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Sample records for displacement field due

  1. Role of plasma response in displacements of the tokamak edge due to applied non-axisymmetric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, T. E.; Ferraro, N. M.; Orlov, D. M.; Wade, M.; Lao, L. L.; Moyer, R. A.; Wingen, A.; Nazikian, R.; Unterberg, Ezekial A; Shafer, Morgan W

    2013-01-01

    Linear, two-fluid, resistive modelling of the plasma response to applied non-axisymmetric fields shows significant displacement of edge temperature and density profiles. The calculated displacements, often of 2 cm or more in H-mode pedestals with parameters appropriate to DIII-D, are due to the helical distortions resulting from stable edge modes being driven to finite amplitude by the applied fields. In many cases, these displacements are greater in magnitude, and different in phase, than the distortions of the separatrix manifolds predicted from vacuum modelling. Comparison of these results with experimental measurements from Thomson scattering and soft x-ray imaging finds good quantitative agreement. In these experiments, the phase of the applied non-axisymmetric magnetic field was flipped or rotated in order to probe the non-axisymmetric features of the response. The poloidal structures measured by x-ray imaging show clear indications of a helical response, as opposed to simply a change in the axisymmetric transport. Inclusion of two-fluid effects and rotation are found to be important in obtaining quantitative agreement with Thomson scattering data. Modelling shows screening of islands in the H-mode pedestal, but island penetration near the top of the pedestal where the electron rotation vanishes in plasmas with co-current rotation. Enhanced transport due to these islands may provide a mechanism for maintaining the pedestal width below the stability threshold of edge-localized modes. For typical DIII-D parameters, it is shown that the linear approximation is often near or beyond the limit of validity in the H-mode edge; however, the general agreement with experimental measurements indicates that these linear results nevertheless maintain good predictive value for profile displacements.

  2. Measurement of Plasma Displacement Due to Resonant Field Amplification in High Beta DIII-D Plasmas Using CER Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanctot, M. J.; Garofalo, A. M.; Reimerdes, H.; Navratil, G. A.; Okabayashi, M.; Solomon, W. M.; Jackson, G. L.; La Haye, R. J.; Strait, E. J.; in, Y.

    2006-10-01

    In a plasma with beta above the no-wall limit, externally applied magnetic perturbations can couple to the rotationally stabilized RWM via resonant field amplification [1]. This phenomenon is routinely exploited in the technique of active MHD spectroscopy to test the stability of the RWM [2]. We utilize measurements of the ion temperature from charge exchange recombination spectroscopy at two toroidal locations during MHD spectroscopy experiments to obtain a direct measurement of the n=1 plasma fluid displacement due to the RFA. The displacement profiles are compared with those expected for the stabilized RWM. 6pt[1] A.M. Garofalo, et al., Phys. Plasmas 10, 4776 (2003). [2] H. Reimerdes, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 135002 (2004).

  3. Displacement and stress fields due to finite faults and opening-mode fractures in an anisotropic elastic half-space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, E.; Molavi Tabrizi, A.; Sangghaleh, A.; Griffith, W. A.

    2015-11-01

    The elastic displacement and stress fields due to rectangular faults and opening-mode fractures within an anisotropic homogeneous half-space are derived in this paper. The solution is expressed in terms of the mathematically elegant and computationally powerful Stroh formalism and can be applied to the generally anisotropic half-space or a transversely isotropic half-space with any oriented isotropic plane. For any flat fault or opening-mode fracture of polygonal shape, one needs only to carry out a simple line integral from 0 to ? in order to express the fault-induced response. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the effect of the anisotropy and fault orientation on the internal and surface responses of the half-space. Our results prove that both rock anisotropy and fault orientation could dramatically change the fields in the domain and one needs to consider these properties as accurately as possible to be able to predict the response in the domain precisely. Anisotropy of the rock mass may alter the dominant displacement and stress components at observation points in the model domain as compared to the isotropic case.

  4. Time-dependent displacement and stress fields due to shear and tensile faults in a transversely isotropic viscoelastic half-space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molavi Tabrizi, Amirhossein; Pan, Ernian

    2015-07-01

    Viscoelastic behaviour of materials in nature is observed in post-event deformations due to seismic or volcanic activities. In this paper, by adopting the correspondence principle, we propose an inelastic model to predict first the Laplace-domain response of a transversely isotropic viscoelastic half-space due to a shear or tensile fault of polygonal shape. The displacement and stress fields in the time domain are then obtained using an efficient and accurate algorithm for the inverse Laplace transform. Numerical examples are presented to validate the proposed solution and to show the viscoelastic displacement and stress fields due to a strike-slip, dip-slip and tensile fault of rectangular shape. The obtained results indicate that both viscoelasticity and transverse isotropy play significant roles in the viscoelastic response of the half-space due to faults, which could be used as benchmarks for the future numerical analysis of realistic post-seismic or volcanic event.

  5. Magnetic Field Due to a Finite Length Current-Carrying Wire Using the Concept of Displacement Current

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buschauer, Robert

    2014-01-01

    In undergraduate E&M courses the magnetic field due to a finite length, current-carrying wire can be calculated using the Biot-Savart law. However, to the author's knowledge, no textbook presents the calculation of this field using the Ampere-Maxwell law: ?B [multiplied by] dl = µ[subscript 0] (I + e[subscript 0] dF/dt) [multiplied by] 1

  6. Magnetic Field Due to a Finite Length Current-Carrying Wire Using the Concept of Displacement Current

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buschauer, Robert

    2014-01-01

    In undergraduate E&M courses the magnetic field due to a finite length, current-carrying wire can be calculated using the Biot-Savart law. However, to the author's knowledge, no textbook presents the calculation of this field using the Ampere-Maxwell law: ?B [multiplied by] dl = µ[subscript 0] (I + e[subscript 0] dF/dt) [multiplied by] 1

  7. Crustal Displacements Due to Continental Water Loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vanDam, T.; Wahr, J.; Milly, P. C. D.; Shmakin, A. B.; Blewitt, G.; Lavallee, D.; Larson, K. M.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of long-wavelength (> 100 km), seasonal variability in continental water storage on vertical crustal motions are assessed. The modeled vertical displacements (delta-r(sub M)) have root-mean-square (RMS) values for 1994-1998 as large as 8 mm with ranges up to 30 mm, and are predominantly annual in character. Regional strains are on the order of 20 nanostrain for tilt and 5 nanostrain for horizontal deformation. We compare delta-r(sub M) with observed Global Positioning System (GPS) heights (delta-r(sub O)) (which include adjustments to remove estimated effects of atmospheric pressure and annual tidal and non-tidal ocean loading) for 147 globally distributed sites. When the delta-r(sub O) time series are adjusted by delta-r(sub M), their variances are reduced, on average, by an amount equal to the variance of the delta-r(sub M). Of the delta-r(sub O) time series exhibiting a strong annual signal, more than half are found to have an annual harmonic that is in phase and of comparable amplitude with the annual harmonic in the delta-r(sub M). The delta-r(sub M) time series exhibit long-period variations that could be mistaken for secular tectonic trends or post-glacial rebound when observed over a time span of a few years.

  8. Optimum displacement estimates using mean field annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelqader, Ikhlas M.; Rajala, Sarah A.; Bilbro, Griff L.; Snyder, Wesley E.

    1993-06-01

    In this paper a new algorithm to estimate dense displacement fields from a sequence of images is developed. The algorithm is based on modeling the displacement fields as Markov Random fields. The Markov Random fields-Gibbs equivalence is then used to convert the problem into one of finding an appropriate energy function that describes the motion and any constraints imposed on it. Mean field annealing, a technique which finds global minima in nonconvex optimization problems, is used to minimize the energy function, and solve for the optimum displacement fields. The algorithm results in accurate estimates even for scenes with noise or discontinuities.

  9. Distribution of particle displacements due to swimming microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiffeault, Jean-Luc

    2015-08-01

    The experiments of Leptos et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 198103 (2009), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.103.198103] show that the displacements of small particles affected by swimming microorganisms achieve a non-Gaussian distribution, which nevertheless scales diffusively—the "diffusive scaling." We use a simple model where the particles undergo repeated "kicks" due to the swimmers to explain the shape of the distribution as a function of the volume fraction of swimmers. The net displacement is determined by the inverse Fourier transform of a single-swimmer characteristic function. The only adjustable parameter is the strength of the stresslet term in our spherical squirmer model. We give a criterion for convergence to a Gaussian distribution in terms of moments of the drift function and show that the experimentally observed diffusive scaling is a transient related to the slow crossover of the fourth moment from a ballistic to a linear regime with path length. We also present a simple model, with logarithmic drift function, that can be solved analytically.

  10. BLOCK DISPLACEMENT METHOD FIELD DEMONSTRATION AND SPECIFICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Block Displacement technique has been developed as a remedial action method for isolating large tracks of ground contaminated by hazardous waste. The technique places a low permeability barrier around and under a large block of contaminated earth. The Block Displacement proce...

  11. Variation in displacement energies due to isospin-nonconserving forces.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, K; Sun, Y; Mizusaki, T; Tazaki, S

    2013-04-26

    For mirror nuclei with masses A=42-95, the effects of isospin-nonconserving nuclear forces are studied with the nuclear shell model using the Coulomb displacement energy and triplet displacement energy as probes. It is shown that the characteristic behavior of the displacement energies can be well reproduced if the isovector and isotensor nuclear interactions with J=0 and T=1 are introduced into the f(7/2) shell. These forces, with their strengths being found consistent with the nucleon-nucleon scattering data, tend to modify nuclear binding energies near the N=Z line. At present, no evidence is found that these forces are needed for the upper fp shell. Theoretical one- and two-proton separation energies are predicted accordingly, and locations of the proton drip line are thereby suggested. PMID:23679715

  12. Out-of-plane displacement field measurement by shearography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Pengxiang; Zhu, Feipeng; He, Xiaoyuan

    2015-10-01

    Existing shearography systems measuring out-of-plane displacements suffer from boundary-constraint or reference surface requirements. Therefore, we propose an accurate non-uniform out-of-plane displacement field measurement method based on a modified shearography system and two-step integration method. The proposed method combines high-resolution interferometry with the advantage of relaxing the environmental stability requirements. The modified shearography system adopts three beam splitters and two switches when compared with conventional optical configurations. The three beam splitters are used to construct a modified Michelson interferometer that shears the image along two orthogonal directions, and the shearing direction can be switched by the two hardware switches between the orthogonal directions. With phase shifting performed on the recorded images, the out-of-plane displacement gradients along the orthogonal directions are extracted sequentially. In general, without boundary restrictions on the object surface, it is difficult to directly extract out-of-plane displacement from a single displacement gradient field. Accordingly, the two-step integration method is proposed and applied to the orthogonal displacement gradients to extract the relative out-of-plane displacement field without any boundary conditions of the object surface provided. Experiments are performed on a clamped circular plate with uniform loading, and the results are compared with electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI) results to validate the proposed method.

  13. Di- and trinuclear complexes with the mono- and dianion of 2,6-bis(phenylamino)pyridine: high-field displacement of chemical shifts due to the magnetic anisotropy of quadruple bonds.

    PubMed

    Cotton, F A; Daniels, L M; Lei, P; Murillo, C A; Wang, X

    2001-06-01

    The monoanion of 2,6-bis(phenylamino)pyridine (HBPAP(-)) has been found to support quadruply bonded Cr(2)(4+) and Mo(2)(4+) units in Cr(2)(HBPAP)(4) (1) and Mo(2)(HBPAP)(4) (2). The corresponding dianion BPAP(2)(-) was able to stabilize the trinuclear complexes, (TBA)(2)Cr(3)(BPAP)(4) (3) and (TBA)(2)Ni(3)(BPAP)(4) (4), where TBA is the tetrabutylammonium cation. The dinuclear complexes have the typical paddlewheel configuration with Cr-Cr distances of about 1.87 A and a Mo-Mo distance of 2.0813(5) A and exhibit a high-field displacement of the corresponding N-H signals caused by the magnetic anisotropy of the quadruple bonds. For the trinuclear complexes, 3 has a linear chain of three chromium atoms arranged in an unsymmetrical fashion with two chromium atoms paired to give a quadruply bonded unit (Cr-Cr distance: 1.904(3) A) and an isolated, square planar Cr(II) unit at 2.589(3) A from the dimetal unit. On the other hand, the three nickel atoms in 4 are evenly spaced, having Ni.Ni distances of 2.3682(8) A. The trinuclear compounds show a twisted conformation with an overall torsion angle of about 30 degrees. PMID:11375695

  14. ASTROMETRIC IMAGE CENTROID DISPLACEMENTS DUE TO GRAVITATIONAL MICROLENSING BY THE ELLIS WORMHOLE

    SciTech Connect

    Toki, Yukiharu; Kitamura, Takao; Asada, Hideki; Abe, Fumio

    2011-10-20

    Continuing work initiated in an earlier publication, we study the gravitational microlensing effects of the Ellis wormhole in the weak-field limit. First, we find a suitable coordinate transformation, such that the lens equation and analytic expressions of the lensed image positions can become much simpler. Second, we prove that two images always appear for the weak-field lens by the Ellis wormhole. By using these analytic results, we discuss astrometric image centroid displacements due to gravitational microlensing by the Ellis wormhole. The astrometric image centroid trajectory by the Ellis wormhole is different from the standard one by a spherical lensing object that is expressed by the Schwarzschild metric. The anomalous shift of the image centroid by the Ellis wormhole lens is smaller than that by the Schwarzschild lens, provided that the impact parameter and the Einstein ring radius are the same. Therefore, the lensed image centroid by the Ellis wormhole moves slower. Such a difference, although it is very small, will be, in principle, applicable for detecting or constraining the Ellis wormhole by using future high-precision astrometry observations. In particular, the image centroid position gives us additional information, so that the parameter degeneracy existing in photometric microlensing can be partially broken. The anomalous shift reaches the order of a few micro arcseconds, if our galaxy hosts a wormhole with throat radius larger than 10{sup 5} km. When the source moves tangentially to the Einstein ring, for instance, the maximum position shift of the image centroid by the Ellis wormhole is 0.18 normalized by the Einstein ring radius. For the same source trajectory, the maximum difference between the centroid displacement by the Ellis wormhole lens and that by the Schwarzschild one with the same Einstein ring radius is -0.16 in the units of the Einstein radius, where the negative means that the astrometric displacement by the Ellis wormhole lens is smaller than that by the Schwarzschild one.

  15. Application of miscible displacement for Field MTX low permeability formations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuntsevich, V.; Slivkin, S.; Belozerov, V.

    2015-02-01

    Miscible displacement is a very effective method of recovery efficiency improvement. It is widely used in the world, but this technology is not widely used in Russia. For this reason, it is necessary to study global experience and physical aspects of this EOR method. The most important factors and limitations of miscible displacement application from the geological point of view (heterogeneity) and from the physical point of view (properties of injected fluids and reservoir fluids) should be determined. The results of this analysis should be tested on the low permeability reservoir of field MTX with analytical, proxy calculation and simulation methods.

  16. Force-free magnetic fields - Generating functions and footpoint displacements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfson, Richard; Verma, Ritu

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents analytic and numerical calculations that explore equilibrium sequences of bipolar force-free magnetic fields in relation to displacments of their magnetic footpoints. It is shown that the appearance of magnetic islands - sometimes interpreted as marking the loss of equilibrium in models of the solar atmosphere - is likely associated only with physically unrealistic footpoint displacements such as infinite separation or 'tearing' of the model photosphere. The work suggests that the loss of equilibrium in bipolar configurations, sometimes proposed as a mechanism for eruptive solar events, probably requires either fully three-dimensional field configurations or nonzero plasma pressure. The results apply only to fields that are strictly bipolar, and do not rule out equilibrium loss in more complex structures such as quadrupolar fields.

  17. PREDICTION OF SURFACE SETTLEMENT DUE TO THE DISPLACEMENT OF SOFT ZONES

    SciTech Connect

    Li, W

    2008-03-03

    In areas composed of coastal plain sediments, soft zones subjected to partial overburden may be present in the subsurface. During or after a seismic event, these soft zones may be compressed. The resulting displacement due to the deformation of the soft zones will propagate to the ground surface and cause the surface to settle. This paper presents a method to predict the settlement at the surface due to the propagation of the displacement from the soft zones. This method is performed by discretizing the soft zones into multiple clusters of finite sub-areas or subspaces. Settlement profile at the ground surface due to the displacement of each sub-area or subspace is computed assuming the shape is a normal distribution function. Settlement due to the displacement of the soft zones can then be approximated by adding the settlements computed for all the sub-areas or subspaces. This method provides a simple and useful tool for the prediction of the settlement profile and the results are consistent with those obtained from the finite difference analysis.

  18. A semi-empirical model for the estimation of maximum horizontal displacement due to liquefaction-induced lateral spreading

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Faris, Allison T.; Seed, Raymond B.; Kayen, Robert E.; Wu, Jiaer

    2006-01-01

    During the 1906 San Francisco Earthquake, liquefaction-induced lateral spreading and resultant ground displacements damaged bridges, buried utilities, and lifelines, conventional structures, and other developed works. This paper presents an improved engineering tool for the prediction of maximum displacement due to liquefaction-induced lateral spreading. A semi-empirical approach is employed, combining mechanistic understanding and data from laboratory testing with data and lessons from full-scale earthquake field case histories. The principle of strain potential index, based primary on correlation of cyclic simple shear laboratory testing results with in-situ Standard Penetration Test (SPT) results, is used as an index to characterized the deformation potential of soils after they liquefy. A Bayesian probabilistic approach is adopted for development of the final predictive model, in order to take fullest advantage of the data available and to deal with the inherent uncertainties intrinstiic to the back-analyses of field case histories. A case history from the 1906 San Francisco Earthquake is utilized to demonstrate the ability of the resultant semi-empirical model to estimate maximum horizontal displacement due to liquefaction-induced lateral spreading.

  19. Remagnetization effects due to lateral displacement above a PMG on bulk HTS magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, W.; Wang, J. S.; Ma, G. T.; Zheng, J.; Ren, J. F.; Li, L. L.; Yang, X. F.; Ye, C. Q.; Wang, S. Y.

    2012-12-01

    For a high-Tc superconducting (HTS) maglev system with large force requirements, the use of magnetized bulk high-Tc superconductor magnets (MBSCMs) is a good candidate because of its strong flux pinning ability and corresponding high trapped flux. Different from the rare-earth permanent magnet (PM), the trapped flux of a MBSCM is sustained by the supercurrent produced by a magnetizing process, so the trapped flux is sensitive to variations of the supercurrent. The lateral displacement of a MBSCM above a PM guideway (PMG) will provide disturbance of the applied field and then alter the supercurrent as a process of remagnetization. Different magnetization histories will bring different remagnetization characteristics and consequently diverse levitation performances for a MBSCM during the lateral displacements. When the MBSCMs are applied into the HTS maglev system, the influence of lateral displacements on levitation performance should be taken into consideration. This article investigates the remagnetization characteristics of a MBSCM when it is subject to the lateral displacements above a PMG with different trapped magnetic flux and opposite magnetization polarities. Relevant analyses about the internal supercurrent configuration based on the critical state model are also included to better understand the remagnetization characteristic of a MBSCM.

  20. Experimental examination of displacement field in an edge dislocation core in aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, C. W.; Xing, Y. M.; Bai, P. C.

    2008-01-01

    The displacement field of an edge dislocation in aluminum was experimentally investigated. Three typical theoretical models were discussed. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and geometric phase analysis (GPA) were used to map the displacement field of an edge dislocation. The displacement field near the dislocation core was determined. The experimental show that Peierls Nabarro model is the most appropriate theoretical model for displacement field of dislocation in aluminum.

  1. Recorded displacements in a landslide slope due to regional and teleseismic earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenti, L.; Martino, S.; Paciello, A.; Prestininzi, A.; Rivellino, S.

    2015-06-01

    Regional and teleseismic earthquakes can induce displacements along joints in a landslide-involved rocky slope in Central Italy. The rarity of these effects is due to specific physical properties of the seismic signals associated with: (i) the energy content, (ii) the distribution of relative energy and peak of ground acceleration related to the ground motion components and (iii) the spectral amplitude distribution in the frequency domain; these properties allow the triggering earthquakes to be distinguished from the others. The observed effects are relevant when compared to the direction of the landslide movement and the dimensions of the involved rock mass volume. The landslide movement is less constrained in the direction parallel to the dip of the slope and the landslide dimensions are associated with characteristic periods that control the landslide deformational response in relation to the spectral content of the ground motion. The earthquake-induced displacements are significant because they have the same order of magnitude as the average annual cumulative displacement based on a decade of strain measurements within the slope.

  2. Detection of Alzheimer's disease by displacement field and machine learning.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yudong; Wang, Shuihua

    2015-01-01

    Aim. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease. Recently, computer scientists have developed various methods for early detection based on computer vision and machine learning techniques. Method. In this study, we proposed a novel AD detection method by displacement field (DF) estimation between a normal brain and an AD brain. The DF was treated as the AD-related features, reduced by principal component analysis (PCA), and finally fed into three classifiers: support vector machine (SVM), generalized eigenvalue proximal SVM (GEPSVM), and twin SVM (TSVM). The 10-fold cross validation repeated 50 times. Results. The results showed the "DF + PCA + TSVM" achieved the accuracy of 92.75 ± 1.77, sensitivity of 90.56 ± 1.15, specificity of 93.37 ± 2.05, and precision of 79.61 ± 2.21. This result is better than or comparable with not only the other proposed two methods, but also ten state-of-the-art methods. Besides, our method discovers the AD is related to following brain regions disclosed in recent publications: Angular Gyrus, Anterior Cingulate, Cingulate Gyrus, Culmen, Cuneus, Fusiform Gyrus, Inferior Frontal Gyrus, Inferior Occipital Gyrus, Inferior Parietal Lobule, Inferior Semi-Lunar Lobule, Inferior Temporal Gyrus, Insula, Lateral Ventricle, Lingual Gyrus, Medial Frontal Gyrus, Middle Frontal Gyrus, Middle Occipital Gyrus, Middle Temporal Gyrus, Paracentral Lobule, Parahippocampal Gyrus, Postcentral Gyrus, Posterior Cingulate, Precentral Gyrus, Precuneus, Sub-Gyral, Superior Parietal Lobule, Superior Temporal Gyrus, Supramarginal Gyrus, and Uncus. Conclusion. The displacement filed is effective in detection of AD and related brain-regions. PMID:26401461

  3. Investigations on the development of a mixed displacement-pressure formulation for an anelastic displacement-field finite element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusovici, Razvan

    2006-03-01

    Space and weapon delivery systems contain guidance components and payload that need to be protected from the extremely harsh acoustic excitation present during launch operations. The above example represents just one application where high-damping viscoelastic materials are used in the design of shock and vibration isolation components. The shock transients generally encountered are characterized by a broad frequency spectrum. Widely available finite element codes do not offer the proper tools to model the frequency- dependent mechanical properties of viscoelastic materials over the frequency domain of interest. An added difficulty is the large Poissson's ratio exhibited by some of these materials, which indicates that previously developed displacement-based finite element formulations should be complemented with mixed pressure-displacement finite element formulations. A pure displacement-based finite element generally predicts the displacements well, if the mesh used is fine enough, but the same thing may not be said about the values of the predicted stresses. The Anelastic Displacement Fields (ADF) method is employed herein to model frequency-dependence of material properties within a time-domain finite element framework and using a mixed displacement-pressure finite element formulation. Finite elements based on this new formulation are developed.

  4. Two-dimensional Co-Seismic Surface Displacements Field of the Chi-Chi Earthquake Inferred from SAR Image Matching

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jun; Li, Zhi-Wei; Ding, Xiao-Li; Zhu, Jian-Jun

    2008-01-01

    The Mw=7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake in Taiwan occurred in 1999 over the Chelungpu fault and caused a great surface rupture and severe damage. Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (DInSAR) has been applied previously to study the co-seismic ground displacements. There have however been significant limitations in the studies. First, only one-dimensional displacements along the Line-of-Sight (LOS) direction have been measured. The large horizontal displacements along the Chelungpu fault are largely missing from the measurements as the fault is nearly perpendicular to the LOS direction. Second, due to severe signal decorrelation on the hangling wall of the fault, the displacements in that area are un-measurable by differential InSAR method. We estimate the co-seismic displacements in both the azimuth and range directions with the method of SAR amplitude image matching. GPS observations at the 10 GPS stations are used to correct for the orbital ramp in the amplitude matching and to create the two-dimensional (2D) co-seismic surface displacements field using the descending ERS-2 SAR image pair. The results show that the co-seismic displacements range from about -2.0 m to 0.7 m in the azimuth direction (with the positive direction pointing to the flight direction), with the footwall side of the fault moving mainly southwards and the hanging wall side northwards. The displacements in the LOS direction range from about -0.5 m to 1.0 m, with the largest displacement occuring in the northeastern part of the hanging wall (the positive direction points to the satellite from ground). Comparing the results from amplitude matching with those from DInSAR, we can see that while only a very small fraction of the LOS displacement has been recovered by the DInSAR mehtod, the azimuth displacements cannot be well detected with the DInSAR measurements as they are almost perpendicular to the LOS. Therefore, the amplitude matching method is obviously more advantageous than the DInSAR in studying the Chi-Chi earthquake. Another advantage of the method is that the displacement in the hanging wall of the fault that is un-measurable with DInSAR due to severe signal decorrelation can almost completely retrieved in this research. This makes the whole co-seismic displacements field clearly visible and the location of the rupture identifiable. Using displacements measured at 15 independent GPS stations for validation, we found that the RMS values of the differences between the two types of results were 6.9 cm and 5.7 cm respectively in the azimuth and the range directions.

  5. Determining horizontal displacement and strains due to subsidence. Rept. of Investigations/1991

    SciTech Connect

    Tandanand, S.; Powell, L.R.

    1991-01-01

    Horizontal displacements and ground strains induced by mine subsidence are significant information needed for calculating damage and developing precautions against subsidence effects on surface structures. To devise a simple method for determining the surface horizontal displacements and strains simultaneously with the subsidence prediction, the U.S. Bureau of Mines examined the significance of the tilt number, which is the proportionality constant in the relationship between the horizontal displacement and the slope of the subsidence profile. The ratio of the tilt number to the critical radius of the subsidence trough is identical to the ratio of the maximum possible horizontal displacement to the full subsidence, which is found to be constant in most European coalfields. If this ratio is known for a particular minesite in the United States, then horizontal displacement and ground strains can be readily obtained from the primary subsidence data.

  6. Blood flow changes in gingival tissues due to the displacement of teeth.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, K; Nanda, R S

    1992-01-01

    Changes in human gingival blood flow were measured using a Laser doppler flowmeter. The change of blood flow was correlated to the degree of force applied and there were variations in measurement of decreased blood flow among the subjects. The variation was attributed to the degree of tooth displacement and the size of the interdental space. This study examined the effect of tooth displacement on the gingival blood flow, as well as age and sex differences. Blood flow in gingival tissue was measured using a laser doppler flowmeter, and displacement of the maxillary incisors was measured using an eddy current sensor. The correlation coefficient of the decreased blood flow to the tooth displacement was 0.809, and it was higher than that to the degree of applied force (r = -0.625). The regression coefficient of decreased blood flow to the displacement of teeth was significantly correlated to the interdental space. The regression coefficient of decreased blood flow to the percentage of tooth displacement was independent of the interdental space. However, the regression coefficient of decreased blood flow to the percentage of tooth displacement was significantly higher in young subjects than in adults. PMID:1456473

  7. Center of Pressure Displacement of Standing Posture during Rapid Movements Is Reorganised Due to Experimental Lower Extremity Muscle Pain

    PubMed Central

    Shiozawa, Shinichiro; Hirata, Rogerio Pessoto; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background Postural control during rapid movements may be impaired due to musculoskeletal pain. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of experimental knee-related muscle pain on the center of pressure (CoP) displacement in a reaction time task condition. Methods Nine healthy males performed two reaction time tasks (dominant side shoulder flexion and bilateral heel lift) before, during, and after experimental pain induced in the dominant side vastus medialis or the tibialis anterior muscles by hypertonic saline injections. The CoP displacement was extracted from the ipsilateral and contralateral side by two force plates and the net CoP displacement was calculated. Results Compared with non-painful sessions, tibialis anterior muscle pain during the peak and peak-to-peak displacement for the CoP during anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) of the shoulder task reduced the peak-to-peak displacement of the net CoP in the medial-lateral direction (P<0.05). Tibialis anterior and vastus medialis muscle pain during shoulder flexion task reduced the anterior-posterior peak-to-peak displacement in the ipsilateral side (P<0.05). Conclusions The central nervous system in healthy individuals was sufficiently robust in maintaining the APA characteristics during pain, although the displacement of net and ipsilateral CoP in the medial-lateral and anterior-posterior directions during unilateral fast shoulder movement was altered. PMID:26680777

  8. Single-shot depth-resolved displacement field measurement using phase-contrast polychromatic speckle interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, Pablo D.; de la Torre-Ibarra, Manuel; Huntley, Jonathan M.

    2006-09-01

    We describe a system for measuring sub-surface displacement fields within a scattering medium using a broadband super-luminescent light emitting diode (SLED) source and spectral imaging. The use of phase information in the backscattered speckle pattern offers displacement sensitivity in the range of a few tens of nm, some two to three orders of magnitude better than the depth resolution of state-of-the-art Optical Coherence Tomography systems. The system is based on low cost components and has no moving parts. It provides displacement maps within a 2-D slice extending into the sample, and the fact that all the data for a given deformation state are acquired in a single shot is a highly attractive feature for in-vivo investigations in the biological sciences. The theoretical basis for the system is presented along with experimental results from a simple well-controlled geometry consisting of independently-tilting glass sheets. Results are validated using standard two-beam interferometry. Scattering samples were also studied and we show a wrapped phase map through the thickness of a pig ex-vivo cornea. The phase change was due to viscoelastic creep in the cornea after a change in the intraocular pressure.

  9. Dislocation displacement field at the surface of InAs thin films grown on GaAs(110)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belk, J. G.; Pashley, D. W.; Joyce, B. A.; Jones, T. S.

    1998-12-01

    Scanning tunneling microscopy topographic images have been used to obtain the dimensions of the strain field detected at the surface of InAs thin films grown on GaAs(110) substrates by molecular-beam epitaxy. The displacement of atoms in the film due to the edge dislocation strain field has been obtained by measuring the depth and lateral dimensions of the surface response as a function of InAs thickness (<=30 ML). Several models based on elasticity theory are used in an attempt to reproduce the experimental measurements. Only models containing a free epitaxial layer surface produce good quantitative agreement and the experimentally observed decrease in vertical displacement is found to be largely a consequence of strain field superposition due to the increasing width of the strain field originating from adjacent dislocations.

  10. Retrieving three-dimensional displacement fields of mining areas from a single InSAR pair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhi Wei; Yang, Ze Fa; Zhu, Jian Jun; Hu, Jun; Wang, Yun Jia; Li, Pei Xian; Chen, Guo Liang

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method for retrieving three-dimensional (3-D) displacement fields of mining areas from a single interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) pair. This method fully exploits the mechanism of mining subsidence, specifically the proportional relationship between the horizontal displacement and horizontal gradient of vertical displacements caused by underground mining. This method overcomes the limitations of conventional InSAR techniques that can only measure one-dimensional (1-D) deformation of mining area along the radar line-of-sight direction. The proposed method is first validated with simulated 3-D displacement fields, which are obtained by the FLAC software. The root mean square errors of the 3-D displacements retrieved by the proposed method are 13.7, 27.6 and 3.6 mm for the West-East, North-South, and Up-Down components, respectively. We then apply the proposed method to estimate the 3-D displacements of the Qianyingzi and the Xuzhou coal mines in China, respectively, each along with two Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) Phased Array Type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar images. Results show that the estimated 3-D displacement is highly consistent with that of the field surveying. This demonstrates that the proposed method is an effective approach for retrieving 3-D mining displacement fields and will play an important role in mining-related hazard prevention and environment assessment under limited InSAR acquisitions.

  11. Field methods to measure surface displacement and strain with the Video Image Correlation method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maddux, Gary A.; Horton, Charles M.; Mcneill, Stephen R.; Lansing, Matthew D.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this project was to develop methods and application procedures to measure displacement and strain fields during the structural testing of aerospace components using paint speckle in conjunction with the Video Image Correlation (VIC) system.

  12. An investigation of smoothness constraints for the estimation of displacement vector fields from image sequences.

    PubMed

    Nagel, H H; Enkelmann, W

    1986-05-01

    A mapping between one frame from an image sequence and the preceding or following frame can be represented as a displacement vector field. In most situations, the mere gray value variations do not provide sufficient information in order to estimate such a displacement vector field. Supplementary constraints are necessary, for example the postulate that a displacement vector field varies smoothly as a function of the image position. Taken as a general requirement, this creates difficulties at gray value transitions which correspond to occluding contours. Nagel therefore introduced the ``oriented smoothness'' requirement which restricts variations of the displacement vector field only in directions with small or no variation of gray values. This contribution reports results of an investigation about how such an ``oriented smoothness'' constraint may be formulated and evaluated. PMID:21869357

  13. Buckling analysis of moderately thick rectangular plates using coupled displacement field method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meera Saheb, K.; Aruna, K.

    2015-12-01

    A simple and efficient coupled displacement field method is developed to study the buckling load parameters of the moderately thick rectangular plates. This method has been successfully applied to study the same for the Timoshenko beams. A single term trigonometric admissible displacement field is assumed for one of the variables, say, the total rotations (in both X, Y directions). Making use of the coupling equations, the spatial variation for the remaining lateral displacement field is derived in terms of the total rotations. The coupled displacement field method makes the energy formulation to contains half the number of unknown independent coefficients, in the case of a rectangular plate, contrary to the conventional Rayleigh-Ritz method. The expressions for the non-dimensional buckling load parameters of the moderately thick rectangular plates with all the edges simply supported are derived. The numerical values of these parameters obtained using the coupled displacement field method match very well with open literature demonstrating the effectiveness of the coupled displacement field method.

  14. Research of weak pulsed magnetic field system derived from the time, displacement, and static magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiao-Dong; Qian, Zheng

    2015-10-01

    The accurate measurement of dynamic characteristics in weak magnetic sensors is urgently required as a greater number of applications for these devices are found. In this paper, a novel weak pulsed magnetic field system is presented. The underlying principle is to drive a permanent magnet passing another magnet rapidly, producing a pulsed weak magnetic field. The magnitude of the field can be adjusted by changing the velocity and distance between the two magnets. The standard value of the pulsed dynamic magnetic field can be traced back to the accurate measurement of time, displacement, and static magnetic field. In this study a detailed procedure for producing a pulse magnetic field system using the above method is outlined after which a theoretical analysis of the permanent magnet movement is discussed. Using the described apparatus a milli-second level pulse-width with a milli-Tesla magnetic field magnitude is used to study the dynamic characteristics of a giant magnetoresistance sensor. We conclude by suggesting possible improvements to the described apparatus.

  15. Research of weak pulsed magnetic field system derived from the time, displacement, and static magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiao-Dong; Qian, Zheng

    2015-10-01

    The accurate measurement of dynamic characteristics in weak magnetic sensors is urgently required as a greater number of applications for these devices are found. In this paper, a novel weak pulsed magnetic field system is presented. The underlying principle is to drive a permanent magnet passing another magnet rapidly, producing a pulsed weak magnetic field. The magnitude of the field can be adjusted by changing the velocity and distance between the two magnets. The standard value of the pulsed dynamic magnetic field can be traced back to the accurate measurement of time, displacement, and static magnetic field. In this study a detailed procedure for producing a pulse magnetic field system using the above method is outlined after which a theoretical analysis of the permanent magnet movement is discussed. Using the described apparatus a milli-second level pulse-width with a milli-Tesla magnetic field magnitude is used to study the dynamic characteristics of a giant magnetoresistance sensor. We conclude by suggesting possible improvements to the described apparatus. PMID:26520987

  16. A study of the use of artificial neural networks to estimate dynamic displacements due to dynamic loads in bridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ok, S.; Son, W.; Lim, Y. M.

    2012-08-01

    Measurement of dynamic displacement is one of the most essential aspects of a structural behavior because it portrays history of the global behavior of structure. In general, structural engineers are accepted these response as reliable physical quantities to evaluate the conditions of a structure. The reason is that these physical quantities can easily generate strain as well as stress, velocity and acceleration at the measuring points. However, it is difficult to directly measure the displacement of the bridge due to problems such as test conditions and the limitations of equipment. Therefore, in this study, an artificial neural network (ANN) demonstrates how it could overcome such limitations and utilize the random dynamic load to obtain the reliable estimations. Numerical analysis is conducted to obtain learning data about the axial strain as well as vertical displacement with time frame at multi-points and then applied to the ANN. The scenario centered on a variety of dynamic loads from the analysis of an urban bridge that was selected based on its general volume of traffic. The analysis was performed to estimate its displacement, which corresponds to the strain on the bridge caused by arbitrary loads of leaning results from the ANN. Then, it is confirmed that the estimated displacements of ANN show well agreements with that of an independent set of traffic scenario.

  17. Displacement Current and the Generation of Parallel Electric Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Song Yan; Lysak, Robert L.

    2006-04-14

    We show for the first time the dynamical relationship between the generation of magnetic field-aligned electric field (E{sub parallel}) and the temporal changes and spatial gradients of magnetic and velocity shears, and the plasma density in Earth's magnetosphere. We predict that the signatures of reconnection and auroral particle acceleration should have a correlation with low plasma density, and a localized voltage drop (V{sub parallel}) should often be associated with a localized magnetic stress concentration. Previous interpretations of the E{sub parallel} generation are mostly based on the generalized Ohm's law, causing serious confusion in understanding the nature of reconnection and auroral acceleration.

  18. Numerical simulations of saltwater displacement via fault systems due to exploitation of the subsurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langer, Maria; Tillner, Elena; Kempka, Thomas; Kühn, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Injection of fluids into deep saline aquifers induces an increase in pore pressure in the storage formation, and thus displacement of resident brines. Upward brine migration into shallower aquifers via hydraulically conductive faults may therefore lead to unwanted salinization of potable groundwater resources. In the present study, we investigated different scenarios for a prospective storage site close to the city of Beeskow in the Northeast German Basin by using a representative 3D regional-scale model (100 km x 100 km x 1.34 km) that includes four regional fault zones. The focus was on assessing the impact of fault length and permeability as well as model boundary conditions on the potential salinization of shallow groundwater resources. Moreover, the effects of an overlying secondary brine-bearing reservoir as well as varying initial salt-freshwater boundaries were investigated. We employed numerical simulations of brine injection as a representative fluid based on an example case study discussed by Tillner et al. (2013). Our simulation results demonstrate that pressure build-up within the reservoir determines the fluid rates and duration through the faults, and hence salinization of shallower aquifers. Application of different boundary conditions proved that these have a crucial impact on reservoir fluid displacement. If reservoir boundaries are closed, the fluid displaced via the faults into the shallow aquifer corresponds to the overall injected fluid mass. In that case, fault length and permeability as well as the presence of an overlying secondary reservoir have only temporal effects on brine migration. A fault zone with a hydraulically conductive segment of only two kilometres length causes brine flow into the shallow aquifer of 330 years, which is thus five times longer compared to the case with four faults open over their entire length of 193 km. The presence of an overlying secondary reservoir leads to an additional retardation of brine inflow into the uppermost aquifer up to a factor of three. If the reservoir boundaries are open, salinization is considerably reduced. In the presence of a secondary reservoir, 33 % of equivalent brine mass migrates into the shallow aquifer, if all four faults are completely hydraulically open, whereas the displaced equivalent brine mass is only 13 % if accounting for a single fault of two kilometres length. Without the secondary reservoir, 66 % of the brine mass is displaced in the four fault and about 30 % in the 2 km single fault cases. Taking into account the considered geological boundary conditions, the brine mainly originates from the upper 16 m to 300 m of the investigated faults, and hence the initial salt-freshwater boundary present in the fault is of high relevance for the resulting shallow aquifer salinization. The present study successfully demonstrates that a quantification of brine displacement using numerical simulations is feasible at regional scale. Tillner, E., Kempka, T., Nakaten, B., Kühn, M. Geological CO2 Storage Supports Geothermal Energy Exploitation: 3D Numerical Models Emphasize Feasibility of Synergetic Use (2013) Energy Procedia 37:6604-6616. doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2013.06.593.

  19. Measurement of Along-track Displacements due to the M6.0 August 24, 2014 South Napa Earthquake Using X-band Multiple-Aperture SAR Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, H. S.; Jo, M. J.; Yun, S. H.; Jung, H. I.; Koh, Y. C.; Webb, F.

    2014-12-01

    Multiple-aperture SAR interferometry (MAI) has been developed for measuring surface displacements in along-track direction as an alternative method of amplitude offset tracking method. Various studies on geological phenomena have been carried out using MAI technique with C-band and L-band SAR data, but application of MAI to X-band SAR is challenging due to its more severe temporal decorrelation compared to longer wavelength radar. The Italian Space Agency's (ASI) COSMO-SkyMed (CSK) mission consisting of four identical radar satellites has a powerful capability to minimize temporal baselines maintaining high coherence. This offers a good chance for MAI application for precise measurement of along-track displacements. In this study, we demonstrate the MAI performance of X-band SAR for the M6.0, South Napa Earthquake occurred on August 24, 2014. A coseismic CSK pair data (July 26 and August 27, 2014) acquired from descending orbit was used to show the along-track displacements in the fault zone. In order to evaluate the precision for measuring MAI deformation on the Napa Earthquake using CSK data, we produced a coherence map of the interferogram because the MAI precision is a function of interferometric coherence. However, we found that standard deviation of MAI phase does not coincide with the theoretical variation. The measurement uncertainty of along-track displacements was estimated by using the predefined empirical equation which was established through the performance test using multi-path CSK dataset at Kilauea Volcano region. The uncertainty map of the along-track displacements in the South Napa Earthquake region provides a reliable metric to estimate the variance/covariance of the data, useful for 3-D displacement field construction and geophysical modeling.

  20. Proximal aortic stent-graft displacement with type I endoleak due to Heimlich maneuver.

    PubMed

    Lin, Peter H; Bush, Ruth L; Lumsden, Alan B

    2003-08-01

    The Heimlich maneuver has saved countless lives by relieving foreign body obstruction from the respiratory tract. Complications related to this life-saving technique, particularly involving the abdominal aorta, are extremely rare. We report the case of a patient who underwent successful endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair, with AAA reduction at postoperative surveillance. Endograft displacement after performance of the Heimlich maneuver resulted in a proximal type I endoleak. This case underscores both the potential for aortic trauma from the Heimlich maneuver and the risk for clinical failure as a result of abdominal compression after successful endovascular AAA repair. PMID:12891124

  1. Tooth displacement due to occlusal contacts: a three-dimensional finite element study.

    PubMed

    Gomes de Oliveira, S; Seraidarian, P I; Landre, J; Oliveira, D D; Cavalcanti, B N

    2006-12-01

    The use of the Finite Element Method (FE) is an appropriate way to study occlusal forces and tooth movement. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of different occlusal contact patterns on tooth displacement in an adult dentition using a three-dimensional FE model of a human maxilla and mandible. Initially, images of a computerized tomography scan were redrawn in a computer program (CATIA) followed by the FE mesh construction. The MSC/Patran software was used to develop the FE mesh comprising 520,445 elements and 106,633 nodes. The MSC/Nastran program was utilized as pre and post-processor for all mathematical calculations necessary to evaluate dental and mandibular biomechanics. Four occlusal patterns were tested: FEM 1 - standard occlusal contacts; FEM 2 - removal of mesial marginal and mesial tripoidism contacts; FEM 3 - removal of distal marginal and distal tripoidism contacts; FEM 4 - similar to FEM 3 with added contacts between upper and lower incisors. Small changes in the standard distribution of occlusal contacts resulted in an imbalance of occlusal forces and changes in dental positioning. All simulations tested showed mesial displacement of posterior teeth. The most significant changes were registered in the model presenting unstable occlusal contacts when the anterior teeth were in occlusion (FEM 4). These findings may explain mandibular incisors crowding and maxillary incisors flaring as a result of small variations in dental contacts. PMID:17168929

  2. Displacements of the earth's surface due to atmospheric loading - Effects of gravity and baseline measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Dam, T. M.; Wahr, J. M.

    1987-01-01

    Atmospheric mass loads and deforms the earth's crust. By performing a convolution sum between daily, global barometric pressure data and mass loading Green's functions, the time dependent effects of atmospheric loading, including those associated with short-term synoptic storms, on surface point positioning measurements and surface gravity observations are estimated. The response for both an oceanless earth and an earth with an inverted barometer ocean is calculated. Load responses for near-coastal stations are significantly affected by the inclusion of an inverted barometer ocean. Peak-to-peak vertical displacements are frequently 15-20 mm with accompanying gravity perturbations of 3-6 micro Gal. Baseline changes can be as large as 20 mm or more. The perturbations are largest at higher latitudes and during winter months. These amplitudes are consistent with the results of Rabbel and Zschau (1985), who modeled synoptic pressure disturbances as Gaussian functions of radius around a central point. Deformation can be adequately computed using real pressure data from points within about 1000 km of the station. Knowledge of local pressure, alone, is not sufficient. Rabbel and Zschau's hypothesized corrections for these displacements, which use local pressure and the regionally averaged pressure, prove accurate at points well inland but are, in general, inadequate within a few hundred kilometers of the coast.

  3. Heterogeneous surface displacement pattern at the Hatchobaru geothermal field inferred from SAR interferometry time-series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishitsuka, Kazuya; Tsuji, Takeshi; Matsuoka, Toshifumi; Nishijima, Jun; Fujimitsu, Yasuhiro

    2016-02-01

    We estimated surface displacements using persistent scatterer SAR interferometry (PS-InSAR) around the Hatchobaru geothermal field, Japan, from 18 ALOS/PALSAR images acquired from July 2007 to December 2010. Generally, geothermal fields, covered with natural targets such as rocky terrain and vegetation, have been one of the difficult targets for PS-InSAR analysis. However, we applied space adaptive filtering to increase the number of pixels for measuring surface displacement. The results of our analysis demonstrate ground subsidence with decaying velocity over the observation period around the geothermal field. The spatial pattern of ground subsidence includes sharp boundaries of subsidence that can be interpreted as fault traces. We demonstrated the usefulness of PS-InSAR analysis with the space adaptive filtering to estimate surface displacements with high spatial resolution and high spatial density around a geothermal field.

  4. Studies of the non-axisymmetric plasma boundary displacement in JET in presence of externally applied magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadykin, D.; Frassinetti, L.; Delabie, E.; Chapman, I. T.; Gerasimov, S.; Kempenaars, M.; Rimini, F. G.; Contributors, JET

    2015-10-01

    Non-axisymmetric plasma boundary displacement is caused by the application of the external magnetic field with low toroidal mode number. Such displacement affects edge stability, power load on the first wall and could affect efficiency of the ICRH coupling in ITER. Studies of the displacement are presented for JET tokamak focusing on the interaction between error field correction coils (EFCCs) and shape control system. First results are shown on the direct measurement of the plasma boundary displacement at different toroidal locations. Both qualitative and quantitative studies of the plasma boundary displacement caused by interaction between EFCCs and shape control system are performed for different toroidal phases of the external field. Axisymmetric plasma boundary displacement caused by the EFCC/shape control system interaction is seen for certain phase values of the external field. The value of axisymmetric plasma boundary displacement caused by interaction can be comparable to the non-axisymmetric plasma boundary displacement value produced by EFCCs.

  5. Displacements and stress distribution in D0 Run IIb stave due to CTE mismatches

    SciTech Connect

    Lanfranco, Giobatta; Fast, James; /Fermilab

    2001-07-01

    A possible D0 Run IIb stave design currently under study is characterized by an outer carbon fiber stiffening shell with the silicon detectors mounted internally and a single central cooling line running between them; in this paper the stave will be analyzed for thermal compatibility since the different coefficient of thermal expansion in the materials may cause unpredictable stresses and strains in the structure. A simplified stave section has been modeled with finite elements for different materials configurations and the vertical and longitudinal displacements induced by the thermal gradient, together with the related stresses, have been computed. Finally, once selected the most suitable material combination, a more realistic model has been created in order to study the influence of the hybrid location along the ladders.

  6. Determining velocity displacement field from cardiac image sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyering, Wietske I.; Gutierrez, Marco A.; Robilotta, Cecil C.; Furuie, Sergio S.

    2002-04-01

    Estimation of left ventricle motion and deformation from series of images has been an area of attention in the medical image analysis and still remains an open and challenging problem. Left ventricle contractile abnormalities can be an important manifestation of coronary artery disease. The proper motion tracking of left ventricle wall can contribute to isolate the location and extent of ischemic or infarcted myocardium and constitutes a fundamental goal of image modalities, such as Nuclear Medicine. This work describes a method to automatically estimate the velocity vector field for a beating heart based on the study of variation in frequency content in a series of 2D images as time varies. The frequency analysis is performed by computing the Wigner-Ville and the Choi-Williams distributions to each image pixel, yielding the corresponding 3D-frequency spectrum. From this 3D spectrum the local velocity of each pixel is calculated by employing a multiple linear regression model. Experimental validation was carried out using synthetic phantoms that simulate translation and rotation between successive frames. Results obtained from gated SPECT perfusion studies are also presented.

  7. Field performance of the Walker Branch throughfall displacement experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, P.J.; Todd, D.E.; Edwards, N.T.; Huston, M.A.

    1994-10-06

    The authors are conducting a large-scale manipulative field experiments in an upland oak forest on the Walker Branch Watershed in eastern Tennessee USA to identify important ecosystem responses that might result from future precipitation changes. The manipulation of soil moisture is being implemented by a gravity-driven transfer of throughfall precipitation from one treatment plot to another. Throughfall is intercepted in {approx} 2,000 subcanopy troughs (0.3 x 5 m) suspended above the forest floor of the dry plots ({approx} 33% of the ground area is covered) and transferred by gravity flow across an ambient plot for subsequent distribution onto the wet treatment plot. Percent soil water is being monitored with time domain reflectometers at 310 sampling locations across the site. The experimental system is able to produce statistically significant differences in soil water content in years having both extremely dry and extremely wet conditions. Furthermore, comparisons of pre- and post-installation soil temperature measurements have documented the ability of the experimental design to produce these changes without changing the microclimate of the forest understory.

  8. FIELD TRIALS OF NEWLY DEVELOPED POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT SUBMERSIBLE PUMP

    SciTech Connect

    Rob Beard

    2003-10-01

    The purpose of this grant was to evaluate under real world conditions the performance of a new type of downhole pump, the hydraulically driven submersible diaphragm pump. This pump is supplied by Pumping Solutions Incorporated, Albuquerque NM. The original scope of the project was to install 10 submersible pumps, and compare that to 10 similar installations of rod pumps. As an operator, the system as tested was not ready for prime time, but has shown the ability to reduce costs, and increase production, if run times can be improved. The PSI group did improve the product and offered excellent service. The latest design appears to be much better, but more test data is needed to show short run life is not a problem. PSI and Beard Oil intend to continue testing the pump with non-government funding. The testing to date did not uncover any fundamental problems that would preclude the widespread use of this pump, and as an operator, I believe that with further improvement and testing, the pump can have a significant impact on stripper well costs. On the positive side, the pump was easy to run, was more power efficient then a rod pump, and is the only submersible that could handle the large quantities of solids typical of the production environment found at the Weber field and in CMB production. The product shows much promise for the future, and with continued design and testing, this type of submersible pump has the potential to become the standard of the industry.

  9. Application of dynamic displacement current for diagnostics of subnanosecond breakdowns in an inhomogeneous electric field

    SciTech Connect

    Shao Tao; Zhang Cheng; Yan Ping; Tarasenko, Victor F.; Burachenko, Alexandr G.; Rybka, Dmitry V.; Kostyrya, Igor' D.; Lomaev, Mikhail I.; Baksht, Evgeni Kh.

    2013-05-15

    The breakdown of different air gaps at high overvoltages in an inhomogeneous electric field was investigated with a time resolution of up to 100 ps. Dynamic displacement current was used for diagnostics of ionization processes between the ionization wave front and a plane anode. It is demonstrated that during the generation of a supershort avalanche electron beam (SAEB) with amplitudes of {approx}10 A and more, conductivity in the air gaps at the breakdown stage is ensured by the ionization wave, whose front propagates from the electrode of small curvature radius, and by the dynamic displacement current between the ionization wave front and the plane electrode. The amplitude of the dynamic displacement current measured by a current shunt is 100 times greater than the SAEB. It is shown that with small gaps and with a large cathode diameter, the amplitude of the dynamic displacement current during a subnanosecond rise time of applied pulse voltage can be higher than 4 kA.

  10. Application of dynamic displacement current for diagnostics of subnanosecond breakdowns in an inhomogeneous electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Tao; Tarasenko, Victor F.; Zhang, Cheng; Burachenko, Alexandr G.; Rybka, Dmitry V.; Kostyrya, Igor'D.; Lomaev, Mikhail I.; Baksht, Evgeni Kh.; Yan, Ping

    2013-05-01

    The breakdown of different air gaps at high overvoltages in an inhomogeneous electric field was investigated with a time resolution of up to 100 ps. Dynamic displacement current was used for diagnostics of ionization processes between the ionization wave front and a plane anode. It is demonstrated that during the generation of a supershort avalanche electron beam (SAEB) with amplitudes of ˜10 A and more, conductivity in the air gaps at the breakdown stage is ensured by the ionization wave, whose front propagates from the electrode of small curvature radius, and by the dynamic displacement current between the ionization wave front and the plane electrode. The amplitude of the dynamic displacement current measured by a current shunt is 100 times greater than the SAEB. It is shown that with small gaps and with a large cathode diameter, the amplitude of the dynamic displacement current during a subnanosecond rise time of applied pulse voltage can be higher than 4 kA.

  11. Accurate full-field optical displacement measurement technique using a digital camera and repeated patterns.

    PubMed

    Ri, Shien; Hayashi, Satoshi; Ogihara, Shinji; Tsuda, Hiroshi

    2014-04-21

    In this study, a novel, fast, and accurate in-plane displacement distribution measurement method is proposed that uses a digital camera and arbitrary repeated patterns based on the moiré methodology. The key aspect of this method is the use of phase information of both the fundamental frequency and the high-order frequency components of the moiré fringe before and after deformations. Compared with conventional displacement methods and sensors, the main advantages of the method developed herein are its high resolution, accuracy, speed, low cost, and easy implementation. The effectiveness is confirmed by a simple in-plane displacement measurement experiment, and the experimental results indicate that an accuracy of 1/1000 of the pitch can be achieved for various repeated patterns. This method is useful for various applications ranging from the study of displacement and strain distributions in materials science, the biomimetics field, and mechanical material testing, to secure the integrity of infrastructures. PMID:24787855

  12. Irreducible dislocation of the thumb interphalangeal joint due to displaced flexor pollicis longus tendon: case report and new reduction technique.

    PubMed

    Naito, Kiyohito; Sugiyama, Yoichi; Igeta, Yuka; Kaneko, Kazuo; Obayashi, Osamu

    2014-08-01

    Dislocation of the thumb interphalangeal (IP) joint is uncommon because of the inherent stability of the joint. Cases in which reduction was blocked by the volar plate, the flexor pollicis longus (FPL) tendon, the sesamoid bone, and an osteochondral fragment have been described in the literature. This article reports a case of closed thumb IP joint dislocation caused by the displacement of the FPL tendon. A new percutaneous reduction technique for this injury will also be presented. A 63-year-old woman presented to the emergency room with an obvious thumb deformity. Radiographs confirmed dorsal dislocation of the thumb IP joint without associated fracture. Closed reduction was not successful. Percutaneous reduction was performed under locoregional anesthesia, because the dislocation was due to an FPL tendon that had displaced dorsally and radially to the proximal phalanx. After reduction, Kirschner wire fixation was not needed, but IP joint immobilization with a splint was required for 3 weeks. Postoperatively, there were no complications in soft tissues and the operative scar was almost unrecognizable. This technique enables a mini-invasive reduction by operating percutaneously on the FPL. In addition, unlike with a volar zigzag approach, it is possible to suppress the occurrence of postoperative adhesion of the flexor tendon. This new minimally invasive reduction technique is useful for irreducible dislocation of the thumb IP joint due to a displaced FPL tendon. PMID:24902518

  13. Principal Component Analysis of Dynamic Relative Displacement Fields Estimated from MR Images

    PubMed Central

    Abney, Teresa M.; Feng, Yuan; Pless, Robert; Okamoto, Ruth J.; Genin, Guy M.; Bayly, Philip V.

    2011-01-01

    Non-destructive measurement of acceleration-induced displacement fields within a closed object is a fundamental challenge. Inferences of how the brain deforms following skull impact have thus relied largely on indirect estimates and course-resolution cadaver studies. We developed a magnetic resonance technique to quantitatively identify the modes of displacement of an accelerating soft object relative to an object enclosing it, and applied it to study acceleration-induced brain deformation in human volunteers. We show that, contrary to the prevailing hypotheses of the field, the dominant mode of interaction between the brain and skull in mild head acceleration is one of sliding arrested by meninges. PMID:21811560

  14. On the derivation of coseismic displacement fields using differential radar interferometry: The Landers earthquake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zebker, Howard A.; Rosen, Paul A.; Goldstein, Richard M.; Gabriel, Andrew; Werner, Charles L.

    1994-01-01

    We present a map of the coseimic displacement field resulting from the Landers, California, June 28, 1992, earthquake derived using data acquired from an orbiting high-resolution radar system. We achieve results more accurate than previous space studies and similar in accuracy to those obtained by conventional field survey techniques. Data from the ERS 1 synthetic aperture radar instrument acquired in April, July, and August 1992 are used to generate a high-resolution, wide area map of the displacements. The data represent the motion in the direction of the radar line of sight to centimeter level precision of each 30-m resolution element in a 113 km by 90 km image. Our coseismic displacement contour map gives a lobed pattern consistent with theoretical models of the displacement field from the earthquake. Fine structure observed as displacement tiling in regions several kilometers from the fault appears to be the result of local surface fracturing. Comparison of these data with Global Positioning System and electronic distance measurement survey data yield a correlation of 0.96; thus the radar measurements are a means to extend the point measurements acquired by traditional techniques to an area map format. The technique we use is (1) more automatic, (2) more precise, and (3) better validated than previous similar applications of differential radar interferometry. Since we require only remotely sensed satellite data with no additioanl requirements for ancillary information. the technique is well suited for global seismic monitoring and analysis.

  15. Displacement sensor containing magnetic field sensing element between a pair of biased magnets movable as a unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahr, Joseph K. (Inventor); Johnson, Mont A. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A displacement sensor for providing an indication of the position of a first body relative to a second body, the first body being displaceable relative to the second body in a displacement direction. The sensor is composed of: two magnets that are spaced from one another in the displacement direction to define therebetween a region containing a magnetic field; a magnetic field sensing element mounted in the region; and components for coupling at least one of the magnets to one of the bodies and the magnetic field sensing element to the other of the bodies to produce a relative displacement between the at least one magnet and the magnetic field sensing element in the displacement direction in response to displacement of the first body relative to the second body.

  16. Performance and expansion plans for the double-displacement process in the Hawkins Field Unit

    SciTech Connect

    Langenberg, M.A.; Henry, D.M.; Chlebana, M.R.

    1995-11-01

    The double-displacement process (DDP) is a method for immiscible tertiary gas displacement of a watered-out oil reservoir. In the Hawkins field of east Texas, the effectiveness of the immiscible nitrogen injection process is strongly driven by favorable gravity-drainage characteristics that lead to improved sweep and displacement efficiencies for the gas/oil system relative to the water/oil system. This paper documents the initial 6 years of the double-displacement project in the East Fault Block (EFB) of the Hawkins Field Unit, confirming the viability of the double-displacement recovery mechanism. It describes how early project performance indicated that oil gravity drainage was occurring slower than expected, the studies initiated to investigate the slower oil gravity drainage, and the successful outcome of those studies. In addition, the paper describes how the project has responded favorably to optimization efforts and gives a brief description of how results from the EFB have been applied to a proposed expansion to the West Fault Block (WFB).

  17. On the reach of perturbative descriptions for dark matter displacement fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldauf, Tobias; Schaan, Emmanuel; Zaldarriaga, Matias

    2016-03-01

    We study Lagrangian Perturbation Theory (LPT) and its regularization in the Effective Field Theory (EFT) approach. We evaluate the LPT displacement with the same phases as a corresponding N-body simulation, which allows us to compare perturbation theory to the non-linear simulation with significantly reduced cosmic variance, and provides a more stringent test than simply comparing power spectra. We reliably detect a non-vanishing leading order EFT coefficient and a stochastic displacement term, uncorrelated with the LPT terms. This stochastic term is expected in the EFT framework, and, to the best of our understanding, is not an artifact of numerical errors or transients in our simulations. This term constitutes a limit to the accuracy of perturbative descriptions of the displacement field and its phases, corresponding to a 1% error on the non-linear power spectrum at k = 0.2 h‑1Mpc at z = 0. Predicting the displacement power spectrum to higher accuracy or larger wavenumbers thus requires a model for the stochastic displacement.

  18. Displacement field for an edge dislocation in a layered half-space

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savage, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    The displacement field for an edge dislocation in an Earth model consisting of a layer welded to a half-space of different material is found in the form of a Fourier integral following the method given by Weeks et al. [1968]. There are four elementary solutions to be considered: the dislocation is either in the half-space or the layer and the Burgers vector is either parallel or perpendicular to the layer. A general two-dimensional solution for a dip-slip faulting or dike injection (arbitrary dip) can be constructed from a superposition of these elementary solutions. Surface deformations have been calculated for an edge dislocation located at the interface with Burgers vector inclined 0??, 30??, 60??, and 90?? to the interface for the case where the rigidity of the layer is half of that of the half-space and the Poisson ratios are the same. Those displacement fields have been compared to the displacement fields generated by similarly situated edge dislocations in a uniform half-space. The surface displacement field produced by the edge dislocation in the layered half-space is very similar to that produced by an edge dislocation at a different depth in a uniform half-space. In general, a low-modulus (high-modulus) layer causes the half-space equivalent dislocation to appear shallower (deeper) than the actual dislocation in the layered half-space.

  19. Detection of in-plane displacements of acoustic wave fields using extrinsic Fizeau fiber interferometric sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhawan, R.; Gunther, M. F.; Claus, R. O.

    Quantitative measurements of the in-plane particle displacement components of ultrasonic surface acoustic wave fields using extrinsic Fizeau fiber interferometric (EFFI) sensors are reported. Wave propagation in materials and the fiber sensor elements are briefly discussed. Calibrated experimental results obtained for simulated acoustic emission events on homogeneous metal test specimens are reported and compared to previous results obtained using piezoelectric transducers.

  20. Detection of in-plane displacements of acoustic wave fields using extrinsic Fizeau fiber interferometric sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dhawan, R.; Gunther, M. F.; Claus, R. O.

    1991-01-01

    Quantitative measurements of the in-plane particle displacement components of ultrasonic surface acoustic wave fields using extrinsic Fizeau fiber interferometric (EFFI) sensors are reported. Wave propagation in materials and the fiber sensor elements are briefly discussed. Calibrated experimental results obtained for simulated acoustic emission events on homogeneous metal test specimens are reported and compared to previous results obtained using piezoelectric transducers.

  1. Full-field dynamic strain prediction on a wind turbine using displacements of optical targets measured by stereophotogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baqersad, Javad; Niezrecki, Christopher; Avitabile, Peter

    2015-10-01

    Health monitoring of rotating structures (e.g. wind turbines and helicopter blades) has historically been a challenge due to sensing and data transmission problems. Unfortunately mechanical failure in many structures initiates at components on or inside the structure where there is no sensor located to predict the failure. In this paper, a wind turbine was mounted with a semi-built-in configuration and was excited using a mechanical shaker. A series of optical targets was distributed along the blades and the fixture and the displacement of those targets during excitation was measured using a pair of high speed cameras. Measured displacements with three dimensional point tracking were transformed to all finite element degrees of freedom using a modal expansion algorithm. The expanded displacements were applied to the finite element model to predict the full-field dynamic strain on the surface of the structure as well as within the interior points. To validate the methodology of dynamic strain prediction, the predicted strain was compared to measured strain by using six mounted strain-gages. To verify if a simpler model of the turbine can be used for the expansion, the expansion process was performed both by using the modes of the entire turbine and modes of a single cantilever blade. The results indicate that the expansion approach can accurately predict the strain throughout the turbine blades from displacements measured by using stereophotogrammetry.

  2. Whole field displacement and strain rosettes by grating objective speckle method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Meirong; Gielisse, Peter J.; Xu, Wei

    1991-12-01

    The grating objective speckle method was applied for whole field displacement measurements to a high transition temperature superconductor (YBa2Cu3Ox) disk under diametral-compression. Four fringe patterns were obtained from one single specklegram, indicating the displacement components along four different directions, with 45 degree intervals. The spatial frequencies, which represent the sensitivities of the fringe intervals, were 2400 lines/mm for Ux and Uy, and 1697 lines/mm for U45 and U135, respectively. The normal strain components, (epsilon) x, (epsilon) y, (epsilon) 135, can be directly transformed. The shear strain, (gamma) xy, can therefore be calculated by the rosette equations without the need for first cross-derivatives from two displacement contour maps, which is highly sensitive to accidental rigid-body rotations. The technique provides an extremely simple set-up for the recording system. There is no laser, no camera, no laborious optical alignment, and no requirement for vibration isolation.

  3. Large amplitude free vibrations of Timoshenko beams at higher modes using coupled displacement field method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna Bhaskar, K.; Meera Saheb, K.

    2015-12-01

    A simple but accurate continuum solution for the shear flexible beam problem using the energy method involves in assuming suitable single term admissible functions for the lateral displacement and total rotation. This leads to two non-linear temporal differential equations in terms of the lateral displacement and the total rotation and are difficult, if not impossible, to solve to obtain the large amplitude fundamental frequencies of beams as a function of the amplitude and slenderness ratios of the vibrating beam. This situation can be avoided if one uses the concept of coupled displacement field where in the fields for lateral displacement and the total rotation are coupled through the static equilibrium equation. In this paper the lateral displacement field is assumed and the field for the total rotation is evaluated through the coupling equation. This approach leads to only one undetermined coefficient which can easily be used in the principle of conservation of total energy of the vibrating beam at a given time, neglecting damping. Finally, through a number of algebraic manipulations, one gets a nonlinear equation of Duffing type which can be solved using any standard method. To demonstrate the simplicity of the method discussed above the problem of large amplitude free vibrations of a uniform shear flexible hinged beam at higher modes with ends immovable to move axially has been solved. The numerical results obtained from the present formulation are in very good agreement with those obtained through finite element and other continuum methods for the fundamental mode, thus demonstrating the efficacy of the proposed method. Also some interesting observations are made with variation of frequency Vs amplitude at different modes.

  4. Research on multi-source data integration and the extraction of three-dimensional displacement field based on GBSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Jianping; Yue, Shun; Wang, Xueqin; Guo, Leping

    2015-11-01

    Only the displacement along the radar line of sight can be got in Ground Based Synthetic Aperture Radar (GBSAR). In order to extract high-precision three-dimensional displacement field of research area, in this article, we research deeply the method which integrates both three-dimensional laser scanning and GBSAR techniques. It is proved that high precision three-dimensional displacement field information can be extracted with this method through analyzing case and assessing the accuracy of three-dimensional displacement field. The method has a good practical value.

