elmar

    2015-11-01

    This paper evaluates the accuracy of different characterization methods for the automatic detection of multiple speech disorders. The speech impairments considered include dysphonia in people with Parkinson's disease (PD), dysphonia diagnosed in patients with different laryngeal pathologies (LP), and hypernasality in children with cleft lip and palate (CLP). Four different methods are applied to analyze the voice signals including noise content measures, spectral-cepstral modeling, nonlinear features, and measurements to quantify the stability of the fundamental frequency. These measures are tested in six databases: three with recordings of PD patients, two with patients with LP, and one with children with CLP. The abnormal vibration of the vocal folds observed in PD patients and in people with LP is modeled using the stability measures with accuracies ranging from 81% to 99% depending on the pathology. The spectral-cepstral features are used in this paper to model the voice spectrum with special emphasis around the first two formants. These measures exhibit accuracies ranging from 95% to 99% in the automatic detection of hypernasal voices, which confirms the presence of changes in the speech spectrum due to hypernasality. Noise measures suitably discriminate between dysphonic and healthy voices in both databases with speakers suffering from LP. The results obtained in this study suggest that it is not suitable to use every kind of features to model all of the voice pathologies; conversely, it is necessary to study the physiology of each impairment to choose the most appropriate set of features. PMID:26277012

  17. Deficits in adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders when processing multiple objects in dynamic scenes

    PubMed Central

    O'Hearn, Kirsten; Lakusta, Laura; Schroer, Elizabeth; Minshew, Nancy; Luna, Beatriz

    2010-01-01

    Scientific Abstract People with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) process visual information in a manner that is distinct from typically developing individuals. They may be less sensitive to people's goals and, more generally, focus on visual details instead of the entire scene. To examine these differences, people with and without ASD were asked to detect changes in dynamic scenes with multiple elements. Participants viewed a brief video of a person or an inanimate object moving from one object to another; after a delay, they reported whether a second video was the same or different. Possible changes included the figure, the object the figure was moving from, or the object it was moving toward (the ‘goal’). We hypothesized that individuals with ASD would be less sensitive to changes in scenes with people, particularly elements that might be the person's goal. Alternately, people with ASD might attend to fewer elements regardless of whether the scene included a person. Our results indicate that, like controls, people with ASD noticed a change in the ‘goal’ object at the end of a person's movement more often than the object at the start. However, the group with ASD did not undergo the developmental improvement when detecting changes in start and end objects that was evident typically. This led to deficits in adults with ASD that were not specific to scenes with people or to ‘goals’. Improvements in visual processing that underlie mature representation of scenes may not occur in ASD, suggesting late developing brain processes are affected. PMID:21254449

  18. Analytical expressions for the gate utilization factors of passive multiplicity counters including signal build-up

    SciTech Connect

    Croft, Stephen; Evans, Louise G; Schear, Melissa A

    2010-01-01

    In the realm of nuclear safeguards, passive neutron multiplicity counting using shift register pulse train analysis to nondestructively quantify Pu in product materials is a familiar and widely applied technique. The approach most commonly taken is to construct a neutron detector consisting of {sup 3}He filled cylindrical proportional counters embedded in a high density polyethylene moderator. Fast neutrons from the item enter the moderator and are quickly slowed down, on timescales of the order of 1-2 {micro}s, creating a thermal population which then persists typically for several 10's {micro}s and is sampled by the {sup 3}He detectors. Because the initial transient is of comparatively short duration it has been traditional to treat it as instantaneous and furthermore to approximate the subsequent capture time distribution as exponential in shape. With these approximations simple expressions for the various Gate Utilization Factors (GUFs) can be obtained. These factors represent the proportion of time correlated events i.e. Doubles and Triples signal present in the pulse train that is detected by the coincidence gate structure chosen (predelay and gate width settings of the multiplicity shift register). More complicated expressions can be derived by generalizing the capture time distribution to multiple time components or harmonics typically present in real systems. When it comes to applying passive neutron multiplicity methods to extremely intense (i.e. high emission rate and highly multiplying) neutron sources there is a drive to use detector types with very fast response characteristics in order to cope with the high rates. In addition to short pulse width, detectors with a short capture time profile are also desirable so that a short coincidence gate width can be set in order to reduce the chance or Accidental coincidence signal. In extreme cases, such as might be realized using boron loaded scintillators, the dieaway time may be so short that the build-up (thermalization transient) within the detector cannot be ignored. Another example where signal build-up might be observed is when a {sup 3}He based system is used to track the evolution of the time correlated signal created by a higher multiplying item within a reflective configuration such as the measurement of a spent fuel assembly. In this work we develop expressions for the GUFs which include signal build-up.

  19. Multiple cell photoresponsive amorphous photo voltaic devices including graded ban gaps

    SciTech Connect

    Ovshinsky, S.R.; Adler, D.

    1990-09-04

    This patent describes an improved photoresponsive tandem multiple cell device. It comprises: at least first and second superimposed solar cells; the first cell being formed of an amorphous silicon alloy material; the second amorphous silicon alloy cell having an active photoresponsive region in which radiation can impinge to produce charge carriers. The amorphous silicon alloy cell body including at least one element for reducing the density of defect states to about 10{sup 16} defects per cubic centimeter and a band gap adjusting element graded through at least a portion of the photoresponsive region thereof to enhance the radiation absorption; the adjusting element being germanium, and the band gap of the cell being adjusted for a specified photoresponse wavelength threshold function different from the first cell; the second cell being a multi-layer body having deposited silicon alloy layers of opposite (p and n) conductivity type; and the first cell being formed with the second cell in substantially direct junction contact therebetween.

  20. Multiple, synchronous ipsilateral soleus muscle flaps, including the Achilles' "wraparound" flap.

    PubMed

    Hallock, G G

    1998-07-01

    Versatility of the soleus muscle beyond its traditional role for the middle third of the leg is often overlooked. Substantial muscle bulk frequently extends even to the calcaneus, although this is quite variable. Its distal reach as a muscle flap then may potentially include encircling the Achilles' tendon itself as a local "wraparound" flap in an area otherwise notorious for requiring the complexity of a free tissue transfer. Since this maneuver only envelops the Achilles' tendon by stretching its own inserting soleus muscle, no muscle dissection per se is required, and nutrition from minor pedicles is sustained. Therefore, concomitant proximally based hemisoleus flaps can be utilized simultaneously and safely for more conventional coverage of midtibial defects. In this fashion, multiple, independent local flaps from a single soleus muscle can achieve coverage of disparate leg wounds, while sacrificing a minimum of donor site function. PMID:9678468

  1. RNA interference screening identifies lenalidomide sensitizers in multiple myeloma, including RSK2

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yuan Xiao; Yin, Hongwei; Bruins, Laura A.; Shi, Chang-Xin; Jedlowski, Patrick; Aziz, Meraj; Sereduk, Chris; Kortuem, Klaus Martin; Schmidt, Jessica E.; Champion, Mia; Braggio, Esteban

    2015-01-01

    To identify molecular targets that modify sensitivity to lenalidomide, we measured proliferation in multiple myeloma (MM) cells transfected with 27?968 small interfering RNAs in the presence of increasing concentrations of drug and identified 63 genes that enhance activity of lenalidomide upon silencing. Ribosomal protein S6 kinase (RPS6KA3 or RSK2) was the most potent sensitizer. Other notable gene targets included 5 RAB family members, 3 potassium channel proteins, and 2 peroxisome family members. Single genes of interest included I-?-B kinase-? (CHUK), and a phosphorylation dependent transcription factor (CREB1), which associate with RSK2 to regulate several signaling pathways. RSK2 knockdown induced cytotoxicity across a panel of MM cell lines and consistently increased sensitivity to lenalidomide. Accordingly, 3 small molecular inhibitors of RSK2 demonstrated synergy with lenalidomide cytotoxicity in MM cells even in the presence of stromal contact. Both RSK2 knockdown and small molecule inhibition downregulate interferon regulatory factor 4 and MYC, and provides an explanation for the synergy between lenalidomide and RSK2 inhibition. Interestingly, RSK2 inhibition also sensitized MM cells to bortezomib, melphalan, and dexamethasone, but did not downregulate Ikaros or influence lenalidomide-mediated downregulation of tumor necrosis factor-? or increase lenalidomide-induced IL-2 upregulation. In summary, inhibition of RSK2 may prove a broadly useful adjunct to MM therapy. PMID:25395420

  2. A new expanded host range of Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus includes three agricultural crops.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV) was identified in the fall of 2006 affecting cucurbit production in the Imperial Valley of California, the adjacent Yuma, AZ region, as well as nearby Sonora, Mexico. There was nearly universal infection of fall melon crops in 2006 and 2007, and late,...

  3. Exploring Teachers' Strategies for Including Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Mainstream Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Sally; Proulx, Meghann; Scott, Helen; Thomson, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    As the rates of diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) increase and more students with ASD are enrolled in mainstream schools, educators face many challenges in teaching and managing social and behavioural development while ensuring academic success for all students. This descriptive, qualitative study, embedded within an inclusive…

  4. Benefits of Including Siblings in the Treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferraioli, Suzannah J.; Hansford, Amy; Harris, Sandra L.

    2012-01-01

    Having a brother or sister with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can significantly impact the life of a typically developing sibling. These relationships are generally characterized by less frequent and nurturing interactions than are evident in sibling constellations with neurotypical children or children with other developmental disabilities.…

  5. Dubowitz Syndrome Is a Complex Comprised of Multiple, Genetically Distinct and Phenotypically Overlapping Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Douglas R.; Pemov, Alexander; Johnston, Jennifer J.; Sapp, Julie C.; Yeager, Meredith; He, Ji; Boland, Joseph F.; Burdett, Laurie; Brown, Christina; Gatti, Richard A.; Alter, Blanche P.; Biesecker, Leslie G.; Savage, Sharon A.

    2014-01-01

    Dubowitz syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by multiple congenital anomalies, cognitive delay, growth failure, an immune defect, and an increased risk of blood dyscrasia and malignancy. There is considerable phenotypic variability, suggesting genetic heterogeneity. We clinically characterized and performed exome sequencing and high-density array SNP genotyping on three individuals with Dubowitz syndrome, including a pair of previously-described siblings (Patients 1 and 2, brother and sister) and an unpublished patient (Patient 3). Given the siblings' history of bone marrow abnormalities, we also evaluated telomere length and performed radiosensitivity assays. In the siblings, exome sequencing identified compound heterozygosity for a known rare nonsense substitution in the nuclear ligase gene LIG4 (rs104894419, NM_002312.3:c.2440C>T) that predicts p.Arg814X (MAF:0.0002) and an NM_002312.3:c.613delT variant that predicts a p.Ser205Leufs*29 frameshift. The frameshift mutation has not been reported in 1000 Genomes, ESP, or ClinSeq. These LIG4 mutations were previously reported in the sibling sister; her brother had not been previously tested. Western blotting showed an absence of a ligase IV band in both siblings. In the third patient, array SNP genotyping revealed a de novo ?3.89 Mb interstitial deletion at chromosome 17q24.2 (chr 17:62,068,463–65,963,102, hg18), which spanned the known Carney complex gene PRKAR1A. In all three patients, a median lymphocyte telomere length of ?1st centile was observed and radiosensitivity assays showed increased sensitivity to ionizing radiation. Our work suggests that, in addition to dyskeratosis congenita, LIG4 and 17q24.2 syndromes also feature shortened telomeres; to confirm this, telomere length testing should be considered in both disorders. Taken together, our work and other reports on Dubowitz syndrome, as currently recognized, suggest that it is not a unitary entity but instead a collection of phenotypically similar disorders. As a clinical entity, Dubowitz syndrome will need continual re-evaluation and re-definition as its constituent phenotypes are determined. PMID:24892279

  6. Experience of gratitude, awe and beauty in life among patients with multiple sclerosis and psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Feelings of gratitude and awe facilitate perceptions and cognitions that go beyond the focus of illness and include positive aspects of one’s personal and interpersonal reality, even in the face of disease. We intended to measure feelings of gratitude, awe, and experiences of beauty in life among patients with multiple sclerosis and psychiatric disorders, particularly with respect to their engagement in specific spiritual/religious practices and their life satisfaction. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey with standardized questionnaires to measure engagement in various spiritual practices (SpREUK-P) and their relation to experiences of Gratitude, Awe and Beauty in Life and life satisfaction (BMLSS-10). In total, 461 individuals (41?±?13 years; 68% women) with multiple sclerosis (46%) and depressive (22%) or other psychiatric disorders (32%) participated. Results Among participants, 23% never, 43% rarely, 24% often, and 10% frequently experienced Gratitude. In contrast, 41% never, 37% rarely, 17% often, and 6% frequently experienced Awe. Beauty in Life was never experienced by 8% of the sample, and 28% rarely, 46% often, and 18% frequently experienced it. Gratitude (F?=?9.2; p?=?.003) and Beauty in Life (F?=?6.0; p?=?.015) were experienced significantly more often by women than men. However, the experience of Awe did not differ between women and men (F?=?2.2; n.s.). In contrast to our hypothesis, Gratitude/Awe cannot explain any relevant variance in patients’ life satisfaction (R2?=?.04). Regression analyses (R2?=?.42) revealed that Gratitude/Awe can be predicted best by a person’s engagement in religious practices, followed by other forms of spiritual practices and life satisfaction. Female gender was a weak predictor and underlying disease showed no effect. Conclusions Gratitude/Awe could be regarded as a life orientation towards noticing and appreciating the positive in life - despite the symptoms of disease. Positive spirituality/religiosity seems to be a source of gratitude and appreciation in life, whereas patients with neither spiritual nor religious sentiments (R-S-) seem to have a lower awareness for these feelings. PMID:24779860

  7. An olfactory-limbic model of multiple chemical sensitivity syndrome: Possible relationships to kindling and affective spectrum disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, I.R.; Miller, C.S.; Schwartz, G.E. )

    1992-08-01

    This paper reviews the clinical and experimental literature on patients with multiple adverse responses to chemicals (Multiple Chemical Sensitivity Syndrome-MCS) and develops a model for MCS based on olfactory-limbic system dysfunction that overlaps in part with Post's kindling model for affective disorders. MCS encompasses a broad range of chronic polysymptomatic conditions and complaints whose triggers are reported to include low levels of common indoor and outdoor environmental chemicals, such as pesticides and solvents. Other investigators have found evidence of increased prevalence of depression, anxiety, and somatization disorders in MCS patients and have concluded that their psychiatric conditions account for the clinical picture. However, none of these studies has presented any data on the effects of chemicals on symptoms or on objective measures of nervous system function. Synthesis of the MCS literature with large bodies of research in neurotoxicology, occupational medicine, and biological psychiatry, suggests that the phenomenology of MCS patients overlaps that of affective spectrum disorders and that both involve dysfunction of the limbic pathways. Animal studies demonstrate that intermittent repeated low level environmental chemical exposures, including pesticides, cause limbic kindling. Kindling (full or partial) is one central nervous system mechanism that could amplify reactivity to low levels of inhaled and ingested chemicals and initiate persistent affective, cognitive, and somatic symptomatology in both occupational and nonoccupational settings. As in animal studies, inescapable and novel stressors could cross-sensitize with chemical exposures in some individuals to generate adverse responses on a neurochemical basis. The olfactory-limbic model raises testable neurobiological hypotheses that could increase understanding of the multifactorial etiology of MCS and of certain overlapping affective spectrum disorders. 170 refs.

  8. Transitions from order to disorder in multiple dark and multiple dark-bright soliton atomic clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wenlong; Kevrekidis, P. G.

    2015-03-01

    We have performed a systematic study quantifying the variation of solitary wave behavior from that of an ordered cloud resembling a "crystalline" configuration to that of a disordered state that can be characterized as a soliton "gas." As our illustrative examples, we use both one-component, as well as two-component, one-dimensional atomic gases very close to zero temperature, where in the presence of repulsive interatomic interactions and of a parabolic trap, a cloud of dark (dark-bright) solitons can form in the one- (two-) component system. We corroborate our findings through three distinct types of approaches, namely a Gross-Pitaevskii type of partial differential equation, particle-based ordinary differential equations describing the soliton dynamical system, and Monte Carlo simulations for the particle system. We define an "empirical" order parameter to characterize the order of the soliton lattices and study how this changes as a function of the strength of the "thermally" (i.e., kinetically) induced perturbations. As may be anticipated by the one-dimensional nature of our system, the transition from order to disorder is gradual without, apparently, a genuine phase transition ensuing in the intermediate regime.

  9. Transitions from order to disorder in multiple dark and multiple dark-bright soliton atomic clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wenlong; Kevrekidis, P. G.

    2015-03-09

    We have performed a systematic study quantifying the variation of solitary wave behavior from that of an ordered cloud resembling a “crystalline” configuration to that of a disordered state that can be characterized as a soliton “gas.” As our illustrative examples, we use both one-component, as well as two-component, one-dimensional atomic gases very close to zero temperature, where in the presence of repulsive interatomic interactions and of a parabolic trap, a cloud of dark (dark-bright) solitons can form in the one- (two-) component system. We corroborate our findings through three distinct types of approaches, namely a Gross-Pitaevskii type of partial differential equation, particle-based ordinary differential equations describing the soliton dynamical system, and Monte Carlo simulations for the particle system. In addition, we define an “empirical” order parameter to characterize the order of the soliton lattices and study how this changes as a function of the strength of the “thermally” (i.e., kinetically) induced perturbations. As may be anticipated by the one-dimensional nature of our system, the transition from order to disorder is gradual without, apparently, a genuine phase transition ensuing in the intermediate regime.

  10. Transitions from order to disorder in multiple dark and multiple dark-bright soliton atomic clouds

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wang, Wenlong; Kevrekidis, P. G.

    2015-03-09

    We have performed a systematic study quantifying the variation of solitary wave behavior from that of an ordered cloud resembling a “crystalline” configuration to that of a disordered state that can be characterized as a soliton “gas.” As our illustrative examples, we use both one-component, as well as two-component, one-dimensional atomic gases very close to zero temperature, where in the presence of repulsive interatomic interactions and of a parabolic trap, a cloud of dark (dark-bright) solitons can form in the one- (two-) component system. We corroborate our findings through three distinct types of approaches, namely a Gross-Pitaevskii type of partialmore »differential equation, particle-based ordinary differential equations describing the soliton dynamical system, and Monte Carlo simulations for the particle system. In addition, we define an “empirical” order parameter to characterize the order of the soliton lattices and study how this changes as a function of the strength of the “thermally” (i.e., kinetically) induced perturbations. As may be anticipated by the one-dimensional nature of our system, the transition from order to disorder is gradual without, apparently, a genuine phase transition ensuing in the intermediate regime.« less

  11. Systems of Selves: the Construction of Meaning in Multiple Personality Disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Dureen Jean

    Current models for understanding both Multiple Personality Disorder and human mentation in general are both linear in nature and self-perpetuating insofar as most research in this area has been informed and shaped by extant psychological concepts, paradigms and methods. The research for this dissertation made use of anthropological concepts and methods in an attempt to gain a richer understanding of both multiple personality and fundamental universal processes of the mind. Intensive fieldwork using in-depth, open-ended interviewing techniques was conducted with people diagnosed with Multiple Personality Disorder with the purpose of mapping their personality systems in order to discover the nature of the relationships between the various alternate personalities and subsystems comprising the overall personality systems. These data were then analyzed in terms of dynamical systems theory ("Chaos Theory") as a way of understanding various phenomena of multiple personality disorder as well as the overall structure of each system. It was found that the application of the formal characteristics of nonlinear models and equations to multiple personality systems provided a number of new perspectives on mental phenomena. The underlying organizational structure of multiple personality systems can be understood as a phenomenon of spontaneous self-organization in far-from -equilibrium states which characterizes dissipative structures. Chaos Theory allows the perspective that the nature of the process of the self and the nature of relationship are one and the same, and that both can be conceived as ideas in struggle at a fractal boundary. Further, such application makes it possible to postulate an iterative process which would have as one of its consequences the formation of a processural self who is conscious of self as separate self. Finally, given that the iterative application of a few simple rules (or instructions) can result in complex systems, an attempt was made to discern what the rules pertaining to human mentation might be.

  12. Including Frequent Emergency Department Users With Severe Alcohol Use Disorders in Research: Assessing Capacity

    PubMed Central

    McCormack, Ryan P.; Gallagher, Timothy; Goldfrank, Lewis R.; Caplan, Arthur L.

    2015-01-01

    Study objective Frequent emergency department (ED) users with severe alcohol use disorders are often excluded from research, in part because assessing capacity to provide consent is challenging. We aim to assess the feasibility of using the University of California, San Diego Brief Assessment of Capacity to Consent, a 5-minute, easy-to-use, validated instrument, to screen for capacity to consent for research in frequent ED users with severe alcohol use disorders. Methods We prospectively enrolled a convenience sample of 20 adults to assess their capacity to provide consent for participation in 30-minute mixed-methods interviews using the 10-question University of California, San Diego Brief Assessment of Capacity to Consent. Participants were identified through an administrative database, had greater than 4 annual ED visits for 2 years, and had severe alcohol use disorders. The study was conducted with institutional review board approval from March to July 2013 in an urban, public, university ED receiving approximately 120,000 visits per year. Blood alcohol concentration and demographic data were extracted from the medical record. Results We completed assessments for 19 of 20 participants. One was removed because of agitation. Sixteen of 19 participants passed each question and were deemed capable of providing informed consent. Interventions to improve understanding (prompting and material review) were required for 15 of 19 participants. The mean duration to describe the study and perform the assessment was 10.4 minutes (SD 3 minutes). The mean blood alcohol concentration was 211.5 mg/dL (SD 137.4 mg/dL). The 3 patients unable to demonstrate capacity had blood alcohol concentrations of 226 and 348 mg/dL, with 1 not obtained. Conclusion This pilot study supports the feasibility of using the University of California, San Diego Brief Assessment of Capacity to Consent to assess capacity of frequent ED users with severe alcohol use disorders to participate in research. Blood alcohol concentration was not correlated with capacity. PMID:25447556

  13. A Case Study of Tack Tiles[R] Literacy Instruction for a Student with Multiple Disabilities Including Congenital Blindness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klenk, Jessicia A.; Pufpaff, Lisa A.

    2011-01-01

    Research on literacy instruction for students with multiple disabilities is limited. Empirical research on braille instruction for students with multiple disabilities that include congenital blindness is virtually nonexistent. This case study offers initial insight into possible methods of early braille literacy instruction for a student with…

  14. Zebrafish homologs of 16p11.2, a genomic region associated with brain disorders, are active during brain development, and include two deletion dosage sensor genes

    E-print Network

    Blaker-Lee, Alicia

    Deletion or duplication of one copy of the human 16p11.2 interval is tightly associated with impaired brain function, including autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), intellectual disability disorder (IDD) and other phenotypes, ...

  15. Thermoelectric material including a multiple transition metal-doped type I clathrate crystal structure

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Jihui (Lakeshore, CA); Shi, Xun (Troy, MI); Bai, Shengqiang (Shanghai, CN); Zhang, Wenqing (Shanghai, CN); Chen, Lidong (Shanghai, CN); Yang, Jiong (Shanghai, CN)

    2012-01-17

    A thermoelectric material includes a multiple transition metal-doped type I clathrate crystal structure having the formula A.sub.8TM.sub.y.sub.1.sup.1TM.sub.y.sub.2.sup.2 . . . TM.sub.y.sub.n.sup.nM.sub.zX.sub.46-y.sub.1.sub.-y.sub.2.sub.- . . . -y.sub.n.sub.-z. In the formula, A is selected from the group consisting of barium, strontium, and europium; X is selected from the group consisting of silicon, germanium, and tin; M is selected from the group consisting of aluminum, gallium, and indium; TM.sup.1, TM.sup.2, and TM.sup.n are independently selected from the group consisting of 3d, 4d, and 5d transition metals; and y.sub.1, y.sub.2, y.sub.n and Z are actual compositions of TM.sup.1, TM.sup.2, TM.sup.n, and M, respectively. The actual compositions are based upon nominal compositions derived from the following equation: z=8q.sub.A-|.DELTA.q.sub.1|y.sub.1-|.DELTA.q.sub.2|y.sub.2- . . . -|.DELTA.q.sub.n|y.sub.n, wherein q.sub.A is a charge state of A, and wherein .DELTA.q.sub.1, .DELTA.q.sub.2, .DELTA.q.sub.n are, respectively, the nominal charge state of the first, second, and n-th TM.

  16. Synergy of multiple partners, including freeloaders, increases host fitness in a multispecies mutualism

    E-print Network

    Gohee, Jake

    -lived partners (e.g., corals and zooxanthellae, tropical trees and mycorrhizae) interact with multiple partner. The tropi- cal tree Acacia drepanolobium associates with four symbiotic ant species whose short

  17. Treatment of Comorbid Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Anxiety in Children : A Multiple Baseline Design Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarrett, Matthew A.; Ollendick, Thomas H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The present study evaluated a 10-week psychosocial treatment designed specifically for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and a comorbid anxiety disorder. Method: Using a nonconcurrent multiple baseline design, the authors treated 8 children ages 8-12 with ADHD, combined type, and at least 1 of 3 major anxiety…

  18. POLG mutations in sporadic mitochondrial disorders with multiple mtDNA deletions.

    PubMed

    Di Fonzo, Alessio; Bordoni, Andreina; Crimi, Marco; Sara, Galbiati; Del Bo, Roberto; Bresolin, Nereo; Comi, Giacomo P

    2003-12-01

    The accumulation of multiple mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletions in stable tissues is a distinctive feature of several autosomal disorders, characterized by Progressive External Ophthalmoplegia (PEO), ptosis, and proximal myopathy. At least three nuclear genes are responsible for these disorders: ANT1 and C10orf2 cause autosomal dominant PEO, while mutations of DNA polymerase gammaA (POLG1 or POLG) gene on chromosome 15q25 causes both autosomal dominant and recessive forms of PEO. To investigate the contribution of these genes to the sporadic cases of PEO with multiple mtDNA deletions, we studied 31 mitochondrial myopathy patients without any family history for the disorder: 23 had PEO with myopathy, with or without the additional features of pigmentary retinopathy, ataxia, neurosensorial hypoacusia and diabetes mellitus, 7 presented isolated myopathy and one a peripheral neuropathy with ptosis. In all patients Southern blot of muscle DNA showed multiple mtDNA deletions; screening for ANT1 and C10ORF2 genes was negative. POLG analysis revealed mutations in eight patients; in six of them the mutations were allelic, while two patients were heterozygous. Five mutations were new, namely one stop codon (c.2407C>T/p.R709X) and four missense mutations (c.1085G>C/p.G268A; c.1967G>A/p.R562Q; c.2702G>C/p.R807P; c.3076C>T/p.H932W). A high degree of conservation was observed for all the new missense mutations. Only patients presenting PEO as part of their clinical phenotype had POLG mutations, in seven of them together with myopathic signs and in one with a sensori-motor peripheral neuropathy. PMID:14635118

  19. Overcoming the diffraction limit using multiple light scattering in a highly disordered medium.

    PubMed

    Choi, Youngwoon; Yang, Taeseok Daniel; Fang-Yen, Christopher; Kang, Pilsung; Lee, Kyoung Jin; Dasari, Ramachandra R; Feld, Michael S; Choi, Wonshik

    2011-07-01

    We report that disordered media made of randomly distributed nanoparticles can be used to overcome the diffraction limit of a conventional imaging system. By developing a method to extract the original image information from the multiple scattering induced by the turbid media, we dramatically increase a numerical aperture of the imaging system. As a result, the resolution is enhanced by more than 5 times over the diffraction limit, and the field of view is extended over the physical area of the camera. Our technique lays the foundation to use a turbid medium as a far-field superlens. PMID:21797607

  20. Genetic Disorders of Membrane Transport II. Regulation of CFTR by small molecules including HCO3

    E-print Network

    Machen, Terry E.

    Physiol. 38): G1221­G1226, 1998.-- Cystic fibrosis (CF) affects a number of epithelial tissues, including as well as of intra- and extracellu- lar pH. cystic fibrosis; cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator; pharmacology; epithelial transport; chloride secre- tion CYSTIC FIBROSIS (CF) is the most common

  1. Simulation of multiple personalities: a review of research comparing diagnosed and simulated dissociative identity disorder.

    PubMed

    Boysen, Guy A; VanBergen, Alexandra

    2014-02-01

    Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) has long been surrounded by controversy due to disagreement about its etiology and the validity of its associated phenomena. Researchers have conducted studies comparing people diagnosed with DID and people simulating DID in order to better understand the disorder. The current research presents a systematic review of this DID simulation research. The literature consists of 20 studies and contains several replicated findings. Replicated differences between the groups include symptom presentation, identity presentation, and cognitive processing deficits. Replicated similarities between the groups include interidentity transfer of information as shown by measures of recall, recognition, and priming. Despite some consistent findings, this research literature is hindered by methodological flaws that reduce experimental validity. PMID:24291657

  2. Multiple emergences of genetically diverse amphibian-infecting chytrids include a globalized hypervirulent recombinant lineage

    PubMed Central

    Farrer, Rhys A.; Weinert, Lucy A.; Bielby, Jon; Garner, Trenton W. J.; Balloux, Francois; Clare, Frances; Bosch, Jaime; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Weldon, Che; du Preez, Louis H.; Anderson, Lucy; Pond, Sergei L. Kosakovsky; Shahar-Golan, Revital; Henk, Daniel A.; Fisher, Matthew C.

    2011-01-01

    Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is a globally ubiquitous fungal infection that has emerged to become a primary driver of amphibian biodiversity loss. Despite widespread effort to understand the emergence of this panzootic, the origins of the infection, its patterns of global spread, and principle mode of evolution remain largely unknown. Using comparative population genomics, we discovered three deeply diverged lineages of Bd associated with amphibians. Two of these lineages were found in multiple continents and are associated with known introductions by the amphibian trade. We found that isolates belonging to one clade, the global panzootic lineage (BdGPL) have emerged across at least five continents during the 20th century and are associated with the onset of epizootics in North America, Central America, the Caribbean, Australia, and Europe. The two newly identified divergent lineages, Cape lineage (BdCAPE) and Swiss lineage (BdCH), were found to differ in morphological traits when compared against one another and BdGPL, and we show that BdGPL is hypervirulent. BdGPL uniquely bears the hallmarks of genomic recombination, manifested as extensive intergenomic phylogenetic conflict and patchily distributed heterozygosity. We postulate that contact between previously genetically isolated allopatric populations of Bd may have allowed recombination to occur, resulting in the generation, spread, and invasion of the hypervirulent BdGPL leading to contemporary disease-driven losses in amphibian biodiversity. PMID:22065772

  3. Associations between mood, anxiety or substance use disorders and inflammatory markers after adjustment for multiple covariates in a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Glaus, Jennifer; Vandeleur, Caroline L; von Känel, Roland; Lasserre, Aurélie M; Strippoli, Marie-Pierre F; Gholam-Rezaee, Mehdi; Castelao, Enrique; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Bovet, Pascal; Merikangas, Kathleen; Mooser, Vincent; Waeber, Gérard; Vollenweider, Peter; Aubry, Jean-Michel; Preisig, Martin

    2014-11-01

    Inflammation is one possible mechanism underlying the associations between mental disorders and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). However, studies on mental disorders and inflammation have yielded inconsistent results and the majority did not adjust for potential confounding factors. We examined the associations of several pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1?, IL-6 and TNF-?) and high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) with lifetime and current mood, anxiety and substance use disorders (SUD), while adjusting for multiple covariates. The sample included 3719 subjects, randomly selected from the general population, who underwent thorough somatic and psychiatric evaluations. Psychiatric diagnoses were made with a semi-structured interview. Major depressive disorder was subtyped into "atypical", "melancholic", "combined atypical-melancholic" and "unspecified". Associations between inflammatory markers and psychiatric diagnoses were assessed using multiple linear and logistic regression models. Lifetime bipolar disorders and atypical depression were associated with increased levels of hsCRP, but not after multivariate adjustment. After multivariate adjustment, SUD remained associated with increased hsCRP levels in men (? = 0.13 (95% CI: 0.03,0.23)) but not in women. After multivariate adjustment, lifetime combined and unspecified depression were associated with decreased levels of IL-6 (? = -0.27 (-0.51,-0.02); ? = -0.19 (-0.34,-0.05), respectively) and TNF-? (? = -0.16 (-0.30,-0.01); ? = -0.10 (-0.19,-0.02), respectively), whereas current combined and unspecified depression were associated with decreased levels of hsCRP (? = -0.20 (-0.39,-0.02); ? = -0.12 (-0.24,-0.01), respectively). Our data suggest that the significant associations between increased hsCRP levels and mood disorders are mainly attributable to the effects of comorbid disorders, medication as well as behavioral and physical CVRFs. PMID:25088287

  4. Identification of Multiple Novel Viruses, Including a Parvovirus and a Hepevirus, in Feces of Red Foxes

    PubMed Central

    van der Giessen, Joke; Haagmans, Bart L.; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.; Smits, Saskia L.

    2013-01-01

    Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) are the most widespread members of the order of Carnivora. Since they often live in (peri)urban areas, they are a potential reservoir of viruses that transmit from wildlife to humans or domestic animals. Here we evaluated the fecal viral microbiome of 13 red foxes by random PCR in combination with next-generation sequencing. Various novel viruses, including a parvovirus, bocavirus, adeno-associated virus, hepevirus, astroviruses, and picobirnaviruses, were identified. PMID:23616657

  5. Manual for the psychotherapeutic treatment of acute and post-traumatic stress disorders following multiple shocks from implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD)

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Jochen; Titscher, Georg; Peregrinova, Ludmila; Kirsch, Holger

    2013-01-01

    Background: In view of the increasing number of implanted cardioverter defibrillators (ICD), the number of people suffering from so-called “multiple ICD shocks” is also increasing. The delivery of more than five shocks (appropriate or inappropriate) in 12 months or three or more shocks (so called multiple shocks) in a short time period (24 hours) leads to an increasing number of patients suffering from severe psychological distress (anxiety disorder, panic disorder, adjustment disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder). Untreated persons show chronic disease processes and a low rate of spontaneous remission and have an increased morbidity and mortality. Few papers have been published concerning the psychotherapeutic treatment for these patients. Objective: The aim of this study is to develop a psychotherapeutic treatment for patients with a post-traumatic stress disorder or adjustment disorder after multiple ICD shocks. Design: Explorative feasibility study: Treatment of 22 patients as a natural design without randomisation and without control group. The period of recruitment was three years, from March 2007 to March 2010. The study consisted of two phases: in the first phase (pilot study) we tested different components and dosages of psychotherapeutic treatments. The final intervention programme is presented in this paper. In the second phase (follow-up study) we assessed the residual post-traumatic stress symptoms in these ICD patients. The time between treatment and follow-up measurement was 12 to 30 months. Population: Thirty-one patients were assigned to the Department of Psychocardiology after multiple shocks. The sample consisted of 22 patients who had a post-traumatic stress disorder or an adjustment disorder and were willing and able to participate. They were invited for psychological treatment. 18 of them could be included into the follow-up study. Methods: After the clinical assessment at the beginning and at the end of the inpatient treatment a post-treatment assessment with questionnaires followed. In this follow-up measurement, minimum 12 months after inpatient treatment, posttraumatic stress was assessed using the “Impact of Event Scale” (IES-R). Setting: Inpatient treatment in a large Heart and Thorax Centre with a Department of Psychocardiology (Kerckhoff Heart Centre). Results: From the 18 patients in the follow-up study no one reported complaints of PTSD. 15 of them reported a high or even a very high decrease of anxiety and avoidance behaviour. Conclusions: The fist step of the treatment development seems to be successful. It shows encouraging results with an acceptable dosage. The second step of our work is in process now: we evaluate the treatment manual within other clinical institutions and a higher number of psychotherapists. This leads in the consequence to a controlled and randomised comparison study. PMID:24403967

  6. Analysis of the chromosome X exome in patients with autism spectrum disorders identified novel candidate genes, including TMLHE

    PubMed Central

    Nava, C; Lamari, F; Héron, D; Mignot, C; Rastetter, A; Keren, B; Cohen, D; Faudet, A; Bouteiller, D; Gilleron, M; Jacquette, A; Whalen, S; Afenjar, A; Périsse, D; Laurent, C; Dupuits, C; Gautier, C; Gérard, M; Huguet, G; Caillet, S; Leheup, B; Leboyer, M; Gillberg, C; Delorme, R; Bourgeron, T; Brice, A; Depienne, C

    2012-01-01

    The striking excess of affected males in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) suggests that genes located on chromosome X contribute to the etiology of these disorders. To identify new X-linked genes associated with ASD, we analyzed the entire chromosome X exome by next-generation sequencing in 12 unrelated families with two affected males. Thirty-six possibly deleterious variants in 33 candidate genes were found, including PHF8 and HUWE1, previously implicated in intellectual disability (ID). A nonsense mutation in TMLHE, which encodes the ?-N-trimethyllysine hydroxylase catalyzing the first step of carnitine biosynthesis, was identified in two brothers with autism and ID. By screening the TMLHE coding sequence in 501 male patients with ASD, we identified two additional missense substitutions not found in controls and not reported in databases. Functional analyses confirmed that the mutations were associated with a loss-of-function and led to an increase in trimethyllysine, the precursor of carnitine biosynthesis, in the plasma of patients. This study supports the hypothesis that rare variants on the X chromosome are involved in the etiology of ASD and contribute to the sex-ratio disequilibrium. PMID:23092983

  7. Phenotypic spectrum associated with PTCHD1 deletions and truncating mutations includes intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, A; Noor, A; Degagne, B; Baker, K; Bok, L A; Brady, A F; Chitayat, D; Chung, B H; Cytrynbaum, C; Dyment, D; Filges, I; Helm, B; Hutchison, H T; Jeng, L J B; Laumonnier, F; Marshall, C R; Menzel, M; Parkash, S; Parker, M J; Raymond, L F; Rideout, A L; Roberts, W; Rupps, R; Schanze, I; Schrander-Stumpel, C T R M; Speevak, M D; Stavropoulos, D J; Stevens, S J C; Thomas, E R A; Toutain, A; Vergano, S; Weksberg, R; Scherer, S W; Vincent, J B; Carter, M T

    2015-09-01

    Studies of genomic copy number variants (CNVs) have identified genes associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual disability (ID) such as NRXN1, SHANK2, SHANK3 and PTCHD1. Deletions have been reported in PTCHD1 however there has been little information available regarding the clinical presentation of these individuals. Herein we present 23 individuals with PTCHD1 deletions or truncating mutations with detailed phenotypic descriptions. The results suggest that individuals with disruption of the PTCHD1 coding region may have subtle dysmorphic features including a long face, prominent forehead, puffy eyelids and a thin upper lip. They do not have a consistent pattern of associated congenital anomalies or growth abnormalities. They have mild to moderate global developmental delay, variable degrees of ID, and many have prominent behavioral issues. Over 40% of subjects have ASD or ASD-like behaviors. The only consistent neurological findings in our cohort are orofacial hypotonia and mild motor incoordination. Our findings suggest that hemizygous PTCHD1 loss of function causes an X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder with a strong propensity to autistic behaviors. Detailed neuropsychological studies are required to better define the cognitive and behavioral phenotype. PMID:25131214

  8. Joint source based analysis of multiple brain structures in studying major depressive disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramezani, Mahdi; Rasoulian, Abtin; Hollenstein, Tom; Harkness, Kate; Johnsrude, Ingrid; Abolmaesumi, Purang

    2014-03-01

    We propose a joint Source-Based Analysis (jSBA) framework to identify brain structural variations in patients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). In this framework, features representing position, orientation and size (i.e. pose), shape, and local tissue composition are extracted. Subsequently, simultaneous analysis of these features within a joint analysis method is performed to generate the basis sources that show signi cant di erences between subjects with MDD and those in healthy control. Moreover, in a cross-validation leave- one-out experiment, we use a Fisher Linear Discriminant (FLD) classi er to identify individuals within the MDD group. Results show that we can classify the MDD subjects with an accuracy of 76% solely based on the information gathered from the joint analysis of pose, shape, and tissue composition in multiple brain structures.

  9. Statistical Analysis of EMIC Waves in Multiple Component Plasma Including Heavy Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, S.; Kasahara, Y.; Goto, Y.

    2013-12-01

    It is well known that Earth's radiation belts are located around geomagnetic equator, where wide ranges of energetic particles from several hundred keV to several tens MeV are contained. According to the recent study, it is suggested that ELF/VLF waves such as EMIC waves and chorus emissions deeply contribute to the generation and loss mechanism of relativistic electrons in the radiation belt. The ERG mission[1] is expected to provide important clues for solving plasma dynamics in the Earth's radiation belts by means of integrated observation of wide energy range of plasma particles and high resolution plasma waves. On the other hand, long-term observation data which covers over 2 cycles of solar activity obtained by the Akebono satellite is very valuable to work out the strategy of the ERG mission. The ELF receiver, which is a sub-system of the VLF instruments onboard Akebono, measures waveforms below 50 Hz for one component of electric field and three components of magnetic field, or waveforms below 100 Hz for one component of electric and magnetic field, respectively. It was reported that ion cyclotron waves were observed near magnetic equator by the receiver[2]. In our previous study[3], we introduced four events of characteristic EMIC waves observed by Akebono in April, 1989. These waves have sudden decrease of intensity just above half of proton cyclotron frequency changing along the trajectories of Akebono. Comparing the observed data with the dispersion relation in multiple species of ions under cold plasma approximation, we demonstrate that a few percent of 'M / Z = 2 ions (M = mass of ions, Z = charge of ions)' such as alpha particles (He++) or deuterons (D+) cause such characteristic attenuation of EMIC at lower hybrid frequency. In the present study, we performed polarization analysis and direction finding of the waves. It was found that these EMIC waves were left-handed polarized in the higher frequency part, while the polarization gradually changes to linear and finally to right-handed in the lower frequency part of the waves. In general, cross-over frequency, at which EMIC wave undergoes polarization reversal, appears if more than two kinds of ions are coexisted in the plasma. It was demonstrated that the observed cross-over frequencies were a little higher than the ones where sudden attenuation occurring at approximately half of proton cyclotron frequency. The wave normal vectors were analyzed using Means' method[4]. It was found that the wave normal directions of these EMIC waves were close to 90 degrees against the geomagnetic field lines. Consequently, these results strongly support existence of 'M / Z = 2 ions' during this event. In other words, dispersion relation does not satisfy the observed EMIC wave if we only consider major ion constituents in the plasma. In order to investigate the generality of such minor ion existence, we picked up approximately 100 characteristic events from long-term observation data obtained by Akebono. We will also discuss more detailed analysis about several events, as well as statistical data analysis.

  10. Neurological manifestations of gastrointestinal disorders, with particular reference to the differential diagnosis of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ghezzi, A; Zaffaroni, M

    2001-11-01

    Neurological manifestations of gastrointestinal disorders are described, with particular reference to those resembling multiple sclerosis (MS) on clinical or MRI grounds. Patients with celiac disease can present cerebellar ataxia, progressive myoclonic ataxia, myelopathy, or cerebral, brainstem and peripheral nerve involvement. Antigliadin antibodies can be found in subjects with neurological dysfunction of unknown cause, particularly in sporadic cerebellar ataxia ("gluten ataxia"). Patients with Whipple's disease can develop mental and psychiatric changes, supranuclear gaze palsy, upper motoneuron signs, hypothalamic dysfunction, cranial nerve abnormalities, seizures, ataxia, myorhythmia and sensory deficits. Neurological manifestations can complicate inflammatory bowel disease (e.g. ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease) due to vascular or vasculitic mechanisms. Cases with both Crohn's disease and MS or cerebral vasculitis are described. Epilepsy, chronic inflammatory polyneuropathy, muscle involvement and myasthenia gravis are also reported. The central nervous system can be affected in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection because of vasculitis associated with HCV-related cryoglobulinemia. Mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalopathy (MNGIE) is a disease caused by multiple deletions of mitochondrial DNA. It is characterized by peripheral neuropathy, ophthalmoplegia, deafness, leukoencephalopathy, and gastrointestinal symptoms due to visceral neuropathy. Neurological manifestations can be the consequence of vitamin B1, nicotinamide, vitamin B12, vitamin D, or vitamin E deficiency and from nutritional deficiency states following gastric surgery. PMID:11794474

  11. The Multiple, Distinct Ways that Personality Contributes to Alcohol Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Littlefield, Andrew K.; Sher, Kenneth J.

    2010-01-01

    There is little question of whether personality is associated with problematic alcohol involvement (such as alcohol use disorders; AUDs); it clearly is. However, the question remains: how or why is personality related to risky drinking and AUDs? To address this question, theoretical models have been posited regarding the causal effects of personality on alcohol use and related problems. In this article, several of these models are summarized and reviewed. Future research directions are discussed, including possible frameworks that serve to integrate various models of the personality-AUD relation. PMID:21170162

  12. Sleep Disorders Reduce Health-Related Quality of Life in Multiple Sclerosis (Nottingham Health Profile Data in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis)

    PubMed Central

    Veauthier, Christian; Gaede, Gunnar; Radbruch, Helena; Wernecke, Klaus-Dieter; Paul, Friedemann

    2015-01-01

    Quality of Life (QoL) is decreased in multiple sclerosis (MS), but studies about the impact of sleep disorders (SD) on health-related quality of Life (HRQoL) are lacking. From our original cohort, a cross-sectional polysomnographic (PSG) study in consecutive MS patients, we retrospectively analysed the previously unpublished data of the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP). Those MS patients suffering from sleep disorders (n = 49) showed significantly lower HRQoL compared to MS patients without sleep disorders (n = 17). Subsequently, we classified the patients into four subgroups: insomnia (n = 17), restless-legs syndrome, periodic limb movement disorder and SD due to leg pain (n = 24), obstructive sleep apnea (n = 8) and patients without sleep disorder (n = 17). OSA and insomnia patients showed significantly higher NHP values and decreased HRQoL not only for the sleep subscale but also for the “energy” and “emotional” area of the NHP. In addition, OSA patients also showed increased NHP values in the “physical abilities” area. Interestingly, we did not find a correlation between the objective PSG parameters and the subjective sleep items of the NHP. However, this study demonstrates that sleep disorders can reduce HRQoL in MS patients and should be considered as an important confounder in all studies investigating HRQoL in MS. PMID:26197315

  13. Sleep Disorders Reduce Health-Related Quality of Life in Multiple Sclerosis (Nottingham Health Profile Data in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis).