  5. The tidal displacement field at Earth's surface determined using global GPS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Linguo; Chao, Benjamin Fong; Ding, Xiaoli; Zhong, Ping

    2013-05-01

    We investigate the 3-D tidal displacement field on Earth's surface recorded globally by 456 continuous global positioning system (GPS) stations of IGS spanning 1996-2011, for eight principal diurnal and semidiurnal tidal constituents. In-phase and quadrature amplitudes of the residual tidal displacements, after removal of an a priori body tide model, are estimated using the precise point positioning (PPP) technique on the daily GPS data; the resultant daily estimates are combined to derive final estimates for each tide at each station. The results are compared with the predictions of eight recent global ocean tide models, separately for coastal (307) and inland (149) stations. We show that GPS can provide tidal displacement estimates accurate to the level of 0.12 mm (horizontal) and 0.24 mm (vertical) for the lunar-only constituents (M2, N2, O1, and Q1) and less favorably for solar-related tidal constituents (S2, K2, K1, and P1), although improved by ambiguity resolution. Most recent ocean tide models fit the GPS estimates equally well on the global scale but do not agree well between them in certain coastal areas, especially for the vertical displacements, suggesting the existence of model uncertainties near shallow seas. The tidal residuals for the inland stations after removing both body tides and ocean tidal loading (OTL) furthermore show clear continental-scale spatial coherence, implying deficiencies of the a priori body tide modeling in catching lateral heterogeneity in elastic as well as inelastic properties in the Earth's deep interior. We assert that the GPS tidal displacement estimates now achieve sufficient accuracy to potentially provide constraints on the Earth's structure.

  6. The displacement field in the vibration analysis of laminated thick plates

    SciTech Connect

    Ohta, Yoshiki; Narita, Yoshihiro

    1995-11-01

    The present paper discusses the assumption of displacement fields used in the vibration analysis of FRP laminated thick plates. For this purpose, the strain and kinetic energies of a FRP cross-ply laminated plate are evaluated analytically based on the three-dimensional theory of elasticity, and the displacements of the rectangular plate, which are simply-supported at all edges, are expanded into the polynomial forms with respect to thickness coordinate. A frequency equation is formulated by using the energy method minimizing the Lagrange function. In the numerical calculations, natural frequencies are obtained for the plates with various stacking sequence and the thickness ratios, and the validity of the assumption of displacement fields and the range of applicability of the various plate theories (e.g. the Classical Plate Theory (CPT), the First-Order Shear Deformation Theory (FSDT) and the Higher-Order Shear Deformation Theory (HSDT)), which are widely used in the vibration analysis of FRP laminated plates, to the laminated thick plates are discussed by comparing the present results with the CPT and the FSDT solutions.

  7. Multiparameter double hole contrast detail phantom: Ability to detect image displacement due to off position anode stem

    SciTech Connect

    Pauzi, Nur Farahana; Majid, Zafri Azran Abdul; Sapuan, Abdul Halim; Junet, Laila Kalidah; Azemin, Mohd Zulfaezal Che

    2015-04-24

    Contrast Detail phantom is a quality control tool to analyze the performance of imaging devices. Currently, its function is solely to evaluate the contrast detail characteristic of imaging system. It consists of drilled hole which gives effect to the penetration of x-ray beam divergence to pass through the base of each hole. This effect will lead to false appearance of image from its original location but it does not being visualized in the radiograph. In this study, a new design of Contrast Detail phantom’s hole which consists of double hole construction has been developed. It can detect the image displacement which is due to off position of anode stem from its original location. The double hole differs from previous milled hole, whereby it consists of combination of different hole diameters. Small hole diameter (3 mm) is positioned on top of larger hole diameter (10 mm). The thickness of double hole acrylic blocks is 13 mm. Result revealed that Multiparameter Double Hole Contrast Detail phantom can visualize the shifted flaw image quality produced by x-ray machine due to improper position of the anode stem which is attached to rotor and stator. The effective focal spot of x-ray beam also has been shifted from the center of collimator as a result of off-position anode stem. As a conclusion, the new design of double hole Contrast Detail phantom able to measure those parameters in a well manner.

  8. Multiparameter double hole contrast detail phantom: Ability to detect image displacement due to off position anode stem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauzi, Nur Farahana; Majid, Zafri Azran Abdul; Sapuan, Abdul Halim; Azemin, Mohd Zulfaezal Che; Junet, Laila Kalidah

    2015-04-01

    Contrast Detail phantom is a quality control tool to analyze the performance of imaging devices. Currently, its function is solely to evaluate the contrast detail characteristic of imaging system. It consists of drilled hole which gives effect to the penetration of x-ray beam divergence to pass through the base of each hole. This effect will lead to false appearance of image from its original location but it does not being visualized in the radiograph. In this study, a new design of Contrast Detail phantom's hole which consists of double hole construction has been developed. It can detect the image displacement which is due to off position of anode stem from its original location. The double hole differs from previous milled hole, whereby it consists of combination of different hole diameters. Small hole diameter (3 mm) is positioned on top of larger hole diameter (10 mm). The thickness of double hole acrylic blocks is 13 mm. Result revealed` that, Multiparameter Double Hole Contrast Detail phantom can visualize the shifted flaw image quality produced by x-ray machine due to improper position of the anode stem which is attached to rotor and stator. The effective focal spot of x-ray beam also has been shifted from the center of collimator as a result of off-position anode stem. As a conclusion, the new design of double hole Contrast Detail phantom able to measure those parameters in a well manner.

  9. Late Cenozoic displacement-field partitioning in the western Great Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Oldow, J.S. . Dept. of Geology and Geophysics)

    1993-04-01

    Late Cenozoic (15 Ma to recent) structures in the western Great Basin record a complex history of extension and transcurrent faulting that reflect displacement-field partitioning and migration of a deformation front outward from the center of the province. The location and morphology of late Cenozoic structures were strongly influenced by the pre-Tertiary crustal architecture of western Nevada and eastern California formed during continental rifting and subsequent active margin tectonism. Late Cenozoic displacements are spatially partitioned components of N55[degree]W regional extension. Within the Great Basin, a central domino of uniform extension (N55[degree]W) is bound on the west by a broad northwest-trending zone of transtension, the Walker Lane Belt (WLB). Central domain extension is accommodated by north-northeast half-grabens that initiated in the mid-Miocene in central Nevada and in the Mio-Pliocene in north west Nevada. Transtension in the WLB is characterized by coeval displacements on oblique-slip faults of various orientations and right-slip on northwest transcurrent faults. As in the central domain, the locus of activity migrated westerly with time in the WLB. The present-day extension axis for oblique-slip faults in the western Great Basin changes stepwise from N55[degree]W, to N75[degree]W, to N75[degree]E as the WLB and Sierra Nevada are approached from the east. The change in extension direction is viewed as the product of displacement field partitioning and not as the result of regional stress variation.

  10. Combining displacement field and grip force information to determine mechanical properties of planar tissue with complicated geometry.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Tina M; Hadi, Mohammad F; Claeson, Amy A; Nuckley, David J; Barocas, Victor H

    2014-11-01

    Performing planar biaxial testing and using nominal stress-strain curves for soft-tissue characterization is most suitable when (1) the test produces homogeneous strain fields, (2) fibers are aligned with the coordinate axes, and (3) strains are measured far from boundaries. Some tissue types [such as lamellae of the annulus fibrosus (AF)] may not allow for these conditions to be met due to their natural geometry and constitution. The objective of this work was to develop and test a method utilizing a surface displacement field, grip force-stretch data, and finite-element (FE) modeling to facilitate analysis of such complex samples. We evaluated the method by regressing a simple structural model to simulated and experimental data. Three different tissues with different characteristics were used: Superficial pectoralis major (SPM) (anisotropic, aligned with axes), facet capsular ligament (FCL) (anisotropic, aligned with axes, bone attached), and a lamella from the AF (anisotropic, aligned off-axis, bone attached). We found that the surface displacement field or the grip force-stretch data information alone is insufficient to determine a unique parameter set. Utilizing both data types provided tight confidence regions (CRs) of the regressed parameters and low parameter sensitivity to initial guess. This combined fitting approach provided robust characterization of tissues with varying fiber orientations and boundaries and is applicable to tissues that are poorly suited to standard biaxial testing. The structural model, a set of C++ finite-element routines, and a Matlab routine to do the fitting based on a set of force/displacement data is provided in the on-line supplementary material. PMID:25103887

  11. Probabilistic Fault Displacement Hazard Assessment For Pipelines, Mad Dog and Atlantis Field Developments, Deepwater Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angell, M.; Hanson, K.; Swan, F.; Youngs, R.; Abramson, H.

    2004-12-01

    Seafloor faults having strong geomorphic expression and evidence for late Quaternary activity (i.e. < ~150,000 years) are common geologic features associated with the Sigsbee Escarpment. Waterbottom maps derived from exploration 3D multichannel seismic data provided an early indication that several zones of seafloor faults are in the vicinity of the Mad Dog and Atlantis prospect areas. As part of the site investigation activities for field development BP initiated a study to characterize the potential hazard due to fault displacement. The fault displacement hazard study consists of five components: 1) a site-wide structural geologic characterization of the style and origin of active faulting and fault-related deformation; 2) development of a late Quaternary stratigraphic model to evaluate the history, recency, and rate of fault activity at the site; 3) detailed characterization of faulting within limited study areas designated to capture fault behavior in areas of potential facilities development; 4) a general description of the relationship between Quaternary active faulting and slope failure processes within the field area; and 5) a probabilistic fault displacement hazard analysis (PFDHA) of the potential for fault rupture within the designated study areas that relates annual frequency of recurrence of faulting events to the size of the event. Changes in the style and origin of faulting and deformation of shallow (suprasalt) sediment across the individual field areas primarily is due to differences in the depth, geometry, and movement history of the underlying Sigsbee Salt Nappe. These relationships and the resulting geologic model for structural evolution of the suprasalt section has been used effectively to assess the site-wide geohazards not only for faulting, but also indirectly for slope failure and mass-gravity flows. Hazard from potential seafloor offset at fault crossings is judged to be moderate to low. Fault offsets of the shallowest horizons (less than 15 thousand years old) are typically less than ten meters to several tens of meters. Fault slip rates are on the order of tenths to several tens of meters-per-thousand-years (m/kyr, also millimeters-per-year, or mm/yr), with most values in the range of 2-10 m/kyr. Similarly, the probabilistic annual recurrence of 1-meter events is typically less than 10-3. These studies demonstrate that the presence of potentially active faults does not preclude safe development of seafloor facilities. To evaluate risk associated with potential seafloor faulting, integrated hazard studies can and should be conducted in the early stages of project development, with an underlying intent to understand the causative processes and quantitatively and explicitly evaluate the locations, magnitude and recurrence potential of displacement events.

  12. A case of facial deformity due to bilateral developmental maxillary cheek teeth displacement in an adult horse

    PubMed Central

    Robert, Mickaël P.; Gangl, Monika C.; Lepage, Olivier M.

    2010-01-01

    A 7-year-old mare presented with facial deformities associated with oral discomfort and weight loss was found to have bilateral, palatal, developmental displacements of the maxillary 08s, with secondary diastema. Following repulsion of both displaced teeth, the horse regained weight and resumed training. Bony deformities remained visible 9 mo after discharge. PMID:21197210

  13. Application of the digital photogrammetry to obtain near-fault surface displacement field, eastern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, R.; Lee, J.; Chang, K.; Chan, Y.

    2007-12-01

    Measuring earthquake surface deformation provides information of both general kinematics of earthquake faulting and secondary deformation features, which usually reflect fault behaviors and surface geological heterogeneity. Recently, technology provided increasing variety of methods to measure surface deformation of earthquakes. For instance, photogrammetic analysis, especially sub-pixel correlation of remote sensing imagery, which we focused on in this study, is useful to reconstruct the co-seismic surface displacement field. Photogrammetry represents the process of deriving topographic information about an object through measurements made on aerial images of the object. Aerial photographs acquired using a high-resolution digital images and ground survey has been to monitor changes in topographic features and surface deformation, and to obtain the digital elevation models (DEMs). To rectify the image data, it is necessary to obtain geometrical parameters including camera type, frame focus, and aerial height. Furthermore, it is important to achieve a reasonable accuracy without a great number of ground control points (GCPs) when dealing with large-scale imagery. In order to obtain better ground controls for geometric calibration, we carried out RTK-GPS measurements at each ground points with a resolution of a few centimeters in horizontal and vertical components. Therefore, GCPs provide strong geometrical constraints for triangulation and orthorectification of images. This measurement is crucial because otherwise it is almost impossible to obtain orthorectified photographs with a precision in pixel level as good as 10-20 cm. The particle image velocimetry (PIV) method is an application of an optical image (e.g., aerial photographs and SPOT images) correlation technique, in which the horizontal displacement field is measured by comparison of images acquired at two different times. This method is based on a sub-pixel correlation of orthorectified images, using sliding windows. Each image is divided into several small areas (windows). The cross-correlation function is a pattern- matching routine that determines the relative displacement between images, which are shifted according to the best overlap. The residual offsets of image pairs are computed from the phase shift of the Fast Fourier Transform of the sliding window. This value corresponds to the horizontal displacement vector of the window. The correlation between two images can be efficiently performed as long as their texture is similar. The creation of DEMs from oblique and non-metric imagery using automated digital photogrammetry can be difficult. Recently, technology provided increasing variety of methods, especially seamless DEMs are generated for entire blocks or for any sub-block or polygon area. In this study, we focused to put forward a survey method to monitoring morphological change through reconstruct the high precision DEMs and measure surface displacement.

  14. Displacive phase transitions at large strains: phase-field theory and simulations.

    PubMed

    Levitas, Valery I; Levin, Vladimir A; Zingerman, Konstantin M; Freiman, Eugene I

    2009-07-10

    The Landau potential for multivariant displacive phase transformations (PTs) is derived for the most general case of large rotations, elastic and transformational strains, as well as nonlinear and different elastic properties of phases. The method of repetitive superposition of large strains is extended for PTs and is utilized in the finite-element method approach for solution of corresponding coupled phase-field and mechanical problems. Problems of martensitic variants nucleation and evolution in a nanosize sample, including a sample with two nanovoids, are solved. A similar approach can be applied for twinning, dislocations, and reconstructive PTs. PMID:19659221

  15. Field enhancement at metallic interfaces due to quantum confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öztürk, Z. Fatih; Xiao, Sanshui; Yan, Min; Wubs, Martijn; Jauho, Antti-Pekka; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2011-01-01

    We point out an apparently overlooked consequence of the boundary conditions obeyed by the electric displacement vector at air-metal interfaces: the continuity of the normal component combined with the quantum mechanical penetration of the electron gas in the air implies the existence of a surface on which the dielectric function vanishes. This, in turn, leads to an enhancement of the normal component of the total electric field. We study this effect for a planar metal surface, with the inhomogeneous electron density accounted for by a Jellium model. We also illustrate the effect for equilateral triangular nanoislands via numerical solutions of the appropriate Maxwell equations, and show that the field enhancement is several orders of magnitude larger than what the conventional theory predicts.

  16. Monitoring Landslide Displacement Fields at Different Temporal Scale by using GB-INSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarchi, D.; Casagli, N.; Catani, F.; Farina, P.; Leva, D.; Nico, G.

    2002-12-01

    The application of SAR Interferometry technique (InSAR) for landslide monitoring, in order to resolve the problems connected to the implementation from the satellite platform, such as spatial resolution, incidence angles, temporal coverages, etc., can benefit from the use of ground-based instrumentation. This work concerns the application of ground-based SAR interferometry (GB-InSAR) to the monitoring of landslides characterized by different kinematics and diverse materials. This implementation has been realized by using the LISA (Linear Synthetic Radar) system developed at the JRC. The test sites, chosen to demonstrate the capabilities of such a technique in operational conditions, are the Ruinon rock slide in Valtellina, the Tessina earth slide in the Italian Dolomites and the Firenzuola rockslide in the Northern Appennines. The presence of independent monitoring systems within these landslides has allowed the radar measures to be validated. The LISA is a SAR system with interferometric capabilities specifically design for field applications. It is composed by a 2.8 m linear rail along which a motorised sled with two antennas is moved in order to obtain the synthetic aperture. The system can operate in the frequency band Ku (l = 1.8 cm) or C (l = 5.6 cm). Coherent SAR processing transforms raw data, acquired by the system, into a SAR images containing for each pixel information regarding the signal phase which depends on the target-sensor distance. Acquiring the data exactly from the same position (zero baseline condition), it is possible to directly relate the phase variations obtained by the interferometric analysis of consecutive couple of images to ground displacements along the line of sight of the radar instrumentations. Otherwise, by acquiring two radar datasets from slightly different positions it is possible to relate the phase variations obtained from the interferometric analysis to the topography of the observed area, providing an accurate DEM of the scene. While the first application allows to continuously follow the short term temporal evolution of the mass movements, the second one permits, by the comparison between interferometric DEM obtained in different periods, to observe the landslide evolution on a longer temporal scale. The application of these approaches to the selected test sites have demonstrated, by means of the comparison with traditionals instrumentations, the excellent precision and accuracy of the new technique. The use of such a technique, providing deformations maps of the studied area, facilitates the interpretation of the movement mechanism. Due to its non-invasive character, the good versatility in terms of suitable mass movement and the very high definition, the technique is well suited to mass movements, especially for those affecting urban area and cultural heritage.

  17. Fast Hermite element method for smoothing and differentiating noisy displacement field in digital image correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jiaqing; Song, Yu; Wu, Xinxin

    2015-05-01

    In our previous work, an improved Hermite finite element smoothing method (IHFESM) combined with the well-known Tikhonov regularization was proposed to smooth the noisy displacement field directly calculated by digital image correlation (DIC). Even though IHFESM could reconstruct reliable strain field for arbitrary region of interest (ROI), it still suffers from three defects in practice: (i) for the large scale problems, it involves high computational burden to find the optimum regularization parameter within the generalized cross-validation (GCV) function, since the inverse and the trace of two large matrices are frequently evaluated, (ii) the search range is too wide to find the desired optimum regularization parameter quickly, and (iii) for the arbitrary ROI, the complex two dimensional meshing routines are required to locate and mesh the invalid regions into triangular elements. In current work, to overcome above deficiencies, we propose the fast Hermite element method (FHEM). The proposed FHEM avoids the redundant computation in IHFESM by decomposing the resultant two small matrices to speed up the original matrix inverse and trace computation. To narrow down the search range of regularization parameter, the magnitude of the closeness term and roughness penalty term in error function are balanced by a new parameter. The calculation of global regularization matrix is also sped up by using simple formulation without any sophisticated meshing routines. Experiments show that the FHEM is at least 50 times as fast as IHFESM with similar accuracy, and it is recommended to be adopted to smooth and differentiate the noisy displacement field for DIC in practice.

  18. Applying a Bayesian Approach to Identification of Orthotropic Elastic Constants from Full Field Displacement Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gogu, C.; Yin, W.; Haftka, R.; Ifju, P.; Molimard, J.; Le Riche, R.; Vautrin, A.

    2010-06-01

    A major challenge in the identification of material properties is handling different sources of uncertainty in the experiment and the modelling of the experiment for estimating the resulting uncertainty in the identified properties. Numerous improvements in identification methods have provided increasingly accurate estimates of various material properties. However, characterizing the uncertainty in the identified properties is still relatively crude. Different material properties obtained from a single test are not obtained with the same confidence. Typically the highest uncertainty is associated with respect to properties to which the experiment is the most insensitive. In addition, the uncertainty in different properties can be strongly correlated, so that obtaining only variance estimates may be misleading. A possible approach for handling the different sources of uncertainty and estimating the uncertainty in the identified properties is the Bayesian method. This method was introduced in the late 1970s in the context of identification [1] and has been applied since to different problems, notably identification of elastic constants from plate vibration experiments [2]-[4]. The applications of the method to these classical pointwise tests involved only a small number of measurements (typically ten natural frequencies in the previously cited vibration test) which facilitated the application of the Bayesian approach. For identifying elastic constants, full field strain or displacement measurements provide a high number of measured quantities (one measurement per image pixel) and hence a promise of smaller uncertainties in the properties. However, the high number of measurements represents also a major computational challenge in applying the Bayesian approach to full field measurements. To address this challenge we propose an approach based on the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) of the full fields in order to drastically reduce their dimensionality. POD is based on projecting the full field images on a modal basis, constructed from sample simulations, and which can account for the variations of the full field as the elastic constants and other parameters of interest are varied. The fidelity of the decomposition depends on the number of basis vectors used. Typically even complex fields can be accurately represented with no more than a few dozen modes and for our problem we showed that only four or five modes are sufficient [5]. To further reduce the computational cost of the Bayesian approach we use response surface approximations of the POD coefficients of the fields. We show that 3rd degree polynomial response surface approximations provide a satisfying accuracy. The combination of POD decomposition and response surface methodology allows to bring down the computational time of the Bayesian identification to a few days. The proposed approach is applied to Moiré interferometry full field displacement measurements from a traction experiment on a plate with a hole. The laminate with a layup of [45,- 45,0]s is made out of a Toray® T800/3631 graphite/epoxy prepreg. The measured displacement maps are provided in Figure 1. The mean values of the identified properties joint probability density function are in agreement with previous identifications carried out on the same material. Furthermore the probability density function also provides the coefficient of variation with which the properties are identified as well as the correlations between the various properties. We find that while the longitudinal Young’s modulus is identified with good accuracy (low standard deviation), the Poisson’s ration is identified with much higher uncertainty. Several of the properties are also found to be correlated. The identified uncertainty structure of the elastic constants (i.e. variance co-variance matrix) has potential benefits to reliability analyses, by allowing a more accurate description of the input uncertainty. An additional advantage of the Bayesian approach is that it provides a natural way (in the form of the prior probab

  19. Earth surface deformation analysis of 2005 Qeshm earthquake based on three-dimensional displacement field derived from radar imagery measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amighpey, Masoome; Vosooghi, Behzad; Dehghani, Maryam

    2009-04-01

    We derived the 3D vector displacement field due to the 5.9 Mw Qeshm island (Iran) earthquake using ascending and descending interferograms and azimuth offsets obtained from ENVISAT ASAR data. The pick-to-pick estimated displacement was 10 cm in west, 69 cm in south and 22 cm in vertical directions. We then used strain analysis to study coseismic surface deformation of the earthquake. Finite differences and finite element as two numerical solutions were applied in order to compute the strain tensors. Furthermore, dilation and shear parameters were derived using the strain tensors. Finite differences results showed the maximum expansion of 0.002 and maximum contraction of 0.003. The amounts of maximum shear in xy, xz and yz planes were estimated using finite differences method as 0.05, 0.1 and 0.049, respectively. The maximum expansion and contraction were computed as 0.006 and 0.005, respectively, using finite element approach. Moreover, the maximum shear in xy, xz and yz planes obtained by finite element method was 0.2, 0.4 and 0.19, respectively. Comparison of the two numerical methods shows that the numerical results obtained by the finite differences method are more accurate due to the use of more adjacent and more points to calculate the strain tensor. However, the results of both methods represent the changes and maximum expansion and contraction in the direction of faults proposed by after shock seismicity study of the earthquake. The concentration of the shear and dilation were observed in the central part of the island along the NW-SE oriented fault passing from central part of the island and also we have considerable amount of shear and dilation in the vicinity of Qeshm fault.

  20. Seismic Displacement Analysis of GPS Permanent Stations due to the Tohoku-Oki Mega-thrust Earthquake in Korea and Asian Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, J. S.; Lee, D. H.; Yun, H. S.; Min, B. I.

    2012-04-01

    In this study, we analyzed the effects of seismic displacements due to the mega thrust earthquake occurred near Tohoku-Oki area on Mar. 11, 2011 with Mw 9.0 magnitude in the context of evaluation of position change by the earthquake on the Korean and Asian GPS permanent stations. For this, two weeks GPS data observed around the event of Tohoku-Oki earthquake (Mar. 4 ~ Mar. 18, 2011) were obtained from 22 GPS permanent stations in the vicinity of epicenter (Korea, Japan, Russia, China and Taiwan) and 284 IGS global stations. All available GPS data were processed and adjusted by GAMIT/GLOBK software to estimate the co-seismic horizontal displacements at each station. As the results of GPS analysis, the co-seismic displacements due to Tohoku-Oki earthquake were clearly revealed in the GPS stations of Asian region, Japan and its neighboring countries, and even to affect the horizontal position of GPS station (WUHN in China) which is located about 2,700 km away from the epicenter. Also, we performed the elastic deformation analysis using the horizontal displacements of baselines between Korean GPS stations in order to analyze the effects of Tohoku-Oki earthquake more precisely to the Korean region. The size of maximum shear strain rate calculated during the event of Tohoku-Oki earthquake is 7.5 times greater than the size of annual rate in Korean region. In conclusion, it was found that the effects of Tohoku-Oki earthquake had resulted in the horizontal displacements, ranging from 14.9 mm to 58.3 mm in the geodetic positions of Korean GPS stations. So, these irregular displacements can cause the position error in the relative GPS survey such as DGPS up to 20 mm without updating the coordinates of GPS stations in Korea.

  1. Detection of Alzheimer’s disease by displacement field and machine learning

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuihua

    2015-01-01

    Aim. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease. Recently, computer scientists have developed various methods for early detection based on computer vision and machine learning techniques. Method. In this study, we proposed a novel AD detection method by displacement field (DF) estimation between a normal brain and an AD brain. The DF was treated as the AD-related features, reduced by principal component analysis (PCA), and finally fed into three classifiers: support vector machine (SVM), generalized eigenvalue proximal SVM (GEPSVM), and twin SVM (TSVM). The 10-fold cross validation repeated 50 times. Results. The results showed the “DF + PCA + TSVM” achieved the accuracy of 92.75 ± 1.77, sensitivity of 90.56 ± 1.15, specificity of 93.37 ± 2.05, and precision of 79.61 ± 2.21. This result is better than or comparable with not only the other proposed two methods, but also ten state-of-the-art methods. Besides, our method discovers the AD is related to following brain regions disclosed in recent publications: Angular Gyrus, Anterior Cingulate, Cingulate Gyrus, Culmen, Cuneus, Fusiform Gyrus, Inferior Frontal Gyrus, Inferior Occipital Gyrus, Inferior Parietal Lobule, Inferior Semi-Lunar Lobule, Inferior Temporal Gyrus, Insula, Lateral Ventricle, Lingual Gyrus, Medial Frontal Gyrus, Middle Frontal Gyrus, Middle Occipital Gyrus, Middle Temporal Gyrus, Paracentral Lobule, Parahippocampal Gyrus, Postcentral Gyrus, Posterior Cingulate, Precentral Gyrus, Precuneus, Sub-Gyral, Superior Parietal Lobule, Superior Temporal Gyrus, Supramarginal Gyrus, and Uncus. Conclusion. The displacement filed is effective in detection of AD and related brain-regions. PMID:26401461

  2. Identifying underground coal mine displacement through field and laboratory laser scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slaker, Brent; Westman, Erik

    2014-01-01

    The ability to identify ground movements in the unique environment of an underground coalmine is explored through the use of laser scanning. Time-lapse scans were performed in an underground coal mine to detect rib surface change after different volumes of coal were removed from the mine ribs. Surface changes in the rib as small as 57 cm3 were detected through analysis of surface differences between triangulated surfaces created from point clouds. Results suggest that the uneven geometry, coal reflectance, and small movements of objects and references in the scene due to ventilation air do not significantly influence monitoring ability. Time-lapse scans were also performed on an artificial coal rib constructed to allow the researchers to control deformation and error precisely. A test of displacement measurement precision showed relative standard deviations of <0.1% are attainable with point cloud densities of >3200 pts/m2. Changing the distance and angle of incidence of the artificial coal rib to the scanner had little impact on the accuracy of results beyond the expected reduction due to a smaller point density of the target area. The results collected in this study suggest that laser scanning can be a useful, comprehensive tool for measuring ground change in an underground coal mining environment.

  3. Anisotropy in MHD turbulence due to a mean magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shebalin, J. V.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Montgomery, D.

    1982-01-01

    The development of anisotropy in an initially isotropic spectrum is studied numerically for two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. The anisotropy develops due to the combined effects of an externally imposed dc magnetic field and viscous and resistive dissipation at high wave numbers. The effect is most pronounced at high mechanical and magnetic Reynolds numbers. The anisotropy is greater at the higher wave numbers.

  4. Some thoughts on error-contributions to reconstruct 3D coseismic displacement field using the model of combining multiple independent InSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bin; Zhang, Jingfa; Luo, Yi

    2012-07-01

    Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) has proved an immensely powerful tool in studying earthquakes with millimetre-scale accuracy at a high spatial resolution. However, each interferogram records only the component of displacement in the direction of the satellite line of sight (LOS). Thus previous InSAR studies of displacement due to earthquakes were generally limited to one or two components of the surface displacement field. Three- dimensional (3D) surface displacement maps can provide a more comprehensive understanding of source geometry associated with earthquake. By combining interferograms from multiple look angles, it is possible to constrain the three-dimensional components of displacement [Jung et al., 2011; Wright, et al., 2004; Hong et al., 2010]. In this work, we take 2008 Gaize Ms6.9 earthquake (Tibet) for example, derive LOS surface displacement from several paths of ENVISAT ASAR images (Image mode: Track 348, descending pass; Track 341, 427, and 155, ascending pass. ScanSAR mode: Track 341, 112, 155, and 384, ascending pass), and reconstruct the 3D coseismic displacement field with the model named multiple independent InSAR with different viewing angles. Because it is difficult to distinguish tectonic signal from phase noise (eg. orbital errors, atmospheric errors, and unwrapping errors), these error-contributions may be propagated to the 3D coseismic components (vertical, north, east). In addition, for ENVISAT ASAR, it is worth notice that the radar antenna is fixed with respect to the current satellite, which may lead to different LOS observations with nearly identical viewing angles in parallel passes. Thus, when inverting 3D components with least square solution, InSAR observation errors may be magnified by the ill-conditioned system of equations in the solution. Although the ill-conditioned system of equations may result in bad solution, some InSAR observation errors can be detected by the system. In our study, we will introduce the condition number (cond) of coefficient matrix to evaluate the condition of equation set. Our purposes are: 1) to find above which condition number (critical value) we can detect the observation errors from the equation set; 2) to comprehensive understand how the accuracies of 3D components are affected by ill-conditioned system. According to the answers of these two questions, some optimized algorithm may be proposed to improve the accuracies of reconstructing 3D coseismic displacement field.

  5. Calculation of the attenuation and phase displacement per unit of length due to rain composed of ellipsoidal drops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maggiori, D.

    1981-01-01

    All of the phenomena which influence the propagation of radiowaves at frequencies above 10 GHz (attenuation, depolarization, scintillation) can by intensified by parameters directly derived from a solution of individual scatter, naturally in addition to be meteorological elements which characterize the physical medium. The diffusion caused by rainy precipitation was studied using Mie's algorithm for rain composed of spherical drops, and Oguchi's algorithm for rain composed of drops in an ellipsoidal form with axes of rotational symmetry arrange along the vertical line of a generic reference point. Specific phase displacement and attenuation along the principal planes, propagation of radiowaves in generic polarization, and propagation with inclined axes are also considered.

  6. Preliminary design of land displacement-optical fiber sensor and analysis of observation during laboratory and field test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayuwati, Dwi; Waluyo, Tomi B.; Widiyatmoko, Bambang

    2015-01-01

    An optical fiber optic sensor for detecting land displacement is discussed in this paper. The sensor system consists of a laser at wavelength 1.3 um, optical fiber coupler, optical fiber as sensor and light transmitting media, PIN photodiodedetector system, data logger and personal computer. Sensor was made from a curved optical fiber with diameter 35 mm, which will be changed into a heart-shape fiber if it is pulled. The heart-shape fiber sensor is the modification of the earlier displacement fiber sensor model which was in an ellipse form. Light to and from the optical fiber sensor was transmitted into a length of a multi core, single mode optical fiber cable. The scheme of the optical displacement sensor system has been described here. Characterization in the laboratory has been done by applying a series of pulling mechanism, on the heart-shape fiber sensor; which represents the land displacement process. Characterization in the field was carried out by mounting the sensor system on a scaled-down model of a land slope and artificially reproducing the landslide process using a steady-flow of artificial rainfall as the trigger. The voltage sensor output was recorded during the artificial landslide process. The displacement occurence can be indicated from the declining of the sensor signal received by the detector while the reference signal is steady. Characterization in the laboratory resulted in the performance of the optical fiber land displacement, namely, sensitivity 0.027(mV/mV)/mm, resolution 0.37 mm and measurement range 30 mm; compared with earlier optical fiber sensor performance with similar sensitivity and resolution which works only in 8 mm displacement range. Based on the experiment of landslides simulation in the field, we can define a critical condition in the real situation before landslides occurence to take any measures to prevent more casualties and losses.

  7. Phase field model for coupled displacive and diffusive microstructural processes under thermal loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maraldi, Mirko; Wells, Garth N.; Molari, Luisa

    2011-08-01

    A non-isothermal phase field model that captures both displacive and diffusive phase transformations in a unified framework is presented. The model is developed in a formal thermodynamic setting, which provides guidance on admissible constitutive relationships and on the coupling of the numerous physical processes that are active. Phase changes are driven by temperature-dependent free-energy functions that become non-convex below a transition temperature. Higher-order spatial gradients are present in the model to account for phase boundary energy, and these terms necessitate the introduction of non-standard terms in the energy balance equation in order to satisfy the classical entropy inequality point-wise. To solve the resulting balance equations, a Galerkin finite element scheme is elaborated. To deal rigorously with the presence of high-order spatial derivatives associated with surface energies at phase boundaries in both the momentum and mass balance equations, some novel numerical approaches are used. Numerical examples are presented that consider boundary cooling of a domain at different rates, and these results demonstrate that the model can qualitatively reproduce the evolution of microstructural features that are observed in some alloys, especially steels. The proposed model opens a number of interesting possibilities for simulating and controlling microstructure pattern development under combinations of thermal and mechanical loading.

  8. Flow damping due to stochastization of the magnetic field

    PubMed Central

    Ida, K.; Yoshinuma, M.; Tsuchiya, H.; Kobayashi, T.; Suzuki, C.; Yokoyama, M.; Shimizu, A.; Nagaoka, K.; Inagaki, S.; Itoh, K.; Akiyama, T.; Emoto, M.; Evans, T.; Dinklage, A.; Du, X.; Fujii, K.; Goto, M.; Goto, T.; Hasuo, M.; Hidalgo, C.; Ichiguchi, K.; Ishizawa, A.; Jakubowski, M.; Kamiya, K.; Kasahara, H.; Kawamura, G.; Kato, D.; Kobayashi, M.; Morita, S.; Mukai, K.; Murakami, I.; Murakami, S.; Narushima, Y.; Nunami, M.; Ohdach, S.; Ohno, N.; Osakabe, M.; Pablant, N.; Sakakibara, S.; Seki, T.; Shimozuma, T.; Shoji, M.; Sudo, S.; Tanaka, K.; Tokuzawa, T.; Todo, Y.; Wang, H.; Yamada, H.; Takeiri, Y.; Mutoh, T.; Imagawa, S.; Mito, T.; Nagayama, Y.; Watanabe, K. Y.; Ashikawa, N.; Chikaraishi, H.; Ejiri, A.; Furukawa, M.; Fujita, T.; Hamaguchi, S.; Igami, H.; Isobe, M.; Masuzaki, S.; Morisaki, T.; Motojima, G.; Nagasaki, K.; Nakano, H.; Oya, Y.; Suzuki, Y.; Sakamoto, R.; Sakamoto, M.; Sanpei, A.; Takahashi, H.; Tokitani, M.; Ueda, Y.; Yoshimura, Y.; Yamamoto, S.; Nishimura, K.; Sugama, H.; Yamamoto, T.; Idei, H.; Isayama, A.; Kitajima, S.; Masamune, S.; Shinohara, K.; Bawankar, P. S.; Bernard, E.; von Berkel, M.; Funaba, H.; Huang, X. L.; Ii, T.; Ido, T.; Ikeda, K.; Kamio, S.; Kumazawa, R.; Moon, C.; Muto, S.; Miyazawa, J.; Ming, T.; Nakamura, Y.; Nishimura, S.; Ogawa, K.; Ozaki, T.; Oishi, T.; Ohno, M.; Pandya, S.; Seki, R.; Sano, R.; Saito, K.; Sakaue, H.; Takemura, Y.; Tsumori, K.; Tamura, N.; Tanaka, H.; Toi, K.; Wieland, B.; Yamada, I.; Yasuhara, R.; Zhang, H.; Kaneko, O.; Komori, A.

    2015-01-01

    The driving and damping mechanism of plasma flow is an important issue because flow shear has a significant impact on turbulence in a plasma, which determines the transport in the magnetized plasma. Here we report clear evidence of the flow damping due to stochastization of the magnetic field. Abrupt damping of the toroidal flow associated with a transition from a nested magnetic flux surface to a stochastic magnetic field is observed when the magnetic shear at the rational surface decreases to 0.5 in the large helical device. This flow damping and resulting profile flattening are much stronger than expected from the Rechester–Rosenbluth model. The toroidal flow shear shows a linear decay, while the ion temperature gradient shows an exponential decay. This observation suggests that the flow damping is due to the change in the non-diffusive term of momentum transport. PMID:25569268

  9. Flow damping due to stochastization of the magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Ida, K; Yoshinuma, M; Tsuchiya, H; Kobayashi, T; Suzuki, C; Yokoyama, M; Shimizu, A; Nagaoka, K; Inagaki, S; Itoh, K

    2015-01-01

    The driving and damping mechanism of plasma flow is an important issue because flow shear has a significant impact on turbulence in a plasma, which determines the transport in the magnetized plasma. Here we report clear evidence of the flow damping due to stochastization of the magnetic field. Abrupt damping of the toroidal flow associated with a transition from a nested magnetic flux surface to a stochastic magnetic field is observed when the magnetic shear at the rational surface decreases to 0.5 in the large helical device. This flow damping and resulting profile flattening are much stronger than expected from the Rechester-Rosenbluth model. The toroidal flow shear shows a linear decay, while the ion temperature gradient shows an exponential decay. This observation suggests that the flow damping is due to the change in the non-diffusive term of momentum transport. PMID:25569268

  10. Calcium displacement caused by electromagnetic fields. Final report, 1 November 1982-31 August 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, J.D.; Jordan, C.A.

    1989-08-31

    This research effort was to determine theoretically a physical basis for the interaction of low-intensity externally applied electromagnetic fields with biological tissue. The primary aim of the investigation was to establish a molecular basis for the class of interactions commonly referred to as nonthermal effects of electromagnetic fields with biological systems. In particular, the biological structure of interest was the plasma membrane since it had been either directly or indirectly implicated in numerous experimental studies. It was demonstrated how a membrane undergoing a phase transition could qualitatively account for the release and/or uptake of divalent calcium ions. A characterization of changes in the structure of the membrane/electrolyte interface due to field induced changes in enzymatic activity was demonstrated. The role of critical phenomena was shown analytically to be able to account for the unique sensitivity of biomembranes to weak external field perturbations, and describe alterations in the passive transport of sodium ions in rabbit erythrocytes.

  11. Anisotropy in MHD turbulence due to a mean magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shebalin, J. V.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Montgomery, D.

    1983-01-01

    The development of anisotropy in an initially isotropic spectrum is studied numerically for two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. The anisotropy develops due to the combined effects of an externally imposed dc magnetic field and viscous and resistive dissipation at high wave numbers. The effect is most pronounced at high mechanical and magnetic Reynolds numbers. The anisotropy is greater at the higher wave numbers. Previously announced in STAR as N83-12998

  12. Destructive interferences between diffuse scatterings due to disorder and displacive modulation (X-ray ``white line" effect)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravy, S.; Pouget, J. P.; Comes, R.

    1992-06-01

    In the solid solutions of charge transfer salts of the TTF-TCNQ family, a new diffraction effect is observed. The X-ray patterns of such materials show a broad diffuse scattering on which fine “white” diffuse lines at {Q} + 2 {k}_f are observed, whereas at {Q} - 2 {k}_f the diffuse scattering has the usual aspect. We propose a simple interpretation of this +2 {k}_f/ - 2 {k}_f asymmetry of intensity by a coupling in quadrature between a displacement wave and a composition wave of same wave vector. As the effect originates from a coherence between substitutional disorder and the displacement waves, we perform a calculation of the diffracted intensity to first order in displacement, for a one-dimensional alloy in which all the impurities pin a lattice distortion of wave vector 2 {k}_f, with the same phase. We emphasize the three relevant parameters of the calculations : the difference of structure factors of the substituted entities, the phase of the displacement wave with respect to the impurity and its polarization. We then propose that the white lines experimentally observed in (HMTTF){0.05} (HMTSF){0.95}-TCNQ, originate from the 2 {k}_f distortions induced by charge oscillations around the substituted HMTTF molecules on the donor stacks. Dans des solutions solides de sels à transfert de charge de la famille TTF-TCNQ un effet de diffraction original est observé. Les figures de diffraction de tels matériaux font apparaître de larges diffusions diffuses sur lesquelles on observe de fines lignes diffuses “blanches" en {Q} + 2 {k}_f, alors qu'en {Q} - 2 {k}_f on retrouve l'aspect habituel des lignes noires. Nous proposons une interprétation simple de cette asymétrie d'intensité +2 {k}_f/ - 2 {k}_f en couplant en quadrature une onde de déplacement et une onde de composition de même vecteur d'onde. La cohérence entre le désordre de substitution et le déplacement étant à l'origine de l'effet, nous effectuons ensuite un calcul de l'intensité diffusée au premier ordre en déplacement pour un modèle d'alliage unidimensionnel dans lequel toutes les impuretés accrochent une distorsion de réseau à 2 k f, avec la même phase. Ces résultats nous permettent de mettre en évidence les trois paramètres pertinents du problème : la différence entre les facteurs de structure des entités substituées, la phase de l'onde accrochée par rapport à l'impureté et sa polarisation. Nous proposons que les lignes blanches observées expérimentalement dans (HMTTF){0,05} (HMTSF){0,95}-TCNQ résultent des distorsions de réseau couplées aux oscillations de charge induites par des impuretés sur les chaînes donneuses.

  13. Biological effects due to weak magnetic field on plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyavskaya, N. A.

    2004-01-01

    Throughout the evolution process, Earth's magnetic field (MF, about 50 μT) was a natural component of the environment for living organisms. Biological objects, flying on planned long-term interplanetary missions, would experience much weaker magnetic fields, since galactic MF is known to be 0.1-1 nT. However, the role of weak magnetic fields and their influence on functioning of biological organisms are still insufficiently understood, and is actively studied. Numerous experiments with seedlings of different plant species placed in weak magnetic field have shown that the growth of their primary roots is inhibited during early germination stages in comparison with control. The proliferative activity and cell reproduction in meristem of plant roots are reduced in weak magnetic field. Cell reproductive cycle slows down due to the expansion of G 1 phase in many plant species (and of G 2 phase in flax and lentil roots), while other phases of cell cycle remain relatively stabile. In plant cells exposed to weak magnetic field, the functional activity of genome at early pre-replicate period is shown to decrease. Weak magnetic field causes intensification of protein synthesis and disintegration in plant roots. At ultrastructural level, changes in distribution of condensed chromatin and nucleolus compactization in nuclei, noticeable accumulation of lipid bodies, development of a lytic compartment (vacuoles, cytosegresomes and paramural bodies), and reduction of phytoferritin in plastids in meristem cells were observed in pea roots exposed to weak magnetic field. Mitochondria were found to be very sensitive to weak magnetic field: their size and relative volume in cells increase, matrix becomes electron-transparent, and cristae reduce. Cytochemical studies indicate that cells of plant roots exposed to weak magnetic field show Ca 2+ over-saturation in all organelles and in cytoplasm unlike the control ones. The data presented suggest that prolonged exposures of plants to weak magnetic field may cause different biological effects at the cellular, tissue and organ levels. They may be functionally related to systems that regulate plant metabolism including the intracellular Ca 2+ homeostasis. However, our understanding of very complex fundamental mechanisms and sites of interactions between weak magnetic fields and biological systems is still incomplete and still deserve strong research efforts.

  14. Needle detection in ultrasound using the spectral properties of the displacement field: a feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beigi, Parmida; Salcudean, Tim; Rohling, Robert; Lessoway, Victoria A.; Ng, Gary C.

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a new needle detection technique for ultrasound guided interventions based on the spectral properties of small displacements arising from hand tremour or intentional motion. In a block-based approach, the displacement map is computed for each block of interest versus a reference frame, using an optical flow technique. To compute the flow parameters, the Lucas-Kanade approach is used in a multiresolution and regularized form. A least-squares fit is used to estimate the flow parameters from the overdetermined system of spatial and temporal gradients. Lateral and axial components of the displacement are obtained for each block of interest at consecutive frames. Magnitude-squared spectral coherency is derived between the median displacements of the reference block and each block of interest, to determine the spectral correlation. In vivo images were obtained from the tissue near the abdominal aorta to capture the extreme intrinsic body motion and insertion images were captured from a tissue-mimicking agar phantom. According to the analysis, both the involuntary and intentional movement of the needle produces coherent displacement with respect to a reference window near the insertion site. Intrinsic body motion also produces coherent displacement with respect to a reference window in the tissue; however, the coherency spectra of intrinsic and needle motion are distinguishable spectrally. Blocks with high spectral coherency at high frequencies are selected, estimating a channel for needle trajectory. The needle trajectory is detected from locally thresholded absolute displacement map within the initial estimate. Experimental results show the RMS localization accuracy of 1:0 mm, 0:7 mm, and 0:5 mm for hand tremour, vibrational and rotational needle movements, respectively.

  15. Fast particle losses due to NTMs and magnetic field ripple

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strumberger, E.; Günter, S.; Schwarz, E.; Tichmann, C.; ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2008-02-01

    We present a detailed numerical study of the interaction between fast particles and large-scale magnetic perturbations and toroidal field ripple. In particular we focus our study on the losses of fast ions created by neutral beam injection (NBI) for an ASDEX Upgrade discharge with neoclassical tearing mode (NTM) activity. For these investigations, we use as input an equilibrium carefully reconstructed from experimental data. The magnetic field ripple is self-consistently included by a three-dimensional, free-boundary equilibrium computation. The magnetic islands caused by a (2,1)-NTM are introduced by a field perturbation superimposed on the equilibrium magnetic field. The experimental data are used to reproduce size and location of those islands numerically. Starting from a realistic seed distribution, the guiding centres of about 100 000 fast ions are traced up to a given time limit, or until they hit plasma-facing structures. A detailed analysis of the particle trajectories provides important information on the underlying loss mechanisms such as: (i) losses of passing particles caused by drift island formation, and (ii) losses of trapped particles due to stochastic diffusion.

  16. Displacement fields and self-energies of circular and polygonal dislocation loops in homogeneous and layered anisotropic solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yanfei; Larson, Bennett C.

    2015-10-01

    There are large classes of materials problems that involve the solutions of stress, displacement, and strain energy of dislocation loops in elastically anisotropic solids, including increasingly detailed investigations of the generation and evolution of irradiation induced defect clusters ranging in sizes from the micro- to meso-scopic length scales. Based on a two-dimensional Fourier transform and Stroh formalism that are ideal for homogeneous and layered anisotropic solids, we have developed robust and computationally efficient methods to calculate the displacement fields for circular and polygonal dislocation loops. Using the homogeneous nature of the Green tensor of order -1, we have shown that the displacement and stress fields of dislocation loops can be obtained by numerical quadrature of a line integral. In addition, it is shown that the sextuple integrals associated with the strain energy of loops can be represented by the product of a pre-factor containing elastic anisotropy effects and a universal term that is singular and equal to that for elastic isotropic case. Furthermore, we have found that the self-energy pre-factor of prismatic loops is identical to the effective modulus of normal contact, and the pre-factor of shear loops differs from the effective indentation modulus in shear by only a few percent. These results provide a convenient method for examining dislocation reaction energetic and efficient procedures for numerical computation of local displacements and stresses of dislocation loops, both of which play integral roles in quantitative defect analyses within combined experimental-theoretical investigations.

  17. Predicting ground electric field due to geomagnetic disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, M. C.; Püthe, C.; Kuvshinov, A. V.

    2013-12-01

    Electric field induced in the ground by geomagnetic disturbances drives currents in the power transmission grids, telecommunication lines or buried pipelines. These currents, known as Geomagnetically Induced Currents (GIC) are known to cause service disruptions. This effect is maximal at high latitudes due to the presence of strong polar electrojet currents. However both observations and models show that GIC caused by ring current intensifications also pose a risk at low- and mid-latitude locations, where majority of systems vulnerable to GIC are installed. A technique to model geoelectric field induced by the magnetospheric currents in a 3D conductivity model of the Earth is presented by Püthe & Kuvshinov (2013). We extend this work by predicting the induced geoelectric field solely based on Disturbance storm time index (Dst), a measure of ring current activity. Two major components of this effort are 1) Pre-computed 3D electromagnetic response of the ground to a unit magnetopsheric (P01) source and 2) Forecasted Dst data (Temerin & Li, 2002; 2006) from Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) satellite at the L1 Lagrange point. Depending on the solar wind speed, the Dst forecasts are available approximately 1 hour in advance. The pre-computed response function for a site is multiplied by the Dst data in frequency domain to obtain predicted electric field for that location. Validating our approach, the predicted geoelectric field compares favorably with observed data from an ocean bottom electromagnetic array in the Pacific Ocean during the geomagnetic storm of April 2000. We also compare data from USArray magnetotelluric stations operational during the geomagnetic storm of October 2011. In this case, the results are site specific, with varying degrees of model fit. This indicates the influence of local surface conductivity inhomogeneities on the observed geoelectric data. Averaging data from adjacent stations seems to improve the fit with the prediction.

  18. Near field 3D displacement of El Mayor-Cupapah Earthquake: A hybrid approach. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinojosa-Corona, A.; Limon, F. J.; Nissen, E.; Glennie, C. L.; Krishnan, A.; Oskin, M. E.; Arrowsmith, R.; Leprince, S.; Saripalli, S.; Arregui, S. M.; Borsa, A. A.; Kreylos, O.; Banesh, D.; Fletcher, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    The surface rupture produced on April 4th of 2010 by the M 7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah Earthquake is an ideal target to be analyzed by remote sensing techniques. It produced over 100 km of scarps, with vertical and horizontal slip on the order of 2 to 3 m in scarcely vegetated, rugged terrain underlain by mostly igneous rocks. A 3D displacement field (DF) was calculated by matching pre- to post-event airborne LiDAR point clouds through the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm, which first segments the point clouds into discrete windows, and for each, iteratively converges on a rigid body transformation comprising a translation and a rotation that best aligns the pre- to post-event point clouds. After testing different window sizes, we used a square window 100m a side. The El Mayor-Cucapah LiDAR data sets present special challenges for the ICP technique. The point clouds differ considerably in point density, by ~1:700. This, and the lower precision of the pre-earthquake data, limit the accuracy of the DF results. Despite these issues, the vertical and East-West (E-W) components of the DF from ICP very clearly delineate the trace of the surface rupture, showing east-side down dextral-normal motion in agreement with field measurements and the focal mechanism reported for this event. A systematic error in the LiDAR instrument used for the pre-event survey caused severe distortion of the North-South (N-S) component of the LiDAR returns. After reprocessing the source pre-event point cloud in various ways to correct for the systematic error, a more plausible pattern for the N-S component was obtained for the DF. To have another perspective for the horizontal DF, a subpixel correlation analysis of optical satellite images (SPOT 2.5 m panchromatic images) before and after the earthquake, was performed using the COSI-Corr software. We combined the N-S component from this analysis with the E-W and vertical components of the ICP results, and present the analysis of the resulting DF. We also compare the results from ICP and COSI-Corr individually for each of the horizontal components. Both methods delineate very clearly the rupture, and agree in direction with small discrepancies in magnitude for the horizontal DF. Results from far field deformation measurements obtained from different remote sensing techniques, such as GPS and InSAR, could be fused with the near-field LiDAR and COSI-Corr results to provide a synoptic view of the strain induced by earthquakes such as the El Mayor-Cucapah event.

  19. Fast Particle Losses due to NTMs and Magnetic Field Ripple

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strumberger, E.; Guenter, S.; Schwarz, E.; Tichmann, C.

    2007-11-01

    We performed a detailed numerical study for the interaction between fast particles and large scale magnetic perturbations and toroidal field ripple. In particular we focussed our study on the losses of fast ions created by neutral beam injection (NBI) for an ASDEX Upgrade discharge with neoclassical tearing mode (NTM) activity. For these investigations we used as an input an equilibrium carefully reconstructed from experimental data. The ripple is self-consistently included by a 3D, free-boundary equilibrium computation. The magnetic islands caused by (2,1) NTM are introduced by a field perturbation superimposed to the equilibrium magnetic field. Experimental data have been used to reproduce the size and location of those islands numerically. Starting from a realistic seed distribution, the guiding centres of about 100000 fast ions are traced up to a given time limit, or until they hit plasma-facing structures. A detailed analysis of the particle trajectories will provide important information of the underlying loss mechanisms such as: i.) prompt losses of passing particles caused by drift island formation, and ii.) losses of trapped particles due to stochastic diffusion.

  20. Identification of hyperelastic properties of passive thigh muscle under compression with an inverse method from a displacement field measurement.

    PubMed

    Affagard, Jean-Sébastien; Feissel, Pierre; Bensamoun, Sabine F

    2015-11-26

    The mechanical behavior of muscle tissue is an important field of investigation with different applications in medicine, car crash and sport, for example. Currently, few in vivo imaging techniques are able to characterize the mechanical properties of muscle. Thus, this study presents an in vivo method to identify a hyperelatic behavior from a displacement field measured with ultrasound and Digital Image Correlation (DIC) techniques. This identification approach was composed of 3 inter-dependent steps. The first step was to perform a 2D MRI acquisition of the thigh in order to obtain a manual segmentation of muscles (quadriceps, ischio, gracilis and sartorius) and fat tissue, and then develop a Finite Element model. In addition, a Neo-Hookean model was chosen to characterize the hyperelastic behavior (C10, D) in order to simulate a displacement field. Secondly, an experimental compression device was developed in order to measure the in vivo displacement fields in several areas of the thigh. Finally, an inverse method was performed to identify the C10 and D parameters of each soft tissue. The identification procedure was validated with a comparison with the literature. The relevance of this study was to identify the mechanical properties of each investigated soft tissues. PMID:26602374

  1. Immiscible displacement of oil by water in consolidated porous media due to capillary imbibition under ultrasonic waves.

    PubMed

    Hamida, Tarek; Babadagli, Tayfun

    2007-09-01

    Numerous studies done in the last four decades have demonstrated that acoustic stimulation may enhance recovery in oil reservoirs. This technology is not only technically feasible, but also serves as an economical, environmentally friendly alternative to currently accepted enhanced oil recovery (EOR) method. It requires low capital expenditure, and yields almost immediate improvement without any additional EOR agents. Despite a vast body of empirical and theoretical support, this method lacks sufficient understanding to make meaningful and consistent engineering predictions. This is in part due to the complex nature of the physical processes involved, as well as due to a shortage of fundamental/experimental research. Much of what the authors believe is happening within acoustically stimulated porous media is speculative and theoretical. This paper focuses on the effects of ultrasound on the interfacial forces between immiscible fluids. Capillary (spontaneous) imbibition of an aqueous phase into oil (or air)-saturated Berea sandstone and Indiana limestone samples experiments were conducted. Solutions of water, brine (15,000 and 150,000 ppm NaCl), anionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl diphenyloxide disulfonate), nonionic surfactant (alcohol ethoxylate) and polymer (xanthan gum) were prepared as the aqueous phase. Both counter-current and co-current geometries were tested. Due to the intrinsically unforced, gentle nature of the process, and their strong dependence on wettability, interfacial tension, viscosity and density, such experiments provide valuable insight into some of the governing mechanisms behind ultrasonic stimulation. PMID:17927413

  2. Full-sensitivity depth-resolved measurements of displacement fields inside weakly scattering materials using wavelength scanning interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, Pablo D.; Chakraborty, Semanti

    2012-10-01

    This paper extends Digital Speckle Pattern Interferometry into three dimensions. A Wavelength Scanning Interferometry (WSI) system is proposed which provides displacement fields inside the volume of semi-transparent scattering materials with high spatial resolution and three-dimensional displacement sensitivity. The main driver to develop such a system is the need to determine constitutive parameters (mainly elastic constants) of materials such as polymers and biological tissues so that their behavior can be modeled computationally. The sample is illuminated by three non-coplanar collimated beams around the observation direction. Sequences of two-dimensional interferograms are recorded while the frequency of the laser is tuned at a constant rate. Each pixel thus records and intensity signal which temporal frequency encodes the optical path difference between the illumination and reference beams for a particular point on the sample. Fourier transformation along the time axis reconstructs the magnitude and phase of the material's microstructure. Different optical paths along each illumination direction are required in order to separate or multiplex, in the frequency domain, the signals corresponding to each sensitivity vector. In this way, all the information required to reconstruct the location and the 3D displacement vector of scattering points within the volume in the material is recorded simultaneously. A controlled validation experiment is performed, which confirms the ability of the technique to provide three dimensional displacement distributions inside semitransparent scattering materials.

  3. Biological effects due to weak magnetic fields on plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyavskaya, N.

    In the evolution process, living organisms have experienced the action of the Earth's magnetic field (MF) that is a natural component of our environment. It is known that a galactic MF induction does not exceed 0.1 nT, since investigations of weak magnetic field (WMF) effects on biological systems have attracted attention of biologists due to planning long-term space flights to other planets where the magnetizing force is near 10-5 Oe. However, the role of WMF and its influence on organisms' functioning are still insufficiently investigated. A large number of experiments with seedlings of different plant species placed in WMF has found that the growth of their primary roots is inhibited during the early terms of germination in comparison with control. The proliferation activity and cell reproduction are reduced in meristem of plant roots under WMF application. The prolongation of total cell reproductive cycle is registered due to the expansion of G phase in1 different plant species as well as of G phase in flax and lentil roots along with2 relative stability of time parameters of other phases of cell cycle. In plant cells exposed to WMF, the decrease in functional activity of genome at early prereplicate period is shown. WMF causes the intensification in the processes of proteins' synthesis and break-up in plant roots. Qualitative and quantitative changes in protein spectrum in growing and differentiated cells of plant roots exposed to WMF are revealed. At ultrastructural level, there are observed such ultrastructural peculiarities as changes in distribution of condensed chromatin and nucleolus compactization in nuclei, noticeable accumulation of lipid bodies, development of a lytic compartment (vacuoles, cytosegresomes and paramural bodies), and reduction of phytoferritin in plastids in meristem cells of pea roots exposed to WMF. Mitochondria are the most sensitive organelle to WMF application: their size and relative volume in cells increase, matrix is electron-transparent, and cristae reduce. Cytochemical studies indicate that cells of plant roots exposed to WMF show the Ca2 + oversaturation both in all organelles and in a hyaloplasm of the cells unlike the control ones. The data presented suggest that prolonged plant exposures to WMF may cause different biological effects at the cellular, tissue and organ level. They may be functionally related to systems that regulate plant metabolism including the intracellular Ca 2 + homeostasis. The understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and sites of interactions between WMF and biological systems are complex and still deserve strong efforts, particular addressed to basic principles of coupling between field energy and biomolecules.

  4. Evaluation of the Compressive Response of Notched Composite Panels using a Full-Field Displacement Measurement System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGowan, David M.; Ambur, Damodar R.; Hanna, T. Glen; McNeill, Stephen R.

    1999-01-01

    An experimental and analytical evaluation of the compressive response of two composite, notched stiffened panels representative of primary composite wing structure is presented. A three-dimensional full-field image correlation technique is used to measure all three displacement components over global and local areas of the test panels. Point-wise and full-field results obtained using the image correlation technique are presented and compared to experimental results and analytical results obtained using nonlinear finite element analysis. Both global and global-local image correlation results are presented and discussed. Results of a simple calibration test of this image correlation technique are also presented.

  5. Displacement Fields and Self-Energies of Circular and Polygonal Dislocation Loops in Homogeneous and Layered Anisotropic Solids

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Gao, Yanfei; Larson, Ben C.

    2015-06-19

    There are large classes of materials problems that involve the solutions of stress, displacement, and strain energy of dislocation loops in elastically anisotropic solids, including increasingly detailed investigations of the generation and evolution of irradiation induced defect clusters ranging in sizes from the micro- to meso-scopic length scales. Based on a two-dimensional Fourier transform and Stroh formalism that are ideal for homogeneous and layered anisotropic solids, we have developed robust and computationally efficient methods to calculate the displacement fields for circular and polygonal dislocation loops. Using the homogeneous nature of the Green tensor of order -1, we have shown thatmore » the displacement and stress fields of dislocation loops can be obtained by numerical quadrature of a line integral. In addition, it is shown that the sextuple integrals associated with the strain energy of loops can be represented by the product of a pre-factor containing elastic anisotropy effects and a universal term that is singular and equal to that for elastic isotropic case. Furthermore, we have found that the self-energy pre-factor of prismatic loops is identical to the effective modulus of normal contact, and the pre-factor of shear loops differs from the effective indentation modulus in shear by only a few percent. These results provide a convenient method for examining dislocation reaction energetic and efficient procedures for numerical computation of local displacements and stresses of dislocation loops, both of which play integral roles in quantitative defect analyses within combined experimental–theoretical investigations.« less

  6. FARADAY ROTATION MEASURE DUE TO THE INTERGALACTIC MAGNETIC FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Akahori, Takuya; Ryu, Dongsu E-mail: ryu@canopus.cnu.ac.k

    2010-11-01

    Studying the nature and origin of the intergalactic magnetic field (IGMF) is an outstanding problem of cosmology. Measuring Faraday rotation would be a promising method to explore the IGMF in the large-scale structure (LSS) of the universe. We investigated the Faraday rotation measure (RM) due to the IGMF in filaments of galaxies using simulations for cosmological structure formation. We employed a model IGMF based on turbulence dynamo in the LSS of the universe, it has an average strength of (B) {approx} 10 nG and a coherence length of several x 100 h {sup -1} kpc in filaments. With the coherence length smaller than the path length, the inducement of RM would be a random walk process, and we found that the density peak along the line of sight dominantly contributes to the resultant RM. The root mean square of RM through filaments at the present universe was predicted to be {approx}1 rad m{sup -2}. In addition, we predicted that the probability distribution function of |RM| through filaments follows the lognormal distribution, and the power spectrum of RM in the local universe peaks at a scale of {approx}1 h {sup -1} Mpc. Our prediction of RM could be tested with future instruments.

  7. Optics for five-dimensional measurement for correction of vertical displacement error due to attitude of floating body in superconducting magnetic levitation system

    SciTech Connect

    Shiota, Fuyuhiko; Morokuma, Tadashi

    2006-09-15

    An improved optical system for five-dimensional measurement has been developed for the correction of vertical displacement error due to the attitude change of a superconducting floating body that shows five degrees of freedom besides a vertical displacement of 10 mm. The available solid angle for the optical measurement is extremely limited because of the cryogenic laser interferometer sharing the optical window of a vacuum chamber in addition to the basic structure of the cryogenic vessel for liquid helium. The aim of the design was to develop a more practical as well as better optical system compared with the prototype system. Various artifices were built into this optical system and the result shows a satisfactory performance and easy operation overcoming the extremely severe spatial difficulty in the levitation system. Although the system described here is specifically designed for our magnetic levitation system, the concept and each artifice will be applicable to the optical measurement system for an object in a high-vacuum chamber and/or cryogenic vessel where the available solid angle for an optical path is extremely limited.

  8. Analysis of the far-field crustal displacements caused by the 2011 Great Tohoku earthquake inferred from continuous GPS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shestakov, Nikolay V.; Takahashi, Hiroaki; Ohzono, Mako; Prytkov, Alexander S.; Bykov, Victor G.; Gerasimenko, Mikhail D.; Luneva, Margarita N.; Gerasimov, Grigory N.; Kolomiets, Andrey G.; Bormotov, Vladimir A.; Vasilenko, Nikolay F.; Baek, Jeongho; Park, Pil-Ho; Serov, Mikhail A.

    2012-02-01

    Small coseismic offsets detectable using GPS techniques were found more than 2300 km away from the Great Tohoku 2011 earthquake epicenter. Area of the most intense far-field co- and postseismic deformations with the maximum offset values exceeding 40 and 18 mm, respectively, extends westward from Honshu Island to the Korean Peninsula, northeastern China and southern Far East Russia. Sakhalin Island does not exhibit notable displacements caused by the earthquake, in contrast to the adjacent territories. A rectangular fault model with uniform slip was developed based on the GPS-detected far-field coseismic displacements using the spherically layered Earth assumption. Both far- and near-field coseismic deformations are generally well described by a single-segment rupture of 200 × 96 km2, characterized by thrust slip with minor strike-slip component of about 33 m and by the seismic moment value of 1.9·1022 N·m (Mw = 8.8), which roughly constrains the major slip area. The resultant compact fault geometry revealed that the main portion of the seismic moment had been realized in a relatively small-sized rupture segment. The sensitivity of far-field GPS data to the major slip area might also be used in the development of a seismically generated giant tsunami warning system.

  9. Hybrid FEM/grating interferometry analysis of displacement fields in mechanical elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dymny, Grzegorz; Kujawinska, Malgorzata

    1998-09-01

    In the paper the concept of interactive implementation of grating interferometry and FEM is proposed in order to provide additional information to properly design and control both numerical and experimental procedures. At first the information from global FEM approximate model is used to design interferogram and adjust experimental setup. Having the best fitted experimental conditions, the measurement is performed. The results are used to improve the FEM parameters e.g. size and shape of FEM grid and fit local experimental data to modified FEM model. To provide the proper experimental tool, grating interferometry with two-channel acquisition module (for instantaneous u and v displacement measurement) is applied. The concept is tested on the examples of analysis of bending ceramic-to-metal joint and laser beam weldment under tensile semiaxial load.

  10. The elastostatic plane strain mode I crack tip stress and displacement fields in a generalized linear neo-Hookean elastomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Begley, Matthew R.; Creton, Costantino; McMeeking, Robert M.

    2015-11-01

    A general asymptotic plane strain crack tip stress field is constructed for linear versions of neo-Hookean materials, which spans a wide variety of special cases including incompressible Mooney elastomers, the compressible Blatz-Ko elastomer, several cases of the Ogden constitutive law and a new result for a compressible linear neo-Hookean material. The nominal stress field has dominant terms that have a square root singularity with respect to the distance of material points from the crack tip in the undeformed reference configuration. At second order, there is a uniform tension parallel to the crack. The associated displacement field in plane strain at leading order has dependence proportional to the square root of the same coordinate. The relationship between the amplitude of the crack tip singularity (a stress intensity factor) and the plane strain energy release rate is outlined for the general linear material, with simplified relationships presented for notable special cases.

  11. Students drop out of STEM fields due to poor grades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2013-09-01

    College students planning to major in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields often drop out of those fields because of poorer than expected grades, according to a recent study. Conducted by Ralph Stinebrickner of Berea College in Kentucky and Todd Stinebrickner of the University of Western Ontario, the study is a National Bureau of Economic Research working paper published in June 2013.

  12. Extensional strain and displacement distribution due to mesoscale normal faults in Late Miocene-Pliocene sedimentary rocks along the northwestern side of the Red Sea, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaky, Kh. S.

    2015-09-01

    Field observations are presented on the NW-SE mesoscale, dip-slip, normal faults in the Late Miocene-Pliocene sedimentary rocks, along the northwestern part of the SW side of the Red Sea, Egypt. These faults were initiated parallel to the Red Sea, and were originated by the NE-SW extension associated with the Red Sea opening in the Late Oligocene-Early Miocene time. About 100 mesoscale normal faults were measured in the Late Miocene-Pliocene sedimentary rocks along seven scan-lines. The extensional strain determined in five scan-lines ranges from 2.6393 to 5.12% with an average of 3.53145%. The other two scan-lines have anomalous values of 6.2988 and 15.53%. The represented data demonstrate that the extensional strain varies significantly from profile to profile and even along the fault because of several surficial factors. The first factor is a difference in lithology. The second and third factors are the local stress and the difference between perpendicular to the direction of maximum lateral extension of area and strike of faults. The L-D (Length-Displacement) diagrams along twelve selected faults reveal three patterns. These patterns include a cone-shaped (C-type), meso-shaped (M-type), and a zigzag-shaped (Z-type). The remarkable variation of displacement (D) along the fault plane (L) is a result of the difference in lithology, and/or the overlapping fault segments, as well as the local stress along the faults.

  13. Currents and electric fields in the ionosphere due to field-aligned auroral currents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nisbet, J. S.; Miller, M. J.; Carpenter, L. A.

    1978-01-01

    Birkeland (1908, 1913) did a detailed analysis of the upper atmospheric current system in the high-latitude region, and suggested that field-aligned currents flowing into and out of the auroral ionosphere were the driving mechanism for this current system. In the present paper, static electric field and current patterns due to the field-aligned Birkeland currents are examined, using a model in which currents approximating those reported by Iijima and Potemra (1976) are used as input to a global model of the ionospheric conductivities, in which interhemispheric coupling along field lines is included. The model reproduces the main features of the high-latitude current and voltage system and the penetration of these currents within the plasmasphere.

  14. A new transducer based on the evanescent field effect for high-resolution displacement and force measurements.

    PubMed

    Knobloch, K U; Vogel, M; Fink, R H

    2000-11-01

    A new transducer, using the effect of frustrated total internal reflection of electromagnetic waves, was developed for displacement and force measurements in muscle research. The physical theory for this effect predicts the formation of an evanescent electromagnetic field in the gap between two separated optical surfaces. This evanescent electromagnetic field enables the transmission of light across the gap between the two media, an effect not contained in ray optics formalism. In the apparatus described here, the optical surfaces were obtained by bevelling 2 optical fibres to angles higher than the specific critical angle of the media used. Since the amount of transmitted light depends strongly on the distance between the surfaces, very small forces are detectable if one fibre is used as a cantilever. To test the transducer a small myofibrillar bundle (20 microm diameter) was mounted isometrically on it and contraction activated by release of "caged" Ca2+. Force and displacement steps of 180-220 nN and 9-11 nm respectively were measured with resolutions of 10 nN and 288 pm, respectively. From theoretical and practical considerations, it is expected that the presented principle will be able to achieve even much higher sensitivity for the determination of force (better than picoNewton) and distance (femtometre). PMID:11205059

  15. Enhanced oil recovery by CO/sub 2/ miscible displacement in the Little Knife Field, Billings County, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Desch, J.B.; Larsen, W.K.; Lindsay, R.F.; Nettle, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    Gulf Oil Exploration and Production Company, in conjunction with the Department of Energy, has successfully conducted a field test of the CO/sub 2/ miscible displacement process in the Little Knife Field. All project objectives were conceived, implemented, and accomplished as a result of the synergetic cooperation and communication between the various departments within Gulf Oil Corporation and the DOE. The minitest succeeded in establishing water-flood residual-oil saturations. It also succeeded in reducing the waterflood residual-oil saturation to a lower value by CO/sub 2//water injection. Finally, and most importantly, the minitest was successfully characterized, developed, and monitored. Monitoring was accomplished by cased-hole logging, fluid sampling, and simulation modeling. 9 refs.

  16. Generation of decoherence-free displaced squeezed states of radiation fields and a squeezed reservoir for atoms in cavity QED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werlang, T.; Guzmán, R.; Prado, F. O.; Villas-Bôas, C. J.

    2008-09-01

    We present a way to engineer an effective anti-Jaynes-Cumming and a Jaynes-Cumming interaction between an atomic system and a single cavity mode and show how to employ it in reservoir engineering processes. To construct the effective Hamiltonian, we analyze the interaction of an atomic system in a Λ configuration, driven by classical fields, with a single cavity mode. With this interaction, we first show how to generate a decoherence-free displaced squeezed state for the cavity field. In our scheme, an atomic beam works as a reservoir for the radiation field trapped inside the cavity, as employed recently by S. Pielawa [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 240401 (2007)] to generate an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entangled radiation state in high- Q resonators. In our scheme, all the atoms have to be prepared in the ground state and, as in the cited article, neither atomic detection nor precise interaction times between the atoms and the cavity mode are required. From this same interaction, we can also generate an ideal squeezed reservoir for atomic systems. For this purpose we have to assume, in addition to the engineered atom-field interaction, a strong decay of the cavity field (i.e., the cavity decay must be much stronger than the effective atom-field coupling). With this scheme, some interesting effects in the dynamics of an atom in a squeezed reservoir could be tested.

  17. Electron heat flow due to magnetic field fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Jeong-Young; Park, Gunyoung; Kim, Sung Sik; Held, Eric D.

    2016-04-01

    Radial heat transport induced by magnetic field line fluctuations is obtained from the integral parallel heat flow closure for arbitrary collisionality. The parallel heat flow and its radial component are computed for a single harmonic sinusoidal field line perturbation. In the collisional and collisionless limits, averaging the heat flow over an unperturbed surface yields Rechester–Rosenbluth like formulae with quantitative factors. The single harmonic result is generalized to multiple harmonics given a spectrum of small magnetic perturbations. In the collisionless limit, the heat and particle transport relations are also derived.

  18. Modeling surface deformation due to CO2 injection at an enhanced oil recovery field in Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Q.; Abdollahzadeh, M.; Dixon, T. H.; Malservisi, R.; Hosseini, S.

    2013-12-01

    The Geodesy Laboratory at the University of South Florida has operated 3 C-GPS stations at an enhanced oil recovery field in Texas since October 2011. Our GPS sites recorded vertical uplift during the injection phase when the reservoir was initially pressurized, and localized subsidence in phase with reservoir pressure after oil extraction started. In this study, we use analytical and numerical models to better understand the small-scale surface deformation observed by GPS due to CO2 injection. First, we use an analytical model of a pressurized horizontal circular crack in an elastic half-space to fit the surface deformation data. Then, constrained by the analytical modeling results, we develop a poroelastic Finite Element Model (FEM) to investigate the influence of reservoir geometry and overlying stratigraphy on surface displacement. A sensitivity study is carried out to understand the effects of realistic geometry and material properties on surface deformation. Our preliminary results show that a poroelastic FEM can explain the location-dependant time delay between the injection and surface response.

  19. Category-specific enhancement of retrieval due to field perspective.

    PubMed

    Bagri, Gurjog; Jones, Gregory V

    2009-04-01

    Two memory perspectives have been distinguished: a field perspective where events are re-experienced in the first person, and an observer perspective where events are witnessed in the third person. Two experiments examined the influence of memory perspective on objective memory performance. In both experiments participants were presented with a series of verbal passages, each of which contained several different categories of information. For four of these categories (pertaining to affective reactions, physical sensations, psychological states, and associated ideas), recall was significantly higher when a field perspective was adopted than when an observer perspective was adopted, but for the five other categories (pertaining to physical actions, personal appearance, fine details, spatial relations, and peripheral details) there was no significant effect of perspective upon recall. The study is examined in the context of mental models and imagined episodic events. PMID:19199159

  20. Electromagnetic fields due to dipole antennas over stratified anisotropic media.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kong, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    Solutions to the problem of radiation of dipole antennas in the presence of a stratified anisotropic media are facilitated by decomposing a general wave field into transverse magnetic (TM) and transverse electric (TE) modes. Employing the propagation matrices, wave amplitudes in any region are related to those in any other regions. The reflection coefficients, which embed all the information about the geometrical configuration and the physical constituents of the medium, are obtained in closed form. In view of the general formulation, various special cases are discussed.

  1. Enhanced oil recovery by CO/sub 2/ miscible displacement in the Little Knife Field, Billings County, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Desch, J.B.; Larsen, W.K.; Lindsay, R.F.; Nettle, R.L.

    1984-09-01

    A CO/sub 2/ minitest involving the miscible displacement process was conducted in the Mission Canyon formation (lower Mississippian) at Little Knife field, ND. The Mission Canyon is a dolomitized carbonate reservoir at approximately 9,700 to 9,900 ft (2957 to 3018 m) subsurface, which is undergoing primary depletion. Four wells were drilled in an inverted four-spot configuration, covering 5 acres (20 234 m/sup 2/). The central well served as the injection well and was surrounded by three nonproducing observation wells. Oriented cores were cut in each well for detailed reservoir characterization and laboratory testing. In addition, a well test program was conducted that involved two pulse tests and injectivity tests on the individual wells. Results from these tests were used to upgrade two reservoir simulation models. Various parameters within the computer models were modified to determine the most efficient injection plan for the specific reservoir characteristics.

  2. Electric fields due to synaptic currents sharpen excitatory transmission.

    PubMed

    Sylantyev, Sergiy; Savtchenko, Leonid P; Niu, Yin-Ping; Ivanov, Anton I; Jensen, Thomas P; Kullmann, Dimitri M; Xiao, Min-Yi; Rusakov, Dmitri A

    2008-03-28

    The synaptic response waveform, which determines signal integration properties in the brain, depends on the spatiotemporal profile of neurotransmitter in the synaptic cleft. Here, we show that electrophoretic interactions between AMPA receptor-mediated excitatory currents and negatively charged glutamate molecules accelerate the clearance of glutamate from the synaptic cleft, speeding up synaptic responses. This phenomenon is reversed upon depolarization and diminished when intracleft electric fields are weakened through a decrease in the AMPA receptor density. In contrast, the kinetics of receptor-mediated currents evoked by direct application of glutamate are voltage-independent, as are synaptic currents mediated by the electrically neutral neurotransmitter GABA. Voltage-dependent temporal tuning of excitatory synaptic responses may thus contribute to signal integration in neural circuits. PMID:18369150

  3. Characterization of guided acoustic waves in an arbitrary direction with full-field instantaneous maps of the acoustic displacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luís Deán-Ben, X.; Trillo, Cristina; Doval, Ángel F.; Fernández, José L.

    2012-08-01

    The full-field optical measurement of guided acoustic waves presents important advantages derived from the capability to map the acoustic field in a two dimensional region, so that acoustic information over a large area can be retrieved with each measurement. In this work, we introduce an extension of the well-established two dimensional spatio-temporal Fourier transform method to calculate the frequency spectrum of guided acoustic waves. For this, we take advantage of the unique capability of a self-developed double-pulsed television holography system to acquire the acoustic displacement field in two spatial dimensions and time. Then, the spatio-temporal Fourier transform method is expanded to three dimensions according to the nature of the experimental data, so that the frequency spectrum of the waves propagating in an arbitrary direction can be calculated. The method is tested experimentally by generating narrowband Lamb waves in an aluminium plate with a piezoelectric transducer. The good agreement between the theoretical and experimental spectra in a broad zone anticipates the applicability of the method to characterize guided acoustic waves as a function of the propagation direction in materials or structures presenting anisotropic propagation behaviour.

  4. Description and field performance of the Walker Branch throughfall displacement experiment: 1993--1996

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, P.J.; Todd, D.E.; Huston, M.A.; Joslin, J.D.; Croker, J.L.; Auge, R.M.

    1998-04-01

    The authors are conducting a large-scale manipulative field experiment in an upland oak forest on the Walker Branch Watershed in eastern Tennessee to identify important ecosystem responses that might result from future precipitation changes. The manipulation of soil water content is being implemented by a gravity-driven transfer of throughfall from one 6400-m{sup 2} treatment plot to another. Throughfall is intercepted in {approx}1850 subcanopy troughs suspended above the forest floor of the dry plot and transferred by gravity flow across an ambient plot for subsequent distribution onto the wet treatment plot. Soil water content is being monitored at two depths with time domain reflectometers at 310 sampling locations across the site. The experimental system is able to produce statistically significant differences in soil water content in years having both dry and wet conditions. Maximum soil water content differentials between wet and dry plots in the 0- to 0.35-m horizon were 8 to 10% during summers with abundant precipitation and 3 to 5% during drought periods. Treatment impacts on soil water potential were restricted to the surface soil layer. Comparisons of pre- and post-installation soil and litter temperature measurements showed the ability of the experimental design to produce changes in soil water content and water potential without creating large artifacts in the forest understory environment.

  5. [Laboratory evaluation and field trial of activation indigenous microbial displacements in the reservoirs after polymer flooding].

    PubMed

    Le, Jianjun; Bai, Lulu; Wang, Rui; Guo, Menghua; Zhang, Jiyuan; Hou, Zhaowei; Wu, Xiaolin

    2015-07-01

    Most main oilfields in China have already entered a "double high" development stage (high water cut, high recovery degree). To further enhance oil recovery in reservoirs after polymer flooding (RAPFs), an efficient activator formulation for promoting metabolism of endogenous microorganism was studied by aerogenic experiments, physical simulation experiments, electron microscopy scanning and pyrophosphate sequencing. Results show that the activator could activate the endogenous microorganisms in the injected water and make the pressurized gas reach 2 MPa after 60 d static culture of the activator in a high pressure vessel. The oil recovery efficiency of natural core physical simulation flooding can be improved by more than 3.0% (OOIP) in RAPFs when injected 0.35 PV activator with 1.8% mass concentration, and a lot of growth and reproduction of activated endogenous microorganism in the core was observed by electron microscopy scanning. Field trial with 1 injector and 4 producers was carried out in the east of south II block of Sa Nan in December 2011. By monitoring four effective production wells, changes of carbon isotope ?13C (PDB) content of methane and carbon dioxide were -45 per thousand to -54 per thousand and 7 per thousand to 12 per thousand. Compared with east II of Sa Nan block, the oil amount increased by 35.9%, water cut stabled at 94%. The incremental oil was 5 957 t during the three and a half years, which provides an alternative approach for further improving oil recovery in similar reservoirs. PMID:26647588

  6. Full-field dynamic displacement and strain measurement using pulsed and high-speed 3D image correlation photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Timothy; Tyson, John; Galanulis, Konstantin

    2004-02-01

    3D image correlation is a robust method for measuring full-field displacements and strains using a calibrated pair of video cameras. Underlying principles and benefits are reviewed, and the method is compared to both 3D ESPI and 2D image correlation. Several applications combining image correlation photogrammetry with stroboscopic illumination and/or high-speed video cameras are presented. Operational strains in ionic polymeric muscle samples and electro-restrictive actuators are determined. The use of short-duration white light pulses to study automobile tires on road wheels at speeds up to 150 miles per hour is demonstrated. Initial work measuring strains on an 18" flywheel in a spin pit at up to 35,000 rpm is described. A notched rubber dogbone sample is pulled to failure at 125% strain in 38 milliseconds, and hundreds of full-field strain maps are captured. This paper includes discussion of sample preparation methods and special lighting systems, including pulsed arc lamps and pulsed lasers. A matrix of capability using available high speed cameras is included.

  7. Enhanced oil recovery by CO/sub 2/ miscible displacement in the Little Knife Field, Billings County, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Desch, J.B.; Larsen, W.K.; Lindsay, R.F.; Nettle, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    A CO/sub 2/ minitest employing the miscible displacement process was conducted in the Mission Canyon Formation (lower Mississippian) at Little Knife Field, North Dakota. The Mission Canyon is a dolomitized carbonate reservoir which is undergoing primary depletion. Four wells were drilled in an inverted four-spot configuration, covering five acres. The central well served as the injection well and was surrounded by three non-producing observation wells. A WAG-type injection sequence utilized five alternate slugs of formation water and CO/sub 2/. Preflush injection began December 11, 1980, followed by the WAG slugs from January 7 to March 25, 1981. Drive water injection commenced immediately and was completed on September 24, 1981. Injection rates were maintained at 1150 B/D during water injection and 40 T/D during CO/sub 2/ injection. Tracers were used during the waterflood preflush and with the water during the WAG. A pressure core behind the flood front was obtained to confirm residual-oil saturations in the project interval. Overall rock recovery was excellent, 90%, but sample recovery under reservoir pressure was less than anticipated. Invasion of drilling fluids during coring was checked by introduction of a radioactive tracer into the coring fluid. Project analysis is still ongoing and once completed, the simulation models will be updated and used to predict field-wide applicability. (JMT)

  8. Thickness measurement of full field soap bubble film in real time based on large lateral shearing displacement interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Wei; Zhou, Huai-chun; Zhu, Jin-rong

    2012-03-01

    Soap bubble has a profile nearly the same as a perfect sphere. Many researches focus on the measurement of the film thickness of the soap bubble over time in order to calculate the film drainage rate. Its thickness variation in gravitation field can be respectively approximated with many models, considering the cost and precision in different applications. In this research, fringe patterns of a soap bubble were captured continuously using the large lateral shearing displacement interferometry during the process from its formation to burst. From the analysis of three typical frames, it can be seen that the film thickness distribution along the gravity orientation shows a very good agreement with an exponential model. The ratio of its maximum error to the laser wavelength is 3/8, existing at the sphere's center. Moreover, it can be seen that the absolute value of the parameter k in the exponential model keeps increasing over time, while the parameter b keeps decreasing over time. Based on the parameter k from the exponential model, the maximum limit in the thickness measurement of the soap bubble film can be calculated from the function of the fringe pattern's resolution and its field coordinates. The result shows that there is a special point above the sphere's center, being the right place where the gradient of phase order changes its sign. The region near this point presents very high limitation in the film thickness measurement.

  9. Gold marker displacement due to needle insertion during HDR-brachytherapy for treatment of prostate cancer: A prospective cone beam computed tomography and kilovoltage on-board imaging (kV-OBI) study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate gold marker displacement due to needle insertion during HDR-brachytherapy for therapy of prostate cancer. Patients and methods 18 patients entered into this prospective evaluation. Three gold markers were implanted into the prostate during the first HDR-brachytherapy procedure after the irradiation was administered. Three days after marker implantation all patients had a CT-scan for planning purpose of the percutaneous irradiation. Marker localization was defined on the digitally-reconstructed-radiographs (DRR) for daily (VMAT technique) or weekly (IMRT) set-up error correction. Percutaneous therapy started one week after first HDR-brachytherapy. After the second HDR-brachytherapy, two weeks after first HDR-brachtherapy, a cone-beam CT-scan was done to evaluate marker displacement due to needle insertion. In case of marker displacement, the actual positions of the gold markers were adjusted on the DRR. Results The value of the gold marker displacement due to the second HDR-brachytherapy was analyzed in all patients and for each gold marker by comparison of the marker positions in the prostate after soft tissue registration of the prostate of the CT-scans prior the first and second HDR-brachytherapy. The maximum deviation was 5 mm, 7 mm and 12 mm for the anterior-posterior, lateral and superior-inferior direction. At least one marker in each patient showed a significant displacement and therefore new marker positions were adjusted on the DRRs for the ongoing percutaneous therapy. Conclusions Needle insertion in the prostate due to HDR-brachytherapy can lead to gold marker displacements. Therefore, it is necessary to verify the actual position of markers after the second HDR-brachytherapy. In case of significant deviations, a new DRR with the adjusted marker positions should be generated for precise positioning during the ongoing percutaneous irradiation. PMID:22348595

  10. Our flesh is here but our soul stayed there: A qualitative study on resource loss due to war and displacement among internally-displaced women in the Republic of Georgia.

    PubMed

    Seguin, Maureen; Lewis, Ruth; Amirejibi, Tinatin; Razmadze, Mariam; Makhashvili, Nino; Roberts, Bayard

    2016-02-01

    Losses experienced by conflict-affected civilians in low and middle income countries is a relatively unexplored area. The aim of our paper is to explore the concept of resource loss in the accounts of internally displaced women in Georgia. We use Hobfoll's Conservation of Resources (COR) theory to guide our approach by examining the loss of objects, personal characteristics, conditions, and energies. Semi-structured interviews were conducted on 42 purposively-selected Georgian women residing in internally displaced persons settlements during fieldwork in Georgia from December 2012 to February 2013. Line-by-line open-coding was conducted on translated and transcribed interviews using Nvivo. The conservation of resources theory was utilised to guide the 'mapping' of the relationships between losses which occurred in the post-conflict period. War-related trauma led to the loss of property, which caused the loss of livelihood and subsequent loss of social networks and mental and physical health. The mental and physical health losses, along with the loss of livelihood, constituted a loss spiral in which losses in one area perpetuated on-going losses in the other areas. Interventions at supporting livelihoods are needed in order to address the cascade of losses resulting from war. PMID:26774712

  11. Transport infrastructure monitoring: A ground based optical displacement monitoring system, field tests on a bridge, the Musmeci's bridge in Potenza, Italy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagene, J. K.

    2012-04-01

    A gound based optical displacement monitoring system, "NIODIM", is being developed by Norsk Elektro Optikk in the framework of the activities of the European project "Integrated System for Transport Infrastructure surveillance and Monitoring by Electromagnetic Sensing" (ISTIMES), funded in the 7th Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013). The optical displacement monitoring system has now participated in two real life field campaigns one in Switzerland and one in Italy. The latter, the tests in Potenza, Italy, will be presented in the following. The NIODIM system has undergone some development during the last year to adopt it for use in a somewhat higher frequency domain by changing the camera sensor part. This to make it more useful for monitoring of structures with oscillation frequencies tens of Hz. The original system was intended to a large extent to monitor land slides, quick clay and rock slides and similar phenomena typically having a relatively slow time response. The system has been significantly speeded up from the original 12 Hz. Current tests have been performed at a frame rate of 64 Hz i.e., the camera part and data processing unit have been running on 64Hz. In connection with the tests in Italy the data processing has been upgraded to include sub-pixel resolution i.e., the measurement results are no longer limited by pixel borders or single pixels. The main part of the NIODIM system is a camera capable of operating at a sufficiently high frame rate. This camera will typically be mounted on firm ground and will depict and monitor a reference point, typically a light emitting diode, LED, which will be mounted on the object susceptible to move. A processing unit will acquire the images from the camera part and find the position of the LED in the image and compare that to threshold values and if required raise a warning or an alarm. The NIODIM system can either be a standalone system or be an integrated part of the overall ISTIMES system, the ISTIMES system being a decision support system. Field trials as part of the ISTIMES project took place in Potenza, Italy, for a week in July 2011. The test target was Musmeci's bridge, a bridge with a design where aesthetic values have been just as important as traditional civil engineering aspects. Several technologies and techniques were tested at the same part of the bridge to allow for data correlation between different sensors. The camera and processing parts of the optical displacement monitoring system were mounted on a concrete wall at the one end of the bridge while the LED reference points were mounted on the bridge approximately 40 metres away. The tests at the Musmeci's bridge are successful and verifying some of the findings from the tests in Switzerland. However, we learned a lesson with regards to temporary mounting of the reference points using glossy stainless steel parts. A short period early in the morning, when illuminated by the sun, these stainless steel parts were just as bright as the LED reference point leading to potential noise in the measurements. Due to availability of the raw data this could be fixed later doing post processing on the stored data. One of the findings was that we have relatively large time of day variation that appear to be periodic with a cycle time of about 24 hours, at least with similar weather conditions. These displacements appear to be in the order of 10 mm and is probably due to thermal effects. Several shorter displacements have also been registered with amplitudes of a couple of mm and duration around 10 seconds. These shorter displacement peaks appear to be caused by heavy vehicles passing by on the bridge. The introduction of the processing using sub-pixel resolution looks very promising and appears to give a significant improvement of the actual resolution of the system. Even thought the measurements in the field are successfully completed we have noted larger slowly moving displacements than originally expected. This combined with shorter lasting peaks could lead to measurements above pre-set thres

  12. Crack embrittlement displacement fields

    SciTech Connect

    Epstein, J.S.; Reuter, W.G.; Keiser, D.D.

    1986-01-01

    When using precracked fracture toughness specimens to study liquid metal embrittlement it has been necessary to estimate the crack length and applied load as a function of time. These parameters are sometimes difficult to obtain and the accuracy is often questionable. Further this data provides the basis for calculating crack growth rate (da/dt) as a function of applied stress intensity factor K/sub I/. This paper presents an approach based on using moire interferometry in conjunction with fracture toughness specimens to study liquid mercury amalgam embrittlement of 6061-T6 aluminum. Moire interferometry provides a unique method for obtaining K/sub I/, at the crack tip, without requiring knowledge of crack length and load. This paper describes the approach and provides an evaluation based on test results.

  13. Displacement current and surface flashover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, J. R.; Caporaso, G. J.; Blackfield, D.; Chen, Y.-J.

    2007-09-01

    High-voltage vacuum insulator failure is generally due to surface flashover rather than insulator bulk breakdown. Vacuum surface flashover is widely believed to be initiated by a secondary electron emission avalanche along the vacuum-insulator interface. This process requires a physical mechanism to cause secondary electrons emitted from the insulator surface to return to that surface. Here, it is shown that when an insulator is subjected to a fast high-voltage pulse, the magnetic field due to displacement current through the insulator can provide this mechanism. This indicates the importance of the voltage pulse shape, especially the rise time, in the flashover initiation process.

  14. Suppression of side lobes in a spectrum of fibre Bragg gratings due to the transverse displacement of phase mask with respect to the optical fibre

    SciTech Connect

    Abdullina, S R; Nemov, I N; Babin, Sergei A

    2012-09-30

    The possibility of apodisation of fibre Bragg gratings (FBGs) recorded in the interference region of two Gaussian beams in the phase-mask scheme is considered. The FBG reflection spectra are numerically simulated for different values of recordingbeam parameters and the distance between the axes of interfering beams diffracted into different orders, which is varied by transverse displacement of the phase mask with respect to the optical fibre. Suppression of side lobes and smoothing out of the FBG spectrum with an increase in the transverse displacement of the phase mask is experimentally demonstrated. It is shown that this effect is caused by the equalisation of the mean induced refractive index in the FBG region. (optical fibres, lasers and amplifiers. properties and applications)

  15. Design and Realization of a Three Degrees of Freedom Displacement Measurement System Composed of Hall Sensors Based on Magnetic Field Fitting by an Elliptic Function.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Bo; Wang, Lei; Tan, Jiu-Bin

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the design and realization of a three degrees of freedom (DOFs) displacement measurement system composed of Hall sensors, which is built for the XYθz displacement measurement of the short stroke stage of the reticle stage of lithography. The measurement system consists of three pairs of permanent magnets mounted on the same plane on the short stroke stage along the Y, Y, X directions, and three single axis Hall sensors correspondingly mounted on the frame of the reticle stage. The emphasis is placed on the decoupling and magnetic field fitting of the three DOFs measurement system. The model of the measurement system is illustrated, and the XY positions and θZ rotation of the short stroke stage can be obtained by decoupling the sensor outputs. A magnetic field fitting by an elliptic function-based compensation method is proposed. The practical field intensity of a permanent magnet at a certain plane height can be substituted for the output voltage of a Hall sensors, which can be expressed by the elliptic function through experimental data as the crucial issue to calculate the three DOFs displacement. Experimental results of the Hall sensor displacement measurement system are presented to validate the proposed three DOFs measurement system. PMID:26370993

  16. Design and Realization of a Three Degrees of Freedom Displacement Measurement System Composed of Hall Sensors Based on Magnetic Field Fitting by an Elliptic Function

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Bo; Wang, Lei; Tan, Jiu-Bin

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the design and realization of a three degrees of freedom (DOFs) displacement measurement system composed of Hall sensors, which is built for the XYθz displacement measurement of the short stroke stage of the reticle stage of lithography. The measurement system consists of three pairs of permanent magnets mounted on the same plane on the short stroke stage along the Y, Y, X directions, and three single axis Hall sensors correspondingly mounted on the frame of the reticle stage. The emphasis is placed on the decoupling and magnetic field fitting of the three DOFs measurement system. The model of the measurement system is illustrated, and the XY positions and θZ rotation of the short stroke stage can be obtained by decoupling the sensor outputs. A magnetic field fitting by an elliptic function-based compensation method is proposed. The practical field intensity of a permanent magnet at a certain plane height can be substituted for the output voltage of a Hall sensors, which can be expressed by the elliptic function through experimental data as the crucial issue to calculate the three DOFs displacement. Experimental results of the Hall sensor displacement measurement system are presented to validate the proposed three DOFs measurement system. PMID:26370993

  17. Aerodynamic sound generation due to vortex-aerofoil interaction. Part 2: Analysis of the acoustic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parasarathy, R.; Karamcheti, K.

    1972-01-01

    The Lighthill method was the basic procedure used to analyze the sound field associated with a vortex of modified strength interacting with an airfoil. A free vortex interacting with an airfoil in uniform motion was modeled in order to determine the sound field due to all the acoustic sources, not only on the airfoil surfaces (dipoles), but also the ones distributed on the perturbed flow field (quadrupoles) due to the vortex-airfoil interaction. Because inviscid flow is assumed in the study of the interaction, the quadrupoles considered in the perturbed flow field are entirely due to an unsteady flow field. The effects of airfoil thickness on the second radiation are examined by using a symmetric Joukowski airfoil for the vortex-airfoil interaction. Sound radiation in a plane, far field simplification, and computation of the sound field are discussed.

  18. Synthesis of finite displacements and displacements in continental margins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Speed, R. C.; Elison, M. W.; Heck, F. R.; Russo, R. M.

    1988-01-01

    The scope of the project is the analysis of displacement-rate fields in the transitional regions between cratonal and oceanic lithospheres over Phanerozoic time (last 700 ma). Associated goals are an improved understanding of range of widths of major displacement zones; the partition of displacement gradients and rotations with position and depth in such zones; the temporal characteristics of such zones-the steadiness, episodicity, and duration of uniform versus nonunifrom fields; and the mechanisms and controls of the establishment and kinematics of displacement zones. The objective is to provide a context of time-averaged kinematics of displacement zones. The initial phase is divided topically among the methodology of measurement and reduction of displacements in the lithosphere and the preliminary analysis from geologic and other data of actual displacement histories from the Cordillera, Appalachians, and southern North America.

  19. Collective trauma in the Vanni- a qualitative inquiry into the mental health of the internally displaced due to the civil war in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background From January to May, 2009, a population of 300,000 in the Vanni, northern Sri Lanka underwent multiple displacements, deaths, injuries, deprivation of water, food, medical care and other basic needs caught between the shelling and bombings of the state forces and the LTTE which forcefully recruited men, women and children to fight on the frontlines and held the rest hostage. This study explores the long term psychosocial and mental health consequences of exposure to massive, existential trauma. Methods This paper is a qualitative inquiry into the psychosocial situation of the Vanni displaced and their ethnography using narratives and observations obtained through participant observation; in depth interviews; key informant, family and extended family interviews; and focus groups using a prescribed, semi structured open ended questionnaire. Results The narratives, drawings, letters and poems as well as data from observations, key informant interviews, extended family and focus group discussions show considerable impact at the family and community. The family and community relationships, networks, processes and structures are destroyed. There develops collective symptoms of despair, passivity, silence, loss of values and ethical mores, amotivation, dependency on external assistance, but also resilience and post-traumatic growth. Conclusions Considering the severity of family and community level adverse effects and implication for resettlement, rehabilitation, and development programmes; interventions for healing of memories, psychosocial regeneration of the family and community structures and processes are essential. PMID:20667090

  20. Field Assessment of Non-toxigenic Aspergillus flavus Strain K49 in Competitive Displacement of Toxigenic Isolates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Non-toxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus offer the potential to control aflatoxin contamination by competitive displacement of indigenous populations of A. flavus colonizing corn grain. Two sets of experiments were conducted to assess the competitiveness of strain K49 when challenged against two...

  1. Energy shifts of Rydberg atoms due to patch fields near metal surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, J. D.; Martin, J. D. D.

    2011-03-15

    The statistical properties of patch electric fields due to a polycrystalline metal surface are calculated. The fluctuations in the electric field scale like 1/z{sup 2} when z>>w, where z is the distance to the surface and w is the characteristic length scale of the surface patches. For typical thermally evaporated gold surfaces these field fluctuations are comparable to the image field of an elementary charge, and scale in the same way with distance to the surface. Expressions for calculating the statistics of the inhomogeneous broadening of Rydberg-atom energies due to patch electric fields are presented. Spatial variations in the patch fields over the Rydberg orbit are found to be insignificant.

  2. Theory of short-scale field-aligned density striations due to ionospheric heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, M.-C.; Fejer, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    The theoretical saturation spectrum of parametrically excited Langmuir waves in a locally uniform ionosphere is shown by the present calculations to produce, by ohmic dissipation, short-scale field-aligned density striations. The spectrum of the calculated striations is not inconsistent with observations of field-aligned scatter of VHF and UHF waves in ionospheric modification experiments if local increases of the pump field due to focusing are invoked.

  3. Internal displacement in Burma.

    PubMed

    Lanjouw, S; Mortimer, G; Bamforth, V

    2000-09-01

    The internal displacement of populations in Burma is not a new phenomenon. Displacement is caused by numerous factors. Not all of it is due to outright violence, but much is a consequence of misguided social and economic development initiatives. Efforts to consolidate the state by assimilating populations in government-controlled areas by military authorities on the one hand, while brokering cease-fires with non-state actors on the other, has uprooted civilian populations throughout the country. Very few areas in which internally displaced persons (IDPs) are found are not facing social turmoil within a climate of impunity. Humanitarian access to IDP populations remains extremely problematic. While relatively little information has been collected, assistance has been focused on targeting accessible groups. International concern within Burma has couched the problems of displacement within general development modalities, while international attention along its borders has sought to contain displacement. With the exception of several recent initiatives, few approaches have gone beyond assistance and engaged in the prevention or protection of the displaced. PMID:11026156

  4. The 1999 Hector Mine Earthquake, Southern California: Vector Near-Field Displacements from ERS InSAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandwell, David T.; Sichoix, Lydie; Smith, Bridget

    2002-01-01

    Two components of fault slip are uniquely determined from two line-of-sight (LOS) radar interferograms by assuming that the fault-normal component of displacement is zero. We use this approach with ascending and descending interferograms from the ERS satellites to estimate surface slip along the Hector Mine earthquake rupture. The LOS displacement is determined by visually counting fringes to within 1 km of the outboard ruptures. These LOS estimates and uncertainties are then transformed into strike- and dip-slip estimates and uncertainties; the transformation is singular for a N-S oriented fault and optimal for an E-W oriented fault. In contrast to our previous strike-slip estimates, which were based only on a descending interferogram, we now find good agreement with the geological measurements, except at the ends of the rupture. The ascending interferogram reveals significant west-sidedown dip-slip (approximately 1.0 m) which reduces the strike-slip estimates by 1 to 2 m, especially along the northern half of the rupture. A spike in the strike-slip displacement of 6 m is observed in central part of the rupture. This large offset is confirmed by subpixel cross correlation of features in the before and after amplitude images. In addition to strike slip and dip slip, we identify uplift and subsidence along the fault, related to the restraining and releasing bends in the fault trace, respectively. Our main conclusion is that at least two look directions are required for accurate estimates of surface slip even along a pure strike-slip fault. Models and results based only on a single look direction could have major errors. Our new estimates of strike slip and dip slip along the rupture provide a boundary condition for dislocation modeling. A simple model, which has uniform slip to a depth of 12 km, shows good agreement with the observed ascending and descending interferograms.

  5. Gyro-electron ghost images due to microchannel plate operation in transverse magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Roquemore, A.L.; Medley, S.S.

    1986-06-01

    A multi-anode microchannel plate (MCP) detector was operated in a transverse magnetic field. When a collimated ion beam of approx.4-mm diameter impinged on one area of the plate, ghost images were observed elsewhere on the plate at anodes up to several centimeters from the beam spot. This effect is due to secondary electrons which are emitted from the interstitial surfaces around the MCP pores and returned to the surface of the plate under the influence of E-tilde X B-tilde fields, where E-tilde is the electric field perpendicular to the plate due to the MCP bias potential and B-tilde is the externally applied transverse magnetic field. A regenerative process is observed in which the secondary electrons traverse the surface of the plate in the E-tilde X B-tilde direction by successive gyro-orbit steps. A method for suppressing the ghost images is discussed.

  6. Low-field large magnetostriction in DyCo2 due to field-induced rearrangement of tetragonal variants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Zhihua; Yang, Sen; Wang, Yandong; Wang, Zilong; Liu, Dongmei; Ren, Yang

    2013-09-01

    The synchrotron high-energy x-ray diffraction was used to trace directly the structural evolution of polycrystalline DyCo2, one of RT2 (R = rare earth, T = Co, Fe) compounds with Laves phase, as a function of temperature and magnetic field. When the DyCo2 compound was zero-field cooled down below TC, the high temperature cubic lattice was distorted into tetragonal structure, associated with an expansion of unit cell volume. It was further found that the large magnetostriction at low magnetic field was due to the preferential rearrangement of tetragonal variants in the low-temperature ferrimagnetic phase. Our finding of the field-driven preferential selection of tetragonal variants in the polycrystalline materials provides important clues for exploring the advanced ferromagnetic alloys with a large magnetostriction at low field.

  7. ANALYSIS OF HIGH FIELD NON-LINEAR LOSSES ON SRF SURFACES DUE TO SPECIFIC TOPOGRAPHIC ROUGHNESS

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Xu,Charles Reece,Michael Kelley

    2012-07-01

    The high-field performance of SRF cavities will eventually be limited by the realization of fundamental material limits, whether it is Hc1 or Hsh, or some derivative thereof, at which the superconductivity is lost. Before reaching this fundamental field limit at the macro level, it must be encountered at localized, perhaps microscopic, sites of field enhancement due to local topography. If such sites are small enough, they may produce thermally stabilized normal-conducting regions which contribute non-linear losses when viewed from the macro resonant field perspective, and thus produce degradation in Q0. We have undertaken a calculation of local surface magnetic field enhancement from specific fine topographic structure by conformal mapping method and numerically. A solution of the resulting normal conducting volume has been derived and the corresponding RF Ohmic loss simulated.

  8. Modeling Long-Term Soil Losses on Agricultural Fields Due to Ephemeral Gully Erosion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is now recognized worldwide that soil erosion on agricultural fields due to ephemeral gullies may be greater than those losses attributed to sheet and rill erosion processes. Yet it is not known whether the common practice of repairing or obliterating these gullies during annual tillage activitie...

  9. Melt Motion Due to Peltier Marking During Bridgman Crystal Growth with an Axial Magnetic Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellers, C. C.; Walker, John S.; Szofran, Frank R.; Motakef, Shariar

    2000-01-01

    This paper treats a liquid-metal flow inside an electrically insulating cylinder with electrically conducting solids above and below the liquid region. There is a uniform axial magnetic field, and there is an electric current through the liquid and both solids. Since the lower liquid-solid interface is concave into the solid and since the liquid is a better electrical conductor than the adjacent solid, the electric current is locally concentrated near the centerline. The return to a uniform current distribution involves a radial electric current which interacts with the axial magnetic field to drive an azimuthal flow. The axial variation of the centrifugal force due to the azimuthal velocity drives a meridional circulation with radial and axial velocities. This problem models the effects of Peltier marking during the vertical Bridgman growth of semiconductor crystals with an externally applied magnetic field, where the meridional circulation due to the Peltier Current may produce important mixing in the molten semiconductor.

  10. Electric field variations due to resonance between ground velocity and ions motion in the Earth's magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsushima, M.; Honkura, Y.; Kuriki, M.; Ogawa, Y.

    2011-12-01

    We have so far observed clear electric field variations coincident with the passage of seismic waves. Circular polarization of electric field is the distinguishing feature in this phenomenon which can be interpreted in terms of the so-called seismic dynamo effect proposed by Honkura et al. (2009). That is, circularly polarized electric field is caused by resonance-like motion of ion in groundwater under the Earth's magnetic field. Therefore, left-handed and right-handed circular polarizations, if seen towards the direction of the magnetic field, are associated with anions with negative charge and cations with positive charge, respectively. Such polarization may be inconsistent with seismoelectric signals due to the electrokinetic mechanism, because they are mainly found in the direction of transmission of seismic compressional waves, as pointed out by Strahser et al. (2007) who examined polarization of seismoelectric signals by recording the three components of electric field. However, even such circular polarization of electric field is somehow interpreted in terms of the electrokinetic mechanism. Therefore, further convincing evidence is required to support the seismic dynamo effect. On 25-26 July 2011, an experiment for studies of crustal seismic structure was made in central Japan. We carried out simultaneous observations of ground velocity and electric field on this occasion at three sites near a blasting point using 50 kg of dynamite; about 280 m east-southeast, about 190 m east, and about 360 m northwest from the blasting point. Taking into account typical frequencies of ground velocity for artificial earthquakes by blasting higher than those for natural earthquakes, we used data loggers with sampling rate of 1 kHz and could obtain the waveforms of ground velocity and electric field very clearly. We show characteristics of electric field variations, their dependence of azimuth angle with respect to the blasting point, and frequency response functions.

  11. Analytic models of the displacements and stresses in a long basin due to varying hydrological loading, with application to hydrogeological geodesy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipovsky, B.; Funning, G. J.; Richards-Dinger, K. B.; Ferretti, A.

    2010-12-01

    A seasonally sinusoidal signal often dominates geodetic data, and it has been shown that, globally, ~40% of this signal is due to periodic mass redistributions (Dong et al., 2002). One particular component of these mass redistributions is the effect of groundwater loading. This source of deformation is commonly modeled using the surface loading Greens function, e.g., by assuming that deformation is imposed by a normal traction boundary condition applied at the surface of the earth (Malvern, 1967; Farrell, 1972). We present an alternate strategy which assumes that there are seasonal fluctuations in pore fluid pressure that are uniformly distributed throughout the hydrologically active elastic upper crust. While this model is probably more close to the physical truth, it is not necessarily apparent a priori that the difference between these two models is significant. We present a collection of new analytic models that attempt to model seasonal groundwater induced deformation for several commonly occurring cases. The models consist of an infinitely long (e.g., under plane strain) poroelastic solid that is polygonal in cross section, such as a fault bounded basin. To solve the relevant two dimensional mixed boundary value problem, we use the complex variable method in concert with conformal mapping and analytic continuation (England, 2003). This approach benefits from being quite general, naturally suited for the mixed boundary value problem, and not requiring a strong prior hypothesis concerning the form of the solution. Results are confirmed using a numerical boundary element software. As an exemplary case study, we use PS-InSAR data from the Bay Area, CA, to observe seasonal surface deformation. Subsurface structure in this area, known from seismic studies (Wentworth et al., 2010), provides a uniquely suited natural laboratory for discerning between the models discussed. As the Bay Area is a region of notable tectonic activity, the benefits of studying seasonal deformation are manifold: 1. Better constraints on groundwater flow and the structure of aquifers may be gained, 2. Seasonally modulated error terms in the GPS signal may be better understood, 3. A more robust physical model of deformation due to seasonal mass effects will permit a more accurate study of other physical phenomena, such as fault kinematics, dynamics and seasonal seismic modulation.

  12. Magma displacements under insular volcanic fields, applications to eruption forecasting: El Hierro, Canary Islands, 2011-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, A.; Fernández-Ros, A.; Berrocoso, M.; Marrero, J. M.; Prates, G.; De la Cruz-Reyna, S.; Ortiz, R.

    2014-04-01

    Significant deformations, followed by increased seismicity detected since 2011 July at El Hierro, Canary Islands, Spain, prompted the deployment of additional monitoring equipment. The climax of this unrest was a submarine eruption first detected on 2011 October 10, and located at about 2 km SW of La Restinga, southernmost village of El Hierro Island. The eruption ceased on 2012 March 5, after the volcanic tremor signals persistently weakened through 2012 February. However, the seismic activity did not end with the eruption, as several other seismic crises followed. The seismic episodes presented a characteristic pattern: over a few days the number and magnitude of seismic event increased persistently, culminating in seismic events severe enough to be felt all over the island. Those crises occurred in 2011 November, 2012 June and September, 2012 December to 2013 January and in 2013 March-April. In all cases the seismic unrest was preceded by significant deformations measured on the island's surface that continued during the whole episode. Analysis of the available GPS and seismic data suggests that several magma displacement processes occurred at depth from the beginning of the unrest. The first main magma movement or `injection' culminated with the 2011 October submarine eruption. A model combining the geometry of the magma injection process and the variations in seismic energy release has allowed successful forecasting of the new-vent opening.

  13. The magnetic field inside a layered anisotropic spherical conductor due to internal sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieminen, Jaakko O.; Stenroos, Matti

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in neuronal current imaging using magnetic resonance imaging and in invasive measurement of neuronal magnetic fields have given a need for methods to compute the magnetic field inside a volume conductor due to source currents that are within the conductor. In this work, we derive, verify, and demonstrate an analytical expression for the magnetic field inside an anisotropic multilayer spherically symmetric conductor due to an internal current dipole. We casted an existing solution for electric field to vector spherical harmonic (VSH) form. Next, we wrote an ansatz for the magnetic field using toroidal-poloidal decomposition that uses the same VSHs. Using properties of toroidal and poloidal components and VSHs and applying magnetic scalar potential, we then formulated a series expression for the magnetic field. The convergence of the solution was accelerated by formulating the solution using an addition-subtraction method. We verified the resulting formula against boundary-element method. The verification showed that the formulas and implementation are correct; 99th percentiles of amplitude and angle differences between the solutions were below 0.5% and 0.5°, respectively. As expected, the addition-subtraction model converged faster than the unaccelerated model; close to the source, 250 terms gave relative error below 1%, and the number of needed terms drops fast, as the distance to the source increases. Depending on model conductivities and source position, field patterns inside a layered sphere may differ considerably from those in a homogeneous sphere. In addition to being a practical modeling tool, the derived solution can be used to verify numerical methods, especially finite-element method, inside layered anisotropic conductors.

  14. RTV 21 Displacements

    SciTech Connect

    Kurita, C.H.; /Fermilab

    1987-02-04

    A seal is needed for the cover of the Nitrogen Test Vessel in order to prevent leakage of the N{sub 2} gas. This seal is to be molded out of RTV 21. In this experiment, the Modulus of Elasticity of the RTV was sought after, and the displacements of the RTV due to various stresses were measured to see if they were large enough to provide a tight seal between the vessel and its cover.

  15. Model based estimation of image depth and displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Damour, Kevin T.

    1992-01-01

    Passive depth and displacement map determinations have become an important part of computer vision processing. Applications that make use of this type of information include autonomous navigation, robotic assembly, image sequence compression, structure identification, and 3-D motion estimation. With the reliance of such systems on visual image characteristics, a need to overcome image degradations, such as random image-capture noise, motion, and quantization effects, is clearly necessary. Many depth and displacement estimation algorithms also introduce additional distortions due to the gradient operations performed on the noisy intensity images. These degradations can limit the accuracy and reliability of the displacement or depth information extracted from such sequences. Recognizing the previously stated conditions, a new method to model and estimate a restored depth or displacement field is presented. Once a model has been established, the field can be filtered using currently established multidimensional algorithms. In particular, the reduced order model Kalman filter (ROMKF), which has been shown to be an effective tool in the reduction of image intensity distortions, was applied to the computed displacement fields. Results of the application of this model show significant improvements on the restored field. Previous attempts at restoring the depth or displacement fields assumed homogeneous characteristics which resulted in the smoothing of discontinuities. In these situations, edges were lost. An adaptive model parameter selection method is provided that maintains sharp edge boundaries in the restored field. This has been successfully applied to images representative of robotic scenarios. In order to accommodate image sequences, the standard 2-D ROMKF model is extended into 3-D by the incorporation of a deterministic component based on previously restored fields. The inclusion of past depth and displacement fields allows a means of incorporating the temporal information into the restoration process. A summary on the conditions that indicate which type of filtering should be applied to a field is provided.

  16. Measuring vulnerability to disaster displacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brink, Susan A.; Khazai, Bijan; Power, Christopher; Wenzel, Friedemann

    2015-04-01

    Large scale disasters can cause devastating impacts in terms of population displacement. Between 2008 and 2013, on average 27 million people were displaced annually by disasters (Yonetani 2014). After large events such as hurricane Katrina or the Port-au-Prince earthquake, images of inadequate public shelter and concerns about large scale and often inequitable migration have been broadcast around the world. Population displacement can often be one of the most devastating and visible impacts of a natural disaster. Despite the importance of population displacement in disaster events, measures to understand the socio-economic vulnerability of a community often use broad metrics to estimate the total socio-economic risk of an event rather than focusing on the specific impacts that a community faces in a disaster. Population displacement is complex and multi-causal with the physical impact of a disaster interacting with vulnerability arising from the response, environmental issues (e.g., weather), cultural concerns (e.g., expectations of adequate shelter), and many individual factors (e.g., mobility, risk perception). In addition to the complexity of the causes, population displacement is difficult to measure because of the wide variety of different terms and definitions and its multi-dimensional nature. When we speak of severe population displacement, we may refer to a large number of displaced people, an extended length of displacement or associated difficulties such as poor shelter quality, risk of violence and crime in shelter communities, discrimination in aid, a lack of access to employment or other difficulties that can be associated with large scale population displacement. We have completed a thorough review of the literature on disaster population displacement. Research has been conducted on historic events to understand the types of negative impacts associated with population displacement and also the vulnerability of different groups to these impacts. We aggregate these ideas into a framework of disaster displacement vulnerability that distinguishes between three main aspects of disaster displacement. Disaster displacement can be considered in terms of the number of displaced people and the length of that displacement. However, the literature emphasizes that the severity of disaster displacement can not be measured completely in quantitative terms. Thus, we include a measure representing people who are trapped and unable to leave their homes due to mobility, resources or for other reasons. Finally the third main aspect considers the difficulties that are associated with displacement and reflects the difference between the experiences of those who are displaced into safe and supportive environments as compared to those whose only alternate shelter is dangerous and inadequate for their needs. Finally, we apply the framework to demonstrate a methodology to estimate vulnerability to disaster displacement. Using data from the Global Earthquake Model (GEM) Social and Economic Vulnerability sub-National Database, we generate an index to measure the vulnerability of Japanese prefectures to the dimensions of displacement included in the framework. References Yonitani, M. (2014). Global Estimates 2014: People displaced by disasters. http://www.internal-displacement.org/publications/2014/global-estimates-2014-people-displaced-by-disasters/

  17. Additional Enhancement of Electric Field in Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering due to Fresnel Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Jayawardhana, Sasani; Rosa, Lorenzo; Juodkazis, Saulius; Stoddart, Paul R.

    2013-01-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is attracting increasing interest for chemical sensing, surface science research and as an intriguing challenge in nanoscale plasmonic engineering. Several studies have shown that SERS intensities are increased when metal island film substrates are excited through a transparent base material, rather than directly through air. However, to our knowledge, the origin of this additional enhancement has never been satisfactorily explained. In this paper, finite difference time domain modeling is presented to show that the electric field intensity at the dielectric interface between metal particles is higher for “far-side” excitation than “near-side”. This is reasonably consistent with the observed enhancement for silver islands on SiO2. The modeling results are supported by a simple analytical model based on Fresnel reflection at the interface, which suggests that the additional SERS signal is caused by near-field enhancement of the electric field due to the phase shift at the dielectric interface. PMID:23903714

  18. Plasma heating at collisionless shocks due to the kinetic cross-field streaming instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winske, D.; Quest, K. B.; Tanaka, M.; Wu, C. S.

    1985-01-01

    Heating at collisionless shocks due to the kinetic cross-field streaming instability, which is the finite beta (ratio of plasma to magnetic pressure) extension of the modified two stream instability, is studied. Heating rates are derived from quasi-linear theory and compared with results from particle simulations to show that electron heating relative to ion heating and heating parallel to the magnetic field relative to perpendicular heating for both the electrons and ions increase with beta. The simulations suggest that electron dynamics determine the saturation level of the instability, which is manifested by the formation of a flattop electron distribution parallel to the magnetic field. As a result, both the saturation levels of the fluctuations and the heating rates decrease sharply with beta. Applications of these results to plasma heating in simulations of shocks and the earth's bow shock are described.

  19. The Surface Displacement Field of the November 8, 1997, Mw7.6 Manyi (Tibet) Earthquake Observed with ERS InSAR Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peltzer, G.; Crampe, F.

    1998-01-01

    ERS2 radar data acquired before and after the Mw7.6, Manyi (Tibet) earthquake of November 8, 1997, provide geodetic information about the surface displacement produced by the earthquake in two ways. (1) The sub-pixel geometric adjustment of the before and after images provides a two dimensional offset field with a resolution of approx, 1m in both the range (radar line of sight) and azimuth (satellite track) directions. Comparison of offsets in azimuth and range indicates that the displacement along the fault is essentially strike-slip and in a left-lateral sense. The offset map reveals a relatively smooth and straight, N78E surface rupture that exceeds 150 km in length, consistent with the EW plane of the Harvard CMT solution. The rupture follows the trace of a quaternary fault visible on satellite imagery (Tapponnier and Molnar, 1978; Wan Der Woerd, pers. comm.). (2) Interferometric processing of the SAR data provides a range displacement map with a precision of a few millimeters. The slip distribution along the rupture reconstructed from the range change map is a bell-shaped curve in the 100-km long central section of the fault with smaller, local maxima near both ends. The curve shows that the fault slip exceeds 2.2 m in range, or 6.2 in strike-slip, along a 30-km long section of the fault and remains above 1 m in range, approx. 3 m strike-slip, along most of its length. Preliminary forward modeling of the central section of the rupture, assuming a uniform slip distribution with depth, indicates that the slip occur-red essentially between 0 and the depth of 10 km, consistent with a relatively shallow event (Velasco et al., 1998).

  20. Holocene displacement field at an emerged oceanic transform-ridge junction: The Husavik-Flatey Fault - Gudfinnugja Fault system, North Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasquarè Mariotto, F.; Bonali, F. L.; Tibaldi, A.; Rust, D.; Oppizzi, P.; Cavallo, A.

    2015-06-01

    Our research focuses on Holocene tectonics in a broad area surrounding the junction between the active NW-SE trending Husavik-Flatey transform fault (HFF) and the N-S Gudfinnugja normal fault (GF), an exceptional example of onshore transform-ridge intersection. We mapped 637 minor and major faults, and measured the dip-slip and strike-slip offset components on the major faults. We also mapped 1016 individual tension fractures, as well as opening directions on the most reliable ones. The results indicate that this portion of the HFF comprises major right-stepping segments, with both normal and right-lateral strike-slip components, linked by local normal faults. The entire GF always shows pure dip-slip normal displacements, with a strong decrease in offset at the junction with the HFF. Fissure opening directions are in the range N45°-65°E along the HFF, N90°E along the GF, and N110°E within the area south of the HFF and west of the GF. Fault kinematics and fissure openings suggest a displacement field in good agreement with most of present-day GPS measurements, although our data indicate the possible long-term Holocene effects of the superimposition of magma-related stresses on the regional tectonic stresses. The HFF and the GF work together as a structural system able to accommodate differential crustal block motion, and possibly past dyke intrusions.

  1. Highly Effective Conductance Modulation in Planar Silicene Field Effect Devices Due to Buckling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Dirini, Feras; Hossain, Faruque M.; Mohammed, Mahmood A.; Nirmalathas, Ampalavanapillai; Skafidas, Efstratios

    2015-10-01

    Silicene is an exciting two-dimensional material that shares many of graphene’s electronic properties, but differs in its structural buckling. This buckling allows opening a bandgap in silicene through the application of a perpendicular electric field. Here we show that this buckling also enables highly effective modulation of silicene’s conductance by means of an in-plane electric field applied through silicene side gates, which can be realized concurrently within the same silicene monolayer. We illustrate this by using silicene to implement Self-Switching Diodes (SSDs), which are two-dimensional field effect nanorectifiers realized within a single silicene monolayer. Our quantum simulation results show that the atomically-thin silicene SSDs, with sub-10?nm dimensions, achieve a current rectification ratio that exceeds 200, without the need for doping, representing a 30?fold enhancement over graphene SSDs. We attribute this enhancement to a bandgap opening due to the in-plane electric field, as a consequence of silicene’s buckling. Our results suggest that silicene is a promising material for the realization of planar field effect devices.

  2. Highly Effective Conductance Modulation in Planar Silicene Field Effect Devices Due to Buckling

    PubMed Central

    Al-Dirini, Feras; Hossain, Faruque M.; Mohammed, Mahmood A.; Nirmalathas, Ampalavanapillai; Skafidas, Efstratios

    2015-01-01

    Silicene is an exciting two-dimensional material that shares many of graphene’s electronic properties, but differs in its structural buckling. This buckling allows opening a bandgap in silicene through the application of a perpendicular electric field. Here we show that this buckling also enables highly effective modulation of silicene’s conductance by means of an in-plane electric field applied through silicene side gates, which can be realized concurrently within the same silicene monolayer. We illustrate this by using silicene to implement Self-Switching Diodes (SSDs), which are two-dimensional field effect nanorectifiers realized within a single silicene monolayer. Our quantum simulation results show that the atomically-thin silicene SSDs, with sub-10 nm dimensions, achieve a current rectification ratio that exceeds 200, without the need for doping, representing a 30 fold enhancement over graphene SSDs. We attribute this enhancement to a bandgap opening due to the in-plane electric field, as a consequence of silicene’s buckling. Our results suggest that silicene is a promising material for the realization of planar field effect devices. PMID:26441200

  3. Revealing giant internal magnetic fields due to spin fluctuations in magnetically doped colloidal nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, William D.; Liu, Wenyong; Baker, Thomas A.; Sinitsyn, Nikolai A.; Klimov, Victor I.; Crooker, Scott A.

    2016-02-01

    Strong quantum confinement in semiconductors can compress the wavefunctions of band electrons and holes to nanometre-scale volumes, significantly enhancing interactions between themselves and individual dopants. In magnetically doped semiconductors, where paramagnetic dopants (such as Mn2+, Co2+ and so on) couple to band carriers via strong sp–d spin exchange, giant magneto-optical effects can therefore be realized in confined geometries using few or even single impurity spins. Importantly, however, thermodynamic spin fluctuations become increasingly relevant in this few-spin limit. In nanoscale volumes, the statistical fluctuations of N spins are expected to generate giant effective magnetic fields Beff, which should dramatically impact carrier spin dynamics, even in the absence of any applied field. Here we directly and unambiguously reveal the large Beff that exist in Mn2+-doped CdSe colloidal nanocrystals using ultrafast optical spectroscopy. At zero applied magnetic field, extremely rapid (300–600 GHz) spin precession of photoinjected electrons is observed, indicating Beff ∼ 15 ‑30 T for electrons. Precession frequencies exceed 2 THz in applied magnetic fields. These signals arise from electron precession about the random fields due to statistically incomplete cancellation of the embedded Mn2+ moments, thereby revealing the initial coherent dynamics of magnetic polaron formation, and highlighting the importance of magnetization fluctuations on carrier spin dynamics in nanomaterials.

  4. Highly Effective Conductance Modulation in Planar Silicene Field Effect Devices Due to Buckling.

    PubMed

    Al-Dirini, Feras; Hossain, Faruque M; Mohammed, Mahmood A; Nirmalathas, Ampalavanapillai; Skafidas, Efstratios

    2015-01-01

    Silicene is an exciting two-dimensional material that shares many of graphene's electronic properties, but differs in its structural buckling. This buckling allows opening a bandgap in silicene through the application of a perpendicular electric field. Here we show that this buckling also enables highly effective modulation of silicene's conductance by means of an in-plane electric field applied through silicene side gates, which can be realized concurrently within the same silicene monolayer. We illustrate this by using silicene to implement Self-Switching Diodes (SSDs), which are two-dimensional field effect nanorectifiers realized within a single silicene monolayer. Our quantum simulation results show that the atomically-thin silicene SSDs, with sub-10?nm dimensions, achieve a current rectification ratio that exceeds 200, without the need for doping, representing a 30?fold enhancement over graphene SSDs. We attribute this enhancement to a bandgap opening due to the in-plane electric field, as a consequence of silicene's buckling. Our results suggest that silicene is a promising material for the realization of planar field effect devices. PMID:26441200

  5. Revealing giant internal magnetic fields due to spin fluctuations in magnetically doped colloidal nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Rice, William D; Liu, Wenyong; Baker, Thomas A; Sinitsyn, Nikolai A; Klimov, Victor I; Crooker, Scott A

    2016-02-01

    Strong quantum confinement in semiconductors can compress the wavefunctions of band electrons and holes to nanometre-scale volumes, significantly enhancing interactions between themselves and individual dopants. In magnetically doped semiconductors, where paramagnetic dopants (such as Mn(2+), Co(2+) and so on) couple to band carriers via strong sp-d spin exchange, giant magneto-optical effects can therefore be realized in confined geometries using few or even single impurity spins. Importantly, however, thermodynamic spin fluctuations become increasingly relevant in this few-spin limit. In nanoscale volumes, the statistical fluctuations of N spins are expected to generate giant effective magnetic fields Beff, which should dramatically impact carrier spin dynamics, even in the absence of any applied field. Here we directly and unambiguously reveal the large Beff that exist in Mn(2+)-doped CdSe colloidal nanocrystals using ultrafast optical spectroscopy. At zero applied magnetic field, extremely rapid (300-600?GHz) spin precession of photoinjected electrons is observed, indicating Beff???15?-30?T for electrons. Precession frequencies exceed 2 THz in applied magnetic fields. These signals arise from electron precession about the random fields due to statistically incomplete cancellation of the embedded Mn(2+) moments, thereby revealing the initial coherent dynamics of magnetic polaron formation, and highlighting the importance of magnetization fluctuations on carrier spin dynamics in nanomaterials. PMID:26595331

  6. PARTICLE DISPLACEMENTS ON THE WALL OF A BOREHOLE FROM INCIDENT PLANE WAVES.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, M.W.

    1987-01-01

    Particle displacements from incident plane waves at the wall of a fluid-filled borehole are formulated by applying the seismic reciprocity theorem to far-field displacement fields. Such displacement fields are due to point forces acting on a fluid-filled borehole under the assumption of long wavelengths. The displacement fields are analyzed to examine the effect of the borehole on seismic wave propagation, particularly for vertical seismic profiling (VSP) measurements. When the shortest wavelength of interest is approximately 25 times longer than the borehole's diameter, the scattered displacements are proportional to the first power of incident frequency and borehole diameter. When the shortest wavelength of interest is about 40 times longer than the borehole's diameter, borehole effects on VSP measurements using a wall-locking geophone are negligible.

  7. Displacement Compensation of Temperature Probe Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Christopher S.; Hubert, James A.; Barber, Patrick G.

    1996-01-01

    Analysis of temperature data from a probe in a vertical Bridgman furnace growing germanium crystals revealed a displacement of the temperature profile due to conduction error. A theoretical analysis shows that the displacement compensation is independent of local temperature gradient. A displacement compensation value should become a standard characteristic of temperature probes used for temperature profile measurements.

  8. Lateral displacement and rotational displacement sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Duden, Thomas

    2014-04-22

    A position measuring sensor formed from opposing sets of capacitor plates measures both rotational displacement and lateral displacement from the changes in capacitances as overlapping areas of capacitors change. Capacitances are measured by a measuring circuit. The measured capacitances are provided to a calculating circuit that performs calculations to obtain angular and lateral displacement from the capacitances measured by the measuring circuit.

  9. Saturation of a longitudinal instability due to nonlinearity of the wake field

    SciTech Connect

    Krinsky, S.

    1985-01-01

    Self-sustained synchrotron oscillations are observed in electron storage rings. In general the theoretical description of the saturation of an instability for large oscillation amplitude is a difficult problem, and techniques have not yet been developed which yield analytic approximations to the appropriate nonlinear Vlasov or Fokker-Planck equations. In this paper, a single point bunch interacting with the wake field from a single resonant mode of an rf cavity is considered, and the averaging method of Bogoliubov and Mitropolsky is used to study the saturation of the initial exponential growth of the oscillation amplitude, due to the nonlinearity of the wake field. The determination of the limiting amplitude of oscillation is discussed both in the presence and in the absence of radiation damping.

  10. Improved Confinement due to Open Ergodic Field Lines Imposed by the Dynamic Ergodic Divertor in TEXTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Finken, K. H.; Abdullaev, S. S.; Jakubowski, M. W.; Bozhenkov, S.; Busch, C.; Kraemer-Flecken, A.; Lehnen, M.; Schega, D.; Schmitz, O.; Unterberg, B.; Wolf, R. C.; Zimmermann, O.; Bock, M. F. M. de; Hellermann, M. von; Jaspers, R.; Kikuchi, Y.; Spatschek, K. H.; Wingen, A.

    2007-02-09

    The ergodization of the magnetic field lines imposed by the dynamic ergodic diverter (DED) in TEXTOR can lead both to confinement improvement and to confinement deterioration. The cases of substantial improvement are in resonant ways related to particular conditions in which magnetic flux tubes starting at the X points of induced islands are connected with the wall. This opening process is connected with a characteristic modification of the heat deposition pattern at the divertor target plate and leads to a substantial increase and steepening of the core plasma density and pressure. The improvement is tentatively attributed to a modification of the electric potential in the plasma carried by the open field lines. The confinement improvement bases on a spontaneous density built up due to the application of the DED and is primarily a particle confinement improvement.

  11. Absence of Remote Triggering in Geothermal Fields Due to Human Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, S.; Zhang, Q.; Lin, G.

    2014-12-01

    Operational geothermal fields typically have high seismicity rates, which could be caused by both tectonic and anthropogenic activities. Due to the high background seismicity and possible interaction between fluid and seismic waves, geothermal areas have been recognized to be susceptible to large remote earthquakes. However, whether human activity (geothermal production) affects remote earthquake triggering by changing the stress state is unclear. Here we choose two geothermal fields, Coso and Salton Sea in southern California, to study the spatiotemporal distributions of the triggered earthquakes following the 1992 Mw 7.3 Landers and 1999 Mw 7.1 Hector Mine earthquakes. These two geothermal fields have been in operation since 1980s with comparable net capacity, and have long-term geothermal fluid loss. By analyzing the regional catalog recorded by the Southern California Seismic Network, we find that these two operational geothermal areas remain unaffected by the remote mainshocks, whereas the surrounding areas show vigorous triggered responses. We interpret this phenomenon as a result of human activity, which presumably has brought the stress state away from failure by reducing pore pressure. To further understand how much the human activity can affect the stress state, we also conduct a systematic study on Long Valley Caldera in northern California as a comparison site. Long Valley Caldera hosts an active geothermal field with net capacity about one sixth of that in Coso or Salton Sea geothermal field, and the extraction volume is not constantly larger than the injection. We will show comparisons of the triggered response in Long Valley with the two geothermal fields in southern California.

  12. Laser front distortions due to flow field around a helicopter configuration on hover and forward motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodbele, Simha

    2009-11-01

    Laser beam front distortions characterizing near field losses of energy from a turret mounted on a generic helicopter have been computed to support the modeling and simulation effort of a directed energy testing. The flow field has been computed using an unstructured computational fluid dynamics method with (a) Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes method with Spalart-Almaras (SA) turbulence model and (b) time accurate Detached Eddy Simulation with SA turbulence model. The beam distortions have been computed using an aero-optics model developed at the University of Notre Dame. For study (a), the rotor surface is modeled by an actuator disk with a jump in the pressure at the disk plane with the laser passing through the flow field due to the fuselage and the rotor. In the case of study (b), the laser is passing through a time accurate flow field of an isolated rotor blade. The laser front distortions, computed through optical path differences for several azimuth and elevation angles for hover and forward flight conditions, are presented in this study.

  13. Dispersive FDTD analysis of induced electric field in human models due to electrostatic discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Akimasa; Nagai, Toshihiro; Koyama, Teruyoshi; Hattori, Junya; Chan, Kwok Hung; Kavet, Robert

    2012-07-01

    Contact currents flow from/into a charged human body when touching a grounded conductive object. An electrostatic discharge (ESD) or spark may occur just before contact or upon release. The current may stimulate muscles and peripheral nerves. In order to clarify the difference in the induced electric field between different sized human models, the in-situ electric fields were computed in anatomically based models of adults and a child for a contact current in a human body following ESD. A dispersive finite-difference time-domain method was used, in which biological tissue is assumed to obey a four-pole Debye model. From our computational results, the first peak of the discharge current was almost identical across adult and child models. The decay of the induced current in the child was also faster due mainly to its smaller body capacitance compared to the adult models. The induced electric fields in the forefingers were comparable across different models. However, the electric field induced in the arm of the child model was found to be greater than that in the adult models primarily because of its smaller cross-sectional area. The tendency for greater doses in the child has also been reported for power frequency sinusoidal contact current exposures as reported by other investigators.