    PubMed

    Veauthier, Christian; Gaede, Gunnar; Radbruch, Helena; Wernecke, Klaus-Dieter; Paul, Friedemann

    2015-01-01

    Quality of Life (QoL) is decreased in multiple sclerosis (MS), but studies about the impact of sleep disorders (SD) on health-related quality of Life (HRQoL) are lacking. From our original cohort, a cross-sectional polysomnographic (PSG) study in consecutive MS patients, we retrospectively analysed the previously unpublished data of the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP). Those MS patients suffering from sleep disorders (n = 49) showed significantly lower HRQoL compared to MS patients without sleep disorders (n = 17). Subsequently, we classified the patients into four subgroups: insomnia (n = 17), restless-legs syndrome, periodic limb movement disorder and SD due to leg pain (n = 24), obstructive sleep apnea (n = 8) and patients without sleep disorder (n = 17). OSA and insomnia patients showed significantly higher NHP values and decreased HRQoL not only for the sleep subscale but also for the "energy" and "emotional" area of the NHP. In addition, OSA patients also showed increased NHP values in the "physical abilities" area. Interestingly, we did not find a correlation between the objective PSG parameters and the subjective sleep items of the NHP. However, this study demonstrates that sleep disorders can reduce HRQoL in MS patients and should be considered as an important confounder in all studies investigating HRQoL in MS. PMID:26197315

  14. An Overview of Multiple Sclerosis: Medical, Psychosocial, and Vocational Aspects of a Chronic and Unpredictable Neurological Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rumrill, Phillip D., Jr.; Roessler, Richard T.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an overview of multiple sclerosis (MS), one of the most common neurological disorders in the western hemisphere. Medical and psychosocial aspects of the disease such as causes and risk factors, diagnosis, incidence and prevalence, symptoms, courses, and treatment are described. Existing research regarding the employment…

  15. Patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder who receive multiple electroconvulsive therapy sessions: characteristics, indications, and results

    PubMed Central

    Iancu, Iulian; Pick, Nimrod; Seener-Lorsh, Orit; Dannon, Pinhas

    2015-01-01

    Background While electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has been used for many years, there is insufficient research regarding the indications for continuation/maintenance (C/M)-ECT, its safety and efficacy, and the characteristics of patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder who receive multiple ECT sessions. The aims of this study were to characterize a series of patients who received 30 ECT sessions or more, to describe treatment regimens in actual practice, and to examine the results of C/M-ECT in terms of safety and efficacy, especially the effect on aggression and functioning. Methods We performed a retrospective chart review of 20 consecutive patients (mean age 64.6 years) with schizophrenia (n=16) or schizoaffective disorder (n=4) who received at least 30 ECT sessions at our ECT unit, and also interviewed the treating physician and filled out the Clinical Global Impression-Severity, Global Assessment of Functioning, and the Staff Observation Aggression Scale-Revised. Results Patients received a mean of 91.3 ECT sessions at a mean interval of 2.6 weeks. All had been hospitalized for most or all of the previous 3 years. There were no major adverse effects, and cognitive side effects were relatively minimal (cognitive deficit present for several hours after treatment). We found that ECT significantly reduced scores on the Staff Observation Aggression Scale-Revised subscales for verbal aggression and self-harm, and improved Global Assessment of Functioning scores. There were reductions in total aggression scores, subscale scores for harm to objects and to others, and Clinical Global Impression-Severity scores, these were not statistically significant. Conclusion C/M-ECT is safe and effective for chronically hospitalized patients. It improves general functioning and reduces verbal aggression and self-harm. More research using other aggression tools is needed to determine its effects and to reproduce our findings in prospective and controlled studies. PMID:25848283

  16. Connectivity mapping using a combined gene signature from multiple colorectal cancer datasets identified candidate drugs including existing chemotherapies

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background While the discovery of new drugs is a complex, lengthy and costly process, identifying new uses for existing drugs is a cost-effective approach to therapeutic discovery. Connectivity mapping integrates gene expression profiling with advanced algorithms to connect genes, diseases and small molecule compounds and has been applied in a large number of studies to identify potential drugs, particularly to facilitate drug repurposing. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a commonly diagnosed cancer with high mortality rates, presenting a worldwide health problem. With the advancement of high throughput omics technologies, a number of large scale gene expression profiling studies have been conducted on CRCs, providing multiple datasets in gene expression data repositories. In this work, we systematically apply gene expression connectivity mapping to multiple CRC datasets to identify candidate therapeutics to this disease. Results We developed a robust method to compile a combined gene signature for colorectal cancer across multiple datasets. Connectivity mapping analysis with this signature of 148 genes identified 10 candidate compounds, including irinotecan and etoposide, which are chemotherapy drugs currently used to treat CRCs. These results indicate that we have discovered high quality connections between the CRC disease state and the candidate compounds, and that the gene signature we created may be used as a potential therapeutic target in treating the disease. The method we proposed is highly effective in generating quality gene signature through multiple datasets; the publication of the combined CRC gene signature and the list of candidate compounds from this work will benefit both cancer and systems biology research communities for further development and investigations. PMID:26356760

  17. Multiple recurrent de novo copy number variations (CNVs), including duplications of the 7q11.23 Williams-Beuren syndrome region, are strongly associated with autism

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Stephan J.; Ercan-Sencicek, A. Gulhan; Hus, Vanessa; Luo, Rui; Murtha, Michael T.; Moreno-De-Luca, Daniel; Chu, Su H.; Moreau, Michael P.; Gupta, Abha R.; Thomson, Susanne A.; Mason, Christopher E.; Bilguvar, Kaya; Celestino-Soper, Patricia B. S.; Choi, Murim; Crawford, Emily L.; Davis, Lea; Wright, Nicole R. Davis; Dhodapkar, Rahul M.; DiCola, Michael; DiLullo, Nicholas M.; Fernandez, Thomas V.; Fielding-Singh, Vikram; Fishman, Daniel O.; Frahm, Stephanie; Garagaloyan, Rouben; Goh, Gerald S.; Kammela, Sindhuja; Klei, Lambertus; Lowe, Jennifer K.; Lund, Sabata C.; McGrew, Anna D.; Meyer, Kyle A.; Moffat, William J.; Murdoch, John D.; O'Roak, Brian J.; Ober, Gordon T.; Pottenger, Rebecca S.; Raubeson, Melanie J.; Song, Youeun; Wang, Qi; Yaspan, Brian L.; Yu, Timothy W.; Yurkiewicz, Ilana R.; Beaudet, Arthur L.; Cantor, Rita M.; Curland, Martin; Grice, Dorothy E.; Günel, Murat; Lifton, Richard P.; Mane, Shrikant M.; Martin, Donna M.; Shaw, Chad A.; Sheldon, Michael; Tischfield, Jay A.; Walsh, Christopher A.; Morrow, Eric M.; Ledbetter, David H.; Fombonne, Eric; Lord, Catherine; Martin, Christa Lese; Brooks, Andrew I.; Sutcliffe, James S.; Cook, Edwin H.; Geschwind, Daniel; Roeder, Kathryn; Devlin, Bernie; State, Matthew W.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Given prior evidence for the contribution of rare copy number variations (CNVs) to autism spectrum disorders (ASD), we studied these events in 4,457 individuals from 1,174 simplex families, composed of parents, a proband and, in most kindreds, an unaffected sibling. We find significant association of ASD with de novo duplications of 7q11.23, where the reciprocal deletion causes Williams-Beuren syndrome, featuring a highly social personality. We identify rare recurrent de novo CNVs at five additional regions including two novel ASD loci, 16p13.2 (including the genes USP7 and C16orf72) and Cadherin13, and implement a rigorous new approach to evaluating the statistical significance of these observations. Overall, we find large de novo CNVs carry substantial risk (OR=3.55; CI =2.16-7.46, p=6.9 × 10?6); estimate the presence of 130-234 distinct ASD-related CNV intervals across the genome; and, based on data from multiple studies, present compelling evidence for the association of rare de novo events at 7q11.23, 15q11.2-13.1, 16p11.2, and Neurexin1. PMID:21658581

  18. Use of the mTOR inhibitor everolimus in a patient with multiple manifestations of tuberous sclerosis complex including epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Wheless, James W.

    2015-01-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic disease in which overactivation of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling leads to the growth of benign hamartomas in multiple organs, including the brain, and is associated with a high rate of epilepsy and neurological deficits. The mTOR inhibitor everolimus has been used in the treatment of subependymal giant cell astrocytomas and renal angiomyolipomas in patients with TSC. This article describes the case of a 13-year-old girl with TSC-associated epilepsy with refractory generalized seizures who initiated treatment with everolimus and experienced subsequent improvement in several TSC manifestations, including a reduction in seizure frequency from clusters of two or three daily to one every 2 to 4 weeks after 1.5 years of treatment. PMID:26543807

  19. Exploring the role of microglia in mood disorders associated with experimental multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Gentile, Antonietta; De Vito, Francesca; Fresegna, Diego; Musella, Alessandra; Buttari, Fabio; Bullitta, Silvia; Mandolesi, Georgia; Centonze, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Microglia is increasingly recognized to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of psychiatric diseases. In particular, microglia may be the cellular link between inflammation and behavioral alterations: by releasing a number of soluble factors, among which pro-inflammatory cytokines, that can regulate synaptic activity, thereby leading to perturbation of behavior. In multiple sclerosis (MS), the most common neuroinflammatory disorder affecting young adults, microglia activation and dysfunction may account for mood symptoms, like depression and anxiety, that are often diagnosed in patients even in the absence of motor disability. Behavioral studies in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the animal model of MS, have shown that emotional changes occur early in the disease and in correlation to inflammatory mediator and neurotransmitter level alterations. However, such studies lack a full and comprehensive analysis of the role played by microglia in EAE-behavioral syndrome. We review the experimental studies addressing behavioral symptoms in EAE, and propose the study of neuron-glia interaction as a powerful but still poorly explored tool to investigate the burden of microglia in mood alterations associated to MS. PMID:26161070

  20. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis of disorder and multiple-scattering in complex crystalline solids

    SciTech Connect

    O'Day, P.A.; Brown, G.E. Jr. ); Rehr, J.J.; Zabinsky, S.I. )

    1994-04-06

    Quantitative determination of local atomic structure in complex materials using extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis was tested on eight inorganic compounds of known structure, including natural and synthetic crystalline solids, at ambient conditions. Our aim was to test the accuracy of experimental and theoretical EXAFS standard functions in determining the number of backscattering atoms (N) at a distance (R) beyond the ligating shell of the central absorber atom where effects from disorder, multiple-scattering, and overlapping shells of atoms may significantly influence the EXAFS spectra. These compounds have complicated structures compared to metals and contain Fe, Co, or Ni as the central absorbing atom and mixtures of second-row (C,O,F), third-row (Si, Cl), and fourth-row (Ca, Fe, Co, Ni) atoms as backscatters. Comparison of results using both experimental phase shift and amplitude functions (derived from the EXAFS spectra of the compounds) and those calculated from ab initio theory (using the computer code FEFF 5) shows that interatomic distances for single-scattering paths among metal atoms can be determined to within 0.02 A of values determined independently by X-ray diffraction up to a distance of 4 A from the central absorber by either method. 25 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. Designing and recruiting to UK autism spectrum disorder research databases: do they include representative children with valid ASD diagnoses?

    PubMed Central

    Warnell, F; George, B; McConachie, H; Johnson, M; Hardy, R; Parr, J R

    2015-01-01

    Objectives (1) Describe how the Autism Spectrum Database-UK (ASD-UK) was established; (2) investigate the representativeness of the first 1000 children and families who participated, compared to those who chose not to; (3) investigate the reliability of the parent-reported Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) diagnoses, and present evidence about the validity of diagnoses, that is, whether children recruited actually have an ASD; (4) present evidence about the representativeness of the ASD-UK children and families, by comparing their characteristics with the first 1000 children and families from the regional Database of children with ASD living in the North East (Daslne), and children and families identified from epidemiological studies. Setting Recruitment through a network of 50 UK child health teams and self-referral. Patients Parents/carers with a child with ASD, aged 2–16?years, completed questionnaires about ASD and some gave professionals’ reports about their children. Results 1000 families registered with ASD-UK in 30?months. Children of families who participated, and of the 208 who chose not to, were found to be very similar on: gender ratio, year of birth, ASD diagnosis and social deprivation score. The reliability of parent-reported ASD diagnoses of children was very high when compared with clinical reports (over 96%); no database child without ASD was identified. A comparison of gender, ASD diagnosis, age at diagnosis, school placement, learning disability, and deprivation score of children and families from ASD-UK with 1084 children and families from Daslne, and families from population studies, showed that ASD-UK families are representative of families of children with ASD overall. Conclusions ASD-UK includes families providing parent-reported data about their child and family, who appear to be broadly representative of UK children with ASD. Families continue to join the databases and more than 3000 families can now be contacted by researchers about UK autism research. PMID:26341584

  2. Prevalence of REM sleep behavior disorder in multiple system atrophy: a multicenter study and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Palma, Jose-Alberto; Fernandez-Cordon, Clara; Coon, Elizabeth A.; Low, Phillip A.; Miglis, Mitchell G.; Jaradeh, Safwan; Bhaumik, Arijit K.; Dayalu, Praveen; Urrestarazu, Elena; Iriarte, Jorge; Biaggioni, Italo; Kaufmann, Horacio

    2015-01-01

    Objectivey Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia frequently affecting patients with synucleinopathies but its exact prevalence in multiple system atrophy (MSA) is unclear. Whether questionnaires alone are sufficient to diagnose RBD is also unknown. Methods Cross-sectional study of patients with probable MSA from six academic centers in the US and Europe. RBD was ascertained clinically and with polysomnography; and meta-analysis according to PRISMA guidelines for studies published before September 2014 that reported the prevalence of RBD in MSA. A random-effects model was constructed using weighted prevalence proportions. Only articles in English were included. Studies were classified into those that ascertained the presence of RBD in MSA clinically and with polysomnography. Case reports or case series (?5 patients) were not included. Results Forty-two patients completed questionnaires and underwent polysomnography. Of those, 32 (76.1%) had clinically-suspected RBD and 34 (81%) had polysomnography-confirmed RBD. Two patients reported no symptoms of RBD but had polysomnography-confirmed RBD. The primary search strategy yielded 374 articles of which 12 met the inclusion criteria The summary prevalence of clinically suspected RBD was 73% (95% CI, 62%-84%) in a combined sample of 324 MSA patients. The summary prevalence of polysomnography-confirmed RBD was 88% (95% CI, 79%-94%) in a combined sample of 217 MSA patients. Interpretation Polysomnography-confirmed RBD is present in up to 88% of patients with MSA. RBD was present in some patients that reported no symptoms. More than half of MSA patients report symptoms of RBD before the onset of motor deficits. PMID:25739474

  3. Unsupervised Integration of Multiple Protein Disorder Predictors Ping Zhang and Zoran Obradovic

    E-print Network

    Obradovic, Zoran

    Center for Information Science and Technology, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA 19122 ping@temple.edu, zoran@ist.temple.edu Abstract--Studies of intrinsically disordered proteins that lack a stable tertiary]. Computational characterization of disorder in proteins is appealing due to the difficulties and high cost

  4. Immediate-Release Methylphenidate for ADHD in Children with Comorbid Chronic Multiple Tic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadow, Kenneth D.; Sverd, Jeffrey; Nolan, Edith E.; Sprafkin, Joyce; Schneider, Jayne

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine the safety and efficacy of immediate-release methylphenidate (MPH-IR) for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children (ages 6-12 years) with Tourette's syndrome (96%) or chronic motor tic disorder (4%). Method: Two cohorts of prepubertal children (N = 71) received placebo and three doses of…

  5. Commentary: Differentiated Measures of Temperament and Multiple Pathways to Childhood Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothbart, Mary K.

    2004-01-01

    Provided is a commentary on articles written for a special section on temperament and childhood disorders. Temperament's contributions to the development of childhood disorders are considered both generally and specifically. Questions are raised about the use of terminology in the field, particularly the term difficult. Differentiation of outcomes…

  6. Immune Parameters That Distinguish Multiple Sclerosis Patients from Patients with Other Neurological Disorders at Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Mouzaki, Athanasia; Rodi, Maria; Dimisianos, Nikolaos; Emmanuil, Andreas; Kalavrizioti, Dimitra; Lagoudaki, Rosa; Grigoriadis, Nikolaos C.; Papathanasopoulos, Panagiotis

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aim Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Effector T helper cells, mainly Th1 and Th17, cytotoxic T-cells, B-cells, macrophages, microglia, and the cytokines they secrete, are implicated in the initiation and maintenance of a deregulated immune response to myelin antigens and the ensuing immune-mediated demyelination. In this study, we investigated whether signature cytokines exist in MS patients at presentation to gain an insight into the underlying immunopathogenic processes at the early stage of the disease. Methods We collected serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from 123 patients at presentation, eventually diagnosed with MS or non-inflammatory (NIND) or inflammatory neurological diseases (IND) or symptomatic controls (SC). The levels of cytokines IFN-?, TNF-?, TGF-?1, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-17 were measured, and cytokine ratios, such as Th1/Th2, Th1/Th17, and Type-1/Type-2, were calculated. All parameters were tested for their correlations with the intrathecal IgG synthesis. Results Cytokine levels in CSF were lower than in serum in all the patients, with the exception of IL-6. Serum or CSF cytokine levels of MS patients did not differ significantly from NIND or SC, with the exception of serum IFN-? and TNF-? that were significantly higher in NIND. IND patients presented with the highest levels of all cytokines in serum and CSF, with the exception of serum IL-10 and CSF IL-17. MS patients had a significantly lower serum Th1/Th2 ratio compared to the NIND and IND groups, and significantly lower serum Type-1/Type-2, IFN-?/IL-10 and CSF Th1/Th17 ratios compared to IND patients. MS patients had a significantly higher CSF IL-17/IL-10 ratio compared to IND patients. The IgG index was higher in MS patients compared to the control groups; the differences reached statistical significance between the MS and the NIND and SC groups. Reiber-Felgenhauer analysis of the QIgG and QAlb indices revealed higher intrathecal IgG synthesis in MS patients, and higher blood-CSF barrier dysfunction in IND patients. The IgG index correlated with CSF IL-4 in MS patients only. Conclusions We found no signature cytokines or profiles thereof in MS patients at presentation. Only IND patients presented with a clear Th1 cytokine polarization in serum and CSF. The parameters that distinguished MS patients from patients with other neurological disorders were IgG intrathecal synthesis, the IgG index and its correlation with CSF IL-4 levels. PMID:26317430

  7. Enhanced peripheral visual processing in congenitally deaf humans is supported by multiple brain regions, including primary auditory cortex

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Gregory D.; Karns, Christina M.; Dow, Mark W.; Stevens, Courtney; Neville, Helen J.

    2014-01-01

    Brain reorganization associated with altered sensory experience clarifies the critical role of neuroplasticity in development. An example is enhanced peripheral visual processing associated with congenital deafness, but the neural systems supporting this have not been fully characterized. A gap in our understanding of deafness-enhanced peripheral vision is the contribution of primary auditory cortex. Previous studies of auditory cortex that use anatomical normalization across participants were limited by inter-subject variability of Heschl's gyrus. In addition to reorganized auditory cortex (cross-modal plasticity), a second gap in our understanding is the contribution of altered modality-specific cortices (visual intramodal plasticity in this case), as well as supramodal and multisensory cortices, especially when target detection is required across contrasts. Here we address these gaps by comparing fMRI signal change for peripheral vs. perifoveal visual stimulation (11–15° vs. 2–7°) in congenitally deaf and hearing participants in a blocked experimental design with two analytical approaches: a Heschl's gyrus region of interest analysis and a whole brain analysis. Our results using individually-defined primary auditory cortex (Heschl's gyrus) indicate that fMRI signal change for more peripheral stimuli was greater than perifoveal in deaf but not in hearing participants. Whole-brain analyses revealed differences between deaf and hearing participants for peripheral vs. perifoveal visual processing in extrastriate visual cortex including primary auditory cortex, MT+/V5, superior-temporal auditory, and multisensory and/or supramodal regions, such as posterior parietal cortex (PPC), frontal eye fields, anterior cingulate, and supplementary eye fields. Overall, these data demonstrate the contribution of neuroplasticity in multiple systems including primary auditory cortex, supramodal, and multisensory regions, to altered visual processing in congenitally deaf adults. PMID:24723877

  8. Schizophrenia and Other Psychotic Disorders

    E-print Network

    Bruno, John P.

    Schizophrenia and Other Psychotic Disorders The disorders in this section include Schizophrenia, Schizophreniform Disorder, Schizoaffective Disorder, Delusional Disorder, Brief Psychotic Disorder, Shared Psy- chotic Disorder, Psychotic Disorder Due to a General Medical Condition, Substance- Induced Psychotic

  9. [Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD): the syndrome with multiple faces].

    PubMed

    Waddington, A; Ampelas, J-F; Mauriac, F; Bronchard, M; Zeltner, L; Mallat, V

    2003-01-01

    We choose to discuss from the PTSD's point of view because this diagnostic reference is commonly used. We wish outline its restrictive sight which could prevent the professional from having a diagnosis of PTSD. We don't want to say there is a PTSD everywhere but it appears to us that a traumatic reading can be a precious advantage for the clinician to establish a real therapeutic relation with some patients. Post-traumatic syndrome differs from the majority of other diagnostic categories as it includes in its criteria the presumptive cause of the trauma (criterion A). In the case that this syndrome originates in war experiences, the presumed cause presents itself as an exceptional event overcoming the individual's resources. The notion of war traumatisation has been extended to other events such as catastrophes, physical attacks, rapes, child and wife battering, and sexual abuses. But the events which cause PTSD (Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder) are significantly more numerous. It can be seen that medical events such as giving birth, miscarriage, heart attack, cancer, or hospitalisation following resuscitation may give rise to PTSD. Further, people experiencing prolonged periods of distress may equally develop a post-traumatic syndrome without any particular event having occurred to surpass their defences. It's the case of the Prolonged Duress Stress Disorder (PDSD). The series of discontinuous stress "waste" the psychic balance and may give rise, at one moment, to posttraumatic symptoms described in DSM, without any specific stressful event. The existence of criterion A is therefore not a necessary prerequisite in establishing a diagnosis of PTSD. It is, in fact, very difficult to predict which events could cause a PTSD, and this, especially, as the subjective aspects count at least as much as the objective aspects. The clinician should have to carefully explore how the patient experienced the event or, how he apprehended the event itself and it's outcome, if he wants get the traumatic range of a life event. The feeling of deep distress, the feeling of being trapped, the loss of control, the collapse of basic beliefs, the feeling that one's life is in jeopardy, that the physical integrity is (really or in one's imagination) threatened, the feeling of helplessness, are quite as much clues for a possible PTSD which hides behind others clinical manifestations either psychological or somatic. Furthermore, the "pure" form described in the DSM and grouping together three further criteria (reliving events, avoiding stimuli associated with the trauma, hyper-reactivity) is extremely rare in the chronic form. An untreated post-traumatic syndrome evolves with time and may present, initially, with very different pathological symptoms giving rise to equally varied diagnoses. Different etiopathogenic models propose to account for the PTSD 's heterogeneous appearance and instability with time. The comorbidity concept sees the PTSD as an independent entity other independent pathologies coexist with. The typologic concept suggests that the PTSD is an independent entity which shows different clinical appearances based on symptomatic descriptions. The "cascade" concept suggests to see the PTSD as an independent entity which offers, with time, different symptomatic appearances, in evolution, because of events caused by after effects, in different areas of the PTSD itself. All of these concepts outline the transnosologic appearance of the PTSD which makes it hardly recognizable. The "chronic" syndrome is rarely diagnosed forming a real challenge to prevention. In effect, the present authors insist on the crucial nature of early detection of PTSD since the greater the time elapsed the more difficult it becomes due to the evolutionary aspect of the syndrome, which initially has more readily recognizable symptoms. The consequences of an unrecognised PTSD are serious and affect both the individual and his immediate family and friends, contributing further to the aggravation of the problems. When a PTSD is

  10. Multiple Consultee Consultation to Modify Behaviors in a Student with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Jennifer L.; Fisher, Sycarah D.

    2015-01-01

    Consultation is used to provide indirect services to students. The process typically occurs with a school psychologist consultant and a teacher consultee. Few cases exist demonstrating consultation with nontraditional or multiple consultees. The current study showed the use of consultation with multiple interdisciplinary consultees to implement…

  11. Temperament and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: The Development of a Multiple Pathway Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nigg, Joel T.; Goldsmith, H. Hill; Sachek, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    This article outlines the parallels between major theories of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and relevant temperament domains, summarizing recent research from our laboratories on (a) child temperament and (b) adult personality traits related to ADHD symptoms. These data are convergent in suggesting a role of effortful control and…

  12. 76 FR 66006 - Revised Medical Criteria for Evaluating Congenital Disorders That Affect Multiple Body Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-25

    ... received since 2005.\\2\\ \\1\\ 70 FR 51252. \\2\\ We published an advance notice of proposed rulemaking (ANPRM) on November 10, 2009. 74 FR 57971. In the ANPRM, we invited interested people and organizations to... methods for establishing the existence of non-mosaic Down syndrome and other congenital disorders...

  13. Binding of Multiple Features in Memory by High-Functioning Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowler, Dermot M.; Gaigg, Sebastian B.; Gardiner, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Diminished episodic memory and diminished use of semantic information to aid recall by individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are both thought to result from diminished relational binding of elements of complex stimuli. To test this hypothesis, we asked high-functioning adults with ASD and typical comparison participants to study grids in…

  14. Involvement of Youths with Autism Spectrum Disorders or Intellectual Disabilities in Multiple Public Service Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookman-Frazee, Lauren; Baker-Ericzen, Mary; Stahmer, Aubyn; Mandell, David; Haine, Rachel A.; Hough, Richard L.

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and intellectual disability (ID) among youths active in at least one of five public service systems: mental health (MH), educational services for youth with serious emotional disturbance (SED), child welfare (CW), juvenile justice (JJ), and alcohol and…

  15. Overcoming the Diffraction Limit Using Multiple Light Scattering in a Highly Disordered Medium

    E-print Network

    Fang-Yen, Christopher

    increase a numerical aperture of the imaging system. As a result, the resolution is enhanced by more than 5 2011) We report that disordered media made of randomly distributed nanoparticles can be used to overcome the diffraction limit of a conventional imaging system. By developing a method to extract

  16. Imaging Evidence for Disturbances in Multiple Learning and Memory Systems in Persons with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goh, Suzanne; Peterson, Bradley S.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this article is to review neuroimaging studies of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) that examine declarative, socio-emotional, and procedural learning and memory systems. Method: We conducted a search of PubMed from 1996 to 2010 using the terms "autism,""learning,""memory," and "neuroimaging." We limited our review to studies…

  17. Restraint and Cancellation: Multiple Inhibition Deficits in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schachar, Russell; Logan, Gordon D.; Robaey, Philippe; Chen, Shirley; Ickowicz, Abel; Barr, Cathy

    2007-01-01

    We used variations of the stop signal task to study two components of motor response inhibition--the ability to withhold a strong response tendency (restraint) and the ability to cancel an ongoing action (cancellation)--in children with a diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and in non-ADHD controls of similar age (ages…

  18. Irregular Sleep-Wake Rhythm Disorder.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Sabra M; Zee, Phyllis C

    2015-12-01

    Irregular sleep-wake rhythm disorder is a circadian rhythm disorder characterized by multiple bouts of sleep within a 24-hour period. Patients present with symptoms of insomnia, including difficulty either falling or staying asleep, and daytime excessive sleepiness. The disorder is seen in a variety of individuals, ranging from children with neurodevelopmental disorders, to patients with psychiatric disorders, and most commonly in older adults with neurodegenerative disorders. Treatment of irregular sleep-wake rhythm disorder requires a multimodal approach aimed at strengthening circadian synchronizing agents, such as daytime exposure to bright light, and structured social and physical activities. In addition, melatonin may be useful in some patients. PMID:26568126

  19. Mood Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... they're in a bad mood. A mood disorder is different. It affects a person's everyday emotional ... ten people aged 18 and older have mood disorders. These include depression and bipolar disorder (also called ...

  20. Cerebellar Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... balance. Problems with the cerebellum include Cancer Genetic disorders Ataxias - failure of muscle control in the arms and legs that result in movement disorders Degeneration - disorders caused by brain cells decreasing in ...

  1. Endurance of Multiplication Fact Fluency for Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Kelly K.; Kubina, Richard M., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between a critical learning outcome of behavioral fluency and endurance, by comparing the effects of two practice procedures on multiplication facts two through nine. The first procedure, called whole time practice trial, consisted of an uninterrupted 1 minute practice time. The second procedure, endurance…

  2. Language Disorders in Multilingual and Multicultural Populations

    PubMed Central

    Goral, Mira; Conner, Peggy S.

    2014-01-01

    We review the characteristics of developmental language disorders (primary language impairment, reading disorders, autism, Down syndrome) and acquired language disorders (aphasia, dementia, traumatic brain injury) among multilingual and multicultural individuals. We highlight the unique assessment and treatment considerations pertinent to this population, including, for example, concerns of language choice and availability of measures and of normative data in multiple languages. A summary of relevant, recent research studies is provided for each of the language disorders selected. PMID:26257455

  3. Multiple micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy in low-income countries: Review of methods and characteristics of studies included in the meta-analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper reports on the methods and characteristics of 12 studies from developing countries included in a meta-analysis of the impact of antenatal supplements of multiple micronutrients compared with iron–folic acid on micronutrient status, maternal nutritional status, birth outcomes, and neonatal...

  4. A comparison of three Rorschach diagnostic systems and use of the Hand Test for detecting multiple personality disorder in outpatients.

    PubMed

    Young, G R; Wagner, E E; Finn, R F

    1994-06-01

    Eleven individuals diagnosed with multiple personality disorder (MPD) on the basis of clinical observation by experienced therapists plus elevated scores on the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES; Bernstein & Putnam, 1986) were administered the Rorschach Inkblot Test and the Hand Test. Results from the sample (n = 11) and a matched control group (N = 22) were analyzed and discussed in accordance with previous Rorschach diagnostic systems. The Wagner Signs diagnosed 91% (n = 10) of the MPD cases in this outpatient sample, with no false positives. The Labott Signs were found to have no utility, and the Barach Signs, when they occurred, seemed to be diagnostic of MPD but yielded a high rate of false negatives. Hand Test results were analyzed and found to be possibly diagnostic of MPD. Tentative criteria were proposed for its use as an additional tool for diagnosing MPD. PMID:8027912

  5. Stepped-wedge cluster randomised controlled trials: a generic framework including parallel and multiple-level designs

    PubMed Central

    Hemming, Karla; Lilford, Richard; Girling, Alan J

    2015-01-01

    Stepped-wedge cluster randomised trials (SW-CRTs) are being used with increasing frequency in health service evaluation. Conventionally, these studies are cross-sectional in design with equally spaced steps, with an equal number of clusters randomised at each step and data collected at each and every step. Here we introduce several variations on this design and consider implications for power. One modification we consider is the incomplete cross-sectional SW-CRT, where the number of clusters varies at each step or where at some steps, for example, implementation or transition periods, data are not collected. We show that the parallel CRT with staggered but balanced randomisation can be considered a special case of the incomplete SW-CRT. As too can the parallel CRT with baseline measures. And we extend these designs to allow for multiple layers of clustering, for example, wards within a hospital. Building on results for complete designs, power and detectable difference are derived using a Wald test and obtaining the variance–covariance matrix of the treatment effect assuming a generalised linear mixed model. These variations are illustrated by several real examples. We recommend that whilst the impact of transition periods on power is likely to be small, where they are a feature of the design they should be incorporated. We also show examples in which the power of a SW-CRT increases as the intra-cluster correlation (ICC) increases and demonstrate that the impact of the ICC is likely to be smaller in a SW-CRT compared with a parallel CRT, especially where there are multiple levels of clustering. Finally, through this unified framework, the efficiency of the SW-CRT and the parallel CRT can be compared. PMID:25346484

  6. Nonadiabatic dynamics of electron transfer in solution: Explicit and implicit solvent treatments that include multiple relaxation time scales

    SciTech Connect

    Schwerdtfeger, Christine A.; Soudackov, Alexander V.; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

    2014-01-21

    The development of efficient theoretical methods for describing electron transfer (ET) reactions in condensed phases is important for a variety of chemical and biological applications. Previously, dynamical dielectric continuum theory was used to derive Langevin equations for a single collective solvent coordinate describing ET in a polar solvent. In this theory, the parameters are directly related to the physical properties of the system and can be determined from experimental data or explicit molecular dynamics simulations. Herein, we combine these Langevin equations with surface hopping nonadiabatic dynamics methods to calculate the rate constants for thermal ET reactions in polar solvents for a wide range of electronic couplings and reaction free energies. Comparison of explicit and implicit solvent calculations illustrates that the mapping from explicit to implicit solvent models is valid even for solvents exhibiting complex relaxation behavior with multiple relaxation time scales and a short-time inertial response. The rate constants calculated for implicit solvent models with a single solvent relaxation time scale corresponding to water, acetonitrile, and methanol agree well with analytical theories in the Golden rule and solvent-controlled regimes, as well as in the intermediate regime. The implicit solvent models with two relaxation time scales are in qualitative agreement with the analytical theories but quantitatively overestimate the rate constants compared to these theories. Analysis of these simulations elucidates the importance of multiple relaxation time scales and the inertial component of the solvent response, as well as potential shortcomings of the analytical theories based on single time scale solvent relaxation models. This implicit solvent approach will enable the simulation of a wide range of ET reactions via the stochastic dynamics of a single collective solvent coordinate with parameters that are relevant to experimentally accessible systems.

  7. Nonadiabatic dynamics of electron transfer in solution: Explicit and implicit solvent treatments that include multiple relaxation time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwerdtfeger, Christine A.; Soudackov, Alexander V.; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    The development of efficient theoretical methods for describing electron transfer (ET) reactions in condensed phases is important for a variety of chemical and biological applications. Previously, dynamical dielectric continuum theory was used to derive Langevin equations for a single collective solvent coordinate describing ET in a polar solvent. In this theory, the parameters are directly related to the physical properties of the system and can be determined from experimental data or explicit molecular dynamics simulations. Herein, we combine these Langevin equations with surface hopping nonadiabatic dynamics methods to calculate the rate constants for thermal ET reactions in polar solvents for a wide range of electronic couplings and reaction free energies. Comparison of explicit and implicit solvent calculations illustrates that the mapping from explicit to implicit solvent models is valid even for solvents exhibiting complex relaxation behavior with multiple relaxation time scales and a short-time inertial response. The rate constants calculated for implicit solvent models with a single solvent relaxation time scale corresponding to water, acetonitrile, and methanol agree well with analytical theories in the Golden rule and solvent-controlled regimes, as well as in the intermediate regime. The implicit solvent models with two relaxation time scales are in qualitative agreement with the analytical theories but quantitatively overestimate the rate constants compared to these theories. Analysis of these simulations elucidates the importance of multiple relaxation time scales and the inertial component of the solvent response, as well as potential shortcomings of the analytical theories based on single time scale solvent relaxation models. This implicit solvent approach will enable the simulation of a wide range of ET reactions via the stochastic dynamics of a single collective solvent coordinate with parameters that are relevant to experimentally accessible systems.

  8. Genetic and Functional Analyses of SHANK2 Mutations Suggest a Multiple Hit Model of Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Leblond, Claire S.; Heinrich, Jutta; Delorme, Richard; Proepper, Christian; Betancur, Catalina; Huguet, Guillaume; Konyukh, Marina; Chaste, Pauline; Ey, Elodie; Rastam, Maria; Anckarsäter, Henrik; Nygren, Gudrun; Gillberg, I. Carina; Melke, Jonas; Toro, Roberto; Regnault, Beatrice; Fauchereau, Fabien; Mercati, Oriane; Lemière, Nathalie; Skuse, David; Poot, Martin; Holt, Richard; Monaco, Anthony P.; Järvelä, Irma; Kantojärvi, Katri; Vanhala, Raija; Curran, Sarah; Collier, David A.; Bolton, Patrick; Chiocchetti, Andreas; Klauck, Sabine M.; Poustka, Fritz; Freitag, Christine M.; Waltes, Regina; Kopp, Marnie; Duketis, Eftichia; Bacchelli, Elena; Minopoli, Fiorella; Ruta, Liliana; Battaglia, Agatino; Mazzone, Luigi; Maestrini, Elena; Sequeira, Ana F.; Oliveira, Barbara; Vicente, Astrid; Oliveira, Guiomar; Pinto, Dalila; Scherer, Stephen W.; Zelenika, Diana; Delepine, Marc; Lathrop, Mark; Bonneau, Dominique; Guinchat, Vincent; Devillard, Françoise; Assouline, Brigitte; Mouren, Marie-Christine; Leboyer, Marion; Gillberg, Christopher; Boeckers, Tobias M.; Bourgeron, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental disorders with a complex inheritance pattern. While many rare variants in synaptic proteins have been identified in patients with ASD, little is known about their effects at the synapse and their interactions with other genetic variations. Here, following the discovery of two de novo SHANK2 deletions by the Autism Genome Project, we identified a novel 421 kb de novo SHANK2 deletion in a patient with autism. We then sequenced SHANK2 in 455 patients with ASD and 431 controls and integrated these results with those reported by Berkel et al. 2010 (n?=?396 patients and n?=?659 controls). We observed a significant enrichment of variants affecting conserved amino acids in 29 of 851 (3.4%) patients and in 16 of 1,090 (1.5%) controls (P?=?0.004, OR?=?2.37, 95% CI?=?1.23–4.70). In neuronal cell cultures, the variants identified in patients were associated with a reduced synaptic density at dendrites compared to the variants only detected in controls (P?=?0.0013). Interestingly, the three patients with de novo SHANK2 deletions also carried inherited CNVs at 15q11–q13 previously associated with neuropsychiatric disorders. In two cases, the nicotinic receptor CHRNA7 was duplicated and in one case the synaptic translation repressor CYFIP1 was deleted. These results strengthen the role of synaptic gene dysfunction in ASD but also highlight the presence of putative modifier genes, which is in keeping with the “multiple hit model” for ASD. A better knowledge of these genetic interactions will be necessary to understand the complex inheritance pattern of ASD. PMID:22346768

  9. The endogenous and reactive depression subtypes revisited: integrative animal and human studies implicate multiple distinct molecular mechanisms underlying major depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Traditional diagnoses of major depressive disorder (MDD) suggested that the presence or absence of stress prior to onset results in either ‘reactive’ or ‘endogenous’ subtypes of the disorder, respectively. Several lines of research suggest that the biological underpinnings of ‘reactive’ or ‘endogenous’ subtypes may also differ, resulting in differential response to treatment. We investigated this hypothesis by comparing the gene-expression profiles of three animal models of ‘reactive’ and ‘endogenous’ depression. We then translated these findings to clinical samples using a human post-mortem mRNA study. Methods Affymetrix mouse whole-genome oligonucleotide arrays were used to measure gene expression from hippocampal tissues of 144 mice from the Genome-based Therapeutic Drugs for Depression (GENDEP) project. The study used four inbred mouse strains and two depressogenic ‘stress’ protocols (maternal separation and Unpredictable Chronic Mild Stress) to model ‘reactive’ depression. Stress-related mRNA differences in mouse were compared with a parallel mRNA study using Flinders Sensitive and Resistant rat lines as a model of ‘endogenous’ depression. Convergent genes differentially expressed across the animal studies were used to inform candidate gene selection in a human mRNA post-mortem case control study from the Stanley Brain Consortium. Results In the mouse ‘reactive’ model, the expression of 350 genes changed in response to early stresses and 370 in response to late stresses. A minimal genetic overlap (less than 8.8%) was detected in response to both stress protocols, but 30% of these genes (21) were also differentially regulated in the ‘endogenous’ rat study. This overlap is significantly greater than expected by chance. The VAMP-2 gene, differentially expressed across the rodent studies, was also significantly altered in the human study after correcting for multiple testing. Conclusions Our results suggest that ‘endogenous’ and ‘reactive’ subtypes of depression are associated with largely distinct changes in gene-expression. However, they also suggest that the molecular signature of ‘reactive’ depression caused by early stressors differs considerably from that of ‘reactive’ depression caused by late stressors. A small set of genes was consistently dysregulated across each paradigm and in post-mortem brain tissue of depressed patients suggesting a final common pathway to the disorder. These genes included the VAMP-2 gene, which has previously been associated with Axis-I disorders including MDD, bipolar depression, schizophrenia and with antidepressant treatment response. We also discuss the implications of our findings for disease classification, personalized medicine and case-control studies of MDD. PMID:24886127

  10. Using Multiple Approaches, including ?18O Signatures of Phosphate to Investigate Potential Phosphorus Limitation and Cycling under Changing Climate Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, K.; Paytan, A.; Field, C. B.; Honn, E.; Edwards, E.; Gottlieb, R.

    2012-12-01

    Phosphorus (P) is often a limiting or co-limiting nutrient in terrestrial systems. It has been proposed that it will play an even greater role in ecosystems experiencing some of the many predicted effects of climate change, in particular release from nitrogen limitation. Recent work in 2007 by Menge et al. suggests that this is indeed a possibility. To investigate the potential for P limitation, and P cycling under multiple controlled conditions we collected samples from the Jasper Ridge Global Change Experiment (JRGCE) in May 2011. For over a decade the JRGCE has been manipulating four key parameters predicted to change in the future in a native Californian grassland system. Elevated Nitrogen deposition, increased precipitation, increased pCO2, and increased temperature are applied and monitored in a split plot design at the Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve in the eastern foothills of the Santa Cruz Mountains, California. Work done previously at the site using a suite of indicators of the potential P limitation suggest P limitation in some of the manipulated plots in the JRGCE. In this study we replicate a subset of the prior analyses to compare inter-annual signals of P limitation, and further attempt to utilize the oxygen isotopes of phosphate to investigate P cycling in soils at JRGCE. A fractional soil extraction process for phosphate enables separation of several operationally defined P pools, and provides auxiliary information regarding the relative concentrations of bio-available P, and relevant minerals in this grassland system under the varied conditions.

  11. ?-carboline compounds, including harmine, inhibit DYRK1A and tau phosphorylation at multiple Alzheimer's disease-related sites.

    PubMed

    Frost, Danielle; Meechoovet, Bessie; Wang, Tong; Gately, Stephen; Giorgetti, Marco; Shcherbakova, Irina; Dunckley, Travis

    2011-01-01

    Harmine, a ?-carboline alkaloid, is a high affinity inhibitor of the dual specificity tyrosine phosphorylation regulated kinase 1A (DYRK1A) protein. The DYRK1A gene is located within the Down Syndrome Critical Region (DSCR) on chromosome 21. We and others have implicated DYRK1A in the phosphorylation of tau protein on multiple sites associated with tau pathology in Down Syndrome and in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Pharmacological inhibition of this kinase may provide an opportunity to intervene therapeutically to alter the onset or progression of tau pathology in AD. Here we test the ability of harmine, and numerous additional ?-carboline compounds, to inhibit the DYRK1A dependent phosphorylation of tau protein on serine 396, serine 262/serine 356 (12E8 epitope), and threonine 231 in cell culture assays and in vitro phosphorylation assays. Results demonstrate that the ?-carboline compounds (1) potently reduce the expression of all three phosphorylated forms of tau protein, and (2) inhibit the DYRK1A catalyzed direct phosphorylation of tau protein on serine 396. By assaying several ?-carboline compounds, we define certain chemical groups that modulate the affinity of this class of compounds for inhibition of tau phosphorylation. PMID:21573099

  12. Multiple beneficial lipids including lecithin detected in the edible invasive mollusk Crepidula fornicata from the French Northeastern Atlantic coast.

    PubMed

    Dagorn, Flore; Buzin, Florence; Couzinet-Mossion, Aurélie; Decottignies, Priscilla; Viau, Michèle; Rabesaotra, Vony; Barnathan, Gilles; Wielgosz-Collin, Gaëtane

    2014-12-01

    The invasive mollusk Crepidula fornicata, occurring in large amounts in bays along the French Northeastern Atlantic coasts, may have huge environmental effects in highly productive ecosystems where shellfish are exploited. The present study aims at determining the potential economic value of this marine species in terms of exploitable substances with high added value. Lipid content and phospholipid (PL) composition of this mollusk collected on the Bourgneuf Bay were studied through four seasons. Winter specimens contained the highest lipid levels (5.3% dry weight), including 69% of PLs. Phosphatidylcholine (PC) was the major PL class all year, accounting for 63.9% to 88.9% of total PLs. Consequently, the winter specimens were then investigated for PL fatty acids (FAs), and free sterols. Dimethylacetals (DMAs) were present (10.7% of PL FA + DMA mixture) revealing the occurrence of plasmalogens. More than forty FAs were identified, including 20:5n-3 (9.4%) and 22:6n-3 (7.3%) acids. Fourteen free sterols were present, including cholesterol at 31.3% of the sterol mixture and about 40% of phytosterols. These data on lipids of C. fornicata demonstrate their positive attributes for human nutrition and health. The PL mixture, rich in PC and polyunsaturated FAs, offers an interesting alternative source of high value-added marine lecithin. PMID:25532566

  13. Multiple Beneficial Lipids Including Lecithin Detected in the Edible Invasive Mollusk Crepidula fornicata from the French Northeastern Atlantic Coast

    PubMed Central

    Dagorn, Flore; Buzin, Florence; Couzinet-Mossion, Aurélie; Decottignies, Priscilla; Viau, Michèle; Rabesaotra, Vony; Barnathan, Gilles; Wielgosz-Collin, Gaëtane

    2014-01-01

    The invasive mollusk Crepidula fornicata, occurring in large amounts in bays along the French Northeastern Atlantic coasts, may have huge environmental effects in highly productive ecosystems where shellfish are exploited. The present study aims at determining the potential economic value of this marine species in terms of exploitable substances with high added value. Lipid content and phospholipid (PL) composition of this mollusk collected on the Bourgneuf Bay were studied through four seasons. Winter specimens contained the highest lipid levels (5.3% dry weight), including 69% of PLs. Phosphatidylcholine (PC) was the major PL class all year, accounting for 63.9% to 88.9% of total PLs. Consequently, the winter specimens were then investigated for PL fatty acids (FAs), and free sterols. Dimethylacetals (DMAs) were present (10.7% of PL FA + DMA mixture) revealing the occurrence of plasmalogens. More than forty FAs were identified, including 20:5n-3 (9.4%) and 22:6n-3 (7.3%) acids. Fourteen free sterols were present, including cholesterol at 31.3% of the sterol mixture and about 40% of phytosterols. These data on lipids of C. fornicata demonstrate their positive attributes for human nutrition and health. The PL mixture, rich in PC and polyunsaturated FAs, offers an interesting alternative source of high value-added marine lecithin. PMID:25532566

  14. The Diagnostic Drawing Series and the Tree Rating Scale: An Isomorphic Representation of Multiple Personality Disorder, Major Depression, and Schizophrenic Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Maureen Batza

    1995-01-01

    The tree drawings of 80 subjects, who were diagnosed with either multiple personality disorder, schizophrenia, or major depression, and a control group, were rated. Patterns were examined and graphs were used to depict results. Certain features were found to distinguish each category. The descriptive statistical findings were both consistent and…

  15. Eating Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    Eating disorders are serious behavior problems. They can include severe overeating or not consuming enough food to stay healthy. ... about your shape or weight. Types of eating disorders include Anorexia nervosa, in which you become too ...