  14. Porous silicon/Ni composites of high coercivity due to magnetic field-assisted etching

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Ferromagnetic nanostructures have been electrodeposited within the pores of porous silicon templates with average pore diameters between 25 and 60 nm. In this diameter regime, the pore formation in general is accompanied by dendritic growth resulting in rough pore walls, which involves metal deposits also offering a branched structure. These side branches influence the magnetic properties of the composite system not only due to modified and peculiar stray fields but also because of a reduced interpore spacing by the approaching of adjacent side pores. To improve the morphology of the porous silicon structures, a magnetic field up to 8 T has been applied during the formation process. The magnetic field etching results in smaller pore diameters with less dendritic side pores. Deposition of a ferromagnetic metal within these templates leads to less branched nanostructures and, thus, to an enhancement of the coercivity of the system and also to a significantly increased magnetic anisotropy. So magnetic field-assisted etching is an appropriate tool to improve the structure of the template concerning the decrease of the dendritic pore growth and to advance the magnetic properties of the composite material. PMID:22784792

  15. 3D displacement measurements using a single camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Réthoré, Julien; Morestin, Fabrice; Lafarge, Lionel; Valverde, Paul

    2014-06-01

    Measuring 3D displacements usually requires at least two cameras or 3D images. However, in some especially constrained experimental circumstances, it is only possible to use a single camera. The present paper develops a methodology, based on digital image correlation that is able to measure the homogeneous 3D displacement of a plane surface using a single camera. Based on Descartes' theory, a model is elaborated that accounts not only for the magnification change due to the out-of-plane displacement but also for the unfocusing of the object. Several examples are provided that show the ability of the technique to track 3D displacements with various optical setups with different depths of field.

  16. Experimental verification of a non-axisymmetric displacement field predicted by finite element analysis of a composite disk subjected to an axisymmetric loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, Stanley T.

    A finite element analysis of a circular quasi-isotropic composite disk that was clamped around its boundary and subjected to a uniform pressure was developed by the author prior to initiating this work. The analysis was performed as part of a program being developed to measure the permeability of materials. While investigating the results of the proposed configuration, it was determined that the allowable stress for the material to be tested would be exceeded close to the boundary. However, it was suggested that a pre-stress could be incorporated by tapering the clamped boundary so that, after the pressure was applied, the combined stress would fall within the material's allowable limit. Interestingly, the finite element analysis of the pre-stressed disk predicted an unexpected out-of-plane displacement that did not follow the principal material directions despite the fact that the disk was quasi-isotropic and loaded uniformly around the boundary. Further investigation revealed that this was due to variations in the terms contained in the bending stiffness matrix as a function of the angle measured relative to the principal material directions. The permeability test was subsequently adopted as part of the proposed test program and no failures have occurred to date near the boundary. However, since the initial finite element model developed for the pre-stressed condition does not accurately reflect the clamped condition currently found in practice, a more sophisticated model is needed. This dissertation focuses on the actual pre-stressed condition. After a thorough investigation is made of the bending stiffness matrix, two improved finite element models are developed using different analysis codes. The first model was developed in Nastran, mainly because the author used this package in his initial work. But the procedure to develop a nonlinear contact model for Nastran in Patran was found to be cumbersome. So, Abaqus was used because the associated pre-processor provides a simple process for establishing contact regions. Finally, a test is conducted to experimentally measure the displacement profile of a disk subjected to the pre-stressed condition using speckle metrology and digital image correlation. A comparison between the experimental and analytical results shows a good agreement, thereby validating the finite element models and confirming the original observation made regarding the non-axisymmetric out-of-plane displacement.

  17. Small scale changes of geochemistry and flow field due to transient heat storage in aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, S.; Boockmeyer, A.; Li, D.; Beyer, C.

    2013-12-01

    Heat exchangers in the subsurface are increasingly installed for transient heat storage due to the need of heating or cooling of buildings as well as the interim storage of heat to compensate for the temporally fluctuating energy production by wind or solar energy. For heat storage to be efficient, high temperatures must be achieved in the subsurface. Significant temporal changes of the soil and groundwater temperatures however effect both the local flow field by temperature dependent fluid parameters as well as reactive mass transport through temperature dependent diffusion coefficients, geochemical reaction rates and mineral equilibria. As the use of heat storage will be concentrated in urban areas, the use of the subsurface for (drinking) water supply and heat storage will typically coincide and a reliable prognosis of the processes occurring is needed. In the present work, the effects of a temporal variation of the groundwater temperature, as induced by a local heat exchanger introduced into a groundwater aquifer, are studied. For this purpose, the coupled non-isothermal groundwater flow, heat transport and reactive mass transport is simulated in the near filed of such a heat exchanger. By explicitly discretizing and incorporating the borehole, the borehole cementation and the heat exchanger tubes, a realistic geometrical and process representation is obtained. The numerical simulation code OpenGeoSys is used in this work, which incorporates the required processes of coupled groundwater flow, heat and mass transport as well as temperature dependent geochemistry. Due to the use of a Finite Element Method, a close representation of the geometric effects can be achieved. Synthetic scenario simulations for typical settings of salt water formations in northern Germany are used to investigate the geochemical effects arising from a high temperature heat storage by quantifying changes in groundwater chemistry and overall reaction rates. This work presents the simulation approach used and results obtained for the synthetic scenarios. The model simulations show that locally in the direct vicinity of the borehole heat exchanger the flow field is changed, causing a ground water convergence and thus a mixing of water in the case of high temperatures. Also, geochemical reactions are induced due to shifting of temperature dependent mineral equilibria. Due to the moving groundwater, the changes are not reversible, and small impacts remain downstream of the borehole heat exchanger. However, the changes depend strongly on the mineral composition of the formation and the formation water present.

  18. Pineal melatonin level disruption in humans due to electromagnetic fields and ICNIRP limits.

    PubMed

    Halgamuge, Malka N

    2013-05-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classifies electromagnetic fields (EMFs) as 'possibly carcinogenic' to humans that might transform normal cells into cancer cells. Owing to high utilisation of electricity in day-to-day life, exposure to power-frequency (50 or 60 Hz) EMFs is unavoidable. Melatonin is a natural hormone produced by pineal gland activity in the brain that regulates the body's sleep-wake cycle. How man-made EMFs may influence the pineal gland is still unsolved. The pineal gland is likely to sense EMFs as light but, as a consequence, may decrease the melatonin production. In this study, more than one hundred experimental data of human and animal studies of changes in melatonin levels due to power-frequency electric and magnetic fields exposure were analysed. Then, the results of this study were compared with the International Committee of Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) limit and also with the existing experimental results in the literature for the biological effect of magnetic fields, in order to quantify the effects. The results show that this comparison does not seem to be consistent despite the fact that it offers an advantage of drawing attention to the importance of the exposure limits to weak EMFs. In addition to those inconsistent results, the following were also observedfrom this work: (i) the ICNIRP recommendations are meant for the well-known acute effects, because effects of the exposure duration cannot be considered and (ii) the significance of not replicating the existing experimental studies is another limitation in the power-frequency EMFs. Regardless of these issues, the above observation agrees with our earlier study in which it was confirmed that it is not a reliable method to characterise biological effects by observing only the ratio of AC magnetic field strength to frequency. This is because exposure duration does not include the ICNIRP limit. Furthermore, the results show the significance of disruption of melatonin due to exposure to weak EMFs, which may possibly lead to long-term health effects in humans. PMID:23051584

  19. Estimation of Surface Roughness due to Electrode Erosion in Field-Distortion Gas Switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xuandong; Wang, Hu; Li, Xiaoang; Zhang, Qiaogen; Wei, Jin; Qiu, Aici

    2013-08-01

    Field distortion gas switch is one of the crucial elements in a Marx generator, fast linear transformer driver and other pulsed power installations. The performance of the gas switch, which is dramatically affected by the surface roughness due to electrode erosion during the discharge process, directly influences the output parameters, stability and reliability of the pulsed power system. In this paper, an electrode surface roughness (ESR) calculation model has been established based on a great deal of experimental data under operating current. The discharge current waveform, the peak height of the burr, the radius and the depth of etch pits in the electrode erosion region were used to predict the ESR. Also, experimental results indicate that this calculation model can effectively estimate the ESR of the test gas switch.

  20. A model for compression-weakening materials and the elastic fields due to contractile cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosakis, Phoebus; Notbohm, Jacob; Ravichandran, Guruswami

    2015-12-01

    We construct a homogeneous, nonlinear elastic constitutive law that models aspects of the mechanical behavior of inhomogeneous fibrin networks. Fibers in such networks buckle when in compression. We model this as a loss of stiffness in compression in the stress-strain relations of the homogeneous constitutive model. Problems that model a contracting biological cell in a finite matrix are solved. It is found that matrix displacements and stresses induced by cell contraction decay slower (with distance from the cell) in a compression weakening material than linear elasticity would predict. This points toward a mechanism for long-range cell mechanosensing. In contrast, an expanding cell would induce displacements that decay faster than in a linear elastic matrix.

  1. Characterising oil and water in porous media using decay due to diffusion in the internal field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Rhiannon T.; Djurhuus, Ketil; Seland, John Georg

    2015-10-01

    In the method Decay due to Diffusion in the Internal Field (DDIF), the diffusion behaviour of water molecules in the internal magnetic field makes it possible to determine a distribution of pore sizes in a sample. The DDIF experiment can also be extended to a DDIF-Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (DDIF-CPMG) experiment to measure correlations between the pore size and the transverse relaxation time, T2 . In this study we have for the first time applied the DDIF experiment and the DDIF-CPMG experiment to porous materials saturated with both water and oil. Because of the large difference in diffusion rates between water and oil molecules, the DDIF experiment will act as a filter for the signal from oil, and we are left with the DDIF-signal from water only. This has been verified in model systems consisting of glass beads immersed in separate layers of water and oil, and in a sandstone sample saturated with water and oil. The results show that the DDIF and DDIF-CPMG experiments enable the determination of the confining geometry of the water phase, and how this geometry is correlated to T2 . Data obtained in the sandstone sample saturated with water and oil also show that with the exception of the smallest pores there is no clear correlation between pore size and the relaxation time of water.

  2. Membrane Permeabilization in Relation to Inactivation Kinetics of Lactobacillus Species due to Pulsed Electric Fields

    PubMed Central

    Wouters, Patrick C.; Bos, Ad P.; Ueckert, Joerg

    2001-01-01

    Membrane permeabilization due to pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment of gram-positive Lactobacillus cells was investigated by using propidium iodide uptake and single-cell analysis with flow cytometry. Electric field strength, energy input, treatment time, and growth phase affected membrane permeabilization of Lactobacillus plantarum during PEF treatment. A correlation between PEF inactivation and membrane permeabilization of L. plantarum cells was demonstrated, whereas no relationship was observed between membrane permeabilization and heat inactivation. The same results were obtained with a Lactobacillus fermentum strain, but the latter organism was more PEF resistant and exhibited less membrane permeabilization, indicating that various bacteria have different responses to PEF treatment. While membrane permeabilization was the main factor involved in the mechanism of inactivation, the growth phase and the acidity of the environment also influenced inactivation. By using flow cytometry it was possible to sort cells in the L. plantarum population based on different cell sizes and shapes, and the results were confirmed by image analysis. An apparent effect of morphology on membrane permeabilization was observed, and larger cells were more easily permeabilized than smaller cells. In conclusion, our results indicate that the ability of PEF treatment to cause membrane permeabilization is an important factor in determining inactivation. This finding should have an effect on the final choice of the processing parameters used so that all microorganisms can be inactivated and, consequently, on the use of PEF treatment as an alternative method for preserving food products. PMID:11425727

  3. Characterising oil and water in porous media using decay due to diffusion in the internal field.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Rhiannon T; Djurhuus, Ketil; Seland, John Georg

    2015-10-01

    In the method Decay due to Diffusion in the Internal Field (DDIF), the diffusion behaviour of water molecules in the internal magnetic field makes it possible to determine a distribution of pore sizes in a sample. The DDIF experiment can also be extended to a DDIF-Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (DDIF-CPMG) experiment to measure correlations between the pore size and the transverse relaxation time, T2. In this study we have for the first time applied the DDIF experiment and the DDIF-CPMG experiment to porous materials saturated with both water and oil. Because of the large difference in diffusion rates between water and oil molecules, the DDIF experiment will act as a filter for the signal from oil, and we are left with the DDIF-signal from water only. This has been verified in model systems consisting of glass beads immersed in separate layers of water and oil, and in a sandstone sample saturated with water and oil. The results show that the DDIF and DDIF-CPMG experiments enable the determination of the confining geometry of the water phase, and how this geometry is correlated to T2. Data obtained in the sandstone sample saturated with water and oil also show that with the exception of the smallest pores there is no clear correlation between pore size and the relaxation time of water. PMID:26254732

  4. High frequency MHD activity due to resistive interchange modes in a reversed field pinch plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuin, Matteo; Spagnolo, Silvia; Paccagnella, Roberto; Martines, Emilio; Cavazzana, Roberto; Serianni, Gianluigi; Spolaore, Monica; Vianello, Nicola

    2009-11-01

    The results of an experimental activity aimed at investigating the origin of high frequency, high toroidal mode number (n>20) magnetic fluctuations in the RFX-mod reversed field pinch device are presented. The space-time properties of the fluctuations are characterized by means of 2 arrays of in-vessel toroidal and poloidal pick-up coils covering the whole toroidal torus, and by means of an insertable edge probe, housing two radial arrays of triaxial pick-up coils, closely spaced in the toroidal direction. High levels of magnetic fluctuation at frequencies above 30 kHz are observed when the reversal of the magnetic field at the edge is driven to deep values. These fluctuations are due to rotating coherent modes whose resonant radii are located between the plasma edge and the reversal surface. A comparison of the experimental spectral properties to the theoretical predictions by a linear MHD stability analysis for a RFP plasma allows to interpret the observed instabilities as resistive interchange modes.

  5. Cloud-Radiation Field Changes due to the Direct Effect of Smoke Aerosols in Southeast Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montero-Martinez, M. J.

    2003-12-01

    In general, aerosols affect climate mainly by directly absorbing and scattering input solar radiation and indirectly through their rule as cloud condensation nuclei. Smoke aerosols from biomass burning are considered to be the second most important source of anthropogenic particles (sulfate aerosols being the first) that are influencing the climate. Numerical simulations are carried on MM5 (using the CCM2 radiative scheme) by introducing the smoke aerosol spectral optical properties in the southeastern Mexican region. The neighborhood of this region is the most important source of biomass burning aerosols in Central America during the dry season (February-June). The particles are considered to be homogeneous in composition and the optical properties are calculated using Mie theory and the Remer et al. (1998) smoke model. Simulations are performed for March 17-20 and April 18-20, 2003. These two periods resulted to be a relative maximum in the number of fires detected in the studied region according to different algorithms based on satellite imagery. GDAS data are used to initialize the MM5 model. The goal is to study the changes in the cloud-radiation field due to the aerosol direct effect varying the smoke aerosol optical properties, especially the optical depth. Preliminary results support the argument that not only the aerosol effect is important but also the cloud changes due to the radiative differences caused by the aerosol direct effect itself. These cloud effects followed very different ways sometimes depending on atmospheric conditions of course, but also on other characteristics such as orography or land surface features. The simulations indicate a wide range on the surface radiative forcing varying from -40 W/m2 for smoke particles with an optical depth of 0.2 (at 670 nm), to -140 W/m2 for particles with an optical depth of 0.8.

  6. Parametric Study of Preferential Ion Heating Due to Intermittent Magnetic Fields in the Solar Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbajal Gomez, L.; Chapman, S. C.; Dendy, R. O.; Watkins, N. W.

    2014-12-01

    In situ observations and remote measurements of the solar wind show strong preferential heating of ions along the ambient magnetic field. Understanding the mechanism for this heating process is an open problem. The observed broad-band spectrum of Alfven waves permeating the fast solar wind provide a candidate mechanism for this preferential heating through wave-particle interactions on ion kinetic scales. Previous analytical and numerical studies have considered a single pump wave [1, 2] or a turbulent, broad-band spectra of Alfven waves [3, 4, 5] to drive the ion heating. The latter studies investigated the effects on ion heating due to different initial 1/f?power spectral exponents and number of modes and the signals were random phase. However, the observed solar wind fluctuations are intermittent so that the phases of the modes comprising the power spectrum are not random. Non-Gaussian fluctuations are seen both on scales identified with the inertial range of Alfvenic turbulence [6], and on longer scales typified by '1/f' spectra [7]. We present results of the first parametric numerical simulations on the effects of different levels of intermittency of the broad-band spectra of Alfven waves on the preferential heating of ions in the solar wind. We performed hybrid simulations for the local heating of the solar wind, which resolves the full kinetic physics of the ions and treats the electrons as a charge-neutralizing fluid. Our simulations evolve the full vector velocities and electromagnetic fields in one configuration space coordinate and in time.We compare the efficiency of different levels of intermittency of the initial turbulent fields and their effect on the efficiency of the wave-particle interactions which are a mechanism for driving preferential ion heating in the solar wind. [1] J. A. Araneda, E. Marsh, A. F. Viñas, J. Geophys. Res. 112, A04104 (2007). [2] J. A. Araneda, E. Marsh, A. F. Viñas, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 125003 (2008) [3] Y. G. Maneva, A. F. Viñas, L. Ofman, J. Geophys. Res. 118, 2842 (2013). [4] L. Ofman, J. Geophys. Res. 115, 1461 (2010). [5] L. Ofman, S. P. Gary, A. Viñas, J. Geophys. Res. 107, 1461 (2002). [6] R. Bruno, V. Carbone, Living Rev. Solar Phys. 10, 2 (2013). [7] R. M. Nicol, S. C. Chapman, R. O. Dendy, The Astrophysical Journal 703, 2138 (2009).

  7. The critical current of a NbTi tape measured in different directions of magnetic field and the current reduction due to the self field

    SciTech Connect

    ten Haken, B.; van de Klundert, L.J.M. ); Vysotsky, V.S.; Karasik, V.R. )

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that, for the application of NbTi tape in a superconducting thermal switch, the critical current of a 20 micrometers thick NbTi tape is measured in several directions of the magnetic field. The critical current is found to behave strongly anisotropically, due to the deformation of the NbTi. The tape is extra sensitive for the component of the magnetic field perpendicular to the surface. Without external field this component of the self field reduces the critical current far below its intrinsic value. A one dimensional model can describe the reduction of critical current due to the self field in a thin tape.

  8. Observed Changes in the Gravity Field of Mars Due to Seasonal Atmospheric Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, David E.; Zuber, M. T.; Dunn, P. J.; Torrence, M. H.; Fricke, S. K.

    2000-01-01

    The atmosphere of Mars deposits approximately 30% of its mass at the winter pole as part of its seasonal cycle of CO2 exchange and sublimes it back to the atmosphere in the spring, thus creating an annual hemispheric cycle of mass re-distribution. Using X-band tracking data of the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft, we have detected the signature of changes in the low degree gravity field from March 1999 through August 2000, corresponding to about three-quarters of a Martian year. The observed variations show a general resemblance to predicted variations from general circulation models. Also observed are irregular changes that appear to be due to transient phenomena in the Martian atmosphere such as large dust storms that provide significant heat into the lower atmosphere, even in the polar regions. In addition, we have identified a change in the rate of rotation of Mars over this same period that appears somewhat smaller than anticipated, but in general agreement with general circulation models.

  9. FARADAY ROTATION MEASURE DUE TO THE INTERGALACTIC MAGNETIC FIELD. II. THE COSMOLOGICAL CONTRIBUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Akahori, Takuya; Ryu, Dongsu E-mail: ryu@canopus.cnu.ac.kr

    2011-09-10

    We investigate the Faraday rotation measure (RM) due to the intergalactic magnetic field (IGMF) through the cosmic web up to cosmological distances, using a model IGMF based on turbulence dynamo in the large-scale structure of the universe. By stacking the IGMF and gas density data up to redshift z = 5 and taking account of the redshift distribution of polarized background radio sources against which the RM is measured, we simulate the sky map of the RM. The contribution from galaxy clusters is subtracted from the map, based on several different criteria of X-ray brightness and temperature. Our findings are as follows. The distribution of RM for radio sources of different redshifts shows that the rms value increases with redshift and saturates for z {approx}> 1. The saturated value is RM{sub rms} {approx} several rad m{sup -2}. The probability distribution function of |RM| follows the lognormal distribution. The power spectrum has a broad plateau over the angular scale of {approx}1{sup 0}-0.{sup 0}1 with a peak around {approx}0.{sup 0}15. The second-order structure function has a flat profile in the angular separation of {approx}> 0.{sup 0}2. Our results could provide useful insights for surveys to explore the IGMF with the Square Kilometer Array (SKA) and upcoming SKA pathfinders.

  10. Uncertainties in SOA simulations due to meteorological uncertainties in Mexico City during MILAGRO-2006 field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bei, N.; Li, G.; Molina, L. T.

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate the uncertainties in simulating secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in Mexico City metropolitan area (MCMA) due to meteorological initial uncertainties using the WRF-CHEM model through ensemble simulations. The simulated periods (24 and 29 March 2006) represent two typical meteorological episodes ("Convection-South" and "Convection-North", respectively) in the Mexico City basin during the MILAGRO-2006 field campaign. The organic aerosols are simulated using a non-traditional SOA model including the volatility basis-set modeling method and the contributions from glyoxal and methylglyoxal. Model results demonstrate that uncertainties in meteorological initial conditions have significant impacts on SOA simulations, including the peak time concentrations, the horizontal distributions, and the temporal variations. The ensemble spread of the simulated peak SOA at T0 can reach up to 4.0 ?g m-3 during the daytime, which is around 35% of the ensemble mean. Both the basin wide wind speed and the convergence area affect the magnitude and the location of the simulated SOA concentrations inside the Mexico City basin. The wind speed, especially during the previous midnight and the following early morning, influences the magnitude of the peak SOA concentration through ventilation. The surface horizontal convergence zone generally determines the area with high SOA concentrations. The magnitude of the ensemble spreads may vary with different meteorological episodes but the ratio of the ensemble spread to mean does not change significantly.

  11. Uncertainties in SOA simulations due to meteorological uncertainties in Mexico City during MILAGRO-2006 field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bei, N.; Li, G.; Molina, L. T.

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate the uncertainties in simulating secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in Mexico City metropolitan area (MCMA) due to meteorological initial uncertainties using the WRF-CHEM model through ensemble simulations. The simulated periods (24 and 29 March 2006) represent two typical meteorological episodes ("Convection-South" and "Convection-North", respectively) in the Mexico City basin during the MILAGRO-2006 field campaign. The organic aerosols are simulated using a non-traditional SOA model including the volatility basis-set modeling method and the contributions from glyoxal and methylglyoxal. Model results demonstrate that uncertainties in meteorological initial conditions have significant impacts on SOA simulations, including the peak time concentrations, the horizontal distributions, and the temporal variations. The ensemble spread of the simulated peak SOA at T0 can reach up to 4.0 ?g m-3 during the daytime, which is around 35% of the ensemble mean. Both the basin wide wind speed and the convergence area affect the magnitude and the location of the simulated SOA concentrations inside the Mexico City basin. The wind speed, especially during the previous midnight and the following early morning, influences the magnitude of the peak SOA concentration through ventilation. The surface horizontal convergence zone generally determines the area with high SOA concentrations. The magnitude of the ensemble spreads may vary with different meteorological episodes but the ratio of the ensemble spread to mean does not change significantly.

  12. Uncertainties in SOA simulations due to meteorological uncertainties in Mexico City during MILAGRO-2006 field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bei, N.; Li, G.; Molina, L. T.

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate the uncertainties in simulating secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in Mexico City metropolitan area (MCMA) due to meteorological initial uncertainties using the WRF-CHEM model through ensemble simulations. The simulated periods (24 and 29 March 2006) represent two typical meteorological episodes ("Convection-South" and "Convection-North", respectively) in the Mexico City basin during the MILAGRO-2006 field campaign. The organic aerosols are simulated using a non-traditional SOA model including the volatility basis-set modeling method and the contributions from glyoxal and methylglyoxal. Model results demonstrate that uncertainties in meteorological initial conditions have significant impacts on SOA simulations, including the peak time concentrations, the horizontal distributions, and the temporal variations. The ensemble spread of the simulated peak SOA at T0 can reach up to 4.0 µg m-3 during the daytime, which is around 35% of the ensemble mean. Both the basin wide wind speed and the convergence area affect the magnitude and the location of the simulated SOA concentrations inside the Mexico City basin. The wind speed, especially during the previous midnight and the following early morning, influences the magnitude of the peak SOA concentration through ventilation. The surface horizontal convergence zone generally determines the area with high SOA concentrations. The magnitude of the ensemble spreads may vary with different meteorological episodes but has same significance compared to the ensemble mean.

  13. Fuzzy logic: a new tool for 3D displacement measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Thomas; Gutmann, Bernd; Weber, H.

    1996-09-01

    For comparison to model predictions, measurement of the true response of weak polymeric materials requires that a non- contacting method be used. In particular, for compression tests on weak polymers it is necessary to obtain the full 3D displacement field for the specimen. In this work, the full 3D displacement field was measured using a combination of white light speckle correlation and projected fringes. To obtain the out-of-plane displacement field, a fringe pattern with frequency of 0.30 lpmm was projected onto the specimen surface using a standard slide projector. A phase-stepping algorithm was used to convert the optical fringe pattern in a contour map for the surface. Due to reflections and noise in the fringe pattern, the authors developed a robust phase unwrapping methodology based on fuzzy logic principles. Baseline tests have shown that the algorithm produces accurate contour maps even when noise and poor fringe contrast are present. For the measurements of the in-plane displacement field the polymer foam materials was illuminated with a white light source and the natural character of the reflected light was used to obtain speckle images of the polymer. The images were acquired at various load levels and stored in digital form. The digital images were correlated to obtain the speckle deformation field. To increase the range of measurement and to deal with high strain, additional processing of the images using fuzzy logic algorithms was completed.

  14. Strategies for displacing oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Vikram; Gupta, Raghubir

    2015-03-01

    Oil currently holds a monopoly on transportation fuels. Until recently biofuels were seen as the means to break this stranglehold. They will still have a part to play, but the lead role has been handed to natural gas, almost solely due to the increased availability of shale gas. The spread between oil and gas prices, unprecedented in its scale and duration, will cause a secular shift away from oil as a raw material. In the transport fuel sector, natural gas will gain traction first in the displacement of diesel fuel. Substantial innovation is occurring in the methods of producing liquid fuel from shale gas at the well site, in particular in the development of small scale distributed processes. In some cases, the financing of such small-scale plants may require new business models.

  15. Short-range ordering due to displacements of thallium and oxygen atoms in superconducting Tl/sub 2/Ba/sub 2/CaCu/sub 2/O/sub 8/ observed by pulsed-neutron scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Dmowski, W.; Toby, B.H.; Egami, T.; Subramanian, M.A.; Gopalakrishnan, J.; Sleight, A.W.

    1988-11-28

    The atomic positional correlations in superconducting Tl/sub 2/Ba/sub 2/CaCu/sub 2/O/sub 8/ were studied by pair distribution function analysis of the pulsed-neutron scattering data. The results show for the first time strongly correlated local displacements of both thallium and oxygen atoms in the Tl-O plane from the high-symmetry crystallographic sites. As a consequence of the displacements Tl atoms form chains or pairs accompanied by displacement of nearby oxygen atoms, resulting in locally orthorhombic order. The ordering, however, remains very much short range and does not alter the average symmetry. The implications of these results with regard to the superconductivity of these oxides are discussed.

  16. A Methodology to Validate the InSAR Derived Displacement Field of the September 7th, 1999 Athens Earthquake Using Terrestrial Surveying. Improvement of the Assessed Deformation Field by Interferometric Stacking

    PubMed Central

    Kotsis, Ioannis; Kontoes, Charalabos; Paradissis, Dimitrios; Karamitsos, Spyros; Elias, Panagiotis; Papoutsis, Ioannis

    2008-01-01

    The primary objective of this paper is the evaluation of the InSAR derived displacement field caused by the 07/09/1999 Athens earthquake, using as reference an external data source provided by terrestrial surveying along the Mornos river open aqueduct. To accomplish this, a processing chain to render comparable the leveling measurements and the interferometric derived measurements has been developed. The distinct steps proposed include a solution for reducing the orbital and atmospheric interferometric fringes and an innovative method to compute the actual InSAR estimated vertical ground subsidence, for direct comparison with the leveling data. Results indicate that the modeled deformation derived from a series of stacked interferograms, falls entirely within the confidence interval assessed for the terrestrial surveying data.

  17. Anomalous diamagnetism of SmNiAl due to hydrogenation and field cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y. T.; Zhang, H.; Shao, H. Y.; Li, X. G.; Zhang, L. F.; Takahashi, S.

    2006-02-01

    The field-cooled (FC) and zero-field-cooled magnetizations of SmNiAl and its hydride were measured as a function of temperature. Hydrogenation and field-cooling cause a remarkable change in magnetic properties. SmNiAl exhibits a positive susceptibility, but an anomalous diamagnetic susceptibility is observed in the FC SmNiAl hydride below 32K and in H <1000Oe. The diamagnetism is associated with magnetic layer structures and hydrogen ions.

  18. Primary beam steering due to field leakage from superconducting SHMS magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, M. H.; Waidyawansa, B. P.; Covrig, S.; Carlini, R.; Benesch, J.

    2014-11-01

    Simulations of the magnetic fields from the Super High Momentum Spectrometer in Hall C at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility show significant field leakage into the region of the primary beam line between the target and the beam dump. Without mitigation, these remnant fields will steer the unscattered beam enough to limit beam operations at small scattering angles. Presented here are magnetic field simulations of the spectrometer magnets and a solution using optimal placement of a minimal amount of shielding iron around the beam line.

  19. Primary beam steering due to field leakage from superconducting SHMS magnets

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Moore, Michael H.; Waidyawansa, Buddhini P.; Covrig, Silviu; Carlini, Roger; Benesch, Jay

    2014-11-05

    In this study, simulations of the magnetic fields from the Super High Momentum Spectrometer in Hall C at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility show significant field leakage into the region of the primary beam line between the target and the beam dump. Without mitigation, these remnant fields will steer the unscattered beam enough to limit beam operations at small scattering angles. Presented here are magnetic field simulations of the spectrometer magnets and a solution using optimal placement of a minimal amount of shielding iron around the beam line.

  20. New look at displacement factor and point of measurement corrections in ionization chamber dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Awschalom, M.; Rosenberg, I.; Ten Haken, R.K.

    1983-05-01

    A new technique is presented for determination of the effective point of measurement when cavity ionization chambers are used to measure the absorbed dose due to ionizing radiation in a dense medium. An algorithm is derived relating the effective point of measurement to the displacement correction factor. This algorithm relates variations of the displacement factor to the radiation field gradient. The technique is applied to derive the magnitudes of the corrections for several chambers in a p(66)Be(49) neutron therapy beam.

  1. Flute stabilization due to ponderomotive force created by an rf field with a variable gradient

    SciTech Connect

    Yasaka, Y.; Itatani, R.

    1986-06-30

    An rf-stabilization experiment was performed in the axisymmetric single-mirror device HIEI by controlling the radial-gradient scale length of the rf field with the aid of an azimuthally phased antenna array. The flute stability depends sensitively on the scale length of the perpendicular rf electric field, which shows that rf stabilization is caused by the ponderomotive force for ions.

  2. Heating in the MRI environment due to superparamagnetic fluid suspensions in a rotating magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantillon-Murphy, P.; Wald, L. L.; Adalsteinsson, E.; Zahn, M.

    2010-03-01

    In the presence of alternating-sinusoidal or rotating magnetic fields, magnetic nanoparticles will act to realign their magnetic moment with the applied magnetic field. The realignment is characterized by the nanoparticle's time constant, ?. As the magnetic field frequency is increased, the nanoparticle's magnetic moment lags the applied magnetic field at a constant angle for a given frequency, ?, in rad/s. Associated with this misalignment is a power dissipation that increases the bulk magnetic fluid's temperature which has been utilized as a method of magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia, particularly suited for cancer in low-perfusion tissue (e.g., breast) where temperature increases of between 4 and 7 degree Centigrade above the ambient in vivo temperature cause tumor hyperthermia. This work examines the rise in the magnetic fluid's temperature in the MRI environment which is characterized by a large DC field, B0. Theoretical analysis and simulation is used to predict the effect of both alternating-sinusoidal and rotating magnetic fields transverse to B0. Results are presented for the expected temperature increase in small tumors (approximately 1 cm radius) over an appropriate range of magnetic fluid concentrations (0.002-0.01 solid volume fraction) and nanoparticle radii (1-10 nm). The results indicate that significant heating can take place, even in low-field MRI systems where magnetic fluid saturation is not significant, with careful selection of the rotating or sinusoidal field parameters (field frequency and amplitude). The work indicates that it may be feasible to combine low-field MRI with a magnetic hyperthermia system using superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles.

  3. Thickening oscillation of a delta wing using Navier-Stokes and Navier-displacement equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuang, Hsin-Kung A.; Kandil, Osama A.

    1989-01-01

    The problem of unsteady, supersonic, locally conical, vortical flow around a delta wing undergoing thickening oscillation is solved using the unsteady, thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations and the unsteady linearized Navier-displacement equations. The unsteady, thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations are solved using the implicit approximate-factorization finite-volume scheme to compute the conservative components of the flow vector field. With the conservative components known at any time step, the linearized, Navier-displacement equations are solved using the alternating, direction-implicit scheme to obtain the grid points displacements due to known displacement boundary conditions. A grid-displacements limiter, in the form of a low mesh Reynolds number, is used to limit grid-folding in regions of highly reversed flow.

  4. Fresh and evolutionary-type field-aligned irregularities generated near sunrise terminator due to overshielding electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tulasi Ram, S.; Ajith, K. K.; Yamamoto, M.; Otsuka, Y.; Yokoyama, T.; Niranjan, K.; Gurubaran, S.

    2015-07-01

    The unusual evolution of fresh and intense field-aligned irregularities (FAI) near sunrise terminator which further sustained for more than 90 min of postsunrise period was observed by Equatorial Atmosphere Radar at Kototabang during a minor geomagnetic storm period. These FAI echoes were initially observed around 250-350 km altitudes, growing upward under eastward polarization electric fields indicating the plasma bubbles that are fully depleted along the flux tube. The background low-latitude F layer dynamics that lead to the development of these dawn time FAI have been investigated from two ionosondes at near magnetic conjugate low-latitude locations. A minor geomagnetic storm was in progress which did not appear to cause any large electric field perturbations at preceding postsunset to midnight period over Indonesian sector. However, the prompt penetration of overshielding electric fields associated with sudden northward turning of interplanetary magnetic field Bz caused spectacular ascent of F layer and development of fresh, intense, and upward evolutionary plasma bubbles near sunrise terminator.

  5. Generating ``Superponderomotive'' Electrons due to a Non-Wake-Field Interaction between a Laser Pulse and a Longitudinal Electric Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, A. P. L.; Arefiev, A. V.; Neely, D.

    2013-08-01

    It is shown that electrons with momenta exceeding the “free electron” limit of meca02/2 can be produced when a laser pulse and a longitudinal electric field interact with an electron via a non-wake-field mechanism. The mechanism consists of two stages: the reduction of the electron dephasing rate ?-px/mec by an accelerating region of electric field and electron acceleration by the laser via the Lorentz force. This mechanism can, in principle, produce electrons that have longitudinal momenta that is a significant multiple of meca02/2. 2D particle-in-cell simulations of a relatively simple laser-plasma interaction indicate that the generation of superponderomotive electrons is strongly affected by this “antidephasing” mechanism.

  6. High Displacement Actuator (HDA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Positioned beneath a fiber optic displacement sensor is the new High Displacement Actuator (HDA) developed by scientists at NASA Langley Research Center. The high displacement actuator significantly improves the state-of-the-art piezoelectric technology and provides inordinately large mechanical displacements. The HDA is also applicable to high performance sensor applications such as microphones, non-destructive testing, and vibration sensing. Test results on the high displacement actuators show displacements 50 times greater than device thickness and several orders of magnitude increase over state-of-the-art devices. The actuators can be used from DC to frequencies in excess of a megahertz and with displacement loads exceeding 10 Kg (25 lbs). The actuator can also produce displacements comparable to state-of-the-art devices with an order reduction in operating voltage. The high displacement actuators are reliable. They have been laboratory tested to beyond 400 million cycles without failure. The highly efficient electrically- insulated actuator can be operated in a vacuum, in liquids, and in the upper atmosphere. The HDA is versatile and rugged allowing for use in harsh environments for hundreds of commercial applications. In many device applications the high displacement actuator wafer itself can serve the function of several components, e.g. in simple pumps it take the place of piston, piston-rod and crank. The HDA is a packaged flexible laminate of pre-stressed polymeric materials and a piezoelectric ceramic that form a robust, low cost, user friendly device.

  7. Primary Beam Steering Due To Field Leakage From Superconducting SHMS Magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Michael; Covrig, Silviu; Carlini, Roger; Waidyawansa, Buddhini; Benesch, Jay

    2014-03-01

    The Super High Momentum Spectrometer (SHMS) was designed for the 12 GeV/c physics program in Hall C at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator (JLab). At JLab an electron beam impinges on a fixed target and scattered particles are analyzed with magnetic spectrometers. The SHMS angular acceptance is 5 .5° <= θ <=40° . When positioned at θ = 5 .5° and full field strength the external fields from the magnets are large enough to steer the unscattered primary beam away from the beam dump window located 51.8 m from the target. The effects of these magnetic fields on the primary beam line downstream of the target are studied using Opera 3-D and TOSCA. A solution is presented that uses passive elements to shape these fields and assure that the primary beam is steered onto the beam dump window.

  8. Analysis of payload bay magnetic fields due to dc power multipoint and single point ground configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawton, R. M.

    1976-01-01

    An analysis of magnetic fields in the Orbiter Payload Bay resulting from the present grounding configuration (structure return) was presented and the amount of improvement that would result from installing wire returns for the three dc power buses was determined. Ac and dc magnetic fields at five points in a cross-section of the bay are calculated for both grounding configurations. Y and Z components of the field at each point are derived in terms of a constant coefficient and the current amplitude of each bus. The dc loads assumed are 100 Amperes for each bus. The ac noise current used is a spectrum 6 db higher than the Orbiter equipment limit for narrowband conducted emissions. It was concluded that installing return wiring to provide a single point ground for the dc Buses in the Payload Bay would reduce the ac and dc magnetic field intensity by approximately 30 db.

  9. Kilotesla Magnetic Field due to a Capacitor-Coil Target Driven by High Power Laser

    PubMed Central

    Fujioka, Shinsuke; Zhang, Zhe; Ishihara, Kazuhiro; Shigemori, Keisuke; Hironaka, Youichiro; Johzaki, Tomoyuki; Sunahara, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Naoji; Nakashima, Hideki; Watanabe, Tsuguhiro; Shiraga, Hiroyuki; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Azechi, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory generation of strong magnetic fields opens new frontiers in plasma and beam physics, astro- and solar-physics, materials science, and atomic and molecular physics. Although kilotesla magnetic fields have already been produced by magnetic flux compression using an imploding metal tube or plasma shell, accessibility at multiple points and better controlled shapes of the field are desirable. Here we have generated kilotesla magnetic fields using a capacitor-coil target, in which two nickel disks are connected by a U-turn coil. A magnetic flux density of 1.5?kT was measured using the Faraday effect 650??m away from the coil, when the capacitor was driven by two beams from the GEKKO-XII laser (at 1?kJ (total), 1.3?ns, 0.53 or 1??m, and 5 × 1016?W/cm2). PMID:23378905

  10. Simulations of magnetic field gradients due to micro-magnets on a triple quantum dot circuit

    SciTech Connect

    Poulin-Lamarre, G.; Bureau-Oxton, C.; Kam, A.; Zawadzki, P.; Aers, G.; Studenikin, S.; Pioro-Ladrière, M.; Sachrajda, A. S.

    2013-12-04

    To quantify the effects of local magnetic fields on triple quantum dots, the Heisenberg Hamiltonian has been diagonalized for three electrons coupled via the exchange interaction. In particular, we have investigated different geometries of micro-magnets located on top of the triple dot in order to optimize the field gradient characteristics. In this paper, we focus on two geometries which are candidates for an addressable EDSR triple quantum dot device.

  11. Dynamo effect and current drive due to magnetic fluctuations in sheared magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Avinash, K. )

    1991-08-01

    It is shown that when the mean electromotive force in a plasma is evaluated in terms of the two-point correlation of driven magnetic field fluctuations (as would be appropriate for problems related to current drive by waves), there is no {beta} effect; i.e., the terms associated with gradients of the mean field vanish. The relevance of this result to the problem of current drive is discussed.

  12. Alignment of Iron Nanoparticles in a Magnetic Field Due to Shape Anisotropy

    SciTech Connect

    Radhakrishnan, Balasubramaniam; Nicholson, Don M; Eisenbach, Markus; Ludtka, Gerard Michael; Rios, Orlando; Parish, Chad M

    2015-07-09

    During high magnetic field processing there is evidence for alignment of non-spherical metallic particles above the Curie temperature in alloys with negligible magneto-crystalline anisotropy. The main driving force for alignment is the magnetic shape anisotropy. Current understanding of the phenomenon is not adequate to quantify the effect of particle size, aspect ratio, temperature and the magnetic field on particle alignment. We demonstrate a Monte Carlo approach coupled with size scaling to show the conditions under which alignment is possible.

  13. Electric field enhancement due to a saw-tooth asperity in a channel and implications on microscale gas breakdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkattraman, Ayyaswamy

    2014-10-01

    The electric field enhancement due to an isolated saw-tooth asperity in an infinite channel is considered with the goal of providing some inputs to the choice of field enhancement factors used to describe microscale gas breakdown. The Schwarz-Christoffel transformation is used to map the interior of the channel to the upper half of the transformed plane. The expression for the electric field in the transformed plane is then used to determine the electric field distribution in the channel as well as field enhancement near the asperity. The effective field enhancement factor is determined and its dependence on operating and geometrical parameters is studied. While the effective field enhancement factor depends only weakly on the height of the asperity in comparison to the channel, it is influenced significantly by the base angles of the asperity. Due to the strong dependence of field emission current density on electric field, the effective field enhancement factor (βeff) is shown to vary rapidly with the applied electric field irrespective of the geometrical parameters. This variation is included in the analysis of microscale gas breakdown and compared with results obtained using a constant βeff as is done traditionally. Even though results for a varying βeff may be approximately reproduced using an equivalent constant βeff independent of E-field, it might be important for a range of operating conditions. This is confirmed by extracting βeff from experimental data for breakdown in argon microgaps with plane-parallel cathodes and comparing its dependence on the E-field. While the use of two-dimensional asperities is shown to be a minor disadvantage of the proposed approach in its current form, it can potentially help in developing predictive capabilities as opposed to treating βeff as a curve-fitting parameter.

  14. Analysis of Stress Intensity Factor due to Surface Crack Propagation in Residual Stress Fields Caused by Welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, Katsumasa; Mochizuki, Masahito; Kanno, Satoshi; Hayashi, Makoto; Shiratori, Masaki; Yu, Qiang

    Stress intensity factors due to surface crack propagation were analyzed by using the influence function method and inherent strain analysis of the residual stress fields caused by welding. The initial residual stress in a plate welded-butt joint was calculated by using inherent strain analysis, and the redistribution of residual stress and the stress intensity factor due to crack propagation were analyzed as changes in the structure's shape. Stress intensity factor was also calculated by using an influence function database. The stress intensity factor in the residual stress fields due to crack propagation obtained by using inherent strain analysis completely agreed with that obtained by using the influence function method. The results of the crack propagation analysis were compared with the experimental results of a fatigue test. It was validated that both the inherent strain analysis and the influence function method were efficient for analyzing stress intensity factors in residual stress fields caused by welding.

  15. Distortion of magnetic field and magnetic force of a brushless dc motor due to deformed rubber magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, C. J.; Jang, G. H.

    2008-04-01

    This paper investigates the distortion of magnetic field of a brushless dc (BLDC) motor due to deformed rubber magnet. Global or local deformation of rubber magnet in the BLDC motor is mathematically modeled by using the Fourier series. Distorted magnetic field is calculated by using the finite element method, and unbalanced magnetic force is calculated by using the Maxwell stress tensor. When the rubber magnet is globally or locally deformed, the unbalanced magnetic force has the frequencies with the first harmonic and the harmonics of slot number ±1. However, the harmonic deformation with multiple of common divisor of pole and slot does not generate unbalanced magnetic force due to the rotational symmetry.

  16. Entanglement generation due to the background electric field and curvature of space-time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebadi, Zahra; Mirza, Behrouz

    2015-02-01

    In Schwinger effect, quantum vacuum instability under the influence of an electric field leads to decay of vacuum into pairs of charged particles. We consider the entanglement of pair produced particles. We will show that the measure of entanglement depends on the geometry of space-time. Using the Schwinger pair production in curved space-time, dS2 and AdS2, we propose and demonstrate that the electric field can generate entanglement. In dS2 space-time, we study entanglement for scalar particles with zero spin in the absence and presence of a constant electric field. We show that the entanglement entropy depends on the choice of the ?-vacua. But, for some values of the related parameters (mass, charge, scalar curvature, electric field), the entanglement entropy is independent of ?. Also, we consider the generation of entanglement in the presence of a constant electric field for anti-de Sitter space-time. We will show that the positive (negative) curvature of space-time upgrades (degrades) the generated entanglement.

  17. The use of a displacement device negatively affects the performance of dogs (Canis familiaris) in visible object displacement tasks

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Corsin A.; Riemer, Stefanie; Range, Friederike; Huber, Ludwig

    2014-01-01

    Visible and invisible displacement tasks have been used widely for comparative studies of animals’ understanding of object permanence, with evidence accumulating that some species can solve invisible displacement tasks and thus reach Piagetian stage 6 of object permanence. In contrast, dogs appear to rely on associative cues, such as the location of the displacement device, during invisible displacement tasks. It remains unclear, however, whether dogs, and other species that failed in invisible displacement tasks, do so due to their inability to form a mental representation of the target object, or simply due to the involvement of a more salient but potentially misleading associative cue, the displacement device. Here we show that the use of a displacement device impairs the performance of dogs also in visible displacement tasks: their search accuracy was significantly lower when a visible displacement was performed with a displacement device, and only two of initially 42 dogs passed the sham-baiting control conditions. The negative influence of the displacement device in visible displacement tasks may be explained by strong associative cues overriding explicit information about the target object’s location, reminiscent of an overshadowing effect, and/or object individuation errors as the target object is placed within the displacement device and moves along a spatiotemporally identical trajectory. Our data suggest that a comprehensive appraisal of a species’ performance in object permanence tasks should include visible displacement tasks with the same displacement device used in invisible displacements, which typically has not been done in the past. PMID:24611641

  18. Precision displacement reference system

    DOEpatents

    Bieg, Lothar F.; Dubois, Robert R.; Strother, Jerry D.

    2000-02-22

    A precision displacement reference system is described, which enables real time accountability over the applied displacement feedback system to precision machine tools, positioning mechanisms, motion devices, and related operations. As independent measurements of tool location is taken by a displacement feedback system, a rotating reference disk compares feedback counts with performed motion. These measurements are compared to characterize and analyze real time mechanical and control performance during operation.

  19. Neoclassical Drift of Circulating Orbits Due toToroidal Electric Field in Tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Qin; Guan, Xiaoyin; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2011-07-19

    In tokamaks, Ware pinch is a well known neoclassical effect for trapped particles in response to a toroidal electric field. It is generally believed that there exists no similar neoclassical effect for circulating particles without collisions. However, this belief is erroneous, and misses an important effect. We show both analytically and numerically that under the influence of a toroidal electric field parallel to the current, the circulating orbits drift outward toward the outer wall with a characteristic velocity O ({var_epsilon}{sup -1}) larger than the E x B velocity, where {var_epsilon} is the inverse aspect-ratio of a tokamak. During a RF overdrive, the toroidal electric field is anti-parallel to the current. As a consequence, all charged particles, including backward runaway electrons, will drift inward towards the inner wall.

  20. High-latitude geoelectric field effects due to the April 2001 solar proton event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumilov, O.; Kasatkina, E.; Vasilyev, A.

    The April 15, 2001 solar flare is one of the most powerful events recorded over the last 25 years. The flare was classified as an X14 on the scale of solar flare strengths and followed by a powerful solar proton event of Ground Level Enhancement (GLE) type. Of course, such event must be resulted in a large disturbance of global atmospheric electric circuit. In this paper the measurements of vertical electric field and atmospheric conductivity made by a high-latitude computer-aided complex on 15 April 2001 in the auroral zone (Apatity, geomagnetic latitude: 63.8) are presented. The complex had been installed in Apatity in August 2001. It consists of three spatially placed microbarographs for measurements of atmospheric waves, a device for air conductivity measurement and a device for measurement of vertical component of atmospheric electric field. This computer-aided system permits to get information in the frequency band of 0-0.0001 Hz. A significant disturbance in atmospheric electric field has been observed at the time of solar flare. It is interesting to note that the beginning of electric field perturbation has been detected a some time (about half an hour) ahead of the X-ray burst (13.50 UT) and GLE onset (14.05 UT, according to the data of Apatity neutron monitor). Measurements of atmospheric electric field in St.-Petersburg (geomagnetic latitude: 56.1) showed a similar disturbance at the same time. This permits us to consider experimental effect observed as a global one. A possible explanation of experimental results based on the method of "labeling" the corresponding magnetic field line at the earth surface with its coronal connection longitude is discussed. This work was supported by the RFBR grants 01-05-64850 and 01-05-26226).

  1. Transient particle acceleration in strongly magnetized neutron stars. II - Effects due to a dipole field geometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fatuzzo, Marco; Melia, Fulvio

    1991-01-01

    Sheared Alfven waves generated by nonradial crustal disturbances above the polar cap of a strongly magnetized neutron star induce an electric field component parallel to B. An attempt is made to determine the manner in which the strong radial dependence of B affects the propagation of these sheared Alfven waves, and whether this MHD process is still an effective particle accelerator. It is found that although the general field equation is quite complicated, a simple wavelike solution can still be obtained under the conditions of interest for which the Alfven phase velocity decouples from the wave equation. The results may be applicable to gamma-ray burst sources.

  2. Electro-elastic fields due to a point charge in a flexoelectric medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Rajdeep

    2015-10-01

    Flexoelectricity provides a two-way connection between strain gradients and polarization that is pronounced at the nanoscale for isotropic materials which cannot link electromechanically via piezoelectricity. In this paper, the general equations for an isotropic, flexoelectric material were formulated, with contributions from strain gradients included. The electromechanical fields associated with a point charge in an infinite medium were derived, and results for GaAs were obtained. Our formulation yields two electromechanical length-scales, instead of one obtained from previous theories, and enables us to capture local fields accurately. Results from this paper provide insight into the electro-mechanical behavior of materials with charged defects.

  3. Poloidal electric field due to ICRH and its effect on neoclassical transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vacca, Luigi

    1994-10-01

    We study the transport of a plasma in which a minority ion species is heated by fast Alfven waves. The strong anisotropy of the minority distribution function gives origin to a poloidal electric field. We calculate the poloidal dependence of the electric potential by numerically integrating the leading order minority distribution function. When the amplitude of this field is such that electrostatic trapping is not negligible in comparison to the magnetic trapping then neoclassical transport can be enhanced as found in previous work. The linearized kinetic equations are solved using a variational method in the banana regime. Approximate analytic expressions for the transport coefficients are given.

  4. Poloidal electric field due to ICRH and its effect on neoclassical transport

    SciTech Connect

    Vacca, L. )

    1994-10-15

    We study the transport of a plasma in which a minority ion species is heated by fast Alfven waves. The strong anisotropy of the minority distribution function gives origin to a poloidal electric field. We calculate the poloidal dependence of the electric potential by numerically integrating the leading order minority distribution function. When the amplitude of this field is such that electrostatic trapping is not negligible in comparison to the magnetic trapping then neoclassical transport can be enhanced as found in previous work. The linearized kinetic equations are solved using a variational method in the banana regime. Approximate analytic expressions for the transport coefficients are given.

  5. Seismic fragility analysis of typical pre-1990 bridges due to near- and far-field ground motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosleh, Araliya; Razzaghi, Mehran S.; Jara, José; Varum, Humberto

    2016-02-01

    Bridge damages during the past earthquakes caused several physical and economic impacts to transportation systems. Many of the existing bridges in earthquake prone areas are pre-1990 bridges and were designed with out of date regulation codes. The occurrences of strong motions in different parts of the world show every year the vulnerability of these structures. Nonlinear dynamic time history analyses were conducted to assess the seismic vulnerability of typical pre-1990 bridges. A family of existing concrete bridge representative of the most common bridges in the highway system in Iran is studied. The seismic demand consists in a set of far-field and near-field strong motions to evaluate the likelihood of exceeding the seismic capacity of the mentioned bridges. The peak ground accelerations (PGAs) were scaled and applied incrementally to the 3D models to evaluate the seismic performance of the bridges. The superstructure was assumed to remain elastic and the nonlinear behavior in piers was modeled by assigning plastic hinges in columns. In this study the displacement ductility and the PGA are selected as a seismic performance indicator and intensity measure, respectively. The results show that pre-1990 bridges subjected to near-fault ground motions reach minor and moderate damage states.

  6. Enhanced excitonic photoconductivity due to built-in internal electric field in TlGaSe{sub 2} layered semiconductor

    SciTech Connect

    Seyidov, MirHasan Yu. Suleymanov, Rauf A.; Şale, Yasin; Balaban, Ertan

    2014-12-07

    The strong enhancement, by several orders of magnitude, of the excitonic peak within the photoconductivity spectrum of TlGaSe{sub 2} semiconductor was observed. The samples were polarized in external dc electric field, which was applied prior to the measurements. Due to the accumulation of charges near the surface, an internal electric field was formed. Electron-hole pairs that were created after the absorption of light are fallen in and then separated by the built-in electric field, which prevents radiative recombination process.

  7. Enhanced excitonic photoconductivity due to built-in internal electric field in TlGaSe2 layered semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyidov, MirHasan Yu.; Suleymanov, Rauf A.; ?ale, Yasin; Balaban, Ertan

    2014-12-01

    The strong enhancement, by several orders of magnitude, of the excitonic peak within the photoconductivity spectrum of TlGaSe2 semiconductor was observed. The samples were polarized in external dc electric field, which was applied prior to the measurements. Due to the accumulation of charges near the surface, an internal electric field was formed. Electron-hole pairs that were created after the absorption of light are fallen in and then separated by the built-in electric field, which prevents radiative recombination process.

  8. Efficient magnetic-field amplification due to the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in binary neutron star mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiuchi, Kenta; Cerdá-Durán, Pablo; Kyutoku, Koutarou; Sekiguchi, Yuichiro; Shibata, Masaru

    2015-12-01

    We explore magnetic-field amplification due to the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability during binary neutron star mergers. By performing high-resolution general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics simulations with a resolution of 17.5 m for 4-5 ms after the onset of the merger on the Japanese supercomputer "K", we find that an initial magnetic field of moderate maximum strength 1013 G is amplified at least by a factor of ?103. We also explore the saturation of the magnetic-field energy and our result shows that it is likely to be ?4 ×1050 erg , which is ?0.1 % of the bulk kinetic energy of the merging binary neutron stars.

  9. Cancellation of the ion deflection due to electron-suppression magnetic field in a negative-ion accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Chitarin, G.; Agostinetti, P.; Aprile, D.; Marconato, N.; Veltri, P.

    2014-02-15

    A new magnetic configuration is proposed for the suppression of co-extracted electrons in a negative-ion accelerator. This configuration is produced by an arrangement of permanent magnets embedded in one accelerator grid and creates an asymmetric local magnetic field on the upstream and downstream sides of this grid. Thanks to the “concentration” of the magnetic field on the upstream side of the grid, the resulting deflection of the ions due to magnetic field can be “intrinsically” cancelled by calibrating the configuration of permanent magnets. At the same time, the suppression of co-extracted electrons can be improved.

  10. Heat flux due to poloidal electric field in the banana regime

    SciTech Connect

    Taguchi, M. )

    1992-02-01

    The heat flux due to poloidally varying electrostatic potential is calculated in the banana regime. This electrostatic potential determined self-consistently from charge neutrality is shown to increase the electron heat flux by a factor {radical}{ital m}{sub {ital i}}/{ital m}{sub {ital e}} compared with that when this potential is neglected, where {ital m}{sub {ital e}} and {ital m}{sub {ital i}} are the masses of electron and ion, respectively.

  11. FIELD EXPERIMENT AND MODELING OF PRODUCTION OF SUSPENDED SEDIMENT DUE TO IMPACT OF RAINFALL AND ITS TRANSPORT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishida, Tetsuya; Nakayama, Keisuke; Maruya, Yasuyuki; Omori, Mio; Sugawara, Yohei; Abulizi, Ayinuer; Ueno, Yoshikatsu

    In the previous studies, high turbidity is revealed to occur in Tokoro River and to affect social economical and environmental activity in Okhotsk area. Also, it is demonstrated that turbidity from fields is one of the most influential factors on high turbidity in Tokoro River. However, it is not clarified how high turbidity is provided from fields and forests areas. Therefore, this study attempted to understand the mechanisms of the occurrence of high turbidity and the role of fields and forests areas on the occurrence of high turbidity. In 2 hectors field and forest areas, SS concentration due to the impact of rainfall is investigated in 2009, which reveals that SS concentration is associated with rainfall intensity by using exponential function. Also, it is found that SS concentration in field tends to increase with rainfall intensity more rapidly than forest areas. The proposed equation for evaluating SS concentration is confirmed to have high applicability by using distributed hydrological model.

  12. Resonance tuning due to Coulomb interaction in strong near-field coupled metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy Chowdhury, Dibakar; Xu, Ningning; Zhang, Weili; Singh, Ranjan

    2015-07-01

    Coulomb's law is one of the most fundamental laws of physics that describes the electrostatic interaction between two like or unlike point charges. Here, we experimentally observe a strong effect of Coulomb interaction in tightly coupled terahertz metamaterials where the split-ring resonator dimers in a unit cell are coupled through their near fields across the capacitive split gaps. Using a simple analytical model, we evaluated the Coulomb parameter that switched its sign from negative to positive values indicating the transition in the nature of Coulomb force from being repulsive to attractive depending upon the near field coupling between the split ring resonators. Apart from showing interesting effects in the strong coupling regime between meta-atoms, Coulomb interaction also allows an additional degree of freedom to achieve frequency tunable dynamic metamaterials.

  13. Particle acceleration due to shocks in the interplanetary field: High time resolution data and simulation results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessel, R. L.; Armstrong, T. P.; Nuber, R.; Bandle, J.

    1985-01-01

    Data were examined from two experiments aboard the Explorer 50 (IMP 8) spacecraft. The Johns Hopkins University/Applied Lab Charged Particle Measurement Experiment (CPME) provides 10.12 second resolution ion and electron count rates as well as 5.5 minute or longer averages of the same, with data sampled in the ecliptic plane. The high time resolution of the data allows for an explicit, point by point, merging of the magnetic field and particle data and thus a close examination of the pre- and post-shock conditions and particle fluxes associated with large angle oblique shocks in the interplanetary field. A computer simulation has been developed wherein sample particle trajectories, taken from observed fluxes, are allowed to interact with a planar shock either forward or backward in time. One event, the 1974 Day 312 shock, is examined in detail.

  14. Ultrasonic propagation velocity in magnetic and magnetorheological fluids due to an external magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Bramantya, M A; Motozawa, M; Sawada, T

    2010-08-18

    Ultrasonic propagation velocity in a magnetic fluid (MF) and magnetorheological fluid (MRF) changes with the application of an external magnetic field. The formation of clustering structures inside the MF and MRF clearly has an influence on the ultrasonic propagation velocity. Therefore, we propose a qualitative analysis of these structures by measuring properties of ultrasonic propagation. Since MF and MRF are opaque, non-contact inspection using the ultrasonic technique can be very useful for analyzing the inner structures of MF and MRF. In this study, we measured ultrasonic propagation velocity in a hydrocarbon-based MF and MRF precisely. Based on these results, the clustering structures of these fluids are analyzed experimentally in terms of elapsed time dependence and the effect of external magnetic field strength. The results reveal hysteresis and anisotropy in the ultrasonic propagation velocity. We also discuss differences of ultrasonic propagation velocity between MF and MRF. PMID:21386478

  15. Velocity-Space Diffusion Coefficients Due to Full-Wave ICRF Fields in Toroidal Geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, R.W.; Jaeger, F.; Berry, L.A.; Batchelor, D.B.; D'Azevedo, E.; Carter, M.D.; Ershov, N.M.; Smirnov, A.P.; Bonoli, P.; Wright, J.C.; Smithe, D.N.

    2005-09-26

    Jaeger et al. have calculated bounce-averaged QL diffusion coefficients from AORSA full-wave fields, based on non-Maxwellian distributions from CQL3D Fokker-Planck code. A zero banana-width approximation is employed. Complementing this calculation, a fully numerical calculation of ion velocity diffusion coefficients using the full-wave fields in numerical tokamak equilibria has been implemented to determine the finite orbit width effects. The un-approximated Lorentz equation of motion is integrated to obtain the change in velocity after one complete poloidal transit of the tokamak. Averaging velocity changes over initial starting gyro-phase and toroidal angle gives bounce-averaged diffusion coefficients. The coefficients from the full-wave and Lorentz orbit methods are compared for an ITER DT second harmonic tritium ICRF heating case: the diffusion coefficients are similar in magnitude but reveal substantial finite orbit effects.

  16. Spinmotive force due to motion of magnetic bubble arrays driven by magnetic field gradient

    PubMed Central

    Yamane, Yuta; Hemmatiyan, Shayan; Ieda, Jun'ichi; Maekawa, Sadamichi; Sinova, Jairo

    2014-01-01

    Interaction between local magnetization and conduction electrons is responsible for a variety of phenomena in magnetic materials. It has been recently shown that spin current and associated electric voltage can be induced by magnetization that depends on both time and space. This effect, called spinmotive force, provides for a powerful tool for exploring the dynamics and the nature of magnetic textures, as well as a new source for electromotive force. Here we theoretically demonstrate the generation of electric voltages in magnetic bubble array systems subjected to a magnetic field gradient. It is shown by deriving expressions for the electric voltages that the present system offers a direct measure of phenomenological parameter ? that describes non-adiabaticity in the current induced magnetization dynamics. This spinmotive force opens a door for new types of spintronic devices that exploit the field-gradient. PMID:25365971

  17. Spinmotive force due to motion of magnetic bubble arrays driven by magnetic field gradient.

    PubMed

    Yamane, Yuta; Hemmatiyan, Shayan; Ieda, Jun'ichi; Maekawa, Sadamichi; Sinova, Jairo

    2014-01-01

    Interaction between local magnetization and conduction electrons is responsible for a variety of phenomena in magnetic materials. It has been recently shown that spin current and associated electric voltage can be induced by magnetization that depends on both time and space. This effect, called spinmotive force, provides for a powerful tool for exploring the dynamics and the nature of magnetic textures, as well as a new source for electromotive force. Here we theoretically demonstrate the generation of electric voltages in magnetic bubble array systems subjected to a magnetic field gradient. It is shown by deriving expressions for the electric voltages that the present system offers a direct measure of phenomenological parameter ? that describes non-adiabaticity in the current induced magnetization dynamics. This spinmotive force opens a door for new types of spintronic devices that exploit the field-gradient. PMID:25365971

  18. Spinmotive force due to motion of magnetic bubble arrays driven by magnetic field gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamane, Yuta; Hemmatiyan, Shayan; Ieda, Jun'ichi; Maekawa, Sadamichi; Sinova, Jairo

    2014-11-01

    Interaction between local magnetization and conduction electrons is responsible for a variety of phenomena in magnetic materials. It has been recently shown that spin current and associated electric voltage can be induced by magnetization that depends on both time and space. This effect, called spinmotive force, provides for a powerful tool for exploring the dynamics and the nature of magnetic textures, as well as a new source for electromotive force. Here we theoretically demonstrate the generation of electric voltages in magnetic bubble array systems subjected to a magnetic field gradient. It is shown by deriving expressions for the electric voltages that the present system offers a direct measure of phenomenological parameter ? that describes non-adiabaticity in the current induced magnetization dynamics. This spinmotive force opens a door for new types of spintronic devices that exploit the field-gradient.

  19. VISCOUS EVOLUTION AND PHOTOEVAPORATION OF CIRCUMSTELLAR DISKS DUE TO EXTERNAL FAR ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION FIELDS

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Kassandra R.; Adams, Fred C.; Calvet, Nuria

    2013-09-01

    This paper explores the effects of FUV radiation fields from external stars on circumstellar disk evolution. Disks residing in young clusters can be exposed to extreme levels of FUV flux from nearby OB stars, and observations show that disks in such environments are being actively photoevaporated. Typical FUV flux levels can be factors of {approx}10{sup 2}-10{sup 4} higher than the interstellar value. These fields are effective in driving mass loss from circumstellar disks because they act at large radial distance from the host star, i.e., where most of the disk mass is located, and where the gravitational potential well is shallow. We combine viscous evolution (an {alpha}-disk model) with an existing FUV photoevaporation model to derive constraints on disk lifetimes, and to determine disk properties as functions of time, including mass-loss rates, disk masses, and radii. We also consider the effects of X-ray photoevaporation from the host star using an existing model, and show that for disks around solar-mass stars, externally generated FUV fields are often the dominant mechanism in depleting disk material. For sufficiently large viscosities, FUV fields can efficiently photoevaporate disks over the entire range of parameter space. Disks with viscosity parameter {alpha} = 10{sup -3} are effectively dispersed within 1-3 Myr; for higher viscosities ({alpha} = 10{sup -2}) disks are dispersed within {approx}0.25-0.5 Myr. Furthermore, disk radii are truncated to less than {approx}100 AU, which can possibly affect the formation of planets. Our model predictions are consistent with the range of observed masses and radii of proplyds in the Orion Nebula Cluster.

  20. False vacuum bubble nucleation due to a nonminimally coupled scalar field

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Wonwoo; Park, Chanyong; Lee, Bum-Hoon; Lee, Chul H.

    2006-12-15

    We study the possibility of forming the false vacuum bubble nucleated within the true vacuum background via the true-to-false vacuum phase transition in curved spacetime. We consider a semiclassical Euclidean bubble in the Einstein theory of gravity with a nonminimally coupled scalar field. In this paper we present the numerical computations as well as the approximate analytical computations. We mention the evolution of the false vacuum bubble after nucleation.

  1. Electromagnetic fields due to a horizontal electric dipole antenna laid on the surface of a two-layer medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsang, L.; Kong, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    With applications to geophysical subsurface probings, electromagnetic fields due to a horizontal electric dipole laid on the surface of a two-layer medium are solved by a combination of analytic and numerical methods. Interference patterns are calculated for various layer thickness. The results are interpreted in terms of normal modes, and the accuracies of the methods are discussed.

  2. An attempt to detect preseismic displacement field of the 2008 Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku Earthquake using InSAR small baseline time-series analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arimoto, M.; Fukushima, Y.; Hirahara, K.; Hashimoto, M.

    2008-12-01

    The Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku Earthquake (Mj 7.2) occurred at 8:43, JST on June 14 2008, in the northeastern Honshu, Japan. This earthquake caused significant amount of ground displacements with more than 2m of uplift and 1.5m of horizontal displacement at the Kurikoma2 GPS station of GEONET network operated by the Geographical Survey Institute (GSI).In a few years prior to the earthquake, the Kurikoma2 station displaced about 1cm and 2cm to the southeast and upward directions, respectively, according to GSI's analysis. We perform an InSAR small baseline (SB) time-series analysis in order to investigate this slow non-steady movement in detail. We applied an InSAR SB time-series analysis based on Schmidt and Bürgmann (2003; JGR, vol. 108). This method can mitigate atmospheric and orbital artifacts, which constitute dominant sources of error, by assuming a temporal smoothness of displacements. We used seven SAR data acquired by PALSAR onboard the ALOS satellite. We selected three interferograms and stacked them after converting to velocity. For the small baseline processing, we selected and processed 17 small-baseline pairs with definition of small baseline to be less than 2000 m for the perpendicular baseline and 1000 days for the temporal baseline. The interferograms were unwrapped and solved for the temporal evolution of displacements with the time steps defined by the SAR acquisition dates. Preliminary results indicate that atmospheric and orbital effects are still higher than the expected amplitude of preseismic displacements. Though the noise may further be mitigated by careful tuning of analysis parameters, our preliminary results suggest that we probably need more realistic atmospheric correction using independent data such as GPS and meteorological data. Acknowledgment PALSAR data are shared by PIXEL (PALSAR Interferometry Consortium to Study our Evolving Land surface), and provided from JAXA under a contract with ERI, Univ. of Tokyo. The ownership of PALSAR data belongs to METI (Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry) and JAXA.

  3. Undulation instability in a bilayer lipid membrane due to electric field interaction with lipid dipoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bingham, Richard J.; Olmsted, Peter D.; Smye, Stephen W.

    2010-05-01

    Bilayer lipid membranes (BLMs) are an essential component of all biological systems, forming a functional barrier for cells and organelles from the surrounding environment. The lipid molecules that form membranes contain both permanent and induced dipoles, and an electric field can induce the formation of pores when the transverse field is sufficiently strong (electroporation). Here, a phenomenological free energy is constructed to model the response of a BLM to a transverse static electric field. The model contains a continuum description of the membrane dipoles and a coupling between the headgroup dipoles and the membrane tilt. The membrane is found to become unstable through buckling modes, which are weakly coupled to thickness fluctuations in the membrane. The thickness fluctuations, along with the increase in interfacial area produced by membrane buckling, increase the probability of localized membrane breakdown, which may lead to pore formation. The instability is found to depend strongly on the strength of the coupling between the dipolar headgroups and the membrane tilt as well as the degree of dipolar ordering in the membrane.

  4. Non-rigid image registration using a median-filtered coarse-to-fine displacement field and a symmetric correlation ratio.

    PubMed

    Lau, Y H; Braun, M; Hutton, B F

    2001-04-01

    Conventional approaches to image registration are generally limited to image-wide rigid transformations. However, the body and its internal organs are non-rigid structures that change shape due to changes in the body's posture during image acquisition, and due to normal, pathological and treatment-related variations. Inter-subject matching also constitutes a non-rigid registration problem. In this paper, we present a fully automated non-rigid image registration method that maximizes a local voxel-based similarity metric. Overlapping image blocks are defined on a 3D grid. The transformation vector field representing image deformation is found by translating each block so as to maximize the local similarity measure. The resulting sparsely sampled vector field is median filtered and interpolated by a Gaussian function to ensure a locally smooth transformation. A hierarchical strategy is adopted to progressively establish local registration associated with image structures at diminishing scale. Simulation studies were carried out to evaluate the proposed algorithm and to determine the robustness of various voxel-based cost functions. Mutual information, normalized mutual information, correlation ratio (CR) and a new symmetric version of CR were evaluated and compared. A T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) image was used to test intra-modality registration. Proton density and T2-weighted MR images of the same subject were used to evaluate inter-modality registration. The proposed algorithm was tested on the 2D MR images distorted by known deformations and 3D images simulating inter-subject distortions. We studied the robustness of cost functions with respect to image sampling. Results indicate that the symmetric CR gives comparable registration to mutual information in intra- and inter-modality tasks at full sampling and is superior to mutual information in registering sparsely sampled images. PMID:11324966

  5. Non-rigid image registration using a median-filtered coarse-to-fine displacement field and a symmetric correlation ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Yiu H.; Braun, Michael; Hutton, Brian F.

    2001-04-01

    Conventional approaches to image registration are generally limited to image-wide rigid transformations. However, the body and its internal organs are non-rigid structures that change shape due to changes in the body's posture during image acquisition, and due to normal, pathological and treatment-related variations. Inter-subject matching also constitutes a non-rigid registration problem. In this paper, we present a fully automated non-rigid image registration method that maximizes a local voxel-based similarity metric. Overlapping image blocks are defined on a 3D grid. The transformation vector field representing image deformation is found by translating each block so as to maximize the local similarity measure. The resulting sparsely sampled vector field is median filtered and interpolated by a Gaussian function to ensure a locally smooth transformation. A hierarchical strategy is adopted to progressively establish local registration associated with image structures at diminishing scale. Simulation studies were carried out to evaluate the proposed algorithm and to determine the robustness of various voxel-based cost functions. Mutual information, normalized mutual information, correlation ratio (CR) and a new symmetric version of CR were evaluated and compared. A T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) image was used to test intra-modality registration. Proton density and T2-weighted MR images of the same subject were used to evaluate inter-modality registration. The proposed algorithm was tested on the 2D MR images distorted by known deformations and 3D images simulating inter-subject distortions. We studied the robustness of cost functions with respect to image sampling. Results indicate that the symmetric CR gives comparable registration to mutual information in intra- and inter-modality tasks at full sampling and is superior to mutual information in registering sparsely sampled images.

  6. A comprehensive study of charge trapping in organic field-effect devices with promising semiconductors and different contact metals by displacement current measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisoyi, Sibani; Rödel, Reinhold; Zschieschang, Ute; Kang, Myeong Jin; Takimiya, Kazuo; Klauk, Hagen; Tiwari, Shree Prakash

    2016-02-01

    A systematic and comprehensive study on the charge-carrier injection and trapping behavior was performed using displacement current measurements in long-channel capacitors based on four promising small-molecule organic semiconductors (pentacene, DNTT, C10-DNTT and DPh-DNTT). In thin-film transistors, these semiconductors showed charge-carrier mobilities ranging from 1.0 to 7.8 cm2 V-1 s-1. The number of charges injected into and extracted from the semiconductor and the density of charges trapped in the device during each measurement were calculated from the displacement current characteristics and it was found that the density of trapped charges is very similar in all devices and of the order 1012 cm-2, despite the fact that the four semiconductors show significantly different charge-carrier mobilities. The choice of the contact metal (Au, Ag, Cu, Pd) was also found to have no significant effect on the trapping behavior.

  7. Estimating the change in asymptotic direction due to secular changes in the geomagnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flueckiger, E. O.; Smart, D. F.; Shea, M. A.; Gentile, L. C.; Bathurat, A. A.

    1985-01-01

    The concept of geomagnetic optics, as described by the asymptotic directions of approach, is extremely useful in the analysis of cosmic radiation data. However, when changes in cutoff occur as a result of evolution in the geomagnetic field, there are corresponding changes in the asymptotic cones of acceptance. A method is introduced of estimating the change in the asymptotic direction of approach for vertically incident cosmic ray particles from a reference set of directions at a specific epoch by considering the change in the geomagnetic cutoff.

  8. Decoherence of Near-Surface Nitrogen-Vacancy Centers Due to Electric Field Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, M.; Mamin, H. J.; Sherwood, M. H.; Ohno, K.; Awschalom, D. D.; Rugar, D.

    2015-08-01

    We show that electric field noise from surface charge fluctuations can be a significant source of spin decoherence for near-surface nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond. This conclusion is based on the increase in spin coherence observed when the diamond surface is covered with high-dielectric-constant liquids, such as glycerol. Double-resonance experiments show that improved coherence occurs even though the coupling to nearby electron spins is unchanged when the liquid is applied. Multipulse spin-echo experiments reveal the effect of glycerol on the spectrum of NV frequency noise.

  9. Decoherence of Near-Surface Nitrogen-Vacancy Centers Due to Electric Field Noise.

    PubMed

    Kim, M; Mamin, H J; Sherwood, M H; Ohno, K; Awschalom, D D; Rugar, D

    2015-08-21

    We show that electric field noise from surface charge fluctuations can be a significant source of spin decoherence for near-surface nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond. This conclusion is based on the increase in spin coherence observed when the diamond surface is covered with high-dielectric-constant liquids, such as glycerol. Double-resonance experiments show that improved coherence occurs even though the coupling to nearby electron spins is unchanged when the liquid is applied. Multipulse spin-echo experiments reveal the effect of glycerol on the spectrum of NV frequency noise. PMID:26340208

  10. Elastic fields due to centers of dilatation and thermal inhomogeneities in plane-layered solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, H. Y.; Sanday, S. C.

    1993-02-01

    A N IMAGE METHOD for obtaining the solution for a center of dilatation in a three-layer elastic solid with planar interfaces is presented. The three-layered elastic solid consists of an elastic slab sandwiched between two semi-infinite elastic solids. The three elastic solids are perfectly bonded together at the two planar interfaces. The solution is given in terms of Galerkin vectors which are in terms of an infinite series of the Newtonian potential function of a mass point at the center of dilatation, its mirror images and their derivatives. As an application, the solution for the center of dilatation is used to obtain the elastic solution due to thermal inhomogeneities. The thermoelastic solution is obtained by a method which is based on the integration of properly weighted centers of dilatation over the volume occupied by the inhomogeneity. The potential functions for the problem solved are the harmonic potential functions of attracting matter filling the volume of the thermal inhomogeneity and its mirror images. The solution for the thermal elastic stresses due to an expanding (or contracting) thermal inhomogeneity (inclusion) of any shape embedded in one of the solids is given as an example. Numerical results for a spherical inclusion with pure dilatation eigenstrain are also presented and discussed.

  11. Mobility overestimation due to gated contacts in organic field-effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Bittle, Emily G; Basham, James I; Jackson, Thomas N; Jurchescu, Oana D; Gundlach, David J

    2016-01-01

    Parameters used to describe the electrical properties of organic field-effect transistors, such as mobility and threshold voltage, are commonly extracted from measured current-voltage characteristics and interpreted by using the classical metal oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor model. However, in recent reports of devices with ultra-high mobility (>40 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)), the device characteristics deviate from this idealized model and show an abrupt turn-on in the drain current when measured as a function of gate voltage. In order to investigate this phenomenon, here we report on single crystal rubrene transistors intentionally fabricated to exhibit an abrupt turn-on. We disentangle the channel properties from the contact resistance by using impedance spectroscopy and show that the current in such devices is governed by a gate bias dependence of the contact resistance. As a result, extracted mobility values from d.c. current-voltage characterization are overestimated by one order of magnitude or more. PMID:26961271

  12. Mobility overestimation due to gated contacts in organic field-effect transistors

    PubMed Central

    Bittle, Emily G.; Basham, James I.; Jackson, Thomas N.; Jurchescu, Oana D.; Gundlach, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Parameters used to describe the electrical properties of organic field-effect transistors, such as mobility and threshold voltage, are commonly extracted from measured current–voltage characteristics and interpreted by using the classical metal oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor model. However, in recent reports of devices with ultra-high mobility (>40 cm2 V−1 s−1), the device characteristics deviate from this idealized model and show an abrupt turn-on in the drain current when measured as a function of gate voltage. In order to investigate this phenomenon, here we report on single crystal rubrene transistors intentionally fabricated to exhibit an abrupt turn-on. We disentangle the channel properties from the contact resistance by using impedance spectroscopy and show that the current in such devices is governed by a gate bias dependence of the contact resistance. As a result, extracted mobility values from d.c. current–voltage characterization are overestimated by one order of magnitude or more. PMID:26961271

  13. Vibroacoustic Response of Residential Housing due to Sonic Boom Exposure: A Summary of two Field Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klos, Jacob; Buehrle, Ralph; Sullivan, Brenda; Gavin, Joseph; Salamone, Joseph; Haering, Edward A., jr.; Miller, Denise M.

    2008-01-01

    Two experiments have been performed to measure the vibroacoustic response of houses exposed to sonic booms. In 2006, an old home in the base housing area of Edwards Air Force Base, built around 1960 and demolished in 2007, was instrumented with 288 transducers. During a 2007 follow-on test, a newer home in the base housing area, built in 1997, was instrumented with 112 transducers. For each experiment, accelerometers were placed on walls, windows and ceilings in bedrooms of the house to measure the vibration response of the structure. Microphones were placed outside and inside the house to measure the excitation field and resulting interior sound field. The vibroacoustic response of each house was measured for sonic boom amplitudes spanning from 2.4 to 96 Pa (0.05 to 2 lbf/sq ft). The boom amplitudes were systematically varied using a unique dive maneuver of an F/A-18 airplane. In total, the database for both houses contains vibroacoustic response data for 154 sonic booms. In addition, several tests were performed with mechanical shaker excitation of the structure to characterize the forced response of the houses. The purpose of this paper is to summarize all the data from these experiments that are available to the research community, and to compare and contrast the vibroacoustic behavior of these two dissimilar houses.

  14. Can quantum effects due to a massless conformally coupled field avoid gravitational singularities?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haro, J.

    2012-04-01

    Using quantum corrections from massless fields conformally coupled to gravity, we study the possibility of avoiding singularities that appear in the flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker model. We assume that the universe contains a barotropic perfect fluid with the state equation p = ??, where p is the pressure and ? is the energy density. We study the dynamics of the model for all values of the parameter ? and also for all values of the conformal anomaly coefficients ? and ?. We show that singularities can be avoided only in the case where ? > 0 and ? < 0. To obtain an expanding Friedmann universe at late times with ? > - 1 (only a one-parameter family of solutions, but no a general solution, has this behavior at late times), the initial conditions of the nonsingular solutions at early times must be chosen very exactly. These nonsingular solutions consist of a general solution (a two-parameter family) exiting the contracting de Sitter phase and a one-parameter family exiting the contracting Friedmann phase. On the other hand, for ? < - 1 (a phantom field), the problem of avoiding singularities is more involved because if we consider an expanding Friedmann phase at early times, then in addition to fine-tuning the initial conditions, we must also fine-tune the parameters ? and ? to obtain a behavior without future singularities: only a oneparameter family of solutions follows a contracting Friedmann phase at late times, and only a particular solution behaves like a contracting de Sitter universe. The other solutions have future singularities.

  15. Excessive magnetic field flux density distribution from overhead isolated powerline conductors due to neutral line current.

    PubMed

    Netzer, Moshe

    2013-06-01

    Overhead isolated powerline conductors (hereinafter: "OIPLC") are the most compact form for distributing low voltage currents. From the known physics of magnetic field emission from 3-phase power lines, it is expected that excellent symmetry of the 120° shifted phase currents and where compact configuration of the 3-phase+neutral line exist, the phase current vectorial summation of the magnetic field flux density (MFFD) is expected to be extremely low. However, despite this estimation, an unexpectedly very high MFFD was found in at least three towns in Israel. This paper explains the reasons leading to high MFFD emissions from compact OIPLC and the proper technique to fix it. Analysis and measurement results had led to the failure hypothsis of neutral line poor connection design and poor grounding design of the HV-LV utility transformers. The paper elaborates on the low MFFD exposure level setup by the Israeli Environmental Protection Office which adopted a rather conservative precaution principal exposure level (2 mG averaged over 24 h). PMID:23675630

  16. SOI detector with drift field due to majority carrier flow - an alternative to biasing in depletion

    SciTech Connect

    Trimpl, M.; Deptuch, G.; Yarema, R.; /Fermilab

    2010-11-01

    This paper reports on a SOI detector with drift field induced by the flow of majority carriers. It is proposed as an alternative method of detector biasing compared to standard depletion. N-drift rings in n-substrate are used at the front side of the detector to provide charge collecting field in depth as well as to improve the lateral charge collection. The concept was verified on a 2.5 x 2.5 mm{sup 2} large detector array with 20 {micro}m and 40 {micro}m pixel pitch fabricated in August 2009 using the OKI semiconductor process. First results, obtained with a radioactive source to demonstrate spatial resolution and spectroscopic performance of the detector for the two different pixel sizes will be shown and compared to results obtained with a standard depletion scheme. Two different diode designs, one using a standard p-implantation and one surrounded by an additional BPW implant will be compared as well.

  17. Global Simulation of Proton Precipitation Due to Field Line Curvature During Substorms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilson, M. L.; Raeder, J.; Donovan, E.; Ge, Y. S.; Kepko, L.

    2012-01-01

    The low latitude boundary of the proton aurora (known as the Isotropy Boundary or IB) marks an important boundary between empty and full downgoing loss cones. There is significant evidence that the IB maps to a region in the magnetosphere where the ion gyroradius becomes comparable to the local field line curvature. However, the location of the IB in the magnetosphere remains in question. In this paper, we show simulated proton precipitation derived from the Field Line Curvature (FLC) model of proton scattering and a global magnetohydrodynamic simulation during two substorms. The simulated proton precipitation drifts equatorward during the growth phase, intensifies at onset and reproduces the azimuthal splitting published in previous studies. In the simulation, the pre-onset IB maps to 7-8 RE for the substorms presented and the azimuthal splitting is caused by the development of the substorm current wedge. The simulation also demonstrates that the central plasma sheet temperature can significantly influence when and where the azimuthal splitting takes place.

  18. Excitation of dayside chorus waves due to magnetic field line compression in response to interplanetary shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chen; Li, Wen; Thorne, Richard M.; Bortnik, Jacob; Ma, Qianli; An, Xin; Zhang, Xiao-jia; Angelopoulos, Vassilis; Ni, Binbin; Gu, Xudong; Fu, Song; Zhao, Zhengyu

    2015-10-01

    The excitation of magnetospheric whistler-mode chorus in response to interplanetary (IP) shocks is investigated using wave data from the Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) spacecraft. As an example, we show a typical chorus wave excitation following an IP shock event that was observed by THEMIS in the postnoon sector near the magnetopause on 3 August 2010. We then analyze characteristic changes during this event and perform a survey of similar events during the period 2008-2014 using the THEMIS and OMNI data set. Our statistical analysis demonstrates that the chorus wave excitation/intensification in response to IP shocks occurs only at high L shells (L > 8) on the dayside. We analyzed the variations of magnetic curvature following the arrival of the IP shock and found that IP shocks lead to more homogeneous background magnetic field configurations in the near-equatorial dayside magnetosphere; and therefore, the threshold of nonlinear chorus wave growth is likely to be reduced, favoring chorus wave generation. Our results provide the observational evidence to support the concept that the geomagnetic field line configuration plays a key role in the excitation of dayside chorus.

  19. Electron residual energy due to stochastic heating in field-ionized plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalilzadeh, Elnaz; Yazdanpanah, Jam; Jahanpanah, Jafar; Chakhmachi, Amir; Yazdani, Elnaz

    2015-11-01

    The electron residual energy originated from the stochastic heating in under-dense field-ionized plasma is investigated here. Initially, the optical response of plasma is modeled by using two counter-propagating electromagnetic waves. In this case, the solution of motion equation of a single electron indicates that by including the ionization, the electron with higher residual energy compared with that without ionization could be obtained. In agreement with chaotic nature of the motion, it is found that the electron residual energy will be significantly changed by applying a minor change in the initial conditions. Extensive kinetic 1D-3V particle-in-cell simulations have been performed in order to resolve full plasma reactions. In this way, two different regimes of plasma behavior are observed by varying the pulse length. The results indicate that the amplitude of scattered fields in a proper long pulse length is high enough to act as a second counter-propagating wave and trigger the stochastic electron motion. On the contrary, the analyses of intensity spectrum reveal the fact that the dominant scattering mechanism tends to Thomson rather than Raman scattering by increasing the pulse length. A covariant formalism is used to describe the plasma heating so that it enables us to measure electron temperature inside and outside of the pulse region.

  20. Variations of Mars gravitational field and rotation due to seasonal CO sub 2 exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, B.F.; Rubincam, D.P. )

    1990-08-30

    About a quarter of the Martian atmospheric mass is exchanged between the atmosphere and the polar caps in the course of a Martian year: CO{sub 2} condenses to form (or add to) the polar caps in winter and sublimes into the atmosphere in summer. This paper studies the effect of this CO{sub 2} mass redistribution on Martian rotation and gravitational field. Two mechanisms are examined: (1) the waxing and waning of solid CO{sub 2} in the polar caps and (2) the geographical distribution of gaseous CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere. In particular, the net peak-to-peak changes in J{sub 2} and J{sub 3} over a Martian year are both found to be as much as {approximately}6 {times} 10{sup {minus}9}. A simulation suggests that these changes may be detected by the upcoming Mars Observer under favorable but realistic conditions.

  1. Missile generation due to electrical arcing in high field fusion magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, H.; Caretta, A.

    1981-01-01

    Large amounts of energy (10 /sup 10/-10/sup 11/ J) are stored in the magnetic field of superconducting magnet systems used in conceptual fusion-reactor designs. If only part of this energy is released accidentally, damage to the magnet and to other rector subsystems may result. In fusion-reactor environments it may lead to the evaporation of activated material and to the generation of energetic missiles, involving interference with sources of radioaactive material in the plant. Results from a Runge-Kutta routine have been obtained for FINTOR, a minimum size Tokamak DT experimental reactor, indicating that missiles of about 20 kg weight may reach velocities in the order of 100 m/s.

  2. Variations of Mars gravitational field and rotation due to seasonal CO2 exchange

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, B. Fong; Rubincam, David Parry

    1990-01-01

    About a quarter of the Martian atmospheric mass is exchanged between the atmosphere and the polar caps in the course of a Martian year: CO2 condenses to form (or add to) the polar caps in winter and sublimes into the atmosphere in summer. This paper studies the effect of this CO2 mass redistribution on Martian rotation and gravitational field. Two mechanisms are examined: (1) the waxing and waning of solid CO2 in the polar caps and (2) the geographical distribution of gaseous CO2 in the atmosphere. In particular, the net peak-to-peak changes in J2 and J3 over a Martian year are both found to be as much as about 6 x 10 to the -9th. A simulation suggests that these changes may be detected by the upcoming Mars Observer under favorable but realistic conditions.

  3. Second Law Violations by Means of a Stratification of Temperature Due to Force Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trupp, Andreas

    2002-11-01

    In 1868 J.C. Maxwell proved that a perpetual motion machine of the second kind would become possible, if the equilibrium temperature in a vertical column of gas subject to gravity were a function of height. However, Maxwell had claimed that the temperature had to be the same at all points of the column. So did Boltzmann. Their opponent was Loschmidt. He claimed that the equilibrium temperature declined with height, and that a perpetual motion machine of the second kind operating by means of such column was compatible with the second law of thermodynamics. Extending the general idea behind Loschmidt's concept to other force fields, gravity can be replaced by molecular forces acting on molecules that try to escape from the surface of a liquid into the vapor space. Experiments proving the difference of temperature between the liquid and the vapor phase were conducted in the 19th century already.

  4. Oscillation of electron mobility in parabolic double quantum well structure due to applied electric field

    SciTech Connect

    Sahoo, Narayan; Sahu, Trinath

    2014-12-15

    We show that oscillation of low temperature electron mobility ? can be obtained by applying an electric field F along the growth direction of the asymmetrically barrier delta doped Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}As parabolic double quantum well structure. The drastic changes in the subband Fermi energies and distributions of subband wave functions as a function of F yield nonmonotonic intra- and intersubband scattering rate matrix elements mediated by intersubband effects. The oscillatory enhancement of ?, which is attributed to the subband mobilities governed by the ionized impurity scattering, magnifies with increase in well width and decrease in height of the parabolic structure potential. The results can be utilized for nanoscale low temperature device applications.

  5. Experimental observation of increased threshold electric field for runaway generation due to synchrotron radiation losses in the FTU tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Martin-Solis, Jose Ramon; Sanchez, Raul; Esposito, Basilio

    2010-01-01

    The threshold electric field for runaway generation has been investigated during runaway suppression experiments by means of electron-cyclotron-resonance heating in the flattop phase of FTU discharges. Runaway suppression has been experimentally found to occur at electric fields substantially larger than those predicted by the relativistic collisional theory of runaway generation, E{sub R} = n{sub e}e{sup 3}ln{Lambda}/4{pi}{var_epsilon}{sub 0}{sup 2}m{sub e}c{sup 2}. These experimental results are consistent with an increase of the critical electric field due to the electron synchrotron radiation losses. No runaway electrons are found in FTU experiments below the radiation threshold. These results support evidence for a new threshold electric field for runaway generation that accounts for the effect of the synchrotron losses, and which should be considered when making predictions on runaway generation and mitigation in devices such as ITER.

  6. Improved three-dimensional image correlation for surface displacement measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helm, Jeffrey D.; McNeill, Stephen R.; Sutton, Michael A.

    1996-07-01

    A PC-based, 3D surface profile and displacement measurement system capable of micron-level accuracy using moderately priced off-the-shelf equipment has been developed. For use in field applications, a simplified calibration process using precision grids and camera translations is developed. An improved image correlation process is developed which corrects for perspective distortions due to viewpoint differences between the two cameras. The accuracy of the system was assessed experimentally and results expressed using several different error measures, including a new error measure proposed by the authors. The accuracy for both the profile and displacement measurement systems was established through a series of profile and translation tests. The baseline tests confirmed that the measurement system is capable of highly accurate full-field measurements. The system was also used successfully to measure both the bending of a clamped circular plate under pressure loading and the local buckling which occurs during tension loading of a cracked plate.

  7. Microbial contamination of indoor air due to leakages from crawl space: a field study.

    PubMed

    Airaksinen, M; Pasanen, P; Kurnitski, J; Seppänen, O

    2004-02-01

    Mechanical exhaust ventilation system is typical in apartment buildings in Finland. In most buildings the base floor between the first floor apartments and crawl space is not air tight. As the apartments have lower pressure than the crawl space due to ventilation, contaminated air may flow from the crawl space to the apartments. The object of this study was to find out whether a potential air flow from crawl space has an influence on the indoor air quality. The results show that in most cases the concentration of fungal spores was clearly higher in the crawl space than inside the building. The size distribution of fungal spores depended on the fungal species. Correlation between the fungal spores in the crawl space and indoors varied with microbial species. Some species have sources inside the building, which confounds the possible relation between crawl pace and indoor concentrations. Some species, such as Acremonium, do not normally have a source indoors, but its concentration in the crawl space was elevated; our measurements showed also elevated concentrations of Acremonium in the air of the apartments. This consistent finding shows a clear linkage between fungal spores in the indoor air and crawl space. We conclude that a building with a crawl space and pressure difference over the base floor could be a potential risk for indoor air quality in the first floor apartments. PMID:14756846

  8. Phase modulation and far-field spatial patterns due to the transformational thermal-lens effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ting; Sheih, Shou-Jong; Scott, J. F.

    1991-01-01

    In earlier work we have reported a thermal-lens effect that is opposite in sign from and much stronger than the well-known effect in fluids and isotropic solids: Very near the transformation temperature in crystals undergoing structural phase transitions, certain indices of refraction have temperature derivatives that are large and positive (~=+10-1 K-1), in contrast to the negative values of dn/dT that arise from thermal expansion in glasses or fluids. We evaluated the steady-state and time-dependent behavior of these effects in Ba2NaNb5O15 near Tc=850 K. In the present paper we extend these studies to examine the far-field spatial pattern produced by self-induced phase modulation. We also utilize the thermal-lens effect to investigate the critical behavior near the tricritical point of Ba2NaNb5O15, and the critical exponent ? is obtained as ?c=0.28+/-0.01 and ?a=0.31+/-0.01.

  9. Microstructural changes in a cementitious membrane due to the application of a DC electric field.

    PubMed

    Covelo, Alba; Diaz, Belen; Freire, Lorena; Novoa, X Ramon; Perez, M Consuelo

    2008-07-01

    The use of electromigration techniques to accelerate chloride ions motion is commonly employed to characterise the permeability of cementitious samples to chlorides, a relevant parameter in reinforced concrete corrosion. This paper is devoted to the study of microstructure's changes occurring in mortar samples when submitted to natural diffusion and migration experiments. The application of an electric field reduces testing time in about one order of magnitude with respect to natural diffusion experiments. Nevertheless, the final sample's microstructure differs in both tests. Impedance Spectroscopy is employed for real time monitoring of microstructural changes. During migration experiments the global impedance undergoes important increase in shorter period of time compared to natural diffusion tests. So, the forced motion of ions through the concrete membrane induces significant variations in the porous structure, as confirmed by Mercury Intrusion Porosimetry. After migration experiments, an important increase in the capillary pore size (10-100 nm) was detected. Conversely, no relevant variations are found after natural diffusion tests. Results presented in this work cast doubt on the significance of diffusion coefficient values obtained under accelerated conditions. PMID:18569312

  10. Piezophotonic Switching Due to Local Field Effects in a Coherently Prepared Medium of Three-Level Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manka, Aaron S.; Dowling, Jonathan P.; Bowden, Charles M.; Fleischhauer, Michael

    1994-09-01

    We study the effect of near dipole-dipole interactions on the electric susceptibility of a coherently prepared three-level Λ system. We discuss the influence of atomic nonlinearities on the recently predicted enhancement of the absorptionless index of refraction and inversionless gain due to local field effects [J.P. Dowling and C.M. Bowden,

    Phys. Rev. Lett. 70 1421 1993
    ] and predict a density dependent, or piezophotonic, switching between absorption and amplification.

  11. Advanced Triangulation Displacement Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poteet, Wade M.; Cauthen, Harold K.

    1996-01-01

    Advanced optoelectronic triangulation displacement sensors undergoing development. Highly miniaturized, more stable, more accurate, and relatively easy to use. Incorporate wideband electronic circuits suitable for real-time monitoring and control of displacements. Measurements expected to be accurate to within nanometers. In principle, sensors mass-produced at relatively low unit cost. Potential applications numerous. Possible industrial application in measuring runout of rotating shaft or other moving part during fabrication in "zero-defect" manufacturing system, in which measured runout automatically corrected.

  12. Autonomous dynamic displacement estimation from data fusion of acceleration and intermittent displacement measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Junhee; Kim, Kiyoung; Sohn, Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Addressing the importance of displacement measurement of structural responses in the field of structural health monitoring, this paper presents an autonomous algorithm for dynamic displacement estimation from acceleration integration fused with displacement data intermittently measured. The presented acceleration integration algorithm of multi-rate Kalman filtering distinguishes itself from the past study in the literature by explicitly considering acceleration measurement bias. Furthermore, the algorithm is formulated by unique state definition of integration errors and error dynamics system modeling. To showcase performance of the algorithm, a series of laboratory dynamic experiments for measuring structural responses of acceleration and displacement are conducted. Improved results are demonstrated through comparison between the proposed and past study.

  13. ¹⁴N Quadrupole Resonance line broadening due to the earth magnetic field, occuring only in the case of an axially symmetric electric field gradient tensor.

    PubMed

    Aissani, Sarra; Guendouz, Laouès; Marande, Pierre-Louis; Canet, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    As demonstrated before, the application of a weak static B0 magnetic field (less than 10 G) may produce definite effects on the ¹⁴N Quadrupole Resonance line when the electric field gradient tensor at the nitrogen nucleus level is of axial symmetry. Here, we address more precisely the problem of the relative orientation of the two magnetic fields (the static field and the radio-frequency field of the pure NQR experiment). For a field of 6G, the evolution of the signal intensity, as a function of this relative orientation, is in very good agreement with the theoretical predictions. There is in particular an intensity loss by a factor of three when going from the parallel configuration to the perpendicular configuration. By contrast, when dealing with a very weak magnetic field (as the earth field, around 0.5 G), this effect drops to ca. 1.5 in the case Hexamethylenetetramine (HMT).This is explained by the fact that the Zeeman shift (due to the very weak magnetic field) becomes comparable to the natural line-width. The latter can therefore be determined by accounting for this competition. Still in the case of HMT, the estimated natural line-width is half the observed line-width. The extra broadening is thus attributed to earth magnetic field. The latter constitutes therefore the main cause of the difference between the natural transverse relaxation time (T₂) and the transverse relaxation time derived from the observed line-width (T₂(⁎)). PMID:25910551

  14. Shock formation processes due to interactions of two plasmas in a magnetic field and modified two-stream instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Toida, Mieko; Uragami, Tatsunori

    2013-11-15

    The study of interactions of exploding and surrounding plasmas in an external magnetic field [K. Yamauchi and Y. Ohsawa, Phys. Plasmas 14, 053110 (2007)] is verified with two-dimensional (2D) electromagnetic particle simulations, for a case in which the initial velocity of the exploding plasma is perpendicular to the external magnetic field. The 2D simulations show essentially the same shock-formation processes as those in the previous one-dimensional simulation, including penetration of exploding ions into surrounding plasma, formation of a strong magnetic-field pulse due to deceleration of the exploding ions, ion reflection by the pulse, and subsequent splitting of the pulse into two magnetosonic pulses which then develop into forward and reverse shock waves. Furthermore, the 2D structure of electromagnetic fields in the region, where the exploding and surrounding ions overlap, is investigated with particular attention to the linear and nonlinear evolution of modified two-stream instabilities in the magnetic field that is being gradually compressed. The effects of these instabilities on ion reflection and on 2D magnetic fluctuations in the two generated pulses are also discussed.

  15. Prediction of electron concentration reductions in re-entry flow fields due to electrophilic liquid and water injection.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pergament, H. S.; Mikatarian, R. R.; Kurzius, S. C.

    1972-01-01

    Discussion of an analytical model which leads to predictions of reductions in electron concentrations in reentry flow fields due to the injection of electrophilic liquids and water. The processes incorporated into the model are: penetration and breakup of the liquid jet, droplet acceleration and vaporization, expansion of the liquid spray due to droplet vaporization, electrophilic vapor diffusion, heterogeneous and homogeneous charged species recombination kinetics and homogeneous electron attachment kinetics. Spray boundary calculations are shown to be in good agreement with photographic observations of water and Freon E-3 sprays in wind tunnel tests of a scale model RAM C-III flight vehicle. Fixed-bias electrostatic probe data taken during the RAM C-III flight are interpreted in terms of effective jet penetration distances - which are shown to be consistent with calculations using the present model.

  16. Water displacement mercury pump

    DOEpatents

    Nielsen, Marshall G. (Woodside, CA)

    1985-01-01

    A water displacement mercury pump has a fluid inlet conduit and diffuser, a valve, a pressure cannister, and a fluid outlet conduit. The valve has a valve head which seats in an opening in the cannister. The entire assembly is readily insertable into a process vessel which produces mercury as a product. As the mercury settles, it flows into the opening in the cannister displacing lighter material. When the valve is in a closed position, the pressure cannister is sealed except for the fluid inlet conduit and the fluid outlet conduit. Introduction of a lighter fluid into the cannister will act to displace a heavier fluid from the cannister via the fluid outlet conduit. The entire pump assembly penetrates only a top wall of the process vessel, and not the sides or the bottom wall of the process vessel. This insures a leak-proof environment and is especially suitable for processing of hazardous materials.

  17. Optical displacement sensor

    DOEpatents

    Carr, Dustin W. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2008-04-08

    An optical displacement sensor is disclosed which uses a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) coupled to an optical cavity formed by a moveable membrane and an output mirror of the VCSEL. This arrangement renders the lasing characteristics of the VCSEL sensitive to any movement of the membrane produced by sound, vibrations, pressure changes, acceleration, etc. Some embodiments of the optical displacement sensor can further include a light-reflective diffractive lens located on the membrane or adjacent to the VCSEL to control the amount of lasing light coupled back into the VCSEL. A photodetector detects a portion of the lasing light from the VCSEL to provide an electrical output signal for the optical displacement sensor which varies with the movement of the membrane.

  18. Water displacement mercury pump

    DOEpatents

    Nielsen, M.G.

    1984-04-20

    A water displacement mercury pump has a fluid inlet conduit and diffuser, a valve, a pressure cannister, and a fluid outlet conduit. The valve has a valve head which seats in an opening in the cannister. The entire assembly is readily insertable into a process vessel which produces mercury as a product. As the mercury settles, it flows into the opening in the cannister displacing lighter material. When the valve is in a closed position, the pressure cannister is sealed except for the fluid inlet conduit and the fluid outlet conduit. Introduction of a lighter fluid into the cannister will act to displace a heavier fluid from the cannister via the fluid outlet conduit. The entire pump assembly penetrates only a top wall of the process vessel, and not the sides or the bottom wall of the process vessel. This insures a leak-proof environment and is especially suitable for processing of hazardous materials.

  19. Electric-field-induced reversible avalanche breakdown in a GaAs microcrystal due to cross band gap impact ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klappenberger, F.; Renk, K. F.; Summer, R.; Keldysh, L.; Rieder, B.; Wegscheider, W.

    2003-07-01

    We report on a reversible avalanche breakdown due to free-carrier multiplication caused by cross band gap impact ionization in a GaAs microcrystal. The n GaAs microcrystal (length 1 ?m, diameter 1 ?m) was embedded between n+ GaAs layers serving as electric contacts. We guided an electric pulse to the sample and determined, from the reflected and transmitted pulse, the I(V) characteristic. The breakdown was indicated by a sudden current rise and voltage drop and a hysteresis effect and, furthermore, by electron-hole recombination radiation. We reached the threshold field for ionization by making use of a high-field domain whose formation was based on the Gunn effect. The microcrystal could reproducibly be switched into the nonequilibrium avalanche state. Our analysis indicates that the effect provides a basis for the development of an ultrafast electric switch.

  20. Exploration of Quench Initiation Due to Intentional Geometrical Defects in a High Magnetic Field Region of an SRF Cavity

    SciTech Connect

    J. Dai, K. Zhao, G.V. Eremeev, R.L. Geng, A.D. Palczewski; Dai, J.; Palczewski, A. D.; Eremeev, G. V.; Geng, R. L.; Zhao, K.

    2011-07-01

    A computer program which was used to simulate and analyze the thermal behaviors of SRF cavities has been developed at Jefferson Lab using C++ code. This code was also used to verify the quench initiation due to geometrical defects in high magnetic field region of SRF cavities. We built a CEBAF single cell cavity with 4 artificial defects near equator, and this cavity has been tested with T-mapping. The preheating behavior and quench initiation analysis of this cavity will be presented here using the computer program.

  1. A Study of Transient Magnetic Fields in a Nacelle of a Wind Turbine Generator System due to Lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Kazuo; Chikara, Tomohiro; Ametani, Akihiro

    A wind turbine generator system is composed of blades, a nacelle, a tower etc. In recent year, to make the blades and the nacelle lighter, the blades are often made from GFRP (Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastics) and the nacelle is composed of steel grids and GFRP covering it. When the lightning strikes the wind turbine, the current flows into the ground through the down conductor in the blades, the steel grids of nacelle, and the tower. The current flowing near the nacelle produces comparatively large magnetic fields inside the nacelle. Therefore, the communication and control systems are broken down or malfunction. In this paper, the transient magnetic fields in a nacelle due to lightning strokes at the tip of the blade and the rear portion of the nacelle are studied analytically and experimentally. In the analytical studies, the FDTD (Finite Difference Time Domain) method which is one of numerical electromagnetic field analyses is used. The reduced-size model of a wind turbine is used for experimental studies. As the results of the researches, it has been found that the magnetic fields at the front of the nacelle are larger than those at the rear of the nacelle regardless of the injected points of the lightning current. The lightning current following through the down conductor connected to the nacelle through the blades has a strong influence on the magnetic fields in the nacelle. We have proposed that the front of the nacelle should be covered with the conductor plate or mesh to decrease the large magnetic fields.

  2. Polaronic effects due to quasi-confined optical phonons in wurtzite nitride nanowire in the presence of an electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vardanyan, Karen A.; Asatryan, Anna L.; Vartanian, Arshak L.

    2015-07-01

    Considering the effect of an external electric field in wurtzite nitride cylindrical nanowire (NW), the polaron self-energy and effective mass due to the electron interaction with the quasi-confined optical phonons are studied theoretically by means of Lee-Low-Pines variational approach. The analytical expressions for the quasi-one-dimensional Fröhlich polaron self-energy and effective mass are obtained as functions of the wire radius and the strength of the electric field applied perpendicular to the wire axis. It is found that the main contribution to polaron basic parameters is from higher frequency optical phonon modes. The numerical results on the GaN material show that the polaron self-energy increases with the increase of the electric field and is more sensitive to the field when the wire radius is larger. It is also found that the polaron self-energy in GaN NWs is higher than that in zinc-blende GaAs-based cylindrical NWs.

  3. Ultra-Sensitive Magnetoresistive Displacement Sensing Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olivas, John D. (Inventor); Lairson, Bruce M. (Inventor); Ramesham, Rajeshuni (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An ultrasensitive displacement sensing device for use in accelerometers, pressure gauges, temperature transducers, and the like, comprises a sputter deposited, multilayer, magnetoresistive field sensor with a variable electrical resistance based on an imposed magnetic field. The device detects displacement by sensing changes in the local magnetic field about the magnetoresistive field sensor caused by the displacement of a hard magnetic film on a movable microstructure. The microstructure, which may be a cantilever, membrane, bridge, or other microelement, moves under the influence of an acceleration a known displacement predicted by the configuration and materials selected, and the resulting change in the electrical resistance of the MR sensor can be used to calculate the displacement. Using a micromachining approach, very thin silicon and silicon nitride membranes are fabricated in one preferred embodiment by means of anisotropic etching of silicon wafers. Other approaches include reactive ion etching of silicon on insulator (SOI), or Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition of silicon nitride films over silicon substrates. The device is found to be improved with the use of giant magnetoresistive elements to detect changes in the local magnetic field.

  4. The field-dependent shock profiles of a magnetorhelogical damper due to high impact: an experimental investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hwan-Choong; Oh, Jong-Seok; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2015-02-01

    This work proposes a new damper featuring magnetorheological fluid (MR damper) and presents its field-dependent damping forces due to high impact. To achieve this goal, a large MR damper, which can produce a damping force of 100 kN at 6 A, is designed and manufactured based on the analysis of the magnetic flux intensity of the damper. After identifying the field-dependent damping force levels of the manufactured MR damper, a hydraulic horizontal shock tester is established. This shock testing system consists of a velocity generator, impact mass, shock programmer, and test mass. The MR damper is installed at the end of the wall in the shock tester and tested under four different experimental conditions. The shock profile characteristics of the MR damper due to different impact velocities are investigated at various input current levels. In addition, the inner pressure of the MR damper during impact, which depends on the input’s current level, is evaluated at two positions that can represent the pressure drop that generates the damping force of the MR damper. It is demonstrated from this impact testing that the shock profiles can be changed by the magnitude of the input current applied to the MR damper. It directly indicates that a desired shock profile can be achieved by installing the MR damper associated with appropriate control logics to adjust the magnitude of the input current.

  5. Short gravity-capillary waves modulation due to long surface and internal wave: laboratory and field experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergievskaya, I. A.; Ermakov, S. A.

    2011-11-01

    Modulation of short wind gravity-capillary waves (SGCW) due to long surface and internal waves in the presence of surface films of different surfactant concentrations has been studied in wave tank and field experiments using Ka-band radar. Wave tank experiments were carried out in the oval wind wave tank of the Institute of Applied Physics RAS at different wind velocities (2 m/s to 5 m/s) and at two fetches. It was obtained that the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) magnitude in film slicks was several times larger than in non-slick areas, the phase of MTF was also changed in the presence of films. Similar conclusions were made from field observations of radar backscatter modulation due to long surface and internal waves, here the effect of enhanced surface waves modulation in slick zones was revealed, too. Different physical mechanisms were taken into account to explain experiment, namely, geometrical effects, modulation of surfactant concentration, transformation of the wind velocity over the long wave profile. Theoretical analysis has demonstrated that the effect of enhanced modulation could not be explained using only the mechanisms mentioned above. MTF is assumed to be determined by the effect of bound components of short wind-wave spectrum.

  6. A numerical study of plasma evolutions due to resistive tearing-mode turbulence in reversed-field pinches (RFPs)

    SciTech Connect

    Kwok, Yuchun.

    1991-01-01

    Macroscopic transport in RFPs due to turbulent electric fields is studied by the method of numerical simulation in a straight toroidal cylinder. A turbulent electric field model of resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) tearing modes is incorporated in the 1-D quasi-equilibrium MHD equations to obtain the transport equations. Recent RFP experiments have shown that magnetic fields resisted ohmic dissipation after a screw pinch equilibrium, initially turbulent, evolved into and RFP state. The outstanding features which lack complete theories regarding the underlying mechanisms, are the instantaneous reversal of toroidal magnetic field at the transition point and the sustainment of the RFP phase which follows, two important physics issues in controlled thermonuclear fusion study. The objective of this work is to examine, through a time-dependent calculation, the effects of resistive tearing mode turbulence on the RFP evolution and explore the possibility of a dynamo action resulting form such activities in context of addressing the two issues. To alleviate a constraint imposed by the force-balance condition on the velocity variable, a Lagrangian mesh method in which the poloidal magnetic flux function serves as the spatial variable is used to integrate the set of the transport equations. Finite difference schemes are applied to obtain numerical solutions. The transport equations, scaled in some set of base units, can be parameterized by five adjustable numerical constants. These numbers measure, in simulation units, the ratio of E {times} B-drift to diffusion speed, the level of tearing mode turbulence, the applied electric field in toroidal and poloidal directions, and the position of the conducting shell relative to the plasma edge.

  7. PDT - PARTICLE DISPLACEMENT TRACKING SOFTWARE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wernet, M. P.

    1994-01-01

    Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) is a quantitative velocity measurement technique for measuring instantaneous planar cross sections of a flow field. The technique offers very high precision (1%) directionally resolved velocity vector estimates, but its use has been limited by high equipment costs and complexity of operation. Particle Displacement Tracking (PDT) is an all-electronic PIV data acquisition and reduction procedure which is simple, fast, and easily implemented. The procedure uses a low power, continuous wave laser and a Charged Coupled Device (CCD) camera to electronically record the particle images. A frame grabber board in a PC is used for data acquisition and reduction processing. PDT eliminates the need for photographic processing, system costs are moderately low, and reduced data are available within seconds of acquisition. The technique results in velocity estimate accuracies on the order of 5%. The software is fully menu-driven from the acquisition to the reduction and analysis of the data. Options are available to acquire a single image or 5- or 25-field series of images separated in time by multiples of 1/60 second. The user may process each image, specifying its boundaries to remove unwanted glare from the periphery and adjusting its background level to clearly resolve the particle images. Data reduction routines determine the particle image centroids and create time history files. PDT then identifies the velocity vectors which describe the particle movement in the flow field. Graphical data analysis routines are included which allow the user to graph the time history files and display the velocity vector maps, interpolated velocity vector grids, iso-velocity vector contours, and flow streamlines. The PDT data processing software is written in FORTRAN 77 and the data acquisition routine is written in C-Language for 80386-based IBM PC compatibles running MS-DOS v3.0 or higher. Machine requirements include 4 MB RAM (3 MB Extended), a single or multiple frequency RGB monitor (EGA or better), a math co-processor, and a pointing device. The printers supported by the graphical analysis routines are the HP Laserjet+, Series II, and Series III with at least 1.5 MB memory. The data acquisition routines require the EPIX 4-MEG video board and optional 12.5MHz oscillator, and associated EPIX software. Data can be acquired from any CCD or RS-170 compatible video camera with pixel resolution of 600hX400v or better. PDT is distributed on one 5.25 inch 360K MS-DOS format diskette. Due to the use of required proprietary software, executable code is not provided on the distribution media. Compiling the source code requires the Microsoft C v5.1 compiler, Microsoft QuickC v2.0, the Microsoft Mouse Library, EPIX Image Processing Libraries, the Microway NDP-Fortran-386 v2.1 compiler, and the Media Cybernetics HALO Professional Graphics Kernal System. Due to the complexities of the machine requirements, COSMIC strongly recommends the purchase and review of the documentation prior to the purchase of the program. The source code, and sample input and output files are provided in PKZIP format; the PKUNZIP utility is included. PDT was developed in 1990. All trade names used are the property of their respective corporate owners.

  8. Is mudflow in Sidoarjo, East Java due to the pumping mechanism of hot air bubbles? : Laboratory simulations and field observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurhandoko, Bagus Endar B.

    2015-09-01

    Extraordinary mudflow has happened in Sidoarjo, East Java, Indonesia since 2006. This mud comes from the giant crater that is located close to the BJP - 01. Thousands of homes have been submerged due to mudflow. Till today this giant mud crater is still has great strength despite the mud flowing over 8 years. This is a very rare phenomenon in the world. This mud flow mechanism raises big questions, because it has been going on for years, naturally the mudflow will stop by itself because the pressure should be reduced. This research evaluates all aspects of integrated observations, laboratory tests and field observations since the beginning of this ongoing mudflow. Laboratory tests were done by providing hot air bubbles into the fluid inside the inverted funnel showed that the fluid can flow with a high altitude. It is due to the mechanism of buoyant force from air bubbles to the water where the contrast density of the water and the air is quite large. Quantity of air bubbles provides direct effect to the debit of fluid flow. Direct observation in the field, in 2006 and 2007, with TIMNAS and LPPM ITB showed the large number of air bubbles on the surface of the mud craters. Temperature observation on the surface of mud crater is around 98 degree C whereas at greater depth shows the temperature is increasingly rising. This strengthens the hypothesis or proves that the mud pumping mechanism comes from buoyant force of hot air bubbles. Inversion gravity images show that the deep subsurface of main crater is close to volcanic layers or root of Arjuna mountain. Based on the simulation laboratory and field observation data, it can be concluded that the geothermal factor plays a key role in the mudflow mechanism.

  9. Blending vocal music with a given sound field due to the characteristics of the running autocorrelation function of singing voices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Kosuke; Fujii, Kenji; Kawai, Keiji; Ando, Yoichi; Yano, Takashi

    2001-05-01

    This is a study to meet music and the opera house acoustics. It is said that singers adjust their interpretation style according to the acoustical condition of the sound field in a room. However, this mechanism of blending of musical performance with the sound field is unknown. In order to obtain a method of performance blending of opera house acoustics, we attempted to develop evaluation criteria for a singing voice in terms of the minimum value of the effective duration of the running autocorrelation function (r-ACF), (te)min, of sound source signals. This temporal factor has shown to have close correlation with the subjective response of both listeners and performers to sound fields [Y. Ando, Architectural Acoustics (AIP Press/Springer-Verlag, New York, 1998)]. As example for the control of (te)min due to performing style, effects of singing style, kind of vowel, relative pitch, vibrato extent, and intonation on the values of (te)min are demonstrated. In addition, the fine structure of the r-ACF is discussed with regard to the identification of vowels of singing voice. a)Now at 1-10-27 Yamanokami, Kumamoto, Japan.

  10. Transmitted sound field due to an impulsive line acoustic source bounded by a plate followed by a vortex sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miura, T.; Chao, C. C.

    1980-01-01

    The propagation of sound due to a line acoustic source in the moving stream across a semiinfinite vortex sheet which trails from a rigid plate is examined in a linear theory for the subsonic case. A solution for the transmitted sound field is obtained with the aid of multiple integral transforms and the Wiener-Hopf technique for both the steady state (time harmonic) and initial value (impulsive source) situations. The contour of inverse transform and hence the decomposition of the functions are determined through causality and radiation conditions. The solution obtained satisfies causality and the full Kutta conditions. The transmitted sound field is composed of two waves in both the stady state and initial value problems. One is the wave scattered from the edge of the plate which is associated with the bow wave and the instability wave. These waves exist in the downstream sectors. The other is the wave transmitted through the vortex sheet which is also associated with the instability wave. Regional divisions of the transmitted sound field are identified.

  11. Effects of plasmonic field due to gold nanoparticles and magnetic field on photocurrents of zinc porphyrin–viologen linked compound-gold nanoparticle composite films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonemura, Hiroaki; Niimi, Tomoki; Yamada, Sunao

    2016-03-01

    Composite films of zinc-porphyrin–viologen (ZnP–V2+) linked compound containing six methylene group [ZnP(6)V]–gold nanoparticles (AuNP) were fabricated by combining electrostatic layer-by-layer adsorption and the Langmuir–Blodgett method. The anodic photocurrents of the ZnP(6)V–AuNP composite films are higher than those of the ZnP(6)V films. The large photocurrents in ZnP(6)V–AuNP composite films are most likely attributable to the combination of localized surface plasmon resonance due to AuNP and photoinduced intramolecular electron transfer from excited state of ZnP to V2+. The photocurrents of the ZnP(6)V–AuNP composite films increase in the presence of magnetic field. The photocurrents increase with low magnetic fields (B ≤ 150 mT) and are almost constant under high magnetic fields (B ≥ 150 mT). Magnetic field effects (MFEs) were clearly observed for both ZnP(6)V–AuNP composite films and ZnP(6)V films. The MFEs can be explained by a radical pair mechanism.

  12. Displacement sensors using soft magnetostrictive alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Hristoforou, E. . Inst. of Material Science); Reilly, R.E. . Electronic and Electrical Engineering Dept.)

    1994-09-01

    The authors report results on the response of a family of displacement sensors, which are based on the magnetostrictive delay line (MDL) technique, using current conductor orthogonal to the MDL. Such sensing technique is based on the change of the magnetic circuit and the acoustic stress point of origin due to the displacement of a soft magnetic material above it. Integrated arrays of sensors can be obtained due to the acoustic delay line technique and they can be used as tactile arrays, digitizers or devices for medical application (gait analysis etc.), while absence of hysteresis and low cost of manufacturing make them competent in this sector of sensor market.

  13. Quantum corrections to the gravitational potentials of a point source due to conformal fields in de Sitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fröb, Markus B.; Verdaguer, Enric

    2016-03-01

    We derive the leading quantum corrections to the gravitational potentials in a de Sitter background, due to the vacuum polarization from loops of conformal fields. Our results are valid for arbitrary conformal theories, even strongly interacting ones, and are expressed using the coefficients b and b' appearing in the trace anomaly. Apart from the de Sitter generalization of the known flat-space results, we find two additional contributions: one which depends on the finite coefficients of terms quadratic in the curvature appearing in the renormalized effective action, and one which grows logarithmically with physical distance. While the first contribution corresponds to a rescaling of the effective mass, the second contribution leads to a faster fall-off of the Newton potential at large distances, and is potentially measurable.

  14. Spatiotemporal splitting of global eigenmodes due to cross-field coupling via vortex dynamics in drift wave turbulence.

    PubMed

    Brandt, C; Thakur, S C; Light, A D; Negrete, J; Tynan, G R

    2014-12-31

    Spatiotemporal splitting events of drift wave (DW) eigenmodes due to nonlinear coupling are investigated in a cylindrical helicon plasma device. DW eigenmodes in the radial-azimuthal cross section have been experimentally observed to split at radial locations and recombine into the global eigenmode with a time shorter than the typical DW period (t?fDW(-1)). The number of splits correlates with the increase of turbulence. The observed dynamics can be theoretically reproduced by a Kuramoto-type model of a network of radially coupled azimuthal eigenmodes. Coupling by E×B-vortex convection cell dynamics and ion gyro radii motion leads to cross-field synchronization and occasional mode splitting events. PMID:25615346

  15. The 3D lithospheric structure and plate tectonics of the on-going Taiwan arc-continent collision and delamination: a context for understanding patterns of geomorphic uplift and contemporary stress and geodetic displacement fields.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suppe, J.; Kanda, R. V.; Carena, S.; Wu, Y.

    2012-12-01

    3D mapping of local and global tomographic data have considerably clarified the underlying architecture and long-term kinematics of ongoing arc-continent collision and subduction reversal in Taiwan, including the role of delamination of the continental mantle lithosphere and lowermost crust as an integral part of the ongoing collision. This subduction by continental delamination produces a new delamination Moho in northernmost Taiwan and is accompanied by extensional deformation and oroclinal bending of the overlying crust and now dead compressional mountain belt in northernmost Taiwan, even though subduction of Eurasian lithosphere continues at depth, with the Eurasian slab extending vertically to the mantle transtion zone. This subducting Eurasian continental lithosphere is continuous as a single intact slab across the Eurasian ocean-continent boundary, with the South China Sea Eurasian lithosphere to the south undergoing classic oceanic subduction. In this presentation we show that a 3D understanding of the geometry and long-term plate kinematics of this arc-continent collision informs and illuminates our understanding of [1] patterns of geomorphic uplift on a 100Ka timescale, [2] contemporary horizontal geodetic displacement fields, and [3] contemporary stress fields in the upper 100km determined from focal-mechanism inversions and borehole breakouts. Patterns of uplift and magmatism are closely linked to the locus of current delamination at depth. The contemporary horizontal displacement field shows on-going oroclinal bending. The very large changes in stress orientation are immediately clarified by their locations relative to fundamental structures, including the delamination Moho and the deep slabs of the Eurasian and Philippine Sea plates.

  16. Tunable beam displacer

    SciTech Connect

    Salazar-Serrano, Luis José; Valencia, Alejandra; Torres, Juan P.

    2015-03-15

    We report the implementation of a tunable beam displacer, composed of a polarizing beam splitter (PBS) and two mirrors, that divides an initially polarized beam into two parallel beams whose separation can be continuously tuned. The two output beams are linearly polarized with either vertical or horizontal polarization and no optical path difference is introduced between them. The wavelength dependence of the device as well as the maximum separation between the beams achievable is limited mainly by the PBS characteristics.

  17. Electrostatic Fields Near the Active Site of Human Aldose Reductase: 2. New Inhibitors and Complications due to Hydrogen Bonds†

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lin; Cohen, Aina E.; Boxer, Steven G.

    2011-01-01

    Vibrational Stark effect spectroscopy was used to measure electrostatic fields in the hydrophobic region of the active site of human aldose reductase (hALR2). A new nitrile-containing inhibitor was designed and synthesized, and the x-ray structure of its complex, along with cofactor NADP+, with wild-type hALR2 was determined at 1.3 Å resolution. The nitrile is found to be in close proximity to T113, consistent with a hydrogen bond interaction. Two vibrational absorption peaks were observed at room temperature in the nitrile region when the inhibitor binds to wild-type hALR2, indicating that the nitrile probe experiences two different microenvironments, and these could be empirically separated into a hydrogen bonded and non-hydrogen bonded population by comparison with the mutant T113A, where a hydrogen bond to the nitrile is not present. Classical molecular dynamics simulations based on the structure predict a double-peaked distribution in protein electric fields projected along the nitrile probe. The interpretation of these two peaks as a hydrogen bond formation-dissociation process between the probe nitrile group and a nearby amino acid side chain is used to explain the observation of two IR bands, and the simulations were used to investigate the molecular details of this conformational change. Hydrogen bonding complicates the simplest analysis of vibrational frequency shifts as being due solely to electrostatic interactions through the vibrational Stark effect, and the consequences of this complication are discussed. PMID:21859105

  18. Effects of local toroidal field ripples due to test blanket modules for ITER on radial transport of thermal ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyama, N.; Urano, H.; Shinohara, K.; Honda, M.; Takizuka, T.; Hayashi, N.; Kamada, Y.; the JT-60 Team

    2012-11-01

    The effects of local toroidal field (TF) ripples due to ferromagnetic steels used in test blanket modules (TBMs) in ITER on the radial transport of thermal ions located near the top of the pedestal are investigated using a fully three-dimensional magnetic field orbit following Monte Carlo (F3D-OFMC) code. In the simulation, the three-dimensional motion of 20 000 test particles, distributed near the top of the pedestal (ΨN = 0.91) with the same Maxwellian velocity distribution as the thermal ions at this location, is traced for 1.9 s. In comparison with the number of lost particles in the case without a TBM, the additional loss with three TBM ports expected in ITER is evaluated to be less than 1% of the test particles. The additional losses increase linearly with the number of TBM ports and with the square of the amplitude of the local TF ripple. The poloidal structure of the TF ripple without ferritic inserts and a case with 18 TBM ports are also compared. It is found that cases having the same ripple amplitude at a certain point can have substantially different additional loss rates if the poloidal ripple structure is not the same. The ripple amplitude near the banana tip seems to be the most important factor in determining the radial diffusion of thermal ions.

  19. Miniaturised optical displacement sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gindele, Frank; Gaul, Frank; Kraus, Silvio; Sigloch, Susanne; Teubner, Ulrich

    2004-09-01

    The primary object presented in this contribution is the miniaturization of a displacement sensor system with the potential for high accuracy measurements and for cost-effective production in polymers. The measurement of linear displacements can be performed by different methods e.g. magnetoresistive, potentiometric, electromagnetic or inductive encoder systems. For movements in the millimeter range and above the most precise systems are based on optical methods. The displacement measurement of our sensor system uses the intensity modulation of two amplitude gratings, moving relative to each other and illuminated by a LED. To increase the system resolution and the signal quality the grating/detector combination is divided into four areas which are phase shifted to each other. The grating period is 25 ?m with a geometrical accuracy below 1 ?m. The amplitude gratings have been processed on a glass substrate lithographically. Applying electro-discharge machining a miniaturised optical bench for the passive alignment of the optical and the opto-electronic components has been realised. The sensor has an overall size of 6x4x3 mm3 and is designed for the future replication in one single polymer part. In combination with an electronic interpolation the sensor will be capable for a sub-micrometer accuracy.

  20. Variable displacement vane pump

    SciTech Connect

    Tschantz, J.S.; Bisson, B.J.

    1997-12-31

    What has been developed under this program is a pumping system which can vary the amount of fuel delivered according to engine needs, thereby reducing the temperature rise of the fuel to very low levels. This permits the elimination of the air/oil coolers and conserves the vital airflow through the fan. The variable displacement vane pump (VDVP) also permits a substantial simplification of the control system with the elimination of complex metering valves, offering a significant reduction in fuel system cost. This program was initiated to develop a technology that embodied the ruggedness of the gear pump with the efficiency and metering versatility of the variable displacement vane pump. Thick metal vanes emulate the teeth on pumping gears while the simple, elegant swing cam feature provides the variable displacement capability without the unwieldy multiple cam segments found in other concepts. The result is a pumping architecture which is rugged, light in weight and extremely versatile, having demonstrated superb heat management and controllability in extensive bench and engine testing. This paper will report the results that the pumps have achieved to date both in terms of durability and efficiency.

  1. New look at displacement factor and point of measurement corrections in ionization chamber dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Awschalom, M.; Rosenberg, I.; Ten Haken, R.K.

    1983-01-01

    A new technique is presented for determination of the effective point of measurement when cavity ionization chambers are used to measure the absorbed dose due to ionizing radiation in a dense medium. An algorithm is derived relating the effective point of measurement to the displacement correction factor. This algorithm relates variations of the displacement factor to the radiation field gradient. The technique is applied to derive the magnitudes of the corrections for several chambers in a p(66)Be(49) neutron therapy beam. 30 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  2. Fuel Efficient Stoves for Darfur Camps of Internally DisplacedPersons - Report of Field Trip to North and South Darfur, Nov. 16 -Dec.17, 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Galitsky, Christina; Gadgil, Ashok; Jacobs, Mark; Lee, Yoo-Mi

    2006-02-01

    Approximately 2.2 million internally displaced persons (''IDPs'') in Darfur are living in dense camps scattered in arid areas with low fuelwood productivity. Unsustainable harvesting of fuelwood by the IDPs has created ever increasing zones of denudation, that now (in November 2005) have reached several kilometers from the camp boundaries. Leaving the safety of the camps to fetch fuelwood from farther and farther away imposes great risk and hardship on the IDP women. Three different metal fuel efficient stove (''FES'') designs were tested in Darfur IDP camps for their suitability to substantially reduce the fuelwood needs of IDPs. The mud-and-dung ''ITDG'' stoves being promoted under the current FES program were also examined and tested. A modified design of the ITDG mud-and-dung stove, ''Avi'', was developed, built and tested. Systematic informal surveys of IDP households were undertaken in North and South Darfur to understand the household parameters related to family size, food, fuel, cooking habits, cooking pots, expenditure on fuel, and preferences related to alternative ways to spend time/money if fuel could be saved. Surveys found that a significant fraction of families are missing meals for lack of fuel (50% in South Darfur, and 90% in the North Darfur camps visited by the mission). About 60% of women in South Darfur, and about 90% of women in North Darfur camps purchase fuelwood. Selling some of the food rations to purchase fuel to cook meals was significant (40%) in South Darfur and has become common (80%) in North Darfur. The LBNL mission found that two of the metal stoves and the mud-and-dung Avi can significantly reduce fuelwood consumption using the same fuel, pot, cooking methods, and food ingredients used by Darfur IDPs. The most suitable design for Darfur conditions would be a modified ''Tara'' stove. With training of the cooks in tending the fire, this stove can save 50% fuel for the IDPs. The stove costs less than $10 (US) to produce in Darfur, and saves fuelwood worth $160 annually at local market prices. For programmatic and administrative reasons, the LBNL mission do not recommend a mud-and-dung stove, for which control of quality and dimensional accuracy is expensive and cumbersome to administer, particularly in a rapid large rollout effort. A light metal stove, on the other hand, can be rapidly produced in large numbers locally in Darfur, with good quality control exercised on the material and dimensions of the stoves right at the workshop where it is produced. LBNL mission also recommends immediate trials of 50 Tara stoves in a pilot technical rollout, 500 Tara stoves in a pilot social rollout, in parallel with a technical effort to modify the Tara design to make it better suited for Darfur camp conditions. The mission also recommends a program for manufacturing, disseminating the metal stoves, and educating the IDPs in fuel-efficient cooking practices. Monitoring of the stove quality, dissemination effort and training should be an integral part of the program, with systematic summaries planned with 10,000, 50,000 and 100,000 stoves have been disseminated. In the above pilot rollouts as well as in the final implementation, it is important to continue to pay attention to training of the cooks in tending the cooking fire in the stoves, and offer continued social reinforcement to this training (e.g., through periodic competitions to cook normal meals with the least fuelwood use.)

  3. Liquid CO2 Displacement of Water in a Dual-Permeability Pore Network Micromodel

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Changyong; Oostrom, Martinus; Grate, Jay W.; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Warner, Marvin G.

    2011-09-01

    Permeability contrasts exist in multilayer geological formations under consideration for carbon sequestration. To improve our understanding of heterogeneous pore-scale displacements, liquid CO2 (LCO2) - water displacement was evaluated in a pore network micromodel with two distinct permeability zones. Due to the low viscosity ratio (logM = -1.1), unstable displacement occurred at all injection rates over two orders of magnitude. LCO2 displaced water only in the high permeability zone at low injection rates with the mechanism shifting from capillary fingering to viscous fingering with increasing flow rate. At high injection rates, LCO2 displaced water in the low permeability zone with capillary fingering as the dominant mechanism. LCO2 saturation (SLCO2) as a function of injection rate was quantified using fluorescent microscopy. In all experiments, more than 50% of LCO2 resided in the active flowpaths, and this fraction increased as displacement transitioned from capillary to viscous fingering. A continuum-scale two-phase flow model with independently determined fluid and hydraulic parameters was used to predict SLCO2 in the dual-permeability field. Agreement with the micromodel experiments was obtained for low injection rates. However, the numerical model does not account for the unstable viscous fingering processes observed experimentally at higher rates and hence overestimated SLCO2.

  4. Three-dimensional displacement analysis by projected fringes and speckle correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Thomas; Gutmann, Bernd; Weber, H.

    1996-07-01

    For comparison to model predictions, measurement of the true response of weak polymeric materials requires that a non- contacting method be use. In particular, for compression tests on weak polymers it is necessary to obtain the full 3D displacement field for the specimen. In this work, the full 3D displacement field was measured using a combination of white light speckle correlation and projected fringes. To obtain the out-of-plane displacement field, a fringe pattern with frequency of 0.30 lpmm was projected onto the specimen surface using a standard slide projector. A phase-stepping algorithm was used to convert the optical fringe pattern in a contour map for the surface. Due to reflections and noise in the fringe pattern, the authors developed a robust phase unwrapping methodology based on fuzzy logic principles. Baseline tests have shown that the algorithm produces accurate contour maps even when noise and poor fringe contrast are present. For the measurements of the in-plane displacement field the polymer foam material was illuminated with a white light source and the natural character of the reflected light was used to obtain speckle images of the polymer. The images were acquired at various load levels and stored in digital form. The digital images were correlated to obtain the speckle deformation field. To increase the range of measurement and to deal with high strain, additional processing of the images using fuzzy logic algorithms was completed.

  5. Wireless Measurement of Rotation and Displacement Rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Stanley E.; Taylor, Bryant D.