  16. Tailbone Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the bottom of your backbone, or spine. Tailbone disorders include tailbone injuries, pain, infections, cysts and tumors. ... cause of such injuries. Symptoms of various tailbone disorders include pain in the tailbone area, pain upon ...

  17. Enteric Bacterial Metabolites Propionic and Butyric Acid Modulate Gene Expression, Including CREB-Dependent Catecholaminergic Neurotransmission, in PC12 Cells - Possible Relevance to Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Nankova, Bistra B.; Agarwal, Raj; MacFabe, Derrick F.; La Gamma, Edmund F.

    2014-01-01

    Alterations in gut microbiome composition have an emerging role in health and disease including brain function and behavior. Short chain fatty acids (SCFA) like propionic (PPA), and butyric acid (BA), which are present in diet and are fermentation products of many gastrointestinal bacteria, are showing increasing importance in host health, but also may be environmental contributors in neurodevelopmental disorders including autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Further to this we have shown SCFA administration to rodents over a variety of routes (intracerebroventricular, subcutaneous, intraperitoneal) or developmental time periods can elicit behavioral, electrophysiological, neuropathological and biochemical effects consistent with findings in ASD patients. SCFA are capable of altering host gene expression, partly due to their histone deacetylase inhibitor activity. We have previously shown BA can regulate tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) mRNA levels in a PC12 cell model. Since monoamine concentration is known to be elevated in the brain and blood of ASD patients and in many ASD animal models, we hypothesized that SCFA may directly influence brain monoaminergic pathways. When PC12 cells were transiently transfected with plasmids having a luciferase reporter gene under the control of the TH promoter, PPA was found to induce reporter gene activity over a wide concentration range. CREB transcription factor(s) was necessary for the transcriptional activation of TH gene by PPA. At lower concentrations PPA also caused accumulation of TH mRNA and protein, indicative of increased cell capacity to produce catecholamines. PPA and BA induced broad alterations in gene expression including neurotransmitter systems, neuronal cell adhesion molecules, inflammation, oxidative stress, lipid metabolism and mitochondrial function, all of which have been implicated in ASD. In conclusion, our data are consistent with a molecular mechanism through which gut related environmental signals such as increased levels of SCFA's can epigenetically modulate cell function further supporting their role as environmental contributors to ASD. PMID:25170769

  18. The Dopamine Imbalance Hypothesis of Fatigue in Multiple Sclerosis and Other Neurological Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Dobryakova, Ekaterina; Genova, Helen M.; DeLuca, John; Wylie, Glenn R.

    2015-01-01

    Fatigue is one of the most pervasive symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS), and has engendered hundreds of investigations on the topic. While there is a growing literature using various methods to study fatigue, a unified theory of fatigue in MS is yet to emerge. In the current review, we synthesize findings from neuroimaging, pharmacological, neuropsychological, and immunological studies of fatigue in MS, which point to a specific hypothesis of fatigue in MS: the dopamine imbalance hypothesis. The communication between the striatum and prefrontal cortex is reliant on dopamine, a modulatory neurotransmitter. Neuroimaging findings suggest that fatigue results from the disruption of communication between these regions. Supporting the dopamine imbalance hypothesis, structural and functional neuroimaging studies show abnormalities in the frontal and striatal regions that are heavily innervated by dopamine neurons. Further, dopaminergic psychostimulant medication has been shown to alleviate fatigue in individuals with traumatic brain injury, chronic fatigue syndrome, and in cancer patients, also indicating that dopamine might play an important role in fatigue perception. This paper reviews the structural and functional neuroimaging evidence as well as pharmacological studies that suggest that dopamine plays a critical role in the phenomenon of fatigue. We conclude with how specific aspects of the dopamine imbalance hypothesis can be tested in future research. PMID:25814977

  19. SOX9 Regulates Multiple Genes in Chondrocytes, Including Genes Encoding ECM Proteins, ECM Modification Enzymes, Receptors, and Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Chun-do; Lu, Yue; Liang, Shoudan; Mori-Akiyama, Yuko; Chen, Di; de Crombrugghe, Benoit; Yasuda, Hideyo

    2014-01-01

    The transcription factor SOX9 plays an essential role in determining the fate of several cell types and is a master factor in regulation of chondrocyte development. Our aim was to determine which genes in the genome of chondrocytes are either directly or indirectly controlled by SOX9. We used RNA-Seq to identify genes whose expression levels were affected by SOX9 and used SOX9 ChIP-Seq to identify those genes that harbor SOX9-interaction sites. For RNA-Seq, the RNA expression profile of primary Sox9flox/flox mouse chondrocytes infected with Ad-CMV-Cre was compared with that of the same cells infected with a control adenovirus. Analysis of RNA-Seq data indicated that, when the levels of Sox9 mRNA were decreased more than 8-fold by infection with Ad-CMV-Cre, 196 genes showed a decrease in expression of at least 4-fold. These included many cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM) genes and a number of genes for ECM modification enzymes (transferases), membrane receptors, transporters, and others. In ChIP-Seq, 75% of the SOX9-interaction sites had a canonical inverted repeat motif within 100 bp of the top of the peak. SOX9-interaction sites were found in 55% of the genes whose expression was decreased more than 8-fold in SOX9-depleted cells and in somewhat fewer of the genes whose expression was reduced more than 4-fold, suggesting that these are direct targets of SOX9. The combination of RNA-Seq and ChIP-Seq has provided a fuller understanding of the SOX9-controlled genetic program of chondrocytes. PMID:25229425

  20. Airborne electromagnetic detection of shallow seafloor topographic features, including resolution of multiple sub-parallel seafloor ridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrbancich, Julian; Boyd, Graham

    2014-05-01

    The HoistEM helicopter time-domain electromagnetic (TEM) system was flown over waters in Backstairs Passage, South Australia, in 2003 to test the bathymetric accuracy and hence the ability to resolve seafloor structure in shallow and deeper waters (extending to ~40 m depth) that contain interesting seafloor topography. The topography that forms a rock peak (South Page) in the form of a mini-seamount that barely rises above the water surface was accurately delineated along its ridge from the start of its base (where the seafloor is relatively flat) in ~30 m water depth to its peak at the water surface, after an empirical correction was applied to the data to account for imperfect system calibration, consistent with earlier studies using the same HoistEM system. A much smaller submerged feature (Threshold Bank) of ~9 m peak height located in waters of 35 to 40 m depth was also accurately delineated. These observations when checked against known water depths in these two regions showed that the airborne TEM system, following empirical data correction, was effectively operating correctly. The third and most important component of the survey was flown over the Yatala Shoals region that includes a series of sub-parallel seafloor ridges (resembling large sandwaves rising up to ~20 m from the seafloor) that branch out and gradually decrease in height as the ridges spread out across the seafloor. These sub-parallel ridges provide an interesting topography because the interpreted water depths obtained from 1D inversion of TEM data highlight the limitations of the EM footprint size in resolving both the separation between the ridges (which vary up to ~300 m) and the height of individual ridges (which vary up to ~20 m), and possibly also the limitations of assuming a 1D model in areas where the topography is quasi-2D/3D.

  1. The incidence and prevalence of comorbid gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal, ocular, pulmonary, and renal disorders in multiple sclerosis: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Reider, Nadia; Stuve, Olaf; Trojano, Maria; Sorensen, Per Soelberg; Cutter, Gary R; Reingold, Stephen C; Cohen, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Background: As new disease-modifying therapies emerge a better knowledge of the risk of comorbid disease in multiple sclerosis (MS) is needed. Objective: To estimate the incidence and prevalence of comorbid gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal, ocular, pulmonary, and renal disorders in MS. Methods: We systematically reviewed the world literature by searching PUBMED, EMBASE, SCOPUS, the Web of Knowledge, and reference lists of retrieved articles. For selected articles, one reviewer abstracted data using a standardized form. The abstraction was verified by a second reviewer. The quality of all selected studies was assessed. For population-based studies we quantitatively assessed studies using the I2 statistic, and conducted random effects meta-analyses. Results: Study designs were heterogeneous with respect to populations, case definitions, and methods of ascertainment. Incidence of the studied comorbidities was rarely reported. Irritable bowel syndrome and chronic lung disease had a prevalence of more than 10% in the MS population. Irritable bowel syndrome, fibromyalgia, cataracts and glaucoma were more common than expected in the MS population. Conclusion: Although they have been the subject of less study than other comorbidities, irritable bowel syndrome, arthritis, and chronic lung disease are common in the MS population and occur more often than expected when compared to the general population. PMID:25538150

  2. Behavioral inhibition and anxiety disorders: multiple levels of a resilience process.

    PubMed

    Degnan, Kathryn Amey; Fox, Nathan A

    2007-01-01

    Behavioral inhibition is reported to be one of the most stable temperamental characteristics in childhood. However, there is also evidence for discontinuity of this trait, with infants and toddlers who were extremely inhibited displaying less withdrawn social behavior as school-age children or adolescents. There are many possible explanations for the discontinuity in this temperament over time. They include the development of adaptive attention and regulatory skills, the influence of particular styles of parenting or caregiving contexts, and individual characteristics of the child such as their level of approach-withdrawal motivation or their gender. These discontinuous trajectories of behaviorally inhibited children and the factors that form them are discussed as examples of the resilience process. PMID:17705900

  3. A Systematic Review of Combination Therapy with Stimulants and Atomoxetine for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Including Patient Characteristics, Treatment Strategies, Effectiveness, and Tolerability

    PubMed Central

    Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Méndez, Luis; Montgomery, William; Monk, Julie A.; Altin, Murat; Wu, Shenghu; Lin, Chaucer C.H.; Dueñas, Héctor J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective The purpose of this article was to systematically review the literature on stimulant and atomoxetine combination therapy, in particular: 1) Characteristics of patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) given combination therapy, 2) treatment strategies used, 3) efficacy and effectiveness, and 4) safety and tolerability. Methods Literature databases (MEDLINE®, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Science Citation Index Expanded, and SciVerse Scopus) were systematically searched using prespecified criteria. Publications describing stimulant and atomoxetine combination therapy in patients with ADHD or healthy volunteers were selected for review. Exclusion criteria were comorbid psychosis, bipolar disorder, epilepsy, or other psychiatric/neurologic diseases that could confound ADHD symptom assessment, or other concomitant medication(s) to treat ADHD symptoms. Results Of the 16 publications included for review, 14 reported findings from 3 prospective studies (4 publications), 7 retrospective studies, and 3 narrative reviews/medication algorithms of patients with ADHD. The other two publications reported findings from two prospective studies of healthy volunteers. The main reason for prescribing combination therapy was inadequate response to previous treatment. In the studies of patients with ADHD, if reported, 1) most patients were children/adolescents and male, and had a combined ADHD subtype; 2) methylphenidate was most often used in combination with atomoxetine for treatment augmentation or switch; 3) ADHD symptom control was improved in some, but not all, patients; and 4) there were no serious adverse events. Conclusions Published evidence of the off-label use of stimulant and atomoxetine combination therapy is limited because of the small number of publications, heterogeneous study designs (there was only one prospective, randomized controlled trial), small sample sizes, and geographic bias. Existing evidence suggests, but does not confirm, that this drug combination may benefit some, but not all, patients who have tried several ADHD medications without success. PMID:23560600

  4. Reliable disease biomarkers characterizing and identifying electrohypersensitivity and multiple chemical sensitivity as two etiopathogenic aspects of a unique pathological disorder.

    PubMed

    Belpomme, Dominique; Campagnac, Christine; Irigaray, Philippe

    2015-12-01

    Much of the controversy over the causes of electro-hypersensitivity (EHS) and multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) lies in the absence of both recognized clinical criteria and objective biomarkers for widely accepted diagnosis. Since 2009, we have prospectively investigated, clinically and biologically, 1216 consecutive EHS and/or MCS-self reporting cases, in an attempt to answer both questions. We report here our preliminary data, based on 727 evaluable of 839 enrolled cases: 521 (71.6%) were diagnosed with EHS, 52 (7.2%) with MCS, and 154 (21.2%) with both EHS and MCS. Two out of three patients with EHS and/or MCS were female; mean age (years) was 47. As inflammation appears to be a key process resulting from electromagnetic field (EMF) and/or chemical effects on tissues, and histamine release is potentially a major mediator of inflammation, we systematically measured histamine in the blood of patients. Near 40% had a increase in histaminemia (especially when both conditions were present), indicating a chronic inflammatory response can be detected in these patients. Oxidative stress is part of inflammation and is a key contributor to damage and response. Nitrotyrosin, a marker of both peroxynitrite (ONOO°-) production and opening of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), was increased in 28% the cases. Protein S100B, another marker of BBB opening was increased in 15%. Circulating autoantibodies against O-myelin were detected in 23%, indicating EHS and MCS may be associated with autoimmune response. Confirming animal experiments showing the increase of Hsp27 and/or Hsp70 chaperone proteins under the influence of EMF, we found increased Hsp27 and/or Hsp70 in 33% of the patients. As most patients reported chronic insomnia and fatigue, we determined the 24 h urine 6-hydroxymelatonin sulfate (6-OHMS)/creatinin ratio and found it was decreased (<0.8) in all investigated cases. Finally, considering the self-reported symptoms of EHS and MCS, we serially measured the brain blood flow (BBF) in the temporal lobes of each case with pulsed cerebral ultrasound computed tomosphygmography. Both disorders were associated with hypoperfusion in the capsulothalamic area, suggesting that the inflammatory process involve the limbic system and the thalamus. Our data strongly suggest that EHS and MCS can be objectively characterized and routinely diagnosed by commercially available simple tests. Both disorders appear to involve inflammation-related hyper-histaminemia, oxidative stress, autoimmune response, capsulothalamic hypoperfusion and BBB opening, and a deficit in melatonin metabolic availability; suggesting a risk of chronic neurodegenerative disease. Finally the common co-occurrence of EHS and MCS strongly suggests a common pathological mechanism. PMID:26613326

  5. Blood Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. Blood disorders affect one or more parts of the blood ... They can be acute or chronic. Many blood disorders are inherited. Other causes include other diseases, side ...

  6. Bleeding disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    Bleeding disorders are a group of conditions in which there is a problem with the body's blood clotting ... Bleeding can also begin on its own. Specific bleeding disorders include: Acquired platelet function defects Congenital platelet function ...

  7. Conduct Disorder

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a child developing conduct disorder, including brain damage, child abuse or neglect, genetic vulnerability, school failure, and traumatic ... conditions such as mood disorders , anxiety , PTSD , substance ... are the child's uncooperative attitude, fear and distrust of adults. In ...

  8. An Evaluation of a Brief Multiple-stimulus Preference assessment with Adolescents with Emotional-behavioral disorders in an Educational Setting

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Brief multiple-stimulus-without-replacement (MSWO) preference assessments were conducted with 3 adolescent boys with emotional-behavioral disorders in the context of their public school educational program. The reinforcing effects of stimuli identified as high, medium, and low preference were then evaluated using an alternating treatments design in which, following an initial baseline, stimuli were delivered contingent on on-task behavior. High-preference stimuli produced the highest percentages of on-task behavior for all 3 participants. PMID:16270849

  9. Atomoxetine Augmentation in a Case of Treatment Resistant Panic Disorder with Multiple Augments Failure: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Ram, Dushad; Patil, Shwetha; Gowdappa, Basavana; Rajalakshmi, Iyshwarya

    2015-01-01

    Atomoxetine, a selective norepinephrine inhibitor, is effective in comorbid anxiety and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, however its role in panic disorder is unknown. We are presenting a case of panic disorder, who initially partially responded to clonazepam. When clonazepam was added with sertraline, escitalopram, desvenlafaxin, she did not improve significantly until paroxetine was added. When clonazepam-paroxetine combination was added with propranolol, etizolam, olanzepine, risperidone and amisulpride the symptom remission did not occur until a trial of Atomoxetine was done. PMID:26598594

  10. Atomoxetine Augmentation in a Case of Treatment Resistant Panic Disorder with Multiple Augments Failure: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Ram, Dushad; Patil, Shwetha; Gowdappa, Basavana; Rajalakshmi, Iyshwarya

    2015-12-31

    Atomoxetine, a selective norepinephrine inhibitor, is effective in comorbid anxiety and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, however its role in panic disorder is unknown. We are presenting a case of panic disorder, who initially partially responded to clonazepam. When clonazepam was added with sertraline, escitalopram, desvenlafaxin, she did not improve significantly until paroxetine was added. When clonazepam-paroxetine combination was added with propranolol, etizolam, olanzepine, risperidone and amisulpride the symptom remission did not occur until a trial of Atomoxetine was done. PMID:26598594

  11. Childhood Functional GI Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Buy IFFGD Merchandise Contact Us Donate Childhood Functional GI Disorders A functional disorder refers to a disorder ... regurgitation, heartburn, or food refusal. Examples of functional GI disorders in kids and teens include: Infant regurgitation ...

  12. Subthreshold Conditions as Precursors for Full Syndrome Disorders: A 15-Year Longitudinal Study of Multiple Diagnostic Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shankman, Stewart A.; Lewinsohn, Peter M.; Klein, Daniel N.; Small, Jason W.; Seeley, John R.; Altman, Sarah E.

    2009-01-01

    Background: There has been increasing interest in the distinction between subthreshold and full syndrome disorders and specifically whether subthreshold conditions escalate or predict the onset of full syndrome disorders over time. Most of these studies, however, examined whether a single subthreshold condition escalates into the full syndrome…

  13. Mosaicism for genome-wide paternal uniparental disomy with features of multiple imprinting disorders: diagnostic and management issues.

    PubMed

    Inbar-Feigenberg, Michal; Choufani, Sanaa; Cytrynbaum, Cheryl; Chen, Yi-An; Steele, Leslie; Shuman, Cheryl; Ray, Peter N; Weksberg, Rosanna

    2013-01-01

    Mosaicism for genome-wide paternal uniparental disomy (UPD) has been reported in only seven live born individuals to date. Clinical presentation includes manifestations of multiple paternal UPD syndromes with high variability, likely due to the variable levels of mosaicism in different somatic tissues. We report an eighth case in a female patient with mosaicism for genome-wide paternal UPD which highlights the complex clinical presentation. Our patient had features of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS), Angelman syndrome, and congenital hyperinsulinism. The clinical findings included prematurity, organomegaly, hemihyperplasia, developmental delay, benign tumors, and cystic lesions. The diagnosis in our patient was established utilizing microarray-based genome-wide DNA methylation analysis performed on leukocyte DNA. Targeted multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) analysis of chromosome regions 11p15 and 15q13 confirmed mosaicism for paternal UPD at these genomic regions. This case represents the first report of microarray-based genome-wide DNA methylation analysis in the diagnosis of genome-wide paternal UPD. The application of microarray-based genome-wide DNA methylation analysis on selected individuals with complex clinical presentations could be a valuable diagnostic tool to improve the detection rate of mosaic genome-wide paternal UPD. This approach, which screens many loci simultaneously, is more cost-effective and less labor-intensive than performing multiple targeted DNA methylation-based assays. Identification of individuals with mosaicism for genome-wide paternal UPD is an important goal as it confers a low recurrence risk for the family and identifies individuals who require surveillance due to increased tumor risk. PMID:23239666

  14. Multiple therapeutic and preventive effects of 3,3?-diindolylmethane on cancers including prostate cancer and high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, William Weiben; Feng, Zhenqing; Narod, Steven A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Cruciferous vegetables belong to the plant family that has flowers with four equal-sized petals in the pattern of a crucifer cross. These vegetables are an abundant source of dietary phytochemicals, including glucosinolates and their hydrolysis products such as indole-3-carbinol (I3C) and 3,3?-diindolylmethane (DIM). By 2013, the total number of natural glucosinolates that have been documented is estimated to be 132. Recently, cruciferous vegetable intake has garnered great interest for its multiple health benefits such as anticancer, antiviral infections, human sex hormone regulation, and its therapeutic and preventive effects on prostate cancer and high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN). DIM is a hydrolysis product of glucosinolates and has been used in various trials. This review is to provide an insight into the latest developments of DIM in treating or preventing both prostate cancer and HGPIN. PMID:25332705

  15. Integrated Treatment of Substance Use and Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Thomas M.; Daley, Dennis C.

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological studies find that psychiatric disorders, including mental disorders and substance use disorders, are common among adults and highly comorbid. Integrated treatment refers to the focus of treatment on two or more conditions and to the use of multiple treatments such as the combination of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy. Integrated treatment for comorbidity has been found to be consistently superior compared to treatment of individual disorders with separate treatment plans. This article focuses on a review of the risks for developing comorbid disorders and the combinations of treatments that appear to be most effective for clients with particular comorbid disorders. PMID:23731427

  16. Low self–esteem in women with eating disorders and alcohol abuse as a psycho–social factor to be included in their psychotherapeutic approach

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Author have analyzed the psycho–social peculiarities of the women from Romania who are affected by eating disorders and alcohol excessive consumption, and studied the manner of the link between these disease and the psycho–sexual. 120 participants at the study (Oltenia district) were divided into 2 groups: 60 healthy women, 30 with eating disorders and 30 alcohol dependent women. In all subjects were applied the following tests: Scale for compulsive appetite (SCA) and Scale of interest for own weight, both for eating disorders, CAGE questionnaire for alcohol dependence and two scales for determining: the gender–role ambivalence (O'Neil and Caroll Scale) and the masculinity and feminity index (A. Chelcea). The results obtained in both lots of Romanian women with pathologic behavior (food and/or alcohol consumption) have indicated a low psycho–sexual identity versus control group but no correlation with masculinity/feminity index. PMID:21254749

  17. Neurology of rheumatologic disorders.

    PubMed

    Nouh, Amre; Carbunar, Olimpia; Ruland, Sean

    2014-07-01

    Rheumatologic diseases encompass autoimmune and inflammatory disorders of the joints and soft tissues that often involve multiple organ systems, including the central and peripheral nervous systems. Common features include constitutional symptoms, arthralgia and arthritis, myalgia, and sicca symptoms. Neurological manifestations may present in patients with preexisting rheumatologic diagnoses, occur concurrently with systemic signs and symptoms, or precede systemic manifestations by months to years. Rheumatic disorders presenting as neurological syndromes may pose diagnostic challenges. Advances in immunosuppressive treatment of rheumatologic disease have expanded the treatment armamentarium. However, serious neurotoxic effects have been reported with both old and newer agents. Familiarity with neurological manifestations of rheumatologic diseases, diagnosis, and potential nervous system consequences of treatment is important for rapid diagnosis and appropriate intervention. This article briefly reviews the diverse neurological manifestations and key clinical features of rheumatic disorders and the potential neurological complications of agents commonly used for treatment. PMID:24871965

  18. Cytogenetic analyses of eight species in the genus Leptodactylus Fitzinger, 1843 (Amphibia, Anura, Leptodactylidae), including a new diploid number and a karyotype with multiple translocations

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The karyotypes of Leptodactylus species usually consist of 22 bi-armed chromosomes, but morphological variations in some chromosomes and even differences in the 2n have been reported. To better understand the mechanisms responsible for these differences, eight species were analysed using classical and molecular cytogenetic techniques, including replication banding with BrdU incorporation. Results Distinct chromosome numbers were found: 2n = 22 in Leptodactylus chaquensis, L. labyrinthicus, L. pentadactylus, L. petersii, L. podicipinus, and L. rhodomystax; 2n = 20 in Leptodactylus sp. (aff. podicipinus); and 2n = 24 in L. marmoratus. Among the species with 2n = 22, only three had the same basic karyotype. Leptodactylus pentadactylus presented multiple translocations, L. petersii displayed chromosome morphological discrepancy, and L. podicipinus had four pairs of telocentric chromosomes. Replication banding was crucial for characterising this variability and for explaining the reduced 2n in Leptodactylus sp. (aff. podicipinus). Leptodactylus marmoratus had few chromosomes with a similar banding patterns to the 2n = 22 karyotypes. The majority of the species presented a single NOR-bearing pair, which was confirmed using Ag-impregnation and FISH with an rDNA probe. In general, the NOR-bearing chromosomes corresponded to chromosome 8, but NORs were found on chromosome 3 or 4 in some species. Leptodactylus marmoratus had NORs on chromosome pairs 6 and 8. The data from C-banding, fluorochrome staining, and FISH using the telomeric probe helped in characterising the repetitive sequences. Even though hybridisation did occur on the chromosome ends, telomere-like repetitive sequences outside of the telomere region were identified. Metaphase I cells from L. pentadactylus confirmed its complex karyotype constitution because 12 chromosomes appeared as ring-shaped chain in addition to five bivalents. Conclusions Species of Leptodactylus exhibited both major and minor karyotypic differences which were identified by classical and molecular cytogenetic techniques. Replication banding, which is a unique procedure that has been used to obtain longitudinal multiple band patterns in amphibian chromosomes, allowed us to outline the general mechanisms responsible for these karyotype differences. The findings also suggested that L. marmoratus, which was formerly included in the genus Adenomera, may have undergone great chromosomal repatterning. PMID:23268622

  19. The Social Validation of Behaviors Included in the Critical Events Index of the Systematic Screening for Behavior Disorders in Male Saudi Arabia Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alwan, Emad

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to: (a) identify which behaviors from the Systematic Screening for Behavior Disorders (SSBD) Critical Events Index occur in male Saudi Arabia primary schools and how often teachers perceive their occurrence; (b) determine the extent of concern male Saudi Arabia primary school teachers report regarding these behaviors;…

  20. Prospective Follow-Up of Girls with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder into Early Adulthood: Continuing Impairment Includes Elevated Risk for Suicide Attempts and Self-Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Owens, Elizabeth B.; Zalecki, Christine; Huggins, Suzanne Perrigue; Montenegro-Nevado, Adriana J.; Schrodek, Emily; Swanson, Erika N.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We performed a 10-year prospective follow-up of a childhood-ascertained (6-12 years), ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; N = 140: combined type [ADHD-C] n = 93; inattentive type [ADHD-I] n = 47) plus a matched comparison group (N = 88). Girls were recruited from…

  1. Therapeutic Horseback Riding Outcomes of Parent-Identified Goals for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: An ABA' Multiple Case Design Examining Dosing and Generalization to the Home and Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holm, Margo B.; Baird, Joanne M.; Kim, Young Joo; Rajora, Kuwar B.; D'Silva, Delma; Podolinsky, Lin; Mazefsky, Carla; Minshew, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    We examined whether different doses of therapeutic riding influenced parent-nominated target behaviors of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (a) during the session (b) at home, and (c) in the community. We used a single subject multiple Baseline, multiple case design, with dosing of 1, 3, and 5 times/week. Three boys with ASD, 6-8 years…

  2. Bone biopsy in haematological disorders.

    PubMed Central

    Burkhardt, R; Frisch, B; Bartl, R

    1982-01-01

    Bone marrow biopsies are now widely used in the investigation and follow-up of many diseases. Semi-thin sections of 8216 undecalcified biopsies of patients with haematological disorders were studied. Observations were made on the cytopenias and the myelodysplastic syndromes, the acute leukaemias the myeloproliferative disorders, Hodgkin's disease and the malignant lymphomas including multiple myeloma, hairy cell leukaemia and angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy. Bone marrow biopsies are essential for the differential diagnosis of most cytopenias and for the early recognition of fibrosis which most frequently occurred as a consequence of megakaryocytic proliferation in the myeloproliferative disorders. Different patterns of bone marrow involvement were found in the lymphoproliferative disorders and both their type and extent constituted factors of prognostic significance. A survey of the literature is given and the conclusion is drawn that bone marrow biopsies provide indispensible information for the diagnostic evaluation and the follow-up of patients with haematological disorders. Images PMID:7040489

  3. Incidence, risk factors, and implemented prophylaxis of varicella zoster virus infection, including complicated varicella zoster virus and herpes simplex virus infections, in lenalidomide-treated multiple myeloma patients.

    PubMed

    König, C; Kleber, M; Reinhardt, H; Knop, S; Wäsch, R; Engelhardt, M

    2014-03-01

    In the era of high-dose chemotherapy and novel antimyeloma agents, the survival of multiple myeloma (MM) patients has substantially improved. Adverse effects, including infections, may however arise in the era of combination antimyeloma therapies. In general, MM patients have shown a risk of varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection of 1-4 %, increasing with bortezomib treatment or transplants, but whether immunomodulatory drugs also bear a risk of VZV/complicated herpes simplex virus (HSV) (e.g., VZV-encephalitis [VZV-E], disseminated VZV-infection [d-VZV-i], or conus-cauda syndrome [CCS]) has not been elucidated. We here assessed VZV, VZV-E, d-VZV-i, and CCS in 93 lenalidomide-treated MM patients, consecutively seen and treated in our department. Patients' data were analyzed via electronic medical record retrieval within our research data warehouse as described previously. Of the 93 MM patients receiving lenalidomide, 10 showed VZV or other complicated VZV/HSV infections. These VZV patients showed defined risk factors as meticulously assessed, including suppressed lymphocyte subsets, substantial cell-mediated immune defects, and compromised humoral immune response. Due to our findings-and in line with an aciclovir prophylaxis in bortezomib and stem cell transplant protocols-we introduced a routine aciclovir prophylaxis in our lenalidomide protocols in May 2012 to minimize adverse events and to avoid discontinuation of lenalidomide treatment. Since then, we have observed no case of VZV/complicated HSV infection. Based on our data, we encourage other centers to also focus on these observations, assess viral infections, and-in those centers facilitating a research data warehouse-advocate an analogue data review as an appropriate multicenter approach. PMID:24318541

  4. Oppositional Defiant and Conduct Disorder Behaviors in Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder with and without Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder versus Several Comparison Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guttmann-Steinmetz, Sarit; Gadow, Kenneth D.; DeVincent, Carla J.

    2009-01-01

    We compared disruptive behaviors in boys with either autism spectrum disorder (ASD) plus ADHD (n = 74), chronic multiple tic disorder plus ADHD (n = 47), ADHD Only (n = 59), or ASD Only (n = 107). Children were evaluated with parent and teacher versions of the Child Symptom Inventory-4 including parent- (n = 168) and teacher-rated (n = 173)…

  5. Becoming a Teacher in Multiple Voices: An Exploration of Teacher Identity Formation among Teachers of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilt, Mary E.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the formation of teacher identity among four teachers of students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and my own by examining our perspectives, influences, and experiences at different points in our careers and determining the similarities and differences that exist in our professional and educational…

  6. Pediatric intestinal motility disorders.

    PubMed

    Gfroerer, Stefan; Rolle, Udo

    2015-09-01

    Pediatric intestinal motility disorders affect many children and thus not only impose a significant impact on pediatric health care in general but also on the quality of life of the affected patient. Furthermore, some of these conditions might also have implications for adulthood. Pediatric intestinal motility disorders frequently present as chronic constipation in toddler age children. Most of these conditions are functional, meaning that constipation does not have an organic etiology, but in 5% of the cases, an underlying, clearly organic disorder can be identified. Patients with organic causes for intestinal motility disorders usually present in early infancy or even right after birth. The most striking clinical feature of children with severe intestinal motility disorders is the delayed passage of meconium in the newborn period. This sign is highly indicative of the presence of Hirschsprung disease (HD), which is the most frequent congenital disorder of intestinal motility. HD is a rare but important congenital disease and the most significant entity of pediatric intestinal motility disorders. The etiology and pathogenesis of HD have been extensively studied over the last several decades. A defect in neural crest derived cell migration has been proven as an underlying cause of HD, leading to an aganglionic distal end of the gut. Numerous basic science and clinical research related studies have been conducted to better diagnose and treat HD. Resection of the aganglionic bowel remains the gold standard for treatment of HD. Most recent studies show, at least experimentally, the possibility of a stem cell based therapy for HD. This editorial also includes rare causes of pediatric intestinal motility disorders such as hypoganglionosis, dysganglionosis, chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction and ganglioneuromatosis in multiple endocrine metaplasia. Underlying organic pathologies are rare in pediatric intestinal motility disorders but must be recognized as early as possible. PMID:26361414

  7. Pediatric intestinal motility disorders

    PubMed Central

    Gfroerer, Stefan; Rolle, Udo

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric intestinal motility disorders affect many children and thus not only impose a significant impact on pediatric health care in general but also on the quality of life of the affected patient. Furthermore, some of these conditions might also have implications for adulthood. Pediatric intestinal motility disorders frequently present as chronic constipation in toddler age children. Most of these conditions are functional, meaning that constipation does not have an organic etiology, but in 5% of the cases, an underlying, clearly organic disorder can be identified. Patients with organic causes for intestinal motility disorders usually present in early infancy or even right after birth. The most striking clinical feature of children with severe intestinal motility disorders is the delayed passage of meconium in the newborn period. This sign is highly indicative of the presence of Hirschsprung disease (HD), which is the most frequent congenital disorder of intestinal motility. HD is a rare but important congenital disease and the most significant entity of pediatric intestinal motility disorders. The etiology and pathogenesis of HD have been extensively studied over the last several decades. A defect in neural crest derived cell migration has been proven as an underlying cause of HD, leading to an aganglionic distal end of the gut. Numerous basic science and clinical research related studies have been conducted to better diagnose and treat HD. Resection of the aganglionic bowel remains the gold standard for treatment of HD. Most recent studies show, at least experimentally, the possibility of a stem cell based therapy for HD. This editorial also includes rare causes of pediatric intestinal motility disorders such as hypoganglionosis, dysganglionosis, chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction and ganglioneuromatosis in multiple endocrine metaplasia. Underlying organic pathologies are rare in pediatric intestinal motility disorders but must be recognized as early as possible. PMID:26361414

  8. Genome-wide identification of transcriptional targets of RORA reveals direct regulation of multiple genes associated with autism spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background We have recently identified the nuclear hormone receptor RORA (retinoic acid-related orphan receptor-alpha) as a novel candidate gene for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Our independent cohort studies have consistently demonstrated the reduction of RORA transcript and/or protein levels in blood-derived lymphoblasts as well as in the postmortem prefrontal cortex and cerebellum of individuals with ASD. Moreover, we have also shown that RORA has the potential to be under negative and positive regulation by androgen and estrogen, respectively, suggesting the possibility that RORA may contribute to the male bias of ASD. However, little is known about transcriptional targets of this nuclear receptor, particularly in humans. Methods Here we identify transcriptional targets of RORA in human neuronal cells on a genome-wide level using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) with an anti-RORA antibody followed by whole-genome promoter array (chip) analysis. Selected potential targets of RORA were then validated by an independent ChIP followed by quantitative PCR analysis. To further demonstrate that reduced RORA expression results in reduced transcription of RORA targets, we determined the expression levels of the selected transcriptional targets in RORA-deficient human neuronal cells, as well as in postmortem brain tissues from individuals with ASD who exhibit reduced RORA expression. Results The ChIP-on-chip analysis reveals that RORA1, a major isoform of RORA protein in human brain, can be recruited to as many as 2,764 genomic locations corresponding to promoter regions of 2,544 genes across the human genome. Gene ontology analysis of this dataset of genes that are potentially directly regulated by RORA1 reveals statistically significant enrichment in biological functions negatively impacted in individuals with ASD, including neuronal differentiation, adhesion and survival, synaptogenesis, synaptic transmission and plasticity, and axonogenesis, as well as higher level functions such as development of the cortex and cerebellum, cognition, memory, and spatial learning. Independent ChIP-quantitative PCR analyses confirm binding of RORA1 to promoter regions of selected ASD-associated genes, including A2BP1, CYP19A1, ITPR1, NLGN1, and NTRK2, whose expression levels (in addition to HSD17B10) are also decreased in RORA1-repressed human neuronal cells and in prefrontal cortex tissues from individuals with ASD. Conclusions Findings from this study indicate that RORA transcriptionally regulates A2BP1, CYP19A1, HSD17B10, ITPR1, NLGN1, and NTRK2, and strongly suggest that reduction of this sex hormone-sensitive nuclear receptor in the brain causes dysregulated expression of these ASD-relevant genes as well as their associated pathways and functions which, in turn, may contribute to the underlying pathobiology of ASD. PMID:23697635

  9. Borderline personality disorder

    MedlinePLUS

    Personality disorder - borderline ... Cause of borderline personality disorder (BPD) is unknown. Genetic, family, and social factors are thought to play roles. Risk factors for BPD include: Abandonment ...

  10. Relationship of the Brief UCSD Performance-based Skills Assessment (UPSA-B) to multiple indicators of functioning in people with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Mausbach, Brent T; Harvey, Philip D; Pulver, Ann E; Depp, Colin A; Wolyniec, Paula S; Thornquist, Mary H; Luke, James R; McGrath, John A; Bowie, Christopher; Patterson, Thomas L

    2010-01-01

    Objective This study assessed the relationship between multiple indicators of ‘real-world’ functioning and scores on a brief performance-based measure of functional capacity known as the Brief University of California San Diego (UCSD) Performance-based Skills Assessment (UPSA-B) in a sample of 205 patients with either serious bipolar disorder (n = 89) or schizophrenia (n = 116). Methods Participants were administered the UPSA-B and assessed on the following functional domains: (i) independent living status (e.g., residing independently as head of household, living in residential care facility); (ii) informant reports of functioning (e.g., work skills, daily living skills); (iii) educational attainment and estimated premorbid IQ as measured by years of education and Wide Range Achievement Test reading scores, respectively; and (iv) employment. Results Better scores on the UPSA-B were associated with greater residential independence after controlling for age, diagnosis, and symptoms of psychopathology. Among both bipolar disorder and schizophrenia patients, higher UPSA-B scores were significantly related to better informant reports of functioning in daily living skills and work skills domains. Greater estimated premorbid IQ was associated with higher scores on the UPSA-B for both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder participants. Participants who were employed scored higher on the UPSA-B when controlling for age and diagnosis, but not when controlling for symptoms of psychopathology. Conclusions These data suggest the UPSA-B may be useful for assessing capacity for functioning in a number of domains in both people diagnosed with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. PMID:20148866

  11. Diversity in Pathways to Common Childhood Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martel, Michelle M.; Nikolas, Molly; Jernigan, Katherine; Friderici, Karen; Nigg, Joel T.

    2012-01-01

    Oppositional-Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are highly comorbid, a phenomenon thought to be due to shared etiological factors and mechanisms. Little work has attempted to chart multiple-level-of-analysis pathways (i.e., simultaneously including biological, environmental, and trait influences) to ODD and…

  12. Chest Injuries and Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... your neck and your abdomen. It includes the ribs and breastbone. Inside your chest are several organs, ... and collapsed lung Pleural disorders Esophagus disorders Broken ribs Thoracic aortic aneurysms Disorders of the mediastinum, the ...

  13. Kinetics of 3H-serotonin uptake by platelets in infantile autism and developmental language disorder (including five pairs of twins)

    SciTech Connect

    Katsui, T.; Okuda, M.; Usuda, S.; Koizumi, T.

    1986-03-01

    The kinetics of 5-HT uptake by platelets was studied in cases of infantile autism and developmental language disorder (DLD) and normal subjects. Two patients of the autism group were twins, and the seven patients of the DLD group were members of four pairs of twins. The Vmax values (means +/- SD) for autism and DLD were 6.46 +/- .90 pmol 5-HT/10(7) cells/min and 4.85 +/- 1.50 pmol 5-HT/10(7) cells/min, respectively. These values were both significantly higher than that of 2.25 +/- .97 pmole 5-HT/10(7) cells/min for normal children. The Km values of the three groups were not significantly different. Data on the five pairs of twins examined suggested that the elevated Vmax of 5-HT uptake by platelets was determined genetically.

  14. Deletions in chromosome 6p22.3-p24.3, including ATXN1, are associated with developmental delay and autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Interstitial deletions of the short arm of chromosome 6 are rare and have been associated with developmental delay, hypotonia, congenital anomalies, and dysmorphic features. We used array comparative genomic hybridization in a South Carolina Autism Project (SCAP) cohort of 97 subjects with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and identified an ~ 5.4 Mb deletion on chromosome 6p22.3-p23 in a 15-year-old patient with intellectual disability and ASDs. Subsequent database queries revealed five additional individuals with overlapping submicroscopic deletions and presenting with developmental and speech delay, seizures, behavioral abnormalities, heart defects, and dysmorphic features. The deletion found in the SCAP patient harbors ATXN1, DTNBP1, JARID2, and NHLRC1 that we propose may be responsible for ASDs and developmental delay. PMID:22480366

  15. "Nothing like Pretend": Difference, Disorder, and Dystopia in the Multiple World Spaces of Philip Pullman's "His Dark Materials"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantrell, Sarah K.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the multiple worlds in Philip Pullman's "His Dark Materials" trilogy in light Pierre Bourdieu's "space of possibles" and the combination of chance and choice that impact Lyra and Will's decisions. Rather than viewing chance or destiny as disempowering, this article considers how the protagonists' choices also encourage…

  16. Comparing Factor, Class, and Mixture Models of Cannabis Initiation and DSM Cannabis Use Disorder Criteria, Including Craving, in the Brisbane Longitudinal Twin Study

    PubMed Central

    Kubarych, Thomas S.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Aggen, Steven H.; Estabrook, Ryne; Edwards, Alexis C.; Clark, Shaunna L.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Hickie, Ian B.; Neale, Michael C.; Gillespie, Nathan A.

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) diagnostic criteria for cannabis abuse and dependence are best represented by a single underlying factor. However, it remains possible that models with additional factors, or latent class models or hybrid models, may better explain the data. Using structured interviews, 626 adult male and female twins provided complete data on symptoms of cannabis abuse and dependence, plus a craving criterion. We compared latent factor analysis, latent class analysis, and factor mixture modeling using normal theory marginal maximum likelihood for ordinal data. Our aim was to derive a parsimonious, best-fitting cannabis use disorder (CUD) phenotype based on DSM-IV criteria and determine whether DSM-5 craving loads onto a general factor. When compared with latent class and mixture models, factor models provided a better fit to the data. When conditioned on initiation and cannabis use, the association between criteria for abuse, dependence, withdrawal, and craving were best explained by two correlated latent factors for males and females: a general risk factor to CUD and a factor capturing the symptoms of social and occupational impairment as a consequence of frequent use. Secondary analyses revealed a modest increase in the prevalence of DSM-5 CUD compared with DSM-IV cannabis abuse or dependence. It is concluded that, in addition to a general factor with loadings on cannabis use and symptoms of abuse, dependence, withdrawal, and craving, a second clinically relevant factor defined by features of social and occupational impairment was also found for frequent cannabis use. PMID:24588857

  17. Intricate Crystal Structure of Dihydrolipoamide Dehydrogenase (E3) with its Binding Protein: Multiple Copies, Dynamic and Static Disorders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Makal, A.; Hong, Y. S.; Potter, R.; Vettaikkorumakankauv, A. K.; Korotchkina, L. G.; Patel, M. S.; Ciszak, E.

    2004-01-01

    Human E3 and binding protein E3BP are two components of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. Crystallization of E3 with 221-amino acid fragment of E3BP (E3BPdd) led to crystals that diffracted to a resolution of 2.6 Angstroms. Structure determination involved molecular replacement using a dimer of E3 homolog as a search model and de novo building of the E3BPdd peptide. Solution was achieved by inclusion of one E3 dimer at a time, followed by refinement until five E3 dimers were located. This complete content of E3 provided electron density maps suitable for tracing nine peptide chains of E3BPdd, eight of them being identified with partial occupancies. Final content of the asymmetric unit consists of five E3 dimers, each binding one E3BPdd molecule. In four of these molecular complexes, E3BPdd is in static disorder resulting in E3BPdd binding to either one or the other monomer of the E3 dimer. However, E3BPdd of the fifth E3 dimer forms specific contacts that lock it at one monomer. In addition to this static disorder, E3BPdd reveals high mobility in the limited space of the crystal lattice. Support from NIH and NASA.

  18. Prediction of intrinsic disorder in proteins using MFDp2.

    PubMed

    Mizianty, Marcin J; Uversky, Vladimir; Kurgan, Lukasz

    2014-01-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are either entirely disordered or contain disordered regions in their native state. IDPs were found to be abundant across all kingdoms of life, particularly in eukaryotes, and are implicated in numerous cellular processes. Experimental annotation of disorder lags behind the rapidly growing sizes of the protein databases and thus computational methods are used to close this gap and to investigate the disorder. MFDp2 is a novel webserver for accurate sequence-based prediction of protein disorder which also outputs well-described sequence-derived information that allows profiling the predicted disorder. We conveniently visualize sequence conservation, predicted secondary structure, relative solvent accessibility, and alignments to chains with annotated disorder. The webserver allows predictions for multiple proteins at the same time, includes help pages and tutorial, and the results can be downloaded as text-based (parsable) file. MFDp2 is freely available at http://biomine.ece.ualberta.ca/MFDp2/. PMID:24573480

  19. Immunohistologic cellular phenotypes of lymphoproliferative disorders. Comprehensive evaluation of 564 cases including 257 non-Hodgkin's lymphomas classified by the International Working Formulation.

    PubMed Central

    Tubbs, R. R.; Fishleder, A.; Weiss, R. A.; Savage, R. A.; Sebek, B. A.; Weick, J. K.

    1983-01-01

    The plethora of classifications for non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHLs) and controversy regarding the merits of the individual classification schemes has led to the articulation of an International Working Formulation for NHL classification by a working group sponsored by the National Cancer Institute. This classification is based on both architectural and cytologic features and has been shown to have clinical relevance, but it is not an immunologic approach. With the use of frozen sections and both polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies, a comprehensive immunohistologic study was made of 564 biopsy specimens 1) for determination of the utility of the principle of monoclonality in differentiating benign from malignant lymphoproliferative disorders, 2) for definition of the immunohistochemical phenotypes of histologically benign and malignant cellular proliferations, and 3) for evaluation of the immunologic phenotype of 257 non-Hodgkin's lymphomas classified by the International Working Formulation. Two hundred seven "reactive benign" lymphoproliferations demonstrated polyclonal immunostaining. Monoclonal kappa light chain immunostaining was demonstrated in 3 of 4 cases classified as atypical hyperplasia, two of which had coexistent NHL or subsequently developed overt NHL. Frozen tissue sections were found to be essential for demonstration of immunoglobulin and glycoprotein membrane antigens. The results of immunohistochemical studies were readily integrated with the International Formulation. Although diffuse mixed and small lymphocytic lymphomas were immunologically heterogeneous (both T- and B-cell), follicular lymphomas were invariably of B-cell type, and immunoblastic lymphomas originating from homogeneous T- and B-cell populations were identified. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:6605690

  20. Dissociative Identity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Tom

    2007-01-01

    Few psychological disorders in the Diagnostic Statistical Manual have generated as much controversy as Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID). For the past 35 years diagnoses of DID, previously referred to as Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD), have increased exponentially, causing various psychological researchers and clinicians to question the…

  1. Disorderly Light.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Ivars

    1991-01-01

    The relationship between theories about electrical conductivity in microscopic wires and laser speckle patterns is described. Practical applications of laser speckle patterns are included. Wave ideas are being used to describe and predict novel phenomena in disordered solids. (KR)

  2. Pleural Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in and out. Disorders of the pleura include Pleurisy - inflammation of the pleura that causes sharp pain ... Viral infection is the most common cause of pleurisy. The most common cause of pleural effusion is ...