    2007-01-01

    A magnetic field response sensor is designed to measure displacement or rotation rate without a physical connection to a power source, microprocessor, data acquisition equipment, or electrical circuitry. The sensor works with the magnetic field response recorder, which was described in Magnetic-Field-Response Measurement-Acquisition System, NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 30, No. 6 (June 2006), page 28. These sensors are wirelessly powered and interrogated, and the measurement acquisition system and sensors are extremely lightweight.The response recorder uses oscillating magnetic fields to power the sensors. Once powered, the sensors respond with their own magnetic field. For displacement/ rotation measurements, the response recorder uses the sensor s response amplitude, which is dependent on the distance from the antenna. The recorder s antenna orientation and position are kept fixed, and the sampling period is constant.

  6. Displacement cascades in polyatomic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Parkin, D.M.; Coulter, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    Using a continuous-slowing-down, random amorphous material model, we have studied displacement cascades in a number of diatomic materials. This paper reviews a number of previous results that elucidate the effects of atomic mass, recoil energy, displacement energy, capture energy and material stoichiometry on the numbers of displacements in a cascade. The displacement cascade reveals a complex structure that is dependent on the type of irradiation and the material properties. Conclusions related to damage analysis for fusion reactors are given.

  7. Effects of Notch Misalignment and Tip Radius on Displacement Field in V-Notch Rail Shear Test as Determined by Photogrammetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Charles S.; Oliveras, Ovidio M.

    2011-01-01

    Evolution of the 3D strain field during ASTM-D-7078 v-notch rail shear tests on 8-ply quasi-isotropic carbon fiber/epoxy laminates was determined by optical photogrammetry using an ARAMIS system. Specimens having non-optimal geometry and minor discrepancies in dimensional tolerances were shown to display non-symmetry and/or stress concentration in the vicinity of the notch relative to a specimen meeting the requirements of the standard, but resulting shear strength and modulus values remained within acceptable bounds of standard deviation. Based on these results, and reported difficulty machining specimens to the required tolerances using available methods, it is suggested that a parametric study combining analytical methods and experiment may provide rationale to increase the tolerances on some specimen dimensions, reducing machining costs, increasing the proportion of acceptable results, and enabling a wider adoption of the test method.

  8. Polyimidazoles via aromatic nucleophilic displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    Polyimidazoles (PI) are prepared by the aromatic nucleophilic displacement reaction of di(hydroxyphenyl) imidazole monomers with activated aromatic dihalides or activated aromatic dinitro compounds. The reactions are carried out in polar aprotic solvents such as N,N-dimethyl acetamide, sulfolane, N-methylpyrrolidinone, dimethylsulfoxide, or diphenylsulfone using alkali metal bases such as potassium carbonate at elevated temperatures under nitrogen. The di(hydroxyphenyl) imidazole monomers are prepared by reacting an aromatic aldehyde with a dimethoxybenzil or by reacting an aromatic dialdehyde with a methoxybenzil in the presence of ammonium acetate. The di(methoxyphenyl) imidazole is subsequently treated with aqueous hydrobromic acid to give the di(hydroxphenyl) imidazole monomer. This synthetic route has provided high molecular weight PI of new chemical structure, is economically and synthetically more favorable than other routes, and allows for facile chemical structure variation due to the availability of a large variety of activated aromatic dihalides and dinitro compounds.

  9. Polyimidazoles via aromatic nucleophilic displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Polyimidazoles (Pl) are prepared by the aromatic nucleophilic displacement reaction of di(hydroxyphenyl)imidazole monomers with activated aromatic dihalides or activated aromatic dinitro compounds. The reactions are carried out in polar aprotic solvents such as N,N-dimethylacetamide, sulfolane, N-methylpyrroldinone, dimethylsulfoxide, or diphenylsulfone using alkali metal bases such as potassium carbonate at elevated temperature under nitrogen. The di(hydroxyphenyl)imidazole monomers are prepared by reacting an aromatic aldehyde with a dimethoxybenzil or by reacting an aromatic dialdehyde with a methoxybenzil in the presence of ammonium acetate. The di(methoxyphenyl)imidazole is subsequently treated with aqueous hydrobromic acid to give the di(hydroxyphenyl)imidazole monomer. This synthetic route has provided high molecular weight Pl of new chemical structure, is economically and synthetically more favorable than other routes, and allows for facile chemical structure variation due to the availability of a large variety of activated aromatic dihalides and dinitro compounds.

  10. Enhanced electro-magnetic energy transfer between a hot and cold body at close spacing due to evanescent fields

    SciTech Connect

    Raynolds, J.E.

    1998-10-01

    Theoretical studies have demonstrated that the energy transfer between a hot and cold body at close spacing (on the order of the radiation wavelength) can greatly exceed the limit for black body radiation (ie, Power = {sigma}T{sup 4}). This effect, due to the coupling of evanescent fields, presents an attractive option for thermo-photovoltaic (TPV) applications (assuming the considerable technical challenges can be overcome). The magnitude of the enhanced energy transfer depends on the optical properties of the hot and cold bodies as characterized by the dielectric functions of the respective materials. The present study considers five different situations as specified by the materials choices for the hot/cold sides: metal/metal, metal/insulator, metal/semiconductor, insulator/insulator, and semiconductor/semiconductor. For each situation, the dielectric functions are specified by typical models. An increase in energy transfer (relative to the black body law) is found for all situations considered, for separations less than one micron, assuming a temperature difference of 1,000 C. The metal/metal situation has the highest increase vs. separation while the semiconductor/semiconductor has the lowest. Factor-of-ten increases are obtained at roughly 0.1 microns for the metal/metal and roughly 0.02 microns for the metal/semiconductor. These studies are helping to increase the understanding of the close-spaced effect in the context of a radiator/TPV context.

  11. Subsidence due to geothermal fluid withdrawal

    SciTech Connect

    Narasimhan, T.N.; Goyal, K.P.

    1982-10-01

    Single-phase and two-phase geothermal reservoirs are currently being exploited for power production in Italy, Mexico, New Zealand, the U.S. and elsewhere. Vertical ground displacements of upto 4.5 m and horizontal ground displacements of up t o 0.5 m have been observed at Wairakei, New Zealand that are clearly attributable to the resource exploitation. Similarly, vertical displacements of about 0.13 m have been recorded at The Geysers, California. No significant ground displacements that are attributable to large-scale fluid production have been observed at Larderello, Italy and Cerro Prieto, Mexico. Observations show that subsidence due to geothermal fluid production is characterized by such features as an offset of the subsidence bowl from the main area of production, time-lag between production and subsidence and nonlinear stress-strain relationships. Several plausible conceptual models, of varying degrees of sophistication, have been proposed to explain the observed features. At present, relatively more is known about the physical mechanisms that govern subsidence than the relevant therma mechanisms. Although attempts have been made to simulate observed geothermal subsidence, the modeling efforts have been seriously limited by a lack of relevant field data needed to sufficiently characterize the complex field system.

  12. SUBSIDENCE DUE TO GEOTHERMAL FLUID WITHDRAWAL

    SciTech Connect

    Narasimhan, T.N.; Goyal, K.P.

    1982-10-01

    Single-phase and two-phase geothermal reservoirs are currently being exploited for power production in Italy, Mexico, New Zealand, the U.S. and elsewhere. Vertical ground displacements of upto 4.5 m and horizontal ground displacements of up to 0.5 m have been observed at Wairakei, New Zealand that are clearly attributable to the resource exploitation. Similarly, vertical displacements of about 0.13 m have been recorded at The Geysers, California. No significant ground displacements that are attributable to large-scale fluid production have been observed at Larderello, Italy and Cerro Prieto, Mexico. Observations show that subsidence due to geothermal fluid production is characterized by such features as an offset of the subsidence bowl from the main area of production, time-lag between production and subsidence and nonlinear stress-strain relationships. Several plausible conceptual models, of varying degrees of sophistication, have been proposed to explain the observed features. At present, relatively more is known about the physical mechanisms that govern subsidence than the relevant thermal mechanisms. Although attempts have been made to simulate observed geothermal subsidence, the modeling efforts have been seriously limited by a lack of relevant field data needed to sufficiently characterize the complex field system.

  13. Adapting to variable prismatic displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Robert B.; Cohen, Malcolm M.

    1989-01-01

    In each of two studies, subjects were exposed to a continuously changing prismatic displacement with a mean value of 19 prism diopters (variable displacement) and to a fixed 19-diopter displacement (fixed displacement). In Experiment 1, significant adaptation (post-pre shifts in hand-eye coordination) was found for fixed, but not for variable, displacement. Experiment 2 demonstrated that adaptation was obtained for variable displacement, but it was very fragile and is lost if the measures of adaptation are preceded by even a very brief exposure of the hand to normal or near-normal vision. Contrary to the results of some previous studies, an increase in within-S dispersion was not found of target pointing responses as a result of exposure to variable displacement.

  14. HELIUM EFFECTS ON DISPLACEMENT CASCADE IN TUNGSTEN

    SciTech Connect

    Setyawan, Wahyu; Nandipati, Giridhar; Roche, Kenneth J.; Heinisch, Howard L.; Kurtz, Richard J.; Wirth, Brian D.

    2013-09-30

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed to investigate He effects on displacement cascades in W. Helium content, proportion of interstitial and substitutional He and temperature were varied to reveal the various effects. The effect of interstitial He on the number of self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) produced during cascade damage appears to be insignificant. However, interstitial He tends to fill a vacancy (V). Nevertheless, this process is less favorable than SIA-V recombination particularly when excess SIAs are present before a cascade. The efficiency of He filling and SIA-V recombination increases as temperature increases due to increased point defect mobility. Likewise, substitutional He is more susceptible to displacement during a collision cascade than W. This susceptibility increases towards higher temperatures. Consequently, the number of surviving V is governed by the interplay between displaced substitutional He and SIA-V recombination. The temperature dependence of these processes results in a minimum number of V reached at an intermediate temperature.

  15. Field observations of seismic velocity changes caused by shaking-induced damage and healing due to mesoscopic nonlinearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gassenmeier, M.; Sens-Schönfelder, C.; Eulenfeld, T.; Bartsch, M.; Victor, P.; Tilmann, F.; Korn, M.

    2016-03-01

    To investigate temporal seismic velocity changes due to earthquake related processes and environmental forcing in Northern Chile, we analyse 8 yr of ambient seismic noise recorded by the Integrated Plate Boundary Observatory Chile (IPOC). By autocorrelating the ambient seismic noise field measured on the vertical components, approximations of the Green's functions are retrieved and velocity changes are measured with Coda Wave Interferometry. At station PATCX, we observe seasonal changes in seismic velocity caused by thermal stress as well as transient velocity reductions in the frequency range of 4-6 Hz. Sudden velocity drops occur at the time of mostly earthquake-induced ground shaking and recover over a variable period of time. We present an empirical model that describes the seismic velocity variations based on continuous observations of the local ground acceleration. The model assumes that not only the shaking of large earthquakes causes velocity drops, but any small vibrations continuously induce minor velocity variations that are immediately compensated by healing in the steady state. We show that the shaking effect is accumulated over time and best described by the integrated envelope of the ground acceleration over the discretization interval of the velocity measurements, which is one day. In our model, the amplitude of the velocity reduction as well as the recovery time are proportional to the size of the excitation. This model with two free scaling parameters fits the data of the shaking induced velocity variation in remarkable detail. Additionally, a linear trend is observed that might be related to a recovery process from one or more earthquakes before our measurement period. A clear relationship between ground shaking and induced velocity reductions is not visible at other stations. We attribute the outstanding sensitivity of PATCX to ground shaking and thermal stress to the special geological setting of the station, where the subsurface material consists of relatively loose conglomerate with high pore volume leading to a stronger nonlinearity compared to the other IPOC stations.

  16. Mean force on a finite-sized spherical particle due to an acoustic field in a viscous compressible medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annamalai, Subramanian; Balachandar, S.; Parmar, Manoj K.

    2014-05-01

    An analytical expression to evaluate the second-order mean force (acoustic radiation force) on a finite-sized, rigid, spherical particle due to an acoustic wave is presented. The medium in which the particle is situated is taken to be both viscous and compressible. A far-field derivation approach has been used in determining the force, which is a function of the particle size, acoustic wavelength, and viscous boundary-layer thickness. It is assumed that the viscous length scale is negligibly small compared to the acoustic wavelength. The force expression presented here (i) reduces to the correct inviscid behavior (for both small- and finite-sized particles) and (ii) is identical to recent viscous results [M. Settnes and H. Bruus, Phys. Rev. E 85, 016327 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevE.85.016327] for small-sized particles. Further, the computed force qualitatively matches the computational fluid dynamics (finite-element) results [D. Foresti, M. Nabavi, and D. Poulikakos, J. Fluid Mech. 709, 581 (2012), 10.1017/jfm.2012.350] for finite-sized particles. Additionally, the mean force is interpreted in terms of a multipole expansion. Subsequently, considering the fact that the force expansion is an infinite series, the number of terms that are required or adequate to capture the force to a specified accuracy is also provided as a function of the particle size to acoustic wavelength ratio. The dependence of the force on particle density, kinematic viscosity, and bulk viscosity of the fluid is also investigated. Here, both traveling and standing waves are considered.

  17. Variable displacement blower

    DOEpatents

    Bookout, Charles C.; Stotts, Robert E.; Waring, Douglass R.; Folsom, Lawrence R.

    1986-01-01

    A blower having a stationary casing for rotatably supporting a rotor assembly having a series of open ended chambers arranged to close against the surrounding walls of the casing. Pistons are slidably mounted within each chamber with the center of rotation of the pistons being offset in regard to the center of rotation of the rotor assembly whereby the pistons reciprocate in the chambers as the rotor assembly turns. As inlet port communicates with the rotor assembly to deliver a working substance into the chamber as the pistons approach a top dead center position in the chamber while an outlet port also communicates with the rotor to exhaust the working substance as the pistons approach a bottom dead center position. The displacement of the blower is varied by adjusting the amount of eccentricity between the center of rotation of the pistons and the center of rotation of the rotor assembly.

  18. Identification of factors affecting horizontal displacement in subsidence process

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Yi; Peng, S.S.; Chen, H.J.

    1996-12-01

    In the study of the topographical effects on surface movement due to underground longwall mining, the factors that affect the incremental horizontal displacements are identified using 10 collected cases. Based on this study, the angle of surface natural slope is the major contributor to the incremental horizontal displacement while the total movement is also playing an important role in some cases.

  19. Monitoring pipe line stress due to ground displacement

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwood, J.H. Jr.

    1986-04-01

    Northwest Pipeline Corp. has a large-diameter natural gas pipe line system from Ignacio, Colo., to Sumas, Wash. At Douglas Pass in Colorado, large landslides required several sections of the line to be relocated outside the slide areas: 4,400 ft of new line in April 1962 and 3,200 ft in March 1963. No serious disruptions occurred for the next 16 years. Then in July 1979, some 1,200 ft had to be relocated. From 1980 to date, many landslides in the Douglas Pass area have caused new deformations, with the springs of 1983 and 1984 being the worst years. In 1980, Northwest Pipeline began engineering and geotechnical studies of the landslide problems. These led to instrumentation and pipe monitoring which indicated that pipe failure can be predicted and prevented if important slope deformations or increases in pipe stresses are detected early enough to implement some mitigating measures. Excavation of the pipe to relieve the stresses was used in most cases. The method was so successful that no pipe failure occurred in 1984 within instrumented sections, in spite of the exceptionally bad climatic conditions experienced.

  20. Helium vs. Proton Induced Displacement Damage in Electronic Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ringo, Sawnese; Barghouty, A. F.

    2010-01-01

    In this project, the specific effects of displacement damage due to the passage of protons and helium nuclei on some typical electronic materials will be evaluated and contrasted. As the electronic material absorbs the energetic proton and helium momentum, degradation of performance occurs, eventually leading to overall failure. Helium nuclei traveling at the same speed as protons are expected to impart more to the material displacement damage; due to the larger mass, and thus momentum, of helium nuclei compared to protons. Damage due to displacement of atoms in their crystalline structure can change the physical properties and hence performance of the electronic materials.

  1. Displacement parameter inversion for a novel electromagnetic underground displacement sensor.

    PubMed

    Shentu, Nanying; Li, Qing; Li, Xiong; Tong, Renyuan; Shentu, Nankai; Jiang, Guoqing; Qiu, Guohua

    2014-01-01

    Underground displacement monitoring is an effective method to explore deep into rock and soil masses for execution of subsurface displacement measurements. It is not only an important means of geological hazards prediction and forecasting, but also a forefront, hot and sophisticated subject in current geological disaster monitoring. In previous research, the authors had designed a novel electromagnetic underground horizontal displacement sensor (called the H-type sensor) by combining basic electromagnetic induction principles with modern sensing techniques and established a mutual voltage measurement theoretical model called the Equation-based Equivalent Loop Approach (EELA). Based on that work, this paper presents an underground displacement inversion approach named "EELA forward modeling-approximate inversion method". Combining the EELA forward simulation approach with the approximate optimization inversion theory, it can deduce the underground horizontal displacement through parameter inversion of the H-type sensor. Comprehensive and comparative studies have been conducted between the experimentally measured and theoretically inversed values of horizontal displacement under counterpart conditions. The results show when the measured horizontal displacements are in the 0-100 mm range, the horizontal displacement inversion discrepancy is generally tested to be less than 3 mm under varied tilt angles and initial axial distances conditions, which indicates that our proposed parameter inversion method can predict underground horizontal displacement measurements effectively and robustly for the H-type sensor and the technique is applicable for practical geo-engineering applications. PMID:24858960

  2. Displacement Parameter Inversion for a Novel Electromagnetic Underground Displacement Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Shentu, Nanying; Li, Qing; Li, Xiong; Tong, Renyuan; Shentu, Nankai; Jiang, Guoqing; Qiu, Guohua

    2014-01-01

    Underground displacement monitoring is an effective method to explore deep into rock and soil masses for execution of subsurface displacement measurements. It is not only an important means of geological hazards prediction and forecasting, but also a forefront, hot and sophisticated subject in current geological disaster monitoring. In previous research, the authors had designed a novel electromagnetic underground horizontal displacement sensor (called the H-type sensor) by combining basic electromagnetic induction principles with modern sensing techniques and established a mutual voltage measurement theoretical model called the Equation-based Equivalent Loop Approach (EELA). Based on that work, this paper presents an underground displacement inversion approach named “EELA forward modeling-approximate inversion method”. Combining the EELA forward simulation approach with the approximate optimization inversion theory, it can deduce the underground horizontal displacement through parameter inversion of the H-type sensor. Comprehensive and comparative studies have been conducted between the experimentally measured and theoretically inversed values of horizontal displacement under counterpart conditions. The results show when the measured horizontal displacements are in the 0–100 mm range, the horizontal displacement inversion discrepancy is generally tested to be less than 3 mm under varied tilt angles and initial axial distances conditions, which indicates that our proposed parameter inversion method can predict underground horizontal displacement measurements effectively and robustly for the H-type sensor and the technique is applicable for practical geo-engineering applications. PMID:24858960

  3. Field Installation and Real-Time Data Processing of the New Integrated SeismoGeodetic System with Real-Time Acceleration and Displacement Measurements for Earthquake Characterization Based on High-Rate Seismic and GPS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimakov, Leonid; Jackson, Michael; Passmore, Paul; Raczka, Jared; Alvarez, Marcos; Barrientos, Sergio

    2015-04-01

    We will discuss and show the results obtained from an integrated SeismoGeodetic System, model SG160-09, installed in the Chilean National Network. The SG160-09 provides the user high rate GNSS and accelerometer data, full epoch-by-epoch measurement integrity and, using the Trimble Pivot™ SeismoGeodetic App, the ability to create combined GNSS and accelerometer high-rate (200Hz) displacement time series in real-time. The SG160-09 combines seismic recording with GNSS geodetic measurement in a single compact, ruggedized package. The system includes a low-power, 220-channel GNSS receiver powered by the latest Trimble-precise Maxwell™6 technology and supports tracking GPS, GLONASS and Galileo signals. The receiver incorporates on-board GNSS point positioning using Real-Time Precise Point Positioning (PPP) technology with satellite clock and orbit corrections delivered over IP networks. The seismic recording element includes an ANSS Class A, force balance triaxial accelerometer with the latest, low power, 24-bit A/D converter, which produces high-resolution seismic data. The SG160-09 processor acquires and packetizes both seismic and geodetic data and transmits it to the central station using an advanced, error-correction protocol with back fill capability providing data integrity between the field and the processing center. The SG160-09 has been installed in the seismic station close to the area of the Iquique earthquake of April 1, 2014, in northern Chile, a seismically prone area at the current time. The hardware includes the SG160-09 system, external Zephyr Geodetic-2 GNSS antenna, and high-speed Internet communication media. Both acceleration and displacement data was transmitted in real-time to the National Seismological Center in Santiago for real-time data processing using Earthworm / Early Bird software. Command/Control of the field station and real-time GNSS position correction are provided via the Pivot software suite. Data from the SG160-09 system was used for seismic event characterization along with data from traditional stand-alone broadband seismic and geodetic stations installed in the network. Our presentation will focus on the key improvements of the network installation with the SG160-09 system, rapid data transmission, and real-time data processing for strong seismic events and aftershock characterization as well as advanced features of the SG160-09 for Earthquake and Tsunami Early Warning system.

  4. Microbial Community Shifts due to Hydrofracking: Observations from Field-Scale Observations and Laboratory-Scale Incubations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouser, P. J.; Ansari, M.; Hartsock, A.; Lui, S.; Lenhart, J.

    2012-12-01

    The use of fluids containing chemicals and variable water sources during the hydrofracking of unconventional shale is the source of considerable controversy due to perceived risks from altered subsurface biogeochemistry and the potential for contaminating potable water supplies. Rapid shifts in subsurface biogeochemistry are often driven by available macronutrients combined with the abundance and metabolic condition of the subsurface microbiota. While the depth that fracturing occurs in the Marcellus formation is reasonably deep to pose little risk to groundwater supplies, no published studies have systematically characterized the indigenous microbial population and how this community is altered through variable fluid management practices (e.g., chemical composition, source water makeup). In addition, limited information is available on how shallower microbial communities and geochemical conditions might be affected through the accidental release of these fluids to groundwater aquifers. Our measurements indicate field-applied and laboratory-generated fracking fluids contain levels of organic carbon greater than 300 mg/l and nitrogen concentrations greater than 80 mg/l that may differentially stimulate microbial growth in subsurface formations. In contrast to certain inorganic constituents (e.g., chloride) which increase in concentration through the flowback period; dissolved organic carbon levels decrease with time after the fracturing process through multiple attenuation processes (dilution, sorption, microbial utilization). Pyrosequencing data of the 16S rRNA gene indicate a shift from a more diverse source water microbial community to a less diverse community typical of a brine formation as time after fracturing increases. The introduction of varying percentages of a laboratory-generated fracking fluid to microcosm bottles containing groundwater and aquifer media stimulated biogeochemical changes similar to the introduction of landfill leachate, another wastewater containing elevated carbon, nitrogen, and complex organic constituents (e.g., decreased redox conditions, stepwise utilization of available terminal electron acceptors, enriched Fe(II) and sulfide concentrations). These research findings are important for understanding how fluids used during shale energy development may alter in situ microbial communities and provide insight into processes that attenuate the migration of these fluids in shallow aquifers and deep shale formations.

  5. Electric field distributions in CdZnTe due to reduced temperature and x-ray irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Sellin, P. J.; Prekas, G.; Franc, J.; Grill, R.

    2010-03-29

    Real-time Pockels imaging is performed on semi-insulating CdZnTe to measure the electric field profile in the material bulk. In steady-state room temperature conditions the measured electric field profile is uniform, consistent with a low space charge concentration. At temperatures <270 K a significant nonuniform electric field profile is observed, which we explain in terms of temperature-induced band bending at the metal-semiconductor interface, causing the formation of positive space charge in the bulk. Similar electric field distortion effects are observed when room temperature CdZnTe is irradiated by x-rays, causing a high rate of photoinduced charge injection.

  6. Polar twilight UV-visible radiation field: Perturbations due to multiple scattering, ozone depletion, stratospheric clouds, and surface albedo

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.E., Jr. ); Lloyd, S.A. )

    1990-05-20

    The polar twilight atmosphere is different from that at mid-latitude in several ways which lead to significant changes in the wavelength-dependent radiation field. Ozone depletion in the stratosphere leads to increased scattering below 340 nm. Polar stratospheric clouds produce changes in the radiation field which depend on cloud height and thickness. A surface albedo near unity produces a large increase in scattering. Multiple scattering becomes a larger percentage of the radiation field as solar zenith angle increases. These perturbations on the radiation field lead to enhanced ozone destruction in the stratosphere, increased surface irradiance, and a significant wavelength-dependent increase in nadir radiance.

  7. Detection scheme in a fiber-optic magnetic-field sensor free from ambiguity due to material magnetic hysteresis.

    PubMed

    Koo, K P; Sigel, G H

    1984-06-01

    A new technique has been demonstrated in the detection of low-frequency or dc magnetic fields in an optical-fiber interferometric sensor using the magnetostrictive approach. This technique permits magnetic-field measurements free of ambiguity associated with hysteresis effects of the material. PMID:19721563

  8. Application of PCR-Denaturing-Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) Method to Examine Microbial Community Structure in Asparagus Fields with Growth Inhibition due to Continuous Cropping

    PubMed Central

    Urashima, Yasufumi; Sonoda, Takahiro; Fujita, Yuko; Uragami, Atsuko

    2012-01-01

    Growth inhibition due to continuous cropping of asparagus is a major problem; the yield of asparagus in replanted fields is low compared to that in new fields, and missing plants occur among young seedlings. Although soil-borne disease and allelochemicals are considered to be involved in this effect, this is still controversial. We aimed to develop a technique for the biological field diagnosis of growth inhibition due to continuous cropping. Therefore, in this study, fungal community structure and Fusarium community structure in continuously cropped fields of asparagus were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction/denaturing-gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). Soil samples were collected from the Aizu region of Fukushima Prefecture, Japan. Soil samples were taken from both continuously cropped fields of asparagus with growth inhibition and healthy neighboring fields of asparagus. The soil samples were collected from the fields of 5 sets in 2008 and 4 sets in 2009. We were able to distinguish between pathogenic and non-pathogenic Fusarium by using Alfie1 and Alfie2GC as the second PCR primers and PCR-DGGE. Fungal community structure was not greatly involved in the growth inhibition of asparagus due to continuous cropping. By contrast, the band ratios of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. asparagi in growth-inhibited fields were higher than those in neighboring healthy fields. In addition, there was a positive correlation between the band ratios of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. asparagi and the ratios of missing asparagus plants. We showed the potential of biological field diagnosis of growth inhibition due to continuous cropping of asparagus using PCR-DGGE. PMID:22200640

  9. Rotation dependence of a phase delay between plasma edge electron density and temperature fields due to a fast rotating, resonant magnetic perturbation field

    SciTech Connect

    Stoschus, H.; Schmitz, O.; Frerichs, H.; Unterberg, B.; Abdullaev, S. S.; Clever, M.; Coenen, J. W.; Kruezi, U.; Schega, D.; Samm, U.; Jakubowski, M. W.

    2010-06-15

    Measurements of the plasma edge electron density n{sub e} and temperature T{sub e} fields during application of a fast rotating, resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) field show a characteristic modulation of both, n{sub e} and T{sub e} coherent to the rotation frequency of the RMP field. A phase delay PHI between the n{sub e}(t) and T{sub e}(t) waveforms is observed and it is demonstrated that this phase delay PHI is a function of the radius with PHI(r) depending on the relative rotation of the RMP field and the toroidal plasma rotation. This provides for the first time direct experimental evidence for a rotation dependent damping of the external RMP field in the edge layer of a resistive high-temperature plasma which breaks down at low rotation and high resonant field amplitudes.

  10. Displacement, Substitution, Sublimation: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, Bonnie C.

    Sigmund Freund worked with the mechanisms of displacement, substitution, and sublimation. These mechanisms have many similarities and have been studied diagnostically and therapeutically. Displacement and substitution seem to fit in well with phobias, hysterias, somatiyations, prejudices, and scapegoating. Phobias, prejudices, and scapegoating…

  11. Exact analysis of surface field reduction due to field-emitted vacuum space charge, in parallel-plane geometry, using simple dimensionless equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbes, Richard G.

    2008-10-01

    This paper reports (a) a simple dimensionless equation relating to field-emitted vacuum space charge (FEVSC) in parallel-plane geometry, namely 9?2?2-3?-4?+3=0, where ? is the FEVSC "strength" and ? is the reduction in emitter surface field (? =field-with/field-without FEVSC), and (b) the formula j =9?2?/4, where j is the ratio of emitted current density JP to that predicted by Child's law. These equations apply to any charged particle, positive or negative, emitted with near-zero kinetic energy. They yield existing and additional basic formulas in planar FEVSC theory. The first equation also yields the well-known cubic equation describing the relationship between JP and applied voltage; a method of analytical solution is described. Illustrative FEVSC effects in a liquid metal ion source and in field electron emission are discussed. For Fowler-Nordheim plots, a "turn-over" effect is predicted in the high FEVSC limit. The higher the voltage-to-local-field conversion factor for the emitter concerned, then the higher is the field at which turn over occurs. Past experiments have not found complete turn over; possible reasons are noted. For real field emitters, planar theory is a worst-case limit; however, adjusting ? on the basis of Monte Carlo calculations might yield formulae adequate for real situations.

  12. Neutron star deformation due to poloidal-toroidal magnetic fields of arbitrary multipole order: a new analytic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastrano, A.; Suvorov, A. G.; Melatos, A.

    2015-03-01

    A recipe is presented to construct an analytic, self-consistent model of a non-barotropic neutron star with a poloidal-toroidal field of arbitrary multipole order, whose toroidal component is confined in a torus around the neutral curve inside the star, as in numerical simulations of twisted tori. The recipe takes advantage of magnetic field aligned coordinates to ensure continuity of the mass density at the surface of the torus. The density perturbation and ellipticity of such a star are calculated in general and for the special case of a mixed dipole-quadrupole field as a worked example. The calculation generalizes previous work restricted to dipolar, poloidal-toroidal and multipolar, poloidal-only configurations. The results are applied, as an example, to magnetars whose observations (e.g. spectral features and pulse modulation) indicate that the internal magnetic fields may be at least one order of magnitude stronger than the external fields, as inferred from their spin-downs, and are not purely dipolar.

  13. Acceleration of the charged particles due to chaotic scattering in the combined black hole gravitational field and asymptotically uniform magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuchlík, Zden?k; Kološ, Martin

    2016-01-01

    To test the role of large-scale magnetic fields in accretion processes, we study the dynamics of the charged test particles in the vicinity of a black hole immersed into an asymptotically uniform magnetic field. Using the Hamiltonian formalism of the charged particle dynamics, we examine chaotic scattering in the effective potential related to the black hole gravitational field combined with the uniform magnetic field. Energy interchange between the translational and oscillatory modes of the charged particle dynamics provides a mechanism for charged particle acceleration along the magnetic field lines. This energy transmutation is an attribute of the chaotic charged particle dynamics in the combined gravitational and magnetic fields only, the black hole rotation is not necessary for such charged particle acceleration. The chaotic scatter can cause a transition to the motion along the magnetic field lines with small radius of the Larmor motion or vanishing Larmor radius, when the speed of the particle translational motion is largest and it can be ultra-relativistic. We discuss the consequences of the model of ionization of test particles forming a neutral accretion disc, or heavy ions following off-equatorial circular orbits, and we explore the fate of heavy charged test particles after ionization where no kick of heavy ions is assumed and only the switch-on effect of the magnetic field is relevant. We demonstrate that acceleration and escape of the ionized particles can be efficient along the Kerr black hole symmetry axis parallel to the magnetic field lines. We show that a strong acceleration of the ionized particles to ultra-relativistic velocities is preferred in the direction close to the magnetic field lines. Therefore, the process of ionization of Keplerian discs around the Kerr black holes can serve as a model of relativistic jets.

  14. Local strain and defects in silicon wafers due to nanoindentation revealed by full-field X-ray microdiffraction imaging.

    PubMed

    Li, Z J; Danilewsky, A N; Helfen, L; Mikulik, P; Haenschke, D; Wittge, J; Allen, D; McNally, P; Baumbach, T

    2015-07-01

    Quantitative characterization of local strain in silicon wafers is critical in view of issues such as wafer handling during manufacturing and strain engineering. In this work, full-field X-ray microdiffraction imaging using synchrotron radiation is employed to investigate the long-range distribution of strain fields in silicon wafers induced by indents under different conditions in order to simulate wafer fabrication damage. The technique provides a detailed quantitative mapping of strain and defect characterization at the micrometer spatial resolution and holds some advantages over conventional methods. PMID:26134815

  15. Dispersants displace hot oiling

    SciTech Connect

    Wash, R.

    1984-02-01

    Laboratory experiments and field testing of dispersants in producing wells have resulted in development of 2 inexpensive paraffin dispersant packages with a broad application range, potential for significant savings over hot oiling, and that can be applied effectively by both continuous and batch treating techniques. The 2 dispersants are soluble in the carrier solvent (one soluble in oil, one in water); are able to readily disperse the wax during a hot flask test conducted in a laboratory; and leave the producing interval water wet. Field data on the 2 dispersants are tabulated, demonstrating their efficacy.

  16. Field Survey of Tsunami Effects in Sri Lanka due to the Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake of December 26, 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Shusaku; Wijeyewickrema, Anil C.; Matsumoto, Hiroyuki; Miura, Hiroyuki; Gunaratna, Priyantha; Madurapperuma, Manoj; Sekiguchi, Toru

    2007-03-01

    The December 26, 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake that registered a moment magnitude (M w ) of 9.1 was one of the largest earthquakes in the world since 1900. The devastating tsunami that resulted from this earthquake caused more casualties than any previously reported tsunami. The number of fatalities and missing persons in the most seriously affected countries were Indonesia - 167,736, Sri Lanka - 35,322, India - 18,045 and Thailand - 8,212. This paper describes two field visits to assess tsunami effects in Sri Lanka by a combined team of Japanese and Sri Lankan researchers. The first field visit from December 30, 2004 January 04, 2005 covered the western and southern coasts of Sri Lanka including the cities of Moratuwa, Beruwala, Bentota, Pereliya, Hikkaduwa, Galle, Talpe, Matara, Tangalla and Hambantota. The objectives of the first field visit were to investigate the damage caused by the tsunami and to obtain eyewitness information about wave arrival times. The second field visit from March 10 18, 2005 covered the eastern and southern coasts of Sri Lanka and included Trincomalee, Batticaloa, Arugam Bay, Yala National Park and Kirinda. The objectives of the second visit were mainly to obtain eyewitness information about wave arrival times and inundation data, and to take relevant measurements using GPS instruments.

  17. High precision measurement of magnetization on a single grain material observed by magnetic ejection due to field gradient force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uyeda, Chiaki; Hisayoshi, Keiji

    The orbits of satellites and the reading of clocks onboard give information about the underyling gravitational field. In this contribution we describe the complete and exact set of satellite orbits and the exact reading of clocks onboard in axially symmetric space-times within General Relativity and within a parametrized Post Newtonian framework. We introduce the set of invariant observables (Perihelion shift, Lense-Thirring effect, the progression of nodes, timing effects like gravitational time delay, deflection angles for flyby orbits, gravitational redshift, gravitomagnetic time effects, etc.) which are all characteristic for the gravitational field. The accuracy of the measurement of such observables is discussed in view of the possibility to make precision orbital and clock tests of General Relativity. With satellite orbits and clocks onboard one also can test the foundations of Local Lorentz Invariance. One model for this is based on the Standard Model Extension where Lorentz symmetry is broken by simply adding nondynamical vector and tensor fields to the equations of motion of matter. Another Lorentz invariance violating model where Lorentz invariance violation is nontrivially linked with gravity is Finsler geometry. Though Finsler geometry fully respects the Universality of Free Fall it is not possible to locally transform away gravity. This model consistently describes possibly different Sun-directed accelerations for planetary orbits and for escape orbits and, thus, has the potential to host the Pioneer anomaly (or dark matter effects). The orbital and clocks effects in a Finslerian model of the gravitational field of the Sun or the Earth are described.

  18. Volume displacement of scleral buckles.

    PubMed

    Thompson, J T; Michels, R G

    1985-12-01

    Indentation of the eye wall by a scleral buckle displaces volume from the vitreous cavity. We developed a mathematical formula to calculate the volume displacement caused by a scleral buckle and verified the accuracy of this mathematical model by performing scleral buckles in 21 cadaver eyes and three eyes undergoing retinal reattachment surgery. A single 5-mm radial sponge of moderate height displaces about 0.2 mL of fluid and a circumferential 2.5-mm-wide band of moderate height displaces about 0.5 mL of fluid. Larger circumferential tires of 7- to 10-mm width displace 1.1 to 1.8 mL of fluid, depending on the height and configuration of the scleral buckle. A 7- to 10-mm-wide circumferential scleral buckle with a buckle height of 4 mm may displace up to 45% of the volume of the vitreous cavity. This volume displacement should be considered when injecting expansile gases or pharmacologic agents into the vitreous cavity. PMID:4074171

  19. Regenerative rotary displacer Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect

    Isshiki, Naotsugu; Watanabe, Hiroichi; Raggi, L.; Isshiki, Seita; Hirata, Koichi

    1996-12-31

    A few rotary displacer Stirling engines in which the displacer has one gas pocket space at one side and rotates in a main enclosed cylinder, which is heated from one side and cooled from opposite side without any regenerator, have been studied for some time by the authors. The authors tried to improve this engine by equipping it with a regenerator, because without a regenerator, pressure oscillation and efficiency are too small. Here, several types of regenerative rotary displacer piston Stirling engines are proposed. One is the contra-rotating tandem two disc type displacer engine using axial heat conduction through side walls or by heat pipes and another is a single disc type with circulating fluid regenerator or heat pipes. Stirling engines of this new rotary displacer type are thought to attain high speed. Here, experimental results of the original rotary displacer Stirling engine without a regenerator, and one contra-rotating tandem displacer engine with side wall regenerator by axial heat conduction are reported accompanied with a discussion of the results.

  20. Measuring frequency changes due to microwave power variations as a function of C-field setting in a rubidium frequency standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarosy, E. B.; Johnson, Walter A.; Karuza, Sarunas K.; Voit, Frank J.

    1992-01-01

    It has been shown in previous studies that in some cesium frequency standards there exist certain C-field settings that minimize frequency changes that are due to variations in the microwave power. In order to determine whether similar results could be obtained with rubidium (Rb) frequency standards (clocks), we performed a similar study, using a completely automated measurement system, on a commercial Rb standard. From our measurements we found that changing the microwave power to the filter cell resulted in significant changes in frequency, and that the magnitude of these frequency changes at low C-field levels went to zero and decreased as the C-field was increased.

  1. Measuring fast stochastic displacements of bio-membranes with dynamic optical displacement spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Monzel, C.; Schmidt, D.; Kleusch, C.; Kirchenbüchler, D.; Seifert, U.; Smith, A-S; Sengupta, K.; Merkel, R.

    2015-01-01

    Stochastic displacements or fluctuations of biological membranes are increasingly recognized as an important aspect of many physiological processes, but hitherto their precise quantification in living cells was limited due to a lack of tools to accurately record them. Here we introduce a novel technique—dynamic optical displacement spectroscopy (DODS), to measure stochastic displacements of membranes with unprecedented combined spatiotemporal resolution of 20?nm and 10??s. The technique was validated by measuring bending fluctuations of model membranes. DODS was then used to explore the fluctuations in human red blood cells, which showed an ATP-induced enhancement of non-Gaussian behaviour. Plasma membrane fluctuations of human macrophages were quantified to this accuracy for the first time. Stimulation with a cytokine enhanced non-Gaussian contributions to these fluctuations. Simplicity of implementation, and high accuracy make DODS a promising tool for comprehensive understanding of stochastic membrane processes. PMID:26437911

  2. Measuring fast stochastic displacements of bio-membranes with dynamic optical displacement spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monzel, C.; Schmidt, D.; Kleusch, C.; Kirchenbüchler, D.; Seifert, U.; Smith, A.-S.; Sengupta, K.; Merkel, R.

    2015-10-01

    Stochastic displacements or fluctuations of biological membranes are increasingly recognized as an important aspect of many physiological processes, but hitherto their precise quantification in living cells was limited due to a lack of tools to accurately record them. Here we introduce a novel technique--dynamic optical displacement spectroscopy (DODS), to measure stochastic displacements of membranes with unprecedented combined spatiotemporal resolution of 20 nm and 10 μs. The technique was validated by measuring bending fluctuations of model membranes. DODS was then used to explore the fluctuations in human red blood cells, which showed an ATP-induced enhancement of non-Gaussian behaviour. Plasma membrane fluctuations of human macrophages were quantified to this accuracy for the first time. Stimulation with a cytokine enhanced non-Gaussian contributions to these fluctuations. Simplicity of implementation, and high accuracy make DODS a promising tool for comprehensive understanding of stochastic membrane processes.

  3. Measuring fast stochastic displacements of bio-membranes with dynamic optical displacement spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Monzel, C; Schmidt, D; Kleusch, C; Kirchenbüchler, D; Seifert, U; Smith, A-S; Sengupta, K; Merkel, R

    2015-01-01

    Stochastic displacements or fluctuations of biological membranes are increasingly recognized as an important aspect of many physiological processes, but hitherto their precise quantification in living cells was limited due to a lack of tools to accurately record them. Here we introduce a novel technique--dynamic optical displacement spectroscopy (DODS), to measure stochastic displacements of membranes with unprecedented combined spatiotemporal resolution of 20 nm and 10 μs. The technique was validated by measuring bending fluctuations of model membranes. DODS was then used to explore the fluctuations in human red blood cells, which showed an ATP-induced enhancement of non-Gaussian behaviour. Plasma membrane fluctuations of human macrophages were quantified to this accuracy for the first time. Stimulation with a cytokine enhanced non-Gaussian contributions to these fluctuations. Simplicity of implementation, and high accuracy make DODS a promising tool for comprehensive understanding of stochastic membrane processes. PMID:26437911

  4. Force Field Analysis Suggests a Lowering of Diffusion Barriers in Atomic Manipulation Due to Presence of STM Tip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmrich, Matthias; Schneiderbauer, Maximilian; Huber, Ferdinand; Weymouth, Alfred J.; Okabayashi, Norio; Giessibl, Franz J.

    2015-04-01

    We study the physics of atomic manipulation of CO on a Cu(111) surface by combined scanning tunneling microscopy and atomic force microscopy at liquid helium temperatures. In atomic manipulation, an adsorbed atom or molecule is arranged on the surface using the interaction of the adsorbate with substrate and tip. While previous experiments are consistent with a linear superposition model of tip and substrate forces, we find that the force threshold depends on the force field of the tip. Here, we use carbon monoxide front atom identification (COFI) to characterize the tip's force field. Tips that show COFI profiles with an attractive center can manipulate CO in any direction while tips with a repulsive center can only manipulate in certain directions. The force thresholds are independent of bias voltage in a range from 1 to 10 mV and independent of temperature in a range of 4.5 to 7.5 K.

  5. Distillability sudden death in two-qutrit systems with external magnetic field and Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction due to decoherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, You-neng; Fang, Mao-fa; Zhang, Shi-yang; Liu, Xiang

    2014-11-01

    Recently, Mazhar Ali (Phys. Rev. A, 81 (2010) 042303 and J. Phys. B, 43 (2010) 045504) showed the phenomenon of distillability sudden death (DSD) in qutrit-qutrit systems under amplitude damping. In this paper, the phenomenon of distillability sudden death in two-qutrit systems which are in the presence of the external magnetic field and Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interaction under decoherence has been investigated. With the help of the realignment criterion, we show that certain initial prepared free entangled states may become bound entangled states in a finite time. Moreover, the effects of the external magnetic field strength and the DM interaction parameter, as well as the intrinsic decoherence parameter on the possibility of DSD in our model have been studied in detail.

  6. Borehole optical lateral displacement sensor

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, R.E.

    1998-10-20

    There is provided by this invention an optical displacement sensor that utilizes a reflective target connected to a surface to be monitored to reflect light from a light source such that the reflected light is received by a photoelectric transducer. The electric signal from the photoelectric transducer is then imputed into electronic circuitry to generate an electronic image of the target. The target`s image is monitored to determine the quantity and direction of any lateral displacement in the target`s image which represents lateral displacement in the surface being monitored. 4 figs.

  7. Changes in the size distribution of a water-in-oil emulsion due to electric field induced coalescence

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, T.J.; Bailey, A.G.

    1986-05-01

    A knowledge of the droplet size distribution of a water-in-oil emulsion subjected to an electric field provides useful information regarding electrostatic coalescence which can aid the formulation of coalescence models and the design of commercial electrostatic separators. Water droplet-size distribution measurements made using a laser light-scattering technique during the electrostatic resolution of a low-water-content water-in-oil emulsion are reported. A qualitative explanation of the results is presented.

  8. Comments on the impedances of the SSC shielded bellows at low frequencies due to the truncation of the wake fields

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, K.Y.

    1986-09-01

    The behavior of the longitudinal impedance of the SSC shielded bellow at low frequencies depends very much on the length of the wake field used in the Fourier transformation. We show analytically and numerically that, regardless of the difference, single-bunch effects are independent of the actual shape of the impedance when the length of the wake used is bigger than the bunch length.

  9. Dc to ac field conversion due to leaky-wave excitation in a plasma slab behind an ionization front

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostin, V. A.; Vvedenskii, N. V.

    2015-03-01

    We present a way for generating coherent tunable electromagnetic radiation through dc to ac field conversion by an ionization front. The conversion is caused by the excitation of leaky waves behind the transversely limited ionization front propagating in a uniform electrostatic field. This differs significantly from the well-known dc-to-ac-radiation-converter models which consider Doppler-like frequency conversion by a transversely unlimited ionization front propagating in a spatially periodic electric field. We explore the dispersion properties and excitation of these leaky waves radiated through the transverse plasma boundary at the Cherenkov angle to the direction of propagation of a superluminal ionization front as dependent on the parameters of the plasma produced and on the speed of the ionization front. It is shown that not only the center frequency but also the duration and waveform of the generated pulse may significantly depend on the speed of the ionization front. The results indicate the possibility of using such converters based on planar photoconductive antennas to create sources of microwave and terahertz radiation with controllable waveforms that are transformed from video to radio pulse when the angle of incident ionizing radiation is tuned.

  10. Land subsidence due to groundwater withdrawal detected by InSAR time-series in Tazerbo well field, Libya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tufekci, Nesrin; Schoups, Gerrit; Mahapatra, Pooja; van de Giesen, Nick; Hanssen, Ramon F.

    2014-05-01

    The Tazerbo well field is one of the well fields designed within the Great Man-Made River Project (GMMRP), which aims to deliver water to the eastern coast of Libya through an underground pipe network. It consists of 108 wells in three rows, where the wells are separated 1.3 km in longitude and 10 km in latitude. The planned total groundwater withdrawal from all wells is 1 million m3/day. The water is pumped from the deep sandstone aquifer (Nubian sandstone), which is overlaid by a thick mudstone-siltstone aquitard. Being heavily pumped, the aquifer and fine-grained sediments of the aquitard are expected to compact in time resulting in land subsidence. In order to investigate the surface deformation caused by groundwater pumping in the Tazerbo well field, Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) technique was utilized. InSAR is widely used for monitoring land subsidence and can provide sub-cm scale deformation information over large areas. Using the Persistent Scatterer method, SAR time series of 20 Envisat images, spanning from 2004 to 2010, are employed to analyze spatial and temporal distribution of land subsidence induced by groundwater withdrawal. The results are in a good agreement with simulated subsidence. In addition, the spatial distribution of InSAR observations seems to be promising in terms of detecting spatial heterogeneity of aquifer material.

  11. Localization Errors in MR Spectroscopic Imaging due to the Drift of the Main Magnetic Field and their Correction

    PubMed Central

    Tal, Assaf; Gonen, Oded

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE To analyze the effect of B0 field drift on multi voxel MR spectroscopic imaging and to propose an approach for its correction. THEORY AND METHODS It is shown, both theoretically and in a phantom, that for ~30 minute acquisitions a linear B0 drift (~0.1 ppm/hour) will cause localization errors that can reach several voxels (centimeters) in the slower varying phase encoding directions. An efficient and unbiased estimator is proposed for tracking the drift by interleaving short (~T2*), non-localized acquisitions on the non-suppressed water each TR, as shown in 10 volunteers at 1.5 and 3 T. RESULTS The drift is shown to be predominantly linear in both the phantom and the volunteers at both fields. The localization errors are observed and quantified in the phantom. The unbiased estimator is shown to reliably track the instantaneous frequency in-vivo despite only using a small portion of the FID. CONCLUSION Contrary to single-voxel MR spectroscopy, where it leads to line broadening, field drift can lead to localization errors in the longer chemical shift imaging experiments. Fortunately, this drift can be obtained at a negligible cost to sequence timing, and corrected for in post processing. PMID:23165750

  12. Research on joint parameter inversion for an integrated underground displacement 3D measuring sensor.

    PubMed

    Shentu, Nanying; Qiu, Guohua; Li, Qing; Tong, Renyuan; Shentu, Nankai; Wang, Yanjie

    2015-01-01

    Underground displacement monitoring is a key means to monitor and evaluate geological disasters and geotechnical projects. There exist few practical instruments able to monitor subsurface horizontal and vertical displacements simultaneously due to monitoring invisibility and complexity. A novel underground displacement 3D measuring sensor had been proposed in our previous studies, and great efforts have been taken in the basic theoretical research of underground displacement sensing and measuring characteristics by virtue of modeling, simulation and experiments. This paper presents an innovative underground displacement joint inversion method by mixing a specific forward modeling approach with an approximate optimization inversion procedure. It can realize a joint inversion of underground horizontal displacement and vertical displacement for the proposed 3D sensor. Comparative studies have been conducted between the measured and inversed parameters of underground horizontal and vertical displacements under a variety of experimental and inverse conditions. The results showed that when experimentally measured horizontal displacements and vertical displacements are both varied within 0~30 mm, horizontal displacement and vertical displacement inversion discrepancies are generally less than 3 mm and 1 mm, respectively, under three kinds of simulated underground displacement monitoring circumstances. This implies that our proposed underground displacement joint inversion method is robust and efficient to predict the measuring values of underground horizontal and vertical displacements for the proposed sensor. PMID:25871714

  13. Research on Joint Parameter Inversion for an Integrated Underground Displacement 3D Measuring Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Shentu, Nanying; Qiu, Guohua; Li, Qing; Tong, Renyuan; Shentu, Nankai; Wang, Yanjie

    2015-01-01

    Underground displacement monitoring is a key means to monitor and evaluate geological disasters and geotechnical projects. There exist few practical instruments able to monitor subsurface horizontal and vertical displacements simultaneously due to monitoring invisibility and complexity. A novel underground displacement 3D measuring sensor had been proposed in our previous studies, and great efforts have been taken in the basic theoretical research of underground displacement sensing and measuring characteristics by virtue of modeling, simulation and experiments. This paper presents an innovative underground displacement joint inversion method by mixing a specific forward modeling approach with an approximate optimization inversion procedure. It can realize a joint inversion of underground horizontal displacement and vertical displacement for the proposed 3D sensor. Comparative studies have been conducted between the measured and inversed parameters of underground horizontal and vertical displacements under a variety of experimental and inverse conditions. The results showed that when experimentally measured horizontal displacements and vertical displacements are both varied within 0 ~ 30 mm, horizontal displacement and vertical displacement inversion discrepancies are generally less than 3 mm and 1 mm, respectively, under three kinds of simulated underground displacement monitoring circumstances. This implies that our proposed underground displacement joint inversion method is robust and efficient to predict the measuring values of underground horizontal and vertical displacements for the proposed sensor. PMID:25871714

  14. Development and Displacement in India: Reforming the Economy towards Sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddiqui, Kalim

    2012-05-01

    Displacement of human populations from the natural habitats results in a host of socio-economic impacts. This study will focus on mainly farmers and tribal communities in India and how the modernisation process has affected these communities especially since the adoption of neoliberal economic reforms. For the rural people the displacement is a traumatic both in terms livelihoods and cultural point of view. The paper will analyse the issues of displacement of the villages that have been relatively isolated from the outside world. The development induced displacement becomes important due to its impact on the rural communities through land alienation in the form of protests by the affected communities. I find that not even a single study shows the socio-economic and environmental effects of these policies on the rural poor. Analysis of the reasons for these changes point in many directions. Displacement, the loss of traditional livelihoods of the rural communities and environmental destruction are the most prominent among them.

  15. Apes communicate about absent and displaced objects: methodology matters.

    PubMed

    Lyn, Heidi; Russell, Jamie L; Leavens, David A; Bard, Kim A; Boysen, Sarah T; Schaeffer, Jennifer A; Hopkins, William D

    2014-01-01

    Displaced reference is the ability to refer to an item that has been moved (displaced) in space and/or time, and has been called one of the true hallmarks of referential communication. Several studies suggest that nonhuman primates have this capability, but a recent experiment concluded that in a specific situation (absent entities), human infants display displaced reference but chimpanzees do not. Here, we show that chimpanzees and bonobos of diverse rearing histories are capable of displaced reference to absent and displaced objects. It is likely that some of the conflicting findings from animal cognition studies are due to relatively minor methodological differences, but are compounded by interpretation errors. Comparative studies are of great importance in elucidating the evolution of human cognition; however, greater care must be taken with methodology and interpretation for these studies to accurately reflect species differences. PMID:23681052

  16. Superconducting inductive displacement detection of a microcantilever

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinante, A.

    2014-07-01

    We demonstrate a superconducting inductive technique to measure the displacement of a micromechanical resonator. In our scheme, a type I superconducting microsphere is attached to the free end of a microcantilever and approached to the loop of a dc Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) microsusceptometer. A local magnetic field as low as 100 ?T, generated by a field coil concentric to the SQUID, enables detection of the cantilever thermomechanical noise at 4.2 K. The magnetomechanical coupling and the magnetic spring are in good agreement with image method calculations assuming pure Meissner effect. These measurements are relevant to recent proposals of quantum magnetomechanics experiments based on levitating superconducting microparticles.

  17. Atmospheric measurements of hydroperoxides and aldehydes during field campaigns : new results due to improvement of measurements techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    François, S.; Sowka, I.; Poulain, L.; Monod, A.; Wortham, H.

    2003-04-01

    Hydroperoxides and aldehydes are considered as atmospheric reservoirs of OH, HO_2 and RO_2 radicals and can reflect the oxidizing levels of the atmosphere. They are considered as important gas phase photo-oxidants present in the atmosphere. However, the atmospheric role of these compounds can vary from one species to another, therefore it is essential to investigate their measurement and speciation in the atmosphere. Atmospheric measurements were realized during two different field campaigns in the Marseilles area (France). Hydroperoxides were trapped in aqueous phase, with a glass coil and analyzed by HPLC/fluorescence detector with post column derivatization. Aldehydes were trapped in a liquid phase containing 2-4 DNPH, with a mist chamber and analyzed by HPLC/UV. The analytical techniques provided individual separation and quantification of seven hydroperoxides (hydrogen peroxide, hydroxymethyl hydroperoxide, bis(hydroxymethyl) peroxide, 1-hydroxyethyl hydroperoxide, methyl hydroperoxide, ethyl hydroperoxide and peroxyacetic acid) and eleven volatile aldehydes (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, acetone, propionaldehyde, crotonaldehyde, butyraldehyde, benzaldehyde, glyoxal, valeraldehyde and methylglyoxal). The first field campaign was part of the ESCOMPTE project (June 4th to July 16th 2001). During this campaign five different sampling sites, at low altitudes (<= 285 m), were investigated (maritime, urban, sub-industrial, biogenic and rural sites) and atmospheric measurements were realized during photochemical air pollution events. The second field campaign was part of the BOND project (July 2nd to July 14th 2002). Atmospheric measurements of hydroperoxides were carried out on one biogenic site, at altitude 690 m. The measurement system was improved allowing online sampling and analysis. During these field campaigns collection efficiencies were better than 96% for hydroperoxides, and from 78% to 96% for aldehydes. Detection limits were between 7,3× 10-3 ?g.m-3 and 2,4× 10-1 ?g.m-3 with standard deviations from 4% to 22% for hydroperoxides and between 0,55 ?g.m-3 and 2,5 ?g.m-3 with standard deviation from 8% to 29% for aldehydes. The results show that hydroperoxide concentrations were high, when the levels of NOx were low. Aldehyde concentrations were very high during photochemical events and both primary and secondary aldehydes were identified.

  18. Linearly polarized radiation from astrophysical masers due to magnetic fields when the rate for stimulated emission exceeds the Zeeman frequency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deguchi, Shuji; Watson, William D.

    1990-01-01

    The results are presented of reformulating the treatment of polarized maser radiation in the presence of magnetic fields in a way that seems somewhat more convenient for calculations with masing states having angular momenta greater than J = 1 and 0. Calculations are then performed for the case of small Zeeman splitting using idealizations which are equivalant to those made previously in calculations for a J = 1-0 transition. The results provide a complete, general description of the polarization characteristics of astrophysical maser radiation involving states of higher angular momentum of closed-shell molecules.

  19. Ion heating by kinetic cross-field streaming instability due to reflected ions at a quasiperpendicular shock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoon, Peter H.; Wu, C. S.; Mandt, M. E.

    1992-01-01

    The present paper shows that the reflected ion at a supercritical quasi-perpendicular shock wave can excite a purely growing mode propagating parallel to the ambient magnetic field. To discuss the ion heating by such an unstable mode, the self-consistent quasi-linear kinetic equation is solved with the assumption that the present purely growing mode is the dominant unstable mode in the system. In the quasi-linear analysis of the instability, two particular cases are considered: the case of low initial ion beta and that of a high initial ion beta.

  20. Displacement sensing system and method

    DOEpatents

    VunKannon, Jr., Robert S

    2006-08-08

    A displacement sensing system and method addresses demanding requirements for high precision sensing of displacement of a shaft, for use typically in a linear electro-dynamic machine, having low failure rates over multi-year unattended operation in hostile environments. Applications include outer space travel by spacecraft having high-temperature, sealed environments without opportunity for servicing over many years of operation. The displacement sensing system uses a three coil sensor configuration, including a reference and sense coils, to provide a pair of ratio-metric signals, which are inputted into a synchronous comparison circuit, which is synchronously processed for a resultant displacement determination. The pair of ratio-metric signals are similarly affected by environmental conditions so that the comparison circuit is able to subtract or nullify environmental conditions that would otherwise cause changes in accuracy to occur.

  1. Polyimidazoles Via Aromatic Nucleophilic Displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W.; Hergenrother, Paul M.

    1990-01-01

    Experiments show variety of polyimidazoles prepared by aromatic nucleophilic displacement, from reactions of bisphenol imidazoles with activated difluoro compounds. Polyimidazoles have good mechanical properties making them suitable for use as films, moldings, and adhesives.

  2. The Analysis of Soil Resistance During Screw Displacement Pile Installation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasinski, Adam

    2015-02-01

    The application of screw displacement piles (SDP) is still increasing due to their high efficiency and many advantages. However, one technological problem is a serious disadvantage of those piles. It relates to the generation of very high soil resistance during screw auger penetration, especially when piles are installed in non-cohesive soils. In many situations this problem causes difficulties in creating piles of designed length and diameter. It is necessary to find a proper method for prediction of soil resistance during screw pile installation. The analysis of screw resistances based on model and field tests is presented in the paper. The investigations were carried out as part of research project, financed by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education. As a result of tests and analyses the empirical method for prediction of rotation resistance (torque) during screw auger penetration in non-cohesive subsoil based on CPT is proposed.

  3. The Sound Field in Fully Developed Turbulent Pipe Flow Due to Internal Flow Separation, Part I: Wall-Pressure Fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, N. K.

    1994-01-01

    A detailed investigation of the wall-pressure fluctuations in fully developed turbulent pipe flow, disturbed due to an orifice plate, is presented. Measurements were made in the initially undisturbed flow, the separated and re-attachment regions and in the re-established fully developed flow. In nominally undisturbed regions (i.e., just before separation upstream of the orifice plate and following disturbance, where the mean velocity and turbulence profiles revert to their undisturbed states at some distance downstream (X ⩾ 48)), the local hydrodynamic pressure fluctuations should also be those characteristic of undisturbed fully developed pipe flow; but the values of root mean square (r.m.s.) pressure and its power spectral density are, in fact, much higher than those for the undisturbed flow. The difference is attributed to propagating acoustic waves generated by the flow disturbance produced by the orifice plate. Wall-pressure spectra have a basic broadband character, due to turbulence, with superimposed narrow-band peaks. The peaks are attributable to acoustic modes, and the frequencies at which these sudden rises in spectral level occur correspond to the modal cut-off frequencies. In separation and re-attachment regions, peaks are smaller; at larger X, the acoustic contributions becomes more prominent, as the turbulence levels relax towards their undisturbed flow values. Scaling in these undisturbed regions, separation and re-attachment regions, for total r.m.s. pressure and wall-pressure spectra, is introduced.

  4. GPS monitoring of the thropospheric water vapor fields due to "Vince" tropical cyclone in October 2005 (South Iberian Peninsula)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seco, A.; Ramirez, F.; Gonzalez, P. J.; García, R.; Yagüe, C.; Miqueleiz, L.; Fernández, J.

    2009-04-01

    We present the GPS estimated water vapor content, distribution and temporal variation due to the "Vince" tropical cyclone on October 11th, 2005 in its track over the Southern part of the Iberian Peninsula. The anomalous event (Vince is the only "historical" tropical cyclone that arrived the Iberian Peninsula) was studied using a sparse array of GPS stations throughout South Portugal and Spain. Analysis of GPS data recorded significant increases of Zenith Tropospheric Delay (ZTD), Zenith Wet Delay (ZTD) and precipitable water (PW). These increments were observed in all the GPS stations along October 11th, corresponding with the West-to-East observed track of Vince. Unusual values of ZTD, ZWD and PW was decreasing gradually from the western stations to the eastern stations. This observation correlates well with the Vince's weakening, due to lack of water vapor inputs (Atlantic ocean) and its intrusion into the continental area (Southern Iberian). Furthermore, good correlation has been observed between PW values and torrential rainfalls registered at rain gauges from the available meteorological networks.

  5. Air displacement plethysmography: cradle to grave.

    PubMed

    Fields, David A; Gunatilake, Ravindu; Kalaitzoglou, Evangelia

    2015-04-01

    Differences in body composition are associated with increased disease risk in various stages of life. Despite numerous available methods in assessing body composition (air displacement plethysmography, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, bioelectrical impedance, hydrometry, and magnetic resonance imaging), due to innate technical limitations, the ability for one singular method to track body composition over the life span (ie, infancy to adulthood) is challenging and imperfect. The primary goal of this review is to determine if there are body composition methods that can accurately track body composition from infancy into adulthood. After careful consideration and taking into account the best available scientific evidence, we feel air displacement plethysmography is the best instrument at this time for tracking body composition, starting in infancy and forward into adulthood, partly because it is the only "practical" clinical tool currently available for use during infancy. PMID:25761768

  6. Wirelessly Interrogated Position or Displacement Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Stanley E.; Taylor, Bryant D.

    2007-01-01

    Two simple position or displacement sensors based on inductance-capacitance resonant circuits have been conceived. These sensors are both powered and interrogated without use of wires and without making contact with other objects. Instead, excitation and interrogation are accomplished by means of a magnetic-field-response recorder. Both of the present position or displacement sensors consist essentially of variable rectangular parallel-plate capacitors electrically connected in series with fixed inductors. Simple inductance-capacitance circuits of the type used in these sensors are inherently robust; their basic mode of operation does not depend on maintenance of specific environmental conditions. Hence, these sensors can be used under such harsh conditions as cryogenic temperatures, high pressures, and radioactivity.

  7. Measurement of ground displacement from optical satellite image correlation using the free open-source software MicMac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosu, Ana-Maria; Pierrot-Deseilligny, Marc; Delorme, Arthur; Binet, Renaud; Klinger, Yann

    2015-02-01

    Image correlation is one of the most efficient techniques to determine horizontal ground displacements due to earthquakes, landslides, ice flows or sand dune migrations. Analyzing these deformations allows a better understanding of the causes and mechanisms of the events. By using sub-pixel correlation on before- and after-event ortho-images obtained from high resolution satellite images it is possible to compute the displacement field with high planimetric resolution. In this paper, we focus on measuring the ground displacements due to seismotectonic events. The three sub-pixel correlators used are: COSI-Corr - developed by Caltech, a free, closed-source correlator, dependent on commercial software (ENVI) and widely used by the geoscience community for measuring ground displacement; Medicis - developed by CNES, also a closed-source correlator capable of measuring this type of deformation; and MicMac - developed by IGN, the free open-source correlator we study and tune for measuring fine ground displacements. We measured horizontal ground deformation using these three correlators on SPOT images in three study cases: the 2001 Kokoxili earthquake, the 2005 dyke intrusion in the Afar depression and the 2008 Yutian earthquake.

  8. Three dimensional temperature field in a conducting sphere due to an arbitrarily located split ring heating source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkataraman, Nellore S.; Vélez García, Ana M.; Venkataraman, Vikram; Diestra-Cruz, Heberth

    2014-02-01

    Thermal control of spacecrafts plays an important role in space missions. In the design stage the preliminary thermal analysis of the spacecraft requires an estimate of the conductive thermal resistance between the various spacecraft components. With this in mind, the fully three dimensional problem of determining the thermal field in a conducting sphere with an asymmetric split ring current carrying heating source is resolved in an analytical or almost analytical form, implying either a closed form solution or utmost expressions involving a simple numerical integration. This has immediate application for evaluation of thermal resistance in spacecrafts. Green's function integral techniques are used. Comparisons are made with series solutions and also with purely numerical solutions to contrast the simplicity and highlight the elegance of the present method. Parametric studies reveal expected behavior.

  9. Permeability enhancement due to cold water injection: A Case Study at the Los Azufres Geothermal Field, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, S.M.; Daggett, J.; Ortiz, J.; Iglesias, E.; Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia; Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca )

    1989-04-01

    Pressure transient buildup and falloff data from 3 wells at the Los Azufres geothermal field have been evaluated to determine the extent to which cold water infection increases the permeability of the near-bore reservoir formation. Simultaneous analysis of the buildup and falloff data provides estimates of the permeability-thickness of the reservoir, the skin factor of the well, and the degree of permeability enhancement in the region behind the thermal front. Estimates of permeability enhancement range from a factor of 4 to 9, for a temperature change of about 150{degree}C. The permeability enhancement is attributed to thermally induced contraction and stress-cracking of the formation. 9 refs., 18 figs.

  10. Transient Phenomena of Current and Field Distortion due to Dynamics of Packet-Like Charges in LDPE Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshioka, Hirokazu; Kadowaki, Kazunori; Kitani, Isamu

    Simultaneous measurements for space charge and external current were carried out using a PEA measurement system with an electrometer on the back of a grounding electrode in order to clarify physical situation of a huge packet of positive space charges in LDPE films. A large number of positive charges from semi-conduction anode were accumulated at the interface between LDPE and Al-cathode under 1.5MV/cm of mean applied field and then they finally disappeared. Results of the simultaneous measurements showed that the external current kept a relatively high value during the charge accumulation and it further increased when the charges disappeared. Both the charge dynamics and the external current were restricted by addition of a low-molecular-weight paraffin wax, indicating that the carrier transport was influenced by micro structure of the polymer. Dynamics of residual charges after short-circuiting is also discussed.

  11. Field measurements and modeling of wave propagation and subsequent weak layer failure in snow due to explosive loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simioni, Stephan; Sidler, Rolf; Dual, Jürg; Schweizer, Jürg

    2015-04-01

    Avalanche control by explosives is among the key temporary preventive measures. Yet, little is known about the mechanism involved in releasing avalanches by the effect of an explosion. Here, we test the hypothesis that the stress induced by acoustic waves exceeds the strength of weak snow layers. Consequently the snow fails and the onset of rapid crack propagation might finally lead to the release of a snow slab avalanche. We performed experiments with explosive charges over a snowpack. We installed microphones above the snowpack to measure near-surface air pressure and accelerometers within three snow pits. We also recorded pit walls of each pit with high speed cameras to detect weak layer failure. Empirical relationships and a priori information from ice and air were used to characterize a porous layered model from density measurements of snow profiles in the snow pits. This model was used to perform two-dimensional numerical simulations of wave propagation in Biot-type porous material. Locations of snow failure were identified in the simulation by comparing the axial and deviatoric stress field of the simulation to the corresponding snow strength. The identified snow failure locations corresponded well with the observed failure locations in the experiment. The acceleration measured in the snowpack best correlated with the modeled acceleration of the fluid relative to the ice frame. Even though the near field of the explosion is expected to be governed by non-linear effects as for example the observed supersonic wave propagation in the air above the snow surface, the results of the linear poroelastic simulation fit well with the measured air pressure and snowpack accelerations. The results of this comparison are an important step towards quantifying the effectiveness of avalanche control by explosives.

  12. Attraction between particles at a liquid interface due to the interplay of gravity- and electric-field-induced interfacial deformations.

    PubMed

    Boneva, Mariana P; Danov, Krassimir D; Christov, Nikolay C; Kralchevsky, Peter A

    2009-08-18

    In a previous study, we established that the attraction between electrically charged particles attached to a water/tetradecane interface is stronger than predicted on the basis of the gravity-induced lateral capillary force. Here, our goal is to explain this effect. The investigated particles are hydrophobized glass spheres of radii between 240 and 320 microm. Their weight is large enough to deform the liquid interface. The interfacial deformation is considerably greater for charged particles because of the electrodipping force that pushes the particles toward the water phase. By independent experiments with particles placed between two electrodes, we confirmed the presence of electric charges at the particle/tetradecane interface. The theoretical analysis shows that if the distribution of these surface charges is isotropic, the meniscus produced by the particle electric field decays too fast with distance and cannot explain the experimental observations. However, if the surface-charge distribution is anisotropic, it induces a saddle-shaped deformation in the liquid interface around each particle. This deformation, which is equivalent to a capillary quadrupole, decays relatively slow. Its interference with the gravity-induced isotropic meniscus around the other particle gives rise to a long-range attractive capillary force, F approximately 1/L3 (L=interparticle distance). The obtained agreement between the experimental and theoretical curves, and the reasonable values of the parameters determined from the fits, indicate that the observed stronger attraction in the investigated system can be really explained as a hybrid interaction between gravity-induced "capillary charges" and electric-field-induced "capillary quadrupoles". PMID:19719220

  13. A Vision-Based Sensor for Noncontact Structural Displacement Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Dongming; Feng, Maria Q.; Ozer, Ekin; Fukuda, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    Conventional displacement sensors have limitations in practical applications. This paper develops a vision sensor system for remote measurement of structural displacements. An advanced template matching algorithm, referred to as the upsampled cross correlation, is adopted and further developed into a software package for real-time displacement extraction from video images. By simply adjusting the upsampling factor, better subpixel resolution can be easily achieved to improve the measurement accuracy. The performance of the vision sensor is first evaluated through a laboratory shaking table test of a frame structure, in which the displacements at all the floors are measured by using one camera to track either high-contrast artificial targets or low-contrast natural targets on the structural surface such as bolts and nuts. Satisfactory agreements are observed between the displacements measured by the single camera and those measured by high-performance laser displacement sensors. Then field tests are carried out on a railway bridge and a pedestrian bridge, through which the accuracy of the vision sensor in both time and frequency domains is further confirmed in realistic field environments. Significant advantages of the noncontact vision sensor include its low cost, ease of operation, and flexibility to extract structural displacement at any point from a single measurement. PMID:26184197

  14. A Vision-Based Sensor for Noncontact Structural Displacement Measurement.

    PubMed

    Feng, Dongming; Feng, Maria Q; Ozer, Ekin; Fukuda, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    Conventional displacement sensors have limitations in practical applications. This paper develops a vision sensor system for remote measurement of structural displacements. An advanced template matching algorithm, referred to as the upsampled cross correlation, is adopted and further developed into a software package for real-time displacement extraction from video images. By simply adjusting the upsampling factor, better subpixel resolution can be easily achieved to improve the measurement accuracy. The performance of the vision sensor is first evaluated through a laboratory shaking table test of a frame structure, in which the displacements at all the floors are measured by using one camera to track either high-contrast artificial targets or low-contrast natural targets on the structural surface such as bolts and nuts. Satisfactory agreements are observed between the displacements measured by the single camera and those measured by high-performance laser displacement sensors. Then field tests are carried out on a railway bridge and a pedestrian bridge, through which the accuracy of the vision sensor in both time and frequency domains is further confirmed in realistic field environments. Significant advantages of the noncontact vision sensor include its low cost, ease of operation, and flexibility to extract structural displacement at any point from a single measurement. PMID:26184197

  15. Temperature field in the vicinity of a near-surface void due to high-speed friction load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ju, Frederick D.; Chen, Tsu-Yen

    1987-02-01

    The present investigation expound on the effect of a near-surface cavity, when the solid surface is subjected to the Coulomb frictional loading of an asperity moving at moderately high-speed. The medium under consideration is represented by a solid half space which is coated with a thin layer of solid wear coating. The cavity in the present report is rectangular. The temperature field and its gradient in the vicinity of the cavity result from the traverse of the asperity over the wear surface near the cavity. The cavity defect results in a material nonuniformity mathematically modelled in terms of the material coordinates. The resulting governing differential equation is time-explicit and transient. A general finite difference formulation is developed, from which numerical solutions were obtained for problems with a cavity at various positions relative to the surface-layer/substrate interface. Because of the poor heat transfer characteristics of the cavity, the temperatures in the surface layer above it are higher than those in the surrounding region. This phenomenon causes a higher temperature gradient, especially at the trailing corner of the rectangular cavity.

  16. Variation of bulk Lorentz factor in AGN jets due to Compton rocket in a complex photon field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vuillaume, T.; Henri, G.; Petrucci, P.-O.

    2015-09-01

    Radio-loud active galactic nuclei are among the most powerful objects in the universe. In these objects, most of the emission comes from relativistic jets getting their power from the accretion of matter ontosupermassive black holes. However, despite the number of studies, a jet's acceleration to relativistic speeds is still poorly understood. It is widely known that jets contain relativistic particles that emit radiation through several physical processes, one of them being the inverse Compton scattering of photons coming from external sources. In the case of a plasma composed of electrons and positrons continuously heated by the turbulence, inverse Compton scattering can lead to relativistic bulk motions through the Compton rocket effect. We investigate this process and compute the resulting bulk Lorentz factor in the complex photon field of an AGN composed of several external photon sources. We consider various sources:the accretion disk, the dusty torus, and the broad line region. We take their geometry and anisotropy carefully into account in order to numerically compute the bulk Lorentz factor of the jet at every altitude. The study, made for a broad range of parameters, shows interesting and unexpected behaviors of the bulk Lorentz factor, exhibiting acceleration and deceleration zones in the jet. We investigate the patterns of the bulk Lorentz factor along the jet depending on the source sizes and on the observation angle and we finally show that these patterns can induce variability in the AGN emission with timescales going from hours to months.

  17. Some comments on particle image displacement velocimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lourenco, L. M.

    1988-01-01

    Laser speckle velocimetry (LSV) or particle image displacement velocimetry, is introduced. This technique provides the simultaneous visualization of the two-dimensional streamline pattern in unsteady flows as well as the quantification of the velocity field over an entire plane. The advantage of this technique is that the velocity field can be measured over an entire plane of the flow field simultaneously, with accuracy and spatial resolution. From this the instantaneous vorticity field can be easily obtained. This constitutes a great asset for the study of a variety of flows that evolve stochastically in both space and time. The basic concept of LSV; methods of data acquisition and reduction, examples of its use, and parameters that affect its utilization are described.

  18. Integrating a MRI scanner with a 6 MV radiotherapy accelerator: impact of the surface orientation on the entrance and exit dose due to the transverse magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raaijmakers, A. J. E.; Raaymakers, B. W.; van der Meer, S.; Lagendijk, J. J. W.

    2007-02-01

    At the UMC Utrecht, in collaboration with Elekta and Philips Research Hamburg, we are developing a radiotherapy accelerator with integrated MRI functionality. The radiation dose will be delivered in the presence of a lateral 1.5 T field. Although the photon beam is not affected by the magnetic field, the actual dose deposition is done by a cascade of secondary electrons and these electrons are affected by the Lorentz force. The magnetic field causes a reduced build-up distance: because the trajectory of the electrons between collisions is curved, the entrance depth in tissue decreases. Also, at tissue-air interfaces an increased dose occurs due to the so-called electron return effect (ERE): electrons leaving tissue will describe a circular path in air and re-enter the tissue yielding a local dose increase. In this paper the impact of a 1.5 T magnetic field on both the build-up distance and the dose increase due to the ERE will be investigated as a function of the angle between the surface and the incident beam. Monte Carlo simulations demonstrate that in the presence of a 1.5 T magnetic field, the surface dose, the build-up distance and the exit dose depend more heavily on the surface orientation than in the case without magnetic field. This is caused by the asymmetrical pointspread kernel in the presence of 1.5 T and the directional behaviour of the re-entering electrons. Simulations on geometrical phantoms show that ERE dose increase at air cavities can be avoided using opposing beams, also when the air-tissue boundary is not perpendicular to the beam. For the more general case in patient anatomies, more problems may arise. Future work will address the possibilities and limitations of opposing beams in combination with IMRT in a magnetic field.

  19. Job Displacement Among Single Mothers:

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Jennie E.; Thomas, Juli Simon

    2015-01-01

    Given the recent era of economic upheaval, studying the effects of job displacement has seldom been so timely and consequential. Despite a large literature associating displacement with worker well-being, relatively few studies focus on the effects of parental displacement on child well-being, and fewer still focus on implications for children of single parent households. Moreover, notwithstanding a large literature on the relationship between single motherhood and children’s outcomes, research on intergenerational effects of involuntary employment separations among single mothers is limited. Using 30 years of nationally representative panel data and propensity score matching methods, we find significant negative effects of job displacement among single mothers on children’s educational attainment and social-psychological well-being in young adulthood. Effects are concentrated among older children and children whose mothers had a low likelihood of displacement, suggesting an important role for social stigma and relative deprivation in the effects of socioeconomic shocks on child well-being. PMID:25032267

  20. Comparing Teaching Approaches About Maxwell's Displacement Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karam, Ricardo; Coimbra, Debora; Pietrocola, Maurício

    2014-08-01

    Due to its fundamental role for the consolidation of Maxwell's equations, the displacement current is one of the most important topics of any introductory course on electromagnetism. Moreover, this episode is widely used by historians and philosophers of science as a case study to investigate several issues (e.g. the theory-experiment relationship). Despite the consensus among physics educators concerning the relevance of the topic, there are many possible ways to interpret and justify the need for the displacement current term. With the goal of understanding the didactical transposition of this topic more deeply, we investigate three of its domains: (1) The historical development of Maxwell's reasoning; (2) Different approaches to justify the term insertion in physics textbooks; and (3) Four lectures devoted to introduce the topic in undergraduate level given by four different professors. By reflecting on the differences between these three domains, significant evidence for the knowledge transformation caused by the didactization of this episode is provided. The main purpose of this comparative analysis is to assist physics educators in developing an epistemological surveillance regarding the teaching and learning of the displacement current.

  1. Effects of rippled fields due to ferritic inserts and ELM mitigation coils on energetic ion losses in a 15 MA inductive scenario in ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinohara, K.; Tani, K.; Oikawa, T.; Putvinski, S.; Schaffer, M.; Loarte, A.

    2012-09-01

    The energetic ion loss has been assessed using the F3D-OFMC code for a 15 MA inductive scenario with Q = 10 and the latest information on the first wall geometry, the implementation of ferritic inserts (FI) and the ELM mitigation/control coils. Alpha particles and NB ions generated by the neutral beam injectors with the injection energy of 1 MeV are well confined and the heat load on the first wall is negligibly small and allowable for the magnetic background by the toroidal field coils and FI. However, an increase in the loss of these energetic ions is observed when the magnetic field by the ELM coils is applied. The increase in the loss fraction is larger for NB ions than for alpha particles under the ELM coil field. The origin of the expelled NB ions is dominantly trapped ions generated in the peripheral region due to a high-density plasma of the 15 MA scenario.

  2. Rotor component displacement measurement system

    DOEpatents

    Mercer, Gary D.; Li, Ming C.; Baum, Charles R.

    2003-05-27

    A measuring system for measuring axial displacement of a tube relative to an axially stationary component in a rotating rotor assembly includes at least one displacement sensor adapted to be located normal to a longitudinal axis of the tube; an insulated cable system adapted for passage through the rotor assembly; a rotatable proximitor module located axially beyond the rotor assembly to which the cables are connected; and a telemetry system operatively connected to the proximitor module for sampling signals from the proximitor module and forwarding data to a ground station.

  3. Particle displacement tracking for PIV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wernet, Mark P.

    1990-01-01

    A new Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) data acquisition and analysis system, which is an order of magnitude faster than any previously proposed system has been constructed and tested. The new Particle Displacement Tracing (PDT) system is an all electronic technique employing a video camera and a large memory buffer frame-grabber board. Using a simple encoding scheme, a time sequence of single exposure images are time coded into a single image and then processed to track particle displacements and determine velocity vectors. Application of the PDT technique to a counter-rotating vortex flow produced over 1100 velocity vectors in 110 seconds when processed on an 80386 PC.

  4. Development of a Wireless Displacement Measurement System Using Acceleration Responses

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong-Woong; Sim, Sung-Han; Jung, Hyung-Jo; Spencer, Billie F.

    2013-01-01

    Displacement measurements are useful information for various engineering applications such as structural health monitoring (SHM), earthquake engineering and system identification. Most existing displacement measurement methods are costly, labor-intensive, and have difficulties particularly when applying to full-scale civil structures because the methods require stationary reference points. Indirect estimation methods converting acceleration to displacement can be a good alternative as acceleration transducers are generally cost-effective, easy to install, and have low noise. However, the application of acceleration-based methods to full-scale civil structures such as long span bridges is challenging due to the need to install cables to connect the sensors to a base station. This article proposes a low-cost wireless displacement measurement system using acceleration. Developed with smart sensors that are low-cost, wireless, and capable of on-board computation, the wireless displacement measurement system has significant potential to impact many applications that need displacement information at multiple locations of a structure. The system implements an FIR-filter type displacement estimation algorithm that can remove low frequency drifts typically caused by numerical integration of discrete acceleration signals. To verify the accuracy and feasibility of the proposed system, laboratory tests are carried out using a shaking table and on a three storey shear building model, experimentally confirming the effectiveness of the proposed system. PMID:23881123

  5. Development of a wireless displacement measurement system using acceleration responses.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-Woong; Sim, Sung-Han; Jung, Hyung-Jo; Spencer, Billie F

    2013-01-01

    Displacement measurements are useful information for various engineering applications such as structural health monitoring (SHM), earthquake engineering and system identification. Most existing displacement measurement methods are costly, labor-intensive, and have difficulties particularly when applying to full-scale civil structures because the methods require stationary reference points. Indirect estimation methods converting acceleration to displacement can be a good alternative as acceleration transducers are generally cost-effective, easy to install, and have low noise. However, the application of acceleration-based methods to full-scale civil structures such as long span bridges is challenging due to the need to install cables to connect the sensors to a base station. This article proposes a low-cost wireless displacement measurement system using acceleration. Developed with smart sensors that are low-cost, wireless, and capable of on-board computation, the wireless displacement measurement system has significant potential to impact many applications that need displacement information at multiple locations of a structure. The system implements an FIR-filter type displacement estimation algorithm that can remove low frequency drifts typically caused by numerical integration of discrete acceleration signals. To verify the accuracy and feasibility of the proposed system, laboratory tests are carried out using a shaking table and on a three storey shear building model, experimentally confirming the effectiveness of the proposed system. PMID:23881123

  6. Generation of displaced squeezed superpositions of coherent states

    SciTech Connect

    Podoshvedov, S. A.

    2012-03-15

    We study the method of generation of states that approximate superpositions of large-amplitude coherent states (SCSs) with high fidelity in free-traveling fields. Our approach is based on the representation of an arbitrary single-mode pure state, and SCSs in particular, in terms of displaced number states with an arbitrary displacement amplitude. The proposed optical scheme is based on alternation of photon additions and displacement operators (in the general case, N photon additions and N - 1 displacements are required) with a seed coherent state to generate both even and odd displaced squeezed SCSs regardless of the parity of the used photon additions. It is shown that the optical scheme studied is sensitive to the seed coherent state if the other parameters are unchanged. Output states can approximate either even squeezed SCS or odd SCS shifted relative to each other by some value. This allows constructing a local rotation operator, in particular, the Hadamard gate, which is a mainframe element for quantum computation with coherent states. We also show that three-photon additions with two intermediate displacement operators are sufficient to generate even displaced squeezed SCS with the amplitude 1.7 and fidelity more than 0.99. The effects deteriorating the quality of output states are considered.

  7. Displacement damage extremes in silicon depletion regions

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, P.W.; Dale, C.J.; Summers, G.P. ); Burke, E.A. ); Bender, G.E. )

    1989-12-01

    Measurements of proton induced dark current increases in a Si CID imager have been made following displacement damage by 12 and 63 MeV protons. Populations of 61,504 pixels optimize statistics and make possible the first detailed study of rare events. To this end, extreme value statistics enable a quantitative treatment and lead to characterization of a rare device-dependent mechanism. Data comparing the response of two similar CID structures suggest that electric field enhanced emission is responsible for the largest dark current increases in the CID structure with the higher electric fields. Comparisons made between observations and estimates based on new calculations of the recoil spectrum parameters demonstrate that the largest dark current increases can be predicted in the absence of high fields. In this case the inelastic recoil component of the recoil spectrum plays a dominant role in determining the larger dark current increases. Implications for other materials are discussed.

  8. Retraining Displaced Workers. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaLonde, Robert; Sullivan, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Robert LaLonde of the University of Chicago and Daniel Sullivan of the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago suggest that retraining through our nation's community colleges is a way to reduce the skills gaps of at least some of these displaced workers and increase their reemployment earnings. Although workers may still experience significant earnings…

  9. Knowledge Integration and Displaced Volume.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linn, Marcia C.; Eylon, Bat-Sheva

    2000-01-01

    Contrasts spontaneous and reflective knowledge integration instruction delivered using a computer learning environment to enhance understanding of displaced volume. Distinguishes the impact of instruction on students who believed scientific phenomena are governed by principles (cohesive beliefs) versus students who believed that science is a…

  10. DISPLACEMENT BASED SEISMIC DESIGN METHODS.

    SciTech Connect

    HOFMAYER,C.MILLER,C.WANG,Y.COSTELLO,J.

    2003-07-15

    A research effort was undertaken to determine the need for any changes to USNRC's seismic regulatory practice to reflect the move, in the earthquake engineering community, toward using expected displacement rather than force (or stress) as the basis for assessing design adequacy. The research explored the extent to which displacement based seismic design methods, such as given in FEMA 273, could be useful for reviewing nuclear power stations. Two structures common to nuclear power plants were chosen to compare the results of the analysis models used. The first structure is a four-story frame structure with shear walls providing the primary lateral load system, referred herein as the shear wall model. The second structure is the turbine building of the Diablo Canyon nuclear power plant. The models were analyzed using both displacement based (pushover) analysis and nonlinear dynamic analysis. In addition, for the shear wall model an elastic analysis with ductility factors applied was also performed. The objectives of the work were to compare the results between the analyses, and to develop insights regarding the work that would be needed before the displacement based analysis methodology could be considered applicable to facilities licensed by the NRC. A summary of the research results, which were published in NUREGICR-6719 in July 2001, is presented in this paper.

  11. Photonic bandgap Bragg fiber sensors for bending/displacement detection.

    PubMed

    Qu, Hang; Brastaviceanu, Tiberius; Bergeron, Francois; Olesik, Jonathan; Pavlov, Ivan; Ishigure, Takaaki; Skorobogatiy, Maksim

    2013-09-01

    We demonstrate an amplitude-based bending/displacement sensor that uses a plastic photonic bandgap Bragg fiber with one end coated with a silver layer. The reflection intensity of the Bragg fiber is characterized in response to different displacements (or bending curvatures). We note that the Bragg reflector of the fiber acts as an efficient mode stripper for the wavelengths near the edge of the fiber bandgap, which makes the sensor extremely sensitive to bending or displacements at these wavelengths. Besides, by comparison of the Bragg fiber sensor to a sensor based on a standard multimode fiber with similar outer diameter and length, we find that the Bragg fiber sensor is more sensitive to bending due to the presence of a mode stripper in the form of a multilayer reflector. Experimental results show that the minimum detection limit of the Bragg fiber sensor can be as small as 3 ?m for displacement sensing. PMID:24085096

  12. A wireless laser displacement sensor node for structural health monitoring.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyo Seon; Kim, Jong Moon; Choi, Se Woon; Kim, Yousok

    2013-01-01

    This study describes a wireless laser displacement sensor node that measures displacement as a representative damage index for structural health monitoring (SHM). The proposed measurement system consists of a laser displacement sensor (LDS) and a customized wireless sensor node. Wireless communication is enabled by a sensor node that consists of a sensor module, a code division multiple access (CDMA) communication module, a processor, and a power module. An LDS with a long measurement distance is chosen to increase field applicability. For a wireless sensor node driven by a battery, we use a power control module with a low-power processor, which facilitates switching between the sleep and active modes, thus maximizing the power consumption efficiency during non-measurement and non-transfer periods. The CDMA mode is also used to overcome the limitation of communication distance, which is a challenge for wireless sensor networks and wireless communication. To evaluate the reliability and field applicability of the proposed wireless displacement measurement system, the system is tested onsite to obtain the required vertical displacement measurements during the construction of mega-trusses and an edge truss, which are the primary structural members in a large-scale irregular building currently under construction. The measurement values confirm the validity of the proposed wireless displacement measurement system and its potential for use in safety evaluations of structural elements. PMID:24084114

  13. A Wireless Laser Displacement Sensor Node for Structural Health Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyo Seon; Kim, Jong Moon; Choi, Se Woon; Kim, Yousok

    2013-01-01

    This study describes a wireless laser displacement sensor node that measures displacement as a representative damage index for structural health monitoring (SHM). The proposed measurement system consists of a laser displacement sensor (LDS) and a customized wireless sensor node. Wireless communication is enabled by a sensor node that consists of a sensor module, a code division multiple access (CDMA) communication module, a processor, and a power module. An LDS with a long measurement distance is chosen to increase field applicability. For a wireless sensor node driven by a battery, we use a power control module with a low-power processor, which facilitates switching between the sleep and active modes, thus maximizing the power consumption efficiency during non-measurement and non-transfer periods. The CDMA mode is also used to overcome the limitation of communication distance, which is a challenge for wireless sensor networks and wireless communication. To evaluate the reliability and field applicability of the proposed wireless displacement measurement system, the system is tested onsite to obtain the required vertical displacement measurements during the construction of mega-trusses and an edge truss, which are the primary structural members in a large-scale irregular building currently under construction. The measurement values confirm the validity of the proposed wireless displacement measurement system and its potential for use in safety evaluations of structural elements. PMID:24084114

  14. Analytical Modeling for the Grating Eddy Current Displacement Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Chunfeng; Tao, Wei; Lei, Huaming; Jiang, Yingying; Zhao, Hui

    2015-02-01

    As a new type of displacement sensor, grating eddy current displacement sensor (GECDS) combines traditional eddy current sensors and grating structure in one. The GECDS performs a wide range displacement measurement without precision reduction. This paper proposes an analytical modeling approach for the GECDS. The solution model is established in the Cartesian coordinate system, and the solving domain is limited to finite extents by using the truncated region eigenfunction expansion method. Based on the second order vector potential, expressions for the electromagnetic field as well as coil impedance related to the displacement can be expressed in closed-form. Theoretical results are then confirmed by experiments, which prove the suitability and effectiveness of the analytical modeling approach.

  15. Species displacements are common to two invasive species of leafminer fly in China, Japan and the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Under field conditions, species displacements have occurred in different directions between the same invasive species of leafminers (Diptera: Agromyzidae). Liriomyza sativae (Blanchard) was displaced by L. trifolii (Burgess) in the western USA, with evidence suggesting that lower insecticide suscept...

  16. Mineral displacement and -dissolution processes and their relevance to rock porosity and permeability in Rotliegend sandstones of the Altmark natural gas field (central Germany) - results from CO2 laboratory batch experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pudlo, Dieter; Enzmann, Frieder; Heister, Katja; Werner, Lars; Ganzer, Leonhard; Reitenbach, Viktor; Henkel, Steven; Albrecht, Daniel; Gaupp, Reinhard

    2014-05-01

    The Rotliegend reservoir sandstones of the Altmark area (central Germany) comprise the second largest natural gas field of Europe. These sandstones were deposited on a playa-like continental platform with braided river systems, ephemeral lakes and aeolian dunes under semi-arid conditions. Some of the pristine, red coloured deposits suffered intensive late diagenetic alteration and are now preserved as bleached, high porous and permeable sandstones. To evaluate the relevance of distinct fluids and their fluid-rock alteration reactions on such bleaching processes we performed laboratory static batch experiments on the Altmark sandstones. These 4-6 week lasting runs were conducted with CO2 saturated synthetic brines under typical Altmark reservoir conditions (p= 20 MPa, T= 125°C). Thereby mineralogical, petrophysical and (hydro- and geo-) chemical rock features were maintained prior and after the experiments. Chemical data proved the dissolution of carbonate and sulphate minerals during the runs, whereas the variation in abundance of further elements was within the detection limit of analytical accuracy. However, FE-SEM investigations on used, evaporated brines reveal the presence of illite and chlorite minerals within a matrix of Ca-, Si-, Fe, Al-, Na- and S components (carbonate, anhydrite, albite and Fe-(hydr-) oxides ?). By porosity and relative permeability measurements an increase in both rock features was observed after the runs, indicating that mineral dissolution and/or (clay) fine migration/detachment occurred during the experiments. Mineral dissolution, especially of pore-filling cements (e.g. carbonate-, sulphate minerals) is also deduced by BET analysis, in determining the specific surface of the sandstones. The size of these reactive surfaces increased after the experiments, suggesting that after the dissolution of pore-filling cements, formerly armoured grain rimming clay cutans were exposed to potential migrating fluids. These findings are also supported by µ-CT investigations. Here, the achieved 3D modelling data indicate an increase in reactive surface areas exposed to the pore space (which is in accord to the BET observations), as well as an enhancement in rock porosity and permeability after the runs. Moreover, these simulations showed that a remarkable mass (mineral) transfer was induced by the experiments, which led to a displacement of the porosity and permeability distribution in the sandstones and therefore a change in the fluid flow characteristics within the rocks - a parameter most important for every fluid-rock process. These observations are quite astonishing because they suggest that not only fluid velocity (e.g. during fluid flow experiments) might detach and transport grain rimming (clay) minerals, but also that physico-chemical reactions may enforce the release of such solids, even during almost static p-/T-/Xfluid conditions, as used in our experiments.

  17. Radial dose calculation due to the irradiation of a heavy ion: Role of composite electric field formed from the polarization of molecules and molecular ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moribayashi, Kengo

    2014-03-01

    This paper discusses the role of composite electric field on radial doses through simulations due to the irradiation of a heavy ion. This composition electric field is formed from molecular ions, the polarization of molecules, and free electrons. Free electrons as well as these molecular ions are produced from the impact ionization of an incident ion or the other free electrons. The motions of the free electrons are simulated using a simulation model shown by Moribayashi, 2011. Phys. Rev. A. 84, 012702-1-012702-7 and Moribayashi, 2013a. Rad. Phys. Chem. 85, 36-41. This simulation model employs an isolated atom model that additionally may be able to treat the advantage of the free electron gas model. Some free electrons are trapped near the track of this incident ion and form plasma. The results obtained here show that this plasma plays a role of bringing about higher radial doses with increasing impact ionization cross sections of incident ions.

  18. Some Considerations on Horizontal Displacement and Horizontal Displacement Coefficient B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajduś, Krzysztof; Tajduś, Antoni

    2015-12-01

    Mining-induced deformations of the ground surface and within the rock mass may pose danger not only for surface constructions but also for underground objects (e.g., tunnels, underground storages, garages), diverse types of pipelines, electric cables, etc. For a proper evaluation of hazard for surface and underground objects, such parameters as horizontal displacement and horizontal deformations, especially their maximum values, are of crucial importance. The paper is an attempt at a critical review of hitherto accomplished studies and state of the art of predicting horizontal displacement u, in particular the coefficient B, whose value allows determination of the value of maximum displacement if the value of maximum slope is known, or the value of maximum deformation if the value of maximum trough slope is recognized. Since the geodesic observations of fully developed subsidence troughs suggest that the value of the coefficient depends on the depth H, radius of main influences range r and properties of overburden rock, in particular the occurrence of sub-eras Paleogene and Neogene layers (old name: Quaternary and Tertiary) with low strength parameters, therefore a formula is provided in the present paper allowing for the estimation of the influence of those factors on the value of coefficient B.

  19. Combined MRI-PET scanner: A Monte Carlo evaluation of the improvements in PET resolution due to the effects of a static homogeneous magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Raylman, R.R.; Hammer, B.E.; Christensen, N.L.

    1996-08-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) relies upon the detection of photons resulting from the annihilation of positrons emitted by a radiopharmaceutical. The combination of images obtained with PET and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have begun to greatly enhance the study of many physiological processes. A combined MRI-PET scanner could alleviate much of the spatial and temporal coregistration difficulties currently encountered in utilizing images from these complementary imaging modalities. In addition, the resolution of the PET scanner could be improved by the effects of the magnetic field. In this computer study, the utilization of a strong static homogeneous magnetic field to increase PET resolution by reducing the effects of positron range and photon noncollinearity was investigated. The results reveal that significant enhancement of resolution can be attained. For example, an approximately 27% increase in resolution is predicted for a PET scanner incorporating a 10-Tesla magnetic field. Most of this gain in resolution is due to magnetic confinement of the emitted positrons. Although the magnetic field does mix some positronium states resulting in slightly less photon noncollinearity, this reduction does not significantly affect resolution. Photon noncollinearity remains as the fundamental limiting factor of large PET scanner resolution.

  20. Differences of the Plasma Drift and Upper Thermospheric Wind Behaviour in the Northern and Southern Polar Regions due to the Geomagnetic Field Asymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foerster, M.; Cnossen, I.; Haaland, S.

    2013-12-01

    The non-dipolar portions of Earth's main magnetic field constitute substantial differences between the geomagnetic field configurations of both hemispheres. They cause in particular different magnetic field flux densities in the opposite polar regions and different offsets of the invariant poles with respect to the rotation axis of the Earth. The offset is presently considerable larger (factor ~2) in the Southern Hemisphere compared to the Northern, which has substantial implications for the coupled magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere system under the influence of external drivers. Recent observations have shown that the ionospheric/thermospheric response to solar wind and IMF dependent processes in the magnetosphere can be very dissimilar in the Northern and Southern Hemisphere. We present statistical studies of both the high-latitude ionospheric convection and the upper thermospheric circulation patterns obtained from almost a decade of measurements starting in 2001 of the electron drift instrument (EDI) on board the Cluster satellites and an accelerometer on board the CHAMP spacecraft, respectively. Using the Coupled Magnetosphere-Ionosphere-Thermosphere (CMIT) model, on the other hand, we simulated a 20-day spring equinox interval of low solar activity with both symmetric dipole and realistic (IGRF) geomagnetic field configurations to prove the importance of the hemispheric differences for the plasma and neutral wind dynamics. The survey of both the numerical simulation and the statistical observation results show some prominent asymmetries between the two hemispheres, which are likely due to the different geographic-geomagnetic offset, or even due to different patterns of geomagnetic flux densities. Plasma drift differences can partly be attributed to differing ionospheric conductivities. The forthcoming Swarm satellite mission will provide valuable observations for further detailed analyses of the North-South asymmetries of plasma convection and neutral wind dynamics.

  1. Superconducting inductive displacement detection of a microcantilever

    SciTech Connect

    Vinante, A.

    2014-07-21

    We demonstrate a superconducting inductive technique to measure the displacement of a micromechanical resonator. In our scheme, a type I superconducting microsphere is attached to the free end of a microcantilever and approached to the loop of a dc Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) microsusceptometer. A local magnetic field as low as 100 μT, generated by a field coil concentric to the SQUID, enables detection of the cantilever thermomechanical noise at 4.2 K. The magnetomechanical coupling and the magnetic spring are in good agreement with image method calculations assuming pure Meissner effect. These measurements are relevant to recent proposals of quantum magnetomechanics experiments based on levitating superconducting microparticles.

  2. Near-field co-seismic ionospheric response due to the northern Chile Mw 8.1 Pisagua earthquake on April 1, 2014 from GPS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, C. D.; Sunil, A. S.; González, G.; Shrivastava, Mahesh N.; Moreno, Marcos

    2015-11-01

    Large earthquakes can induce near and far-field ionospheric perturbations by direct/secondary acoustic and gravity waves through Lithosphere-Atmosphere-Ionosphere (LAI) coupling. We analyze co-seismic induced ionospheric TEC perturbations following the northern Chile Mw 8.1 Pisagua earthquake occurred on April 1, 2014. The continuous Global Positioning System (GPS) data at 15 sites from the Integrated Plate Boundary Observatory Chile (IPOC) and International GPS Service (IGS) GPS networks have been used in the present study. The nearest GPS site iqqe, ~98 km away from the epicenter, recorded the ionospheric disturbance 12 min after the event. The maximum co-seismic induced peak-to-peak TEC amplitude is ~1.25 TECU (1TECU=1016 electrons/m2), and the perturbations are confined to less than 1000 km radius around the epicenter. The observed horizontal velocity of TEC perturbations has been determined as ~1180 m/s. We could also discern the signatures of acoustic gravity waves (AGW) with velocity~650 m/s and frequency~2 mHz. The ionospheric signal components due to Rayleigh and/or Tsunami waves could not be observed. This contribution presents characteristics of near-field co-seismic ionospheric response due to the 2014 Pisagua earthquake.

  3. Polybenzimidazole via aromatic nucleophilic displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Di(hydroxyphenyl)benzimidazole monomers were prepared from phenyl-4-hydroxybenzoate and aromatic bis(o-diamine)s. These monomers were used in the synthesis of soluble polybenzimidazoles. The reaction involved the aromatic nucleophilic displacement of various di(hydroxyphenyl)benzimidazole monomers with activated aromatic dihalides or activated aromatic dinitro compounds in the presence of an alkali metal base. These polymers exhibited lower glass transition temperatures, improved solubility, and better compression moldability over their commercial counterparts.

  4. Monte Carlo simulations of patient dose perturbations in rotational-type radiotherapy due to a transverse magnetic field: A tomotherapy investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Y. M.; Geurts, M.; Smilowitz, J. B.; Bednarz, B. P.; Sterpin, E.

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: Several groups are exploring the integration of magnetic resonance (MR) image guidance with radiotherapy to reduce tumor position uncertainty during photon radiotherapy. The therapeutic gain from reducing tumor position uncertainty using intrafraction MR imaging during radiotherapy could be partially offset if the negative effects of magnetic field-induced dose perturbations are not appreciated or accounted for. The authors hypothesize that a more rotationally symmetric modality such as helical tomotherapy will permit a systematic mediation of these dose perturbations. This investigation offers a unique look at the dose perturbations due to homogeneous transverse magnetic field during the delivery of Tomotherapy{sup ®} Treatment System plans under varying degrees of rotational beamlet symmetry. Methods: The authors accurately reproduced treatment plan beamlet and patient configurations using the Monte Carlo code GEANT4. This code has a thoroughly benchmarked electromagnetic particle transport physics package well-suited for the radiotherapy energy regime. The three approved clinical treatment plans for this study were for a prostate, head and neck, and lung treatment. The dose heterogeneity index metric was used to quantify the effect of the dose perturbations to the target volumes. Results: The authors demonstrate the ability to reproduce the clinical dose–volume histograms (DVH) to within 4% dose agreement at each DVH point for the target volumes and most planning structures, and therefore, are able to confidently examine the effects of transverse magnetic fields on the plans. The authors investigated field strengths of 0.35, 0.7, 1, 1.5, and 3 T. Changes to the dose heterogeneity index of 0.1% were seen in the prostate and head and neck case, reflecting negligible dose perturbations to the target volumes, a change from 5.5% to 20.1% was observed with the lung case. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that the effect of external magnetic fields can be mitigated by exploiting a more rotationally symmetric treatment modality.

  5. Monte Carlo simulations of patient dose perturbations in rotational-type radiotherapy due to a transverse magnetic field: A tomotherapy investigation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Y. M.; Geurts, M.; Smilowitz, J. B.; Sterpin, E.; Bednarz, B. P.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Several groups are exploring the integration of magnetic resonance (MR) image guidance with radiotherapy to reduce tumor position uncertainty during photon radiotherapy. The therapeutic gain from reducing tumor position uncertainty using intrafraction MR imaging during radiotherapy could be partially offset if the negative effects of magnetic field-induced dose perturbations are not appreciated or accounted for. The authors hypothesize that a more rotationally symmetric modality such as helical tomotherapy will permit a systematic mediation of these dose perturbations. This investigation offers a unique look at the dose perturbations due to homogeneous transverse magnetic field during the delivery of Tomotherapy® Treatment System plans under varying degrees of rotational beamlet symmetry. Methods: The authors accurately reproduced treatment plan beamlet and patient configurations using the Monte Carlo code geant4. This code has a thoroughly benchmarked electromagnetic particle transport physics package well-suited for the radiotherapy energy regime. The three approved clinical treatment plans for this study were for a prostate, head and neck, and lung treatment. The dose heterogeneity index metric was used to quantify the effect of the dose perturbations to the target volumes. Results: The authors demonstrate the ability to reproduce the clinical dose–volume histograms (DVH) to within 4% dose agreement at each DVH point for the target volumes and most planning structures, and therefore, are able to confidently examine the effects of transverse magnetic fields on the plans. The authors investigated field strengths of 0.35, 0.7, 1, 1.5, and 3 T. Changes to the dose heterogeneity index of 0.1% were seen in the prostate and head and neck case, reflecting negligible dose perturbations to the target volumes, a change from 5.5% to 20.1% was observed with the lung case. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that the effect of external magnetic fields can be mitigated by exploiting a more rotationally symmetric treatment modality. PMID:25652485

  6. Technique for Determining Bridge Displacement Response Using MEMS Accelerometers

    PubMed Central

    Sekiya, Hidehiko; Kimura, Kentaro; Miki, Chitoshi

    2016-01-01

    In bridge maintenance, particularly with regard to fatigue damage in steel bridges, it is important to determine the displacement response of the entire bridge under a live load as well as that of each member. Knowing the displacement response enables the identification of dynamic deformations that can cause stresses and ultimately lead to damage and thus also allows the undertaking of appropriate countermeasures. In theory, the displacement response can be calculated from the double integration of the measured acceleration. However, data measured by an accelerometer include measurement errors caused by the limitations of the analog-to-digital conversion process and sensor noise. These errors distort the double integration results. Furthermore, as bridges in service are constantly vibrating because of passing vehicles, estimating the boundary conditions for the numerical integration is difficult. To address these problems, this paper proposes a method for determining the displacement of a bridge in service from its acceleration based on its free vibration. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, field measurements were conducted using nine different accelerometers. Based on the results of these measurements, the proposed method was found to be highly accurate in comparison with the reference displacement obtained using a contact displacement gauge. PMID:26907287

  7. New laminated displacement-discontinuity program: Fundamental behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Heasley, K.A.; Salamon, M.D.G.

    1996-12-01

    In the past, numerous displacement-discontinuity (DID) models of stratified rock masses have been proposed using a homogeneous isotropic elastic overburden. In this paper, it is postulated that a laminated overburden model might be more accurate for describing the displacements and stress in these stratified deposits. In order to investigate the utility of using a laminated overburden in a DID model, the fundamental mathematical basis of the laminated model is presented and graphically compared with the fundamental behavior of homogeneous isotropic elastic overburden and with field data. Specifically, the stresses and displacements surrounding an idealized longwall panel as determined from the laminated overburden model are presented and compared with results from the homogeneous isotropic overburden and with measured abutment stress data. Also, the remote displacements and surface subsidence as calculated by the laminated overburden model are compared with homogeneous isotropic calculations and with measured subsidence data. The results of this investigation show that the laminated overburden is more supple, apt to propagate displacements and stress further, and better able to fit observed data than the classic homogeneous isotropic overburden. Ultimately, it is suggested that the laminated model has the potential to increase the accuracy of displacement and stress calculations for a variety of mining situations.

  8. Technique for Determining Bridge Displacement Response Using MEMS Accelerometers.

    PubMed

    Sekiya, Hidehiko; Kimura, Kentaro; Miki, Chitoshi

    2016-01-01

    In bridge maintenance, particularly with regard to fatigue damage in steel bridges, it is important to determine the displacement response of the entire bridge under a live load as well as that of each member. Knowing the displacement response enables the identification of dynamic deformations that can cause stresses and ultimately lead to damage and thus also allows the undertaking of appropriate countermeasures. In theory, the displacement response can be calculated from the double integration of the measured acceleration. However, data measured by an accelerometer include measurement errors caused by the limitations of the analog-to-digital conversion process and sensor noise. These errors distort the double integration results. Furthermore, as bridges in service are constantly vibrating because of passing vehicles, estimating the boundary conditions for the numerical integration is difficult. To address these problems, this paper proposes a method for determining the displacement of a bridge in service from its acceleration based on its free vibration. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, field measurements were conducted using nine different accelerometers. Based on the results of these measurements, the proposed method was found to be highly accurate in comparison with the reference displacement obtained using a contact displacement gauge. PMID:26907287

  9. Ultrasonic Tracking of Acoustic Radiation Force-Induced Displacements in Homogeneous Media

    PubMed Central

    Palmeri, Mark L.; McAleavey, Stephen A.; Trahey, Gregg E.; Nightingale, Kathryn R.

    2007-01-01

    The use of ultrasonic methods to track the tissue deformation generated by acoustic radiation force is subject to jitter and displacement underestimation errors, with displacement underestimation being primarily caused by lateral and elevation shearing within the point spread function (PSF) of the ultrasonic beam. Models have been developed using finite element methods and Field II, a linear acoustic field simulation package, to study the impact of focal configuration, tracking frequency, and material properties on the accuracy of ultrasonically tracking the tissue deformation generated by acoustic radiation force excitations. These models demonstrate that lateral and elevation shearing underneath the PSF of the tracking beam leads to displacement underestimation in the focal zone. Displacement underestimation can be reduced by using tracking beams that are narrower than the spatial extent of the displacement fields. Displacement underestimation and jitter decrease with time after excitation as shear wave propagation away from the region of excitation reduces shearing in the lateral and elevation dimensions. The use of higher tracking frequencies in broadband transducers, along with 2D focusing in the elevation dimension, will reduce jitter and improve displacement tracking accuracy. Relative displacement underestimation remains constant as a function of applied force, while jitter increases with applied force. Underdeveloped speckle (SNR <1.91) leads to greater levels of jitter and peak displacement underestimation. Axial shearing is minimal over the tracking kernel lengths used in Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) imaging and thus does not impact displacement tracking. PMID:16889337

  10. A novel approach to modeling unstable EOR displacements. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, E.J.

    1994-04-01

    Most enhanced oil recovery schemes involve the displacement of a more dense and more viscous oil by a less dense and less viscous fluid in a heterogeneous porous medium. The interaction of heterogeneity with the several competing forces, namely, viscous, capillary, gravitational, and dispersive forces, can conspire to make the displacements unstable and difficult to model and to predict. The objective of this research was to develop a systematic methodology for modeling unstable fluid displacements in heterogeneous media. Flow visualization experiments were conducted using X-ray computed tomography imaging and a video imaging workstation to gain insights into the dynamics of unstable displacements, acquire detailed quantitative experimental image data for calibrating numerical models of unstable displacements, and image and characterize heterogeneities in laboratory cores geostatistically. High-resolution numerical models modified for use on vector-architecture supercomputers were used to replicate the image data. Geostatistical models of reservoir heterogeneity were incorporated in order to study the interaction of hydrodynamic instability and heterogeneity in reservoir displacements. Finally, a systematic methodology for matching the experimental data with the numerical models and scaling the laboratory results to other systems were developed. The result is a new method for predicting the performance of unstable EOR displacements in the field based on small-scale displacements in the laboratory. The methodology is general and can be applied to forecast the performance of most processes that involve fluid flow and transport in porous media. Therefore, this research should be of interest to those involved in forecasting the performance of enhanced oil recovery processes and the spreading of contaminants in heterogeneous aquifers.

  11. Effects of seismic intensity and socioeconomic status on injury and displacement after the 2007 Peru earthquake.

    PubMed

    Milch, Karen; Gorokhovich, Yuri; Doocy, Shannon

    2010-10-01

    Earthquakes are a major cause of displacement, particularly in developing countries. Models of injury and displacement can be applied to assist governments and aid organisations in effectively targeting preparedness and relief efforts. A stratified cluster survey was conducted in January 2008 to evaluate risk factors for injury and displacement following the 15 August 2007 earthquake in southern Peru. In statistical modelling, seismic intensity, distance to rupture, living conditions, and educational attainment collectively explained 54.9 per cent of the variability in displacement rates across clusters. Living conditions was a particularly significant predictor of injury and displacement, indicating a strong relationship between risk and socioeconomic status. Contrary to expectations, urban, periurban, and rural clusters did not exhibit significantly different injury and displacement rates. Proxies of socioeconomic status, particularly the living conditions index score, proved relevant in explaining displacement, likely due to unmeasured aspects of housing construction practices and building materials. PMID:20618381

  12. Estimating Hydrologic Processes from Subsurface Soil Displacements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, C. E.; Murdoch, L. C.; Germanovich, L.; MIller, S.

    2012-12-01

    Soil moisture and the processes that control it are important components of the hydrologic cycle, but measuring these processes remains challenging. We have developed a new measurement method that offers flexibility compared to existing technology. The approach is to measure small vertical displacements in the soil which responds proportionally to distributed surface load changes such as variation in the near-surface water content. The instrument may be installed at a depth of several meters to hundreds of meters below the surface. Because the measurement averaging region scales with the depth of the displacement measurements, this approach provides the means for estimating the soil moisture time series over tens of square meters to tens of thousands of square meters. The instrument developed for this application is called a Sand-X, which is short for Sand Extensometer. It is designed for applications in unconsolidated material, ranging from clay to sand. The instrument is simple and relatively inexpensive, and it can be installed in a boring made with a hand auger or with a small drill rig. Studies at the field scale are ongoing at a field site near Clemson, SC. The site is underlain by saprolite weathered primarily from biotite gneiss. Several Sand-X devices are installed at a field site that is instrumented for validating soil moisture, precipitation, and evapotranspiration estimates. These instruments are emplaced at a depth of 6 m and respond to the weight of a vehicle out to 18 m from the well. Calibration is performed by comparing precipitation measurements to the soil displacement response. For example, the coefficient for one installation is roughly 185 nm soil displacement/mm water content change. The resolution of the instrument is approximately 10 nm, so the Sand-X is capable of detecting changes of soil moisture on the order of tenths of one mm in compliant soils like saprolite. A typical soil displacement time series shows alternating periods of abrupt compression and gradual extension of the soil corresponding to periods of rainfall and evaporation respectively. ET estimates based on local, historic, pan evaporation data range from about 1 to 4 mm/da, and estimates of ET based on the Sand-X data track within 25% of these averages for the first half of 2012. Daily ET averages reveal periods of ET at double the monthly average during the rainy season consistent with the increased availability of soil water for evaporation. In addition to ET, the Sand-X is sensitive to changes in barometric pressure and infiltration of soil water. For example, diurnal barometric variations create a signal that is more than 10 times greater than the sensor resolution. We have developed a poroelastic model to characterize the effect of barometric loading. This analysis is used to remove the effect of barometric fluctuations and improve the resolution of hydrologic processes. Other applications for the instrument include characterizing the accumulation or removal of sediments, snow, ice, biomass, etc.

  13. ULF magnetic signatures at the earth surface due to ground water flow - A possible precursor to earthquakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Draganov, A. B.; Inan, U. S.; Taranenko, Iu. N.

    1991-01-01

    Magnetic field fluctuations at the earth's surface at less than 1 Hz are shown to result from motion with a peak velocity of about 4 cm/s of ground water (about 4 S/m) at about 5 km depth. Surface field changes can occur due to either divergence free fluid motion with transverse spatial wavelengths of a few tens of km, and/or homogeneous flow which displaces local inhomogeneities in the earth magnetic field.

  14. Comparing Teaching Approaches about Maxwell's Displacement Current

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karam, Ricardo; Coimbra, Debora; Pietrocola, Maurício

    2014-01-01

    Due to its fundamental role for the consolidation of Maxwell's equations, the displacement current is one of the most important topics of any introductory course on electromagnetism. Moreover, this episode is widely used by historians and philosophers of science as a case study to investigate several issues (e.g. the theory-experiment…

  15. Comparing Teaching Approaches about Maxwell's Displacement Current

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karam, Ricardo; Coimbra, Debora; Pietrocola, Maurício

    2014-01-01

    Due to its fundamental role for the consolidation of Maxwell's equations, the displacement current is one of the most important topics of any introductory course on electromagnetism. Moreover, this episode is widely used by historians and philosophers of science as a case study to investigate several issues (e.g. the theory-experiment…

  16. Displaced Children: The Psychological Implications.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Paramjit T; Fayyad, John A

    2015-10-01

    Millions of people across the world have been displaced or live in exile and/or as refugees largely as a consequence of wars, acts of terrorism, and catastrophic natural disasters. There are serious psychological consequences as a result of these extremely difficult life circumstances. Adults often can express their needs and have them be heard, whereas children are unable to do so. The children may be provided food, shelter, and clothing and have their medical needs attended to, but their emotional and psychological needs go unrecognized and unmet, with dire and monumental long-term consequences. PMID:26346385

  17. 40 CFR 205.153 - Engine displacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine displacement. 205.153 Section... TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycles § 205.153 Engine displacement. (a) Engine displacement must be calculated using nominal engine values and rounded to the nearest whole cubic...

  18. 40 CFR 205.153 - Engine displacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Engine displacement. 205.153 Section... TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycles § 205.153 Engine displacement. (a) Engine displacement must be calculated using nominal engine values and rounded to the nearest whole cubic...

  19. 40 CFR 205.153 - Engine displacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine displacement. 205.153 Section... TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycles § 205.153 Engine displacement. (a) Engine displacement must be calculated using nominal engine values and rounded to the nearest whole cubic...

  20. 40 CFR 205.153 - Engine displacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Engine displacement. 205.153 Section... TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycles § 205.153 Engine displacement. (a) Engine displacement must be calculated using nominal engine values and rounded to the nearest whole cubic...

  1. 40 CFR 205.153 - Engine displacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Engine displacement. 205.153 Section... TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycles § 205.153 Engine displacement. (a) Engine displacement must be calculated using nominal engine values and rounded to the nearest whole cubic...

  2. The case for character displacement in plants

    PubMed Central

    Beans, Carolyn M

    2014-01-01

    The evidence for character displacement as a widespread response to competition is now building. This progress is largely the result of the establishment of rigorous criteria for demonstrating character displacement in the animal literature. There are, however, relatively few well-supported examples of character displacement in plants. This review explores the potential for character displacement in plants by addressing the following questions: (1) Why aren't examples of character displacement in plants more common? (2) What are the requirements for character displacement to occur and how do plant populations meet those requirements? (3) What are the criteria for testing the pattern and process of character displacement and what methods can and have been used to address these criteria in the plant literature? (4) What are some additional approaches for studying character displacement in plants? While more research is needed, the few plant systems in which character displacement hypotheses have been rigorously tested suggest that character displacement may play a role in shaping plant communities. Plants are especially amenable to character displacement studies because of the experimental ease with which they can be used in common gardens, selection analyses, and breeding designs. A deeper investigation of character displacement in plants is critical for a more complete understanding of the ecological and evolutionary processes that permit the coexistence of plant species. PMID:24683467

  3. NMR spectra of oligosaccharides at ultra-high field (900 MHz) have better resolution than expected due to favourable molecular tumbling.

    PubMed

    Blundell, Charles D; Reed, Michelle A C; Overduin, Michael; Almond, Andrew

    2006-09-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) remains the most promising technique for acquiring atomic-resolution information in complex carbohydrates. Significant obstacles to the acquisition of such data are the poor chemical-shift dispersion and artifacts resultant from their degenerate chemical structures. The recent development of ultra-high-field NMR (at 900 MHz and beyond) gives new potential to overcome these problems, as we demonstrate on a hexasaccharide of the highly repetitive glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan. At 900 MHz, the expected increase in spectral dispersion due to higher resonance frequencies and reduction in strong coupling-associated distortions are observed. In addition, the fortuitous molecular tumbling rate of oligosaccharides results in longer T2-values that further significantly enhances resolution, an effect not available to proteins. Combined, the resolution enhancement can be as much as twofold relative to 600 MHz, allowing all 1H-resonances in the hexasaccharide to be unambiguously assigned using standard natural-abundance experiments. The use of ultra-high-field spectrometers is clearly advantageous and promises a new and exciting era in carbohydrate structural biology. PMID:16784734

  4. Investigation of wing upper surface flow-field disturbance due to NASA DC-8-72 in-flight inboard thrust-reverser deployment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamid, Hedayat U.; Margason, Richard J.; Hardy, Gordon

    1995-01-01

    An investigation of the wing upper surface flow-field disturbance due to in-flight inboard thrust reverser deployment on the NASA DC-8-72, which was conducted cooperatively by NASA Ames, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), McDonnell Douglas, and the Aerospace Industry Association (AIA), is outlined and discussed in detail. The purpose of this flight test was to obtain tufted flow visualization data which demonstrates the effect of thrust reverser deployment on the wing upper surface flow field to determine if the disturbed flow regions could be modeled by computational methods. A total of six symmetric thrust reversals of the two inboard engines were performed to monitor tuft and flow cone patterns as well as the character of their movement at the nominal Mach numbers of 0.55, 0.70, and 0.85. The tufts and flow cones were photographed and video-taped to determine the type of flow field that occurs with and without the thrust reversers deployed. In addition, the normal NASA DC-8 onboard Data Acquisition Distribution System (DADS) was used to synchronize the cameras. Results of this flight test will be presented in two parts. First, three distinct flow patterns associated with the above Mach numbers were sketched from the motion videos and discussed in detail. Second, other relevant aircraft parameters, such as aircraft's angular orientation, altitude, Mach number, and vertical descent, are discussed. The flight test participants' comments were recorded on the videos and the interested reader is referred to the video supplement section of this report for that information.

  5. Interferometric fiber optic displacement sensor

    DOEpatents

    Farah, J.

    1995-05-30

    A method is presented to produce a change in the optical path length in the gap between two single mode optical fibers proportional to the lateral displacement of either fiber end normal to its axis. This is done with the use of refraction or diffraction at the interface between a guiding and non-guiding media to change the direction of propagation of the light in the gap. A method is also presented for laying a waveguide on a cantilever so that the displacement of the tip of the cantilever produces a proportional path length change in the gap by distancing the waveguide from the neutral axis of the cantilever. The fiber is supported as a cantilever or a waveguide is deposited on a micromachined cantilever and incorporated in an interferometer which is made totally on a silicon substrate with the use of integrated-optic technology. A resonant element in the form of a micro-bridge is incorporated in the ridge waveguide and produces a frequency output which is readily digitizeable and immune to laser frequency noise. Finally, monolithic mechanical means for phase modulation are provided on the same sensor substrate. This is done by vibrating the cantilever or micro-bridge either electrically or optically. 29 figs.

  6. Interferometric fiber optic displacement sensor

    DOEpatents

    Farah, John (M.I.T. P.O. Box 397301, Cambridge, MA 02139)

    1999-01-01

    A method is presented to produce a change in the optical path length in the gap between two single mode optical fibers proportional to the lateral displacement of either fiber end normal to its axis. This is done with the use of refraction or diffraction at the interface between a guiding and non-guiding media to change the direction of propagation of the light in the gap. A method is also presented for laying a waveguide on a cantilever so that the displacement of the tip of the cantilever produces a proportional path length change in the gap by distancing the waveguide from the neutral axis of the cantilever. The fiber is supported as a cantilever or a waveguide is deposited on a micromachined cantilever and incorporated in an interferometer which is made totally on a silicon substrate with the use of integrated-optic technology. A resonant element in the form of a micro-bridge is incorporated in the ridge waveguide and produces a frequency output which is readily digitizeable and immune to laser frequency noise. Finally, monolithic mechanical means for phase modulation are provided on the same sensor substrate. This is done by vibrating the cantilever or micro-bridge either electrically or optically.

  7. Displacement Based Multilevel Structural Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieszezanski-Sobieski, J.; Striz, A. G.

    1996-01-01

    In the complex environment of true multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO), efficiency is one of the most desirable attributes of any approach. In the present research, a new and highly efficient methodology for the MDO subset of structural optimization is proposed and detailed, i.e., for the weight minimization of a given structure under size, strength, and displacement constraints. Specifically, finite element based multilevel optimization of structures is performed. In the system level optimization, the design variables are the coefficients of assumed polynomially based global displacement functions, and the load unbalance resulting from the solution of the global stiffness equations is minimized. In the subsystems level optimizations, the weight of each element is minimized under the action of stress constraints, with the cross sectional dimensions as design variables. The approach is expected to prove very efficient since the design task is broken down into a large number of small and efficient subtasks, each with a small number of variables, which are amenable to parallel computing.

  8. Interferometric fiber optic displacement sensor

    DOEpatents

    Farah, J.

    1999-04-06

    A method is presented to produce a change in the optical path length in the gap between two single mode optical fibers proportional to the lateral displacement of either fiber end normal to its axis. This is done with the use of refraction or diffraction at the interface between a guiding and non-guiding media to change the direction of propagation of the light in the gap. A method is also presented for laying a waveguide on a cantilever so that the displacement of the tip of the cantilever produces a proportional path length change in the gap by distancing the waveguide from the neutral axis of the cantilever. The fiber is supported as a cantilever or a waveguide is deposited on a micromachined cantilever and incorporated in an interferometer which is made totally on a silicon substrate with the use of integrated-optic technology. A resonant element in the form of a micro-bridge is incorporated in the ridge waveguide and produces a frequency output which is readily digitizeable and immune to laser frequency noise. Finally, monolithic mechanical means for phase modulation are provided on the same sensor substrate. This is done by vibrating the cantilever or micro-bridge either electrically or optically. 23 figs.

  9. Genetics of bovine abomasal displacement.

    PubMed

    Zerbin, Ina; Lehner, Stefanie; Distl, Ottmar

    2015-04-01

    Displacement of the abomasum (DA) is a common inherited condition in Holstein cows. This article reviews the genetics of DA including risk factors, genetic parameters and molecular genetic results. Breeds other than Holsteins affected by DA include Guernseys, Jerseys, Brown Swiss, Ayrshires and Simmental-Red Holsteins. In most DA cases, left displacements of the abomasum (LDA) are seen. Lactation incidence rates are higher for DA in first lactation Holsteins compared to later lactations. For Holstein cows, heritability estimates for DA are between 0.03 and 0.53. Genetic correlation estimates among DA and milk production traits range from positive to negative. Genome-wide significant genomic regions associated with LDA are located on bovine chromosomes (BTA) 1, 3, 11, 20 and 23. Motilin-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms on BTA23 exhibit a functional relationship with LDA. Pathways for deposition of calcium, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and synaptic transmission are significantly related to LDA in Holsteins. Deciphering the DA-associated genomic regions and genes may be an important step in the quest to understand the underlying disease-causing mechanisms and in unravelling mutations with a causal relationship to DA. PMID:25840863

  10. Interferometric fiber optic displacement sensor

    DOEpatents

    Farah, John (M.I.T. Branch P.O. Box 301, Cambridge, MA 02139)

    1995-01-01

    A method is presented to produce a change in the optical path length in the gap between two single mode optical fibers proportional to the lateral displacement of either fiber end normal to its axis. This is done with the use of refraction or diffraction at the interface between a guiding and non-guiding media to change the direction of propagation of the light in the gap. A method is also presented for laying a waveguide on a cantilever so that the displacement of the tip of the cantilever produces a proportional path length change in the gap by distancing the waveguide from the neutral axis of the cantilever. The fiber is supported as a cantilever or a waveguide is deposited on a micromachined cantilever and incorporated in an interferometer which is made totally on a silicon substrate with the use of integrated-optic technology. A resonant element in the form of a micro-bridge is incorporated in the ridge waveguide and produces a frequency output which is readily digitizeable and immune to laser frequency noise. Finally, monolithic mechanical means for phase modulation are provided on the same sensor substrate. This is done by vibrating the cantilever or micro-bridge either electrically or optically.

  11. Calculus of sea-displacement operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setlur, Girish S.; Citrin, D. S.

    2002-04-01

    Sea-displacement operators for fermions are defined in terms of the Fermi fields in a one-component Fermi system. The main conclusions of this article fully corroborate the conjectures made in our earlier works, and provide a mathematically rigorous foundation for these earlier works. These ideas are generalized to electron-hole systems where we are able to clearly explore the nature of exciton-exciton interactions. We find that exciton-exciton interactions in an ideal model of GaAs are not adequately treated simply as of the two-body type; rather the interactions are mediated by the exchange of other bosons that are present in this system. These bosons are identified explicitly and the exciton Green function is calculated. This exercise is also intended to be a precursor to a systematic nonperturbative treatment of gauge theories.

  12. Engineering of Schroedinger cat states by a sequence of displacements and photon additions or subtractions

    SciTech Connect

    Podoshvedov, S. A.

    2011-04-15

    A method to generate Schroedinger cat states in free propagating optical fields based on the use of displaced states (or displacement operators) is developed. Some optical schemes with photon-added coherent states are studied. The schemes are modifications of the general method based on a sequence of displacements and photon additions or subtractions adjusted to generate Schroedinger cat states of a larger size. The effects of detection inefficiency are taken into account.

  13. Reflective fiber optic displacement sensor with intensity compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Haibao; Xu, Tao; Yang, Huayong; Chen, Zhifeng

    2000-10-01

    A reflective displacement sensor utilizing three fibers, one transmitting and two receiving with different core diameters, is described in this paper. On the basis of optical field distribution of multimode fiber, the intensity compensation mechanism of this sensor is analyzed in great detail, at the same time the displacement modulating functions and corresponding simulating carves are presented. Results show that this sensor can effectively compensate for variations in the source intensity, for losses in the optical fibers, and for variations in the reflectivity of the reflector surface.

  14. Analog-to-digital conversion as a source of drifts in displacements derived from digital recordings of ground acceleration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boore, D.M.

    2003-01-01

    Displacements obtained from double integration of digitally recorded ground accelerations often show drifts much larger than those expected for the true ground displacements. These drifts might be due to many things, including dynamic elastic ground tilt, inelastic ground deformation, hysteresis in the instruments, and cross feed due to misalignment of nominally orthogonal sensors. This article shows that even if those effects were not present, the analog-to-digital conversion (ADC) process can produce apparent "pulses" and offsets in the acceleration baseline if the ground motion is slowly varying compared with the quantization level of the digitization. Such slowly varying signals can be produced by constant offsets that do not coincide with a quantization level and by near- and intermediate-field terms in the wave field radiated from earthquakes. Double integration of these apparent pulses and offsets leads to drifts in the displacements similar to those found in processing real recordings. These effects decrease in importance as the resolution of the ADC process increases.

  15. A Theoretical Model to Predict Both Horizontal Displacement and Vertical Displacement for Electromagnetic Induction-Based Deep Displacement Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Shentu, Nanying; Zhang, Hongjian; Li, Qing; Zhou, Hongliang; Tong, Renyuan; Li, Xiong

    2012-01-01

    Deep displacement observation is one basic means of landslide dynamic study and early warning monitoring and a key part of engineering geological investigation. In our previous work, we proposed a novel electromagnetic induction-based deep displacement sensor (I-type) to predict deep horizontal displacement and a theoretical model called equation-based equivalent loop approach (EELA) to describe its sensing characters. However in many landslide and related geological engineering cases, both horizontal displacement and vertical displacement vary apparently and dynamically so both may require monitoring. In this study, a II-type deep displacement sensor is designed by revising our I-type sensor to simultaneously monitor the deep horizontal displacement and vertical displacement variations at different depths within a sliding mass. Meanwhile, a new theoretical modeling called the numerical integration-based equivalent loop approach (NIELA) has been proposed to quantitatively depict II-type sensors’ mutual inductance properties with respect to predicted horizontal displacements and vertical displacements. After detailed examinations and comparative studies between measured mutual inductance voltage, NIELA-based mutual inductance and EELA-based mutual inductance, NIELA has verified to be an effective and quite accurate analytic model for characterization of II-type sensors. The NIELA model is widely applicable for II-type sensors’ monitoring on all kinds of landslides and other related geohazards with satisfactory estimation accuracy and calculation efficiency. PMID:22368467

  16. Displacement measurement using a laser feedback grating interferometer.

    PubMed

    Guo, Dongmei; Wang, Ming; Hao, Hui

    2015-11-01

    A novel laser feedback grating interferometer (LFGI) with a phase-generated carrier demodulation technique is proposed in this paper. Laser feedback grating interference occurs when light emitted from a laser is diffracted by the double-diffraction system and re-enters the laser active cavity, thus generating a modulation of the lasing field. In order to improve the displacement measurement resolution, phase modulation is introduced by an electro-optic modulator in the external cavity of the LFGI. Detection of the displacement can be easily achieved by the time-domain orthogonal demodulation, which does not involve any complicated calculation and is insensitive to the sampling error. Experimental results show that the proposed system has a general nanometer-level resolution. It provides a potential displacement sensor with high resolution, simple mechanical structure, and good reliability. PMID:26560588

  17. Current density and plasma displacement near perturbed rational surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Boozer, Allen H.; Pomphrey, Neil

    2010-11-15

    The current density in the vicinity of a rational surface of a force-free magnetic field subjected to an ideal perturbation is shown to be the sum of both a smooth and a delta-function distribution, which give comparable currents. The maximum perturbation to the smooth current density is comparable to a typical equilibrium current density and the width of the layer in which the current flows is shown to be proportional to the perturbation amplitude. In the standard linearized theory, the plasma displacement has an unphysical jump across the rational surface, but the full theory gives a continuous displacement. A resolution of the paradox of a jump in the displacement is required for interpreting perturbed tokamak equilibria.

  18. Displaced electrode process for welding

    DOEpatents

    Heichel, L.J.

    1975-08-26

    A method is described for the butt-welding of a relatively heavy mass to a relatively small mass such as a thin-wall tube. In butt-welding heat is normally applied at the joint between the two pieces which are butt-welded together. The application of heat at the joint results in overheating the tube which causes thinning of the tube walls and porosity in the tube material. This is eliminated by displacing the welding electrode away from the seam toward the heavier mass so that heat is applied to the heavy mass and not at the butt seam. Examples of the parameters used in welding fuel rods are given. The cladding and end plugs were made of Zircalloy. The electrode used was of 2 percent thoriated tungsten. (auth)

  19. Polybenzimidazoles Via Aromatic Nucleophilic Displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Hergerrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    Novel molecular weight controlled and endcapped polybenzimidazoles (PBI) are prepared by the aromatic nucleophilic displacement reaction of di(hydroxyphenylbenzimidazole) monomers with activated aromatic dihalides or activated aromatic dinitro compounds. The PBI are endcapped with mono(hydroxyphenyl)benzimidazoles. The polymerizations are carried out in polar aprotic solvents such as N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone or N,N-dimethylacetamide using alkali metal bases such as potassium carbonate at elevated temperatures under nitrogen. Mono(hydroxyphenyl)benzimidazoles are synthesized by reacting phenyl-4-hydroxybenzoate with aromatic (o-diamine)s in diphenylsulfone. Molecular weight controlled and endcapped PBI of new chemical structures are prepared that exhibit a favorable combination of physical and mechanical properties.