  3. Workshop Goals: Explore the use of nutritional interventions, including dietary supplements, in primary mitochondrial disorders; identify gaps in knowledge; identify research opportunities;

    E-print Network

    Shen, Jun

    AGENDA Workshop Goals: Explore the use of nutritional interventions, including dietary supplements Institutes of Health (NIH) Paul Coates, Ph.D. -- Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS), NIH Kathryn Camp, M Mitochondrial Disease Consortium Patient Survey on Dietary Supplement Use Amel Karaa, M.D. -- Massachusetts

  4. Population pharmacokinetics of methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release multiple-layer beads in pediatric subjects with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    Teuscher, Nathan S; Adjei, Akwete; Findling, Robert L; Greenhill, Laurence L; Kupper, Robert J; Wigal, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    A new multilayer-bead formulation of extended-release methylphenidate hydrochloride (MPH-MLR) has been evaluated in pharmacokinetic studies in healthy adults and in Phase III efficacy/safety studies in children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Using available data in healthy adults, a two-input, one-compartment, first-order elimination population pharmacokinetic model was developed using nonlinear mixed-effect modeling. The model was then extended to pediatric subjects, and was found to adequately describe plasma concentration–time data for this population. A pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model was also developed using change from baseline in the ADHD Rating Scale (ADHD-RS)-IV total scores from a pediatric Phase III trial and simulated plasma concentration–time data. During simulations for each MPH-MLR dose level (10–80 mg), increased body weight resulted in decreased maximum concentration. Additionally, as maximum concentration increased, ADHD-RS-IV total score improved (decreased). Knowledge of the relationship between dose, body weight, and clinical response following the administration of MPH-MLR in children and adolescents may be useful for clinicians selecting initial dosing of MPH-MLR. Additional study is needed to confirm these results. PMID:26060393

  5. Anchoring Intrinsically Disordered Proteins to Multiple Targets: Lessons from N-Terminus of the p53 Protein

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yongqi; Liu, Zhirong

    2011-01-01

    Anchor residues, which are deeply buried upon binding, play an important role in protein–protein interactions by providing recognition specificity and facilitating the binding kinetics. Up to now, studies on anchor residues have been focused mainly on ordered proteins. In this study, we investigated anchor residues in intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) which are flexible in the free state. We identified the anchor residues of the N-terminus of the p53 protein (Glu17–Asn29, abbreviated as p53N) which are involved in binding with two different targets (MDM2 and Taz2), and analyzed their side chain conformations in the unbound states. The anchor residues in the unbound p53N were found to frequently sample conformations similar to those observed in the bound complexes (i.e., Phe19, Trp23, and Leu26 in the p53N-MDM2 complex, and Leu22 in the p53N-Taz2 complex). We argue that the bound-like conformations of the anchor residues in the unbound state are important for controlling the specific interactions between IDPs and their targets. Further, we propose a mechanism to account for the binding promiscuity of IDPs in terms of anchor residues and molecular recognition features (MoRFs). PMID:21541066

  6. Population pharmacokinetics of methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release multiple-layer beads in pediatric subjects with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Teuscher, Nathan S; Adjei, Akwete; Findling, Robert L; Greenhill, Laurence L; Kupper, Robert J; Wigal, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    A new multilayer-bead formulation of extended-release methylphenidate hydrochloride (MPH-MLR) has been evaluated in pharmacokinetic studies in healthy adults and in Phase III efficacy/safety studies in children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Using available data in healthy adults, a two-input, one-compartment, first-order elimination population pharmacokinetic model was developed using nonlinear mixed-effect modeling. The model was then extended to pediatric subjects, and was found to adequately describe plasma concentration-time data for this population. A pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model was also developed using change from baseline in the ADHD Rating Scale (ADHD-RS)-IV total scores from a pediatric Phase III trial and simulated plasma concentration-time data. During simulations for each MPH-MLR dose level (10-80 mg), increased body weight resulted in decreased maximum concentration. Additionally, as maximum concentration increased, ADHD-RS-IV total score improved (decreased). Knowledge of the relationship between dose, body weight, and clinical response following the administration of MPH-MLR in children and adolescents may be useful for clinicians selecting initial dosing of MPH-MLR. Additional study is needed to confirm these results. PMID:26060393

  7. The clinical obesity maintenance model: an integration of psychological constructs including mood, emotional regulation, disordered overeating, habitual cluster behaviours, health literacy and cognitive function.

    PubMed

    Raman, Jayanthi; Smith, Evelyn; Hay, Phillipa

    2013-01-01

    Psychological distress and deficits in executive functioning are likely to be important barriers to effective weight loss maintenance. The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, in the light of recent evidence in the fields of neuropsychology and obesity, particularly on the deficits in the executive function in overweight and obese individuals, a conceptual and theoretical framework of obesity maintenance is introduced by way of a clinical obesity maintenance model (COMM). It is argued that psychological variables, that of habitual cluster Behaviors, emotional dysregulation, mood, and health literacy, interact with executive functioning and impact on the overeating/binge eating behaviors of obese individuals. Second, cognizant of this model, it is argued that the focus of obesity management should be extended to include a broader range of maintaining mechanisms, including but not limited to cognitive deficits. Finally, a discussion on potential future directions in research and practice using the COMM is provided. PMID:23710346

  8. Unique contributions of individual eating disorder symptoms to eating disorder-related impairment.

    PubMed

    Hovrud, Lindsey; De Young, Kyle P

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the unique contribution of individual eating disorder symptoms and related features to overall eating disorder-related impairment. Participants (N=113) from the community with eating disorders completed assessments including the Clinical Impairment Assessment (CIA) and the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire. A multiple linear regression analysis indicated that 58.6% of variance in the CIA was accounted for by binge eating frequency, weight and shape concerns, and depression. These findings indicate that certain eating disorder symptoms uniquely account for impairment and that depression is a substantial contributor. It is possible that purging, restrictive eating, and body mass index did not significantly contribute to impairment because these features are consistent with many individuals' weight and shape goals. The results imply that eating disorder-related impairment may be more a result of cognitive features and binge eating rather than body weight and compensatory behaviors. PMID:26026614

  9. Yeast Srp1p has homology to armadillo/plakoglobin/beta-catenin and participates in apparently multiple nuclear functions including the maintenance of the nucleolar structure.

    PubMed Central

    Yano, R; Oakes, M L; Tabb, M M; Nomura, M

    1994-01-01

    SRP1, a suppressor of certain temperature-sensitive mutations in RNA polymerase I in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, encodes a protein that is associated with nuclear pores. By using a system of conditional SRP1 expression and by isolating temperature-sensitive srp1 mutants, we have demonstrated that Srp1p is essential for maintenance of the crescent-shaped nucleolar structure, RNA transcription, and the proper functions of microtubules as inferred from analysis of nuclear division/segregation and immunofluorescence microscopy of microtubules. Different mutant alleles showed significantly different phenotypes in relation to these apparently multiple functional roles of the protein. We have also found that eight imperfect 42-amino-acid tandem repeats present in Srp1p are similar to the 42-amino-acid repeats in armadillo/plakoglobin/beta-catenin proteins present in adhesive junction complexes of higher eukaryotes. We discuss this similarity in connection with the observed pleiotropic effects of srp1 mutations. Images PMID:8041713

  10. Multiple White Matter Volume Reductions in Patients with Panic Disorder: Relationships between Orbitofrontal Gyrus Volume and Symptom Severity and Social Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Konishi, Jun; Asami, Takeshi; Hayano, Fumi; Yoshimi, Asuka; Hayasaka, Shunsuke; Fukushima, Hiroshi; Whitford, Thomas J.; Inoue, Tomio; Hirayasu, Yoshio

    2014-01-01

    Numerous brain regions are believed to be involved in the neuropathology of panic disorder (PD) including fronto-limbic regions, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. However, while several previous studies have demonstrated volumetric gray matter reductions in these brain regions, there have been no studies evaluating volumetric white matter changes in the fiber bundles connecting these regions. In addition, although patients with PD typically exhibit social, interpersonal and occupational dysfunction, the neuropathologies underlying these dysfunctions remain unclear. A voxel-based morphometry study was conducted to evaluate differences in regional white matter volume between 40 patients with PD and 40 healthy control subjects (HC). Correlation analyses were performed between the regional white matter volumes and patients' scores on the Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS) and the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF). Patients with PD demonstrated significant volumetric reductions in widespread white matter regions including fronto-limbic, thalamo-cortical and cerebellar pathways (p<0.05, FDR corrected). Furthermore, there was a significant negative relationship between right orbitofrontal gyrus (OFG) white matter volume and the severity of patients' clinical symptoms, as assessed with the PDSS. A significant positive relationship was also observed between patients' right OFG volumes and their scores on the GAF. Our results suggest that volumetric reductions in widespread white matter regions may play an important role in the pathology of PD. In particular, our results suggest that structural white matter abnormalities in the right OFG may contribute to the social, personal and occupational dysfunction typically experienced by patients with PD. PMID:24663245

  11. 99th Dahlem Conference on Infection, Inflammation and Chronic Inflammatory Disorders: Epstein–Barr virus and multiple sclerosis: epidemiological evidence

    PubMed Central

    Ascherio, A; Munger, K L

    2010-01-01

    While the causes of multiple sclerosis (MS) are unknown, there is strong evidence that infection with Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) is an important factor. In this review, we discuss the epidemiological evidence and argue for a causal role of EBV in MS aetiology. One of the most striking and consistent observations is that MS is extremely rare among EBV-negative individuals. Further, the timing of EBV infection appears to be critical, with individuals who are infected during adolescence and young adulthood, when the infection is more likely to manifest as mononucleosis, having a two- to threefold greater risk of MS compared to individuals infected in early life. These observations challenge the hygiene hypothesis which states that being in a high hygiene environment in early life increases future risk of MS – if this general formulation were true, EBV-negative individuals would be expected to have an increased risk of MS. Additional support for the causal role of EBV comes from longitudinal, prospective studies which show remarkable consistency, in that antibodies against EBV are elevated prior to MS onset. However, while infection with EBV is consistent with many observations of MS epidemiology, there are some that remain unexplained, suggesting that other factors are also involved in determining risk. PMID:20415861

  12. Familial characteristics of autoimmune and hematologic disorders in 8,406 multiple myeloma patients: a population-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Landgren, Ola; Linet, Martha S; McMaster, Mary L; Gridley, Gloria; Hemminki, Kari; Goldin, Lynn R

    2006-06-15

    A population-based case-control study was conducted to evaluate risk of developing multiple myeloma (MM) associated with personal history of autoimmune diseases and occurrence of autoimmune and selected hematologic disorders in first-degree relatives. Data were obtained for all (n = 8,406) MM cases diagnosed in Sweden (1958-1998), with linkable relatives, 16,543 matched controls and first-degree relatives of cases (n = 22,490) and controls (n = 44,436). Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated to quantify the risk of MM in relation to personal/family history of 32 autoimmune disorders. Familial aggregation of malignancies was evaluated in a marginal survival model using relatives as the cohort. The risk for MM was significantly elevated among subjects with a personal history of pernicious anemia (OR = 3.27; 2.22-4.83) and individuals with a family history of systemic lupus erythematosus (OR = 2.66; 1.12-6.32). Compared with controls, relative risk (RR) of MM was significantly increased (RR = 1.67; 1.02-2.73) in relatives of cases, particularly relatives of probands aged > or =65 at diagnosis (RR = 2.50; 1.19-5.27). Risks were nearly 4-fold elevated among female relatives (RR = 3.97; 1.54-10.2) and among relatives of female probands (RR = 3.74; 1.58-8.83). MM cases had more cases of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) among their relatives than controls, but the numbers were too small to be conclusive. There was generally no increase in risk of MM in probands whose relatives had hematologic malignancies other than MM. These findings do not support a strong association between personal/familial autoimmune diseases and MM. However, MM itself shows significant familial aggregation, implicating the etiologic importance of this type of hematological neoplasm and perhaps MGUS in germ line genes. PMID:16395700

  13. Primary Sleep Disorders.

    PubMed

    Khoury, John; Doghramji, Karl

    2015-12-01

    Primary sleep disorders include those not attributable to another medical or psychiatric condition: insomnia disorder, hypersomnolence disorder, narcolepsy, obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome, central sleep apnea syndrome, and the parasomnias. They are commonly encountered and are comorbid with many psychiatric disorders. It is important to recognize these disorders and be comfortable treating them or to know when to refer to a sleep disorders center and sleep specialist. Treatment of a comorbid sleep disorder can improve the overall quality of life, symptoms in mood disorders, and symptoms of excessive daytime sleepiness, and decrease cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. PMID:26600103

  14. Atomic Disorder in Tetrahedrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salasin, John Robert; Chakoumakos, Bryan; Rawn, Claudia; May, Andrew; Lara-Curzio, Edgar; McGuire, Michael; Cao, Huibo

    2015-03-01

    Thermoelectrics (TE) are materials which turn heat energy into electrical energy with applications spanning multiple disciplines including space exploration, Peltier cooling, and engine efficiency. Tetrahedrite is a copper sulfosalt with the general formula Cu12-xMx(Sb,As)4S13. Where M denotes a Cu2+ site frequently replaced in natural tetrahedrite with Zn, Fe, Hg, or Mn. It has a cubic structure with an I-43m symmetry, a = 10.4 Å, and only a handful of adjustable parameters. This structural study corroborates theoretical calculations on atomic disorder. Positional disorder of the trigonally coordinated Cu(2) site is suggested from the temperature dependence of the atomic displacement parameters determine from single-crystal x-ray and neutron diffraction. The displacements are extremely anisotropic for Cu(2) with a maximum rms static displacement of ~ 0.25 Å.

  15. [A case of recurrent non-small cell lung cancer successfully treated with multiple modality therapies including S-1 monotherapy as fifth-line chemotherapy hospital)].

    PubMed

    Yokosuka, Tetsuya; Kobayashi, Toshiko; Enomoto, Tatsuji; Takeda, Atsuya

    2013-09-01

    An 80-year-old man with no complaint was referred to our department because of high serum CEA level. He was diagnosed as non-small cell lung cancer(adenocarcinoma)of the left lower lobe(c-T2aN0M0, stage I B), and therefore the left lower lobectomy with lymph node dissection was performed. Pathological staging was p-T2aN1(#10)M0, stage II A, and EGFR mutation was negative. Adjuvant chemotherapy with UFT was started, but multiple hilar and mediastinal lymph nodes metastases soon appeared. Carboplatin(CBDCA)+paclitaxel(PTX), erlotinib, and docetaxel(DOC)were attempted after that, but the lymph nodes increased in size and the CEA level was up to 159.8 ng/mL. At about the same time, brain and pulmonary metastases were recognized. After radiation for the chest lymph nodes and stereotactic radiosurgery(SRS)for the brain metastasis, oral S-1 monotherapy was introduced. Soon after, the lymph nodes shrinked and the CEA level decreased. Also, the pulmonary metastasis disappeared. Although a right supraclavicular lymph node metastasis was resected during the clinical course, the S-1 monotherapy has been continued with no serious adverse event. He is well(PS 0)without recurrent lesion, and his serum CEA level is within the normal limit. PMID:24047779

  16. Characterization of nicotine binding to the rat brain P/sub 2/ preparation: the identification of multiple binding sites which include specific up-regulatory site(s)

    SciTech Connect

    Sloan, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    These studies show that nicotine binds to the rat brain P/sub 2/ preparation by saturable and reversible processes. Multiple binding sites were revealed by the configuration of saturation, kinetic and Scatchard plots. A least squares best fit of Scatchard data using nonlinear curve fitting programs confirmed the presence of a very high affinity site, an up-regulatory site, a high affinity site and one or two low affinity sites. Stereospecificity was demonstrated for the up-regulatory site where (+)-nicotine was more effective and for the high affinity site where (-)-nicotine had a higher affinity. Drugs which selectively up-regulate nicotine binding site(s) have been identified. Further, separate very high and high affinity sites were identified for (-)- and (+)-(/sup 3/H)nicotine, based on evidence that the site density for the (-)-isomer is 10 times greater than that for the (+)-isomer at these sites. Enhanced nicotine binding has been shown to be a statistically significant phenomenon which appears to be a consequence of drugs binding to specific site(s) which up-regulate binding at other site(s). Although Scatchard and Hill plots indicate positive cooperatively, up-regulation more adequately describes the function of these site(s). A separate up-regulatory site is suggested by the following: (1) Drugs vary markedly in their ability to up-regulate binding. (2) Both the affinity and the degree of up-regulation can be altered by structural changes in ligands. (3) Drugs with specificity for up-regulation have been identified. (4) Some drugs enhance binding in a dose-related manner. (5) Competition studies employing cold (-)- and (+)-nicotine against (-)- and (+)-(/sup 3/H)nicotine show that the isomers bind to separate sites which up-regulate binding at the (-)- and (+)-nicotine high affinity sites and in this regard (+)-nicotine is more specific and efficacious than (-)-nicotine.

  17. ¹?F-FDG PET/CT: a review of diagnostic and prognostic features in multiple myeloma and related disorders.

    PubMed

    Dammacco, Franco; Rubini, Giuseppe; Ferrari, Cristina; Vacca, Angelo; Racanelli, Vito

    2015-02-01

    Conventional radiographic skeletal survey has been for many years the gold standard to detect the occurrence of osteolytic lesions in patients with multiple myeloma (MM). However, the introduction of more sensitive imaging procedures has resulted in an updated anatomic and functional Durie and Salmon "plus" staging system and has remarkably changed the diagnostic and prognostic approach to this tumor. It is now established that (18)fluorine-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) positron-emission tomography (PET) combined with low-dose computed tomography (CT), shortly designated PET/CT, exhibits a higher screening and diagnostic sensitivity and specificity over the skeleton X-ray. In patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and in those with smoldering MM, PET/CT is consistently unable to detect focal and/or diffuse marrow abnormalities. Conversely, based on a systematic review of 18 studies comprising almost 800 MM patients, PET/CT was able to detect MM osteolytic lesions with a sensitivity of approximately 80-90% and a specificity of 80-100%. Importantly, a poor degree of concordance has also been emphasized between PET/CT and whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (WB-MRI) in that when both techniques were applied to the same patients, double-positive results were recorded in approximately 30% of the cases, but in the majority of them, a higher number of lesions were revealed with PET/CT than with MRI. Double-negative results, on the other hand, were found in about 22% of the patients. Because PET/CT is able to identify tumor foci throughout the body, it can be usefully applied to the study of solitary bone plasmacytoma and extra-medullary plasmacytoma: In both conditions, the detection of additional, previously overlooked sites of skeletal involvement would falsify the diagnosis of single-district disease, upstage the tumor, and therefore require a different therapeutic approach. In addition, although PET/CT is poorly sensitive to diffuse bone marrow infiltration, it can anticipate a site of impending fracture throughout the body and can discriminate old from new pathologic fractures. MRI should, however, be preferred when vertebral bodies are suspected to be involved and the risk of vertebral fracture is to be assessed. PET/CT is a sensitive and reliable procedure to evaluate the response to chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy, which is shown by a remarkable reduction and sometimes total disappearance of FDG accumulation in the involved bony structures, although these structures remain morphologically abnormal. Conversely, an increased focal uptake of FDG in apparent remission patients often precedes clinically overt relapse. PET/CT should be preferred to other imaging techniques to assess the remission status after autologous stem cell transplantation. In patients with primary and remission-induced non-secretory MM, the use of PET/CT may help to early detect single or multiple districts of focal non-secretory relapse. Osteonecrosis of the jaw, its location, and extent in MM patients receiving bis-phosphonates are better defined by both PET/CT and contrast-enhanced MRI compared with dental panoramic views derived from cone beam CT imaging. Little is known as to the possible role of PET/CT in the assessment of disease extension, tumor load, and response to therapy in patients with Waldenström's macroglobulinemia (WM). In a study conducted on 35 WM patients, comparative PET/CT before and after therapy was able to detect positive findings in 83% of the patients, in contrast with the previous results achieved with conventional imaging that reported visceral involvement in much lower percentages. Similarly scanty are the data on the use of PET/CT in localized and systemic amyloidosis, given the small number of patients studied so far. A retrospective study has shown that, at variance from (123)Iodine-serum amyloid P component ((123)I-SAP) scintigraphy, which was found to be positive in about one-third of the patients with localized amyloidosis, an increased FDG uptake was detected at the amyloid s

  18. Structural characterization and in vitro antioxidant activity of kojic dipalmitate loaded w/o/w multiple emulsions intended for skin disorders.

    PubMed

    Gonçalez, Maíra Lima; Marcussi, Diana Gleide; Calixto, Giovana Maria Fioramonti; Corrêa, Marcos Antonio; Chorilli, Marlus

    2015-01-01

    Multiple emulsions (MEs) are intensively being studied for drug delivery due to their ability to load and increase the bioavailability of active lipophilic antioxidant, such as kojic dipalmitate (KDP). The aim of this study was to structurally characterize developed MEs by determining the average droplet size (Dnm) and zeta potential (ZP), performing macroscopic and microscopic analysis and analyzing their rheological behavior and in vitro bioadhesion. Furthermore, the in vitro safety profile and antioxidant activity of KDP-loaded MEs were evaluated. The developed MEs showed a Dnm of approximately 1 micrometer and a ZP of -13?mV, and no change was observed in Dnm or ZP of the system with the addition of KDP. KDP-unloaded MEs exhibited ''shear thinning" flow behavior whereas KDP-loaded MEs exhibited Newtonian behavior, which are both characteristic of antithixotropic materials. MEs have bioadhesion properties that were not influenced by the incorporation of KDP. The results showed that the incorporation of KDP into MEs improved the safety profile of the drug. The in vitro antioxidant activity assay suggested that MEs presented a higher capacity for maintaining the antioxidant activity of KDP. ME-based systems may be a promising platform for the topical application of KDP in the treatment of skin disorders. PMID:25785265

  19. Structural Characterization and In Vitro Antioxidant Activity of Kojic Dipalmitate Loaded W/O/W Multiple Emulsions Intended for Skin Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Marcussi, Diana Gleide; Calixto, Giovana Maria Fioramonti; Corrêa, Marcos Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Multiple emulsions (MEs) are intensively being studied for drug delivery due to their ability to load and increase the bioavailability of active lipophilic antioxidant, such as kojic dipalmitate (KDP). The aim of this study was to structurally characterize developed MEs by determining the average droplet size (Dnm) and zeta potential (ZP), performing macroscopic and microscopic analysis and analyzing their rheological behavior and in vitro bioadhesion. Furthermore, the in vitro safety profile and antioxidant activity of KDP-loaded MEs were evaluated. The developed MEs showed a Dnm of approximately 1 micrometer and a ZP of ?13?mV, and no change was observed in Dnm or ZP of the system with the addition of KDP. KDP-unloaded MEs exhibited ‘‘shear thinning” flow behavior whereas KDP-loaded MEs exhibited Newtonian behavior, which are both characteristic of antithixotropic materials. MEs have bioadhesion properties that were not influenced by the incorporation of KDP. The results showed that the incorporation of KDP into MEs improved the safety profile of the drug. The in vitro antioxidant activity assay suggested that MEs presented a higher capacity for maintaining the antioxidant activity of KDP. ME-based systems may be a promising platform for the topical application of KDP in the treatment of skin disorders. PMID:25785265

  20. The intrinsically disordered amino-terminal region of human RecQL4: multiple DNA-binding domains confer annealing, strand exchange and G4 DNA binding

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Heidi; Kiosze, Kristin; Sachsenweger, Juliane; Haumann, Sebastian; Ohlenschläger, Oliver; Nuutinen, Tarmo; Syväoja, Juhani E.; Görlach, Matthias; Grosse, Frank; Pospiech, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    Human RecQL4 belongs to the ubiquitous RecQ helicase family. Its N-terminal region represents the only homologue of the essential DNA replication initiation factor Sld2 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and also participates in the vertebrate initiation of DNA replication. Here, we utilized a random screen to identify N-terminal fragments of human RecQL4 that could be stably expressed in and purified from Escherichia coli. Biophysical characterization of these fragments revealed that the Sld2 homologous RecQL4 N-terminal domain carries large intrinsically disordered regions. The N-terminal fragments were sufficient for the strong annealing activity of RecQL4. Moreover, this activity appeared to be the basis for an ATP-independent strand exchange activity. Both activities relied on multiple DNA-binding sites with affinities to single-stranded, double-stranded and Y-structured DNA. Finally, we found a remarkable affinity of the N-terminus for guanine quadruplex (G4) DNA, exceeding the affinities for other DNA structures by at least 60-fold. Together, these findings suggest that the DNA interactions mediated by the N-terminal region of human RecQL4 represent a central function at the replication fork. The presented data may also provide a mechanistic explanation for the role of elements with a G4-forming propensity identified in the vicinity of vertebrate origins of DNA replication. PMID:25336622

  1. Eosinophilic Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Version Medical Topics Blood Disorders Bone, Joint, and Muscle Disorders Brain, Spinal Cord, and Nerve Disorders Cancer Children's ... students Medical Topics Blood Disorders Bone, Joint, and Muscle Disorders Brain, Spinal Cord, and Nerve Disorders Cancer Children's ...

  2. Amyloidosis with Multiple Myeloma Presenting with Acromegalic Features.

    PubMed

    Bhatty, Shaheen A; Siddiqui, Abdul Samad; Talib, Abu; Mahmood, Khalid; Naqvi, Iftekhar; Khan, Anam Naveed; Nizam, Mehreen; Saiyed, Ali

    2015-10-01

    Amyloidosis and multiple myeloma are included in the same spectrum of clonal plasma cell disorders. Amyloidosis can present with localized deposits or manifest as systemic disease involving multiple organs. Here we are reporting a case of an elderly female, having amyloidosis leading to facial disfigurement and neuropathy for many years and then presenting with concomitant multiple myeloma as an incidental diagnosis with no typical symptoms related to it at all. PMID:26522192

  3. Peer Victimization in Youth with Tourette Syndrome and Other Chronic Tic Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinner, Samuel H.; Conelea, Christine A.; Glew, Gwen M.; Woods, Douglas W.; Budman, Cathy L.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic tic disorders including Tourette syndrome have negative impact across multiple functional domains. We explored associations between peer victimization status and tic subtypes, premonitory urges, internalizing symptoms, explosive outbursts, and quality of life among youth with chronic tic disorders, as part of the internet-based omnibus…

  4. Prevention of eating disorders in female athletes

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Gabriela Morgado de Oliveira; Gomes, Ainá Innocencio da Silva; Ribeiro, Beatriz Gonçalves; Soares, Eliane de Abreu

    2014-01-01

    Eating disorders are serious mental diseases that frequently appear in female athletes. They are abnormal eating behaviors that can be diagnosed only by strict criteria. Disordered eating, although also characterized as abnormal eating behavior, does not include all the criteria for diagnosing eating disorders and is therefore a way to recognize the problem in its early stages. It is important to identify factors to avoid clinical progression in this high-risk population. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to discuss critical information for the prevention of eating disorders in female athletes. This review discusses the major correlates for the development of an eating disorder. We also discuss which athletes are possibly at highest risk for eating disorders, including those from lean sports and female adolescent athletes. There is an urgent need for the demystification of myths surrounding body weight and performance in sports. This review includes studies that tested different prevention programs’ effectiveness, and the majority showed positive results. Educational programs are the best method for primary prevention of eating disorders. For secondary prevention, early identification is essential and should be performed by preparticipation exams, the recognition of dietary markers, and the use of validated self-report questionnaires or clinical interviews. In addition, more randomized clinical trials are needed with athletes from multiple sports in order for the most reliable recommendations to be made and for some sporting regulations to be changed. PMID:24891817

  5. Prevention of eating disorders in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Gabriela Morgado de Oliveira; Gomes, Ainá Innocencio da Silva; Ribeiro, Beatriz Gonçalves; Soares, Eliane de Abreu

    2014-01-01

    Eating disorders are serious mental diseases that frequently appear in female athletes. They are abnormal eating behaviors that can be diagnosed only by strict criteria. Disordered eating, although also characterized as abnormal eating behavior, does not include all the criteria for diagnosing eating disorders and is therefore a way to recognize the problem in its early stages. It is important to identify factors to avoid clinical progression in this high-risk population. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to discuss critical information for the prevention of eating disorders in female athletes. This review discusses the major correlates for the development of an eating disorder. We also discuss which athletes are possibly at highest risk for eating disorders, including those from lean sports and female adolescent athletes. There is an urgent need for the demystification of myths surrounding body weight and performance in sports. This review includes studies that tested different prevention programs' effectiveness, and the majority showed positive results. Educational programs are the best method for primary prevention of eating disorders. For secondary prevention, early identification is essential and should be performed by preparticipation exams, the recognition of dietary markers, and the use of validated self-report questionnaires or clinical interviews. In addition, more randomized clinical trials are needed with athletes from multiple sports in order for the most reliable recommendations to be made and for some sporting regulations to be changed. PMID:24891817

  6. Multiple Myeloma Symptoms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... ET. CALL NOW Home » About Multiple Myeloma » Symptoms Multiple Myeloma Symptoms Multiple myeloma symptoms may vary by patient, ... to be managed or prevented. The most common multiple myeloma symptoms may include: • Bone pain or bone fractures • ...

  7. Multiple structural states exist throughout the helical nucleation sequence of the intrinsically disordered protein stathmin, as reported by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chui, Ashley J; López, Carlos J; Brooks, Evan K; Chua, Katherina C; Doupey, Tonia G; Foltz, Gretchen N; Kamel, Joseph G; Larrosa, Estefania; Sadiki, Amissi; Bridges, Michael D

    2015-03-10

    The intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) stathmin plays an important regulatory role in cytoskeletal maintenance through its helical binding to tubulin and microtubules. However, it lacks a stable fold in the absence of its binding partner. Although stathmin has been a focus of research over the past two decades, the solution-phase conformational dynamics of this IDP are poorly understood. It has been reported that stathmin is purely monomeric in solution and that it bears a short helical region of persistent foldedness, which may act to nucleate helical folding in the C-terminal direction. Here we report a comprehensive study of the structural equilibria local to this region in stathmin that contradicts these two claims. Using the technique of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy on spin-labeled stathmin mutants in the solution-phase and when immobilized on Sepharose solid support, we show that all sites in the helical nucleation region of stathmin exhibit multiple spectral components that correspond to dynamic states of differing mobilities and stabilities. Importantly, a state with relatively low mobility dominates each spectrum with an average population greater than 50%, which we suggest corresponds to an oligomerized state of the protein. This is in contrast to a less populated, more mobile state, which likely represents a helically folded monomeric state of stathmin, and a highly mobile state, which we propose is the random coil conformer of the protein. Our interpretation of the EPR data is confirmed by further characterization of the protein using the techniques of native and SDS PAGE, gel filtration chromatography, and multiangle and dynamic light scattering, all of which show the presence of oligomeric stathmin in solution. Collectively, these data suggest that stathmin exists in a diverse equilibrium of states throughout the purported helical nucleation region and that this IDP exhibits a propensity toward oligomerization. PMID:25715079

  8. Speech and Communication Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    Many disorders can affect our ability to speak and communicate. They range from saying sounds incorrectly to being completely ... to speak or understand speech. Causes include Hearing disorders and deafness Voice problems, such as dysphonia or ...

  9. Sleep disorders - overview

    MedlinePLUS

    Sleep disorders are problems with sleeping. These include: Trouble falling or staying asleep Falling asleep at the wrong ... Mononucleosis or other viral illnesses Narcolepsy and other sleep disorders Obesity, especially if it causes obstructive sleep apnea ...

  10. Plasma Cell Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of Undetermined Significance (MGUS) Multiple Myeloma Macroglobulinemia Heavy Chain Diseases Plasma cell disorders are uncommon. They begin ... antibody produced is incomplete, consisting of only light chains or heavy chains (functional antibodies normally consist of ...

  11. Common Anorectal Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Foxx-Orenstein, Amy E.; Umar, Sarah B.; Crowell, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Anorectal disorders result in many visits to healthcare specialists. These disorders include benign conditions such as hemorrhoids to more serious conditions such as malignancy; thus, it is important for the clinician to be familiar with these disorders as well as know how to conduct an appropriate history and physical examination. This article reviews the most common anorectal disorders, including hemorrhoids, anal fissures, fecal incontinence, proctalgia fugax, excessive perineal descent, and pruritus ani, and provides guidelines on comprehensive evaluation and management. PMID:24987313

  12. Peroxisomal disorders.

    PubMed

    Aubourg, Patrick; Wanders, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    The peroxisomal disorders represent a group of genetic diseases in man in which there is an impairment in one or more peroxisomal functions. The peroxisomal disorders are subdivided into three subgroups comprising: (1) the peroxisome biogenesis disorders (PBDs); (2) the single peroxisomal (enzyme-) protein deficiencies; and (3) the single peroxisomal substrate transport deficiencies. The PBD group comprises four different disorders that include Zellweger syndrome (ZS), neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy (NALD), infantile Refsum disease (IRD), and rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata (RCDP). ZS, NALD, and IRD are clearly distinct from RCDP and are usually referred to as the Zellweger spectrum with ZS being the most severe, and IRD the less severe disorder, with sometimes onset in adulthood. The single peroxisomal enzyme deficiency group comprises seven different disorders, of which D-bifunctional protein and phytanoyl-CoA hydroxylase (adult Refsum disease) deficiencies are the most frequent. The single peroxisomal substrate transport deficiency group consists of only one disease, X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy. It is the purpose of this chapter to describe the current state of knowledge about the clinical, biochemical, cellular, and molecular aspects of peroxisomal diseases, and to provide guidelines for their post- and prenatal diagnosis. Therapeutic interventions are mostly limited to X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy. PMID:23622381

  13. [Anxiety disorder].

    PubMed

    Hayashida, Maiko; Horiguchi, Jun

    2013-10-01

    Anxiety disorder (AD) often is under diagnosed and under treated in older adults, especially when the clinical presentation of anxiety. Symptoms often overlap with medical conditions. Of all the anxiety disorders in later life, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is one of the most frequently diagnosed. AD is often comorbid with depression. AD is associated with excess disability. Anxiety in older adults has traditionally been treated pharmacology, often with benzodiazepine. However, the clinical recommendations for pharmacologic treatment actually have been much broader, including suggestions to consider serotonergic antidepressants. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and serotonin nor epinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) generally are safe and procedure fewer side effects compared with tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), in older patients. Effective treatment includes pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy, and complementary and alternative therapies. Late life AD is associated with substantial impairments in quality of life. Effective treatment for AD may be one of the most predictors of improvement of QOL. PMID:24261208

  14. Aquatherapy for neurodegenerative disorders.

    PubMed

    Plecash, Alyson R; Leavitt, Blair R

    2014-01-01

    Aquatherapy is used for rehabilitation and exercise; water provides a challenging, yet safe exercise environment for many special populations. We have reviewed the use of aquatherapy programs in four neurodegenerative disorders: Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Huntington's disease. Results support the use of aquatherapy in Parkinson's disease and multiple sclerosis, however further evidence is required to make specific recommendations in all of the aforementioned disorders. PMID:25062761

  15. Anxiety Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... making life feel overwhelming or out of control. Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) . For a person with OCD, anxiety takes ... Disorders Special Needs Factsheet Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder A to Z: Panic Disorder Social Phobia Special ...

  16. Anxiety Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Anxiety Disorders About Anxiety Disorders Anxiety Disorders in Older Adults If you have an ... to treatment for the anxiety disorder. Types of Anxiety Disorders There are several basic types of anxiety ...

  17. Eating Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Submit Home > Body Image > Eating disorders Body Image Eating disorders About eating disorders Over-exercising More information on eating disorders About eating disorders "Mirror, Mirror on the wall...who's the thinnest ...

  18. Bipolar Disorder

    MedlinePLUS

    ... High School How Can I Stop Cutting? Scoliosis Bipolar Disorder KidsHealth > Teens > Mind > Mental Health > Bipolar Disorder Print ... Treat It? Living With Bipolar Disorder What Is Bipolar Disorder? Bipolar disorders are one of several medical conditions ...

  19. Traumatic Brain Injury and Sleep Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Viola-Saltzman, Mari; Watson, Nathaniel F.

    2012-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Sleep disturbance is common following traumatic brain injury (TBI), affecting 30–70% of individuals, many occurring after mild injuries. Insomnia, fatigue and sleepiness are the most frequent post-TBI sleep complaints with narcolepsy (with or without cataplexy), sleep apnea (obstructive and/or central), periodic limb movement disorder, and parasomnias occurring less commonly. In addition, depression, anxiety and pain are common TBI co-morbidities with substantial influence on sleep quality. Two types of TBI negatively impact sleep: contact injuries causing focal brain damage and acceleration/deceleration injuries causing more generalized brain damage. Diagnosis of sleep disorders after TBI may involve polysomnography, multiple sleep latency testing and/or actigraphy. Treatment is disorder specific and may include the use of medications, continuous positive airway pressure (or similar device) and/or behavioral modifications. Unfortunately, treatment of sleep disorders associated with TBI often does not improve sleepiness or neuropsychological function. PMID:23099139

  20. Neurodegenerative disorders and nanoformulated drug development

    PubMed Central

    Nowacek, Ari; Kosloski, Lisa M; Gendelman, Howard E

    2009-01-01

    Degenerative and inflammatory diseases of the CNS include, but are not limited to, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, stroke, multiple sclerosis and HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders. These are common, debilitating and, unfortunately, hold few therapeutic options. In recent years, the application of nanotechnologies as commonly used or developing medicines has served to improve pharmacokinetics and drug delivery specifically to CNS-diseased areas. In addition, nanomedical advances are leading to therapies that target CNS pathobiology and as such, can interrupt disordered protein aggregation, deliver functional neuroprotective proteins and alter the oxidant state of affected neural tissues. This article focuses on the pathobiology of common neurodegenerative disorders with a view towards how nanomedicine may be used to improve the clinical course of neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:19572820

  1. The relationship between creativity and mood disorders

    PubMed Central

    Andreasen, Nancy C.

    2008-01-01

    Research designed to examine the relationship between creativity and mental illnesses must confront multiple challenges. What is the optimal sample to study? How should creativity be defined? What is the most appropriate comparison group? Only a limited number of studies have examined highly creative individuals using personal interviews and a noncreative comparison group. The majority of these have examined writers. The preponderance of the evidence suggests that in these creative individuals the rate of mood disorder is high, and that both bipolar disorder and unipolar depression are quite common. Clinicians who treat creative individuals with mood disorders must also confronta variety of challenges, including the fear that treatment may diminish creativity, in the case of bipolar disorder, hovt/ever, it is likely that reducing severe manic episodes may actually enhance creativity in many individuals. PMID:18689294

  2. Eating disorders

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The incidence of eating disorders is increasing, and health care professionals are faced with the difficult task of treating these refractory conditions. The first clinical description of anorexia nervosa (AN) was reported in 1694 and included symptoms such as decreased appetite, amenorrhea, food av...

  3. Learning disorders.

    PubMed

    Illingworth, R

    1989-09-22

    Learning disorders, not explained by low intelligence, are common in children. They include difficulties in reading, spelling and mathematics and are often associated with overactivity and poor concentration. Prenatal perinatal and postnatal factors may be aetiologically important and treatment should be aimed at the cause. PMID:2616479

  4. Penis Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    Problems with the penis can cause pain and affect a man's sexual function and fertility. Penis disorders include Erectile dysfunction - inability to get or ... not go away Peyronie's disease - bending of the penis during an erection due to a hard lump ...

  5. Mathematics disorder

    MedlinePLUS

    ... disorder is a condition in which a child's math ability is far below normal for their age, ... The child may have trouble with math, as well as low scores in math classes and on tests. Problems the child may have include: Trouble with reading, writing, and ...

  6. Networks of intergenic long-range enhancers and snpRNAs drive castration-resistant phenotype of prostate cancer and contribute to pathogenesis of multiple common human disorders

    PubMed Central

    Glinskii, Anna B; Ma, Shuang; Ma, Jun; Grant, Denise; Lim, Chang-Uk; Guest, Ian; Sell, Stewart; Buttyan, Ralph

    2011-01-01

    The mechanistic relevance of intergenic disease-associated genetic loci (IDAGL) containing highly statistically significant disease-linked SNPs remains unknown. Here, we present experimental and clinical evidence supporting the importantance of the role of IDAGL in human diseases. A targeted RT-PCR screen coupled with sequencing of purified PCR products detects widespread transcription at multiple IDAGL and identifies 96 small noncoding trans-regulatory RNAs of ?100–300 nt in length containing SNPs (snpRNAs) associated with 21 common disorders. Multiple independent lines of experimental evidence support functionality of snpRNAs by documenting their cell type-specific expression and evolutionary conservation of sequences, genomic coordinates and biological effects. Chromatin state signatures, expression profiling experiments and luciferase reporter assays demonstrate that many IDAGL are Polycomb-regulated long-range enhancers. Expression of snpRNAs in human and mouse cells markedly affects cellular behavior and induces allele-specific clinically relevant phenotypic changes: NLRP1-locus snpRNAs rs2670660 exert regulatory effects on monocyte/macrophage transdifferentiation, induce prostate cancer (PC) susceptibility snpRNAs and transform low-malignancy hormone-dependent human PC cells into highly malignant androgen-independent PC. Q-PCR analysis and luciferase reporter assays demonstrate that snpRNA sequences represent allele-specific “decoy” targets of microRNAs that function as SNP allele-specific modifiers of microRNA expression and activity. We demonstrate that trans-acting RNA molecules facilitating resistance to androgen depletion (RAD) in vitro and castration-resistant phenotype (CRP) in vivo of PC contain intergenic 8q24-locus SNP variants (rs1447295; rs16901979; rs6983267) that were recently linked with increased risk of PC. Q-PCR analysis of clinical samples reveals markedly increased and highly concordant (r = 0.896; p < 0.0001) snpRNA expression levels in tumor tissues compared with the adjacent normal prostate [122-fold and 45-fold in Gleason 7 tumors (p = 0.03); 370-fold and 127-fold in Gleason 8 tumors (p = 0.0001) for NLRP1-locus and 8q24-locus snpRNAs, respectively]. Our experiments indicate that RAD and CR phenotype of human PC cells can be triggered by ncRNA molecules transcribed from the NLRP1-locus intergenic enhancer at 17p13 and by downstream activation of the 8q24-locus snpRNAs. Our results define the IDAGL at 17p13 and 8q24 as candidate regulatory loci of RAD and CR phenotypes of PC, reveal previously unknown molecular links between the innate immunity/inflammasome system and development of hormone-independent PC and identify novel molecular and genetic targets with diagnostic and therapeutic potentials, exploration of which should be highly beneficial for personalized clinical management of PC. PMID:22067658

  7. Networks of intergenic long-range enhancers and snpRNAs drive castration-resistant phenotype of prostate cancer and contribute to pathogenesis of multiple common human disorders.

    PubMed

    Glinskii, Anna B; Ma, Shuang; Ma, Jun; Grant, Denise; Lim, Chang-Uk; Guest, Ian; Sell, Stewart; Buttyan, Ralph; Glinsky, Gennadi V

    2011-10-15

    The mechanistic relevance of intergenic disease-associated genetic loci (IDAGL) containing highly statistically significant disease-linked SNPs remains unknown. Here, we present experimental and clinical evidence supporting the importantance of the role of IDAGL in human diseases. A targeted RT-PCR screen coupled with sequencing of purified PCR products detects widespread transcription at multiple IDAGL and identifies 96 small noncoding trans-regulatory RNAs of ~100-300 nt in length containing SNPs (snpRNAs) associated with 21 common disorders. Multiple independent lines of experimental evidence support functionality of snpRNAs by documenting their cell type-specific expression and evolutionary conservation of sequences, genomic coordinates and biological effects. Chromatin state signatures, expression profiling experiments and luciferase reporter assays demonstrate that many IDAGL are Polycomb-regulated long-range enhancers. Expression of snpRNAs in human and mouse cells markedly affects cellular behavior and induces allele-specific clinically relevant phenotypic changes: NLRP1-locus snpRNAs rs2670660 exert regulatory effects on monocyte/macrophage transdifferentiation, induce prostate cancer (PC) susceptibility snpRNAs and transform low-malignancy hormone-dependent human PC cells into highly malignant androgen-independent PC. Q-PCR analysis and luciferase reporter assays demonstrate that snpRNA sequences represent allele-specific "decoy" targets of microRNAs that function as SNP allele-specific modifiers of microRNA expression and activity. We demonstrate that trans-acting RNA molecules facilitating resistance to androgen depletion (RAD) in vitro and castration-resistant phenotype (CRP) in vivo of PC contain intergenic 8q24-locus SNP variants (rs1447295; rs16901979; rs6983267) that were recently linked with increased risk of PC. Q-PCR analysis of clinical samples reveals markedly increased and highly concordant (r = 0.896; p < 0.0001) snpRNA expression levels in tumor tissues compared with the adjacent normal prostate [122-fold and 45-fold in Gleason 7 tumors (p = 0.03); 370-fold and 127-fold in Gleason 8 tumors (p = 0.0001) for NLRP1-locus and 8q24-locus snpRNAs, respectively]. Our experiments indicate that RAD and CR phenotype of human PC cells can be triggered by ncRNA molecules transcribed from the NLRP1-locus intergenic enhancer at 17p13 and by downstream activation of the 8q24-locus snpRNAs. Our results define the IDAGL at 17p13 and 8q24 as candidate regulatory loci of RAD and CR phenotypes of PC, reveal previously unknown molecular links between the innate immunity/inflammasome system and development of hormone-independent PC and identify novel molecular and genetic targets with diagnostic and therapeutic potentials, exploration of which should be highly beneficial for personalized clinical management of PC. PMID:22067658

  8. Multiple sclerosis (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Multiple sclerosis is a central nervous system disorder marked by decreased nerve function with initial inflammation of the protective myelin nerve covering and eventual scarring. Symptoms and severity of ...

  9. Absence of evidence for bornavirus infection in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Hornig, Mady; Briese, Thomas; Licinio, Julio; Khabbaz, Rima F.; Altshuler, Lori L.; Potkin, Steven G.; Schwemmle, Martin; Siemetzki, Ulrike; Mintz, Jim; Honkavuori, Kirsi; Kraemer, Helena C.; Egan, Michael F.; Whybrow, Peter C.; Bunney, William E.; Lipkin, W. Ian

    2013-01-01

    In 1983, reports of antibodies in subjects with major depressive disorder to an as-yet uncharacterized infectious agent associated with meningoencephalitis in horses and sheep led to the molecular cloning of the genome of a novel, negative-stranded neurotropic virus, Borna disease virus (BDV).1,2 This advance enabled the development of new diagnostic assays including in situ hybridization, PCR and serology based on recombinant proteins. Since these assays were first implemented in 1990 more than 80 studies have reported an association between BDV and a wide range of human illnesses that include major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, anxiety disorder, chronic fatigue syndrome, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, dementia and glioblastoma multiforme.3,4 However, to date there has been no blinded case-control study of the epidemiology of BDV infection. Here, in a United States-based, multi-center, yoked case-control study with standardized methods for clinical assessment and blinded serologic and molecular analysis, we report the absence of association of psychiatric illness with antibodies to BDV or with BDV nucleic acids in serially-collected serum and white blood cell samples from 396 subjects, a study population comprised of 198 matched pairs of patients and healthy controls (52 schizophrenia/control pairs, 66 bipolar disorder/control pairs, and 80 major depressive disorder/control pairs). Our results argue strongly against a role for BDV in the pathogenesis of these psychiatric disorders. PMID:22290118

  10. Bipolar Disorder

    MedlinePLUS

    ... us to find out more about bipolar disorder. Bipolar Disorder (Easy to Read) Order a free hardcopy En ... this brochure to find out more. What is bipolar disorder? Bipolar disorder is a serious brain illness. It ...

  11. Please cite this article in press as: J.C. Pirkle Jr., R.D. Braatz, Instabilities and multiplicities in non-isothermal blown film extrusion including the effects of crystallization, J. Process Control (2011), doi:10.1016/j.jprocont.2010.12.007

    E-print Network

    2011-01-01

    and multiplicities in non-isothermal blown film extrusion including the effects of crystallization, J. Process Control journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/jprocont Instabilities and multiplicities in non-isothermal blown film extrusion including the effects of crystallization J. Carl Pirkle Jr.a , Richard D. Braatzb

  12. [Multilingualism and child psychiatry: on differential diagnoses of language disorder, specific learning disorder, and selective mutism].

    PubMed

    Tamiya, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Multilingualism poses unique psychiatric problems, especially in the field of child psychiatry. The author discusses several linguistic and transcultural issues in relation to Language Disorder, Specific Learning Disorder and Selective Mutism. Linguistic characteristics of multiple language development, including so-called profile effects and code-switching, need to be understood for differential diagnosis. It is also emphasized that Language Disorder in a bilingual person is not different or worse than that in a monolingual person. Second language proficiency, cultural background and transfer from the first language all need to be considered in an evaluation for Specific Learning Disorder. Selective Mutism has to be differentiated from the silent period observed in the normal successive bilingual development. The author concludes the review by remarking on some caveats around methods of language evaluation in a multilingual person. PMID:25702497

  13. Multiple osteochondromas.

    PubMed

    Bovée, Judith V M G

    2008-01-01

    Multiple osteochondromas (MO) is characterised by development of two or more cartilage capped bony outgrowths (osteochondromas) of the long bones. The prevalence is estimated at 1:50,000, and it seems to be higher in males (male-to-female ratio 1.5:1). Osteochondromas develop and increase in size in the first decade of life, ceasing to grow when the growth plates close at puberty. They are pedunculated or sessile (broad base) and can vary widely in size. The number of osteochondromas may vary significantly within and between families, the mean number of locations is 15-18. The majority are asymptomatic and located in bones that develop from cartilage, especially the long bones of the extremities, predominantly around the knee. The facial bones are not affected. Osteochondromas may cause pain, functional problems and deformities, especially of the forearm, that may be reason for surgical removal. The most important complication is malignant transformation of osteochondroma towards secondary peripheral chondrosarcoma, which is estimated to occur in 0.5-5%. MO is an autosomal dominant disorder and is genetically heterogeneous. In almost 90% of MO patients germline mutations in the tumour suppressor genes EXT1 or EXT2 are found. The EXT genes encode glycosyltransferases, catalyzing heparan sulphate polymerization. The diagnosis is based on radiological and clinical documentation, supplemented with, if available, histological evaluation of osteochondromas. If the exact mutation is known antenatal diagnosis is technically possible. MO should be distinguished from metachondromatosis, dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica and Ollier disease. Osteochondromas are benign lesions and do not affect life expectancy. Management includes removal of osteochondromas when they give complaints. Removed osteochondromas should be examined for malignant transformation towards secondary peripheral chondrosarcoma. Patients should be well instructed and regular follow-up for early detection of malignancy seems justified. For secondary peripheral chondrosarcoma, en-bloc resection of the lesion and its pseudocapsule with tumour-free margins, preferably in a bone tumour referral centre, should be performed. PMID:18271966

  14. The Cerebellum and Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Joseph R.; Hewedi, Doaa H.; Eissa, Abeer M.; Moustafa, Ahmed A.

    2015-01-01

    The cerebellum has been considered for a long time to play a role solely in motor coordination. However, studies over the past two decades have shown that the cerebellum also plays a key role in many motor, cognitive, and emotional processes. In addition, studies have also shown that the cerebellum is implicated in many psychiatric disorders including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorders, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, and anxiety disorders. In this review, we discuss existing studies reporting cerebellar dysfunction in various psychiatric disorders. We will also discuss future directions for studies linking the cerebellum to psychiatric disorders. PMID:26000269

  15. [Skin-picking disorder].

    PubMed

    Niemeier, V; Peters, E; Gieler, U

    2015-10-01

    The disorder is characterized by compulsive repetitive skin-picking (SP), resulting in skin lesions. The patients must have undertaken several attempts to reduce or stop SP. The disorder must have led to clinically significant limitations in social, professional, or other important areas of life. The symptoms cannot be better explained by another emotional disorder or any other dermatological disease. In the new DSM-V, skin-picking disorder has been included in the diagnostic system as an independent disorder and describes the self-injury of the skin by picking or scratching with an underlying emotional disorder. SP is classified among the impulse-control disorders and is, thus, differentiated from compulsive disorders as such. There are often emotional comorbidities. In cases of pronounced psychosocial limitation, interdisciplinary cooperation with a psychotherapist and/or psychiatrist is indicated. PMID:26391325

  16. Therapeutic Horseback Riding Outcomes of Parent-Identified Goals for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: An ABA? Multiple Case Design Examining Dosing and Generalization to the Home and Community

    PubMed Central

    Baird, Joanne M.; Kim, Young Joo; Rajora, Kuwar B.; D’Silva, Delma; Podolinsky, Lin; Mazefsky, Carla; Minshew, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    We examined whether different doses of therapeutic riding influenced parent-nominated target behaviors of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (a) during the session (b) at home, and (c) in the community. We used a single subject multiple Baseline, multiple case design, with dosing of 1, 3, and 5 times/week. Three boys with ASD, 6–8 years of age participated, and counts of target behaviors were collected in each setting and phase of the study. Compared to Baseline, 70 % of the target behaviors were better during Intervention and improvement was retained in 63 % of the behaviors during Withdrawal. Increased doses of therapeutic riding were significant for magnitude of change, and the effect of the therapeutic riding sessions generalized to home and community. PMID:24091469

  17. Therapeutic horseback riding outcomes of parent-identified goals for children with autism spectrum disorder: an ABA' multiple case design examining dosing and generalization to the home and community.

    PubMed

    Holm, Margo B; Baird, Joanne M; Kim, Young Joo; Rajora, Kuwar B; D'Silva, Delma; Podolinsky, Lin; Mazefsky, Carla; Minshew, Nancy

    2014-04-01

    We examined whether different doses of therapeutic riding influenced parent-nominated target behaviors of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (a) during the session (b) at home, and (c) in the community. We used a single subject multiple Baseline, multiple case design, with dosing of 1, 3, and 5 times/week. Three boys with ASD, 6-8 years of age participated, and counts of target behaviors were collected in each setting and phase of the study. Compared to Baseline, 70% of the target behaviors were better during Intervention and improvement was retained in 63% of the behaviors during Withdrawal. Increased doses of therapeutic riding were significant for magnitude of change, and the effect of the therapeutic riding sessions generalized to home and community. PMID:24091469

  18. Immune Disorders and Its Correlation with Gut Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Ji-Sun; Im, Chang-Rok

    2012-01-01

    Allergic disorders such as atopic dermatitis and asthma are common hyper-immune disorders in industrialized countries. Along with genetic association, environmental factors and gut microbiota have been suggested as major triggering factors for the development of atopic dermatitis. Numerous studies support the association of hygiene hypothesis in allergic immune disorders that a lack of early childhood exposure to diverse microorganism increases susceptibility to allergic diseases. Among the symbiotic microorganisms (e.g. gut flora or probiotics), probiotics confer health benefits through multiple action mechanisms including modification of immune response in gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT). Although many human clinical trials and mouse studies demonstrated the beneficial effects of probiotics in diverse immune disorders, this effect is strain specific and needs to apply specific probiotics for specific allergic diseases. Herein, we briefly review the diverse functions and regulation mechanisms of probiotics in diverse disorders. PMID:23091436

  19. The Single and Combined Effects of Multiple Intensities of Behavior Modification and Methylphenidate for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in a Classroom Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabiano, Gregory A.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Burrows-MacLean, Lisa; Coles, Erika K.; Chacko, Anil; Wymbs, Brian T.; Walker, Kathryn S.; Arnold, Fran; Garefino, Allison; Keenan, Jenna K.; Onyango, Adia N.; Hoffman, Martin T.; Massetti, Greta M.; Robb, Jessica A.

    2007-01-01

    Currently behavior modification, stimulant medication, and combined treatments are supported as evidence-based interventions for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in classroom settings. However, there has been little study of the relative effects of these two modalities and their combination in classrooms. Using a within-subject design, the…

  20. Integrating Case Topics in Medical School Curriculum to Enhance Multiple Skill Learning: Using Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders as an Exemplary Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paley, Blair; O'Connor, Mary J.; Baillie, Susan J.; Guiton, Gretchen; Stuber, Margaret L.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: This article describes the use of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) as a theme to connect the learning of basic neurosciences with clinical applications across the age span within a systems-based, integrated curricular structure that emphasizes problem-based learning. Methods: In collaboration with the Centers for Disease…

  1. Community Report from the Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (ADDM) Network: Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) among Multiple Areas of the United States in 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that about 1 in 88 children has been identified with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). CDC's estimate comes from the Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (ADDM) Network, which monitors the number of 8-year-old children with ASDs living in diverse communities throughout the…

  2. Causes of eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Polivy, Janet; Herman, C Peter

    2002-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa have emerged as the predominant eating disorders. We review the recent research evidence pertaining to the development of these disorders, including sociocultural factors (e.g., media and peer influences), family factors (e.g., enmeshment and criticism), negative affect, low self-esteem, and body dissatisfaction. Also reviewed are cognitive and biological aspects of eating disorders. Some contributory factors appear to be necessary for the appearance of eating disorders, but none is sufficient. Eating disorders may represent a way of coping with problems of identity and personal control. PMID:11752484

  3. Treatment of comorbidity in conduct disorder with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Turgay, Atilla

    2005-01-01

    Conduct disorder (CD) is one of the most common psychiatric disorders in childhood and adolescence. It is characterized by a variety of chronic antisocial behaviors, a repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior that violates the basic rights of others, major age-appropriate societal norms, or both. Aggressive behavior, lying, stealing, fire-setting, and running away from home and school are the most frequent manifestations of CD and are often accompanied by hyperactivity, impulsive behavior, explosiveness, cognitive and learning problems, and poor social skills. The rate of comorbidity is high, with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) being the most common; comorbid anxiety and depressive disorders are also seen, especially in adolescents. The diagnostic process should include the use of structured interviews, and scores from reliable and valid rating scales that cover all psychiatric disorders must be considered in the differential diagnosis, because CD alone is an extreme rarity and multiple disorders are almost always the rule rather than exception. Treatment should include parenting skills training combined with training of the child to improve his or her relationships with peers, academic performance, and compliance with legitimate demands of authority figures. The appropriate use of medications and integration of patient/parent education and support, as well as individual, group, family, residential, and inpatient treatment may be beneficial for patients with CD and ADHD. The article describes a number of psychopharmacological agents that are used in patients with CD with ADHD and other comorbid disorders. Drugs that may be useful include psychostimulants; atomoxetine (Strattera); antidepressants (imipramine [Tofranil], desipramine [Norpramin]); Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs); atypical antipsychotics such as risperidone (Risperdal); or mood regulators including lithium (Eskalith). PMID:16222912

  4. Nutritional and Pubertal Disorders.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Calvo, M Teresa; Argente, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Caloric-protein malnutrition can slow growth and cause pubertal delay. This chapter focuses on endocrine abnormalities and pubertal alterations in patients with eating disorders, childhood obesity, the female athlete triad and children cancer survivors. Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) exhibit multiple endocrine abnormalities, including isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. The delay in pubertal development and reduction in growth seen in AN patients may be a direct result of malnutrition. Appropriate psychiatric, nutritional and hormonal therapy is necessary. It is suggested that obesity during childhood can accelerate pubertal onset and these children usually exhibit accelerated linear growth during puberty. In girls the relationship between childhood obesity and early pubertal onset could be related to their insulin resistance and/or hyperinsulinemia. The female athlete triad is often observed in physically active girls and women in whom low energy availability with or without disordered eating, menstrual dysfunction and low bone mineral density can be present. In prepubertal girls excess exercise can cause delayed menarche with no effects on adult height, while in postpubertal females it results in menstrual cycle irregularities. The consequences of childhood cancer depend on the type of cancer, its location, the age at which the disease was diagnosed, the dose of radiotherapy, and the type and dose of chemotherapy. PMID:26680577

  5. Diagnosis and treatment of cutaneous paraneoplastic disorders.

    PubMed

    Abreu Velez, Ana Maria; Howard, Michael S

    2010-01-01

    The skin plays a critical role in the detection of internal malignances. Cutaneous signs of these disorders afford clinicians opportunities for early diagnosis and treatment. We aim to succinctly review the recognition, diagnosis, and treatment of selected cutaneous paraneoplastic diseases. Skin disorders that may be associated with paraneoplastic syndromes include: cutaneous metastases, tripe palms, Sweet's syndrome, glucagonoma, Paget's disease and extramammary Paget's disease, acanthosis nigricans, Birt-Hogg-Dube syndrome, basal cell nevus syndrome, Bazex syndrome (acrokeratosis paraneoplastica), carcinoid syndrome, Cowden's disease(multiple hamartoma syndrome), dermatomyositis, erythema gyratum repens, ichthyosis aquisita, von Recklinghausen's disease, pityriasis rotunda, pyoderma gangrenosum, Quincke's edema (angioedema and paraneoplastic uricaria), paraneoplastic pemphigus, Degos' disease, superior vena cava syndrome, Werner's syndrome, diffuse normolipemic plane xanthomas, and yellow nail syndrome. Treatment for these disorders depends on the nature and anatomic distribution of the primary neoplastic process. PMID:21054710

  6. Compartmentalization and Functionality of Nuclear Disorder: Intrinsic Disorder and Protein-Protein Interactions in Intra-Nuclear Compartments.

    PubMed

    Meng, Fanchi; Na, Insung; Kurgan, Lukasz; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2015-01-01

    The cell nucleus contains a number of membrane-less organelles or intra-nuclear compartments. These compartments are dynamic structures representing liquid-droplet phases which are only slightly denser than the bulk intra-nuclear fluid. They possess different functions, have diverse morphologies, and are typically composed of RNA (or, in some cases, DNA) and proteins. We analyzed 3005 mouse proteins localized in specific intra-nuclear organelles, such as nucleolus, chromatin, Cajal bodies, nuclear speckles, promyelocytic leukemia (PML) nuclear bodies, nuclear lamina, nuclear pores, and perinuclear compartment and compared them with ~29,863 non-nuclear proteins from mouse proteome. Our analysis revealed that intrinsic disorder is enriched in the majority of intra-nuclear compartments, except for the nuclear pore and lamina. These compartments are depleted in proteins that lack disordered domains and enriched in proteins that have multiple disordered domains. Moonlighting proteins found in multiple intra-nuclear compartments are more likely to have multiple disordered domains. Protein-protein interaction networks in the intra-nuclear compartments are denser and include more hubs compared to the non-nuclear proteins. Hubs in the intra-nuclear compartments (except for the nuclear pore) are enriched in disorder compared with non-nuclear hubs and non-nuclear proteins. Therefore, our work provides support to the idea of the functional importance of intrinsic disorder in the cell nucleus and shows that many proteins associated with sub-nuclear organelles in nuclei of mouse cells are enriched in disorder. This high level of disorder in the mouse nuclear proteins defines their ability to serve as very promiscuous binders, possessing both large quantities of potential disorder-based interaction sites and the ability of a single such site to be involved in a large number of interactions. PMID:26712748

  7. A de novo 1.58?Mb deletion, including MAP2K6 and mapping 1.28?Mb upstream to SOX9, identified in a patient with Pierre Robin sequence and osteopenia with multiple fractures.

    PubMed

    Smyk, Marta; Roeder, Elizabeth; Cheung, Sau Wai; Szafranski, Przemyslaw; Stankiewicz, Pawe?

    2015-08-01

    Defects of long-range regulatory elements of dosage-sensitive genes represent an under-recognized mechanism underlying genetic diseases. Haploinsufficiency of SOX9, the gene essential for development of testes and differentiation of chondrocytes, results in campomelic dysplasia, a skeletal malformation syndrome often associated with sex reversal. Chromosomal rearrangements with breakpoints mapping up to 1.6?Mb up- and downstream to SOX9, and disrupting its distant cis-regulatory elements, have been described in patients with milder forms of campomelic dysplasia, Pierre Robin sequence, and sex reversal. We present an ?1.58?Mb deletion mapping ?1.28?Mb upstream to SOX9 that encompasses its putative long-range cis-regulatory element(s) and MAP2K6 in a patient with Pierre Robin sequence and osteopenia with multiple fractures. Low bone mass panel testing using massively parallel sequencing of 23 nuclear genes, including COL1A1 and COL1A2 was negative. Based on the previous mouse model of Map2k6, suggesting that Sox9 is likely a downstream target of the p38 MAPK pathway, and our previous chromosome conformation capture-on-chip (4C) data showing potential interactions between SOX9 promoter and MAP2K6, we hypothesize that deletion of MAP2K6 might have affected SOX9 expression and contributed to our patient's phenotype. PMID:26059046

  8. Genetic Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... This can cause a medical condition called a genetic disorder. You can inherit a gene mutation from ... during your lifetime. There are three types of genetic disorders: Single-gene disorders, where a mutation affects ...

  9. Cyclothymic disorder

    MedlinePLUS

    ... It is a mild form of bipolar disorder (manic depressive illness), in which a person has mood swings over ... causes of cyclothymic disorder are unknown. Major depression, bipolar disorder, and cyclothymia often occur together in families. This ...

  10. BORDERLINE PERSONALITY DISORDER IN THE MEDICAL SETTING: Suggestive Behaviors, Syndromes, and Diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Sansone, Randy A; Sansone, Lori A

    2015-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder is a personality dysfunction that is characterized by disinhibition and impulsivity, which oftentimes manifest as self-regulation difficulties. Patients with this disorder have always been present in medical settings, but have been described as "difficult patients" rather than patients with borderline personality disorder. According to empirical findings, a number of behaviors and medical syndromes/diagnoses are suggestive of borderline personality disorder. Suggestive behaviors in the medical setting may include aggressive or disruptive behaviors, the intentional sabotage of medical care, and excessive healthcare utilization. Suggestive medical syndromes and diagnoses in the medical setting may include alcohol and substance misuse (including the abuse of prescription medications), multiple somatic complaints, chronic pain, obesity, sexual impulsivity, and hair pulling. While not all-inclusive or diagnostic, these behaviors and syndromes/diagnoses may invite further clinical evaluation of the patient for borderline personality disorder. PMID:26351624

  11. A Review of Co-Morbid Disorders of Asperger's Disorder and the Transition to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Stephanie; Curwen, Tracey; Ryan, Thomas G.

    2012-01-01

    This review includes empirical peer-reviewed articles which support the examination of Asperger's Disorder and co-morbid disorders, as well as an analysis of how adolescents with Asperger's Disorder transition to adulthood. Although the focus was on Asperger's Disorder, some studies include Autism Spectrum Disorder samples. It was found that…

  12. Sleep disorders in the elderly

    MedlinePLUS

    Sleep disorders in the elderly involve any disrupted sleep pattern. This can include problems falling or staying asleep, ... for medical causes and determine which type of sleep disorder is causing the problem.

  13. Pleurisy and Other Pleural Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Are Pleurisy and Other Pleural Disorders? Pleurisy (PLUR-ih-se) is a condition in ... conditions can cause pleurisy, including viral infections. Other Pleural Disorders Pneumothorax Air or gas can build up in ...

  14. Bipolar Disorder Among Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among ...

  15. Antisocial Personality Disorder

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among ...

  16. Panic Disorder among Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among ...

  17. Any Personality Disorder

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among ...

  18. Borderline Personality Disorder

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among ...

  19. Low-dose mirtazapine added to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in pregnant women with major depression or panic disorder including symptoms of severe nausea, insomnia and decreased appetite: three cases.

    PubMed

    Uguz, Faruk

    2013-07-01

    Data on the use of a combination of antidepressants during pregnancy are inadequate. This report presents the beneficial effect of low-dose mirtazapine added onto selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in the treatment of the symptoms of severe nausea, insomnia and loss of appetite accompanying psychiatric disorders during pregnancy, which is an important problem in clinical practice. The psychiatric diagnoses were determined with the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. Assessments were performed with the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement Scale and the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. Further studies should be carried out to confirm the positive effects and safety of an additional low-dose mirtazapine in these cases. PMID:23363390

  20. Topical review-connective tissue diseases: orofacial manifestations including pain.

    PubMed

    Klasser, Gary D; Balasubramaniam, Ramesh; Epstein, Joel

    2007-01-01

    This topical review presents an overview of orofacial manifestations associated with the more common connective tissue diseases affecting multiple organs. The orofacial manifestations associated with these autoimmune disorders include oral mucosa alterations, salivary gland pathosis, sensory neuropathies, headaches, and temporomandibular disorders. Since many of these orofacial manifestations may be painful, the practitioner managing pain patients should be familiar with them. An understanding of the orofacial manifestations associated with these systemic diseases will enable the pain practitioner to establish an appropriate diagnosis within the context of the underlying systemic disease. This will allow the practitioner the opportunity to contribute and collaborate as a member of a multidisciplinary health-care team in the management of these systemic autoimmune diseases. PMID:17717956

  1. Smoldering multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, S Vincent; Landgren, Ola; Mateos, María-Victoria

    2015-05-14

    Smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) is an asymptomatic clonal plasma cell disorder. SMM is distinguished from monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance by a much higher risk of progression to multiple myeloma (MM). There have been major advances in the diagnosis, prognosis, and management of SMM in the last few years. These include a revised disease definition, identification of several new prognostic factors, a classification based on underlying cytogenetic changes, and new treatment options. Importantly, a subset of patients previously considered SMM is now reclassified as MM on the basis of biomarkers identifying patients with an ?80% risk of progression within 2 years. SMM has assumed greater significance on the basis of recent trials showing that early therapy can be potentially beneficial to patients. As a result, there is a need to accurately diagnose and risk-stratify patients with SMM, including routine incorporation of modern imaging and laboratory techniques. In this review, we outline current concepts in diagnosis and risk stratification of SMM, and provide specific recommendations on the management of SMM. PMID:25838344

  2. Preventing eating disorder pathology: common and unique features of successful eating disorders prevention programs.

    PubMed

    Ciao, Anna C; Loth, Katie; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-07-01

    Over the past two decades, the field of eating disorders has made remarkable strides in identifying, evaluating, and disseminating successful prevention programs. The current review identifies and discusses nine distinct eating disorders prevention programs that reduce existing eating disorder pathology or prevent the onset of future pathology. Each program was evaluated in one or more controlled trial with a follow-up period of at least six months. We review the evidence base for these nine successful programs and discuss their common and unique features. Based on authors' descriptions of their programs in published trials, we found that all programs were theory-driven, targeted one or more eating disorder risk factor (e.g., body dissatisfaction), were delivered across multiple group sessions, and included at least some interactive content. Most programs included content related to healthy eating/nutrition, media literacy/sociocultural pressures, and body acceptance/body satisfaction. Notably, there was wide variation in some participant features (e.g., participant age, sex, risk status) and intervention features (e.g., setting and format, length and dose, providers), suggesting that a variety of programs are beneficial in impacting eating disorder pathology. Implications and directions for future research are discussed, including an increased focus on universal and indicated prevention programs, expanding programs to a wider age range and a broader spectrum of weight-related problems, and rigorous evaluation of programs through efficacy, effectiveness, and implementation research. PMID:24821099

  3. Preventing Eating Disorder Pathology: Common and Unique Features of Successful Eating Disorders Prevention Programs

    PubMed Central

    Ciao, Anna C.; Loth, Katie; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    Over the past two decades, the field of eating disorders has made remarkable strides in identifying, evaluating, and disseminating successful prevention programs. The current review identifies and discusses nine distinct eating disorders prevention programs that reduce existing eating disorder pathology or prevent the onset of future pathology. Each program was evaluated in one or more controlled trial with a follow-up period of at least six months. We review the evidence base for these nine successful programs and discuss their common and unique features. Based on authors’ descriptions of their programs in published trials, we found that all programs were theory-driven, targeted one or more eating disorder risk factor (e.g., body dissatisfaction), were delivered across multiple group sessions, and included at least some interactive content. Most programs included content related to healthy eating/nutrition, media literacy/sociocultural pressures, and body acceptance/body satisfaction. Notably, there was wide variation in some participant features (e.g., participant age, sex, risk status) and intervention features (e.g., setting and format, length and dose, providers), suggesting that a variety of programs are beneficial in impacting eating disorder pathology. Implications and directions for future research are discussed, including an increased focus on universal and indicated prevention programs, expanding programs to a wider age range and a broader spectrum of weight-related problems, and rigorous evaluation of programs through efficacy, effectiveness, and implementation research. PMID:24821099

  4. Diagnostic criteria for vascular cognitive disorders: a VASCOG statement

    PubMed Central

    Sachdev, Perminder; Kalaria, Raj; O’Brien, John; Skoog, Ingmar; Alladi, Suvarna; Black, Sandra E; Blacker, Deborah; Blazer, Dan; Chen, Christopher; Chui, Helena; Ganguli, Mary; Jellinger, Kurt; Jeste, Dilip V.; Pasquier, Florence; Paulsen, Jane; Prins, Niels; Rockwood, Kenneth; Roman, Gustavo; Scheltens, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Background Several sets of diagnostic criteria have been published for vascular dementia (VaD) since the 1960s. The continuing ambiguity in VaD definition warrants a critical re-examination. Methods Participants at a special symposium of the International Society for Vascular Behavioral and Cognitive Disorders (VASCOG) in 2009 critiqued the current criteria. They drafted a proposal for a new set of criteria, later reviewed through multiple drafts by the group, including additional experts and the members of the Neurocognitive Disorders Work Group of the DSM-5 Task Force. Results Cognitive disorders of vascular etiology are a heterogeneous group of disorders with diverse pathologies and clinical manifestations, discussed broadly under the rubric of vascular cognitive disorders (VCD). The continuum of vascular cognitive impairment is recognized by the categories of Mild Vascular Cognitive Disorder, and Vascular Dementia or Major Vascular Cognitive Disorder. Diagnostic thresholds are defined. Clinical and neuroimaging criteria are proposed for establishing vascular etiology. Subtypes of VCD are described, and the frequent co-occurrence of Alzheimer’s disease pathology emphasized. Conclusions The proposed criteria for VCD provide a coherent approach to the diagnosis of this diverse group of disorders, with a view to stimulating clinical and pathological validation studies. These criteria can be harmonized with the DSM-5 criteria such that an international consensus on the criteria for VCD may be achieved. PMID:24632990

  5. Neural and psychological underpinnings of gambling disorder: A review.

    PubMed

    Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian L; Chamberlain, Samuel R

    2016-02-01

    Gambling disorder affects 0.4 to 1.6% of adults worldwide, and is highly comorbid with other mental health disorders. This article provides a concise primer on the neural and psychological underpinnings of gambling disorder based on a selective review of the literature. Gambling disorder is associated with dysfunction across multiple cognitive domains which can be considered in terms of impulsivity and compulsivity. Neuroimaging data suggest structural and functional abnormalities of networks involved in reward processing and top-down control. Gambling disorder shows 50-60% heritability and it is likely that various neurochemical systems are implicated in the pathophysiology (including dopaminergic, glutamatergic, serotonergic, noradrenergic, and opioidergic). Elevated rates of certain personality traits (e.g. negative urgency, disinhibition), and personality disorders, are found. More research is required to evaluate whether cognitive dysfunction and personality aspects influence the longitudinal course and treatment outcome for gambling disorder. It is hoped that improved understanding of the biological and psychological components of gambling disorder, and their interactions, may lead to improved treatment approaches and raise the profile of this neglected condition. PMID:26497079

  6. Defining Oppositional Defiant Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Richard; Maughan, Barbara; Costello, E. Jane; Angold, Adrian

    2005-01-01

    Background: ICD-10 and DSM-IV include similar criterial symptom lists for conduct disorder (CD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), but while DSM-IV treats each list separately, ICD-10 considers them jointly. One consequence is that ICD-10 identifies a group of children with ODD subtype who do not receive a diagnosis under DSM-IV. Methods: We…

  7. Spotlight on Eating Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Disorders (2 items) Generalized Anxiety Disorder (2 items) Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) (3 items) Panic Disorder (1 item) Post- ... Disorders (2 items) Generalized Anxiety Disorder (2 items) Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) (3 items) Panic Disorder (1 item) Post- ...

  8. Generalized Anxiety Disorder

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Disorders (1 item) Generalized Anxiety Disorder (2 items) Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) (3 items) Panic Disorder (1 item) Post- ... Disorders (1 item) Generalized Anxiety Disorder (2 items) Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) (3 items) Panic Disorder (1 item) Post- ...

  9. Mood and affect disorders.

    PubMed

    Tang, Michael H; Pinsky, Elizabeth G

    2015-02-01

    Depressive disorders are common in children and adolescents, with estimates for depressive episodes as high as 18.2% for girls and 7.7% for boys by age 17 years, and are a major cause of morbidity and even mortality. The primary care pediatrician should be able to (1) diagnose depressive disorders and use standardized instruments; (2) ask about suicide, self-harm, homicide, substance use, mania, and psychosis; (3) triage the severity of illness; (4) be aware of the differential diagnosis, including normal development, other depressive disorders, bipolar disorders, and comorbid disorders, such as anxiety and substance use; (5) refer to evidenced-based psychotherapies; (6) prescribe first-line medications; and (7) provide ongoing coordination in a medical home. Pediatric bipolar disorders and the new disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD) diagnoses are controversial but not uncommon, with prevalence estimates ranging from 0.8% to 4.3% in children at various ages. Although the pediatrician is not likely to be prescribing medications for children with bipolar disorder and DMDD diagnoses, all clinicians should be familiar with common neuroleptics and other mood stabilizers, including important potential adverse effects. Basic management of depressive and bipolar disorders is an important skill for primary care pediatricians. PMID:25646309

  10. Protective effects of ginseng on neurological disorders

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Wei-Yi; Farooqui, Tahira; Koh, Hwee-Ling; Farooqui, Akhlaq A.; Ling, Eng-Ang

    2015-01-01

    Ginseng (Order: Apiales, Family: Araliaceae, Genus: Panax) has been used as a traditional herbal medicine for over 2000 years, and is recorded to have antianxiety, antidepressant and cognition enhancing properties. The protective effects of ginseng on neurological disorders are discussed in this review. Ginseng species and ginsenosides, and their intestinal metabolism and bioavailability are briefly introduced. This is followed by molecular mechanisms of effects of ginseng on the brain, including glutamatergic transmission, monoamine transmission, estrogen signaling, nitric oxide (NO) production, the Keap1/Nrf2 adaptive cellular stress pathway, neuronal survival, apoptosis, neural stem cells and neuroregeneration, microglia, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and cerebral microvessels. The molecular mechanisms of the neuroprotective effects of ginseng in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) including ?-amyloid (A?) formation, tau hyperphosphorylation and oxidative stress, major depression, stroke, Parkinson’s disease and multiple sclerosis are presented. It is hoped that this discussion will stimulate more studies on the use of ginseng in neurological disorders. PMID:26236231

  11. Multiple Sclerosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on multiple sclerosis is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then…

  12. Eating Disorders About eating disorders

    E-print Network

    Leistikow, Bruce N.

    Eating Disorders About eating disorders There are many influences on an individual's self image, and in some cases, their lives. Anorexia nervosa is a disorder that affects 1% of young women-starvation. Bulimia nervosa is a disorder that affects 2-4% of young women. It is associated with recurrent episodes

  13. Skin picking disorder.

    PubMed

    Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian L; Chamberlain, Samuel R; Keuthen, Nancy J; Lochner, Christine; Stein, Dan J

    2012-11-01

    Although skin picking has been documented in the medical literature since the 19th century, only now is it receiving serious consideration as a DSM psychiatric disorder in discussions for DSM-5. Recent community prevalence studies suggest that skin picking disorder appears to be as common as many other psychiatric disorders, with reported prevalences ranging from 1.4% to 5.4%. Clinical evaluation of patients with skin picking disorder entails a broad physical and psychiatric examination, encouraging an interdisciplinary approach to evaluation and treatment. Approaches to treatment should include cognitive-behavioral therapy (including habit reversal or acceptance-enhanced behavior therapy) and medication (serotonin reuptake inhibitors, N-acetylcysteine, or naltrexone). Based on clinical experience and research findings, the authors recommend several management approaches to skin picking disorder. PMID:23128921

  14. Toe Injuries and Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Toe joint sprains and dislocations Fractured toe bones Treatments for toe injuries and disorders vary. They might include shoe inserts or special shoes, padding, taping, medicines, rest, and in severe cases, surgery.

  15. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a group of conditions called fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Effects can include physical and behavioral problems ... treatment is right for every child. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

  16. Child Behavior Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a death in the family may cause a child to act out. Behavior disorders are more serious. ... The behavior is also not appropriate for the child's age. Warning signs can include Harming or threatening ...

  17. Employees with Sleep Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... job to include only essential functions Situations and Solutions A financial analyst with sleep apnea often fell ... R.C. (2004). Shift-work sleep disorder – The glass is more than half Empty. The New England ...

  18. Glycosylation Disorders with Immunodeficiency

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area ? Glycosylation Disorders With ... experience the following symptoms: Susceptibility to bacterial and viral infections Allergies, including food allergy Asthma Eczema, a ...

  19. Symptoms of major depressive disorder subsequent to child maltreatment: Examining change across multiple levels of analysis to identify transdiagnostic risk pathways.

    PubMed

    Shenk, Chad E; Griffin, Amanda M; O'Donnell, Kieran J

    2015-11-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a prevalent psychiatric condition in the child maltreatment population. However, not all children who have been maltreated will develop MDD or MDD symptoms, suggesting the presence of unique risk pathways that explain how certain children develop MDD symptoms when others do not. The current study tested several candidate risk pathways to MDD symptoms following child maltreatment: neuroendocrine, autonomic, affective, and emotion regulation. Female adolescents (N = 110; age range = 14-19) were recruited into a substantiated child maltreatment or comparison condition and completed a laboratory stressor, saliva samples, and measures of emotion regulation, negative affect, and MDD symptoms. MDD symptoms were reassessed 18 months later. Mediational modeling revealed that emotion regulation was the only significant indirect effect of the relationship between child maltreatment and subsequent MDD symptoms, demonstrating that children exposed to maltreatment had greater difficulties managing affective states that in turn led to more severe MDD symptoms. These results highlight the importance of emotion dysregulation as a central risk pathway to MDD following child maltreatment. Areas of future research and implications for optimizing prevention and clinical intervention through the direct targeting of transdiagnostic risk pathways are discussed. PMID:26535940

  20. Brain transcriptome perturbations in the transferrin receptor 2 mutant mouse support the case for brain changes in iron loading disorders, including effects relating to long-term depression and long-term potentiation.

    PubMed

    Acikyol, B; Graham, R M; Trinder, D; House, M J; Olynyk, J K; Scott, R J; Milward, E A; Johnstone, D M

    2013-04-01

    Iron abnormalities within the brain are associated with several rare but severe neurodegenerative conditions. There is growing evidence that more common systemic iron loading disorders such as hemochromatosis can also have important effects on the brain. To identify features that are common across different forms of hemochromatosis, we used microarray and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to assess brain transcriptome profiles of transferrin receptor 2 mutant mice (Tfr2(mut)), a model of a rare type of hereditary hemochromatosis, relative to wildtype control mice. The results were compared with our previous findings in dietary iron-supplemented wildtype mice and Hfe(-/-) mice, a model of a common type of hereditary hemochromatosis. For transcripts showing significant changes relative to controls across all three models, there was perfect (100%) directional concordance (i.e. transcripts were increased in all models or decreased in all models). Comparison of the two models of hereditary hemochromatosis, which showed more pronounced changes than the dietary iron-supplemented mice, revealed numerous common molecular effects. Pathway analyses highlighted changes for genes relating to long-term depression (6.8-fold enrichment, p=5.4×10(-7)) and, to a lesser extent, long-term potentiation (3.7-fold enrichment, p=0.01), with generalized reductions in transcription of key genes from these pathways, which are involved in modulating synaptic strength and efficacy and are essential for memory and learning. The agreement across the models suggests the findings are robust and strengthens previous evidence that iron loading disorders affect the brain. Perturbations of brain phenomena such as long-term depression and long-term potentiation might partly explain neurologic symptoms reported for some hemochromatosis patients. PMID:23333676

  1. G Protein-Coupled Receptors in Major Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Catapano, Lisa A.; Manji, Husseini K.

    2007-01-01

    Although the molecular mechanisms underlying psychiatric illnesses such as depression, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia remain incompletely understood, there is increasing clinical, pharmacologic, and genetic evidence that G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) play critical roles in these disorders and their treatments. This perspectives paper reviews and synthesizes the available data. Dysfunction of multiple neurotransmitter and neuropeptide GPCRs in frontal cortex and limbic-related regions, such as the hippocampus, hypothalamus and brainstem, likely underlies the complex clinical picture that includes cognitive, perceptual, affective and motoric symptoms. The future development of novel agents targeting GPCR signaling cascades remains an exciting prospect for patients refractory to existing therapeutics. PMID:17078926

  2. The Burden of Loss: Unexpected death of a loved one and psychiatric disorders across the life course in a national study

    PubMed Central

    Keyes, Katherine M.; Pratt, Charissa; Galea, Sandro; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Koenen, Karestan C.; Shear, M. Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Background Unexpected death of a loved one is common and associated with subsequent elevations in symptoms of multiple forms of psychopathology. Determining whether this experience predicts novel onset of psychiatric disorders and whether these associations vary across the life course has important clinical implications. Aims To examine associations of a loved one’s unexpected death with first onset of common anxiety, mood, and substance disorders in a population-based sample. Methods Relation between unexpected death and first onset of lifetime DSM-IV disorders estimated using a structured interview of adults in the US general population (analytic sample size=27,534). Models controlled for prior occurrence of any disorder, other traumatic event experiences, and demographics. Results Unexpected death was the most common traumatic experience and most likely to be rated as the respondent’s worst, regardless of other traumatic experiences. Increased incidence after unexpected death was observed at every point across the life course for major depressive episodes, panic disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Increased incidence was clustered in later adult age groups for manic episodes, phobias, alcohol disorders, and generalized anxiety disorder. Conclusions The bereavement period is associated with elevated risk for the onset of multiple psychiatric disorders, consistently across the life course and coincident with the experience of the loved one’s death. Novel associations between unexpected death and onset of several disorders, including mania, confirm multiple case reports and small studies, and suggest an important emerging area for clinical research and practice. PMID:24832609

  3. [Pervasive developmental disorders].

    PubMed

    Ferreri, Mélanie

    2014-04-01

    Pervasive developmental disorders (PDD-ICD10), covering roughly the same entity as the autism spectrum disorders (ASD DSM-IVTR and DSM-V) include a heterogeneous clinical reality. PDD develop in childhood and are characterized by alterations in socialization, communication and behavior disorders with stereotypies and repetitive movements. Autism is included in PDD and has led to many debates in France and to the publication of recommendations and government plans, in recent years. We propose in this article to review the current knowledge of this topic. PMID:24855782

  4. Comorbidity in Hoarding Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Frost, Randy O.; Steketee, Gail; Tolin, David F.

    2011-01-01

    Hoarding Disorder (HD) is currently under consideration for inclusion as a distinct disorder in DSM-5 (1). Few studies have examined comorbidity patterns in people who hoard, and the ones that have suffer from serious methodological shortcomings including drawing from populations already diagnosed with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), using outdated definitions of hoarding, and relying on inadequate assessments of hoarding. The present study is the first large-scale study (n=217) of comorbidity in a sample of people meeting recently proposed criteria for hoarding disorder (1) and relying on validated assessment procedures. The HD sample was compared to 96 participants meeting criteria for OCD without HD. High comorbidity rates were observed for major depressive disorder (MDD) as well as acquisition-related impulse control disorders (compulsive buying, kleptomania, and acquiring free things). Fewer than 20% of HD participants met criteria for OCD, and the rate of OCD in HD was higher for men than women. Rates of MDD and acquisition-related impulse control disorders were higher among HD than OCD participants. No specific anxiety disorder was more frequent in HD, but social phobia was more frequent among men with HD than among men with OCD. Inattentive ADHD was diagnosed in 28% of HD participants and was significantly more frequent than among OCD participants (3%). These findings form important base rates for developing research and treatments for hoarding disorder. PMID:21770000

  5. Somatic symptom disorder

    MedlinePLUS

    ... related disorders; Somatization disorder; Somatiform disorders; Briquet syndrome; Illness anxiety disorder ... a history of abuse. SSD is similar to illness anxiety disorder . This is when a person is ...

  6. Urinary 6-hydroxymelatonin sulfate excretion in intellectually disabled subjects with sleep disorders and multiple medications: validation of measurements in urine extracted from diapers.

    PubMed

    Laakso, M-L; Lindblom, N; Kaipainen, P; Kaski, M

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the applicability of urinary 6-hydroxymelatonin sulfate (MT6s) measurements in the evaluation of melatonin secretion in intellectually disabled patients with sleep disorders. All 17 patients received drugs with potential interactions with melatonin metabolism. Serum melatonin 24-h profiles were determined at hourly intervals. The area under the curve (AUC) value, peak amplitude, half-rise time, and half-decline time were calculated individually. Urinary MT6s excretion was determined from samples collected from disposable diapers during three consecutive days at varying intervals. The average excretion rate for each hour of the day was calculated. The excretion profiles were characterized by total amount of MT6s excretion/24 h/kg body mass, amount of excreted MT6s during 6 h of maximum excretion (MAX 6h), and start time of the maximum excretion (start MAX 6h). There were significant positive correlations between serum melatonin AUC value and total excretion of MT6s/body mass, between serum melatonin amplitude and urinary MAX 6h, and between melatonin half-rise time and start MAX 6h; one patient on phenobarbital medication was out of line. The serum melatonin profiles of the patients were classified by comparing them with those of matched healthy volunteers (low-, normal-, or high secretors, normal or delayed rhythm). Similarly, the parameters of MT6s profiles were compared with those obtained from healthy controls, and the patients were reclassified as normal or aberrant. The classifications based on serum melatonin and urinary MT6s measurements were mostly concordant. The daily pattern of urinary MT6s excretion reliably reflected the phase of the serum melatonin rhythm irrespective of the medications, but in some cases, the total amount of excreted MT6s was lower than expected based on serum melatonin measurements. PMID:16081364

  7. Adolescent with Tourette Syndrome and Bipolar Disorder: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Young-Joon

    2014-01-01

    Tourette syndrome consists of multiple motor tics and one or more vocal tics. Psychopathology occurs in approximately 90% of Tourette syndrome patients, with attention-deficit/hyperactivity, mood, and obsessive-compulsive disorders being common. Additionally, Tourette syndrome and bipolar disorder may be related in some individuals. However, it is unclear why bipolar disorder may be overrepresented in Tourette syndrome patients, and more research is needed. Herein, we report the case of a 15-year-old boy diagnosed with both Tourette syndrome and bipolar disorder, whose symptoms improved with aripiprazole, atomoxetine, and valproate. The patient was diagnosed with Tourette syndrome at 8 years of age when he developed tics and experienced his first depressive episode. The patient had a poor response to a variety of antidepressants and anti-tic medications. A combination of valproate and aripiprazole stabilized both the patient's tics and mood symptoms. It is important to assess individuals with Tourette syndrome for other disorders, including bipolar disorder. The treatment of children and adolescents with both Tourette syndrome and bipolar disorder is an important clinical issue. PMID:25598829

  8. Neuropsychopathological comorbidities in learning disorders

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Learning Disorders (LD) are complex diseases that affect about 2-10% of the school-age population. We performed neuropsychological and psychopathological evaluation, in order to investigate comorbidity in children with LD. Methods Our sample consisted of 448 patients from 7 to 16 years of age with a diagnosis of LD, divided in two subgroups: Specific Learning Disorders (SLD), including reading, writing, mathematics disorders, and Learning Disorders Not Otherwise Specified (LD NOS). Results Comorbidity with neuropsychopathologies was found in 62.2% of the total sample. In the LSD subgroup, ADHD was present in 33%, Anxiety Disorder in 28.8%, Developmental Coordination Disorder in 17.8%, Language Disorder in 11% and Mood Disorder in 9.4% of patients. In LD NOS subgroup, Language Disorder was present in 28.6%, Developmental Coordination Disorder in 27.5%, ADHD in 25.4%, Anxiety Disorder in 16.4%, Mood Disorder in 2.1% of patients. A statistically significant presence was respectively found for Language and Developmental Coordination Disorder comorbidity in LD NOS and for ADHD, mood and anxiety disorder comorbidity in SLD subgroup. Conclusions The different findings emerging in this study suggested to promote further investigations to better define the difference between SLD and LD NOS, in order to improve specific interventions to reduce the long range consequences. PMID:24330722

  9. Personality disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    Personality disorders are a group of mental conditions in which a person has a long-term pattern ... Causes of personality disorders are unknown. Genetic and environmental factors are thought to play a role. Mental health professionals categorize these ...

  10. Anxiety Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... GAD) that explains the signs, symptoms, and treatment. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: When Unwanted Thoughts Take Over A brochure on obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) that explains the signs, symptoms, and treatments. ...

  11. Bleeding Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... as clotting factors. If you have a bleeding disorder, you either do not have enough platelets or ... don't work the way they should. Bleeding disorders can be the result of other diseases, such ...

  12. Growth Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... their parents are. But some children have growth disorders. Growth disorders are problems that prevent children from developing normal ... growth can sometimes signal a gland problem or disease. The pituitary gland makes growth hormone, which stimulates ...

  13. Bipolar Disorder

    MedlinePLUS

    Bipolar disorder is a serious mental illness. People who have it go through unusual mood changes. They go from ... down feeling is depression. The causes of bipolar disorder aren't always clear. It runs in families. ...