  20. Polybenzimidazoles via aromatic nucleophilic displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Novel molecular weight controlled and endcapped polybenzimidazoles (PBI) are prepared by the aromatic nucleophilic displacement reaction of di(hydroxyphenyl benzimidazole) monomers with activated aromatic dihalides or activated aromatic dinitro compounds. The PBI are endcapped with mono(hydroxyphenyl) benzimidazoles. The polymerizations are carried out in polar aprotic solvents such as N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone or N,N-dimethylacetamide using alkali metal bases such as potassium carbonate at elevated temperatures under nitrogen. Mono(hydroxyphenyl) benzimidazoles are synthesizedby reacting phenyl-4-hydroxybenzoate with aromatic (o-diamine)s in diphenylsulfone. Molecular weight controlled and endcapped PBI of new chemical structures are prepared that exhibit a favorable combination of physical and mechanical properties.

  1. Displaceable Gear Torque Controlled Driver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Joseph S., Jr. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    Methods and apparatus are provided for a torque driver including a displaceable gear to limit torque transfer to a fastener at a precisely controlled torque limit. A biasing assembly biases a first gear into engagement with a second gear for torque transfer between the first and second gear. The biasing assembly includes a pressurized cylinder controlled at a constant pressure that corresponds to a torque limit. A calibrated gage and valve is used to set the desired torque limit. One or more coiled output linkages connect the first gear with the fastener adaptor which may be a socket for a nut. A gear tooth profile provides a separation force that overcomes the bias to limit torque at the desired torque limit. Multiple fasteners may be rotated simultaneously to a desired torque limit if additional output spur gears are provided. The torque limit is adjustable and may be different for fasteners within the same fastener configuration.

  2. Variable delivery, fixed displacement pump

    SciTech Connect

    Sommars, Mark F.

    2001-01-01

    A variable delivery, fixed displacement pump comprises a plurality of pistons reciprocated within corresponding cylinders in a cylinder block. The pistons are reciprocated by rotation of a fixed angle swash plate connected to the pistons. The pistons and cylinders cooperate to define a plurality of fluid compression chambers each have a delivery outlet. A vent port is provided from each fluid compression chamber to vent fluid therefrom during at least a portion of the reciprocal stroke of the piston. Each piston and cylinder combination cooperates to close the associated vent port during another portion of the reciprocal stroke so that fluid is then pumped through the associated delivery outlet. The delivery rate of the pump is varied by adjusting the axial position of the swash plate relative to the cylinder block, which varies the duration of the piston stroke during which the vent port is closed.

  3. Robust Tracking of Small Displacements With a Bayesian Estimator.

    PubMed

    Dumont, Douglas M; Byram, Brett C

    2016-01-01

    Radiation-force-based elasticity imaging describes a group of techniques that use acoustic radiation force (ARF) to displace tissue to obtain qualitative or quantitative measurements of tissue properties. Because ARF-induced displacements are on the order of micrometers, tracking these displacements in vivo can be challenging. Previously, it has been shown that Bayesian-based estimation can overcome some of the limitations of a traditional displacement estimator such as normalized cross-correlation (NCC). In this work, we describe a Bayesian framework that combines a generalized Gaussian-Markov random field (GGMRF) prior with an automated method for selecting the prior's width. We then evaluate its performance in the context of tracking the micrometer-order displacements encountered in an ARF-based method such as ARF impulse (ARFI) imaging. The results show that bias, variance, and mean-square error (MSE) performance vary with prior shape and width, and that an almost one order-of-magnitude reduction in MSE can be achieved by the estimator at the automatically selected prior width. Lesion simulations show that the proposed estimator has a higher contrast-to-noise ratio but lower contrast than NCC, median-filtered NCC, and the previous Bayesian estimator, with a non-Gaussian prior shape having better lesion-edge resolution than a Gaussian prior. In vivo results from a cardiac, radio-frequency ablation ARFI imaging dataset show quantitative improvements in lesion contrast-to-noise ratio over NCC as well as the previous Bayesian estimator. PMID:26529761

  4. A computer vision-based approach for structural displacement measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Yunfeng

    2010-04-01

    Along with the incessant advancement in optics, electronics and computer technologies during the last three decades, commercial digital video cameras have experienced a remarkable evolution, and can now be employed to measure complex motions of objects with sufficient accuracy, which render great assistance to structural displacement measurement in civil engineering. This paper proposes a computer vision-based approach for dynamic measurement of structures. One digital camera is used to capture image sequences of planar targets mounted on vibrating structures. The mathematical relationship between image plane and real space is established based on computer vision theory. Then, the structural dynamic displacement at the target locations can be quantified using point reconstruction rules. Compared with other tradition displacement measurement methods using sensors, such as accelerometers, linear-variable-differential-transducers (LVDTs) and global position system (GPS), the proposed approach gives the main advantages of great flexibility, a non-contact working mode and ease of increasing measurement points. To validate, four tests of sinusoidal motion of a point, free vibration of a cantilever beam, wind tunnel test of a cross-section bridge model, and field test of bridge displacement measurement, are performed. Results show that the proposed approach can attain excellent accuracy compared with the analytical ones or the measurements using conventional transducers, and proves to deliver an innovative and low cost solution to structural displacement measurement.

  5. Using fault displacement and slip tendency to estimate stress states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Alan P.; Ferrill, David A.; McGinnis, Ronald N.

    2016-02-01

    We suggest that faults in high slip tendency orientations tend to develop larger displacements than other faults. Consequently, faults that accumulate larger displacements are more likely to be reliable indicators of the longer term stress field and should be weighted accordingly in paleostress estimation. Application of a stress inversion technique that uses slip tendency analyses and fault displacements to interpret populations of coherent normal faults within the Balcones Fault System of south-central Texas provides stress estimates that are consistent with established regional stress analyses. Although the method does not require measurement of slip directions, these data, where available, and sensitivity analyses of the angular mismatch between measured slip directions and those predicted by inverted stress states provide high confidence in the stress estimates generated using slip tendency analyses. Close inspection of the fault orientation and displacement data further indicates that subpopulations of faults with orientations different from the regional pattern have formed in response to stress perturbations generated by displacement gradients on an adjacent seismic scale fault.

  6. Linking pollination effectiveness and interspecific displacement success in bees.

    PubMed

    Ali, M; Saeed, S; Sajjad, A; Akbar, A

    2015-04-01

    Pollen deposition, a surrogate for bee efficiency, becomes increasingly important during their interspecific interactions. We conducted field experiments on highly cross-pollinated melon (Cucumis melo) and watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) in order to understand how bee species with different pollination efficiencies displace each other from floral resources. We observed significant displacement of less abundant but more efficient bees by the more abundant but less efficient bees in both crops, which may lead to deficient pollination. We did not find significant relationship of the bee displacement success and body size or abundance. Apis florea (Fabricius) and Nomia sp.2 (Latreille) had significantly more winner events in melon, while the former also had significantly more winner events in watermelon. A. florea was the only bee species that foraged mostly within the 1-m(2) virtual area after their displacement, which may indicate its behavior of geitinogamous pollination. The two bee species, Ceratina sexmaculata (Smith) and Lasioglossum sp. (Curtis), were more sensitive to displacement as their proportion of leaving the 1-m(2) virtual area was higher. PMID:26013126

  7. Study of microdosimetric energy deposition patterns in tissue-equivalent medium due to low-energy neutron fields using a graphite-walled proportional counter.

    PubMed

    Waker, A J; Aslam

    2011-06-01

    To improve radiation protection dosimetry for low-energy neutron fields encountered in nuclear power reactor environments, there is increasing interest in modeling neutron energy deposition in metrological instruments such as tissue-equivalent proportional counters (TEPCs). Along with these computational developments, there is also a need for experimental data with which to benchmark and test the results obtained from the modeling methods developed. The experimental work described in this paper is a study of the energy deposition in tissue-equivalent (TE) medium using an in-house built graphite-walled proportional counter (GPC) filled with TE gas. The GPC is a simple model of a standard TEPC because the response of the counter at these energies is almost entirely due to the neutron interactions in the sensitive volume of the counter. Energy deposition in tissue spheres of diameter 1, 2, 4 and 8 µm was measured in low-energy neutron fields below 500 keV. We have observed a continuously increasing trend in microdosimetric averages with an increase in neutron energy. The values of these averages decrease as we increase the simulated diameter at a given neutron energy. A similar trend for these microdosimetric averages has been observed for standard TEPCs and the Rossi-type, TE, spherical wall-less counter filled with propane-based TE gas in the same energy range. This implies that at the microdosimetric level, in the neutron energy range we employed in this study, the pattern of average energy deposited by starter and insider proton recoil events in the gas is similar to those generated cumulatively by crosser and stopper events originating from the counter wall plus starter and insider recoil events originating in the sensitive volume of a TEPC. PMID:21476858

  8. Three-input majority logic gate and multiple input logic circuit based on DNA strand displacement.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Yang, Yang; Yan, Hao; Liu, Yan

    2013-06-12

    In biomolecular programming, the properties of biomolecules such as proteins and nucleic acids are harnessed for computational purposes. The field has gained considerable attention due to the possibility of exploiting the massive parallelism that is inherent in natural systems to solve computational problems. DNA has already been used to build complex molecular circuits, where the basic building blocks are logic gates that produce single outputs from one or more logical inputs. We designed and experimentally realized a three-input majority gate based on DNA strand displacement. One of the key features of a three-input majority gate is that the three inputs have equal priority, and the output will be true if any of the two inputs are true. Our design consists of a central, circular DNA strand with three unique domains between which are identical joint sequences. Before inputs are introduced to the system, each domain and half of each joint is protected by one complementary ssDNA that displays a toehold for subsequent displacement by the corresponding input. With this design the relationship between any two domains is analogous to the relationship between inputs in a majority gate. Displacing two or more of the protection strands will expose at least one complete joint and return a true output; displacing none or only one of the protection strands will not expose a complete joint and will return a false output. Further, we designed and realized a complex five-input logic gate based on the majority gate described here. By controlling two of the five inputs the complex gate can realize every combination of OR and AND gates of the other three inputs. PMID:23710909

  9. Monitoring Changes in Moisture Load Using Elastic Displacements in the Vadose Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thrash, C. J.; Murdoch, L. C.; Germanovich, L. N.; Weinberg, A.

    2014-12-01

    Monitoring changes in mass over scales of several meters to hundreds of meters or more has many applications to characterization of the Critical Zone, including assessing changes in soil moisture, erosion or deposition of sediment, and melting or accumulation of snow or ice. A technique has been developed to monitor average changes in mass on those scales using continuous high-resolution measurements of displacement made with a vertical extensometer (called a DELTA extensometer). An increase of mass above the extensometer causes the soil to contract, which causes the extensometer to function similar to a weighing lysimeter. DELTA extensometers have been deployed at field sites near Clemson, South Carolina, and in northern Texas. The extensometers in South Carolina are in saprolite derived from biotite gneiss, whereas the ones in Texas are in clayey silt underlying playas. The instruments are in the vadose zone at depths of 3m to 6m. Signals from co-located extensometers are remarkably similar, demonstrating reproducibility of the technique. The extensometers respond to loading from a person or vehicle, and this load is used to estimate the Young's modulus of soil enveloping the extensometer. Displacement during small to moderate rainfalls is typically linear with the accumulated rain (~0.2 micron/mm of rain, for example). The displacement levels out during large rainfalls, potentially due to the onset of overland flow that would limit the water load during precipitation. This suggests that the onset of overland flow could be evaluated using this technique. Seasonal temperature fluctuations at the soil surface can penetrate to the depths of the extensometers causing displacement from thermal expansion and contraction. Thermal effects account for approximately 100 μm of displacement over an annual cycle at one instrument. It appears that much of the thermal signal can be removed by data analysis. Pore pressure changes in the vicinity of the extensometer can also affect displacement and we are currently measuring pressures in an effort to identify this component of the signal. At one of the Texas sites, a series of step-like compressions totally 100 microns accompanied several rainfalls as water accumulated and filled the playa.

  10. The Displaced vs. the Disadvantaged: A Necessary Dichotomy? Occasional Paper 1994-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levitan, Sar A.; Mangum, Stephen L.

    The current displaced worker initiative towers over the 30-year effort to bring the economically disadvantaged into the mainstream of the labor market. The Congressional Budget Office defines displacement as all workers 18 years of age and older who lose full-time employment due to slack work, job abolition, or plant closure. Major displaced…

  11. Multicomponent seismic monitoring of stress arching in the overburden due to hydraulic fracturing in the Montney Shale at Pouce Coupe Field, Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinal, Irene

    Recent studies have shown convincing evidence that time-lapse changes in seismic data occur not only within the reservoir interval but also in the overburden. Observations that production at the reservoir level and subsequent decrease in pore pressure lead to modifications in the stress field and variations in the overburden have been documented (Hatchell et al., 2003; Hudson et al., 2005). The study of the opposite case, that is, the analysis of the effect in the overburden of an increase in pore pressure in the reservoir has not been so well documented yet and is the focus of this work; the possibility that the hydraulic fracturing process causes seismically detectable changes in the overburden in a time-lapse sense is studied at Pouce Coupe Field, Alberta, and the results are shown. The analysis is performed using multicomponent data from three seismic surveys acquired to evaluate the hydraulic stimulations of two horizontal wells in the Montney Shale. The time-lapse time shifts between the data of the two monitor surveys and the baseline have been calculated and constitute the main tool to study the injection-induced changes above the reservoir interval. The hypothesis is that the increase in the reservoir pressure due to the hydraulic well treatment might produce upward overburden compaction, leading to an increase in stresses that would be translated into an increase in the seismic velocities and therefore, into positive time shifts (considering monitor data subtracted from baseline data) if a time window for the overburden is analyzed. The study shows strong differences in the magnitude of the PS response to the stimulations compared to that of the PP data. The fact that mode-converted (PS) waves are more sensitive to azimuthal anisotropy than compressional waves explains the stronger character of the response observed in PS data, allowing for a more detailed interpretation of the stress-arching distribution. The time-lapse time shifts in the overburden appear associated with the horizontal location of the microseismic events and with the anisotropic areas previously identified in the reservoir interval. It is also concluded that the time shifts in the overburden are much more related to the treatment of one of the wells -- the best producer well, than to that of the other one. And the strongest anomalies correlate with the areas of best flow. This work shows that changes in the stress field are detectable using surface seismic data. The analysis of time shifts in the overburden is proven to be an indicator of stimulation performance, thus suggesting the potential of this technology for monitoring hydraulic fracture stimulations in unconventional reservoirs.

  12. Reciprocating magnetic refrigerator employing tandem porous matrices within a reciprocating displacer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, D. L. (inventor)

    1985-01-01

    Disclosed is a method and apparatus for a magnetic refrigeration system. A continuously reciprocating displacer houses at least a pair of paramagnetic substances each of which is alternately driven into and out of a magnetic field. Two separate bidirectional pumping systems flow helium gas through the displacer and through both paramagnetic substances to create heat exchange conditions at two separate temperature extremes.

  13. Signal processing for order 10 pm accuracy displacement metrology in real-world scientific applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halverson, Peter G.; Loya, Frank M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes heterodyne displacement metrology gauge signal processing methods that achieve satisfactory robustness against low signal strength and spurious signals, and good long-term stability. We have a proven displacement-measuring approach that is useful not only to space-optical projects at JPL, but also to the wider field of distance measurements.

  14. Objective Laser Speckle Method For Three-Dimensional Displacement Measurement On Curved Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kin, C. C.; Chiang, F. P.

    1983-02-01

    By illuminating a ground glass with a laser beam, a spatial field of speckles is created. These speckles are used as displacement gauging ele-ments of curved 3-D objects whose surfaces are coated with photosensitive material. Equations are derived to show that all three components of the surface displacement can be obtained from two specklegrams.

  15. Approaching the Quantum Limits of Displacement Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teufel, John

    2013-03-01

    While high quality factor mechanical resonators (such as cantilevers and membranes) are routinely used as exquisite sensors, only recently are these engineered devices encountering the fundamental limits and opportunities afforded by quantum mechanics. The standard quantum limit of displacement detection requires a balance between the measurement imprecision and momentum imparted on the object of interest. One promising measurement scheme for achieving, and possibly surpassing, these quantum limits of measurement is that of cavity optomechanics--an architecture in which a mechanical resonator modulates the frequency of a high frequency electromagnetic resonance. Ideally, the quantized nature of the measurement photons will impart backaction in the form of radiation pressure shot noise, but observation of this quantum effect in macroscopic mechanical resonators has proven experimental difficult due to the relatively weak forces of the light. We realize a microwave cavity ``opto'' -mechanical system by incorporating a freely-suspended membrane in a superconducting microwave resonant circuit, which simultaneously exhibits high quality factor electrical and mechanical modes. The relatively large electomechanical coupling has led to experimental observation of the strong coupling regime as well as sideband cooling of the mechanical mode to its quantum ground state. I will present recent experiments of similar circuits in which the displacement sensitivity goes beyond that at the standard quantum limit by several orders of magnitude. These measurements also clearly show the fundamental trade-off between measurement imprecision and backaction. We observe the radiation pressure shot noise of the microwave photons and show that it can completely overwhelm the classical, thermal motion of the membrane.

  16. Modelling Toehold-Mediated RNA Strand Displacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šulc, Petr; Ouldridge, Thomas E.; Romano, Flavio; Doye, Jonathan P. K.; Louis, Ard A.

    2015-03-01

    We study the thermodynamics and kinetics of an RNA toehold-mediated strand displacement reaction with a recently developed coarse-grained model of RNA. Strand displacement, during which a single strand displaces a different strand previously bound to a complementary substrate strand, is an essential mechanism in active nucleic acid nanotechnology and has also been hypothesized to occur in vivo. We study the rate of displacement reactions as a function of the length of the toehold and temperature and make two experimentally testable predictions: that the displacement is faster if the toehold is placed at the 5' end of the substrate and that the displacement slows down with increasing temperature for longer toeholds.

  17. Modelling Toehold-Mediated RNA Strand Displacement

    PubMed Central

    Šulc, Petr; Ouldridge, Thomas E.; Romano, Flavio; Doye, Jonathan P.K.; Louis, Ard A.

    2015-01-01

    We study the thermodynamics and kinetics of an RNA toehold-mediated strand displacement reaction with a recently developed coarse-grained model of RNA. Strand displacement, during which a single strand displaces a different strand previously bound to a complementary substrate strand, is an essential mechanism in active nucleic acid nanotechnology and has also been hypothesized to occur in vivo. We study the rate of displacement reactions as a function of the length of the toehold and temperature and make two experimentally testable predictions: that the displacement is faster if the toehold is placed at the 5′ end of the substrate; and that the displacement slows down with increasing temperature for longer toeholds. PMID:25762335

  18. Derivation of the Biot-Savart Law from Ampere's Law Using the Displacement Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buschauer, Robert

    2013-12-01

    The equation describing the magnetic field due to a single, nonrelativistic charged particle moving at constant velocity is often referred to as the "Biot-Savart law for a point charge." Introductory calculus-based physics books usually state this law without proof.2 Advanced texts often present it either without proof or as a special case of a complicated mathematical formalism.3 Either way, little or no physical insight is provided to the student regarding the underlying physics. This paper presents a novel, basic, and transparent derivation of the Biot-Savart law for a point charge based only on Maxwell's displacement current term in Ampere's law. This derivation can serve many pedagogical purposes. For example, it can be used as lecture material at any academic level to obtain the Biot-Savart law for a point charge from simple principles. It can also serve as a practical example of the important fact that a changing electric flux produces a magnetic field.

  19. Detection of quasi-static displacement components of LP seismic sources near the volcanic summit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thun, Johannes; Bean, Christopher J.; Lokmer, Ivan

    2014-05-01

    Seismic long-period (LP) events are still not completely understood, but widely accepted source models involve fluids and fluid-driven resonance processes. Due to the difficulties related to installing seismometers in summit regions of volcanoes, the observations of volcanic seismicity are usually performed at distances not closer than 1-2 km from the hypocentre of a seismic event. Observations from high-density network experiments on different volcanoes lead to a new model proposed by Bean et al. (Nature Geoscience, January 2014). Therein LP events are explained as a consequence of a brittle-ductile failure occurring under the low-stress conditions in the shallow volcanic edifice, rather than fluid-driven resonance. One consequence of this model is a static displacement associated with these LP events. Unfortunately, the expected amplitude of the static shift is only several micrometres, i.e. not detectable by typical deformation measurements. Therefore, we try to develop methods for using seismometers as static shift detecting sensors. Our current inability to recover the full spectrum of recorded displacement results in a band-limited representation of the true process derived from moment-tensor inversions. If the actual source process is of a broadband character, our narrow-band results can be quite misleading. In this study we are focusing on quasi-static displacements we observed on seismometer data from Turrialba Volcano (Costa Rica) and Mt Etna (Italy). These appear as ramp-like signals on displacement traces of LP events, most commonly on all three seismometer components, and have a magnitude of a few micrometres. Laboratory tests confirm that the seismometers used in our field experiments can indeed measure step-like signals, but they also show that long period noise can be a problem when trying to interpret these. Normal high pass filters suitable to remove this noise cannot be applied without losing the signal we are interested in. Therefore special attention has to be paid to the processing steps preceding the interpretation of data. In order to constrain the data and test the applied methods, we compare field data and laboratory data with numerical simulations. Considering the full broadband spectrum of the recorded displacements may shed new light on the long period part of the source process.

  20. Light-induced effects on Brownian displacements

    PubMed Central

    Bhalerao, Anish S.; Pollack, Gerald H.

    2011-01-01

    Earlier work on particles in aqueous solution indicated that particle hydration could be expanded by incident light. To assess the effects of expanded hydration we measured Brownian displacements of microspheres exposed to light of varying intensities and wavelengths. Displacements were consistently diminished in an intensity-dependent and wavelength-dependent fashion, and center-to-center distances between microspheres were shifted to higher values. We conclude that suspended microspheres are surrounded by hydration zones substantial enough to impact Brownian displacements. PMID:21287689

  1. Displacement speeds in turbulent premixed flame simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Day, Marcus S.; Shepherd, Ian G.; Bell, J.; Grcar, Joseph F.; Lijewski, Michael J.

    2007-07-01

    The theory of turbulent premixed flames is based on acharacterization of the flame as a discontinuous surface propagatingthrough the fluid. The displacement speed, defined as the local speed ofthe flame front normal to itself, relative to the unburned fluid,provides one characterization of the burning velocity. In this paper, weintroduce a geometric approach to computing displacement speed anddiscuss the efficacy of the displacement speed for characterizing aturbulent flame.

  2. Attenuation of surface-enhanced Raman scattering of magnetic-plasmonic FePt@Ag core-shell nanoparticles due to an external magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trang, Nguyen T. T.; Thuy, Trinh T.; Mott, Derrick M.; Koyano, Mikio; Maenosono, Shinya

    2013-06-01

    The surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activities of Ag and FePt@Ag nanoparticle probes were examined using thiophenol as a Raman reporter molecule in the absence and presence of a magnetic field. Under external magnetic fields of different field strength, the SERS activities of both types of nanoparticles (NPs) were weakened as a function of magnetic field strength. The attenuation degree of SERS activity by the magnetic field in the case of FePt@Ag NPs is found to be two times higher than for Ag NPs, because the superparamagnetic FePt cores enhance the local magnetic field at the area of the Ag shells.

  3. Use of Analytical Solutions to Optimize Simulation of Multicomponent Three-Phase Displacements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laforce, Tara

    2010-05-01

    The conservation law for oil/water/gas flow in porous media can be highly sensitive to numerical dispersive effects, particularly in systems with substantial partitioning of components between the gas and oil phases. As a consequence, it is not typically possible to perform field-scale simulations with a sufficiently fine-grid to accurately model compositional displacements such as CO2 injection into oil fields for storage or enhanced oil recovery (EOR). The purpose of this study is to use analytical results to demonstrate the numerical errors in water and gas injection simulations in one dimension (1D) and to discuss the applicability of simplified models in obtaining an accurate simulated solution. Recently analytical solutions have become available for simultaneous water and gas (sWAG) flooding for three-phase multicomponent compositional systems (LaForce and Orr, 2009). This work showed the surprising result that excessive water injection can interfere with the development of multicontact miscibility (MCM) between the oil and gas phases. Multicontact miscibility occurs when a combination of thermodynamics and flow through porous media cause the formation of a single hydrocarbon phase. When MCM occurs hydrocarbons are displaced from the reservoir much more efficiently than in an immiscible gas or water flood. This presentation will compare and contrast the predicted displacements to a variety of models for sWAG flooding, including injection of water and a first-contact miscible (FCM) gas, three-phase compositional systems with developed miscibility and inert water (the aqueous phase contains only water, and water exists in only the aqueous phase) and compositional systems with developed miscibility in which all of the hydrocarbon components partition between all of the phases, but the water remains in the aqueous phase. Simulated solutions for each of the models are compared with the analytical solutions for various injection mixtures. This analysis can be used to determine when compositional simulation is necessary to achieve accurate results and when it is not worth the computational cost. The key results of this work are: 1) In compositional models where water is inert the analytical displacements using MCM and FCM models are nearly identical. In this case, 1D simulations using the MCM model are less accurate than the simulations of the simpler FCM system due to increased numerical dispersion in the compositional displacement. In this case the FCM model should be used for simulation in the reservoir. 2) In compositional models where there is a substantial partitioning of hydrocarbons into the aqueous phase the presence of excessive water can cause miscibility to fail to develop in compositional systems. For these displacements use of the FCM model will give an incorrect displacement and the fully compositional model must be used in simulations. However, when miscibility is developed, numerical effects again cause the 1D MCM simulation to be less accurate than the FCM solution. Reference: LaForce, T., and Orr, F.M, Jr. (2009) "Four-Component Gas/Water/Oil Displacements in One Dimension: Part III Development of Miscibility," Transport in Porous Media, 10.1007/s11242-008-9311-z

  4. Polybenzoxazole via aromatic nucleophilic displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Polybenzoxazoles (PBO) are heterocyclic macromolecules which were first synthesized in a two-step process by the initial formation of aromatic diacid chlorides with bis(o-aminophenol)s through solution condensation of aromatic diacid chlorides with bis(o-aminophenol)s followed by thermal cyclodehydration. Since then several methods were utilized in their synthesis. The most common synthetic method for PBO involves a polycondensation of bis(o-aminophenol)s with aromatic diacid diphenyl esters. Another preparative route involves the solution polycondensation of the hydrochloride salts of bis(o-amino phenol)s with aromatic diacids in polyphosphoric acid. Another synthetic method involves the initial formation of poly(o-hydroxy amide)s from silylated bis(o-aminophenol)s with aromatic diacid chlorides followed by thermal cyclodehydration to PBO. A recent preparative route involves the reaction of aromatic bisphenols with bis(fluorophenyl) benzoxazoles by the displacement reaction to form PBO. The novelty of the present invention is that high molecular weight PBO of new chemical structures are prepared that exhibit a favorable combination of physical and mechanical properties.

  5. Intra-abdominal removal of a displaced hip prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Rory; Adegbola, Sam; Bhattacharya, Vish

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Intra-pelvic displacement of hip prostheses is an uncommon complication following arthroplasty surgery but can have significant detrimental effects on the patient. We present a case of a displaced hip prosthesis into the pelvic cavity and highlight the importance of pre-operative planning and investigation as well as choosing a suitable surgical approach. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 69 year old lady with developmental dysplasia of the hips was found to have displacement of her prosthesis into the pelvis on day three following complex uncemented total hip replacement. A subsequent combined procedure between vascular and orthopaedic surgeons was carried out, including access via a laparotomy incision to allow vision and control of the iliac vessels before removal of the prosthesis. The hip was reconstructed during the same operation using a cup cage construct, reinforced with plate fixation of the posterior column of the pelvis. DISCUSSION Intra-pelvic displacement of hip prostheses is rare and morbidity and mortality can be significant. Pre-operative imaging modalities such as CT scanning should be used to carefully delineate the anatomy. A retro-peritoneal approach has been reported, but we used a trans-abdominal approach in this case to permit greater vision and control of pelvic structures due to the significant medial displacement of the prosthesis. CONCLUSION Intra-abdominal removal of a displaced hip prosthesis is rarely performed but allows for visualisation and careful control of the pelvic structures without damaging further the pelvic wall. We recommend this approach should be performed in conjunction with a vascular surgeon. PMID:25506842

  6. Residual displacement effects during crack propagation in high-toughness magnesia-partially-stabilized zirconia

    SciTech Connect

    Steinbrech, R.W. ); Inghels, E.; Heuer, A.H. . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering)

    1990-07-01

    Fracture mechanics testing of high-toughness MgO-partially-stabilized ZrO{sub 2} (mg-PSZ) using the double-cantilever-beam (DCB) geometry leads to large residual displacements in specimens unloaded after partial crack propagation. The residual displacements are due to transformation plasticity (the martensitic transformation of tetragonal precipitates within the PSZ) and increase linearly with increasing crack extension; the residual displacements can be eliminated by removing portions of the crack wake by machining (renotching). Some residual displacement survived after removal of more than 500 {mu}m from the crack surfaces, implying that the transformation zone was {gt}250 {mu}m in extent. Furthermore, the results suggest subcritical transformation in the zone. Annealing eliminates the residual displacements, due to retransformation of transformed particles. Retransformation began at 500{degrees}C and was not completed until 900{degrees}C.

  7. Testing fault displacement-length scaling relations through analogue modeling in an extensional setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonini, L.; Basili, R.; Burrato, P.; Kastelic, V.; Toscani, G.; Seno, S.; Valensise, G.

    2013-12-01

    The scaling relation between displacement and length of faults plays a crucial role in understanding the growth history of individual faults and their possible linkage and reactivation in future ruptures. Displacement-length relations are commonly based on empirical data. The measurement of fault geometric properties, however, is generally affected by large scattering due not only to intrinsic difficulties of making observations in natural cases (outcrop availability, seismic profiles), but also to the variety of geological factors that may affect the rupture patterns. These can be the interaction between the present-day tectonic regime and an inherited structural fabric, or that between a master fault at depth and shallow structural features. As an alternative to field observations, analogue modeling provides an opportunity to investigate the faulting processes in a controlled environment. During the last decade, the ability of scaled models to properly reproduce such geological processes has greatly improved thanks to the introduction of new materials (e.g. wet kaolin) suitable for reproducing brittle deformation in the upper crust and hi-tech monitoring systems (e.g. laser scanner, particle image velocimetry) with the ability of capturing structural details and performing accurate measurements. We use a dedicated apparatus with such properties to gain insights on the evolution of extensional faults through a suite of experiments which includes (a) setups in homogeneous material to test our ability in meeting general criteria related with fault displacement-length parameters; and (b) increasing complexities attained by inserting various pre-existing fault patterns to analyze how shallow mechanical discontinuities affect our ability to characterize a major fault at depth. Our results show that pre-existing faults can either halt or favor fault development and growth depending on their location/orientation with respect to the applied stress field and suggest the reappraisal of natural case studies under a different perspective.

  8. Influence of lateral displacement on the levitation performance of a magnetized bulk high-Tc superconductor magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, W.; Wang, J. S.; Ma, G. T.; Zheng, J.; Tuo, X. G.; Li, L. L.; Ye, C. Q.; Liao, X. L.; Wang, S. Y.

    2012-03-01

    Compared with the permanent magnet, the magnetized bulk high-Tc superconductor magnet (MBSCM) can trap higher magnetic field due to its strong flux pinning ability, so it is a good candidate to improve the levitation performance of high-Tc superconductive (HTS) maglev system. The trapped magnetic flux of a MBSCM is sustained by the inductive superconducting current produced by the magnetizing process and is susceptible to the current intensity as well as configuration. In the HTS maglev system, the lateral displacement is an important process to change the superconducting current within a MBSCM and then affects its levitation performance, which is essential for the traffic ability in curve-way, the loading capacity of lateral impact and so on. The research about influence of lateral displacement on the levitation performance of MBSCM is necessary when MBSCM is applied on the HTS maglev vehicle. The experimental investigations about the influence of lateral displacement on the levitation performance of a MBSCM with different trapped fluxes and applied fields are processed in this article. The analyses and conclusions of this article are useful for the practical application of MBSCM in HTS maglev system.

  9. Video Games, Adolescents, and the Displacement Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Carla Christine

    2012-01-01

    The displacement effect (the idea that time spent in one activity displaces time spent in other activities) was examined within the lens of adolescents' video game use and their time spent reading, doing homework, in physically active sports and activities, in creative play, and with parents and friends. Data were drawn from the Panel Study…

  10. Displaced Homemakers: Vo-Tech Workshop Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peltier, Wanda Jo

    Written for displaced homemaker programs in vocational-technical schools, this curriculum contains material designed so that instructors can prepare student manuals appropriate to almost any educational support situation for displaced homemakers. An overview provides information on special needs groups, curriculum use, and resources and sample…

  11. Displacement measurement based on TWAIN interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Zhongsheng; Wang, Xuanze; Zhong, Yuning; Lv, Qinghua

    2008-12-01

    The standard of technology without an interesting name (TWAIN) was introduced and a displacement measurement method was presented. Based on the theories of image capture and image measurement, a displacement measurement system was developed and subpixel and centroid technique were used to improve the measurement precision. The Experiment results show that the proposed method has low cost and high precision.

  12. Using a 2D displacement sensor to derive 3D displacement information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soares, Schubert F. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A 2D displacement sensor is used to measure displacement in three dimensions. For example, the sensor can be used in conjunction with a pulse-modulated or frequency-modulated laser beam to measure displacement caused by deformation of an antenna on which the sensor is mounted.

  13. Calculated SAR distributions in a human voxel phantom due to the reflection of electromagnetic fields from a ground plane between 65 MHz and 2 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Findlay, R. P.; Dimbylow, P. J.

    2008-05-01

    If an electromagnetic field is incident normally onto a perfectly conducting ground plane, the field is reflected back into the domain. This produces a standing wave above the ground plane. If a person is present within the domain, absorption of the field in the body may cause problems regarding compliance with electromagnetic guidelines. To investigate this, the whole-body averaged specific energy absorption rate (SAR), localised SAR and ankle currents in the voxel model NORMAN have been calculated for a variety of these exposures under grounded conditions. The results were normalised to the spatially averaged field, a technique used to determine a mean value for comparison with guidelines when the field varies along the height of the body. Additionally, the external field values required to produce basic restrictions for whole-body averaged SAR have been calculated. It was found that in all configurations studied, the ICNIRP reference levels and IEEE MPEs provided a conservative estimate of these restrictions.

  14. FDTD analysis of human body-core temperature elevation due to RF far-field energy prescribed in the ICNIRP guidelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Akimasa; Asano, Takayuki; Fujiwara, Osamu

    2007-08-01

    This study investigated the relationship between the specific absorption rate and temperature elevation in an anatomically-based model named NORMAN for exposure to radio-frequency far fields in the ICNIRP guidelines (1998 Health Phys. 74 494-522). The finite-difference time-domain method is used for analyzing the electromagnetic absorption and temperature elevation in NORMAN. In order to consider the variability of human thermoregulation, parameters for sweating are derived and incorporated into a conventional sweating formula. First, we investigated the effect of blood temperature variation modeling on body-core temperature. The computational results show that the modeling of blood temperature variation was the dominant factor influencing the body-core temperature. This is because the temperature in the inner tissues is elevated via the circulation of blood whose temperature was elevated due to EM absorption. Even at different frequencies, the body-core temperature elevation at an identical whole-body average specific absorption rate (SAR) was almost the same, suggesting the effectiveness of the whole-body average SAR as a measure in the ICNIRP guidelines. Next, we discussed the effect of sweating on the temperature elevation and thermal time constant of blood. The variability of temperature elevation caused by the sweating rate was found to be 30%. The blood temperature elevation at the basic restriction in the ICNIRP guidelines of 0.4 W kg-1 is 0.25 °C even for a low sweating rate. The thermal time constant of blood temperature elevation was 23 min and 52 min for a man with a lower and a higher sweating rate, respectively, which is longer than the average time of the SAR in the ICNIRP guidelines. Thus, the whole-body average SAR required for blood temperature elevation of 1 °C was 4.5 W kg-1 in the model of a human with the lower sweating coefficients for 60 min exposure. From a comparison of this value with the basic restriction in the ICNIRP guidelines of 0.4 W kg-1, the safety factor was 11.

  15. Roughness length and displacement height derived from building databases

    SciTech Connect

    Burian, S. J.; Brown, M. J.; Velugubantla, S. P.

    2002-01-01

    In air quality and meteorological models, the bulk drag and turbulence enhancement due to cities is often parameterized through the roughness length (z{sub 0}) and displacement height (d). These log-law parameters have traditionally been derived from meteorological measurements and building morphological characteristics (e.g., see Grimmond and Oke, 1999). We are in the midst of an effort to characterize the morphological properties of some of the major cities in the western U.S. At this time we have completed the analyses for Los Angeles, Phoenix, and Salt Lake City. We are currently working with datasets from Portland and Houston and anticipate analyzing more than five other cities in the near future. Morphological analysis of 3-D building databases produces a suite of urban canopy parameters that can be incorporated into mesoscale meteorological, surface energy budget, and pollutant dispersion models. Additional computations can be performed to derive roughness length and displacement height using several common morphological formulae described in the literature. This paper summarizes the derivation of roughness length and displacement height for a 12-km{sup 2} section of downtown Los Angeles, 16-km{sup 2} section of downtown Phoenix, and 6-km{sup 2} section of downtown Salt Lake City. We correlate the computed roughness length and displacement height to underlying land use type.

  16. Horizontal displacement profiles in N Reactor horizontal control rod channels

    SciTech Connect

    Woodruff, E.M.

    1988-12-01

    One of the potential results from N Reactor graphite moderator distortion is horizontal curvature of the horizontal control rod (HCR) channels. Mockup testing has identified two possible problem scenarios resulting from such curvature: slow scram times and rod abrasion due to rubbing of the rod on the side of the channel and subsequent displacement of T-blocks that form the sides of the channels. As a result of these potential events, surveillance tools (instrumentation) to measure HCR channel horizontal displacement was recently developed. Surveillance of HCR channel 65, performed on December 11, 1987, indicated a six inch rearward displacement near the center of the channel. This approximated the displacement which mockup testing has identified as a concern with regard to T-block movement. Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) observations indicate that T-block movement has not occurred in HCR channel 65, but that there has been some rubbing of the rod on the channel sides. Review of most recent rod hot scram times indicates normal performance for HCR 65. To further evaluate this concern, horizontal deflection and CCTV surveillance was scheduled in six HCR channels surrounding HCR channel 65. Inspection of the HCR rod tip was also performed. 13 refs., 6 figs.

  17. Plight of a displaced woman in southern Sudan.

    PubMed

    Ogana, W

    1993-01-01

    Southern Sudanese have been displaced due to tribal conflicts and civil war between the Islamic Khartoum government in the North and the predominantly Christian South. This article narrates the plight of displaced Southern Sudanese women, particularly that of a woman named Rebecca Akwach during her journey towards Nzara to escape air raids by the Khartoum government. The war that plagued Southern Sudan for the past 11 years has burdened numerous women with the responsibility of bringing up their children single-handedly. Most of the husbands have been killed in battle, separated through displacement, or have fled to other countries. Approximately 500 displaced people, including pregnant women, have walked some 300 km westward to a small town in western Ethiopia. During their ordeal, meals was reduced to once daily or none at all, while others barter whatever valuables they have for food. Malnutrition, malaria, diarrhea, respiratory tract infection and measles were prevalent. Pregnant women have an added burden of carrying valuables and small children who cannot walk 10 km a day. Akwach and other sojourners are now in Nzara and are waiting for the allocation of land where they can temporarily settle. PMID:12349363

  18. Local Time Displacement of Substorm Expansion in Conjugate Hemispheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fillingim, M. O.; Tung, Y.; Parks, G. K.; Mende, S. B.; Frey, H. U.; Immel, T. J.

    2003-12-01

    Because the Earth's magnetic field is largely dipolar and symmetric, many auroral features are conjugate between the northern and southern hemispheres. However, previous work has shown that the aurora can be nonconjugate. Most previous optical conjugacy studies have been limited to ground based observations or ground based and space based imager comparisons. In both cases at least one observation point is restricted to viewing only small scale features. Conjugate observations of the large scale behavior of the aurora have been confined to rare, serendipitous space based imager conjunctions and single spacecraft viewing of both hemispheres which is tempered by large oblique viewing angles. As the Polar spacecraft's apogee has descended in the the southern hemisphere, the Polar Ultraviolet Imager (UVI) has spent an increasing amount of time viewing the southern aurora. Simultaneously, the Wideband Imaging Camera (WIC) onboard the IMAGE spacecraft has been observing the northern aurora. By using image data from both spacecraft, we are able to systematically analyze the degree of auroral conjugacy on synoptic scales and over a wide variety of geomagnetic conditions. In this work, we focus on the conjugacy of the region of intense auroral emission during substorm onset and expansion. We find a persistent displacement in local time of the region of active aurora during substorm expansion; features in the northern hemisphere are shifted westward (duskward) relative to the conjugate point of the southern hemisphere aurora by up to a few thousand kilometers. Often there is a shift in the opposite direction observed before and at substorm onset. The same sense of displacement has been reported in earlier work. The sense or magnitude of the displacement showns no obvious correlation with the interplanetary magnetic field orientation or strength as suggested in previous studies. Therefore, we suggest that the displacement in local time of the region of intense auroral emission is a result of the asymmetric distortion of the magnetic field by the large scale field-aligned currents associated with substorms.

  19. Drilling with new-generation positive displacement motors

    SciTech Connect

    Herbert, P.

    1981-01-01

    The paper describes a new generation of positive displacement downhole mud motors designed for long interval straight hole drilling with natural or man-made diamonds bits or with conventional three-cone rock bits. Field results have demonstrated that these motors are now cost-competitive with rotary drilling methods. The advantages of increased penetration, deviation control and reduced casing wear contribute to a lower cost per foot of hole drilled compared to rotary techniques. 3 refs.

  20. Hollow core optical fiber deflection for monitoring displacement and load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Kim D.; Wang, James

    1995-05-01

    A novel optical fiber sensor implementation for monitoring structural displacement and load is explored. This new sensor makes use of simple coupling losses between fibers in a hollow core sleeve, and as such, offers variable sensitivity, ruggedness, and design flexibility. Preliminary test results show promise towards the goal of making practical and cost effective fiber optic sensors for field use in structural monitoring. In addition to hardware tests, a computer simulation was written to model sensor performance, and critical design parameters were identified.

  1. Fiber-optic displacement sensors on the Hunters Trophy UGT impulse gauge experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Green, R.E.L.; Poutiatine, A.I.

    1995-03-01

    As part of a program to develop gauges for measurement of various mechanical properties in hostile environments, the authors fielded purely optical displacement sensors at the ends of long fiber-optic cables as supplements to the regular displacement sensors of four impulse gauges fielded as part of a materials study on the Hunters Trophy underground effects test at the Nevada Test Site. These fiber-optic sensor systems and their performance on the Hunters Trophy test are described in this report.

  2. Reproductive health: a right for refugees and internally displaced persons.

    PubMed

    Austin, Judy; Guy, Samantha; Lee-Jones, Louise; McGinn, Therese; Schlecht, Jennifer

    2008-05-01

    Continued political and civil unrest in low-resource countries underscores the ongoing need for specialised reproductive health services for displaced people. Displaced women particularly face high maternal mortality, unmet need for family planning, complications following unsafe abortion, and gender-based violence, as well as sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV. Relief and development agencies and UN bodies have developed technical materials, made positive policy changes specific to crisis settings and are working to provide better reproductive health care. Substantial gaps remain, however. The collaboration within the field of reproductive health in crises is notable, with many agencies working in one or more networks. The five-year RAISE Initiative brings together major UN and NGO agencies from the fields of relief and development, and builds on their experience to support reproductive health service delivery, advocacy, clinical training and research. The readiness to use common guidance documents, develop priorities jointly and share resources has led to smoother operations and less overlap than if each agency worked independently. Trends in the field, including greater focus on internally displaced persons and those living in non-camp settings, as well as refugees in camps, the protracted nature of emergencies, and an increasing need for empirical evidence, will influence future progress. PMID:18513603

  3. Gage for measuring displacements in rock samples

    DOEpatents

    Holcomb, D.J.; McNamee, M.J.

    1985-07-18

    A gage for measuring diametral displacement within a rock sample for use in a rock mechanics laboratory and in the field, comprises a support ring housing a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT), a mounting screw, and a leaf spring. The mounting screw is adjustable and defines a first point of contact with the rock sample. The leaf spring has opposite ends fixed to the inner periphery of the mounting ring. An intermediate portion of the leaf spring projecting radially inward from the ring is formed with a dimple defining a second point of contact with the sample. The first and second points of contact are diametrically opposed to each other. The LVDT is mounted in the ring with its axis parallel to the line of measurement and its core rod received in the dimple of the leaf spring. Any change in the length of the line between the first and second support points is directly communicated to the LVDT. The leaf spring is rigid to completely support lateral forces so that the LVDT is free of all load for improved precision.

  4. Gage for measuring displacements in rock samples

    DOEpatents

    Holcomb, David J.; McNamee, Michael J.

    1986-01-01

    A gage for measuring diametral displacement within a rock sample for use in a rock mechanics laboratory and in the field, comprises a support ring housing a linear variable differential transformer, a mounting screw, and a leaf spring. The mounting screw is adjustable and defines a first point of contact with the rock sample. The leaf spring has opposite ends fixed to the inner periphery of the mounting ring. An intermediate portion of the leaf spring projecting radially inward from the ring is formed with a dimple defining a second point of contact with the sample. The first and second points of contact are diametrically opposed to each other. The LVDT is mounted in the ring with its axis parallel to the line of measurement and its core rod received in the dimple of the leaf spring. Any change in the length of the line between the first and second support points is directly communicated to the LVDT. The leaf spring is rigid to completely support lateral forces so that the LVDT is free of all load for improved precision.

  5. Properties, flowback, and wellbore displacement

    SciTech Connect

    Poulson, D.K.

    1981-10-19

    Carbon dioxide was introduced as an additive to acid and fracture jobs in 1962. Since then, its use as a well-servicing medium has grown rapidly. This has been due primarily to its excellent flowback properties, although it also offers other advantages. These advantages are described along with methods for making calculations with CO/sub 2/. 7 refs.

  6. Disturbance to the population due to flight operations at landing fields. Questionnaire on community reaction to non-commercial and sporting aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohrmann, B.

    1981-01-01

    A field study was undertaken to determine the Sociopsychological effects of air traffic noise experienced by residents of areas near small sporting aviation fields. A questionaire was prepared which includes questions on flight restriction measures, on attitudes which moderate annoyance and on comparisons with other noise sources, etc.

  7. Displacement current phenomena in the magnetically insulated transmission lines of the refurbished Z accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBride, R. D.; Jennings, C. A.; Vesey, R. A.; Rochau, G. A.; Savage, M. E.; Stygar, W. A.; Cuneo, M. E.; Sinars, D. B.; Jones, M.; Lechien, K. R.; Lopez, M. R.; Moore, J. K.; Struve, K. W.; Wagoner, T. C.; Waisman, E. M.

    2010-12-01

    Experimental data is presented that illustrates important displacement current phenomena in the magnetically insulated transmission lines (MITLs) of the refurbished Z accelerator [D. V. Rose , Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 13, 010402 (2010)PRABFM1098-440210.1103/PhysRevSTAB.13.010402]. Specifically, we show how displacement current in the MITLs causes significant differences between the accelerator current measured at the vacuum-insulator stack (at a radial position of about 1.6 m from the Z axis of symmetry) and the accelerator current measured at the load (at a radial position of about 6 cm from the Z axis of symmetry). The importance of accounting for these differences was first emphasized by Jennings et al. [C. A. Jennings , IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 38, 529 (2010)ITPSBD0093-381310.1109/TPS.2010.2042971], who calculated them using a full transmission-line-equivalent model of the four-level MITL system. However, in the data presented by Jennings et al., many of the interesting displacement current phenomena were obscured by parasitic current losses that occurred between the vacuum-insulator stack and the load (e.g., electron flow across the anode-cathode gap). By contrast, the data presented herein contain very little parasitic current loss, and thus for these low-loss experiments we are able to demonstrate that the differences between the current measured at the stack and the current measured at the load are due primarily to the displacement current that results from the shunt capacitance of the MITLs (about 8.41 nF total). Demonstrating this is important because displacement current is an energy storage mechanism, where energy is stored in the MITL electric fields and can later be used by the system. Thus, even for higher-loss experiments, the differences between the current measured at the stack and the current measured at the load are often largely due to energy storage and subsequent release, as opposed to being due solely to some combination of measurement error and current loss in the MITLs and/or double post-hole convolute. Displacement current also explains why the current measured downstream of the MITLs (i.e., the load current) often exceeds the current measured upstream of the MITLs (i.e., the stack current) at various times in the power pulse (this particular phenomenon was initially thought to be due to timing and/or calibration errors). To facilitate a better understanding of these phenomena, we also introduce and analyze a simple LC circuit model of the MITLs. This model is easily implemented as a simple drive circuit in simulation codes, which has now been done for the LASNEX code [G. B. Zimmerman and W. L. Kruer, Comments Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 2, 51 (1975)CPCFBJ0374-2806] at Sandia, as well as for simpler MATLAB®-based codes at Sandia. An example of this LC model used as a drive circuit will also be presented.

  8. Lithospheric Displacement Features on Europa and Their Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tufts, Bruce Randall

    A geologic study of lithospheric displacements on the Jovian moon Europa reveals lateral motions and plate flexure. Tectonics are governed by the rotation rate, nature of the lithosphere and underlying decoupling layer, the nature and causes of lateral displacements, plus mechanisms for creating and consuming surface area, and for restoring lithospheric rigidity. Astypalaea Linea is an 810-km-long strike-slip fault near the south pole, with 42 km of right-lateral offset, and includes a large pull-apart. Considering scale and contaminants, the lithosphere may have a tensile strength of ~2.5 bars. The fault probably formed as a crack due to stresses from nonsynchronous rotation and diurnal tides, and was displaced by 'walking' due to diurnal tides. Adjacent regional structures record earlier episodes of strike-slip. Wedge-shaped bands in the antijovian fracture zone are reconstructed, confirming the occurrence of block rotation and episodic dilation. A band on the leading side of the satellite is also reconstructed. Whether these bands formed under the influence of the same stress patterns which caused Astypalaea Linea is unclear; regional structures in the antijovian region suggest deformation by distributed shear. Dilation has also occurred across at least one ridge representative of a type independently interpreted as dilational based on ridge morphology. Other ridges apparently flex the underlying lithospheric plate downward. The lithosphere is inferred from flexural parameters at one locality to be 0.25-3.5 km thick. New lithosphere forms by ratchet-type spreading at bands and some ridges. Surface area may be removed by chaos formation or other processes. A global time marker based on a shift in ridge size is used to show that displacement was probably long-lived as well as widespread. During displacement, lithospheric plates were rigid and integral despite the appearance of cracks, perhaps due to annealing processes. Tides are the primary driving force for Europan tectonics and have produced a complex geologic history, consistent with Greenberg et al. (1997). A subsurface ocean, maintained by tidal heating, probably existed at the time of the displacements, which are relatively recent, and may well exist today.

  9. Does migratory distance affect fuelling in a medium-distance passerine migrant?: results from direct and step-wise simulated magnetic displacements.

    PubMed

    Ilieva, Mihaela; Bianco, Giuseppe; Åkesson, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    In birds, fat accumulation before and during migration has been shown to be endogenously controlled and tuned by, among other factors, the Earth's magnetic field. However, our knowledge about the influence of the geomagnetic field on the fuelling in migrating birds is still limited to just a few nocturnally migrating passerine species. In order to study if variations of the magnetic field can also influence the fuelling of both day- and night-migrating passerines, we caught first-year dunnocks (Prunella modularis) and subjected them to three magnetic field conditions simulated by a system of magnetic coils: (1) local geomagnetic field of southern Sweden, (2) magnetic field corresponding to the centre of the expected wintering area, and (3) magnetic field met at the northern limit of the species' breeding distribution. We did not find a difference in mass increase between the birds kept in a local magnetic field and a field resembling their wintering area, irrespectively of the mode of magnetic displacement, i.e. direct or step-wise. However, the dunnocks magnetically displaced north showed a lower rate of fuelling in comparison to the control group, probably due to elevated activity. Compared with previous studies, our results suggest that the fuelling response to magnetic displacements during the migration period is specific to the eco-physiological situation. Future studies need to address if there is an effect of magnetic field manipulation on the level of migratory activity in dunnocks and how widespread the influence of local geomagnetic field parameters is on fuelling decisions in different bird species, which have different migratory strategies, distances and migration history. PMID:26883627

  10. Development and Evolution of Character Displacement

    PubMed Central

    Pfennig, David W.; Pfennig, Karin S.

    2012-01-01

    Character displacement occurs when competition for either resources or successful reproduction imposes divergent selection on interacting species, causing divergence in traits associated with resource use or reproduction. Here, we describe how character displacement can be mediated either by genetically canalized changes (i.e., changes that reflect allelic or genotype frequency changes) or by phenotypic plasticity. We also discuss how these two mechanisms influence the tempo of character displacement. Specifically, we suggest that, under some conditions, character displacement mediated by phenotypic plasticity might occur more rapidly than that mediated by genetically canalized changes. Finally, we describe how these two mechanisms may act together and determine character displacement’s mode, such that it proceeds through an initial phase in which trait divergence is environmentally induced to a later phase in which divergence becomes genetically canalized. This plasticity-first hypothesis predicts that character displacement should be generally mediated by ancestral plasticity and that it will arise similarly in multiple, independently evolving populations. We conclude by highlighting future directions for research that would test these predictions. PMID:22257002

  11. Lattice Boltzmann simulations of supercritical CO2-water drainage displacement in porous media: CO2 saturation and displacement mechanism.

    PubMed

    Yamabe, Hirotatsu; Tsuji, Takeshi; Liang, Yunfeng; Matsuoka, Toshifumi

    2015-01-01

    CO2 geosequestration in deep aquifers requires the displacement of water (wetting phase) from the porous media by supercritical CO2 (nonwetting phase). However, the interfacial instabilities, such as viscous and capillary fingerings, develop during the drainage displacement. Moreover, the burstlike Haines jump often occurs under conditions of low capillary number. To study these interfacial instabilities, we performed lattice Boltzmann simulations of CO2-water drainage displacement in a 3D synthetic granular rock model at a fixed viscosity ratio and at various capillary numbers. The capillary numbers are varied by changing injection pressure, which induces changes in flow velocity. It was observed that the viscous fingering was dominant at high injection pressures, whereas the crossover of viscous and capillary fingerings was observed, accompanied by Haines jumps, at low injection pressures. The Haines jumps flowing forward caused a significant drop of CO2 saturation, whereas Haines jumps flowing backward caused an increase of CO2 saturation (per injection depth). We demonstrated that the pore-scale Haines jumps remarkably influenced the flow path and therefore equilibrium CO2 saturation in crossover domain, which is in turn related to the storage efficiency in the field-scale geosequestration. The results can improve our understandings of the storage efficiency by the effects of pore-scale displacement phenomena. PMID:25427299

  12. Estimation of pitch angle diffusion rates and precipitation time scales of electrons due to EMIC waves in a realistic field model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Suk-Bin; Min, Kyoung-Wook; Fok, Mei-Ching; Hwang, Junga; Choi, Cheong-Rim

    2015-10-01

    Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves are closely related to precipitating loss of relativistic electrons in the radiation belts, and thereby, a model of the radiation belts requires inclusion of the pitch angle diffusion caused by EMIC waves. We estimated the pitch angle diffusion rates and the corresponding precipitation time scales caused by H and He band EMIC waves using the Tsyganenko 04 (T04) magnetic field model at their probable regions in terms of geomagnetic conditions. The results correspond to enhanced pitch angle diffusion rates and reduced precipitation time scales compared to those based on the dipole model, up to several orders of magnitude for storm times. While both the plasma density and the magnetic field strength varied in these calculations, the reduction of the magnetic field strength predicted by the T04 model was found to be the main cause of the enhanced diffusion rates relative to those with the dipole model for the same Li values, where Li is defined from the ionospheric foot points of the field lines. We note that the bounce-averaged diffusion rates were roughly proportional to the inversion of the equatorial magnetic field strength and thus suggest that scaling the diffusion rates with the magnetic field strength provides a good approximation to account for the effect of the realistic field model in the EMIC wave-pitch angle diffusion modeling.

  13. Modeling averaged displacement fronts in heterogeneous media with multirate mass transfer models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuweiler, Insa; Heiss, Veronica; Tecklenburg, Jan

    2013-04-01

    The morphology of fluid-fluid interfaces during immiscible displacement has been studied intensely on length scales where the pore space is resolved. Depending on the dimensionless numbers of the flow process, the front morphology can be different: compact or irregular with different cluster distributions of trapped displaced fluid. There are also flow regimes with a cross-over from a compact displacing fluid far away from the front and irregular fluid distribution at the front. If displacement is considered on larger length scales, the pore space and fluid-fluid interfaces can no longer be resolved. The front is in this case rather described by an isoline of the displacing fluid saturation. Displacement fronts on large length scales in heterogeneous media can also show complex front morphology: compact or irregular with fluid clusters of displaced fluid that are trapped behind the front. As displaced fluid may also be immobilized (meaning it is not trapped, but it is surrounded by displacing fluid, so that the surrounding material has a very low permeability) and is in this case displaced only very slowly, one also finds a cross-over regime with a compact region far away from the front and an irregular front. The morphology is influenced by the interplay of heterogeneous structure and the stability of the displacement process. We focus on displacement scenarios with crossover from irregular fluid distribution around the front due to immobilized fluid that is eventually displaced to compact far behind the front. To have a quantification of the front morphology is important, for example, to estimate mass transfer of given components between the fluids. We study the front morphology using numerical simulations of displacement processes in porous media composed of two different materials. We consider different heterogeneous structures. We consider flow scenarios with different capillary number and viscosity ratio of the fluids. It is demonstrated that the connectivity of the heterogeneous structure has a crucial influence on the front morphology. For these numerical simulations we compare the averaged fluid distribution to an upscaled one-dimensional model. In the upscaled model, the immobilization of displaced fluid behind the front is captured by a double continuum approach, where the immobilized fluid is considered an immobile continuum. The size of the immobile continuum changes with time. The flow is modeled in the mobile continuum with a multi-rate mass-transfer term to capture exchange with the immobile domain. The rate coefficients for the mass transfer have to be estimated from the size distribution of immobilized fluid clusters. It is demonstrated that such a simplified model can describe the displacement well, if the front morphology is not too complex.

  14. Stability Analysis of CO2-Brine Immiscible Displacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, H.; Berg, S.

    2012-04-01

    The viscous stability of the primary drainage process is of major interest for the injection of carbon dioxide (CO2) in saline aquifers, since it determines the spread of the CO2 plume in the target aquifer and consequently the initial utilization of the pore space for CO2 storage. In order to analyze the stability of the displacement process, the relative permeability saturation functions must be known; these are usually derived by experiments under conditions representative for the field. It is therefore very important to characterize the flood front stability, not only on the field scale but also on the experimental scale, in order to judge the validity of the experimental results as a precondition for reliable field simulations. Here we investigate the onset of viscous fingering, thereby studying under what conditions CO2-brine displacement remains stable. We discuss the role of relative permeability and the stabilizing effect of capillary pressure at different length scales by means of numerical simulations. The results allow us to assess different definitions of the mobility ratio and establish criteria for judging the stability of the displacement process. We further show that in cases where gravitational forces are important, the gravity tongue dominates the fingering pattern, and unstable situations can occur where stability would be predicted, by considering viscous and capillary forces only. The application of our findings is not limited to CO2-brine displacement. The criteria for stability can be applied to most two-phase flow problems in reservoir engineering in general ranging from water flooding to low interfacial tension surfactant flooding.

  15. Transport infrastructure monitoring: Testing of the NIODIM optical displacement monitoring system at the Sihlhochstrasse bridge in Zürich, Switzerland.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagene, J. K.

    2012-04-01

    A gound based optical displacement monitoring system, "NIODIM", is being developed by Norsk Elektro Optikk in the framework of the activities of the European project "Integrated System for Transport Infrastructure surveillance and Monitoring by Electromagnetic Sensing" (ISTIMES), funded in the 7th Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013). The optical displacement monitoring system has now participated in two real life field campaigns one in Switzerland and one in Italy. The test campaign in Switzerland during a week in May 2011 will be presented below. The NIODIM system is based on a camera part mounted on firm ground and this camera is imaging a reference point, normally a light emitting diode (LED) which is supposed to be mounted on an object susceptible to move or oscillate. A microprocessor based unit is processing the acquired images and is calculating the displacement. The Sihlhochstrasse bridge is placed on concrete pillars in the river Sihl in Zürich and the motorway is one of the entrance routes to the city. A site visit had been performed in advance and it had been decided to mount the camera part as well as the processing unit at the lower part of the pillar above the relatively dry riverbed. The reference point in form of a light emitting diode was to be mounted below the bridge deck. However, due to practical access limitations it was not possible to place the reference LED in the middle between pillar pairs, but the LED had to be placed closer to next pair of the pillars downstream the river thus increasing the distance and possibly reducing the potential displacement. A lower signal due to reduced sensitivity (length) and due to lower deflection (better support from the pillar) had to be expected. The system would be powered by a generator placed on the riverbed. Arriving at the river front the fist day of the field trials was a surprise to most the campaign members. Due to heavy rain the week before, and in particular up in the mountains, the water level in the river was about one metre higher than expected not to mention the strong current. To be on the safe side I had brought my waders with me, but it was hardly possibly to walk in the river. Problems are to be solved and a trip to the nearest shopping centre buying climbing ropes in the sports department and a children's paddling pool in the toys department expanded our toolbox significantly. The paddling pool was used as a barge for transporting the equipment out in the river to the pillar. We were able to install the equipment as planned, but somewhat delayed due to all the water in the river. A climbing rope was attached to the pillar with one end and the other end attached to the riverbank. Power and network cables were attached to this rope. Tests started the second day saving raw data from the camera to allow for later re-processing. Raw data storage was in the form of small images, one image for each frame i.e., one raw image file for each frame and at a rate of 64 Hz. The tests went on as expected for a while until the system performance dropped unexpectedly from 64 Hz to around 1 Hz. After some help from our main office we found out that our problem was due to the file creation performance of the file system NTFS when many files were present in one catalogue. By automatically sending commands to the processing unit to save files to new catalogues approximately every 10000 frames the system performance was back at the expected 64 Hz. After these initial problems with performance related to the NTFS file system the optical displacement monitoring system behaved as wanted for the remainder of tests. Based on the look of the bridge i.e., it looks robust and stable, we would not expect large oscillations due to the traffic on top of it. The mount point for the reference LED was also not ideal for observing potential oscillations. Due to the use of standalone generators for power generation measurements were only performed during the day and not during the night. The results with regards to short duration peaks is in line with the expectations namely within 1 mm displacement. However, a larger, long time constant displacement was registered during a certain time frame before noon on sunny days. A displacement of more than 10 mm was registered for a time interval in the order of one hour or more. This larger displacement decreased and the displacement was back on an even slower time-of-day, periodic looking displacement variation. If we disregards the larger "before noon" displacement the long time constant displacement is in the order of 2-3 mm one sunny day and in the order of 5 mm the second sunny day. The above results have been analysed with regards to different contributions to the long time constant displacement and three candidate causes have been targeted; thermal effects in the mounting brackets, thermal effects related to the pillar and thermal effects in the bridge deck. The time-of-day periodic displacements (2-5 mm) is most likely due to thermal effects in the bridge as a whole or the bridge deck. On the other hand the larger displacements (>10mm), around 1 hour duration before noon, could be caused by the mounting brackets or possibly the pillar. Both the pillar and the camera with mounting brackets of a temporary nature were exposed to direct sunlight in the affected time interval. However, we have not been able to fully explain the displacement seen based on the pillar and the mounting brackets, but we doubt it could be caused by bridge movement alone. From a development project point of view the tests have been successful; we have both learned some new lessons and demonstrated that the system works not to mention that we have demonstrated for the general public passing by in Zürich that scientists are also able to solve practical problems and cross rivers when required. Acknowledgement: The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under Grant Agreement n° 225663.

  16. Probing baryogenesis with displaced vertices at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Yanou; Shuve, Brian

    2015-02-01

    The generation of the asymmetric cosmic baryon abundance requires a departure from thermal equilibrium in the early universe. In a large class of baryogenesis models, the baryon asymmetry results from the out-of-equilibrium decay of a new, massive particle. We highlight that in the interesting scenario where this particle has a weak scale mass, this out-of-equilibrium condition requires a proper decay length larger than O(1) mm. Such new fields are within reach of the LHC, at which they can be pair produced leaving a distinctive, displaced-vertex signature. This scenario is realized in the recently proposed mechanism of baryogenesis where the baryon asymmetry is produced through the freeze-out and subsequent decay of a meta-stable weakly interacting massive particle ("WIMP baryogenesis"). In analogy to missing energy searches for WIMP dark matter, the LHC is an excellent probe of these new long-lived particles responsible for baryogenesis via the low-background displaced vertex channel. In our paper, we estimate the limits on simplified models inspired by WIMP baryogenesis from two of the most sensitive collider searches by CMS and ATLAS with 8 TeV LHC data. We also estimate the LHC reach at 13 TeV using current strategies, and demonstrate that up to a factor of 100 improvement in cross-section limits can be achieved by requiring two displaced vertices while lowering kinematic thresholds. For meta-stable WIMPs produced through electroweak interactions, the high luminosity LHC is sensitive to masses up to 2.5 TeV for lifetimes around 1 cm, while for singlets pair-produced through the off-shell-Higgs portal, the LHC is sensitive to production cross sections of O(10) ab for benchmark masses around 150 GeV. Our analysis and proposals also generally apply to displaced vertex signatures from other new physics such as hidden valley models, twin Higgs models and displaced supersymmetry.

  17. Giant adrenal cyst displacing the right kidney

    PubMed Central

    Chodisetti, Subbarao; Boddepalli, Yogesh; Kota, Malakondareddy

    2016-01-01

    Adrenal cysts are rare and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of retroperitoneal cysts. We present a case of a huge adrenal cyst displacing the right kidney anteriorly toward the left side in a young female. PMID:26941503

  18. Giant adrenal cyst displacing the right kidney.

    PubMed

    Chodisetti, Subbarao; Boddepalli, Yogesh; Kota, Malakondareddy

    2016-01-01

    Adrenal cysts are rare and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of retroperitoneal cysts. We present a case of a huge adrenal cyst displacing the right kidney anteriorly toward the left side in a young female. PMID:26941503

  19. Seismic transducer measures small horizontal displacements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenwood, T. L.

    1965-01-01

    Pendular seismic transducer mounted on base plate measures small horizontal displacements of structures subjected to vibration where no fixed reference point is available. Enclosure of transducer in transparent plastic case prevents air currents from disturbing the pendulum balance.

  20. DNA based arithmetic function: a half adder based on DNA strand displacement.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Zhang, Fei; Yan, Hao; Liu, Yan

    2016-02-01

    Biomolecular programming utilizes the reactions and information stored in biological molecules, such as proteins and nucleic acids, for computational purposes. DNA has proven itself an excellent candidate for building logic operating systems due to its highly predictable molecular behavior. In this work we designed and realized an XOR logic gate and an AND logic gate based on DNA strand displacement reactions. These logic gates utilize ssDNA as input and output signals. The XOR gate and the AND gate were used as building blocks for constructing a half adder logic circuit, which is a primary step in constructing a full adder, a basic arithmetic unit in computing. This work provides the field of DNA molecular programming with a potential universal arithmetic tool. PMID:26814628