  14. Personality Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    Personality disorders are a group of mental illnesses. They involve long-term patterns of thoughts and behaviors that are ... problems with relationships and work. People with personality disorders have trouble dealing with everyday stresses and problems. ...

  15. Personality Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... with antisocial personality disorder characteristically act out their conflicts and ignore normal rules of social behavior. These ... disorders focuses on helping them see the unconscious conflicts that are contributing to or causing their symptoms. ...

  16. Bipolar Disorder

    MedlinePLUS

    ... stop this Univ. of Colorado senior USA TODAY College Bipolar disorder affects approximately 5.7 million people ... Disorder Without Medication Science 2.0 The Royal College of Psychiatrists estimates that around 1% of the ...

  17. Sleep Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... have had enough sleep? You might have a sleep disorder. The most common kinds are Insomnia - a hard ... problems called parasomnias. There are treatments for most sleep disorders. Sometimes just having regular sleep habits can help.

  18. Movement Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... t want them to. If you have a movement disorder, you experience these kinds of impaired movement. Dyskinesia ... movement and is a common symptom of many movement disorders. Tremors are a type of dyskinesia. Nerve diseases ...

  19. Panic disorder

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Simon NM. The pharmacotherapy of anxiety disorders. In: Stern TA, Rosenbaum JF, Fava M, et al., eds. ... disorders: Panic, social anxiety, and generalized anxiety. In: Stern TA, Rosenbaum JF, Fava M, et al., eds. ...

  20. Eating Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a Psychiatrist Patients & Families All Topics Help With Eating Disorders Curated and updated for the community by APA Topic Information Eating disorders are illnesses in which the people experience severe ...

  1. Schizoaffective disorder

    MedlinePLUS

    ... disorder is thought to be less common than schizophrenia and mood disorders. Women may have the condition ... Complications are similar to those for schizophrenia and major mood ... therapy Problems due to manic behavior (for example, spending ...

  2. Bipolar disorder

    MedlinePLUS

    Bipolar disorder is a mental health condition in which a person has periods of depression and periods of ... Bipolar disorder affects men and women equally. It usually starts between ages 15 and 25. The exact cause ...

  3. The Role of Ghrelin, Salivary Secretions, and Dental Care in Eating Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Yagi, Takakazu; Ueda, Hirotaka; Amitani, Haruka; Asakawa, Akihiro; Miyawaki, Shouichi; Inui, Akio

    2012-01-01

    Eating disorders, including anorexia and bulimia nervosa, are potentially life-threatening syndromes characterized by severe disturbances in eating behavior. An effective treatment strategy for these conditions remains to be established, as patients with eating disorders tend to suffer from multiple relapses. Because ghrelin was originally discovered in the stomach mucosa, it has been widely studied over the past decade in an effort to uncover its potential roles; these studies have shed light on the mechanism by which ghrelin regulates food intake. Thus, studying ghrelin in the context of eating disorders could improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of eating disorders, possibly resulting in a promising new pharmacological treatment strategy for these patients. In addition, early detection and treatment of eating disorders are critical for ensuring recovery of young patients. Oral symptoms, including mucosal, dental, and saliva abnormalities, are typically observed in the early stages of eating disorders. Although oral care is not directly related to the treatment of eating disorders, knowledge of the oral manifestations of eating disorder patients may aid in early detection, resulting in earlier treatment; thus, oral care might contribute to overall patient management and prognosis. Moreover, ghrelin has also been found in saliva, which may be responsible for oral hygiene and digestion-related functions. This review discusses the pharmacological potential of ghrelin in regulating food-intake and the role of saliva and oral care in young patients with eating disorders. PMID:23016127

  4. Is multiple sclerosis a mitochondrial disease?

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Peizhong; Reddy, P. Hemachandra

    2009-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a relatively common and etiologically unknown disease with no cure treatment. It is the leading cause of neurological disability in young adults, affecting over two million people worldwide. Traditionally, MS has been considered a chronic, inflammatory disorder of the central white matter in which ensuing demyelination results in physical disability. Recently, MS has become increasingly viewed as a neurodegenerative disorder in which axonal injury, neuronal loss, and atrophy of the central nervous system lead to permanent neurological and clinical disability. In this article, we discuss the latest developments on MS research, including etiology, pathology, genetic association, EAE animal models, mechanisms of neuronal injury and axonal transport and therapeutics. In this article, we also focus on the mechanisms of mitochondrial dysfunction that are involved in MS, including mitochondrial DNA defects, and mitochondrial structural/functional changes. PMID:19607913

  5. Mental, Emotional and Behavior Disorders in Children and Adolescents. Factsheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Center for Mental Health Services.

    This factsheet describes the different mental, emotional, and behavior problems that can occur during childhood and adolescence. The incidence and symptoms of the following disorders are discussed: (1) anxiety disorders (including phobia, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder);…

  6. Affective Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beach, Steven R. H.; Whisman, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Depression is a heterogeneous disorder with lifetime prevalence of "major depressive disorder" estimated to be 16.2%. Although the disorder is common and impairs functioning, it often goes untreated, with less than adequate response even when treated. We review research indicating the likely value of utilizing currently available, well-validated,…

  7. Genetic Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the baby’s father. What determines my baby’s sex? Your baby’s sex is determined by sex chromosomes. ... be a carrier of the disorder. What are sex-linked disorders? Sex-linked disorders are caused by ...

  8. Bipolar Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spearing, Melissa

    Bipolar disorder, a brain disorder that causes unusual shifts in a person's mood, affects approximately one percent of the population. It commonly occurs in late adolescence and is often unrecognized. The diagnosis of bipolar disorder is made on the basis of symptoms, course of illness, and when possible, family history. Thoughts of suicide are…

  9. The Use of Peer Networks to Increase Communicative Acts of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamps, Debra; Mason, Rose; Thiemann-Bourque, Kathy; Feldmiller, Sarah; Turcotte, Amy; Miller, Todd

    2014-01-01

    Peer networks including social groups using typical peers, scripted instruction, visual text cues, and reinforcement were examined with students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). A multiple baseline design across four participants was used to measure students' use of communication acts with peers during free play following instruction.…

  10. Cognitive Neuroscience of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Current Status and Working Hypotheses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaidya, Chandan J.; Stollstorff, Melanie

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive neuroscience studies of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) suggest multiple loci of pathology with respect to both cognitive domains and neural circuitry. Cognitive deficits extend beyond executive functioning to include spatial, temporal, and lower-level "nonexecutive" functions. Atypical functional anatomy extends beyond…

  11. Source-Specific Oppositional Defiant Disorder: Comorbidity and Risk Factors in Referred Elementary Schoolboys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drabick, Deborah A. G.; Gadow, Kenneth D.; Loney, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine differences in risk factors and comorbid conditions for oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptom groups in a sample of 248 elementary schoolboys (ages 6-10) recruited from 1994 to 1996. Method: The boys and their mothers received multiple assessments of cognitive, behavioral, academic, and family functioning, including a…

  12. The Effects of Covert Audio Coaching on Teaching Clerical Skills to Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Kyle D.; Ramasamy, Rangasamy; Honsberger, Toby

    2013-01-01

    Employment instruction for secondary students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has received very little attention in the professional literature. However, adults with ASD usually have difficulty maintaining employment for a variety of reasons, including problems with performing work tasks. This study used a multiple baseline design across…

  13. Dissociative disorders in DSM-5.

    PubMed

    Spiegel, David; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Lanius, Ruth; Vermetten, Eric; Simeon, Daphne; Friedman, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    The rationale, research literature, and proposed changes to the dissociative disorders and conversion disorder in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) are presented. Dissociative identity disorder will include reference to possession as well as identity fragmentation, to make the disorder more applicable to culturally diverse situations. Dissociative amnesia will include dissociative fugue as a subtype, since fugue is a rare disorder that always involves amnesia but does not always include confused wandering or loss of personality identity. Depersonalization disorder will include derealization as well, since the two often co-occur. A dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), defined by the presence of depersonalization or derealization in addition to other PTSD symptoms, is being recommended, based upon new epidemiological and neuroimaging evidence linking it to an early life history of adversity and a combination of frontal activation and limbic inhibition. Conversion disorder (functional neurological symptom disorder) will likely remain with the somatic symptom disorders, despite considerable dissociative comorbidity. PMID:23394228

  14. Understanding the Impact of Brain Disorders: Towards a ‘Horizontal Epidemiology’ of Psychosocial Difficulties and Their Determinants

    PubMed Central

    Cieza, Alarcos; Anczewska, Marta; Ayuso-Mateos, Jose Luis; Baker, Mary; Bickenbach, Jerome; Chatterji, Somnath; Hartley, Sally; Leonardi, Matilde; Pitkänen, Tuuli

    2015-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis of ‘horizontal epidemiology’, i.e. that psychosocial difficulties (PSDs), such as sleep disturbances, emotional instability and difficulties in personal interactions, and their environmental determinants are experienced in common across neurological and psychiatric disorders, together called brain disorders. Study Design A multi-method study involving systematic literature reviews, content analysis of patient-reported outcomes and outcome instruments, clinical input and a qualitative study was carried out to generate a pool of PSD and environmental determinants relevant for nine different brain disorders, namely epilepsy, migraine, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, stroke, dementia, depression, schizophrenia and substance dependency. Information from these sources was harmonized and compiled, and after feedback from external experts, a data collection protocol including PSD and determinants common across these nine disorders was developed. This protocol was implemented as an interview in a cross-sectional study including a convenience sample of persons with one of the nine brain disorders. PSDs endorsed by at least 25% of patients with a brain disorder were considered associated with the disorder. PSD were considered common across disorders if associated to 5 out of the 9 brain disorders and if among the 5 both neurological and psychiatric conditions were represented. Setting The data collection protocol with 64 PSDs and 20 determinants was used to collect data from a convenience sample of 722 persons in four specialized health care facilities in Europe. Results 57 of the PSDs and 16 of the determinants included in the protocol were found to be experienced across brain disorders. Conclusion This is the first evidence that supports the hypothesis of horizontal epidemiology in brain disorders. This result challenges the brain disorder-specific or vertical approach in which clinical and epidemiological research about psychosocial difficulties experienced in daily life is commonly carried in neurology and psychiatry and the way in which the corresponding health care delivery is practiced in many countries of the world. PMID:26352911

  15. Cognitive therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Kimberly A; Chambless, Dianne L

    2005-12-01

    A multiple baseline across subjects design was used to test the efficacy of cognitive therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Six people with OCD received 10-18 sessions of weekly, outpatient cognitive therapy. Assessment included both structured interviews and diary data. For three to four of the six patients, stable baseline periods were followed by reductions of symptoms during intervention. Two clients met stringent criteria for Jacobson and Truax's (J. Consulting Clin. Psychol. 59 (1991) 12) recovered status at posttest according to the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 46 (1989) 1006). For the group, large pretest-posttest effect sizes were found. PMID:16239156

  16. Borderline personality disorder: a disorder in search of advocacy.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Compared with bipolar disorder, borderline personality disorder (BPD) is as frequent (if not more frequent), as impairing (if not more impairing), and as lethal (if not more lethal). Yet, BPD has received less than one-tenth the funding from the National Institutes of Health than has bipolar disorder. More than other reviewers of the literature on the interface between bipolar disorder and BPD, Paris and Black (Paris J and Black DW (2015) Borderline Personality Disorder and Bipolar Disorder: What is the Difference and Why Does it Matter? J Nerv Ment Dis 203:3-7) emphasize the clinical importance of correctly diagnosing BPD and not overdiagnosing bipolar disorder, with a focus on the clinical feature of affective instability and how the failure to recognize the distinction between sustained and transient mood perturbations can result in misdiagnosing patients with BPD as having bipolar disorder. The review by Paris and Black, then, is more of an advocacy for BPD than other reviews in this area have been. In the present article, the author will illustrate how the bipolar disorder research community has done a superior job of advocating for and "marketing" their disorder compared with researchers of BPD. Specifically, researchers of bipolar disorder have conducted multiple studies highlighting the problem with underdiagnosis, written commentaries about the problem with underdiagnosis, developed and promoted several screening scales to improve diagnostic recognition, published numerous studies of the operating characteristics of these screening measures, attempted to broaden the definition of bipolar disorder by advancing the concept of the bipolar spectrum, and repeatedly demonstrated the economic costs and public health significance of bipolar disorder. In contrast, researchers of BPD have almost completely ignored each of these issues and thus have been less successful in highlighting the public health significance of the disorder. PMID:25536098

  17. Antiepileptic drugs in non-epilepsy disorders: relations between mechanisms of action and clinical efficacy.

    PubMed

    Johannessen Landmark, Cecilie

    2008-01-01

    Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are used extensively to treat multiple non-epilepsy disorders, both in neurology and psychiatry. This article provides a review of the clinical efficacy of AEDs in non-epilepsy disorders based on recently published preclinical and clinical studies, and attempts to relate this efficacy to the mechanism of action of AEDs and pathophysiological processes associated with the disorders. Some newer indications for AEDs have been established, while others are under investigation. The disorders where AEDs have been demonstrated to be of clinical importance include neurological disorders, such as essential tremor, neuropathic pain and migraine, and psychiatric disorders, including anxiety, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Many of the AEDs have various targets of action in the synapse and have several proposed relevant mechanisms of action in epilepsy and in other disorders. Pathophysiological processes disturb neuronal excitability by modulating ion channels, receptors and intracellular signalling pathways, and these are targets for the pharmacological action of various AEDs. Attention is focused on the glutamatergic and GABAergic synapses. In psychiatric conditions such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, AEDs such as valproate, carbamazepine and lamotrigine appear to have clear roles based on their effect on intracellular pathways. On the other hand, some AEDs, e.g. topiramate, have efficacy for nonpsychiatric disorders including migraine, possibly by enhancing GABAergic and reducing glutamatergic neurotransmission. AEDs that seem to enhance GABAergic neurotransmission, e.g. tiagabine, valproate, gabapentin and possibly levetiracetam, may have a role in treating neurological disorders such as essential tremor, or anxiety disorders. AEDs with effects on voltage-gated sodium or calcium channels may be advantageous in treating neuropathic pain, e.g. gabapentin, pregabalin, carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, lamotrigine and valproate. Co-morbid conditions associated with epilepsy, such as mood disorders and migraine, may often respond to treatment with AEDs. Other possible disorders where AEDs may be of clinical importance include cancer, HIV infection, drug and alcohol abuse, and also in neuroprotection. A future challenge is to evaluate the second-generation AEDs in non-epilepsy disorders and to design clinical trials to study their effects in such disorders in paediatric patients. Differentiation between the main mechanisms of action of the AEDs needs more consideration in drug selection for tailored treatment of the various non-epilepsy disorders. PMID:18072813

  18. Multiple Sclerosis

    MedlinePLUS

    MENU Return to Web version Multiple Sclerosis Overview What is multiple sclerosis (MS)? Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune disease that affects the nervous system. Normally, antibodies produced by ...

  19. Differences in the Nature of Body Image Disturbances between Female Obese Individuals with versus without a Comorbid Binge Eating Disorder: An Exploratory Study Including Static and Dynamic Aspects of Body Image

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legenbauer, Tanja; Vocks, Silja; Betz, Sabrina; Puigcerver, Maria Jose Baguena; Benecke, Andrea; Troje, Nikolaus F.; Ruddel, Heinz

    2011-01-01

    Various components of body image were measured to assess body image disturbances in patients with obesity. To overcome limitations of previous studies, a photo distortion technique and a biological motion distortion device were included to assess static and dynamic aspects of body image. Questionnaires assessed cognitive-affective aspects, bodily…

  20. Acute Urinary Tract Disorders.

    PubMed

    Goel, Rakhee H; Unnikrishnan, Raman; Remer, Erick M

    2015-11-01

    Acute urinary tract disorders often manifest as flank pain and are a common complaint of patients who present to the emergency department. The pain is often a vague, poorly localized sensation that may have a variety of causes. Laboratory and clinical findings, such as hematuria, are neither sensitive nor specific for determining the cause of the flank pain. Accordingly, imaging is an important tool in determining a diagnosis and management plan. Patients with acute urinary tract disorders who present with pain include those with calculi as well as renal infection, vascular disorders, and hemorrhage. PMID:26526438

  1. Is Postpartum Depression a Distinct Disorder?

    PubMed

    Di Florio, Arianna; Meltzer-Brody, Samantha

    2015-10-01

    The nosology of postpartum depression (PPD) is controversial. We review the evidence and arguments for and against the recognition of PPD as a distinct disorder and discuss the etiopathogenic and diagnostic validity of PPD as a distinct disorder, including its utility and indications for further research. Although multiple epidemiological and clinical studies have found that depression is more common following childbirth than at other times in a woman's life, there is conflicting evidence for the validity of PPD as a distinct disorder. PPD is likely to be a complex phenotype, encompassing several disorders with different disease pathways. It is plausible that for a sub-group of vulnerable women, childbirth triggers episodes of depression. However, even within this group, the mechanisms underpinning the mood disturbances are likely complex and heterogeneous. The distinction between depression occurring in the perinatal period and depression at other times is important for both research and clinical practice. Research should differentiate between episodes that begin during pregnancy and postpartum, as the pathogenetic factors involved may differ and require specialized treatment. PMID:26267038

  2. The Neurogenetics of Atypical Parkinsonian Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Fogel, Brent L.; Clark, Mary C.; Geschwind, Daniel H.

    2015-01-01

    Although classic Parkinson disease is the disorder most commonly associated with the clinical feature of parkinsonism, there is in fact a broader spectrum of disease represented by a collection of phenotypically similar neurodegenerative conditions which mimic many of its core features. These atypical parkinsonian disorders most commonly include progressive supranuclear palsy and corticobasal degeneration, disorders both associated with frontotemporal dementia, as well as multiple system atrophy, and dementia with Lewy bodies. While clinical distinction of these disorders still remains a challenge to physicians, recent advances in genetics are poised to tease apart the differences. Insights into the molecular etiologies underlying these conditions will improve diagnosis, yield better understanding of the underlying disease pathology, and ultimately lend stimulation to the development of potential treatments. At the same time, the wide range of phenotypes observed from mutations in a single gene warrants broad testing facilitated by advances in DNA sequencing. These expanding genomic approaches, ranging from the use of next-generation sequencing to identify causative or risk-associated gene variations to the study of epigenetic modification linking human genetics to environmental factors, are poised to lead the field into a new age of discovery. PMID:24963681

  3. 78 FR 72571 - Extension of Expiration Date for Mental Disorders Body System Listings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-03

    ...disorders that affect multiple body systems (78 FR 7659 (2013)), and the...special senses and speech body system (78 FR 18837 (2013)). We have...disorders (78 FR 7695 (2013)) and respiratory system disorders (78 FR 7968...

  4. Intrinsically Disordered Proteins May Select Partners by Fold 

    E-print Network

    Gonzalez, Kim 1988-

    2010-12-08

    Intrinsically disordered proteins lack a rigid structure due to their simple amino acid sequence. Because of their multiple roles, disordered proteins often account for a majority of proteins known to be associated with various diseases...

  5. 34 CFR 303.15 - Include; including.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES General Purpose, Eligibility, and Other General Provisions § 303.15 Include; including....

  6. 34 CFR 303.15 - Include; including.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES General Purpose, Eligibility, and Other General Provisions § 303.15 Include; including....

  7. Personality Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Sansone, Lori A.

    2011-01-01

    To date, five major studies have examined the prevalence and type of personality disorders in community samples in the United States. According to the majority of studies, the overall prevalence of Axis II disorders in the general population is consistently around 10 percent. According to the most recent study, obsessive-compulsive personality disorder is the most frequent Axis II disorder in community samples in the United States, followed by narcissistic and borderline personality disorders. In contrast to studies in the United States, community prevalence rates of personality disorders in other countries show moderately wide variation, from 6.1 to 13.4 percent; yet, the averaging of these two low/high percentages results in 9.7 percent. The most common type of personality pathology in a given country varies, and this variance may be accounted for in a number of relevant ways. PMID:21637629

  8. A mammary cell-specific enhancer in mouse mammary tumor virus DNA is composed of multiple regulatory elements including binding sites for CTF/NFI and a novel transcription factor, mammary cell-activating factor.

    PubMed Central

    Mink, S; Härtig, E; Jennewein, P; Doppler, W; Cato, A C

    1992-01-01

    Mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) is a milk-transmitted retrovirus involved in the neoplastic transformation of mouse mammary gland cells. The expression of this virus is regulated by mammary cell type-specific factors, steroid hormones, and polypeptide growth factors. Sequences for mammary cell-specific expression are located in an enhancer element in the extreme 5' end of the long terminal repeat region of this virus. This enhancer, when cloned in front of the herpes simplex thymidine kinase promoter, endows the promoter with mammary cell-specific response. Using functional and DNA-protein-binding studies with constructs mutated in the MMTV long terminal repeat enhancer, we have identified two main regulatory elements necessary for the mammary cell-specific response. These elements consist of binding sites for a transcription factor in the family of CTF/NFI proteins and the transcription factor mammary cell-activating factor (MAF) that recognizes the sequence G Pu Pu G C/G A A G G/T. Combinations of CTF/NFI- and MAF-binding sites or multiple copies of either one of these binding sites but not solitary binding sites mediate mammary cell-specific expression. The functional activities of these two regulatory elements are enhanced by another factor that binds to the core sequence ACAAAG. Interdigitated binding sites for CTF/NFI, MAF, and/or the ACAAAG factor are also found in the 5' upstream regions of genes encoding whey milk proteins from different species. These findings suggest that mammary cell-specific regulation is achieved by a concerted action of factors binding to multiple regulatory sites. Images PMID:1328867

  9. Relationship between personality disorder dimensions and verbal memory functioning in a community population.

    PubMed

    Park, Subin; Hong, Jin Pyo; Lee, Hochang B; Samuels, Jack; Bienvenu, O Joseph; Chung, Hye Yoon; Eaton, William W; Costa, Paul T; Nestadt, Gerald

    2012-03-30

    Based on the Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area (ECA) follow-up survey, we examined relationships between dimensions of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) personality disorders and both subjective and objective memory functioning in a community population. Our study subjects consisted of 736 individuals from the ECA follow-up study of the original Baltimore ECA cohort, conducted between 1993 and 1996 and available for assessment in the Hopkins Epidemiology Study of Personality Disorders from 1997 to 1999. Subjects were assessed for DSM-IV personality disorders using a semi-structured instrument, the International Personality Disorder Examination, and were asked about a subjective appraisal of memory. Verbal memory function, including immediate recall, delayed recall, and recognition, were also evaluated. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to determine associations between personality dimensions of DSM-IV Axis II traits and subjective and objective memory functioning. Scores on schizoid and schizotypal personality dimensions were associated with subjective and objective memory dysfunction, both with and without adjustment for Axis I disorders. Borderline, antisocial, avoidant, and dependent personality disorder scores were associated with subjective memory impairment only, both with and without adjustment for Axis I disorders. This study suggests that subjective feelings of memory impairment and/or objective memory dysfunction are associated with specific personality disorder dimensions. PMID:22342178

  10. Overview of Movement Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Version Medical Topics Blood Disorders Bone, Joint, and Muscle Disorders Brain, Spinal Cord, and Nerve Disorders Cancer Children's ... students Medical Topics Blood Disorders Bone, Joint, and Muscle Disorders Brain, Spinal Cord, and Nerve Disorders Cancer Children's ...

  11. Overview of Tooth Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Version Medical Topics Blood Disorders Bone, Joint, and Muscle Disorders Brain, Spinal Cord, and Nerve Disorders Cancer Children's ... students Medical Topics Blood Disorders Bone, Joint, and Muscle Disorders Brain, Spinal Cord, and Nerve Disorders Cancer Children's ...

  12. Symptoms of Blood Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Version Medical Topics Blood Disorders Bone, Joint, and Muscle Disorders Brain, Spinal Cord, and Nerve Disorders Cancer Children's ... students Medical Topics Blood Disorders Bone, Joint, and Muscle Disorders Brain, Spinal Cord, and Nerve Disorders Cancer Children's ...

  13. White Blood Cell Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Version Medical Topics Blood Disorders Bone, Joint, and Muscle Disorders Brain, Spinal Cord, and Nerve Disorders Cancer Children's ... students Medical Topics Blood Disorders Bone, Joint, and Muscle Disorders Brain, Spinal Cord, and Nerve Disorders Cancer Children's ...

  14. Plasma Cell Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Version Medical Topics Blood Disorders Bone, Joint, and Muscle Disorders Brain, Spinal Cord, and Nerve Disorders Cancer Children's ... students Medical Topics Blood Disorders Bone, Joint, and Muscle Disorders Brain, Spinal Cord, and Nerve Disorders Cancer Children's ...

  15. [Difficulties in the assessment of trauma-related disorders].

    PubMed

    Gronau, W; Meyer-Lindenberg, A; Dreßing, H

    2015-03-01

    Assessment of trauma disorders is becoming increasingly important. A major problem here is that trauma disorders are extremely heterogeneous. Moreover, they are often associated with comorbid disorders, such as borderline personality disorder. The valid diagnostic systems ICD-10 and DSM-5 poorly represent trauma disorders. The so-called complex post-traumatic stress disorder or DESNOS (disorders of extreme stress not otherwise specified) are listed .in either of the ICD-10 or DSM-5. The distinctiveness is not generally scientifically accepted. In addition, the assessment of trauma disorders is complicated because there are often multiple traumas of varying degrees of severity. PMID:25971145

  16. Obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Andrea; King, Audrey; Hollander, Eric

    2003-01-01

    The obsessive-compulsive spectrum is an important concept referring to a number of disorders drawn from several diagnostic categories that share core obsessive-compulsive features. These disorders can be grouped by the focus of their symptoms: bodily preoccupation, impulse control, or neurological disorders. Although the disorders are clearly distinct from one another, they have intriguing similarities in phenomenology, etiology, pathophysiology, patient characteristics, and treatment response. In combination with the knowledge gained through many years of research on obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), the concept of a spectrum has generated much fruitful research on the spectrum disorders. It has become apparent that these disorders can also be viewed as being on a continuum of compulsivity to impulsivity, characterized by harm avoidance at the compulsive end and risk seeking at the impulsive end. The compulsive and impulsive disorders differ in systematic ways that are just beginning to be understood. Here, we review these concepts and several representative obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders including both compulsive and impulsive disorders, as well as the three different symptom clusters: OCD, body dysmorphic disorder, pathological gambling, sexual compulsivity, and autism spectrum disorders. PMID:22033547

  17. Connecting the CNTNAP2 Networks with Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Poot, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Based on genomic rearrangements and copy number variations, the contactin-associated protein-like 2 gene (CNTNAP2) has been implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders such as Gilles de la Tourette syndrome, intellectual disability, obsessive compulsive disorder, cortical dysplasia-focal epilepsy syndrome, autism, schizophrenia, Pitt-Hopkins syndrome, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. To explain the phenotypic pleiotropy of CNTNAP2 alterations, several hypotheses have been put forward. Those include gene disruption, loss of a gene copy by a heterozygous deletion, altered regulation of gene expression due to loss of transcription factor binding and DNA methylation sites, and mutations in the amino acid sequence of the encoded protein which may provoke altered interactions of the CNTNAP2-encoded protein, Caspr2, with other proteins. Also exome sequencing, which covers <0.2% of the CNTNAP2 genomic DNA, has revealed numerous single nucleotide variants in healthy individuals and in patients with neurodevelopmental disorders. In some of these disorders, disruption of CNTNAP2 may be interpreted as a susceptibility factor rather than a directly causative mutation. In addition to being associated with impaired development of language, CNTNAP2 may turn out to be a central node in the molecular networks controlling neurodevelopment. This review discusses the impact of CNTNAP2 mutations on its functioning at multiple levels of the combinatorial genetic networks that govern brain development. In addition, recommendations for genomic testing in the context of clinical genetic management of patients with neurodevelopmental disorders and their families are put forward. PMID:25852443

  18. Multimethod Investigation of Interpersonal Functioning in Borderline Personality Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Stepp, Stephanie D.; Hallquist, Michael N.; Morse, Jennifer Q.; Pilkonis, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Even though interpersonal functioning is of great clinical importance for patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD), the comparative validity of different assessment methods for interpersonal dysfunction has not yet been tested. This study examined multiple methods of assessing interpersonal functioning, including self- and other-reports, clinical ratings, electronic diaries, and social cognitions in three groups of psychiatric patients (N=138): patients with (1) BPD, (2) another personality disorder, and (3) Axis I psychopathology only. Using dominance analysis, we examined the predictive validity of each method in detecting changes in symptom distress and social functioning six months later. Across multiple methods, the BPD group often reported higher interpersonal dysfunction scores compared to other groups. Predictive validity results demonstrated that self-report and electronic diary ratings were the most important predictors of distress and social functioning. Our findings suggest that self-report scores and electronic diary ratings have high clinical utility, as these methods appear most sensitive to change. PMID:21808661

  19. An extension of the multiple-trapping model

    SciTech Connect

    Shkilev, V. P.

    2012-07-15

    The hopping charge transport in disordered semiconductors is considered. Using the concept of the transport energy level, macroscopic equations are derived that extend a multiple-trapping model to the case of semiconductors with both energy and spatial disorders. It is shown that, although both types of disorder can cause dispersive transport, the frequency dependence of conductivity is determined exclusively by the spatial disorder.

  20. Paranoid personality disorder

    MedlinePLUS

    Personality disorder - paranoid ... Causes of paranoid personality disorder are unknown. The disorder appears to be more common in families with psychotic disorders, such as schizophrenia and delusional ...

  1. EATING DISORDERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) are complex disorders that are often perplexing to therapists and difficult to manage. The purpose of this chapter is to review the history, nature, etiology, and treatment of these disorders, as well as to provide a brief introduction to the proposed d...

  2. Anxiety Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Rachel G.

    2009-01-01

    Because of their high prevalence and their negative long-term consequences, child anxiety disorders have become an important focus of interest. Whether pathological anxiety and normal fear are similar processes continues to be controversial. Comparative studies of child anxiety disorders are scarce, but there is some support for the current…

  3. Bipolar Disorder

    MedlinePLUS

    ... What is bipolar disorder? Bipolar disorder is a mental illness that causes extreme mood swings. This condition is ... stress. Learn the early warning signs of your illness. Tell your doctor when you notice changes in your mood or behavior. Join a support group. You and your family can share information and experiences with ... Alliance Questions ...

  4. Eating disorders in women.

    PubMed

    Sharan, Pratap; Sundar, A Shyam

    2015-07-01

    Eating disorders, especially anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa have been classically described in young females in Western population. Recent research shows that they are also seen in developing countries including India. The classification of eating disorders has been expanded to include recently described conditions like binge eating disorder. Eating disorders have a multifactorial etiology. Genetic factor appear to play a major role. Recent advances in neurobiology have improved our understanding of these conditions and may possibly help us develop more effective treatments in future. Premorbid personality appears to play an important role, with differential predisposition for individual disorders. The role of cultural factors in the etiology of these conditions is debated. Culture may have a pathoplastic effect leading to non-conforming presentations like the non fat-phobic form of anorexia nervosa, which are commonly reported in developing countries. With rapid cultural transformation, the classical forms of these conditions are being described throughout the world. Diagnostic criteria have been modified to accommodate for these myriad presentations. Treatment of eating disorders can be quite challenging, given the dearth of established treatments and poor motivation/insight in these conditions. Nutritional rehabilitation and psychotherapy remains the mainstay of treatment, while pharmacotherapy may be helpful in specific situations. PMID:26330646

  5. Eating disorders in women

    PubMed Central

    Sharan, Pratap; Sundar, A. Shyam

    2015-01-01

    Eating disorders, especially anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa have been classically described in young females in Western population. Recent research shows that they are also seen in developing countries including India. The classification of eating disorders has been expanded to include recently described conditions like binge eating disorder. Eating disorders have a multifactorial etiology. Genetic factor appear to play a major role. Recent advances in neurobiology have improved our understanding of these conditions and may possibly help us develop more effective treatments in future. Premorbid personality appears to play an important role, with differential predisposition for individual disorders. The role of cultural factors in the etiology of these conditions is debated. Culture may have a pathoplastic effect leading to non-conforming presentations like the non fat-phobic form of anorexia nervosa, which are commonly reported in developing countries. With rapid cultural transformation, the classical forms of these conditions are being described throughout the world. Diagnostic criteria have been modified to accommodate for these myriad presentations. Treatment of eating disorders can be quite challenging, given the dearth of established treatments and poor motivation/insight in these conditions. Nutritional rehabilitation and psychotherapy remains the mainstay of treatment, while pharmacotherapy may be helpful in specific situations. PMID:26330646

  6. Venlafaxine in the treatment of anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Katzman, Martin

    2004-05-01

    Venlafaxine extended-release (Effexor XR, Wyeth-Ayerst Co.) is a novel, dual acting serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor antidepressant, which inhibits the synaptic reuptake of both serotonin and norepinephrine. Controlled trials have demonstrated the efficacy and safety of venlafaxine in the treatment of anxiety disorders including social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, panic disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Generally well-tolerated with side effects that usually abate with continued treatment, venlafaxine is an important alternative to the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors for patients with anxiety disorders. PMID:15853535

  7. Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Hyman, Mark; Swift, Kathie

    2012-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are collectively the most commonly diagnosed pediatric neurodevelopmental condition. ASDs include autism, pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), Rett syndrome and Asperger disorder. ASD is characterized by impaired communication and social interaction and may involve developmental delays and seizure disorders. Recent parent-reported diagnosis of ASD in the United States put it at higher levels (1:91) than previously thought, with its diagnosis in boys occurring 4 to 5 times more frequently than in girls (1:58).1 CDC estimates are currently 1:110;1 up from 1:150 in 2007.2 Annual medical expenditures for those affected are generally four to six times greater than for those without ASD.1 While twin studies demonstrate that genetics play a significant role in ASD, the impact of environment should not be underestimated, given the approximate 20-fold increase in incidence over the last 20 years.3 PMID:24278834

  8. [GERD and sleep disorder].

    PubMed

    Ozasa, Yumiko; Murakami, Noriko; Fukunaga, Mikihiko; Nakai, Yoshihide

    2006-07-01

    The prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is increasing in Japan. Symptoms of GERD negatively affect their quality of life and sleep. There are several reasons for sleep disorder with GERD as follows. Nocturnal GERD symptoms sometimes directly avoid sleeping. Sleep apnea syndrome and GERD are sometimes concomitant. The both are sharing similar risk factor such as obesity and cause sleep disorder. When untypical symptoms of GERD are not diagnosed, patients are severely anxious about their physical condition. Then they feel stressful and sometimes get secondary depressive state including sleep disorder. We had better take care about patients' psychosocial factors and treat symptoms of GERD and sleep disorder together with holistic approach. PMID:16838662

  9. Melatonin redox activity. Its potential clinical applications in neurodegenerative disorders.

    PubMed

    Miller, Elzbieta; Morel, Agnieszka; Saso, Luciano; Saluk, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Neurodegeneration is the hallmark of many chronic progressive neurogical disorders characterized by specific clinical, morphological and biochemical features. Central nervous system is very sensitive to oxidative stress, which is considered as a key factor of neurodegenerative disorders. Therefore, many therapeutical strategies are focused on molecules with redox activity to re-establish the equilibrium between pro and antioxidants. Due to the fact that melatonin readily crosses the blood- brain-barrier, concomitant with its safety profile at the highest dosages makes this dietary supplement very useful in possible clinical application in neurodegeneration. Melatonin is currently marketed in several countries as a dietary supplement with no prescription. Clinical trials have shown different effectiveness of melatonin supplementation in several disorders, including neurodegenerative disorders. Melatonin has unique biochemical properties such as scavenging of hydroxyl, carbonate, alkoxyl, peroxyl and aryl cation radicals and stimulation of activities main antioxidative enzymes (glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase etc.). Moreover, it can suppress nitric oxide synthase. The present paper highlighted the potential clinical role of melatonin in main neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, amylotrophic lateral sclerosis and multiple sclerosis. Moreover, in this review the main molecular aspects of melatonin in brain cell protection and survival mechanisms were discussed. Therefore, melatonin is regarded as a potential therapeutical agent in clinical application in neurodegenerative disorders, but this findings needs to be confirmed by the larger, more well-designed clinical trials. PMID:25985818

  10. Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Ju; Lee, Jung Hie; Duffy, Jeanne F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review circadian rhythm sleep disorders, including underlying causes, diagnostic considerations, and typical treatments. Methods Literature review and discussion of specific cases. Results Survey studies 1,2 suggest that up to 3% of the adult population suffers from a circadian rhythm sleep disorder (CRSD). However, these sleep disorders are often confused with insomnia, and an estimated 10% of adult and 16% of adolescent sleep disorders patients may have a CRSD 3-6. While some CRSD (such as jet lag) can be self-limiting, others when untreated can lead to adverse medical, psychological, and social consequences. The International Classification of Sleep Disorders classifies CRSD as dyssomnias, with six subtypes: Advanced Sleep Phase Type, Delayed Sleep Phase Type, Irregular Sleep Wake Type, Free Running Type, Jet Lag Type, and Shift Work Type. The primary clinical characteristic of all CRSD is an inability to fall asleep and wake at the desired time. It is believed that CRSD arise from a problem with the internal biological clock (circadian timing system) and/or misalignment between the circadian timing system and the external 24-hour environment. This misalignment can be the result of biological and/or behavioral factors. CRSD can be confused with other sleep or medical disorders. Conclusions Circadian rhythm sleep disorders are a distinct class of sleep disorders characterized by a mismatch between the desired timing of sleep and the ability to fall asleep and remain asleep. If untreated, CRSD can lead to insomnia and excessive daytime sleepiness, with negative medical, psychological, and social consequences. It is important for physicians to recognize potential circadian rhythm sleep disorders so that appropriate diagnosis, treatment, and referral can be made. PMID:25368503

  11. [Youth Healthcare guideline 'Skin disorders'].

    PubMed

    Deurloo, Jacqueline A; van Gameren-Oosterom, Helma B M; Kamphuis, Mascha

    2012-01-01

    There is a high incidence of skin disorders; these are also frequently encountered within Youth Healthcare (YHC). Some skin disorders are caused by an underlying disease, syndrome or child abuse. Therefore, detection of these causes in an early stage is important. Skin disorders can have a huge psychosocial impact on both child and parents. This is one of the reasons why prevention, detection, diagnosis, treatment, referral, and uniform advice and guidance are of great importance. The YHC Guideline examines counselling and advice, criteria for referral to primary or secondary healthcare, and skincare in general. It also describes the disorders that should be actively detected. The Guideline also looks at specific aspects of dark skins and ethnic diversity, and the impact of skin disorders on general wellbeing. The accompanying web-based tool includes argumentation and opinions from experts on more than 75 skin disorders, including illustrations and decision trees, to aid the drawing up of a treatment plan. PMID:23151335

  12. Chronic complex dissociative disorders and borderline personality disorder: disorders of emotion dysregulation?

    PubMed

    Brand, Bethany L; Lanius, Ruth A

    2014-01-01

    Emotion dysregulation is a core feature of chronic complex dissociative disorders (DD), as it is for borderline personality disorder (BPD). Chronic complex DD include dissociative identity disorder (DID) and the most common form of dissociative disorder not otherwise specified (DDNOS, type 1), now known as Other Specified Dissociative Disorders (OSDD, type 1). BPD is a common comorbid disorder with DD, although preliminary research indicates the disorders have some distinguishing features as well as considerable overlap. This article focuses on the epidemiology, clinical presentation, psychological profile, treatment, and neurobiology of chronic complex DD with emphasis placed on the role of emotion dysregulation in each of these areas. Trauma experts conceptualize borderline symptoms as often being trauma based, as are chronic complex DD. We review the preliminary research that compares DD to BPD in the hopes that this will stimulate additional comparative research. PMID:26401297

  13. Multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Files, Daniel Kane; Jausurawong, Tani; Katrajian, Ruba; Danoff, Robert

    2015-06-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, debilitating disease that can have devastating effects. Presentation varies widely in symptoms, pace, and progression. In addition to a thorough history and physical examination, diagnostic tools required to diagnose MS and exclude other diagnoses include MRI, evoked potential testing, and cerebrospinal fluid analysis. Although the disease is not curable presently, quality of life can be improved by minimizing the frequency and severity of disease burden. Disease modification, symptom management, preservation of function, and treatment of psychosocial issues are paramount to enhance the quality of life for the patient affected with MS. PMID:25979578

  14. Joint Disorders - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... ?????????? ?????? ??????? - ??????? Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Bosnian (Bosanski) Home Care After Total Joint Replacement ... zamjene zgloba - Bosanski (Bosnian) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chinese - Simplified (????) Home Care After Total Joint ...

  15. Swallowing Disorders - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Chinese - Simplified (????) Chinese - Traditional (????) French (français) Hindi (??????) Japanese (???) Korean (???) Russian (???????) ... déglutition - français (French) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Hindi (??????) Barium Swallow ?????? (Hindi) Bilingual ...

  16. Sleep Disorders - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Chinese - Simplified (????) Chinese - Traditional (????) French (français) Hindi (??????) Japanese (???) Korean (???) Portuguese (português) ... dormir ? - français (French) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Hindi (??????) Common Sleep Problems ?????? (Hindi) ...

  17. Postmodern Stress Disorder (PMSD): A Possible New Disorder.

    PubMed

    Eiser, Arnold R

    2015-11-01

    The murder of cardiovascular surgeon, Michael Davidson, MD, suggests the existence of a new disorder, postmodern stress disorder. This disorder is characterized by repetitive exposure to digital images of violence in a variety of electronic media, including films, television, video games, music videos, and other online sources. This disorder appears to be a variant of posttraumatic stress disorder, and shares with it excessive stimulation of the amygdala and loss of the normal inhibitory inputs from the orbitofrontal cingulate cortical gyrus. In postmodern stress disorder, repetitive digital microtraumas appear to have an effect similar to that of macrotraumas of warfare or civilian assaults. Other elements of the disorder include the development of fixed ideas of bullying or public shaming, access to weapons, and loss of impulse control. This syndrome could explain a number of previously inexplicable murders/suicides. Violence against health care professionals is a profound concern for the medical profession, as are assaults on nonclinicians. The recommendation is made to change forensic procedures to include obtaining historic information concerning the use of digital media during investigations of violent crimes and murders so that the disorder may be further characterized. Gaining an understanding of this disorder will require a multidisciplinary approach to this life-threatening public health problem. Research should also focus on the development and evaluation of possible antidotes to postmodern toxicities. PMID:26031889

  18. Myeloma (multiple)

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Introduction Multiple myeloma is the most common primary cancer of the bones in adults, representing about 1% of all cancers diagnosed in the US in 2004, and 14% of all haematological malignancies. In the UK, multiple myeloma accounts for 1% of all new cases of cancer diagnosed each year. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatment in people with asymptomatic early stage multiple myeloma (stage I)? What are the effects of first-line treatments in people with advanced stage multiple myeloma (stages II and III)? What are the effect of salvage treatments, or supportive therapy, in people with advanced stage multiple myeloma (stages II and III)? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to November 2004 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 71 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: allogenic transplant (non-myeloablative), autologous stem cell transplant (early or late transplantation, double or single, purging of), bisphosphonates, bone marrow stem cells, bortezomib, chemotherapy (combination, conventional dose, intermediate dose plus stem cell rescue, high-dose plus stem cell rescue), combination chemotherapy plus corticosteroids, deferred treatment (in stage I disease), early chemotherapy plus corticosteroids (in stage I disease), epoetin alpha, first-line treatments, infection prophylaxis, interferon, maintenance therapy (in advanced multiple myeloma), melphalan (normal dose, high dose before autologous stem cell transplantation, plus total body irradiation), optimum priming regimen, peripheral blood stem cells, plasmapheresis, salvage therapy regimens, single-agent chemotherapy (adding prednisolone), single-agent chemotherapy (bendamustine, melphalan, cyclophosphamide, lomustine, carmustine) with or without corticosteroid (prednisolone, dexamethasone), syngeneic transplantation, and thalidomide (and derivatives).

  19. Newly discovered quick, non-invasive screening method of bone marrow malignancies including various leukemias, Hodgkin's lymphoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, & multiple myeloma by abnormality of small rectangular area within bone marrow organ representation areas of the face.

    PubMed

    Omura, Yoshiaki; O'Young, Brian; Jones, Marilyn; Nihrane, Abdalla; Duvvi, Harsha; Paluch, Kamila; Shimotsuura, Yasuhiro; Ohki, Motomu

    2012-01-01

    Diagnoses of bone marrow associated malignancies such as Acute & Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia, Acute & Chronic Myelogenous (Myeloid) Leukemia, Hodgkin's Lymphoma & Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma, and Multiple Myeloma are often missed without a blood test. However, in 2008, Omura Y reported several newly discovered organ representation areas that exist between the lower end of the eyebrows and upper end of the upper eyelid. This space was divided into 5 organ representation areas. The first space (more than 1/4 of entire space) near the side of the face (temple) is the bone marrow representation area (BMRA). Therefore, we examined the bone marrow representation areas non-invasively using the Bi-Digital O-Ring Test (BDORT). When the small rectangular shaped part of the BMRA is strong negative (-) with more than -2, often there is a malignancy associated with bone marrow. In this area, we found 1) Integrin alpha5beta1 & Oncogen C-fos Ab2 increased very significantly between 125-300 ng BDORT units; 2) very high Chrysotile Asbestos (0.11-0.14 mg); 3) markedly reduced Acetylcholine of less than 1 ng; 4) significantly reduced telomere of less than 1 yg (= 10(-24) g); and 5) Increased 8-OH-dG (often more than 5 ng). Once the abnormal small rectangular area is localized by BDORT, by detecting the specific microscope slide which produces EMF (electromagnetic field) resonance, one can diagnose these malignancies non-invasively in about 10 minutes. When a subject has any one of the above 7 types of bone marrow associated malignancies, the 5 aforementioned abnormal parameters can be detected. When Acetylcholine is markedly reduced to 0.25 ng or less, 8-OH-dG is 10 ng or higher, and Sirtuin 1 (one of the 7 mammalian longevity genes products) in both the Hippocampus and the body is 0.025 pg or less, most of the patients have a very poor prognosis. However, we found that increasing normal cell telomere & longevity gene product Sirtuin 1 can often improve both pathology & prognosis. All measurements are in BDORT units (the weight required to produce maximum EMF resonance). PMID:22852211

  20. Teaching Advanced Operation of an iPod-Based Speech-Generating Device to Two Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achmadi, Donna; Kagohara, Debora M.; van der Meer, Larah; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Sutherland, Dean; Lang, Russell; Marschik, Peter B.; Green, Vanessa A.; Sigafoos, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated a program for teaching two adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) to perform more advanced operations on an iPod-based speech-generating device (SGD). The effects of the teaching program were evaluated in a multiprobe multiple baseline across participants design that included two intervention phases. The first intervention…

  1. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder among Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among ...

  2. Multiple Sclerosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Multiple Sclerosis Information Page Condensed from Multiple Sclerosis: Hope Through ... en Español Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Multiple Sclerosis? An unpredictable disease of the central nervous system, ...

  3. Alcohol-use disorders.

    PubMed

    Schuckit, Marc A

    2009-02-01

    Alcohol dependence and alcohol abuse or harmful use cause substantial morbidity and mortality. Alcohol-use disorders are associated with depressive episodes, severe anxiety, insomnia, suicide, and abuse of other drugs. Continued heavy alcohol use also shortens the onset of heart disease, stroke, cancers, and liver cirrhosis, by affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and immune systems. Heavy drinking can also cause mild anterograde amnesias, temporary cognitive deficits, sleep problems, and peripheral neuropathy; cause gastrointestinal problems; decrease bone density and production of blood cells; and cause fetal alcohol syndrome. Alcohol-use disorders complicate assessment and treatment of other medical and psychiatric problems. Standard criteria for alcohol dependence-the more severe disorder-can be used to reliably identify people for whom drinking causes major physiological consequences and persistent impairment of quality of life and ability to function. Clinicians should routinely screen for alcohol disorders, using clinical interviews, questionnaires, blood tests, or a combination of these methods. Causes include environmental factors and specific genes that affect the risk of alcohol-use disorders, including genes for enzymes that metabolise alcohol, such as alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase; those associated with disinhibition; and those that confer a low sensitivity to alcohol. Treatment can include motivational interviewing to help people to evaluate their situations, brief interventions to facilitate more healthy behaviours, detoxification to address withdrawal symptoms, cognitive-behavioural therapies to avoid relapses, and judicious use of drugs to diminish cravings or discourage relapses. PMID:19168210

  4. Anorectal disorders.

    PubMed

    Janicke, D M; Pundt, M R

    1996-11-01

    Anorectal disorders are commonly encountered in the practice of emergency medicine. Most can be diagnosed and treated in the emergency department setting. Almost all anorectal disorders once diagnosed and treated in the emergency department need appropriate follow-up to ensure adequacy of treatment, for further possible diagnostic procedures (e.g., endoscopy, biopsy), or for definitive treatment. Hemorrhoids are the most prevalent anorectal disorder and are the most common cause of hematochezia. Treatment is dependent on the degree of hemorrhoid prolapse and symptoms. Most cases can be treated by conservative medical treatment (e.g., dietary changes, sitz baths) or nonsurgical procedures (e.g., rubber band liagation, infrared coagulation). Surgical excision of symptomatic thrombosed external hemorrhoids is indicated if within 48 to 72 hours of pain onset. Anal fissures are one of the most common causes of anorectal pain. They are most frequently idiopathic, and most are located in the posterior midline of the anal canal. Most anal fissures are adequately treated by a medical approach using sitz baths, stool softeners, and analgesics. If the anal fissure becomes chronic and is not responsive to medical therapy, a lateral sphincterotomy of the internal anal sphincter is the surgical procedure of choice. Pharmacologic treatment (botulinum toxin or nitroglycerin ointment) to decrease internal anal sphincter tone has shown promise in the treatment of anal fissure. Anorectal abscesses are categorized into four types: perianal, ischiorectal, intersphincteric, and supralevator. Most are idiopathic and contain mixed aerobic-anaerobic pathogens. Fistula formation varies from 25% to 50% and is much more common with gut-derived organisms (e.g., E. coli, B. fragilis). Definitive treatment for an anorectal abscess is timely surgical incision and drainage to prevent more serious complications (e.g., serious infection, extension of the abscess). Anal carcinomas are infrequent, the majority of them being squamous cell or epidermoid carcinomas. The emergency physician must maintain a high index of suspicion and obtain a biopsy of suspicious lesions in order not to miss the diagnosis of a cancer. The most common presenting complaint of anal tumors is rectal bleeding. Combination chemotherapy and radiotherapy have shown promising results in the treatment of anal canal tumors. Bacterial, viral, and protozoal infections can be transmitted to the anorectum via anoreceptive intercourse. Such infections must be considered when a patient presents with rectal pain or discharge, tenesmus, or rectal or perineal ulcers. Proctosigmoidoscopy and rectal cultures may be necessary to determine the cause. Potential rectal complications of HIV infection include infectious diarrhea, acyclovir-resistant strains of HSV2, Kaposi's sarcoma, lymphoma, and squamous cell carcinoma. Rectal injuries may result from penetrating or blunt trauma, iatrogenic injuries, or foreign bodies. Rectal injury should be suspected when a patient presents with low abdominal, pelvic, or perineal pain or blood per rectum after sustaining trauma or undergoing an endoscopic or surgical procedure. Tetanus prophylaxis, intravenous antibiotics, and surgical intervention are indicated in all but superficial rectal tears. PMID:8921768

  5. Multiple Skeletal Deformities in a Middle-Aged Man.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Méndez, José Hernán; Gutiérrez-Acevedo, Madeleine; Gómez-Cintrón, Ángel A; Mangual-García, Michelle; Sánchez-Cruz, Alfredo; Trinidad-Hernández, Rafael; Santiago-Núñez, Mónica; Figueroa-Núñez, Carlos; Miranda-Adorno, María de Lourdes; Palermo-Garófalo, Coromoto; Torres-Rafael, Oberto

    2015-12-01

    A 54-year-old man was seen in our endocrinology clinic with evidence of a limited range of motion in his left foot. He had a history of diabetes mellitus type 2 and atrial fibrillation. His family history included evidence of skeletal deformities in some of his relatives. This could imply the potential existence of a hereditary condition. It is worth noting that spontaneous mutations have been reported in some cases. A pertinent physical examination revealed a surgical scar on the patient's left knee, a hallux valgus deformity on his left foot with compromised joint function, and painless bony prominences on that same foot. The skeletal survey findings were consistent with multiple hereditary exostoses. Multiple osteochondromatosis (MO) is a rare genetic disorder associated with serious complications that may significantly affect the health related quality of life of anyone having the disorder. To prevent further complications, these patients require long-term follow-up with regular clinical and radiological examinations. PMID:26602585

  6. Multiple Spatial Coherence Resonances and Spatial Patterns in a Noise-Driven Heterogeneous Neuronal Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yu-Ye; Ding, Xue-Li

    2014-12-01

    Heterogeneity of the neurons and noise are inevitable in the real neuronal network. In this paper, Gaussian white noise induced spatial patterns including spiral waves and multiple spatial coherence resonances are studied in a network composed of Morris—Lecar neurons with heterogeneity characterized by parameter diversity. The relationship between the resonances and the transitions between ordered spiral waves and disordered spatial patterns are achieved. When parameter diversity is introduced, the maxima of multiple resonances increases first, and then decreases as diversity strength increases, which implies that the coherence degrees induced by noise are enhanced at an intermediate diversity strength. The synchronization degree of spatial patterns including ordered spiral waves and disordered patterns is identified to be a very low level. The results suggest that the nervous system can profit from both heterogeneity and noise, and the multiple spatial coherence resonances are achieved via the emergency of spiral waves instead of synchronization patterns.

  7. A primer on binge eating disorder diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Citrome, Leslie

    2015-12-01

    Binge eating disorder (BED) is the most common eating disorder, with an estimated lifetime prevalence of 2.6% among U.S. adults, yet often goes unrecognized. In the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), BED is defined by recurrent episodes of binge eating (eating in a discrete period of time an amount of food larger than most people would eat in a similar amount of time under similar circumstances and a sense of lack of control over eating during the episode), occurring on average at least once a week for 3 months, and associated with marked distress. It can affect both men and women, regardless if they are at normal weight, overweight, or obese, and regardless of their ethnic or racial group. Psychiatric comorbidities are very common, with 79% of adults with BED also experiencing anxiety disorders, mood disorders, impulse control disorders, or substance use disorders; almost 50% of persons with BED have ?3 psychiatric comorbidities. Multiple neurobiological explanations have been proffered for BED, including dysregulation in reward center and impulse control circuitry, with potentially related disturbances in dopamine neurotransmission and endogenous ?-opioid signaling. Additionally, there is interplay between genetic influences and environmental stressors. Psychological treatments such as cognitive behavioral interventions have been recommended as first line and are supported by meta-analytic reviews. Unfortunately, routine medication treatments for anxiety and depression do not necessarily ameliorate the symptoms of BED; however, at present, there is one approved agent for the treatment of moderate to severe BED-lisdexamfetamine, a stimulant that was originally approved for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. PMID:26683528

  8. Using the mood disorder questionnaire and bipolar spectrum diagnostic scale to detect bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder among eating disorder patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Screening scales for bipolar disorder including the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) and Bipolar Spectrum Diagnostic Scale (BSDS) have been plagued by high false positive rates confounded by presence of borderline personality disorder. This study examined the accuracy of these scales for detecting bipolar disorder among patients referred for eating disorders and explored the possibility of simultaneous assessment of co-morbid borderline personality disorder. Methods Participants were 78 consecutive female patients who were referred for evaluation of an eating disorder. All participants completed the mood and eating disorder sections of the SCID-I/P and the borderline personality disorder section of the SCID-II, in addition to the MDQ and BSDS. Predictive validity of the MDQ and BSDS was evaluated by Receiver Operating Characteristic analysis of the Area Under the Curve (AUC). Results Fifteen (19%) and twelve (15%) patients fulfilled criteria for bipolar II disorder and borderline personality disorder, respectively. The AUCs for bipolar II disorder were 0.78 (MDQ) and 0.78 (BDSD), and the AUCs for borderline personality disorder were 0.75 (MDQ) and 0.79 (BSDS). Conclusions Among patients being evaluated for eating disorders, the MDQ and BSDS show promise as screening questionnaires for both bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder. PMID:23443034

  9. Eating Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for Parents for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q& ... and friends again. Eating disorders involve both the mind and body. So medical doctors, mental health professionals, and dietitians ...

  10. Platelet Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... higher risk of blood clots. With other platelet disorders, the platelets do not work as they should. For example, in von Willebrand Disease, the platelets cannot stick together or cannot attach ...

  11. Conversion disorder

    MedlinePLUS

    ... disorder symptoms may occur because of a psychological conflict. Symptoms usually begin suddenly after a stressful experience. ... thought to be an attempt to resolve the conflict the person feels inside. For example, a woman ...

  12. Lymphatic Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... blood from the upper body into the heart. Lymphatic System: Helping Defend Against Infection The lymphatic system is ... the neck, armpits, and groin. Disorders of the lymphatic system The lymphatic system may not carry out its ...

  13. Swallowing Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... entering the windpipe, which is referred to as aspiration. When aspiration is frequent a person can be at risk ... eat and chew that reduce the risk for aspiration. Occasionally drug therapy that helps the neurological disorder ...

  14. Thyroid Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of thyroid disorder or thyroid disease. Hyperthyroidism (say: hi-per-THYE-roy-diz-em) happens when the ... Kids with the opposite problem have hypothyroidism (say: hi-po-THYE-roy-diz-em). In this case, ...

  15. Balance Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... disorders. In one NIDCD-funded study, researchers used virtual reality technology to simulate the aisles of a grocery store. The researchers are testing whether practicing in the virtual store will lessen episodes of dizziness in real- ...

  16. TMJ Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... your skull that contains your inner ear and temple). TMJ disorders can affect people of any age. ... joint problems (like arthritis), muscle problems, or a history of trauma to the jaw or face. How ...

  17. Bipolar Disorder

    MedlinePLUS

    ... ADHD and bipolar disorder. Back Continue Mania and Deep Lows In the high-energy phase of bipolar ... Privacy Policy & Terms of Use Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for ...

  18. Muscle Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    Your muscles help you move and help your body work. Different types of muscles have different jobs. There are many problems that can affect muscles. Muscle disorders can cause weakness, pain or even ...

  19. Autoimmune disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is that some microorganisms (such as bacteria or viruses) or drugs may trigger changes that confuse the immune system. This may happen more often in people who have genes that make them more prone to autoimmune disorders. ...

  20. Free-Energy Barriers and Reaction Mechanisms for the Electrochemical Reduction of CO on the Cu(100) Surface, Including Multiple Layers of Explicit Solvent at pH 0.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Tao; Xiao, Hai; Goddard, William A

    2015-12-01

    The great interest in the photochemical reduction from CO2 to fuels and chemicals has focused attention on Cu because of its unique ability to catalyze formation of carbon-containing fuels and chemicals. A particular goal is to learn how to modify the Cu catalysts to enhance the production selectivity while reducing the energy requirements (overpotential). To enable such developments, we report here the free-energy reaction barriers and mechanistic pathways on the Cu(100) surface, which produces only CH4 (not C2H4 or CH3OH) in acid (pH 0). We predict a threshold potential for CH4 formation of -0.52 V, which compares well to experiments at low pH, -0.45 to -0.50 V. These quantum molecular dynamics simulations included ?5 layers of explicit water at the water/electrode interface using enhanced sampling methodology to obtain the free energies. We find that that chemisorbed hydroxyl-methylene (CH-OH) is the key intermediate determining the selectivity for methane over methanol. PMID:26562750

  1. New described dermatological disorders.

    PubMed

    Gönül, Müzeyyen; Cevirgen Cemil, Bengu; Keseroglu, Havva Ozge; Kaya Akis, Havva

    2014-01-01

    Many advances in dermatology have been made in recent years. In the present review article, newly described disorders from the last six years are presented in detail. We divided these reports into different sections, including syndromes, autoinflammatory diseases, tumors, and unclassified disease. Syndromes included are "circumferential skin creases Kunze type" and "unusual type of pachyonychia congenita or a new syndrome"; autoinflammatory diseases include "chronic atypical neutrophilic dermatosis with lipodystrophy and elevated temperature (CANDLE) syndrome," "pyoderma gangrenosum, acne, and hidradenitis suppurativa (PASH) syndrome," and "pyogenic arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum, acne, and hidradenitis suppurativa (PAPASH) syndrome"; tumors include "acquired reactive digital fibroma," "onychocytic matricoma and onychocytic carcinoma," "infundibulocystic nail bed squamous cell carcinoma," and "acral histiocytic nodules"; unclassified disorders include "saurian papulosis," "symmetrical acrokeratoderma," "confetti-like macular atrophy," and "skin spicules," "erythema papulosa semicircularis recidivans." PMID:25243162

  2. New Described Dermatological Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Cevirgen Cemil, Bengu; Keseroglu, Havva Ozge; Kaya Akis, Havva

    2014-01-01

    Many advances in dermatology have been made in recent years. In the present review article, newly described disorders from the last six years are presented in detail. We divided these reports into different sections, including syndromes, autoinflammatory diseases, tumors, and unclassified disease. Syndromes included are “circumferential skin creases Kunze type” and “unusual type of pachyonychia congenita or a new syndrome”; autoinflammatory diseases include “chronic atypical neutrophilic dermatosis with lipodystrophy and elevated temperature (CANDLE) syndrome,” “pyoderma gangrenosum, acne, and hidradenitis suppurativa (PASH) syndrome,” and “pyogenic arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum, acne, and hidradenitis suppurativa (PAPASH) syndrome”; tumors include “acquired reactive digital fibroma,” “onychocytic matricoma and onychocytic carcinoma,” “infundibulocystic nail bed squamous cell carcinoma,” and “acral histiocytic nodules”; unclassified disorders include “saurian papulosis,” “symmetrical acrokeratoderma,” “confetti-like macular atrophy,” and “skin spicules,” “erythema papulosa semicircularis recidivans.” PMID:25243162

  3. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Syndromes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Version Medical Topics Blood Disorders Bone, Joint, and Muscle Disorders Brain, Spinal Cord, and Nerve Disorders Cancer Children's ... students Medical Topics Blood Disorders Bone, Joint, and Muscle Disorders Brain, Spinal Cord, and Nerve Disorders Cancer Children's ...

  4. Multiplicative Calculus and Student Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Duff

    1999-01-01

    Multiplicative calculus is based on a multiplicative rate of change whereas the usual calculus is based on an additive rate of change. Describes some student investigations into multiplicative calculus, including an original student idea about multiplicative Euler's Method. (Author/ASK)

  5. Treatments for neuropsychiatric disorders include drug therapies, surgical interven-

    E-print Network

    Schnitzer, Mark

    in the hippocampus has been linked to the therapeutic efficacy of antidepressants2 , and dysfunction of parvalbumin-effects associated with less specific therapeutic interventions. Many other elegant approaches have been developed,12­22,25 . ChR2 (initially cloned in REF. 23) is a monovalent cation channel that allows Na+ ions to enter

  6. Sleep Disturbances in Neurodevelopmental Disorders.

    PubMed

    Robinson-Shelton, Althea; Malow, Beth A

    2016-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are extremely prevalent in children with neurodevelopmental disorders compared to typically developing children. The diagnostic criteria for many neurodevelopmental disorders include sleep disturbances. Sleep disturbance in this population is often multifactorial and caused by the interplay of genetic, neurobiological and environmental overlap. These disturbances often present either as insomnia or hypersomnia. Different sleep disorders present with these complaints and based on the clinical history and findings from diagnostic tests, an appropriate diagnosis can be made. This review aims to provide an overview of causes, diagnosis, and treatment of sleep disturbances in neurodevelopmental disorders that present primarily with symptoms of hypersomnia and/or insomnia. PMID:26719309

  7. Procedures for restoring vestibular disorders

    PubMed Central

    Walther, Leif Erik

    2005-01-01

    This paper will discuss therapeutic possibilities for disorders of the vestibular organs and the neurons involved, which confront ENT clinicians in everyday practice. Treatment of such disorders can be tackled either symptomatically or causally. The possible strategies for restoring the body's vestibular sense, visual function and co-ordination include medication, as well as physical and surgical procedures. Prophylactic or preventive measures are possible in some disorders which involve vertigo (bilateral vestibulopathy, kinetosis, height vertigo, vestibular disorders when diving (Tables 1 (Tab. 1) and 2 (Tab. 2)). Glucocorticoid and training therapy encourage the compensation of unilateral vestibular loss. In the case of a bilateral vestibular loss, it is important to treat the underlying disease (e.g. Cogan's disease). Although balance training does improve the patient's sense of balance, it will not restore it completely. In the case of Meniere's disease, there are a number of medications available to either treat bouts or to act as a prophylactic (e.g. dimenhydrinate or betahistine). In addition, there are non-ablative (sacculotomy) as well as ablative surgical procedures (e.g. labyrinthectomy, neurectomy of the vestibular nerve). In everyday practice, it has become common to proceed with low risk therapies initially. The physical treatment of mild postural vertigo can be carried out quickly and easily in outpatients (repositioning or liberatory maneuvers). In very rare cases it may be necessary to carry out a semicircular canal occlusion. Isolated disturbances of the otolith function or an involvement of the otolith can be found in roughly 50% of labyrinth disturbances. A specific surgical procedure to selectively block the otolith organs is currently being studied. When an external perilymph fistula involving loss of perilymph is suspected, an exploratory tympanotomy involving also the round and oval window niches must be carried out. A traumatic rupture of the round window membrane can, for example, also be caused by an implosive inner ear barotrauma during the decompression phase of diving. Dehiscence of the anterior semicircular canal, a relatively rare disorder, can be treated conservatively (avoiding stimuli which cause dizziness), by non-ablative „resurfacing" or by „plugging" the semicircular canal. A perilymph fistula can cause a Tullio-phenomenon resulting from a traumatic dislocation or hypermobility of the stapes, which can be surgically corrected. Vestibular disorders can also result from otosurgical therapy. When balance disorders persist following stapedectomy it is necessary to carry out a revision operation in order to either exclude a perilymph fistula or shorten the piston. Surgically reducing the size of open mastoid cavities (using for example porous hydroxylapatite or cartilage) can result in a reduction of vertiginous symptoms while nursing or during exposure to ambient air. Vestibular disturbances can occur both before and after vestibular nerve surgery (acoustic neuroma). Initially, good vestibular compensation can be expected after surgically removing the acoustic neuroma. An aberrant regeneration of nerve fibers of the vestibulocochlear nerve has been suggested as a cause for secondary worsening. Episodes of vertigo can be caused by an irritation of the vestibular nerve (vascular loop). Neurovascular decompression is generally regarded as the best surgical therapy. In the elderly, vestibular disturbances can severely limit quality of life and are often aggravated by multiple comorbidities. Antivertiginous drugs (e.g. dimenhydrinate) in combination with movement training can significantly reduce symptoms. Administering antivertiginous drugs over varying periods of time (e.g. transdermal scopolamine application via patches) as well as kinetosis training can be used as both prophylactically and as a therapy for kinetosis. Exposure training should be used as a prophylactic for height vertigo. PMID:22073053

  8. Vertex corrections to the mean-field electrical conductivity in disordered electron systems.

    PubMed

    Pokorný, V; Janiš, V

    2013-05-01

    The mean-field theory for noninteracting disordered electron systems is widely and successfully used to describe equilibrium properties of alloys over the whole range of disorder strengths. However, it fails to take into account the effects of quantum coherence and localizing backscattering effects when applied to transport phenomena. Vertex corrections due to multiple backscatterings may turn the electrical conductivity negative and make expansions around the mean field in strong disorder problematic. We show how to stabilize such an expansion with the inverse of the number of nearest neighbors on hypercubic lattices as a small parameter and how to include vertex corrections to the mean-field approximation in such a way that the conductivity remains non-negative in all disorder regimes. PMID:23567622

  9. Inflammatory profiles in the BTBR mouse: how relevant are they to autism spectrum disorders?

    PubMed

    Careaga, Milo; Schwartzer, Jared; Ashwood, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of disorders characterized by core behavioral features including stereotyped interests, repetitive behaviors and impairments in communication and social interaction. In addition, widespread changes in the immune systems of individuals with ASD have been identified, in particular increased evidence of inflammation in the periphery and central nervous system. While the etiology of these disorders remains unclear, it appears that multiple gene and environmental factors are involved. The need for animal models paralleling the behavioral and immunological features of ASD is paramount to better understand the link between immune system dysregulation and behavioral deficits observed in these disorders. As such, the asocial BTBR mouse strain displays both ASD relevant behaviors and persistent immune dysregulation, providing a model system that has and continues to be instructive in understanding the complex nature of ASD. PMID:24937468

  10. Metabolic disorders in menopause

    PubMed Central

    Perty?ski, Tomasz; Perty?ska-Marczewska, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic disorders occurring in menopause, including dyslipidemia, disorders of carbohydrate metabolism (impaired glucose tolerance – IGT, type 2 diabetes mellitus – T2DM) or components of metabolic syndrome, constitute risk factors for cardiovascular disease in women. A key role could be played here by hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance and visceral obesity, all contributing to dyslipidemia, oxidative stress, inflammation, alter coagulation and atherosclerosis observed during the menopausal period. Undiagnosed and untreated, metabolic disorders may adversely affect the length and quality of women's life. Prevention and treatment preceded by early diagnosis should be the main goal for the physicians involved in menopausal care. This article represents a short review of the current knowledge concerning metabolic disorders (e.g. obesity, polycystic ovary syndrome or thyroid diseases) in menopause, including the role of a tailored menopausal hormone therapy (HT). According to current data, HT is not recommend as a preventive strategy for metabolic disorders in menopause. Nevertheless, as part of a comprehensive strategy to prevent chronic diseases after menopause, menopausal hormone therapy, particularly estrogen therapy may be considered (after balancing benefits/risks and excluding women with absolute contraindications to this therapy). Life-style modifications, with moderate physical activity and healthy diet at the forefront, should be still the first choice recommendation for all patients with menopausal metabolic abnormalities. PMID:26327890

  11. Evolution, Emotions, and Emotional Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesse, Randolph M.; Ellsworth, Phoebe C.

    2009-01-01

    Emotions research is now routinely grounded in evolution, but explicit evolutionary analyses of emotions remain rare. This article considers the implications of natural selection for several classic questions about emotions and emotional disorders. Emotions are special modes of operation shaped by natural selection. They adjust multiple response…

  12. Cranial functional (psychogenic) movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Kaski, Diego; Bronstein, Adolfo M; Edwards, Mark J; Stone, Jon

    2015-12-01

    Functional (psychogenic) neurological symptoms are frequently encountered in neurological practice. Cranial movement disorders-affecting the eyes, face, jaw, tongue, or palate-are an under-recognised feature of patients with functional symptoms. They can present in isolation or in the context of other functional symptoms; in particular, for functional eye movements, positive clinical signs such as convergence spasms can be triggered by the clinical examination. Although the specialty of functional neurological disorders has expanded, appreciation of cranial functional movement disorders is still insufficient. Identification of the positive features of cranial functional movement disorders such as convergence and unilateral platysmal spasm might lend diagnostic weight to a suspected functional neurological disorder. Understanding of the differential diagnosis, which is broad and includes many organic causes (eg, stroke), is essential to make an early and accurate diagnosis to prevent complications and initiate appropriate management. Increased understanding of these disorders is also crucial to drive clinical trials and studies of individually tailored therapies. PMID:26581970

  13. [Borderline personality disorder].

    PubMed

    Sipos, V; Schweiger, U

    2006-02-23

    Characteristics of a borderline personality disorder include emotional instability and a self-threatening lack of impulsive control. As a result, interpersonal relationships are rendered difficult. The central elements of treatment are psychoeducation, self-management, improved stress tolerance and awareness, emotion managment and training in social competence. PMID:16566104

  14. Hearing Clinic Communication Disorders

    E-print Network

    Hickman, Mark

    Hearing Clinic Communication Disorders Hearing. ScienceSPTH4093 Hearing Aid Fittings Hearing aid fitting and counselling involves matching hearing aids according to the type of hearing loss and the wants and needs of the person with the hearing loss. Counselling includes discussing how to successfully use

  15. Exporting Our Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foltz, Robert

    2012-01-01

    In 2013, the American Psychiatric Association will release its newest Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 5th Edition (DSM-5). This tome has evolved over the decades, originally including just 112 diagnoses across 128 pages. The upcoming edition is expected to eclipse the 943 pages, and 350+ disorders of the current DSM-IV-TR, offering a variety of…

  16. [CT imaging features of pulmonary involvement in connective tissue disorders].

    PubMed

    Brillet, P Y; Mama, N; Nunes, H; Uzunhan, Y; Abbad, S; Brauner, M W

    2009-11-01

    Connective tissue disorders correspond to a heterogeneous group of inflammatory diseases characterized by abnormal immune system activity leading to connective tissue alterations in multiple parts of the body. In adults, connective tissue disorders include rheumatoid arthritis, progressive systemic sclerosis, Sjögren syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus, dermatomyositis and polymyositis, ankylosing spondylitis, and mixed connective tissue disease. Broncho-pulmonary involvement may be variable with involvement of all anatomical components of the lung. Involvement of other intrathoracic structures (pleura, respiratory muscles, heart, rib cage) is frequent. The most specific manifestations include interstitial lung diseases and pulmonary hypertension. During follow-up, progressive respiratory diseases may occur due to the treatment, infections, pulmonary embolism or neoplasms. PMID:19953077

  17. Substance use disorders and psychiatric comorbidity in mid and later life: a review

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Blazer, Dan G

    2014-01-01

    Background Globally, adults aged 65 years or older will increase from 516 million in 2009 to an estimated 1.53 billion in 2050. Due to substance use at earlier ages that may continue into later life, and ageing-related changes in medical conditions, older substance users are at risk for substance-related consequences. Methods MEDLINE and PsychInfo databases were searched using keywords: alcohol use disorder, drug use disorder, drug misuse, substance use disorder, prescription drug abuse, and substance abuse. Using the related-articles link, additional articles were screened for inclusion. This review focused on original studies published between 2005 and 2013 to reflect recent trends in substance use disorders. Studies on psychiatric comorbidity were also reviewed to inform treatment needs for older adults with a substance use disorder. Results Among community non-institutionalized adults aged 50+ years, about 60% used alcohol, 3% used illicit drugs and 1–2% used nonmedical prescription drugs in the past year. Among adults aged 50+, about 5% of men and 1.4% of women had a past-year alcohol use disorder. Among alcohol users, about one in 14 users aged 50–64 had a past-year alcohol use disorder vs one in 30 elder users aged 65+. Among drug users aged 50+, approximately 10–12% had a drug use disorder. Similar to depressive and anxiety disorders, substance use disorders were among the common psychiatric disorders among older adults. Older drug users in methadone maintenance treatment exhibited multiple psychiatric or medical conditions. There have been increases in treatment admissions for illicit and prescription drug problems in the United States. Conclusions Substance use in late life requires surveillance and research, including tracking substance use in the racial/ethnic populations and developing effective care models to address comorbid medical and mental health problems. PMID:24163278

  18. Clinical assessment of Tourette syndrome and tic disorders.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Stephanie C; Leckman, James F; Bloch, Michael H

    2013-07-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neuropsychiatric disorder involving multiple motor and phonic tics. Tics, which usually begin between the ages of 6 and 8, are sudden, rapid, stereotyped, and apparently purposeless movements or sounds that involve discrete muscle groups. Individuals with TS experience a variety of different sensory phenomena, including premonitory urges prior to tics and somatic hypersensitivity due to impaired sensorimotor gating. In addition to other conditions, stress, anxiety, fatigue, or other heightened emotional states tend to exacerbate tics, while relaxation, playing sports, and focused concentration on a specific task tend to alleviate tic symptoms. Ninety percent of children with TS also have comorbid conditions, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), or an impulse control disorder. These disorders often cause more problems for the child both at home and at school than tics do alone. Proper diagnosis and treatment of TS involves appropriate evaluation and recognition, not only of tics, but also of these associated conditions. PMID:23206664

  19. Staging bipolar disorder: what data and what models are needed?

    PubMed

    Kupfer, David J; Frank, Ellen; Ritchey, Fiona C

    2015-06-01

    Although bipolar disorder is increasingly recognised as a spectrum of multisystem disorders (ie, bipolar disorders), proposed staging models and theories of bipolar disease progression often fail to incorporate longitudinal data or data from multiple domains of dysfunction. We propose that bipolar disorders are best thought of as syndromes, with different trajectories of development and progression for various symptoms and demographic groups. This inherent complexity might be better suited to non-traditional modelling techniques, potentially derived from chaos theory. In this Personal View, we propose an allostatic load framework to account for biomarkers of physiological symptom progression. We then suggest integration of two potential domains of biobehavioural markers: sleep and wake and circadian rhythm regulation and the behavioural activation system. A satisfactory model should account for the effects of developmental stage as well as demographic characteristics, including but not limited to sex, culture, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. The ultimate goal of a staging model has to be to inform the development of targeted, stage-appropriate interventions to reduce the substantial burden of bipolar disorders on individuals and societies. PMID:26360452

  20. Dissociative Disorders: Between Neurosis and Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Devillé, C.; Moeglin, C.; Sentissi, O.

    2014-01-01

    Dissociative disorders are a set of disorders defined by a disturbance affecting functions that are normally integrated with a prevalence of 2.4 percent in industrialised countries. These disorders are often poorly diagnosed or misdiagnosed because of sharing common clinical features with psychotic disorders, but requiring a very different trajectory of care. Repeated clinical situations in a crisis centre in Geneva provided us with a critical overview of current evidence of knowledge in clinical and etiopathological field about dissociative disorders. Because of their multiple expressions and the overlap with psychotic disorders, we focused on the clinical aspects using three different situations to better understand their specificity and to extend our thinking to the relevance of terms “neurosis” and “psychosis.” Finally, we hope that this work might help physicians and psychiatrists to become more aware of this complex set of disorders while making a diagnosis. PMID:25405051

  1. Should Relational Aggression Be Included in DSM-V?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan, Kate; Coyne, Claire; Lahey, Benjamin B.

    2008-01-01

    The study examines whether relational aggression should be included in DSM-V disruptive behavior disorders. The results conclude that some additional information is gathered from assessing relational aggression but not enough to be included in DSM-V.

  2. Eosinophilia in Dermatologic Disorders.

    PubMed

    de Graauw, Elisabeth; Beltraminelli, Helmut; Simon, Hans-Uwe; Simon, Dagmar

    2015-08-01

    Eosinophil infiltration can be observed in skin disorders, such as allergic/immunologic, autoimmune, infectious, and neoplastic diseases. Clinical presentations are variable and include eczematous, papular, urticarial, bullous, nodular, and fibrotic lesions; pruritus is a common symptom in all. In this review, we present representative eosinophilic skin diseases according to their clinical pattern, together with histologic findings and diagnostic procedures. We also discuss the potential roles of eosinophils in the pathogenesis of dermatologic disorder. Current pathogenesis-based diagnostic and therapeutic approaches are outlined. PMID:26209899

  3. Disorders of Human Hemoglobin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bank, Arthur; Mears, J. Gregory; Ramirez, Francesco

    1980-02-01

    Studies of the human hemoglobin system have provided new insights into the regulation of expression of a group of linked human genes, the ? -? -? globin gene complex in man. In particular, the thalassemia syndromes and related disorders of man are inherited anemias that provide mutations for the study of the regulation of globin gene expression. New methods, including restriction enzyme analysis and cloning of cellular DNA, have made it feasible to define more precisely the structure and organization of the globin genes in cellular DNA. Deletions of specific globin gene fragments have already been found in certain of these disorders and have been applied in prenatal diagnosis.

  4. How people evaluate others with social anxiety disorder: A comparison to depression and general mental illness stigma.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Kristin N; Jeon, Andrew B; Blenner, Jordan A; Wiener, Richard L; Hope, Debra A

    2015-03-01

    Despite the availability of effective interventions, most individuals with social anxiety disorder do not seek treatment. Given their fear of negative evaluation, socially anxious individuals might be especially susceptible to stigma concerns, a recognized barrier for mental health treatment. However, very little is known about the stigma specific to social anxiety disorder. In a design similar to Feldman and Crandall (2007), university undergraduate students read vignettes about target individuals with a generic mental illness label, major depressive disorder, and social anxiety disorder. Subjects rated each of 3 people in the vignettes on social distance and 17 dimensions including dangerousness, heritability and prevalence of the disorder, and gender ratio. Results indicated that being male and not having experience with mental health treatment was associated with somewhat greater preferred social distance. Multiple regression analyses revealed that being embarrassed by the disorder and dangerousness predicted social distance across all 3 vignettes. The vignette for social anxiety disorder had the most complex model and included work impairment, more common among women, and more avoidable. These results have implications for understanding the specific aspects of the stigma associated with social anxiety disorder. Public service messages to reduce stigma should focus on more accurate information about dangerousness and mental illness, given this is an established aspect of mental illness stigma. More nuanced messages about social anxiety might be best incorporated into the treatment referral process and as part of treatment. PMID:25822604

  5. The Evolving Construct of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): DSM-5 Criteria Changes and Legal Implications

    PubMed Central

    Zoellner, Lori A.; Bedard-Gilligan, Michele A.; Jun, Janie J.; Marks, Libby H.; Garcia, Natalia M.

    2014-01-01

    In the DSM-5, the diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has undergone multiple, albeit minor, changes. These changes include shifting PTSD placement from within the anxiety disorders into a new category of traumatic and stressor-related disorders, alterations in the definition of a traumatic event, shifting of the symptom cluster structure from three to four clusters, the addition of new symptoms including persistent negative beliefs and expectations about oneself or the world, persistent distorted blame of self or others, persistent negative trauma-related emotions, and risky or reckless behaviors, and the addition of a dissociative specifier. The evidence or lack thereof behind each of these changes is briefly reviewed. These changes, although not likely to change overall prevalence, have the potential to increase the heterogeneity of individuals receiving a PTSD diagnosis both by altering what qualifies as a traumatic event and by adding symptoms commonly occurring in other disorders such as depression, borderline personality disorder, and dissociative disorders. Legal implications of these changes include continued confusion regarding what constitutes a traumatic stressor, difficulties with differential diagnosis, increased ease in malingering, and improper linking of symptoms to causes of behavior. These PTSD changes are discussed within the broader context of DSM reliability and validity concerns. PMID:24470838

  6. Tourette's disorder and associated complex behaviors: a case report.

    PubMed Central

    McDougle, C. J.; Southwick, S. M.; Rohrbaugh, R. M.

    1990-01-01

    A case of a man with Tourette's disorder associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder, multiple sexual paraphilias, and aggressive behavior is described. Treatment with haloperidol led to improvement in the characteristic tics of Tourette's disorder as well as to improvement in these three complex-associated behaviors. After haloperidol was discontinued, an exacerbation of tics and the associated behaviors occurred. PMID:2238716

  7. Epidemiology of anxiety disorders in the 21st century

    PubMed Central

    Bandelow, Borwin; Michaelis, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Anxiety disorders, including panic disorder with or without agoraphobia, generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, specific phobias, and separation anxiety disorder, are the most prevalent mental disorders and are associated with immense health care costs and a high burden of disease. According to large population-based surveys, up to 33.7% of the population are affected by an anxiety disorder during their lifetime. Substantial underrecognition and undertreatment of these disorders have been demonstrated. There is no evidence that the prevalence rates of anxiety disorders have changed in the past years. In cross-cultural comparisons, prevalence rates are highly variable. It is more likely that this heterogeneity is due to differences in methodology than to cultural influences. Anxiety disorders follow a chronic course; however, there is a natural decrease in prevalence rates with older age. Anxiety disorders are highly comorbid with other anxiety disorders and other mental disorders. PMID:26487813

  8. Epidemiology of anxiety disorders in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Bandelow, Borwin; Michaelis, Sophie

    2015-09-01

    Anxiety disorders, including panic disorder with or without agoraphobia, generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, specific phobias, and separation anxiety disorder, are the most prevalent mental disorders and are associated with immense health care costs and a high burden of disease. According to large population-based surveys, up to 33.7% of the population are affected by an anxiety disorder during their lifetime. Substantial underrecognition and undertreatment of these disorders have been demonstrated. There is no evidence that the prevalence rates of anxiety disorders have changed in the past years. In cross-cultural comparisons, prevalence rates are highly variable. It is more likely that this heterogeneity is due to differences in methodology than to cultural influences. Anxiety disorders follow a chronic course; however, there is a natural decrease in prevalence rates with older age. Anxiety disorders are highly comorbid with other anxiety disorders and other mental disorders. PMID:26487813

  9. The applications of pharmacogenomics to neurological disorders.

    PubMed

    Gilman, C; McSweeney, C; Mao, Y

    2014-01-01

    The most common neurological disorders, including neurodegenerative diseases and psychiatric disorders, have received recent attention with regards to pharmacogenomics and personalized medicine. Here, we will focus on a neglected neurodegenerative disorder, cerebral ischemic stroke (CIS), and highlight recent advances in two disorders, Parkinson's disease (PD) and Alzheimer's diseases (AD), that possess both similar and distinct mechanisms in regards to potential therapeutic targets. In the first part of this review, we will focus primarily on mechanisms that are somewhat specific to each disorder which are involved in neurodegeneration (i.e., protease pathways, calcium homeostasis, reactive oxygen species regulation, DNA repair mechanisms, neurogenesis regulation, mitochondrial function, etc.). In the second part of this review, we will discuss the applications of the genome-wide technology on pharmacogenomics of mental illnesses including schizophrenia (SCZ), autism spectrum disorders (ASD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). PMID:25109797

  10. Toward a Deeper Understanding of the Genetics of Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kerner, Berit

    2015-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is a common, complex psychiatric disorder characterized by mania and depression. The disease aggregates in families, but despite much effort, it has been difficult to delineate the basic genetic model or identify specific genetic risk factors. Not only single gene Mendelian transmission and common variant hypotheses but also multivariate threshold models and oligogenic quasi-Mendelian modes of inheritance have dominated the discussion at times. Almost complete sequence information of the human genome and falling sequencing costs now offer the opportunity to test these models in families in which the disorder is transmitted over several generations. Exome-wide sequencing studies have revealed an astonishing number of rare and potentially damaging mutations in brain-expressed genes that could have contributed to the disease manifestation. However, the statistical analysis of these data has been challenging, because genetic risk factors displayed a high degree of dissimilarity across families. This scenario is not unique to bipolar disorder, but similar results have also been found in schizophrenia, a potentially related psychiatric disorder. Recently, our group has published data which supported an oligogenic genetic model of transmission in a family with bipolar disorder. In this family, three affected siblings shared rare, damaging mutations in multiple genes, which were linked to stress response pathways. These pathways are also the target for drugs frequently used to treat bipolar disorder. This article discusses these findings in the context of previously proclaimed disease models and suggests future research directions, including biological confirmation and phenotype stratification as an approach to disease heterogeneity. PMID:26283973

  11. Including Multiple Voices in Collaboratively Designing a Teacher Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konecki, Loretta R.; Sturdivant, Robika L.; King, Caryn M.; Melin, Jacquelyn A.; Lancaster, Paula E.

    2012-01-01

    This narrative case study describes the collaborative processes employed by a midwestern university as it designed and implemented a clinically based, postbaccalaureate teacher preparation program for science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) graduates committed to teaching in high need secondary schools. The program development…

  12. Atypical myeloproliferative disorders in adults.

    PubMed

    Zachée, Pierre

    2011-04-01

    The definition of 'atypical MPDs' includes all chronic myeloid disorders that defy classification as either MDS or classic MPDs. These can be both molecularly defined or clinicopathologically assigned: chronic myelomonocytic leukemia, juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia, chronic neutrophilic leukemia, chronic basophilic leukemia, chronic eosinophilic leukemia, idiopathic eosinophilia including hypereosinophilic syndrome, systemic mastocytosis, unclassified MPD, and eosinophilic/mast cell disorders associated with mutations of PDGFR, FGFR1, and KIT all fall under the category of atypical MPDs. PMID:21402312

  13. Psychostimulants and Movement Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Asser, Andres; Taba, Pille

    2015-01-01

    Psychostimulants are a diverse group of substances with their main psychomotor effects resembling those of amphetamine, methamphetamine, cocaine, or cathinone. Due to their potential as drugs of abuse, recreational use of most of these substances is illegal since 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances. In recent years, new psychoactive substances have emerged mainly as synthetic cathinones with new molecules frequently complementing the list. Psychostimulant related movement disorders are a known entity often seen in emergency rooms around the world. These admissions are becoming more frequent as are fatalities associated with drug abuse. Still the legal constraints of the novel synthetic molecules are bypassed. At the same time, chronic and permanent movement disorders are much less frequently encountered. These disorders frequently manifest as a combination of movement disorders. The more common symptoms include agitation, tremor, hyperkinetic and stereotypical movements, cognitive impairment, and also hyperthermia and cardiovascular dysfunction. The pathophysiological mechanisms behind the clinical manifestations have been researched for decades. The common denominator is the monoaminergic signaling. Dopamine has received the most attention but further research has demonstrated involvement of other pathways. Common mechanisms linking psychostimulant use and several movement disorders exist. PMID:25941511

  14. [Creativity and bipolar disorder].

    PubMed

    Maçkal?, Zeynep; Gülöksüz, Sinan; Oral, Timuçin

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between creativity and bipolar disorder has been an intriguing topic since ancient times. Early studies focused on describing characteristics of creative people. From the last quarter of the twentieth century, researchers began to focus on the relationship between mood disorders and creativity. Initially, the studies were based on biographical texts and the obtained results indicated a relationship between these two concepts. The limitations of the retrospective studies led the researchers to develop systematic investigations into this area. The systematic studies that have focused on artistic creativity have examined both the prevalence of mood disorders and the creative process. In addition, a group of researchers addressed the relationship in terms of affective temperaments. Through the end of the 90's, the scope of creativity was widened and the notion of everyday creativity was proposed. The emergence of this notion led researchers to investigate the associations of the creative process in ordinary (non-artist) individuals. In this review, the descriptions of creativity and creative process are mentioned. Also, the creative process is addressed with regards to bipolar disorder. Then, the relationship between creativity and bipolar disorder are evaluated in terms of aforementioned studies (biographical, systematic, psychobiographical, affective temperaments). In addition, a new model, the "Shared Vulnerability Model" which was developed to explain the relationship between creativity and psychopathology is introduced. Finally, the methodological limitations and the suggestions for resolving these limitations are included. PMID:24590850

  15. Childhood disintegrative disorder

    MedlinePLUS

    ... had already learned The condition is similar to autistic disorder ( autism ). ... such as childhood schizophrenia or pervasive developmental disorder (autism). The most important sign of childhood disintegrative disorder ...

  16. Celiac sprue: a unique autoimmune disorder

    PubMed Central

    Rashtak, Shadi; Marietta, Eric V; Murray, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    Celiac sprue (CS) is a gluten-sensitive enteropathy with many autoimmune features. CS involves multiple organs through immune and nonimmune processes, and is frequently associated with other autoimmune disorders. This article reviews the co-occurrence of CS with autoimmune disorders of the cutaneous, nervous, endocrine, musculoskeletal, gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems. The types of autoimmune disorders associated with CS and the prevalence of CS in other autoimmune disorders are also discussed. A brief review of the literature on the potential mechanisms behind these associations and the therapeutic effects of a gluten-free diet for autoimmune comorbidities in CS is also provided. PMID:20477645

  17. Multiple Sclerosis

    MedlinePLUS

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a nervous system disease that affects your brain and spinal cord. It damages the ... attacks healthy cells in your body by mistake. Multiple sclerosis affects women more than men. It often begins ...

  18. Gendered mental disorders: masculine and feminine stereotypes about mental disorders and their relation to stigma.

    PubMed

    Boysen, Guy; Ebersole, Ashley; Casner, Robert; Coston, Nykhala

    2014-01-01

    Research indicates that stereotypes can intersect. For example, the intersection of stereotypes about gender and mental disorders could result in perceptions of gendered mental disorders. In the current research, Studies 1 and 2 showed that people view specific disorders as being masculine or feminine. The masculine stereotype included antisocial personality disorder, addictions, and paraphilias. The feminine stereotype included eating disorders, histrionic personality disorder, body dysmorphia, and orgasmic disorder. In both studies, the perception of disorders as masculine was positively correlated with stigma. Study 3 showed that the positive correlation between masculinity and stigma also occurred when examining specific symptoms rather than full mental disorders. The findings provide further evidence for the intersection of stereotypes and indicate a novel factor in the understanding of stigma. PMID:25280170

  19. Myeloproliferative disorders

    PubMed Central

    Gilliland, D. Gary

    2008-01-01

    In 1951 William Dameshek classified polycythemia vera (PV), essential thombocytosis (ET), and primary myelofibrosis (PMF) as pathogenetically related myeloproliferative disorders (MPD). Subsequent studies demonstrated that PV, ET, and PMF are clonal disorders of multipotent hematopoietic progenitors. In 2005, a somatic activating mutation in the JAK2 nonreceptor tyrosine kinase (JAK2V617F) was identified in most patients with PV and in a significant proportion of patients with ET and PMF. Subsequent studies identified additional mutations in the JAK-STAT pathway in some patients with JAK2V617F? MPD, suggesting that constitutive activation of this signaling pathway is a unifying feature of these disorders. Although the discovery of mutations in the JAK-STAT pathway is important from a pathogenetic and diagnostic perspective, important questions remain regarding the role of this single disease allele in 3 related but clinically distinct disorders, and the role of additional genetic events in MPD disease pathogenesis. In addition, these observations provide a foundation for development of small molecule inhibitors of JAK2 that are currently being tested in clinical trials. This review will discuss our understanding of the pathogenesis of PV, ET, and PMF, the potential role of JAK2-targeted therapy, and the important unanswered questions that need to be addressed to improve clinical outcome. PMID:18779404

  20. Panic Disorder

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for panic attacks and as a type of self-medication that can quickly get out of control. Panic disorder, particularly left untreated, can raise the risk of suicidal thoughts or ... and low self-esteem can cause some people to isolate themselves ...

  1. Other Disorders

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environmental conditions, such as wind, water, and temperature, or genetic disorders can affect beet production but can also cause symptoms that may be confused with those associated with pest or disease damage. Listed below are some the potential abiotic stresses that may occur to beet but are unr...

  2. Somatoform Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and symptoms a person feels are related to psychological factors. These symptoms can't be traced to a specific physical cause. In people who have a somatic symptom and related disorder, medical test results are either normal or don't explain ...

  3. Panic Disorder

    MedlinePLUS

    ... several parts of the brain are involved in fear and anxiety. By learning more about fear and anxiety in the brain, scientists may be ... disorder may have: Sudden and repeated attacks of fear A feeling of being out of control during ...

  4. Cephalic Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and how radiation, drugs, toxins, infections, and other factors disrupt these processes will aid in preventing many congenital neurological disorders. Recent studies have shown that the addition of folic acid to the diet of women of child-bearing age may significantly reduce the incidence of neural ...

  5. Eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Konti?, Olga; Vasiljevi?, Nadja; Trisovi?, Marija; Jorga, Jagoda; Laki?, Aneta; Gasi?, Miroslava Jasovi?

    2012-01-01

    Eating disorders are considered chronic diseases of civilization. The most studied and well known are anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Anorexia is considered one of the most common psychiatric problems of girls in puberty and adolescence. Due to high mortality and morbidity as well as the increasing expansion of these diseases, it is clear why the amount of research on these diseases is growing worldwide. Eating disorders lead to numerous medical complications, mostly due to late diagnosis. The main characteristic of these diseases is changed behavior in the nutrition, either as an intentional restriction of food, i.e. extreme dieting, or overeating, i.e. binge eating. Extreme dieting, skipping meals, self-induced vomiting, excessive exercise, and misuse of laxatives and diuretics for the purpose of maintaining or reducing body weight are characteristic forms of compensatory behavior of patients with eating disorder. The most appropriate course of treatment is determined by evaluating the patient's health condition, associated with behavior and eating habits, the experience of one's own body, character traits of personality, and consequently the development and functioning of the individual. The final treatment plan is individual. Eating disorders are a growing medical problem even in this part of the world. Prevention should be planned in cooperation with different sectors so as to stop the epidemic of these diseases. PMID:23289290

  6. Voice Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... through your larynx, or voice box. In your larynx are your vocal cords, two bands of muscle that vibrate to make sound. For most of us, our voices play a big part in who we are, what we do, and how we communicate. Like ... National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders

  7. Genetically modified pig models for neurodegenerative disorders.

    PubMed

    Holm, Ida E; Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen; Luo, Yonglun

    2016-01-01

    Increasing incidence of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease has become one of the most challenging health issues in ageing humans. One approach to combat this is to generate genetically modified animal models of neurodegenerative disorders for studying pathogenesis, prognosis, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Owing to the genetic, anatomic, physiologic, pathologic, and neurologic similarities between pigs and humans, genetically modified pig models of neurodegenerative disorders have been attractive large animal models to bridge the gap of preclinical investigations between rodents and humans. In this review, we provide a neuroanatomical overview in pigs and summarize and discuss the generation of genetically modified pig models of neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's diseases, Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, spinal muscular atrophy, and ataxia-telangiectasia. We also highlight how non-invasive bioimaging technologies such as positron emission tomography (PET), computer tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and behavioural testing have been applied to characterize neurodegenerative pig models. We further propose a multiplex genome editing and preterm recloning (MAP) approach by using the rapid growth of the ground-breaking precision genome editing technology CRISPR/Cas9 and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). With this approach, we hope to shorten the temporal requirement in generating multiple transgenic pigs, increase the survival rate of founder pigs, and generate genetically modified pigs that will more closely resemble the disease-causing mutations and recapitulate pathological features of human conditions. Copyright © 2015 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26446984

  8. Disorder in Large-N Theories

    E-print Network

    Ofer Aharony; Zohar Komargodski; Shimon Yankielowicz

    2015-11-30

    We consider Euclidean Conformal Field Theories perturbed by quenched disorder, namely by random fluctuations in their couplings. Such theories are relevant for second-order phase transitions in the presence of impurities or other forms of disorder. Theories with quenched disorder often flow to new fixed points of the renormalization group. We begin with disorder in free field theories. Imry and Ma showed that disordered free fields can only exist for d>4. For d>4 we show that disorder leads to new fixed points which are not scale-invariant. We then move on to large-N theories (vector models or gauge theories in the `t Hooft limit). We compute exactly the beta function for the disorder, and the correlation functions of the disordered theory. We generalize the results of Imry and Ma by showing that such disordered theories exist only when disorder couples to operators of dimension \\Delta > d/4. Sometimes the disordered fixed points are not scale-invariant, and in other cases they have unconventional dependence on the disorder, including non-trivial effects due to irrelevant operators. Holography maps disorder in conformal theories to stochastic differential equations in a higher-dimensional space. We use this dictionary to reproduce our field theory results. We also study the leading 1/N corrections, both by field theory methods and by holography. These corrections are particularly important when disorder scales with the number of degrees of freedom.

  9. Finger Multiplication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simanihuruk, Mudin

    2011-01-01

    Multiplication facts are difficult to teach. Therefore many researchers have put a great deal of effort into finding multiplication strategies. Sherin and Fuson (2005) provided a good survey paper on the multiplication strategies research area. Kolpas (2002), Rendtorff (1908), Dabell (2001), Musser (1966) and Markarian (2009) proposed the finger…

  10. Behavioral Activation in the Treatment of Comorbid Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Major Depressive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulick, Patrick S.; Naugle, Amy E.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of 10-weeks of Behavioral Activation (BA) in the treatment of comorbid Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) in four adults using a nonconcurrent multiple baseline across participants design. All participants met full "DSM-IV" criteria for both MDD and PTSD at the outset of…

  11. The Appalachian Perspective: An Adaptation to a Parent Training Program for Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newland, Jessica Marie

    2010-01-01

    Disruptive behavior disorders in children are distressing to others due to the abnormal nature of the child's behavior (Christophersen & Mortweet, 2003). These disorders include attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and conduct disorder (CD). Prevalent rates for these disorders range from 2% to 23%…

  12. Childhood Multiple Sclerosis: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldman, Amy; O'Connor, Erin; Tennekoon, Gihan

    2006-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) that is increasingly recognized as a disease that affects children. Similar to adult-onset MS, children present with visual and sensory complaints, as well as weakness, spasticity, and ataxia. A lumbar puncture can be helpful in diagnosing MS when…

  13. The Incremental Utility of Behavioral Rating Scales and a Structured Diagnostic Interview in the Assessment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, Aaron J.; Hoza, Betsy

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the incremental utility of rating scales, a structured diagnostic interview, and multiple informants in a comprehensive assessment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The sample included 185 children with ADHD (M[subscript age] = 9.22, SD = 0.95) and 82 children without ADHD (M[subscript age] = 9.24, SD =…

  14. Dependent personality disorder

    MedlinePLUS

    Dependent personality disorder is a mental condition in which people depend too much on others to meet their emotional ... Causes of dependent personality disorder are unknown. The disorder usually ... It is one of the most common personality disorders and ...

  15. Disorder of written expression

    MedlinePLUS

    Written expression disorder; Dysgraphia; Specific learning disorder with impairment in written expression ... Specific learning disorder with impairment in written expression is as common as other learning disorders, which is about 5 to ...

  16. Disorders of Nonverbal Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starkweather, C. Woodruff

    1977-01-01

    The author explores the idea that nonverbal communication can be disordered, describes several types of nonverbal disorders (such as impaired eye movement, inappropriate body movements, idiosyncratic mannerisms, and voice disorders), explains sources of nonverbal disorders, and suggests therapeutic procedures. (IM)

  17. Language disorder - children

    MedlinePLUS

    ... dysphasia; Delayed language; Specific developmental language disorder; SLI; Communication disorder - language disorder ... 2014. Simms MD, Schum RL. Language development and communication disorders. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. Geme ...

  18. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    DOEpatents

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  19. Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Eating Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Champion, Lorna; Power, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) is a leading evidence-based treatment for those eating disorders in which binge eating is a feature. This article begins with a consideration of the rationale for using IPT to treat patients with eating disorders. This is followed by a review of the evidence supporting its use and a brief description of treatment including an illustrative clinical case vignette. The article closes with a discussion of possible future directions for research on IPT for eating disorders. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Key Practitioner Message IPT for eating disorders (IPT-ED) closely resembles IPT for depression and primarily focuses on current interpersonal problems. It is well suited for helping patients to address interpersonal difficulties which appear to be maintaining the eating disorder. PMID:22362599

  20. Polycystic liver diseases: congenital disorders of cholangiocyte signaling.

    PubMed

    Strazzabosco, Mario; Somlo, Stefan

    2011-06-01

    Polycystic liver diseases (PLD) are inherited disorders of the biliary epithelium, caused by genetic defects in proteins associated with intracellular organelles, mainly the endoplasmic reticulum and the cilium. PLD are characterized by the formation and progressive enlargement of multiple cysts scattered throughout the liver parenchyma, and include different entities, classified based on their pathology, inheritance pattern, involvement of the kidney and clinical features. PLD should be considered as congenital diseases of cholangiocyte signaling. Here, we will review the changes in signaling pathways involved in liver cyst formation and progression, and their impact on cholangiocyte physiology. Each pathway represents a potential target for therapies aimed at reducing disease progression. PMID:21515270

  1. POLYCYSTIC LIVER DISEASES: CONGENITAL DISORDERS OF CHOLANGIOCYTE SIGNALING

    PubMed Central

    Strazzabosco, Mario; Somlo, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Polycystic liver diseases (PLD) are inherited disorders of the biliary epithelium, caused by genetic defects in proteins associated with intracellular organelles, mainly the endoplasmic reticulum and the cilium. PLD are characterized by the formation and progressive enlargement of multiple cysts scattered throughout the liver parenchyma, and include different entities, classified based on their pathology, inheritance pattern, involvement of the kidney and clinical features. PLD should be considered as congenital diseases of cholangiocyte signaling. Here, we will review the changes in signaling pathways involved in liver cyst formation and progression, and their impact on cholangiocyte physiology. Each pathway represents a potential target for therapies aimed at reducing disease progression. PMID:21515270

  2. Multiple sclerosis and glutamate.

    PubMed

    Groom, Anthony J; Smith, Terence; Turski, Lechoslaw

    2003-05-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis reproduces in rodents the features of multiple sclerosis, an immune-mediated, disabling disorder of the human nervous system. No adequate therapy is available for multiple sclerosis, despite anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, and immunomodulatory measures. Increasingly glutamate is implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Here we (1) review changes in the glutamatergic system in multiple sclerosis and (2) reveal the effects of glutamate AMPA antagonists in acute and chronic rodent models of multiple sclerosis. Administration of structurally diverse competitive and non-competitive AMPA antagonists reduces neurologic disability in rodents subjected to acute experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. In addition, AMPA antagonists are active in both the adoptive transfer and in chronic models of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in rats and mice and affect both the acute and chronic relapsing phases. Moreover, short-term therapy with AMPA antagonists leads to sustained benefit well into the progressive phases. These results imply that therapeutic strategies for multiple sclerosis should be complemented by glutamate AMPA antagonists to reduce neurologic disability. PMID:12853317

  3. Cognition in Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Gagnon, Jean-François; Bertrand, Josie-Anne; Génier Marchand, Daphné

    2012-01-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia characterized by excessive muscle activity and undesirable motor events during REM sleep. RBD occurs in approximately 0.5% of the general population, with a higher prevalence in older men. RBD is a frequent feature of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), but is only rarely reported in Alzheimer’s disease. RBD is also a risk factor for ?-synuclein-related diseases, such as DLB, Parkinson’s disease (PD), and multiple system atrophy. Therefore, RBD has major implications for the diagnosis and treatment of neurodegenerative disorders and for understanding specific neurodegeneration patterns. Several markers of neurodegeneration have been identified in RBD, including cognitive impairments such as deficits in attention, executive functions, learning capacities, and visuospatial abilities. Approximately 50% of RBD patients present mild cognitive impairment. Moreover, RBD is also associated with cognitive decline in PD. PMID:22629254

  4. Social Experience-Dependent Myelination: An Implication for Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Toritsuka, Michihiro; Kishimoto, Toshifumi

    2015-01-01

    Myelination is one of the strategies to promote the conduction velocity of axons in order to adjust to evolving environment in vertebrates. It has been shown that myelin formation depends on genetic programing and experience, including multiple factors, intracellular and extracellular molecules, and neuronal activities. Recently, accumulating studies have shown that myelination in the central nervous system changes more dynamically in response to neuronal activities and experience than expected. Among experiences, social experience-dependent myelination draws attention as one of the critical pathobiologies of psychiatric disorders. In this review, we summarize the mechanisms of neuronal activity-dependent and social experience-dependent myelination and discuss the contribution of social experience-dependent myelination to the pathology of psychiatric disorders. PMID:26078885

  5. Post-traumatic stress disorder status in a rescue group after the Wenchuan earthquake relief

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Junhua; Liu, Qunying; Li, Jinliang; Li, Xuejiang; You, Jin; Zhang, Liang; Tian, Changfu; Luan, Rongsheng

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that the incidence of post-traumatic stress disorder in earthquake rescue workers is relatively high. Risk factors for this disorder include demographic characteristics, earthquake-related high-risk factors, risk factors in the rescue process, personality, social support and coping style. This study examined the current status of a unit of 1 040 rescue workers who participated in earthquake relief for the Wenchuan earthquake that occurred on May 12th, 2008. Post-traumatic stress disorder was diagnosed primarily using the Clinician-Administered Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Scale during structured interviews. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were used to examine major risk factors that contributed to the incidence of post-traumatic stress disorder. Results revealed that the incidence of this disorder in the rescue group was 5.96%. The impact factors in univariate analysis included death of family members, contact with corpses or witnessing of the deceased or seriously injured, near-death experience, severe injury or mental trauma in the rescue process and working at the epicenter of the earthquake. Correlation analysis suggested that post-traumatic stress disorder was positively correlated with psychotic and neurotic personalities, negative coping and low social support. Impact factors in multivariate logistic regression analysis included near-death experience, severe injury or mental trauma, working in the epicenter of the rescue, neurotic personality, negative coping and low social support, among which low social support had the largest odds ratio of 20.42. Findings showed that the occurrence of post-traumatic stress disorder was the result of the interaction of multiple factors. PMID:25206499

  6. Vilazodone: in major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Frampton, James E

    2011-07-01

    Vilazodone, a novel antidepressant agent that combines selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) activity and serotonin 5-HT(1A) receptor partial agonist activity in a single molecule, is indicated for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) in the US. It is administered orally, once daily, with food. At the recommended dosage of 40?mg/day, vilazodone was effective in the short-term treatment of MDD in adults, as evidenced by significant improvements versus placebo on multiple measures of depression, including the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D-17), in two pivotal, 8-week, randomized, double-blind, phase III studies. Significant differences between vilazodone and placebo on the MADRS and HAM-D-17 were seen after 1 week of treatment (first efficacy timepoint) in one of the two studies. Long-term treatment with vilazodone 40?mg/day was associated with an improvement from baseline in depressive symptoms in a 52-week, noncompar-ative, phase III study. Vilazodone was generally well tolerated in the short- and long-term treatment of MDD, with diarrhoea and nausea being the most frequently occurring treatment-emergent adverse events. Vilazodone had a minimal impact on sexual functioning in the three phase III studies. PMID:21699273

  7. Disordered gambling and co-morbidity of psychiatric disorders among college students: an examination of problem drinking, anxiety and depression.

    PubMed

    Martin, Ryan J; Usdan, Stuart; Cremeens, Jennifer; Vail-Smith, Karen

    2014-06-01

    We assessed the occurrence of co-morbid psychiatric disorders (i.e., problem drinking, anxiety, and depression) among college students who met the threshold for disordered gambling. The participants included a large sample of undergraduate students (n = 1,430) who were enrolled in an introductory health course at a large, southeastern university in Spring 2011 and completed an online assessment that included scales to assess disordered gambling, problem drinking, anxiety, and depression. We calculated screening scores, computed prevalence rates for each disorder, and calculated Pearson correlations and Chi square tests to examine correlations and co-morbid relationships between the four disorders. Analyses indicated that all disorders were significantly associated (p < .01) except for disordered gambling and anxiety. Because college students who experience disordered gambling (and other psychiatric disorders) are at increased risk of experiencing co-occurring disorders, it might be useful for college health professionals to concurrently screen and intervene for co-occurring disorders. PMID:23430449

  8. Thyroid disorders in women.

    PubMed

    Li, H; Li, J

    2015-04-01

    Thyroid disorders include autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD), thyroid goiter, nodule and cancer. AITD mainly consist of autoimmune thyroiditis and Graves disease. The common characteristic of thyroid disorders is female preponderance in their prevalence. The female-to-male rate ratio is reported at 4~6:1 for AITD and about 3~4:1 for thyroid nodule. For PTC, it is greatest during reproductive age and drops from five and more in patients aged 20-24, to 3.4 in patients aged 35-44 to one in patients over 80. The effects of female gonadal hormones and X chromosome inactivation on thyroid gland and immune system greatly contribute to the female predilection of AITD. The former mainly include prolactin and estrogen. The direct actions of estrogen on the thyroid tissue contribute to the development of thyroid goiter, nodule and cancer in women. PMID:25668600

  9. Multicomponent Behavioral Treatment for Chronic Combat-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Trauma Management Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Samuel M.; Beidel, Deborah C.; Frueh, B. Christopher

    2005-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a severe and chronic mental disorder that is highly prevalent within Veterans Affairs (VA) Medical Centers. A severe psychiatric disorder, combat-related PTSD is typically accompanied by multiple comorbid psychiatric disorders, symptom chronicity, and extreme social maladjustment. Thus, PTSD is a complex…

  10. Mechanisms of multiple chemical sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Winder, Chris

    2002-03-10

    Sensitivity to chemicals is a toxicological concept, contained in the dose-response relationship. Sensitivity also includes the concept of hypersensitivity, although controversy surrounds the nature of effects from very low exposures. The term multiple chemical sensitivity has been used to describe individuals with a debilitating, multi-organ sensitivity following chemical exposures. Many aspects of this condition extend the nature of sensitivity to low levels of exposure to chemicals, and is a designation with medical, immunological, neuropsychological and toxicological perspectives. The basis of MCS is still to be identified, although a large number of hypersensitivity, immunological, psychological, neurological and toxicological mechanisms have been suggested, including: allergy; autosuggestion; cacosomia; conditioned response; immunological; impairment of biochemical pathways involved in energy production; impairment of neurochemical pathways; illness belief system; limbic kindling; olfactory threshold sensitivity; panic disorder; psychosomatic condition; malingering; neurogenic inflammation; overload of biotransformation pathways (also linked with free radical production); psychological or psychiatric illness; airway reactivity; sensitisation of the neurological system; time dependent sensitisation, toxicant induced loss of tolerance. Most of these theories tend to break down into concepts involving: (1) disruption in immunological/allergy processes; (2) alteration in nervous system function; (3) changes in biochemical or biotransformation capacity; (4) changes in psychological/neurobehavioural function. Research into the possible mechanisms of MCS is far from complete. However, a number of promising avenues of investigation indicate that the possibility of alteration of the sensitivity of nervous system cells (neurogenic inflammation, limbic kindling, cacosomia, neurogenic switching) are a possible mechanism for MCS. PMID:11869820

  11. Single-Quantum-Dot Tracking Reveals Altered Membrane Dynamics of an Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity-Disorder-Derived Dopamine

    E-print Network

    Single-Quantum-Dot Tracking Reveals Altered Membrane Dynamics of an Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity-Disorder disorders. KEYWORDS: Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, amphetamine, cocaine, dopamine transporter, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, dystonia, Parkinson's disease, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity

  12. Brain structure-function associations in multi-generational families genetically enriched for bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Fears, Scott C; Schür, Remmelt; Sjouwerman, Rachel; Service, Susan K; Araya, Carmen; Araya, Xinia; Bejarano, Julio; Knowles, Emma; Gomez-Makhinson, Juliana; Lopez, Maria C; Aldana, Ileana; Teshiba, Terri M; Abaryan, Zvart; Al-Sharif, Noor B; Navarro, Linda; Tishler, Todd A; Altshuler, Lori; Bartzokis, George; Escobar, Javier I; Glahn, David C; Thompson, Paul M; Lopez-Jaramillo, Carlos; Macaya, Gabriel; Molina, Julio; Reus, Victor I; Sabatti, Chiara; Cantor, Rita M; Freimer, Nelson B; Bearden, Carrie E

    2015-07-01

    Recent theories regarding the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder suggest contributions of both neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative processes. While structural neuroimaging studies indicate disease-associated neuroanatomical alterations, the behavioural correlates of these alterations have not been well characterized. Here, we investigated multi-generational families genetically enriched for bipolar disorder to: (i) characterize neurobehavioural correlates of neuroanatomical measures implicated in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder; (ii) identify brain-behaviour associations that differ between diagnostic groups; (iii) identify neurocognitive traits that show evidence of accelerated ageing specifically in subjects with bipolar disorder; and (iv) identify brain-behaviour correlations that differ across the age span. Structural neuroimages and multi-dimensional assessments of temperament and neurocognition were acquired from 527 (153 bipolar disorder and 374 non-bipolar disorder) adults aged 18-87 years in 26 families with heavy genetic loading for bipolar disorder. We used linear regression models to identify significant brain-behaviour associations and test whether brain-behaviour relationships differed: (i) between diagnostic groups; and (ii) as a function of age. We found that total cortical and ventricular volume had the greatest number of significant behavioural associations, and included correlations with measures from multiple cognitive domains, particularly declarative and working memory and executive function. Cortical thickness measures, in contrast, showed more specific associations with declarative memory, letter fluency and processing speed tasks. While the majority of brain-behaviour relationships were similar across diagnostic groups, increased cortical thickness in ventrolateral prefrontal and parietal cortical regions was associated with better declarative memory only in bipolar disorder subjects, and not in non-bipolar disorder family members. Additionally, while age had a relatively strong impact on all neurocognitive traits, the effects of age on cognition did not differ between diagnostic groups. Most brain-behaviour associations were also similar across the age range, with the exception of cortical and ventricular volume and lingual gyrus thickness, which showed weak correlations with verbal fluency and inhibitory control at younger ages that increased in magnitude in older subjects, regardless of diagnosis. Findings indicate that neuroanatomical traits potentially impacted by bipolar disorder are significantly associated with multiple neurobehavioural domains. Structure-function relationships are generally preserved across diagnostic groups, with the notable exception of ventrolateral prefrontal and parietal association cortex, volumetric increases in which may be associated with cognitive resilience specifically in individuals with bipolar disorder. Although age impacted all neurobehavioural traits, we did not find any evidence of accelerated cognitive decline specific to bipolar disorder subjects. Regardless of diagnosis, greater global brain volume may represent a protective factor for the effects of ageing on executive functioning. PMID:25943422

  13. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: What an Educator Needs to Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaturvedi, Amrita; Murdick, Nikki L.; Gartin, Barbara C.

    2014-01-01

    The presence of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) impairs social, emotional and academic functioning. Individuals with OCD may have co-morbid disorders including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, depression, oppositional defiant disorder, or Tourette syndrome. Challenges occur when students with OCD become a part of the general education…

  14. New progeroid disorder.

    PubMed

    Penttinen, M; Niemi, K M; Vinkka-Puhakka, H; Johansson, R; Aula, P

    1997-03-17

    We report on a 10-year-old Caucasian male with a prematurely aged appearance, delayed bone maturation and dental development, pronounced acro-osteolysis with brachydactyly, and distinctive cutaneous findings including hard, confluent skin lesions with some clinical and histologic resemblance to those of juvenile hyaline fibromatosis (JHF). He also had hyperopia, sensorineural hearing loss, and elevated TSH. Linear growth and intellectual functions were normal. We believe that this patient represents a new progeroid disorder. PMID:9056558

  15. [Adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, associated symptoms and comorbid psychiatric disorders: diagnosis and pharmacological treatment].

    PubMed

    Paslakis, G; Schredl, M; Alm, B; Sobanski, E

    2013-08-01

    Adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterised by inattention and/or hyperactivity and impulsivity and is a frequent psychiatric disorder with childhood onset. In addition to core symptoms, patients often experience associated symptoms like emotional dysregulation or low self-esteem and suffer from comorbid disorders, particularly depressive episodes, substance abuse, anxiety or sleep disorders. It is recommended to include associated symptoms and comorbid psychiatric disorders in the diagnostic set-up and in the treatment plan. Comorbid psychiatric disorders should be addressed with disorder-specific therapies while associated symptoms also often improve with treatment of the ADHD core symptoms. The most impairing psychiatric disorder should be treated first. This review presents recommendations for differential diagnosis and treatment of adult ADHD with associated symptoms and comorbid psychiatric disorders with respect to internationally published guidelines, clinical trials and expert opinions. PMID:23864520

  16. Medications for Substance Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Douaihy, Antoine B.; Kelly, Thomas M.; Sullivan, Carl

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the authors briefly review the pharmacotherapeutic agents that are currently available for the treatment of substance use disorders. Nicotine replacement therapies are most effective for tobacco cessation. Naltrexone, acamprosate, and disulfiram are effective for reducing alcohol use. The most effective pharmacotherapies for opiate use disorders are agonist therapies, including methadone and buprenorphine. The authors also examine recent advances in medication development for other substance use disorders such as stimulant addiction. The role of medication adherence and behavioral treatments and the integration of behavioral and pharmacotherapeutic interventions are also discussed. PMID:23731419

  17. Developmental epidemiology of anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Beesdo-Baum, Katja; Knappe, Susanne

    2012-07-01

    This review focuses on developmental aspects in the epidemiology of anxiety disorders including prevalence, onset, natural course, longitudinal outcome, and correlates and risk factors, with focus on childhood through young adulthood. Anxiety disorders are frequent and early-emerging conditions. They may remit spontaneously; however, the same or other mental disorders often recur. Although risk factors have been identified, more work is needed to identify the most powerful predictors for onset and the progression to more complex forms of psychopathology and to understand the underlying mechanisms and interactions. This identification is crucial to facilitate research prevention, early interventions, and treatment programs. PMID:22800989

  18. Thought disorder in alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Galanter, M; Karasu, T B; Plutchik, R; Conte, H R; Cohn, L

    1979-01-01

    Research on cognitive impairment in chronic alcoholics has generally focused on pathology associated with organic brain damage. On the other hand, deficits more typical of the functional psychoses have been less explored, due to the absence of appropriate tests. By using the Thought Disorder Rating Scale (TDRS) recently developed at our Center, however, we have tested chronic alcoholics for the presence of classical symptoms of thought disorder. This test is based on the assessment of the patient's verbal behavior by an experienced clinician. Twenty subjects free of psychosis, severe withdrawal symptoms, and medical illness were, after detoxification, administered a test battery which included the TDRS, the Bender-Gestalt Test, and the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS). Five scored pathologically for thought disorder and of them four had abnormal Benders; whereas only two of 15 of those without thought disorder had abnormal Benders (t = 2.84, p < .01). Although SDS scores for both groups were in the depressed range, there was no significant difference between SDS means for the two groups. TDRS scores for these alcoholics are compared with those for other diagnosed groups, and implications for future investigation are discussed. PMID:552322

  19. Concomitant Pathologies among a Spectrum of Parkinsonian Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Dugger, Brittany N.; Adler, Charles H.; Shill, Holly A.; Caviness, John; Jacobson, Sandra; Driver-Dunckley, Erika; Beach, Thomas G.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Many clinicopathological studies do not specify the presence of other pathologies located within the brain, so disease heterogeneity may be under appreciated. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the frequencies of concomitant pathologies among parkinsonian disorders. Methods Data from the Arizona Study of Aging and Neurodegenerative Disorders (AZSAND), an ongoing longitudinal clinical-neuropathological study, was used to analyze concomitant pathologies, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD), argyrophilic grains (Arg), cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), cerebral white matter rarefaction (CWMR) and overlap of each parkinsonian disorder in clinico-pathologically defined Parkinson’s disease (PD; N=140), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB; N=90), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP; N=64), multiple system atrophy (MSA; N=6), corticobasal degeneration (CBD; N=7); and normal elderly (controls; N=166). Results Of the neuropathologically-confirmed PD cases, 38% had a concomitant diagnosis of AD, 9% PSP, 25% Arg, and 44% CWMR, and 24% CAA. For DLB, 89% had AD, 1% PSP, 21% Arg, and 51% CWMR, and 50% CAA. For PSP cases, 36% had AD, 20% PD, 1% DLB, 44% Arg, 52% CWMR and 25% CAA. Similar heterogeneity was seen for MSA and CBD cases. Many cases had more than one of the above additional diagnoses. Conclusions These data demonstrate a great deal of concomitant pathologies among different types of parkinsonian disorders; this may help explain the heterogeneity of clinical findings. PMID:24637124

  20. Prevalence of neurological disorders in Al Quseir, Egypt: methodological aspects

    PubMed Central

    El-Tallawy, Hamdy; Farghaly, Wafa; Metwally, Nabil; Rageh, Tarek; Shehata, Ghaydaa A; Badry, Reda; Moselhy, Esam El; Hassan, Mahmoud; Sayed, Mohamed M; Abdelwarith, Ahmed A; Hamed, Y; Shaaban, I; Mohamed, Talal; Hamed, Mohamed Abd El; Kandil, MR

    2013-01-01

    Methodology and strategy play a very important role in epidemiological studies. Determination of the study area, geographical features, facilities, difficulties, and key personnel from the same area are important factors for successful methodology. Over 31 months (July 1, 2009 to January 31, 2012), a screening and an examination survey were carried out to ascertain the prevalence of epilepsy, stroke, dementia, cerebellar ataxia, migraine, cerebral palsy, Parkinsonism, chorea, athetosis, dystonia, trigeminal neuralgia, Bell’s palsy, multiple sclerosis, spinal cord disorders, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders in Al Quseir, Red Sea Governorate, Egypt. A total of 33,285 people were screened by three neurologists in a door-to-door manner, including every door, using a standardized Arabic questionnaire to detect any subject with a neurological disorder. The methodological aspects of this project were carried out through eight phases: (1) data collection; (2) preparation; (3) screening; (4) case ascertainment; (5) investigations; (6) classifications; (7) data entry; and (8) statistics and tabulations. The results of this study reveal that the total prevalence of neurological disorders in Al Quseir was 4.6% and higher among females (5.2%) than males (3.9%). The highest prevalence was recorded in the elderly population (60+ years [8.0%]) and among the age group 18–39 years (5.4%). PMID:24043938

  1. Jet Lag and Shift Work Disorder.

    PubMed

    Reid, Kathryn J; Abbott, Sabra M

    2015-12-01

    Jet lag and shift work disorder are circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders resulting from behaviorally altering the sleep-wake schedule in relation to the external environment. Not everyone who experiences trans-meridian travel or performs shift work has a disorder. The prevalence of jet lag disorder is unclear, approximately 5%-10% of shift workers have shift work disorder. Treatment aims to realign the internal circadian clock with the external environment. Behavioral therapies include sleep hygiene and management of the light-dark and sleep schedule. Pharmacologic agents are used to treat insomnia and excessive sleepiness, and melatonin is used to facilitate sleep and circadian realignment. PMID:26568127

  2. [REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD)].

    PubMed

    Ylikoski, Ari; Partinen, Markku

    2012-01-01

    REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is one of the most important factors predicting Parkinson's disease. Symptoms constitute vivid dreams typically characterized by ominous contents and associated muscular activity. Specific signs include the preservation of muscle tone during REM sleep as detected in polysomnography, and behavior associated with dreaming as demonstrated by video monitoring. Injury risk is increased during the attacks. Melatonin or clonazepam can be used as therapy. The disorder belongs to the entity of synucleinopathies. PMID:22970612

  3. Vesicobullous disorders of female genitalia

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Taru; Mittal, Saurabh

    2012-01-01

    Blistering over the vulval region can be due to multiple causes, each having nearly a similar presentation. Thus, a thorough understanding of the various etiologies is necessary to make a correct diagnosis. Clinically, there always remains some ambiguity as to the precise diagnosis, thus investigations, such as biopsy, play a very essential role in clinching the correct diagnosis. Most of these disorders are amenable to treatment and thus an early intervention is a must to prevent morbidity associated with these diseases. PMID:22529446

  4. Body Image, Media, and Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derenne, Jennifer L.; Beresin, Eugene V.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Eating disorders, including obesity, are a major public health problem today. Throughout history, body image has been determined by various factors, including politics and media. Exposure to mass media (television, movies, magazines, Internet) is correlated with obesity and negative body image, which may lead to disordered eating. The…

  5. Multiple Trichofolliculomas Mimicking Multiple Trichoepitheliomas

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Sudhir UK; Shenoi, Shrutakirthi D; Geetha, V; Prabhu, Smitha; Nagel, Bhawna

    2015-01-01

    Trichofolliculomas are benign hair follicle hamartomas which were initially considered as hair follicle tumors. Usually presenting as a solitary lesion associated with a tuft of vellus hairs, multiple trichofolliculomas are rare. Trichofolliculomas are characterized by a histopathological feature of dermal keratin cyst with cyst wall showing radiating hair follicles. We report this case for the rare presentation of multiple trichofolliculomas on the face which clinically mimicked multiple trichoepitheliomas. PMID:25814743

  6. Yoga as a method of symptom management in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Frank, Rachael; Larimore, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated process in which the body's immune system damages myelin in the central nervous system (CNS). The onset of this disorder typically occurs in young adults, and it is more common among women. Currently, there is no cure and the long-term disease progression makes symptomatic management critical for maintaining quality of life. Several pharmacotherapeutic agents are approved for treatment, but many patients seek complementary and alternative interventions. Reviews have been conducted regarding broad topics such as mindfulness-based interventions for people diagnosed with MS and the impact of yoga on a range of neurological disorders. The objective of the present review is to examine the potential benefits of yoga for individuals with MS and address its use in managing symptoms including pain, mental health, fatigue, spasticity, balance, bladder control, and sexual function. PMID:25983675

  7. Yoga as a method of symptom management in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Rachael; Larimore, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated process in which the body's immune system damages myelin in the central nervous system (CNS). The onset of this disorder typically occurs in young adults, and it is more common among women. Currently, there is no cure and the long-term disease progression makes symptomatic management critical for maintaining quality of life. Several pharmacotherapeutic agents are approved for treatment, but many patients seek complementary and alternative interventions. Reviews have been conducted regarding broad topics such as mindfulness-based interventions for people diagnosed with MS and the impact of yoga on a range of neurological disorders. The objective of the present review is to examine the potential benefits of yoga for individuals with MS and address its use in managing symptoms including pain, mental health, fatigue, spasticity, balance, bladder control, and sexual function. PMID:25983675

  8. Information pathways in a disordered lattice

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Lawrence R.; Galinsky, Vitaly L.

    2015-01-01

    The maximum entropy random walk in a disordered lattice is obtained as a consequence of the principle of maximum entropy for a particular type of prior information without restriction on the number of steps. This novel result demonstrates that transition probabilities defining the random walk represent a general characterization of information on a defective lattice and does not necessarily reflect a physical process. The localization phenomenon is shown to be a consequence of solution of the Laplacian on the lattice—hence it contradicts the previous interpretation as a spherical Lifshitz state—and naturally generalizes to multiple modes, whose order reflects the significance of information. The dynamics of information flow on the microscale is related to the macroscopic structure of the lattice through a Fokker-Planck formalism. This newly derived theoretical framework is opening doors for a wide range of applications in analysis of (information) flow in disordered systems. That includes potentially breakthrough resolution of the outstanding problem of inferring connectivity from discrete imaging (i.e., neural) data. PMID:24730824

  9. DisPredict: A Predictor of Disordered Protein Using Optimized RBF Kernel

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Sumaiya; Hoque, Md Tamjidul

    2015-01-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins or, regions perform important biological functions through their dynamic conformations during binding. Thus accurate identification of these disordered regions have significant implications in proper annotation of function, induced fold prediction and drug design to combat critical diseases. We introduce DisPredict, a disorder predictor that employs a single support vector machine with RBF kernel and novel features for reliable characterization of protein structure. DisPredict yields effective performance. In addition to 10-fold cross validation, training and testing of DisPredict was conducted with independent test datasets. The results were consistent with both the training and test error minimal. The use of multiple data sources, makes the predictor generic. The datasets used in developing the model include disordered regions of various length which are categorized as short and long having different compositions, different types of disorder, ranging from fully to partially disordered regions as well as completely ordered regions. Through comparison with other state of the art approaches and case studies, DisPredict is found to be a useful tool with competitive performance. DisPredict is available at https://github.com/tamjidul/DisPredict_v1.0. PMID:26517719

  10. The role of the GABA system in amphetamine-type stimulant use disorders

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Dongliang; liu, Yao; Li, Xiaohong; liu, Jinggen; Zhao, Min

    2015-01-01

    Abuse of amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) has become a global public health problem. ATS causes severe neurotoxicity, which could lead to addiction and could induce psychotic disorders or cognitive dysfunctions. However, until now, there has been a lack of effective medicines for treating ATS-related problems. Findings from recent studies indicate that in addition to the traditional dopamine-ergic system, the GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid)-ergic system plays an important role in ATS abuse. However, the exact mechanisms of the GABA-ergic system in amphetamine-type stimulant use disorders are not fully understood. This review discusses the role of the GABA-ergic system in ATS use disorders, including ATS induced psychotic disorders and cognitive dysfunctions. We conclude that the GABA-ergic system are importantly involved in the development of ATS use disorders through multiple pathways, and that therapies or medicines that target specific members of the GABA-ergic system may be novel effective interventions for the treatment of ATS use disorders. PMID:25999814

  11. Mutations in NLRP5 are associated with reproductive wastage and multilocus imprinting disorders in humans

    PubMed Central

    Docherty, Louise E.; Rezwan, Faisal I.; Poole, Rebecca L.; Turner, Claire L. S.; Kivuva, Emma; Maher, Eamonn R.; Smithson, Sarah F.; Hamilton-Shield, Julian P.; Patalan, Michal; Gizewska, Maria; Peregud-Pogorzelski, Jaroslaw; Beygo, Jasmin; Buiting, Karin; Horsthemke, Bernhard; Soellner, Lukas; Begemann, Matthias; Eggermann, Thomas; Baple, Emma; Mansour, Sahar; Temple, I. Karen; Mackay, Deborah J. G.

    2015-01-01

    Human-imprinting disorders are congenital disorders of growth, development and metabolism, associated with disturbance of parent of origin-specific DNA methylation at imprinted loci across the genome. Some imprinting disorders have higher than expected prevalence of monozygotic twinning, of assisted reproductive technology among parents, and of disturbance of multiple imprinted loci, for which few causative trans-acting mutations have been found. Here we report mutations in NLRP5 in five mothers of individuals affected by multilocus imprinting disturbance. Maternal-effect mutations of other human NLRP genes, NLRP7 and NLRP2, cause familial biparental hydatidiform mole and multilocus imprinting disturbance, respectively. Offspring of mothers with NLRP5 mutations have heterogenous clinical and epigenetic features, but cases include a discordant monozygotic twin pair, individuals with idiopathic developmental delay and autism, and families affected by infertility and reproductive wastage. NLRP5 mutations suggest connections between maternal reproductive fitness, early zygotic development and genomic imprinting. PMID:26323243

  12. Using transference-focused psychotherapy principles in the pharmacotherapy of patients with severe personality disorders.

    PubMed

    Hersh, Richard G

    2015-06-01

    Transference-focused psychotherapy (TFP) is an evidence-based, manualized treatment for severe personality disorders. TFP provides clinicians with a comprehensive diagnostic approach, overarching theoretical orientation, and specific clinical techniques. While TFP was developed as a long-term psychodynamic psychotherapy for patients with personality disorders, the approach, orientation, and techniques used in psychotherapy treatment may be of use in pharmacotherapy with the same patients. Patients with borderline personality disorder, in particular, are high utilizers of all subtypes of psychotropic medication despite limited evidence for their effectiveness, creating multiple challenges for the prescribing clinician. The author suggests specific ways the TFP model can assist prescribers, including those who do not practice TFP psychotherapy. PMID:26039227

  13. Mutations in NLRP5 are associated with reproductive wastage and multilocus imprinting disorders in humans.

    PubMed

    Docherty, Louise E; Rezwan, Faisal I; Poole, Rebecca L; Turner, Claire L S; Kivuva, Emma; Maher, Eamonn R; Smithson, Sarah F; Hamilton-Shield, Julian P; Patalan, Michal; Gizewska, Maria; Peregud-Pogorzelski, Jaroslaw; Beygo, Jasmin; Buiting, Karin; Horsthemke, Bernhard; Soellner, Lukas; Begemann, Matthias; Eggermann, Thomas; Baple, Emma; Mansour, Sahar; Temple, I Karen; Mackay, Deborah J G

    2015-01-01

    Human-imprinting disorders are congenital disorders of growth, development and metabolism, associated with disturbance of parent of origin-specific DNA methylation at imprinted loci across the genome. Some imprinting disorders have higher than expected prevalence of monozygotic twinning, of assisted reproductive technology among parents, and of disturbance of multiple imprinted loci, for which few causative trans-acting mutations have been found. Here we report mutations in NLRP5 in five mothers of individuals affected by multilocus imprinting disturbance. Maternal-effect mutations of other human NLRP genes, NLRP7 and NLRP2, cause familial biparental hydatidiform mole and multilocus imprinting disturbance, respectively. Offspring of mothers with NLRP5 mutations have heterogenous clinical and epigenetic features, but cases include a discordant monozygotic twin pair, individuals with idiopathic developmental delay and autism, and families affected by infertility and reproductive wastage. NLRP5 mutations suggest connections between maternal reproductive fitness, early zygotic development and genomic imprinting. PMID:26323243

  14. Neuropathology in movement disorders.

    PubMed Central

    Gibb, W R

    1989-01-01

    This review concentrates on the definition and classification of degenerative movement disorders in which Parkinsonian symptoms are often prominent. The pathological spectrum and clinical manifestations of Lewy body disease are described, and associations with Alzheimer's disease and motor neuron disease are explored. A classification of pallidonigral degenerations is based on clinical features, distribution of pathology, and morphological abnormalities; some of these patients have mild nigral degeneration and no Parkinsonian features. Many other juvenile and familial Parkinsonian cases are not included among the pallidonigral degenerations. Most of these latter syndromes have been organised into preliminary groups, in particular, autosomal dominant dystonia-Parkinson syndrome, juvenile Parkinsonian disorder and autosomal dominant Lewy body disease. Images PMID:2547027

  15. Anxiety disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... all types of physical activity, including yoga and Tai Chi, help reduce anxiety. 10 Meditation. Studies show meditation ... all types of physical activity, including yoga and Tai Chi, help reduce anxiety. 10 Meditation. Studies show meditation ...

  16. Strong mobility in weakly disordered systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-naim, Eli; Krapivsky, Pavel

    2009-01-01

    We study transport of interacting particles in weakly disordered media. Our one-dimensional system includes (i) disorder, the hopping rate governing the movement of a particle between two neighboring lattice sites is inhomogeneous, and (ii) hard core interaction, the maximum occupancy at each site is one particle. We find that over a substantial regime, the root-mean-square displacement of a particle s grows superdiffusively with time t, {sigma}{approx}({epsilon}t){sup 2/3}, where {epsilon} is the disorder strength. Without disorder the particle displacement is subdiffusive, {sigma} {approx}t{sup 1/4}, and therefore disorder strongly enhances particle mobility. We explain this effect using scaling arguments, and verify the theoretical predictions through numerical simulations. Also, the simulations show that regardless of disorder strength, disorder leads to stronger mobility over an intermediate time regime.

  17. Fatigue in neurological disorders.

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, Abhijit; Behan, Peter O

    2004-03-20

    Chronic fatigue is a typical symptom of neurological diseases, and is most disabling in multiple sclerosis, postpoliomyelitis, poststroke, and in chronic fatigue syndrome. Disorders of neuromuscular junction transmission and metabolic diseases cause muscle fatigability, which is characterised by failure to sustain the force of muscle contraction (peripheral fatigue). Fatigue is also seen in diseases that affect the central, peripheral, and autonomic nervous systems (central fatigue). Enhanced perception of effort and limited endurance of sustained physical and mental activities are the main characteristics of central fatigue. Metabolic and structural lesions that disrupt the usual process of activation in pathways interconnecting the basal ganglia, thalamus, limbic system, and higher cortical centre are implicated in the pathophysiological process of central fatigue. A state of pre-existing relative hypocortisolaemia might sensitise the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis to development of persistent central fatigue after stress. The contributions of physiological, cognitive, and affective changes underlying fatigue are variable, and treatment is largely symptomatic and rehabilitative. PMID:15043967

  18. Chronobiology of bipolar disorder: therapeutic implication.

    PubMed

    Dallaspezia, Sara; Benedetti, Francesco

    2015-08-01

    Multiple lines of evidence suggest that psychopathological symptoms of bipolar disorder arise in part from a malfunction of the circadian system, linking the disease with an abnormal internal timing. Alterations in circadian rhythms and sleep are core elements in the disorders, characterizing both mania and depression and having recently been shown during euthymia. Several human genetic studies have implicated specific genes that make up the genesis of circadian rhythms in the manifestation of mood disorders with polymorphisms in molecular clock genes not only showing an association with the disorder but having also been linked to its phenotypic particularities. Many medications used to treat the disorder, such as antidepressant and mood stabilizers, affect the circadian clock. Finally, circadian rhythms and sleep researches have been the starting point of the developing of chronobiological therapies. These interventions are safe, rapid and effective and they should be considered first-line strategies for bipolar depression. PMID:26112914

  19. 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate in Treating Patients With Hematologic Cancer or Bone Marrow Disorder

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2010-01-25

    Chronic Myeloproliferative Disorders; Leukemia; Lymphoma; Multiple Myeloma and Plasma Cell Neoplasm; Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Diseases; Precancerous/Nonmalignant Condition

  20. G-CSF-Treated Donor Bone Marrow Transplant in Treating Patients With Hematologic Disorders

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2012-05-24

    Chronic Myeloproliferative Disorders; Graft Versus Host Disease; Leukemia; Lymphoma; Multiple Myeloma and Plasma Cell Neoplasm; Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Diseases; Sarcoma